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The suitability of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) in medicinalplant analysis was investigated. PLE extracts from a selection of representative herbs were compared with extracts obtained according to Pharmacopoeia monographs with respect to yield of relevant plant constituents, extraction time and solvent consumption. In all cases a significant economy in time and solvents was realized, while extraction yields of the
To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinalplantextracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinalplants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC(50) 1.1-1.6?mg?mL(-1)). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC(50) > 2.5?mg?mL(-1)) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.2-2.3?mg?mL(-1)) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.01-0.08?mg?mL(-1)) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693
Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin
The methanol extracts of nine medicinalplants traditionally used in Chinese medicine were screened for antioxidant activity versus resveratrol, which has been shown to protect cells from oxidative damage [Toxicol. Lett. 102 (1998) 5]. Most of the plantextracts used in this study inhibited the H2O2-induced apoptosis of Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4) cells. The extracts of Areca catechu var.
Si Eun Lee; Hyun Jin Hwang; Jung-Sun Ha; Han-Seung Jeong; Jeong Hee Kim
This dissertation has presented the results from analysis of medicinalplantextracts using neutron activation method. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn,...
Fifteen crude extracts from the stem bark and seeds of four medicinalplants, viz: Entandrophragma angolense, Picralima nitida, Schumanniophyton magnificum and Thomandersia hensii were tested in vitro for their antimalarial activity against the chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum W2 strain. The results showed that the extracts of these plants possessed some antimalarial activity, the methanol extract of Picralima nitida demonstrating the highest activity in vitro. Further isolation and identification of some active compounds from these plants will justify their common use in traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria or fever in Cameroon. PMID:20162079
Bickii, Jean; Tchouya, Guy Raymond Feuya; Tchouankeu, Jean Claude; Tsamo, Etienne
The antidiarrhoeal activity of six Egyptian medicinalplantextracts (200 and 400mgkg?1) and their effect on motility of isolated rabbit’s duodenum was investigated. Phytochemical screening of the plantextracts for their active constituents was also carried out by TLC. Oral administration of methanol extract from Conyza dioscoridis (CD) or Alhagi maurorum (AM) in a 200mgkg?1 dose exhibits a significant antidiarrhoeal
This article presents a brief review of the research conducted at Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Processes of the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirăo Preto\\/Săo Paulo University, aiming to obtain standardized dried extracts from medicinal Brazilian plants. The spray and spouted-bed dryer performance and physicochemical product properties during the drying of hydro-alcoholic extracts of three plants used in the Brazilian traditional
Wanderley P. Oliveira; Rubiana F. Bott; Claudia R. F. Souza
Antibacterial study of methanolic and acetone extracts of crude and treated (with 50 % lead acetate) extracts of medicinalplants viz, Alstonia scholaris Linn. R.Br. (Stem bark, Apocynaceae), Achyranthus aspera Linn. (Whole plant, Acantheceae), Moringa oleifera Lam. (Leaves, Morinaceae), Tinospora cordifolia (Stem, Menispermaceae), and Enicostema hyssopifolium (Willd) (Stem, Gentianaceae) was carried out. Extractive values in methanol were found to be
The antinociceptive effect of methanolic extracts (200 and 400mgkg?1) of eight Egyptian medicinalplants was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-flick test in mice. Oral administration of 400mgkg?1 methanolic extracts of Convolvulus fatmensis, Alhagi maurorum, Plantago major seeds, Conyza dioscaridis significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the nociception to acetic acid-induced writhes with a protection of 85.5–61.3%. Schouwia thebaica, Diplotaxis
The occurrence of the aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in common medicinal herbs and plantextracts was examined. The aflatoxins are toxic metabolites of the fungal strains Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The method involves the implementation of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) together with fluorescence detection. Aflatoxins B1 and G1 are determined as their bromine derivatives, produced in an
Glycosidases are the enzymes involved in various biochemical processes related to metabolic disorders and diseases. Therefore, much effort has been focused on searching novel pharmacotherapy for the treatment of these ailments from medicinalplants due to higher safety margins. To pursue these efforts, the present study was performed to evaluate the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities of thirty Korean medicinalplantextracts. Among the plants studied, Euonymus sachalinensis, Rhododendron schlippenbachii, Astilbe chinensis and Juglans regia showed the strongest ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 10, 20, 30 and 80 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, Meliosma oldhamii and Symplocos chinensis showed moderate ?-glucosidase inhibition with IC50 values of 150 and 220 µg/mL, respectively. Therefore, they might prove to be a potential natural source for the treatment of metabolic ailments such as, diabetes, and need further investigations.
Sancheti, Shruti; Sancheti, Sandesh; Lee, Seung-Hun; Lee, Jae-Eun; Seo, Sung-Yum
Glycosidases are the enzymes involved in various biochemical processes related to metabolic disorders and diseases. Therefore, much effort has been focused on searching novel pharmacotherapy for the treatment of these ailments from medicinalplants due to higher safety margins. To pursue these efforts, the present study was performed to evaluate the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities of thirty Korean medicinalplantextracts. Among the plants studied, Euonymus sachalinensis, Rhododendron schlippenbachii, Astilbe chinensis and Juglans regia showed the strongest ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 10, 20, 30 and 80 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, Meliosma oldhamii and Symplocos chinensis showed moderate ?-glucosidase inhibition with IC50 values of 150 and 220 µg/mL, respectively. Therefore, they might prove to be a potential natural source for the treatment of metabolic ailments such as, diabetes, and need further investigations. PMID:24250352
Sancheti, Shruti; Sancheti, Sandesh; Lee, Seung-Hun; Lee, Jae-Eun; Seo, Sung-Yum
The antinociceptive effect of methanolic extracts (200 and 400 mg kg(-1)) of eight Egyptian medicinalplants was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-flick test in mice. Oral administration of 400 mg kg(-1) methanolic extracts of Convolvulus fatmensis, Alhagi maurorum, Plantago major seeds, Conyza dioscaridis significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the nociception to acetic acid-induced writhes with a protection of 85.5-61.3%. Schouwia thebaica, Diplotaxis acris, Plantago major leaves and Mentha microphylla, in the large dose, showed a protection of 50.8-45.8%, which were significantly different as compared to control. The smaller dose of the tested plantextracts did not protect animals from painful acetic acid stimulation with the exception of Alhagi maurorum. In the tail-flick test, methanolic extracts of Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscaridis, Alhagi maurorum, Plantago major leaves, Diplotaxis acris and Convolvulus fatmensis in a dose of 400 mg kg(-1) produced significant increase in the latency to response of tail to thermal stimulation. Mild or no effect was observed by the small dose with the exception of Diplotaxis acris that had significant antinociceptive effect at the dose of 200 mg kg(-1). The extracts of all tested plants in doses up to 2 g kg(-1) b.wt. did not cause any deaths or major signs of acute toxicity. Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of unsaturated sterols, triterpenes, tannins, flavonoids and carbohydrates and/or glycosides as major constituents. PMID:15507342
Berberine and aristolochic acids I and II present naturally in medicinalplants were extracted using a laboratory-made pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) system in the dynamic mode. As the target analytes were present naturally in the medicinalplants, spiking was not done and comparison with ultrasonic extraction and Soxhlet extraction was performed to assess the method accuracy. The effect of temperature,
The cytotoxic activity of 23 crude methanol extracts from 19 Bangladeshi medicinalplants was investigated against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3), healthy monkey kidney (VERO) and four human cancer cell lines (gastric, AGS; colon, HT-29; and breast, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using MTT assay. High cytotoxicity across all cell lines tested was exhibited by Aegiceras corniculatum (fruit) and Hymenodictyon excelsum (bark) extracts (IC50 values ranging from 0.0005 to 0.9980 and 0.08 to 0.44 mg/mL, respectively). Fourteen extracts from 11 plant species, namely Clitoria ternatea (flower and leaf), Dillenia indica (leaf), Diospyros peregrina (leaf), Dipterocarpus turbinatus (bark and leaf), Ecbolium viride (leaf), Glinus oppositifolius (whole plant), Gnaphalium luteoalbum (leaf), Jasminum sambac (leaf), Lannea coromandelica (bark and leaf), Mussaenda glabrata (leaf) and Saraca asoca (leaf), were also significantly cytotoxic (IC50 < 1.0 mg/mL) against at least one of the cancer cell lines tested. More selectively, Avicennia alba (leaf), C. ternatea (flower and leaf), Caesalpinia pulcherrima (leaf), E. viride (leaf) and G. oppositifolius (whole plant) showed cytotoxicity only against both of the breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). In contrast, C. ternatea (flower and leaf) exhibited high cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 (IC50 values of 0.11 and 0.49 mg/mL, respectively), whereas E. viride and G. oppositifolius whole plantextracts exhibited high activity against MCF-7 cells (IC50 values of 0.06 and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively). The cytotoxic activity test results for 9 of the plant species correlate with their traditional use as anticancer agents, thus making them interesting sources for further drug development. PMID:23846168
Akter, Raushanara; Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin
The anti-HIV-1 activities of butanol, hexane, chloroform and water extracts from four widely used folk medicinalplants (Sophora flavescens, Tulipa edulis, Herba ephedra, and Pachyma hoelen Rumph) were evaluated in this study. The hexane extract of Pachyma hoelen Rumph, PH-4, showed effective inhibition against HIV-1. The 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) of PH-4 was 37.3 microg/ml in the p24 antigen assay and 36.8% in the HIV-1 recombinant RT activity test (at 200 microg/ml). In addition, the PH-4 showed the protective effect on the infected MT-4 cells, with a 58.2% rate of protection. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC(50)) of PH-4 was 100.6 microg/ml. These results suggest that PH-4 from Pachyma hoelen Rumph might be the candidate for the chemotherapy agent against HIV-1 infection with further study. PMID:20437159
Lee, Su-A; Hong, Seong-Karp; Suh, Chang-Il; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Park, Jeong-Ho; Choi, Byoung-Wook; Park, Seung-Won; Paik, Soon-Young
The antidiarrhoeal activity of six Egyptian medicinalplantextracts (200 and 400 mg kg(-1)) and their effect on motility of isolated rabbit's duodenum was investigated. Phytochemical screening of the plantextracts for their active constituents was also carried out by TLC. Oral administration of methanol extract from Conyza dioscoridis (CD) or Alhagi maurorum (AM) in a 200 mg kg(-1) dose exhibits a significant antidiarrhoeal effect against castor oil-induced diarrhoea, while Mentha microphylla (MM), Convolvulus arvensis (CA), Conyza linifolia (CL) produced no significant effect. In a dose of 400 mg kg(-1), Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscoridis, Alhagi maurorum, Zygophyllum album (ZA), and Conyza linifolia produced a significant (P<0.01) effect, while Convolvulus arvensis produced no antidiarrhoeal effect in rats. Methanol extract of Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscoridis, Zygophyllum album, and Convolvulus arvensis induced a dose-dependent (0.4-2.8 mg ml(-1)) relaxation of rabbit's duodenal smooth muscle. Alhagi maurorum and Conyza linifolia increased the contractile force in concentrations between 0.4 and 1.6 mg ml(-1). Higher concentrations (>3.2 mg ml(-1)) caused a rapid depressant effect. The depressant effect induced by Alhagi maurorum (in a higher dose) and Zygophyllum album appeared to be due to calcium channel blocking effect, since CaCl(2) could not restore the contractile response of the tissue impregnated in calcium free-medium. However, a ganglionic blocking effect appeared to be a possible mechanism of action of Mentha microphylla and Conyza dioscoridis since a stimulant dose of nicotine could not restore the contractile response of the tissue. The effect of Convolvulus arvensis and Conyza linifolia was not through any of the common mediators. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, unsaturated sterols/triterpenes, carbohydrates, lactones and proteins/amino acids as major constituents. PMID:15138016
Aim of the studyAlthough traditional herbal medicines are widely used in Ethiopia, no information is available on their potential genotoxicity. In the present study, hydroalcoholic extracts of Glinus lotoides, Plumbago zeylanica, Rumex steudelii and Thymus schimperi were evaluated for their DNA damaging effects using the comet assay.
Phytochemicals are extensively found at different levels in many medicinalplants. This work had two objectives: the first, to evaluate the total phenolic or flavonoid contents of 11 Algerian medicinalplants and second, to determine whether these compounds have an antioxidant capacity toward free radical propagation. The polyphenolic extractions of the dried powdered samples have been performed using 70% ethanol.
A. Djeridane; M. Yousfi; B. Nadjemi; D. Boutassouna; P. Stocker; N. Vidal
An ethnobotanical study was conducted in Comores (Ngazidja) about plant species used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases, including malaria. Antimalarial activity of 76 vegetal extracts obtained from 17 species traditionally used to treat malaria symptoms, was evaluated in vitro using Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistant strain (W2). Antiproliferative activity was evaluated on human monocytic THP1 cells and the selectivity index of the plantextracts was calculated. The results showed that 10 plantextracts had a moderate activity (5extract of Flueggea virosa (Roxb. Ex Willd.) Voigt subsp. virosa (Euphorbiaceae) (IC(50)=2 microg/ml), for roots decoction of Flueggea virosa (IC(50)=3 microg/ml) and for chloromethylenic roots extract of Vernonia colorata (Willd.) Drake subsp. grandis (DC.) C. Jeffrey (Asteraceae) (IC(50)=3 microg/ml). Three other extracts showed moderate antiplasmodial activity (IC(50)<5 microg/ml): Vernonia colorata (aerial part), Piper capense L.f. (Piperaceae), and Leptadenia madagascariensis Decne (Asclepiadaceae) chloromethylenic extracts (IC(50)=6 microg/ml; 7 microg/ml and 9 microg/ml, respectively). All the plants tested displayed a low cytotoxicity on THP1 cells. PMID:18093769
Extracts of nine species of plants traditionally used in Colombia for the treatment of a variety of diseases were tested in vitro for their potential antitumor (cytotoxicity) and antiherpetic activity. MTT (Tetrazolium blue) and Neutral Red colorimetric assays were used to evaluate the reduction of viability of cell cultures in presence and absence of the extracts. MTT was also used to evaluate the effects of the extracts on the lytic activity of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) and the 50% inhibitory concentration of the viral effect (EC50) for each extract were calculated by linear regression analysis. Extracts from Annona muricata, A. cherimolia and Rollinia membranacea, known for their cytotoxicity were used as positive controls. Likewise, acyclovir and heparin were used as positive controls of antiherpetic activity. Methanolic extract from Annona sp. on HEp-2 cells presented a CC50 value at 72 hr of 49.6x10(3)mg/ml. Neither of the other extracts examined showed a significant cytotoxicity. The aqueous extract from Beta vulgaris, the ethanol extract from Callisia grasilis and the methanol extract Annona sp. showed some antiherpetic activity with acceptable therapeutic indexes (the ratio of CC50 to EC50). These species are good candidates for further activity-monitored fractionation to identify active principles. PMID:10446015
Two alkaloids, stephanine and crebanine, were isolated from tubers of the traditional Chinese medicinalplant Stephania dielsiana, using an activity-directed isolation method, and inhibitory activity of methanol extract, stephanine and crebanine against ten animal pathogenic bacteria and eight plant pathogenic fungi was evaluated in vitro. The results showed that extract from S. dielsiana exhibited high inhibitory activity against five gram-positive
Yecheng Deng; Yanzhen Yu; Haiyu Luo; Ming Zhang; Xu Qin; Lifeng Li
The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, is among the most devastating termite pests. Natural products derived from plantextracts were tested in a discovery programme for effective, environment friendly termite control agents. Screening for anti-termitic activity of plantextracts with some known medicinal attributes could lead to the discovery of new agents for termite control. The aim of this
G. Elango; A. Abdul Rahuman; C. Kamaraj; A. Bagavan; A. Abduz Zahir; T. Santhoshkumar; S. Marimuthu; K. Velayutham; C. Jayaseelan; A. Vishnu Kirthi; G. Rajakumar
An ethnobotanical study was conducted in Comores (Ngazidja) about plant species used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases, including malaria. Antimalarial activity of 76 vegetal extracts obtained from 17 species traditionally used to treat malaria symptoms, was evaluated in vitro using Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistant strain (W2). Antiproliferative activity was evaluated on human monocytic THP1 cells and the selectivity index
Ali Mohamed Kaou; Valérie Mahiou-Leddet; Sébastien Hutter; Sidi Aďnouddine; Said Hassani; Ibrahim Yahaya; Nadine Azas; Evelyne Ollivier
Plant-based therapeutic preparations are cyclically returning to complement dermatologic therapy, however, data on the toxicity profile of such plants are lacking. In the present study, Plumbago zeylanica, a medicinalplant commonly used in Ethiopia for skin diseases was subjected to a systematic dermatotoxicity study. To this effect, the dermatotoxicity of 80% methanol extract of the root part of Plumbago zeylanica
Kefale Teshome; Tsige Gebre-Mariam; Kaleab Asres; Franklin Perry; Ephrem Engidawork
In recent years, use of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed attention as agents for vector control because they are rich in bioactive chemicals, active against a limited number of species including specific target insects, and biodegradable. The present study was carried out to evaluate the adulticidal, repellent, and larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of eight plants, viz. Aristolochia indica L., Cassia angustifolia Vahl, Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb., Dolichos biflorus L., Gymnema sylvestre (Retz) Schult, Justicia procumbens L., Mimosa pudica L., and Zingiber zerumbet L., were tested against adult and early fourth instar larvae of Culex gelidus Theobald and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The effective adult mortality was observed in methanol extract of A. indica, ethyl acetate extract of D. biflorus, and ethyl acetate and hexane extract of Z. zerumbet against C. gelidus and C. quinquefasciatus (LD(50)?=37.75, 78.56, 129.44, 86.13, 80.06, 112.42, 53.83, and 46.61; LD(90)?=166.83, 379.14, 521.50, 289.83, 328.18, 455.72, 181.15, and 354.50 ppm, respectively). Complete protections for 150 min were found in hexane and methanol extract of A. indica and Z. zerumbet at 1,000 ppm against mosquito bites. The highest larval mortality was found in the hexane extract of Z. zerumbet, ethyl acetate extract of D. biflorus, and methanol extracts of A. indica against C. gelidus (LC(50)?=26.48, 33.02, and 12.47 ppm; LC(90)?=127.73, 128.79, and 62.33 ppm) and against C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50)?=69.18, 34.76, and 25.60 ppm; LC(90)?=324.40, 172.78, and 105.52 ppm), respectively, after 24 h. The plantextracts are potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the Japanese encephalitis vector, C. gelidus, and lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:20689968
In the present work, selected plants were screened for their potential antibacterial activity. For evaluating antibacterial activity, both aqueous and organic solvent methanol was used. The plants screened were Ocimum sanctum, Jatropha gossypifolia, Boerhavia diffusa, Azadirachta indica, Solidago virgaurea, and Commelina benghalensis. The antibacterial activity was assessed against six bacterial strains--Pseudomonas testosteroni, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus morganii, Micrococcus flavus. Agar disc diffusion method and Agar ditch diffusion method were used to study the antibacterial activity of all these plants. Ps. testosteroni and K. pneumoniae were the most resistant bacterial strains. A. indica showed strong activity against tested bacterial strains. Therefore, we conclude that A. indica may prove to be a promising agent, and further exploration into this compound should be performed to determine its full therapeutic potential. In addition, its leaf extract can also be used as a lead molecule in combating the diseases caused by the studied bacterial strains. PMID:18928141
Methanol extracts from 28 medicinalplant species were tested for their insecticidal and antifeedant activities against Attagenus unicolor japonicus larvae by using a fabric-piece bioassay. Responses varied according to plant species, dose, and exposure time. Methanol extract of Allium sativum bulb gave 93% mortality at 5.2mg\\/cm2 7 days after treatment (DAT). Eugenia caryophyllata bud extract produced 100% mortality at 2.6mg\\/cm2
Methanol extracts from 27 medicinalplant species were tested at concentrations of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg\\/mL for their in vivo fungicidal activities against six phytopathogenic fungi. Their efficacy varied with plant pathogen, tissue sampled and plant species. Very strong fungicidal activity was produced by extracts of Boswellia carterii, Saussurea lappa, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Piper nigrum, Rheum coreanum, Lysimachia foenum-graecum, Evodia officinalis,
Phyllanthus niruri is a medicinalplant (commonly known as stone breaker) found in the tropics and other parts of the world. It is known for its capacity to block the formation of calcium oxalate crystals and kidney stone formation in urolithiasis. This plant has been used to treat hyperglycemia, hypertension, pain, and mild cases of malaria. We examined the geno-, cyto- and overall toxicity of P. niruri whole plant ethanolic extract. The extract was administered as a single dose of 30 or 300 mg/kg to laboratory rats by gavage, accompanied by negative (0.9% saline) and positive (10 mg/mL N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea) controls that were injected intramuscularly 48 h after extract administration. The ratio of polychromatic (PCE)/normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) from femur bone marrow was scored for genotoxicity. Cytotoxicity was determined using descending concentrations (0.2-0.0125 g/mL) of the extract incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Lactate dehydrogenase release from damaged cells was determined and the CC(50) calculated. Subchronic administration of the extract at 30 or 300 mg/kg was done for 90 days to determine general toxicity. PCE:NCE (%) for the extract and negative control was 63, compared to 168 (positive control). The CC(50) was 26.3 mg/mL and hepato-renal toxicity after subchronic extract administration was nil. We conclude that ethanol extract of P. niruri is not cytotoxic or genotoxic, and is generally non-toxic on subchronic administration. PMID:22290470
Asare, G A; Bugyei, K; Sittie, A; Yahaya, E S; Gyan, B; Adjei, S; Addo, P; Wiredu, E K; Adjei, D N; Nyarko, A K
Aim of the studyIn a search for new plant-derived biologically active compounds against malaria parasites, we have carried out an ethnopharmacological study to evaluate the susceptibility of cultured Plasmodium falciparum to extracts and fractions from seven Cameroonian medicinalplants used in malaria treatment. We have also explored the inhibition of the Plasmodium falciparum cysteine protease Falcipain-2.
Fabrice Fekam Boyom; Eugénie Madiesse Kemgne; Roselyne Tepongning; Vincent Ngouana; Wilfred Fon Mbacham; Etienne Tsamo; Paul Henri Amvam Zollo; Jiri Gut; Philip J. Rosenthal
Extracts of 12 medicinal and aromatic plants were investigated for their radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays: Salvia sclarea, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia pratensis, Lavandula angustifolia, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Echinacea purpurea, Rhaponticum carthamoides, Juglans regia, Melilotus officinalis, Geranium macrorrhizum and Potentilla fruticosa. Salvia officinalis was used as a reference plant with well documented antioxidant activity. G. macrorrhizum and
The in vitro study of the antioxidant properties of the hydroalcoholic extracts of various Indian medicinalplants can logically help to develop a better and safer way of amelioration from oxidative stress. As aimed, the present study has been done to estimate and thereby conclude regarding the antioxidant activities of a few Indian medicinalplants, viz., Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis, Caesalpinia crista, Cajanus cajan, and Tinospora cordifolia. The extracts of the plants have been subjected to the evaluation of antioxidant properties through scavenging assays for reactive oxygen species like superoxide, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, hypochlorous acid, singlet oxygen, etc. and measurement of TEAC values and other phytochemical parameters. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of each plant have been found to be correlated to their individual antioxidant activity. The results showed the hydroalcoholic extracts of the plants were efficient indicators of their antioxidant capacity thus concreting their basis to be used as natural antioxidant. PMID:22624183
A subcritical extractor equipped with a three-way inlet valve and an on\\/off outlet valve has been used for performing subcritical water extractions (SWE) in a continuous manner for the isolation of the essential oil of fennel, a medicinalplant. The target compounds were removed from the aqueous extract by a single extraction with 5 ml hexane, determined by gas-chromatography-flame ionization
Advanced extraction methods have been developed for direct speciation of dissolved inorganic and organic selenium (Se) species in aqueous extracts of medicinalplants (MPs). The inorganic species of Se (SeIV and SeVI) were separated from organic forms by adsorbing inorganic Se on alumina, while the organic Se was not retained. The retained inorganic Se species was eluted with 10 mL 0.2 M HCl. The total inorganic Se species was determined after prereduction of SeVI into SeIV with concentrated HCl. The SeIV in the eluent and total inorganic Se species were then complexed with diethyldithiocarbamate. The resultant complexes were entrapped in the nonionic surfactant Triton X-114. The total Se, organic Se, total inorganic Se, and SeIV species were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with a modifier. The SeVI concentration was obtained by subtracting SeIV from total inorganic Se contents. The main factors affecting the methodologies were investigated in detail. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the LOD for SeIV was 50 microg/L. Among dissolved inorganic and organic Se species in aqueous extracts of MPs, organic Se species were present in the range of 74-84%, SeIV 3.62-7.47%, and SeVI 12.4-18.57% of total Se contents. PMID:21919339
Methanolic extract of 15 Iranian medicinalplants were prepared and tested for their cytotoxic activities against three cancer cell lines (MCF7, HepG2, WEHI164) and one normal cell line (MDBK). Some plants showed cytotoxic activities. The extract of Ferula szowitsiana root, which proved to be the most active, was chosen for further phytochemical studies. The major compounds of the most potent acetone extract were isolated. They were identified as chimgin and chimganin, two known monoterpenoids, by spectroscopic means. Their cytotoxic activity was evaluated in three cell lines. The results show that these compounds are responsible, at least in part, for the cytotoxic activity of this plant.
Sahranavard, S.; Naghibi, F.; Mosaddegh, M.; Esmaeili, S.; Sarkhail, P.; Taghvaei, M.; Ghafari, S.
The use of natural compounds from plants can provide an alternative approach against food-borne pathogens. The mechanisms of action of most plantextracts with antimicrobial activity have been poorly studied. In this work, changes in membrane integrity, membrane potential, internal pH (pHin), and ATP synthesis were measured in Vibrio cholerae cells after exposure to extracts of edible and medicinalplants. A preliminary screen of methanolic, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts of medicinal and edible plants was performed. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were measured for extracts showing high antimicrobial activity. Our results indicate that methanolic extracts of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica var. Villanueva L.), sweet acacia (Acacia farnesiana L.), and white sagebrush (Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt.) are the most active against V. cholera, with MBCs ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mg/ml. Using four fluorogenic techniques, we studied the membrane integrity of V. cholerae cells after exposure to these four extracts. Extracts from these plants were able to disrupt the cell membranes of V. cholerae cells, causing increased membrane permeability, a clear decrease in cytoplasmic pH, cell membrane hyperpolarization, and a decrease in cellular ATP concentration in all strains tested. These four plantextracts could be studied as future alternatives to control V. cholerae contamination in foods and the diseases associated with this microorganism.
The extracts obtained from 14 plants of the Mexican medicinal flora were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. The i.p. administration of the extracts at a dose of 400 mg/kg produced a high reduction of edema with 70% of the plantextracts. Oenothera rosea methanol extract, Sphaeralcea angustifolia chloroform extract, Acaciafarnesiana, Larrea tridentata and Rubus coriifolius methanol extracts as well as the aqueous extract of Chamaedora tepejilote were demonstrated to be particularly active against the induced hind-paw edema. Moderate inhibition of edema formation was also demonstrated with the methanol extracts of Astianthus viminalis, Brickellia paniculata, C. tepejilote and Justicia spicigera. PMID:15330501
Meckes, M; David-Rivera, A D; Nava-Aguilar, V; Jimenez, A
Background: Diabetes mellitus, for a long time, has been treated with plant derived medicines in Sri Lanka. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and dose response of oral antihyperglycaemic activity of eight Sri Lankan medicinalplantextracts, which are used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Medicinalplants selected for the study on the basis of documented effectiveness and wide use among traditional Ayurveda physicians in the Southern region of Sri Lanka for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The effect of different doses of aqueous stem bark extracts of Spondias pinnata (Anacardiaceae), Kokoona zeylanica (Celastraceae), Syzygium caryophyllatum (Myrtaceae), Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae), aerial part extracts of Scoparia dulcis (Scrophulariaceae), Sida alnifolia (Malvaceae), leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) and root extract of Languas galanga (Zingiberaceae) on oral glucose tolerance test was evaluated. A single dose of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 2.00 g/kg of plantextract was administered orally to alloxan induced (150 mg/kg, ip) diabetic Wistar rats (n = 6). Glibenclamide (0.50 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. The acute effect was evaluated over a 4 h period using area under the oral glucose tolerance curve. Statistical Analysis: The results were evaluated by analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. Results: The eight plantextracts showed statistically significant dose dependent improvement on glucose tolerance (P < 0.05). The optimum effective dose on glucose tolerance for six extracts was found to be 1.00 g/kg in diabetic rats with the exception of C. grandis: 0.75 g/kg and L. galanga: 1.25 g/kg. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of G. arborea, S. pinnata, K. zeylanica, S. caryophyllatum, S. dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats.
Attanayake, Anoja P.; Jayatilaka, Kamani A. P. W.; Pathirana, Chitra; Mudduwa, Lakmini K. B.
Highlights the demand for medicinalplants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES In Asia, various medicinalplants have been used as the primary sources in the health care regimen for thousands of years. In recent decades, various studies have investigated the biological activity and potential medicinal value of the medicinalplants. In this study, 100 methanol extracts from 98 plant species were evaluated for their biological activities. MATERIALS/METHODS The research properties, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-pic-rylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ?-glucosidase and ?-tyrosinase inhibitory effects, anti-inflammatory activity, and anticancer activity were evaluated for the selected extracts. RESULTS Fifteen of the extracts scavenged more than 90% of the DPPH radical. Among the extracts, approximately 20 extracts showed a strong inhibitory effect on ?-glucosidase, while most had no effect on ?-tyrosinase. In addition, 52% of the extracts showed low toxicity to normal cells, and parts of the extracts exhibited high anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities on the murine macrophage cell (RAW 264.7) and human colon cancer cell (HT-29) lines, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Our findings may contribute to further nutrition and pharmacological studies. Detailed investigations of the outstanding samples are currently underway.
It was hypothesised that extracts from plants that are used as herbal medicinal products contain inhibitors of efflux in Gram-negative bacteria. Extracts from 21 plants were screened by bioassay for synergy with ciprofloxacin against Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, including mutants in which acrB and tolC had been inactivated. The most active extracts, fractions and purified compounds were further examined by minimum inhibitory concentration testing with five antibiotics for activity against Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Efflux activity was determined using the fluorescent dye Hoechst 33342. Eighty-four extracts from 21 plants, 12 fractions thereof and 2 purified molecules were analysed. Of these, 12 plantextracts showed synergy with ciprofloxacin, 2 of which had activity suggesting efflux inhibition. The most active extract, from Levisticum officinale, was fractionated and the two fractions displaying the greatest synergy with the five antibiotics were further analysed. From these two fractions, falcarindiol and the fatty acids oleic acid and linoleic acid were isolated. The fractions and compounds possessed antibacterial activity especially for mutants lacking a component of AcrAB-TolC. However, no synergism was seen with the fractions or purified molecules, suggesting that a combination of compounds is required for efflux inhibition. These data indicate that medicinalplantextracts may provide suitable lead compounds for future development and possible clinical utility as inhibitors of efflux for various Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:21194895
Garvey, Mark I; Rahman, M Mukhlesur; Gibbons, Simon; Piddock, Laura J V
Antibacterial activity of twelve crude alcoholic and aqueous extracts from six medicinalplants against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 was studied. The medicinalplants included Alstonia macrophylla Wall., Bixa orellana L., Blumea balsamifera (L.) D.C., Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Arcangelisia flava (L.) Merr., and Leea rubra Blume. Crude ethanolic extracts from leaves of Bixa orellana L.
Selected plants having a history of use in Polynesian traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious disease were investigated for anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-bacterial activity in vitro. Extracts from Scaevola sericea, Psychotria hawaiiensis, Pipturus albidus and Eugenia malaccensis showed selective anti-viral activity against Herpes Simplex Virus-1 and 2 and Vesicular Stomatitis Virus. Aleurites moluccana extracts showed anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus
C. P. Locher; M. T. Burch; H. F. Mower; J. Berestecky; H. Davis; B. Van Poel; A. Lasure; D. A. Vanden Berghe; A. J. Vlietinck
This first-attempt study quantitatively provided dose–response assessment of in vitro antibacterial activity of typical Chinese medicinalplantextracts. The diameter of inhibition zone determined by disc diffusion method was adopted to quantify antibacterial activity of various plantextracts upon Escherichia coli. Our findings indicated that antibacterial activities of crude plantextracts obtained by maceration (mac.) and decoction (dec.) were significantly
The total phenol and flavonoid contents of 19 Amazonian plants and their related antioxidant activities were determined. The extracts from the plant leaf, bark, root, fruit and\\/or stem were prepared as infusions, as are traditionally used in popular medicine. Total phenols ranged from 0.8 to 22.2mg gallic acid equivalents\\/g and flavonoids from 0.0 to 10.2mg catechin equivalents\\/g, by using Folin–Ciocalteau
Leandro J. Lizcano; Fadil Bakkali; M. Begońa Ruiz-Larrea; José Ignacio Ruiz-Sanz
Medicinalplants are an important source for the therapeutic remedies of various diseases including urinary tract infections. This prompted us to perform research in this area. We decided to focus on medicinalplants species used in urinary tract infections prevention. The aim of our study was to determine the influence of Betula pendula, Equisetum arvense, Herniaria glabra, Galium odoratum, Urtica dioica, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea extracts on bacterial survival and virulence factors involved in tissue colonization and biofilm formation of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli rods. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of plantextracts were performed. Antimicrobial assay relied on the estimation of the colony forming unit number. Hydrophobicity of cells was established by salt aggregation test. Using motility agar, the ability of bacteria to move was examined. The erythrocyte hemagglutination test was used for fimbriae P screening. Curli expression was determined using YESCA agar supplemented with congo red. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter plate assay and a spectrophotometric method. The results of the study indicate significant differences between investigated extracts in their antimicrobial activities. The extracts of H. glabra and V. vitis-idaea showed the highest growth-inhibitory effects (p < 0.05). Surface hydrophobicity of autoaggregating E. coli strain changed after exposure to all plantextracts, except V. vitis-idaea (p > 0.05). The B. pendula and U. dioica extracts significantly reduced the motility of the E. coli rods (p < 0.05). All the extracts exhibited the anti-biofilm activity. PMID:22915095
Global HIV-1 treatment would benefit greatly from safe herbal medicines with scientifically validated novel anti-HIV-1 activities. The root extract from the medicinalplant Pelargonium sidoides (PS) is licensed in Germany as the herbal medicine EPs®7630, with numerous clinical trials supporting its safety in humans. Here we provide evidence from multiple cell culture experiments that PS extract displays potent anti-HIV-1 activity. We show that PS extract protects peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages from infection with various X4 and R5 tropic HIV-1 strains, including clinical isolates. Functional studies revealed that the extract from PS has a novel mode-of-action. It interferes directly with viral infectivity and blocks the attachment of HIV-1 particles to target cells, protecting them from virus entry. Analysis of the chemical footprint of anti-HIV activity indicates that HIV-1 inhibition is mediated by multiple polyphenolic compounds with low cytotoxicity and can be separated from other extract components with higher cytotoxicity. Based on our data and its excellent safety profile, we propose that PS extract represents a lead candidate for the development of a scientifically validated herbal medicine for anti-HIV-1 therapy with a mode-of-action different from and complementary to current single-molecule drugs. PMID:24489923
Summary Flavonoids of Crataegus monogyna, Passiflora incarnata, Matricaria chamomilla and Ginkgo biloba extracts have been separated\\u000a by isocratic elution on C18 columns using eluents based on C3 alcohols, tetrahydrofuran or dioxane.\\u000a \\u000a Satisfactory results have been obtained at compared to the low resolution achieved with the customary system acetonitrile-water-acetic\\u000a acid.
P. G. Pietta; P. L. Mauri; E. Manera; P. L. Ceva; A. Rava
Herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and -2) are important pathogens for humans, especially in the case of highly susceptible adults. Moreover, HSV-2 has been reported to be a high risk factor for HIV infection. Therefore, the discovery of novel anti-HSV drugs deserves great efforts. In this paper, we review anti-HSV substances from natural sources, including both extracts and pure compounds from
Mahmud Tareq Hassan Khan; Arjumand Ather; Kenneth D. Thompson; Roberto Gambari
The methanolic crude extracts of Desmodium gangeticum (Linn.), Eclipta alba (Linn.) Ocimum sanctum (Linn.), Piper longum (Linn.), Solanum nigrum (Linn.) and Amaranthus caudatus (Linn.) were screened for their free radical scavenging properties using ascorbic acid as standard antioxidant. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. The overall antioxidant activity of D. gangeticum was found to
The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of leaf hexane, chloroform,\\u000a ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wallich ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. against the adult cattle tick Haemaphysalis
In recent years, use of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed\\u000a attention as agents for vector control because they are rich in bioactive chemicals, active against a limited number of species\\u000a including specific target insects, and biodegradable. The present study was carried out to evaluate the adulticidal, repellent,\\u000a and larvicidal activity of crude hexane,
Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Anita Mahapatra; Asokan Bagavan; Gandhi Elango
Diverse plants of ethnobotanic interest in Amazonia are commonly used in traditional medicine. We determined the antioxidant potential against lipid peroxidation, the antimicrobial activity, and the polyphenol composition of several Amazonian plants (Brownea rosademonte, Piper glandulosissimum, Piper krukoffii, Piper putumayoense, Solanum grandiflorum, and Vismia baccifera). Extracts from the plant leaf, bark, and stem were prepared as aqueous infusions, as used in folk medicine, and added to rat liver microsomes exposed to iron. The polyphenolic composition was detected by reverse-phase HPLC coupled to diode-array detector and MS/MS analysis. The antimicrobial activity was tested by the spot-on-a-lawn method against several indicator microorganisms. All the extracts inhibited lipid oxidation, except the P. glandulosissimum stem. The plantextracts exhibiting high antioxidant potential (V. baccifera and B. rosademonte) contained high levels of flavanols (particularly, catechin and epicatechin). By contrast, S. grandiflorum leaf, which exhibited very low antioxidant activity, was rich in hydroxycinnamic acids. None of the extracts showed antimicrobial activity. This study demonstrates for the first time the presence of bioactive polyphenolic compounds in several Amazonian plants, and highlights the importance of flavanols as major phenolic contributors to antioxidant activity.
Lizcano, Leandro J.; Viloria-Bernal, Maria; Vicente, Francisca; Berrueta, Luis Angel; Gallo, Blanca; Martinez-Canamero, Magdalena; Ruiz-Larrea, Maria Begona; Ruiz-Sanz, Jose Ignacio
A subcritical extractor equipped with a three-way inlet valve and an on/off outlet valve has been used for performing subcritical water extractions (SWE) in a continuous manner for the isolation of the essential oil of fennel, a medicinalplant. The target compounds were removed from the aqueous extract by a single extraction with 5 ml hexane, determined by gas-chromatography-flame ionization (GC-FID) and identified by mass spectrometry (MS). The proposed extraction method has been compared with both hydrodistillation and dichloromethane manual extraction. Better results have been obtained with the proposed method in terms of rapidity, efficiency, cleanliness and possibility of manipulating the composition of the extract. PMID:18967949
Dichloromethane extracts from different parts of Rhamnus prinoides, Ornithogalum longibracteatum, Gardenia volkensii, Spirostachys africana, Diospyros whyteana, Syzigium cordatum and Prunus africana were investigated for mutagenic and antimutagenic effects in Salmonella/microsome and micronucleus tests. None of the extracts tested in the Ames test were found to induce mutations or to modify the effect of the mutagen 4-nitroquinoline-oxide (4NQO). In the micronucleus test, extracts from twigs/bark of R. prinoides, twigs of D. whyteana, P. africana and S. cordatum significantly lowered the effect of the mutagen mitomycin C (MMC). Extracts from twigs/bark of G. volkensii and S. africana were genotoxic in the micronucleus test, while extracts of O. longibracteatum leaves potentiated the genotoxicity of MMC. This preliminary investigation shows that plantextracts used in traditional medicine may have particular effects with regard to mutagenicity and antimutagenicity indicating careful use in some instances and the need to isolate their active principles for further research. PMID:14630059
Verschaeve, L; Kestens, V; Taylor, J L S; Elgorashi, E E; Maes, A; Van Puyvelde, L; De Kimpe, N; Van Staden, J
To find new pancreatic lipase (triacylglycerol acylhydrolase, EC 126.96.36.199) inhibitors from natural products, 61 medicinalplants from Korea were screened for their antilipase activity for prevention of obesity. Dried and powdered plants were extracted three times with EtOH and extracts were obtained by removal of the solvent in vacuo. Lipase activity was determined by measuring the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl butyrate to p-nitrophenol. Also, the inhibitory effect was measured on phosphodiesterase (PDE), another therapeutic target for obesity. Of the extracts tested, Sorbus commixta (stem, leaf) and Viscum album (whole plant) exhibited antilipase activity (with IC(50) values of 29.6 µg/mL and 33.3 µg/mL, respectively) and only anti-PDE activity (IC(50) values of 20.08 µg/mL and 35.15 µg/mL, respectively). PMID:22069182
Lee, Yun Mi; Kim, Young Sook; Lee, Youngseop; Kim, Junghyun; Sun, Hang; Kim, Joo Hwan; Kim, Jin Sook
Aim of the studySeven extracts and eight compounds from four selected Cameroonian medicinalplants, Solanecio mannii Hook f. (Asteraceae), Monodora myristica Dunal (Annonaceae), Albizia gummifera (J.F. Gmel) C.A. Smith (Fabaceae\\/Mimosoideae) and Glyphaea brevis (Spreng) Monachino (Tiliaceae), traditionally used for the treatment of hepatitis, parasites and other infectious diseases, were tested in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive (5 species)
Emmanuel Jean Teinkela Mbosso; Silvčre Ngouela; Jules Clément Assob Nguedia; Véronique Penlap Beng; Michel Rohmer; Etienne Tsamo
A simple micellar liquid chromatographic (MLC) procedure for simultaneous determination of arbutin and hydroquinone in medicinalplantextracts and commercial cosmetic products was proposed. This method was developed and validated. The chromatographic conditions were also optimized. All analyses were performed at room temperature in an isocratic mode, using a mixture of 1% (v/v) acetonitrile and 0.006 mol L?ą Brij 35 (pH 6.0) as a mobile phase. The flow rate was set at 1.0 mL min?ą. The analytical column was a 150 × 3.9 mm Nova-Pak C-18 column. The effluent from the analytical column was monitored by UV detection at 280 nm. Under the optimum conditions, arbutin and hydroquinone could be determined within a concentration range of 2-50 ?g mL?ą of arbutin, and hydroquinone was obtained with the regression equations; y = 0.045x + 0.042 (r˛ = 0.9923) and y = 0.091x + 0.050 (r˛ = 0.9930) respectively. The limits of detection were found to be 0.51 ?g mL?ą and 0.37 ?g mL?ą for arbutin and hydroquinone respectively. The proposed MLC method was applied for the determination of arbutin and hydroquinone contents in medicinalplantextracts and commercial cosmetic products. This proposed MLC method is thus suitable for routine analysis of arbutin and hydroquinone in the pharmaceutical formulations, cosmetic products and raw medicinalplantextracts. PMID:23347059
Despite advances in the understanding of the medicinal properties of many herbs, the consumer today is confronted with the lack of or misinformation concerning the safety of these herbs that rivals the heyday of the patent medicine era. In the present study, Dodonaea viscosa (Sapindaceae), a medicinalplant commonly used for skin diseases in Ethiopia was subjected to a systematic dermatotoxicity study. To this effect, the dermatotoxicity of an 80% methanol extract of the leaf was investigated in animals following standard procedures for irritation, sensitization, acute toxicity and repeated toxicity tests. The skin irritation test in rabbits showed the extract to be a slight or negligibly slight irritant, with a primary irritation index of 0.45. A sensitization test in mice by the mouse ear swelling test method revealed the extract to be a non-sensitizer in the dose range 12-30 mg/mL. The percent responder was zero. The acute and repeated dermal toxicity tests on rats did not show any overt sign of toxicity. The findings of this study collectively indicate that dermal application of D. viscosa is not associated with any toxicologically relevant effects and the data could provide satisfactory preclinical evidence of safety to launch a clinical trial on a standardized formulation of the plantextracts. PMID:19441008
The effectiveness of antimalarial drugs is declining at an ever accelerating rate, with consequent increase in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. The newest antiplasmodial drug from plants is needed to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to assess antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of 10 different medicinalplants from eight families against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain. The selection of the hereby studied plants was based on the existing information on their local ethnobotanic history. Plants were dried, powdered, and macerated in a hydroalcoholic solution. Resulting extracts have been assessed for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial and brine shrimp toxicity activities. Of 10 plant species tested, four plants: Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae), Myrtus communis Linn (Myrtaceae), Plantago major (Plantaginaceae), and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Papilionaceae) displayed promising antimalarial activity in vitro (50% inhibitory concentration values of 62.77, 42.18, 40.00, and 13.56 ?g/mL, respectively) with no toxicity against brine shrimp larvae. The crude extracts of three active plants, G. glabra, M. communis, and A. officinalis, also significantly reduced parasitemia in vivo in female Swiss albino mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg compared to no treatment. Antiplasmodial activities of extracts of A. officinalis and M. communis are reported for the first time. PMID:23922204
Theeffects of four extracting solvents [absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, aqueous ethanol (ethanol: water, 80:20 v/v) and aqueous methanol (methanol: water, 80:20 v/v)] and two extraction techniques (shaking and reflux) on the antioxidant activity of extracts of barks of Azadirachta indica, Acacia nilotica, Eugenia jambolana, Terminalia arjuna, leaves and roots of Moringa oleifera, fruit of Ficus religiosa,and leaves of Aloe barbadensis were investigated. The tested plant materials contained appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (0.31-16.5 g GAE /100g DW), total flavonoid (2.63-8.66 g CE/100g DW); reducing power at 10 mg/mL extract concentration (1.36-2.91), DPPH(.) scavenging capacity (37.2-86.6%), and percent inhibition of linoleic acid (66.0-90.6%). Generally higher extract yields, phenolic contents and plant material antioxidant activity were obtained using aqueous organic solvents, as compared to the respective absolute organic solvents. Although higher extract yields were obtained by the refluxing extraction technique, in general higher amounts of total phenolic contents and better antioxidant activity were found in the extracts prepared using a shaker. PMID:19553890
The Optimal Foraging Theory was used to identify possible patterns in bark extraction and the selective cutting of Anadenanthera colubrina (Angico), a medicinalplant. The hypotheses were built on two approaches: selection of collection place and bark exploitation occurrence in only one of these resource areas. The results suggest that the distance that must be traveled to reach each gathering site determines the extent of the extraction process, showing that people minimize the time and energy spent in A. colubrina collection. The availability of each site appears not to influence the operation. The resource amount was the optimized variable for bark extraction, which was analyzed in only one collection zone. In contrast to the phenomenon of collection place selection, the distance between angico individuals, the management period, and the tannin content did not affect bark extraction. This study also discusses how certain cultural aspects influence the extraction of angico.
Soldati, Gustavo Taboada; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino
The aim of this study was to assess the antibacterial and antifungal potential of some Romanian medicinalplants, arnica--Arnica montana, wormwood--Artemisia absinthium and nettle--Urtica dioica. In order to perform this antimicrobial screening, we obtained the vegetal extracts and we tested them on a series of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and also against two fungal strains. The vegetal extracts showed antimicrobial activity preferentially directed against the planktonic fungal and bacterial growth, while the effect against biofilm formation and development was demonstrated only against S. aureus and C. albicans. Our in vitro assays indicate that the studied plantextracts are a significant source of natural alternatives to antimicrobial therapy, thus avoiding antibiotic therapy, the use of which has become excessive in recent years. PMID:21717806
Stanciuc, A M; Gaspar, A; Moldovan, L; Saviuc, C; Popa, M; M?ru?escu, L
The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum with resistance to chloroquine (CQ), the safest and cheapest anti-malarial drug, coupled with the increasing cost of alternative drugs especially in developing countries have necessitated the urgent need to tap the potential of plants for novel anti-malarials. The present study investigates the anti-malarial activity of the methanolic extracts of 13 medicinalplants from the Malaiyur and Javadhu hills of South India against blood stage CQ-sensitive (3D7) and CQ-resistant (INDO) strains of P. falciparum in culture using the fluorescence-based SYBR Green I assay. Sorbitol-synchronized parasites were incubated under normal culture conditions at 2% hematocrit and 1% parasitemia in the absence or presence of increasing concentrations of plantextracts. CQ and artemisinin were used as positive controls, while 0.4% DMSO was used as the negative control. The cytotoxic effects of extracts on host cells were assessed by functional assay using HeLa cells cultured in RPMI containing 10% fetal bovine serum, 0.21% sodium bicarbonate and 50 ?g/mL gentamycin (complete medium). Plantextracts (bark methanol extracts of Annona squamosa (IC(50), 30 ?g/mL), leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum (IC(50), 32 ?g/mL), Ocimum tenuiflorum (IC(50), 31 ?g/mL), Solanum torvum (IC(50), 31 ?g/mL) and Justicia procumbens (IC(50), 63 ?g/mL), showed moderate activity. The leaf extracts of Aristolochia indica (IC(50), 10 ?g/mL), Cassia auriculata (IC(50), 14 ?g/mL), Chrysanthemum indicum (IC(50), 20 ?g/mL) and Dolichos biflorus (IC(50), 20 ?g/mL) showed promising activity and low activity was observed in the flower methanol extracts of A. indica , leaf methanol extract of Catharanthus roseus, and Gymnema sylvestre (IC(50), >100 ?g/mL). These four extracts exhibited promising IC(50) (?g/mL) of 17, 24, 19 and 24 respectively also against the CQ resistant INDO strain of P. falciparum. The high TC(50) in mammalian cell cytotoxicity assay and the low IC(50) in anti-malarial P. falciparum assay indicates selectivity and good resistance indices in the range of 0.9-1.7 for leaf extracts of A. indica, C. auriculata, C. indicum and D. biflorus suggests that these may serve as anti-malarial agents even in their crude form. These results indicate a possible explanation of the traditional use of some of these medicinalplants against malaria or malaria-like conditions. PMID:21643655
Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Kaushik, Naveen Kumar; Mohanakrishnan, Dinesh; Elango, Gandhi; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Sahal, Dinkar
Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Natural products of plant origin with insecticidal properties have been used in recent years for control of a variety of pest insects and vectors. The present study was based on assessments of the larvicidal activity to determine the efficacies of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of ten medicinalplants tested against fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston and lymphatic filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The larvicidal activity was assessed by the procedure of WHO with some modification. The highest larval mortality was found in leaf acetone of Adhatoda vasica, bark ethyl acetate of Annona squamosa, methanol leaf and flower of Cassia auriculata, leaf ethyl acetate of Hydrocotyle javanica, methanol leaf and seed of Solanum torvum and leaf hexane extracts of Vitex negundo against the fourth instar larvae of An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The calculated LC90 for acetone, ethyl acetate, methanol and hexane extracts of dried leaf and bark of A. vasica, A. squamosa, S. torvum, and V. negundo were in the range of 70.38-210.68 ppm. Our results suggest that the leaf methanol extract of S.torvum and bark ethyl acetate extract of A. squamosa from Southern India have the potential for use to control mosquitoes. Therefore, this study provides the larvicidal activity against An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus of plantextracts. PMID:20962718
Kamaraj, C; Abdul Rahman, A; Bagavan, A; Abduz Zahir, A; Elango, G; Kandan, P; Rajakumar, G; Marimuthu, S; Santhoshkumar, T
Background: The search for novel xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors with a higher therapeutic activity and fewer side effects are desired not only to treat gout but also to combat various other diseases associated with the XO activity. At present, the potential of developing successful natural products for the management of XO-related diseases is still largely unexplored. In the present study, we have screened the methanolic extracts of various Jordanian medicinalplants for their XO inhibitory activities using an optimized protocol. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extracts of 23 medicinalplants, belonging to 12 families, were tested in vitro, at 200 ?g/ml concentrations, for their XO inhibitory potential. The dose-dependent inhibition profiles of the most active plants were further evaluated by estimating the IC50 values of their corresponding extracts. Results: Six plants were found most active (% inhibition more than 39%). These plants are Salvia spinosa L. (IC50 = 53.7 ?g/ml), Anthemis palestina Boiss. (168.0 ?g/ml), Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (199.5 ?g/ml), Achillea biebersteinii Afansiev (360.0 ?g/ml), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (650.0 ?g/ml), and Ginkgo biloba L. (595.8 ?g/ml). Moreover, four more plants, namely Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (28.7% inhibition), Helianthemum ledifolium (L.) Mill. (28.4%), Majorana syriaca (L.) Kostel. (25.1%), and Mentha spicata L. (22.5%) showed a XO inhibitory activity in the range of 22–30%. Conclusion: The study showed that many of the tested plant species are potential sources of natural XO inhibitors that can be developed, upon further investigation, into successful herbal drugs for treatment of gout and other XO-related disorders.
Hudaib, Mohammad M.; Tawaha, Khaled A.; Mohammad, Mohammad K.; Assaf, Areej M.; Issa, Ala Y.; Alali, Feras Q.; Aburjai, Talal A.; Bustanji, Yasser K.
This study evaluated the in vitro effect of medicinalplantextracts on ruminal methanogenesis, four different groups of methanogens and ruminal fermentation characteristics. A fistulated Holstein cow was used as a donor of rumen fluid. Licorice and mugwort extracts (Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Artemisia capillaris, 0.5% and 1% of total substrate DM, respectively), previously used as folk remedies, were added to an in vitro fermentation incubated with buffered-rumen fluid. Total gas production in Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract treatment was not significantly different between treatments (p<0.05) while total gas production in the Artemisia capillaris extract treatment was lower than that of the control. Artemisia capillaris extract and Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract reduced CH4 emission by 14% (p<0.05) and 8% (p<0.05), respectively. Ciliate-associated methanogens population decreased by 18% in the medicinalplantextracts treatments. Medicinalplantextracts also affected the order Methanobacteriales community. Methanobacteriales diversity decreased by 35% in the Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract treatment and 30% in the Artemisia capillaris extract treatment. The order Methanomicrobiales population decreased by 50% in the 0.5% of Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract treatment. These findings demonstrate that medicinalplantextracts have the potential to inhibit in vitro ruminal methanogenesis.
Kim, Eun Tae; Moon, Yea Hwang; Min, Kwan-Sik; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Kim, Sam Churl; Ahn, Seung Kyu; Lee, Sung Sill
Plants with hypoglycemic properties are important in the treatment of diabetes. One of the mechanisms in reducing blood glucose is preventing the digestive absorption of glucose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of some traditional medicinalplants collected from different regions of Iran and their effects on glucose diffusion decrease. The amounts of phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, total polysaccharides, antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation were determined respectively by folin ciocalteu, querceting, sulfuric acid, FRAP and thiobarbituric acid - reactive substanses (TBARS) in eleven confirmed traditional antihyperglycemic medicinalplants prepared at 50g/l concentrations using the boiling method. Phenolic compounds of Eucalyptus globules (100.8± 0.01 mg /g), total flavonoids content of Juglans regia (16.9± 0.01 mg /g) and total polysaccharide amount of Allium satirum (0.28± 0.05) were the highest. Significant relationship was observed between the polyphenols and flavonoids (p <0.05). The grape seed extract showed the highest antioxidant activity (133± 0.02 mg/g) together with decreased glucose diffusion as well as increased polyphenols (p <0.05), but the increase in antioxidant activity was not related to glucose diffusion. Antihyperglycemic plantextracts containing higher polyphenols showed more efficiently in vitro glucose diffusion decrease, but no significant relationship was observed between antioxidant activity increase and glucose diffusion.
Low concentrations of black tea and water extracts from medicinalplants Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Tilia cordata, Betula pendula and Zea mays stimulated biofilm formation in Escherichia coli BW25113 up to three times. Similar effect was observed for tannic acid and low concentrations of quercetin. In contrast, the extract from Urtica dioica reduced biofilm production. Pretreatment with plantextracts variously modified antibiotic effects on specific biofilm formation (SBF). Extract from V. vitis-idaea increased SBF, while the extracts from Achillea millefolium, Laminaria japonica and U. dioica considerably decreased SBF in the presence of ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and cefotaxime. Stimulatory effect of the extracts and pure polyphenols on biofilm formation was probably related to their prooxidant properties. The rpoS deletion did not affect SBF significantly, but stimulation of biofilm formation by the compounds tested was accompanied by inhibition of rpoS expression, suggesting that a RpoS-independent signal transduction pathway was apparently used. PMID:24500005
A number of Thai medicinalplants, recommended as remedies for herpesvirus infection and have been used in primary health care were investigated for their intracellular activities against herpes simplex viruses (HSV). Centella asiatica L., Maclura cochinchinensis Cornor, and Mangifera indica L. contained both anti-HSV-1 and -2 activities, as determined by plaque inhibition assay. An inhibition of the production of infectious HSV-2 virions from infected Vero cells could also be demonstrated. Combinations of each of these reconstituted extracts with 9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl) guanosine (acyclovir; ACV) resulted either in subadditive, additive, or synergistic interaction, against HSV-2, depending on the dose of ACV used; mixture of C. asiatica and M. indica exerted an additive effect in a similar assay. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of these plantextracts were also substantiated by flow cytometric analysis of virus-specific antigens in the infected cells. The active constituent present in C. asiatica extract was determined to be asiaticoside while in M. indica was mangiferin. Thus, these data suggest therapeutic potential of these plantextracts. PMID:10715843
Yoosook, C; Bunyapraphatsara, N; Boonyakiat, Y; Kantasuk, C
Efficacy test of medicinalplant crude extracts on growth inhibition of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, the causal agent of vegetable soft rot was conducted. Fourteen kinds of medicinalplant were extracted by 95% ethyl alcohol. Plant crude extracts at the concentration of 100,000 ppm were tested by Paper disc diffusion method on double layer nutrient glucose agar (NGA). It was
The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of seven EtOH extracts and twenty fractions from the partition of the initial ethanolic extracts from seven African medicinalplants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo) for the treatment of malaria was evaluated. The most active EtOH extracts (IC50<3?g\\/ml) were those from Cassia occidentalis leaves, Euphorbia hirta whole plant, Garcinia kola stem
L. Tona; R. K. Cimanga; K. Mesia; C. T. Musuamba; T. De Bruyne; S. Apers; N. Hernans; S. Van Miert; L. Pieters; J. Totté; A. J. Vlietinck
Background Dengue fever regardless of its serotypes has been the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral diseases among the world population. The development of a dengue vaccine is complicated by the antibody-dependent enhancement effect. Thus, the development of a plant-based antiviral preparation promises a more potential alternative in combating dengue disease. Methods Present studies investigated the antiviral effects of standardised methanolic extracts of Andrographis paniculata, Citrus limon, Cymbopogon citratus, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum and Pelargonium citrosum on dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1). Results O. sanctum contained 88.6% of total flavonoids content, an amount that was the highest among all the six plants tested while the least was detected in M. charantia. In this study, the maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD) of the six medicinalplants was determined by testing the methanolic extracts against Vero E6 cells in vitro. Studies also determined that the MNTD of methanolic extract was in the decreasing order of M. charantia >C. limon >P. citrosum, O. sanctum >A. paniculata >C. citratus. Antiviral assay based on cytopathic effects (CPE) denoted by degree of inhibition upon treating DENV1-infected Vero E6 cells with MNTD of six medicinalplants showed that A. paniculata has the most antiviral inhibitory effects followed by M. charantia. These results were further verified with an in vitro inhibition assay using MTT, in which 113.0% and 98.0% of cell viability were recorded as opposed to 44.6% in DENV-1 infected cells. Although methanolic extracts of O. sanctum and C. citratus showed slight inhibition effect based on CPE, a significant inhibition was not reflected in MTT assay. Methanolic extracts of C. limon and P. citrosum did not prevent cytopathic effects or cell death from DENV-1. Conclusions The methanol extracts of A. paniculata and M. charantia possess the ability of inhibiting the activity of DENV-1 in in vitro assays. Both of these plants are worth to be further investigated and might be advantageous as an alternative for dengue treatment.
The objective of this study was to determine phytochemical characteristics, chemiluminescence antioxidant capacities, and neuroprotective effects on PC12 cells for methanol extracts of Spatholobus suberectus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Alpinia officinarum, Drynaria fortunei, and Crataegus pinnatifida. The C. pinnatifida extract (CPE) afforded the greatest yield and total phenolic content. The S. suberectus extract (SSE) yielded the greatest total flavonoid content. The U. rhynchophylla extract (URE) produced the greatest total tannin content, and the A. officinarum extract (AOE) produced the greatest total triterpenoid content. The D. fortunei extract, assayed using horseradish peroxidase-luminol-hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and AOE using pyrogallol-luminol assay each exhibited better antioxidant activity than the L-ascorbic acid and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid did. The CPE, SSE, and URE presented neurogrowth effects and neuroprotective activities on H(2)O(2)-induced PC12 cell death at 0.5-5.0??g/mL. The CPE represents a promising medicinalplant source for the treatment of H(2)O(2)-induced neurodegenerative disease, because of its useful phytochemical characteristics. PMID:21845204
Plant-based therapeutic preparations are cyclically returning to complement dermatologic therapy, however, data on the toxicity profile of such plants are lacking. In the present study, Plumbago zeylanica, a medicinalplant commonly used in Ethiopia for skin diseases was subjected to a systematic dermatotoxicity study. To this effect, the dermatotoxicity of 80% methanol extract of the root part of Plumbago zeylanica was investigated in animals following standard procedures for irritation, sensitization, acute toxicity and repeated toxicity tests. Extraction of plant material with 80% methanol resulted in 9.45% of crude extract of Plumbago zeylanica. The skin irritation test on rabbits showed Plumbago zeylanica extract to be a moderate irritant, with a primary irritation index of 2.00. Sensitization test on mice by the Mouse Ear Swelling Test method revealed the extract to be non-sensitizer in a dose range of 4-10mg/ml and the percent responder was zero. Acute dermal toxicity test on rats did not produce any overt signs of toxicity, except that there was a weight gain difference between the test and control groups of female rats. This was not, however, supported by other parameters, like the absolute and relative organ weights. Repeated dose toxicity test was associated with increased relative testis weight (P<0.05) as well as higher values for Blood urea nitrogen and K+ (P<0.05) in both sexes with the highest dose (1000 mg/kg) group, although histopathological analyses failed to lend support to these observations. Taken together, the dermatotoxicity test results from this study suggest that Plumbago zeylanica toxic effects might be limited to effects like moderate irritation. PMID:18339496
Since herbal teas, infusions and decoctions prepared from medicinalplants are popular remedies, it remains a topical question whether these herbal drugs can be treated as sources of essential elements for humans, who often use them in their everyday diet. Therefore, total and water-extractable contents of Mg, Mn and Cu were determined in 41 leaves originating from four botanical species of Plantago lanceolata, Arctostaphyllos uva-ursi, Rubus fruticosus and Betula sp., as well as in 33 samples of herbs represented by three species of Urtica dioica, Hypericum perforatum and Achillea millefolium. The highest level was determined in the case of Mg (in a range from 2.0 to 7.0 mg/g of dry mass [d.m.]), followed by Mn (from 50.0 to 1300.0 mg/kg d.m.), and lowest of all, Cu (from 3.5 to 19.5 mg/kg d.m.). Student's t-test showed that a statistically significant difference exists between samples originating from different plant species regarding the total content and water-extractable forms of Mg, Mn and Cu. By analysis of the relations between elements, it was observed that total level of Cu correlated with total levels of Mg and Mn, which indicates a synergistic interaction between the essential elements under study. With regard to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), the leaves of Rubus fruticosus contained the highest amounts of a water-extractable bioavailable form of Mn, which guarantees from 160 to 200% of the daily requirement of Mn for women and men, respectively. On the other hand, the extract obtained from Urticae folium gave water-extractable Mg in the amount of 76 mg/500 mL, which constitutes about 20% of daily requirement. The plant material richest in water-extractable Cu was Hyperici herba, containing 154.5 microg/500 mL, or 17% of DRI for both sexes. PMID:22574504
The efficacy of 89 medicinalplant crude extracts on growth inhibition of Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt of tomato, was investigated. The extracts were prepared by extractingplantplants in 95% ethyl alcohol and the solvent was evaporated by a vaccuum rotary evaporator. Then, the inhibiting efficacy of the plant crude extracts of 100,000 ppm were tested
In this work, we assessed the effect of extracts obtained from 17 plants used in traditional Chinese medicine. These extracts were tested in vitro with the epimastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi, clone Bra C(15) C(2), at 27 degrees C in F-29 medium at a concentration of 100 microg/ml in axenic cultures. Allopurinol was used as reference drug. Seven plantextracts showed inhibitory activities lower than 25%. Pueraria lobata, Mahonia beaei, Dictamus dasycarpus, Kochia scoparia, Sophora flavescens and Ligustrum lucidum showed effects with inhibition values between 25% and 60%, whereas Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Saussurea lappa, Melia toosendan and Cinnamomum cassia showed the greatest inhibitory activity of 100%. The IC(50) of these extracts were: 0.4, 2.4, 1.8 and 3.9 microg/ml, respectively. The MTT assay was made and did not show cytotoxic activity. These results allowed us to suggest that L. erythrorhizon, S. lappa, M. toosendan and C. cassia could be a source of new compounds against T. cruzi. PMID:15567249
Lirussi, D; Li, J; Prieto, J M; Gennari, M; Buschiazzo, H; Ríos, J L; Zaidenberg, A
Antifungal properties of the crude extracts of five medicinalplants (Artemisia judaica, Ballota undulate, Cleome amblyocarpa, Peganum harmala, and Teucrium polium) were tested against dermatophytes and emerging fungi. Ethanol extract of Ballota undulate was the most effective against all tested fungi. Paecilomyces lilacinus, P. variotii, and Candida albicans were the most sensitive organisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Ballota undulate ethanol extract against C. albicans, P. lilacinus, and P. variotii was 25 mg/ml. GC-MS analysis revealed that Ballota undulate ethanol extract contains 35 aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, sesquiterpene hydrocarbon along with some other essential oils, which could be involved in antifungal activity. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have proved that Ballota undulate ethanol extract exhibits fungicidal effect on P. lilacinus through alterations in hyphal structures including budding of hyphal tip, anomalous structure, such as swelling, decrease in cytoplasmic content, with clear separation of cytoplasm from cell wall in hyphae. SEM clearly showed distorted mycelium, squashed and flattened conidiophores bearing damaged metullae. Eventually, the mycelia became papillated, flattened, and empty. Puncturing and squashing of hyphae as well as complete cell wall disruption were clear signs of complete death of hyphae. PMID:21258865
The Anadenathera macrocarpa, Schinus molle, Hymenaea courbaril, Cariniana legalis, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnodendron barbatiman, were collected ''in natura'' samples (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) from different commercial suppliers. The pharmaco-active compounds in ethanolic extracts had been made by the Mato Grosso Federal University (UFMT). The energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometry was used for the elemental analysis in different parts of the plants and respective ethanolic extracts. The Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn concentrations were determined by the fundamental parameters method. Some specimens showed a similar inorganic profile for ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples and some ones showed a distinct inorganic profile. For example, the Anadenathera macrocarpa showed a similar concentration in Mg, P, Cu, Zn and Rb elements in ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples; however very different concentration in Na, S, Cl, K , Ca, Mn, Fe and Sr was observed in distinctive samples. The Solidago microglossa showed the K, Ca, Cl, S, Mg, P and Fe elements as major constituents in both samples, suggesting that the extraction process did not affect in a considerable way the ''in natura'' inorganic composition. The elemental composition of the different parts of the plants (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) has been also determined. For example, the Schinus molle specimen showed P, K, Cl and Ca elements as major constituents in the seeds, Mg, K and Sr in the barks and Mg, S, Cl and Mn in the leaves, demonstrating a differentiated elementary distribution. These inorganic profiles will contribute to evaluate the quality control of the Brazilian herbaceous trade and also will assist to identify which parts of the medicinalplants has greater therapeutic effect.
Ferreira, M.O.M.; de Sousa, P.T.; Salvador, V.L.R.; Sato, I.M.
Strychnos pseudoquina St. Hil. is a native plant of the Brazilian Savannah, used in popular medicine to treat a number of conditions. Since it contains large quantities of alkaloids with proven antiulcer activity, we tested the genotoxic potential of crude extracts and fractions containing alkaloids and flavonoids from the leaves of this plant, on Salmonella typhimurium and performed the micronucleus
F. V. Santos; I. M. S. Colus; M. A. Silva; W. Vilegas; E. A. Varanda
Background Osteoclasts (OCs) are involved in rheumatoid arthritis and in several pathologies associated with bone loss. Recent results support the concept that some medicinalplants and derived natural products are of great interest for developing therapeutic strategies against bone disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. In this study we determined whether extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits display activity of possible interest for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis by activating programmed cell death of human primary osteoclasts. Methods The effects of extracts from Emblica officinalis on differentiation and survival of human primary OCs cultures obtained from peripheral blood were determined by tartrate-acid resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positivity and colorimetric MTT assay. The effects of Emblica officinalis extracts on induction of OCs apoptosis were studied using TUNEL and immunocytochemical analysis of FAS receptor expression. Finally, in vitro effects of Emblica officinalis extracts on NF-kB transcription factor activity were determined by gel shift experiments. Results Extracts of Emblica officinalis were able to induce programmed cell death of mature OCs, without altering, at the concentrations employed in our study, the process of osteoclastogenesis. Emblica officinalis increased the expression levels of Fas, a critical member of the apoptotic pathway. Gel shift experiments demonstrated that Emblica officinalis extracts act by interfering with NF-kB activity, a transcription factor involved in osteoclast biology. The data obtained demonstrate that Emblica officinalis extracts selectively compete with the binding of transcription factor NF-kB to its specific target DNA sequences. This effect might explain the observed effects of Emblica officinalis on the expression levels of interleukin-6, a NF-kB specific target gene. Conclusion Induction of apoptosis of osteoclasts could be an important strategy both in interfering with rheumatoid arthritis complications of the bone skeleton leading to joint destruction, and preventing and reducing osteoporosis. Accordingly, we suggest the application of Emblica officinalis extracts as an alternative tool for therapy applied to bone diseases.
Penolazzi, Letizia; Lampronti, Ilaria; Borgatti, Monica; Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Zennaro, Margherita; Piva, Roberta; Gambari, Roberto
Seven ethnobotanically selected medicinalplants were screened for their antimycobacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of four plants namely Artemisia afra, Dodonea angustifolia, Drosera capensis and Galenia africana ranged from 0.781 to 6.25 mg/mL against Mycobacterium smegmatis. G. africana showed the best activity exhibiting an MIC of 0.78 mg/mL and a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 1.56 mg/mL. The MICs of ethanol extracts of D. angustifolia and G. africana against M. tuberculosis were found to be 5.0 and 1.2 mg/mL respectively. The mammalian cytotoxicity IC(50) value of the most active antimycobacterial extract, from G. africana, was found to be 101.3 microg/mL against monkey kidney Vero cells. Since the ethanol G. africana displayed the best antimycobacterial activity, it was subjected to fractionation which led to the isolation of a flavone, 5,7,2'-trihydroxyflavone. The MIC of this compound was found to be 0.031 mg/mL against M. smegmatis and 0.10 mg/mL against M. tuberculosis. This study gives some scientific basis to the traditional use of these plants for TB-related symptoms. PMID:18412151
Mativandlela, Sannah Patience Nkami; Meyer, Jacob Jacobus Marion; Hussein, Ahmed A; Houghton, Peter J; Hamilton, Chris J; Lall, Namrita
Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets high in fruits and vegetables provide a measure of cancer chemoprevention due to phytochemical constituents. Natural products are a rich source of cancer chemotherapy drugs, and primarily target rapidly-cycling tumor cells. Increasing evidence indicates that many cancers contain small populations of resistant, stem-like cells that have the capacity to regenerate tumors following chemotherapy and radiation, and have been linked to the initiation of metastases. Our goal is to discover natural product-based clinical or dietary interventions that selectively target cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation. We adapted an alkaline phosphatase (AP) stain to assay plantextracts for the capacity to induce differentiation in embryonic stem (ES) cells. AP is a characteristic marker of undifferentiated ES cells, and this represents a novel approach to screening medicinalplantextracts. Following a survey of approximately 100 fractions obtained from twelve species of ethnomedically utilized plants, we found fractions from three species that induced differentiation, decreasing AP and transcript levels of pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct-4, Rex-1). These fractions affected proliferation of murine ES, and human embryonal, prostate, and breast carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Several phytochemical constituents were isolated; the antioxidant phytochemicals ellagic acid and gallic acid were shown to affect viability of cultured breast carcinoma cells.
Reynertson, Kurt A.; Charlson, Mary E.; Gudas, Lorraine J.
Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets high in fruits and vegetables provide a measure of cancer chemoprevention due to phytochemical constituents. Natural products are a rich source of cancer chemotherapy drugs, and primarily target rapidly cycling tumor cells. Increasing evidence indicates that many cancers contain small populations of resistant, stem-like cells that have the capacity to regenerate tumors following chemotherapy and radiation, and have been linked to the initiation of metastases. Our goal is to discover natural product-based clinical or dietary interventions that selectively target cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation. We adapted an alkaline phosphatase (AP) stain to assay plantextracts for the capacity to induce differentiation in embryonic stem (ES) cells. AP is a characteristic marker of undifferentiated ES cells, and this represents a novel approach to screening medicinalplantextracts. Following a survey of approximately 100 fractions obtained from 12 species of ethnomedically utilized plants, we found fractions from 3 species that induced differentiation, decreasing AP and transcript levels of pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct-4, Rex-1). These fractions affected proliferation of murine ES, and human embryonal, prostate, and breast carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Several phytochemical constituents were isolated; the antioxidant phytochemicals ellagic acid and gallic acid were shown to affect viability of cultured breast carcinoma cells.
Reynertson, Kurt A. [Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States) [Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Charlson, Mary E. [Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States) [Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Gudas, Lorraine J., E-mail: email@example.com [Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)
Helicobacter pylori infection causes lifelong chronic gastritis, which can lead to peptic ulcer, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and gastric cancer. The growing problem of antibiotic resistance by the organism demands the search for novel candidates from plant-based sources. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro anti-H. pylori activity of some selected medicinalplants on clinical isolates of H. pylori. Gastric biopsy samples were obtained from patients presenting with gastroduodenal complications. Helicobacter pylori was isolated from the specimens following standard microbiology procedures. The disc-diffusion method was used to determine the susceptibility of three H. pylori isolates to methanol extracts of 23 Iranian plants. All tests were performed in triplicate. Among them, the extracts of Punica granatum and Juglans regia had remarkable anti-H. pylori activity with mean of inhibition zone diameter of 39 and 16?mm at 100?µg?disc?ą, respectively. In view of the results obtained with P. granatum (pomegranate), the peel extracts of nine cultivars of pomegranate (Shirin-e-Pust Sefid, Agha Mohammad Ali-e-Shirin, Sefid-e-Shomal, Sefid-e-Torsh, Shirin-e-Malase, Tabestani-e-Torsh, Shirin-e-Saveh Malase, Alak-e-Shirin, Pust Siyah) were further assayed against the clinical isolates of H. pylori. The results revealed that all Iranian pomegranate cultivars, except for Alak-e-Shirin, showed significant in vitro anti-H. pylori activity against the clinical isolates of H. pylori (mean of inhibition zone diameter ranging from 16 to 40 mm at 50 µg disc?ą). PMID:21726128
Hajimahmoodi, M; Shams-Ardakani, M; Saniee, P; Siavoshi, F; Mehrabani, M; Hosseinzadeh, H; Foroumadi, P; Safavi, M; Khanavi, M; Akbarzadeh, T; Shafiee, A; Foroumadi, A
The effects of ethanol extracts of three Chinese medicinalplants Dahuang (Rheum palmatum L.), Badou (Croton tiglium L.), and Huomaren (Cannabis sativa L.), on ion transport of the rat intestinal epithelia were studied. Rat intestinal epithelia mounted in an Ussing chamber attached with voltage/current clamp were used for measuring changes of the short-circuit current across the epithelia. The intestinal epithelia were activated with current raised by serosal administration of forskolin 5 microM. Ethanol extracts of the three plants all augmented the current additively when each was added after forskolin. In subsequent experiments, ouabain and bumetanide were added prior to ethanol extracts of these medicinalplants to determine their effect on Na(+) and Cl(-) movement. The results suggest that ethanol extracts of the three medicinalplants may affect the Cl(-) movement more directly than Na(+) movement in the intestinal epithelial cells. The results provide evidence for the pharmacologic mechanism of the three Chinese medicinalplants on the intestinal tract. PMID:14758025
Background Due to the high prevalence of viral infections having no specific treatment and the constant appearance of resistant viral strains, the development of novel antiviral agents is essential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiviral activity against bovine viral diarrhea virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), poliovirus type 2 (PV-2) and vesicular stomatitis virus of organic (OE) and aqueous extracts (AE) from: Baccharis gaudichaudiana, B. spicata, Bidens subalternans, Pluchea sagittalis, Tagetes minuta and Tessaria absinthioides. A characterization of the antiviral activity of B. gaudichaudiana OE and AE and the bioassay-guided fractionation of the former and isolation of one active compound is also reported. Methods The antiviral activity of the OE and AE of the selected plants was evaluated by reduction of the viral cytopathic effect. Active extracts were then assessed by plaque reduction assays. The antiviral activity of the most active extracts was characterized by evaluating their effect on the pretreatment, the virucidal activity and the effect on the adsorption or post-adsorption period of the viral cycle. The bioassay-guided fractionation of B. gaudichaudiana OE was carried out by column chromatography followed by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography fractionation of the most active fraction and isolation of an active compound. The antiviral activity of this compound was also evaluated by plaque assay. Results B. gaudichaudiana and B. spicata OE were active against PV-2 and VSV. T. absinthioides OE was only active against PV-2. The corresponding three AE were active against HSV-1. B. gaudichaudiana extracts (OE and AE) were the most selective ones with selectivity index (SI) values of 10.9 (PV-2) and >117 (HSV-1). For this reason, both extracts of B. gaudichaudiana were selected to characterize their antiviral effects. Further bioassay-guided fractionation of B. gaudichaudiana OE led to an active fraction, FC (EC50=3.1 ?g/ml; SI= 37.9), which showed antiviral activity during the first 4 h of the viral replication cycle of PV-2 and from which the flavonoid apigenin (EC50 = 12.2 ± 3.3 ?M) was isolated as a major compound. Conclusions The results showed that, among the species studied, B. gaudichaudiana seemed to be the most promising species as a source of antiviral agents.
Aqueous extracts of nine plants, known to have medicinal activity, were tested for their toxicity against the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Homoptera: Aleurodidae) compared to the toxicity of the insecticide, Imidacloprid. Extracts of Lepidiuim sativum L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) killed 71 % of early stage nymphs, which was not significantly different from mortality caused by Imidacloprid. Treatment of pupae with three plantextracts, L. sativum, Achillea biebersteinii L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), or Retama raetam (Forssk.) Webb and Berthel (Fabales: Fabaceae) prevented adult development, and treatment with R. raetam extract killed adults, at levels that were not significantly different from Imidacloprid. None of the other plants showed significant toxicity. However extracts of four plants, Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), Galium longifolium (Sibth. and SM.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), R. raetam and Ballota undulata Bentham (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) had a repellent effect.
Ateyyat, Mazen A.; Al-Mazra'awi, Mohammad; Abu-Rjai, Talal; Shatnawi, Mohamad A.
This study was based on the observation that traditional practitioners in Kenya use plant based extracts for the treatment of parasitic diseases. This necessitated the need to investigate the potential of such plants. Four plants (Kigelia africana, Artemesia annua, Bidens pilosa and Azadirachta indica) were selected for investigation against African human trypanosomiasis. The methanol, dichloromethane and aqueous extracts of these
Ogoti Peter; Esther Magiri; Joanna Aum; Gabriel Magoma; Mabel Imbuga
Medicinalplantextracts from 27 plant species in 20 families were tested for their larvicidal activity against housefly, Musca domestica (L.). Responses varied with plant material and concentration. Among plant species tested, Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica showed 100% larvicidal activity against M. domestica at 10 mg/g concentration. Larvicidal activities of Atractylodes japonica, Saussurea lappa, Asiasarum sieboldi, and Gleditsia japonica var. koraiensis were 89.3%, 85.3%, 93.3%, and 96.6% at 10 mg/g concentration, respectively. Extracts of Prunus persica, Curcuma longa, and Paeonia moutan produced moderate activity. Larvicidal activity of other plantextracts was less than 50%. Among test plant species, P. leptostachya var. asiatica showed the most potent larvicidal activity. The active constituent of P. leptostachya var. asiatica roots was identified as the leptostachyol acetate by spectroscopic analysis. The LC(50) values of leptostachyol acetate against M. domestica larvae were 0.039 mg/g. Naturally occurring medicinalplantextracts and P. leptostachya var. asiatica root-derived compounds merit further study as potential housefly larval control agents or lead compounds. PMID:22065063
Biological activity of peptide extracts of medicinalplants was studied on transformed non-small-cell lung carcinoma A549\\u000a cells, lung cancer H1299 cells, and cervical cancer HeLa cells at various cell densities. Cell survival and proliferation\\u000a were evaluated 72 h after treatment with extracts in concentrations of 0.05, 0.25, and 0.5 ?g\\/?l. The cytostatic effect was\\u000a produced by peptide extracts of Camelia sinesis Kuntze,
I. I. Tepkeeva; V. N. Aushev; I. B. Zborovskaya; V. P. Demushkin
Sixty organic and aqueous extracts of eleven plants used for the control of malaria by local communities in Kisii District, Kenya were screened for in vitro anti-plasmodial activity. The plants selection was based on existing ethnobotanical information and interviews with local communities. The extracts were tested against chloroquine sensitive and resistant laboratory adapted strains of Plasmodium falciparum. The study revealed that 63.6% of the plants were active (IC50 < or = 100 microg/mL). Extracts of four plants, Ekebergia capensis, Stephania abyssinica, Ajuga remota and Clerodendrum myricoides gave IC50 values below 30 microg/mL against both chloroquine sensitive and resistant P. falciparum strains. Combination of extracts of E. capensis and C. myricoides with chloroquine against the multi-drug resistant P. falciparum isolate (V1/S) revealed synergistic effect. The plants which showed activity may be useful as sources for novel anti-plasmodial compounds. PMID:15173997
Muregi, F W; Chhabra, S C; Njagi, E N M; Lang'at-Thoruwa, C C; Njue, W M; Orago, A S S; Omar, S A; Ndiege, I O
Ethanolic extracts of eight Thai medicinalplants (representing five families) that are used as traditional remedies for treating diarrhea were examined with a salt aggregation test for their ability to modulate cell surface hydrophobicity of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains, including E. coli O157:H7. Four of these medicinalplants, Acacia catechu, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Punica granatum, and Quercus infectoria, have high bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities. The ethanolic extract of Q. infectoria was the most effective against all strains of E. coli, with MICs of 0.12 to 0.98 mg/ml and MBCs of 0.98 to 3.91 mg/ml. The ethanolic extract of P. granatum had MICs of 0.49 to 1.95 mg/ml and MBCs of 1.95 to 3.91 mg/ml. Ethanolic extracts of Q. infectoria, P. pterocarpum, and P. granatum were among the most effective extracts against the two strains of E. coli O157:H7. The other four plants, Andrographis paniculata, Pluchia indica, Tamarindus indica, and Walsura robusta, did not have high bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities but were able to affect hydrophobicity characteristics on their outermost surface. All plants except Q. infectoria had some ability to increase cell surface hydrophobicity. There appears to be no correlation between antibacterial activity and cell aggregative properties. PMID:17066910
Essential oils of 12 medicinalplants were tested for inhibitory activity against Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and Fusarium moniliforme. The oils of thyme and cinnamon (?500 ppm), marigold (?2000 ppm), spearmint, basil, quyssum (3000 ppm) completely inhibit all the test fungi. Caraway was inhibitory at 2000 ppm against A. flavus, A. parasiticus and 3000 ppm against A. ochraceaus
The total phenolic content and related total antioxidant capacity of 70 medicinalplant infusions was analyzed. Infusions were prepared in common way in which teas are prepared for human consumption. The total phenolics were measured by Folin–Ciocalteau assay. The total antioxidant capacity was estimated by Ferric Reducing\\/Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay. To make practical comparison of relative antioxidant potential of phenolics
The chemical constituents in medicinalplants (MPs), including elements, are partially responsible for their medicinal and nutritional properties as well as toxic effects. This research aimed to monitor selenium (Se) contents in aqueous extract of MPs used for treatment of cancer and different diseases. In present work the Se in MPs was extracted in aqueous media by microwave-assisted (ME) and conventional extraction (CE) methods. The total and residual Se in MPs were determined, prior to microwave-assisted acid digestion. The Se in aqueous extracts and digests were analysed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimum extractable Se in MPs were obtained by ME and CE, required 2 and 40 min, respectively. Precision and accuracy of the methodologies were checked by standard addition method. The Se contents in aqueous extract of MPs were found in the range of 1.09-2.23 ?g/g corresponding to 21-33% of total Se contents. The daily intake of Se from aqueous extract of MPs as recommended by herbalist (10 g of plant material) was found in the range of 20-40% of daily requirement. PMID:20819722
Kolachi, N F; Kazi, T G; Afridi, H I; Khan, S; Wadhwa, S K; Shah, A Q; Shah, F; Baig, J A; Sirajuddin
In vitro assays are economical and easy to perform but to establish relevance of their results to real clinical outcome in animals or human, pharmacokinetics is prerequisite. Despite various in vitro pharmacological activities of extracts of Piper sarmentosum, there is no report of pharmacokinetics. Therefore, present study aimed to evaluate ethanol extract of fruit of the plant in dose of
Khalid Hussain; Zhari Ismail; Amirin Sadikun; Pazillah Ibrahim
The genotoxic potentiality of the crude leaf extract of Casearia tomentosa, a medicinal preparation, has been evaluated in Swiss albino mice. The extract significantly induced the division-disruptive chromosomal changes in bone marrow cells as well as in primary spermatocytes; the latter also exhibited marked increase in synaptic disruptions. A significant decrease in sperm count was noted. The incidence of structural damages in chromosomes, however, remained within the range of control level frequency. This herbal preparation, therefore, appears to be primarily spindle-poisoning in its action, but not clastogenic. The probable mechanism of this differential genotoxicity is discussed. PMID:10853835
Awasthy, K S; Chaurasia, O P; Sinha, S P; Khan, P K
The hypoglycemic activity of water extracts of fifty six medicinalplants were evaluated in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic\\u000a mice. Twelve medicinalplants have significantly antidiabetic activity; Mori Radicis Cortex, Kwang Fang Chi Radix, Paeoniae\\u000a Radix, Eugeniae Flos, Atractylodis Rhizoma, Ophiopogonis Tuber, Rosae multiflorae Fructus, Glycyrrhizae Radix, Tetrapanacis\\u000a Medulla, Bigno, Forsythiae Fructus and Sophorae Radix.
The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacies of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol leaf\\u000a extracts of Euphorbia hirta L., Psidium guajava L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum trilobatum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plantextracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest parasite\\u000a mortality was
Abdul Abduz Zahir; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Asokan Bagavan; Kannappan Geetha; Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Gandhi Elango
Forty four extracts from sixteen plants used traditionally as anticancer agents were evaluated in vitro for their antiproliferative activity against Hep-2, MCF-7, and Vero cell lines. Plants were fractionated using ethanol, methanol, chloroform, n-hexane, distilled water, and butanol. The antiproliferative activity was measured by MTT assay. TLC was used to identify active fractions. The apoptotic activity of active fractions was determined using TUNEL colorimetric assay. 20 of these extracts demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity against one or more of the cell lines. These extracts were prepared from Ononis hirta, Inula viscosa, Salvia pinardi, Verbascum sinaiticum and Ononis sicula. Methanol fractions of Ononis hirta (aerial parts) and Inula viscosa (flowers) were the most active fractions against MCF-7 cells with IC(50) of 27.96 and 15.78 Îg/ml respectively and they were less toxic against other cell lines. Other extracts showed lower activity against cancer cell lines. TLC analysis showed the presence of flavonoids and terpenoids in active plants while alkaloids were detected in Ononis hirta (aerial parts) extracts. Ononis hirta (aerial parts) and Inula viscosa (flowers) extracts exerted their antiproliferative activity by inducing apoptosis in cancer cell lines. Further studies are necessary for detailed chemical characterization and more extensive biological evaluation of the most active ingredients. PMID:21179373
Forty four extracts from sixteen plants used traditionally as anticancer agents were evaluated in vitro for their antiproliferative activity against Hep-2, MCF-7, and Vero cell lines. Plants were fractionated using ethanol, methanol, chloroform, n-hexane, distilled water, and butanol. The antiproliferative activity was measured by MTT assay. TLC was used to identify active fractions. The apoptotic activity of active fractions was determined using TUNEL colorimetric assay. 20 of these extracts demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity against one or more of the cell lines. These extracts were prepared from Ononis hirta, Inula viscosa, Salvia pinardi, Verbascum sinaiticum and Ononis sicula. Methanol fractions of Ononis hirta (aerial parts) and Inula viscosa (flowers) were the most active fractions against MCF-7 cells with IC50 of 27.96 and 15.78 ?g/ml respectively and they were less toxic against other cell lines. Other extracts showed lower activity against cancer cell lines. TLC analysis showed the presence of flavonoids and terpenoids in active plants while alkaloids were detected in Ononis hirta (aerial parts) extracts. Ononis hirta (aerial parts) and Inula viscosa (flowers) extracts exerted their antiproliferative activity by inducing apoptosis in cancer cell lines. Further studies are necessary for detailed chemical characterization and more extensive biological evaluation of the most active ingredients.
Biological activity of peptide extracts of medicinalplants was studied on transformed non-small-cell lung carcinoma A549 cells, lung cancer H1299 cells, and cervical cancer HeLa cells at various cell densities. Cell survival and proliferation were evaluated 72 h after treatment with extracts in concentrations of 0.05, 0.25, and 0.5 microg/microl. The cytostatic effect was produced by peptide extracts of Camelia sinesis Kuntze, Inonotus obliquus, and a mixture Inula helenium L., Chelidonium majus L., Equisetum arvense L., and Inonotus obliquus. Peptide extracts of Hypericum perforatum L. and Laurus nobilis L. in the same concentrations had no effects on proliferative activity and growth of tumor cells. PMID:19526129
Tepkeeva, I I; Aushev, V N; Zborovskaya, I B; Demushkin, V P
We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus and 16 Escherichia coli strains from human specimens was carried out using the dilution method in Mueller-Hinton agar. Some phenolic compounds with antimicrobial properties were established, and all EOs had a higher antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Matricaria chamomilla extract and E. uniflora EO were efficient against S. aureus strains, while E. uniflora and V. polyanthes extracts and V. polyanthes EO showed the best antimicrobial activity against E. coli strains. Staphylococcus aureus strains were more susceptible to the tested plant products than E. coli, but all natural products promoted antimicrobial growth inhibition. PMID:22007687
Silva, N C C; Barbosa, L; Seito, L N; Fernandes, A
Petroleum ether, ethanol, butanol, and aqueous crude extracts of the whole aerial parts of nine plants exhibited variable degrees of antimicrobial activity against four bacterial and three fungal species. Methanol and hexane extracts did not show any activity. Compared with standard antibiotics, extracts had low to moderate activity. The activity spectrum is wide against gram-positive and negative bacteria as well as fungi tested. However, the butanol extracts at 4 mg/disc of Ononis spinosa (OS), Bryonia syriaca (BS) had high moderate antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium moniliforme and Candida albicans relative to miconazole nitrate at 40 microg/disc. Furthermore, higher antibacterial activity was observed though low to moderate compared with streptomycin and very comparable with chloramphenicol. Cyclaman persicum (CP) petroleum ether extracts only exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity. PMID:10363844
Different parts of four edible medicinalplants (Casearia capitellata, Baccaurea motleyana, Phyllanthus pulcher and Strobilanthus crispus), indigenous to Malaysia, were extracted in different solvents, sequentially. The obtained 28 extracts were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer properties, using the MTS assay, on four human cancer cell lines: colon (HT-29), breast (MCF-7), prostate (DU-145) and lung (H460) cancers. The best anticancer activity was observed for the ethyl acetate (EA) extract of Casearia capitellata leaves on MCF-7 cell lines with IC?? 2.0 ?g/mL and its methanolic (MeOH) extract showed an outstanding activity against lung cancer cell lines. Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of Phyllanthus pulcher aerial parts showed the highest anticancer activity against DU-145 cell lines, while significant activity was exhibited by DCM extract of Phyllanthus pulcher roots on colon cancer cell lines with IC50 value of 8.1 ?g/mL. Total phenolic content (TPC) ranged over 1-40 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g. For all the samples, highest yields of phenolics were obtained for MeOH extracts. Among all the extracts analyzed, the MeOH extracts of Strobilanthus crispus leaves exhibited the highest TPC than other samples (p < 0.05). This study shows that the nature of phenol determines its anticaner activity and not the number of phenols present. PMID:22628046
Chronic toxicity of arsenic resulting from drinking water is a health problem encountered in humans, especially in South America and Asia, where a correlation between oxidative stress, tumor promotion, and arsenic exposure has been observed. Differential solvent extraction (petroleum ether (PE); dichloromethane (DCM); methanol (OL) and water (W)) was performed to compare the protective (antioxidant) activity of five Argentinian medicinalplants on arsenite-induced oxidative stress in Vero cells, assayed by hydroperoxide measurement. The results were analyzed using ANOVA followed by the LSD Fisher test. The data showed that arsenite was a pro-oxidant agent which acts in a time-dose-dependent manner. Extracts from Eupatorium buniifolium (PE), Lantana grisebachii (PE, W), Mandevilla pentlandiana (PE, W), and Sebastiania commersoniana (DCM, OL, W) prevented the formation of both aqueous and lipid hydroperoxides, but Heterothalamus alienus only impeded lipid ones. Therefore, antioxidant extracts are potentially beneficial and may have a protective activity against arsenite-induced renal injury. Among these, the aqueous extract of L. grisebachii may represent the most suitable preparation for humans since the traditional usage of this plant in popular medicine is through consumption of tea. PMID:18684805
Soria, E A; Goleniowski, M E; Cantero, J J; Bongiovanni, G A
Selected plants having a history of use in Polynesian traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious disease were investigated for anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-bacterial activity in vitro. Extracts from Scaevola sericea, Psychotria hawaiiensis, Pipturus albidus and Eugenia malaccensis showed selective anti-viral activity against Herpes Simplex Virus-1 and 2 and Vesicular Stomatitis Virus. Aleurites moluccana extracts showed anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while Pipturus albidus and Eugenia malaccensis extracts showed growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Psychotria hawaiiensis and Solanum niger inhibited growth of the fungi Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum and Epidermophyton floccosum, while Ipomoea sp., Pipturus albidus, Scaevola sericea, Eugenia malaccensis, Piper methysticum, Barringtonia asiatica and Adansonia digitata extracts showed anti-fungal activity to a lesser extent. Eugenia malaccensis was also found to inhibit the classical pathway of complement suggesting that an immunological basis for its in vivo activity was identified. This study has confirmed some of the ethnobotanical reports of Hawaiian medicinalplants having curative properties against infections using biological assays in vitro. PMID:8786654
Locher, C P; Burch, M T; Mower, H F; Berestecky, J; Davis, H; Van Poel, B; Lasure, A; Vanden Berghe, D A; Vlietinck, A J
Phytophthora spp is important in plant pathology due to the importance of the diseases it causes. In olive trees, severe damages are caused by the disease known as "dry branch" occasioned by Phytophthora nicotianae, P. citrophthora and P. palmivora. Much effort has been made to find efficient methods of control, with a low negative impact on environment. In this regard, treatment with plantextracts is a valid strategy. The aims of the present study are (i) to determine the polyphenol composition of extracts of Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Matricaria recutita, and Larrea divaricata by CZE, (ii) correlate the analytical composition of these extracts with the inhibition on the mycelial growth, and (iii) determine the individual antimicrobial activity of the most active ingredients. A simple methodology was developed for the determination of catechin, naringenin, cinnamic acid, syringic acid, chlorogenic acid, apigenin, vanillic acid, luteolin, quercetin, and caffeic acid in plantextracts by CZE. The extraction of phenolic compounds in extract was performed by a miniaturized solid phase extraction using a home-made minicolumn packed with suitable filtering material (C18 , 50 mg). The optimized analyses conditions were: 30 mM boric acid buffer, pH 9.50; capillary, 57 cm full length, 50 cm effective length, 75 ?m id, hydrodynamic injection 30 mbar, 2 s; 25 kV; 25°C, detection by UV absorbance at 290 nm. Sample results suggest that phenolic composition seems to have a great influence on inhibition of pathogens. The highest inhibitions of mycelial growth were observed for cinnamic acid and naringenin. PMID:24668423
Strychnos pseudoquina St. Hil. is a native plant of the Brazilian Savannah, used in popular medicine to treat a number of conditions. Since it contains large quantities of alkaloids with proven antiulcer activity, we tested the genotoxic potential of crude extracts and fractions containing alkaloids and flavonoids from the leaves of this plant, on Salmonella typhimurium and performed the micronucleus test on peripheral blood cells of mice treated in vivo. The results showed that the methanol extract of the leaves of S. pseudoquina is mutagenic to the TA98 (-S9) and TA100 (+S9, -S9) strains of Salmonella. The dichloromethane extract was not mutagenic to any of the tested strains. Fractions enriched with alkaloids or flavonoids were not mutagenic. In vivo tests were done on the crude methanol extract in albino Swiss mice, which were treated, by gavage, with three different doses of the extract. The highest dose tested (1800 mg/kgb.w.) induced micronuclei after acute treatment, confirming the mutagenic potential of the methanol extract of the leaves of S. pseudoquina. In high doses, constituents of S. pseudoquina compounds act on DNA, causing breaks and giving rise to micronuclei in the blood cells of treated animals. PMID:16730111
Santos, F V; Colus, I M S; Silva, M A; Vilegas, W; Varanda, E A
The methanol extracts of 20 selected medicinalplants were investigated for their effects on the respiratory burst of human whole blood, isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and isolated mice macrophages using a luminol/lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. We also tested the effect of the extracts on chemotactic migration of PMNs using the Boyden chamber technique. The extracts of Curcuma domestica L., Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn and C. xanthorrhiza Roxb. were the samples producing the strongest oxidative burst of PMNs with luminol-based chemiluminescence, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 ?g/ml. For macrophage cells, the extracts which showed strong suppressive activity for luminol-based chemiluminescence were C. xanthorrhiza and Garcinia mangostana L. Among the extracts studied, C. mangga Valton & Vazsjip, Piper nigrum L. and Labisia pumila var. alata showed strong inhibitory activity on lucigenin-amplified oxidative burst of PMNs, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.9 to 1.5 ?g/ml. The extracts of Zingiber officinale Rosc., Alpinia galangal (L.) Willd and Averrhoa bilimbi Linn showed strong inhibition on the chemotaxic migration of cells, with IC(50) values comparable to that of ibuprofen (1.5 ?g/ml). The results suggest that some of these plants were able to modulate the innate immune response of phagocytes at different steps, emphasizing their potential as a source of new immunomodulatory agents. PMID:21184195
Jantan, Ibrahim; Harun, Nurul Hikmah; Septama, Abdi Wira; Murad, Shahnaz; Mesaik, M A
THE importance of purified forms of alkaloids in inducing plant tumours is well known. Very little work has however been done on the use of plantextracts, containing alkaloids, in tumour production. Takenaka1 has summarized the meagre data available and noted the effects of two plantextracts on living plant tissue. Alstonia scholaris yields an alkaloid having medicinal properties, especially
The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacies of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol leaf extracts of Euphorbia hirta L., Psidium guajava L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum trilobatum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plantextracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest parasite mortality was found in the methanol extract of R. communis. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of methanol extract of R. communis led to the separation and identification of epicatechin as a potential new compound (LC(50) = 31.2; LC(90) = 105.0 ppm) against P. cervi. The structures were established from infrared, ultraviolet, (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C-NMR, and mass spectral data which confirmed the identification of the compound epicatechin from R. communis. Results of this study showed that the methanol extract of R. communis may be considered as a potent source and epicatechin as a new natural parasitic agent. PMID:21842382
Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Geetha, Kannappan; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi
Natural preparations have been used for thousands of ages for a variety of purposes including as medicines, poisons, and psychotropic drugs. The largest grouped of preparations from living organisms are medicines, and historically these have come from plants. Quinine and aspirin are two examples of medicines which were extracted originally from plants. Mind-altering, or psychotropic, drugs come mostly from plants or fungi. In many traditional cultures, sickness and death are attributed to maligned spirits so that medicine and religion become inseparable. Uses of cohohba, snakeplant, coca, and peyote are discussed. The process by which new pharmaceuticals are discovered from natural products is described. The implications of an agreement between a major pharmaceutical company and a country in the tropics are discussed.
Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (also called "ich") is an external protozoan parasite that may infest almost all freshwater fish species and caused significant economic damage to the aquaculture industry. Since the use of malachite green was banned, there have been relatively few effective alternative strategies for controlling I. multifiliis infections. The present study was designed to screen potential antiparasitic medicinalplants based on our previous studies, and comprehensively evaluate in vitro and in vivo anti-ich activity of selected plantextracts. The screening results showed that the methanol extract of Psoralea corylifolia had the highest activity against I. multifiliis theronts. In vivo theront trials demonstrated that 1.25 mg/L or more concentrations of P. corylifolia methanol extract caused 100 % mortality during the 4-h exposure period, and the subsequent in vitro trials indicated that the minimum concentration of P. corylifolia methanol extract that prevented the initial infestation was 2.50 mg/L. Protomonts and encysted tomonts surviving trials suggested that encysted tomonts were less susceptible to P. corylifolia methanol extract than protomonts, and the methanol extract of P. corylifolia at a concentration of 5.00 mg/L could kill 100 % of protomonts and 88.89 % of encysted tomonts. It was also observed that after 12-h exposure of protomonts or encysted tomonts to 2.50 mg/L of P. corylifolia methanol extract, the theronts emerged from encysted tomonts led to more infection level than the ones in the other groups. The results suggested that whether the protomonts finish encystment is crucial to the survival, reproduction, and theronts infectivity. In addition, our results showed that long duration (24 h) and high concentration (5.00 mg/L) significantly reduced the survival and reproduction of I. multifiliis tomont exited from the fish after in-bath treatment, and it is indicated that P. corylifolia methanol extract had a potential detrimental effect on I. multifiliis trophont in situ. PMID:23559379
This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankararé indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs) of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar) and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata). The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC(50) 83.426?mg/L and LC(50) 138.896?mg/L, resp.), and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC(50) 0.94?mg/L, LC(50) 13.51?mg/L, and LC(50) 20.22?mg/L, resp.). As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds. PMID:22194773
Dos Santos, Edilson Alves; de Carvalho, Cenira M; Costa, Ana L S; Conceiçăo, Adilva S; Moura, Flávia de B Prado; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart
In present study, the effect of alcoholic extract of Momordica charantia, Aegle marmelos and Eugenia jambolana was studied on serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase and serum glutamic pyruvate transminase activities and on serum urea, total protein and albumin concentrations of streptozotocin diabetic rats. Diabetes in rats was induced by single dose of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg i. p.). On confirming the diabetes after 48 h of injection, alcoholic extracts of three plants were administered orally in doses of 250 mg and 500 mg/kg/d for 30 d. Glibenclamide (300 mug/kg/d) was used as a reference drug for comparison. Streptozotocin diabetic rats showed a significant increase in serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase and serum glutamic pyruvate transminase activities and serum urea concentration but a significant decrease in serum total protein and albumin concentrations and albumin/globulin ratio. Oral administration of alcoholic extract of Momordica charantia, Aegle marmelos and Eugenia jambolana in daily doses of 250 mg and 500 mg/kg for a period of 1 mo produced dose- and duration-dependent decrease in serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase and serum glutamic pyruvate transminase activities as well as decrease in serum urea concentration and restored the serum total protein and albumin concentration and albumin/globulin ratio to a great extent in streptozotocin diabetic rats. The beneficial effects of these plants in 500 mg/kg dose in streptozotocin diabetic rats were comparable to that of glibenclamide (300 mug/kg), a standard oral hypoglycaemic drug used in clinical practice. PMID:20502588
In present study, the effect of alcoholic extract of Momordica charantia, Aegle marmelos and Eugenia jambolana was studied on serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase and serum glutamic pyruvate transminase activities and on serum urea, total protein and albumin concentrations of streptozotocin diabetic rats. Diabetes in rats was induced by single dose of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg i. p.). On confirming the diabetes after 48 h of injection, alcoholic extracts of three plants were administered orally in doses of 250 mg and 500 mg/kg/d for 30 d. Glibenclamide (300 ?g/kg/d) was used as a reference drug for comparison. Streptozotocin diabetic rats showed a significant increase in serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase and serum glutamic pyruvate transminase activities and serum urea concentration but a significant decrease in serum total protein and albumin concentrations and albumin/globulin ratio. Oral administration of alcoholic extract of Momordica charantia, Aegle marmelos and Eugenia jambolana in daily doses of 250 mg and 500 mg/kg for a period of 1 mo produced dose- and duration-dependent decrease in serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase and serum glutamic pyruvate transminase activities as well as decrease in serum urea concentration and restored the serum total protein and albumin concentration and albumin/globulin ratio to a great extent in streptozotocin diabetic rats. The beneficial effects of these plants in 500 mg/kg dose in streptozotocin diabetic rats were comparable to that of glibenclamide (300 ?g/kg), a standard oral hypoglycaemic drug used in clinical practice.
Sundaram, E. N.; Reddy, P. Uma Maheswara; Singh, K. P.
Cloud point extraction method has been developed for preconcentration of trace quantities of zinc (Zn) in aqueous extract of medicinalplants and blood samples of liver cancer patients using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Zn in aqueous extracts of medicinalplants (MPs) was complexed with 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (quinaldine) and 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) separately and entrapped in a non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114. After centrifugation, the surfactant-rich phase was diluted with 0.25mL acidic ethyl alcohol. The multivariate strategy was applied to estimate the optimum values of experimental variables (pH, time temperature, ligands and surfactant concentrations). Interactions between analytical factors and their optimal levels were investigated by two level factorial designs. Student's t-test on the results of factorial design with 16 runs for Zn extraction, demonstrated that the factors, ligands concentrations, pH and temperature were statistically significant. The accuracy was assessed by analysis of certified reference materials, namely, BCR 101 (spruce needles), Clincheck control-lyophilized human whole blood. Enhancement factor of 30 and 26 were achieved for the preconcentration of Zn by 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (L1) and 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (L2), respectively. The relative standard deviation for six replicate determinations of Zn at 10?g/L level using 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (L1) and 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (L2) were <4% and >5%, respectively. PMID:21756961
Kolachi, N F; Kazi, T G; Khan, S; Wadhwa, S K; Baig, J A; Afridi, H I; Shah, A Q; Shah, F
Dental pathologies can be caused by plaque-forming bacteria and yeast, which reside in the oral cavity. The bacteria growing in dental plaque, a naturally occurring biofilm, display increased resistance to antimicrobial agents. The objective was the evaluation of a preclinical assay of medicinalplants of the semiarid region from the northeast against oral pathogenic microorganism, aiming at bioprospecting a new product. The selection of plant material for this study was based on the ethnobotanical data on the traditional use of plants from the semiarid region. The thirty extracts were subjected to the determination of antibiofilm activity against gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria and yeast. The hydroalcoholic extract which showed positive antibiofilm activity against most of the microorganisms tested in agar diffusion assay was further tested for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Bioassay with Artemia salina. Plant samples tested in this study exhibited good antibiofilm activity for the treatment of oral problems. The Schinopsis brasiliensis showed greater activity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, but toxicity against Artemia salina.
Silva, Maria Suenia P.; Brandao, Deysiane O.; Chaves, Thiago P.; Formiga Filho, Amaro L. N.; Costa, Edja Maria M. de B.; Santos, Vanda L.; Medeiros, Ana Claudia D.
A simple and rapid microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of selenium (Se) from medicinalplants was investigated using different concentrations of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, sample mass, heating time, microwave energy, and plant particle size. The optimization strategy was carried out using multivariate methodologies. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine Se. The accuracy of the optimized procedure was evaluated by using certified reference materials with certified values for Se and a microwave-assisted acid digestion (MD) method for comparative purpose. No significant difference was observed (P > 0.05) when comparing the values obtained by the proposed MAE and MD methods (paired t-test). Under the optimum operating conditions, the LOD obtained from the standard calibration curve was 0.012 microg/L for Se. The average RSD of the MAE method varied between 4.05 and 7.53% (n = 6). The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of Se in medicinalplants used as remedies for cancerous and infection diseases. PMID:20480917
Introduction. The present study aims at evaluating the cytotoxicity of twelve parts from six Cameroonian medicinalplants on sensitive and drug-resistant cancer cell lines. We also studied the mode of action of the most active plants, Gladiolus quartinianus, Vepris soyauxii, and Anonidium mannii. Methods. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was determined using a resazurin assay. Flow cytometry was used for cell-cycle analysis and detection of apoptosis, analysis of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Results. At 40?g/mL, three extracts showed a growth of CCRF-CEM leukemia cells by less than 50%. This includes the extracts from G. quartinianus (GQW; 25.69%), Vepris soyauxii leaves (VSL; 29.82%), and Anonidium mannii leaves (AML; 31.58%). The lowest IC50 values below 30??g/mL were obtained with GQW, AML and VSL against 7/9, 8/9, and 9/9 tested cancer cell lines, respectively. The lowest IC50 values for each plant were 4.09??g/mL, and 9.14??g/mL (against U87MG.?EGFR cells), respectively, for VSL and AML and 10.57??g/mL (against CCRF-CEM cells) for GQW. GQW induced cell cycle arrest between G0/G1 and S phases, whilst VSL and AML induced arrest in G0/G1. All three extracts induced apoptosis in CCRF-CEM cells by loss of MMP, whilst AML also enhanced production of ROS. Conclusion. The three active plants may be a source for the development of new anticancer drugs.
Abstract Background: Resurgences of Staphylococcus aureus infection continue globally, with antibiotic resistance increasing dramatically, making these infections more difficult to treat. S. aureus epidemics impose public health threats, and economic burdens on health care costs worldwide, presenting challenges modern medicine struggles to control. Objective: In order to answer today's call for effective treatments against S. aureus, we evaluated and compared various botanical extracts that have historically been suggested as useful for their antimicrobial properties against S. aureus. Design: Briefly, S. aureus cultures were treated with selected botanical extracts and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determined. In addition, to obtain more quantitative measures on bacterial growth, 24-hour growth studies were done to examine the temporal activity and stability of various botanicals on bacterial replication. Results: The antimicrobial activity observed for the botanical extracts used in this comparative evaluation of efficacy included both bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal activity against S. aureus. Highly effective botanicals including Salvia officinalis, Eucalyptus globulus, Coleus forskohlii, Coptis chinensis, Turnera diffusa, and Larrea tridentata exhibited MIC values ranging from 60 to 300??g/mL and a 10(6)-fold reduction in bacterial replication. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Allium sativum were slightly less effective, exhibiting MIC values ranging from 90 to 400??g/mL and a 10(5)-fold reduction, while Anemopsis californica gave MIC value of 360??g/mL and a 10(4)-fold reduction in bacterial replication. Many botanicals, especially at lower doses, had an initial inhibitory effect followed by a recovery in bacterial replication. Such botanicals included E. globulus, C. chinensis, T. diffusa, A. californica, and Berberis vulgaris. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that S. officinalis, E. globulus, C. forskohlii, A. uva-ursi, C. chinensis, T. diffusa, A. californica, A. sativum, and L. tridentata all show promising direct antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. For many of these botanicals, strong bacteriocidal activity was observed at higher concentrations, but even at lower concentrations, bacteriostatic activity was evident. Other botanicals including B. vulgaris, Baptisia tinctoria, and Glycyrrhiza glabra showed moderate activity against S. aureus, while Schisandra chinensis, Echinacea angustifolia, and Polygonum multiflorum were shown to be ineffective. PMID:24635487
Immunostimulant effects of the dietary intake of various medicinalplantextracts on fish, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were investigated. For this purpose fish were fed with diets containing aqueous extracts of mistletoe (Viscum album), nettle (Urtica dioica), and ginger (Zingiber officinale). Food containing lyophilized extracts of these plants as 0.1 and 1% was used at a rate of 2% of
Medicinalplants play a key role in malaria control in Africa, especially in remote areas where health facilities are limited. In order to assess their acclaimed potentials, eleven extracts were prepared from seven selected plants commonly used in Western Cameroon, and tested both for their antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity. The antiplasmodial activity was assessed using Lactate Dehydrogenase Assay (pLDH) and the cytotoxicity estimated on LLC-MK2 monkey kidney epithelial cells. Seven extracts from five different plants were significantly active, with very weak or no cytotoxicity. The Dacryodes edulis leaves showed the highest activity (IC50 of 6.45??g/mL on 3D7 and 8.2??g/mL on DD2) followed by the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina (IC50 of 8.72 and 11.27??g/mL on 3D7 and DD2 resp.) and roots of V. amygdalina (IC50 of 8.72??g/mL on 3D7), Coula edulis leaves (IC50 of 13.80??g/mL and 5.79??g/mL on 3D7 and DD2 resp.), Eucalyptus globulus leaves (IC50 of 16.80??g/mL and 26.45??g/mL on 3D7 and DD2) and Cuviera longiflora stem bark (IC50 of 20.24??g/mL and 13.91??g/mL on 3D7 and DD2). These findings justify the use of five of the seven plants in malaria treatment by traditional healers of Western Cameroon.
Zofou, Denis; Tene, Mathieu; Ngemenya, Moses N.; Tane, Pierre; Titanji, Vincent P. K.
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Almeida (Onygenales) that requires 1-2 years of treatment. In the absence of drug therapy, the disease is usually fatal, highlighting the need for the identification of safer, novel, and more effective antifungal compounds. With this need in mind, several plants employed in Brazilian traditional medicine were assayed on P. brasiliensis and murine macrophages. Extracts were prepared from 10 plant species: Inga spp. Mill. (Leguminosae), Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae), Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntze (Amaranthaceae), Piper regnellii CDC. (Piperaceae), P. abutiloides Kunth (Piperaceae), Herissantia crispa L. Briz. (Malvaceae), Rubus urticaefolius Poir (Rosaceae), Rumex acetosa L. (Polygonaceae), and Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. (Asteraceae). Hexane fractions from hydroalcoholic extracts of Piper regnellii and Baccharis dracunculifolia were the most active against the fungus, displaying minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 7.8 microg/mL and 7.8-30 mug/mL, respectively. Additionally, neither of the extracts exhibited any apparent cytotoxic effects on murine macrophages at 20 microg/mL. Analyses of these fractions using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that the major components of B. dracunculifolia were ethyl hydrocinnamate (14.35%) and spathulenol (16.02%), while the major components of the hexane fraction of Piper regnellii were 1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl) benzene (21.94%) and apiol (21.29%). The activities of these fractions against P. brasiliensis without evidence of cytotoxicity to macrophages justify their investigation as a potential source of new chemical agents for the treatment of PCM. PMID:20645716
Johann, Susana; Cisalpino, Patricia Silva; Watanabe, Gisele Almeida; Cota, Betania Barros; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Resende, Maria Aparecida
Pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) using a laboratory made system was applied for the extraction of thermally labile and reasonably polar components such as berberine in coptidis rhizoma, glycyrrhizin in radix glycyrrhizae\\/liquorice and baicalein in scutellariae radix. PHWE was carried out dynamically at a flow of 1ml\\/min, temperature between 95 and 140°C, an applied pressure of 10–20bar and extraction time
Sample preparation is the crucial first step in the analysis of herbs. In recent years there has been increasing interest worldwide in the use of alternative\\/herbal medicine for the prevention and treatment of various illnesses. Currently, however, quality-related problems (lack of consistency, safety, and efficacy) seem to be overshadowing the potential genuine health benefits of various herbal products. Thus, the
The biological properties of medicinalplants have been documented worldwide for many centuries. We aimed to evaluate interactions between crude extracts from Psidium guajava, Zingiber officinale, Cymbopogon citratus, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Mikania glomerata and Allium sativum samples and antimicrobial drugs against Escherichia coli strains. The susceptibility test performed was disc diffusion, and crude extracts were diluted (%v/v) into Müller-Hinton agar (MHA) at one quarter of the minimal inhibitory concentration for 90% (MIC(90%)) of E. coli strains found previously. Synergistic interactions were observed between C. citratus and polymyxin, and A. sativum extracts and gentamicin. The crude A. sativum extract was the only one that did not show any antagonism with the antimicrobial drugs. The results thus showed the potential use of these medicinalplants against E. coli strains, although antagonism with antimicrobial drugs is a negative aspect in the combined therapy of infectious diseases caused by E. coli. PMID:22011190
Ushimaru, P I; Barbosa, L N; Fernandes, A A H; Di Stasi, L C; Fernandes, A
We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus
N. C. C. Silva; L. Barbosa; L. N. Seito; A. Fernandes Junior
We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus
N. C. C. Silva; L. Barbosa; L. N. Seito; A. Fernandes Junior
In the present study, we evaluated the antibacterial activity in the leaf extracts of Mentha piperita L. against pathogenic bacteria like Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aureus, Pseudomonas aerogenosa, Serratia marcesens and Streptococcus aureus. The aqueous as well as organic extracts of the leaves were found to posses strong antibacterial activity against a range of pathogenic bacteria as revealed by in vitro
G. BUPESH; C. AMUTHA; S. NANDAGOPAL; A. GANESHKUMAR; P. SURESHKUMAR; K. SARAVANA MURALI
A preliminary antiplasmodial and phytochemical screening of four Kenyan medicinalplants was carried out. The medicinalplants were extracted and tested for in vitro antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitive (K67) and chloroquine-resistant (ENT36) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Out of 16 extracts, 12 were active against ENT36 strain while seven were active against K67 strain, that is, IC50 ? 50 ?g\\/ml. The
This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)
Gossypol is present in antiinflammatory poultices made from the medicinal treeThespesia populnea. Isolated human neutrophils exposed to 3–20µM gossypol for 15–90 min were assayed in vitro for superoxide production and surface expression of Mac-1 (CD11b\\/CD18). Gossypol increased superoxide production in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion consistent with a moderate, delayed respiratory burst. Surface Mac-1 expression was increased within 15 min
Prosper Benhaim; Stephen J. Mathes; Thomas K. Hunt; Heinz Scheuenstuhl; Christopher C. Benz
Crude hot water extracts from eight medicinalplants collected in Togo, West Africa, were examined for antimalarial properties against Plasmodium falciparum using an in vitro test. The activity differed with the plant species with extracts of Cassia siamea, Jatropha gossypiifolia and Pavetta crassipes capable of 100% inhibition. PMID:2654489
Gbeassor, M; Kossou, Y; Amegbo, K; de Souza, C; Koumaglo, K; Denke, A
In this study we compared the in vitro antiproliferative activity of extracts from medicinalplants toward human tumor cell lines, including human erythromyeloid K562, B-lymphoid Raji, T-lymphoid Jurkat, erythroleukemic HEL cell lines. Extracts from Emblica officinalis were the most active in inhibiting in vitro cell proliferation, after comparison to those from Terminalia arjuna, Aphanamixis polystachya, Oroxylum indicum, Cuscuta reflexa, Aegle marmelos, Saraca asoka, Rumex maritimus, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Red Sandalwood. Emblica officinalis extracts have been studied previously, due to their hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antifungal, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory medicinal activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses allowed to identify pyrogallol as the common compound present both in unfractionated and n-butanol fraction of Emblica officinalis extracts. Antiproliferative effects of pyrogallol were therefore determined on human tumor cell lines thus identifying pyrogallol as an active component of Emblica officinalis extracts. PMID:12063567
Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Lampronti, Ilaria; Martello, Dino; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Jabbar, Shaila; Choudhuri, Mohammad Shahabuddin Kabir; Datta, Bidduyt Kanti; Gambari, Roberto
Aqueous, methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of 14 plants used in traditional Zulu medicine for treatment of ailments of an infectious nature were screened for antibacterial activity. Most of the activity detected was against Gram-positive bacteria. Tuber bark extracts of Dioscorea sylvatica had activity against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and extracts of Dioscorea dregeana, Cheilanthes viridis and Vernonia colorata were active
Jonathan E. Kelmanson; Anna K. Jäger; Johannes van Staden
Lophocereus schottii is a Mexican cactus known as garambullo whose bark is used for the treatment of cancer, diabetes, ulcers, sores, stomach disorders and tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of the ethanolic extract of bark of L. Schottii. To assess these effects we established a flow of experiments in a model of BALB/c mice murine lymphoma. We value first survival of mice inoculated with 2 × 10(4) L5178Y murine lymphoma cells, orally treated with 10 mg/Kg of the extract for 10 consecutive days; the second assessment was to determine the influence of the immune system, we carry out studies of lymphoproliferation in mice with the same conditions of the previous study, only that the treatment was for 22 days before the completion cell cultures; the third study was to establish the cytotoxic effect of extract of L. schottii using different concentrations, by murine lymphoma cell cultures and splenocytes from healthy mice and finally we assessed the effect in vivo of extract of L. Schottii in a model of solid murine lymphoma inoculating 1 × 10(7) lymphoma cells in the gastrocnemius muscle observing the development of the tumor. We observed that oral treatment of 10 mg/kg of extract of L. schottii increased survival rate in treated mice; additionally, an intratumoral injection of 50 and 100 mg/kg in a solid murine lymphoma located in the gastrocnemius muscle, allowed a significantly slower tumor evolution. In vitro studies determined that extract inhibited 63% of lymphoma cell growth. With these evidences it is feasible to scientifically validate that ethanolic extract of L. schottii had an effect on L5178Y murine cells lymphoma and could have the same effect in human tumors. PMID:24146465
Orozco-Barocio, Arturo; Paniagua-Domínguez, Brenda Lizbeth; Benítez-Saldańa, Pedro Alberto; Flores-Torales, Edgardo; Velázquez-Magańa, Salvador; Nava, Hilda Julieta Arreola
This work analyzed the effects of the aqueous crude extracts of Artemisia absinthium L., Lippia sp., Bryophyllum sp., Solidago microglossa DC, Cymbopogon citratus DC and Mentha x villosa HUDSON on the osmotic stability of human erythrocytes. Hemolysis was monitored by measurement of absorbance at 540 nm following addition of erythrocytes to NaCl solutions of varying concentration. Absorbance was fitted to sigmoid regression curves given by the Boltzmann equation, and hemolysis was characterized by the NaCl concentration leading to lysis of 50% of cells (H(50)), and by the intensity (H) and the amplitude (dS) of the lysis effect. The parameters were determined in the absence and presence of the crude extracts. The extracts of Artemisia absinthium, Lippia sp., C. citratus and M. villosa protected human erythrocytes against hypotonic shock, as evidenced by a decrease in the values of H and H(50) compared to the control solution (p<0.05). The extracts of Bryophyllum sp. and S. microglossa enhanced hemolysis, since their H(50) values were higher than in the control group (p<0.05), but they also showed protective effects, as evidenced by a decrease in H and an increase in dS. PMID:17855047
de Freitas, Mariana V; Netto, Rita de Cássia M; da Costa Huss, Juliana C; de Souza, Tatiana Maria T; Costa, Júnia O; Firmino, Cynthia B; Penha-Silva, Nilson
Aqueous extracts of birch leaves ( folium Betulae), peppermint leaves ( folium Menthae), sage leaves ( folium Salviae), valerian roots ( radix Valerianae), and dandelion roots ( radix Taraxaci) are analysed for the three essential elements magnesium, manganese and zinc. Ultrafiltration reveals that 60-100% of these metals are present as low molecular weight species ( Betula). Mg and Mn species
One of the prerequisites for the success of primary health care is the availability and use of suitable drugs. Plants have always been a common source of medicaments, either in the form of traditional preparations or as pure active principles. It is thus reasonable for decision-makers to identify locally available plants or plantextracts that could usefully be added to the national list of drugs, or that could even replace some pharmaceutical preparations that need to be purchased and imported. This update article presents a list of plant-derived drugs, with the names of the plant sources, and their actions or uses in therapy.
Mosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical\\u000a origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane,\\u000a methanol and petroleum ether extracts of leaf, flower and seed of Cassia auriculata L., Leucas aspera (Willd.), Rhinacanthus nasutus KURZ., Solanum torvum Swartz and Vitex
C. Kamaraj; A. Bagavan; A. Abdul Rahuman; A. Abduz Zahir; G. Elango; G. Pandiyan
Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The aim of this study\\u000a was to evaluate the adulticidal activity and adult emergence inhibition (EI) of leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone,\\u000a and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus
Gandhi Elango; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Asokan Bagavan; Abdul Abduz Zahir
The feasibility of employing aqueous non-ionic surfactant solutions as an alternative solvent system in pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) is demonstrated for the first time using the roots of American ginseng as model solid samples. When compared to the use of pure water or methanol, the presence of a common non-ionic surfactant (Triton X-100) in water at a concentration above its
Maggie P. K Choi; Kelvin K. C Chan; Hei Wun Leung; Carmen W Huie
The radioprotective efficacy of a hydro-alcoholic extracted material from the bark of Alstonia scholaris (ASE) was studied in mice against radiation-induced hematological and biochemical alterations. Swiss albino mice were administered ASE (100 mg\\/kg body weight\\/d for 5 consecutive day) orally prior to whole-body gamma irradiation (7.5 Gy). Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline (P < .001) in erythrocytes and
Uma Gupta; Swafiya Jahan; Ranu Chaudhary; Pradeep Kumar Goyal
Ankaferd Blood Stopper ® (ABS), a standardized mixture of five plants, has been used historically as a haemostatic agent but its mechanism of action remains unknown. This study investigated the in vitro effects of ABS on haemostatic parameters. When added to plasma or serum, ABS induced the very rapid formation of a protein network and erythrocyte aggregation. The levels of
H GOKER; IC HAZNEDAROGLU; S ERCETIN; S KIRAZLI; U AKMAN; Y OZTURK; HC FIRAT
Seven Malaysian medicinalplants were screened for their antiplasmodial activities in vitro. These plants were selected based on their traditional claims for treatment or to relieve fever. The plantextracts were obtained from Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). The antiplasmodial activities were carried out using the pLDH assay to Plasmodium falciparum D10 strain (sensitive strain) while the cytotoxic activities were
Noor Rain; S. Khozirah; Mohd Ridzuan; C. Rohaya; M. Rosilawati; Badrul Amin
Methanol extracts of selected medicinal species used in Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad (Iran) were evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxic activity against MCF7, HepG2, MDBK, and A549 cells through MTT assay. The extract from Dorema aucheri demonstrated cytotoxicity with IC50 of 20.09 and 48.65?g.mL against HepG2 and A549 cells, respectively, which was further fractionated and subjected to MTT assay. The results
The primary objective of this investigation is to determine the deleterious effects of sub lethal gamma radiation on testes and their possible inhibition by Tinospora cordifolia extract (TCE). For this purpose, one group of male Swiss albino mice was exposed to 7.5?Gy gamma radiation to serve as the irradiated control, while the other group received TCE (75?mg/kg?b.?wt./day) orally for 5 consecutive days half an hr before irradiation to serve as experimental. Exposure of animals to 7.5?Gy gamma radiation resulted into significant decrease in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter up to 15 days of irradiation. Cent percent mortality was recorded by day 17th in irradiated control, whereas all animals survived in experimental group. TCE pretreatment rendered significant increase in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter at various intervals as compared to irradiated group. Radiation induced histological lesions in testicular architecture were observed more severe in irradiated control then the experimental. TCE administration before irradiation significantly ameliorated radiation induced elevation in lipid peroxidation and decline in glutathione concentration in testes. These observations indicate the radio- protective potential of Tinospora cordifolia root extract in testicular constituents against gamma irradiation in mice. PMID:21350610
Sharma, Priyanka; Parmar, Jyoti; Sharma, Priyanka; Verma, Preeti; Goyal, P K
The primary objective of this investigation is to determine the deleterious effects of sub lethal gamma radiation on testes and their possible inhibition by Tinospora cordifolia extract (TCE). For this purpose, one group of male Swiss albino mice was exposed to 7.5?Gy gamma radiation to serve as the irradiated control, while the other group received TCE (75?mg/kg?b.?wt./day) orally for 5 consecutive days half an hr before irradiation to serve as experimental. Exposure of animals to 7.5?Gy gamma radiation resulted into significant decrease in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter up to 15 days of irradiation. Cent percent mortality was recorded by day 17th in irradiated control, whereas all animals survived in experimental group. TCE pretreatment rendered significant increase in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter at various intervals as compared to irradiated group. Radiation induced histological lesions in testicular architecture were observed more severe in irradiated control then the experimental. TCE administration before irradiation significantly ameliorated radiation induced elevation in lipid peroxidation and decline in glutathione concentration in testes. These observations indicate the radio- protective potential of Tinospora cordifolia root extract in testicular constituents against gamma irradiation in mice.
Sharma, Priyanka; Parmar, Jyoti; Sharma, Priyanka; Verma, Preeti; Goyal, P. K.
Tanzanian medicinalplants were extracted and tested for in vitro antimalarial activity, using the multidrug resistant K1 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Of 49 plants investigated, extracts of three plants were found to have an IC50 between 5-10 micrograms/ml, extracts of 18 other plants showed an IC50 between 10 and 50 micrograms/ml, all others were less active. The three most active extracts were obtained from the tubers of Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae), the rootbark of Hoslundia opposita Vahl. (Labiatae), and the rootbark of Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae). PMID:2236289
Weenen, H; Nkunya, M H; Bray, D H; Mwasumbi, L B; Kinabo, L S; Kilimali, V A
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to impair many physiological functions. Some reports claim that medicinalplants can reduce these alterations caused by DM. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of aqueous-methanol extracts of Urtica dioica, Thymus vulgaris (TV), Myrtus communis (MC), Scolymus hispanicus (SH) and Cinnamomun zeylanicum (CZ) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 DM in rats. Diabetes was induced via a single i.p. injection of STZ (65 mg/kg body weight). After 1 week to allow for development of diabetes, each plantextract was administered to diabetic rats separately at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight daily for 28 days. The results showed that only SH extract significantly (P < 0.05) amended fasting blood glucose level. The lipid profile was ameliorated especially by supplementations of TV, MC and CZ extracts. Almost all plantextract treatments markedly (P < 0.05) increased reduced glutathione content and decreased lipid peroxidation levels of erythrocyte, plasma, retina and lens tissues. They also significantly (P < 0.05) amended erythrocyte catalase activity, levels of marker serum enzymes (except amylase), urea and blood urea nitrogen when compared to diabetic rats treated with nothing. Furthermore, none of the plantextracts counteracted body weight loss of diabetic rats. Our data revealed that the aforementioned plantextracts have remarkable potential to counteract DM-caused alterations, probably through their antioxidant and free radical-defusing effects. PMID:23052826
Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS), a standardized mixture of five plants, has been used historically as a haemostatic agent but its mechanism of action remains unknown. This study investigated the in vitro effects of ABS on haemostatic parameters. When added to plasma or serum, ABS induced the very rapid formation of a protein network and erythrocyte aggregation. The levels of coagulation factors II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, and XIII were not affected by ABS. Plasma fibrinogen activity and antigen levels were decreased following the addition of ABS, in parallel with the prolonged thrombin time. Total protein, albumin, and globulin levels decreased after the addition of ABS. Our findings suggest that ABS stimulates the formation of an encapsulated protein network that provides focal points for erythrocyte aggregation. ABS has the therapeutic potential to be used for the management of haemorrhage and this agent should be investigated further in clinical trials. PMID:18304416
Goker, H; Haznedaroglu, I C; Ercetin, S; Kirazli, S; Akman, U; Ozturk, Y; Firat, H C
Extracts from Jatropha curcas, a plant used in African traditional medicine for various diseases, were tested for cytotoxic activity. The root extracts strongly reduced cell growth of tumor cells in vitro, a result consistent with the knowledge of the application of these plantextracts in traditional medicine, especially to cure/ameliorate cancer. A selection of pure diterpenoids existing in extracts from Jatropha species and isolated from J. curcas, for example, curcusone C, curcusone D, multidione, 15-epi-4Z-jatrogrossidentadion, 4Z-jatrogrossidentadion, 4E-jatrogrossidentadion, 2-hydroxyisojatrogrossidion, and 2-epi-hydroxyisojatrogrossidion, were likewise tested, and they also showed strong cytotoxic activity. It turned out that these extracts are highly active against L5178y mouse lymphoma cells and HeLa human cervix carcinoma cells, while they cause none or only very low activity against neuronal cell, for example, PC12. These data underscore that extracts from J. curcas or pure secondary metabolites from the plant are promising candidates to be anticancer drug, combined with low neuroactive effects.
Aiyelaagbe, Olapeju O.; Hamid, Amao A.; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Schroder, Heinz C.; Muller, Werner E. G.
The radioprotective efficacy of a hydro-alcoholic extracted material from the bark of Alstonia scholaris (ASE) was studied in mice against radiation-induced hematological and biochemical alterations. Swiss albino mice were administered ASE (100 mg/kg body weight/d for 5 consecutive day) orally prior to whole-body gamma irradiation (7.5 Gy). Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline (P<.001) in erythrocytes and hemoglobin until the third day, following a gradual recovery (ie, day 7), but these values did not reach normal values during the remainder of the animals' life span. Hematocrit percentage declined significantly (P<.001) until day 15. In contrast, ASE-pretreated irradiated animals had significantly higher erythrocyte, hematocrit, and hemoglobin values than the irradiated controls. Furthermore, a significant elevation in lipid peroxidation level over normal was recorded in gamma-irradiated mice, whereas this increase was considerably lower in ASE-pretreated animals. Pretreatment with ASE caused a significant increase in glutathione levels in serum as well as in liver in comparison to irradiated animals. This study showed that ASE protects against radiation-induced hematological and biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice. PMID:18815147
In this study we determined the activity of extracts from Bangladeshi medicinalplants (Emblica officinalis, Aegle marmelos, Vernonia anthelmintica, Oroxylum indicum, Argemone mexicana) on human breast tumor cell lines. Extracts from E. officinalis and O. indicum displayed anti-proliferative activity on MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines, while extracts from A. mexicana were active on MCF7 cells, exhibiting on the contrary low antiproliferative effects on MDA-MB-231 cells. Extracts from A. marmelos and V. anthelmintica were antiproliferative on both cell lines, but at higher concentrations. The accumulation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) mRNA, a marker of neoplastic status, was analysed by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The data obtained demonstrated that only extracts from E. officinalis induce an increase of ERalpha mRNA in MCF7 cells. When MDA-MB-231 cell line was employed, extracts from E. officinalis, V. anthelmintica and A. mexicana were found to be inducers of the increase of ERalpha mRNA accumulation. Since activation of ERalpha gene expression could have clinical impact, our results suggest a possible use of extracts from medicinalplants to identify compounds of possible interest in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:14719119
Lambertini, Elisabetta; Piva, Roberta; Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Lampronti, Ilaria; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Borgatti, Monica; Gambari, Roberto
The methanol extracts of eight species of medicinalplants were tested for insecticidal activity in third instar larvae of Egyptian cottonworm (Spodoptera littoralis). All extracts showed a certain degree of larval toxicity. The extracts of Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana and Salvia officinalis appeared to be highly toxic. The extracts significantly affected the growth indexes [relative growth rate (RGR), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD)]. PMID:15567255
Objective To identify the possible antiplasmodial compounds from Achyranthes aspera (A. aspera), Acalypha indica (A. indica), Jatropha glandulifera (J. glandulifera) and Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus). Methods The A. aspera, A. indica, J. glandulifera and P. amarus were collected along Palk Strait and the extraction was carried out in ethanol. The filter sterilized extracts (100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125 µg/mL) of leaf, stem, root and flower extracts of A. aspera, A. indica, J. glandulifera and P. amarus were tested for antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. The potential extracts were also tested for their phytochemical constituents. Results Of the selected plants species parts, the stem extract of A. indica showed excellent antiplasmodial activity (IC50= 43.81µg/mL) followed by stem extract of J. glandulifera (IC50= 49.14µg/mL). The stem extract of A. aspera, leaf and root extracts of A. indica, leaf, root and seed extracts of J. glandulifera and leaf and stem extracts of P. amarus showed IC50 values between 50 and 100 µg/mL. Statistical analysis revealed that, significant antiplasmodial activity (P<0.01) was observed between the concentrations and time of exposure. The chemical injury to erythrocytes was also carried out and it showed that there were no morphological changes in erythrocytes by the ethanolic extract of all the tested plantextracts. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity might be due to the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, triterpenoids, proteins, and tannins in the ethanolic extracts of tested plants. Conclusions The ethanolic stem extracts of P. amarus and J. glandulifera possess lead compounds for the development of antiplasmodial drugs.
Inbaneson, Samuel Jacob; Ravikumar, Sundaram; Suganthi, Palavesam
In this study the encapsulation of raspberry leaf, hawthorn, ground ivy, yarrow, nettle and olive leaf extracts was performed by electrostatic extrusion in alginate–chitosan microbeads, with ascorbic acid being used for the dissolution of chitosan. The original and encapsulated plantextracts were characterized for their polyphenol content and composition, mineral content and antioxidant capacity. Raspberry leaf encapsulating microbeads exhibited the
Ana Belš?ak-Cvitanovi?; Radoslava Stojanovi?; Verica Manojlovi?; Draženka Komes; Iva Juranovi? Cindri?; Viktor Nedovi?; Branko Bugarski
The results of a preliminary antimicrobial screening of the methanol extracts of Aframomum melegueta, Piper guineense, Xylopia aethiopica, Zingiber officinale, medicinalplants of Ghana, are reported. PMID:14693222
Background Birch bark has a long lasting history as a traditional medicinal remedy to accelerate wound healing. Recently, the efficacy of birch bark preparations has also been proven clinically. As active principle pentacyclic triterpenes are generally accepted. Here, we report a comprehensive study on the underlying molecular mechanisms of the wound healing properties of a well-defined birch bark preparation named as TE (triterpene extract) as well as the isolated single triterpenes in human primary keratinocytes and porcine ex-vivo wound healing models. Methodology/Principal Findings We show positive wound healing effects of TE and betulin in scratch assay experiments with primary human keratinocytes and in a porcine ex-vivo wound healing model (WHM). Mechanistical studies elucidate that TE and betulin transiently upregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and cyclooxygenase-2 on gene and protein level. For COX-2 and IL-6 this increase of mRNA is due to an mRNA stabilizing effect of TE and betulin, a process in which p38 MAPK and HuR are involved. TE promotes keratinocyte migration, putatively by increasing the formation of actin filopodia, lamellipodia and stress fibers. Detailed analyses show that the TE components betulin, lupeol and erythrodiol exert this effect even in nanomolar concentrations. Targeting the actin cytoskeleton is dependent on the activation of Rho GTPases. Conclusion/Significance Our results provide insights to understand the molecular mechanism of the clinically proven wound healing effect of birch bark. TE and betulin address the inflammatory phase of wound healing by transient up-regulation of several pro-inflammatory mediators. Further, they enhance migration of keratinocytes, which is essential in the second phase of wound healing. Our results, together with the clinically proven efficacy, identify birch bark as the first medical plant with a high potential to improve wound healing, a field which urgently needs effective remedies.
Ebeling, Sandra; Naumann, Katrin; Pollok, Simone; Wardecki, Tina; Vidal-y-Sy, Sabine; Nascimento, Juliana M.; Boerries, Melanie; Schmidt, Gudula; Brandner, Johanna M.; Merfort, Irmgard
The possibilities and limitations of supercritical fluid extraction of natural products of low, medium and high polarity under very high pressure and with polar modifiers has been investigated. The medicinal herbs marigold (Calendula officinalis), hawthorn (Crataegus sp.) and chamomile (Matricaria recutita) were used as models in this study. Extraction profiles and the spectra of extractable metabolites were recorded following extraction with mixtures of carbon dioxide:ethanol of varying proportions (0-20% ethanol) and at various pressures in the range 300-689 bar. Components were identified by HPLC-PAD-MS or GC-MS and quantified by HPLC or GC as appropriate. Extraction yields under the varying conditions depended to a large extent on the profiles of secondary metabolites present in the three drugs. Whereas the extractability of lipophilic compounds increased substantially at pressures above 300 bar, the yields of polyphenolic and glycosidic compounds remained low even at 689 bar and with 20% modifier in the extraction fluid. PMID:14979527
Plants synthesise a vast array of secondary metabolites that are gaining importance for their biotechnological applications. The antifungal activity of the ethanolic extracts of ten Argentinean plants used in native medicine is reported. Antifungal assays included radial growth inhibition, disk and well diffusion assays and growth inhibition by broth dilution tests. The chosen test fungi were yeasts, microfungi and wood-rot
Emma Nelly Quiroga; Antonio Rodolfo Sampietro; Marta Amelia Vattuone
Background: The exploitation and utilization of vast varieties of herbal extracts may serve as alternative measures to deter aggregation of deoxygenated sickle cell hemoglobin (deoxyHbS) molecules. Objective: The present in vitro study ascertained the capacity of three medicinalplants, namely, Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa, to alter polymerization of HbS. Materials and Methods: Spectrophotometric method was used to monitor the level of polymerization of hemolysate HbS molecules treated with sodium metabisulfite (Na2 S2 O5) at a regular interval of 30 s for a period of 180 s in the presence of separate aqueous extracts of A. occidentale, P. guajava, and T. catappa. At time intervals of 30 s, the level of polymerization was expressed as percentage of absorbance relative to the control sample at the 180th s. Results: Although extracts of the three medicinalplants caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction in polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules, the corresponding capacity in this regard diminished with increase in incubation time. Aqueous extract of P. guajava exhibited the highest capacity to reduced polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules. Whereas at t > 60 s, extract concentration of 400 mg% of A. occidentale activated polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules by 6.23±1.34, 14.53±1.67, 21.15±1.89, and 24.42±1.09%, 800 mg% of T. catappa at t > 30 s gave values of 2.50±1.93, 5.09±1.96, 10.00±0.99, 15.38±1.33, and 17.31±0.97%. Conclusion: The capacity of the three medicinalplants to interfere with polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules depended on the duration of incubation and concentration of the extracts.
Current research in drug discovery from medicinalplants involves a multifaceted approach combining botanical, phytochemical, biological, and molecular techniques. Medicinalplant drug discovery continues to provide new and important leads against various pharmacological targets including cancer, HIV\\/AIDS, Alzheimer's, malaria, and pain. Several natural product drugs of plant origin have either recently been introduced to the United States market, including arteether,
During the XVIII century, two Spanish scientific expeditions arrived here led, respectively, by the naturalist Martín Sessé and by the Italian mariner Alessandro Malaspina di Mulazzo, dependent from the Spanish Government. The members collected a rich scientific material, which was carried to Madrid in 1820. At the end of XVIII century, the Franciscan friar Juan Navarro depicted and described several Mexican medicinalplants in the fifth volume of his "American Garden". In the last years of the Colonial period, fundamental works of Humboldt and Bonpland, on the geographic distribution of the American plants, were published. At the end of the XIX century, the first researches on the Mexican medicinal botany were performed at the laboratory of the "Instituto Médico Nacional" under the leadership of doctor Fernando Altamirano, starting pharmacological studies in our country. During the first half of the XX century, trials of cardiovascular pharmacology were performed in the small laboratories of the cardiological unit at the General Hospital of Mexico, due to doctor Ignacio Chávez, initiative. Mexican botanical-pharmacological tradition remains alive and vigorous in the modern scientific institutes of the country. PMID:20361491
Currently available therapeutic options for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, such as dietary modification, oral hypoglycemics, and insulin, have limitations of their own. Many natural products and herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of diabetes. The present paper reviews medicinalplants that have shown experimental or clinical antidiabetic activity and that have been used in traditional systems of medicine; the
Mankil Jung; Hyun Chul Lee; Yoon-Ho Kang; Eun Seok Kang; Sang Ki Kim
Fifty medicinalplants belonging to 26 families were studied for their antimicrobial activity. Among 50 plants tested, 72% showed antimicrobial activity. About 22 plantextracts from 15 families exhibited activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Fourteen plants belonging to 11 families did not show activity against any of the bacteria tested. Only nine plantextracts showed antifungal activity. The
D. Srinivasan; Sangeetha Nathan; T. Suresh; P. Lakshmana Perumalsamy
Nigeria is an African country where transmission of malaria occurs all year round and where most inhabitants use plants as remedies against parasitic diseases, including malaria. Some of such medicinalplants have their antimalarial efficacies already demonstrated experimentally, active compounds isolated and the mechanism of drug action suggested. Decoction of Cocos nucifera husk is used in the middle belt region of Nigeria as an antimalarial remedy. In our current studies, we tested extracts from husks of four varieties of C. nucifera, all collected in Brazil, where the plant fruit is popularly named 'coco'. The husks of coco mestiço, amarelo, anăo and gigante collected in the Northeast of Brazil were used to prepare extracts at the Chemistry Department, Federal University of Alagoas (UFAL), which were then tested for their antiplasmodial activities, cytotoxicities and hemolytic activities in vitro. Only the hexane extract of coco mestiço was active against the blood forms of Plasmodium falciparum human malaria parasite maintained in continuous culture. Most extracts presented selectivity indices of <10, while hexane extract of coco mestiço had a selectivity index of 35, meaning that the extract is not toxic. The isolation of the active compounds from coco mestiço husks has not yet been done. PMID:22241625
Ninety-two plants used in the traditional pharmacopoeia of the Pech and neighboring Mestizo peoples of central Honduras are reported. The results of in vitro antimicrobial screens showed that 19 of the extracts from medicinalplants revealed signs of antifungal activity while 22 demonstrated a measurable inhibitory effect on one or more bacterial cultures. Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from Mikania micrantha, Neurolaena lobata and Piper aduncum produced weak to moderately active isolates. The broad spectrum of activity of the extracts helps to explain the widespread use of these plants for wound healing and other applications. PMID:10030730
Lentz, D L; Clark, A M; Hufford, C D; Meurer-Grimes, B; Passreiter, C M; Cordero, J; Ibrahimi, O; Okunade, A L
In the present study of some of the Indian medicinalplants Sida acuta whole plant (Malvaeae), Stylosanthes fruticosa (whole plant) (Papilionaceae), Toona ciliata (heart wood) (Meliaceao), Bougainvilla spectabilis (leaves) (Nyctaginaceae), Ficus glomerata (bark, leaves) (Moraceae) and Polyalthia longifolia (leaves) (Annonaceae). The different plants were used in folklore medicine in the treatment of toothache and strengthening of gums, anthelmintic, kidney diseases, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antihyperglycaemic, antihyperglycaemic and anticancer. The extract was prepared using powdered material with ethanol, concentrated under vacuo and were evaluated for analgesic activity by analgesiometer at three dose level (100, 300 and 500mg/kg). Analgesic activity was significant with Toona ciliata (heart wood) ethanolic extract when compared with other extracts and its activity was confirmed by tail immersion method. PMID:16647234
Malairajan, P; Geetha Gopalakrishnan; Narasimhan, S; Jessi Kala Veni, K
Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 39 plants used in traditional Zulu medicine to treat headache or inflammatory diseases were screened for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors. Extracts were tested in an in vitro assay for cyclooxygenase inhibitors. In general, ethanolic extracts caused higher inhibition than aqueous extracts. Two-thirds of the plants screened had high inhibitory activity. The highest inhibition was obtained with ethanolic
Anna K. Jäger; Anne Hutchings; Johannes van Staden
In an ethnopharmacological survey, extracts of the six East African medicinalplants Entada abyssinica (stem bark), Terminalia spinosa (young branches), Harrisonia abyssinica (roots), Ximenia caffra (roots), Azadirachta indica (stem bark and leaves), and Spilanthes mauritiana (roots and flowers) were tested against 105 strains of bacteria from seven genera (Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Mycobacterium). The minimum inhibitory concentration reached
Fourteen Indian plants, selected based on their use in respiratory and other disorders in traditional systems of medicine, were analyzed for their potential activity against fungi. The antifungal activity was investigated by disc diffusion, microbroth dilution and percent spore germination inhibition tests against pathogenic Aspergilli. Methanolic extracts of Solanum xanthocarpum and Datura metel inhibited the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus, A.
Rajesh Dabur; H. Singh; A. K. Chhillar; M. Ali; G. L. Sharma
A total of 82 Indian medicinalplants traditionally used in medicines were subjected to preliminary antibacterial screening against several pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms. Aqueous, hexane and alcoholic extracts of each plant were tested for their antibacterial activity using agar well diffusion method at sample concentration of 200 mg\\/ml. The results indicated that out of 82 plants, 56 exhibited antibacterial activity
The anti-inflammatory properties of Loasa speciosa and Loasa triphylla (Loasaceae), Urtica leptuphylla and Urera baccifera (Urticaceae), and Chaptalia nutans (Asteracene) were studied using the carregeenan induced rat paw edema model. Aqueous extracts of each plant were made according to the ethnobotanical use. The hippocratic assay was made with female rats; the dose used was 500 mg/kg i.p. and the control group received 0.5 ml of n.s.s.. All the animals treated showed hypothermia, and those treated with the extracts of Chaptalia nutans, Urera baccifera and Urtica leptuphylla showed an increased colinergic activity. Acute toxicities of the aqueous extracts were studied in mice an the mean lethal doses ranged between 1.0226 and 1.2022 g/kg. The extracts of Urera baccifera, Chaptalia nutans, Loasa speciosa and Loasa triphylla (500 mg/kg i.p.) showed an anti-inflammatory activity comparable with that of indomethacin. The extracts of U. baccifera and C. nutans, which showed the greatest anti-inflammatory activity, did not show it when used orally (500 mg/kg p.o.). PMID:11021310
Plants synthesise a vast array of secondary metabolites that are gaining importance for their biotechnological applications. The antifungal activity of the ethanolic extracts of ten Argentinean plants used in native medicine is reported. Antifungal assays included radial growth inhibition, disk and well diffusion assays and growth inhibition by broth dilution tests. The chosen test fungi were yeasts, microfungi and wood-rot causing Basidiomycetes. Extracts of Larrea divaricata, Zuccagnia punctata and Larrea cuneifolia displayed remarkable activity in the assays against the majority of the test fungi. In addition to the former plants, Prosopanche americana also inhibited yeast growth. PMID:11137353
Fifty-six ethanolic extracts of various parts of 39 plants used in traditional Australian Aboriginal medicine were investigated for their antibacterial activities against four Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes) and four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium) bacterial species. In a plate-hole diffusion assay, 12 extracts inhibited the growth of one or
Second of a two part article on the influence of plants on medicinal chemistry. This part considers how drugs work, the attempts to develop anaesthetics safer than cocaine, and useful poisons. (Author/SL)
Pure compounds extracted and purified from natural sources are crucial to lead discovery and drug screening. This study presents a novel two-dimensional hyphenation of expanded bed adsorption chromatography (EBAC) and high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) for extraction and purification of target compounds from medicinalplants in a single step. The EBAC and HSCCC were hyphenated via a six-port injection valve as an interface. Fractionation of ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Rhizoma coptidis was performed on the hyphenated system to verify its efficacy. Two compounds were harvested from Salvia miltiorrhiza, one was 52.9 mg of salvianolic acid B with an over 95% purity and the other was 2.1 mg of rosmarinic acid with a 74% purity. Another two components were purified from Rhizoma coptidis, one was 4.6 mg of coptisine with a 98% purity and one was 4.1 mg of berberine with a 82% purity. The processing time was nearly 50% that of the multistep method. The results indicate that the present method is a rapid and green way to harvest targets from medicinalplants in a single step. PMID:24588208
Aim. The present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity of a panel of 280 Korean medicinalplants belonging to 73 families and 198 species against human CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their mode of action. Methods. The resazurin assay was used to determine cytotoxicity of the plantextracts. Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling, COMPARE, and hierarchical cluster analyses were applied to identify which genes correlate with sensitivity or resistance to selected phytochemicals of the Korean plants. Results. The results of the resazurin assay showed that cytotoxicity extracts tested at 10? ? g/mL from 13 samples inhibited proliferation more than 50% (IC50 < 10? ? g/mL) and the most active plants are Sedum middendorffianum (15.33%) and Lycoris radiata (17.61%). Out of 13 selected phytochemicals from these plants, hopeaphenol and deoxynarciclasine were the most cytotoxic ones. Genes from various functional groups (transcriptional or translational regulation, signal transduction, cellular proliferation, intracellular trafficking, RNA metabolism, endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum function, etc.) were significantly correlated with response of tumor cell lines to these two compounds. Conclusion. The results provide evidence on the possible use of selected Korean medicinalplants and chemical constituents derived from them for the treatment of tumors. PMID:23935662
Kuete, Victor; Seo, Ean-Jeong; Krusche, Benjamin; Oswald, Mira; Wiench, Benjamin; Schröder, Sven; Greten, Henry Johannes; Lee, Ik-Soo; Efferth, Thomas
Aim. The present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity of a panel of 280 Korean medicinalplants belonging to 73 families and 198 species against human CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their mode of action. Methods. The resazurin assay was used to determine cytotoxicity of the plantextracts. Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling, COMPARE, and hierarchical cluster analyses were applied to identify which genes correlate with sensitivity or resistance to selected phytochemicals of the Korean plants. Results. The results of the resazurin assay showed that cytotoxicity extracts tested at 10??g/mL from 13 samples inhibited proliferation more than 50% (IC50 < 10??g/mL) and the most active plants are Sedum middendorffianum (15.33%) and Lycoris radiata (17.61%). Out of 13 selected phytochemicals from these plants, hopeaphenol and deoxynarciclasine were the most cytotoxic ones. Genes from various functional groups (transcriptional or translational regulation, signal transduction, cellular proliferation, intracellular trafficking, RNA metabolism, endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum function, etc.) were significantly correlated with response of tumor cell lines to these two compounds. Conclusion. The results provide evidence on the possible use of selected Korean medicinalplants and chemical constituents derived from them for the treatment of tumors.
Kuete, Victor; Seo, Ean-Jeong; Krusche, Benjamin; Oswald, Mira; Schroder, Sven; Greten, Henry Johannes; Lee, Ik-Soo; Efferth, Thomas
This study aimed to evaluate the free radical scavenging and inhibition properties of five medicinalplants, including Quercus infectoria Olive., Terminalia chebula Retz., Lavendula stoechas L., Mentha longifolia L., Rheum palmatum L., toward the activity of mushroom tyrosinase using L-tyrosine and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) as the substrate.The methanol extracts of Q. infectoria and T. chebula showed strong radical scavenging effect in 2,2'-dipheny L-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay(IC50 = 15.3 and 82.2 microg mL)1 respectively).These plants also showed inhibitory effects against the activity of mushroom tyrosinase in hydroxylation of L-tyrosine (85.9% and 82.2% inhibition,respectively). These two plants also inhibited the oxidation of l-DOPA similar to kojic acid as positive control (IC50 = 102.8 and 192.6 microg mL)1 respectively). In general Q. infectoria and T. chebula significantly inhibited tyrosinase activity and DPPH radical. Both activities were concentration dependant but not in linear manner. It is needed to study the cytotoxicity of these plantextracts in pigment cell culture before further evaluation and moving to in vivo conditions. PMID:19467035
This paper reviews the antimicrobial research undertaken on South African medicinalplants during the period 1997-2008. Antimicrobial methods (disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), bio-autography) are briefly discussed and an analysis of the publications reviewed indicates that the majority of papers use MIC assays for antimicrobial determination. Antimicrobial investigations on extracts are presented where the most active plants are identified from screening publications. A summary of some bioactive compounds are given with data restricted to papers reporting quantitative antimicrobial activity equivalent to or below 200 microg/ml. Antimicrobial activities on the essential oils of indigenous medicinal aromatic plants are also reviewed. An overview is given on what activities (extracts, compounds and oils) should be considered noteworthy for publication. Studies focusing on geographical ethnobotany, specific pathogenesis, formulation aspects and in vivo investigations are examined. Future recommendations to consider include pathogen selection, interactive studies and dosage administrations. PMID:18582553
The antimicrobial activity of 36 ethanol extracts from 24 plants, all of them currently used in the Peruvian traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious and inflammatory disorders, was tested by means of the agar-well diffusion assay against four bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and four fungi (Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Sporothrix schenckii). Twenty-five (69%) extracts showed some degree of antimicrobial activity against at least one microorganism. The plants with the greatest antimicrobial activity were Cestrum auriculatum L. Heritier (Solanaceae), Iryanthera lancifolia Ducke Suesseng (Myristicaceae), Lepechinia meyenii (Walp.) Epling (Lamiaceae) and Ophryosporus peruvianus (Gmelin) King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae). PMID:12963143
Many types of action can be taken in favour of the conservation and sustainable use of medicinalplants. Some of these are undertaken directly at the places where the plants are found, while others are less direct, such as some of those relating to commercial systems, ex situ conservation and bioprospecting. In the latter cases, actions taken will not lead
The aim of this study was to identify sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs against Helicobacter pylori. Solvent-extracts of selected medicinalplants; Combretum molle, Sclerocarya birrea, Garcinia kola, Alepidea amatymbica and a single Strychnos species were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori alongside a reference control strain (NCTC 11638) using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the plants demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 38 mm and 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) values ranging from 0.06 to 5.0 mg/mL. MIC50 values for amoxicillin and metronidazole ranged from 0.001 to 0.63 mg/mL and 0.004 to 5.0 mg/mL respectively. The acetone extracts of C. molle and S. birrea exhibited a remarkable bactericidal activity against H. pylori killing more than 50% of the strains within 18 h at 4× MIC and complete elimination of the organisms within 24 h. Their antimicrobial activity was comparable to the control antibiotics. However, the activity of the ethanol extract of G. kola was lower than amoxicillin (P < 0.05) as opposed to metronidazole (P > 0.05). These results demonstrate that S. birrea, C. molle and G. kola may represent good sources of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity.
Njume, Collise; Jide, Afolayan A.; Ndip, Roland N.
BACKGROUND: Indian medicinalplants used in the Ayurvedic traditional system to treat diabetes are a valuable source of novel anti-diabetic agents. Pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. In this study, seventeen Indian medicinalplants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for
Sudha P; Smita S Zinjarde; Shobha Y Bhargava; Ameeta R Kumar
Higher plants used extensively in traditional medicines are increasingly being screened for their role in modulating the activity\\u000a of environmental genotoxicants. The property of preventing carcinogenesis has been reported in many plantextracts. The observation\\u000a of a close association between carcinogenesis and mutagenesis has extended the survey to include plantextracts and plant\\u000a products able to modify the process of
Background Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae) are traditionally used in Burkina Faso to treat several ailments, mainly pains, including abdominal infections and associated diseases. Despite the extensive use of these plants in traditional health care, literature provides little information regarding their toxicity and the pharmacology. This work was therefore designed to investigate the toxicological effects of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. Furthermore, their analgesic capacity was assessed, in order to assess the efficiency of the traditional use of these two medicinalplants from Burkina Faso. Method For acute toxicity test, mice were injected different doses of each extract by intraperitoneal route and the LD50 values were determined. For the subchronic toxicity evaluation, Wistar albinos rats were treated by gavage during 28?days at different doses of aqueous acetone extracts and then haematological and biochemical parameters were determined. The analgesic effect was evaluated in mice by the acetic-acid writhing test and by the formalin test. Results For the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of 3.2?g/kg and 3.4?g/kg respectively for S. acuta Burn f. and S. cordifolia L. were obtained. Concerning the haematological and biochemical parameters, data varied widely (increase or decrease) according to dose of extracts and weight of rats and did not show clinical correlations. The extracts have produced significant analgesic effects by the acetic acid writhing test and by the hot plate method (p <0.05) and a dose-dependent inhibition was observed. Conclusion The overall results of this study may justify the traditional uses of S. acuta and S. cordifolia .
Current research in drug discovery from medicinalplants involves a multifaceted approach combining botanical, phytochemical, biological, and molecular techniques. Medicinalplant drug discovery continues to provide new and important leads against various pharmacological targets including cancer, HIV/AIDS, Alzheimer's, malaria, and pain. Several natural product drugs of plant origin have either recently been introduced to the United States market, including arteether, galantamine, nitisinone, and tiotropium, or are currently involved in late-phase clinical trials. As part of our National Cooperative Drug Discovery Group (NCDDG) research project, numerous compounds from tropical rainforest plant species with potential anticancer activity have been identified. Our group has also isolated several compounds, mainly from edible plant species or plants used as dietary supplements, that may act as chemopreventive agents. Although drug discovery from medicinalplants continues to provide an important source of new drug leads, numerous challenges are encountered including the procurement of plant materials, the selection and implementation of appropriate high-throughput screening bioassays, and the scale-up of active compounds. PMID:16198377
Herbal medicinal products differ substantially from drugs with synthetic active ingredients. Whereas the active ingredients of synthetic drugs are chemically well defined and pure substances, those of phytopharmaceuticals are plants, parts of plants or extracts. Therefore starting material of high quality and a standardised manufacturing procedure are particularly important for phytopharmaceuticals. Thus the documentation of the quality of a herbal medicinal product is crucial. The quality criteria aim to guarantee a phytopharmaceutical of high and constant quality and as well as a successful and reproducible therapy. The new Swiss Federal Law on Medicinal Products and Medical Devices (Law on Therapeutic Products--LTP) came into effect on 1 January 2002. The Intercantonal Office for the Control of Medicines IOCM which previously was in charge of herbal medicinal products was closed down and together with the Therapeutic Products Section of the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health SFOPH merged to create Swissmedic, the Swiss Agency for Therapeutic Products. Swissmedic is now responsible for affairs related to herbal medicinal products. The following article gives an overview of the current quality requirements of phytopharmaceuticals. These are now based on the LTP, but the essence remains largely unchanged. PMID:12125175
In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of 16 Jordanian medicinalplantextracts against four reference bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi. For that purpose, whole plants were extracted and antimicrobial susceptibility testing and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined. Ethanolic extracts of most medicinalplants exerted a dose-dependent cytotoxiciy against different reference bacteria. Origanum syriaca, Varthemia iphionoides, Psidium guajava, Sarcopoterium spinosa plantextracts were most active against S. aureus (MIC; 70 ?g/mL), E. faecalis (MIC; 130 ?g/mL), E. coli (MIC; 153 ?g/mL), and S. typhi (MIC; 110 ?g/mL), respectively. Results indicate that medicinalplants grown in Jordan might be a valuable source of starting materials for the extraction and/or isolation of new antibacterial agents. PMID:23455195
Masadeh, Majed Mohammad; Alkofahi, Ahmad Suleiman; Tumah, Haitham Najeeb; Mhaidat, Nizar Mahmoud; Alzoubi, Karem Hasan
In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plantextracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth. PMID:24657421
In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plantextracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth.
Oral diseases are major health problems with dental caries and periodontal diseases among the most important preventable global infectious diseases. Oral health influences the general quality of life and poor oral health is linked to chronic conditions and systemic diseases. The association between oral diseases and the oral microbiota is well established. Of the more than 750 species of bacteria that inhabit the oral cavity, a number are implicated in oral diseases. The development of dental caries involves acidogenic and aciduric Gram-positive bacteria (mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and actinomycetes). Periodontal diseases have been linked to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium). Given the incidence of oral disease, increased resistance by bacteria to antibiotics, adverse affects of some antibacterial agents currently used in dentistry and financial considerations in developing countries, there is a need for alternative prevention and treatment options that are safe, effective and economical. While several agents are commercially available, these chemicals can alter oral microbiota and have undesirable side-effects such as vomiting, diarrhea and tooth staining. Hence, the search for alternative products continues and natural phytochemicals isolated from plants used as traditional medicines are considered as good alternatives. In this review, plantextracts or phytochemicals that inhibit the growth of oral pathogens, reduce the development of biofilms and dental plaque, influence the adhesion of bacteria to surfaces and reduce the symptoms of oral diseases will be discussed further. Clinical studies that have investigated the safety and efficacy of such plant-derived medicines will also be described.
Pinellia ternata tuber is one of the well-known Chinese traditional medicines. In order to understand the pharmacological properties of tuber proteins, it is necessary to perform proteome analysis of P. ternata tubers. However, a few high-abundance proteins (HAPs), mainly mannose-binding lectin (agglutinin), exist in aggregates of various sizes in the tubers and seriously interfere with proteome profiling by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Therefore, selective depletion of these HAPs is a prerequisite for enhanced proteome analysis of P. ternata tubers. Based on differential protein solubility, we developed a novel protocol involving two sequential extractions for depletion of some HAPs and prefractionation of tuber proteins prior to 2-DE. The first extraction using 10% acetic acid selectively extracted acid-soluble HAPs and the second extraction using the SDS-containing buffer extracted remaining acid-insoluble proteins. After application of the protocol, 2-DE profiles of P. ternata tuber proteins were greatly improved and more protein spots were detected, especially low-abundance proteins. Moreover, the subunit composition of P. ternata lectin was analyzed by electrophoresis. Native lectin consists of two hydrogen-bonded subunits (11 kDa and 25 kDa) and the 11 kDa subunit was a glycoprotein. Subsequently, major HAPs in the tubers were analyzed by mass spectrometry, with nine protein spots being identified as lectin isoforms. The methodology was easy to perform and required no specialized apparatus. It would be useful for proteome analysis of other tuber plants of Araceae. PMID:23185632
Wu, Xiaolin; Xiong, Erhui; An, Sufang; Gong, Fangping; Wang, Wei
The present study was carried out to screen and evaluate antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Petroleum ether, dichloromethane, chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extract of leaves of A. indica were tested against selected Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial species. Phytochemical leaf extracts of A. indica exhibited significant anti-bacterial activity against all the test microorganisms. However,
In the present paper, we analyze the past, present and future of medicinalplants, both as potential antimicrobial crude drugs as well as a source for natural compounds that act as new anti-infection agents. In the past few decades, the search for new anti-infection agents has occupied many research groups in the field of ethnopharmacology. When we reviewed the number
Immunostimulant effects of the dietary intake of various medicinalplantextracts on fish, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were investigated. For this purpose fish were fed with diets containing aqueous extracts of mistletoe (Viscum album), nettle (Urtica dioica), and ginger (Zingiber officinale). Food containing lyophilized extracts of these plants as 0.1 and 1% was used at a rate of 2% of body weight per day for three weeks. At the end of the experimental period, various parameters of non-specific defence mechanisms, including extracellular and intracellular respiratory burst activities, phagocytosis in blood leukocytes and total plasma protein level were examined. Specific growth rates (SGRs) and condition factors (CFs) of the fish were also measured. Plant materials tested for immunostimulatory food additives caused an enhanced extracellular respiratory burst activity (P<0.001) compared to the control group. Especially the rainbow trout fed with a diet containing 1% aqueous extract of powdered ginger roots for three weeks exhibited a significant non-specific immune response. Phagocytosis and extracellular burst activity of blood leukocytes were significantly higher in this group than those in the control group. All plantextracts added to fish diet increased the total protein level in plasma except 0.1% ginger. The highest level of plasma proteins was observed in the group fed with 1% ginger extract containing feed. PMID:12902058
Extracts of different polarity from four Argentine medicinalplants used in folk medicine as antiinflammatory remedies were tested for bioactivity using carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and TPA-induced ear edema in mice. A dichloromethane extract from Pluchea sagittalis showed good antiinflammatory activity in both tests. Flavonoids present in this extract may be responsible for the activity. Ipomoea fistulosa dichloromethane extract showed significant activity in the ear edema test while a dichloromethane extract from Eupatorium inulaefolium and aqueous extract of Polygonum punctatum exhibited antiinflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced edema test. PMID:23194967
Gorzalczany, S; Acevedo, C; Muschietti, L; Martino, V; Ferraro, G
Ethanolic extracts of 45 Indian medicinalplants traditionally used in medicine were studied for their antimicrobial activity against certain drug-resistant bacteria and a yeast Candida albicans of clinical origin. Of these, 40 plantextracts showed varied levels of antimicrobial activity against one or more test bacteria. Anticandidal activity was detected in 24 plantextracts. Overall, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity was observed
Seven Malaysian medicinalplants were screened for their antiplasmodial activities in vitro. These plants were selected based on their traditional claims for treatment or to relieve fever. The plantextracts were obtained from Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). The antiplasmodial activities were carried out using the pLDH assay to Plasmodium falciparum D10 strain (sensitive strain) while the cytotoxic activities were carried out towards Madin- Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells using MTT assay. The concentration of extracts used for both screening assays were from the highest concentration 64 microg/ml, two fold dilution to the lowest concentration 0.03 microg/ml. Goniothalamus macrophyllus (stem extract) showed more than 60% growth inhibition while Goniothalamus scortechinii root and stem extract showed a 90% and more than 80% growth inhibition at the last concentration tested, 0.03 microg/ml. The G. scortechini (leaves extract) showed an IC50 (50% growth inhibition) at 8.53 microg/ml, Ardisia crispa (leaves extract) demonstrated an IC50 at 5.90 +/- 0.14 microg/ml while Croton argyratus (leaves extract) showed a percentage inhibition of more than 60% at the tested concentration. Blumea balsamifera root and stem showed an IC50 at 26.25 +/- 2.47 microg/ml and 7.75 +/- 0.35 microg/ ml respectively. Agathis borneensis (leaves extract) demonstrated a 50% growth inhibition at 11.00 +/- 1.41 microg/ml. The study gives preliminary scientific evidence of these plantextracts in line with their traditional claims. PMID:17568375
Noor Rain, A; Khozirah, S; Mohd Ridzuan, M A R; Ong, B K; Rohaya, C; Rosilawati, M; Hamdino, I; Badrul, Amin; Zakiah, I
Medicinalplants are gaining global owing to the fact that the herbal drugs are cost-effective, easily available and most importantly, with negligible side effects. The international market for the medicinalplants is around US $60 billion with an annual growth rate of 7%. Indian exports in medicinalplants are valued at US $4.63 billion annually. Currently, the raw material is
Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of 15 Palestinian medicinalplants were carried against eight different species of bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, two Escherichia coli species, Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin resistant), two S. aureus (methicillin sensitive) species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus fecalis. Of the 15 plants tested, eight showed antibacterial activity. Each plant species has unique against different bacteria. The most
In the present study, an attempt has been made to petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of Prunus amygdalus Batsch seeds (Semen amygdali), Cimicifuga foetida L. rhizomes (Rhizoma Cimicifugae), Peucedanum decursivum (Miq.) Maxim roots (Radix Peucedani), Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng. seeds (Semen Momordicae), and Bupleurum chinense DC. roots (Radix Bupleuri chinensis) for their in vivo anthelmintic activity against monogenean Dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish (Carassius auratus). The results showed that the efficacies of methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts from R. Bupleuri chinensis were found to be, in this order, more effective than others with the 48 h-EC(50) and EC(90) values of 3.5 and 6.9, 6.0 and 8.4, 7.4 and 11.2 mg/L, respectively, followed by ethyl acetate extract of R. cimicifugae and chloroform extract of R. peucedani with EC(50) 189.2 and 240.4 mg/L. The promising methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts from R. Bupleuri chinensis were subjected to acute toxicity tests for the evaluation of their safety to the host. After 48-h exposure, the mortalities of goldfish were recorded, and the established LC(50) values were 10.1-, 4.2-, and 8.4-fold higher than the corresponding EC(50). These results indicated that the three extracts from R. Bupleuri chinensis exhibit potential to be used as preferred natural antiparasitics for the control of the D. intermedius, especially for the methanolic one. PMID:21153837
O6-alkylguanines are potent mutagenic, pro-carcinogenic and cytotoxic lesions induced by exogenous and endogenous alkylating agents. A facilitated elimination of these lesions by increasing the activity of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is likely to be a beneficial chemoprevention strategy, which, however, has not been examined. Because, a marginal enhancement of this protein may be adequate for genomic protection, we studied alterations in MGMT activity and expression in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and cancer cell lines induced by water-soluble and alcohol-soluble constituents of several plants with established antioxidant and medicinal properties. Both the ethanolic and aqueous extracts from neem (Azadirachta indica), holy basil (Ocimum sanctum), winter cherry (Withania somnifera), and oregano (Origanum majorana) increased the levels of MGMT protein and its demethylation activity in a time-dependent manner with a maximum of 3-fold increase after 72-h treatment. The extracts from gooseberry (Emblica officinalis), common basil (Ocimum basilicum), and spearmint (Mentha viridis) were relatively less efficient in raising MGMT levels. Increased levels of MGMT mRNA accounted at least, in part, for the increased activity of the DNA repair protein. The herbal treatments also increased glutathione S-transferase-pi (GSTP1) expression, albeit to a lesser extent than MGMT. These data provide the first evidence for the upregulation of human MGMT by plant constituents and raise the possibility of rational dietary approaches for attenuating alkylation-induced carcinogenesis. Further, they reveal the putative antioxidant responsiveness of the MGMT gene in human cells. PMID:17016661
Niture, Suryakant K; Rao, U Subrahmanyeswara; Srivenugopal, Kalkunte S
The anticandidal activity of 20 household South Indian medicinalplants and/or plant products was studied using 30 Candida albicans isolates obtained from vaginal candidiasis patients of Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital and compared with the anticandidal activity of garlic. Water and ethanol extracts were prepared and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were determined. Water extracts of three plants did not show any anticandidal activity, while Murrya koenigii did not exhibit any anticandidal activity in either extract. Other plants exhibited more activity in ethanol extracts showing that their active principle is more soluble in a non-polar solvent. PMID:10815017
Vaijayanthimala, J; Anandi, C; Udhaya, V; Pugalendi, K V
Population growth, urbanization and the unrestricted collection of medicinalplants from the wild is resulting in an over-exploitation of natural resources in southern Africa. Therefore, the management of traditional medicinalplant resources has become a matter of urgency. In southern Africa the most frequently used medicinalplants are slow-growing forest trees, bulbous and tuberous plants, with bark and underground parts
S Zschocke; T Rabe; J. L. S Taylor; A. K Jäger; J van Staden
In the present study, an attempt has been made to petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts\\u000a of Prunus amygdalus Batsch seeds (Semen amygdali), Cimicifuga foetida L. rhizomes (Rhizoma Cimicifugae), Peucedanum decursivum (Miq.) Maxim roots (Radix Peucedani), Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng. seeds (Semen Momordicae), and Bupleurum chinense DC. roots (Radix Bupleuri chinensis) for their in vivo anthelmintic activity against
Zong-Fan Wu; Bin Zhu; Yong Wang; Cheng Lu; Gao-Xue Wang
Results from the in vitro antiamoebic activity of some Congolese plantextracts used as antidiarrhoeic in traditional medicine indicated that of 45 plantextracts tested, 35 (77.78%) exhibited an antiamoebic activity and 10 (22.22%) were inactive. The highest activity (MIC<100 ?g\\/ml) was obtained with extracts from root bark of Paropsia brazzeana, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, Alchornea cordifolia, Hensia pulchella, Maprounea africana, Rauwolfia
L. Tona; K. Kambu; N. Ngimbi; K. Cimanga; A. J. Vlietinck
The coordination polymer [Zn(BDC)(H(2)O)(2)](n) was tested for extraction of pyrimethanil, ametryn, dichlofluanid, tetraconazole, flumetralin, kresoxim-methyl and tebuconazole from the medicinalplant Hyptis pectinata, with analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring mode (GC/MS, SIM). Experiments carried out at different fortification levels (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 ?g g(-1)) resulted in recoveries in the range 73-97%, and RSD values were between 5 and 12% for the [Zn(BDC)(H(2)O)(2)](n) sorbent. Detection and quantification limits ranged from 0.02 to 0.07 ?g g(-1) and from 0.05 to 0.1 ?g g(-1), respectively, for the different pesticides studied. The method developed was linear over the range tested (0.04-14.0 ?g g(-1)), with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9987 to 0.9998. Comparison between [Zn(BDC)(H(2)O)(2)](n) and the commercial phase C(18)-bonded silica showed good performance of the [Zn(BDC)(H(2)O)(2)](n) polymeric sorbent for the pesticides tested. PMID:21111184
Aquino, Adriano; Wanderley, Kaline A; Paiva-Santos, Carlos de Oliveira; de Sá, Gilberto F; Alexandre, Marcelo da R; Júnior, Severino A; Navickiene, Sandro
Medicinalplants and their endophytes are important resources for discovery of natural products. Several previous studies\\u000a have found a positive correlation between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total phenolic content (TPC) of many medicinal\\u000a plantextracts. However, no information is available on whether such a relationship also exists in their endophytic fungal\\u000a metabolites. We investigated the relationship between TAC and
Wu-Yang Huang; Yi-Zhong Cai; Jie Xing; Harold Corke; Mei Sun
The historic role of plants in healing declined early in the twentieth century with the ascendency of synthetic drugs, even though a number of basic medical tools, such as opium, strychnine, and cocaine, are of botanical origin. In recent years, interest in natural products has been restored dramatically by the discovery of penicillin, plant-derived tranquilizers, and plant precursors of cortisone. Contrary to previous beliefs, botanical drugs are proving more economical than synthetics and hold forth encouraging prospects of inhibiting or destroying tumors without undue damage to healthy tissue. Extensive plant screening programs are being conducted by governmental agencies and pharmaceutical houses. Folk remedies, still common in many tropical areas, are being evaluated. As a result of such research by Canadian and American scientists, alkaloids extracted from the Madagascar periwinkle (Vinca rosea) are being effectively employed to achieve regression in childhood leukemia. Potentially more rewarding are investigations of compounds obtained from the Australian tree, Acronychia baueri and a Chinese species, Camptotheca acuminata. Universities are reestablishing medicinalplant gardens and placing more emphasis on pharmacognosy. Experimental work with narcotic plants in psychiatric treatment has given rise to popular fascination with and abuse of certain natural hallucinogens. Among scientists engaged in chemical studies, there is an active demand for information about plants, their properties and therapeutic uses. Even the general public is being made aware that plant drugs are not obsolete but offer new hope for conquering disease.
Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardic glycoside distribution in ten medicinalplants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinalplants investigated were Cleome nutidosperma, Emilia coccinea, Euphorbia heterophylla, Physalis angulata, Richardia bransitensis, Scopania dulcis, Sida acuta, Spigelia anthelmia, Stachytarpheta cayennensis and Tridax procumbens. All the plants were found to contain alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids
A series of scientific expeditions in Indonesia for collecting informations and materials concerning locally used medicinalplants and Javanese traditional medicine "jamu" have been carried out by us since 1985. This article reviews pharmacochemical investigations of nine Indonesian medicinalplants: i.e. Pongamia pinnata (Papilionaceae), Fagara rhetza (Rutaceae), Calotropis gigantea (Asclepiadaceae), Beilschmiedia madang (Lauraceae), Caesalpinia major (Fabaceae), Peronema canescens (Verbenaceae), Taxus sumatrana (Taxaceae), Alyxia reinwardtii (Apocynaceae), and Merremia mammosa (Convolvulaceae), which were selected among plant materials collected in those surveys. PMID:8993230
BACKGROUND: The transcription factor NF-kappaB is a very interesting target molecule for the design on anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic drugs. However, the application of the widely-used molecular docking computational method for the virtual screening of chemical libraries on NF-kappaB is not yet reported in literature. Docking studies on a dataset of 27 molecules from extracts of two different medicinalplants
Laura Piccagli; Enrica Fabbri; Monica Borgatti; Valentino Bezzerri; Irene Mancini; Elena Nicolis; Maria C Dechecchi; Ilaria Lampronti; Giulio Cabrini; Roberto Gambari
Fourteen Indian plants, selected based on their use in respiratory and other disorders in traditional systems of medicine, were analyzed for their potential activity against fungi. The antifungal activity was investigated by disc diffusion, microbroth dilution and percent spore germination inhibition tests against pathogenic Aspergilli. Methanolic extracts of Solanum xanthocarpum and Datura metel inhibited the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus and A. niger and their in vitro MICs were found to be 1.25-2.50 mg/ml by both microbroth dilution and percent spore germination assays. In disc diffusion assay, a concentration of 0.062 mg/disc of methanol extract of D. metel showed significant activity against Aspergilli. S. xanthocarpum exhibited similar activity at 0.125 mg/disc. PMID:15159003
Dabur, Rajesh; Singh, H; Chhillar, A K; Ali, M; Sharma, G L
Phaleria macrocarpa, commonly known as Mahkota dewa is a medicinalplant that is indigenous to Indonesia and Malaysia. Extracts of P. macrocarpa have been used since years in traditional medicine that are evaluated scientifically as well. The extracts are reported for a number of valuable medicinal properties such as anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-oxidant and vasorelaxant effect. The constituents isolated from different parts of P. macrocarpa include Phalerin, gallic acid, Icaricide C, magniferin, mahkoside A, dodecanoic acid, palmitic acid, des-acetylflavicordin-A, flavicordin-A, flavicordin-D, flavicordin-A glucoside, ethyl stearate, lignans, alkaloids andsaponins. The present review is an up-to-date summary of occurrence, botanical description, ethnopharmacology, bioactivity and toxicological studies related to P. macrocarpa.
Altaf, Rabia; Asmawi, Mohammad Zaini Bin; Dewa, Aidiahmad; Sadikun, Amirin; Umar, Muhammad Ihtisham
In an ethnopharmacological screening of selected medicinalplants used in Nepal, methanol extracts from 21 plant species were assayed for activity against 8 strains of bacteria and 5 strains of fungi. Duplicate assays were conducted with and without exposure to UV-A radiation to test for light-activated or light-enhanced activity. All 21 of the extracts showed activity against at least 2
The antifungal activity of aqueous, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from 14 Paraguayan plants used in traditional medicine for the treatment of skin diseases was assayed in vitro by the agar disk diffusion method against 11 fungal strains comprising several filamentous fungi and yeasts. Among them, the dichloromethane extracts of Acanthospermum australe, Calycophyllum multiflorum, Geophila repens and Tabebuia avellanedae, as well as the aqueous and methanol extracts of the latter, showed the highest activity. PMID:11378288
Portillo, A; Vila, R; Freixa, B; Adzet, T; Cańigueral, S
Cancer prevention and treatment using traditional Chinese medicines have attracted increasing interest. This study characterizes antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of traditional Chinese medicinalplants associated with anticancer, comprising 112 species from 50 plant families. The improved ABTS•+ method was used to systematically assess the total antioxidant capacity (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC) of the medicinalextracts. The TEAC values
The rich flora of Sikkim has a number of raw drugs described in Ayurvedic texts. There are about 420 plants used by the tribal people for various diseases in Sikkim Himalayas region, out of which few are in utilized on commercial basis. Here thirty medicinalplants are presented which have high medicinal values in Ayurveda. Most of the drugs have
The MedicinalPlants of the Southwest summer workshop is an inquiry-based learning approach to increase interest and skills in biomedical research. Working in teams, Hispanic and Native American students discover the chemical and biological basis for the medicinal activity of regional plants used by healers. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)
Asthma is a common disease that is rising in prevalence worldwide with the highest prevalence in industrialized countries. Asthma affect about 300 million people worldwide and it has been estimated that a further 100 million will be affected by 2025. Since the ancient times, plants have been exemplary sources of medicine. Current asthma therapy lack satisfactory success due to adverse effect, hence patients are seeking complementary and alternative medicine to treat their asthma. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in various human ailments. India has about 45 000 plant species and among them several thousand are claimed to possess medicinal properties. Researches conducted in the last few decades on the plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for asthma have shown antiasthmatic, antihistaminic and antiallergic activity. This review reveals that some plants and their extract have antiasthmatic, antihistaminic, anticholinergic and antiallergic activity.
Cancer is the most common cause of death in Japan. Fundamental and clinical studies on cancer were conducted from the viewpoint of Western medicine so far. However, a sustained complete remission has not been achieved yet. In order to alleviate the side effects of anticancer drugs, some traditional herbal medicines (Kampo medicines) have been prescribed to cancer patients. We have been studying on antitumor substances in medicinal herbs and found an antitumor medicinal herb named Rhus verniciflua (lacquer, Urushi in Japanese). To investigate the antitumor effect in vitro, a plantextract mixture was prepared from six medicinal herbs containing lacquer. The plantextract mixture containing lacquer (Rv-PEM) inhibited the proliferation of several mouse and human tumor cell lines. Rv-PEM had more potent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of human leukemia cell lines (MOLT-3, KG-1) than on other tumor cell lines. The IC50 values of Rv-PEM on MOLT-3 and KG-1 cells were 0.208 and 0.293 mg/mL, respectively. After treating Rv-PEM to the tumor cells, DNA fragmentation and Caspase-3 and -9 activity increased in the treated cells. The mechanisms of the inhibitory proliferation activity of Rv-PEM would involve apoptosis of human leukemia cells (MOLT-3, KG-1, K-562) by the mitochondrial pathway. PMID:23649388
The effect of kadosero, a crude mineral used by traditional healers as a supplement to plantextracts against microbial infections was evaluated. A sample of kadosero from a local market was both analyzed for its basic composition and its role on bioactivity of plantextract. Titrimetric, Gravimetric and Atomic Absorption Spectrometric analyses were used to determine contents of the mineral kadosero. Disc Diffusion Assay was used for bioactivity screening in-vitro. Chemical analysis of kadosero revealed the presence of SO4-2 (0.0038 mg/g), Fe(2) (0.0027 mg/g), Cl(-) (232.683 mg/g) and Na(+) (151.25 mg/g). In-vitro tests revealed that supplementing extract of Balanites aegyptiaca with a mineral kadosero by using untreated well water reduced number of bacterial from 100 colony forming units to nil at a mass of a mineral between 60-100 mg. On the other hand, a mineral kadosero did not increase bioactivity of the extract of B. aegyptiaca against the test microbes in agar disc diffusion assay. This was attributed by interaction between the mineral kadosero and nutrient agar medium. The crude mineral kadosero can be supplemented to other plantextracts used locally for treatment of general bacterial infections for increased bioactivity. Further study is recommended to determine mechanisms for bacterial vulnerability to this mineral supplement. PMID:20162065
Otieno, Joseph Nicolao; Hosea, Kennedy Macha Matengo; Lyaruu, Herbert Valentine
Ten plants indigenous to Sudan and of common use in Sudanese folk-medicine, were examined in vitro for antimalarial activity against schizonts maturation of Plasmodium falciparum, the major human malaria parasite. All plant samples displayed various antiplasmodial activity. Three plantextracts caused 100% inhibition of the parasite growth at concentrations of plant material ? 500 ug/ml. The two most active extracts that produced 100% inhibition of the parasite growth at concentration of plant material ? 50 ?g/ml were obtained from the seeds of Nigella sativa and the whole plant of Aristolochia bracteolata. The ten plants were phytochemically screened for their active constituents. The two most active plants showed the presence of sterols, alkaloids and tannins.
Ahmed, El-Hadi M.; Nour, Bakri Y.M.; Mohammed, Yousif G.; Khalid, Hassan S.
In order to determine the potential of Cerrado plants as sources of antimicrobial activity, the phytochemical screening of ethanol extracts from Virola surinamensis, Qualea grandiflora, Alchornea castaneifolia, Hancornia speciosa and Curatella americana traditionally used in folk medicine are reported. PMID:18350520
Costa, E S; Hiruma-Lima, C A; Lima, E O; Sucupira, G C; Bertolin, A O; Lolis, S F; Andrade, F D P; Vilegas, W; Souza-Brito, A R M
The antimicrobial activities of 23 extracts of 12 Cuban plant species reported in traditional medicine were tested. The agar diffusion method was used to assess the activity against four bacteria and one yeast: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The results, evaluated as the diameter of the inhibition zone of microbial growth, showed that nine
M. J. Martínez; J. Betancourt; N. Alonso-González; A. Jauregui
Kyrgyzstan is a mountainous country in the northeastern part of Central Asia which shares borders to the southeast with China. Due to their extreme environment and climate, there are a diverse range of species of plants. Many of the plants used in Kyrgyz folk medicine have not been studied using modern scientific techniques. This paper introduced the basic situation of medicinal herbs in Kyrgyzstan by comparing the differences traditional use between China and Kyrgyzstan, and looked for traditional medicinalplant research to provide basis for the development and cooperation of China and Kyrgyzstan. PMID:24946536
In the course of searching for new materials to use as whitening agents, we screened 19 methanol extracts prepared from 14\\u000a medicinalplants from Central Kalimantan province, Indonesia. The screening methods used were the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl\\u000a (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay, a tyrosinase inhibition assay, and a melanin formation inhibition assay using B16 melanoma\\u000a cells. The extracts of Willughbeia coriacea (bark part of
We studied antitumor effects of peptide extracts from plants on slowly growing mammary adenocarcinoma in CBRB-Rb(8.17)1Iem mice used as a model of breast cancer in humans. The antitumor effect of a single injection of the test peptides was evaluated by the delay of the appearance and growth of palpable breast cancer in mice over 4 weeks. Peptides from Hypericum perforatum and a mixture of Chelidonium majus L., Inula helenium L., Equisetum arvense L., and Inonotus obliquus exhibited maximum activity. Peptide extracts from Frangula alnuc Mill. and Laurus nobilis L. were less active. No antitumor effect of Camelia sinesis Kuntze was detected. PMID:19110595
Tepkeeva, I I; Moiseeva, E V; Chaadaeva, A V; Zhavoronkova, E V; Kessler, Yu V; Semushina, S G; Demushkin, V P
Objective To evaluate aqueous and ethanol extract of Cassia didymobotrya leaves against immature stages of Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods The mortality rate of immature mosquitoes was tested in wide and narrow range concentration of the plantextract based on WHO standard protocol. The wide range concentration tested in the present study was 10 000, 1 000, 100, 10 and 1 mg/L and narrow range concentration was 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L. Results 2nd instar larvae exposed to 100 mg/L and above concentration of ethanol extract showed 100% mortality. Remaining stages such as 3rd, 4th and pupa, 100% mortality was observed at 1 000 mg/L and above concentration after 24 h exposure period. In aqueous extract all the stages 100% mortality was recorded at 1 000 mg/L and above concentration. In narrow range concentration 2nd instar larvae 100% mortality was observed at 150 mg/L and above concentration of ethanol extract. The remaining stages 100% mortality was recorded at 250 mg/L. In aqueous extract all the tested immature stages 100% mortality was observed at 250 mg/L concentration after 24 h exposure period. The results clearly indicate that the rate of mortality was based dose of the plantextract and stage of the mosquitoes. Conclusions From this study it is confirmed and concluded that Cassia didymobotrya is having active principle which is responsible for controlling Culex quinquefasciatus. The isolation of bioactive molecules and development of simple formulation technique is important for large scale implementation.
Many developing countries including Cameroon have mortality patterns that reflect high levels of infectious diseases and the risk of death during pregnancy and childbirth, in addition to cancers, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases that account for most deaths in the developed world. Several medicinalplants are used traditionally for their treatment. In this review, plants used in Cameroonian traditional medicine with evidence for the activities of their crude extracts and/or derived products have been discussed. A considerable number of plantextracts and isolated compounds possess significant antimicrobial, anti-parasitic including antimalarial, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes, and antioxidant effects. Most of the biologically active compounds belong to terpenoids, phenolics, and alkaloids. Terpenoids from Cameroonian plants showed best activities as anti-parasitic, but rather poor antimicrobial effects. The best antimicrobial, anti-proliferative, and antioxidant compounds were phenolics. In conclusion, many medicinalplants traditionally used in Cameroon to treat various ailments displayed good activities in vitro. This explains the endeavor of Cameroonian research institutes in drug discovery from indigenous medicinalplants. However, much work is still to be done to standardize methodologies and to study the mechanisms of action of isolated natural products.
In this paper, 126 traditional medicinalplants from Kirklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica, Hypericum perforatum, Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis, Juglans regia, Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, Plantago lanceolata, Rosa canina, Ecballium elaterium, Artemisia absinthium, Viscum album subsp. album, Papaver rhoeas, Helleborus orientalis, Cydonia oblonga, Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla, Rubus discolor, Sorbus domestica. A total of 143 medicinal uses were obtained. The traditional medicinalplants have been mostly used for the treatment of wounds (25.3%), cold and influenza (24.6%), stomach (20%), cough (19%), kidney ailments (18.2%), diabetes (13.4%). PMID:17257791
In our experiments 30 hypoglycaemic medicinalplants (known and less known) have been selected for thorough studies from indigenous folk medicines, Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha systems of medicines. In all the experiments with different herbal samples (vacuum dried 95% ethanolic extracts), definite blood glucose lowering effect within 2 weeks have been confirmed in alloxan diabetic albino rats. Blood glucose values
Methanolic extract (75%) of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis and their combination named ‘Triphala’ (equal proportion of above three plantextracts) are being used extensively in Indian system of medicine. They were found to inhibit lipid peroxide formation and to scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in vitro. The concentration of plantextracts that inhibited 50% of lipid peroxidation induced
Antiepileptic drugs used to treat epilepsy can cause severe, life threatening side effects. In Iranian traditional medicine, herbal remedies have been used for centuries to treat seizures. In this study, the five most important herbals in Iranian traditional medicine, namely Canon, al-Hawi, al-Abniah 'an Haqaeq al Adwia, Tuhfat al-Mu'minin, and Makhzan ul-Adwia, were searched for the term "sar-e", which means epilepsy, to identify the herbs used for treatment in ancient times. We also searched scientific literature for pharmacological evidence of their effectiveness. Twenty-five plants were identified as herbal remedies to treat epilepsy. Pharmacological data related to the antiepileptic activity of eleven of these plants exists. A large number of these plants which have not been investigated pharmacologically for antiepileptic activity would be good candidates for study in exploring new herbal anticonvulsant remedies. PMID:24525263
Crude extracts from nine plants widely used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer have been subjected to a bioscreening study to detect cytotoxic activity against human tumor cells. Three different extracts (petroleum ether, ethylacetate, and methanol) from each plant species, were tested towards KB, HCT-15 COLADCAR and UISO-SQC-1 cell cultures. The results showed that three plants Colubrina
Jovita Popoca; Abiga??l Aguilar; Daniel Alonso; Ma. Luisa Villarreal
The polyol enzyme aldose reductase (AR) and advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) play an important role in diabetic complications such as cataracts. The purpose of this study was to investigate four standardized plantextracts used for the treatment of diabetes and related diseases, and their principal components for AR inhibitory activity and to find out their influence in diabetic complications. Thus, Boswellia serrata Triana & Planch. (Burseraceae), Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. (Lythraceae), Ocimum gratissimum (L.) (Lamiaceae) and Syzygium cumin (L.) Skeels. (Myrthaceae) and their respective major constituents, boswellic acid, corosolic acid, ursolic acid and ellagic acid, were studied for their inhibitory activity against rat lens AR, rat kidney AR, human recombinant AR and generation of AGEs. In addition, in vivo inhibition of lens galactitol accumulation by the major constituents of the plants in galactose-fed rat has been studied. The results revealed that all the tested extracts and their active ingredients possess significant AR inhibitory actions in both in vitro and in vivo assays with urosolic acid showing the most potent effect. Furthermore, the study indicates the potential of the studied plants and their major constituents as possible protective agents against long-term diabetic complications. PMID:22826152
Antimicrobial activity of 10 traditional coastal medicinalplant species from South west coast of India were tested against 12 human bacterial pathogens and two cattle pathogens. Among the plant species tested, a butanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri showed maximum inhibitory activity against the human pathogen Escherichia coli, whereas the butanolic extract of Aristolochia indica. L showed maximum inhibitory activity against the cattle pathogen Listeria monocytogen. The mean zone of inhibition indicates that the growth of Salmonella enteritidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were highly inhibited by the coastal medicinalplantextract than the other bacterial species and also the antibacterial activity was found higher in the butanolic extract than water extract. PMID:16334271
Ravikumar, S; Nazar, S; Nuralshiefa, A; Abideen, S
Five plants which have been used for the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and gout in the traditional medicine of Saudi Arabia, were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory properties. Of these the ethanolic extract of Capparis decidua and the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa were found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced oedema in rats. These two plants were also tested for their antipyretic and analgesic activity. C. decidua was found to possess significant antipyretic effect. Both of them are devoid of analgesic activity. PMID:3485894
Ageel, A M; Parmar, N S; Mossa, J S; Al-Yahya, M A; Al-Said, M S; Tariq, M
This supplement provides the medicinal properties of some 1,000 plants. The plants have been arranged in alphabetical order according to their scientific names so readers can find any particular drug on which information is required. Many of the commonly ...
Population growth, urbanization and the unrestricted collection of medicinalplants from the wild is resulting in an over-exploitation of natural resources in southern Africa. Therefore, the management of traditional medicinalplant resources has become a matter of urgency. In southern Africa the most frequently used medicinalplants are slow-growing forest trees, bulbous and tuberous plants, with bark and underground parts being the parts mainly utilized. A strategy which would satisfy the requirements of sustainable harvesting, yet simultaneously provide for primary health care needs, would be the substitution of bark or underground parts with leaves of the same plant. This paper outlines the concept of plant substitution, using preliminary results of our recent investigations into four of the most important and most threatened South African medicinalplants - Eucomis autumnalis (bulb), Siphonochilus aethiopicus (rhizome), Ocotea bullata (bark), and Warburgia salutaris (bark) - as a demonstration of the kind of research necessary. Extracts of various plant parts were compared chemically using TLC-analysis, and pharmacologically in terms of antibacterial activity and cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition in vitro. The importance of the concept of plant part substitution as a strategy for the conservation of medicinalplants in southern Africa is discussed in terms of the results obtained. PMID:10904175
Zschocke, S; Rabe, T; Taylor, J L; Jäger, A K; van Staden, J
Trypanocidal and cytotoxic effects of traditionally used medicinalplants of Ethiopia were evaluated. A total of 60 crude plantextracts were prepared from 30 plant species using CH2Cl2 and MeOH. Effect upon cell proliferation by the extracts, for both bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei and human leukaemia HL-60 cells, was assessed using resazurin as vital stain. Of all CH2Cl2 and MeOH extracts evaluated against the trypanosomes, the CH2Cl2 extracts from five plants showed trypanocidal activity with an IC50 value below 20 microg/mL: Dovyalis abyssinica (Flacourtiaceae), IC50 = 1.4 microg/mL; Albizia schimperiana (Fabaceae), IC50 = 7.2 microg/mL; Ocimum urticifolium (Lamiaceae), IC50 = 14.0 microg/mL; Acokanthera schimperi (Apocynaceae), IC50 = 16.6 microg/mL; and Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae), IC50 = 17.1 microg/mL. A pronounced and selective killing of trypanosomes with minimal toxic effect on human cells was exhibited by Dovyalis abyssinica (CH2Cl2 extract, SI = 125.0; MeOH extract, SI = 57.7) followed by Albizia schimperiana (CH2Cl2 extract, SI = 31.3) and Ocimum urticifolium (MeOH extract, SI = 16.0). In conclusion, the screening of 30 Ethiopian medicinalplants identified three species with good antitrypanosomal activities and low toxicity towards human cells. Dovyalis abyssinica might be a promising candidate for phytotherapy of trypanosomiasis. PMID:22351978
Among 288 extracts, prepared from 96 medicinalplants used in Vietnamese traditional medicine to treat gout and related symptoms, 188 demonstrated xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity at 100 microg/ml, with 46 having greater than 50% inhibition. At 50 microg/ml, 168 of the extracts were active, with 21 possessing more than 50% inhibition. At 25 microg/ml, 146 extracts exhibited inhibitory activity, with 8 showing over 50% inhibition, while 126 extracts presented activity at 10 microg/ml, with 2 having greater than 50% inhibition. The MeOH extracts of Artemisia vulgaris, Caesalpinia sappan (collected at the Seven-Mountain area), Blumea balsamifera (collected in Lam Dong province), Chrysanthemum sinense and MeOH-H(2)O extract of Tetracera scandens (Khanh Hoa province) exhibited strong XO inhibitory activity with IC(50) values less than 20 microg/ml. The most active extract was the MeOH extract of the flower of C. sinense with an IC(50) value of 5.1 microg/ml. Activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract led to the isolation of caffeic acid (1), luteolin (2), eriodictyol (3), and 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4). All these compounds showed significant XO inhibitory activity in a concentration-dependent manner, and the activity of 2 was more potent (IC(50) 1.3 microM) than the clinically used drug, allopurinol (IC(50) 2.5 microM). PMID:15340229
Nguyen, Mai Thanh Thi; Awale, Suresh; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Tran, Quan Le; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kadota, Shigetoshi
Toxicity of phytochemicals, plant-based extracts and dietary supplements, and medicinalplants in general, is of medical importance and must be considered in phytotherapy and other plant uses. We show in this report how general database analyses can provide a quantitative assessment of research and evidence related to toxicity of medicinalplants or specific phytochemicals. As examples, several medicinalplants are analyzed for their relation to nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The results of analyses in different databases are similar, and reveal the two best-established toxic effects among the group of plants that were examined: nephrotoxicity of Aristolochia fangchi and hepatotoxicity of Larrea tridentata.
Eight Pakistani medicinalplants were investigated for antipyretic activity in rabbits receiving subcutaneous yeast injections. Hexane- and chloroform-soluble extracts of Aconitum napellus stems, Corchorus depressus whole plant and Gmelina asiatica roots exhibited prominent oral antipyretic activity while insignificant antipyretic effects were found in the hexane- and chloroform-soluble portions of Melia azadirachta seeds, Tinospora cordifolia stems and Vitex trifolia seeds. No antipyretic actions whatsoever were produced by extracts of A. heterophyllum roots and Hedysarum alhagi aerial parts. Toxicity studies revealed no noteworthy toxic or adverse effects for any of the above plantextracts up to the highest oral doses of 1.6 g/kg except in the case of A. napellus. PMID:3497307
The hypoglycemic effect of five Brazilian medicinalplants (Epidendrum monsenii, Marrubium vulgare, Rheedia gardneriana, Rubus imperialis and Wedelia paludosa) was studied on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The extract of these plants was intragastrically administered to diabetic rats. The results showed that all plants studied (except R. gardneriana) significantly lowered the blood glucose. These results suggest that these four medicinalplants could be an adjuvant agent in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:11677867
Novaes, A P; Rossi, C; Poffo, C; Pretti Júnior, E; Oliveira, A E; Schlemper, V; Niero, R; Cechinel-Filho, V; Bürger, C
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family. Cinnamon is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. In addition to being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-disease-lowering compound, cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. This review illustrates the pharmacological prospective of cinnamon and its use in daily life.
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family. Cinnamon is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. In addition to being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-disease-lowering compound, cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. This review illustrates the pharmacological prospective of cinnamon and its use in daily life. PMID:24817901
Background Plants that are used as traditional medicine represent a relevant pool for selecting plant candidates that may have anticancer properties. In this study, the ethnomedicinal approach was used to select several medicinalplants native to Nigeria, on the basis of their local or traditional uses. The collected plants were then evaluated for cytoxicity. Methods The antitumor activity of methanolic extracts obtained from 24 of the selected plants, were evaluated in vitro on five human cancer cell lines. Results Results obtained from the plants screened indicate that 18 plantextracts of folk medicine exhibited promising cytotoxic activity against human carcinoma cell lines. Erythrophleum suaveolens (Guill. & Perr.) Brenan was found to demonstrate potent anti-cancer activity in this study exhibiting IC50 = 0.2-1.3 ?g/ml. Conclusions Based on the significantly potent activity of some plantsextracts reported here, further studies aimed at mechanism elucidation and bio-guided isolation of active anticancer compounds is currently underway.
In search of a botanical algicide, 40 traditional medicinalplants were screened for antialgal activity against the bloom-forming\\u000a cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa using coexistence culture system assay. The results of the coexistence assay showed that significant inhibition of the algae\\u000a at 800 mg L?1 were observed for methanolic extracts of the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae), rhizome of Acorus tatarinowii (Rhizoma
Yang-Lei Yi; Yi Lei; Yue-Bang Yin; Hong-Yu Zhang; Gao-Xue Wang
The methanol extract of the bark of the Colombian medicinalplant Maytenus laevis gave six new compounds and 28 known compounds. The structures of the new and known compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Several of these compounds were screened for cytokine-inducing activity on human PBMCs to investigate antitumor effects, and canophyllol (12) demonstrated the most effective induction of the cytokines. PMID:15568791
Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for diabetes have shown anti-diabetic property. The present paper reviews 45 such plants and their products (active, natural principles and crude extracts) that have been mentioned/used in the Indian traditional system of medicine and have shown experimental or clinical anti-diabetic activity. Indian plants which are most effective and the most commonly studied in relation to diabetes and their complications are: Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Cajanus cajan, Coccinia indica, Caesalpinia bonducella, Ficus bengalenesis, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Swertia chirayita, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia and Trigonella foenum graecum. Among these we have evaluated M. charantia, Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna pruriens, T. cordifolia, T. foenum graecum, O. sanctum, P. marsupium, Murraya koeingii and Brassica juncea. All plants have shown varying degree of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity. PMID:12020931
Medicinalplants are often used in the treatment of various ailments. In this study, 23 of Thai medicinalplants were screened for their anticandidal activity against six pathogenic Candida species: C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. The methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. fruit, Trigonostemon reidioides (Kurz) Craib root, Usnea siamensis Vain whole plant, Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf. rhizome, and Albizia myriophylla Benth. stem showed anticandidal activity against one or more species of Candida. Among them, A. myriophylla Benth. showed broad anticandidal activity. The susceptibility tests of A. myriophylla Benth. extract, in terms of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), were performed by the broth microdilution techniques as described by the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute. MICs of A. myriophylla Benth. extract to all Candida species was ranged 100-500 mug ml(-1). The killing activity of A. myriophylla Benth. extract was fast acting against all Candida tested; the reduction in the number of CFU ml(-1) was >3 log(10) units (99.9%) in 2 h. This study indicates that A. myriophylla Benth. extract has considerable anticandidal activity, deserving further investigation for clinical applications for the treatment of candidiasis. PMID:18331446
Ethanol extracts from medicinalplants commonly used by Governador Valadares people were tested for antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity (BST assay). The field survey was conducted during the years 1997-2000 by means of direct interviews with healing men (\\
In the rain forest region of Karnataka State, India, a scandent herb Justicia known as "medicineplant" is widely consumed by the local population by incorporating its extract into desserts. This is especially common in the months of June through August because of the belief that the medicinal properties reach their peak during this season. This plant is now considered to be distributed exclusively in this region of the South Indian rain forest. The plantextract lowers cellular cholesterol and cholesteryl ester concentration. Further studies also showed a novel inhibitory effect on the uptake of ox-LDL by human macrophage cell line.
The ethnomedical uses of Piper (?? Hú Ji?o) plants as anticancer agents, in vitro cytotoxic activity of both extracts and compounds from Piper plants, and in vivo antitumor activity and mechanism of action of selected compounds are reviewed in the present paper. The genus Piper (Piperaceae) contains approximately 2000 species, of which 10 species have been used in traditional medicines to treat cancer or cancer-like symptoms. Studies have shown that 35 extracts from 24 Piper species and 32 compounds from Piper plants possess cytotoxic activity. Amide alkaloids account for 53% of the major active principles. Among them, piplartine (piperlongumine) shows the most promise, being toxic to dozens of cancer cell lines and having excellent in vivo activity. It is worthwhile to conduct further anticancer studies both in vitro and in vivo on Piper plants and their active principles.
Several protocols and commercial kits are used for the extraction of nucleic acids from different plant tissues. Although\\u000a there are several procedures available to remove sugars, which hinder the extraction of clean genomic DNA, there are few to\\u000a assist with extraction of RNA. Those presently used include precipitations with ethylene glycol monobutyl ether or lithium\\u000a chloride (LiCl), or centrifugation in
Valeriano Dal Cin; Marcello Danesin; Fabio Massimo Rizzini; Angelo Ramina
Objectives: Screening of the medicinalplants and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Materials and Methods: A simple in vitro screening assay was employed for the standard strain of Vibrio cholerae, 12 isolates of Vibrio cholerae non-O1, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts of different parts of the plants were investigated by using the disk diffusion method. Extracts from 16 medicinalplants were selected on account of the reported traditional uses for the treatment of cholera and gastrointestinal diseases, and they were assayed for vibriocidal activities. Results: The different extracts differed significantly in their vibriocidal properties with respect to different solvents. The MIC values of the plantextracts against test bacteria were found to be in the range of 2.5-20 mg/ml. Conclusions: The results indicated that Lawsonia inermis, Saraca indica, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia belerica, Allium sativum, and Datura stramonium served as broad-spectrum vibriocidal agents.
Background Nearly 3,000 plant species are used as medicines in South Africa, with approximately 350 species forming the most commonly traded and used medicinalplants. In the present study, twelve South African medicinalplants were selected and tested for their antimicrobial activities against eight microbial species belonging to fungi, Mycobacteria, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods The radiometric respiratory technique using the BACTEC 460 system was used for susceptibility testing against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the liquid micro-broth dilution was used for other antimicrobial assays. Results The results of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations indicated that the methanol extracts from Acacia karoo, Erythrophleum lasianthum and Salvia africana were able to prevent the growth of all the tested microorganisms. All other samples showed selective activities. MIC values below 100??g/ml were recorded with A. karoo, C. dentate, E. lasianthum, P. obligun and S. africana on at least one of the nine tested microorganisms. The best activity (MIC value of 39.06??g/ml) was noted with S. africana against E. coli, S. aureus and M. audouinii, and Knowltonia vesitoria against M. tuberculosis. Conclusion The overall results of the present work provide baseline information for the possible use of the studied South African plantextracts in the treatment of microbial infections.
The author analyzes the effects of diverse medicinalplants such as poppy (papaver somniferum), Hawthorn, hypericum, and hops on those moderate nervous states which provoke insomnia, anxiety, or excitement as a complementary method to aid a patient overcome those states. PMID:15125337
The insecticidal activity of 11 extracts from nine South American medicinalplants has been studied using the Aedes aegypti larvicidal assay. Eight of the 11 plantextracts studied showed toxicity against the A. aegypti larvae (LC50<500 ?g\\/ml). The dichloromethane extracts of Abuta grandifolia and Minthostachys setosa demonstrated high larvicidal activity, the most active being the dichloromethane extract of A. grandifolia,
Aim. In the present study, we investigated the antiangiogenic properties of 59 plants used in traditional Korean medicine. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their modes of action. Methods. A modified chicken-chorioallantoic-membrane (CAM) assay using quail eggs was applied to test for antiangiogenic effects of plantextracts. A molecular docking in silico approached the binding of plant constituents to the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (VEGFR1, VEGFR2). Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling was employed to correlate the 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) of a panel of 60 NCI cell lines to these phytochemicals. Results. Extracts from Acer mono leaves, Reynoutria sachalniensis fruits, Cinnamomum japonicum stems, Eurya japonica leaves, Adenophora racemosa whole plant, Caryopteris incana leaves-stems, and Schisandra chinensis stems inhibited angiogenesis more than 50% in quail eggs. Selected phytochemicals from Korean plants were analyzed in more detail using microarray-based mRNA expression profiles and molecular docking to VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. These results indicate multifactorial modes of action of these natural products. Conclusion. The antiangiogenic activity of plants used in traditional Korean medicine implicates their possible application for diseases where inhibition of blood vessel formation is desired, for example, cancer, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and others. PMID:23970927
Seo, Ean-Jeong; Kuete, Victor; Kadioglu, Onat; Krusche, Benjamin; Schröder, Sven; Greten, Henry Johannes; Arend, Joachim; Lee, Ik-Soo; Efferth, Thomas
Aim. In the present study, we investigated the antiangiogenic properties of 59 plants used in traditional Korean medicine. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their modes of action. Methods. A modified chicken-chorioallantoic-membrane (CAM) assay using quail eggs was applied to test for antiangiogenic effects of plantextracts. A molecular docking in silico approached the binding of plant constituents to the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (VEGFR1, VEGFR2). Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling was employed to correlate the 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) of a panel of 60 NCI cell lines to these phytochemicals. Results. Extracts from Acer mono leaves, Reynoutria sachalniensis fruits, Cinnamomum japonicum stems, Eurya japonica leaves, Adenophora racemosa whole plant, Caryopteris incana leaves-stems, and Schisandra chinensis stems inhibited angiogenesis more than 50% in quail eggs. Selected phytochemicals from Korean plants were analyzed in more detail using microarray-based mRNA expression profiles and molecular docking to VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. These results indicate multifactorial modes of action of these natural products. Conclusion. The antiangiogenic activity of plants used in traditional Korean medicine implicates their possible application for diseases where inhibition of blood vessel formation is desired, for example, cancer, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and others.
Seo, Ean-Jeong; Kuete, Victor; Krusche, Benjamin; Schroder, Sven; Greten, Henry Johannes; Arend, Joachim; Lee, Ik-Soo; Efferth, Thomas
The traditional uses of plants for medicine were studied in Afghanistan. To date, 215 medicinalplants have been identified and are presented in a table with the vernacular name (in Dari, Pashto and Kati), the geographical and ecological distribution, and the medicinal use. This study of traditional medicine demonstrates a close relationship between the kinds of medicinalplants used and pathology, and thus may serve as an indicator of the major health problems of the people. PMID:3682849
Ethnopharmacological relevanceMedicinalplants from the Caatinga, a Brazilian xeric shrubland, are used in folk medicine to treat infections. These ethnopharmacological data can contribute to obtaining new antimicrobial\\/antibiofilm extracts and natural product prototypes for the development of new drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibiofilm and antibacterial activities of 45 aqueous extracts from 24 Caatinga plant species.
Danielle da Silva Trentin; Raquel Brandt Giordani; Karine Rigon Zimmer; Alexandre Gomes da Silva; Márcia Vanusa da Silva; Maria Tereza dos Santos Correia; Israel Jacob Rabin Baumvol; Alexandre José Macedo
Among the Cree of northern Quebec, the disproportionately high rate of diabetic complications is largely due to the cultural inadequacy of modern therapies for type 2 diabetes. To establish culturally adapted antidiabetic treatments, our team identified several candidate plant species used by the Cree to treat symptoms of diabetes. An initial study focused on 8 species and revealed that most possess significant in vitro antidiabetic activity. The purpose of the present study was to assess a further 9 species identified through the ethnobotanical survey. Crude plantextracts were screened for (i) potentiation of basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by skeletal muscle cells (C2C12) and adipocytes (3T3-L1); (ii) potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells (betaTC); (iii) potentiation of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells; (iv) protection against glucose toxicity and glucose deprivation in PC12-AC neuronal precursor cells; and (v) diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) oxygen free radical scavenging. Four species potentiated basal glucose uptake in muscle cells or adipocytes, one species being as potent as metformin. Adipogenesis was accelerated by 4 species with a potency roughly half that of rosiglitazone. Five species protected PC12-AC cells against glucose toxicity and 4 protected against glucose deprivation. Five species exhibited antioxidant activity comparable to ascorbic acid. However, no species increased insulin secretion. The present study revealed that Gaultheria hispidula, Rhododendron tomentosum, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea exhibit a promising profile of antidiabetic potential and are good candidates for more in-depth evaluation. PMID:19526043
Harbilas, Despina; Martineau, Louis C; Harris, Cory S; Adeyiwola-Spoor, Danielle C A; Saleem, Ammar; Lambert, Jennifer; Caves, Dayna; Johns, Timothy; Prentki, Marc; Cuerrier, Alain; Arnason, John T; Bennett, Steffany A L; Haddad, Pierre S
Extracts obtained from seven tree species used in Sudanese traditional medicine were screened for antibacterial, anti-cholinesterase activities and investigated for potential mutagenic effects using the Ames test. Antibacterial activity was detected using the micro-dilution assay. The extracts were tested against Gram-positive: Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative: Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Of the plantextracts investigated, 75% showed
Background Indian medicinalplants used in the Ayurvedic traditional system to treat diabetes are a valuable source of novel anti-diabetic agents. Pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. In this study, seventeen Indian medicinalplants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for ?-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on PPA (porcine pancreatic ?-amylase). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the lead extracts was performed in order to determine the probable constituents. Methods Analysis of the 126 extracts, obtained from 17 plants (Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., Adansonia digitata L., Allium sativum L., Casia fistula L., Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don., Cinnamomum verum Persl., Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt., Linum usitatisumum L., Mangifera indica L., Morus alba L., Nerium oleander L., Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Piper nigrum L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers., Trigonella foenum-graceum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc.) for PPA inhibition was initially performed qualitatively by starch-iodine colour assay. The lead extracts were further quantified with respect to PPA inhibition using the chromogenic DNSA (3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid) method. Phytochemical constituents of the extracts exhibiting? 50% inhibition were analysed qualitatively as well as by GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry). Results Of the 126 extracts obtained from 17 plants, 17 extracts exhibited PPA inhibitory potential to varying degrees (10%-60.5%) while 4 extracts showed low inhibition (< 10%). However, strong porcine pancreatic amylase inhibitory activity (> 50%) was obtained with 3 isopropanol extracts. All these 3 extracts exhibited concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, viz., seeds of Linum usitatisumum (540 ?gml-1), leaves of Morus alba (1440 ?gml-1) and Ocimum tenuiflorum (8.9 ?gml-1). Acarbose as the standard inhibitor exhibited an IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration)value of 10.2 ?gml-1. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids with the major phytoconstituents being identified by GC-MS. Conclusions This study endorses the use of these plants for further studies to determine their potential for type 2 diabetes management. Results suggests that extracts of Linum usitatisumum, Morus alba and Ocimum tenuiflorum act effectively as PPA inhibitors leading to a reduction in starch hydrolysis and hence eventually to lowered glucose levels.
Herbal remedies have a long history of use for gum and tooth problems such as dental caries. The present microbiological study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinalplants (Terminalia chebula Retz., Clitoria ternatea Linn., and Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck.) Merr.) on three pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Staphylococcus aureus). Aqueous extract concentrations (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%) were prepared from the fruits of Terminalia chebula, flowers of Clitoria ternatea, and leaves of Wedelia chinensis. The antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extract concentrations of each plant was tested using agar well diffusion method and the size of the inhibition zone was measured in millimeters. The results obtained showed that the diameter of zone of inhibition increased with increase in concentration of extract and the antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extracts of the three plants was observed in the increasing order - Wedelia chinensis < Clitoria ternatea < Terminalia chebula. It can be concluded that the tested extracts of all the three plants were effective against dental caries causing bacteria. PMID:23723653
Pratap, Gowd M J S; Manoj, Kumar M G; Sai, Shankar A J; Sujatha, B; Sreedevi, E
Herbal remedies have a long history of use for gum and tooth problems such as dental caries. The present microbiological study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinalplants (Terminalia chebula Retz., Clitoria ternatea Linn., and Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck.) Merr.) on three pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Staphylococcus aureus). Aqueous extract concentrations (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%) were prepared from the fruits of Terminalia chebula, flowers of Clitoria ternatea, and leaves of Wedelia chinensis. The antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extract concentrations of each plant was tested using agar well diffusion method and the size of the inhibition zone was measured in millimeters. The results obtained showed that the diameter of zone of inhibition increased with increase in concentration of extract and the antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extracts of the three plants was observed in the increasing order – Wedelia chinensis < Clitoria ternatea < Terminalia chebula. It can be concluded that the tested extracts of all the three plants were effective against dental caries causing bacteria.
Pratap, Gowd M. J. S; Manoj, Kumar M. G.; Sai, Shankar A. J.; Sujatha, B.; Sreedevi, E.
Sample extraction is the first challenge in analysis of herbal medicines (HMs). Numerous methods have been developed to improve extraction efficiency, use less solvent and short time. In this work, a tissue-smashing based ultra-rapid extraction (TSURE) method has been proposed through the designed particle crushing, drastic stir, and dynamic molecular permeation at normal temperature. Factors in TSURE like extraction time, volts, and solvents were optimized for extraction efficiency of salvianolic acid B, cryptotanshinone, and tanshinone IIA from Salvia miltiorrhiza. The TSURE method was validated in terms of repeatability (RSD<2.2%) and extraction recoveries (93-106% with RSD<5.0%). TSURE showed a comparable extraction efficiency to conventional heat reflux extraction (HRE) and better than ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE). The extraction time was about 2.0-3.0min for TSURE, 60 times faster than the performance of HRE and 20 times faster than UAE. Microscopic analysis showed that the Krummbein diameter of plant particles after extraction were about 600-1200?m for HRE and UAE, and decreased to 50-80?m for TSURE. Subsequently, the developed TSURE was applied to high-throughput extraction of 19 S. miltiorrhiza samples collected in different regions of China. Besides, application of TSURE to other herbal medicines was also investigated, including Panax quinquefolius and Lonicera japonica. TSURE method provided an ultra-rapid and promising alternation for extraction of ingredients in herbal medicines, and can be extended to pharmaceutics, foods and cosmetics. PMID:24685727
Fifteen extracts from nine selected Argentine medicinalplants were tested for their antiplasmodial activity in vitro by assessing their ability to inhibit the uptake of [3H]-hypoxanthine into the Plasmodium falciparum K1 pyrimethamine/chloroquine resistant strain. The methanol extract of Satureja parvifolia showed good antiplasmodial activity (IC(50) 3 microg/ml). Inhibition of the growth of P. falciparum was also observed with aqueous extracts of Buddleja globosa and S. parvifolia. PMID:12007706
Debenedetti, S; Muschietti, L; van Baren, C; Clavin, M; Broussalis, A; Martino, V; Houghton, P J; Warhurst, D; Steele, J
Summary A vast majority of population particularly those living in villages depend largely on herbal medicines. Scientific data on a good number of medicinalplants investigated has been well documented. However, only very few drugs of plant origin could reach clinical use and the National Formulary could not adopt even a dozen of plantmedicines. For this reason, a special
Twenty-two extracts from nine Mexican medicinalplants of eight different families used for people neighbor to Huautla Sierra Biosphere Reserve (REBIOSH) in different infectious diseases were assayed in vitro to determine their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus fae- calis; Escherichia coli; Proteus mirabilis; Salmonella typhi and the yeast Candida albicans. Most plants showed antibacterial activity, while two plants showed
David O. Salinas Sánchez; Gema L. Arteaga Najera; Ismael León Rivera; Oscar Dorado
Ethnobotanical survey of medicinalplants use in Sokoto state of Nigeria for the treatment of diarrhoeal disorders was conducted. The plants documented were identified botanically and ranked based on informant frequency of citation. Ten top rank plants were then selected and screened for acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and antidiarrhoea properties. A fixed single dose (3000 mg\\/kg b.wt.) of aqueous extract
E. U. Etuk; M. O. Ugwah; O. P. Ajagbonna; P. A. Onyeyili
Medicinalplants are those plants that provide medicines - to prevent disease, maintain health or cure sickness. In one or other form, these plants benefit virtually everyone on the Earth. These plants are also related to various other usages, such as for nutrition, toiletry, bodily care, incense and ritual healing. Aromatic plants are used for their aroma and flavour and
The global scenario is now supporting the development of modern drugs from less toxic plant products with proven medicinal properties. Each part of neem plant [Azadirachta indica A. Juss] reportedly have various medicinal properties and has been in use in many continents for centuries. Recently, a fractionated neem-leaf extract known as IRAB with reported activities against Malaria, HIV/AIDS and cancer has been developed into a drug and currently marketed in Nigeria as IRACAP. This paper reviews the medicinal properties, clinical studies and safety concerns of this fractionated acetone-water neem leaves extract as a footstep to further studies both on the extract and/or its chemical constituents. PMID:20234757
Dengue fever causes mortality and morbidity around the world, specifically in the Tropics and subtropic regions, which has been of major concern to governments and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a consequence, the search for new anti-dengue agents from medicinalplants has assumed more urgency than in the past. Medicinalplants have been used widely to treat a variety of vector ailments such as malaria. The demand for plant-based medicines is growing as they are generally considered to be safer, non-toxic and less harmful than synthetic drugs. This article reviews potential anti-dengue activities from plants distributed around the world. Sixty-nine studies from 1997 to 2012 describe 31 different species from 24 families that are known for their anti-dengue activities. About ten phytochemicals have been isolated from 11 species, among which are compounds with the potential for development of dengue treatment. Crude extracts and essential oils obtained from 31 species showed a broad activity against Flavivirus. Current studies show that natural products represent a rich potential source of new anti-dengue compounds. Further ethnobotanical surveys and laboratory investigations are needed established the potential of identified species in contributing to dengue control. PMID:23591999
Abd Kadir, Siti Latifah; Yaakob, Harisun; Mohamed Zulkifli, Razauden
In a recent survey, 106 local healers in Israel were interviewed concerning the use of Solanaceae as medicinalplants. The main findings reveal that: (a) only four species (Lycium europeaum, Solanum nigrum, Hyoscyamus aureus, Hyoscyamus albus) are extensively used today; (b) the use of some traditional plants has been almost abandoned (Datura spp., Mandragora autumnalis, Withania somnifera); (c) today all the plants are applied externally, they are rarely used as narcotics; (d) most use of these plants is local, only in a few cases is a uniform use found throughout the whole country, and in all ethnic groups; (e) the extensive distribution of modern, safe narcotics, sedatives and anaesthetics has reduced the use of the Solanaceae for these purposes. PMID:7990499
India is one of the 12 mega diversity countries in the world so it has a vital stake in conservation and sustainable utilization of its biodiversity resources. Plant secondary metabolites have been of interest to man for a long time due to their pharmacological relevance. With this in view, the bark powder of Acacia auriculiformis, A. nilotica, Juglans regia, and the fruit powder of Terminalia bellerica, T. chebula, Emblica officinalis, and a combination drug "Triphala," which are known to be rich in polyphenols, were tested for their antimutagenic activities. Antimutagenic activities of the extracts were estimated by employing the plate incorporation Ames Salmonella histidine reversion assay by using the frame shift mutagen tester strain TA98 and base pair substitution strain TA100 against direct acting mutagens (NPD, sodium azide), and the S9-dependent mutagen 2-aminofluorene(2AF). Acetone extracts of all the plants exhibited significant antimutagenic activities among the other extracts tested, but an acetone extract of Acacia nilotica showed a marked anti-mutagent effect. Furthermore, it was more effective against indirect acting mutagen, 2AF, in both TA98 and TA100 tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium than against the direct acting mutagens. The results indicate that an acetone extract of bark and fruit of the medicinalplants under study harbors constituents with promising antimutagenic/anticarcinogenic potential that could be investigated further. PMID:12616620
Background Screening of the ethnobotenical plants is a pre-requisite to evaluate their therapeutic potential and it can lead to the isolation of new bioactive compounds. Methods The crude extracts and fractions of six medicinal important plants (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, Pistacia integerrima, Aesculus indica, and Toona ciliata) were tested against three Gram positive and two Gram negative ATCC bacterial species using the agar well diffusion method. Results The crude extract of P. integerrima and A. indica were active against all tested bacterial strains (12-23 mm zone of inhibition). Other four plant's crude extracts (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, and Toona ciliata) were active against different bacterial strains. The crude extracts showed varying level of bactericidal activity. The aqueous fractions of A. indica and P. integerrima crude extract showed maximum activity (19.66 and 16 mm, respectively) against B. subtilis, while the chloroform fractions of T. ciliata and D. salicifolia presented good antibacterial activities (13-17 mm zone of inhibition) against all the bacterial cultures tested. Conclusion The methanol fraction of Pistacia integerrima, chloroform fractions of Debregeasia salicifolia &Toona ciliata and aqueous fraction of Aesculus indica are suitable candidates for the development of novel antibacterial compounds.
Extracts of five indigenous Thai medicinal having ethnomedical application in the treatment of dysuria were investigated for their diuretic activity. Root extracts of Ananas comosus and Carica papaya, given orally to rats at a dose of 10 mg/kg, demonstrated significantly increased urine output (P < 0.01) which was 79 and 74%, respectively, of the effect of an equivalent dose of hydrochlorothiazide. Both plantextracts gave similar profiles of urinary electrolyte excretion to that of the hydrochlorothiazide. The analyses of the urinary osmolality and electrolyte excretion per unit time suggest the observed effect of A. comosus was intrinsic, whereas that of C. papaya may have resulted from a high salt content of this extract. However, our experimental evidence on the diuretic activities of the other three plants did not parallel their local utilization for dysuria. It was found that the rhizome of Imperata cylindrica apparently inhibited the urination of rats whereas the rhizome of Cyperus rotundus and the stem of Averrhoa carambola failed to demonstrate any diuretic activities. These results indicate that two of the plants investigated exert their action by causing diuresis. The other three plants need further investigation to determine their effectiveness in the treatment of dysuria. PMID:11297849
Sripanidkulchai, B; Wongpanich, V; Laupattarakasem, P; Suwansaksri, J; Jirakulsomchok, D
Ninety crude extracts, including dichloromethane, methanol and aqueous extracts from 30 medicinalplants used in the Yemeni ethnomedicine to treat common infections, were screened in vitro for antimicrobial activities against three Gram-positive bacteria and two Gram-negative bacteria, Candida maltosa and five opportunistic human fungal pathogens (two yeasts, three hyphomycetes).Most of the plants showed antibacterial activities. Extracts from Tamarindus indica flowers
Mohamed Al-Fatimi; Martina Wurster; Gudrun Schröder; Ulrike Lindequist
In a screening of plants used traditionally in Nepal to treat diseases that could be caused by viruses, methanol extracts from 21 species were assayed for activity against three mammalian viruses: herpes simplex virus, Sindbis virus and poliovirus. Assays were performed in UV-A or visible light, as well as dark. Individual species of Hypericum, Lygodium, and Maesa exhibited impressive antiviral activities, although their selective effects on the three viruses suggested that the antiviral ingredients were different in each extract. In addition, many of the other extracts showed partial inactivation of one or more test viruses. PMID:8771457
Taylor, R S; Manandhar, N P; Hudson, J B; Towers, G H
An ethnopharmacobotanical survey of the medicinalplants and food medicines of the northern part of Lucca Province, north-west Tuscany, central Italy, was carried out. The geographical isolation of this area has permitted the survival of a rich folk phytotherapy involving medicinal herbs and also vegetable resources used by locals as food medicine. Among these are the uncommon use of Ballota
Morbidity and mortality estimates due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections continue to rise. Therapeutic options are limited by antibiotic resistance. Anti-pathogenic compounds, which inhibit quorum sensing (QS) pathways, may be a useful alternative to antibiotics. Staphylococcal QS is encoded by the AGR locus and is responsible for the production of ?-hemolysin. Quantification of ?-hemolysin found in culture supernatants permits the analysis of AGR activity at the translational rather than transcriptional level. We employed reversed phase high performance chromatographic (RP-HPLC) techniques to investigate the anti-QS activity of 168 extracts from 104 Italian plants through quantification of ?-hemolysin. Extracts from three medicinalplants (Ballota nigra, Castanea sativa, and Sambucus ebulus) exhibited a dose-dependent response in the production of ?-hemolysin, indicating anti-QS activity in a pathogenic MRSA isolate. PMID:20645243
Quave, Cassandra L; Plano, Lisa R W; Bennett, Bradley C
Background Infectious diseases caused by multiresistant microbial strains are on the increase. Fighting these diseases with natural products may be more efficacious. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of methanolic, ethylacetate (EtOAc) and hexanic fractions of five Cameroonian medicinalplants (Piptadeniastum africana, Cissus aralioides, Hileria latifolia, Phyllanthus muellerianus and Gladiolus gregasius) against 10 pathogenic microorganisms of the urogenital and gastrointestinal tracts. Methods The fractions were screened for their chemical composition and in vivo acute toxicity was carried out on the most active extracts in order to assess their inhibitory selectivity. The agar well-diffusion and the micro dilution methods were used for the determination of the inhibition diameters (ID) and Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) respectively on 8 bacterial species including two Gram positive species (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis), and six Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi) and two fungal isolates (Candida albicans, Candida krusei). The chemical composition was done according to Harbone (1976), the acute toxicity evaluation according to WHO protocol and the hepatic as well as serum parameters measured to assess liver and kidney functions. Results The chemical components of each plant's extract varied according to the solvent used, and they were found to contain alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, triterpens, sterols, tannins, coumarins, glycosides, cardiac glycosides and reducing sugars. The methanolic and ethylacetate extracts of Phyllanthus muellerianus and Piptadeniastum africana presented the highest antimicrobial activities against all tested microorganisms with ID varying from 8 to 26 mm and MIC from 2.5 to 0.31 mg/ml. The in vivo acute toxicity study carried out on the methanolic extracts of Phyllanthus muellerianus and Piptadeniastrum africana indicated that these two plants were not toxic. At the dose of 4 g/kg body weight, kidney and liver function tests indicated that these two medicinalplants induced no adverse effect on these organs. Conclusion These results showed that, all these plant's extracts can be used as antimicrobial phytomedicines which can be therapeutically used against infections caused by multiresistant agents. Phyllanthus muellerianus, Piptadeniastum africana, antimicrobial, acute toxicity, kidney and liver function tests, Cameroon Traditional Medicine
Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45?000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally
Background:The medicinal use of extracts prepared from plant parts of the genus Crataegus dates back to ancient times. Furthermore, it has been proposed that its antioxidant constituents account for its beneficial therapeutic effects. A decoction of leaves and unripe fruits from Crataegus aronia syn. azarolus (L) (Rosaceae), the indigenous Israeli hawthorn, is used to treat cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes and
Predrag Ljubuncic; Irina Portnaya; Uri Cogan; Hassan Azaizeh; Arieh Bomzon
Plants have provided Man with all his needs in terms of shelter, clothing, food, flavours and fragrances as not the least, medicines. Plants have formed the basis of sophisticated traditional medicine systems among which are Ayurvedic, Unani, Chinese amongst others. These systems of medicine have given rise to some important drugs still in use today. Among the lesser-known systems of
Medicinalplants contain a wide variety of active principles that have been exploited for the treatment of various ailments by a majority of the world's population. In recent years, many advanced biotechnological methods are employed to select, multiply, improve, and analyze medicinalplants for their application in traditional and modern medicinal preparations and drug discovery. The purpose of the present
The co-evolution of Orobanche spp. and their hosts within the same environment has resulted in a high degree of adaptation and effective parasitism whereby the host releases parasite germination stimulants, which are likely to be unstable in the soil. Our objective was to investigate whether extracts from non-host plants, specifically, Chinese medicinalplants, could stimulate germination of Orobanche spp. Samples of 606 Chinese medicinal herb species were extracted with deionized water and methanol. The extracts were used to induce germination of three Orobanche species; Orobanche minor, Orobanche cumana, and Orobanche aegyptiaca. O. minor exhibited a wide range of germination responses to the various herbal extracts. O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca exhibited an intermediate germination response to the herbal extracts. O. minor, which has a narrow host spectrum, showed higher germination rates in response to different herbal extracts compared with those of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca, which have a broader host spectrum. Methanolic extracts of many Chinese herbal species effectively stimulated seed germination among the Orobanche spp., even though they were not the typical hosts. The effective herbs represent interesting examples of potential trap crops. Different countries can also screen extracts from indigenous herbaceous plants for their ability to induce germination of Orobanche spp. seeds. The use of such species as trap plants could diminish the global soil seed bank of Orobanche. PMID:22527522
Ma, YongQing; Zhang, Wei; Dong, ShuQi; Ren, XiangXiang; An, Yu; Lang, Ming
Trypanosoma evansi, the causative agent of "surra", infects many species of wild and domestic animals worldwide. In the current study, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of six medicinalplants, namely, Aquilaria malaccensis, Derris elliptica, Garcinia hombroniana, Goniothalamus umbrosus, Nigella sativa, and Strobilanthes crispus were screened in vitro for activity against T. evansi. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts was evaluated on green monkey kidney (Vero) cells using MTT-cell proliferation assay. The median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of the extracts ranged between 2.30 and 800.97 ?g/ml and the median cytotoxic concentrations (CC50) ranged between 29.10 ?g/ml and 14.53 mg/ml. The aqueous extract of G. hombroniana exhibited the highest selectivity index (SI) value of 616.36, followed by A. malaccensis aqueous extract (47.38). Phytochemical screening of the G. hombroniana aqueous extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenols, tannins, and saponins. It is demonstrated here that the aqueous extract of G. hombroniana has potential antitrypanosomal activity with a high SI, and may be considered as a potential source for the development of new antitrypanosomal compounds. PMID:24862048
Dyary, H O; Arifah, A K; Sharma, R S; Rasedee, A; Mohd-Aspollah, M S; Zakaria, Z A; Zuraini, A; Somchit, M N
Aly, M.M. and Bafeel, S.O. 2010. Screening for antifungal activities of some medicinalplants used traditionally in Saudi Arabia. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 38: 39–44.The antimicrobial activities of water and organic crude extracts of 6 medicinalplants (Azadirachta Indica (neem), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Eucalyptus globules, Lawsonia inermis, Lepidium sativum and Rosmarinus officinalis) were detected against different pathogenic yeasts and fungi
Extracts form 10 different Malian medicinalplants with a traditional use against schistosomiasis were investigated for their possible content of proteolytic activity. The proteolytic activity was studied by measuring the hydrolysis of two synthetic peptide substrates Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec and Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec. Legumain- and papain-like activities were found in all tested crude extracts except those from Entada africana, with the papain-like activity being the strongest. Cissus quadrangularis, Securidaca longepedunculata and Stylosanthes erecta extracts showed high proteolytic activities towards both substrates. After gel filtration the proteolytic activity towards the substrate Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec in root extract of Securidaca longepedunculata appeared to have Mr of 30 and 97kDa, while the activity in extracts from Cissus quadrangularis was at 39kDa. Enzymatic activity cleaving the substrate Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec showed apparent Mr of 97 and 26kDa in extracts from roots and leaves of Securidaca longepedunculata, while in Cissus quadrangularis extracts the activity eluted at 39 and 20kDa, with the highest activity in the latter. All Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec activities were inhibited by E-64 but unaffected by PMSF. The legumain activity was unaffected by E-64 and PMSF. The SDS-PAGE analysis exhibited five distinct gelatinolytic bands for Cissus quadrangularis extracts (115, 59, 31, 22 and 20kDa), while two bands (59 and 30kDa) were detected in Securidaca longepedunculata extracts. The inhibition profile of the gelatinolytic bands and that of the hydrolysis of the synthetic substrates indicate the cysteine protease class of the proteolytic activities. Several cysteine protease activities with different molecular weights along with a strong variability of these activities between species as well as between plant parts from the same species were observed. PMID:16621376
Bah, Sékou; Paulsen, Berit S; Diallo, Drissa; Johansen, Harald T
The genotoxicity and toxicity of ethnomedicinal Philippine plants, which include Cassia fistula, Derris elliptica, Ficus elastica, Gliciridia sepium, Michelia alba, Morus alba, Pogostemon cablin and Ricinus communis, were tested using the Vitotox assay. The plants are used traditionally to treat several disorders like diabetes, weakness, menorrhagia, headache, toothache and rheumatism. The dried leaves were homogenized for overnight soaking in methanol at room temperature. The resulting alcoholic extracts were filtered and concentrated in vacuo and tested for their genotoxicity and cytotoxicity using Vitotox®. Results showed that the medicinalplants that were tested are not genotoxic nor cytotoxic, except for R. communis and P. cablin, which showed toxicity at high doses (low dilutions) in the absence of S9. PMID:21716927
Fifty methanolic plantextracts belonging to 44 plant species of 33 families finding use in Iranian folkloric medicine were screened for antibacterial activity. Thirty samples, including 28 species in 20 families, had antibacterial activity against at least on one of the bacteria. Among the active plants, 32.6% were active against G(-), 62% against G(+), and 47.3% against both G(-) and G(+) bacteria. Dianthus coryophyllus was active against all tested G(-) and G(+) bacteria except Micrococcus luteus. Most susceptible G(-) bacteria were Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bordetella bronchiseptica and least susceptible G(-) bacterium was Escherichia coli. In G(+) bacteria, most and least susceptible were Staphylococcus aureus and M. luteus, respectively. The least MIC, as 0.62 mg/ml, belonged to Myrtus communis seeds against S. aureus, Bacillus cereus and B. bronchiseptica, and to Terminalia chebula ripe seeds against S. aureus. PMID:15030933
The genotoxicity and toxicity of ethnomedicinal Philippine plants, which include Cassia fistula, Derris elliptica, Ficus elastica, Gliciridia sepium, Michelia alba, Morus alba, Pogostemon cablin and Ricinus communis, were tested using the Vitotox assay. The plants are used traditionally to treat several disorders like diabetes, weakness, menorrhagia, headache, toothache and rheumatism. The dried leaves were homogenized for overnight soaking in methanol at room temperature. The resulting alcoholic extracts were filtered and concentrated in vacuo and tested for their genotoxicity and cytotoxicity using Vitotox®. Results showed that the medicinalplants that were tested are not genotoxic nor cytotoxic, except for R. communis and P. cablin, which showed toxicity at high doses (low dilutions) in the absence of S9.
Medicinalplants are a rich source of biologically-active phytochemicals and have been used in traditional medicine for centuries. Specific phytochemicals and extracts of their plant sources have the ability to reduce the risk for chronic degenerative diseases by induction of enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, many of which also have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. One such multifunctional cytoprotective enzyme is NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase. In this study, we prepared extracts of 27 Saudi Arabian medicinalplants which belong to 18 different plant families and tested their ability to induce NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase in murine hepatoma cells grown in microtiter plate wells. In addition to the Brassicaceae, a known source of NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase inducer activity, we found substantial inducer activity in extracts from the Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, and the Asteraceae families. Five out of a total of eight active extracts are from plants which belong to the Asteraceae family. We further show that artemisinin, an agent which is used clinically for the treatment of malaria, contributes but does not fully account for the inducer activity of the extract of Artemisia monosperma. In contrast to artemisinin, deoxyartemisinin is inactive in this assay, demonstrating the critical role of the endoperoxide moiety of artemisinin for inducer activity. Thus, the NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase inducer activity of extracts of some Saudi Arabian medicinalplants indicates the presence of specific phytochemicals which have the potential to protect against chronic degenerative diseases. PMID:23512501
Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Alsaid, Mansour S; Alyahya, Muhammad A; Higgins, Maureen; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T
Eight extracts from seven selected Cameroonian medicinalplants, traditionally used to treat malaria and other protozoal diseases, were tested in vitro for their antiprotozoal activities against Plasmodium falciparum K1 chloroquine-resistant strain, Leishmania donovani, Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, protozoa responsible for malaria, visceral leishmaniasis, Chagas disease and African trypanosomiasis, respectively. The most active extract against Plasmodium falciparum K1 strain
B. Ndjakou Lenta; C. Vonthron-Sénécheau; R. Fongang Soh; F. Tantangmo; S. Ngouela; M. Kaiser; E. Tsamo; R. Anton; B. Weniger
In this study, extracts from 50 Taiwanese folk medicinalplants were examined and screened for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. Ninety-five percent ethanol was used for herbal extraction. Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr. (PSM), Plumbago zeylanica L. (PZL), Anisomeles indica (L.) O. Kuntze (AIOK), Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) and Alpinia speciosa (J. C. Wendl.) K. Schum. (ASKS) and Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) all
Aqueous and methanolic extracts of several medicinalplants, Psidium guajava (leaves), Aristea spp., Iridaceae family (stem), Bridelia micrantha (bark) and Eleutherina bulbosa (bulb), used by Zulu traditional healers were evaluated for anti-diarrhoeal activity against different experimental models of diarrhoea in rats as well as for anti-microbial activity against different pathogenic microorganisms that cause diarrhoea. The methanolic extract of P. guajava
The scorpionic and ophidian envenomations are a serious public health problem in Tunisia especially in Southeastern regions. In these regions Artemisia campestris L is a plant well known which has a very important place in traditional medicine for its effectiveness against alleged venom of scorpions and snakes. In this work, we tested for the first time, the anti-venomous activity of Artemisia campestris L against the scorpion Androctonus australis garzonii and the viper Macrovipera lebetina venoms. Assays were conducted by fixing the dose of extract to3 mg/mouse while doses of venom are variable. The leaves of Artemisia campestris L were extracted by various organic solvents (Ether of oil, ethyl acetate, methanol and ethanol) and each extract was tested for its venom neutralizing capacity. For the ethanolic extract, a significant activity with respect to the venoms of scorpion Androctonus australis garzonii (Aag), was detected. Similarly, a significant neutralizing activity against the venom of a viper Macrovipera lebetina (Ml), was obtained with the dichloromethane extract. These results suggest the presence of two different type of chemical components in this plant: those neutralizing the venom of scorpion are soluble in ethanol whereas those neutralizing the venom of viper are soluble in dichloromethane. PMID:19388583
Memmi, A; Sansa, G; Rjeibi, I; El Ayeb, M; Srairi-Abid, N; Bellasfer, Z; Fekhih, A
The inhibitory effects of essential oils as well as chloroformic extracts of Thymus vulgaris, Thymus serpyllum, Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum grown in Ash-shoubak region-south of Jordan and their possible individual phytochemical constituents was screened against pathogenic clinical and standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The bioassay employed was the agar well diffusion method. The essential oils and chloroformic extracts of T. vulgaris and T. serpyllum were the most effective against the tested strains of bacteria. Clinical and standard strains of S .aureus and P. aeruginosa were uninhibited by S. officinalis essential oils. P. aeruginosa tested strains were also resistant to P. anisum essential oils. For almost all bacterial strains, the highest antibacterial effect of oils was obtained with the highest tested dose (15 ?l). Chlorformic extracts of S. officinalis showed small activity against standard and clinical E. coli strains and were not effective to inhibit strains of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Chloroformic extracts obtained from P. anisum and applied at 300 ?g/cm(2) slightly inhibited E. coli, but moderately inhibited S. aureus. It is shown from the results that the antibacterial effects of the individual components varied depending upon their chemical structure, functional groups and configuration as well as doses used. This study showed the beneficial effects of the essential oils of T. serpyllum and T. vulgaris grown in Ash-shoubak in inhibiting the growth of microbes and the implications this could have in pharmacy and food technology. PMID:22186336
Ibervillea sonorae Greene, Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché, Tagetes lucida Cav and Justicia spicigera Scheltdd are Mexican native plants used in the treatment of different illnesses. The ethanolic extract of J. spicigera and T. lucida as well as aqueous extracts from I. sonorae, C. ficifolia, T. lucida and J. spicigera were investigated using sulforhodamine B assay. These extracts were assessed using two cell line: T47D (Human Breast cancer) and HeLa (Human cervix cancer). Colchicine was used as the positive control. Data are presented as the dose that inhibited 50% control growth (ED50). All of the assessed extracts were cytotoxic (ED50 < 20 microg/ml) against T47D cell line, meanwhile only the aqueous extract from T. lucida and the ethanolic extract from J. spicigera were cytotoxic to HeLa cell line. Ethanolic extract from J. spicigera presented the best cytotoxic effect. The cytotoxic activity of J. spicigera correlated with one of the popular uses, the treatment of cancer. PMID:22128430
This study describes the screening of extracts obtained from 18 plants and two fungi used in the Chinese and Mediterranean traditional medicines on epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. The extracts were tested against epimastigote of T. cruzi Bra C15C2 clone in vitro at 27 °C and at a concentration of 250 ?g\\/ml in axenic culture. Angelica dahurica, A. pubescens, A.
G. R Schinella; H. A Tournier; J. M Prieto; J. L R??os; H Buschiazzo; A Zaidenberg
In the course of searching for new materials to use as whitening agents, we screened 19 methanol extracts prepared from 14 medicinalplants from Central Kalimantan province, Indonesia. The screening methods used were the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay, a tyrosinase inhibition assay, and a melanin formation inhibition assay using B16 melanoma cells. The extracts of Willughbeia coriacea (bark part of aerial root), Phyllanthus urinaria (root), Eleutherine palmifolia (bulb), Eusideroxylon zwageri (seed), Dendrophthoe petandra (aerial root), Passiflora foetida (stem), and Vitex pinnata (root) showed DPPH radical-scavenging activity of more than 70% at 100 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root), P. urinaria (root), and D. petandra (aerial root) showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity of more than 40% using L-tyrosine as a substrate at 500 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root) and D. petandra (aerial root) showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity of more than 40% using L-DOPA as a substrate at 500 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root, 200 microg/ml), Glochidion philippcum (aerial root, 200 and 300 microg/ml), E. palmifolia (bulb, 50 microg/ml), E. zwageri (seed, 100 microg/ml), D. petandra (aerial root, 200 microg/ml), Lansium domesticum (bark, 25 microg/ml), P. foetida (stem, fruit, 300 microg/ml), and Solanum torvum (root, 300 microg/ml) strongly inhibited the melanin production of B16 melanoma cells without significant cytotoxicity. These findings indicate that some medicinalplants from Central Kalimantan are potential ingredients for skin-whitening cosmetics if their safety can be confirmed. PMID:19618251
Ethanolic extracts of 22 traditionally used Indian medicinalplants were studied for their antimicrobial activity against seven bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, S. paratyphi, S. typhi, E. coli, Shigella dysenteriae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and five filamentous fungi (Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata, Fusarium chlamydosporum, Rhizoctonia bataticola and Trichoderma viride) and a yeast Candida albicans of clinical origin. Of these, 16 plant
Acokanthera schimperi (Apocynaceae), Euclea schimperi (Ebenaceae), Inula confertiflora (Asteraceae), Melilotus elegans (Leguminosae), and Plumbago zeylanica (Plumbaginaceae), are some of the medicinalplants used in Ethiopia for treatment of various skin disorders. In this study, the antiviral activities of the 80% methanolic extracts of these plants have been examined against coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), influenza A virus and herpes simplex virus type1
T. Gebre-Mariam; R. Neubert; P. C. Schmidt; P. Wutzler; M. Schmidtke
A series of 100 Rwandese medicinalplants (267 plantextracts), used by traditional healers to treat infections, were screened for antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties. The results of the testing showed that 45% were active against Staphylococcus aureus, 2% against Escherichia coli, 16% against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 7% against Candida albicans, 80% against Microsporum canis and 60% against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Not
A. J. Vlietinck; L. Van Hoof; J. Totté; A. Lasure; D. Vanden Berghe; P. C. Rwangabo; J. Mvukiyumwami
The antioxidant system of a plant comprises a group of chemicals that are highly diverse in their sources, effects and uses. These antioxidants are capable of contracting and damaging free radicals. This investigation deals with a screening and comparison of the antioxidant activities of 20 selected medicinalplants and their parts, individually and in combination with vitamins A, C or E, using the DPPH radical scavenging method. Phyllanthus emblica L., Santalum album L., Syzygium cumini L. and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. presented highly significant antiradical efficiency (AE) singly and in combination with either vitamin A, C or E. Further, Curcuma longa L., Momordica charantia L., S. cumini, T. foenum-graecum, Moringa oleifera Lam and S. album have also shown fairly significant AE in a vitamin combination dose of 0.001 mM concentration. PMID:22010999
In this paper, forty-three folk medicinalplants from ?ile (Turkey) have been reported. Among them 35 species were wild and eight species were cultivated plants. The folk medicinalplants have been mostly used for the treatment of eczema, stomach and kidney ailments, asthma, cough, diabetes, and wounds.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global health concern which is responsible for most of the liver diseases. Currently, there is no vaccine available for prevention of HCV infection due to the high degree of strain variation. The current standard of care is a combination of pegylated interferon ? with ribavirin and boceprevir/telaprevir. This treatment was partially effective and had significant side effects. Hence, there is a need to develop new antiviral agents that interfere with different stages of the HCV life cycle. Recent advances in the understanding of both the cellular and molecular mechanisms of HCV replication have provided the basis for novel therapeutic strategies. Several hundred plant species and their phyto-constituents have been isolated for screening against HCV, and some have been shown to have great medicinal value in preventing and/or ameliorating viral diseases in pre-clinical and clinical trials. This review summarizes medicinalplants and their phytochemicals which inhibit different stages of HCV life cycle and discuss their potential use in HCV therapy. PMID:24659884
In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effects of methanolic extracts of the bulbs of Garlic (Allium sativum L., Alliaceae) and Persian shallot (Allium ascalonicum L., Alliaceae ) and leaves of Sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae ), ASE, AAE and SOE respectively, on the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) activities and on the levels of plasma lipids profiles such as triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) in Alloxan diabetic Wistar rats. In comparison with diabetic control rats in diabetic treated rats, AAE increases the activities of SOD (65%), GPX (43%) and CAT (55%). ASE and SOE increase SOD activity by 60% and 33% respectively. ASE reduces TC (34%), SOE decreases TG (40%) and LDL (30%) and AAE reduces VLDL (24%). Metformin exhibits mild antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. Results of quantitative phytochemical analysis show that the methanolic garlic and Persian shallot bulbs extracts contain secondary metabolites including alkaloids (3.490% and 3.430%), glycosides (18.023% and 13.301%) and saponins (0.812% and 0.752%). Methanolic sage leaves extract contains flavonoids (1.014%), glycosides (23.142%) and saponins (2.096%). The total phenolic contents of ASE, AAE and SOE were in order 4.273, 3.621 and 6.548 mg GAE/g dry weight (DW). These results suggest that Allium sativum, Allium ascalonicum and Salvia officinalis are beneficial in the control of diabetes by noticeable antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. PMID:24250517
Metal-organic frameworks aluminum terephthalate MIL-53 and Cu-benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate (BTC) were tested for extraction of pyrimethanil, ametryn, dichlofluanid, tetraconazole, flumetralin, kresoximmethyl, and tebuconazole from the medicinalplant Hyptis pectinata, with analysis using GC/MS in the selected ion monitoring mode. Experiments carried out at different fortification levels (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 microg/g) resulted in recoveries in the range 61 to 107% with RSD values between 3 and 12% for the metal-organic framework materials. Detection and quantification limits ranged from 0.02 to 0.07 and 0.05 to 0.1 microg/g, respectively, for the different pesticides studied. The method developed was linear over the range tested (0.04-20.0 microg/g), with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9987 to 0.9998. Comparison of MIL-53 and Cu-BTC with C18-bonded silica showed good performance of the MIL-53 metal-organic framework as a sorbent for the pesticides tested. PMID:23175963
Aquino, Adriano; Ferreira, Jordana Alves; Navickiene, Sandro; Wanderley, Kaline A; de Sá, Gilberto F; Júnior, Severino A
Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC (Compositae), an herbaceous plant found in Taiwan and India, is used as folk medicine. The clinical applications include inflammation, rheumatism, cough, cuts fever, dysentery, analgesic, and antibacteria. The activities of Emilia sonchifolia extract (ESE) on colorectal cancer cell death have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study explored the induction of apoptosis and its molecular mechanisms in ESE-treated HCT 116 human colorectal cancer cells in vitro. The methanolic ESE was characterized, and ?-humulene was formed as the major constituent (63.86%). ESE induced cell growth inhibition in a concentration- and time-dependent response by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells (DNA fragmentation, an apoptotic catachrestic) were found after ESE treatment by TUNEL assay and DNA gel electrophoresis. Alternatively, ESE stimulated the activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and their specific caspase inhibitors protected against ESE-induced cytotoxicity. ESE promoted the mitochondria-dependent and death-receptor-associated protein levels. Also, ESE increased ROS production and upregulated the levels of ATM, p53, and Fas in HCT 116 cells. Strikingly, p53 siRNA reversed ESE-reduced viability involved in p53-mediated ATM/Fas signaling in HCT 116 cells. In summary, our result is the first report suggesting that ESE may be potentially efficacious in the treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:22474491
Background: Terminalia macroptera Guill. et Perr. (Combretaceae), Sida alba L. (Malvaceae), Prosopis africana Guill et Perr. Taub. (Mimosaceae), Bridelia ferruginea Benth. (Euphorbiaceae), and Vetiveria nigritana Stapf. (Asteraceae) are traditionally used in Togolese folk medicine to treat several diseases including microbial infections. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and hemolytic properties of the crude extracts of the above-mentioned plants. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial and the antioxidant activities were assayed using the NCCLS microdilution method and the DPPH free radical scavenging, respectively. Human A+ red blood cells were used to perform the hemolytic assay. Phenolics were further quantified in the extracts using spectrophotometric methods. Results: Minimal inhibitory concentrations in the range of 230-1800 ?g/ml were recorded in the NCCLS broth microdilution for both bacterial and fungal strains with methanol extracts. The DPPH radical scavenging assay yielded interesting antioxidant activities of the extracts of P. africana and T. macroptera (IC50 values of 0.003 ± 0.00 ?g/ml and 0.05 ± 0.03 ?g/ml, respectively). These activities were positively correlated with the total phenolic contents and negatively correlated with the proanthocyanidin content of the extracts. The hemolytic assay revealed that great hemolysis occurred with the methanol extracts of T. macroptera, S. longepedunculata, and B. ferruginea. Conclusion: These results support in part the use of the selected plants in the treatment of microbial infections. In addition, the plant showed an interesting antioxidant activity that could be useful in the management of oxidative stress.
The essential elements in six traditional Ghanaian plantmedicines used at the Center for Scientific Research into PlantMedicine (CSRPM), Mampong-Akwapim, Ghana, for the management and cure of various diseases were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), using thermal neutrons at a flux of 5 E 11 ns cm. The plantmedicines were: Ninga powder, Lippia tea, Ritchiea powder, Momordica powder, Kenken powder
Y. Serfor-Armah; B. J. B. Nyarko; E. H. K. Akaho; A. W. K. Kyere; S. Osae; K. Oppong-Boachie
A number of potential anti-diabetic plants were identified through an ethnobotanical survey of the traditional pharmacopeia of the Cree of Eeyou Istchee (CEI-Northeastern Canada) used against symptoms of diabetes and their biological activity assessed by in vitro bioassays. Among these, Sorbus decora C.K.Schneid. (Rosacea) ranked highly and increased the transport of glucose in skeletal muscle cells in culture. The present study thus aimed at confirming the antidiabetic potential of S. decora in in vivo models of insulin resistance and diabetes, notably the streptozotocin Type 1 diabetic rat (STZ), the genetic KK-A(y) Type 2 diabetic mouse and the rat rendered insulin resistant with 10% glucose water consumption for 6 weeks. Sorbus decora ethanolic crude extract (SDEE) was administered orally (200?mg?kg(-1)) and compared to metformin (150 or 500?mg?kg(-1)). The intragastric (i.g.) gavage of SDEE transiently decreased glycemia in STZ rats in a bi-phasic manner but the effect was cumulative over several days. In KK-A(y) mice, SDEE incorporated in food (0.12%) decreased glycemia by 15% within 1 week as compared to vehicle controls. In pre-diabetic insulin-resistant rats, SDEE fed daily by i.g. gavage for 2 weeks significantly decreased the slight hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, without affecting sugar water intake. Using the HOMA insulin resistance parameter, the effect of SDEE was equivalent to that of metformin. In conclusion, the ethanolic crude extract of S. decora demonstrates both anti-hyperglycemic and insulin-sensitizing activity in vivo, thereby confirming anti-diabetic potential and validating CEI traditional medicine. PMID:19887507
Vianna, Rose; Brault, Antoine; Martineau, Louis C; Couture, Réjean; Arnason, John T; Haddad, Pierre S
In response to increased popularity and greater demand for medicinalplants, a number of conservation groups are recommending that wild medicinalplants be brought into cultivation systems. We collected four medicinal herbs Cichorium pumilum, Eryngium creticum, Pistacia palaestina and Teucrium polium used in traditional Arab medicine for greenhouse cultivation to assess the effects of different fertilization regimes on their growth and antioxidant activity. Wild seedlings were collected and fertilized with either 100% Hoagland solution, 50% Hoagland solution, 20% Hoagland solution or irrigated with tap water. Plant height was measured and the number of green leaves and branches counted weekly. Thereafter, the aboveground parts of plants were harvested for preparing a water-soluble powder extracts of which antioxidant activity was measured by their ability to suppress the oxidation of ?-carotene. Of the fertilization regimes, we found either 20 or 50% Hoagland solution produced the most consistent response of the plant growth parameters. All powders prepared from the four wild growing plants inhibited oxidation of ?-carotene. Increasing the amount of fertilizer caused a significant concentration-dependent increase in antioxidant activity of the cultivated T. polium compared with the wild type. In contrast, increasing the amount of fertilizer caused a significant concentration-dependent reduction in the antioxidant activity of powders prepared from the cultivated E. creticum when compared with wild plants. Our results showed that cultivation success should not rely solely on parameters of growth but should incorporate assessment related to indices of therapeutic potential.
An escalating "epidemic" of diseases like Alzheimer's has not yet been met by effective symptomatic treatments or preventative strategies. Among a few current prescription drugs are cholinesterase inhibitors including galantamine, originating from the snowdrop. Research into ethnobotanicals for memory or cognition has burgeoned in recent years. Based on a multi-faceted review of medicinalplants or phytochemicals, including traditional uses, relevant bioactivities, psychological and clinical evidence on efficacy and safety, this overview focuses on those for which there is promising clinical trial evidence in people with dementia, together with at least one other of these lines of supporting evidence. With respect to cognitive function, such plants reviewed include sage, Ginkgo biloba, and complex mixtures of other traditional remedies. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) challenge carers and lead to institutionalization. Symptoms can be alleviated by some plant species (e.g., lemon balm and lavender alleviate agitation in people with dementia; St John's wort treats depression in the normal population). The ultimate goal of disease prevention is considered from the perspective of limited epidemiological and clinical trial evidence to date. The potential value of numerous plantextracts or chemicals (e.g., curcumin) with neuroprotective but as yet no clinical data are reviewed. Given intense clinical need and carer concerns, which lead to exploration of such alternatives as herbal medicines, the following research priorities are indicated: investigating botanical agents which enhance cognition in populations with mild memory impairment or at earliest disease stages, and those for BPSD in people with dementia at more advanced stages; establishing an ongoing authoritative database on herbal medicine for dementia; and further epidemiological and follow up studies of promising phytopharmaceuticals or related nutraceuticals for disease prevention. PMID:22070157
One of the least desirable calcifications in the human body is the mineral deposition in atherosclerosis plaques. These plaques principally consist of lipids such as cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides. Chemical analysis of advanced plaques have shown the presence of considerable amounts of free cholesterol identified as cholesterol monohydrate crystals. Cholesterol has been crystallized in vitro. The extracts of some of the Indian medicinalplants detailed below were used as additives to study their effect on the crystallization behaviour of cholesterol. It has been found that many of the herbs have inhibitory effect on the crystallization such as nucleation, crystal size and habit modification. The inhibitory effect of the plants are graded as Commiphora mughul > Aegle marmeleos > Cynoden dactylon > Musa paradisiaca > Polygala javana > Alphinia officinarum > Solanum trilobatum > Enicostemma lyssopifolium.
The uses of medicinalplants have always been part of human culture. The World Health Organization estimates that up to 80% of the world's population relies on traditional medicinal system for some aspect of primary health care. However, there are few reports on the toxicological properties of most medicinalplants especially, their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Therefore, this research is to determine the mutagenic potentials of Morinda lucida [Oruwo (Root)], Azadirachta indica [Dongoyaro (Leaf)], Terapluera tetraptera [Aridan (Fruit)], Plumbago zeylanica [Inabiri (Root)], Xylopia aethiopica [Erunje (Fruit)], Newbouldia laevis [Akoko (Leaf)], Alstonia boonei [Ahun (Bark)], Enantia chlorantha [Awopa (Bark)], and Rauvolfia vomitoria [Asofeyeje (Root)] using the Allium cepa Linn. model and the modified Ames assay. Allium cepa model was used to determine the mean root length, mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations effects of these plants on onion bulbs using 0.1, 1, 5 and 10mg/ml concentration of the plantextracts. The modified Ames test which is a modification of the standard Ames test as described by Ames et al. [Ames, B.N., McCann, J., Yamasaki, E., 1975. Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. Mutation Research 31, 347-364] was done using Escherichia coli (0157:H7) that has the phenotypic characteristics of glucose and lactose fermentation, motile, urease negative, indole positive and citrate negative. The results obtained from Allium cepa assay showed increasing root growth inhibition with increased concentration, decreasing mitotic index with increased concentration and chromosomal aberrations. The modified Ames test showed an alteration in the biochemical characteristics of Escherichia coli (0157:H7) for all plants except Rauvolfia vomitoria and Plumbago zeylanica. Three of the medicinalplants altered at least three of the normal biochemical characteristics thus demonstrating mutagenic potentials. The results of internationally accepted Allium cepa were comparable with the modified Ames test. However, a long term in vivo and dose dependent study should be carried out to validate these results and the findings should be communicated to drug and food regulatory body and also to the general public. PMID:19619631
Akintonwa, Alade; Awodele, Olufunsho; Afolayan, Gbenga; Coker, Herbert A B
Screening active compounds from plants lead to discover new medicinal drugs which have efficient protection and treatment roles against various diseases including cancer. In our study, extracts from different plants represent seeds of: Gossypium barbadense, Ricinus communis, Sesamum indicum, Nigella sativa, Vinca rosea and Melia azedarah; fruits of: Xanthium occidental; flowers of: Atriplex nummularia; barks of: Cinnamomum zeylanicum; latex of: Ficus carica and rhizomes of: Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale were tested in vivo using three subsequent bioassays: the BST (Brine Shrimp Toxicity bioassay), AWD (Agar well diffusion antimicrobial bioassay) and AtPDT (Agrobacterium tumefaciens Potato Disc Tumor bioassay). AWD technique omitted any extracts have antimicrobial activities while BST omitted any extract did not has physiological activity and determined the various LC(50) of each plantextract. For the first time, using a range of concentrations in the AtPDT modified protocol allowed the detection of tumor promotion caused by extract represented by A. nummularia. Using cluster analysis leads to classifying the different plantextracts activities to six groups regarding to their toxicity, antitumor activities and both of them. The extracts from edible plants represent 50% of the first and the second group which have the highest antitumor activities represented in F. caraica (group 1) and C. longa (group 2) as well as the non-edible plantextracts of Gossypium barbadense and Ricinus communis. A comparison study between the edible and herbaceous plants different extracts for their antitumor activities was performed. We recommended using the modified protocols used in this study for investigating more plants and using crude plantextracts which have antitumor activities in cancer treatment. Edible plants, which show in vivo antitumor activities, are recommended as save sources for antitumor compounds. PMID:18390447
Metabolite profiling and DNA microarray analysis of global gene expression profiles were employed to characterize the bioactivities of the herbal extract of Anoectochilus formosanus (AF), a popular folk medicine with anticancer activity, in MCF-7 cancer cells. The pharmacogenomic activities of this plantextract as a crude phytocompound mixture were compared to those conferred by the single-compound drug, plumbagin. A similar
phytomedicinal compounds. Horticultural research on medicinalplants has focused on developing the capacity for optimal growth in cultivation. This has been especially pertinent as many medicinalplants are still harvested in the wild, and conditions for growth in cultivation have not been optimized. Wild harvesting of medicinalplants can be problematic in terms of biodiversity loss, potential variation in me-
Medicinalplants are widely used as home remedies and raw materials for the pharmaceutical industries. Herbal remedies are used in the prevention, treatment and cure of disorders and diseases since ancient times. However, use of medicinal herbs may not meet the requirements of quality, safety and efficacy. During harvesting, handling, storage and distribution, medicinalplants are subjected to contamination by various fungi, which may be responsible for spoilage and production of mycotoxins. The increasing consumption of medicinalplants has made their use a public health problem due to the lack of effective surveillance of the use, efficacy, toxicity and quality of these natural products. The increase in use of medicinalplants may lead to an increase in the intake of mycotoxins therefore contamination of medicinalplants with mycotoxins can contribute to adverse human health problems and therefore represents a special hazard. Numerous natural occurrences of mycotoxins in medicinalplants and traditional herbal medicines have been reported from various countries including Spain, China, Germany, India, Turkey and from Middle East as well. This review discusses the important mycotoxins and their natural occurrences in medicinalplants and their products. PMID:24594211
The level of toxigenic moulds and mycotoxins were analyzed in 62 samples of medicinalplant material and 11 herbal tea samples. The most predominant fungi detected were: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Mucor, Rhizopus, Absidia, Alternaria, Cladosporium and Trichoderma. Aspergillus flavus, a known producer of the aflatoxin mycotoxin, was present in 11 or 18% of the 62 medicinalplant samples and in 1
Communities in Cabo Delgado have a long tradition of using medicinalplants. In Mozambique, rural populations in general are highly dependent on natural resources. One example is the use of surrounding vegetation by people from Cabo Delgado. They use plants for food, handicrafts, construction, as a primary energy source and even for medicine purposes. In this survey, we examined the
Purpose – Plant materials continue to play a major role in primary health care as therapeutic remedies in many developing countries. Medicinal herbs contain physiologically active principles that over the years have been exploited in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments as they contain antimicrobial properties. This paper aims to determine the antibacterial activity of Iranian endemic plants.
Abdollah Ghasemi Pirbalouti; Arian Asadpoor; Behzad Hamedi; Ahmad Reza Golparvar
Medicinalplants are an important element of indigenous medical systems in Mexico. These resources are usually regarded as part of a culture's traditional knowledge. This study examines the use of medicinalplants in four indigenous groups of Mexican Indians, Maya, Nahua, Zapotec and – for comparative purposes – Mixe. With the first three the methodology was similar, making a direct
Michael Heinrich; Anita Ankli; Barbara Frei; Claudia Weimann; Otto Sticher
This study documents the abundance, distribution and knowledge of medicinalplant species in a Ransa Dayak village and adjoining\\u000a forest in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Over 250 medicinalplant species from 165 genera and 75 families are utilized by the\\u000a local healer. Late successional, primary and river bench forests contained the highest diversity of locally-utilized medicinal\\u000a species and the greatest number
The increase in the resistance to antimicrobial drugs in use has attracted the attention of the scientific community, and medicinalplants have been extensively studied as alternative agents for the prevention of infections. The Candida genus yeast can become an opportunistic pathogen causing disease in immunosuppressive hosts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dichloromethane and methanol extracts from Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Arrabidaea chica, Tabebuia avellanedae, Punica granatum and Syzygium cumini against Candida species through the analysis of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Results presented activity of these extracts against Candida species, especially the methanol extract. PMID:21180915
Höfling, J F; Anibal, P C; Obando-Pereda, G A; Peixoto, I A T; Furletti, V F; Foglio, M A; Gonçalves, R B
The antimicrobial effects of the Mexican medicinalplants Guazuma ulmifolia, Justicia spicigera, Opuntia joconostle, O. leucotricha, Parkinsonia aculeata, Phoradendron longifolium, P. serotinum, Psittacanthus calyculatus, Tecoma stans and Teucrium cubense were tested against several human multi-drug resistant pathogens, including three Gram (+) and five Gram (-) bacterial species and three fungal species using the disk-diffusion assay. The cytotoxicity of plantextracts on human cancer cell lines and human normal non-cancerous cells was also evaluated using the MTT assay. Phoradendron longifolium, Teucrium cubense, Opuntia joconostle, Tecoma stans and Guazuma ulmifolia showed potent antimicrobial effects against at least one multidrug-resistant microorganism (inhibition zone > 15 mm). Only Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum extracts exerted active cytotoxic effects on human breast cancer cells (IC50 < or = 30 microg/mL). The results showed that Guazuma ulmifolia produced potent antimicrobial effects against Candida albicans and Acinetobacter lwoffii, whereas Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum exerted the highest toxic effects on MCF-7 and HeLa, respectively, which are human cancer cell lines. These three plant species may be important sources of antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents. PMID:22312741
Jacobo-Salcedo, Maria del Rosario; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; González-Espíndola, Luis Angel; Domínguez, Fabiola; Maciel-Torres, Sandra Patricia; García-Lujan, Concepción; González-Martínez, Marisela del Rocio; Gómez-Sánchez, Maricela; Estrada-Castillón, Eduardo; Zapata-Bustos, Rocio; Medellin-Milán, Pedro; García-Carrancá, Alejandro
India have well-recorded and well practiced knowledge of traditional herbal medicines under indigenous systems of medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani. On the other hand, with about 6000 plants representing about 75% of the medicinal needs of the third world countries India is a major worldwide exporter of raw medicinal and aromatic plants and processed plant-based drugs. Government of India
The stimulating effect of subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics on the production of verocytotoxin (VT) by enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 has been claimed. The purpose of this study was to find an alternative, but bioactive medicine for the treatment of this organism. Fifty-eight preparations of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 38 medicinalplant species commonly used in Thailand to cure
Extended research has been carried out to clarify the ecological role of plant secondary metabolites (SMs). Although their primary ecological function is self-defence, bioactive compounds have long been used in alternative medicine or in biological control of pests. Several members of the family Labiatae are known to have strong antimicrobial capacity. For testing and quantifying antibacterial activity, most often standard microbial protocols are used, assessing inhibitory activity on a selected strain. In this study the applicability of a microbial ecotoxtest was evaluated to quantify the aggregate bactericide capacity of Labiatae species, based on the bioluminescence inhibition of the bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Striking differences were found amongst herbs, reaching even 10-fold toxicity. Glechoma hederacea L. proved to be the most toxic, with the EC50 of 0.4073 g dried plant/l. LC50 values generated by the standard bioassay seem to be a good indicator of the bactericide property of herbs. Traditional use of the selected herbs shows a good correlation with bioactivity expressed as bioluminescence inhibition, leading to the conclusion that the Vibrio fischeri bioassay can be a good indicator of the overall antibacterial capacity of herbs, at least on a screening level. PMID:21502819
Gugulipid (GL), extract of Indian Ayurvedic medicinalplant Commiphora mukul, has been used to treat a variety of ailments. We report an anticancer effect and mechanism of GL against human prostate cancer cells. Treatment with GL significantly inhibited the viability of human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP (androgen-dependent) and its androgen-independent variant (C81) with an IC(50) of ?1 ?M (24-h treatment), at pharmacologically relevant concentrations standardized to its major active constituent z-guggulsterone. The GL-induced growth inhibition correlated with apoptosis induction as evidenced by an increase in cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation and sub-G(0)/G(1)-DNA fraction, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. The GL-induced apoptosis was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. The induction of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak and a decrease of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein Bcl-2 were observed in GL-treated cells. SV40 immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from Bax-Bak double-knockout mice were significantly more resistant to GL-induced cell killing compared with wild-type cells. It is interesting to note that a representative normal prostate epithelial cell line (PrEC) was relatively more resistant to GL-mediated cellular responses compared with prostate cancer cells. The GL treatment caused the activation of JNK that functioned upstream of Bax activation in apoptosis response. The GL-induced conformational change of Bax and apoptosis were significantly suppressed by genetic suppression of JNK activation. In conclusion, the present study indicates that ROS-dependent apoptosis by GL is regulated by JNK signaling axis. PMID:21115635
Programmed cell death (apoptosis), a form of cell death, described by Kerr and Wyllie some 20 years ago, has generated considerable interest in recent years. The mechanisms by which this mode of cell death (seen both in animal and plant cells), takes place have been examined in detail. Extracellular signals and intracellular events have been elaborated. Of interest to the clinician, is the concentrated effort to study pharmacological modulation of programmed cell death. The attempt to influence the natural phenomenon of programmed cell death stems from the fact that it is reduced (like in cancer) or increased (like in neurodegenerative diseases) in several clinical situations. Thus, chemicals that can modify programmed cell death are likely to be potentially useful drugs. From foxglove, which gave digitalis to the Pacific Yew from which came taxol, plants have been a source of research material for useful drugs. Recently, a variety of plantextracts have been investigated for their ability to influence the apoptotic process. This article discusses some of the interesting data. The ability of plants to influence programmed cell death in cancerous cells in an attempt to arrest their proliferation has been the topic of much research. Various cell-lines like HL60, human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (KIM-1), a cholangiocarcinoma cell-line (KMC-1), B-cell hybridomas, U937 a monocytic cell-line, HeLa cells, human lymphoid leukemia (MOLT-4B) cells and K562 cells have been studied. The agents found to induce programmed cell death (measured either morphologically or flow cytometrically) included extracts of plants like mistletoe and Semicarpus anacardium. Isolated compounds like bryonolic acid (from Trichosanthes kirilowii var. Japonica, crocin (from saffron) and allicin (from Allium sativum) have also been found to induce programmed cell death and therefore arrest proliferation. Even Chinese herbal medicine "Sho-saiko-to" induces programmed cell death in selected cancerous cell lines. Of considerable interest is the finding that Panax ginseng prevents irradiation-induced programmed cell death in hair follicles, suggesting important therapeutic implications. Nutraceuticals (dietary plants) like soya bean, garlic, ginger, green tea, etc. which have been suggested, in epidemiological studies, to reduce the incidence of cancer may do so by inducing programmed cell death. Soy bean extracts have been shown to prevent development of diseases like polycystic kidneys, while Artemisia asiatica attenuates cerulein-induced pancreatitis in rats. Interestingly enough, a number of food items as well as herbal medicines have been reported to produce toxic effects by inducing programmed cell death. For example, programmed cell death in isolated rat hepatocytes has been implicated in the hepatitis induced by a herbal medicine containing diterpinoids from germander. Other studies suggest that rapid progression of the betel- and tobacco-related oral squamous cell carcinomas may be associated with a simultaneous involvement of p53 and c-myc leading to inhibition of programmed cell death. Several mechanisms have been identified to underlie the modulation of programmed cell death by plants including endonuclease activation, induction of p53, activation of caspase 3 protease via a Bcl-2-insensitive pathway, potentiate free-radical formation and accumulation of sphinganine. Programmed cell death is a highly conserved mechanism of self-defense, also found to occur in plants. Hence, it is natural to assume that chemicals must exist in them to regulate programmed cell death in them. Thus, plants are likely to prove to be important sources of agents that will modulate programmed cell death. PMID:10726985
Alcoholic extracts of six culinary and medicinalplants have been analyzed for their antioxidative properties. Extracts were obtained by continuous (Soxhlet) and ultrasounds extraction. A new flow injection analysis method with chemiluminescence detection based on a luminol\\/Co(II)\\/EDTA\\/H2O2 system was set up for the total antioxidant capacity determination of the studied extracts. For comparison, total phenols and flavonoids contents of plant
Claudia-Valentina Popa; Liliana Lungu; Manuela Savoiu; Corina Bradu; Vasile Dinoiu; Andrei Florin Danet
Background The use of plants for healing by any cultural group is integrally related to local concepts of the nature of disease, the nature of plants, and the world view of the culture. The physical and chemical properties of the plants themselves also bear on their selection by people for medicines, as does the array of plants available for people to choose from. I examine use of medicinalplants from a "biobehavioral" perspective to illuminate cultural selection of plants used for medicine by the Gitksan of northwestern British Columbia, Canada. Methods Consultant consensus, "intercultural consensus", independent use of the same plants by other cultural groups, and phytochemistry and bioassay results from the literature, were employed in analysis of probable empirical efficacy of plant uses. Results 70% of 37 Gitksan medicinalplants were used similarly by other cultures where direct diffusion is not known to have occurred; eleven plants, including the eight most frequently mentioned medicinalplants, also show active phytochemicals or bioassays indicating probable physiologically based therapeutic effects. Conclusion Analysis of intercultural consensus revealed that the majority of cultures in the British Columbia region within the plant ranges use the same plants, or closely related species, in similar ways. The rigor of this analysis is effected by the lack of consistent data on all taxa of interest for all cultures within the region.
This report deals with 64 species of plants belonging to 42 families and 57 genera. The plants discussed are all used as medicine among ethnic groups in Sikkim. Important ail- ments purportedly cured by these plants are epilepsy, leprosy, paralysis, asthma, typhoid, diabetes, hemorrhages during childbirth, cholera, as well as others. Some of these plants are also used as food
Calcineurin (CN) is a highly abundant phosphatase in the brain and it is the only Ca(2+)- and calmodulin-dependent protein serine/threonine phosphatase. There is considerable evidence to suggest that CN plays an essential role in activity-dependent modulation of synaptic efficacy. It has been shown recently that inhibitors of CN, such as CsA or FK506, impair memory formation in day-old chicks. In our present study, extract of Fructus cannabis (EFC) with activation of CN, extracted from Chinese traditional medicine, was used to determine the effects on memory and immunity. In the step-down-type passive avoidance test, the plantextract (0.2 g/kg) significantly improved amnesia induced by chemical drugs in mice, and greatly enhanced the ability of cell-mediated type hypersensitivity and nonspecific immune responses in normal mice. The present study provided pharmacological evidence for Chinese herbal medicine screening from molecular model. PMID:12957215
Boerhaavia diffusa is a plant which is extensively used in folk medicine. However, when it comes to its phytochemical characterization, little attention has been given to secondary metabolites other than rotenoids and alkaloids. A metabolite profiling and biological study was undertaken in this species' leaves and roots and substantial differences were found between the two parts of the plant. The volatile composition was analysed for the first time using HS-SPME-GC-MS and several compounds, including terpenes, phenylpropanoids, indol compounds, norisoprenoids, among others, were identified. Organic acid analysis was also performed, allowing their characterization in this species for the first time, and oxalic, ketoglutaric, pyruvic, quinic and fumaric acids were identified. Quantitative differences between the two vegetal materials were found. Additionally, several flavonoids and one phenolic acid were also confirmed. Concerning the biological potential, the aqueous extract of each plant part was tested against DPPH radical, one reactive oxygen species (O(2)(-)) and one reactive nitrogen species (()NO). Moreover, activity against acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme with a well-known role in several physio-pathological processes, was assayed. When possible, the relation between the chemistry and activity displayed was established. Leaves revealed stronger antioxidant activity than roots, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition was not found in neither plant part. PMID:19500634
Pereira, David M; Faria, Joana; Gaspar, Luís; Valentăo, Patrícia; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Andrade, Paula B
Background Populations in Africa mostly rely on herbal concoctions for their primarily health care, but so far scientific studies supporting the use of plants in traditional medicine remain poor. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic effects of Picralima nitida (seeds), Nauclea latifolia (root and stem) and Oxytenanthera abyssinica (leaves) commonly used, in diabetic pregnancy. Methods Pregnant wistar rats, rendered diabetic by multiple low injections of streptozotocin, were treated with selected plantextracts based on their antioxidant activities. Vitamin C concentrations, fatty acid compositions and phytochemical analysis of plantsextracts were determined. Effect of selected plantextracts on human T cell proliferation was also analysed. Results All analysed plantextracts exhibited substantial antioxidant activities probably related to their content in polyphenols. Picralima nitida exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity. Ethanolic and butanolic extracts of Picralima nitida, butanolic extract of Nauclea latifolia and ethanolic extract of Oxytenanthera abyssinica significantly decreased hyperglycemia in the diabetic pregnant rats. Butanolic extract of Picralima, also appeared to be the most potent immunosuppressor although all of the analysed extracts exerted an immunosuppressive effect on T cell proliferation probably due to their linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) and/or alkaloids content. Nevertheless, all analysed plants seemed to be good source of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Conclusion By having antioxidant, anti-hyperglycemic and immunosuppressive activities, these plants could be good candidates in the treatment of diabetes and diabetic pregnancy.
An investigation was undertaken to determine the possible mechanisms of action of medicinalplants used for dermatological pathologies. A total of 14 plant species were selected from the readily available ethnobotanical literature. 5-Lipoxygenase and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assays were used to determine the anti-inflammatory activity and the anti-oxidant activity of selected medicinalplants, respectively. Both aqueous and methanol extracts were tested.
Dendrobium is the largest genus of tropical epiphytic orchid, some of which are traditional Chinese medicinalplants. The therapeutic\\u000a components varied significantly among species. Endophytic microbes (fungi) hidden in medicinalplants may play an important\\u000a effect on the overall quality of herb. Investigation of fungal composition in host plants is the first step toward elucidating\\u000a the relationship endophyte-therapeutic content of
Juan Chen; Ke-Xing Hu; Xiao-Qiang Hou; Shun-Xing Guo
This paper describes the trade of dry medicinalplants in the southwestern area of the state of Puebla, Mexico. Gatherers\\u000a who collect medicinalplants represent the poorest economic link in the trade chain. The critical socioeconomic situation\\u000a of the human population is reflected in the state of the wild plants at the zone, as a result of an increase in
Human has a duty to preserve the nature. One of the examples is preserving the ornamental plant. Huge economic value of plant trading, escalating esthetical value of one space and medicine efficacy that contained in a plant are some positive values from this plant. However, only few people know about its medicine efficacy. Considering the easiness to obtain and the
Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis have been recognized as pus-forming bacteria triggering an inflammation in acne. The present study was conducted to evaluate antimicrobial activities of Thai medicinalplants against these etiologic agents of acne vulgaris. Crude extracts were tested for antimicrobial activities by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. The results from the disc diffusion method showed that 13
Mullika Traidej Chomnawang; Suvimol Surassmo; Veena S. Nukoolkarn; Wandee Gritsanapan
Essential oil, ethanolic extract and decoction of 10 plant species from interior Portugal were analyzed for their activity towards acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme and their antioxidant activity. Of these, Melissa officinalis, Paronychia argentea, Sanguisorba minor, Hypericum undulatum and Malva silvestris are used in herbal medicine, Laurus nobilis and Mentha suaveolens as condiments, and Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula pedunculata also
A. Ferreira; C. Proença; M. L. M. Serralheiro; M. E. M. Araújo
Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) have been employed in polymer materials as a plasticizer to form them more flexible, adhesive, and soluble. These compounds are mainly used in paints, varnishes, personal cares, cosmetics, paper coatings, and adhesives even in bottled waters, shampoo, body deodorant, hairspray, and gels. Phthalates are able to possess remarkable toxic variations depending on their structures. So far, Di-(2-EthylHexyl) Phthalate DEHP and Di-n- Butyl Phthalate DBP have been found to cause reproductive and developmental toxicities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classified DEHP as probable human carcinogen. To the best of our knowledge, phthalates showed diverse toxicity profiles according to their structures in the liver, kidneys, thyroid, and testes, which are involved in general toxicity. Furthermore, they are introduced as hormonally-active agents, because they can interfere with the endocrine system in human. Incidence of developmental abnormalities (like skeletal malformations and cleft palate, and undescended testes, lowering testes weight and anogenital distance) seems increasing via high exposure to phthalate metabolites. Although, increasing the capacity for phthalate free plasticizer productions is the first step to restrict the distribution of these toxic manmade compounds, finding the new ways for phthalate absorption from the soil in agricultural fields may have benefits. Also, evaluation and examination of diverse sources of medicinal and food plants to determine the level of phthalate accumulation in their organs are extremely recommended to avoid creating toxicity particularly in reproductive systems. PMID:23718122
Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) have been employed in polymer materials as a plasticizer to form them more flexible, adhesive, and soluble. These compounds are mainly used in paints, varnishes, personal cares, cosmetics, paper coatings, and adhesives even in bottled waters, shampoo, body deodorant, hairspray, and gels. Phthalates are able to possess remarkable toxic variations depending on their structures. So far, Di-(2-EthylHexyl) Phthalate DEHP and Di-n- Butyl Phthalate DBP have been found to cause reproductive and developmental toxicities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classified DEHP as probable human carcinogen. To the best of our knowledge, phthalates showed diverse toxicity profiles according to their structures in the liver, kidneys, thyroid, and testes, which are involved in general toxicity. Furthermore, they are introduced as hormonally-active agents, because they can interfere with the endocrine system in human. Incidence of developmental abnormalities (like skeletal malformations and cleft palate, and undescended testes, lowering testes weight and anogenital distance) seems increasing via high exposure to phthalate metabolites. Although, increasing the capacity for phthalate free plasticizer productions is the first step to restrict the distribution of these toxic manmade compounds, finding the new ways for phthalate absorption from the soil in agricultural fields may have benefits. Also, evaluation and examination of diverse sources of medicinal and food plants to determine the level of phthalate accumulation in their organs are extremely recommended to avoid creating toxicity particularly in reproductive systems.
A microplate assay and a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) "in situ" assay based on the Ellman assay was used to screen for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Brazilian medicinalplants of families that, according to the literature, have traditional uses that might be connected with acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Eighteen species belonging to Convolvulaceae, Crassulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Rutaceae families were tested. The most active plants were Ipomoea asarifolia (IC50 = 0.12 mg/mL), Jatropha curcas (IC50 = 0.25 mg/mL), Jatropha gossypiifolia (IC50 = 0.05 mg/mL), Kalanchoe brasiliensis (IC50 = 0.16 mg/mL) and Senna alata (IC50 = 0.08 mg/mL). The most promising extracts were the Jatropha gossypiifolia and Senna alata species assuming there were compounds with a similar activity to galanthamine, which should contain about 1% of an active compound, or if present at lower levels even more active compounds than galanthamine (IC50 = 0.37 x 10-3 mg/mL) should be present. PMID:21881804
Feitosa, C M; Freitas, R M; Luz, N N N; Bezerra, M Z B; Trevisan, M T S
In a continuing search for new compounds for the control of the vectors of schistosomiasis, we have tested the activity of some Brazilian medicinalplants as sources of molluscicidal natural compounds, using two molluscicidal bioassays. Twenty-seven crude extracts, from twenty-six species belonging to nineteen families, were tested. Seven extracts showed significant molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata adults with DL50 values of less than 50 ppm, and five of them were very active in the test using egg masses. The species most active against B. glabrata adults (LD50 value = 3.65 ppm) and their egg masses (LD50 value = 0.13 ppm) was Derris sp. Annona muricata [LD50 value (adult) = 11.86 ppm and LD50 value (egg) = 49.62 ppm], Jatropha elliptica (from Goiás state) [LD50 value (adult) = 24.80 ppm and LD50 value (egg) = 3.03 ppm] and Renealmia exaltata [LD50 value (adult) = 28.03 ppm and LD50 value (egg) = 21.67 ppm], were also considered promising molluscicidal plants. PMID:10715846
Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinalplants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinalplant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinalplants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinalplants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinalplants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinalplants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinalplants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use of specific plants. PMID:19429338
Plant growth retardants are widely used in cultivation of medicinalplant, but there is still lack of scientific guidance. In order to guide the use of plant growth retardants in medicinalplant cultivation efficiently and reasonably, this paper reviewed the mechanism, function characteristic, plant and soil residue of plant growth retardants, such as chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, paclobutrazol, unicnazle and succinic acid, and summarized the application of plant growth retardants in medicinalplants cultivation in recent years, with focus on the effect of growth and yield of the officinal organs and secondary metabolites. PMID:24380290
Fifteen crude extracts prepared from seven Ethiopian medicinalplants used to treat various infectious diseases were assessed for their ability to inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A preliminary screening of the crude extracts against M. tuberculosis typus humanus (ATCC 27294) was done by dilution assay using Löwenstein-Jensen medium. None of the tested extracts except the acetone fraction obtained from the stem bark of Combretum molle (R. Br. ex G. Don.) Engl & Diels (Combretaceae) showed significant inhibitory action against this strain. The acetone fraction of the stem bark of C. molle caused complete inhibition at concentrations higher than 1 mg/mL. Phytochemical analysis of the bioactive fraction led to the isolation of a major tannin and two oleanane-type pentacyclic triterpene glycosides. The tannin was identified as the ellagitannin, punicalagin, whilst the saponins were characterized as arjunglucoside (also called 4-epi-sericoside) and sericoside. All the pure compounds were further tested against the ATCC strain. Punicalagin was found to inhibit totally growth of the ATCC and also of a patient strain, which was fully sensitive to the standard antituberculosis drugs, at concentrations higher than 600 microg/mL and 1.2 mg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, the saponins failed to show any action on the ATCC strain. It appears that our findings are the first report of tannins exhibiting antimycobacterial activity. PMID:11406856
Past medicinalplant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinalplants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinalplants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinalplants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinalplants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinalplants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants' flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome. PMID:24391634
Plants have been used as a source of medicine since historic times and several commercially important drugs are of plant-based origin. The traditional approach towards discovery of plant-based drugs often times involves significant amount of time and expenditure. These labor-intensive approaches have struggled to keep pace with the rapid development of high-throughput technologies. In the era of high volume, high-throughput data generation across the biosciences, bioinformatics plays a crucial role. This has generally been the case in the context of drug designing and discovery. However, there has been limited attention to date to the potential application of bioinformatics approaches that can leverage plant-based knowledge. Here, we review bioinformatics studies that have contributed to medicinalplants research. In particular, we highlight areas in medicinalplant research where the application of bioinformatics methodologies may result in quicker and potentially cost-effective leads toward finding plant-based remedies.
This study investigated the effects of some plantextracts on the bacterial communication system, expressed as quorum sensing (QS) activity. Quorum sensing has a directly proportional effect on the amount of certain compounds, such as pigments, produced by the bacteria. Alcohol extracts of 23 ornamental and medicinalplants were tested for anti-QS activity by the Chromobacterium violaceum assay using the agar cup diffusion method. The screening revealed the anti-QS activity of six plants; namely the leaves of Adhatoda vasica Nees, Bauhinia purpurea L., Lantana camara L., Myoporum laetum G. Forst.; the fruits of Piper longum L.; and the aerial parts of Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. PMID:23641343
The topical anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from Cassia angustifolia, Rheum palmatum, Coptis chinensis, Phellodendron amurense and Scutellaria baicalensis, plants used in traditional East Asian medicine against different skin disorders, was studied. Though in different degree, all the extracts significantly inhibited the edema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), in both single or multiple application, oxazolone, and arachidonic acid (AA). None of the
M. J Cuéllar; R. M Giner; M. C Recio; S Máńez; J. L R??os
In response to increased popularity and greater demand for medicinalplants, a number of conservation groups are recommending that wild medicinalplants be brought into cultivation systems. We collected four medicinal herbs Cichorium pumilum, Eryngium creticum, Pistacia palaestina and Teucrium polium used in traditional Arab medicine for greenhouse cultivation to assess the effects of different fertilization regimes on their growth
Hassan Azaizeh; Predrag Ljubuncic; Irina Portnaya; Omar Said; Uri Cogan
Many complementary and alternatives medicines are offered to patients with cancer. Among them, herbal medicines have a substantial place. These plants are mainly used to reduce adverse effects of anticancer treatments and for specific anticancer properties. Our review shows that only few clinical data support medicinalplants effectiveness in cancer patients. Arguments rely mainly on usual indications and pharmacological data for minimization of treatments toxicity while for the anticancer properties, on epidemiological and preclinical data. To inform and counsel patients and people around, healthcare professionals need to evaluate benefit-risk balance on evidence-based information. Because the medical decision should be shared with the patient, his beliefs and preferences have to be considered. When no adverse effect or drug interaction is associated with herbal medicine, we state that their use is acceptable. This paper discuss of potential risk and benefit of the most used medicinalplants by cancer patients. PMID:23695160
The antiplasmodial, antileishmanial, and antitrypanosomal activity of twenty-five medicinalplants distributed in Saudi Arabia and Yemen was evaluated. The plants were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi, and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. To assess selectivity, cytotoxicity was determined on MRC-5 cells. Criteria for activity were an IC50 < 10??g/mL and high selectivity (SI). Seven plants showed interesting antiprotozoal activity in one or more models. Extracts of Caralluma penicillata and Acalypha ciliata showed fairly good activity against P. falciparum with IC50 of 6.7 and 10.8??g/mL and adequate selectivity (SI > 9.6 and >5.9). Interesting activity against L. infantum was obtained with Verbascum bottae (IC50 of 3.2??g/mL, SI 10.2) and Solanum glabratum (IC50 8.1??g/mL, SI 3.4). The extracts of C. penicillata, Leucas virgata, Loranthus regularis, and V. bottae exhibited moderate activity against T. brucei (IC50 8.5, 8.1, 8.3, and 2.3??g/mL; SI > 7.6, 7.7, 4.3, and >14.1). These results partly support the traditional use of some of the selected medicinalplants and warrant further investigations into the putative active constituents.
Mothana, Ramzi A.; Al-Musayeib, Nawal M.; Al-Ajmi, Mohamed F.; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis
The antiplasmodial, antileishmanial, and antitrypanosomal activity of twenty-five medicinalplants distributed in Saudi Arabia and Yemen was evaluated. The plants were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi, and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. To assess selectivity, cytotoxicity was determined on MRC-5 cells. Criteria for activity were an IC50 < 10? ? g/mL and high selectivity (SI). Seven plants showed interesting antiprotozoal activity in one or more models. Extracts of Caralluma penicillata and Acalypha ciliata showed fairly good activity against P. falciparum with IC50 of 6.7 and 10.8? ? g/mL and adequate selectivity (SI > 9.6 and >5.9). Interesting activity against L. infantum was obtained with Verbascum bottae (IC50 of 3.2? ? g/mL, SI 10.2) and Solanum glabratum (IC50 8.1? ? g/mL, SI 3.4). The extracts of C. penicillata, Leucas virgata, Loranthus regularis, and V. bottae exhibited moderate activity against T. brucei (IC50 8.5, 8.1, 8.3, and 2.3? ? g/mL; SI > 7.6, 7.7, 4.3, and >14.1). These results partly support the traditional use of some of the selected medicinalplants and warrant further investigations into the putative active constituents. PMID:24963330
Mothana, Ramzi A; Al-Musayeib, Nawal M; Al-Ajmi, Mohamed F; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis
The use of medicinalplants as a fundamental component of the African traditional healthcare system is perhaps the oldest and the most assorted of all therapeutic systems. In many parts of rural Africa, traditional healers prescribing medicinalplants are the most easily accessible and affordable health resource available to the local community and at times the only therapy that subsists. Nonetheless, there is still a paucity of updated comprehensive compilation of promising medicinalplants from the African continent. The major focus of the present review is to provide an updated overview of 10 promising medicinalplants from the African biodiversity which have short- as well as long-term potential to be developed as future phytopharmaceuticals to treat and/or manage panoply of infectious and chronic conditions. In this endeavour, key scientific databases have been probed to investigate trends in the rapidly increasing number of scientific publications on African traditional medicinalplants. Within the framework of enhancing the significance of traditional African medicinalplants, aspects such as traditional use, phytochemical profile, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies and also future challenges pertaining to the use of these plants have been explored.
The use of medicinalplants as a fundamental component of the African traditional healthcare system is perhaps the oldest and the most assorted of all therapeutic systems. In many parts of rural Africa, traditional healers prescribing medicinalplants are the most easily accessible and affordable health resource available to the local community and at times the only therapy that subsists. Nonetheless, there is still a paucity of updated comprehensive compilation of promising medicinalplants from the African continent. The major focus of the present review is to provide an updated overview of 10 promising medicinalplants from the African biodiversity which have short- as well as long-term potential to be developed as future phytopharmaceuticals to treat and/or manage panoply of infectious and chronic conditions. In this endeavour, key scientific databases have been probed to investigate trends in the rapidly increasing number of scientific publications on African traditional medicinalplants. Within the framework of enhancing the significance of traditional African medicinalplants, aspects such as traditional use, phytochemical profile, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies and also future challenges pertaining to the use of these plants have been explored. PMID:24367388
To identify substances with anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity in traditional medicines, 101 extracts of Korean medicinalplants were screened for their inhibitory effects on HIV type 1 protease (PR). The enzyme activity was determined by HPLC. Of the extracts tested, strong inhibitory effects were observed in the acetone extracts of the pericarp and leaves of Camellia japonica, the water extract of the leaves of Sageretia theezans and the methanol extract of the aerial part of Sophora flavescens. Camelliatannin H from the pericarp of C. japonica, showed a potent inhibitory activity on HIV-1 PR with IC(50) of 0.9 microM. PMID:12203260
Park, Jong Cheol; Hur, Jong Moon; Park, Ju Gwon; Hatano, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Takashi; Miyashiro, Hirotsugu; Min, Byung Sun; Hattori, Masao
Boiling water extracts of 66 selected Chinese medicinal herbs were screened for their anticyanobaterial activity against Microcystis aeruginosa by the soft-agar overlayer (SAO) method. Results indicated that extracts from 16 materials could inhibit the growth of this bacterial species. Among these anticyanobacterial samples, eight extracts showed low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), including four extracts with MICs between 1 and 6 mg/mL, and four extracts with MICs < 1 mg/mL which could be considered useful to prevent the outbreak of cyanobacteria before the appearance of cyanobacterial blooms. Further study showed that three extracts with MIC values < 1 mg/mL induced intensive chlorophyll-a lysis within 7 days at the MIC. The results suggested that highly efficient anticyanobacterial compounds must be involved in the inhibitory activities. The final results indicated these three extracts (from Malaphis chinensis, Cynips gallae-tinctoriae and Fructus mume) had the potential to be developed as algicides due to their remarkably anticyanobacterial activities.
Boiling water extracts of 66 selected Chinese medicinal herbs were screened for their anticyanobaterial activity against Microcystis aeruginosa by the soft-agar overlayer (SAO) method. Results indicated that extracts from 16 materials could inhibit the growth of this bacterial species. Among these anticyanobacterial samples, eight extracts showed low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), including four extracts with MICs between 1 and 6 mg/mL, and four extracts with MICs < 1 mg/mL which could be considered useful to prevent the outbreak of cyanobacteria before the appearance of cyanobacterial blooms. Further study showed that three extracts with MIC values < 1 mg/mL induced intensive chlorophyll-a lysis within 7 days at the MIC. The results suggested that highly efficient anticyanobacterial compounds must be involved in the inhibitory activities. The final results indicated these three extracts (from Malaphis chinensis, Cynips gallae-tinctoriae and Fructus mume) had the potential to be developed as algicides due to their remarkably anticyanobacterial activities. PMID:19865537
A total of 78 different extracts from 20 medicinalplants belonging to 14 plant families from Mali were tested for their antifungal, larvicidal, molluscicidal, antioxidant and radical scavenging activities. Dichloromethane, methanol, water and ethanol extracts were used. TLC autobiography for antifungal activity was run with Cladosporium cucumerinum and Candida albicans. Extracts were also tested on the larvae of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. Molluscicidal activities were established with the snails Biomphalaria glabrata, Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Bulinus truncatus. beta-Carotene and DPPH solutions sprayed on TLC plates were used for antioxidant and radical scavenging assays. Of the extracts investigated, 20% were antioxidant and radical scavengers, 19% fungicidal, 30% were larvicidal and 11% were molluscicidal. Three of the plantextracts, from Cussonia barteri (Araliaceae), Glinus oppositifolius (Aďzoaceae) and Lannea velutina (Anacardiaceae) gave positive responses in all four tests. PMID:11507731
Diallo, D; Marston, A; Terreaux, C; Touré, Y; Paulsen, B S; Hostettmann, K
Gloriosa superba L. is a perennial climber and is used as an ayurvedic medicinal herb to cure diseases in various parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. The plant was under threatened category due to its imprudent harvesting from wild as it is extensively used by medicinal industries for its colchicine content. It also faces a low seed set problem, but
Forty-five species of 29 plant families used in the traditional medicine by Iranian people, showed antibacterial activities against one or more of the bacterial species: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumilus, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. No plant showed activity against Serratia marcescens; Bordetella bronchiseptica being the most susceptible species. All extracts showed the same activity 18 months later. PMID:15325735
Abstracts are provided of the world-wide literature concerning medicinal and aromatic plants. The following aspects of the subject are covered: Agronomy, botany, breeding and genetics, diseases and pests, physiology and biochemistry, pharmacognosy, clinic...
Indigenous medicine is important to rural livelihoods, but lay knowledge and use of medicinalplants has not been extensively studied. Research in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, showed that medicinalplants were frequently used by villagers and contributed to their ability to cope with health problems. Knowledge of plants and household remedies was extensive and varied in that households often held different
The investigation of traditionally used medicinalplants is valuable both as a source of potential chemotherapeutic drugs and as a measure of safety for the continued use of these medicinalplants. Achillea millefolium L. (AM) is an ancient remedial herb native to Europe that is used to treat wounds, gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders, inflammation, headaches, and pain. Bauhinia forficata Link (BF), an Asiatic plant, is one of the most commonly used plants in folk medicine against diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and antimutagenic potential of aqueous extracts of AM and BF on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats treated in vivo. These plantextracts possess considerable antioxidant activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds. These compounds were determinants to noncytotoxic and antimutagenic/protective action of these plants, that reduced statistically the percentage of chromosomal alterations induced by the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide in simultaneous (AM, 68%; BF, 91%), pre- (AM, 68%; BF, 71%), and post-treatment (AM, 67%; BF, 95%). Therefore, the results of this study indicate that extracts of A. millefolium and B. forficata have antimutagenic potential and that their consumption can benefit the health of those using them as an alternative therapy.
de Almeida, Igor Vivian; Coelho, Ana Carolina; Balbi, Thiago Jose; Dusman Tonin, Lilian Tatiani; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta
The investigation of traditionally used medicinalplants is valuable both as a source of potential chemotherapeutic drugs and as a measure of safety for the continued use of these medicinalplants. Achillea millefolium L. (AM) is an ancient remedial herb native to Europe that is used to treat wounds, gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders, inflammation, headaches, and pain. Bauhinia forficata Link (BF), an Asiatic plant, is one of the most commonly used plants in folk medicine against diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and antimutagenic potential of aqueous extracts of AM and BF on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats treated in vivo. These plantextracts possess considerable antioxidant activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds. These compounds were determinants to noncytotoxic and antimutagenic/protective action of these plants, that reduced statistically the percentage of chromosomal alterations induced by the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide in simultaneous (AM, 68%; BF, 91%), pre- (AM, 68%; BF, 71%), and post-treatment (AM, 67%; BF, 95%). Therefore, the results of this study indicate that extracts of A. millefolium and B. forficata have antimutagenic potential and that their consumption can benefit the health of those using them as an alternative therapy. PMID:24459532
Düsman, Elisângela; de Almeida, Igor Vivian; Coelho, Ana Carolina; Balbi, Thiago José; Düsman Tonin, Lilian Tatiani; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta
Drugs based on compounds isolated from plants form a major part of the pharmaceutical armamentarium against cancer,1 and plants are an excellent source of pharmaceutical leads.2 As part of an ongoing search for novel natural product anticancer agents, plant samples are collected, mainly from tropical forests, and a portion is extracted and screened in a panel of human cancer cell
William P. Jones; Heebyung Chai; Leonardus B. S. Kardono; Soedarsono Riswan; Norman R. Farnsworth; Geoffrey A. Cordell; Steven M. Swanson; A. Douglas
We investigated the leaves of Kleinhovia hospita, a plant which has been traditionally used in Indonesia as phytotherapy to cure liver disease, to describe antioxidant materials from plant sources. K. hospita leaves were extracted with methanol and further partitioned into n-hexane, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate. The antioxidant activity of each fraction and the residue was assessed using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method and their cytotoxicity on HepG2 liver cancer cells was determined by a MTT assay. The K. hospita leaf methanol extract showed strong antioxidant activity (96%) compared with vitamin C (98%) by the DPPH method and the measured activity from the subsequent extracts of the methanol extract were 48.9% for n-hexane, 74.0% for diethyl ether, 84.3% for ethyl acetate, and 77.1% for the residue. The MTT assay showed the cytotoxicity of the methanol extract on HepG2 cells at 14%, 76%, and 80% at concentrations of 50 microg/mL, 87.5 microg/mL, and 125 microg/mL, respectively. Leaf extracts of the medicinalplant K. hospita showed potent antioxidant activity and moderate cytotoxicity on HepG2 liver cancer cells. PMID:20633507
Crude plantextract solutions (spinach and parrotfeather) were prepared and spiked with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) (20 mgl(-1)). 90-h TNT removal by these solutions was compared to controls. Spinach and parrotfeather extract solutions removed 99% and 50% of the initial TNT, respectively; TNT was not eliminated in the controls or in extract solutions where removal activity was deactivated by boiling. A first-order removal constant of 0.052 h(-1) was estimated for spinach extract solutions treating 20 mgl(-1) TNT concentrations, which compared favorably to intact plant removal. Concentration variation was described by Michaelis-Menton kinetics. Detectable TNT degradation products represented only a fraction of the total TNT transformed, and the transformation favored the formation of 4-aminodinitrotoluene. The results indicated that crude plantextracts transform TNT, without the presence of the live plant. PMID:15013677
Medina, Victor F; Larson, Steven L; Agwaramgbo, Lovell; Perez, Waleska; Escalon, Lynn
Qualitative-quantitative structure of plant pigments in wild plants Malva silvestrs L. and Malva moschata L. (Malvaceae), which were collected in 20 locations in Sarajevo area and surroundings, was tested during spring and summer in 2003. Acetone extracts of both categories were made and rising paper-chromatography done for the purpose of qualitative analysis. Quantitative analysis was done by spectrophotometry. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and xanthophylls presence was confirmed by separation of pigments from acetone extract of these plant species. Spectrophotometric analysis of acetone extracts showed these results (given in mg/L): chlorophyll a 2,386, chlorophyll b 0,332 and carrotenoides 1,037. Data given in mg/g dry substance are: chlorophyll a 1,193x10(-2), chlorophyll b 1,66x10(-3), and carrotenoides 5,185x10(-3). Pigments structure (in mg/L) in species Malva moschata is 1,6 for chlorophyll; 1,419 for chlorophyll b; and 0,364 for carrotenoides. Data given in mg/g are: chlorophyll a 8x10(-3), chlorophyll b 7,09x10(-3), and carrotenoides 1,82x10(-3). Considering that species Malva moschata L. grows on ecologically clear soils as opposed to well-known medicinal species Malva sylvestris L., and considering the production of phytomass, phytochemical structure and pharmacological influence it can be considered very medical and be given advantage over this wider spread category. PMID:16053456
The aim of this study was to screen the trypanocidal activity of plants used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of various diseases related to parasitic infections. Cultured Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes were incubated for 96h with different concentrations of methanolic extracts obtained from Artemisia mexicana, Castela texana, Cymbopogon citratus, Eryngium heterophyllum, Haematoxylum brasiletto, Lippia graveolens, Marrubium vulgare, Persea americana, Ruta chalepensis and Schinus molle. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined for each extract via a colorimetric method. Among the evaluated species, the methanolic extracts of E. heterophyllum, H. brasiletto, M. vulgare and S. molle exhibited the highest trypanocidal activity, showing percentages of growth inhibition between 88 and 100% at a concentration of 150?g/ml. These medicinalplants may represent a valuable source of new bioactive compounds for the therapeutic treatment of trypanosomiasis. PMID:24742906
Molina-Garza, Zinnia Judith; Bazaldúa-Rodríguez, Aldo Fabio; Quintanilla-Licea, Ramiro; Galaviz-Silva, Lucio
The anti-plasmodial activity of different solvent extracts of Adhatoda vasica (root), Caesalpinia pulcherrima (leaf), Carica papaya (pulp), Erythroxylum monogynum (leaf), Lantana camara (whole plant), Ocimum sanctum (root) and Phyllanthus niruri (whole plant) were studied against Plasmodium falciparum. Of the 35 extracts tested, seven extracts showed good anti-plasmodial activity. Methanol extract of C. pulcherrima showed the lowest IC50 value (10.96 ?g/mL) followed by methanol extract of A. vasica (IC(50)=11.1 ?g/mL), chloroform extract of O. sanctum (IC(50)=11.47 ?g/mL), methanol extract of E. monogynum (IC(50)=12.23 ?g/mL), acetone extract of C. pulcherrima (IC(50)=12.49 ?g/mL), methanol extract of O. sanctum and acetone extract of A. vasica (IC(50)=14.04 ?g/mL). The results of the present study justify the use of these medicinalplants in traditional practice, and also, a further study on the isolation of anti-plasmodial molecules from their active crude extracts is in progress. PMID:22290450
Venkatesalu, V; Gopalan, N; Pillai, C R; Singh, Vineeta; Chandrasekaran, M; Senthilkumar, A; Chandramouli, N
Crude methanolic extracts from 22 Mexican medicinalplants were screened for antitrichomonal activity against Trichomonas vaginalis, which is the etiological agent of trichomoniasis. Among the plants tested Carica papaya and Cocos nucifera showed the best antitrichomonal activity with IC(50) values of 5.6 and 5.8 microg/ml, respectively. The extracts of Bocconia frutescens, Geranium mexicanum, and Lygodium venustum showed moderate activity with IC(50) values ranging from 30.9 to 60.9 microg/ml. All the other plantextracts were inactive (IC(50)>100 microg/ml). All extracts tested were less active than metronidazole (IC(50) 0.037 microg/ml), an antiprotozoal drug used as positive control. The results of the antiprotozoal screening support the popular uses of five of the plants tested for the treatment of some urogenital tract disorders in Mexican traditional medicine. However, seeds of Carica papaya and aerial parts of Bocconia frutescens should be used in herbal medicine with care to avoid toxicity. PMID:17628366
Background Modern therapeutic medicine is historically based on indigenous therapies and ethnopharmacological uses, which have become recognized tools in the search for new sources of pharmaceuticals. Globalization of herbal medicine along with uncontrolled exploitative practices and lack of concerted conservation efforts, have pushed many of Nepal's medicinalplants to the verge of extinction. Sustainable utilization and management of medicinalplants, based on traditional knowledge, is therefore necessary. Methods After establishing verbal informed consent with participating communities, five field surveys, roughly 20 days in duration, were carried out. In all, 176 schedules were surveyed, and 52 participants were consulted through focus group discussions and informal meetings. Altogether, 24 key informants were surveyed to verify and validate the data. A total of 252 individuals, representing non-timber forest product (NTFP) collectors, cultivators, traders, traditional healers (Baidhya), community members, etc. participated in study. Medicinalplants were free-listed and their vernacular names and folk uses were collected, recorded, and applied to assess agreement among respondents about traditional medicines, markets and management. Results Within the study area, medicinal herbs were the main ingredients of traditional therapies, and they were considered a main lifeline and frequently were the first choice. About 55% plants were ethnomedicinal, and about 37% of ethnomedicinal plants possessed the highest informant consensus value (0.86–1.00). Use of Cordyceps sinensis as an aphrodisiac, Berberis asiatica for eye problems, Bergenia ciliata for disintegration of calculi, Sapindus mukorossi for dandruff, and Zanthoxylum armatum for toothache were the most frequently mentioned. These species possess potential for pharmacology. Conclusion Medicinalplants are inseparable from local livelihoods because they have long been collected, consumed, and managed through local customs and knowledge. Management of traditional therapies is urged, because the therapies are empirically and knowledge based, often culturally inherited and important to pharmacology and local livelihoods. However, traditional therapies are currently being eroded due to changing lifestyles, perceptions, social transformations, and acculturation.
The bioactive compounds of medicinalplants are products of the plant itself or of endophytes living inside the plant. Endophytes isolated from eight different anticancer plants collected in Yunnan, China, were characterized by diverse 16S and 18S rRNA gene phylogenies. A functional gene-based molecular screening strategy was used to target nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and type I polyketide synthase (PKS) genes in endophytes. Bioinformatic analysis of these biosynthetic pathways facilitated inference of the potential bioactivity of endophyte natural products, suggesting that the isolated endophytes are capable of producing a plethora of secondary metabolites. All of the endophyte culture broth extracts demonstrated antiproliferative effects in at least one test assay, either cytotoxic, antibacterial or antifungal. From the perspective of natural product discovery, this study confirms the potential for endophytes from medicinalplants to produce anticancer, antibacterial and antifungal compounds. In addition, PKS and NRPS gene screening is a valuable method for screening isolates of biosynthetic potential. PMID:22430508
Miller, Kristin I; Qing, Chen; Sze, Daniel Man-Yuen; Roufogalis, Basil D; Neilan, Brett A
Objective To evaluate the activity of selected Ethiopian medicinalplants traditionally used for wound treatment against wound-causing bacteria. Methods Samples of medicinalplants (Achyranthes aspera, Brucea antidysenterica, Datura stramonium, Croton macrostachyus, Acokanthera schimperi, Phytolacca dodecandra, Millettia ferruginea, and Solanum incanum) were extracted using absolute methanol and water and tested for their antimicrobial activities against clinical isolates and standard strains of wound-causing bacteria using agar well diffusion and micro titer plate methods. Results Most of the plantextracts had antibacterial activities, among which Acokanthera schimperi and Brucea antidysenterica inhibited growth of 100% and 35% of the test organisms, respectively. Methanolic extracts had higher activities compared with their corresponding aqueous extracts. The most susceptible organism to the extracts was Streptococcus pyogens while the most resistant were Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris. Conclusions This finding justifies the use of the plants in wound healing and their potential activity against wound-causing bacteria. Their toxicity level and antimicrobial activity with different extraction solvents should further be studied to use them as sources and templates for the synthesis of drugs to control wound and other disease-causing bacteria.
The antioxidative activity of a total of 92 phenolic extracts from edible and nonedible plant materials (berries, fruits, vegetables, herbs, cereals, tree materials, plant sprouts, and seeds) was examined by autoxidation of methyl linoleate. The content of total phenolics in the extracts was determined spectrometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and calculated as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Among edible plant materials, remarkable high antioxidant activity and high total phenolic content (GAE > 20 mg/g) were found in berries, especially aronia and crowberry. Apple extracts (two varieties) showed also strong antioxidant activity even though the total phenolic contents were low (GAE < 12.1 mg/g). Among nonedible plant materials, high activities were found in tree materials, especially in willow bark, spruce needles, pine bark and cork, and birch phloem, and in some medicinalplants including heather, bog-rosemary, willow herb, and meadowsweet. In addition, potato peel and beetroot peel extracts showed strong antioxidant effects. To utilize these significant sources of natural antioxidants, further characterization of the phenolic composition is needed. PMID:10552749
Kähkönen, M P; Hopia, A I; Vuorela, H J; Rauha, J P; Pihlaja, K; Kujala, T S; Heinonen, M
Background There is an interest in finding new and safe antioxidants from natural sources such as medicinalplants. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of ten Iranian medicinalplantsextracts. Materials and Methods For antioxidant activity, the radical scavenging activity, reducing power and phenolic contents of ethanol plantextracts were determined. Gallic acid was used as standard reference with well-documented antioxidant activity. Results The highest antioxidant activity in terms of DPPH radical scavenging was found in Verbascum sinuatum L. Var (VS) with an IC50 equal to 263.52 ± 5.981 ?g/ml and Rosa damascena Mill (RD) with and IC50 equal to 287.9 ± 5.675 ?g/ml that are higher than gallic acid (IC50 = 25.32 ± 5.593 ?g/ml). The highest antioxidant activity in terms of ferric reducing capacity was also found in Verbascum sinuatum L. Var extracts (in 85.08 ± 8.66 ?g/ml concentration with absorbance 0.5). Also, this extract contains the highest phenolic compounds (8.53 ± 0.11 mg/g). Conclusion In this study, Verbascum sinuatum L. Var contains the highest level of phenolic compounds may be contribute to higher free radical scavenging activity and reducing power in comparison to the other plantextracts. Therefore this plant is a good candidate as natural antioxidant.
Moein, Soheila; Moein, Mahmoodreza; Khoshnoud, Mohammad Javad; Kalanteri, Tahereh
The increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens necessitates medicinalplants as an alternate therapy in restricting the resistant infectious organisms. In this primitive study, the antibiotic resistance of organisms isolated from urinary tract infected patients was evaluated using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) method and Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index values, and the MAR values was also calculated for plantextracts. The 10 common medicinalplants collected from Kolli hills, Namakkal, south India were extracted using the chloroform, methanol, acetone, ethanol and saponification procedure. The efficacy of the extracts on the uropathogens was tested by agar disc diffusion method in order to analyse the inhibitory activity of plantextract on the organisms. Azadiracta indica A. Juss., Tinospora cordifolia (Wild.) and Euphorbia hirta Linn. exhibited high inhibitory activity against most of the 11 tested organisms followed by Cassia javanica Linn. and Phyllanthus niruri Linn. The maximum zone size of 46.3 mm was exhibited by methanol extract of P. niruri Linn. against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Asparagus racemosus Willd. and Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl had the least activity against resistant pathogens. Saponified lipids of most of the plants exhibited maximum antibacterial activity. Among the tested organisms, P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the most susceptible and Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloaceae, Citrobacter koseri, and Citrobacter freundii were the least inhibited by most of the extracts of medicinalplants. It is concluded that revised antibiotic policies and more importantly the development of herbal medicine as an alternative may be incorporated in urological practice. PMID:21986363
Narayanan, A S; Raja, S S S; Ponmurugan, K; Kandekar, S C; Natarajaseenivasan, K; Maripandi, A; Mandeel, Q A
Alcoholic extracts of six culinary and medicinalplants, have been analyzed for their antioxidative properties. Extracts were obtained by continuous (Soxhlet) and ultrasounds extraction. A new flow injection analysis method with chemiluminescence detection (FIA-CL) based on a luminol\\/Co(II)\\/EDTA\\/H2O2 system was set-up for the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) determination of the studied extracts. For comparison, total phenols (TP) and flavonoids contents
Claudia-Valentina Popa; Liliana Lungu; Manuela Savoiu; Corina Bradu; Vasile Dinoiu; Andrei Florin Danet
Water and 80% ethanol extracts of 20 Thai medicinalplants used to treat AIDS were tested for their HIV type 1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity. The water extracts of Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (aerial parts), Vitex glabrata (branch), Vitex trifolia (aerial part), Vitex negundo (aerial part), Canna indica (rhizome), and Justicia gendarussa (aerial part) showed HIV-1 RT inhibition ratio (%
In our ongoing program to find new anti-inflammatory compounds, 58 extracts from 46 different medicinalplant species, used in treatment of inflammatory disorders-38 plants from the traditional medicine of Western Samoa and eight originating from the indigenous medicine of the Shipibo-Conibo tribe of Peruvian Amazonia-ere evaluated. The ability of all extracts to inhibit cyclooxygenase-1 catalysed prostaglandin biosynthesis in vitro was examined. Of the plant species tested 14 showed moderate to strong inhibition; including 11 Samoan and three Peruvian species. Further, 12 Samoan and all eight Peruvian species were investigated on their inhibitory activity of ethyl phenylpropiolate induced rat ear oedema in vivo. Significant activity was shown by 10 of the Samoan and by all eight Peruvian species. An additional evaluation of the most active species was provided through a compilation of existing literature documenting traditional medicinal uses, pharmacological activity and chemical constituents. Several known cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitors were reported to which the observed pharmacological activity can be attributed at least partly. The combination of chemical and pharmacological literature data and our experimental data may help to explain the anti-inflammatory use of these species in indigenous medicine. PMID:9234163
Dunstan, C A; Noreen, Y; Serrano, G; Cox, P A; Perera, P; Bohlin, L
Objective To evaluate the nutrients and essential oils of five medicinalplants, Juniperus excelsa (J. excelsa), Dodonaea viscosa, Euryops pinifolius, Teucrium polium (T. polium), and Helianthemum lippii that were collected from Jabal Al Akhdar, Oman. Methods Proximate parameters (moisture, dry matter, ash, crude fats, proteins, fibers, nitrogen, carbohydrates, and energy values) and nutrient analysis (K, Na, Ca, Fe, P, Mg etc.) were evaluated in the five medicinalplants using standard techniques. On the basis of these analysis, T. polium and J. excels were selected for essential oil analysis using a rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method and GC-MS. Results The results showed that leaves of J. excelsa had highest proportion of crude fats, fibers and energy value while ash was highest in T. polium. J. excelsa was also rich in essential minerals such as calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron while the trace elements and heavy metals composition was marginal. A rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method to extract oil from medicinalplants species showed that only T. polium and J. excelsa yielded oil. The chemical composition of essential oils showed higher proportion of delta-3-carene, limonene, ?-eudesmol, ledeneoxide (II), ?-trans-bergamatene, linalyl acetate and germacrene. Conclusions J. excelsa and T. polium are a good source of proximate, minerals and essential oils, which can be considered for healthy life besides their medicinal values.
Hussain, Javid; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Ali, Liaqat; Khan, Abdul Latif; Albroumi, Muhammad Abdullah
Recent scientific studies have proven the importance of trace elements on human health. The main food supplies are plants and animals, which are significant sources of these minerals. Studies on determining mineral compositions of herbs, spices and some other crops have increased all over the world. Published works revealed that spices, herbs and medicinalplants should be c