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Sample records for medicinal plants extracts

  1. Evaluation of some Moroccan medicinal plant extracts for larvicidal activity.

    PubMed

    Markouk, M; Bekkouche, K; Larhsini, M; Bousaid, M; Lazrek, H B; Jana, M

    2000-11-01

    The larvicidal properties of 16 extracts of four Moroccan medicinal plants: Calotropis procera (Wild.), Cotula cinerea (L.), Solanum sodomaeum (L.) and Solanum elaeagnifolium (CAV.) were tested against Anopheles labranchiae mosquito larvae. Among the extracts tested, nine exhibited high larvicidal activity with LC(50) (24 h) ranging from 28 to 325 ppm. PMID:11025168

  2. Synthesis and characterization of nanoparticles capped with medicinal plant extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekulapally, Sujith R.

    In this study, synthesis, characterization and biological application of series nanometal (silver, Ag) and nanometal oxide (titania, TiO2) were carried out. These nanomaterials were prepared using wet-chemistry method and then coated using natural plant extract. Three medicinal plants, namely Zingiber officinale (Ginger), Allium sativum (Garlic) and Capsicum annuum (Chili) were chosen as grafting agent to decrease the side-effects and increase the efficiency of NPs towards living organism. Extraction conditions were controlled under 60-100 °C for 8 hrs. Ag and TiO2 NPs were fabricated using colloidal chemistry and variables were controlled at ambient condition. The band gap of TiO2 NPs used as disinfectant was also modified through coating the medicinal plant extracts. The medicinal plant extracts and coated NPs were measured using spectroscopic methods. Ultraviolet-visible spectra indicated the Ag NPs were formed. The peak at 410 nm resulted from the electrons transferred from their ground to the excited state. The broadened full width at half maximum (FWHM) suggested the ultrafine particles were obtained. The lipid soluble compounds, phenols, tri-terpenoids, flavanoids, capsaicinoids, flavonoids, carotenoids, steroids steroidal glycosides, and vitamins were determined from the high performance liquid chromatographical analyses. X-ray powder diffraction indicated that the face-centered cubic Ag (PDF: 00-004-0783, a = 4.0862A, a = 90°) and anatase TiO2 (PDF: 01-08-1285, a = 3.7845, c = 9.5143A, a = 90°) were obtained using colloidal chemistry. Bactericidal activity indicated that these core-shelled TiO 2 were effective (MBC=0.6 ppm, within 30 mins) at inactivating Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is proposed that the medicinal extracts enhanced the potency of NPs against bacteria. From our previous study, the Ag NPs were highly effective at inactivating both bacteria.

  3. Screening of Korean Medicinal Plant Extracts for ?-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities

    PubMed Central

    Sancheti, Shruti; Sancheti, Sandesh; Lee, Seung-Hun; Lee, Jae-Eun; Seo, Sung-Yum

    2011-01-01

    Glycosidases are the enzymes involved in various biochemical processes related to metabolic disorders and diseases. Therefore, much effort has been focused on searching novel pharmacotherapy for the treatment of these ailments from medicinal plants due to higher safety margins. To pursue these efforts, the present study was performed to evaluate the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities of thirty Korean medicinal plant extracts. Among the plants studied, Euonymus sachalinensis, Rhododendron schlippenbachii, Astilbe chinensis and Juglans regia showed the strongest ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 10, 20, 30 and 80 g/mL, respectively. In addition, Meliosma oldhamii and Symplocos chinensis showed moderate ?-glucosidase inhibition with IC50 values of 150 and 220 g/mL, respectively. Therefore, they might prove to be a potential natural source for the treatment of metabolic ailments such as, diabetes, and need further investigations. PMID:24250352

  4. Cytotoxic activity screening of Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Akter, Raushanara; Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2014-01-01

    The cytotoxic activity of 23 crude methanol extracts from 19 Bangladeshi medicinal plants was investigated against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3), healthy monkey kidney (VERO) and four human cancer cell lines (gastric, AGS; colon, HT-29; and breast, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using MTT assay. High cytotoxicity across all cell lines tested was exhibited by Aegiceras corniculatum (fruit) and Hymenodictyon excelsum (bark) extracts (IC50 values ranging from 0.0005 to 0.9980 and 0.08 to 0.44 mg/mL, respectively). Fourteen extracts from 11 plant species, namely Clitoria ternatea (flower and leaf), Dillenia indica (leaf), Diospyros peregrina (leaf), Dipterocarpus turbinatus (bark and leaf), Ecbolium viride (leaf), Glinus oppositifolius (whole plant), Gnaphalium luteoalbum (leaf), Jasminum sambac (leaf), Lannea coromandelica (bark and leaf), Mussaenda glabrata (leaf) and Saraca asoca (leaf), were also significantly cytotoxic (IC50 < 1.0 mg/mL) against at least one of the cancer cell lines tested. More selectively, Avicennia alba (leaf), C. ternatea (flower and leaf), Caesalpinia pulcherrima (leaf), E. viride (leaf) and G. oppositifolius (whole plant) showed cytotoxicity only against both of the breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). In contrast, C. ternatea (flower and leaf) exhibited high cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 (IC50 values of 0.11 and 0.49 mg/mL, respectively), whereas E. viride and G. oppositifolius whole plant extracts exhibited high activity against MCF-7 cells (IC50 values of 0.06 and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively). The cytotoxic activity test results for 9 of the plant species correlate with their traditional use as anticancer agents, thus making them interesting sources for further drug development. PMID:23846168

  5. Anti-HIV-1 efficacy of extracts from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-A; Hong, Seong-Karp; Suh, Chang-Il; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Park, Jeong-Ho; Choi, Byoung-Wook; Park, Seung-Won; Paik, Soon-Young

    2010-04-01

    The anti-HIV-1 activities of butanol, hexane, chloroform and water extracts from four widely used folk medicinal plants (Sophora flavescens, Tulipa edulis, Herba ephedra, and Pachyma hoelen Rumph) were evaluated in this study. The hexane extract of Pachyma hoelen Rumph, PH-4, showed effective inhibition against HIV-1. The 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) of PH-4 was 37.3 microg/ml in the p24 antigen assay and 36.8% in the HIV-1 recombinant RT activity test (at 200 microg/ml). In addition, the PH-4 showed the protective effect on the infected MT-4 cells, with a 58.2% rate of protection. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC(50)) of PH-4 was 100.6 microg/ml. These results suggest that PH-4 from Pachyma hoelen Rumph might be the candidate for the chemotherapy agent against HIV-1 infection with further study. PMID:20437159

  6. Evaluation of two methods for the extraction of antioxidants from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua-Bin; Jiang, Yue; Wong, Chi-Chun; Cheng, Ka-Wing; Chen, Feng

    2007-05-01

    The efficiencies of two traditional extraction methods used in Chinese medicine (the decoction method and the maceration method) were evaluated for the extraction of antioxidants from medicinal plants. A group of medicinal plants possessing nutritious and tonic functions were chosen as model plants. A commonly used extraction method was used as a reference method. The antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents of the extracts were measured by ferric-reducing antioxidant power and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assays as well as the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The results obtained indicated that the two traditional extraction methods could effectively extract antioxidants from medicinal plants. These extraction methods can be applied to the analysis and purification of antioxidants in plants, respectively. At home, people can use these methods to extract antioxidants from plants for consumption. In the food industry, these methods could be utilized to prepare crude extracts from plants containing antioxidants for use as food additives. PMID:17387460

  7. Plant extracts from Cameroonian medicinal plants strongly inhibit hepatitis C virus infection in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Galani, Borris R. T.; Sahuc, Marie-Emmanuelle; Njayou, Frederic N.; Deloison, Gaspard; Mkounga, Pierre; Feudjou, William F.; Brodin, Priscille; Rouill, Yves; Nkengfack, Augustin E.; Moundipa, Paul Fewou; Sron, Karin

    2015-01-01

    According to some recent studies, Cameroon is one of the sub-Saharan African countries most affected by hepatitis C, with low access to the standard therapy based on the combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin. A first ethnobotanical survey, conducted in the Western region of Cameroon, reported the use of several medicinal plants in traditional medicine for the healing of liver-related disorders. Crude organic extracts of five plants surveyed were prepared and their effect against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection investigated. The HCV JFH1 strain cell culture system HCVcc was used. The antiviral activity was quantified by immunofluorescent labeling of HCV E1 envelope protein at 30 h post-infection in the presence of the plant extracts. Active compounds were then tested in time course infection experiments. Dose-response and cellular toxicity assays were also determined. Three extracts, methanol extracts from roots of Trichilia dregeana, stems of Detarium microcarpum and leaves of Phragmanthera capitata, showed anti-HCV activity, with half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 16.16, 1.42, and 13.17 ?g/mL, respectively. Huh-7 cells were incubated with the extracts for 72 h and it appears that T. dregeana extract is not toxic up to 200 ?g/mL, D. microcarpum up to 100 ?g/mL and P. capitata up to 800 ?g/mL. All the three extracts showed a strong inhibition of HCV entry and no effect on replication or secretion. Taken together, these results showed that extracts from Cameroonian medicinal plants are promising sources of anti-HCV agents. PMID:26029203

  8. Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against ticks and fluke.

    PubMed

    Elango, Gandhi; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul

    2011-03-01

    The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wallich ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. against the adult cattle tick Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann 1897 (Acarina: Ixodidae), the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae) and sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi Zeder 1790 (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate toxic effect on parasites after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest parasitic activity was found in leaf ethyl acetate extract of A. lineata, methanol extract of A. marmelos, A. paniculata, and C. hirsutus against H. bispinosa (LC(50)?= 395.27, 358.45, 327.21 and 420.50 ppm); ethyl acetate extract of A. paniculata, C. hirsutus, methanol extracts of A. marmelos, A. lineata, and E. prostrata against the larvae of R. microplus (LC(50)?= 207.70, 258.61, 134.09, 206.00, and 274.33 ppm); hexane extract of A. lineata, ethyl acetate extract of A. paniculata, E. prostrata, acetone extracts of T. erecta, methanol extracts of A. marmelos and C. hirsutus against P. cervi (LC(50)?= 254.23, 451.17, 425.73, 253.60, 542.71, and 360.17 ppm), respectively. The present study is the first report on the veterinary parasitic activity of plant extracts from Southern India. PMID:20922419

  9. Insecticidal and larvicidal activities of medicinal plant extracts against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Mahapatra, Anita; Bagavan, Asokan; Elango, Gandhi

    2010-11-01

    In recent years, use of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed attention as agents for vector control because they are rich in bioactive chemicals, active against a limited number of species including specific target insects, and biodegradable. The present study was carried out to evaluate the adulticidal, repellent, and larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of eight plants, viz. Aristolochia indica L., Cassia angustifolia Vahl, Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb., Dolichos biflorus L., Gymnema sylvestre (Retz) Schult, Justicia procumbens L., Mimosa pudica L., and Zingiber zerumbet L., were tested against adult and early fourth instar larvae of Culex gelidus Theobald and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The effective adult mortality was observed in methanol extract of A. indica, ethyl acetate extract of D. biflorus, and ethyl acetate and hexane extract of Z. zerumbet against C. gelidus and C. quinquefasciatus (LD(50) =37.75, 78.56, 129.44, 86.13, 80.06, 112.42, 53.83, and 46.61; LD(90) =166.83, 379.14, 521.50, 289.83, 328.18, 455.72, 181.15, and 354.50 ppm, respectively). Complete protections for 150 min were found in hexane and methanol extract of A. indica and Z. zerumbet at 1,000 ppm against mosquito bites. The highest larval mortality was found in the hexane extract of Z. zerumbet, ethyl acetate extract of D. biflorus, and methanol extracts of A. indica against C. gelidus (LC(50) =26.48, 33.02, and 12.47 ppm; LC(90) =127.73, 128.79, and 62.33 ppm) and against C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) =69.18, 34.76, and 25.60 ppm; LC(90) =324.40, 172.78, and 105.52 ppm), respectively, after 24 h. The plant extracts are potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the Japanese encephalitis vector, C. gelidus, and lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:20689968

  10. Effects of crude aqueous medicinal plant extracts on growth and invasion of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Van Slambrouck, Severine; Daniels, Amber L; Hooten, Carla J; Brock, Steven L; Jenkins, Aaron R; Ogasawara, Marcia A; Baker, Joann M; Adkins, Glen; Elias, Eerik M; Agustin, Vincent J; Constantine, Sarah R; Pullin, Michael J; Shors, Scott T; Kornienko, Alexander; Steelant, Wim F A

    2007-06-01

    Plants used in folklore medicine continue to be an important source of discovery and development of novel therapeutic agents. In the present study, we determined the effects of crude aqueous extracts of a panel of medicinal plants on the growth and invasion of cancer cells. Our results showed that extracts of L. tridentata (Creosote Bush) and J. communis L. (Juniper Berry) significantly decreased the growth of MCF-7/AZ breast cancer cells. The latter as well as A. californica (Yerba Mansa) inhibited invasion into the collagen type I gel layer. Furthermore, the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) decreased when the cells were exposed to aqueous extracts of L. tridentata, J. communis L. and A. californica. This study provides original scientific data on the anticancer activity of selected aqueous medicinal plant extracts used in traditional medicine. PMID:17487409

  11. Effect of some plants' extracts used in Sudanese folkloric medicines on carrageenan-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Mona Salih; Khalid, Hassan Subki; Muddathir, Abd Elkhaliq; El-Tahir, Kamal; Khan, Azmat Ali; Algadir, Haidar Abd; Osman, Wadah Jamal Ahmed; Siddiqui, Nasir Ali

    2015-01-01

    Investigations for anti-inflammatory potential and categorization of Sudanese medicinal plants according to their potency. Anti-inflammatory effect of plants' extracts of 17 genera were studied using the carrageenan induced inflammation in rats' paws. The plant extracts were obtained using methanol and dichloromethane as solvent and administered intra peritoneally at the concentration of 2g/kg body weight. The results obtained in this experiment strongly support and validate the traditional uses of these Sudanese medicinal plants to treat various inflammatory diseases. 63.9% of plants extracts showed marked inhibition of inflammation induced by carrageenan (78.3% out of this percentage represented by methanolic extract), 27.8% showed no activity and 8.3% enhanced the carrageenan induced inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effect of many of these plants has not been reported previously, yet they have been extensively used in Sudanese folkloric medicine. The result of this study justify the traditional medicinal use of the evaluated plants species in treating inflammatory disorders and helped in categorizing the investigated plants into most useful, moderately useful and least useful category for inflammatory diseases. Out of the 17 investigated plant species 05 belongs to most useful and 06 belongs to moderately useful category. However, toxicity studies are required to prove the safety of these plant materials. PMID:25553680

  12. Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against blood-sucking parasites.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Elango, Gandhi; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Marimuthu, Sampath; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram

    2010-05-01

    The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, and methanol dried leaf, flower, and seed extracts of Cassia auriculata L., Rhinacanthus nasutus KURZ., Solanum torvum Swartz, Terminalia chebula Retz., and Vitex negundo Linn. were tested against larvae of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae), adult of Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann, 1897 (Acarina: Ixodidae), hematophagous fly Hippobosca maculata Leach (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), nymph of goat-lice Damalinia caprae Gurlt (Trichodectidae), and adult sheep parasite Paramphistomum cervi Zeder, 1790 (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate parasitic effects after 24 h of exposure at 3,000 ppm; however, the highest parasite mortality was found in leaf ethyl acetate, flower methanol of C. auriculata, leaf and seed methanol of S. torvum, seed acetone of T. chebula, and leaf hexane extracts of V. negundo against the larvae of R. microplus (LC(50) = 335.48, 309.21, 297.43, 414.99, 167.20, and 611.67 ppm; LC(90) = 1571.58, 1111.82, 950.98, 1243.64, 595.31, and 1875.50 ppm), the leaf and flower methanol of R. nasutus, leaf and seed methanol of S. torvum, and seed methanol extracts of T. chebula against the nymph of D. caprae (LC(50) = 119.26,143.10,164.93,140.47, and 155.98 ppm; LC(90) = 356.77, 224.08, 546.20, 479.72, and 496.06 ppm), the leaf methanol of R. nasutus, leaf and seed methanol of S.torvum, and seed acetone of T. chebula against the adult of H. bispinosa (LC(50) = 333.15, 328.98, 312.28, and 186.46 ppm; LC(90) = 1056.07, 955.39, 946.63, and 590.76 ppm), the leaf methanol of C. auriculata, the leaf and flower methanol of R. nasutus, the leaf ethyl acetate of S. torvum against the H. maculata (LC(50) = 303.36, 177.21, 204.58, and 211.41 ppm; LC(90) = 939.90, 539.39, 599.43, and 651.90 ppm), and the leaf acetone of C. auriculata, the flower methanol of R. nasutus, the seed methanol of S. torvum, and the seed acetone of T. chebula were tested against the adult of P. cervi (LC(50) = 180.54, 168.59, 200.89, and 87.08 ppm; LC(90) = 597.51, 558.65, 690.37, and 433.85 ppm), respectively. Therefore, this study provides first report on the veterinary parasitic activity of plant extracts from Southern India. PMID:20306205

  13. Efficacy of anthelmintic properties of medicinal plant extracts against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, C; Rahuman, A Abdul

    2011-12-01

    The development of anthelmintic resistance has made the search for alternatives to control gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants imperative. Among these alternatives are several medicinal plants traditionally used as anthelmintics. This present work evaluated the efficacy of ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and seed extracts of five medicinal plants were tested in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activities on Haemonchus contortus. The in vitro assay was based on egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA), all plant extracts were evaluated at five concentrations 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.13 mg/ml. The leaf and seed ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol of Annona squamosa, Eclipta prostrata, Solanum torvum, Terminalia chebula, and Catharanthus roseus extracts were showed complete inhibition (100%) at the maximum concentration tested (50 mg/ml). The overall findings of the present study have shown that our experimental plant extracts contain possible anthelmintic compounds. PMID:20980034

  14. Application of ionic liquids in the microwave-assisted extraction of polyphenolic compounds from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Du, Fu-You; Xiao, Xiao-Hua; Luo, Xue-Jun; Li, Gong-Ke

    2009-05-15

    Ionic liquids (ILs) solutions as solvents were successfully applied in the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of polyphenolic compounds from medicinal plants. ILs, its concentration and MAE conditions were investigated in order to extract polyphenolic compounds effectively from Psidium guajava Linn. (P. guajava) leaves and Smilax china (S. china) tubers. The results obtained indicated that the anions and cations of ILs had influences on the extraction of polyphenolic compounds as well as the ILs with electron-rich aromatic pi-system enhanced extraction ability. Under the optimized conditions, the extraction yields of the polyphenolic compounds were in the range of 79.5-93.8% with one-step extraction, and meanwhile the recoveries were in the range of 85.2-103% with relative standard deviations (R.S.D.s) lower than 5.6%. Compared to conventional extraction procedures, the results suggested that the proposed method was effective and alternative for the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from medicinal plants. In addition, the extraction mechanisms and the structures of samples before and after extraction were also investigated. ILs solutions as green solvents in the MAE of polyphenolic compounds from medicinal plant samples showed a great promising prospect. PMID:19269490

  15. Cytotoxic activities of selected medicinal plants from Iran and phytochemical evaluation of the most potent extract

    PubMed Central

    Sahranavard, S.; Naghibi, F.; Mosaddegh, M.; Esmaeili, S.; Sarkhail, P.; Taghvaei, M.; Ghafari, S.

    2009-01-01

    Methanolic extract of 15 Iranian medicinal plants were prepared and tested for their cytotoxic activities against three cancer cell lines (MCF7, HepG2, WEHI164) and one normal cell line (MDBK). Some plants showed cytotoxic activities. The extract of Ferula szowitsiana root, which proved to be the most active, was chosen for further phytochemical studies. The major compounds of the most potent acetone extract were isolated. They were identified as chimgin and chimganin, two known monoterpenoids, by spectroscopic means. Their cytotoxic activity was evaluated in three cell lines. The results show that these compounds are responsible, at least in part, for the cytotoxic activity of this plant. PMID:21589808

  16. Extracts of Edible and Medicinal Plants Damage Membranes of Vibrio cholerae?

    PubMed Central

    Snchez, Eduardo; Garca, Santos; Heredia, Norma

    2010-01-01

    The use of natural compounds from plants can provide an alternative approach against food-borne pathogens. The mechanisms of action of most plant extracts with antimicrobial activity have been poorly studied. In this work, changes in membrane integrity, membrane potential, internal pH (pHin), and ATP synthesis were measured in Vibrio cholerae cells after exposure to extracts of edible and medicinal plants. A preliminary screen of methanolic, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts of medicinal and edible plants was performed. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were measured for extracts showing high antimicrobial activity. Our results indicate that methanolic extracts of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica var. Villanueva L.), sweet acacia (Acacia farnesiana L.), and white sagebrush (Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt.) are the most active against V. cholera, with MBCs ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mg/ml. Using four fluorogenic techniques, we studied the membrane integrity of V. cholerae cells after exposure to these four extracts. Extracts from these plants were able to disrupt the cell membranes of V. cholerae cells, causing increased membrane permeability, a clear decrease in cytoplasmic pH, cell membrane hyperpolarization, and a decrease in cellular ATP concentration in all strains tested. These four plant extracts could be studied as future alternatives to control V. cholerae contamination in foods and the diseases associated with this microorganism. PMID:20802077

  17. Extracts of edible and medicinal plants damage membranes of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Snchez, Eduardo; Garca, Santos; Heredia, Norma

    2010-10-01

    The use of natural compounds from plants can provide an alternative approach against food-borne pathogens. The mechanisms of action of most plant extracts with antimicrobial activity have been poorly studied. In this work, changes in membrane integrity, membrane potential, internal pH (pH(in)), and ATP synthesis were measured in Vibrio cholerae cells after exposure to extracts of edible and medicinal plants. A preliminary screen of methanolic, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts of medicinal and edible plants was performed. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were measured for extracts showing high antimicrobial activity. Our results indicate that methanolic extracts of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica var. Villanueva L.), sweet acacia (Acacia farnesiana L.), and white sagebrush (Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt.) are the most active against V. cholera, with MBCs ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mg/ml. Using four fluorogenic techniques, we studied the membrane integrity of V. cholerae cells after exposure to these four extracts. Extracts from these plants were able to disrupt the cell membranes of V. cholerae cells, causing increased membrane permeability, a clear decrease in cytoplasmic pH, cell membrane hyperpolarization, and a decrease in cellular ATP concentration in all strains tested. These four plant extracts could be studied as future alternatives to control V. cholerae contamination in foods and the diseases associated with this microorganism. PMID:20802077

  18. Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Attanayake, Anoja P.; Jayatilaka, Kamani A. P. W.; Pathirana, Chitra; Mudduwa, Lakmini K. B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus, for a long time, has been treated with plant derived medicines in Sri Lanka. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and dose response of oral antihyperglycaemic activity of eight Sri Lankan medicinal plant extracts, which are used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Medicinal plants selected for the study on the basis of documented effectiveness and wide use among traditional Ayurveda physicians in the Southern region of Sri Lanka for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The effect of different doses of aqueous stem bark extracts of Spondias pinnata (Anacardiaceae), Kokoona zeylanica (Celastraceae), Syzygium caryophyllatum (Myrtaceae), Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae), aerial part extracts of Scoparia dulcis (Scrophulariaceae), Sida alnifolia (Malvaceae), leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) and root extract of Languas galanga (Zingiberaceae) on oral glucose tolerance test was evaluated. A single dose of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 2.00 g/kg of plant extract was administered orally to alloxan induced (150 mg/kg, ip) diabetic Wistar rats (n = 6). Glibenclamide (0.50 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. The acute effect was evaluated over a 4 h period using area under the oral glucose tolerance curve. Statistical Analysis: The results were evaluated by analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. Results: The eight plant extracts showed statistically significant dose dependent improvement on glucose tolerance (P < 0.05). The optimum effective dose on glucose tolerance for six extracts was found to be 1.00 g/kg in diabetic rats with the exception of C. grandis: 0.75 g/kg and L. galanga: 1.25 g/kg. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of G. arborea, S. pinnata, K. zeylanica, S. caryophyllatum, S. dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats. PMID:24991066

  19. In vitro biological evaluation of 100 selected methanol extracts from the traditional medicinal plants of Asia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunmei

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES In Asia, various medicinal plants have been used as the primary sources in the health care regimen for thousands of years. In recent decades, various studies have investigated the biological activity and potential medicinal value of the medicinal plants. In this study, 100 methanol extracts from 98 plant species were evaluated for their biological activities. MATERIALS/METHODS The research properties, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-pic-rylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ?-glucosidase and ?-tyrosinase inhibitory effects, anti-inflammatory activity, and anticancer activity were evaluated for the selected extracts. RESULTS Fifteen of the extracts scavenged more than 90% of the DPPH radical. Among the extracts, approximately 20 extracts showed a strong inhibitory effect on ?-glucosidase, while most had no effect on ?-tyrosinase. In addition, 52% of the extracts showed low toxicity to normal cells, and parts of the extracts exhibited high anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities on the murine macrophage cell (RAW 264.7) and human colon cancer cell (HT-29) lines, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Our findings may contribute to further nutrition and pharmacological studies. Detailed investigations of the outstanding samples are currently underway. PMID:24741398

  20. Anti-fungal activities of medicinal plants extracts of Ivorian pharmacopoeia

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Kra Adou Koffi; Marcel, Ahon Gnamien; Dj, Djo-Bi; Sitapha, Ouattara; Adama, Coulibaly; Joseph, Djaman Allico

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study was to evaluate in vitro anti-fungal activity of aqueous and hydroethanolic from medicinal plants extracts collected in Cte dIvoire. Materials and Methods: Plants extracts were prepared by homogenization and separately incorporated to Sabouraud agar using the agar slanted double dilution method. Ketoconazole was used as standards for anti-fungal assay. The anti-fungal tests were performed by sowing 1000 cells of Candida albicans on the previously prepared medium culture. Anti-fungal activity was determined by evaluating anti-fungal parameters values (minimal fungicidal concentrations [MFC] and IC50). Results: The results showed that all extracts possessed anti-fungal activities whose levels vary from plant species to another. Eight of them had a satisfactory anti-candidosic activity and extracts from Terminalia species were the most active. Among them the Terminalia superba extracts generated the strongest activities (MFC = 0.0975 mg/mL). Compared with ketoconazole (MFC = 0.390 mg/mL), the T. superba extracts, aqueous (MFC = 0.195 mg/mL) and hydroethanolic (0.0975 mg/mL) were successively twice and four times more active. The worst anti-fungal activity (MFC = 1600 mg/mL) was obtained with the Guarea cedrata aqueous extract. Conclusion: All medicinal plants extracts produced anti-fungal activities, and T. superba was the most active. PMID:26401367

  1. Antibacterial activity of medicinal plant extracts against periodontopathic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Iauk, L; Lo Bue, A M; Milazzo, I; Rapisarda, A; Blandino, G

    2003-06-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Althaea officinalis L. roots, Arnica montana L. flowers, Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hamamelis virginiana L. leaves, Illicium verum Hook. fruits and Melissa officinalis L. leaves, against anaerobic and facultative aerobic periodontal bacteria: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Fusobacterium nucleatum, Capnocytophaga gingivalis, Veilonella parvula, Eikenella corrodens, Peptostreptococcus micros and Actinomyces odontolyticus. The methanol extracts of H. virginiana and A. montana and, to a lesser extent, A. officinalis were shown to possess an inhibiting activity (MIC < or = 2048 mg/L) against many of the species tested. In comparison, M. officinalis and C. officinalis extracts had a lower inhibiting activity (MIC > or = 2048 mg/L) against all the tested species with the exception of Prevotella sp. Illicium verum methanol extract was not very active though it had a particular good activity against E. corrodens. The results suggest the use of the alcohol extracts of H. virginiana, A. montana and A. officinalis for topical medications in periodontal prophylactics. PMID:12820224

  2. Potential Medicinal Application and Toxicity Evaluation of Extracts from Bamboo Plants

    PubMed Central

    Panee, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Bamboo plants play a significant role in traditional Asian medicine, especially in China and Japan. Biomedical investigations on the health-benefiting effects as well as toxicity of different parts and species of bamboo have been carried out worldwide since the 1960s, and documented a wide range of protective effects of bamboo-derived products, such as protection against oxidative stress, inflammation, lipotoxicity, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Some of these products may interfere with male and female reproductive function, thyroid hormone metabolism, and hepatic xenobiotransformation enzymes. The diversity of bamboo species, parts of the plants available for medicinal use, and different extraction methods suggest that bamboo has great potential for producing a range of extracts with functional utility in medicine. PMID:26617977

  3. Medicinal Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  4. Identification of Traditional Medicinal Plant Extracts with Novel Anti-Influenza Activity

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, Dhivya; Palombo, Enzo A.; Chia Yeo, Tiong; Lim Siok Ley, Diana; Lee Tu, Chu; Malherbe, Francois; Grollo, Lara

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of drug resistant variants of the influenza virus has led to a need to identify novel and effective antiviral agents. As an alternative to synthetic drugs, the consolidation of empirical knowledge with ethnopharmacological evidence of medicinal plants offers a novel platform for the development of antiviral drugs. The aim of this study was to identify plant extracts with proven activity against the influenza virus. Extracts of fifty medicinal plants, originating from the tropical rainforests of Borneo used as herbal medicines by traditional healers to treat flu-like symptoms, were tested against the H1N1 and H3N1 subtypes of the virus. In the initial phase, in vitro micro-inhibition assays along with cytotoxicity screening were performed on MDCK cells. Most plant extracts were found to be minimally cytotoxic, indicating that the compounds linked to an ethnomedical framework were relatively innocuous, and eleven crude extracts exhibited viral inhibition against both the strains. All extracts inhibited the enzymatic activity of viral neuraminidase and four extracts were also shown to act through the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) pathway. Moreover, the samples that acted through both HI and neuraminidase inhibition (NI) evidenced more than 90% reduction in virus adsorption and penetration, thereby indicating potent action in the early stages of viral replication. Concurrent studies involving Receptor Destroying Enzyme treatments of HI extracts indicated the presence of sialic acid-like component(s) that could be responsible for hemagglutination inhibition. The manifestation of both modes of viral inhibition in a single extract suggests that there may be a synergistic effect implicating more than one active component. Overall, our results provide substantive support for the use of Borneo traditional plants as promising sources of novel anti-influenza drug candidates. Furthermore, the pathways involving inhibition of hemagglutination could be a solution to the global occurrence of viral strains resistant to neuraminidase drugs. PMID:24312177

  5. Interactions of Papua New Guinea medicinal plant extracts with antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Erica C.; Hathaway, Laura B.; Lamb, John G.; Pond, Chris D.; Rai, Prem P.; Matainaho, Teatulohi K.; Piskaut, Pius; Barrows, Louis R.; Franklin, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance A substantial proportion of the population in Papua New Guinea (PNG) lives with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Treatment requires lifelong use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The majority of people in PNG use traditional medicines (TM) derived from plants for all types of health promotions. Consequently, there is a concern that herb-drug interactions may impact the efficacy of ART. Herb-drug, or drug-drug, interactions occur at the level of metabolism through two major mechanisms: enzyme induction or enzyme inhibition. In this study, extracts of commonly-used medicinal plants from PNG were screened for herb-drug interactions related to cytochrome P450s (CYPs). Materials and Methods Sixty nine methanol extracts of TM plants were screened for their ability to induce CYPs by human aryl hydrocarbon receptor- (hAhR-) and human pregnane X receptor- (hPXR-) dependent mechanisms, utilizing a commercially available cell-based luciferase reporter system. Inhibition of three major CYPs, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and CYP2D6, was determined using human liver microsomes and enzyme-selective model substrates. Results Almost one third of the TM plant extracts induced the hAhR-dependent expression of CYP1A2, the hPXR-dependent expression of CYP3A4, or both. Almost two thirds inhibited CYP1A2, CYP3A4, or CYP2D6, or combinations thereof. Many plant extracts exhibited both induction and inhibition properties. Conclusions We demonstrated that the potent and selective ability of extracts from PNG medicinal plants to affect drug metabolizing enzymes through induction and/or inhibition is a common phenomenon. Use of traditional medicines concomitantly with ART could dramatically alter the concentrations of antiretroviral drugs in the body; and their efficacy. PNG healthcare providers should counsel HIV patients because of this consequence. PMID:25138353

  6. Intensification of bioactive compounds extraction from medicinal plants using ultrasonic irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Vardanega, Renata; Santos, Diego T.; Meireles, M. Angela A.

    2014-01-01

    Extraction processes are largely used in many chemical, biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries for recovery of bioactive compounds from medicinal plants. To replace the conventional extraction techniques, new techniques as high-pressure extraction processes that use environment friendly solvents have been developed. However, these techniques, sometimes, are associated with low extraction rate. The ultrasound can be effectively used to improve the extraction rate by the increasing the mass transfer and possible rupture of cell wall due the formation of microcavities leading to higher product yields with reduced processing time and solvent consumption. This review presents a brief survey about the mechanism and aspects that affecting the ultrasound assisted extraction focusing on the use of ultrasound irradiation for high-pressure extraction processes intensification. PMID:25125880

  7. The Root Extract of the Medicinal Plant Pelargonium sidoides Is a Potent HIV-1 Attachment Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Helfer, Markus; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Schneider, Martha; Rebensburg, Stephanie; Forcisi, Sara; Müller, Constanze; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Schindler, Michael; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Global HIV-1 treatment would benefit greatly from safe herbal medicines with scientifically validated novel anti-HIV-1 activities. The root extract from the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides (PS) is licensed in Germany as the herbal medicine EPs®7630, with numerous clinical trials supporting its safety in humans. Here we provide evidence from multiple cell culture experiments that PS extract displays potent anti-HIV-1 activity. We show that PS extract protects peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages from infection with various X4 and R5 tropic HIV-1 strains, including clinical isolates. Functional studies revealed that the extract from PS has a novel mode-of-action. It interferes directly with viral infectivity and blocks the attachment of HIV-1 particles to target cells, protecting them from virus entry. Analysis of the chemical footprint of anti-HIV activity indicates that HIV-1 inhibition is mediated by multiple polyphenolic compounds with low cytotoxicity and can be separated from other extract components with higher cytotoxicity. Based on our data and its excellent safety profile, we propose that PS extract represents a lead candidate for the development of a scientifically validated herbal medicine for anti-HIV-1 therapy with a mode-of-action different from and complementary to current single-molecule drugs. PMID:24489923

  8. Screening of immunomodulatory activity of total and protein extracts of some Moroccan medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Daoudi, Abdeljlil; Aarab, Lotfi; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2013-04-01

    Herbal and traditional medicines are being widely used in practice in many countries for their benefits of treating different ailments. A large number of plants in Morocco were used in folk medicine to treat immune-related disorders. The objective of this study is to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of protein extracts (PEs) of 14 Moroccan medicinal plants. This activity was tested on the proliferation of immune cells. The prepared total and PEs of the plant samples were tested using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay on the splenocytes with or without stimulation by concanavalin-A (Con-A), a mitogenic agent used as positive control. The results of this study indicated different activity spectra. Three groups of activities were observed. The first group represented by Citrullus colocynthis, Urtica dioica, Elettaria cardamomum, Capparis spinosa and Piper cubeba showed a significant immunosuppressive activity. The second group that showed a significant immunostimulatory activity was represented by Aristolochia longa, Datura stramonium, Marrubium vulgare, Sinapis nigra, Delphynium staphysagria, Lepidium sativum, Ammi visnaga and Tetraclinis articulata. The rest of the plant extracts did not alter the proliferation induced by Con-A. This result was more important for the PE than for the total extract. In conclusion, this study revealed an interesting immunomodulating action of certain PEs, which could explain their traditional use. The results of this study may also have implications in therapeutic treatment of infections, such as prophylactic and adjuvant with cancer chemotherapy. PMID:22301818

  9. Inhibitory Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts on Interactions between Transcription Factors and Target DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Lampronti, Ilaria; Khan, Mahmud T.H.; Borgatti, Monica; Bianchi, Nicoletta

    2008-01-01

    Several transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in governing the expression of different genes involved in the immune response, embryo or cell lineage development, cell apoptosis, cell cycle progression, oncogenesis, repair and fibrosis processes and inflammation. As far as inflammation, TFs playing pivotal roles are nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), activator protein (AP-1), signal transducer and activator of transcription (STATs), cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and GATA-1 factors. All these TFs regulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and are involved in the pathogenesis of a number of human disorders, particularly those with an inflammatory component. Since several medicinal plants can be employed to produce extracts exhibiting biological effects and because alteration of gene transcription represents a very interesting approach to control the expression of selected genes, this study sought to verify the ability of several extracts derived from Bangladeshi medicinal plants in interfering with molecular interactions between different TFs and specific DNA sequences. We first analyzed the antiproliferative activity of 19 medicinal plants on different human cell lines, including erythroleukemia K562, B lymphoid Raji and T lymphoid Jurkat cell lines. Secondly, we employed the electrophoretic mobility shift assay as a suitable technique for a fast screening of plant extracts altering the binding between NF-kB, AP-1, GATA-1, STAT-3, CREB and the relative target DNA elements. PMID:18830455

  10. Inhibitory activities of pancreatic lipase and phosphodiesterase from Korean medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun Mi; Kim, Young Sook; Lee, Youngseop; Kim, Junghyun; Sun, Hang; Kim, Joo Hwan; Kim, Jin Sook

    2012-05-01

    To find new pancreatic lipase (triacylglycerol acylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.3) inhibitors from natural products, 61 medicinal plants from Korea were screened for their antilipase activity for prevention of obesity. Dried and powdered plants were extracted three times with EtOH and extracts were obtained by removal of the solvent in vacuo. Lipase activity was determined by measuring the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl butyrate to p-nitrophenol. Also, the inhibitory effect was measured on phosphodiesterase (PDE), another therapeutic target for obesity. Of the extracts tested, Sorbus commixta (stem, leaf) and Viscum album (whole plant) exhibited antilipase activity (with IC(50) values of 29.6 g/mL and 33.3 g/mL, respectively) and only anti-PDE activity (IC(50) values of 20.08 g/mL and 35.15 g/mL, respectively). PMID:22069182

  11. Investigation of antibacterial mechanism and identification of bacterial protein targets mediated by antibacterial medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Yong, Ann-Li; Ooh, Keng-Fei; Ong, Hean-Chooi; Chai, Tsun-Thai; Wong, Fai-Chu

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we investigated the antibacterial mechanism and potential therapeutic targets of three antibacterial medicinal plants. Upon treatment with the plant extracts, bacterial proteins were extracted and resolved using denaturing gel electrophoresis. Differentially-expressed bacterial proteins were excised from the gels and subjected to sequence analysis by MALDI TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. From our study, seven differentially expressed bacterial proteins (triacylglycerol lipase, N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase, flagellin, outer membrane protein A, stringent starvation protein A, 30S ribosomal protein s1 and 60 kDa chaperonin) were identified. Additionally, scanning electron microscope study indicated morphological damages induced on bacterial cell surfaces. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first time these bacterial proteins are being reported, following treatments with the antibacterial plant extracts. Further studies in this direction could lead to the detailed understanding of their inhibition mechanism and discovery of target-specific antibacterial agents. PMID:25976788

  12. Condensed tannins in extracts from European medicinal plants and herbal products.

    PubMed

    Ropiak, Honorata M; Ramsay, Aina; Mueller-Harvey, Irene

    2016-03-20

    Medicinal plant materials are not usually analysed for condensed tannins (CT). Thirty commercially available European medicinal plants and herbal products were screened for CT and fourteen CT samples were analysed in detail. This is also the first comprehensive CT analysis of pine buds, walnut leaves, heather flowers and great water dock roots. Acetone/water extracts contained between 3.2 and 25.9g CT/100g of extract, had CT with mean degrees of polymerisation of 2.9 to 13.3, procyanidin/prodelphinidin ratios of 1.6/98.4 to 100/0 and cis/trans flavan-3-ol ratios of 17.7/82.3 to 97.3/2.7. The majority of samples contained procyanidins, four contained A-type linkages (blackthorn flowers, heather flowers, bilberry leaves and cowberry leaves) and one sample also had galloylated procyanidins (great water dock roots). PMID:26826980

  13. Contact and fumigant toxicity of oriental medicinal plant extracts against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon-Il; Na, Young-Eun; Yi, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2007-04-30

    The acaricidal activity of methanolic extracts from 40 oriental medicinal plant species and a steam distillate of Cinnamomum camphora towards poultry house-collected adult Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer was examined using direct contact and vapour phase toxicity bioassays. Results were compared with those of 15 acaricides currently used. In filter paper contact toxicity bioassays using adult D. gallinae, C. camphora steam distillate (0.0051 mgcm(-2)) was the most toxic material, followed by extracts from Asarum sieboldii var. seoulens whole plant, Eugenia caryophyllata flower bud and Mentha arvensis var. piperascens whole plant (0.0063-0.0072 mgcm(-2)), based upon 24h LD(50) values. The acaricidal activity of these four plant preparations was almost comparable to that of profenofos (LD(50), 0.003 mgcm(-2)) but less effective than dichlorvos (LD(50), 0.0004 mgcm(-2)). The toxicity of Illicium verum fruit and Lysimachia davurica leaf extracts (0.09 mgcm(-2)) was almost comparable to that of benfuracarb, prothiofos, propoxur and fenthion (0.053-0.070mgcm(-2)). In vapour phase toxicity tests, these plant preparations were more effective in closed containers than in open ones, indicating that the mode of delivery of these plant extracts was largely a result of action in the vapour phase. Plants described herein merit further study as potential D. gallinae control agents. PMID:17289270

  14. Antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of some selected medicinal plants from the northwest of Iran.

    PubMed

    Sangian, Hadi; Faramarzi, Hossein; Yazdinezhad, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed Javad; Zamani, Zahra; Noubarani, Maryam; Ramazani, Ali

    2013-11-01

    The effectiveness of antimalarial drugs is declining at an ever accelerating rate, with consequent increase in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. The newest antiplasmodial drug from plants is needed to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to assess antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of 10 different medicinal plants from eight families against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain. The selection of the hereby studied plants was based on the existing information on their local ethnobotanic history. Plants were dried, powdered, and macerated in a hydroalcoholic solution. Resulting extracts have been assessed for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial and brine shrimp toxicity activities. Of 10 plant species tested, four plants: Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae), Myrtus communis Linn (Myrtaceae), Plantago major (Plantaginaceae), and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Papilionaceae) displayed promising antimalarial activity in vitro (50% inhibitory concentration values of 62.77, 42.18, 40.00, and 13.56 ?g/mL, respectively) with no toxicity against brine shrimp larvae. The crude extracts of three active plants, G. glabra, M. communis, and A. officinalis, also significantly reduced parasitemia in vivo in female Swiss albino mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg compared to no treatment. Antiplasmodial activities of extracts of A. officinalis and M. communis are reported for the first time. PMID:23922204

  15. A New Application for the Optimal Foraging Theory: The Extraction of Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Soldati, Gustavo Taboada; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2012-01-01

    The Optimal Foraging Theory was used to identify possible patterns in bark extraction and the selective cutting of Anadenanthera colubrina (Angico), a medicinal plant. The hypotheses were built on two approaches: selection of collection place and bark exploitation occurrence in only one of these resource areas. The results suggest that the distance that must be traveled to reach each gathering site determines the extent of the extraction process, showing that people minimize the time and energy spent in A. colubrina collection. The availability of each site appears not to influence the operation. The resource amount was the optimized variable for bark extraction, which was analyzed in only one collection zone. In contrast to the phenomenon of collection place selection, the distance between angico individuals, the management period, and the tannin content did not affect bark extraction. This study also discusses how certain cultural aspects influence the extraction of angico. PMID:21949671

  16. Medicinal plants extracts affect virulence factors expression and biofilm formation by the uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wojnicz, Dorota; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kicia, Marta; Tichaczek-Goska, Dorota

    2012-12-01

    Medicinal plants are an important source for the therapeutic remedies of various diseases including urinary tract infections. This prompted us to perform research in this area. We decided to focus on medicinal plants species used in urinary tract infections prevention. The aim of our study was to determine the influence of Betula pendula, Equisetum arvense, Herniaria glabra, Galium odoratum, Urtica dioica, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea extracts on bacterial survival and virulence factors involved in tissue colonization and biofilm formation of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli rods. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of plant extracts were performed. Antimicrobial assay relied on the estimation of the colony forming unit number. Hydrophobicity of cells was established by salt aggregation test. Using motility agar, the ability of bacteria to move was examined. The erythrocyte hemagglutination test was used for fimbriae P screening. Curli expression was determined using YESCA agar supplemented with congo red. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter plate assay and a spectrophotometric method. The results of the study indicate significant differences between investigated extracts in their antimicrobial activities. The extracts of H. glabra and V. vitis-idaea showed the highest growth-inhibitory effects (p < 0.05). Surface hydrophobicity of autoaggregating E. coli strain changed after exposure to all plant extracts, except V. vitis-idaea (p > 0.05). The B. pendula and U. dioica extracts significantly reduced the motility of the E. coli rods (p < 0.05). All the extracts exhibited the anti-biofilm activity. PMID:22915095

  17. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Romanian medicinal plants hydroalcoholic extracts on planktonic and adhered cells.

    PubMed

    Stanciuc, A M; Gaspar, A; Moldovan, L; Saviuc, C; Popa, M; Măruţescu, L

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the antibacterial and antifungal potential of some Romanian medicinal plants, arnica--Arnica montana, wormwood--Artemisia absinthium and nettle--Urtica dioica. In order to perform this antimicrobial screening, we obtained the vegetal extracts and we tested them on a series of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and also against two fungal strains. The vegetal extracts showed antimicrobial activity preferentially directed against the planktonic fungal and bacterial growth, while the effect against biofilm formation and development was demonstrated only against S. aureus and C. albicans. Our in vitro assays indicate that the studied plant extracts are a significant source of natural alternatives to antimicrobial therapy, thus avoiding antibiotic therapy, the use of which has become excessive in recent years. PMID:21717806

  18. Antiplasmodial potential of medicinal plant extracts from Malaiyur and Javadhu hills of South India.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Kaushik, Naveen Kumar; Mohanakrishnan, Dinesh; Elango, Gandhi; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Sahal, Dinkar

    2012-08-01

    The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum with resistance to chloroquine (CQ), the safest and cheapest anti-malarial drug, coupled with the increasing cost of alternative drugs especially in developing countries have necessitated the urgent need to tap the potential of plants for novel anti-malarials. The present study investigates the anti-malarial activity of the methanolic extracts of 13 medicinal plants from the Malaiyur and Javadhu hills of South India against blood stage CQ-sensitive (3D7) and CQ-resistant (INDO) strains of P. falciparum in culture using the fluorescence-based SYBR Green I assay. Sorbitol-synchronized parasites were incubated under normal culture conditions at 2% hematocrit and 1% parasitemia in the absence or presence of increasing concentrations of plant extracts. CQ and artemisinin were used as positive controls, while 0.4% DMSO was used as the negative control. The cytotoxic effects of extracts on host cells were assessed by functional assay using HeLa cells cultured in RPMI containing 10% fetal bovine serum, 0.21% sodium bicarbonate and 50 ?g/mL gentamycin (complete medium). Plant extracts (bark methanol extracts of Annona squamosa (IC(50), 30 ?g/mL), leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum (IC(50), 32 ?g/mL), Ocimum tenuiflorum (IC(50), 31 ?g/mL), Solanum torvum (IC(50), 31 ?g/mL) and Justicia procumbens (IC(50), 63 ?g/mL), showed moderate activity. The leaf extracts of Aristolochia indica (IC(50), 10 ?g/mL), Cassia auriculata (IC(50), 14 ?g/mL), Chrysanthemum indicum (IC(50), 20 ?g/mL) and Dolichos biflorus (IC(50), 20 ?g/mL) showed promising activity and low activity was observed in the flower methanol extracts of A. indica , leaf methanol extract of Catharanthus roseus, and Gymnema sylvestre (IC(50), >100 ?g/mL). These four extracts exhibited promising IC(50) (?g/mL) of 17, 24, 19 and 24 respectively also against the CQ resistant INDO strain of P. falciparum. The high TC(50) in mammalian cell cytotoxicity assay and the low IC(50) in anti-malarial P. falciparum assay indicates selectivity and good resistance indices in the range of 0.9-1.7 for leaf extracts of A. indica, C. auriculata, C. indicum and D. biflorus suggests that these may serve as anti-malarial agents even in their crude form. These results indicate a possible explanation of the traditional use of some of these medicinal plants against malaria or malaria-like conditions. PMID:21643655

  19. Larvicidal efficacy of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, C; Abdul Rahman, A; Bagavan, A; Abduz Zahir, A; Elango, G; Kandan, P; Rajakumar, G; Marimuthu, S; Santhoshkumar, T

    2010-08-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Natural products of plant origin with insecticidal properties have been used in recent years for control of a variety of pest insects and vectors. The present study was based on assessments of the larvicidal activity to determine the efficacies of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of ten medicinal plants tested against fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston and lymphatic filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The larvicidal activity was assessed by the procedure of WHO with some modification. The highest larval mortality was found in leaf acetone of Adhatoda vasica, bark ethyl acetate of Annona squamosa, methanol leaf and flower of Cassia auriculata, leaf ethyl acetate of Hydrocotyle javanica, methanol leaf and seed of Solanum torvum and leaf hexane extracts of Vitex negundo against the fourth instar larvae of An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The calculated LC90 for acetone, ethyl acetate, methanol and hexane extracts of dried leaf and bark of A. vasica, A. squamosa, S. torvum, and V. negundo were in the range of 70.38-210.68 ppm. Our results suggest that the leaf methanol extract of S.torvum and bark ethyl acetate extract of A. squamosa from Southern India have the potential for use to control mosquitoes. Therefore, this study provides the larvicidal activity against An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus of plant extracts. PMID:20962718

  20. Antiangiogenic-Like Properties of Fermented Extracts of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants.

    PubMed

    Rabhi, Chérif; Arcile, Guillaume; Cariel, Léon; Lenoir, Christine; Bignon, Jérome; Wdzieczak-Bakala, Joanna; Ouazzani, Jamal

    2015-09-01

    The three ayurvedic medicinal plants, Withania somnifera, Emblica officinalis, and Bacopa monnieri, were extracted by high-pressure static extraction using the Zippertex(®) technology. The extracts were mixed to reach quantifiable amounts of active compounds identified by high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis. The mixture of extracts was incubated with resting cells of the fungus Beauveria bassiana ATCC 7159. The fermentation promoted the fluidization of the starting dense mixture, while HPLC monitoring evidenced the disappearance of glucogallin from E. officinalis extract and the concomitant increase in gallic acid content. Topical exposure of the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) to the nonfermented extract led to the extensive necrosis and destruction of the treated membrane. However, the fermented extract was shown to be free of any toxicity. Furthermore, compared with the untreated CAM, the fermented sample reduced CAM vascularization, suggesting its antiangiogenic potency. The innocuity of the fermented extract was demonstrated using the in vivo LD50 test, the morphological examination of internal organs of treated rats, as well as the evaluation of blood biomarkers of liver damage (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase). The fermented extract was developed as a nutraceutical antiangiogenic treatment of age-related macular degeneration and commercialized in an oral form named Ethnodyne-Visio™. PMID:25608021

  1. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the methanolic extracts of selected Jordanian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Hudaib, Mohammad M.; Tawaha, Khaled A.; Mohammad, Mohammad K.; Assaf, Areej M.; Issa, Ala Y.; Alali, Feras Q.; Aburjai, Talal A.; Bustanji, Yasser K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The search for novel xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors with a higher therapeutic activity and fewer side effects are desired not only to treat gout but also to combat various other diseases associated with the XO activity. At present, the potential of developing successful natural products for the management of XO-related diseases is still largely unexplored. In the present study, we have screened the methanolic extracts of various Jordanian medicinal plants for their XO inhibitory activities using an optimized protocol. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extracts of 23 medicinal plants, belonging to 12 families, were tested in vitro, at 200 ?g/ml concentrations, for their XO inhibitory potential. The dose-dependent inhibition profiles of the most active plants were further evaluated by estimating the IC50 values of their corresponding extracts. Results: Six plants were found most active (% inhibition more than 39%). These plants are Salvia spinosa L. (IC50 = 53.7 ?g/ml), Anthemis palestina Boiss. (168.0 ?g/ml), Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (199.5 ?g/ml), Achillea biebersteinii Afansiev (360.0 ?g/ml), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (650.0 ?g/ml), and Ginkgo biloba L. (595.8 ?g/ml). Moreover, four more plants, namely Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (28.7% inhibition), Helianthemum ledifolium (L.) Mill. (28.4%), Majorana syriaca (L.) Kostel. (25.1%), and Mentha spicata L. (22.5%) showed a XO inhibitory activity in the range of 2230%. Conclusion: The study showed that many of the tested plant species are potential sources of natural XO inhibitors that can be developed, upon further investigation, into successful herbal drugs for treatment of gout and other XO-related disorders. PMID:22262935

  2. Anti-leukemic activities of alcoholic extracts of two traditional Indian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Shipra; Malhotra, Hemant; Rathore, Om Singh; Malhotra, Bharti; Sharma, Pratibha; Batra, Amla; Sharma, Asha; Chiplunkar, Shubhada V

    2015-11-01

    The present work aimed to investigate the anticancer in vitro activity of two plants commonly used in traditional Indian medicine: Zingiber officinale Roscoe and Nerium oleander L. The extracts of these plants were tested in vitro on several human leukemic cell lines, K562, THP-1, MOLT-4 and Jurkat. Cell growth inhibition was observed for both plant extracts with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging between 1 and 28 ?g/mL using SRB (sulphorodamine B) and MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assays. Enhanced cell growth inhibition was observed when the extracts were combined with imatinib. Exposed cells showed cell cycle arrest, DNA damage and cytochrome c release, indicating that the mechanism of cytotoxicity could be via mitochondrial mediated apoptotic pathways. Combination of the extracts of these plants with standard cancer treatment may be a way of enhancing responses. Clinical studies in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia are planned at our center. PMID:25772975

  3. Medicinal plant extracts can variously modify biofilm formation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Samoilova, Zoya; Muzyka, Nadezda; Lepekhina, Elena; Oktyabrsky, Oleg; Smirnova, Galina

    2014-04-01

    Low concentrations of black tea and water extracts from medicinal plants Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Tilia cordata, Betula pendula and Zea mays stimulated biofilm formation in Escherichia coli BW25113 up to three times. Similar effect was observed for tannic acid and low concentrations of quercetin. In contrast, the extract from Urtica dioica reduced biofilm production. Pretreatment with plant extracts variously modified antibiotic effects on specific biofilm formation (SBF). Extract from V. vitis-idaea increased SBF, while the extracts from Achillea millefolium, Laminaria japonica and U. dioica considerably decreased SBF in the presence of ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and cefotaxime. Stimulatory effect of the extracts and pure polyphenols on biofilm formation was probably related to their prooxidant properties. The rpoS deletion did not affect SBF significantly, but stimulation of biofilm formation by the compounds tested was accompanied by inhibition of rpoS expression, suggesting that a RpoS-independent signal transduction pathway was apparently used. PMID:24500005

  4. Medicinal plant extracts variously modulate susceptibility of Escherichia coli to different antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Samoilova, Zoya; Smirnova, Galina; Muzyka, Nadezda; Oktyabrsky, Oleg

    2014-04-01

    Antioxidant activity of green and black tea and extracts of medicinal plants and their ability to modulate antibiotic susceptibility in Escherichia coli were studied. Among a number of extracts tested the maximal capacity to scavenge DPPH radicals and chelate iron in chemical tests was found in green and black tea, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Vaccinium vitis-idaea. These extracts contained high level of polyphenols and in aerobic conditions exhibited prooxidant features, producing H2O2 and inducing expression of the katG gene encoding catalase HPI in E. coli cells. A good correlation between the polyphenol content and the ability of extracts to protect bacteria against peroxide stress was observed (r = 0.88). Polyphenol-rich extracts and iron chelators demonstrated the highest modulating effect on the antibiotic susceptibility by changing the time period before lysis started and by influencing the colony-forming ability of bacteria. The direction of the modulating effect was dependent on nature of antibiotic applied: under treatment with ciprofloxacin and ampicillin the extracts predominantly provided protective effects, while under treatment with kanamycin a bactericidal action was enhanced. Mechanism of modulating action of extracts on bacterial antibiotic susceptibility probably involves antioxidant, preferentially iron-chelating, or prooxidant properties of polyphenols. PMID:23916388

  5. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Brazilian medicinal plant extracts against pathogenic microorganisms of interest to dentistry.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elizete Maria; Gomes, Rafael Tomaz; Freire, Natlia Ribeiro; Aguiar, Evandro Guimares; Brando, Maria das Graas Lins; Santos, Vagner Rodrigues

    2011-03-01

    This study evaluated the susceptibility of oral pathogenic microorganisms Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans to Brazilian medicinal plant extracts of Schinus terebinthifolius (aroeira), Croton campestris (velame), Lafoensia pacari (pacari), Centaurium erythraea (centurea), Stryphnodendron adstringens (barbatimo), and Anacardium humile (cajuzinho-docerrado), as compared to standardized antimicrobial agents (nystatin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline hydrochloride). Ethanol, hexane and butane fractions from stem barks, rinds, leaves, and/or roots were extracted and tested. Antimicrobial diffusion agar test and MIC were performed according to CLSI. After 24 h of incubation at 37 C, the diameter of inhibition zones and spectrophotometer readings were measured and compared. The results were reported as means standard deviation (M SD). With the exception of five extracts that showed no antimicrobial activity, all the extracts tested showed antimicrobial activity, in different levels. This study suggests that extracts from the plants tested could be an alternative therapeutic option for infectious conditions of the oral cavity, such as denture stomatitis, dental caries, and periodontitis. PMID:20862640

  6. Assessment of the antihypertensive and vasodilator effects of ethanolic extracts of some Colombian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, M F; Puebla, P; Carrn, R; Martn, M L; Arteaga, L; Romn, L San

    2002-04-01

    The antihypertensive and vasodilator effects of ethanolic extracts prepared from Calea glomerata Klatt, Croton schiedeanus Schlecht, Curatella americana L., Lippia alba (Mill)n N.E.Br. and Lupinus amandus, which are medicinal plants used in Colombian folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, were assayed both in SHR and Wistar rats and in rat isolated aortic rings. At a dose of 20 mg/kg, intravenous bolus administration of the ethanolic extracts, from C. schiedeanus, C. americana and L. amandus showed significant antihypertensive activity in SHR, C. schiedeanus being the most active. C. schiedeanus elicited dose-dependent decreases in mean arterial pressure and heart rate (5-100 mg/kg, i.v.) in SHR but 200 mg/kg administered orally did not show any significant effects, even after 3 h of observation. In intact rat aortic rings, ethanolic extracts from C. schiedeanus and Calea glomerata relaxed the contractions induced by KCl (80 mM) and phenylephrine (10(-6) M) in a concentration-dependent manner (10(-6)-3x10(-4) g/ml), with IC(50) of 6.5x10(-5) (7.3-5.8) g/ml and 7.1x10(-5) (7.9-6.4) g/ml, respectively. Bioguided phytochemical fractionation of the ethanolic extract from C. schiedeanus was started. More than one active principle seems to be present, flavonoids and terpenoids compounds were detected. PMID:11891085

  7. Larvicidal potential of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, C; Bagavan, A; Rahuman, A Abdul; Zahir, A Abduz; Elango, G; Pandiyan, G

    2009-04-01

    Mosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, methanol and petroleum ether extracts of leaf, flower and seed of Cassia auriculata L., Leucas aspera (Willd.), Rhinacanthus nasutus KURZ., Solanum torvum Swartz and Vitex negundo Linn. were tested against fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest mortality was found in leaf petroleum ether, flower methanol extracts of C. auriculata, flower methanol extracts of L. aspera and R. nasutus, leaf and seed methanol extracts of S. torvum and leaf hexane extract of V. negundo against the larvae of A. subpictus (LC(50) = 44.21, 44.69, 53.16, 41.07, 35.32, 28.90 and 44.40 ppm; LC(90) = 187.31, 188.29, 233.18, 142.66, 151.60, 121.05 and 192.11 ppm, respectively) and against the larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus (LC(50) = 69.83, 51.29, 81.24, 71.79, 44.42, 84.47 and 65.35 ppm; LC(90) = 335.26, 245.63, 300.45, 361.83, 185.09, 351.41 and 302.42 ppm, respectively). These results suggest that the leaf petroleum ether, flower methanol extracts of C. auriculata, leaf and seed methanol extracts of S. torvum and leaf hexane extract of V. negundo have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. subpictus and C. tritaeniorhynchus. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the medicinal plant extracts. PMID:19085005

  8. Inorganic profile of some Brazilian medicinal plants obtained from ethanolic extract and ''in natura'' samples

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, M.O.M.; de Sousa, P.T.; Salvador, V.L.R.; Sato, I.M.

    2004-10-03

    The Anadenathera macrocarpa, Schinus molle, Hymenaea courbaril, Cariniana legalis, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnodendron barbatiman, were collected ''in natura'' samples (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) from different commercial suppliers. The pharmaco-active compounds in ethanolic extracts had been made by the Mato Grosso Federal University (UFMT). The energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometry was used for the elemental analysis in different parts of the plants and respective ethanolic extracts. The Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn concentrations were determined by the fundamental parameters method. Some specimens showed a similar inorganic profile for ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples and some ones showed a distinct inorganic profile. For example, the Anadenathera macrocarpa showed a similar concentration in Mg, P, Cu, Zn and Rb elements in ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples; however very different concentration in Na, S, Cl, K , Ca, Mn, Fe and Sr was observed in distinctive samples. The Solidago microglossa showed the K, Ca, Cl, S, Mg, P and Fe elements as major constituents in both samples, suggesting that the extraction process did not affect in a considerable way the ''in natura'' inorganic composition. The elemental composition of the different parts of the plants (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) has been also determined. For example, the Schinus molle specimen showed P, K, Cl and Ca elements as major constituents in the seeds, Mg, K and Sr in the barks and Mg, S, Cl and Mn in the leaves, demonstrating a differentiated elementary distribution. These inorganic profiles will contribute to evaluate the quality control of the Brazilian herbaceous trade and also will assist to identify which parts of the medicinal plants has greater therapeutic effect.

  9. An extract of the medicinal plant Artemisia annua modulates production of inflammatory markers in activated neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Sheena; Yoshida, Mayumi; Davis, Catherine EJ; Greenhill, Nicholas S; Davis, Paul F

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the ability of a commercial extract from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua to modulate production of the cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and the cyclooxygenase (COX) inflammatory marker, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in activated neutrophils. Methods Neutrophils were harvested from rat whole blood and cultured in the presence of plant extract or control samples. Neutrophils, except unactivated control cells, were activated with 10 ?g/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The cells were cultured with a range of different concentrations of the A. annua extracts (4001 ?g/mL) and artemisinin (200 and 100 ?g/mL) and the supernatants were then tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the concentrations of TNF-? and PGE2. Each sample was assayed in triplicate. Positive controls with an inhibitor were assayed in triplicate: chloroquine 2.58 and 5.16 ?g/mL for TNF-?, and ibuprofen 400 ?g/mL for PGE2. An unsupplemented group was also assessed in triplicate as a baseline control. Results Neutrophils were stimulated to an inflammatory state by the addition of LPS. A. annua extract significantly inhibited TNF-? production by activated neutrophils in a dose-dependent manner. There was complete inhibition by the A. annua extract at 200, 100, and 50 ?g/mL (all P?0.0003). At A. annua extract concentrations of 25, 10, and 5 ?g/mL, TNF-? production was inhibited by 89% (P<0.0001), 54% (P=0.0002), and 38% (P=0.0014), respectively. A. annua 1 ?g/mL did not significantly inhibit TNF-? production (8.8%; P>0.05). Concentrations of 400, 200, and 100 ?g/mL A. annua extract significantly inhibited PGE2 production by 87% (P=0.0128), 91% (P=0.0017), and 93% (P=0.0114), respectively. Conclusion An extract of A. annua was shown to be a potent inhibitor of TNF-? and a strong inhibitor of PGE2 production in activated neutrophils at the concentrations tested. Further studies are warranted with this promising plant extract. PMID:25609991

  10. Screening of Venezuelan medicinal plant extracts for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Peter; Arsenak, Miriam; Abad, Mara Jess; Fernndez, Angel; Milano, Balentina; Gonto, Reina; Ruiz, Marie-Christine; Fraile, Silvia; Taylor, Sofa; Estrada, Omar; Michelangeli, Fabian

    2013-04-01

    There are estimated to be more than 20,000 species of plants in Venezuela, of which more than 1500 are used for medicinal purposes by indigenous and local communities. Only a relatively small proportion of these have been evaluated in terms of their potential as antitumor agents. In this study, we screened 308 extracts from 102 species for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against a panel of six tumor cell lines using a 24-h sulphorhodamine B assay. Extracts from Clavija lancifolia, Hamelia patens, Piper san-vicentense, Physalis cordata, Jacaranda copaia, Heliotropium indicum, and Annona squamosa were the most cytotoxic, whereas other extracts from Calotropis gigantea, Hyptis dilatata, Chromolaena odorata, Siparuna guianensis, Jacaranda obtusifolia, Tapirira guianensis, Xylopia aromatica, Protium heptaphyllum, and Piper arboreum showed the greatest cytostatic activity. These results confirm previous reports on the cytotoxic activities of the above-mentioned plants as well as prompting further studies on others such as C. lancifolia and H. dilatata that have not been so extensively studied. PMID:22648665

  11. Induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation by medicinal plant extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Reynertson, Kurt A.; Department of Pharmacology, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 ; Charlson, Mary E.; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 ; Gudas, Lorraine J.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets high in fruits and vegetables provide a measure of cancer chemoprevention due to phytochemical constituents. Natural products are a rich source of cancer chemotherapy drugs, and primarily target rapidly cycling tumor cells. Increasing evidence indicates that many cancers contain small populations of resistant, stem-like cells that have the capacity to regenerate tumors following chemotherapy and radiation, and have been linked to the initiation of metastases. Our goal is to discover natural product-based clinical or dietary interventions that selectively target cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation. We adapted an alkaline phosphatase (AP) stain to assay plant extracts for the capacity to induce differentiation in embryonic stem (ES) cells. AP is a characteristic marker of undifferentiated ES cells, and this represents a novel approach to screening medicinal plant extracts. Following a survey of approximately 100 fractions obtained from 12 species of ethnomedically utilized plants, we found fractions from 3 species that induced differentiation, decreasing AP and transcript levels of pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct-4, Rex-1). These fractions affected proliferation of murine ES, and human embryonal, prostate, and breast carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Several phytochemical constituents were isolated; the antioxidant phytochemicals ellagic acid and gallic acid were shown to affect viability of cultured breast carcinoma cells.

  12. Induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation by medicinal plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    Reynertson, Kurt A.; Charlson, Mary E.; Gudas, Lorraine J.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets high in fruits and vegetables provide a measure of cancer chemoprevention due to phytochemical constituents. Natural products are a rich source of cancer chemotherapy drugs, and primarily target rapidly-cycling tumor cells. Increasing evidence indicates that many cancers contain small populations of resistant, stem-like cells that have the capacity to regenerate tumors following chemotherapy and radiation, and have been linked to the initiation of metastases. Our goal is to discover natural product-based clinical or dietary interventions that selectively target cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation. We adapted an alkaline phosphatase (AP) stain to assay plant extracts for the capacity to induce differentiation in embryonic stem (ES) cells. AP is a characteristic marker of undifferentiated ES cells, and this represents a novel approach to screening medicinal plant extracts. Following a survey of approximately 100 fractions obtained from twelve species of ethnomedically utilized plants, we found fractions from three species that induced differentiation, decreasing AP and transcript levels of pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct-4, Rex-1). These fractions affected proliferation of murine ES, and human embryonal, prostate, and breast carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Several phytochemical constituents were isolated; the antioxidant phytochemicals ellagic acid and gallic acid were shown to affect viability of cultured breast carcinoma cells. PMID:20955699

  13. In vitro antiviral activity of plant extracts from Asteraceae medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to the high prevalence of viral infections having no specific treatment and the constant appearance of resistant viral strains, the development of novel antiviral agents is essential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiviral activity against bovine viral diarrhea virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), poliovirus type 2 (PV-2) and vesicular stomatitis virus of organic (OE) and aqueous extracts (AE) from: Baccharis gaudichaudiana, B. spicata, Bidens subalternans, Pluchea sagittalis, Tagetes minuta and Tessaria absinthioides. A characterization of the antiviral activity of B. gaudichaudiana OE and AE and the bioassay-guided fractionation of the former and isolation of one active compound is also reported. Methods The antiviral activity of the OE and AE of the selected plants was evaluated by reduction of the viral cytopathic effect. Active extracts were then assessed by plaque reduction assays. The antiviral activity of the most active extracts was characterized by evaluating their effect on the pretreatment, the virucidal activity and the effect on the adsorption or post-adsorption period of the viral cycle. The bioassay-guided fractionation of B. gaudichaudiana OE was carried out by column chromatography followed by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography fractionation of the most active fraction and isolation of an active compound. The antiviral activity of this compound was also evaluated by plaque assay. Results B. gaudichaudiana and B. spicata OE were active against PV-2 and VSV. T. absinthioides OE was only active against PV-2. The corresponding three AE were active against HSV-1. B. gaudichaudiana extracts (OE and AE) were the most selective ones with selectivity index (SI) values of 10.9 (PV-2) and >117 (HSV-1). For this reason, both extracts of B. gaudichaudiana were selected to characterize their antiviral effects. Further bioassay-guided fractionation of B. gaudichaudiana OE led to an active fraction, FC (EC50=3.1 μg/ml; SI= 37.9), which showed antiviral activity during the first 4 h of the viral replication cycle of PV-2 and from which the flavonoid apigenin (EC50 = 12.2 ± 3.3 μM) was isolated as a major compound. Conclusions The results showed that, among the species studied, B. gaudichaudiana seemed to be the most promising species as a source of antiviral agents. PMID:23890410

  14. Aqueous Extracts of Some Medicinal Plants are as Toxic as Lmidacloprid to the Sweet Potato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Ateyyat, Mazen A.; Al-Mazra'awi, Mohammad; Abu-Rjai, Talal; Shatnawi, Mohamad A.

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of nine plants, known to have medicinal activity, were tested for their toxicity against the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Homoptera: Aleurodidae) compared to the toxicity of the insecticide, Imidacloprid. Extracts of Lepidiuim sativum L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) killed 71 % of early stage nymphs, which was not significantly different from mortality caused by Imidacloprid. Treatment of pupae with three plant extracts, L. sativum, Achillea biebersteinii L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), or Retama raetam (Forssk.) Webb and Berthel (Fabales: Fabaceae) prevented adult development, and treatment with R. raetam extract killed adults, at levels that were not significantly different from Imidacloprid. None of the other plants showed significant toxicity. However extracts of four plants, Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), Galium longifolium (Sibth. and SM.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), R. raetam and Ballota undulata Bentham (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) had a repellent effect. PMID:19613450

  15. Assessment of effect of hydroalcoholic and decoction methods on extraction of antioxidants from selected Indian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Kaneria, Mital; Kanani, Bhavana; Chanda, Sumitra

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant activities of selected Indian medicinal flora. Methods Different parts of plants were extracted by hydroalcoholic and decoction methods using water and various concentrations of methanol (ME) viz. 75%, 50% and 25% ME. The antioxidant activity of all the different extracts was evaluated using two different antioxidant assays viz. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and superoxide anion radical scavenging assay. Total phenol and flavonoid content was also estimated. Results The results showed that the extracting solvent significantly altered the antioxidant property estimations of screened plants. High correlations between phenolic compositions and antioxidant activities of extracts were observed. High levels of antioxidant activities were detected in Manilkara zapota (M. zapota) as compared with other screened plants. Conclusions The results obtained appear to confirm the effect of different methods on extraction of antioxidants and antioxidant property of M. zapota. PMID:23569897

  16. Effect of medicinal plant extracts on forced swimming capacity in mice.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyungah; Kim, In-Ho; Han, Daeseok

    2004-07-01

    The tonic effect of Cordyceps militaris (CM), Paecilomyces japonia (PJ), Phellinus linteus (PL), Ganoderma lucidum (GL), Grifola frondosa (GF), and Panax ginseng (PG) was examined based on the forced swimming capacity and the change of biochemical parameters in ICR mice. The treatment groups were orally administered medicinal plant extracts (500 mg/kg per day), while the control group received distilled water for 4 weeks. The swimming times to exhaustion were longer in the CM, PJ, and GF groups than in the control group (P < 0.05). Plasma TG levels were lower in the treatment groups than in the control group. Plasma glucose levels were not significantly different between the control group and each treatment group except the PG group. Plasma lactate and ammonia levels of the PJ and GF groups were lower than those of the control group (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the content of liver and gastrocnemius muscle glycogen between the control group and each treatment group. In conclusion, PJ and GF extracts enhanced the forced swimming capacity of mice by increasing fat utilization and by delaying the accumulation of plasma lactate and ammonia. PMID:15182908

  17. Amelioration of chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis by Aegle marmelos, an Indian medicinal plant, fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Annapurna; Jahan, Swafiya; Soyal, Dhanraj; Goyal, Ekank; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Chemoprevention is a novel approach to study the anti-initiating and anti-tumor-promoting efficacy of medicinal plants and their active principles. The present study investigated the chemopreventive potential of Aegle marmelos fruit extract in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced skin carcinogenesis and its influence on oxidative stress and the antioxidant defense system. The oral administration of A marmelos at 100 mg/kg body weight/day during peri-initiational, postinitiational, and peri- & postinitiational phases of papillomagenesis showed significant reduction in tumor incidence, tumor yield, tumor burden, and cumulative number of papillomas when compared with carcinogen-treated control. The average latent period significantly increased (7.88 weeks; control group) to 9.45, 11.11, and 11.54 weeks in different A marmelos extract (AME) experimental groups. Enzyme analysis of skin and liver showed a significant elevation in antioxidant parameters such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and vitamin C in AME-treated groups when compared with the carcinogen-treated control. The elevated level of lipid peroxidation in the positive control was significantly inhibited by AME administration. These results indicate that AME has the potential to reduce chemical-induced skin papillomas by enhancing the antioxidant defense system. PMID:21862519

  18. Effect of provenance, plant part and processing on extract profiles from cultivated European Rhodiola rosea L. for medicinal use.

    PubMed

    Peschel, Wieland; Prieto, Jos M; Karkour, Caroline; Williamson, Elizabeth M

    2013-02-01

    The demand for plant material of Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) for medicinal use has increased recently, amid concerns about its quality and sustainability. We have analysed the content of phenylpropanoids (total rosavins) and salidroside in liquid extracts from 3-year old cultivated plants of European origin, and mapped the influence of plant part (rhizome versus root), genotype, drying, cutting, and extraction solvent to chemical composition. Rhizomes contained 1.5-4 times more salidroside (0.3-0.4% dry wt) and total rosavins (1.2-3.0%) than roots. The qualitative decisive phenylpropanoid content in the extracts was most influenced by plant part, solvent, and genotype, while drying temperature and cutting conditions were of less importance. We have shown that R. rosea from different boreal European provenances can be grown under temperate conditions and identified factors to obtain consistent high quality extracts provided that authentic germplasm is used and distinguished between rhizome, roots and their mixtures. PMID:23137726

  19. Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts and lignan identified in Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica roots against housefly (Musca domestica L.).

    PubMed

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-05-01

    Medicinal plant extracts from 27 plant species in 20 families were tested for their larvicidal activity against housefly, Musca domestica (L.). Responses varied with plant material and concentration. Among plant species tested, Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica showed 100% larvicidal activity against M. domestica at 10 mg/g concentration. Larvicidal activities of Atractylodes japonica, Saussurea lappa, Asiasarum sieboldi, and Gleditsia japonica var. koraiensis were 89.3%, 85.3%, 93.3%, and 96.6% at 10 mg/g concentration, respectively. Extracts of Prunus persica, Curcuma longa, and Paeonia moutan produced moderate activity. Larvicidal activity of other plant extracts was less than 50%. Among test plant species, P. leptostachya var. asiatica showed the most potent larvicidal activity. The active constituent of P. leptostachya var. asiatica roots was identified as the leptostachyol acetate by spectroscopic analysis. The LC(50) values of leptostachyol acetate against M. domestica larvae were 0.039 mg/g. Naturally occurring medicinal plant extracts and P. leptostachya var. asiatica root-derived compounds merit further study as potential housefly larval control agents or lead compounds. PMID:22065063

  20. Antioxidants in medicinal plant extracts. A research study of the antioxidant capacity of Crataegus, Hamamelis and Hydrastis.

    PubMed

    Periera da Silva, A; Rocha, R; Silva, C M; Mira, L; Duarte, M F; Florncio, M H

    2000-12-01

    The antioxidant capacity of extracts of Crataegus oxyacantha, Hamamelis virginiana, Hydrastis canadensis, plants native to Europe and North America which have long been used in herbal medicine for the treatment of cardiac and circulatory functions, has been investigated. The total antioxidant potential conferred by all hydrogen donating antioxidants present in these extracts has been assessed by the ABTS assay and the relative order of antioxidant potential has been established. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been used for the chemical identification of the antioxidant volatile compounds present in the extracts. The GC-MS data were related to the results obtained using the ABTS assay. PMID:11113998

  1. Medicinal plant extracts as anti-Escherichia coli O157:H7 agents and their effects on bacterial cell aggregation.

    PubMed

    Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; Limsuwan, Surasak

    2006-10-01

    Ethanolic extracts of eight Thai medicinal plants (representing five families) that are used as traditional remedies for treating diarrhea were examined with a salt aggregation test for their ability to modulate cell surface hydrophobicity of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains, including E. coli O157:H7. Four of these medicinal plants, Acacia catechu, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Punica granatum, and Quercus infectoria, have high bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities. The ethanolic extract of Q. infectoria was the most effective against all strains of E. coli, with MICs of 0.12 to 0.98 mg/ml and MBCs of 0.98 to 3.91 mg/ml. The ethanolic extract of P. granatum had MICs of 0.49 to 1.95 mg/ml and MBCs of 1.95 to 3.91 mg/ml. Ethanolic extracts of Q. infectoria, P. pterocarpum, and P. granatum were among the most effective extracts against the two strains of E. coli O157:H7. The other four plants, Andrographis paniculata, Pluchia indica, Tamarindus indica, and Walsura robusta, did not have high bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities but were able to affect hydrophobicity characteristics on their outermost surface. All plants except Q. infectoria had some ability to increase cell surface hydrophobicity. There appears to be no correlation between antibacterial activity and cell aggregative properties. PMID:17066910

  2. Adulticidal and larvicidal efficacy of some medicinal plant extracts against tick, fluke and mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Elango, G; Abduz Zahir, A; Abdul Rahuman, A

    2009-12-23

    The adulticidal and larvicidal effect of indigenous plant extracts were investigated against the adult cattle tick Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann, 1897 (Acarina: Ixodidae), sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi Zeder, 1790 (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae), fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effect of leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Annona squamosa L., Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, Gloriosa superba L., Mukia maderaspatensis (L.) M.Roem, Pergularia daemia (Forsk.) Chiov. and Phyllanthus emblica L. were exposed to different concentrations. All plant extracts showed moderate toxic effect on parasites after 24h of exposure; however, the highest mortality was found in leaf hexane extract of A. squamosa, methanol extracts of G. superba and P. emblica against H. bispinosa (LC(50)=145.39, 225.57 and 256.08ppm); methanol extracts of C. asiatica, G. superba, P. daemia and P. emblica against P. cervi (LC(50)=77.61, 60.16, 59.61, and 60.60ppm); acetone, ethyl acetate extracts of A. squamosa, methanol extract of C. asiatica, acetone extracts of G. superba, ethyl acetate, hexane and methanol extracts of P. daemia against A. subpictus (LC(50)=17.48, 18.60, 26.62, 18.43, 34.06, 13.63, and 50.39ppm); and chloroform, ethyl acetate extracts of A. squamosa, ethyl acetate extract of P. daemia, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of P. emblica against C. tritaeniorhynchus (LC(50)=63.81, 60.01, 31.94, 69.09, and 54.82ppm), respectively. These results demonstrate that methanol extracts of C. asiatica, G. superba, P. daemia and P. emblica extracts may serve as parasites control even in their crude form. PMID:19819626

  3. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of essential oil from Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss: An endangered medicinal plant in Iran.

    PubMed

    Nejad-Sadeghi, Masoud; Taji, Saeed; Goodarznia, Iraj

    2015-11-27

    Extraction of the essential oil from a medicinal plant called Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss was performed by green technology of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction. A Taguchi orthogonal array design with an OA16 (4(5)) matrix was used to evaluate the effects of five extraction variables: pressure of 150-310bar, temperature of 40-60°C, average particle size of 250-1000μm, CO2 flow rate of 2-10ml/s and dynamic extraction time of 30-100min. The optimal conditions to obtain the maximum extraction yield were at 240bar, 60°C, 500μm, 10ml/s and 100min. The extraction yield under the above conditions was 2.72% (w/w) which is more than two times the maximum extraction yield that has been reported for this plant in the literature using traditional extraction techniques. Results from analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the CO2 flow rate and the extraction time were the most significant factors on the extraction yield by percentage contribution of 44.27 and 28.86, respectively. Finally, the chemical composition of the essential oil was evaluated by using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Citral, p-mentha-1,3,8-triene, D-3-carene and methyl geranate were the major components identified. PMID:26522747

  4. Toxic effects of crotocaudin extracted from the medicinal plant Croton tiglium.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ram P; Singh, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    The compound crotocaudin extracted from the stem bark of the medicinal plant Croton tiglium Linn. was administered for 24 h or 96 h to the freshwater vector snail Lymnaea (Radix) acuminata Lamarck in order to test its toxicity. L. acuminata is the intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica which cause immense harm to man and his domestic animals. It was observed that the molluscicidal activity of crotocaudin against L. acuminata is time- as well as dose-dependent. There was a significant negative correlation among LC50 values and exposure periods, i.e. increasing the exposure time, the LC50 value of crotocaudin decreased from 5.37 microM (24 h) > 2.08 microM (48 h) > 1.36 microM (72 h) to 1.01 microM (96 h), respectively, against L. acuminata. The toxicological experiments to proof for environmental toxicity, if any, have also been carried out on the non-target freshwater fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) [Channidae (Ophicephalidae)], which shares the habitat with L. acuminata. The sublethal doses of crotocaudin (40% and 80% of LC50) administered over 24 h caused significant changes in the carbohydrate and nitrogenous metabolisms in nervous, hepatopancreas, and ovotestis tissues of Lymnaea acuminata. Channa punctatus was also exposed to sublethal doses of crotocaudin (40% and 80% of 24-h LC50 of L. acuminata) for 96 h which showed significant alterations in the metabolism in muscle, liver, and gonad tissues. After withdrawal of crotocaudin the snail tissues recovered in part after 7 days and the fish tissues completely. PMID:20653234

  5. Efficacy of medicinal plant extracts against malarial vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi.

    PubMed

    Elango, Gandhi; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz

    2011-06-01

    Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adulticidal activity and adult emergence inhibition (EI) of leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus L. Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. tested against malarial vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). All plant extracts showed moderate adulticidal activity and EI effects after 24 h of exposure at 1,000 ppm; however, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in ethyl acetate extract of A.lineata, chloroform extract of A. paniculata, acetone extract of C. hirsutus, and methanol extract of T. erecta (LD(50)?= 126.92, 95.82, 109.40, and 89.83 ppm; LD(90)?= 542.95, 720.82, 459.03, and 607.85 ppm); and effective EI was found in leaf acetone extract of the A. marmelos, ethyl acetate extract of A. lineata, methanol extracts of C. hirsutus, and T. erecta, (EI(50)?= 128.14, 79.39, 143.97, and 92.82 ppm; EI(90)?= 713.53, 293.70, 682.72, and 582.59 ppm), respectively, against A. subpictus. These results suggest that the leaf methanol extract of C. hirsutus and T. erecta have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of A. subpictus. Therefore, this study provides first report on the mosquito adulticidal activity and EI of plant extracts against malaria vector. PMID:21136078

  6. Phytochemical screening and in vivo antimalarial activity of extracts from three medicinal plants used in malaria treatment in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bankole, A E; Adekunle, A A; Sowemimo, A A; Umebese, C E; Abiodun, O; Gbotosho, G O

    2016-01-01

    The use of plant to meet health-care needs has greatly increased worldwide in the recent times. The search for new plant-derived bioactive agents that can be explored for the treatment of drug-resistant malaria infection is urgently needed. Thus, we evaluated the antimalarial activity of three medicinal plants used in Nigerian folklore for the treatment of malaria infection. A modified Peter's 4-day suppressive test was used to evaluate the antimalarial activity of the plant extracts in a mouse model of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium berghei ANKA strain. Animals were treated with 250, 500, or 800mg/kg of aqueous extract. It was observed that of all the three plants studied, Markhamia tomentosa showed the highest chemosuppression of parasites of 73% followed by Polyalthia longifolia (53%) at day 4. All the doses tested were well tolerated. Percentage suppression of parasite growth on day 4 post-infection ranged from 1 to 73% in mice infected with P. berghei and treated with extracts when compared with chloroquine diphosphate, the standard reference drug which had a chemosuppression of 90%. The percentage survival of mice that received extract ranged from 0 to 60% (increased as the dose increases to 800mg/kg). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, and phenolic compounds in all the three plants tested. PMID:26391173

  7. Antiproliferative Activity of Plant Extracts Used Against Cancer in Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Talib, Wamidh H.; Mahasneh, Adel M.

    2010-01-01

    Forty four extracts from sixteen plants used traditionally as anticancer agents were evaluated in vitro for their antiproliferative activity against Hep-2, MCF-7, and Vero cell lines. Plants were fractionated using ethanol, methanol, chloroform, n-hexane, distilled water, and butanol. The antiproliferative activity was measured by MTT assay. TLC was used to identify active fractions. The apoptotic activity of active fractions was determined using TUNEL colorimetric assay. 20 of these extracts demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity against one or more of the cell lines. These extracts were prepared from Ononis hirta, Inula viscosa, Salvia pinardi, Verbascum sinaiticum and Ononis sicula. Methanol fractions of Ononis hirta (aerial parts) and Inula viscosa (flowers) were the most active fractions against MCF-7 cells with IC50 of 27.96 and 15.78 ?g/ml respectively and they were less toxic against other cell lines. Other extracts showed lower activity against cancer cell lines. TLC analysis showed the presence of flavonoids and terpenoids in active plants while alkaloids were detected in Ononis hirta (aerial parts) extracts. Ononis hirta (aerial parts) and Inula viscosa (flowers) extracts exerted their antiproliferative activity by inducing apoptosis in cancer cell lines. Further studies are necessary for detailed chemical characterization and more extensive biological evaluation of the most active ingredients. PMID:21179373

  8. Antiproliferative activity of plant extracts used against cancer in traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Talib, Wamidh H; Mahasneh, Adel M

    2010-01-01

    Forty four extracts from sixteen plants used traditionally as anticancer agents were evaluated in vitro for their antiproliferative activity against Hep-2, MCF-7, and Vero cell lines. Plants were fractionated using ethanol, methanol, chloroform, n-hexane, distilled water, and butanol. The antiproliferative activity was measured by MTT assay. TLC was used to identify active fractions. The apoptotic activity of active fractions was determined using TUNEL colorimetric assay. 20 of these extracts demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity against one or more of the cell lines. These extracts were prepared from Ononis hirta, Inula viscosa, Salvia pinardi, Verbascum sinaiticum and Ononis sicula. Methanol fractions of Ononis hirta (aerial parts) and Inula viscosa (flowers) were the most active fractions against MCF-7 cells with IC(50) of 27.96 and 15.78 g/ml respectively and they were less toxic against other cell lines. Other extracts showed lower activity against cancer cell lines. TLC analysis showed the presence of flavonoids and terpenoids in active plants while alkaloids were detected in Ononis hirta (aerial parts) extracts. Ononis hirta (aerial parts) and Inula viscosa (flowers) extracts exerted their antiproliferative activity by inducing apoptosis in cancer cell lines. Further studies are necessary for detailed chemical characterization and more extensive biological evaluation of the most active ingredients. PMID:21179373

  9. Evaluation of surfactant assisted pressurized liquid extraction for the determination of glycyrrhizin and ephedrine in medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Eng, Alan Teck Wee; Heng, Ming Yuan; Ong, Eng Shi

    2007-02-01

    Surfactant assisted pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with a laboratory made system was applied for the extraction of glycyrrhizin in radix glycyrrhizae/liquorice and ephedrine in Ephedra sinica. The proposed system set-up for this current work was simpler as no heating and back pressure regulator was required. Extraction with surfactant assisted PLE was carried out dynamically at a flow of 1.5 mL min(-1), at room temperature, under an applied pressure of 10-20 bar with an extraction time of 45-50 min. The extraction efficiencies of the proposed method using surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and Triton X-100 were compared with sonication using organic solvent for different batches of medicinal plants materials. For the determination of glycyrrhizin in R. glycyrrhizae, the extraction efficiencies of surfactant assisted PLE with SDS and Triton X-100 was observed to be comparable with sonication. The method precision was found to vary from 1.6 to 2.6% (R.S.D., n=6) on different days. For ephedrine in E. sinica, surfactant assisted PLE with SDS was found to give higher extraction efficiencies compared to Triton X-100. The overall method precision for surfactant assisted PLE with SDS for ephedrine in E. sinica was found to vary from 1.5 to 4.1% (R.S.D., n=6) on different days. The marker compounds present in the various medicinal plant extracts were determined by gradient elution HPLC. Our data showed the possibility of PLE at room temperature and the advantages of eliminating the use of organic solvents in the extraction process. PMID:17386558

  10. Ovicidal and Oviposition Deterrent Activities of Medicinal Plant Extracts Against Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Gandhi, Munusamy Rajiv; Paulraj, Micheal Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the ovicidal and oviposition deterrent activities of five medicinal plant extracts namely Aegle marmelos (Linn.), Limonia acidissima (Linn.), Sphaeranthus indicus (Linn.), Sphaeranthus amaranthoides (burm.f), and Chromolaena odorata (Linn.) against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Three solvents, namely hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol, were used for the preparation of extracts from each plant. Methods Four different concentrations—62.5 parts per million (ppm), 125 ppm, 250 ppm, and 500 ppm—were prepared using acetone and tested for ovicidal and oviposition deterrent activities. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the significance of the treatments and means were separated by Tukey's test of comparison. Results Among the different extracts of the five plants screened, the hexane extract of L. acidissima recorded the highest ovicidal activity of 79.2% and 60% at 500 ppm concentration against the eggs of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Similarly, the same hexane extract of L. acidissima showed 100% oviposition deterrent activity at all the tested concentrations against Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti adult females. Conclusion It is concluded that the hexane extract of L. acidissima could be used in an integrated mosquito management program. PMID:25737834

  11. Phenolic characterization and antimicrobial activity of folk medicinal plant extracts for their applications in olive production.

    PubMed

    Boiteux, Joana; Soto Vargas, Carolina; Pizzuolo, Pablo; Lucero, Gabriela; Silva, Mara Fernanda

    2014-06-01

    Phytophthora spp is important in plant pathology due to the importance of the diseases it causes. In olive trees, severe damages are caused by the disease known as "dry branch" occasioned by Phytophthora nicotianae, P. citrophthora and P. palmivora. Much effort has been made to find efficient methods of control, with a low negative impact on environment. In this regard, treatment with plant extracts is a valid strategy. The aims of the present study are (i) to determine the polyphenol composition of extracts of Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Matricaria recutita, and Larrea divaricata by CZE, (ii) correlate the analytical composition of these extracts with the inhibition on the mycelial growth, and (iii) determine the individual antimicrobial activity of the most active ingredients. A simple methodology was developed for the determination of catechin, naringenin, cinnamic acid, syringic acid, chlorogenic acid, apigenin, vanillic acid, luteolin, quercetin, and caffeic acid in plant extracts by CZE. The extraction of phenolic compounds in extract was performed by a miniaturized solid phase extraction using a home-made minicolumn packed with suitable filtering material (C18 , 50 mg). The optimized analyses conditions were: 30 mM boric acid buffer, pH 9.50; capillary, 57 cm full length, 50 cm effective length, 75 ?m id, hydrodynamic injection 30 mbar, 2 s; 25 kV; 25C, detection by UV absorbance at 290 nm. Sample results suggest that phenolic composition seems to have a great influence on inhibition of pathogens. The highest inhibitions of mycelial growth were observed for cinnamic acid and naringenin. PMID:24668423

  12. Study of ion suppression for phenolic compounds in medicinal plant extracts using liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Faccin, H; Viana, C; do Nascimento, P C; Bohrer, D; de Carvalho, L M

    2016-01-01

    A systematic study on the various sources of ion suppression in UHPLC-MS-MS analysis was carried out for 24 phenolic antioxidants in 6 different extracts of medicinal plants from Amazonia. The contributions of matrix effects, mobile-phase additives, analyte co-elution and electric charge competition during ionization to the global ion suppression were evaluated. Herein, the influence of mobile-phase additives on the ionization efficiency was found to be very pronounced, where ion suppression of approximately 90% and ion enhancement effects greater than 400% could be observed. The negative effect caused by the wrong choice of internal standard (IS) on quantitative studies was also evaluated and discussed from the perspective of ion suppression. This work also shows the importance of performing studies with this approach even for very similar matrices, such as varieties of medicinal plants from the same species, because different effects were observed for the same analyte. PMID:26709070

  13. Effects of extracts from Italian medicinal plants on planktonic growth, biofilm formation and adherence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Quave, Cassandra L.; Plano, Lisa R.W.; Pantuso, Traci; Bennett, Bradley C.

    2008-01-01

    One-third of botanical remedies from southern Italy are used to treat skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). Staphylococcus aureus, a common cause of SSTI, has generated increasing concern due to drug resistance. Many plants possess antimicrobial agents and provide effective remedies for SSTI. Our aim was to investigate plants from different ethnobotanical usage groups for inhibition of growth and biofilms in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Three groups were assessed: plant remedies for SSTI, plant remedies not involving the skin, and plants with no ethnomedical application. We screened 168 extracts, representing 104 botanical species, for activity against MRSA (ATCC 33593). We employed broth dilution methods to determine the MIC after 18 hours growth using an optical density (OD600nm) reading. Anti-biofilm effects were assessed by growing biofilms for 40 hours, then fixing and staining with crystal violet. After washing, 10% Tween 80 was added and OD570nm readings were taken. Extracts from 10 plants exhibited an IC50 ≤32 μg/ml for biofilm inhibition: Lonicera alpigena, Castanea sativa, Juglans regia, Ballota nigra, Rosmarinus officinalis, Leopoldia comosa, Malva sylvestris, Cyclamen hederifolium, Rosa canina, and Rubus ulmifolius. Limited bacteriostatic activity was evident. The anti-biofilm activity of medicinal plants was significantly greater than plants without any ethnomedical applications. PMID:18556162

  14. Anti-microbial activity and anti-complement activity of extracts obtained from selected Hawaiian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Locher, C P; Burch, M T; Mower, H F; Berestecky, J; Davis, H; Van Poel, B; Lasure, A; Vanden Berghe, D A; Vlietinck, A J

    1995-11-17

    Selected plants having a history of use in Polynesian traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious disease were investigated for anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-bacterial activity in vitro. Extracts from Scaevola sericea, Psychotria hawaiiensis, Pipturus albidus and Eugenia malaccensis showed selective anti-viral activity against Herpes Simplex Virus-1 and 2 and Vesicular Stomatitis Virus. Aleurites moluccana extracts showed anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while Pipturus albidus and Eugenia malaccensis extracts showed growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Psychotria hawaiiensis and Solanum niger inhibited growth of the fungi Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum and Epidermophyton floccosum, while Ipomoea sp., Pipturus albidus, Scaevola sericea, Eugenia malaccensis, Piper methysticum, Barringtonia asiatica and Adansonia digitata extracts showed anti-fungal activity to a lesser extent. Eugenia malaccensis was also found to inhibit the classical pathway of complement suggesting that an immunological basis for its in vivo activity was identified. This study has confirmed some of the ethnobotanical reports of Hawaiian medicinal plants having curative properties against infections using biological assays in vitro. PMID:8786654

  15. Screening of Ethanol, Petroleum Ether and Chloroform Extracts of Medicinal Plants, Lawsonia inermis L. and Mimosa pudica L. for Antibacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Akter, A.; Neela, F. A.; Khan, M. S. I.; Islam, M. S.; Alam, M. F.

    2010-01-01

    Organic extracts (ethanol, petroleum ether and chloroform) of two medicinal plants Lawsonia inermis L. and Mimosa pudica L. were proven for antibacterial properties against 15 Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogenic bacteria. Among the three types of extracts tested, ethanol extract was found to possess maximum antibacterial activity. The diameter of the zone of inhibition of bacterial growth showed that Gram-negative bacteria are more sensitive than Gram-positive bacteria to plant extracts. Between the two plants species studied, Lawsonia inermis extract showed more antibacterial activity compared to Mimosa pudica extract. PMID:21188055

  16. Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts on Multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under Reduced Oxygen Conditions Using Intracellular and Axenic Assays.

    PubMed

    Bhatter, Purva D; Gupta, Pooja D; Birdi, Tannaz J

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Test the activity of selected medicinal plant extracts on multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under reduced oxygen concentration which represents nonreplicating conditions. Material and Methods. Acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the plants Acorus calamus L. (rhizome), Ocimum sanctum L. (leaf), Piper nigrum L. (seed), and Pueraria tuberosa DC. (tuber) were tested on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv intracellularly using an epithelial cell (A549) infection model. The extracts found to be active intracellularly were further studied axenically under reducing oxygen concentrations. Results and Conclusions. Intracellular multiplication was inhibited ?60% by five of the twelve extracts. Amongst these 5 extracts, in axenic culture, P. nigrum (acetone) was active under aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic conditions indicating presence of multiple components acting at different levels and P. tuberosa (aqueous) showed bactericidal activity under microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions implying the influence of anaerobiosis on its efficacy. P. nigrum (aqueous) and A. calamus (aqueous and ethanol) extracts were not active under axenic conditions but only inhibited intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, suggesting activation of host defense mechanisms to mediate bacterial killing rather than direct bactericidal activity. PMID:26941797

  17. Inhibition of chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity of phagocytes in vitro by the extracts of selected medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Jantan, Ibrahim; Harun, Nurul Hikmah; Septama, Abdi Wira; Murad, Shahnaz; Mesaik, M A

    2011-04-01

    The methanol extracts of 20 selected medicinal plants were investigated for their effects on the respiratory burst of human whole blood, isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and isolated mice macrophages using a luminol/lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. We also tested the effect of the extracts on chemotactic migration of PMNs using the Boyden chamber technique. The extracts of Curcuma domestica L., Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn and C. xanthorrhiza Roxb. were the samples producing the strongest oxidative burst of PMNs with luminol-based chemiluminescence, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 ?g/ml. For macrophage cells, the extracts which showed strong suppressive activity for luminol-based chemiluminescence were C. xanthorrhiza and Garcinia mangostana L. Among the extracts studied, C. mangga Valton & Vazsjip, Piper nigrum L. and Labisia pumila var. alata showed strong inhibitory activity on lucigenin-amplified oxidative burst of PMNs, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.9 to 1.5 ?g/ml. The extracts of Zingiber officinale Rosc., Alpinia galangal (L.) Willd and Averrhoa bilimbi Linn showed strong inhibition on the chemotaxic migration of cells, with IC(50) values comparable to that of ibuprofen (1.5 ?g/ml). The results suggest that some of these plants were able to modulate the innate immune response of phagocytes at different steps, emphasizing their potential as a source of new immunomodulatory agents. PMID:21184195

  18. Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts on Multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under Reduced Oxygen Conditions Using Intracellular and Axenic Assays

    PubMed Central

    Bhatter, Purva D.; Gupta, Pooja D.; Birdi, Tannaz J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Test the activity of selected medicinal plant extracts on multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under reduced oxygen concentration which represents nonreplicating conditions. Material and Methods. Acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the plants Acorus calamus L. (rhizome), Ocimum sanctum L. (leaf), Piper nigrum L. (seed), and Pueraria tuberosa DC. (tuber) were tested on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv intracellularly using an epithelial cell (A549) infection model. The extracts found to be active intracellularly were further studied axenically under reducing oxygen concentrations. Results and Conclusions. Intracellular multiplication was inhibited ≥60% by five of the twelve extracts. Amongst these 5 extracts, in axenic culture, P. nigrum (acetone) was active under aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic conditions indicating presence of multiple components acting at different levels and P. tuberosa (aqueous) showed bactericidal activity under microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions implying the influence of anaerobiosis on its efficacy. P. nigrum (aqueous) and A. calamus (aqueous and ethanol) extracts were not active under axenic conditions but only inhibited intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, suggesting activation of host defense mechanisms to mediate bacterial killing rather than direct bactericidal activity. PMID:26941797

  19. Cytotoxic and DNA interaction activities of extracts from medicinal plants used in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mongelli, E; Pampuro, S; Coussio, J; Salomon, H; Ciccia, G

    2000-07-01

    Eight crude extracts from seven Argentine plants with cancer-related ethnobotanical uses have been subjected to a bioscreening study to detect cytotoxic activity. The plants studied were: Aristolochia triangularis, Baccharis grisebachii, Bolax gummifera, Eupatorium hecatanthum, Erythrina crista-galli, Pterocaulon polystachium and Salpichroa origanifolia. Crown gall tumour inhibition, DNA interaction and cytotoxicity towards KB cells were assayed using the potato disc, the DNA-methyl green (DNA-MG) and the KB cells cytotoxicity bioassays respectively. The results obtained indicate that A. triangularis (ED50=47 microg/ml), B. gummifera (ED50=32 microg/ml) and E. hecatanthum (ED50=35 microg/ml) contained cytotoxic compounds against KB cells. All of the plants studied inhibited the growth of crown gall tumours, showing correlation between the experimental data and the uses reported for these plants. Moreover, the results obtained for the extracts of E. hecatanthum and P. polystachium indicate the presence of compounds that interact with DNA (48 and 22% of absorbance decrease, respectively). The results obtained suggest that cytotoxicity could play an important role in the activities claimed for the plants under study. PMID:10904157

  20. Toxicological evaluation of Pterocaulon polystachyum extract: a medicinal plant with antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Regner, Gabriela Gregory; Gianesini, Janana; Von Borowski, Rafael Gomes; Silveira, Fabiana; Semedo, Juliane Garcia; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falco; Wiilland, Elenir; Von Poser, Gilsane; Allgayer, Maringela; Picada, Jaqueline Nascimento; Pereira, Patrcia

    2011-01-01

    Pterocaulon polystachyum DC is a native species to southern Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and northeastern Argentina. It is utilized to treat animal problems popularly diagnosed as "mycoses". The antifungal and amebicidal activity of its hexane extract has been previously reported, although there are no studies confirming the safety of this plant for therapeutic purposes to date. Hence, this study investigates the toxic effects of a hexane extract of Pterocaulon polystachyum administered as acute and subacute oral treatments. After acute treatment the extract caused alterations in biochemical parameters, morphological alterations in tissues and was genotoxic, according to the comet assay; neither mortality nor visible signs of lethality were seen in mice. Similarly subacute treatment caused important differences in biochemical parameters and tissues, between control and treated groups. The results also revealed genotoxicity in kidney tissue, though no mutagenicity was detected by the micronucleus test. No animal died during the treatment period. PMID:21787691

  1. Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts and isolated compound epicatechin from Ricinus communis against Paramphistomum cervi.

    PubMed

    Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Geetha, Kannappan; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacies of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol leaf extracts of Euphorbia hirta L., Psidium guajava L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum trilobatum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest parasite mortality was found in the methanol extract of R. communis. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of methanol extract of R. communis led to the separation and identification of epicatechin as a potential new compound (LC(50) = 31.2; LC(90) = 105.0 ppm) against P. cervi. The structures were established from infrared, ultraviolet, (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C-NMR, and mass spectral data which confirmed the identification of the compound epicatechin from R. communis. Results of this study showed that the methanol extract of R. communis may be considered as a potent source and epicatechin as a new natural parasitic agent. PMID:21842382

  2. BACE1 inhibitory activity of fungal endophytic extracts from Malaysian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background BACE1 was found to be the major β-secretase in neurons and its appearance and activity were found to be elevated in the brains of AD patients. Fungal endophytic extracts for BACE1 inhibitory activity and cytotoxicity against PC-12 (a rat pheochromocytoma with neuronal properties) and WRL68 (a non-tumorigenic human hepatic) were investigated. Methods Endophytes were isolated from plants collected from Kuala Pilah, Negeri Sembilan and the National Park, Pahang and the extracts were tested for BACE1 inhibition. For investigation of biological activity, the pure endophytic cultures were cultivated for 14 days on PDA plates at 28°C and underwent semipolar extraction with ethyl acetate. Results Of 212 endophytic extracts (1000 μg/ml), 29 exhibited more than 90% inhibition of BACE1 in the preliminary screening. Four extracts from isolates HAB16R13, HAB16R14, HAB16R18 and HAB8R24 identified as Cytospora rhizophorae were the most active with IC50(BACE1) values of less than 3.0 μg/ml. The most active extract HAB16R13 was shown to non-competitively inhibit BACE1 with Ki value of 10.0 μg/ml. HAB16R13 was considered non-potent against PC-12 and WRL68 (IC50(CT) of 60.0 and 40.0 μg/ml, respectively). Conclusions This first report on endophytic fungal extract with good BACE1 inhibitory activity demonstrates that more extensive study is required to uncover the potential of endophytes. PMID:21943123

  3. Screening of antiviral activities in medicinal plants extracts against dengue virus using dengue NS2B-NS3 protease assay.

    PubMed

    Rothan, H A; Zulqarnain, M; Ammar, Y A; Tan, E C; Rahman, N A; Yusof, R

    2014-06-01

    Dengue virus infects millions of people worldwide and there is no vaccine or anti-dengue therapeutic available. Screening large numbers of medicinal plants for anti-dengue activities is an alternative strategy in order to find the potent therapeutic compounds. Therefore, this study was designed to identify anti-dengue activities in nineteen medicinal plant extracts that are used in traditional medicine. Local medicinal plants Vernonia cinerea, Hemigraphis reptans, Hedyotis auricularia, Laurentia longiflora, Tridax procumbers and Senna angustifolia were used in this study. The highest inhibitory activates against dengue NS2B-NS3pro was observed in ethanolic extract of S. angustifolia leaves, methanolic extract of V. cinerea leaves and ethanol extract of T. procumbens stems. These findings were further verified by in vitro viral inhibition assay. Methanolic extract of V. cinerea leaves, ethanol extract of T. procumbens stems and at less extent ethanolic extract of S. angustifolia leaves were able to maintain the normal morphology of DENV2-infected Vero cells without causing much cytopathic effects (CPE). The percentage of viral inhibition of V. cinerea and T. procumbens extracts were significantly higher than S. angustifolia extract as measured by plaque formation assay and RT-qPCR. In conclusion, The outcome of this study showed that the methanolic extract of V. cinerea leaves and ethanol extract of T. procumbens stems possessed high inhibitory activates against dengue virus that worth more investigation. PMID:25134897

  4. Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Edilson Alves; de Carvalho, Cenira M.; Costa, Ana L. S.; Conceio, Adilva S.; Moura, Flvia de B. Prado; Santana, Antnio Euzbio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankarar indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs) of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar) and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata). The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC50 83.426?mg/L and LC50 138.896?mg/L, resp.), and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC50 0.94?mg/L, LC50 13.51?mg/L, and LC50 20.22?mg/L, resp.). As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds. PMID:22194773

  5. Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Edilson Alves; de Carvalho, Cenira M; Costa, Ana L S; Conceio, Adilva S; Moura, Flvia de B Prado; Santana, Antnio Euzbio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankarar indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs) of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar) and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata). The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC(50) 83.426?mg/L and LC(50) 138.896?mg/L, resp.), and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC(50) 0.94?mg/L, LC(50) 13.51?mg/L, and LC(50) 20.22?mg/L, resp.). As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds. PMID:22194773

  6. Proteomic analysis of the medicinal plant Artemisia annua: Data from leaf and trichome extracts.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Laura; Patole, Chhaya; Cramer, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    This article contains raw and processed data related to research published by Bryant et al.[1]. Data was obtained by MS-based proteomics, analysing trichome-enriched, trichome-depleted and whole leaf samples taken from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua and searching the acquired MS/MS data against a recently published contig database [2] and other genomic and proteomic sequence databases for comparison. The processed data shows that an order-of-magnitude more proteins have been identified from trichome-enriched Artemisia annua samples in comparison to previously published data. Proteins known to have a role in the biosynthesis of artemisinin and other highly abundant proteins were found which imply additional enzymatically driven processes occurring within the trichomes that are significant for the biosynthesis of artemisinin. PMID:26977431

  7. Proteomic analysis of the medicinal plant Artemisia annua: Data from leaf and trichome extracts

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Laura; Patole, Chhaya; Cramer, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    This article contains raw and processed data related to research published by Bryant et al.[1]. Data was obtained by MS-based proteomics, analysing trichome-enriched, trichome-depleted and whole leaf samples taken from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua and searching the acquired MS/MS data against a recently published contig database [2] and other genomic and proteomic sequence databases for comparison. The processed data shows that an order-of-magnitude more proteins have been identified from trichome-enriched Artemisia annua samples in comparison to previously published data. Proteins known to have a role in the biosynthesis of artemisinin and other highly abundant proteins were found which imply additional enzymatically driven processes occurring within the trichomes that are significant for the biosynthesis of artemisinin. PMID:26977431

  8. Membrane stability of sickle erythrocytes incubated in extracts of three medicinal plants: Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa

    PubMed Central

    Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Uwakwe, Augustine Amadikwa

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many reports showed that medicinal plant extracts cause alterations on the shape and physiology of erythrocytes. Objective: The present study seeks to ascertain the osmotic stability of sickle erythrocytes incubated in aqueous extracts of Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa. Materials and Methods: The fraction of erythrocytes lysed when suspended in saline solution of varying concentrations was investigated by spectrophotometric method. The percentage hemolysis of erythrocytes in the control and test samples showed a sigmoidal relationship with increasing concentrations of saline solution. Membrane stability was ascertained as mean corpuscular fragility (MCF) index of erythrocytes incubated in 400 and 800 mg/dL aqueous concentrations of the three plant extracts. Results: The two experimental concentrations of P. guajava and T. catappa protected the erythrocytes against osmotic stress, as evidenced by decreases in the values of MCF compared with the control sample (P < 0.05). However, 800 mg/dL of A. occidentale promoted significant (P < 0.05) distabilization of sickle erythrocytes. Conclusion: Whereas the two experimental concentrations of aqueous extracts of P. guajava and T. catappa stabilized erythrocyte membrane, higher concentration (800 mg/dL) of A. occidentale exhibited no membrane protective effect. PMID:21716621

  9. Anticancer effect of extracts from a North American medicinal plant--wild sarsaparilla.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jennifer; Li, Qiuzhu; Ivanochko, Gerald; Huang, Yaoge

    2006-01-01

    The wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis) plant is richly distributed in North America, mainly in Canada. In the present study, 24 extracts were obtained from the rhizome, stem, leaf and fruit of wild sarsaparilla. In the presence of RH (hexane fraction from the rhizome), the survival rate of WiDr (human colon cancer cell) was 3.5 +/- 2.7% (IC50 = 30.1 +/- 3.5 microg/ml) and that of Molt (human leukemia cell) was 2.4 +/- 2.8% (IC50 = 7.0 +/- 0.6 microg/ml). The survival rate of HELA (human cervix cancer cell) was only 1.8 +/- 0.9% in the presence of FH (hexane fraction from the fruit of wild sarsaparilla) (IC50 = 33.3 +/- 2.7 microg/ml). The cytotoxicities of RH and FH against normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells were significantly lower than against the tested human cancer cells. RH appeared to be the best extract against WiDr and Molt, whereas FH was the most effective against HELA. Because of the rich natural supply, simple extraction procedure and high yield, RH and FH of wild sarsaparilla have the potential to be developed into selective anticancer nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical products with few side-effects and low cost. PMID:16827159

  10. Study bioprospecting of medicinal plant extracts of the semiarid northeast: contribution to the control of oral microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria Sunia P; Brando, Deysiane O; Chaves, Thiago P; Formiga Filho, Amaro L N; Costa, Edja Maria M de B; Santos, Vanda L; Medeiros, Ana Cludia D

    2012-01-01

    Dental pathologies can be caused by plaque-forming bacteria and yeast, which reside in the oral cavity. The bacteria growing in dental plaque, a naturally occurring biofilm, display increased resistance to antimicrobial agents. The objective was the evaluation of a preclinical assay of medicinal plants of the semiarid region from the northeast against oral pathogenic microorganism, aiming at bioprospecting a new product. The selection of plant material for this study was based on the ethnobotanical data on the traditional use of plants from the semiarid region. The thirty extracts were subjected to the determination of antibiofilm activity against gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria and yeast. The hydroalcoholic extract which showed positive antibiofilm activity against most of the microorganisms tested in agar diffusion assay was further tested for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Bioassay with Artemia salina. Plant samples tested in this study exhibited good antibiofilm activity for the treatment of oral problems. The Schinopsis brasiliensis showed greater activity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, but toxicity against Artemia salina. PMID:22719786

  11. Cytotoxicity and Modes of Action of the Methanol Extracts of Six Cameroonian Medicinal Plants against Multidrug-Resistant Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kuete, Victor; Fankam, Aimé G.; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The present study aims at evaluating the cytotoxicity of twelve parts from six Cameroonian medicinal plants on sensitive and drug-resistant cancer cell lines. We also studied the mode of action of the most active plants, Gladiolus quartinianus, Vepris soyauxii, and Anonidium mannii. Methods. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was determined using a resazurin assay. Flow cytometry was used for cell-cycle analysis and detection of apoptosis, analysis of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Results. At 40 g/mL, three extracts showed a growth of CCRF-CEM leukemia cells by less than 50%. This includes the extracts from G. quartinianus (GQW; 25.69%), Vepris soyauxii leaves (VSL; 29.82%), and Anonidium mannii leaves (AML; 31.58%). The lowest IC50 values below 30 μg/mL were obtained with GQW, AML and VSL against 7/9, 8/9, and 9/9 tested cancer cell lines, respectively. The lowest IC50 values for each plant were 4.09 μg/mL, and 9.14 μg/mL (against U87MG.ΔEGFR cells), respectively, for VSL and AML and 10.57 μg/mL (against CCRF-CEM cells) for GQW. GQW induced cell cycle arrest between G0/G1 and S phases, whilst VSL and AML induced arrest in G0/G1. All three extracts induced apoptosis in CCRF-CEM cells by loss of MMP, whilst AML also enhanced production of ROS. Conclusion. The three active plants may be a source for the development of new anticancer drugs. PMID:24174974

  12. Effects of two medicinal plants Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) and Diospyros mespiliformis L. (Ebenaceae) leaf extracts on rat skeletal muscle cells in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Belemtougri, R G; Constantin, B; Cognard, C; Raymond, G; Sawadogo, L

    2006-01-01

    Crude decoction, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of two medicinal plants (Psidium guajava and Diospyros mespiliformis), widely used in the central plateau of Burkina Faso to treat many diseases were evaluated for their antagonistic effects on caffeine induced calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum of rat skeletal muscle cells. These different extracts showed a decrease of caffeine induced calcium release in a dose dependent manner. Comparison of the results showed that Psidium guajava leaf extracts are more active than extracts of Diospyros mespiliformis and that crude decoctions show better inhibitory activity. The observed results could explain their use as antihypertensive and antidiarrhoeal agents in traditional medicine, by inhibiting intracellular calcium release. PMID:16365927

  13. Effects of two medicinal plants Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) and Diospyros mespiliformis L. (Ebenaceae) leaf extracts on rat skeletal muscle cells in primary culture

    PubMed Central

    Belemtougri, R.G.; Constantin, B.; Cognard, C.; Raymond, G.; Sawadogo, L.

    2006-01-01

    Crude decoction, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of two medicinal plants (Psidium guajava and Diospyros mespiliformis), widely used in the central plateau of Burkina Faso to treat many diseases were evaluated for their antagonistic effects on caffeine induced calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum of rat skeletal muscle cells. These different extracts showed a decrease of caffeine induced calcium release in a dose dependent manner. Comparison of the results showed that Psidium guajava leaf extracts are more active than extracts of Diospyros mespiliformis and that crude decoctions show better inhibitory activity. The observed results could explaine their use as antihypertensive and antidiarrhoeal agents in traditional medicine, by inhibiting intracellular calcium release. PMID:16365927

  14. Medicines and Drugs from Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agosta, William C.

    1997-07-01

    Natural preparations have been used for thousands of ages for a variety of purposes including as medicines, poisons, and psychotropic drugs. The largest grouped of preparations from living organisms are medicines, and historically these have come from plants. Quinine and aspirin are two examples of medicines which were extracted originally from plants. Mind-altering, or psychotropic, drugs come mostly from plants or fungi. In many traditional cultures, sickness and death are attributed to maligned spirits so that medicine and religion become inseparable. Uses of cohohba, snakeplant, coca, and peyote are discussed. The process by which new pharmaceuticals are discovered from natural products is described. The implications of an agreement between a major pharmaceutical company and a country in the tropics are discussed.

  15. Induction of neutrophil Mac-1 integrin expression and superoxide production by the medicinal plant extract gossypol.

    PubMed

    Benhaim, P; Mathes, S J; Hunt, T K; Scheuenstuhl, H; Benz, C C

    1994-10-01

    Gossypol is present in antiinflammatory poultices made from the medicinal tree Thespesia populnea. Isolated human neutrophils exposed to 3-20 microM gossypol for 15-90 min were assayed in vitro for superoxide production and surface expression of Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18). Gossypol increased superoxide production in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion consistent with a moderate, delayed respiratory burst. Surface Mac-1 expression was increased within 15 min by 3-5 microM gossypol, resulting in a 14-fold increase over controls and a threefold greater increase over that produced by PMA. Staurosporine failed to block gossypol induction of superoxide and Mac-1, while EDTA inhibited induction of Mac-1 only, implicating a calcium-dependent mechanism. Gossypol increased intracellular calcium to peak levels, but in a delayed fashion as compared to FMLP. These findings demonstrate that gossypol is a highly potent stimulant of Mac-1 expression and suggest at least two protein kinase C-independent pathways of neutrophil activation. The resultant exhaustion of neutrophils may account for the antiinflammatory properties of plants containing gossypol. PMID:7843790

  16. Antiprotozoal screening of traditional medicinal plants: evaluation of crude extract of Psoralea corylifolia against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Ling, Fei; Lu, Cheng; Tu, Xiao; Yi, Yanglei; Huang, Aiguo; Zhang, Qizhong; Wang, Gaoxue

    2013-06-01

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (also called "ich") is an external protozoan parasite that may infest almost all freshwater fish species and caused significant economic damage to the aquaculture industry. Since the use of malachite green was banned, there have been relatively few effective alternative strategies for controlling I. multifiliis infections. The present study was designed to screen potential antiparasitic medicinal plants based on our previous studies, and comprehensively evaluate in vitro and in vivo anti-ich activity of selected plant extracts. The screening results showed that the methanol extract of Psoralea corylifolia had the highest activity against I. multifiliis theronts. In vivo theront trials demonstrated that 1.25 mg/L or more concentrations of P. corylifolia methanol extract caused 100 % mortality during the 4-h exposure period, and the subsequent in vitro trials indicated that the minimum concentration of P. corylifolia methanol extract that prevented the initial infestation was 2.50 mg/L. Protomonts and encysted tomonts surviving trials suggested that encysted tomonts were less susceptible to P. corylifolia methanol extract than protomonts, and the methanol extract of P. corylifolia at a concentration of 5.00 mg/L could kill 100 % of protomonts and 88.89 % of encysted tomonts. It was also observed that after 12-h exposure of protomonts or encysted tomonts to 2.50 mg/L of P. corylifolia methanol extract, the theronts emerged from encysted tomonts led to more infection level than the ones in the other groups. The results suggested that whether the protomonts finish encystment is crucial to the survival, reproduction, and theronts infectivity. In addition, our results showed that long duration (24 h) and high concentration (5.00 mg/L) significantly reduced the survival and reproduction of I. multifiliis tomont exited from the fish after in-bath treatment, and it is indicated that P. corylifolia methanol extract had a potential detrimental effect on I. multifiliis trophont in situ. PMID:23559379

  17. Antifungal activity of extracts of some plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Johann, Susana; Cisalpino, Patricia Silva; Watanabe, Gisele Almeida; Cota, Betania Barros; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Resende, Maria Aparecida

    2010-04-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Almeida (Onygenales) that requires 1-2 years of treatment. In the absence of drug therapy, the disease is usually fatal, highlighting the need for the identification of safer, novel, and more effective antifungal compounds. With this need in mind, several plants employed in Brazilian traditional medicine were assayed on P. brasiliensis and murine macrophages. Extracts were prepared from 10 plant species: Inga spp. Mill. (Leguminosae), Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae), Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntze (Amaranthaceae), Piper regnellii CDC. (Piperaceae), P. abutiloides Kunth (Piperaceae), Herissantia crispa L. Briz. (Malvaceae), Rubus urticaefolius Poir (Rosaceae), Rumex acetosa L. (Polygonaceae), and Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. (Asteraceae). Hexane fractions from hydroalcoholic extracts of Piper regnellii and Baccharis dracunculifolia were the most active against the fungus, displaying minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 7.8 microg/mL and 7.8-30 mug/mL, respectively. Additionally, neither of the extracts exhibited any apparent cytotoxic effects on murine macrophages at 20 microg/mL. Analyses of these fractions using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that the major components of B. dracunculifolia were ethyl hydrocinnamate (14.35%) and spathulenol (16.02%), while the major components of the hexane fraction of Piper regnellii were 1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl) benzene (21.94%) and apiol (21.29%). The activities of these fractions against P. brasiliensis without evidence of cytotoxicity to macrophages justify their investigation as a potential source of new chemical agents for the treatment of PCM. PMID:20645716

  18. Laboratory and field evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, chemical extracts of Jatropha curcas, Hyptis suaveolens, Abutilon indicum, and Leucas aspera were tested for toxicity to larvae of the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Respective median lethal concentrations (LC50) for hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts...

  19. Antibacterial and wound healing properties of methanolic extracts of some Nigerian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Chah, K F; Eze, C A; Emuelosi, C E; Esimone, C O

    2006-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate methanolic extracts of Ageratum conyzoides, Anthocleista djalonensis, Napoleona imperialis, Ocimum gratissimum, and Psidium guajava for antibacterial and wound healing properties. Antibacterial properties of the extracts were studied against eleven wound isolates (Staphylococcus aureus (four strains), E. coli (two strains), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (one strain), Proteus spp. (three strains), and Shigella spp. (one strain)) using the well diffusion method. Wound healing properties of Ageratum conyzoides, Anthocleista djalonensis, Napoleonaea imperialis, and Ocimum gratissimum were determined using the excision wound model. Extract of Napoleona imperialis inhibited growth of all the test bacterial strains while Psidium guajava and Anthocleista djalonensis extracts prevented growth of 81.8 and 72.7% of the test organisms, respectively. Ageratum conyzoides and Ocimum gratissimum extracts did not inhibit growth of any of the test organisms. More than 90% wound healing was recorded in the extract and cicatrin powder treated groups by 14 days post surgery, where as 72% healing was observed in the distilled water-treated group. The percentage healing in the distilled water-treated group was significantly different (P<0.001) from those of extract and antibiotic-treated groups. PMID:16226414

  20. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and organic extracts of a Saudi medicinal plant: Rumex nervosus

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asmari, Abdul Rahman K.; Siddiqui, Yunus M.; Athar, Md. Tanwir; Al-Buraidi, Ahmed; Al-Eid, A. S.; Horaib, Ghalib B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The antimicrobial effect of aerial part of Rumex nervosus obtained from the Southern region of Saudi Arabia was evaluated on bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant S. aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, and fungal strain Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: The solvents used for the extraction were aqueous, hexane, and methanol. The in vitro antimicrobial activity was performed by agar diffusion and disk diffusion methods and the confirmation of this activity was done by the enumeration of colony forming units (CFU). Results: The aqueous extract showed the growth inhibitory effect on Gram-positive bacteria while the Gram-negative P. aeruginosa was the most sensitive microorganism as determined by the agar diffusion technique. Surprisingly, the extract showed little antibacterial activity on other Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli) by this technique. Ethanolic extract was also found to be inhibitory to the growth of microorganisms. Hexane extract was relatively low in antimicrobial activity on Gram-negative E. coli and P. aeruginosa, while both the organic extracts were inhibitory to the growth of the fungus, C. albicans. Hexane gave no conclusive results with agar or disk diffusion methods, but showed the microbial growth inhibition in CFU enumeration. The antibacterial activity of active extracts was compared with vancomycin while antifungal activity of was compared with amphotericin B. Conclusion: The results obtained in the present study suggest that R. nervosus showed a marked antimicrobial activity with the test organisms. PMID:26681888

  1. Maintaining Medicinal Plant Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For all plant genetic resources collections, including medicinal plant germplasm, maintaining the genetic integrity of material held ex situ is of major importance. This holds true for all intended end uses of the material whether it is as a source for crop improvement, medical research, as voucher...

  2. Cytotoxic effect of Argentine medicinal plant extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Ruffa, M J; Ferraro, G; Wagner, M L; Calcagno, M L; Campos, R H; Cavallaro, L

    2002-03-01

    Methanolic extracts from Achyrocline satureioides (Dc.) Lam, Aristolochia macroura Gomez, Lithraea molleoides (Vell.) Engl., Schinus molle L., unlike those from Celtis spinosa Spreng, Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Petiveria alliacea L., and Plantago major L. showed cytotoxic activity against a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, Hep G2. Schinus molle L. was the most active (IC50=50+/-7 microg/ml). These results call for further studies of these extracts. PMID:11849838

  3. Invitro antibacterial activity of medicinal plant extracts against Escherichia coli strains from human clinical specimens and interactions with antimicrobial drugs.

    PubMed

    Ushimaru, P I; Barbosa, L N; Fernandes, A A H; Di Stasi, L C; Fernandes, A

    2012-01-01

    The biological properties of medicinal plants have been documented worldwide for many centuries. We aimed to evaluate interactions between crude extracts from Psidium guajava, Zingiber officinale, Cymbopogon citratus, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Mikania glomerata and Allium sativum samples and antimicrobial drugs against Escherichia coli strains. The susceptibility test performed was disc diffusion, and crude extracts were diluted (%v/v) into Mller-Hinton agar (MHA) at one quarter of the minimal inhibitory concentration for 90% (MIC(90%)) of E. coli strains found previously. Synergistic interactions were observed between C. citratus and polymyxin, and A. sativum extracts and gentamicin. The crude A. sativum extract was the only one that did not show any antagonism with the antimicrobial drugs. The results thus showed the potential use of these medicinal plants against E. coli strains, although antagonism with antimicrobial drugs is a negative aspect in the combined therapy of infectious diseases caused by E. coli. PMID:22011190

  4. Study of polyethylene glycol as a green solvent in the microwave-assisted extraction of flavone and coumarin compounds from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ting; Xiao, Xiaohua; Li, Gongke; Cai, Zong-wei

    2011-06-10

    In this paper, the application of polyethylene glycol (PEG) aqueous solution as a green solvent in microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was firstly developed for the extraction of flavone and coumarin compounds from medicinal plants. The PEG solutions were optimized by a mono-factor test, and the other conditions of MAE including the size of sample, liquid/solid ratio, extraction temperature and extraction time were optimized by means of an orthogonal design L(9) (3(4)). Subsequently, PEG-MAE, organic solvent-MAE, and conventional heating reflux extraction (HRE) were evaluated with nevadensin extraction from Lysionotus pauciflorus, aesculin and aesculetin extraction from Cortex fraxini. Furthermore, the mechanism of PEG-MAE was investigated, including microwave-absorptive property and viscosity of PEG solutions, the kinetic mechanism of PEG-MAE and different microstructures of those samples before and after extraction. Under optimized conditions, the extraction yields of nevadensin from L. pauciflorus, aesculin and aesculetin from C. fraxini were 98.7%, 97.7% and 95.9% in a one-step extraction, respectively. The recoveries of nevadensin, aesculin and aesculetin were in the range of 92.0-103% with relative standard derivation lower than 3.6% by the proposed procedure. Compared with organic solvent-MAE and conventional extraction procedures, the proposed methods were effective and alternative for the extraction of flavone and coumarin compounds from medicinal plants. On the basis of the results, PEG solution as a green solvent in the MAE of active compounds from medicinal plants showed a great promising prospect. PMID:21531418

  5. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Extracts from Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Eremomastax speciosa, Carica papaya and Polyscias fulva Medicinal Plants Collected in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Sagnia, Bertrand; Fedeli, Donatella; Casetti, Rita; Montesano, Carla; Falcioni, Giancarlo; Colizzi, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Background The vast majority of the population around the world has always used medicinal plants as first source of health care to fight infectious and non infectious diseases. Most of these medicinal plants may have scientific evidence to be considered in general practice. Objective The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of leaves of Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa and the stem bark of Polyscias fulva, collected in Cameroon. Methods Chemiluminescence was used to analyze the antioxidant activities of plant extracts against hydrogen peroxide or superoxide anion. Comet assays were used to analyze the protection against antioxidant-induced DNA damage induced in white blood cells after treating with hydrogen peroxide. Flow cytometry was used to measure γδ T cells proliferation and anti-inflammatory activity of γδ T cells and of immature dendritic cells (imDC) in the presence of different concentrations of plant extracts. Results Ethanol extracts showed strong antioxidant properties against both hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. Cassia alata showed the highest antioxidant activity. The effect of plant extracts on γδ T cells and imDC was evidenced by the dose dependent reduction in TNF-α production in the presence of Cassia alata, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa Eleusine indica, and Polyscias fulva. γδ T cells proliferation was affected to the greatest extent by Polyscias fulva. Conclusion These results clearly show the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activities of plant extracts collected in Cameroon. These properties of leaves and stem bark extracts may contribute to the value for these plants in traditional medicine and in general medical practice. PMID:25090613

  6. Antiproliferative effect of alcoholic extracts of some Gabonese medicinal plants on human colonic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Line-Edwige, Mengome; Raymond, Feuya tchouya Guy; Franois, Eba; Edouard, Nsi-Emvo

    2009-01-01

    Extracts from Piptadeniastrum africanum Brenan (Mimosaceae), Petersianthus macrocarpus (Breauv) L. (Lecydaceae), Cissus debilis Planch (Vitaceae) and Dieffenbachia seguine Jacq. (Araceae) were tested in vitro for their antiproliferative activity on human colon cancer cell line (CaCo-2). The highest antiproliferative activities were obtained with the alcoholic extracts of the roots of Piptadeniastrum africanum (G-PAR), the leaves of Petersianthus macrocarpus (G-PMF) and the stem of Cissus debilis (G-CDL), with 50% inhibition concentrations (IC(50)) of 15 microg/ml, 17 microg/ml and 25 microg/ml respectively. Only one extract (leaves of Dieffenbachia seguine (G-DSF)) exhibited weak antiproliferative activity with 50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)) higher than 50 microg/ml. PMID:20209001

  7. In Vitro Screening for Anti-Cholinesterase and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants Used for Cognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Maya; Subramanian, Sarada

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is still considered as the main therapeutic strategy against Alzheimers disease (AD). Many plant derived phytochemicals have shown AChE inhibitory activity in addition to the currently approved drugs for AD. In the present study, methanolic extracts of 20 plants used in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for improving cognitive function were screened for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by Ellmans microplate colorimetric method. Out of 20 extracts, Emblica officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi, Nelumbo nucifera, Punica granatum and Raulfia Serpentina showed IC50 values <100 g/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Antioxidant activities of these plants were assessed by DPPH scavenging assay. Among the extracts used, antioxidant activity was highest for Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis with IC50 values <10 g/ml. Considering the complex multifactorial etiology of AD, these plant extracts will be safer and better candidates for the future disease modifying therapies against this devastating disease. PMID:24466247

  8. In vitro screening for anti-cholinesterase and antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of ayurvedic medicinal plants used for cognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Maya; Subramanian, Sarada

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is still considered as the main therapeutic strategy against Alzheimer's disease (AD). Many plant derived phytochemicals have shown AChE inhibitory activity in addition to the currently approved drugs for AD. In the present study, methanolic extracts of 20 plants used in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for improving cognitive function were screened for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by Ellman's microplate colorimetric method. Out of 20 extracts, Emblica officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi, Nelumbo nucifera, Punica granatum and Raulfia Serpentina showed IC50 values <100 µg/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Antioxidant activities of these plants were assessed by DPPH scavenging assay. Among the extracts used, antioxidant activity was highest for Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis with IC50 values <10 µg/ml. Considering the complex multifactorial etiology of AD, these plant extracts will be safer and better candidates for the future disease modifying therapies against this devastating disease. PMID:24466247

  9. Aqueous extract of some indigenous medicinal plants inhibits glycation at multiple stages and protects erythrocytes from oxidative damage-an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Tupe, Rashmi S; Sankhe, Neena M; Shaikh, Shamim A; Phatak, Devyani V; Parikh, Juhi U; Khaire, Amrita A; Kemse, Nisha G

    2015-04-01

    Azadirachta indica, Emblica officinalis, Syzygium cumini and Terminalia bellirica are common in Indian system of traditional medicine for the prevention of diabetes and its complications. The aim of the present study was to comprehensively and comparatively investigate the antiglycation potential of these plant extracts at multiple stages and their possible protective effect against glycated albumin mediated toxicity to erythrocytes. Antiglycation activities of these plant extracts was measured by co-incubation of plant extract with bovine serum albumin-fructose glycation model. The multistage glycation markers- fructosamines (early stage), protein carbonyls (intermediate stage) and AGEs (late stage) are investigated along with measurement of thiols and β aggregation of albumin using amyloid-specific dyes-Congo red and Th T. Protection of erythrocytes from glycated albumin induced toxicity by these plant extracts was assessed by measuring erythrocytes hemolysis, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and intracellular antioxidant capacity. Total phenolics, reducing power and antioxidant activities of the plant extracts were also measured. In vitro glycation assays showed that plant extracts exerted site specific inhibitory effects at multiple stages, with T. bellirica showing maximum attenuation. In erythrocytes, along with the retardation of glycated albumin induced hemolysis and lipid-peroxidation, T. bellirica considerably maintained cellular antioxidant potential. Significant positive correlations were observed between erythrocyte protection parameters with total phenolics. These plant extracts especially T. bellirica prevents glycation induced albumin modifications and subsequent toxicity to erythrocytes which might offer additional protection against diabetic vascular complications. PMID:25829572

  10. In vitro antifugal activity of medicinal plant extract against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 the causal agent of tomato wilt.

    PubMed

    Isaac, G S; Abu-Tahon, M A

    2014-03-01

    Medicinal plant extracts of five plants; Adhatoda vasica, Eucalyptus globulus, Lantana camara, Nerium oleander and Ocimum basilicum collected from Cairo, Egypt were evaluated against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 in vitro conditions using water and certain organic solvents. The results revealed that cold distilled water extracts of O. basilicum and E. globulus were the most effective ones for inhibiting the growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Butanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tested plants inhibited the pathogen growth to a higher extent than water extracts. Butanolic extract of O. basilicum completely inhibited the growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici at concentrations 1.5 and 2.0% (v/v). Butanolic extracts (2.0%) of tested plants had a strong inhibitory effect on hydrolytic enzymes; β-glucosidase, pectin lyase and protease of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. This study has confirmed that the application of plant extracts, especially from O. basilicum for controlling F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is environmentally safe, cost effective and does not disturb ecological balance. Investigations are in progress to test the efficacy of O. basilicum extract under in vivo conditions. PMID:24561899

  11. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)

  12. Medicinal plants in therapy*

    PubMed Central

    Farnsworth, Norman R.; Akerele, Olayiwola; Bingel, Audrey S.; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Guo, Zhengang

    1985-01-01

    One of the prerequisites for the success of primary health care is the availability and use of suitable drugs. Plants have always been a common source of medicaments, either in the form of traditional preparations or as pure active principles. It is thus reasonable for decision-makers to identify locally available plants or plant extracts that could usefully be added to the national list of drugs, or that could even replace some pharmaceutical preparations that need to be purchased and imported. This update article presents a list of plant-derived drugs, with the names of the plant sources, and their actions or uses in therapy. PMID:3879679

  13. Antidiabetic agents from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Jung, Mankil; Park, Moonsoo; Lee, Hyun Chul; Kang, Yoon-Ho; Kang, Eun Seok; Kim, Sang Ki

    2006-01-01

    Currently available therapeutic options for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, such as dietary modification, oral hypoglycemics, and insulin, have limitations of their own. Many natural products and herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of diabetes. The present paper reviews medicinal plants that have shown experimental or clinical antidiabetic activity and that have been used in traditional systems of medicine; the review also covers natural products (active natural components and crude extracts) isolated from the medicinal plants and reported during 2001 to 2005. Many kinds of natural products, such as terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, and some others, have shown antidiabetic potential. Particularly, schulzeines A, B, and C, radicamines A and B, 2,5-imino-1,2,5-trideoxy-L-glucitol, beta-homofuconojirimycin, myrciacitrin IV, dehydrotrametenolic acid, corosolic acid (Glucosol), 4-(alpha-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid, and 1,2,3,4,6-pentagalloylglucose have shown significant antidiabetic activities. Among active medicinal herbs, Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae), Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. (Leguminoceae), and Trigonella foenum graecum L. (Leguminosae) have been reported as beneficial for treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:16719780

  14. Cytotoxic Activity of Crude Extracts as well as of Pure Components from Jatropha Species, Plants Used Extensively in African Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Aiyelaagbe, Olapeju O.; Hamid, Amao A.; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Schröder, Heinz C.; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2011-01-01

    Extracts from Jatropha curcas, a plant used in African traditional medicine for various diseases, were tested for cytotoxic activity. The root extracts strongly reduced cell growth of tumor cells in vitro, a result consistent with the knowledge of the application of these plant extracts in traditional medicine, especially to cure/ameliorate cancer. A selection of pure diterpenoids existing in extracts from Jatropha species and isolated from J. curcas, for example, curcusone C, curcusone D, multidione, 15-epi-4Z-jatrogrossidentadion, 4Z-jatrogrossidentadion, 4E-jatrogrossidentadion, 2-hydroxyisojatrogrossidion, and 2-epi-hydroxyisojatrogrossidion, were likewise tested, and they also showed strong cytotoxic activity. It turned out that these extracts are highly active against L5178y mouse lymphoma cells and HeLa human cervix carcinoma cells, while they cause none or only very low activity against neuronal cell, for example, PC12. These data underscore that extracts from J. curcas or pure secondary metabolites from the plant are promising candidates to be anticancer drug, combined with low neuroactive effects. PMID:21754941

  15. In vitro antiplasmodial effect of ethanolic extracts of coastal medicinal plants along Palk Strait against Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Inbaneson, Samuel Jacob; Ravikumar, Sundaram; Suganthi, Palavesam

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the possible antiplasmodial compounds from Achyranthes aspera (A. aspera), Acalypha indica (A. indica), Jatropha glandulifera (J. glandulifera) and Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus). Methods The A. aspera, A. indica, J. glandulifera and P. amarus were collected along Palk Strait and the extraction was carried out in ethanol. The filter sterilized extracts (100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125 g/mL) of leaf, stem, root and flower extracts of A. aspera, A. indica, J. glandulifera and P. amarus were tested for antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. The potential extracts were also tested for their phytochemical constituents. Results Of the selected plants species parts, the stem extract of A. indica showed excellent antiplasmodial activity (IC50= 43.81g/mL) followed by stem extract of J. glandulifera (IC50= 49.14g/mL). The stem extract of A. aspera, leaf and root extracts of A. indica, leaf, root and seed extracts of J. glandulifera and leaf and stem extracts of P. amarus showed IC50 values between 50 and 100 g/mL. Statistical analysis revealed that, significant antiplasmodial activity (P<0.01) was observed between the concentrations and time of exposure. The chemical injury to erythrocytes was also carried out and it showed that there were no morphological changes in erythrocytes by the ethanolic extract of all the tested plant extracts. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity might be due to the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, triterpenoids, proteins, and tannins in the ethanolic extracts of tested plants. Conclusions The ethanolic stem extracts of P. amarus and J. glandulifera possess lead compounds for the development of antiplasmodial drugs. PMID:23569931

  16. Antimicrobial Activities of a Plethora of Medicinal Plant Extracts and Hydrolates against Human Pathogens and Their Potential to Reverse Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Njimoh, Dieudonné Lemuh; Assob, Jules Clement N.; Mokake, Seraphine Ebenye; Nyhalah, Dinga Jerome; Yinda, Claude Kwe; Sandjon, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    Microbial infections till date remain a scourge of humanity due to lack of vaccine against some infections, emergence of drug resistant phenotypes, and the resurgence of infections amongst others. Continuous quest for novel therapeutic approaches remains imperative. Here we (i) assessed the effects of extracts/hydrolates of some medicinal plants on pathogenic microorganisms and (ii) evaluated the inhibitory potential of the most active ones in combination with antibiotics. Extract E03 had the highest DZI (25 mm). Extracts E05 and E06 were active against all microorganisms tested. The MICs and MBCs of the methanol extracts ranged from 16.667 × 103 μg/mL to 2 μg/mL and hydrolates from 0.028 to 333333 ppm. Extract E30 had the highest activity especially against S. saprophyticus (MIC of 6 ppm) and E. coli (MIC of 17 ppm). Combination with conventional antibiotics was shown to overcome resistance especially with E30. Analyses of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenes, steroids, phenols, and saponins. These results justify the use of these plants in traditional medicine and the practice of supplementing decoctions/concoctions with conventional antibiotics. Nauclea pobeguinii (E30), the most active and synergistic of all these extracts, and some hydrolates with antimicrobial activity need further exploration for the development of novel antimicrobials. PMID:26180528

  17. Evaluation of the inhibitory activities of the extracts of Indonesian traditional medicinal plants against Plasmodium falciparum and Babesia gibsoni.

    PubMed

    Murnigsih, Tri; Subeki; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Kosaku; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Yamato, Osamu; Maede, Yoshimitsu; Katakura, Ken; Suzuki, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Sumiko; Chairul; Yoshihara, Teruhiko

    2005-08-01

    Twenty-four kinds of water extracts derived from 22 plants that are traditionally used for the treatment of malaria on Java Island, Indonesia, were screened for their antibabesial and antimalarial activities. Among the extracts, 8 extracts displayed strong antimalarial activity, with an inhibition range from 89.6 to 100%, and 15 showed strong antibabesial activity, with an inhibition range from 84.2 to 98.1%. The extracts of Achillea millefolium, Baeckea frutenscens, Brucea javanica, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Strychnos lucida and Swietenia macrophylla showed both strong antibabesial and antimalarial activities. The antimalarial activities paralleled the antibabesial activities, but the converse was not true. PMID:16141673

  18. Metabolic Variations, Antioxidant Potential, and Antiviral Activity of Different Extracts of Eugenia singampattiana (an Endangered Medicinal Plant Used by Kani Tribals, Tamil Nadu, India) Leaf

    PubMed Central

    John, K. M. Maria; Jeeva, Subbiah; Suresh, Murugesan; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Eugenia singampattiana is an endangered medicinal plant used by the Kani tribals of South India. The plant had been studied for its antioxidant, antitumor, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic activity. But its primary and secondary metabolites profile and its antiviral properties were unknown, and so this study sought to identify this aspect in Eugenia singampattiana plant through different extraction methods along with their activities against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The GC-MS analysis revealed that 11 primary metabolites showed significant variations among the extracts. Except for fructose all other metabolites were high with water extract. Among 12 secondary metabolites showing variations, the levels of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were high with methanol extract. Since the flavonoid content of methanol extracts was high, the antioxidant potential, such as ABTS, and phosphomolybdenum activity increased. The plants antiviral activity against PRRSV was for the first time confirmed and the results revealed that methanol 25?g and 75 to 100?g in case of water extracts revealed antiviral activity. PMID:25133179

  19. Metabolic variations, antioxidant potential, and antiviral activity of different extracts of Eugenia singampattiana (an endangered medicinal plant used by Kani tribals, Tamil Nadu, India) leaf.

    PubMed

    John, K M Maria; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Jeeva, Subbiah; Suresh, Murugesan; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Eugenia singampattiana is an endangered medicinal plant used by the Kani tribals of South India. The plant had been studied for its antioxidant, antitumor, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic activity. But its primary and secondary metabolites profile and its antiviral properties were unknown, and so this study sought to identify this aspect in Eugenia singampattiana plant through different extraction methods along with their activities against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The GC-MS analysis revealed that 11 primary metabolites showed significant variations among the extracts. Except for fructose all other metabolites were high with water extract. Among 12 secondary metabolites showing variations, the levels of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were high with methanol extract. Since the flavonoid content of methanol extracts was high, the antioxidant potential, such as ABTS, and phosphomolybdenum activity increased. The plants antiviral activity against PRRSV was for the first time confirmed and the results revealed that methanol 25?g and 75 to 100?g in case of water extracts revealed antiviral activity. PMID:25133179

  20. Efficacy and toxicity of thirteen plant leaf acetone extracts used in ethnoveterinary medicine in South Africa on egg hatching and larval development of Haemonchus contortus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Helminthiasis is a major limitation to the livestock industry in Africa. Haemonchus contortus is the singular most important helminth responsible for major economic losses in small ruminants. The high cost of anthelmintics to small farmers, resistance to available anthelmintics and residue problems in meat and milk consumed by humans further complicates matters. The use of plants and plant extracts as a possible source of new anthelmintics has received more interest in the last decade. Our aim was not to confirm the traditional use, but rather to determine activity of extracts. Based on our past experience acetone was used as extractant. Because it is cheaper and more reproducible to evaluate the activity of plant extracts, than doing animal studies, the activity of acetone leaf extracts of thirteen plant species used traditionally in ethnoveterinary medicine in South Africa were determined using the egg hatch assay and the larval development test. Cytotoxicity of these extracts was also evaluated using the MTT cellular assay. Results Extracts of three plant species i.e. Heteromorpha trifoliata, Maesa lanceolata and Leucosidea sericea had EC50 values of 0.62mg/ml, 0.72mg/ml and 1.08mg/ml respectively for the egg hatch assay. Clausena anisata; (1.08mg/ml) and Clerodendrum glabrum; (1.48mg/ml) extracts were also active. In the larval development assay the H. trifoliata extract was the most effective with an EC50 of 0.64mg/ml followed by L. sericea (1.27mg/ml). The activities in the larval development test were generally lower in most plant species than the egg hatch assay. Based on the cytotoxicity results C. anisata was the least toxic with an LC50 of 0.17mg/ml, while Cyathea dregei was the most toxic plant with an LC50 of 0.003mg/ml. The C. anisata extract had the best selectivity index with a value of 0.10 and 0.08 for the two assays, followed by H. trifoliata and L. sericea with values of 0.07, 0.07 and 0.05, 0.04. The C. dregei extract had the worst selectivity index with a value of 0.00019 for both assays. Conclusion The result of this study indicates which species should be further investigated in depth for isolation of compounds. PMID:23442744

  1. Therapeutic potential of some plant extracts used in Turkish traditional medicine on streptozocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus in rats.

    PubMed

    Ozkol, Halil; Tuluce, Yasin; Dilsiz, Nihat; Koyuncu, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to impair many physiological functions. Some reports claim that medicinal plants can reduce these alterations caused by DM. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of aqueous-methanol extracts of Urtica dioica, Thymus vulgaris (TV), Myrtus communis (MC), Scolymus hispanicus (SH) and Cinnamomun zeylanicum (CZ) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 DM in rats. Diabetes was induced via a single i.p. injection of STZ (65 mg/kg body weight). After 1 week to allow for development of diabetes, each plant extract was administered to diabetic rats separately at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight daily for 28 days. The results showed that only SH extract significantly (P < 0.05) amended fasting blood glucose level. The lipid profile was ameliorated especially by supplementations of TV, MC and CZ extracts. Almost all plant extract treatments markedly (P < 0.05) increased reduced glutathione content and decreased lipid peroxidation levels of erythrocyte, plasma, retina and lens tissues. They also significantly (P < 0.05) amended erythrocyte catalase activity, levels of marker serum enzymes (except amylase), urea and blood urea nitrogen when compared to diabetic rats treated with nothing. Furthermore, none of the plant extracts counteracted body weight loss of diabetic rats. Our data revealed that the aforementioned plant extracts have remarkable potential to counteract DM-caused alterations, probably through their antioxidant and free radical-defusing effects. PMID:23052826

  2. Antioxidant activity, phenolic content, and peroxide value of essential oil and extracts of some medicinal and aromatic plants used as condiments and herbal teas in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Erel, Ozcan; Herken, Emine Etz

    2009-02-01

    The antioxidant activity, total peroxide values, and total phenol contents of several medicinal and aromatic plant essential oil and extracts from Turkey were examined. Total phenolic contents were determined using a spectrophotometric technique and calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Total antioxidant activity of essential oil and extracts varied from 0.6853 to 1.3113 and 0.3189 to 0.6119 micromol of Trolox equivalents/g, respectively. The total phenolic content of essential oil ranged from 0.0871 to 0.5919 mg of gallic acid/g dry weight. However, the total phenolic contents of extracts were found to be higher compared with those of essential oils. The amount of total peroxide values of oils varied from 7.31 (pickling herb) to 58.23 (bitter fennel flower) mumol of H(2)O(2)/g. As a result, it is shown that medicinal plant derivatives such as extract and essential oils can be useful as a potential source of total phenol, peroxide, and antioxidant capacity for protection of processed foods. PMID:19298216

  3. Evaluating Medicinal Plants for Anticancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Solowey, Elisha; Lichtenstein, Michal; Sallon, Sarah; Paavilainen, Helena; Solowey, Elaine; Lorberboum-Galski, Haya

    2014-01-01

    Plants have been used for medical purposes since the beginning of human history and are the basis of modern medicine. Most chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer treatment are molecules identified and isolated from plants or their synthetic derivatives. Our hypothesis was that whole plant extracts selected according to ethnobotanical sources of historical use might contain multiple molecules with antitumor activities that could be very effective in killing human cancer cells. This study examined the effects of three whole plant extracts (ethanol extraction) on human tumor cells. The extracts were from Urtica membranacea (Urticaceae), Artemesia monosperma (Asteraceae), and Origanum dayi post (Labiatae). All three plant extracts exhibited dose- and time-dependent killing capabilities in various human derived tumor cell lines and primary cultures established from patients' biopsies. The killing activity was specific toward tumor cells, as the plant extracts had no effect on primary cultures of healthy human cells. Cell death caused by the whole plant extracts is via apoptosis. Plant extract 5 (Urtica membranacea) showed particularly strong anticancer capabilities since it inhibited actual tumor progression in a breast adenocarcinoma mouse model. Our results suggest that whole plant extracts are promising anticancer reagents. PMID:25478599

  4. Evaluating medicinal plants for anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Solowey, Elisha; Lichtenstein, Michal; Sallon, Sarah; Paavilainen, Helena; Solowey, Elaine; Lorberboum-Galski, Haya

    2014-01-01

    Plants have been used for medical purposes since the beginning of human history and are the basis of modern medicine. Most chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer treatment are molecules identified and isolated from plants or their synthetic derivatives. Our hypothesis was that whole plant extracts selected according to ethnobotanical sources of historical use might contain multiple molecules with antitumor activities that could be very effective in killing human cancer cells. This study examined the effects of three whole plant extracts (ethanol extraction) on human tumor cells. The extracts were from Urtica membranacea (Urticaceae), Artemesia monosperma (Asteraceae), and Origanum dayi post (Labiatae). All three plant extracts exhibited dose- and time-dependent killing capabilities in various human derived tumor cell lines and primary cultures established from patients' biopsies. The killing activity was specific toward tumor cells, as the plant extracts had no effect on primary cultures of healthy human cells. Cell death caused by the whole plant extracts is via apoptosis. Plant extract 5 (Urtica membranacea) showed particularly strong anticancer capabilities since it inhibited actual tumor progression in a breast adenocarcinoma mouse model. Our results suggest that whole plant extracts are promising anticancer reagents. PMID:25478599

  5. Extraction of an hyperglycaemic principle from the annatto (Bixa orellana), a medicinal plant in the West Indies.

    PubMed

    Morrison, E Y; Thompson, H; Pascoe, K; West, M; Fletcher, C

    1991-01-01

    The red powdery extract from the seeds of the annatto, Bixa orellana, is a well known food colouring. In an oil suspension it is used as a folk remedy (bush tea) in the West Indies, for diabetes mellitus. Detailed investigations on this extract, yielded a methyl ester, trans-bixin, molecular weight 394 and molecular formula C24H30O4. This purified substance was demonstrated, in anaesthetised mongrel dogs, to cause hyperglycaemia. Concomitant electron microscopy of tissue biopsies, revealed damage to mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum mainly in liver and pancreas. When dogs were fed on a diet fortified with riboflavin, there was neither demonstrable tissue damage nor associated hyperglycaemia. These findings point to: (i) the potential dangers of informal medications such as 'bush teas'; (ii) the possible role of plant extracts/food additives in the development of diabetes mellitus especially in the undernourished state. PMID:1750113

  6. Anti-proliferative activity of essential oil extracted from Thai medicinal plants on KB and P388 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Manosroi, Jiradej; Dhumtanom, Pongsathorn; Manosroi, Aranya

    2006-04-01

    Anti-proliferative activity of essential oil from 17 Thai medicinal plants on human mouth epidermal carcinoma (KB) and murine leukemia (P388) cell lines using MTT assay were investigated. An amount of 1 x 10(4)cells/well of KB cell line and 1 x 10(5) cells/well of P388 cell line were treated with the oil samples at different concentrations ranging from 0.019 to 4.962 mg/ml. In KB cell line, Guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf oil showed the highest anti-proliferative activity with the IC(50) value of 0.0379 mg/ml (4.37 times more potent than vincristine) whereas Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) oil gave the highest anti-proliferative activity with the IC(50) value of 0.0362 mg/ml (12.7 times less potent than 5-FU) in P388 cell line. The results demonstrated the potential of essential oil from Thai medicinal plants for cancer treatment. PMID:15979235

  7. In Vitro Assessment of Extracts of the Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes) Against Different Plant Pathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Baig, Mirza Nabeel; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Ali, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Five isolates of the lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (GL-1, GL-2, GL-3, GL-4, GL-5) were collected from different locations within and surrounding Lahore, Pakistan, to study the antifungal potential of their bioactive compounds. After studying morphology, different concentrations of the extracts were prepared in methanol and water using a Soxhlet extractor. Different cultures of fungal pathogens were acquired from the First Fungal Culture Bank of Pakistan, University of the Punjab, Lahore. The antimicrobial potential of 5 G. lucidum samples against 5 fungal pathogens (Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillium sp., and Alternaria alternata) was observed. The lowest biomass reduction (7%) was observed in 1% and 2% concentrations of a methanolic extract and 6% in the case of a water extract. Major inhibition was observed using higher concentrations of the methanolic extract (3% and 4%). These extracts significantly suppressed fungal biomass up to 38% and 56% in A. niger, 47% in A. flavus, 58% in ,i>Penicillium sp., 46% in A. alternaria, and 45% in F. oxysporum compared with the control. It was concluded from these studies that methanolic extracts of G. lucidum showed better activity against all plant fungal pathogens when compared with the water extracts. PMID:25954966

  8. Inhibition of imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like dermatitis in mice by herbal extracts from some Indian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Arora, Neha; Shah, Kavita; Pandey-Rai, Shashi

    2016-03-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune human skin disorder that is characterized by excessive proliferation of keratinocytes, scaly plaques, severe inflammation and erythema. The pathophysiology of psoriasis involves interplay between epidermal keratinocytes, T lymphocytes, leukocytes and vascular endothelium. Increased leukocyte recruitment and elevated levels of cytokines, growth factors and genetic factors like interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22, IL-23, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT-3), 15-lipoxygenase (LOX)-2, coiled-coil alpha-helical rod protein 1 (CCHCR1), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) are the most critical factors governing the exacerbation of psoriasis. In the present study, an attempt was made to elucidate the preventive role of herbal extracts of four dermo-protective Ayurvedic plants, Tinospora cordifolia (TC), Curcuma longa (CL), Celastrus paniculatus (CP) and Aloe vera (AV), against psoriasis-like dermatitis. Parkes (P) strain mice were initially induced with psoriasis-like dermatitis using topical application of imiquimod (IMQ, 5 %), followed by subsequent treatment with the herbal extracts to examine their curative effect on the psoriasis-like dermatitis-induced mice. The extracts were orally/topically administered to mice according to their ED/LD50 doses. Phenotypical observations, histological examinations, and semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analyses of the skin and blood samples of the control, IMQ-treated and herbal extract-treated psoriasis-like dermatitis-induced mice lead to the conclusion that the combination extract from all the plants was instrumental in downregulating the overexpressed cytokines, which was followed by the CL extract. Moreover, lesser yet positive response was evident from CP and TC extracts. The results suggest that these plants can prove to have tremendous preventive potential against the disease and can open the way to new therapeutic strategies for psoriasis treatment. PMID:26016607

  9. Analgesic activity of some Indian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Malairajan, P; Geetha Gopalakrishnan; Narasimhan, S; Jessi Kala Veni, K

    2006-07-19

    In the present study of some of the Indian medicinal plants Sida acuta whole plant (Malvaeae), Stylosanthes fruticosa (whole plant) (Papilionaceae), Toona ciliata (heart wood) (Meliaceao), Bougainvilla spectabilis (leaves) (Nyctaginaceae), Ficus glomerata (bark, leaves) (Moraceae) and Polyalthia longifolia (leaves) (Annonaceae). The different plants were used in folklore medicine in the treatment of toothache and strengthening of gums, anthelmintic, kidney diseases, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antihyperglycaemic, antihyperglycaemic and anticancer. The extract was prepared using powdered material with ethanol, concentrated under vacuo and were evaluated for analgesic activity by analgesiometer at three dose level (100, 300 and 500mg/kg). Analgesic activity was significant with Toona ciliata (heart wood) ethanolic extract when compared with other extracts and its activity was confirmed by tail immersion method. PMID:16647234

  10. Invitro Anti-mycotic Activity of Hydro Alcoholic Extracts of Some Indian Medicinal Plants against Fluconazole Resistant Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Varadarajan, Saranya; Malaisamy, Malaiyandi; Duraipandian, Chamundeeswari

    2015-01-01

    Background Candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic infections caused by Candida albicans. Fluconazole is the drug of choice for prevention and management of this condition. However, the emergence of fluconazole resistant candidal strains has become a major concern. Many herbs like fenugreek, cinnamon, papaya, oregano, garlic are rich in phytochemical constituents known to express antimycotic activity. With the available information, the present research study was carried out to assess the invitro anti-mycotic activity of hydro alcoholic extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds, Cinnamomum verum bark and Carica papaya leaves and seeds against fluconazole resistant Candida albicans Materials and Methods Hydro alcoholic extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum (seeds), Cinnamomum verum (bark), Carica papaya CO.2 strain (male and female leaves) and Carica papaya CO.2 strain (seeds) were prepared by maceration. The anti-mycotic activity of the prepared extracts against Candida albicans was assessed by agar well diffusion method. Three independent experiments were performed in triplicates and the mean and standard deviation were calculated. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined. Results The results of the present study revealed that all the extracts exhibited anti-mycotic activity in a dose dependent manner and minimum inhibitory concentration of all the extracts was found to be 15.62 ?g/ml. Conclusion The results of the present study shed light on the fact that plant extracts could be used not only as an alternate drug for management of fluconazole resistant candidiasis but also explored further for oral cancer prevention as a therapeutic adjunct. PMID:26436036

  11. Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P < 0.05 in the superoxide dismutase activity of the test group administered 100 mg/kg of A. Occidentale. There was no significant difference P > 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100 mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250 mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250 mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P < 0.05 in the catalase activity, compared to test groups. While at P > 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics. PMID:25525518

  12. Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P < 0.05 in the superoxide dismutase activity of the test group administered 100 mg/kg of A. Occidentale. There was no significant difference P > 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100 mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250 mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250 mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P < 0.05 in the catalase activity, compared to test groups. While at P > 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics. PMID:25525518

  13. Anti-influenza (H1N1) potential of leaf and stem bark extracts of selected medicinal plants of South India.

    PubMed

    Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Maria John, K M; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Sekar, Thangavel; Jin, Ki-Joun; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2015-09-01

    Variations in antioxidant and anti-viral activities (against Influenza AP/R/8 (H1N1) virus) between the leaves and stem bark of selected medicinal plants were studied. Malin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were used for the viral infection and the antiviral activity of the extracts was studied using sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assay. The stem bark of the plants including Strychnos minor, Diotacanthus albiflorus, Strychnos nux-vomica and Chloroxylon swietenia showed higher flavonoid contents as well as 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) scavenging activity when compared with their leaves. In case of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity, the stem bark of S. nux-vomica and leaf extract of C. swietenia showed the highest activity. Based on the IC50 values, the stem bark extracts of Cayratia pedata (20.5?g/mL) and S. minor (22.4?g/mL) showed high antiviral activity. In the mean-time S. nux-vomica, C. swietenia and C. swietenia bark extracts showed cytotoxicity to the MDCK cells. When comparing the stem bark and leaves the content of gallic acid, ferulic acid, o-coumaric acid, total flavonoids (TFC) and total phenols (TPC) was higher in stem bark and hence their anti-viral activity was high. Further study based on the metabolites against H1N1 can reveal the potential of therapeutic compounds against the viral disease. PMID:26288555

  14. Anti-influenza (H1N1) potential of leaf and stem bark extracts of selected medicinal plants of South India

    PubMed Central

    Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Maria John, K.M.; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Sekar, Thangavel; Jin, Ki-Joun; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Variations in antioxidant and anti-viral activities (against Influenza AP/R/8 (H1N1) virus) between the leaves and stem bark of selected medicinal plants were studied. Malin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were used for the viral infection and the antiviral activity of the extracts was studied using sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assay. The stem bark of the plants including Strychnos minor, Diotacanthus albiflorus, Strychnos nux-vomica and Chloroxylon swietenia showed higher flavonoid contents as well as 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) scavenging activity when compared with their leaves. In case of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity, the stem bark of S. nux-vomica and leaf extract of C. swietenia showed the highest activity. Based on the IC50 values, the stem bark extracts of Cayratia pedata (20.5 μg/mL) and S. minor (22.4 μg/mL) showed high antiviral activity. In the mean-time S. nux-vomica, C. swietenia and C. swietenia bark extracts showed cytotoxicity to the MDCK cells. When comparing the stem bark and leaves the content of gallic acid, ferulic acid, o-coumaric acid, total flavonoids (TFC) and total phenols (TPC) was higher in stem bark and hence their anti-viral activity was high. Further study based on the metabolites against H1N1 can reveal the potential of therapeutic compounds against the viral disease. PMID:26288555

  15. Development of a method to extract and purify target compounds from medicinal plants in a single step: online hyphenation of expanded bed adsorption chromatography and countercurrent chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Min; Ito, Yoichiro; Zhang, Hongyang; Wang, Yuerong; Guo, Xin; Hu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Pure compounds extracted and purified from natural sources are crucial to lead discovery and drug screening. This study presents a novel two-dimensional hyphenation of expanded bed adsorption chromatography (EBAC) and high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) for extraction and purification of target compounds from medicinal plants in a single step. The EBAC and HSCCC were hyphenated via a six-port injection valve as an interface. Fractionation of ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Rhizoma coptidis was performed on the hyphenated system to verify its efficacy. An amount each of 52.9 mg of salvianolic acid B and 2.1 mg of rosmarinic acid was obtained from Salvia miltiorrhiza by the two-dimensional system in a single step. The purities of the targets were over 96% of salvianolic acid B and 74% of rosmarinic acid. An amount each of 4.6 mg of coptisine and 4.1 mg of berberine was obtained from Rhizoma coptidis each with 98% and 82% purity, respectively. The processing time was nearly 50% that of the multi-step method. These results indicate that the present method is a rapid and green way to harvest targets from medicinal plants in a single step. PMID:24588208

  16. Antiviral activity of African medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Beuscher, N; Bodinet, C; Neumann-Haefelin, D; Marston, A; Hostettmann, K

    1994-04-01

    Plants from Africa and Mauritius with a history of use in traditional medicine have been investigated for their antiviral activities. Extracts were tested against poliovirus, herpes simplex virus and rhinovirus in plaque reduction assays. Their general toxicity and effects on interferon production were also studied. PMID:8072303

  17. Investigation on the hypoglycaemic effects of extracts of four Mexican medicinal plants in normal and alloxan-diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Alarcon-Aguilar, F J; Roman-Ramos, R; Flores-Saenz, J L; Aguirre-Garcia, F

    2002-06-01

    The hypoglycaemic activities of four water ethanol extracts (WEE) prepared from Bidens pilosa L., Salvia officinalis L., Psacalium peltatum H.B.K. (Cass) and Turnera diffusa Willd. were investigated in healthy and alloxan-diabetic mice. The WEE of S. officinalis significantly reduced the blood glucose of fasting normal mice 120 (15.7%) and 240 min (30.2%) after intraperitoneal administration (p < 0.05). The WEE of P. peltatum and B. pilosa also significantly diminished glycaemia in healthy mice at 240 min (19.6% and 13.8%, respectively). In mildly diabetic mice, the WEE of P. peltatum lowered the basal blood glucose level 120 (16%) and 240 min (54%) after intraperitoneal administration (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). The WEE of B. pilosa and S. officinalis also significantly diminished the hyperglycaemia in mildly diabetic mice at 240 mins (32.6% and 22.7%, respectively). The administration of these three extracts to animals with severe hyperglycaemia did not cause a significant decrease. The WEE of T. diffusa did not show any hypoglycaemic activity. Thus, three of the WEE studied conserved the hypoglycaemic activity originally detected in the traditional preparations of the studied antidiabetic plants. It appears that these extracts require the presence of insulin to show hypoglycaemic activity. PMID:12112298

  18. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry--2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    Second of a two part article on the influence of plants on medicinal chemistry. This part considers how drugs work, the attempts to develop anaesthetics safer than cocaine, and useful poisons. (Author/SL)

  19. Toxicity assessment and analgesic activity investigation of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f . and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae), medicinal plants of Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae) are traditionally used in Burkina Faso to treat several ailments, mainly pains, including abdominal infections and associated diseases. Despite the extensive use of these plants in traditional health care, literature provides little information regarding their toxicity and the pharmacology. This work was therefore designed to investigate the toxicological effects of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. Furthermore, their analgesic capacity was assessed, in order to assess the efficiency of the traditional use of these two medicinal plants from Burkina Faso. Method For acute toxicity test, mice were injected different doses of each extract by intraperitoneal route and the LD50 values were determined. For the subchronic toxicity evaluation, Wistar albinos rats were treated by gavage during 28?days at different doses of aqueous acetone extracts and then haematological and biochemical parameters were determined. The analgesic effect was evaluated in mice by the acetic-acid writhing test and by the formalin test. Results For the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of 3.2?g/kg and 3.4?g/kg respectively for S. acuta Burn f. and S. cordifolia L. were obtained. Concerning the haematological and biochemical parameters, data varied widely (increase or decrease) according to dose of extracts and weight of rats and did not show clinical correlations. The extracts have produced significant analgesic effects by the acetic acid writhing test and by the hot plate method (p <0.05) and a dose-dependent inhibition was observed. Conclusion The overall results of this study may justify the traditional uses of S. acuta and S. cordifolia . PMID:22883637

  20. Extraction methods of natural products from Traditional Chinese medicines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyu; Han, Jianying; Oyeleye, Ayokunmi; Liu, Miaomiao; Liu, Xueting; Zhang, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many research activities have focused on Natural Products (NPs) derived from Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), thus making a renaissance in the drug discovery process of TCMs. Maximizing the diversity of extracts from those plants is the key for the chemical biology process. Methods for the preparation and pretreatment of plant extracts are very important for further purification and discovery of active compounds present in minor quantities. In this chapter, two methods of extraction, including one of the most broadly applicable method (solvent extraction) and one newly developed technique (supercritical fluid extraction), have been described in detail. PMID:25618345

  1. Cytotoxicity and Pharmacogenomics of Medicinal Plants from Traditional Korean Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kuete, Victor; Seo, Ean-Jeong; Krusche, Benjamin; Oswald, Mira; Schröder, Sven; Greten, Henry Johannes; Lee, Ik-Soo; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity of a panel of 280 Korean medicinal plants belonging to 73 families and 198 species against human CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their mode of action. Methods. The resazurin assay was used to determine cytotoxicity of the plant extracts. Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling, COMPARE, and hierarchical cluster analyses were applied to identify which genes correlate with sensitivity or resistance to selected phytochemicals of the Korean plants. Results. The results of the resazurin assay showed that cytotoxicity extracts tested at 10 μg/mL from 13 samples inhibited proliferation more than 50% (IC50 < 10 μg/mL) and the most active plants are Sedum middendorffianum (15.33%) and Lycoris radiata (17.61%). Out of 13 selected phytochemicals from these plants, hopeaphenol and deoxynarciclasine were the most cytotoxic ones. Genes from various functional groups (transcriptional or translational regulation, signal transduction, cellular proliferation, intracellular trafficking, RNA metabolism, endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum function, etc.) were significantly correlated with response of tumor cell lines to these two compounds. Conclusion. The results provide evidence on the possible use of selected Korean medicinal plants and chemical constituents derived from them for the treatment of tumors. PMID:23935662

  2. Antimalarial activity of three Pakistani medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Irshad, Saba; Mannan, Abdul; Mirza, Bushra

    2011-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the in vitro anti-malarial activity of three medicinal plants, Picrorhiza kurroa, Caesalpinia bonducella and Artemisia absinthium of Pakistan. Different extracts of various parts of these plants were prepared by maceration and percolation, and were evaluated for their antimalarial activity. Aqueous, cold alcoholic and hot alcoholic extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa showed 34%, 100% and 90% inhibition in growth of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively, at 2.00 mg/ml. While aqueous, cold alcoholic and hot alcoholic extracts of Caesalpinia bonducella showed 65%, 56% and 76% inhibition in growth of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively at same concentrations. In the case of Artemisia absinthium, aqueous, cold alcoholic and hot alcoholic extract of Artemisia absinthium showed 35%, 55% and 21% inhibition in growth of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively at 2.00 mg/ml. In our study, extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa were found good for traditional therapy with highly significant results. PMID:21959826

  3. Inhibition of CYP2B6 by Medicinal Plant Extracts: Implication for Use of Efavirenz and Nevirapine-Based Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) in Resource-Limited Settings.

    PubMed

    Thomford, Nicholas E; Awortwe, Charles; Dzobo, Kevin; Adu, Faustina; Chopera, Denis; Wonkam, Ambroise; Skelton, Michelle; Blackhurst, Dee; Dandara, Collet

    2016-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has greatly improved health parameters of HIV infected individuals. However, there are several challenges associated with the chronic nature of HAART administration. For populations in health transition, dual use of medicinal plant extracts and conventional medicine poses a significant challenge. There is need to evaluate interactions between commonly used medicinal plant extracts and antiretroviral drugs used against HIV/AIDS. Efavirenz (EFV) and nevirapine (NVP) are the major components of HAART both metabolized by CYP2B6, an enzyme that can potentially be inhibited or induced by compounds found in medicinal plant extracts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of extracts of selected commonly used medicinal plants on CYP2B6 enzyme activity. Recombinant human CYP2B6 was used to evaluate inhibition, allowing the assessment of herb-drug interactions (HDI) of medicinal plants Hyptis suaveolens, Myrothamnus flabellifolius, Launaea taraxacifolia, Boerhavia diffusa and Newbouldia laevis. The potential of these medicinal extracts to cause HDI was ranked accordingly for reversible inhibition and also classified as potential time-dependent inhibitor (TDI) candidates. The most potent inhibitor for CYP2B6 was Hyptis suaveolens extract (IC50 = 19.09 ± 1.16 µg/mL), followed by Myrothamnus flabellifolius extract (IC50 = 23.66 ± 4.86 µg/mL), Launaea taraxacifolia extract (IC50 = 33.87 ± 1.54 µg/mL), and Boerhavia diffusa extract (IC50 = 34.93 ± 1.06 µg/mL). Newbouldia laevis extract, however, exhibited weak inhibitory effects (IC50 = 100 ± 8.71 µg/mL) on CYP2B6. Launaea taraxacifolia exhibited a TDI (3.17) effect on CYP2B6 and showed a high concentration of known CYP450 inhibitory phenolic compounds, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid. The implication for these observations is that drugs that are metabolized by CYP2B6 when co-administered with these herbal medicines and when adequate amounts of the extracts reach the liver, there is a high likelihood of standard doses affecting drug plasma concentrations which could lead to toxicity. PMID:26891286

  4. FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I.; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth.

  5. FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants.

    PubMed

    Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth. PMID:24657421

  6. Cardioprotective effects of extracts from Psidium guajava L and Limonium wrightii, Okinawan medicinal plants, against ischemia-reperfusion injury in perfused rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Satoshi; Noguchi, Katsuhiko; Matsuzaki, Toshihiro; Miyagi, Kanako; Nakasone, Junko; Sakanashi, Mayuko; Sakanashi, Makoko; Kukita, Ichiro; Aniya, Yoko; Sakanashi, Matao

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the medicinal herbs growing in Okinawa and possessing a radical-scavenging activity would exert cardioprotective effects against ischemia-reperfusion injury using isolated perfused rat hearts. Effects of the aqueous extracts from Psidium guajava L. and Limonium wrightii at concentrations having an equipotent radical-scavenging activity on myocardial injury produced by global ischemia followed by reperfusion were tested and were further compared with those of quercetin and gallic acid, major antioxidative components of P. guajava L. and L. wrightii, respectively. Both extracts significantly attenuated ischemic contracture during ischemia and improved myocardial dysfunction after reperfusion. Decreases in high-energy phosphates and increases in malondialdehyde in the reperfused hearts were significantly lessened with both plant extracts. Quercetin and gallic acid also exerted similar beneficial effects. These results indicate that P. guajava L. and L. wrightii both have cardioprotective effects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated rat hearts, primarily through their radical-scavenging actions. PMID:12571408

  7. Plant extracts in BPH.

    PubMed

    Di Silverio, F; Flammia, G P; Sciarra, A; Caponera, M; Mauro, M; Buscarini, M; Tavani, M; D'Eramo, G

    1993-12-01

    In Italy plant extracts represent 8.6% of all pharmacological prescriptions for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (data from 1991). This review evaluates all the suggested mechanisms of action for plant extracts. Recently we demonstrated an antiestrogenic effect of Serenoa Repens in BPH patients. Clinical trials with plant extracts have yielded conflicting results. In a recent review by Dreikorn and Richter, only five placebo controlled studies were found. Moreover, as opposed to chemically defined drugs, it is possible that for these extracts the active ingredients are not known; consequently pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic data are often missing. The International Consultation of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (Paris, June 1991) concluded that, to date, phytotherapeutic agents must be considered as a symptomatic treatment. Now more adequate pharmacological and clinical studies, placebo controlled, should determine the exact role of these drugs in the treatment of BPH. PMID:7517582

  8. Traditional Medicinal Plant Extracts and Natural Products with Activity against Oral Bacteria: Potential Application in the Prevention and Treatment of Oral Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Palombo, Enzo A.

    2011-01-01

    Oral diseases are major health problems with dental caries and periodontal diseases among the most important preventable global infectious diseases. Oral health influences the general quality of life and poor oral health is linked to chronic conditions and systemic diseases. The association between oral diseases and the oral microbiota is well established. Of the more than 750 species of bacteria that inhabit the oral cavity, a number are implicated in oral diseases. The development of dental caries involves acidogenic and aciduric Gram-positive bacteria (mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and actinomycetes). Periodontal diseases have been linked to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium). Given the incidence of oral disease, increased resistance by bacteria to antibiotics, adverse affects of some antibacterial agents currently used in dentistry and financial considerations in developing countries, there is a need for alternative prevention and treatment options that are safe, effective and economical. While several agents are commercially available, these chemicals can alter oral microbiota and have undesirable side-effects such as vomiting, diarrhea and tooth staining. Hence, the search for alternative products continues and natural phytochemicals isolated from plants used as traditional medicines are considered as good alternatives. In this review, plant extracts or phytochemicals that inhibit the growth of oral pathogens, reduce the development of biofilms and dental plaque, influence the adhesion of bacteria to surfaces and reduce the symptoms of oral diseases will be discussed further. Clinical studies that have investigated the safety and efficacy of such plant-derived medicines will also be described. PMID:19596745

  9. Genotoxicity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Vargas, V M; Guidobono, R R; Henriques, J A

    1991-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of seven species used in Brazilian popular medicine (Achyrocline satureoides, Iodina rhombifolia, Desmodium incanum, Baccharis anomala, Tibouchina asperior, Luehea divaricata, Maytenus ilicifolia) were screened to the presence of mutagenic activity in the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome). Positive results were obtained for A. satureoides, B. anomala and L. divaricata with microsomal activation. As shown elsewhere (Vargas et al., 1990) the metabolites of A. satureoides extract also show the capacity to induce prophage and/or SOS response in microscreen phage induction assay and SOS spot chromotest. PMID:1842016

  10. Physico-chemical studies on the evaluation of the antioxidant activity of herbal extracts and active principles of some Indian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Soumyakanti; Indira Priyadarsini, Kavirayani; Mukherjee, Tulsi

    2007-05-01

    Understanding of the efficacy and mechanism for the reaction of the biologically important radicals with natural and/or synthetic antioxidants is the first step towards the development of future therapeutic agents. The kinetic parameters e.g., formation and decay rate constants predict the efficacy of an antioxidant and its fate after reaction. These parameters also dictate the ease with which competing reactions would occur in a bio-environment. The spectroscopic parameters provide the clue to the site of free radical attack to these antioxidants. Here, in this article an attempt has been made to show the use of physico-chemical methods in the evaluation of antioxidant activity of some important medicinal plants commonly used in India and the subcontinent. The systems chosen here for discussions are herbal extracts as such, curcumin from turmeric, methoxy phenols from Indian spices, dehydrogingerdione from ginger and bakuchiol from Psoralea corylifolia. All the examples shown in this article illustrate the potential of the pulse radiolysis coupled with kinetic spectroscopy and other physicochemical techniques for the study of antioxidants either in the form of mixture as in herbal extract or as an isolated compound. PMID:18398494

  11. In vivo evaluation of anthelmintic potential of medicinal plant extracts against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Wu, Zong-Fan; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Yong; Lu, Cheng; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2011-06-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of Prunus amygdalus Batsch seeds (Semen amygdali), Cimicifuga foetida L. rhizomes (Rhizoma Cimicifugae), Peucedanum decursivum (Miq.) Maxim roots (Radix Peucedani), Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng. seeds (Semen Momordicae), and Bupleurum chinense DC. roots (Radix Bupleuri chinensis) for their in vivo anthelmintic activity against monogenean Dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish (Carassius auratus). The results showed that the efficacies of methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts from R. Bupleuri chinensis were found to be, in this order, more effective than others with the 48 h-EC(50) and EC(90) values of 3.5 and 6.9, 6.0 and 8.4, 7.4 and 11.2 mg/L, respectively, followed by ethyl acetate extract of R. cimicifugae and chloroform extract of R. peucedani with EC(50) 189.2 and 240.4 mg/L. The promising methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts from R. Bupleuri chinensis were subjected to acute toxicity tests for the evaluation of their safety to the host. After 48-h exposure, the mortalities of goldfish were recorded, and the established LC(50) values were 10.1-, 4.2-, and 8.4-fold higher than the corresponding EC(50). These results indicated that the three extracts from R. Bupleuri chinensis exhibit potential to be used as preferred natural antiparasitics for the control of the D. intermedius, especially for the methanolic one. PMID:21153837

  12. Anti cancer activity on Graviola, an exciting medicinal plant extract vs various cancer cell lines and a detailed computational study on its potent anti-cancerous leads.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jeno; Gnanam, R; Jayadeepa, R M; Arul, L

    2013-01-01

    Nature is the world's best chemist: Many naturally occurring compounds have very complicated structures that present great challenges to chemists wishing to determine their structures or replicate them. The plant derived herbal compounds have a long history of clinical use, better patient tolerance and acceptance. Their high ligand binding affinity to the target introduce the prospect of their use in chemo preventive applications; in addition they are freely available natural compounds that can be safely used to prevent various ailments. Plants became the basis of traditional medicine system throughout the world for thousands of years and continue to provide mankind with new remedies. Here, we present a research study on a medicinal plant, Graviola, a native of North America but rarely grown in India. It has a wide potent anticancerous agents coined as Acetogenins which play a key role towards many varieties of cancer, Acetogenins are potent inhibitors of NADH oxidase of the plasma membranes of cancer cells. Potent leads were taken for the study through literature survey, major types of cancer targets were identified, the natureceuticals and the cancer protein were subjected to docking analysis, further with the help of the dock score and other descriptor properties top ranked molecules were collected, commercial drug was also selected and identified as a Test compound for the study. Later, the phytochemicals were subjected to toxicity analysis. Those screened compounds were then considered for active site analysis and to find the best binding site for the study. R Programming library was used to find the best leads. Phytochemicals such as Anonaine, Friedelin, Isolaureline, Annonamine, Anomurine, Kaempferol, Asimilobine, Quercetin, Xylopine were clustered and the highly clustered compounds such as Annonamine , Kaempferol termed to be a potential lead for the study. Further study on experimental analysis may prove the potentiality of these compounds. In the experimental analysis, Graviola leaves were collected, and the extracted components were tested against the HeLa cell line and PC3 cell line. HeLa cells treated with 75 ?g of a crude leaf extract of A. muricata showing 80% of cell inhibition. Further investigation of other experimental studies may confirm that these potential lead could make a great impact in which it could help to accelerate the pipeline of drug discovery. PMID:23889049

  13. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of some Mexican medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Bustos, E; Velazquez, C; Garibay-Escobar, A; Garca, Z; Plascencia-Jatomea, M; Cortez-Rocha, M O; Hernandez-Martnez, J; Robles-Zepeda, R E

    2009-12-01

    In Mexico about 4,000 plant species have some medicinal use. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of six Mexican medicinal plants against fungi and Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methanolic extracts were prepared from the Mexican medicinal plants Amphypteringium adstrigens, Castella tortuosa, Coutarea latiflora, Ibervillea sonorae, Jatropha cuneata, and Selaginella lepidophylla. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the plants were determined by the broth microdilution method and the radial growth inhibition assay, respectively. All Mexican plants tested showed antimicrobial activity. Among the six plant extracts analyzed, J. cuneata showed the highest growth-inhibitory activity against fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (J. cuneata > A. adstrigens > C. latiflora > C. tortuosa > I. sonorae approximately S. lepidophylla). Shigella flexneri and Staphylococcus aureus were the most susceptible bacteria to plant extracts. Complete inhibition of S. flexneri growth was observed with J. cuneata methanolic extract at 90 microg/mL. This plant extract also showed the strongest antifungal activity against Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus niger. Our data suggest that the medicinal plants tested have important antimicrobial properties. This is the first report describing the antimicrobial activities of several of the Mexican medicinal plants used in this study. PMID:20041800

  14. Antidiabetic potential of medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Malviya, Neelesh; Jain, Sanjay; Malviya, Sapna

    2010-01-01

    It is the fact that diabetes can't be cured and it has never been reported that someone had recovered totally from diabetes. The rapidly increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus is becoming a serious threat to mankind health in all parts of the world. Moreover, during the past few years some of the new bioactive drugs isolated from plants showed antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than oral hypoglycemic agents used in clinical therapy. The traditional medicine performed a good clinical practice and is showing a bright future in the therapy of diabetes mellitus. The present paper reviews natural medicines with their mechanism of action and their pharmacological test results. Many studies have confirmed the benefits of medicinal plants with hypoglycemic effects in the management of diabetes mellitus. The effects of these plants may delay the development of diabetic complications and correct the metabolic abnormalities. WHO has pointed out this prevention of diabetes and its complications is not only a major challenge for the future, but essential if health for all is to attain. Therefore, in recent years, considerable attention has been directed towards identification of plants with antidiabetic ability that may be used for human consumption. Further, it emphasizes strongly in this regard the optional and rational uses of traditional and natural indigenous medicines. PMID:20369787

  15. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of medicinally potent plant Saraca indica: a novel study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perugu, Shyam; Nagati, Veerababu; Bhanoori, Manjula

    2015-08-01

    Eco-friendly silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have various applications in modern biotechnology for better outcomes and benefits to the society. In the present study, we report an eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Saraca indica leaf extract. Characterization of S. indica silver nanoparticles (SAgNPs) was carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, Zeta potential, and transmission electron microscopy. SAgNPs showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  16. Phytochemical Analysis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Extracts of the African Medicinal Plant Ximenia caffra

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Jing; Guo, Yue; Villani, Tom; Carr, Steve; Brendler, Thomas; Mumbengegwi, Davis R.; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony; Simon, James E.; Wu, Qingli

    2015-01-01

    A method was developed for identification and quantification of polyphenols in the leaves of Ximenia caffra using HPLC/UV/MS. Based on analyzing the MS and UV data and in comparison to the authentic standards, a total of 10 polyphenols were identified and quantified, including gallic acid, catechin, quercetin, kaempferol, and their derivatives. The total content of these compounds was found to be approximately 19.45?mg/g in the leaf and the most abundant is quercetin-rutinoside (9.08?mg/g). The total phenolic content as measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay was 261.87 7.11?mg?GAE/g and the total antioxidant capacity as measured in vitro was 1.46 0.01?mmol?Trolox/g. The antiproliferative effect of the leaf extract was measured by MTS assay with IC50 value of 239.0 44.5??g/mL. Cell-based assays show that the leaf extract inhibits the mRNA expression of proinflammatory genes (IL-6, iNOS, and TNF-?) by using RT-qPCR, implying its anti-inflammatory effects. It was further demonstrated that the underlying therapeutic mechanism involves the suppression of NF-?B, a shared pathway between cell death and inflammation. PMID:25785232

  17. In vitro screening of forty medicinal plant extracts from the United States Northern Great Plains for anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Jyotsna; Hildreth, Michael B; Reese, R Neil

    2014-03-17

    An egg hatch assay (EHA) and a larval migration assay (LMA) involving Haemonchus contortus was used to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of methanol extracts from 40 plants that are native or naturalized within the U.S.A. Northern Great Plains. Only one of these 40 plants (i.e. Lotus corniculatus) had been previously evaluated for activity against any gastrointestinal nematode. The various extracts were initially screened at 50mg/ml diluted either in 0.5% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) or 3-(N-morpholino) propanesulfonic acid (MOPS buffer), and plants showing 100% inhibition at 50mg/ml, were further evaluated at 8 other concentrations (25-0.19 mg/ml). Extracts with 100% activity with the EHA were again screened with the LMA (50mg/ml). Two extracts with the highest LMA inhibition were also evaluated at lower concentrations (25-3.1mg/ml). Of the 40 methanolic extracts screened, 7 (Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus, Ericameria nauseosa, Liatris punctata, Melilotus alba, Melilotus officinalis, Perideridia gairdneri, and Sanguinaria canadensis) showed significant egg-hatch inhibition in DMSO and MOPS buffer. Three extracts (Geranium viscosissimum, L. corniculatus, and Rhus aromatica) only showed significant inhibition in DMSO. The 8 extracts showing 100% efficacy at 50mg/ml exhibited dose-dependent effects at the 8 lower concentrations, and R. aromatica and E. nauseosa extracts had the lowest ED50 values. Similarly, when these 8 plant extracts were further evaluated with the LMA, the extracts of E. nauseosa and R. aromatica again exhibited the highest activity (p<0.001), with ED50 values of 4.0mg/ml and 10.43 mg/ml respectively. Three other extracts (C. viscidiflorus, M. alba and M. officinalis) also showed inhibitory activity in the LMA. These results support the need for additional evaluations of the nematocidal properties for at least these 5 plants. PMID:24548703

  18. Cytotoxicity Potentials of Eleven Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Tania; Akter, Mahfuja; Akter, Subarna; Jhumur, Afrin

    2014-01-01

    Various forms of cancer are rising all over the world, requiring newer therapy. The quest of anticancer drugs both from natural and synthetic sources is the demand of time. In this study, fourteen extracts of different parts of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants which have been traditionally used for the treatment of different types of carcinoma, tumor, leprosy, and diseases associated with cancer were evaluated for their cytotoxicity for the first time. Extraction was conceded using methanol. Phytochemical groups like reducing sugars, tannins, saponins, steroids, gums, flavonoids, and alkaloids were tested using standard chromogenic reagents. Plants were evaluated for cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using Artemia salina comparing with standard anticancer drug vincristine sulphate. All the extracts showed potent to moderate cytotoxicity ranging from LC50 2 to 115 µg/mL. The highest toxicity was shown by Hygrophila spinosa seeds (LC50 = 2.93 µg/mL) and the lowest by Litsea glutinosa leaves (LC50 = 114.71 µg/mL) in comparison with standard vincristine sulphate (LC50 = 2.04 µg/mL). Among the plants, the plants traditionally used in different cancer and microbial treatments showed highest cytotoxicity. The results support their ethnomedicinal uses and require advanced investigation to elucidate responsible compounds as well as their mode of action. PMID:25431796

  19. Cytotoxicity potentials of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Khatun, Amina; Rahman, Mahmudur; Haque, Tania; Rahman, Md Mahfizur; Akter, Mahfuja; Akter, Subarna; Jhumur, Afrin

    2014-01-01

    Various forms of cancer are rising all over the world, requiring newer therapy. The quest of anticancer drugs both from natural and synthetic sources is the demand of time. In this study, fourteen extracts of different parts of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants which have been traditionally used for the treatment of different types of carcinoma, tumor, leprosy, and diseases associated with cancer were evaluated for their cytotoxicity for the first time. Extraction was conceded using methanol. Phytochemical groups like reducing sugars, tannins, saponins, steroids, gums, flavonoids, and alkaloids were tested using standard chromogenic reagents. Plants were evaluated for cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using Artemia salina comparing with standard anticancer drug vincristine sulphate. All the extracts showed potent to moderate cytotoxicity ranging from LC50 2 to 115 g/mL. The highest toxicity was shown by Hygrophila spinosa seeds (LC50 = 2.93 g/mL) and the lowest by Litsea glutinosa leaves (LC50 = 114.71 g/mL) in comparison with standard vincristine sulphate (LC50 = 2.04 g/mL). Among the plants, the plants traditionally used in different cancer and microbial treatments showed highest cytotoxicity. The results support their ethnomedicinal uses and require advanced investigation to elucidate responsible compounds as well as their mode of action. PMID:25431796

  20. Extraction of plant secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Jones, William P; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the preparation of extracts from plants using organic solvents, with emphasis on common problems encountered and methods for their reduction or elimination. In addition to generally applicable extraction protocols, methods are suggested for selectively extracting specific classes of plant-derived compounds, and phytochemical procedures are presented for the detection of classes of compounds encountered commonly during extraction, including selected groups of secondary metabolites and interfering compounds. Successful extraction begins with careful selection and preparation of plant samples and thorough review of the appropriate literature for suitable protocols for a particular class of compounds or plant species. During the extraction of plant material, it is important to minimize interference from compounds that may co-extract with the target compounds, and to avoid contamination of the extract, as well as to prevent decomposition of important metabolites or artifact formation as a result of extraction conditions or solvent impurities. PMID:22367903

  1. Anti-HIV activity of Indian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Sabde, Sudeep; Bodiwala, Hardik S; Karmase, Aniket; Deshpande, Preeti J; Kaur, Amandeep; Ahmed, Nafees; Chauthe, Siddheshwar K; Brahmbhatt, Keyur G; Phadke, Rasika U; Mitra, Debashis; Bhutani, Kamlesh Kumar; Singh, Inder Pal

    2011-07-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients face great socio-economic difficulties in obtaining treatment. There is an urgent need for new, safe, and cheap anti-HIV agents. Traditional medicinal plants are a valuable source of novel anti-HIV agents and may offer alternatives to expensive medicines in future. Various medicinal plants or plant-derived natural products have shown strong anti-HIV activity and are under various stages of clinical development in different parts of the world. The present study was directed towards assessment of anti-HIV activity of various extracts prepared from Indian medicinal plants. The plants were chosen on the basis of similarity of chemical constituents with reported anti-HIV compounds or on the basis of their traditional usage as immunomodulators. Different extracts were prepared by Soxhlet extraction and liquid-liquid partitioning. Ninety-two extracts were prepared from 23 plants. Anti-HIV activity was measured in a human CD4+ T-cell line, CEM-GFP cells infected with HIV-1NL4.3. Nine extracts of 8 different plants significantly reduced viral production in CEM-GFP cells infected with HIV-1NL4.3. Aegle marmelos, Argemone mexicana, Asparagus racemosus, Coleus forskohlii, and Rubia cordifolia demonstrated promising anti-HIV potential and were investigated for their active principles. PMID:21365365

  2. A Systematic Review of Iran's Medicinal Plants With Anticancer Effects.

    PubMed

    Asadi-Samani, Majid; Kooti, Wesam; Aslani, Elahe; Shirzad, Hedayatollah

    2016-04-01

    Increase in cases of various cancers has encouraged the researchers to discover novel, more effective drugs from plant sources. This study is a review of medicinal plants in Iran with already investigated anticancer effects on various cell lines. Thirty-six medicinal plants alongside their products with anticancer effects as well as the most important plant compounds responsible for the plants' anticancer effect were introduced. Phenolic and alkaloid compounds were demonstrated to have anticancer effects on various cancers in most studies. The plants and their active compounds exerted anticancer effects by removing free radicals and antioxidant effects, cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of angiogenesis. The investigated plants in Iran contain the compounds that are able to contribute effectively to fighting cancer cells. Therefore, the extract and active compounds of the medicinal plants introduced in this review article could open a way to conduct clinical trials on cancer and greatly help researchers and pharmacists develop new anticancer drugs. PMID:26297173

  3. Screening of Zulu medicinal plants for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jger, A K; Hutchings, A; van Staden, J

    1996-06-01

    Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 39 plants used in traditional Zulu medicine to treat headache or inflammatory diseases were screened for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors. Extracts were tested in an in vitro assay for cyclooxygenase inhibitors. In general, ethanolic extracts caused higher inhibition than aqueous extracts. Two-thirds of the plants screened had high inhibitory activity. The highest inhibition was obtained with ethanolic extracts of Bidens pilosa, Eucomis autumnalis, Harpephyllum caffrum, Helichrysum nudifolium, Leonotis intermedia, L. leonorus, Ocotea bullata, Rumex saggitatus, Solanum mauritianum, Synadenium cupulare and Trichilia dregeana. PMID:8735453

  4. Phytochemistry and medicinal properties of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl. extracts.

    PubMed

    Altaf, Rabia; Asmawi, Mohammad Zaini Bin; Dewa, Aidiahmad; Sadikun, Amirin; Umar, Muhammad Ihtisham

    2013-01-01

    Phaleria macrocarpa, commonly known as Mahkota dewa is a medicinal plant that is indigenous to Indonesia and Malaysia. Extracts of P. macrocarpa have been used since years in traditional medicine that are evaluated scientifically as well. The extracts are reported for a number of valuable medicinal properties such as anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-oxidant and vasorelaxant effect. The constituents isolated from different parts of P. macrocarpa include Phalerin, gallic acid, Icaricide C, magniferin, mahkoside A, dodecanoic acid, palmitic acid, des-acetylflavicordin-A, flavicordin-A, flavicordin-D, flavicordin-A glucoside, ethyl stearate, lignans, alkaloids andsaponins. The present review is an up-to-date summary of occurrence, botanical description, ethnopharmacology, bioactivity and toxicological studies related to P. macrocarpa. PMID:23922460

  5. Phytochemistry and medicinal properties of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl. extracts

    PubMed Central

    Altaf, Rabia; Asmawi, Mohammad Zaini Bin; Dewa, Aidiahmad; Sadikun, Amirin; Umar, Muhammad Ihtisham

    2013-01-01

    Phaleria macrocarpa, commonly known as Mahkota dewa is a medicinal plant that is indigenous to Indonesia and Malaysia. Extracts of P. macrocarpa have been used since years in traditional medicine that are evaluated scientifically as well. The extracts are reported for a number of valuable medicinal properties such as anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-oxidant and vasorelaxant effect. The constituents isolated from different parts of P. macrocarpa include Phalerin, gallic acid, Icaricide C, magniferin, mahkoside A, dodecanoic acid, palmitic acid, des-acetylflavicordin-A, flavicordin-A, flavicordin-D, flavicordin-A glucoside, ethyl stearate, lignans, alkaloids andsaponins. The present review is an up-to-date summary of occurrence, botanical description, ethnopharmacology, bioactivity and toxicological studies related to P. macrocarpa. PMID:23922460

  6. Clinical Effect of Antioxidant Glasses Containing Extracts of Medicinal Plants in Patients with Dry Eye Disease: A Multi-Center, Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won; Kim, Jae Chan; Kim, Won Soo; Oh, Han Jin; Yang, Jee Myung; Lee, Jee Bum; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of wearable antioxidant glasses containing extracts of medicinal plants in patients with mild dry eye disease (DED). Methods Fifty patients with mild DED were randomly assigned to wear either extracts of antioxidant medicinal plants containing (N = 25) or placebo glasses (N = 25). Patients wore the glasses for 15 min three times daily. The ocular surface disease index (OSDI) score, tear film break up time (BUT), and Schirmers test were evaluated and compared within the group and between the groups at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after treatment. Results OSDI score and tear film BUT were significantly improved in the treatment group at 4 and 8 weeks after wearing glasses (all P < 0.001). Compared to the placebo group, the OSDI scores were significantly lower in the treatment group at 8 weeks (P = 0.007). The results of the Schirmers test showed significant improvement in the treatment group at 4 weeks (P = 0.035), however there were no significant differences between the other groups or within the groups. No adverse events were reported during the study. Conclusions Antioxidant glasses containing extracts of medicinal plants were effective in improving in DED both subjectively and objectively. Wearing antioxidants glasses might be a safe and adjunctive therapeutic option for DED. Trial Registration ISRCTN registry 71217488 PMID:26457673

  7. Antioxidant and nitric oxide inhibition activities of Thai medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Makchuchit, Sunita; Itharat, Arunporn; Tewtrakul, Supinya

    2010-12-01

    Nineteen Thai medicinal plants used in Thai traditional medicine preparation to treat colds, asthma and fever were studied for their antioxidant and NO inhibitory activities. Three extracts were obtained from each plant. First extract obtained by macerating the plant part in 95% ethanol (Et) residue was boiled in water, where water extract (EW) was obtained. The third extract (HW) was obtained by boiling each plant in water similar to that of Thai traditional medicine practice. These extracts were tested for their antioxidant activity using DPPH assay, and anti-inflammatory activity by determination of inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cell lines using Griess reagent. Results indicated that Et, EW and HW of Syzygium aromaticum showed the highest antioxidant activity (EC50 = 6.56, 4.73 and 5.30 microg/ml, respectively). Et of Atractylodes lancea exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cells, with IC50 value of 9.70 microg/ml, followed by Et of Angelica sinensis and Cuminum cyminum (IC50 = 12.52 and 13.56 microg/ml, respectively) but water extract (EW, HW) of all plants were apparently inactive. These results of anti-inflammatory activity of these plants correspond with the traditional use for fever; cold, allergic-related diseases and inflammatory-related diseases. PMID:21294419

  8. Antioxidant activity of some Turkish medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Karadeniz, A; inbilgel, I; Gn, S ?; etin, A

    2015-12-01

    DPPH, superoxide and nitric oxide radical scavenging activities and total phenolic content (TPC) of some less known plants, distributed in Burdur-Antalya provinces and consumed both as food and for the medicine, Asplenium ceterach L. (golden herb), Valeriana dioscoridis Sm. (valerian), Doronicum orientale Hoffm. (tiger herb), Cota pestalozzae (Boiss.) Boiss. (camomile), Eremurus spectabilis M. Bieb. (foxtail lily), Asphodeline lutea (L.) Rchb. (asphodel) and Smyrnium connatum Boiss. and Kotschy (hemlock) were investigated. As a result, the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picril hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was determined in C. pestalozzae extract (IC50=18.66?gmL(-1)), the highest superoxide and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity was determined in A. ceterach extract (IC50=145.17 and 372.03?gmL(-1)). The highest TPC was determined in A. ceterach extract (59,26?gmL(-1)) as gallic acid equivalent. Further bioactivity and phytochemistry studies on these plants may enlighten new drug discovery researches. PMID:25649168

  9. From Curanderas to Gas Chromatography: Medicinal Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Mary; Lara, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    The Medicinal Plants of the Southwest summer workshop is an inquiry-based learning approach to increase interest and skills in biomedical research. Working in teams, Hispanic and Native American students discover the chemical and biological basis for the medicinal activity of regional plants used by healers. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)

  10. Medicinal plants and primary health care: part 2.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The WHO Programme on Traditional Medicine has joined WHO's global program on drug management and policies because there is a need for recognition that an adequate technological infrastructure must be in place to maximize plants for their medicinal value, especially in the context of primary health care (PHC). PHC places traditional medicine high on its list of priorities and emphasizes the availability and use of appropriate drugs. For example, countries should distribute seeds or plants to be cultivated in home or community gardens and taken as infusions. Scientists have not studied most medicinal plants which can be a rich potential resource for developing countries. Countries should apply known and effective technologies to meet health needs in a culturally acceptable manner and to promote self reliance. They must 1st strengthen data gathering and analysis capabilities needed for economic mapping of medicinal flora, then develop data centers on medicinal plants and plant derived products, such as the WHO Collaborating Center in Chicago. Clinical research should focus on the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines used by traditional health practitioners and on developing antiinfective agents. For example, 2 WHO agencies are collaborating on identifying, preparing, and testing extracts for medicinal plants for antiHIV capabilities. WHO favors developing the knowledge and skills of traditional health practitioners within the framework of PHC. Further, interregional workshops promote selection and use of traditional medicine in national PHC programs. Since there continue to be much public interest in medicinal plants, accurate information must be disseminated to the public and health professionals so they can know both the potential benefits and harmful effects of these remedies. PMID:12284333

  11. Evaluation of aqueous and ethanol extract of bioactive medicinal plant, Cassia didymobotrya (Fresenius) Irwin & Barneby against immature stages of filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Nagappan, Raja

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate aqueous and ethanol extract of Cassia didymobotrya leaves against immature stages of Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods The mortality rate of immature mosquitoes was tested in wide and narrow range concentration of the plant extract based on WHO standard protocol. The wide range concentration tested in the present study was 10 000, 1 000, 100, 10 and 1 mg/L and narrow range concentration was 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L. Results 2nd instar larvae exposed to 100 mg/L and above concentration of ethanol extract showed 100% mortality. Remaining stages such as 3rd, 4th and pupa, 100% mortality was observed at 1 000 mg/L and above concentration after 24 h exposure period. In aqueous extract all the stages 100% mortality was recorded at 1 000 mg/L and above concentration. In narrow range concentration 2nd instar larvae 100% mortality was observed at 150 mg/L and above concentration of ethanol extract. The remaining stages 100% mortality was recorded at 250 mg/L. In aqueous extract all the tested immature stages 100% mortality was observed at 250 mg/L concentration after 24 h exposure period. The results clearly indicate that the rate of mortality was based dose of the plant extract and stage of the mosquitoes. Conclusions From this study it is confirmed and concluded that Cassia didymobotrya is having active principle which is responsible for controlling Culex quinquefasciatus. The isolation of bioactive molecules and development of simple formulation technique is important for large scale implementation. PMID:23569999

  12. Screening of selected Indian medicinal plants for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Vinutha, B; Prashanth, D; Salma, K; Sreeja, S L; Pratiti, D; Padmaja, R; Radhika, S; Amit, A; Venkateshwarlu, K; Deepak, M

    2007-01-19

    Seventy-six plant extracts including methanolic and successive water extracts from 37 Indian medicinal plants were investigated for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity (in vitro). Results indicated that methanolic extracts to be more active than water extracts. The potent AChE inhibiting methanolic plant extracts included Withania somnifera (root), Semecarpus anacardium (stem bark), Embelia ribes (Root), Tinospora cordifolia (stem), Ficus religiosa (stem bark) and Nardostachys jatamansi (rhizome). The IC(50) values obtained for these extracts were 33.38, 16.74, 23.04, 38.36, 73.69 and 47.21mug/ml, respectively. These results partly substantiate the traditional use of these herbs for improvement of cognition. PMID:16950584

  13. [Plant hydroponics and its application prospect in medicinal plants study].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi; Sun, Yu-Zhang

    2007-03-01

    This article introduced the theorem and method of hydroponics. Some examples of studies in agriculture and forestry were presented, the effects of elements, environmental stress and hormones on physiology of medicinal plants by using hydroponics were analyzed. It also introduced the feasibility and advantage of hydroponics in intermediate propagation and allelopathy of medicinal plant. And finally it made the conclusion that the way of hydroponics would be widely used in medicinal plant study. PMID:17511136

  14. In vitro and in vivo inhibitory activities of four Indian medicinal plant extracts and their major components on rat aldose reductase and generation of advanced glycation endproducts.

    PubMed

    Rao, Ajmeera Rama; Veeresham, Ciddi; Asres, Kaleab

    2013-05-01

    The polyol enzyme aldose reductase (AR) and advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) play an important role in diabetic complications such as cataracts. The purpose of this study was to investigate four standardized plant extracts used for the treatment of diabetes and related diseases, and their principal components for AR inhibitory activity and to find out their influence in diabetic complications. Thus, Boswellia serrata Triana & Planch. (Burseraceae), Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. (Lythraceae), Ocimum gratissimum (L.) (Lamiaceae) and Syzygium cumin (L.) Skeels. (Myrthaceae) and their respective major constituents, boswellic acid, corosolic acid, ursolic acid and ellagic acid, were studied for their inhibitory activity against rat lens AR, rat kidney AR, human recombinant AR and generation of AGEs. In addition, in vivo inhibition of lens galactitol accumulation by the major constituents of the plants in galactose-fed rat has been studied. The results revealed that all the tested extracts and their active ingredients possess significant AR inhibitory actions in both in vitro and in vivo assays with urosolic acid showing the most potent effect. Furthermore, the study indicates the potential of the studied plants and their major constituents as possible protective agents against long-term diabetic complications. PMID:22826152

  15. Cameroonian Medicinal Plants: Pharmacology and Derived Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Kuete, Victor; Efferth, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Many developing countries including Cameroon have mortality patterns that reflect high levels of infectious diseases and the risk of death during pregnancy and childbirth, in addition to cancers, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases that account for most deaths in the developed world. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally for their treatment. In this review, plants used in Cameroonian traditional medicine with evidence for the activities of their crude extracts and/or derived products have been discussed. A considerable number of plant extracts and isolated compounds possess significant antimicrobial, anti-parasitic including antimalarial, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes, and antioxidant effects. Most of the biologically active compounds belong to terpenoids, phenolics, and alkaloids. Terpenoids from Cameroonian plants showed best activities as anti-parasitic, but rather poor antimicrobial effects. The best antimicrobial, anti-proliferative, and antioxidant compounds were phenolics. In conclusion, many medicinal plants traditionally used in Cameroon to treat various ailments displayed good activities in vitro. This explains the endeavor of Cameroonian research institutes in drug discovery from indigenous medicinal plants. However, much work is still to be done to standardize methodologies and to study the mechanisms of action of isolated natural products. PMID:21833168

  16. Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    krovnkov, So?a; Miurcov, Ladislava; Mach?, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important. PMID:23034115

  17. Investigation of the effects of selected medicinal plants on experimental thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Olajide, O A

    1999-05-01

    Six medicinal plants indigenous to Africa were evaluated for their activity on experimental thrombosis in mice. Of the plants screened, the extract of Commiphora molmol exhibited the strongest antithrombotic activity, while the extract of Ageratum conyzoides showed no marked activity. This study established the antithrombotic effect of the extracts of Azadiractha indica, Bridelia ferruginea, Commiphora molmol, Garcinia kola and Curcuma longa. PMID:10353165

  18. Ethnomedicinal and phytochemical review of Pakistani medicinal plants used as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants have always been part of human culture and have the potential to cure different diseases caused by microorganisms. In Pakistan, biologists are mainly focusing on plants’ antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli due to its increasing resistance to antibiotics. In total, extracts from 34 ethnomedicinally valuable Pakistani plants were reported for in-vitro anti-E. coli activities. Mostly methanolic extracts of medicinal plants were used in different studies, which have shown comparatively higher inhibitory activities against E. coli than n-hexane and aqueous extracts. It has been found that increasing concentration (mg/ml) of methanolic extract can significantly increase (p < 0.01) anti-E. coli activities. Not all medicinal plants are extracted in solvents others than above, which should also be tested against E. coli. Moreover, medicinal plant species must be fully explored phytochemically, which may lead to the development of new drugs. PMID:25135359

  19. Antiamoebic and phytochemical screening of some Congolese medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Tona, L; Kambu, K; Ngimbi, N; Cimanga, K; Vlietinck, A J

    1998-05-01

    Results from the in vitro antiamoebic activity of some Congolese plant extracts used as antidiarrhoeic in traditional medicine indicated that of 45 plant extracts tested, 35 (77.78%) exhibited an antiamoebic activity and 10 (22.22%) were inactive. The highest activity (MIC < 100 microg/ml) was obtained with extracts from root bark of Paropsia brazzeana, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, Alchornea cordifolia, Hensia pulchella, Maprounea africana, Rauwolfia obscura and Voacanga africana, leaves and stem bark of Psidium guajava, stem bark of Dialum englerianum, Harungana madagascariensis and Mangifera indica, mature seeds of Carica papaya, and leaves of Morinda morindoides and Tithonia diversifolia. Metronidazole used as reference product showed a more pronounced activity than that of all plant extracts tested. PMID:9687082

  20. Medicinal plants used in Iranian traditional medicine to treat epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Sahranavard, Shamim; Ghafari, Saeedeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

    2014-05-01

    Antiepileptic drugs used to treat epilepsy can cause severe, life threatening side effects. In Iranian traditional medicine, herbal remedies have been used for centuries to treat seizures. In this study, the five most important herbals in Iranian traditional medicine, namely Canon, al-Hawi, al-Abniah 'an Haqaeq al Adwia, Tuhfat al-Mu'minin, and Makhzan ul-Adwia, were searched for the term "sar-e", which means epilepsy, to identify the herbs used for treatment in ancient times. We also searched scientific literature for pharmacological evidence of their effectiveness. Twenty-five plants were identified as herbal remedies to treat epilepsy. Pharmacological data related to the antiepileptic activity of eleven of these plants exists. A large number of these plants which have not been investigated pharmacologically for antiepileptic activity would be good candidates for study in exploring new herbal anticonvulsant remedies. PMID:24525263

  1. Plant part substitution--a way to conserve endangered medicinal plants?

    PubMed

    Zschocke, S; Rabe, T; Taylor, J L; Jger, A K; van Staden, J

    2000-07-01

    Population growth, urbanization and the unrestricted collection of medicinal plants from the wild is resulting in an over-exploitation of natural resources in southern Africa. Therefore, the management of traditional medicinal plant resources has become a matter of urgency. In southern Africa the most frequently used medicinal plants are slow-growing forest trees, bulbous and tuberous plants, with bark and underground parts being the parts mainly utilized. A strategy which would satisfy the requirements of sustainable harvesting, yet simultaneously provide for primary health care needs, would be the substitution of bark or underground parts with leaves of the same plant. This paper outlines the concept of plant substitution, using preliminary results of our recent investigations into four of the most important and most threatened South African medicinal plants - Eucomis autumnalis (bulb), Siphonochilus aethiopicus (rhizome), Ocotea bullata (bark), and Warburgia salutaris (bark) - as a demonstration of the kind of research necessary. Extracts of various plant parts were compared chemically using TLC-analysis, and pharmacologically in terms of antibacterial activity and cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition in vitro. The importance of the concept of plant part substitution as a strategy for the conservation of medicinal plants in southern Africa is discussed in terms of the results obtained. PMID:10904175

  2. Determination of aristolochic acids in medicinal plants (Chinese) prepared medicine using capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ong, E S; Woo, S O

    2001-07-01

    Aristolochic acids (I and II) are commonly found in medicinal plants such as Radix aristolochiae and have been reported to cause acute hepatitis and end-stage renal failure. The aim of this work was to develop a method for the analysis of aristolochic acids in medicinal plant/Chinese prepared medicine (CPM) using (CZE). The buffer used was 30 mM sodium tetraborate at pH 9.5, detection was at 254 nm, applied voltage at 18 kV and the temperature was set at 25 degrees C. The effect of ionic strength, pH, and applied voltage on the separation was investigated. The precision values (relative standard deviation, RSD, %) for the relative migration time and peak area or peak height for aristolochic acids I and II were found to be less than 0.3% and between 2.6 to 4.0%, respectively. The limit of detection for aristolochic acids I and II was found to be 1.2 and 0.9 mg/L, respectively. The proposed method using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with CZE was used to determine the amount of aristolochic acids in medicinal plants or CPM samples with complex matrix and the results were compared with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Method precision (RSD, n = 6) was found to be less than 4% when those from applied to medicinal plants and CPM samples. PMID:11504058

  3. Medicinal Plants and Cancer Chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Avni G.; Qazi, Ghulam N.; Ganju, Ramesh K.; El-Tamer, Mahmoud; Singh, Jaswant; Saxena, Ajit K.; Bedi, Yashbir S.; Taneja, Subhash C.; Bhat, Hari K.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Although great advancements have been made in the treatment and control of cancer progression, significant deficiencies and room for improvement remain. A number of undesired side effects sometimes occur during chemotherapy. Natural therapies, such as the use of plant-derived products in cancer treatment, may reduce adverse side effects. Currently, a few plant products are being used to treat cancer. However, a myriad of many plant products exist that have shown very promising anti-cancer properties in vitro, but have yet to be evaluated in humans. Further study is required to determine the efficacy of these plant products in treating cancers in humans. This review will focus on the various plant-derived chemical compounds that have, in recent years, shown promise as anticancer agents and will outline their potential mechanism of action. PMID:18781909

  4. [Plants and traditional medicine in southeast Madagascar].

    PubMed

    Beaujard, P

    1988-01-01

    This paper makes a first inventory of plants used by the medicine-men of the South-East of Madagascar (Tanala and Antemoro regions). The heirs - directly or indirectly - to an esoteric "moslem" knowledge which has been transmitted since the XVth century by the aristocratic islamized groups, the medicine-men are also the possessors of a knowledge which has been acquired by the autochthonous groups, that are said "masters of the earth" (commoners). Some divergences in the respective practices of the Tanala and Antemoro medicine-men seem to be connected with differences in the social structure and in the links between society and the environment. PMID:3193788

  5. Medicinal plants and Alzheimer's disease: from ethnobotany to phytotherapy.

    PubMed

    Perry, E K; Pickering, A T; Wang, W W; Houghton, P J; Perry, N S

    1999-05-01

    The use of complementary medicines, such as plant extracts, in dementia therapy varies according to the different cultural traditions. In orthodox Western medicine, contrasting with that in China and the Far East for example, pharmacological properties of traditional cognitive- or memory-enhancing plants have not been widely investigated in the context of current models of Alzheimer's disease. An exception is Gingko biloba in which the gingkolides have antioxidant, neuroprotective and cholinergic activities relevant to Alzheimer's disease mechanisms. The therapeutic efficacy of Ginkgo extracts in Alzheimer's disease in placebo controlled clinical trials is reportedly similar to currently prescribed drugs such as tacrine or donepezil and, importantly, undesirable side effects of Gingko are minimal. Old European reference books, such as those on medicinal herbs, document a variety of other plants such as Salvia officinalis (sage) and Melissa officinalis (balm) with memory-improving properties, and cholinergic activities have recently been identified in extracts of these plants. Precedents for modern discovery of clinically relevant pharmacological activity in plants with long-established medicinal use include, for example, the interaction of alkaloid opioids in Papaver somniferum (opium poppy) with endogenous opiate receptors in the brain. With recent major advances in understanding the neurobiology of Alzheimer's disease, and as yet limited efficacy of so-called rationally designed therapies, it may be timely to re-explore historical archives for new directions in drug development. This article considers not only the value of an integrative traditional and modern scientific approach to developing new treatments for dementia, but also in the understanding of disease mechanisms. Long before the current biologically-based hypothesis of cholinergic derangement in Alzheimer' s disease emerged, plants now known to contain cholinergic antagonists were recorded for their amnesia- and dementia-inducing properties. PMID:10411211

  6. Cinnamon: A Multifaceted Medicinal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family. Cinnamon is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. In addition to being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-disease-lowering compound, cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. This review illustrates the pharmacological prospective of cinnamon and its use in daily life. PMID:24817901

  7. Cinnamon: a multifaceted medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family. Cinnamon is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. In addition to being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-disease-lowering compound, cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. This review illustrates the pharmacological prospective of cinnamon and its use in daily life. PMID:24817901

  8. Antimicrobial properties of roots of medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Sini, S; Malathy, N S

    2005-10-01

    Antibacterial properties of hexane, chloroform and aqueous extracts of roots of Acorus calamus, Aristolochia indica, Cyperus rotundus, Desmodium gangeticum, Holostemma ada- kodien and Kaempferia galanga, used in the traditional medicine were studied on Bacillus pumilis and Eschericia coli by disc diffusion method. PMID:22557193

  9. [Research progress of genetic engineering on medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Teng, Zhong-qiu; Shen, Ye

    2015-02-01

    The application of genetic engineering technology in modern agriculture shows its outstanding role in dealing with food shortage. Traditional medicinal plant cultivation and collection have also faced with challenges, such as lack of resources, deterioration of environment, germplasm of recession and a series of problems. Genetic engineering can be used to improve the disease resistance, insect resistance, herbicides resistant ability of medicinal plant, also can improve the medicinal plant yield and increase the content of active substances in medicinal plants. Thus, the potent biotechnology can play an important role in protection and large area planting of medicinal plants. In the development of medicinal plant genetic engineering, the safety of transgenic medicinal plants should also be paid attention to. A set of scientific safety evaluation and judgment standard which is suitable for transgenic medicinal plants should be established based on the recognition of the particularity of medicinal plants. PMID:26137675

  10. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of extracts of Argentinian plants.

    PubMed

    Debenedetti, S; Muschietti, L; van Baren, C; Clavin, M; Broussalis, A; Martino, V; Houghton, P J; Warhurst, D; Steele, J

    2002-05-01

    Fifteen extracts from nine selected Argentine medicinal plants were tested for their antiplasmodial activity in vitro by assessing their ability to inhibit the uptake of [3H]-hypoxanthine into the Plasmodium falciparum K1 pyrimethamine/chloroquine resistant strain. The methanol extract of Satureja parvifolia showed good antiplasmodial activity (IC(50) 3 microg/ml). Inhibition of the growth of P. falciparum was also observed with aqueous extracts of Buddleja globosa and S. parvifolia. PMID:12007706

  11. Efficacy of Composite Extract from Leaves and Fruits of Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Diabetic Therapy against Oxidative Stress in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dileep; Abidi, A. B.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a vital role in diabetic complications. To suppress the oxidative stress mediated damage in diabetic pathophysiology, a special focus has been given on composite extract (CE) and making small dose of naturally occurring antidiabetic plants leaf and fruits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial role of CE against alloxan- (ALX-) induced diabetes of Wistar strain rats. A dose-dependent study for CE (25, 50, and 100?mg/kg body weight) was carried out to find the effective dose of the composite compound in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure elevated the blood glucose, plasma advanced oxidation product (AOPP), sialic acid demonstrating disturbed antioxidant status.CE at a dose of 100?mg/kg body weight restored/minimised these alterations towards normal values. In conclusion, small dose of CE possesses the capability of ameliorating the oxidative stress in ALX-induced diabetes and thus could be a promising approach in lessening diabetic complications. PMID:24729889

  12. In vitro anticancer screening of 24 locally used Nigerian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plants that are used as traditional medicine represent a relevant pool for selecting plant candidates that may have anticancer properties. In this study, the ethnomedicinal approach was used to select several medicinal plants native to Nigeria, on the basis of their local or traditional uses. The collected plants were then evaluated for cytoxicity. Methods The antitumor activity of methanolic extracts obtained from 24 of the selected plants, were evaluated in vitro on five human cancer cell lines. Results Results obtained from the plants screened indicate that 18 plant extracts of folk medicine exhibited promising cytotoxic activity against human carcinoma cell lines. Erythrophleum suaveolens (Guill. & Perr.) Brenan was found to demonstrate potent anti-cancer activity in this study exhibiting IC50 = 0.2-1.3 ?g/ml. Conclusions Based on the significantly potent activity of some plants extracts reported here, further studies aimed at mechanism elucidation and bio-guided isolation of active anticancer compounds is currently underway. PMID:23565862

  13. Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential.

    PubMed

    Grover, J K; Yadav, S; Vats, V

    2002-06-01

    Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for diabetes have shown anti-diabetic property. The present paper reviews 45 such plants and their products (active, natural principles and crude extracts) that have been mentioned/used in the Indian traditional system of medicine and have shown experimental or clinical anti-diabetic activity. Indian plants which are most effective and the most commonly studied in relation to diabetes and their complications are: Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Cajanus cajan, Coccinia indica, Caesalpinia bonducella, Ficus bengalenesis, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Swertia chirayita, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia and Trigonella foenum graecum. Among these we have evaluated M. charantia, Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna pruriens, T. cordifolia, T. foenum graecum, O. sanctum, P. marsupium, Murraya koeingii and Brassica juncea. All plants have shown varying degree of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity. PMID:12020931

  14. Anti-bacterial activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; de Souza Luna, Josiane; dos Santos, Aldenir Feitosa; de Andrade, Maria Cristina Cao; Sant'Ana, Antnio Euzbio Goulart; Genet, Jean-Pierre; Marquez, Batrice; Neuville, Luc; Moreau, Nicole

    2006-04-21

    Extracts from various organs of 25 plants of Brazilian traditional medicine were assayed with respect to their anti-bacterial activities against Escherichia coli, a susceptible strain of Staphylococcus aureus and two resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus harbouring the efflux pumps NorA and MsrA. Amongst the 49 extracts studied, 14 presented anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, including the ethanolic extracts from the rhizome of Jatropha elliptica, from the stem barks of Schinus terebinthifolius and Erythrina mulungu, from the stems and leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis and Serjania lethalis, and from the stem bark and leaves of Lafoensia pacari. The classes of compounds present in the active extracts were determined as a preliminary step towards their bioactivity-guided separation. No extracts were active against Escherichia coli. PMID:16356672

  15. [Mythology and the medicinal plants of antiquity].

    PubMed

    Fabre, André-Julien

    2003-01-01

    In any civilization, nature is closely bound to the world of divinities. This is clearly seen in the Mediterranean world of Antiquity in every reference to the medicinal plants. Our aim, in this study, was to demonstrate the link between mythology and medicine. Through several centuries of medicinal practice, appears a therapeutic knowledge close to become a science. In spite of many gaps, errors and illusions thus emerges a first attempt to master the art of healing. Is it possible to speculate on a new type of drug research guided from ancient texts? Ethnopharmacology investigating medicinal traditions of the world has already obtained in this field some spectacular findings. At the moment, it would be difficult to predict the future of archeopharmacology but as Paul Valery said: "Present is nothing else than a future nutriment for the past". PMID:12797322

  16. Antimicrobial activity of selected South African medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nearly 3,000 plant species are used as medicines in South Africa, with approximately 350 species forming the most commonly traded and used medicinal plants. In the present study, twelve South African medicinal plants were selected and tested for their antimicrobial activities against eight microbial species belonging to fungi, Mycobacteria, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods The radiometric respiratory technique using the BACTEC 460 system was used for susceptibility testing against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the liquid micro-broth dilution was used for other antimicrobial assays. Results The results of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations indicated that the methanol extracts from Acacia karoo, Erythrophleum lasianthum and Salvia africana were able to prevent the growth of all the tested microorganisms. All other samples showed selective activities. MIC values below 100 μg/ml were recorded with A. karoo, C. dentate, E. lasianthum, P. obligun and S. africana on at least one of the nine tested microorganisms. The best activity (MIC value of 39.06 μg/ml) was noted with S. africana against E. coli, S. aureus and M. audouinii, and Knowltonia vesitoria against M. tuberculosis. Conclusion The overall results of the present work provide baseline information for the possible use of the studied South African plant extracts in the treatment of microbial infections. PMID:22704594

  17. Antiangiogenic Activity and Pharmacogenomics of Medicinal Plants from Traditional Korean Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ean-Jeong; Kuete, Victor; Krusche, Benjamin; Schröder, Sven; Greten, Henry Johannes; Arend, Joachim; Lee, Ik-Soo; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Aim. In the present study, we investigated the antiangiogenic properties of 59 plants used in traditional Korean medicine. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their modes of action. Methods. A modified chicken-chorioallantoic-membrane (CAM) assay using quail eggs was applied to test for antiangiogenic effects of plant extracts. A molecular docking in silico approached the binding of plant constituents to the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (VEGFR1, VEGFR2). Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling was employed to correlate the 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) of a panel of 60 NCI cell lines to these phytochemicals. Results. Extracts from Acer mono leaves, Reynoutria sachalniensis fruits, Cinnamomum japonicum stems, Eurya japonica leaves, Adenophora racemosa whole plant, Caryopteris incana leaves-stems, and Schisandra chinensis stems inhibited angiogenesis more than 50% in quail eggs. Selected phytochemicals from Korean plants were analyzed in more detail using microarray-based mRNA expression profiles and molecular docking to VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. These results indicate multifactorial modes of action of these natural products. Conclusion. The antiangiogenic activity of plants used in traditional Korean medicine implicates their possible application for diseases where inhibition of blood vessel formation is desired, for example, cancer, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and others. PMID:23970927

  18. Novel Approach to Identify Potential Bioactive Plant Metabolites: Pharmacological and Metabolomics Analyses of Ethanol and Hot Water Extracts of Several Canadian Medicinal Plants of the Cree of Eeyou Istchee.

    PubMed

    Shang, Nan; Saleem, Ammar; Musallam, Lina; Walshe-Roussel, Brendan; Badawi, Alaa; Cuerrier, Alain; Arnason, John T; Haddad, Pierre S

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated and compared the antidiabetic potential and molecular mechanisms of 17 Cree plants' ethanol extracts (EE) and hot water extracts (HWE) on glucose homeostasis in vitro and used metabolomics to seek links with the content of specific phytochemicals. Several EE of medical plants stimulated muscle glucose uptake and inhibited hepatic G6Pase activity. Some HWE partially or completely lost these antidiabetic activities in comparison to EE. Only R. groenlandicum retained similar potential between EE and HWE in both assays. In C2C12 muscle cells, EE of R. groenlandicum, A. incana and S. purpurea stimulated glucose uptake by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway and increasing glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) expression. In comparison to EE, HWE of R. groenlandicum exhibited similar activities; HWE of A. incana completely lost its effect on all parameters; interestingly, HWE of S. purpurea activated insulin pathway instead of AMPK pathway to increase glucose uptake. In the liver, for a subset of 5 plants, HWE and EE activated AMPK pathway whereas the EE and HWE of S. purpurea and K. angustifolia also activated insulin pathways. Quercetin-3-O-galactoside and quercetin 3-O-?-L-arabinopyranoside, were successfully identified by discriminant analysis as biomarkers of HWE plant extracts that stimulate glucose uptake in vitro. More importantly, the latter compound was not identified by previous bioassay-guided fractionation. PMID:26263160

  19. Antimalarial activities of medicinal plants and herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Thiengsusuk, Artitaya; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2013-04-01

    Malaria is one of the world's leading killer infectious diseases with high incidence and morbidity. The problem of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has been aggravating particularly in Southeast Asia. Therefore, development of new potential antimalarial drugs is urgently required. The present study aimed to investigate antimalarial activities of a total of 27 medicinal plants and 5 herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine against chloroquine-resistant (K1) and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) P. falciparum clones. Antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of all plants/herbal formulations against K1 and 3D7 P. falciparum clones was assessed using SYBR Green I-based assay. All plants were initially screened at the concentration of 50 μg/ml to select the candidate plants that inhibited malaria growth by ≥50%. Each candidate plant was further assessed for the IC50 value (concentration that inhibits malaria growth by 50%) to select the potential plants. Selectivity index (SI) of each extract was determined from the IC50 ratio obtained from human renal epithelial cell and K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone. The ethanolic extracts from 19 medicinal plants/herbal formulation exhibited promising activity against both K1 and 3D7 clones of P. falciparum with survival of less than 50% at the concentration of 50 μg/ml. Among these, the extracts from the eight medicinal plants (Plumbago indica Linn., Garcinia mangostana Linn., Dracaena loureiri Gagnep., Dioscorea membranacea Pierre., Artemisia annua Linn., Piper chaba Hunt., Myristica fragrans Houtt., Kaempferia galanga Linn.) and two herbal formulations (Benjakul Formulation 1 and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai Formulation) showed potent antimalarial activity with median range IC50 values of less than 10 μg/ml against K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone or both. All except G. mangostana Linn. and A. annua Linn. showed high selective antimalarial activity against both clones with SI>10. Further studies on antimalarial activities in an animal model including molecular mechanisms of action of the isolated active moieties are required. PMID:23340720

  20. Evaluation of three medicinal plants for anti-microbial activity

    PubMed Central

    Pratap, Gowd M. J. S; Manoj, Kumar M. G.; Sai, Shankar A. J.; Sujatha, B.; Sreedevi, E.

    2012-01-01

    Herbal remedies have a long history of use for gum and tooth problems such as dental caries. The present microbiological study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinal plants (Terminalia chebula Retz., Clitoria ternatea Linn., and Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck.) Merr.) on three pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Staphylococcus aureus). Aqueous extract concentrations (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%) were prepared from the fruits of Terminalia chebula, flowers of Clitoria ternatea, and leaves of Wedelia chinensis. The antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extract concentrations of each plant was tested using agar well diffusion method and the size of the inhibition zone was measured in millimeters. The results obtained showed that the diameter of zone of inhibition increased with increase in concentration of extract and the antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extracts of the three plants was observed in the increasing order Wedelia chinensis < Clitoria ternatea < Terminalia chebula. It can be concluded that the tested extracts of all the three plants were effective against dental caries causing bacteria. PMID:23723653

  1. Evaluation of three medicinal plants for anti-microbial activity.

    PubMed

    Pratap, Gowd M J S; Manoj, Kumar M G; Sai, Shankar A J; Sujatha, B; Sreedevi, E

    2012-07-01

    Herbal remedies have a long history of use for gum and tooth problems such as dental caries. The present microbiological study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinal plants (Terminalia chebula Retz., Clitoria ternatea Linn., and Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck.) Merr.) on three pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Staphylococcus aureus). Aqueous extract concentrations (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%) were prepared from the fruits of Terminalia chebula, flowers of Clitoria ternatea, and leaves of Wedelia chinensis. The antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extract concentrations of each plant was tested using agar well diffusion method and the size of the inhibition zone was measured in millimeters. The results obtained showed that the diameter of zone of inhibition increased with increase in concentration of extract and the antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extracts of the three plants was observed in the increasing order - Wedelia chinensis < Clitoria ternatea < Terminalia chebula. It can be concluded that the tested extracts of all the three plants were effective against dental caries causing bacteria. PMID:23723653

  2. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

  3. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae),Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25373231

  4. Bioactivity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants against the Cotton Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Hammad, E. Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A.; Saliba, N.; Talhouk, S.

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

  5. Bioactivity evaluation against Artemia salina Leach of medicinal plants used in Brazilian Northeastern folk medicine.

    PubMed

    Arcanjo, D D R; Albuquerque, A C M; Melo-Neto, B; Santana, L C L R; Medeiros, M G F; Citó, Amgl

    2012-08-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality bioassay offers an advantage in standardization and quality control of botanical products. This test is well correlated with antitumor activity (cytotoxicity) and can be used to monitor the activity of bioactive natural products. This paper reports the bioactivity of ethanol extracts from seven medicinal plants from the Northeast of Brazil (Acmella uliginosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Eugenia uniflora, Plectranthus neochilus, Moringa oleifera, Justicia pectoralis and Equisetum sp.) against Artemia salina. Biological activity was evaluated for extracts at 1, 10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL in triplicate, and the mean lethal concentration values (LC50) were obtained by probit analysis. The species Acmella uliginosa showed the highest bioactivity, and its flower extract was more active than its leaf extract. PMID:22990821

  6. Antiviral Activity of Some Plants Used in Nepalese Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Rajbhandari, M.; Mentel, R.; Jha, P. K.; Chaudhary, R. P.; Bhattarai, S.; Gewali, M. B.; Karmacharya, N.; Hipper, M.

    2009-01-01

    Methanolic extracts of 41 plant species belonging to 27 families used in the traditional medicine in Nepal have been investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and influenza virus A by dye uptake assay in the systems HSV-1/Vero cells and influenza virus A/MDCK cells. The extracts of Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Cassiope fastigiata and Thymus linearis showed potent anti-herpes viral activity. The extracts of Allium oreoprasum, Androsace strigilosa, Asparagus filicinus, Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata and Verbascum thapsus exhibited strong anti-influenza viral activity. Only the extracts of A. rivularis and B. ciliata demonstrated remarkable activity against both viruses. PMID:18955262

  7. Novel Approach to Identify Potential Bioactive Plant Metabolites: Pharmacological and Metabolomics Analyses of Ethanol and Hot Water Extracts of Several Canadian Medicinal Plants of the Cree of Eeyou Istchee

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Nan; Saleem, Ammar; Musallam, Lina; Walshe-Roussel, Brendan; Badawi, Alaa; Cuerrier, Alain; Arnason, John T.; Haddad, Pierre S.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated and compared the antidiabetic potential and molecular mechanisms of 17 Cree plants’ ethanol extracts (EE) and hot water extracts (HWE) on glucose homeostasis in vitro and used metabolomics to seek links with the content of specific phytochemicals. Several EE of medical plants stimulated muscle glucose uptake and inhibited hepatic G6Pase activity. Some HWE partially or completely lost these antidiabetic activities in comparison to EE. Only R. groenlandicum retained similar potential between EE and HWE in both assays. In C2C12 muscle cells, EE of R. groenlandicum, A. incana and S. purpurea stimulated glucose uptake by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway and increasing glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) expression. In comparison to EE, HWE of R. groenlandicum exhibited similar activities; HWE of A. incana completely lost its effect on all parameters; interestingly, HWE of S. purpurea activated insulin pathway instead of AMPK pathway to increase glucose uptake. In the liver, for a subset of 5 plants, HWE and EE activated AMPK pathway whereas the EE and HWE of S. purpurea and K. angustifolia also activated insulin pathways. Quercetin-3-O-galactoside and quercetin 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside, were successfully identified by discriminant analysis as biomarkers of HWE plant extracts that stimulate glucose uptake in vitro. More importantly, the latter compound was not identified by previous bioassay-guided fractionation. PMID:26263160

  8. Microbicidal effect of medicinal plant extracts (Psidium guajava Linn. and Carica papaya Linn.) upon bacteria isolated from fish muscle and known to induce diarrhea in children.

    PubMed

    Vieira, R H; Rodrigues, D P; Gonalves, F A; Menezes, F G; Arago, J S; Sousa, O V

    2001-01-01

    Out of the twenty-four samples of shrimp and fish muscle used for this study, twelve were collected near a large marine sewer for waste disposal, 3 km off the coast of Fortaleza (Brazil) and used for the isolation of E. coli. Other twelve were collected at the Mucuripe fresh fish market (Fortaleza, Brazil) and used for the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus. Ethanol, water and acetone-diluted extracts of guava and papaya leaf sprouts were tested on the bacteria in order to verify their microbicidal potential. The E. coli strains used in the trials were rated LT positive. The papaya leaf extracts (Carica papaya Linn) showed no microbicidal activity while the guava sprout extracts (Psidium guajava Linn) displayed halos exceeding 13 mm for both species, an effect considered to be inhibitory by the method employed. Guava sprout extracts by 50% diluted ethanol most effectively inhibited E. coli (EPEC), while those in 50% acetone were less effective. It may be concluded that guava sprout extracts constitute a feasible treatment option for diarrhea caused by E. coli or by S. aureus-produced toxins, due to their quick curative action, easy availability in tropical countries and low cost to the consumer. PMID:11452322

  9. Induction of seed germination in Orobanche spp. by extracts of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Ma, YongQing; Zhang, Wei; Dong, ShuQi; Ren, XiangXiang; An, Yu; Lang, Ming

    2012-03-01

    The co-evolution of Orobanche spp. and their hosts within the same environment has resulted in a high degree of adaptation and effective parasitism whereby the host releases parasite germination stimulants, which are likely to be unstable in the soil. Our objective was to investigate whether extracts from non-host plants, specifically, Chinese medicinal plants, could stimulate germination of Orobanche spp. Samples of 606 Chinese medicinal herb species were extracted with deionized water and methanol. The extracts were used to induce germination of three Orobanche species; Orobanche minor, Orobanche cumana, and Orobanche aegyptiaca. O. minor exhibited a wide range of germination responses to the various herbal extracts. O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca exhibited an intermediate germination response to the herbal extracts. O. minor, which has a narrow host spectrum, showed higher germination rates in response to different herbal extracts compared with those of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca, which have a broader host spectrum. Methanolic extracts of many Chinese herbal species effectively stimulated seed germination among the Orobanche spp., even though they were not the typical hosts. The effective herbs represent interesting examples of potential trap crops. Different countries can also screen extracts from indigenous herbaceous plants for their ability to induce germination of Orobanche spp. seeds. The use of such species as trap plants could diminish the global soil seed bank of Orobanche. PMID:22527522

  10. [Computer evaluation of hidden potential of phytochemicals of medicinal plants of the traditional Indian ayurvedic medicine].

    PubMed

    Lagunin, A A; Druzhilovsky, D S; Rudik, A V; Filimonov, D A; Gawande, D; Suresh, K; Goel, R; Poroikov, V V

    2015-01-01

    Applicability of our computer programs PASS and PharmaExpert to prediction of biological activity spectra of rather complex and structurally diverse phytocomponents of medicinal plants, both separately and in combinations has been evaluated. The web-resource on phytochemicals of 50 medicinal plants used in Ayurveda was created for the study of hidden therapeutic potential of Traditional Indian Medicine (TIM) (http://ayurveda.pharmaexpert.ru). It contains information on 50 medicinal plants, their using in TIM and their pharmacology activities, also as 1906 phytocomponents. PASS training set was updated by addition of information about 946 natural compounds; then the training procedure and validation were performed, to estimate the quality of PASS prediction. It was shown that the difference between the average accuracy of prediction obtained in leave-5%-out cross-validation (94,467%) and in leave-one-out cross-validation (94,605%) is very small. These results showed high predictive ability of the program. Results of biological activity spectra prediction for all phytocomponents included in our database are in good correspondence with the experimental data. Additional kinds of biological activity predicted with high probability provide the information about most promising directions of further studies. The analysis of prediction results of sets of phytocomponents in each of 50 medicinal plants was made by PharmaExpert software. Based on this analysis, we found that the combination of phytocomponents from Passiflora incarnata may exhibit nootropic, anticonvulsant and antidepressant effects. Experiments carried out in mice models confirmed the predicted effects of Passiflora incarnata extracts. PMID:25978395

  11. Comparative hypoglycemic activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of four medicinal plants (Acanthus montanus, Asystasia gangetica, Emilia coccinea and Hibiscus rosasinensis) in Type I diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Ojiako, Okey Alphonsus; Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Ogbuji, Agomuo Chizaramoku

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study ascertained the capacities of crude aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Acanthus montanus (ACMO), Asystasia gangetica (ASGA), Emilia coccinea (EMCO), and Hibiscus rosasinensis (HIRO), as well as their combinatorial formulations to ameliorate hyperglycemia in Type I diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Hyperglycemia was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution (pH = 7.4) dosage = 120 mg/kg; bw. Individual hyperglycemic rats (HyGR) received separate doses of either 20 mg/kg bw/24 h of ACMO, ASGA, EMCO or HIRO, as well as their combinatorial formulations (AAEH) for 14 days. Preparation of aqueous extracts (AQx) and ethanolic extracts (ETHx) of the four herbal samples was according to standard methods. Blood samples were drawn from 12 h post-fasted rats at regular intervals of 24 h for 14 days and measured for fasting blood glucose concentration (FBGC) using the glucose oxidase spectrophotometric method. Results: Cumulatively, ETHx of the herbal samples exhibited the greater capacity to lower FBGC in HyGR than that of the AQx. ETHx of AAEH exhibited the highest capacity to lower FBGC in HyGR by 53.55 ± 1.04%, whereas AQx of EMCO exhibited the lowest capacity to lower FBGC, which corresponded to 36.19 ± 0.88%. Conclusion: The study showed that ETHx of the herbal samples were comparatively more potent than the corresponding AQx as agents of glycemic control and for the management of hyperglycemia. Furthermore, the combination of the herbal extracts synergistically improved the therapeutic potentials of the individual herbal extracts. PMID:26401413

  12. In vitro leishmanicidal activity of some Cameroonian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Donfack J; Cline, Nkenfou; Michel, Noubom; Gogulamudi, V Reddy; Florence, Ngueguim T; Johnson, Boampong N; Bonaventure, Ngadjui T; Singh, Inder P; Sehgal, Rakesh

    2013-07-01

    Eleven plants used in the Cameroonian traditional medicine for the treatment of some parasitic infections were tested for their activity on the promastigote form of Leishmania donovani. After incubation with different plant extracts at doses of 1600, 800, 400 and 200 microgram/mL, the evaluation of the cell viability was done by the trypan blue exclusion technique and by flow cytometry. This study shows that 48 h after incubation of promastigotes with plant extract, Solanocia mannii and Solanum torvum significantly inhibited the proliferation of promastigotes in culture with IC50 of 60.785.05 and 96.084.39 using the trypan blue exclusion technique. In addition, IC50 of 43.916.49 and 86.134.30 were obtained using the flow cytometry technique. Furthermore, 24 h after incubation of promastigotes with the Solanocia mannii and Solanum torvum, there was significant disruption of their long spindle shaped bodies. The results of this study support the popular uses of these plants for the treatment of some parasitic infections in Cameroonian folk medicine. PMID:23562881

  13. Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Sartoratto, Adilson; Rehder, Vera Lcia Garcia; Delarmelina, Camila

    2005-02-28

    Essential oils and ethanolic extracts from the leaves and/or roots of 35 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened for anti-Candida albicans activity. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system. Essential oils from 13 plants showed anti-Candida activity, including Aloysia triphylla, Anthemis nobilis, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cyperus articulatus, Cyperus rotundus, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Mikania glomerata, Mentha piperita, Mentha sp., Stachys byzantina, and Solidago chilensis. The ethanol extract was not effective at any of the concentrations tested. Chemical analyses showed the presence of compounds with known antimicrobial activity, including 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, and menthol. PMID:15707770

  14. Quorum Sensing Inhibitors for Staphylococcus aureus from Italian Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Quave, Cassandra L.; Plano, Lisa R.W.; Bennett, Bradley C.

    2010-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality estimates due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections continue to rise. Therapeutic options are limited by antibiotic resistance. Anti-pathogenic compounds, which inhibit quorum sensing (QS) pathways, may be a useful alternative to antibiotics. Staphylococcal QS is encoded by the agr locus and is responsible for the production of δ-hemolysin. Quantification of δ-hemolysin found in culture supernatants permits the analysis of agr activity at the translational, rather than transcriptional, level. We employed RP-HPLC techniques to investigate the anti-QS activity of 168 extracts from 104 Italian plants through quantification of δ-hemolysin. Extracts from three medicinal plants (Ballota nigra, Castanea sativa, and Sambucus ebulus) exhibited a dose-dependent response in the production of δ-hemolysin, indicating strong anti-QS activity in a pathogenic MRSA isolate. PMID:20645243

  15. Effects of Three Medicinal Plants Extracts in Experimental Diabetes: Antioxidant Enzymes Activities and Plasma Lipids Profiles inComparison with Metformin

    PubMed Central

    Fehresti Sani, Mohammad; Montasser Kouhsari, Shideh; Moradabadi, Leila

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effects of methanolic extracts of the bulbs of Garlic (Allium sativum L., Alliaceae) and Persian shallot (Allium ascalonicum L., Alliaceae ) and leaves of Sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae ), ASE, AAE and SOE respectively, on the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) activities and on the levels of plasma lipids profiles such as triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) in Alloxan diabetic Wistar rats. In comparison with diabetic control rats in diabetic treated rats, AAE increases the activities of SOD (65%), GPX (43%) and CAT (55%). ASE and SOE increase SOD activity by 60% and 33% respectively. ASE reduces TC (34%), SOE decreases TG (40%) and LDL (30%) and AAE reduces VLDL (24%). Metformin exhibits mild antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. Results of quantitative phytochemical analysis show that the methanolic garlic and Persian shallot bulbs extracts contain secondary metabolites including alkaloids (3.490% and 3.430%), glycosides (18.023% and 13.301%) and saponins (0.812% and 0.752%). Methanolic sage leaves extract contains flavonoids (1.014%), glycosides (23.142%) and saponins (2.096%). The total phenolic contents of ASE, AAE and SOE were in order 4.273, 3.621 and 6.548 mg GAE/g dry weight (DW). These results suggest that Allium sativum, Allium ascalonicum and Salvia officinalis are beneficial in the control of diabetes by noticeable antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. PMID:24250517

  16. Effects of Three Medicinal Plants Extracts in Experimental Diabetes: Antioxidant Enzymes Activities and Plasma Lipids Profiles inComparison with Metformin.

    PubMed

    Fehresti Sani, Mohammad; Montasser Kouhsari, Shideh; Moradabadi, Leila

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effects of methanolic extracts of the bulbs of Garlic (Allium sativum L., Alliaceae) and Persian shallot (Allium ascalonicum L., Alliaceae ) and leaves of Sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae ), ASE, AAE and SOE respectively, on the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) activities and on the levels of plasma lipids profiles such as triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) in Alloxan diabetic Wistar rats. In comparison with diabetic control rats in diabetic treated rats, AAE increases the activities of SOD (65%), GPX (43%) and CAT (55%). ASE and SOE increase SOD activity by 60% and 33% respectively. ASE reduces TC (34%), SOE decreases TG (40%) and LDL (30%) and AAE reduces VLDL (24%). Metformin exhibits mild antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. Results of quantitative phytochemical analysis show that the methanolic garlic and Persian shallot bulbs extracts contain secondary metabolites including alkaloids (3.490% and 3.430%), glycosides (18.023% and 13.301%) and saponins (0.812% and 0.752%). Methanolic sage leaves extract contains flavonoids (1.014%), glycosides (23.142%) and saponins (2.096%). The total phenolic contents of ASE, AAE and SOE were in order 4.273, 3.621 and 6.548 mg GAE/g dry weight (DW). These results suggest that Allium sativum, Allium ascalonicum and Salvia officinalis are beneficial in the control of diabetes by noticeable antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. PMID:24250517

  17. [Issues of large scale tissue culture of medicinal plant].

    PubMed

    Lv, Dong-Mei; Yuan, Yuan; Zhan, Zhi-Lai

    2014-09-01

    In order to increase the yield and quality of the medicinal plant and enhance the competitive power of industry of medicinal plant in our country, this paper analyzed the status, problem and countermeasure of the tissue culture of medicinal plant on large scale. Although the biotechnology is one of the most efficient and promising means in production of medicinal plant, it still has problems such as stability of the material, safety of the transgenic medicinal plant and optimization of cultured condition. Establishing perfect evaluation system according to the characteristic of the medicinal plant is the key measures to assure the sustainable development of the tissue culture of medicinal plant on large scale. PMID:25522641

  18. Efficacy of aqueous plant extract in disinfecting water of different physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Kirui, J K; Kotut, K; Okemo, P O

    2015-09-01

    This study explored the possibility of disinfecting water using aqueous extracts of medicinal plants. Seven medicinal plants used by Samburu herbalists for the treatment of stomach illnesses were investigated for water disinfection. Aqueous extracts of the dried powdered plant material were directly used to treat the water samples collected. Efficacy of water treatment with medicinal plants expressed as percentage reduction in bacterial colonies revealed that Acacia nilotica extract with a mean percentage reduction of 99.86% was the most effective at reducing the number of bacterial colonies. Albizia anthelmintica extract with a mean of 9.47% was the least effective at reducing the number of bacterial colonies. The study also revealed a possible interaction between plant extracts and water source (P<0.05, df=54). The results obtained in this study point out a possibility of using aqueous extracts from A. nilotica in disinfecting water of different physicochemical properties. PMID:26322770

  19. Characterization of cysteine proteases in Malian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Bah, Skou; Paulsen, Berit S; Diallo, Drissa; Johansen, Harald T

    2006-09-19

    Extracts form 10 different Malian medicinal plants with a traditional use against schistosomiasis were investigated for their possible content of proteolytic activity. The proteolytic activity was studied by measuring the hydrolysis of two synthetic peptide substrates Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec and Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec. Legumain- and papain-like activities were found in all tested crude extracts except those from Entada africana, with the papain-like activity being the strongest. Cissus quadrangularis, Securidaca longepedunculata and Stylosanthes erecta extracts showed high proteolytic activities towards both substrates. After gel filtration the proteolytic activity towards the substrate Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec in root extract of Securidaca longepedunculata appeared to have Mr of 30 and 97kDa, while the activity in extracts from Cissus quadrangularis was at 39kDa. Enzymatic activity cleaving the substrate Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec showed apparent Mr of 97 and 26kDa in extracts from roots and leaves of Securidaca longepedunculata, while in Cissus quadrangularis extracts the activity eluted at 39 and 20kDa, with the highest activity in the latter. All Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec activities were inhibited by E-64 but unaffected by PMSF. The legumain activity was unaffected by E-64 and PMSF. The SDS-PAGE analysis exhibited five distinct gelatinolytic bands for Cissus quadrangularis extracts (115, 59, 31, 22 and 20kDa), while two bands (59 and 30kDa) were detected in Securidaca longepedunculata extracts. The inhibition profile of the gelatinolytic bands and that of the hydrolysis of the synthetic substrates indicate the cysteine protease class of the proteolytic activities. Several cysteine protease activities with different molecular weights along with a strong variability of these activities between species as well as between plant parts from the same species were observed. PMID:16621376

  20. Antitrypanosomal screening and cytotoxic effects of selected medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Dyary, H O; Arifah, A K; Sharma, R S; Rasedee, A; Mohd-Aspollah, M S; Zakaria, Z A; Zuraini, A; Somchit, M N

    2014-03-01

    Trypanosoma evansi, the causative agent of "surra", infects many species of wild and domestic animals worldwide. In the current study, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of six medicinal plants, namely, Aquilaria malaccensis, Derris elliptica, Garcinia hombroniana, Goniothalamus umbrosus, Nigella sativa, and Strobilanthes crispus were screened in vitro for activity against T. evansi. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts was evaluated on green monkey kidney (Vero) cells using MTT-cell proliferation assay. The median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of the extracts ranged between 2.30 and 800.97 ?g/ml and the median cytotoxic concentrations (CC50) ranged between 29.10 ?g/ml and 14.53 mg/ml. The aqueous extract of G. hombroniana exhibited the highest selectivity index (SI) value of 616.36, followed by A. malaccensis aqueous extract (47.38). Phytochemical screening of the G. hombroniana aqueous extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenols, tannins, and saponins. It is demonstrated here that the aqueous extract of G. hombroniana has potential antitrypanosomal activity with a high SI, and may be considered as a potential source for the development of new antitrypanosomal compounds. PMID:24862048

  1. Plant crude extracts could be the solution: extracts showing in vivo antitumorigenic activity.

    PubMed

    Amara, A A; El-Masry, M H; Bogdady, H H

    2008-04-01

    Screening active compounds from plants lead to discover new medicinal drugs which have efficient protection and treatment roles against various diseases including cancer. In our study, extracts from different plants represent seeds of: Gossypium barbadense, Ricinus communis, Sesamum indicum, Nigella sativa, Vinca rosea and Melia azedarah; fruits of: Xanthium occidental; flowers of: Atriplex nummularia; barks of: Cinnamomum zeylanicum; latex of: Ficus carica and rhizomes of: Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale were tested in vivo using three subsequent bioassays: the BST (Brine Shrimp Toxicity bioassay), AWD (Agar well diffusion antimicrobial bioassay) and AtPDT (Agrobacterium tumefaciens Potato Disc Tumor bioassay). AWD technique omitted any extracts have antimicrobial activities while BST omitted any extract did not has physiological activity and determined the various LC(50) of each plant extract. For the first time, using a range of concentrations in the AtPDT modified protocol allowed the detection of tumor promotion caused by extract represented by A. nummularia. Using cluster analysis leads to classifying the different plant extracts activities to six groups regarding to their toxicity, antitumor activities and both of them. The extracts from edible plants represent 50% of the first and the second group which have the highest antitumor activities represented in F. caraica (group 1) and C. longa (group 2) as well as the non-edible plant extracts of Gossypium barbadense and Ricinus communis. A comparison study between the edible and herbaceous plants different extracts for their antitumor activities was performed. We recommended using the modified protocols used in this study for investigating more plants and using crude plant extracts which have antitumor activities in cancer treatment. Edible plants, which show in vivo antitumor activities, are recommended as save sources for antitumor compounds. PMID:18390447

  2. In vitro anti-leukemic and antiviral activities of traditionally used medicinal plants in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Lien-Chai; Cheng, Hua-Yew; Chen, Chi-Chain; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2004-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been historically used as treatment for different kinds of human diseases. In this study, hot water (HW) extract of five Taiwanese traditionally used medicinal plants was evaluated for their in vitro anti-leukemic (including anti-K562, L1210, P3HR1, Raji and U937 leukemia cells) and antiviral (including HSV-1 and HSV-2) activities. Results showed that Blumea lacera exhibited broad anti-leukemic activity at magnitudes ranging from moderate to mild and Ixeris chinensis is effective at inhibiting the proliferation of K562 cells. B. lacera and Tithonia diversifolia suppressed the replication of HSV-1 and HSV-2, and had IC50 values below 100 microg/ml. The medicinal plants showed no cytotoxic effect at concentrations that inhibited HSV infection. It was, therefore, concluded that the HW extract of tested medicinal plants exhibited anti-leukemic and antiviral activities at different magnitudes of potency. PMID:15633805

  3. Activations of Both Extrinsic and Intrinsic Pathways in HCT 116 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells Contribute to Apoptosis through p53-Mediated ATM/Fas Signaling by Emilia sonchifolia Extract, a Folklore Medicinal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Yu-Hsuan; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Huang, Wen-Wen; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Chung, Jing-Gung; Wu, Tian-Shung; Jhan, Jia-Hua; Lin, Kuei-Li; Pai, Shu-Jen; Chiu, Yu-Jen; Tsuzuki, Minoru; Yang, Jai-Sing

    2012-01-01

    Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC (Compositae), an herbaceous plant found in Taiwan and India, is used as folk medicine. The clinical applications include inflammation, rheumatism, cough, cuts fever, dysentery, analgesic, and antibacteria. The activities of Emilia sonchifolia extract (ESE) on colorectal cancer cell death have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study explored the induction of apoptosis and its molecular mechanisms in ESE-treated HCT 116 human colorectal cancer cells in vitro. The methanolic ESE was characterized, and ?-humulene was formed as the major constituent (63.86%). ESE induced cell growth inhibition in a concentration- and time-dependent response by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells (DNA fragmentation, an apoptotic catachrestic) were found after ESE treatment by TUNEL assay and DNA gel electrophoresis. Alternatively, ESE stimulated the activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and their specific caspase inhibitors protected against ESE-induced cytotoxicity. ESE promoted the mitochondria-dependent and death-receptor-associated protein levels. Also, ESE increased ROS production and upregulated the levels of ATM, p53, and Fas in HCT 116 cells. Strikingly, p53 siRNA reversed ESE-reduced viability involved in p53-mediated ATM/Fas signaling in HCT 116 cells. In summary, our result is the first report suggesting that ESE may be potentially efficacious in the treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:22474491

  4. Activations of Both Extrinsic and Intrinsic Pathways in HCT 116 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells Contribute to Apoptosis through p53-Mediated ATM/Fas Signaling by Emilia sonchifolia Extract, a Folklore Medicinal Plant.

    PubMed

    Lan, Yu-Hsuan; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Huang, Wen-Wen; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Chung, Jing-Gung; Wu, Tian-Shung; Jhan, Jia-Hua; Lin, Kuei-Li; Pai, Shu-Jen; Chiu, Yu-Jen; Tsuzuki, Minoru; Yang, Jai-Sing

    2012-01-01

    Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC (Compositae), an herbaceous plant found in Taiwan and India, is used as folk medicine. The clinical applications include inflammation, rheumatism, cough, cuts fever, dysentery, analgesic, and antibacteria. The activities of Emilia sonchifolia extract (ESE) on colorectal cancer cell death have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study explored the induction of apoptosis and its molecular mechanisms in ESE-treated HCT 116 human colorectal cancer cells in vitro. The methanolic ESE was characterized, and ?-humulene was formed as the major constituent (63.86%). ESE induced cell growth inhibition in a concentration- and time-dependent response by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells (DNA fragmentation, an apoptotic catachrestic) were found after ESE treatment by TUNEL assay and DNA gel electrophoresis. Alternatively, ESE stimulated the activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and their specific caspase inhibitors protected against ESE-induced cytotoxicity. ESE promoted the mitochondria-dependent and death-receptor-associated protein levels. Also, ESE increased ROS production and upregulated the levels of ATM, p53, and Fas in HCT 116 cells. Strikingly, p53 siRNA reversed ESE-reduced viability involved in p53-mediated ATM/Fas signaling in HCT 116 cells. In summary, our result is the first report suggesting that ESE may be potentially efficacious in the treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:22474491

  5. The transillumination technique as a method for the assessment of spermatogenesis using medicinal plants: the effect of extracts of black maca (Lepidium meyenii) and camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) on stages of the spermatogenic cycle in male rats.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Vasquez, Vanessa Bertha; Gasco, Manuel

    2013-10-01

    Transillumination technique for assessment of stages of spermatogenic cycle is a useful tool for toxicological studies. This study was designed to determine the effect of two medicinal plants on spermatogenesis in male rats using the transillumination technique. For this, the effect of the combination of a fruit with highest content of ascorbic acid (Myrciaria dubia, camu camu) and extract of black maca (Lepidium meyenii) on seminiferous tubule stages scored by transillumination on intact tubules in adult male rats was assessed. Animals were treated during seven days with vehicle, black maca, camu camu or a mixture of black maca?+?camu camu and assessed for daily sperm production (DSP), stages of spermatogenic cycle as well as antioxidant activity and levels of flavonoids and polyphenols. Black maca increased stages of spermiation (VII-VIII) and mitosis of germ cells (IX-XI), whereas camu camu increased stages of mitosis (IX-XI) and meiosis (XII). Mixture of maca?+?camu camu increased stages of spermiation, mitosis and meiosis. All treatments increased DSP (p<0.05) and epididymal sperm count (p<0.05). Total polyphenols, flavonoids levels and antioxidant activity were higher in camu camu (p<0.001) than in black maca. In conclusion, M. dubia (camu camu) has potential effects improving spermatogenesis and co-administered with maca increase stages of mitosis, meiosis and spermiation of the spermatogenic cycle as assessed by the transillumination technique. This technique is becoming increasingly a useful tool for assessment spermatogenesis. PMID:23650963

  6. [Use of medicinal plants against scorpionic and ophidian venoms].

    PubMed

    Memmi, A; Sansa, G; Rjeibi, I; El Ayeb, M; Srairi-Abid, N; Bellasfer, Z; Fekhih, A

    2007-01-01

    The scorpionic and ophidian envenomations are a serious public health problem in Tunisia especially in Southeastern regions. In these regions Artemisia campestris L is a plant well known which has a very important place in traditional medicine for its effectiveness against alleged venom of scorpions and snakes. In this work, we tested for the first time, the anti-venomous activity of Artemisia campestris L against the scorpion Androctonus australis garzonii and the viper Macrovipera lebetina venoms. Assays were conducted by fixing the dose of extract to3 mg/mouse while doses of venom are variable. The leaves of Artemisia campestris L were extracted by various organic solvents (Ether of oil, ethyl acetate, methanol and ethanol) and each extract was tested for its venom neutralizing capacity. For the ethanolic extract, a significant activity with respect to the venoms of scorpion Androctonus australis garzonii (Aag), was detected. Similarly, a significant neutralizing activity against the venom of a viper Macrovipera lebetina (Ml), was obtained with the dichloromethane extract. These results suggest the presence of two different type of chemical components in this plant: those neutralizing the venom of scorpion are soluble in ethanol whereas those neutralizing the venom of viper are soluble in dichloromethane. PMID:19388583

  7. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of some Philippine medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Chichioco-Hernandez, Christine; Wudarski, Jakub; Gevaert, Lieven; Verschaeve, Luc

    2011-01-01

    The genotoxicity and toxicity of ethnomedicinal Philippine plants, which include Cassia fistula, Derris elliptica, Ficus elastica, Gliciridia sepium, Michelia alba, Morus alba, Pogostemon cablin and Ricinus communis, were tested using the Vitotox assay. The plants are used traditionally to treat several disorders like diabetes, weakness, menorrhagia, headache, toothache and rheumatism. The dried leaves were homogenized for overnight soaking in methanol at room temperature. The resulting alcoholic extracts were filtered and concentrated in vacuo and tested for their genotoxicity and cytotoxicity using Vitotox. Results showed that the medicinal plants that were tested are not genotoxic nor cytotoxic, except for R. communis and P. cablin, which showed toxicity at high doses (low dilutions) in the absence of S9. PMID:21716927

  8. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of some Philippine medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Chichioco-Hernandez, Christine; Wudarski, Jakub; Gevaert, Lieven; Verschaeve, Luc

    2011-04-01

    The genotoxicity and toxicity of ethnomedicinal Philippine plants, which include Cassia fistula, Derris elliptica, Ficus elastica, Gliciridia sepium, Michelia alba, Morus alba, Pogostemon cablin and Ricinus communis, were tested using the Vitotox assay. The plants are used traditionally to treat several disorders like diabetes, weakness, menorrhagia, headache, toothache and rheumatism. The dried leaves were homogenized for overnight soaking in methanol at room temperature. The resulting alcoholic extracts were filtered and concentrated in vacuo and tested for their genotoxicity and cytotoxicity using Vitotox. Results showed that the medicinal plants that were tested are not genotoxic nor cytotoxic, except for R. communis and P. cablin, which showed toxicity at high doses (low dilutions) in the absence of S9. PMID:21716927

  9. Medicinal plants with potential anti-arthritic activity

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Manjusha; Kumar, Vipin; Malhotra, Hitesh; Singh, Surender

    2015-01-01

    Ethno Pharmacological Relevance: Traditional medicinal plants are practiced worldwide for treatment of arthritis especially in developing countries where resources are meager. This review presents the plants profiles inhabiting throughout the world regarding their traditional usage by various tribes/ethnic groups for treatment of arthritis. Materials and Methods: Bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases from the last six decades. Plants/their parts/extracts/polyherbal formulations, toxicity studies for arthritis have been included in the review article. The profiles presented also include information about the scientific name, family, dose, methodology along with mechanism of action and toxicity profile. Research status of 20 potential plant species has been discussed. Further, geographical distribution of research, plants distribution according to families has been given in graphical form. Results: 485 plant species belonging to 100 families, traditionally used in arthritis are used. Among 100 plant families, malvaceae constitute 16, leguminasae 7, fabaceae 13, euphorbiaceae 7, compositae 20, araceae 7, solanaceae 12, liliaceae 9, apocynaceae, lauraceae, and rubiaceae 10, and remaining in lesser proportion. It was observed in our study that majority of researches are carried mainly in developing countries like India, China, Korea and Nigeria. Conclusion: This review clearly indicates that list of medicinal plants presented in this review might be useful to researchers as well as practioners. This review can be useful for preliminary screening of potential anti-arthritis plants. Further toxicity profile given in the review can be useful for the researchers for finding the safe dose. PMID:26401403

  10. NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase 1 inducer activity of some Saudi Arabian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Alsaid, Mansour S; Alyahya, Muhammad A; Higgins, Maureen; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T

    2013-04-01

    Medicinal plants are a rich source of biologically-active phytochemicals and have been used in traditional medicine for centuries. Specific phytochemicals and extracts of their plant sources have the ability to reduce the risk for chronic degenerative diseases by induction of enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, many of which also have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. One such multifunctional cytoprotective enzyme is NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase. In this study, we prepared extracts of 27 Saudi Arabian medicinal plants which belong to 18 different plant families and tested their ability to induce NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase in murine hepatoma cells grown in microtiter plate wells. In addition to the Brassicaceae, a known source of NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase inducer activity, we found substantial inducer activity in extracts from the Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, and the Asteraceae families. Five out of a total of eight active extracts are from plants which belong to the Asteraceae family. We further show that artemisinin, an agent which is used clinically for the treatment of malaria, contributes but does not fully account for the inducer activity of the extract of Artemisia monosperma. In contrast to artemisinin, deoxyartemisinin is inactive in this assay, demonstrating the critical role of the endoperoxide moiety of artemisinin for inducer activity. Thus, the NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase inducer activity of extracts of some Saudi Arabian medicinal plants indicates the presence of specific phytochemicals which have the potential to protect against chronic degenerative diseases. PMID:23512501

  11. Medicinal Plants: Their Use in Anticancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Greenwell, M.; Rahman, P.K.S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Globally cancer is a disease which severely effects the human population. There is a constant demand for new therapies to treat and prevent this life-threatening disease. Scientific and research interest is drawing its attention towards naturally-derived compounds as they are considered to have less toxic side effects compared to current treatments such as chemotherapy. The Plant Kingdom produces naturally occurring secondary metabolites which are being investigated for their anticancer activities leading to the development of new clinical drugs. With the success of these compounds that have been developed into staple drugs for cancer treatment new technologies are emerging to develop the area further. New technologies include nanoparticles for nano-medicines which aim to enhance anticancer activities of plant-derived drugs by controlling the release of the compound and investigating new methods for administration. This review discusses the demand for naturally-derived compounds from medicinal plants and their properties which make them targets for potential anticancer treatments. PMID:26594645

  12. [Resources and application of She's nationality wild medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Lei, Hou-Xing; Li, Jian-Liang; Zheng, Song-Ming; Fan, Li-Hua; Li, Shui-Fu; Cheng, Wen-Liang; Hua, Jin-Wei; Yu, Hua-Li; Dai, De-Xiong; Xie, Yuan-Wei

    2014-08-01

    To make a thorough investigation of the common She's nationality wild medicinal plants resources in our country, including the species, the distribution, the folk application and the endemic medicinal plant species, Field surveyed was conducted with 25 She people mainly lived area (county, district or city) throughout the country, the folk prescription and treatment cases provided by She's medical personnel, the drug usage and dosage, the commonly used traditional She's medicine and drug samples were collected. And the distribution, growing environment of these plants were investigated, their characteristics, photographs, GPS data and track were record , and the fresh wax leaf or plants specimens were collected. In total 1 600 varieties of folk medicine of She's nationality, 450 disease names and 1 016 prescriptions were collected. 520 kinds of these medicinal plants were commonly used, growing mainly distributed in the southeastern China, about 200 meters above sea level to 1 500 meters. There are 5 First-Grade State protection wild plants (medicinal), 15 second-Grade State protection wild plants (medicinal), and 11 She characteristic medicinal plants in our study, they belong to 144 families, 312 genera 494 species, 2 subspecies, 17 varieties, 3 forms and 1 cultivated varieties of She's nationality. Folk medicine usage is different from the traditional Chinese medicine and ethnic medicine. This survey finds out the common She's nationality wild medicinal plants resources in China, including the species, the distribution, the folk application and commonly used drugs, and found the rare and endangered medicinal plants and the She's nationality endemic medicinal plants, which provides a basis for further development and use the traditional She's medicine resources. PMID:25509311

  13. Evaluation of medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan for antimelanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Arung, Enos Tangke; Kusuma, Irawan Wijaya; Christy, Eva Oktoberiani; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2009-10-01

    In the course of searching for new materials to use as whitening agents, we screened 19 methanol extracts prepared from 14 medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan province, Indonesia. The screening methods used were the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay, a tyrosinase inhibition assay, and a melanin formation inhibition assay using B16 melanoma cells. The extracts of Willughbeia coriacea (bark part of aerial root), Phyllanthus urinaria (root), Eleutherine palmifolia (bulb), Eusideroxylon zwageri (seed), Dendrophthoe petandra (aerial root), Passiflora foetida (stem), and Vitex pinnata (root) showed DPPH radical-scavenging activity of more than 70% at 100 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root), P. urinaria (root), and D. petandra (aerial root) showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity of more than 40% using L-tyrosine as a substrate at 500 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root) and D. petandra (aerial root) showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity of more than 40% using L-DOPA as a substrate at 500 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root, 200 microg/ml), Glochidion philippcum (aerial root, 200 and 300 microg/ml), E. palmifolia (bulb, 50 microg/ml), E. zwageri (seed, 100 microg/ml), D. petandra (aerial root, 200 microg/ml), Lansium domesticum (bark, 25 microg/ml), P. foetida (stem, fruit, 300 microg/ml), and Solanum torvum (root, 300 microg/ml) strongly inhibited the melanin production of B16 melanoma cells without significant cytotoxicity. These findings indicate that some medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan are potential ingredients for skin-whitening cosmetics if their safety can be confirmed. PMID:19618251

  14. Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee traditional medicine. We tested the hypothesis that extracts from Haudenosaunee medicinal plants used to treat symptoms often caused by bacterial infection would show antibacterial properties in laboratory assays, and that these extracts would be more effective against moderately virulent bacteria than less virulent bacteria. Methods After identification and harvesting, a total of 57 different aqueous extractions were made from 15 plant species. Nine plant species were used in Haudenosaunee medicines and six plant species, of which three are native to the region and three are introduced, were not used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial activity against mostly avirulent (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis) and moderately virulent (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus) microbes was inferred through replicate disc diffusion assays; and observed and statistically predicted MIC values were determined through replicate serial dilution assays. Results Although there was not complete concordance between the traditional use of Haudenosaunee medicinal plants and antibacterial activity, our data support the hypothesis that the selection and use of these plants to treat disease was not random. In particular, four plant species exhibited antimicrobial properties as expected (Achillea millefolium, Ipomoea pandurata, Hieracium pilosella, and Solidago canadensis), with particularly strong effectiveness against S. typhimurium. In addition, extractions from two of the introduced species (Hesperis matronalis and Rosa multiflora) were effective against this pathogen. Conclusions Our data suggest that further screening of plants used in traditional Haudenosaunee medicine is warranted, and we put forward several species for further investigation of activity against S. typhimurium (A. millefolium, H. matronalis, I. pandurata, H. pilosella, R. multiflora, S. canadensis). PMID:21054887

  15. Antimicrobial potential of some plant extracts against Candida species.

    PubMed

    Hfling, J F; Anibal, P C; Obando-Pereda, G A; Peixoto, I A T; Furletti, V F; Foglio, M A; Gonalves, R B

    2010-11-01

    The increase in the resistance to antimicrobial drugs in use has attracted the attention of the scientific community, and medicinal plants have been extensively studied as alternative agents for the prevention of infections. The Candida genus yeast can become an opportunistic pathogen causing disease in immunosuppressive hosts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dichloromethane and methanol extracts from Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Arrabidaea chica, Tabebuia avellanedae, Punica granatum and Syzygium cumini against Candida species through the analysis of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Results presented activity of these extracts against Candida species, especially the methanol extract. PMID:21180915

  16. Antiradical efficiency of 20 selected medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Raka; Yadav, Sunita; Mathur, Manas; Katariya, Pawan

    2012-01-01

    The antioxidant system of a plant comprises a group of chemicals that are highly diverse in their sources, effects and uses. These antioxidants are capable of contracting and damaging free radicals. This investigation deals with a screening and comparison of the antioxidant activities of 20 selected medicinal plants and their parts, individually and in combination with vitamins A, C or E, using the DPPH radical scavenging method. Phyllanthus emblica L., Santalum album L., Syzygium cumini L. and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. presented highly significant antiradical efficiency (AE) singly and in combination with either vitamin A, C or E. Further, Curcuma longa L., Momordica charantia L., S. cumini, T. foenum-graecum, Moringa oleifera Lam and S. album have also shown fairly significant AE in a vitamin combination dose of 0.001 mM concentration. PMID:22010999

  17. Screening Togolese medicinal plants for few pharmacological properties

    PubMed Central

    Karou, Simplice D.; Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Tchibozo, Micheline Agassounon Djikpo; Anani, Kokou; Ouattara, Lassina; Simpore, Jacques; de Souza, Comlan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Terminalia macroptera Guill. et Perr. (Combretaceae), Sida alba L. (Malvaceae), Prosopis africana Guill et Perr. Taub. (Mimosaceae), Bridelia ferruginea Benth. (Euphorbiaceae), and Vetiveria nigritana Stapf. (Asteraceae) are traditionally used in Togolese folk medicine to treat several diseases including microbial infections. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and hemolytic properties of the crude extracts of the above-mentioned plants. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial and the antioxidant activities were assayed using the NCCLS microdilution method and the DPPH free radical scavenging, respectively. Human A+ red blood cells were used to perform the hemolytic assay. Phenolics were further quantified in the extracts using spectrophotometric methods. Results: Minimal inhibitory concentrations in the range of 230-1800 μg/ml were recorded in the NCCLS broth microdilution for both bacterial and fungal strains with methanol extracts. The DPPH radical scavenging assay yielded interesting antioxidant activities of the extracts of P. africana and T. macroptera (IC50 values of 0.003 ± 0.00 μg/ml and 0.05 ± 0.03 μg/ml, respectively). These activities were positively correlated with the total phenolic contents and negatively correlated with the proanthocyanidin content of the extracts. The hemolytic assay revealed that great hemolysis occurred with the methanol extracts of T. macroptera, S. longepedunculata, and B. ferruginea. Conclusion: These results support in part the use of the selected plants in the treatment of microbial infections. In addition, the plant showed an interesting antioxidant activity that could be useful in the management of oxidative stress. PMID:22518084

  18. Ethnobotanical drug discovery based on medicine men's trials in the African savanna: screening of east African plants for antimicrobial activity II.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, M; Kubo, I

    1993-09-01

    Antimicrobial activity of a number of East African plants was evaluated. The plants collected based on information provided by medicine men showed a much higher probability of finding active extracts than the plants collected randomly. PMID:8254349

  19. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lai Wah; Cheah, Emily LC; Saw, Constance LL; Weng, Wanyu; Heng, Paul WS

    2008-01-01

    Background Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. Methods Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma Imperatae (Baimaogen) were investigated for their potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Results Extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis had the strongest activities against M. Smegmatis, C. albicans, B. subtilis and S. aureus. Boiled extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, Folium Murraya Koenigii, Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis and Herba Houttuyniae demonstrated greater antioxidant activities than other tested medicinal plants. Conclusion Among the eight tested medicinal plants, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis showed the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different methods of extraction yield different spectra of bioactivities. PMID:19038060

  20. Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants against selected human pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Khan, Usman Ali; Rahman, Hazir; Niaz, Zeeshan; Qasim, Muhammad; Khan, Jafar; Tayyaba; Rehman, Bushra

    2013-12-01

    Medicinal plants are traditionally used for the treatment of human infections. The present study was undertaken to investigate Bergenia ciliata, Jasminum officinale, and Santalum album for their potential activity against human bacterial pathogens. B. ciliata, J. officinale, and S. album extracts were prepared in cold and hot water. The activity of plant extracts and selected antibiotics was evaluated against five bacterial pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli using agar well diffusion method. Among the three medicinal plants, B. ciliata extracts displayed potential activity against bacterial pathogens. Cold water extract of Bergenia ciliate showed the highest activity against B. subtilis, which is comparable with a zone of inhibition exhibited by ceftriaxone and erythromycin. J. officinale and S. album extracts demonstrated variable antibacterial activity. Further studies are needed to explore the novel antibacterial bioactive molecules. PMID:24294497

  1. Cytotoxicity of the rhizome of medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Shakhawoat; Kader, Golam; Nikkon, Farjana; Yeasmin, Tanzima

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cytotoxicity of the crude ethanol extract of the rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet (Z. zerumbet) (L) Smith. and Curcuma zedoaria (C. zedoaria) Rosc. against Artemia salina Leach. Methods Fresh rhizomes of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. and C. zedoaria Rosc. were extracted separately in cold with ethanol (2.5 L) and after concentration a brownish syrupy suspension of ethanol extracts of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. and C. zedoaria Rosc. was obtained. The cytotoxic effect of the crude ethanol extracts of both plants was determined by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results Crude ethanol extracts of the rhizome of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. showed the highest cytotoxicity (LC50 was 1.24 g/mL) against brine shrimp nauplii as compared with C. zedoaria Rosc. (LC50 was 33.593 g/mL) after 24 h of exposure. Conclusions It can be concluded that the rhizome of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. and C. zedoaria Rosc. can be used as a source of cytotoxic agent. PMID:23569881

  2. Antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities of five Palestinian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Qabaha, Khaled Ibraheem

    2013-01-01

    Extracts from five indigenous Palestinian medicinal plants including Rosmarinus officinalis, Pisidium guajava, Punica granatum peel, grape seeds and Teucrium polium were investigated for antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities against eight microorganisms, using well diffusion method. The microorganisms included six bacterial isolates (i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginos, Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus) and two fungal isolates (i.e. Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger). A standard antioxidant assay was performed on the plant extracts to assess their capability in scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Of the five tested plant extract, only Rosmarinus offcinalis extract contained significant antimicrobial activity against all eight microbial isolates including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Extracts from other four plants exhibited a variable antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms, except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Significant antioxidant activity was detected in all plant extracts. However, extracts from Pisidium guajava leaves contained significantly higher antioxidant activity compared to the other extracts tested. The antimicrobial and scavenging activities detected in this in vitro study in extracts from the five Palestinian medicinal plants suggest that further study is needed to identify active compounds to target diseases caused by a wide-spectrum pathogens. PMID:24146509

  3. Screening of some Kenyan medicinal plants for antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Wagate, Cyrus G; Mbaria, James M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Nanyingi, Mark O; Kareru, P G; Njuguna, Anne; Gitahi, Nduhiu; Macharia, James K; Njonge, Francis K

    2010-01-01

    Eleven medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Machakos and Kitui District were screened, namely: Ajuga remota Benth, Aloe secundiflora Engl, Amaranthus hybridus L, Cassia didymobotrya Fes, Croton macrostachyus Del, Entada leptostachya Harms, Erythrina abyssinica DC, Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv, Schkuhria pinnata O. Ktze, Terminalia kilimandscharica Engl and Ziziphus abyssinica Hochst for potential antibacterial activity against four medically important bacterial strains, namely: Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Micrococcus lutea ATCC 9341 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The antibacterial activity of methanol extracts was determined as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The plant extracts were more active against Gram-positive (G+) than Gram-negative (G-) bacteria. The positive controls were streptomycin and benzylpenicillin for G- and G+ bacteria, respectively, both had a significant MIC at <1 mg/mL. The most susceptible bacteria were B. cereus, followed by M. lutea, while the most resistant bacteria were Ps. aeruginosa, followed by E. coli. The present study supports the use of these plants by the herbalists in the management of bacterial ailments. H. abyssinica and T. kilimandscharica showed the best antibacterial activity; hence these plants can be further subjected to phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation. PMID:19548257

  4. Effect of medicinal plants on the crystallization of cholesterol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraswathi, N. T.; Gnanam, F. D.

    1997-08-01

    One of the least desirable calcifications in the human body is the mineral deposition in atherosclerosis plaques. These plaques principally consist of lipids such as cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides. Chemical analysis of advanced plaques have shown the presence of considerable amounts of free cholesterol identified as cholesterol monohydrate crystals. Cholesterol has been crystallized in vitro. The extracts of some of the Indian medicinal plants detailed below were used as additives to study their effect on the crystallization behaviour of cholesterol. It has been found that many of the herbs have inhibitory effect on the crystallization such as nucleation, crystal size and habit modification. The inhibitory effect of the plants are graded as Commiphora mughul > Aegle marmeleos > Cynoden dactylon > Musa paradisiaca > Polygala javana > Alphinia officinarum > Solanum trilobatum > Enicostemma lyssopifolium.

  5. Medicinal plants and dementia therapy: herbal hopes for brain aging?

    PubMed

    Perry, Elaine; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R

    2011-12-01

    An escalating "epidemic" of diseases like Alzheimer's has not yet been met by effective symptomatic treatments or preventative strategies. Among a few current prescription drugs are cholinesterase inhibitors including galantamine, originating from the snowdrop. Research into ethnobotanicals for memory or cognition has burgeoned in recent years. Based on a multi-faceted review of medicinal plants or phytochemicals, including traditional uses, relevant bioactivities, psychological and clinical evidence on efficacy and safety, this overview focuses on those for which there is promising clinical trial evidence in people with dementia, together with at least one other of these lines of supporting evidence. With respect to cognitive function, such plants reviewed include sage, Ginkgo biloba, and complex mixtures of other traditional remedies. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) challenge carers and lead to institutionalization. Symptoms can be alleviated by some plant species (e.g., lemon balm and lavender alleviate agitation in people with dementia; St John's wort treats depression in the normal population). The ultimate goal of disease prevention is considered from the perspective of limited epidemiological and clinical trial evidence to date. The potential value of numerous plant extracts or chemicals (e.g., curcumin) with neuroprotective but as yet no clinical data are reviewed. Given intense clinical need and carer concerns, which lead to exploration of such alternatives as herbal medicines, the following research priorities are indicated: investigating botanical agents which enhance cognition in populations with mild memory impairment or at earliest disease stages, and those for BPSD in people with dementia at more advanced stages; establishing an ongoing authoritative database on herbal medicine for dementia; and further epidemiological and follow up studies of promising phytopharmaceuticals or related nutraceuticals for disease prevention. PMID:22070157

  6. Reproduction of the Medicinal Plant Pelargonium sidoides via Somatic Embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Duchow, Stefanie; Blaschek, Wolfgang; Classen, Birgit

    2015-08-01

    The medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides DC. (Geraniaceae) was traditionally used for the treatment of the common cold and cough in South Africa. Today an aequous-ethanolic root extract from this plant is approved for the treatment of acute bronchitis and is globally marketed also as an immunostimulant. The increasing demand of the plant material for the industrial production indicates the need of new effective methods for the propagation of P. sidoides. Here we report somatic embryogenesis and in vitro plantlet regeneration from somatic cells of inflorescence shoots and petioles of P. sidoides. A one-week cultivation of explants in media containing different concentrations of thidiazuron (1, 2.2, 3, and 4 mg/L) followed by a cultivation period without phytohormones resulted in the induction of somatic embryos within 2-4 weeks. After 2-4 months, the embryos generated roots and could be transferred into a greenhouse, where flower formation took place and the development of seeds occurred with high germination rates. The root umckalin concentration, determined by high-performance thin-layer chromatography, was comparable to that of seed-cultivated plants (100 ± 6 vs. 113 ± 10 µg umckalin/g dried roots). For the first time, direct somatic embryogenesis has been established as an appropriate cultivation method for P. sidoides plants used as raw material in the pharmaceutical industry. Moreover, genetically identical plants (chemical races) can be easily generated by this procedure. PMID:26287694

  7. MAPS Database: Medicinal plant Activities, Phytochemical and Structural Database

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Mumtaz, Arooj; Qamar, Tahir ul; Fatima, Tabeer

    2013-01-01

    Drug development from natural sources is an important and fast developing area. Natural sources (plants) have been used to cure a range of diseases for Thousands of years. Different online medicinal plant databases provide information about classifications, activities, phytochemicals and structure of phytochemicals in different formats. These databases do not cover all aspects of medicinal plants. MAPS (Medicinal plant Activities, Phytochemicals & structural database) has been constructed with uniqueness that it combines all information in one web resource and additionally provides test targets on which particular plant found to be effective with reference to the original paper as well. MAPS database is user friendly information resource, including the data of > 500 medicinal plants. This database includes phytochemical constituents, their structure in mol format, different activities possessed by the medicinal plant with the targets reported in literature. Availability http://www.mapsdatabase.com PMID:24391364

  8. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-01-01

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group I carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori eradication and H. pylori induced related gastric disease prevention. PMID:25132753

  9. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-08-14

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group?I?carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-?B and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori eradication and H. pylori induced related gastric disease prevention. PMID:25132753

  10. Reactive oxygen species-dependent apoptosis by gugulipid extract of Ayurvedic medicine plant Commiphora mukul in human prostate cancer cells is regulated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dong; Zeng, Yan; Prakash, Lakshmi; Badmaev, Vladmir; Majeed, Muhammed; Singh, Shivendra V

    2011-03-01

    Gugulipid (GL), extract of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, has been used to treat a variety of ailments. We report an anticancer effect and mechanism of GL against human prostate cancer cells. Treatment with GL significantly inhibited the viability of human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP (androgen-dependent) and its androgen-independent variant (C81) with an IC(50) of ?1 ?M (24-h treatment), at pharmacologically relevant concentrations standardized to its major active constituent z-guggulsterone. The GL-induced growth inhibition correlated with apoptosis induction as evidenced by an increase in cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation and sub-G(0)/G(1)-DNA fraction, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. The GL-induced apoptosis was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. The induction of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak and a decrease of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein Bcl-2 were observed in GL-treated cells. SV40 immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from Bax-Bak double-knockout mice were significantly more resistant to GL-induced cell killing compared with wild-type cells. It is interesting to note that a representative normal prostate epithelial cell line (PrEC) was relatively more resistant to GL-mediated cellular responses compared with prostate cancer cells. The GL treatment caused the activation of JNK that functioned upstream of Bax activation in apoptosis response. The GL-induced conformational change of Bax and apoptosis were significantly suppressed by genetic suppression of JNK activation. In conclusion, the present study indicates that ROS-dependent apoptosis by GL is regulated by JNK signaling axis. PMID:21115635

  11. Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Apoptosis by Gugulipid Extract of Ayurvedic Medicine Plant Commiphora mukul in Human Prostate Cancer Cells Is Regulated by c-Jun N-Terminal KinaseS?

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yan; Prakash, Lakshmi; Badmaev, Vladmir; Majeed, Muhammed; Singh, Shivendra V.

    2011-01-01

    Gugulipid (GL), extract of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, has been used to treat a variety of ailments. We report an anticancer effect and mechanism of GL against human prostate cancer cells. Treatment with GL significantly inhibited the viability of human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP (androgen-dependent) and its androgen-independent variant (C81) with an IC50 of ?1 ?M (24-h treatment), at pharmacologically relevant concentrations standardized to its major active constituent z-guggulsterone. The GL-induced growth inhibition correlated with apoptosis induction as evidenced by an increase in cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation and sub-G0/G1-DNA fraction, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. The GL-induced apoptosis was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. The induction of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak and a decrease of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein Bcl-2 were observed in GL-treated cells. SV40 immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from Bax-Bak double-knockout mice were significantly more resistant to GL-induced cell killing compared with wild-type cells. It is interesting to note that a representative normal prostate epithelial cell line (PrEC) was relatively more resistant to GL-mediated cellular responses compared with prostate cancer cells. The GL treatment caused the activation of JNK that functioned upstream of Bax activation in apoptosis response. The GL-induced conformational change of Bax and apoptosis were significantly suppressed by genetic suppression of JNK activation. In conclusion, the present study indicates that ROS-dependent apoptosis by GL is regulated by JNK signaling axis. PMID:21115635

  12. Comparison of Artemisia annua Bioactivities between Traditional Medicine and Chemical Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Nageeb, Ahmed; Al-Tawashi, Azza; Mohammad Emwas, Abdul-Hamid; Abdel-Halim Al-Talla, Zeyad; Al-Rifai, Nahla

    2013-01-01

    The present work investigates the efficacy of using Artemisia annua in traditional medicine in comparison with chemical extracts of its bioactive molecules. In addition, the effects of location (Egypt and Jericho) on the bioactivities of the plant were investigated. The results showed that water extracts of Artemisia annua from Jericho have stronger antibacterial activities than organic solvent extracts. In contrast, water and organic solvent extracts of the Artemisia annua from Egypt do not have anti-bacterial activity. Furthermore, while the methanol extract of EA displayed high anticancer affects, the water extract of Egypt and the extracts of Jericho did not show significant anticancer activity. Finally, the results showed that the methanol and water extracts of Jericho had the highest antioxidant activity, while the extracts of Egypt had none. The current results validate the scientific bases for the use of Artemisia annua in traditional medicine. In addition, our results suggest that the collection location of the Artemisia annua has an effect on its chemical composition and bioactivities. PMID:24761137

  13. Comparison of Artemisia annua Bioactivities between Traditional Medicine and Chemical Extracts.

    PubMed

    Nageeb, Ahmed; Al-Tawashi, Azza; Mohammad Emwas, Abdul-Hamid; Abdel-Halim Al-Talla, Zeyad; Al-Rifai, Nahla

    2013-12-01

    The present work investigates the efficacy of using Artemisia annua in traditional medicine in comparison with chemical extracts of its bioactive molecules. In addition, the effects of location (Egypt and Jericho) on the bioactivities of the plant were investigated. The results showed that water extracts of Artemisia annua from Jericho have stronger antibacterial activities than organic solvent extracts. In contrast, water and organic solvent extracts of the Artemisia annua from Egypt do not have anti-bacterial activity. Furthermore, while the methanol extract of EA displayed high anticancer affects, the water extract of Egypt and the extracts of Jericho did not show significant anticancer activity. Finally, the results showed that the methanol and water extracts of Jericho had the highest antioxidant activity, while the extracts of Egypt had none. The current results validate the scientific bases for the use of Artemisia annua in traditional medicine. In addition, our results suggest that the collection location of the Artemisia annua has an effect on its chemical composition and bioactivities. PMID:24761137

  14. Quality assessment of medicinal herbs and their extracts: Criteria and prerequisites for consistent safety and efficacy of herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Govindaraghavan, Suresh; Sucher, Nikolaus J

    2015-11-01

    Ingredients of commercial herbal medicines are assessed for quality primarily to ensure their safety. However, as complex mixtures of different groups of plant secondary metabolites, retention of overall phytochemical consistency of herbal medicines is pivotal to their efficacy. Authenticity and homogeneity of the herbs and strict regimes of physical processing and extract manufacturing are critical factors to maintain phytochemical consistency in commercial products. To ensure both safety and efficacy of herbal medicines, implementation of and adherence to good agricultural and collection practice (GACP), good plant authentication and identification practice (GPAIP), good manufacturing practice (GMP) before and during the manufacturing process, and good laboratory practice (GLP) in analysis are necessary. Establishment and application of harmonized multilaboratory-validated analytical methods and transparency in the supply (value) chain through vendor audits are additional requirements in quality assurance. In this article, we outline steps of a comprehensive quality assurance paradigm aimed at achieving and maintaining safety, consistent phytochemical composition, and clinical efficacy of ingredients of herbal medicines. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Botanicals for Epilepsy. PMID:25899015

  15. Potential of medicinal plants as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents in food industry: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Ramirez, Luis Alberto; Rodriguez-Garcia, Isela; Leyva, Juan Manuel; Cruz-Valenzuela, Manuel Reynaldo; Silva-Espinoza, Brenda Adriana; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Siddiqui, Wasim; Ayala-Zavala, Jesus Fernando

    2014-02-01

    Many food preservation strategies can be used for the control of microbial spoilage and oxidation; however, these quality problems are not yet controlled adequately. Although synthetic antimicrobial and antioxidant agents are approved in many countries, the use of natural safe and effective preservatives is a demand of food consumers and producers. This paper proposes medicinal plants, traditionally used to treat health disorders and prevent diseases, as a source of bioactive compounds having food additive properties. Medicinal plants are rich in terpenes and phenolic compounds that present antimicrobial and antioxidant properties; in addition, the literature revealed that these bioactive compounds extracted from other plants have been effective in food systems. In this context, the present hypothesis paper states that bioactive molecules extracted from medicinal plants can be used as antimicrobial and antioxidant additives in the food industry. PMID:24446991

  16. Biological screening of traditional preparations from some medicinal plants used as antidiarrhoeal in Kinshasa, Congo.

    PubMed

    Tona, L; Kambu, K; Mesia, K; Cimanga, K; Apers, S; De Bruyne, T; Pieters, L; Tott, J; Vlietinck, A J

    1999-03-01

    Forty six aqueous extracts from 38 medicinal plant species belonging to different families were selected on the basis of their traditional medicinal use as antidiarrhoeic agents. They were submitted in a broad biological screening including antibacterial, antiamoebic and antispasmodic activities. The results of the testing have indicated that 37 extracts (80.43%), 33 (71.74%) and 32 (69.54%) exhibited some level of antibacterial, antiamoebic and antispasmodic activity respectively. Only 8 plant extracts (17.39%) would act as antidiarrhoeic agents by a triple pronounced antibacterial, antiamoebic and antispasmodic action. They include aqueous extracts from Euphorbia hirta whole plant, leaves of Psidium guajava and Tithonia diversifolia, root bark of Alchornea cordifolia, Heinsia pulchella, Paropsia brazzeana, Rauwolfia obscura and Voacanga africana. PMID:10228613

  17. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Mexican medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Jacobo-Salcedo, Maria del Rosario; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; Gonzlez-Espndola, Luis Angel; Domnguez, Fabiola; Maciel-Torres, Sandra Patricia; Garca-Lujan, Concepcin; Gonzlez-Martnez, Marisela del Rocio; Gmez-Snchez, Maricela; Estrada-Castilln, Eduardo; Zapata-Bustos, Rocio; Medellin-Miln, Pedro; Garca-Carranc, Alejandro

    2011-12-01

    The antimicrobial effects of the Mexican medicinal plants Guazuma ulmifolia, Justicia spicigera, Opuntia joconostle, O. leucotricha, Parkinsonia aculeata, Phoradendron longifolium, P. serotinum, Psittacanthus calyculatus, Tecoma stans and Teucrium cubense were tested against several human multi-drug resistant pathogens, including three Gram (+) and five Gram (-) bacterial species and three fungal species using the disk-diffusion assay. The cytotoxicity of plant extracts on human cancer cell lines and human normal non-cancerous cells was also evaluated using the MTT assay. Phoradendron longifolium, Teucrium cubense, Opuntia joconostle, Tecoma stans and Guazuma ulmifolia showed potent antimicrobial effects against at least one multidrug-resistant microorganism (inhibition zone > 15 mm). Only Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum extracts exerted active cytotoxic effects on human breast cancer cells (IC50 < or = 30 microg/mL). The results showed that Guazuma ulmifolia produced potent antimicrobial effects against Candida albicans and Acinetobacter lwoffii, whereas Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum exerted the highest toxic effects on MCF-7 and HeLa, respectively, which are human cancer cell lines. These three plant species may be important sources of antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents. PMID:22312741

  18. Quantifying of bactericide properties of medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    cs, Andrs; Glncsr, Flra; Barabs, Anik

    2011-01-01

    Extended research has been carried out to clarify the ecological role of plant secondary metabolites (SMs). Although their primary ecological function is self-defense, bioactive compounds have long been used in alternative medicine or in biological control of pests. Several members of the family Labiatae are known to have strong antimicrobial capacity. For testing and quantifying antibacterial activity, most often standard microbial protocols are used, assessing inhibitory activity on a selected strain. In this study, the applicability of a microbial ecotoxtest was evaluated to quantify the aggregate bactericide capacity of Labiatae species, based on the bioluminescence inhibition of the bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Striking differences were found amongst herbs, reaching even 10-fold toxicity. Glechoma hederacea L. proved to be the most toxic, with the EC50 of 0.4073 g dried plant/l. LC50 values generated by the standard bioassay seem to be a good indicator of the bactericide property of herbs. Traditional use of the selected herbs shows a good correlation with bioactivity expressed as bioluminescence inhibition, leading to the conclusion that the Vibrio fischeri bioassay can be a good indicator of the overall antibacterial capacity of herbs, at least on a screening level. PMID:21502819

  19. MEDICINAL PLANT WEALTH OF ANDHRA PRADESH PART I

    PubMed Central

    Hemadri, Koppula; Sarma, C. Raja Rajeswari; Rao, Swahari Sasibushana

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the Medical Plant Wealth of Andhra Pradesh based on the results of Medico Ethno Botanical exploration undertaken during the last fourteen years (1971 72 till the end of 1984). In all, 117 well known medicinal plants widely used in Ayurveda, Siddha and other systems of Medicine are enumerated here. PMID:22557569

  20. [Medicinal plant resources of Trib. Isopyreae and prospects of exploitation].

    PubMed

    Qi, Yinde; Yang, Yongjian

    2002-02-01

    There are 17 species of medicinal plants from Trib. Isopyreae Schröd in China. This paper reports their resources, habitats and medicinal properties. On the basis of referring to the native and abroad medical studies on the plants from same Trilbe, their prospects of exploitation were advised. PMID:12599404

  1. Antiparasitic properties of medicinal plants and other naturally occurring products.

    PubMed

    Tagboto, S; Townson, S

    2001-01-01

    Parasitic diseases remain a major public health problem affecting hundreds of millions of people, particularly in tropical developing countries. The limited availability and affordability of pharmaceutical medicines means that the majority of the world's population depends on traditional medical remedies, and it is estimated that some 20,000 species of higher plant are used medicinally throughout the world. Many well-known drugs listed in the modern pharmacopoeia have their origins in nature, including, for example, quinine from the bark of the Cinchona tree for the treatment of malaria, which has been followed by the subsequent development of the synthetic derivatives chloroquine, amodiaquine, primaquine and mefloquine. More recently, the wider recognition of the antimalarial activity of artemisinin from the herb Artemisia annua has led current research to focus on the development of a large number of synthetic and semisynthetic compounds, which are more active than artemisinin. There is an increasing awareness of the potential of natural products, which may lead to the development of much-needed new antiparasitic drugs. In this chapter, we have drawn together a comprehensive list of medicinal plants and other natural products that have been shown to have activity against human and, to a lesser extent, animal parasites. In addition, some of the opportunities and difficulties in working with natural products have been reviewed and discussed, including the problems involved with evaluating complex mixtures of compounds which may occur in extracts, problems associated with differentiating between general cytotoxicity and genuine antiparasitic activity, and the hope that new technologies will rapidly accelerate new drug discovery and development in this field. Nevertheless, the way forward for natural product medicines, including the conservation of recognized natural products and protection of general biodiversity, the discovery and development process, and the promotion and usage of existing remedies, presents some difficult challenges. Following an initiative by the World Health Organization in August 2000, there is now the opportunity to evaluate scientifically many more traditional medicines and other natural products in validated antiparasite and toxicity screens, which will help establish which substances have potential for new pharmaceutical products. The use of 'untested' traditional medicines will no doubt continue, and there is an urgent need to distinguish between the efficacious and safe products and the ineffective and/or unsafe products, particularly since many remedies are being more widely promoted in developing countries. PMID:11757332

  2. Introducing Urtica dioica, A Native Plant of Khuzestan, As an Antibacterial Medicinal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Motamedi, Hossein; Seyyednejad, Seyyed Mansour; Bakhtiari, Ameneh; Vafaei, Mozhan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Urtica dioica is a flowering plant with long history of use in folk medicine and as a food source. Objectives: This study examined in vitro antibacterial potential of alcoholic extracts of U. dioica. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extracts from aerial parts were prepared using aqueous solution of ethanol and methanol and their inhibitory effects against clinical isolates was examined by disc diffusion method at different doses. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) indexes were also investigated. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was also performed to find structural changes of affected bacteria consequent to exposing with extracts. Results: Both extracts were active against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli with respectively 16, 10, 18, and 14 mm (methanolic) and 11, 9, 17, and 16 mm (ethanolic) inhibition zone. The MIC of ethanolic extract against S. epidermidis and E. coli was respectively 10 and 40 mg/mL. The MIC of methanolic extract against S. aureus and S. epidermidis was 40 and 10 mg/mL, respectively. The MBC was found only for S. epidermidis (20 mg/mL). In SEM analysis the round shape of S. epidermidis was changed and irregular shapes were appeared, which suggest that the main target of these extracts was cell wall. Conclusions: Extracts of U. dioica showed significant antibacterial effect against some clinically important pathogenic bacteria. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that U. dioica is useful as antibacterial and bactericidal agent in treating infectious diseases. PMID:25625045

  3. Anti-hyperglycemic effects of three medicinal plants in diabetic pregnancy: modulation of T cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Populations in Africa mostly rely on herbal concoctions for their primarily health care, but so far scientific studies supporting the use of plants in traditional medicine remain poor. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic effects of Picralima nitida (seeds), Nauclea latifolia (root and stem) and Oxytenanthera abyssinica (leaves) commonly used, in diabetic pregnancy. Methods Pregnant wistar rats, rendered diabetic by multiple low injections of streptozotocin, were treated with selected plant extracts based on their antioxidant activities. Vitamin C concentrations, fatty acid compositions and phytochemical analysis of plants extracts were determined. Effect of selected plant extracts on human T cell proliferation was also analysed. Results All analysed plant extracts exhibited substantial antioxidant activities probably related to their content in polyphenols. Picralima nitida exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity. Ethanolic and butanolic extracts of Picralima nitida, butanolic extract of Nauclea latifolia and ethanolic extract of Oxytenanthera abyssinica significantly decreased hyperglycemia in the diabetic pregnant rats. Butanolic extract of Picralima, also appeared to be the most potent immunosuppressor although all of the analysed extracts exerted an immunosuppressive effect on T cell proliferation probably due to their linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) and/or alkaloids content. Nevertheless, all analysed plants seemed to be good source of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Conclusion By having antioxidant, anti-hyperglycemic and immunosuppressive activities, these plants could be good candidates in the treatment of diabetes and diabetic pregnancy. PMID:23565805

  4. Medicinal plants in an urban environment: the medicinal flora of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Archana K; Kumar, Munesh; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2007-01-01

    Varanasi is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities of the world, and one of the most important Hindu pilgrimage sites. Despite this importance, very little information exits on the cities flora in general, and medicinal species found within its limit in particular. Traditional medicine plays a large role in Indian society. The presented study attempted to investigate if traditional plant use and availability of important common medicinal plants are maintained in urban environments. The paper presents information on the traditional uses of seventy-two plant species collected form the campus of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, and highlights the uses of these plants by the local inhabitants. PMID:17996050

  5. Vibriocidal activity of certain medicinal plants used in Indian folklore medicine by tribals of Mahakoshal region of central India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anjana; Patel, Virendra Kumar; Chaturvedi, Animesh Navin

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Screening of the medicinal plants and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Materials and Methods: A simple in vitro screening assay was employed for the standard strain of Vibrio cholerae, 12 isolates of Vibrio cholerae non-O1, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts of different parts of the plants were investigated by using the disk diffusion method. Extracts from 16 medicinal plants were selected on account of the reported traditional uses for the treatment of cholera and gastrointestinal diseases, and they were assayed for vibriocidal activities. Results: The different extracts differed significantly in their vibriocidal properties with respect to different solvents. The MIC values of the plant extracts against test bacteria were found to be in the range of 2.5-20 mg/ml. Conclusions: The results indicated that Lawsonia inermis, Saraca indica, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia belerica, Allium sativum, and Datura stramonium served as broad-spectrum vibriocidal agents. PMID:20442821

  6. Gitksan medicinal plants-cultural choice and efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Leslie Main

    2006-01-01

    Background The use of plants for healing by any cultural group is integrally related to local concepts of the nature of disease, the nature of plants, and the world view of the culture. The physical and chemical properties of the plants themselves also bear on their selection by people for medicines, as does the array of plants available for people to choose from. I examine use of medicinal plants from a "biobehavioral" perspective to illuminate cultural selection of plants used for medicine by the Gitksan of northwestern British Columbia, Canada. Methods Consultant consensus, "intercultural consensus", independent use of the same plants by other cultural groups, and phytochemistry and bioassay results from the literature, were employed in analysis of probable empirical efficacy of plant uses. Results 70% of 37 Gitksan medicinal plants were used similarly by other cultures where direct diffusion is not known to have occurred; eleven plants, including the eight most frequently mentioned medicinal plants, also show active phytochemicals or bioassays indicating probable physiologically based therapeutic effects. Conclusion Analysis of intercultural consensus revealed that the majority of cultures in the British Columbia region within the plant ranges use the same plants, or closely related species, in similar ways. The rigor of this analysis is effected by the lack of consistent data on all taxa of interest for all cultures within the region. PMID:16790066

  7. Antiviral activity of Rwandan medicinal plants against human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1).

    PubMed

    Cos, P; Hermans, N; De, Bruyne T; Apers, S; Sindambiwe, J B; Witvrouw, M; De, Clercq E; Vanden, Berghe D; Pieters, L; Vlietinck, A J

    2002-01-01

    Selected plants used in Rwandan traditional medicine for the treatment of infections and/or rheumatoid diseases were investigated for antiviral activity in vitro against human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Of the 38 tested 80% ethanolic extracts, belonging to plants of 21 different families only the extracts from the leaves of Aspilia pluriseta (Asteraceae) and Rumex bequaertii (Polygonaceae) had interesting selectivity indices (SI = ratio of the 50% cytotoxic concentration to the 50% effective antiviral concentration) higher than 1. Further fractionation of the initially antivirally inactive ethanolic extract of Tithonia diversifolia, however, led to an aqueous fraction with a high anti-HIV-1 activity (SI > 461), indicating that the cytotoxicity of some plant components may mask the antiviral properties of the active plant substances in total plant extracts. PMID:11924766

  8. Lysis of Microcystis aeruginosa with Extracts from Chinese Medicinal Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing-Dong; Hu, Liang-Bin; Zhou, Wei; Yin, Yu-Fen; Chen, Jian; Shi, Zhi-Qi

    2009-01-01

    Boiling water extracts of 66 selected Chinese medicinal herbs were screened for their anticyanobaterial activity against Microcystis aeruginosa by the soft-agar overlayer (SAO) method. Results indicated that extracts from 16 materials could inhibit the growth of this bacterial species. Among these anticyanobacterial samples, eight extracts showed low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), including four extracts with MICs between 1 and 6 mg/mL, and four extracts with MICs < 1 mg/mL which could be considered useful to prevent the outbreak of cyanobacteria before the appearance of cyanobacterial blooms. Further study showed that three extracts with MIC values < 1 mg/mL induced intensive chlorophyll-a lysis within 7 days at the MIC. The results suggested that highly efficient anticyanobacterial compounds must be involved in the inhibitory activities. The final results indicated these three extracts (from Malaphis chinensis, Cynips gallae-tinctoriae and Fructus mume) had the potential to be developed as algicides due to their remarkably anticyanobacterial activities. PMID:19865537

  9. Alpha-Glucosidase Enzyme Biosensor for the Electrochemical Measurement of Antidiabetic Potential of Medicinal Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohiuddin, M.; Arbain, D.; Islam, A. K. M. Shafiqul; Ahmad, M. S.; Ahmad, M. N.

    2016-02-01

    A biosensor for measuring the antidiabetic potential of medicinal plants was developed by covalent immobilization of α-glucosidase (AG) enzyme onto amine-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-NH2). The immobilized enzyme was entrapped in freeze-thawed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) together with p-nitrophenyl-α- d-glucopyranoside (PNPG) on the screen-printed carbon electrode at low pH to prevent the premature reaction between PNPG and AG enzyme. The enzymatic reaction within the biosensor is inhibited by bioactive compounds in the medicinal plant extracts. The capability of medicinal plants to inhibit the AG enzyme on the electrode correlates to the potential of the medicinal plants to inhibit the production of glucose from the carbohydrate in the human body. Thus, the inhibition indicates the antidiabetic potential of the medicinal plants. The performance of the biosensor was evaluated to measure the antidiabetic potential of three medicinal plants such as Tebengau ( Ehretis laevis), Cemumar ( Micromelum pubescens), and Kedondong ( Spondias dulcis) and acarbose (commercial antidiabetic drug) via cyclic voltammetry, amperometry, and spectrophotometry. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) response for the inhibition of the AG enzyme activity by Tebengau plant extracts showed a linear relation in the range from 0.423-8.29 μA, and the inhibition detection limit was 0.253 μA. The biosensor exhibited good sensitivity (0.422 μA/mg Tebengau plant extracts) and rapid response (22 s). The biosensor retains approximately 82.16 % of its initial activity even after 30 days of storage at 4 °C.

  10. Alpha-Glucosidase Enzyme Biosensor for the Electrochemical Measurement of Antidiabetic Potential of Medicinal Plants.

    PubMed

    Mohiuddin, M; Arbain, D; Islam, A K M Shafiqul; Ahmad, M S; Ahmad, M N

    2016-12-01

    A biosensor for measuring the antidiabetic potential of medicinal plants was developed by covalent immobilization of α-glucosidase (AG) enzyme onto amine-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-NH2). The immobilized enzyme was entrapped in freeze-thawed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) together with p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) on the screen-printed carbon electrode at low pH to prevent the premature reaction between PNPG and AG enzyme. The enzymatic reaction within the biosensor is inhibited by bioactive compounds in the medicinal plant extracts. The capability of medicinal plants to inhibit the AG enzyme on the electrode correlates to the potential of the medicinal plants to inhibit the production of glucose from the carbohydrate in the human body. Thus, the inhibition indicates the antidiabetic potential of the medicinal plants. The performance of the biosensor was evaluated to measure the antidiabetic potential of three medicinal plants such as Tebengau (Ehretis laevis), Cemumar (Micromelum pubescens), and Kedondong (Spondias dulcis) and acarbose (commercial antidiabetic drug) via cyclic voltammetry, amperometry, and spectrophotometry. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) response for the inhibition of the AG enzyme activity by Tebengau plant extracts showed a linear relation in the range from 0.423-8.29 μA, and the inhibition detection limit was 0.253 μA. The biosensor exhibited good sensitivity (0.422 μA/mg Tebengau plant extracts) and rapid response (22 s). The biosensor retains approximately 82.16 % of its initial activity even after 30 days of storage at 4 °C. PMID:26887579

  11. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants used by herbalists in Eastern province, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kareru, P G; Gachanja, A N; Keriko, J M; Kenji, G M

    2007-01-01

    The aqueous extracts from medicinal plants commonly used by herbalists in Mbeere, and Embu districts of Eastern province, Kenya, were tested for their inhibitory activity against three selected strains of bacteria. All the selected plant extracts (infusions: 1.0 g sample in 100 ml water) investigated showed activity against Escherichia coli with inhibition zone diameters ranging from 5.8-18.0 mm. Terminalia brownii gave the largest inhibition zones against E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Vernonia lasiopus and Tithonia diversifolia were inactive to S. aureus and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. Eighteen and sixteen plants showed sensitivity of greater than 10 mm against S. aureus and B. subtilis, respectively. All control discs gave zones of inhibition of 12-24 mm, which were larger than those of the extracts. The present study validated the use of the selected medicinal plants by the herbalists in the treatment of bacterial ailments caused by the strains of bacteria investigated. Medicinal plants used for non-bacterial diseases also exhibited sensitivity towards bacterial strains tested. This implied they could be used as multi-purpose medicinal plants. PMID:20162055

  12. Antidiabetic medicinal plants as a source of alpha glucosidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Benalla, Wafaa; Bellahcen, Sad; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study is to collate all available data on antidiabetic plants that inhibit alpha glucosidase, reported mainly by Medline (PubMed) these last years. In the present study, interest is focused on experimental researches conducted on hypoglycemic plants particularly those which show alpha glucosidase inhibitor activity alongside bioactive components. This study describes 47 species that belong to 29 families. The plant families, which enclose the species, studied most as inhibitors of alphaglucosidase, are Fabaceae (6 species.), Crassulaceae (3 species), Hippocrateacaea (3 species), Lamiaceae (3 species), and Myrtaceae (3 species), with most studied species being Salacia reticulata (Hippocrateaceae) and Morus alba (Moraceae). The study also covers natural products (active natural components and crude extracts) isolated from the medicinal plants which inhibit alpha glucosidase as reported this last decade. Many kinds of these isolated natural products show strong activity such as, Alkaloids, stilbenoids (polyphenol), triterpene, acids (chlorogenic acid, betulinic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, bartogenic acid, oleanolic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, corosolic acid, ellagic acid, ursolic acid, gallic acid), phytosterol, myoinositol, flavonoids, Flavonolignans, anthraquinones, anthrones, and xanthones, Feruloylglucosides, flavanone glucosides, acetophenone glucosides, glucopyranoside derivatives, genine derivatives, flavonol, anthocyanin and others. PMID:20522017

  13. [Analysis of varieties and standards of labiatae medicinal plants used in Tibetan medicine].

    PubMed

    He, Jun-wei; Cao, Lan; Zhou, Hua-rong; Zhong, Wei-hong; Zhong, Guo-yue

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, an analysis was made on the varieties and standards of labiatae medicinal plants used in Tibetan medicine. The results showed 71 species of labiatae plants in 21 genera (including varieties) recorded in relevant literatures, involving 44 varieties of medicinal materials. Specifically, seven species (9.9%) were intersected with traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), 19 varieties (43%) were recorded in Chinese medicinal material standards at all levels, and 27 species (38%) were source plants. In Tibetan medicine standards and literatures, there are great differences between Tibetan names and translated Chinese names and among varieties of source plants. Apart from a few of varieties intersected with traditional Chinese medicines had complete standards and regulations in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, most of species only had characters, microscopic, physical and chemical identifications in Standards Issued by Ministry of Health-Tibetan Medicine, Tibetan Medicine Standard and local standards. Therefore, the Tibetan medicinal material variety-source specification and quality standard system shall be promoted on the basis of literatures research, investigations for resources and current applications and modern pharmaceutical studies. PMID:26281573

  14. Use of medicinal plants for diabetes in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Mahabir, D; Gulliford, M C

    1997-03-01

    Use of herbal remedies from medicinal plants (bush medicines) was studied in 622 people with diabetes mellitus attending 17 government health centers on the island of Trinidad, Trinidad and Tobago. Bush medicines were used by 42% of patients surveyed and were used for diabetes by 24%. Bush medicine use was more frequent in Afro-Trinidadians and in those of mixed ethnicity than in Indo-Trinidadians, and was also more prevalent in those with lower educational attainment. Most patients using bush medicines (214/264, or 81%) reported gathering the plants themselves, and 107/264 (41%) took them more frequently than once a week. Patients taking bush medicines mentioned 103 different plants used in remedies. Among the 12 most frequently mentioned, caraili, aloes, olive-bush, and seed-under-leaf were preferentially used for diabetes. Vervine, chandilay, soursop, fever grass, and orange peel were preferentially used for other indications. Patients who reported burning or numbness in the feet or feelings of tiredness, weakness, giddiness, or dizziness used bush medicines for diabetes more frequently than did patients who reported a range of other diabetes-related symptoms. Insulin-treated patients were less frequent users of bush medicines. It is concluded that bush medicines are taken regularly by many patients with diabetes in Trinidad. Plants most frequently used as remedies for diabetes have recognized hypoglycemic activity. Patients' culture, educational background, type of symptoms, and formal medical treatment may also influence the selection and use of bush medicines. PMID:9128111

  15. Assessment of in vivo antimalarial activities of some selected medicinal plants from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozbilgin, Ahmet; Durmuskahya, Cenk; Kayalar, Husniye; Ostan, Ipek

    2014-01-01

    Resistant infections lead to increased necessity of searching novel drugs and drug combinations. The purpose of this paper was to investigate antimalarial properties of some selected medicinal plants that have been traditionally used in Turkey for antipyretic and analgesic purposes. Lavandula stoecheas subsp. cariensis, Phlomis nissolii, Phlomis bourgaei, Phlomis leucophracta, Centaurea hierapolitana, Centaurea polyclada, Centaurea lydia, Scrophularia cryptophila, Scrophularia depauperata, Scrophularia floribunda, Rubia davisiana, and Alkanna tinctoria subsp. subleiocarpa were investigated for their in vivo antimalarial activities in mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii. Two hundred fifty to 500 mg/kg doses of plant extracts were given to mice as a single daily dose for 4 days. P. nissolii water extract, C. lydia chloroform extract, S. cryptophila ethanol extract, and C. polyclada methanol extract showed antimalarial activity with reducing parasitaemia. The chemotherapeutic effects of plant extracts ranged between 13.5% and 66.91%. The chemosuppressions exerted by combined plant extracts of P. nissolii, S. cryptophila, and C. lydia with C. polyclada methanol extract were detected as 51.25%, 57.33%, and 58.33%, respectively. Investigation of cytotoxic activities against brine shrimps revealed that methanol extract of C. polycada, chloroform extract of C. lydia, and ethanol extract of S. cryptophila showed cytotoxic activities, while water extract of P. nissolii was not active against brine shrimps. PMID:24146207

  16. Antityrosinase and antimicrobial activities from Thai medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Dej-Adisai, Sukanya; Meechai, Imron; Puripattanavong, Jindaporn; Kummee, Sopa

    2014-04-01

    Various dermatological disorders and microbial skin infection can cause hyperpigmentation. Therefore, screenings for whitening and antimicrobial agents from Thai medicinal plants have been of research interest. Seventy-seven ethanol plant extracts were investigated for antityrosinase activity, eleven samples showed the tyrosinase inhibition more than 50 % were further preliminary screening for antimicrobial activity by agar disc diffusion and broth micro-dilution methods. Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr. (Moraceae) root extract, which showed the potential of tyrosinase inhibition with 90.57 ± 2.93 % and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Propionibacterium acnes and Trichophyton mentagophytes with inhibition zone as 9.10 ± 0.00, 10.67 ± 0.09, 15.25 ± 0.05 and 6.60 ± 0.17 mm, respectively was selected for phytochemical investigation. Three pure compounds were isolated as artocarpin, cudraflavone C and artocarpanone. And artocarpanone exhibited anti-tyrosinase effect; artocarpin and cudraflavone C also showed the potential of antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. epidermidis and P. acnes with MIC at 2, 4 and 2 μg/ml, respectively and MBC at 32 μg/ml for these bacteria. So, these pure compounds are interesting for further study in order to provide possibilities of new whitening and antibacterial development. This will be the first report of phytochemical investigation of A. integer root. PMID:23835832

  17. ELECTROCHEMICAL FINGERPRINT STUDIES OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS RICH IN FLAVONOIDS.

    PubMed

    Konieczy?ski, Pawe?

    2015-01-01

    The combination of a size-exclusion column (SEC) with electrochemical (voltammetric) detection at a boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE) was applied for studying the correlations between electroactive Cu and Fe species with phenolic groups of flavonoids. For comparison with electrochemical results, SEC-HPLC-DAD detection was used. The studied plant material comprised of: Betula verrucosa Ehrh., Equisetun arvense L., Polygonum aviculare L., Viola tricolor L., Crataegus oxyacantha L., Sambucus nigra L. and Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench. Based upon the results, high negative correlation was found for the chromatographic peak currents at 45 min with the sum of Cu and Fe for the aqueous extracts of Sambucus, Crataegus and Betula species, and for the peak currents at 65 min of the aqueous extracts of Sambucus, Crataegus, Helichrysum and Betula botanical species. This behavior confirms that it is mainly the flavonoids with easily oxidizable phenolic groups which are strongly influenced by the presence of Cu and Fe. Moreover, the electrochemical profiles obtained thanks to the use of HPLC hyphenated with voltammetric detection can be potentially applied for fingerprint studies of the plant materials used in medicine. PMID:26647621

  18. The molluscicidal activity of plants used in Brazilian folk medicine.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, A F; Sant'Ana, A E

    2000-01-01

    In a continuing search for new compounds for the control of the vectors of schistosomiasis, we have tested the activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants as sources of molluscicidal natural compounds, using two molluscicidal bioassays. Twenty-seven crude extracts, from twenty-six species belonging to nineteen families, were tested. Seven extracts showed significant molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata adults with DL50 values of less than 50 ppm, and five of them were very active in the test using egg masses. The species most active against B. glabrata adults (LD50 value = 3.65 ppm) and their egg masses (LD50 value = 0.13 ppm) was Derris sp. Annona muricata [LD50 value (adult) = 11.86 ppm and LD50 value (egg) = 49.62 ppm], Jatropha elliptica (from Gois state) [LD50 value (adult) = 24.80 ppm and LD50 value (egg) = 3.03 ppm] and Renealmia exaltata [LD50 value (adult) = 28.03 ppm and LD50 value (egg) = 21.67 ppm], were also considered promising molluscicidal plants. PMID:10715846

  19. Are medicinal plants polluted with phthalates?

    PubMed

    Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) have been employed in polymer materials as a plasticizer to form them more flexible, adhesive, and soluble. These compounds are mainly used in paints, varnishes, personal cares, cosmetics, paper coatings, and adhesives even in bottled waters, shampoo, body deodorant, hairspray, and gels. Phthalates are able to possess remarkable toxic variations depending on their structures. So far, Di-(2-EthylHexyl) Phthalate DEHP and Di-n- Butyl Phthalate DBP have been found to cause reproductive and developmental toxicities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classified DEHP as probable human carcinogen. To the best of our knowledge, phthalates showed diverse toxicity profiles according to their structures in the liver, kidneys, thyroid, and testes, which are involved in general toxicity. Furthermore, they are introduced as hormonally-active agents, because they can interfere with the endocrine system in human. Incidence of developmental abnormalities (like skeletal malformations and cleft palate, and undescended testes, lowering testes weight and anogenital distance) seems increasing via high exposure to phthalate metabolites. Although, increasing the capacity for phthalate free plasticizer productions is the first step to restrict the distribution of these toxic manmade compounds, finding the new ways for phthalate absorption from the soil in agricultural fields may have benefits. Also, evaluation and examination of diverse sources of medicinal and food plants to determine the level of phthalate accumulation in their organs are extremely recommended to avoid creating toxicity particularly in reproductive systems. PMID:23718122

  20. A preliminary investigation of anticholinesterase activity of some Iranian medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some commonly used herbal medicine in Iran to introduce a new source for management of Alzheimers disease. A total of 18 aqueous-methanolic extract (1:1; v/v) from the following plants: Brassica alba, Brassica nigra, Camellia sinensis, Cinchona officinalis, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus x aurantium, Ferula assafoetida, Humulus lupulus, Juglans regia, Juniperus sabina, Myristica fragrans, Pelargonium graveolens, Pistacia vera, Punica granatum, Rheum officinale, Rosa damascena, Salix alba, and Zizyphus vulgaris were prepared and screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity using in vitro Ellman spectrophotometric method. Results According to the obtained results, the order of inhibitory activity (IC50 values, ?g /ml) of extracts from highest to the lowest was: C. sinensis (5.96), C. aurantifolia (19.57), Z. vulgaris (24.37), B. nigra (84.30) and R. damascena (93.1). Conclusions The results indicated and confirmed the traditional use of these herbs for management of central nervous system disorders. C. sinensis showed the highest activity in inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. However, further investigations on identification of active components in the extracts are needed. PMID:24401532

  1. A simple electrochemical method for the rapid estimation of antioxidant potentials of some selected medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Amidi, Salimeh; Mojab, Faraz; Bayandori Moghaddam, Abdolmajid; Tabib, Kimia; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and Epidemiological studies have shown that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancers and other related disorders. These beneficial health effects have been attributed in part to the presence of antioxidants in dietary plants. Therefore screening for antioxidant properties of plant extracts has been one of the interests of scientists in this field. Different screening methods have been reported for the evaluation of antioxidant properties of plant extracts in the literature. In the present research a rapid screening method has been introduced based on cyclic voltammetry for antioxidant screening of some selected medicinal plant extracts. CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF SEVEN MEDICINAL PLANTS: Buxus hyrcana, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium, Zataria multiflora, Ginkgo biloba, Lippia citriodora and Heptaptera anisoptera was carried out at different scan rates. Based on the interpretation of voltammograms, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium and Ginkgo biloba showed higher antioxidant capability than the others while Lippia citriodora contained the highest amount of antioxidants. Cyclic voltammetry is expected to be a simple method for screening antioxidants and estimating the antioxidant activity of foods and medicinal plants. PMID:25317192

  2. Antimicrobial screening of plants used for traditional medicine in the state of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wiart, C; Mogana, S; Khalifah, S; Mahan, M; Ismail, S; Buckle, M; Narayana, A K; Sulaiman, M

    2004-01-01

    Seventy-two extracts (methanol) obtained from the leaves, barks, and roots of 50 plant species used in the traditional medicine of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia, have been screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Peristrophe tinctoria, Polyalthia lateriflora, Knema malayana, Solanum torvum, Celosia argentea, Eclipta prostrata, Ancistrocladus tectorius, Dillenia suffruticosa, Piper stylosum and Rafflesia hasseltii displayed the broadest spectrum of activity. PMID:14693223

  3. A simplified but effective method for the quality control of medicinal plants by planar chromatography.

    PubMed

    Eloff, J N; Ntloedibe, D T; van Brummelen, R

    2011-01-01

    Three of the factors limiting the rational use of herbal medicine are uncertainty on effectivity, uncertainty on safety and variation in quality of the product. Because many herbal medicines have been used over centuries by indigenous peoples, the safety and effectivity is frequently not such a big concern. With more people collecting and distributing herbal medicine, the offered product is however, frequently not what the label indicates either through a genuine mistake, but also through fraud especially where expensive herbal medicine is concerned. Some wrong identifications have already led to serious side effects and deaths. Planar chromatography or thin layer chromatography [TLC] is widely used to verify the identity of plant extracts by determining the chemical fingerprint of the extracts. In a leading publication 17 different extractants, 41 solvent systems and 44 spray reagents have been used to verify the identity of important herbal preparations. We investigated whether a simplified system could not be developed to aid small laboratories in identifying different herbal medicines. We compared the efficacy of different extractants, identified and developed three TLC solvent systems that would separate compounds with low, medium and high polarity and then also investigated the use of several spray reagents. With acetone as extractant and benzene:ethanol:ammonia [9:1:0.1], chloroform:ethylacetate:formic acid [5:4:1] and ethylacetate:methanol:water [10:1.35:1] as TLC solvent system and vanillin-sulphuric acid as spray reagent the identity of 81 samples of more than 50 herbal preparations could be verified on the basis of the chromatograms. The same product from different suppliers usually gave similar chromatograms. More importantly in several cases it was clear that products with the same label were so different that a mistake must have occurred in the labelling. This method has found application in the quality control of the most important African medicinal plants in the recently published African Herbal Pharmacopoeia produced by the Association for African Medicinal Plant Standards (AAMPS). PMID:22754053

  4. Phylogenetic exploration of commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Yessoufou, Kowiyou; Daru, Barnabas H; Muasya, Abraham Muthama

    2015-03-01

    The rapid growth rate of human population, along with the public health crisis encountered in many regions, particularly in developing world, creates an urgent need for the discovery of alternative drugs. Because medicinal plants are not distributed randomly across lineages, it has been suggested that phylogeny along with traditional knowledge of plant uses can guide the identification of new medicinally useful plants. In this study, we combined different statistical approaches to test for phylogenetic signal in 33 categories of plant uses in South Africa. Depending on the null models considered, we found evidence for signal in up to 45% of plant use categories, indicating the need for multiple tests combination to maximize the chance of discovering new medicinal plants when applying a phylogenetic comparative approach. Furthermore, although there was no signal in the diversity of medicinal uses-that is, total number of medicinal uses recorded for each plant-our results indicate that taxa that are evolutionarily closely related have significantly more uses than those that are evolutionarily isolated. Our study therefore provides additional support to the body of the literature that advocates for the inclusion of phylogeny in bioscreening medicinal flora for the discovery of alternative medicines. PMID:25066923

  5. Antileishmanial Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Endemic Areas in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    De Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; Dias, Thays de Lima Matos Freire; Da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; Cavalcante Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; de Arajo-Jnior, Joo Xavier; de Arajo, Givanildo Bernardino; Moura, Flvia de Barros Prado; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and Unio dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis) who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1100??g/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10??g/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1??g/mL after 48?h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100??g/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10??g/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity. PMID:25126099

  6. [Review on application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yu-Yao; Guo, Bao-Lin; Cheng, Ming

    2013-09-01

    Plant growth retardants are widely used in cultivation of medicinal plant, but there is still lack of scientific guidance. In order to guide the use of plant growth retardants in medicinal plant cultivation efficiently and reasonably, this paper reviewed the mechanism, function characteristic, plant and soil residue of plant growth retardants, such as chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, paclobutrazol, unicnazle and succinic acid, and summarized the application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation in recent years, with focus on the effect of growth and yield of the officinal organs and secondary metabolites. PMID:24380290

  7. Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Qura'n, S

    2009-05-01

    Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use of specific plants. PMID:19429338

  8. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health.

    PubMed

    Kberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants' flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome. PMID:24391634

  9. Assessment of Anti-Quorum Sensing Activity for Some Ornamental and Medicinal Plants Native to Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Ahmed A.; Shaaban, Mona I.; Hashish, Nadia E.; Amer, Mohamed A.; Lahloub, Mohamed-Farid

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of some plant extracts on the bacterial communication system, expressed as quorum sensing (QS) activity. Quorum sensing has a directly proportional effect on the amount of certain compounds, such as pigments, produced by the bacteria. Alcohol extracts of 23 ornamental and medicinal plants were tested for anti-QS activity by the Chromobacterium violaceum assay using the agar cup diffusion method. The screening revealed the anti-QS activity of six plants; namely the leaves of Adhatoda vasica Nees, Bauhinia purpurea L., Lantana camara L., Myoporum laetum G. Forst.; the fruits of Piper longum L.; and the aerial parts of Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. PMID:23641343

  10. Assessment of anti-quorum sensing activity for some ornamental and medicinal plants native to egypt.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Ahmed A; Shaaban, Mona I; Hashish, Nadia E; Amer, Mohamed A; Lahloub, Mohamed-Farid

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of some plant extracts on the bacterial communication system, expressed as quorum sensing (QS) activity. Quorum sensing has a directly proportional effect on the amount of certain compounds, such as pigments, produced by the bacteria. Alcohol extracts of 23 ornamental and medicinal plants were tested for anti-QS activity by the Chromobacterium violaceum assay using the agar cup diffusion method. The screening revealed the anti-QS activity of six plants; namely the leaves of Adhatoda vasica Nees, Bauhinia purpurea L., Lantana camara L., Myoporum laetum G. Forst.; the fruits of Piper longum L.; and the aerial parts of Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. PMID:23641343

  11. Update on Medicinal Plants with Potency on Mycobacterium ulcerans

    PubMed Central

    Tsouh Fokou, Patrick Valere; Nyarko, Alexander Kwadwo; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Tchokouaha Yamthe, Lauve Rachel; Ofosuhene, Mark; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans disease has been a serious threat for people living in rural remote areas. Due to poverty or availability of traditional medicine these populations rely on herbal remedies. Currently, data on the anti-Mycobacterium ulcerans activity of plants, so far considered community-based knowledge, have been scientifically confirmed, concomitantly with some medicinal plants used to treat infectious diseases in general. Products derived from plants usually responsible for the biological properties may potentially control Mycobacterium ulcerans disease; numerous studies have aimed to describe the chemical composition of these plant antimicrobials. Thus, the present work provides the first compilation of medicinal plants that demonstrated inhibitory potential on Mycobacterium ulcerans. This work shows that the natural products represent potential alternatives to standard therapies for use as curative medicine for Mycobacterium ulcerans disease. PMID:26779539

  12. Drying of medicinal plants with solar energy utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Wisniewski, G.

    1997-10-01

    In the paper, a potential of solar energy for drying of medicinal plants in Polish conditions is estimated and development of solar drying technologies is presented. The results of economic assessment of flat-plate solar collectors applied for drying of medicinal plants on a farm are promising. In some specific conditions, e.g. drying of wild grown medicinal plants in remote areas, even application of photovoltaic modules for driving of a fan of a solar dryer is a profitable option and enables easy control of the drying air temperature.

  13. Bioinformatics opportunities for identification and study of medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vivekanand

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been used as a source of medicine since historic times and several commercially important drugs are of plant-based origin. The traditional approach towards discovery of plant-based drugs often times involves significant amount of time and expenditure. These labor-intensive approaches have struggled to keep pace with the rapid development of high-throughput technologies. In the era of high volume, high-throughput data generation across the biosciences, bioinformatics plays a crucial role. This has generally been the case in the context of drug designing and discovery. However, there has been limited attention to date to the potential application of bioinformatics approaches that can leverage plant-based knowledge. Here, we review bioinformatics studies that have contributed to medicinal plants research. In particular, we highlight areas in medicinal plant research where the application of bioinformatics methodologies may result in quicker and potentially cost-effective leads toward finding plant-based remedies. PMID:22589384

  14. Evaluation of the In Vitro Antiplasmodial, Antileishmanial, and Antitrypanosomal Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Saudi and Yemeni Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Mothana, Ramzi A.; Al-Musayeib, Nawal M.; Al-Ajmi, Mohamed F.; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis

    2014-01-01

    The antiplasmodial, antileishmanial, and antitrypanosomal activity of twenty-five medicinal plants distributed in Saudi Arabia and Yemen was evaluated. The plants were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi, and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. To assess selectivity, cytotoxicity was determined on MRC-5 cells. Criteria for activity were an IC50 < 10??g/mL and high selectivity (SI). Seven plants showed interesting antiprotozoal activity in one or more models. Extracts of Caralluma penicillata and Acalypha ciliata showed fairly good activity against P. falciparum with IC50 of 6.7 and 10.8??g/mL and adequate selectivity (SI > 9.6 and >5.9). Interesting activity against L. infantum was obtained with Verbascum bottae (IC50 of 3.2??g/mL, SI 10.2) and Solanum glabratum (IC50 8.1??g/mL, SI 3.4). The extracts of C. penicillata, Leucas virgata, Loranthus regularis, and V. bottae exhibited moderate activity against T. brucei (IC50 8.5, 8.1, 8.3, and 2.3??g/mL; SI > 7.6, 7.7, 4.3, and >14.1). These results partly support the traditional use of some of the selected medicinal plants and warrant further investigations into the putative active constituents. PMID:24963330

  15. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health

    PubMed Central

    Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M.; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants’ flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome. PMID:24391634

  16. Traditional Medicines in Africa: An Appraisal of Ten Potent African Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Mahomoodally, M. Fawzi

    2013-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants as a fundamental component of the African traditional healthcare system is perhaps the oldest and the most assorted of all therapeutic systems. In many parts of rural Africa, traditional healers prescribing medicinal plants are the most easily accessible and affordable health resource available to the local community and at times the only therapy that subsists. Nonetheless, there is still a paucity of updated comprehensive compilation of promising medicinal plants from the African continent. The major focus of the present review is to provide an updated overview of 10 promising medicinal plants from the African biodiversity which have short- as well as long-term potential to be developed as future phytopharmaceuticals to treat and/or manage panoply of infectious and chronic conditions. In this endeavour, key scientific databases have been probed to investigate trends in the rapidly increasing number of scientific publications on African traditional medicinal plants. Within the framework of enhancing the significance of traditional African medicinal plants, aspects such as traditional use, phytochemical profile, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies and also future challenges pertaining to the use of these plants have been explored. PMID:24367388

  17. Screening of some Yemeni medicinal plants for inhibitory activity against peptidases.

    PubMed

    Alasbahi, R; Melzig, M F

    2008-01-01

    Extracts of different polarities (dichloromethane, methanol, and aqueous extracts) from 5 Yemeni medicinal plants (Aspilia helianthoides, leaves; Ceropegia rupicola, whole plant; Kniphofia sumarae, whole plant; Pavetta longiflora, leaves; and Plectranthus cf barbatus, leaves) were screened for their inhibitory effects against angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), neutral endopeptidase (NEP), and aminopeptidase N (APN) activities. Four extracts (methanol extracts of Ceropegia rupicola, Kniphofia sumarae, and Plectranthus cf barbatus, and the aqueous extract of Pavetta longiflora) were found able to inhibit the enzymatic activity of NEP. Significant reduction in the activity of NEP (p < 0.01) was observed at a concentration of 50 microg/ml, and above of all tested extracts. The most active extract was the methanolic extract of Ceropegia rupicola with IC50 of 111 microg/ml. Only the methanolic extract of Aspilia helianthoides was found to exhibit inhibitory effect against the ACE activity with IC50 = 133 microg/ml. None of the tested plant extracts was found active against the aminopeptidase N activity. PMID:18271311

  18. Endophytic actinobacteria of medicinal plants: diversity and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Golinska, Patrycja; Wypij, Magdalena; Agarkar, Gauravi; Rathod, Dnyaneshwar; Dahm, Hanna; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-08-01

    Endophytes are the microorganisms that exist inside the plant tissues without having any negative impact on the host plant. Medicinal plants constitute the huge diversity of endophytic actinobacteria of economical importance. These microbes have huge potential to synthesis of numerous novel compounds that can be exploited in pharmaceutical, agricultural and other industries. It is of prime importance to focus the present research on practical utilization of this microbial group in order to find out the solutions to the problems related to health, environment and agriculture. An extensive characterization of diverse population of endophytic actinobacteria associated with medicinal plants can provide a greater insight into the plant-endophyte interactions and evolution of mutualism. In the present review, we have discussed the diversity of endophytic actinobacteria of from medicinal plants their multiple bioactivities. PMID:26093915

  19. 27 CFR 17.181 - Exportation of medicinal preparations and flavoring extracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exportation of medicinal... USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Miscellaneous Provisions 17.181 Exportation of medicinal preparations and flavoring extracts. Medicinal preparations and flavoring extracts, approved for drawback...

  20. 27 CFR 17.181 - Exportation of medicinal preparations and flavoring extracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exportation of medicinal... USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Miscellaneous Provisions 17.181 Exportation of medicinal preparations and flavoring extracts. Medicinal preparations and flavoring extracts, approved for drawback...

  1. 27 CFR 17.181 - Exportation of medicinal preparations and flavoring extracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exportation of medicinal... USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Miscellaneous Provisions 17.181 Exportation of medicinal preparations and flavoring extracts. Medicinal preparations and flavoring extracts, approved for drawback...

  2. 27 CFR 17.181 - Exportation of medicinal preparations and flavoring extracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exportation of medicinal... USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Miscellaneous Provisions 17.181 Exportation of medicinal preparations and flavoring extracts. Medicinal preparations and flavoring extracts, approved for drawback...

  3. 27 CFR 17.181 - Exportation of medicinal preparations and flavoring extracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exportation of medicinal... USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Miscellaneous Provisions 17.181 Exportation of medicinal preparations and flavoring extracts. Medicinal preparations and flavoring extracts, approved for drawback...

  4. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using medicinal Zizyphus xylopyrus bark extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumi Maria, Babu; Devadiga, Aishwarya; Shetty Kodialbail, Vidya; Saidutta, M. B.

    2015-08-01

    In the present paper, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Zizyphus xylopyrus bark extract is reported. Z. xylopyrus bark extract is efficiently used for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. UV-Visible spectroscopy showed surface plasmon resonance peaks in the range 413-420 nm confirming the formation of silver nanoparticles. Different factors affecting the synthesis of silver nanoparticles like methodology for the preparation of extract, concentration of silver nitrate solution used for biosynthesis and initial pH of the reaction mixture were studied. The extract prepared with 10 mM AgNO3 solution by reflux extraction method at optimum initial pH of 11, resulted in higher conversion of silver ions to silver nanoparticles as compared with those prepared by open heating or ultrasonication. SEM analysis showed that the biosynthesized nanoparticles are spherical in nature and ranged from 60 to 70 nm in size. EDX suggested that the silver nanoparticles must be capped by the organic components present in the plant extract. This simple process for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Z. xylopyrus is a green technology without the usage of hazardous and toxic solvents and chemicals and hence is environment friendly. The process has several advantages with reference to cost, compatibility for its application in medical and drug delivery, as well as for large-scale commercial production.

  5. Antimutagenic Effect of Medicinal Plants Achillea millefolium and Bauhinia forficata In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Igor Vivian; Coelho, Ana Carolina; Balbi, Thiago José; Düsman Tonin, Lilian Tatiani; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of traditionally used medicinal plants is valuable both as a source of potential chemotherapeutic drugs and as a measure of safety for the continued use of these medicinal plants. Achillea millefolium L. (AM) is an ancient remedial herb native to Europe that is used to treat wounds, gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders, inflammation, headaches, and pain. Bauhinia forficata Link (BF), an Asiatic plant, is one of the most commonly used plants in folk medicine against diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and antimutagenic potential of aqueous extracts of AM and BF on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats treated in vivo. These plant extracts possess considerable antioxidant activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds. These compounds were determinants to noncytotoxic and antimutagenic/protective action of these plants, that reduced statistically the percentage of chromosomal alterations induced by the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide in simultaneous (AM, 68%; BF, 91%), pre- (AM, 68%; BF, 71%), and post-treatment (AM, 67%; BF, 95%). Therefore, the results of this study indicate that extracts of A. millefolium and B. forficata have antimutagenic potential and that their consumption can benefit the health of those using them as an alternative therapy. PMID:24459532

  6. ETHNOBOTANY OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS OF SRIKAKULAM DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESH

    PubMed Central

    Rao, K. Prakasa; Sreeramulu, S. Hara

    1985-01-01

    India has a rich heritage of herbal medicine of which the most important system namely Ayurveda needs even today a critical scientific scrutiny both in the correct identity of the proper drug plants and in the standard of the preparation of Ayurveda drugs. Authentic data on the medicinal plants growing in the Srikakulam district of Northern Andhra Pradesh is presented in the paper along with their etnobotainical data and their distribution in the district. PMID:22557487

  7. Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of 10 medicinal plants used in northeast Mexico.

    PubMed

    Molina-Garza, Zinnia Judith; Bazaldúa-Rodríguez, Aldo Fabio; Quintanilla-Licea, Ramiro; Galaviz-Silva, Lucio

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to screen the trypanocidal activity of plants used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of various diseases related to parasitic infections. Cultured Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes were incubated for 96h with different concentrations of methanolic extracts obtained from Artemisia mexicana, Castela texana, Cymbopogon citratus, Eryngium heterophyllum, Haematoxylum brasiletto, Lippia graveolens, Marrubium vulgare, Persea americana, Ruta chalepensis and Schinus molle. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined for each extract via a colorimetric method. Among the evaluated species, the methanolic extracts of E. heterophyllum, H. brasiletto, M. vulgare and S. molle exhibited the highest trypanocidal activity, showing percentages of growth inhibition between 88 and 100% at a concentration of 150μg/ml. These medicinal plants may represent a valuable source of new bioactive compounds for the therapeutic treatment of trypanosomiasis. PMID:24742906

  8. Antibacterial activities of selected medicinal plants in traditional treatment of human wounds in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Taye, Biruhalem; Giday, Mirutse; Animut, Abebe; Seid, Jemal

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the activity of selected Ethiopian medicinal plants traditionally used for wound treatment against wound-causing bacteria. Methods Samples of medicinal plants (Achyranthes aspera, Brucea antidysenterica, Datura stramonium, Croton macrostachyus, Acokanthera schimperi, Phytolacca dodecandra, Millettia ferruginea, and Solanum incanum) were extracted using absolute methanol and water and tested for their antimicrobial activities against clinical isolates and standard strains of wound-causing bacteria using agar well diffusion and micro titer plate methods. Results Most of the plant extracts had antibacterial activities, among which Acokanthera schimperi and Brucea antidysenterica inhibited growth of 100% and 35% of the test organisms, respectively. Methanolic extracts had higher activities compared with their corresponding aqueous extracts. The most susceptible organism to the extracts was Streptococcus pyogens while the most resistant were Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris. Conclusions This finding justifies the use of the plants in wound healing and their potential activity against wound-causing bacteria. Their toxicity level and antimicrobial activity with different extraction solvents should further be studied to use them as sources and templates for the synthesis of drugs to control wound and other disease-causing bacteria. PMID:23569795

  9. Evaluation of five medicinal plants used in diarrhoea treatment in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Agunu, Abdulkarim; Yusuf, Sadiq; Andrew, Gabriel Onyiloyi; Zezi, Abdulkadir Umar; Abdurahman, Ezzeldin Mukhtar

    2005-10-01

    Five medicinal plants [Acacia nilotica, Acanthospermun hispidum, Gmelina arborea, Parkia biglobosa and Vitex doniana] used in diarrhoeal treatment in Kaduna State, Nigeria, were investigated. This study was carried out on perfused isolated rabbit jejunum and castor oil-induced diarrhoea in mice. The aqueous methanol extracts (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/ml) were generally found to cause a dose-dependent response in the isolated rabbit jejunum, though this was not uniform in all the plants. Gmelina arborea and Vitex doniana showed concentration dependent relaxation at low doses (0.5, 1.0 mg/ml), but showed no significant relaxation at higher doses (2.0, 3.0 mg/ml). Other extracts showed biphasic effects. For example, Acacia nilotica at 3.0 mg/ml caused initial relaxation quickly followed by contraction. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal, 100% protections were shown by extracts of Acacia nilotica and Parkia biglobosa (100, 200 mg/kg) while Vitex doniana showed a dose-dependent effect. The least protection was shown by Acanthospermun hispidum, at the same dose, when compared with the other four plants. The results obtained revealed that the aqueous methanol extracts of all the five medicinal plants investigated have pharmacological activity against diarrhoea. This may explain their use in traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhoea. PMID:15908152

  10. Antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants against multiple antibiotic resistant uropathogens: a study from Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, A S; Raja, S S S; Ponmurugan, K; Kandekar, S C; Natarajaseenivasan, K; Maripandi, A; Mandeel, Q A

    2011-09-01

    The increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens necessitates medicinal plants as an alternate therapy in restricting the resistant infectious organisms. In this primitive study, the antibiotic resistance of organisms isolated from urinary tract infected patients was evaluated using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) method and Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index values, and the MAR values was also calculated for plant extracts. The 10 common medicinal plants collected from Kolli hills, Namakkal, south India were extracted using the chloroform, methanol, acetone, ethanol and saponification procedure. The efficacy of the extracts on the uropathogens was tested by agar disc diffusion method in order to analyse the inhibitory activity of plant extract on the organisms. Azadiracta indica A. Juss., Tinospora cordifolia (Wild.) and Euphorbia hirta Linn. exhibited high inhibitory activity against most of the 11 tested organisms followed by Cassia javanica Linn. and Phyllanthus niruri Linn. The maximum zone size of 46.3 mm was exhibited by methanol extract of P. niruri Linn. against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Asparagus racemosus Willd. and Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl had the least activity against resistant pathogens. Saponified lipids of most of the plants exhibited maximum antibacterial activity. Among the tested organisms, P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the most susceptible and Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloaceae, Citrobacter koseri, and Citrobacter freundii were the least inhibited by most of the extracts of medicinal plants. It is concluded that revised antibiotic policies and more importantly the development of herbal medicine as an alternative may be incorporated in urological practice. PMID:21986363

  11. Supercritical fluid extraction of plant flavors and fragrances.

    PubMed

    Capuzzo, Andrea; Maffei, Massimo E; Occhipinti, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of plant material with solvents like CO?, propane, butane, or ethylene is a topic of growing interest. SFE allows the processing of plant material at low temperatures, hence limiting thermal degradation, and avoids the use of toxic solvents. Although today SFE is mainly used for decaffeination of coffee and tea as well as production of hop extracts on a large scale, there is also a growing interest in this extraction method for other industrial applications operating at different scales. In this review we update the literature data on SFE technology, with particular reference to flavors and fragrance, by comparing traditional extraction techniques of some industrial medicinal and aromatic crops with SFE. Moreover, we describe the biological activity of SFE extracts by describing their insecticidal, acaricidal, antimycotic, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidant properties. Finally, we discuss the process modelling, mass-transfer mechanisms, kinetics parameters and thermodynamic by giving an overview of SFE potential in the flavors and fragrances arena. PMID:23783457

  12. Molecular markers in medicinal plant biotechnology: past and present.

    PubMed

    Sarwat, Maryam; Nabi, Gowher; Das, Sandip; Srivastava, Prem Shankar

    2012-03-01

    Plant based medicines have gained popularity worldwide due to their almost negligible side effects. In India, the three traditional medicinal systems, namely homeopathy, Ayurveda and Siddha rely heavily on plants for medicinal formulations. To prevent the indiscriminate collection of these valuable medicinal plants and for their proper authentication and conservation, it is imperative to go for sustained efforts towards proper germplasm cataloguing and devising conservation strategies. For this purpose, molecular markers have a significant role, as they provide information ranging from diversity at nucleotide level (single nucleotide polymorphisms) to gene and allele frequencies (genotype information), the extent and distribution of genetic diversity, and population structure. Over the past twenty years, the molecular marker field has completely transformed the meaning of conservation genetics which has emerged from a theory-based field of population biology to a full-fledged pragmatic discipline. In this review, we have explored the transition and transformation of molecular marker technologies throughout these years. PMID:21649550

  13. Antibacterial Activity of Medicinal Plants Against Pathogens causing Complicated Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anjana; Chandraker, S.; Patel, V. K.; Ramteke, Padmini

    2009-01-01

    Seventeen Indian folklore medicinal plants were investigated to evaluate antibacterial activity of aqueous, ethanol and acetone extracts against 66 multidrug resistant isolates of major urinary tract pathogens (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis) by disc diffusion method. Ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale and Punica granatum showed strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. Ethanol extracts of Terminalia chebula and Ocimum sanctum exhibited antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Ethanol extract of Cinnamomum cassia showed maximum antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa while ethanol extract of Azadirachta indica and Ocimum sanctum exhibited antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis. The results support the folkloric use of these plants in the treatment of urinary tract infections by the tribals of Mahakoshal region of central India. PMID:20336211

  14. Medicinal plants, traditional medicine, markets and management in far-west Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Modern therapeutic medicine is historically based on indigenous therapies and ethnopharmacological uses, which have become recognized tools in the search for new sources of pharmaceuticals. Globalization of herbal medicine along with uncontrolled exploitative practices and lack of concerted conservation efforts, have pushed many of Nepal's medicinal plants to the verge of extinction. Sustainable utilization and management of medicinal plants, based on traditional knowledge, is therefore necessary. Methods After establishing verbal informed consent with participating communities, five field surveys, roughly 20 days in duration, were carried out. In all, 176 schedules were surveyed, and 52 participants were consulted through focus group discussions and informal meetings. Altogether, 24 key informants were surveyed to verify and validate the data. A total of 252 individuals, representing non-timber forest product (NTFP) collectors, cultivators, traders, traditional healers (Baidhya), community members, etc. participated in study. Medicinal plants were free-listed and their vernacular names and folk uses were collected, recorded, and applied to assess agreement among respondents about traditional medicines, markets and management. Results Within the study area, medicinal herbs were the main ingredients of traditional therapies, and they were considered a main lifeline and frequently were the first choice. About 55% plants were ethnomedicinal, and about 37% of ethnomedicinal plants possessed the highest informant consensus value (0.86–1.00). Use of Cordyceps sinensis as an aphrodisiac, Berberis asiatica for eye problems, Bergenia ciliata for disintegration of calculi, Sapindus mukorossi for dandruff, and Zanthoxylum armatum for toothache were the most frequently mentioned. These species possess potential for pharmacology. Conclusion Medicinal plants are inseparable from local livelihoods because they have long been collected, consumed, and managed through local customs and knowledge. Management of traditional therapies is urged, because the therapies are empirically and knowledge based, often culturally inherited and important to pharmacology and local livelihoods. However, traditional therapies are currently being eroded due to changing lifestyles, perceptions, social transformations, and acculturation. PMID:23587109

  15. Medicinal plants in the healing of dry socket in rats: microbiological and microscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    de Melo Jnior, E J M; Raposo, M J; Lisboa Neto, J A; Diniz, M F A; Marcelino Jnior, C A C; Sant'Ana, A E G

    2002-03-01

    The effectiveness of medicinal herbs as antimicrobial agents was tested on isolated microorganisms from an induced alveolitis and on alveolitis in rats. Sixteen ethanolic extracts from plants were prepared and tested. The plant materials were selected from ethnobotanic data and the best result was obtained with Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. The activity on Enterococcus, Bacillus corineforme, Streptococcus viridans and S. beta-hemolytic was better than the one presented by the antibiotic currently used for the treatment of alveolitis. The extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi has shown good wound-healing activity by histological analysis. PMID:11995943

  16. Essential oil composition and nutrient analysis of selected medicinal plants in Sultanate of Oman

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Javid; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Ali, Liaqat; Khan, Abdul Latif; Albroumi, Muhammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the nutrients and essential oils of five medicinal plants, Juniperus excelsa (J. excelsa), Dodonaea viscosa, Euryops pinifolius, Teucrium polium (T. polium), and Helianthemum lippii that were collected from Jabal Al Akhdar, Oman. Methods Proximate parameters (moisture, dry matter, ash, crude fats, proteins, fibers, nitrogen, carbohydrates, and energy values) and nutrient analysis (K, Na, Ca, Fe, P, Mg etc.) were evaluated in the five medicinal plants using standard techniques. On the basis of these analysis, T. polium and J. excels were selected for essential oil analysis using a rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method and GC-MS. Results The results showed that leaves of J. excelsa had highest proportion of crude fats, fibers and energy value while ash was highest in T. polium. J. excelsa was also rich in essential minerals such as calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron while the trace elements and heavy metals composition was marginal. A rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method to extract oil from medicinal plants species showed that only T. polium and J. excelsa yielded oil. The chemical composition of essential oils showed higher proportion of delta-3-carene, limonene, β-eudesmol, ledeneoxide (II), α-trans-bergamatene, linalyl acetate and germacrene. Conclusions J. excelsa and T. polium are a good source of proximate, minerals and essential oils, which can be considered for healthy life besides their medicinal values.

  17. In vitro evaluation of trypanocidal activity in plants used in Argentine traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Slsen, V; Gida, C; Coussio, J; Paveto, C; Muschietti, L; Martino, V

    2006-03-01

    Thirty-two organic and aqueous extracts, belonging to 12 Argentine medicinal plants were tested for their in vitro trypanocidal activity on epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Among the selected species, the organic extracts of Ambrosia scabra, Ambrosia tenuifolia, Baccharis spicata, Eupatorium buniifolium, Lippia integrifolia, Mulinum spinosum and Satureja parvifolia, and the aqueous extracts of E. buniifolium, L. integrifolia, M. spinosum and S. parvifolia showed trypanocidal activity with a percentage of growth inhibition higher than 70% at a concentration of 100 microg/ml. PMID:16341880

  18. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of some Asian medicinal plants used in dermatological disorders.

    PubMed

    Cullar, M J; Giner, R M; Recio, M C; Mez, S; Ros, J L

    2001-03-01

    The topical anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from Cassia angustifolia, Rheum palmatum, Coptis chinensis, Phellodendron amurense and Scutellaria baicalensis, plants used in traditional East Asian medicine against different skin disorders, was studied. Though in different degree, all the extracts significantly inhibited the edema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), in both single or multiple application, oxazolone, and arachidonic acid (AA). None of the extracts inhibited in vitro the activity of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) from Naja naja. PMID:11295297

  19. Screening of plants used in Danish folk medicine to treat memory dysfunction for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Adsersen, Anne; Gauguin, Bente; Gudiksen, Lene; Jger, Anna K

    2006-04-01

    Aqueous and methanolic extracts of 11 plants, used in Danish folk medicine for improvement of memory and cognition, and 3 Corydalis species were tested for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity using the Ellman colorimetric method. Significant inhibitory activity in dose-dependent manner was observed for extracts of Corydalis cava, Corydalis intermedia, Corydalis solida ssp. laxa and Corydalis solida ssp. slivenensis. Extracts of Ruta graveolens, Lavandula angustifolia, Rosmarinus officinalis, Petroselinum crispum and Mentha spicata exhibited moderate inhibition of the enzyme, defined as more than 15% at 0.1 mg/ml. PMID:16280217

  20. A Review of Hepatoprotective Plants Used in Saudi Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman K.; Al-Elaiwi, Abdulrahman M.; Athar, Md Tanwir; Tariq, Mohammad; Al Eid, Ahmed; Al-Asmary, Saeed M.

    2014-01-01

    Liver disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality across the world. According to WHO estimates, about 500 million people are living with chronic hepatitis infections resulting in the death of over one million people annually. Medicinal plants serve as a vital source of potentially useful new compounds for the development of effective therapy to combat liver problems. Moreover herbal products have the advantage of better affordability and acceptability, better compatibility with the human body, and minimal side effects and is easier to store. In this review attempt has been made to summarize the scientific data published on hepatoprotective plants used in Saudi Arabian traditional medicine. The information includes medicinal uses of the plants, distribution in Saudi Arabia, ethnopharmacological profile, possible mechanism of action, chemical constituents, and toxicity data. Comprehensive scientific studies on safety and efficacy of these plants can revitalise the treatment of liver diseases. PMID:25587347

  1. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in medicinal plants from North America.

    PubMed

    Roeder, E; Wiedenfeld, H; Edgar, J A

    2015-06-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are mutagenic, carcinogenic, pneumotoxic, teratogenic and fetotoxic. Plants containing PAs commonly poison livestock in many countries, including the USA and Canada. In some regions of the world PA-producing plants sometimes grow in grain crops and items of food made with PA contaminated grain, such as bread baked using contaminated flour, have been, and continue to be, responsible for large incidents of acute, often fatal human poisoning. Herbal medicines and food supplements containing PAs are also recognized as a significant cause of human poisoning and it is desirable that such medications are identified and subjected to strict regulation. In this review we consider the PAs known to be, or likely to be, present in both the traditionally used medicinal plants of North America and also medicinal plants that have been introduced from other countries and are being recommended and used as phytopharmaceuticals in the USA and Canada. PMID:26189295

  2. Anti-TNF-? Activity of Brazilian Medicinal Plants and Compounds from Ouratea semiserrata.

    PubMed

    Campana, Priscilla R V; Mansur, Daniel S; Gusman, Grasielle S; Ferreira, Daneel; Teixeira, Mauro M; Braga, Ferno C

    2015-10-01

    Several plant species are used in Brazil to treat inflammatory diseases and associated conditions. TNF-? plays a pivotal role on inflammation, and several plant extracts have been assayed against this target, both in vitro and in vivo. The effect of 11 Brazilian medicinal plants on TNF-? release by LPS-activated THP-1 cells was evaluated. The plant materials were percolated with different solvents to afford 15 crude extracts, whose effect on TNF-? release was determined by ELISA. Among the evaluated extracts, only Jacaranda caroba (Bignoniaceae) presented strong toxicity to THP-1 cells. Considering the 14 non-toxic extracts, TNF-? release was significantly reduced by seven of them (inhibition?>?80%), originating from six plants, namely Cuphea carthagenensis (Lythraceae), Echinodorus grandiflorus (Alismataceae), Mansoa hirsuta (Bignoniaceae), Ouratea semiserrata (Ochnaceae), Ouratea spectabilis and Remijia ferruginea (Rubiaceae). The ethanol extract from O. semiserrata leaves was fractionated over Sephadex LH-20 and RP-HPLC to give three compounds previously reported for the species, along with agathisflavone and epicatechin, here described for the first time in the plant. Epicatechin and lanceoloside A elicited significant inhibition of TNF-? release, indicating that they may account for the effect produced by O. semiserrata crude extract. PMID:26094613

  3. The bioactivity of plant extracts against representative bacterial pathogens of the lower respiratory tract

    PubMed Central

    Bocanegra-García, Virgilio; del Rayo Camacho-Corona, María; Ramírez-Cabrera, Mónica; Rivera, Gildardo; Garza-González, Elvira

    2009-01-01

    Background Lower respiratory tract infections are a major cause of illness and death. Such infections are common in intensive care units (ICU) and their lethality persists despite advances in diagnosis, treatment and prevention. In Mexico, some plants are used in traditional medicine to treat respiratory diseases or ailments such as cough, bronchitis, tuberculosis and other infections. Medical knowledge derived from traditional societies has motivated searches for new bioactive molecules derived from plants that show potent activity against bacterial pathogens. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hexanic, chloroformic (CLO), methanolic (MET) and aqueous extracts from various plants used in Mexican traditional medicine on various microorganisms associated with respiratory disease. Methods thirty-five extracts prepared from nine plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of respiratory infections were evaluated against 15 control bacterial species and clinical isolates. Results Both chloroformic (CLO) and methanolic (MET) extracts of Larrea tridentata were active against Methicillin-resistant S. aureus, B. subtilis and L. monocytogenes. A MET extract of L. tridentata was also active against S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, S. maltophilia, E. faecalis and H. influenzae and the CLO extract was active against A. baumannii. An Aqueous extract of M. acumitata and a MET extract of N. officinale were active against S. pneumoniae. CLO and MET extracts of L. tridentata were active against clinical isolates of S. aureus, S. pneumoniae and E. faecalis. Conclusion Overall, our results support the potential use of L. tridentata as a source of antibacterial compounds. PMID:19486533

  4. Anti-diarrhoeal evaluation of some medicinal plants used by Zulu traditional healers.

    PubMed

    Lin, J; Puckree, T; Mvelase, T P

    2002-01-01

    Aqueous and methanolic extracts of several medicinal plants, Psidium guajava (leaves), Aristea spp., Iridaceae family (stem), Bridelia micrantha (bark) and Eleutherina bulbosa (bulb), used by Zulu traditional healers were evaluated for anti-diarrhoeal activity against different experimental models of diarrhoea in rats as well as for anti-microbial activity against different pathogenic microorganisms that cause diarrhoea. The methanolic extract of P. guajava (leaves) was the only agent showing significant inhibitory activities against the growths of Salmonella spp. (two isolates), Shigella spp. (S. flexneri, S. virchow and S. dysenteriae) and enteropathogenic Escherechia coli (two isolates). The methanolic extract of B. micrantha (Bark) demonstrated weak inhibitory activities against S. flexneri and S. plesiomonas. Based on the results in experimental rat models, there were significant reductions in faecal output and frequency of droppings when plant extracts were administered compared with castor-oil treated rats. All plant extracts also significantly retarded the propulsion of charcoal meal and significantly inhibited the PGE(2)-induced enteropooling. The results have confirmed the effectiveness of all these Zulu medicinal plants as anti-diarrhoeal agents. PMID:11744295

  5. Bonellia albiflora: A Mayan Medicinal Plant That Induces Apoptosis in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moo-Puc, Rosa; Chale-Dzul, Juan; Caamal-Fuentes, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have been carried out on the medical flora of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula in search for new therapeutic agents, in particular against cancer. In this paper, we evaluated the cytotoxic potential of the extract of Bonellia albiflora, a plant utilized in the traditional Mayan medicine for treatment of chronic injuries of the mouth. We carried out the methanolic extracts of different parts of the plant by means of extraction with the Soxhlet equipment. We conducted liquid-liquid fractions on each extract with solvents of increasing polarity. All extracts and fractions were evaluated for cytotoxic activity versus four human cancer cell lines and one normal cell line through a tetrazolium dye reduction (MTT) assay in 96-well cell culture plates. The methanolic root-bark extract possessed much greater cytotoxic activity in the human oropharyngeal cancer cell line (KB); its hexanic fraction concentrated the active metabolites and induced apoptosis with the activation of caspases 3 and 8. The results demonstrate the cytotoxic potential of the B. albiflora hexanic fraction and substantiate the importance of the study of the traditional Mayan medicinal plants. PMID:23843884

  6. Identification of four Sedum plant medicines by fourier transform infrared spectra

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ran; Chen, Yujie; Wan, Dingrong; Wang, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sedum sarmentosum bunge (SSB)., S. lineare Thunb. (SLT), S. erythrostictum migo. (SEM), and S. aizoon L. (SAL) were four widely used Chinese traditional drugs or ethnic drugs, which were easy to be confused with each other. Objective: This study aimed at developing a rapid and accurate method to identify the four Sedum plant medicines with very similar appearances and close relationships. Materials and Methods: The herbal medicines employed here were SSB, SLT, SEM, and SAL collected in different places and seasons. Through comparing the infrared (IR) spectra of their 70% ethanol extracts, the results showed that the IR spectra of the four plant medicines possessed not only some common characteristics but also certain notable distinctions, such as shapes, numbers, positions, intensity, and ratios of the absorbing peaks. Results: By fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, the four medicines could be effectively differed, their habitats could be judged preliminarily, and the genetic relationships of the original plants of the four medicines could also be estimated to some extent. Conclusion: The application of FT-IR spectroscopy in crude medicine authentication and quality evaluation deserved to be further emphasized. PMID:22701282

  7. Toxicity of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Bussmann, R.W.; Malca, G.; Glenn, A.; Sharon, D.; Nilsen, B.; Parris, B.; Dubose, D; Ruiz, D.; Saleda, J.; Martinez, M.; Carillo, L.; Walker, K.; Kuhlman, A.; Townesmith, A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim The plant species reported here are traditionally used in Northern Peru for a wide range of illnesses. Most remedies are prepared as ethanol or aqueous extracts and then ingested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of these extracts. Materials and methods The toxicity of ethanolic and water extracts of 341 plant species was determined using a Brine-Shrimp assay. Results Overall 24% of the species in water extract and 76% of the species in alcoholic extract showed elevated toxicity levels to brine-shrimp. Although in most cases multiple extracts of the same species showed very similar toxicity values, in some cases the toxicity of different extracts of the same species varied from non-toxic to highly toxic. Conclusions Traditional preparation methods take different toxicity levels in aqueous and ethanol extracts into account when choosing the appropriate solvent for the preparation of a remedy. PMID:21575699

  8. Souroubea sympetala (Marcgraviaceae): a medicinal plant that exerts anxiolysis through interaction with the GABAA benzodiazepine receptor.

    PubMed

    Mullally, Martha; Cayer, Christian; Kramp, Kari; Otárola Rojas, Marco; Sanchez Vindas, Pablo; Garcia, Mario; Poveda Alvarez, Luis; Durst, Tony; Merali, Zul; Trudeau, Vance L; Arnason, John T

    2014-09-01

    The mode of action of the anxiolytic medicinal plant Souroubea sympetala was investigated to test the hypothesis that extracts and the active principle act at the pharmacologically important GABAA-benzodiazepine (GABAA-BZD) receptor. Leaf extracts prepared by ethyl acetate extraction or supercritical extraction, previously determined to have 5.54 mg/g and 6.78 mg/g of the active principle, betulinic acid, respectively, reduced behavioural parameters associated with anxiety in a rat model. When animals were pretreated with the GABAA-BZD receptor antagonist flumazenil, followed by the plant extracts, or a more soluble derivative of the active principle, the methyl ester of betulinic acid (MeBA), flumazenil eliminated the anxiety-reducing effect of plant extracts and MeBA, demonstrating that S. sympetala acts via an agonist action on the GABAA-BZD receptor. An in vitro GABAA-BZD competitive receptor binding assay also demonstrated that S. sympetala extracts have an affinity for the GABAA-BZD receptor, with an EC50 value of 123 μg/mL (EtOAc leaf extract) and 154 μg/mL (supercritical CO2 extract). These experiments indicate that S. sympetala acts at the GABAA-BZD receptor to elicit anxiolysis. PMID:25140794

  9. Potential pharmacokinetic interactions between antiretrovirals and medicinal plants used as complementary and African traditional medicines.

    PubMed

    Mller, Adrienne C; Kanfer, Isadore

    2011-11-01

    The use of traditional/complementary/alternate medicines (TCAMs) in HIV/AIDS patients who reside in Southern Africa is quite common. Those who use TCAMs in addition to antiretroviral (ARV) treatment may be at risk of experiencing clinically significant pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions, particularly between the TCAMs and the protease inhibitors (PIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Mechanisms of PK interactions include alterations to the normal functioning of drug efflux transporters, such as P-gp and/or CYP isoenzymes, such a CYP3A4 that mediate the absorption and elimination of drugs in the small intestine and liver. Specific mechanisms include inhibition and activation of these proteins and induction via the pregnane X receptor (PXR). Several clinical studies and case reports involving ARV-herb PK interactions have been reported. St John's Wort, Garlic and Cat's Claw exhibited potentially significant interactions, each with a PI or NNRTI. The potential for these herbs to induce PK interactions with drugs was first identified in reports of in vitro studies. Other in vitro studies have shown that several African traditional medicinal (ATM) plants and extracts may also demonstrate PK interactions with ARVs, through effects on CYP3A4, P-gp and PXR. The most complex effects were exhibited by Hypoxis hemerocallidea, Sutherlandia frutescens, Cyphostemma hildebrandtii, Acacia nilotica, Agauria salicifolia and Elaeodendron buchananii. Despite a high incidence of HIV/AIDs in the African region, only one clinical study, between efavirenz and Hypoxis hemerocallidea has been conducted. However, several issues/concerns still remain to be addressed and thus more studies on ATMs are warranted in order for more meaningful data to be generated and the true potential for such interactions to be determined. PMID:22024968

  10. Medicinal plants in Mexico: healers' consensus and cultural importance.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, M; Ankli, A; Frei, B; Weimann, C; Sticher, O

    1998-12-01

    Medicinal plants are an important element of indigenous medical systems in Mexico. These resources are usually regarded as part of a culture's traditional knowledge. This study examines the use of medicinal plants in four indigenous groups of Mexican Indians, Maya, Nahua, Zapotec and - for comparative purposes - Mixe. With the first three the methodology was similar, making a direct comparison of the results possible. In these studies, the relative importance of a medicinal plant within a culture is documented using a quantitative method. For the analysis the uses were grouped into 9-10 categories of indigenous uses. This report compares these data and uses the concept of informant consensus originally developed by Trotter and Logan for analysis. This indicates how homogenous the ethnobotanical information is. Generally the factor is high for gastrointestinal illnesses and for culture bound syndromes. While the species used by the 3 indigenous groups vary, the data indicate that there exist well-defined criteria specific for each culture which lead to the selection of a plant as a medicine. A large number of species are used for gastrointestinal illnesses by two or more of the indigenous groups. At least in this case, the multiple transfer of species and their uses within Mexico seems to be an important reason for the widespread use of a species. Medicinal plants in other categories (e.g. skin diseases) are usually known only in one culture and seem to be part of its traditional knowledge. PMID:9877354

  11. Tissue engineered plant extracts as nanofibrous wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guorui; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Kai, Dan; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar; Arunachalam, Kantha D; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2013-01-01

    Use of plant extracts for treatment of burns and wound is a common practice followed over the decades and it is an important aspect of health management. Many medicinal plants have a long history of curative properties in wound healing. Electrospun nanofibers provide high porosity with large surface area-to-volume ratio and are more appropriate for cell accommodation, nutrition infiltration, gas exchange and waste excretion. Electrospinning makes it possible to combine the advantages of utilizing these plant extracts in the form of nanofibrous mats to serve as skin graft substitutes. In this study, we investigated the potential of electrospinning four different plant extracts, namely Indigofera aspalathoides, Azadirachta indica, Memecylon edule (ME) and Myristica andamanica along with a biodegradable polymer, polycaprolactone (PCL) for skin tissue engineering. The ability of human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) to proliferate on the electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds was evaluated via cell proliferation assay. HDF proliferation on PCL/ME nanofibers was found the highest among all the other electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds and it was 31% higher than the proliferation on PCL nanofibers after 9 days of cell culture. The interaction of HDF with the electrospun scaffold was studied by F-actin and collagen staining studies. The results confirmed that PCL/ME had the least cytotoxicity among the different plant extract containing scaffolds studied here. Therefore we performed the epidermal differentiation of adipose derived stem cells on PCL/ME scaffolds and obtained early and intermediate stages of epidermal differentiation. Our studies demonstrate the potential of electrospun PCL/ME nanofibers as substrates for skin tissue engineering. PMID:23111334

  12. Antimalarial activity of some Colombian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Garavito, G; Rincn, J; Arteaga, L; Hata, Y; Bourdy, G; Gimenez, A; Pinzn, R; Deharo, E

    2006-10-11

    Antimalarial activity of 10 vegetal extracts (9 ethanolic extracts and 1 crude alkaloid extract), obtained from eight species traditionally used in Colombia to treat malaria symptoms, was evaluated in culture using Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistant (FcB2) strain and in vivo on rodent malaria Plasmodium berghei. The activity on ferriprotoporphyrin biomineralization inhibition test (FBIT) was also assessed. Against Plasmodium falciparum, eight extracts displayed good activity Abuta grandifolia (Mart.) Sandwith (Menispermaceae) leaves, Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. (Mimosaceae) leaves, Acnistus arborescens (L.) Schltdl. (Solanaceae) aerial part, Croton leptostachyus Kunth (Euphorbiaceae) aerial part, Piper cumanense Kunth (Piperaceae) fruits and leaves, Piper holtonii C. DC. (Piperaceae) aerial part and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae) bark with IC(50) values ranging from <1 to 2.1 microg/ml, while in the in vivo model only Abuta grandifolia alkaloid crude extract exhibits activity, inhibiting 66% of the parasite growth at 250 mg/kg/day. In the FBIT model, five extracts were active (Abuta grandifolia, Croton leptostachyus, Piper cumanense fruit and leaves and Xylopia aromatica). PMID:16713157

  13. People, plants and health: a conceptual framework for assessing changes in medicinal plant consumption

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A large number of people in both developing and developed countries rely on medicinal plant products to maintain their health or treat illnesses. Available evidence suggests that medicinal plant consumption will remain stable or increase in the short to medium term. Knowledge on what factors determine medicinal plant consumption is, however, scattered across many disciplines, impeding, for example, systematic consideration of plant-based traditional medicine in national health care systems. The aim of the paper is to develop a conceptual framework for understanding medicinal plant consumption dynamics. Consumption is employed in the economic sense: use of medicinal plants by consumers or in the production of other goods. Methods PubMed and Web of Knowledge (formerly Web of Science) were searched using a set of medicinal plant key terms (folk/peasant/rural/traditional/ethno/indigenous/CAM/herbal/botanical/phytotherapy); each search terms was combined with terms related to medicinal plant consumption dynamics (medicinal plants/health care/preference/trade/treatment seeking behavior/domestication/sustainability/conservation/urban/migration/climate change/policy/production systems). To eliminate studies not directly focused on medicinal plant consumption, searches were limited by a number of terms (chemistry/clinical/in vitro/antibacterial/dose/molecular/trial/efficacy/antimicrobial/alkaloid/bioactive/inhibit/antibody/purification/antioxidant/DNA/rat/aqueous). A total of 1940 references were identified; manual screening for relevance reduced this to 645 relevant documents. As the conceptual framework emerged inductively, additional targeted literature searches were undertaken on specific factors and link, bringing the final number of references to 737. Results The paper first defines the four main groups of medicinal plant users (1. Hunter-gatherers, 2. Farmers and pastoralists, 3. Urban and peri-urban people, 4. Entrepreneurs) and the three main types of benefits (consumer, producer, society-wide) derived from medicinal plants usage. Then a single unified conceptual framework for understanding the factors influencing medicinal plant consumption in the economic sense is proposed; the framework distinguishes four spatial levels of analysis (international, national, local, household) and identifies and describes 15 factors and their relationships. Conclusions The framework provides a basis for increasing our conceptual understanding of medicinal plant consumption dynamics, allows a positioning of existing studies, and can serve to guide future research in the area. This would inform the formation of future health and natural resource management policies. PMID:23148504

  14. Antihypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant activity assessment of some plants used as remedy in Turkish folk medicine.

    PubMed

    Avci, Gulcan; Kupeli, Esra; Eryavuz, Abdullah; Yesilada, Erdem; Kucukkurt, Ismail

    2006-10-11

    Ethanolic and aqueous extracts from five plant species used in Turkish traditional medicine were evaluated for in vivo hypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant activities: Agrostemma githago L., Potentilla reptans L., Thymbra spicata var. spicata L., Urtica dioica L. and Viscum album var. album L. We assayed the effects of the administration of plant extracts on serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C, glucose, AST and ALT concentrations in mice fed with cholesterol-rich diet. In addition, plasma TAA, MDA and NO(x) levels in the same animals were assayed. All the aqueous plant extracts did not affect the serum cholesterol concentration. However, the ethanolic extracts of Agrostemma githago, Thymbra spicata and Viscum album decreased the serum cholesterol concentration in the mice fed with high-cholesterol diet without inducing any gastric damage. The ethanolic extracts of Thymbra spicata, Viscum album, Potentilla reptans and Urtica dioica and the aqueous extract of Agrostemma githago increased the serum HDL concentration, whereas the ethanolic extracts of Agrostemma githago, Thymbra spicata, Viscum album and Urtica dioica decreased the serum LDL-C concentration. Thymbra spicata and Viscum album were observed to decrease the serum triglyceride concentration. Among the plant extracts studied, the ethanolic extracts of Thymbra spicata significantly decreased the MDA level in mice. The ethanolic extract of Potentilla reptans increased in NO(x). None of these plants showed statistically prominent activity on plasma TAA. Results of the present study indicated that the ethanolic extracts of Agrostemma githago, Thymbra spicata and Viscum album showed potent hypocholesterolaemic activity in the mice fed with a diet containing high-cholesterol. PMID:16713156

  15. Screening of antimutagenicity via antioxidant activity in Cuban medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Ramos, A; Visozo, A; Piloto, J; Garca, A; Rodrguez, C A; Rivero, R

    2003-08-01

    The reducing activity on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, z.rad;OH radical scavenging potential, in vitro inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of mutagenicity induced by ter-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) in Escherichia coli were sequentially screened in 45 species of plants used with medicinal purposes in Cuba, in a search for antioxidant agents which protect DNA against oxidative stress.Five species, e.g. Tamarindus indica L., Lippia alba L., Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr, Rheedia aristata Griseb. and Curcuma longa L. displayed IC(50)<30 micro g/ml in the DPPH radical reduction assay and IC(50)<32 micro g/ml in lipid peroxidation inhibition testing. Pimenta dioica and Curcuma longa L. showed also a 20% inhibition of the in vitro induced z.rad;OH attack to deoxyglucose. Further antimutagenesis assay in Escherichia coli IC 188 evidenced that only Pimenta dioica prevents DNA damage by TBH to the test bacteria. A role of antioxidant enzymes is presumed in this case, as judged by a different response in the isogenic Escherichia coli IC 203 deficient in catalase and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase and the discrete inhibition of oxidative mutagenesis also observed when pre-treatment of the extract was assayed. Eugenol, the main constituent of the essential oil of Pimenta dioica, also inhibited oxidative mutagenesis by TBH in Escherichia coli, at concentrations ranging from 150 to 400 micro g/plate. PMID:12860316

  16. [Utilization of spaceflight technology on medicinal plant study].

    PubMed

    Gao, Wen-yuan; Jia, Wei; Xiao, Pei-gen

    2004-07-01

    Utilization of spaceflight technology will benefit the modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine study. Many countries, such as USA or Russia, have conducted extensive experimental research with plants in the regenerative life-support system in space stations as well as the research on breeding or chromosomal aberration after spaceflight. The space botany is still in its preliminary stage in our country. Research has mainly been focused on breeding under space-environment. In addition, many experiments have been conducted with the spaceflown plants to investigate the growth, development, biochemical and physiological changes, as well as the inheritance and variation. Little has been done with regard to the facility development to contain the spaceflying seeds and no research has been reported on plant growth in spacecrafts. Medicinal plant study has certain characteristics and advantages in our country where small biological vessels are developed for the spaceflown seeds, which are then distinguished to microgravity group and radiation exposed group with analytical instrument. However, research has been carried out in medicinal plant breeding or inheritance. In future research, more effort should be directed to the study of medicinal plants as an important link of a future biological life support system as well as to the health care of astronauts by. PMID:15503758

  17. Antioxidant activity of five Brazilian plants used as traditional medicines and food in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Allana K. L.; Costa, Jos G. M.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Cansano, Isaac F.; Santos, Karla K. A.; Matias, Edinardo F. F.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates the radical-scavenging activity of five plants used as food and medicines in the northeastern region of Brazil. Materials and Methods: Spectrophotometric analysis of the plants ethanol extracts was carried out. The antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl) test. The antioxidant capacity was measured using ascorbic acid as a positive control. Results: All tested plant extracts showed an antioxidant activity, but the highest activity was observed with the extracts of Momordica charantia and Eugenia jambolana. Conclusions: Therefore, these species must be studied as a putative source of products for use in the prevention and treatment of diseases in which oxidants or free radicals are implicated. PMID:21120039

  18. Toxicology of some important medicinal plants in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Ndhlala, Ashwell R; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Okem, Ambrose; Mulaudzi, Rofhiwa B; Van Staden, Johannes

    2013-12-01

    Africa is home to two major floral kingdoms: the Paleotropical kingdom of central Africa and the Capensis kingdom of the Western Cape province of South Africa, the latter of which consists of approximately 10,000 species, representing about 20% of Africa's floral 'gold mine', better known as the Cape herbal medicine. Needless to say, such rich flora comes with numerous plants with a potential to cause poisoning to humans. This review document reports important toxic medicinal plants and their toxic ingredients for plant species resident in the southern African region. These include important medicinal uses and pharmacological properties ranging from antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory as well as those that are used as aphrodisiacs and for maternal health care. PMID:24075916

  19. In vitro determination of the anti-aging potential of four southern African medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aging is an inevitable process for all living organisms. During this process reactive oxygen species generation is increased which leads to the activation of hyaluronidase, collagenase and elastase, which can further contribute to skin aging. Four southern African medicinal plants; Clerodendrum glabrum, Schotia brachypetala, Psychotria capensis and Peltophorum africanum, were investigated to assess their anti-aging properties. Methods Anti-elastase, anti-collagenase and anti-hyaluronidase activities of twenty-eight samples, consisting of methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of the four plants, were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Radical scavenging activity was determined by the ability of the plant extracts to scavenge the ABTS+ radical. Results The majority of the samples in the anti-elastase assay and nine in the anti-collagenase assay showed more than 80% inhibition. The ethyl acetate extract of S. brachypetala bark and leaves of P. capensis inhibited elastase activity by more than 90%. The methanol extract of S. brachypetala bark contained the highest anti-hyaluronidase activity (75.13??7.49%) whilst the ethyl acetate extract of P. africanum bark exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (IC50: 1.99??0.23?g/ml). Conclusion The free radical scavenging activity and enzyme inhibitory activity of the plant extracts investigated suggests that they can help restore skin elasticity and thereby slow the wrinkling process. P. africanum was the plant with the most promising activity and will be subjected to further testing and isolation of the active compound/s. PMID:24188320

  20. Screening of Yemeni medicinal plants for antibacterial and cytotoxic activities.

    PubMed

    Ali, N A; Jlich, W D; Kusnick, C; Lindequist, U

    2001-02-01

    Ethanolic extracts of 20 selected plant species used by Yemeni traditional healers to treat infectious diseases were screened for their antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as for cytotoxic activity. Fourteen of the ethanolic extracts showed variable degrees of antibacterial activity. The active ethanolic extracts were partitioned between ethyl acetate and water for a first separation. The ethyl acetate extract of Lawsonia inermis was found to be the most active one against all bacteria in the test system. Other promising results could be obtained from extracts of Aloe perryi, Indigofera oblongifolia, Meriandra benghalensis and Ziziphus spina christi. Additionally, the ethanolic extracts of the 20 plants under investigation were tested for their cytotoxic effects on FL-cells using the neutral red assay. Extracts of Calotropis procera, Chenopodium murale, Pulicaria orientalis, Tribulus terrestris and Withania somniferum displayed a remarkable activity. PMID:11167035

  1. ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES OF SOME SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, R. Udaya; Begum, V. Hazeena

    2002-01-01

    Antimicrobial activities were detected in the 80% ethanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera, Ficus glomerata, Leucas aspera, Thespesia populnea and Zizyphus jujube against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and salmonella typhi. The treatments resulted in the formation of various inhibitory zones, in contrast to the control where no inhibitory zone was observed. PMID:22557059

  2. Antimicrobial studies of some selected medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R Udaya; Begum, V Hazeena

    2002-04-01

    Antimicrobial activities were detected in the 80% ethanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera, Ficus glomerata, Leucas aspera, Thespesia populnea and Zizyphus jujube against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and salmonella typhi. The treatments resulted in the formation of various inhibitory zones, in contrast to the control where no inhibitory zone was observed. PMID:22557059

  3. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids in medicinal plants from Taf del Valle (Tucumn, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Hernndez, N E; Tereschuk, M L; Abdala, L R

    2000-11-01

    Preliminary studies of flavonoids have been realised in five native species from Taf del Valle (Tucumn, Argentina) used in popular medicine. Most of compounds detected were flavonoids mono and dihydroxylated in B ring. Screening for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms has been realised with Lippia turbinata, Satureja parvifolia, Sambucus peruviana, Verbena officinalis and Chenopodium graveolens. The total extracts of flavonoids of each plant were tested and four species studied showed antimicrobial activity. PMID:11025172

  4. Antimycobacterial Natural Products from Endophytes of the Medicinal Plant Aralia nudicaulis.

    PubMed

    Li, Haoxin; Doucet, Brandon; Flewelling, Andrew J; Jean, Stéphanie; Webster, Duncan; Robichaud, Gilles A; Johnson, John A; Gray, Christopher A

    2015-10-01

    Antimycobacterial extracts of a Penicillium sp. (isolate HL4-159-41B) and a Coniothyrium sp. (isolate HL6-097-027B) isolated from the rhizomes of the Canadian medicinal plant Aralia nudicaulis were found to contain palitantin (1) and botrallin (2), craterellin C (3), mycosporulone (4), spiromassaritone (5), and massarigenin D (6) respectively. Bioassays against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra revealed that 1 - 4 possess moderate antimycobacterial activity. PMID:26669092

  5. Antiviral activity of ancient system of ayurvedic medicinal plant Cissus quadrangularis L. (Vitaceae).

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, P; Jayalakshmi, K; Vidhya, N; Prasad, R; Sheriff, A Khaleefathullah; Kathiravan, G; Rajagopal, K; Sureban, Sripathi M

    2009-12-01

    Partially purified methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis (belonging to Vitaceae member, South Indian medicinal plant) have been explored for antiviral activity and their phytochemical characterisation. In vitro antiviral activity against HSV type1 and 2, and Vero cells at non-cytotoxic concentration were determined. HSV1 and HSV2 showed more sensitivity against the partially purified compound. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of the Steroids and Terpenoids. PMID:25206252

  6. Genomic approaches for interrogating the biochemistry of medicinal plant species

    PubMed Central

    Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Fedewa, Greg; Yeo, Yunsoo; Chappell, Joe; DellaPenna, Dean; Buell, C. Robin

    2013-01-01

    Development of next-generation sequencing, coupled with the advancement of computational methods, has allowed researchers to access the transcriptomes of recalcitrant genomes such as those of medicinal plant species. Through the sequencing of even a few cDNA libraries, a broad representation of the transcriptome of any medicinal plant species can be obtained, providing a robust resource for gene discovery and downstream biochemical pathway discovery. When coupled to estimation of expression abundances in specific tissues from a developmental series, biotic stress, abiotic stress, or elicitor challenge, informative coexpression and differential expression estimates on a whole transcriptome level can be obtained to identify candidates for function discovery. PMID:23084937

  7. Anti-osteoporotic constituents from Indian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manmeet; Rawat, Preeti; Dixit, Preeti; Mishra, Devendra; Gautam, Abnish K; Pandey, Rashmi; Singh, Divya; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Maurya, Rakesh

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro osteogenic activities of selected medicinal plants used traditionally in India. The compounds isolated from three plants viz. Allophylus serratus, Cissus quadrangularis and Vitex negundo were evaluated for their in vitro osteogenic activities. Primary cultures of osteoblasts were used to determine the effects of these components on osteoblast functions. Five of the fourteen compounds isolated led to increase in osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. These findings lend support to the use of Allophylus serratus, Cissus quadrangularis and Vitex negundo in traditional medicine. PMID:20554183

  8. Review on medicinal uses, pharmacological, phytochemistry and immunomodulatory activity of plants.

    PubMed

    Akram, M; Hamid, A; Khalil, A; Ghaffar, A; Tayyaba, N; Saeed, A; Ali, M; Naveed, A

    2014-01-01

    Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Researchers have discovered some important compounds from plants. The present work constitutes a review of the medicinal plants whose immunomodulant activity has been proven. We performed PUBMED, EMBASE, Google scholar searches for research papers of medicinal plants having immunomodulant activity. Medicinal plants used by traditional physicians or reported as having immunomodulant activity include Acacia concocinna, Camellia sinensis, Lawsonia inermis Linn, Piper longum Linn, Gelidium amansii, Petroselinum crispum, Plantago major and Allium sativum. Immunomodulant activities of some of these medicinal plants have been investigated. The medicinal plants documented have immunomodulant activity and should be further investigated via clinical trial. PMID:25280022

  9. Effects of gamma irradiation on microbial contamination and extraction yields of Korean medicinal herbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Mi-Jung; Yook, Hong-Sun; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2000-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on hygienic quality and extraction yields in twenty-one kinds of Korean medicinal herbs were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 5-10 kGy inactivated contaminating microorganisms. The total extraction yield in fifteen kinds of the investigated medicinal herbs increased by 5-25% by a dose of 10 kGy.

  10. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of medicinal plants from growth of plant pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Panjehkeh, N; Jahani Hossein-Abadi, Z

    2011-01-01

    Plant cells produce a vast amount of secondary metabolites. Production of some compounds is restricted to a single species. Some compounds are nearly always found only in certain specific plant organs and during a specific developmental period of the plant. Some secondary metabolites of plants serve as defensive compounds against invading microorganisms. Nowadays, it is attempted to substitute the biological and natural agents with chemically synthesized fungicides. In the present research, the antifungal activities of essential oils of seven medicinal plants on mycelial growth of three soilborne plant pathogenic fungi were investigated. The plants consisted of Zataria multiflora, Thymus carmanicus, Mentha pieperata, Satureja hortensis, Lavandual officinolis, Cuminum cyminum and Azadirachta indica. The first five plants are from the family Labiatae. Examined fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani are the causal agents of tomato root rot. Essential oils of Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus, M. pieperata, S. hortensis and C. cyminum were extracted by hydro-distillation method. Essential oils of L. officinalis and A. indica were extracted by vapor-distillation method. A completely randomized design with five replicates was used to examine the inhibitory impact of each concentration (300, 600 and 900 ppm) of each essential oil. Poisoned food assay using potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was employed. Results showed that essential oils of A. indica, Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus and S. hortensis in 900 ppm at 12 days post-inoculation, when the control fungi completely covered the plates, prevented about 90% from mycelial growth of each of the fungi. While, the essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis in the same concentration and time prevented 54.86, 52.77 and 48.84%, respectively, from F. solani growth. These substances did not prevent from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and R. solani growth. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oils of T. carmanicus, Z. multiflora and A. indica from R. solani and F. solani growth was 900 and 600 ppm, respectively. In addition, the MIC of essential oils of these plants and essential oil of S. hortensis from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici growth was 900 ppm. The MIC of essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis from F. solani growth was 900 ppm. PMID:22702190

  11. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qi; Wang, Su-Juan; Chen, Jian-Yu; Xin, Hai-Liang; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic scar is a complication of wound healing and has a high recurrence rate which can lead to significant abnormity in aesthetics and functions. To date, no ideal treatment method has been established. Meanwhile, the underlying mechanism of hypertrophic scarring has not been clearly defined. Although a large amount of scientific research has been reported on the use of medicinal plants as a natural source of treatment for hypertrophic scarring, it is currently scattered across a wide range of publications. Therefore, a systematic summary and knowledge for future prospects are necessary to facilitate further medicinal plant research for their potential use as antihypertrophic scar agents. A bibliographic investigation was accomplished by focusing on medicinal plants which have been scientifically tested in vitro and/or in vivo and proved as potential agents for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. Although the chemical components and mechanisms of action of medicinal plants with antihypertrophic scarring potential have been investigated, many others remain unknown. More investigations and clinical trials are necessary to make use of these medical plants reasonably and phytotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach against hypertrophic scars. PMID:25861351

  12. Assessment of antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum and phytochemical screening of some Yemeni medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Alshawsh, Mohammed A; Mothana, Ramzi A; Al-Shamahy, Hassan A; Alsllami, Salah F; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2009-12-01

    Developing countries, where malaria is one of the most prevalent diseases, still rely on traditional medicine as a source for the treatment of this disease. In the present study, six selected plants (Acalypha fruticosa, Azadirachta indica, Cissus rotundifolia, Echium rauwalfii, Dendrosicyos socotrana and Boswellia elongata) commonly used in Yemen by traditional healers for the treatment of malaria as well as other diseases, were collected from different localities of Yemen, dried and extracted with methanol and water successfully. The antiplasmodial activity of the extracts was evaluated against fresh clinical isolates of Plasmodium falciparum. The selectivity parameters to evaluate the efficacy of these medicinal plants were measured by in vitro micro test (Mark III) according to World Health Organization (WHO) 1996 & WHO 2001 protocols of antimalarial drug tests. Among the investigated 12 extracts, three were found to have significant antiplasmodial activity with IC(50) values less than 4 microg/ml, namely the water extracts of A. fruticosa, A. indica and D. socotrana. Six extracts showed moderate activity with IC(50) values ranging from 10 to 30 microg/ml and three appeared to be inactive with IC(50) values more than 30 microg/ml. In addition, preliminary phytochemical screening of the methanolic and aqueous extracts indicated the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, polysaccharides and peptides. PMID:18955251

  13. Anticancer Principles from Medicinal Piper (胡椒 Hú Jiāo) Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Hu; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Jun; Niu, Hong-Mei; Long, Chun-Lin; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    The ethnomedical uses of Piper (胡椒 Hú Jiāo) plants as anticancer agents, in vitro cytotoxic activity of both extracts and compounds from Piper plants, and in vivo antitumor activity and mechanism of action of selected compounds are reviewed in the present paper. The genus Piper (Piperaceae) contains approximately 2000 species, of which 10 species have been used in traditional medicines to treat cancer or cancer-like symptoms. Studies have shown that 35 extracts from 24 Piper species and 32 compounds from Piper plants possess cytotoxic activity. Amide alkaloids account for 53% of the major active principles. Among them, piplartine (piperlongumine) shows the most promise, being toxic to dozens of cancer cell lines and having excellent in vivo activity. It is worthwhile to conduct further anticancer studies both in vitro and in vivo on Piper plants and their active principles. PMID:24872928

  14. Chemical composition of essential oils and in vitro antioxidant activity of fresh and dry leaves crude extracts of medicinal plant of Lactuca Sativa L. native to Sultanate of Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al Nomaani, Rahma Said Salim; Hossain, Mohammad Amzad; Weli, Afaf Mohammed; Al-Riyami, Qasim; Al-Sabahi, Jamal Nasser

    2013-01-01

    Objective To isolate and analyse the chemical composition in the essential oils and free radical scavenging activity of different crude extracts from the fresh and dry leaves of vegetable plants of Lactuca sativa L. (L. sativa). Methods The essential oils and volatile chemical constituents were isolated from the fresh and dry leaves of L. sativa (lettuce) grown in Sultanate of Oman by hydro distillation method. The antioxidant activity of the crude extracts was carried out by well established free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) method. Results About 20 chemical compounds of different concentration representing 83.07% and 79.88% respectively were isolated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in the essential oils isolated from the fresh and dry leaves as ?-pinene (5.11% and 4.05%), ?-cymene (2.07% and 1.92%), thymol (11.55% and 10.73%), durenol (52.00% and 49.79%), ?-terpinene (1.66% and 1.34%), thymol acetate (0.99% and 0.67%), caryophyllene (2.11% and 1.98%), spathulenol (3.09% and 2.98%), camphene (4.11% and 3.65%), limonene (1.28% and 1.11%) representing these major chemical compounds. However, some other minor chemical constituents were also isolated and identified from the essential oil of lettuce including ?-pinene, ?-terpinolene, linalool, 4-terpineol, ?-terpineol, o-methylthymol, L-alloaromadendrene and viridiflorene. Conclusions The chemical constituents in the essential oils from the locally grown lettuce were identified in the following classes or groups of chemical compounds such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes volatile organic compounds and their oxygenated hydrocarbons. Therefore, the essential oils and the crude extracts from Omani vegetable species of lettuce are active candidates which would be used as antioxidant, antifungal or antimicrobial agents in new drugs preparation for therapy of infectious diseases. PMID:23646297

  15. Antimicrobial activity of herbal medicines (tulsi extract, neem extract) and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis in Endodontics: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Chandrappa, Pradeep Muttagadur; Dupper, Akash; Tripathi, Pragya; Arroju, Ramakrishna; Sharma, Preeti; Sulochana, Konthoujam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Successful endodontic treatment depends on effective disinfection and complete sealing of root canal. Various medicaments are advised for disinfecting root canal, such as herbal and non-herbal medicaments. This study was done to assess the antimicrobial activity of herbal medicines (neem extract, tulsi extract) and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis in Endodontics. Materials and Methods: Agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the antimicrobial action of different medicines. Sixty samples were segregated into four groups with 15 samples in each: Group I: chlorhexidine 2%, Group II: neem extract, Group III: tulsi extract, and Group IV: distilled water. The inhibition zones against E. faecalis were recorded and statistically assessed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test (P < 0.05). Results: Significant antibacterial effect against E. faecalis was observed with chlorhexidine followed by neem extract and tulsi extract. Conclusion: Herbal medicines seemed to be effective against E. faecalis compared to 2% chlorhexidine gluconate. PMID:26942123

  16. Integrating carbon-halogen bond formation into medicinal plant metabolism.

    PubMed

    Runguphan, Weerawat; Qu, Xudong; O'Connor, Sarah E

    2010-11-18

    Halogenation, which was once considered a rare occurrence in nature, has now been observed in many natural product biosynthetic pathways. However, only a small fraction of halogenated compounds have been isolated from terrestrial plants. Given the impact that halogenation can have on the biological activity of natural products, we reasoned that the introduction of halides into medicinal plant metabolism would provide the opportunity to rationally bioengineer a broad variety of novel plant products with altered, and perhaps improved, pharmacological properties. Here we report that chlorination biosynthetic machinery from soil bacteria can be successfully introduced into the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle). These prokaryotic halogenases function within the context of the plant cell to generate chlorinated tryptophan, which is then shuttled into monoterpene indole alkaloid metabolism to yield chlorinated alkaloids. A new functional group-a halide-is thereby introduced into the complex metabolism of C. roseus, and is incorporated in a predictable and regioselective manner onto the plant alkaloid products. Medicinal plants, despite their genetic and developmental complexity, therefore seem to be a viable platform for synthetic biology efforts. PMID:21048708

  17. In vitro biological effects of two anti-diabetic medicinal plants used in Benin as folk medicine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Extracts from Polygonum senegalensis (Polygonaceae) and Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Meliaceae) are two important traditionally used medicinal plants in rural Benin to treat many diseases and notably type 2 diabetes. The aim of the study was to investigate the α-glucosidase inhibition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of those plants extract: Polygonum senegalensis leaves, and Pseudocedrela kotschyi root. Methods Hydro-alcoholic (50%) extracts were analyzed for their phytochemical content and tested for their inhibition potency on α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Antioxidant activities were assessed using the DPPH, ORAC, FRAP and DCFH-DA (cell based) assay. Finally, the antibacterial activity was evaluated using MIC determination on four Gram-positive cocci (Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium difficile, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus), three Gram-negative bacilli (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae), and the yeast Candida albicans. Results Each extract presented significant α-glucosidase inhibition and antioxidant activities. Polygonum senegalensis leaf extracts were the most active in each in vitro assay with an IC50 = 1.5 μg/ml for α-glucosidase inhibition and an IC50 = 6.8 μg/ml for DPPH scavenging, - 4.5 μmol Fe II/g of dry matter - 9366 μmol Trolox / g DW - for FRAP and ORAC values, respectively. IC50 = 2.3 μg GA / ml for DCFH-DA assay. Concerning its antibacterial activity, a growth inhibitory effect was observed only against three Gram negative bacilli: B. subtilis, E. faecalis, S. aureus and the yeast C. albicans at high concentration. Conclusion The results showed that the semi alcoholic extract of the two studied plants possess α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, antioxidant potency, and low antibacterial effect. PMID:23452899

  18. Adverse and beneficial effects of plant extracts on skin and skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Mantle, D; Gok, M A; Lennard, T W

    2001-06-01

    Plants are of relevance to dermatology for both their adverse and beneficial effects on skin and skin disorders respectively. Virtually all cultures worldwide have relied historically, or continue to rely on medicinal plants for primary health care. Approximately one-third of all traditional medicines are for treatment of wounds or skin disorders, compared to only 1-3% of modern drugs. The use of such medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of skin disorders arguably has been based largely on historical/anecdotal evidence, since there has been relatively little data available in the scientific literature, particularly with regard to the efficacy of plant extracts in controlled clinical trials. In this article therefore, adverse and beneficial aspects of medicinal plants relating to skin and skin disorders have been reviewed, based on recently available information from the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Beneficial aspects of medicinal plants on skin include: healing of wounds and burn injuries (especially Aloe vera); antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial and acaricidal activity against skin infections such as acne, herpes and scabies (especially tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil); activity against inflammatory/immune disorders affecting skin (e.g. psoriasis); and anti-tumour promoting activity against skin cancer (identified using chemically-induced two-stage carcinogenesis in mice). Adverse effects of plants on skin reviewed include: irritant contact dermatitis caused mechanically (spines, irritant hairs) or by irritant chemicals in plant sap (especially members of the Ranunculaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Compositae plant families); phytophotodermatitis resulting from skin contamination by plants containing furocoumarins, and subsequent exposure to UV light (notably members of the Umbelliferae and Rutaceae plant families); and immediate (type I) or delayed hypersensitivity contact reactions mediated by the immune system in individuals sensitized to plants or plant products (e.g. peanut allergy, poison ivy (Toxicodendron) poisoning). PMID:11482001

  19. Ethnomedicinal Evaluation of Medicinal Plants Used against Gastrointestinal Complaints.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Akash; Mussarat, Sakina; Adnan, Muhammad; Abd Allah, E F; Hashem, Abeer; Alqarawi, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Ullah, Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to document ethnomedicinal plants used against gastrointestinal complaints in five selected remote regions of Pakistan and to select potential medicinal plants for further in vitro and in vivo investigation. Data on ethnomedicinal plants and ethnographic profile of respondents was documented using semistructured questionnaires. The present study revealed utilization of 52 medicinal plants for the treatment of different gastrointestinal infections in studied regions. Apiaceae was the most dominant family reported to be used for the treatment of these infections (4 plants). Among all the plant parts fruit (24%), whole plants and leaves (23% each) were the most preferred plant parts used by the healers. Dosage of recipe was found to be related with the age of the patient. Highest degree of informant consensus was reported for vomiting, nausea (0.92 each), abdominal pain (0.9), and diarrhea (0.89). Withania coagulans scored highest FL value (86%) followed by Mentha longifolia and Melia azadirachta ranked second with FL value (75% each). Young generation was found to possess little traditional knowledge about utilizing plant recipes against these infections. Plants with high Fic and FL values should be subjected for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation for scientific validation. PMID:26114117

  20. Ethnomedicinal Evaluation of Medicinal Plants Used against Gastrointestinal Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Akash; Mussarat, Sakina; Adnan, Muhammad; Abd_Allah, E. F.; Hashem, Abeer; Alqarawi, Abdulaziz Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to document ethnomedicinal plants used against gastrointestinal complaints in five selected remote regions of Pakistan and to select potential medicinal plants for further in vitro and in vivo investigation. Data on ethnomedicinal plants and ethnographic profile of respondents was documented using semistructured questionnaires. The present study revealed utilization of 52 medicinal plants for the treatment of different gastrointestinal infections in studied regions. Apiaceae was the most dominant family reported to be used for the treatment of these infections (4 plants). Among all the plant parts fruit (24%), whole plants and leaves (23% each) were the most preferred plant parts used by the healers. Dosage of recipe was found to be related with the age of the patient. Highest degree of informant consensus was reported for vomiting, nausea (0.92 each), abdominal pain (0.9), and diarrhea (0.89). Withania coagulans scored highest FL value (86%) followed by Mentha longifolia and Melia azadirachta ranked second with FL value (75% each). Young generation was found to possess little traditional knowledge about utilizing plant recipes against these infections. Plants with high Fic and FL values should be subjected for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation for scientific validation. PMID:26114117

  1. Extraction and GC determination of volatile aroma compounds from extracts of three plant species of the Apiaceae family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, M.; Soran, M. L.; Varodi, C.; Lung, I.; Copolovici, L.; M?ruţoiu, C.

    2013-11-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens) and celery (Apium graveolens), three aromatic plants belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) botanical family, were selected as sources of essential or volatile oils. Essential oils are composed of a large diversity of volatile aroma compounds. Plant-derived essential oils and extracts have long been used as natural agents in food preservation, pharmaceuticals and medicinal therapies. In the present study, the plant extracts from leaves of parsley, dill and celery, were obtained by maceration, ultrasound-assisted extraction and microwave-assisted extraction. All extractions were performed at 30C, using different solvents (ethanol, diethyl ether, n-hexane) and solvent mixtures (1:1, v/v). The most effective solvent system for the extraction of volatile aroma compounds was diethyl ether - n-hexane (1:1, v/v). Extraction efficiency and determination of aroma volatiles were performed by GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. The major volatile compounds present in plant extracts were myristicin, ?-phellandrene, ?-phellandrene, 1,3,8-p-menthatriene, apiol, dill ether and allyl phenoxyacetate.

  2. [Phenylethanoid glycosides distribution in medicinal plants of Gesneriaceae].

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhen-Fang; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Xiao, Pei-Gen; Liu, Yong

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the role of distribution and phylogeny of phenylethanoid glycoside in medicinal plants of Gesneriaceae, five phenylpropanoid glycosides, acteoside, paraboside B, isonuomioside A, paraboside II, and paraboside III were quantitatively determined in 12 species of Gesneriaceae by HPLC. The existence and content of these compounds were analyzed. The results showed that phenylethanoid glycosides were found in the most of those plants, but the kind of phenylethanoid glycosides varied in different species. Acteoside distribute in most of this plant group, paraboside B, isonuomioside A, paraboside II, and paraboside III were rare in those plants. The results of this study support morphological viewpoint that Trib. Trichosporeae is more developmental than Trib. Didymocarpeae. PMID:24791528

  3. Cryopreservation of medicinal plants: role of melatonin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many useful plant species found in Canada are of conservation concern. In vitro storage and cryopreservation techniques guarantees safety of these species and have potential applications which may result in sustainable agriculture. Shoot tips of in vitro-grown plantlets of American elm, St John’s Wo...

  4. Medicinal plants used in traditional medicine by Oromo people, Ghimbi District, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethiopia is one of the six centres of biodiversity in the world with several topographies, climatic conditions and various ethnic cultures. Ethnobotanical study is a real and encourageable in rich biological resource areas for medicinal plant identification, documentation, ranking, conservation and sustainable usages. The purpose of this study was to identify the most effective medicinal plants for specific treatment through priority ranking and to assess the status of the transfer of Traditional Botanical Knowledge (TBK) based on age groups and educational levels. Methodology Ethnobotanical data were collected using field observation and semi-structured interview, A total of 30 key informants and 165 community members were interviewed and data on medicinal plant species and associated knowledge were recorded, quantified and verified using several preference ranking methods. Results The study revealed a total of 49 medicinal plant species (belonging to 31 families and 46 genera) used to treat various human ailments, the majority of which 40 (81.6%) species were collected from wild while the rests from home garden. Herbs constituted the largest growth habit (18 species, 37%) followed by trees (16 species, 32%) and shrubs (15 species, 31%). Leaf `17 (35%) is the plant part widely used followed by root 13 (27%), leafy-stem 5 (10%), and seed 6 (12%). Oral administration was the dominant route (63%), followed by dermal route (22%) and nasal (11%). The highest number of plant species being used for infectious (48%) followed by two or more diseases and non-infectious disease. Of five and seven medicinal plants of preference ranking the highest ranks were given first for Croton macrostaychus used for malaria treatment and for Prunus africana as ‘’rare” for immediate collection and use in the traditional treatment. Significantly higher average number of medicinal plants (p < 0.05) were reported by informants of higher institution (14.3 ± 34) and adult age groups (11.6 ± 43). Conclusion The Ghimbi people possess rich ethno-medicinal knowledge. This study can be used as a basis for developing management plans for conservation, sustainable use and drug development. PMID:24885586

  5. Iranian medicinal plants for diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Ali Akbar; Mirhashemi, Seyyed Mehdi; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Sarkhail, Parisa

    2013-05-01

    In the Iranian traditional medicine a significant usage of herbs is promoted for their anti-diabetic activity. The aim of this review to assess the efficacy of glucose lowering effects of medicinal plants cultivated in Iran. An electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library Database, Ebsco and Google Scholar from database inception conducted up to May 2012. A total of 85 studies (18 humans and 67 animals) examining 62 plants were reviewed. The quality of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) assessed by using the Jadad scale. Among the RCTs studies, the best results in glycemic control was found in Aloe vera, Citrullus colocynthus, Plantago ovata, Silybum marianum, Rheum ribes and Urtica dioica. The majority of plants that have been studied for antidiabetic activity showed promising results. However, efficacy and safety of the most plants used in the treatment of diabetes are not sufficient. PMID:24498803

  6. [Phytochemical and pharmacological advance on Tibetan medicinal plants of Corydalis].

    PubMed

    Shang, Wei-Qing; Chen, Yue-Mei; Gao, Xiao-Li; Pu, Chi; Tu, Peng-Fei; Chai, Xing-Yun

    2014-04-01

    It was estimated that about 428 species of genus Corydalis are distributed all worldwide, with about 298, especially 10 groups and 219 species being uniquely spread in China. The genus Corydalis have been widely employed as folk medicines in China, especially as traditional Tibetan medicines, for treatment of fever, hepatitis, edema, gastritis, cholecystitis, hypertension and other diseases. The phytochemical studies revealed that isoquinoline alkaloids are its major bioactive ingredients. The extensive biological researches suggested its pharmacological activities and clinic applications against cardiovascular diseases and central nervous system, antibacterial activities, analgesic effects, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation and anti-injury for hepatocyte, and so on. As an effort in promoting the research of pharmacodynamic ingredients, this article presents an overview focusing on the distribution, phytochemical and pharmacological results of Corydalis species that have been applied in traditional Tibetan medicinal, hopefully to provide a reference for the new Tibetan medicine development from Corydalis plant resource. PMID:25011252

  7. The current status of knowledge of herbal medicine and medicinal plants in Fiche, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. Methods This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Results Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. Conclusion There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative, and concomitant sustainable programmes that support the sustainability of herbal medicine traditions may be considered as a way to collect and disseminate information thereby supporting communities in their efforts to maintain their heritage. This study contributes to the documentation of the status of current traditional herbal knowledge in Ethiopia. PMID:24885355

  8. Antiviral activity of Hawaiian medicinal plants against human immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1).

    PubMed

    Locher, C P; Witvrouw, M; De Bthune, M P; Burch, M T; Mower, H F; Davis, H; Lasure, A; Pauwels, R; De Clercq, E; Vlietinck, A J

    1996-01-01

    Hawaiian medicinal plants commonly used for the treatment of a variety of infections were screened for antiviral activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Sixty-one extracts derived from seventeen plants were tested for selective viral growth inhibition using the LAI (HTLV-IIIB) isolate. The greatest degree of antiviral activity was observed with aqueous extracts made from the bark of Eugenia malaccensis (L.) and the leaves of Pluchea indica (Less.) which had antiviral selectivity indices (50% cytotoxic concentration/50% effective antiviral concentration) of 109 and 94, respectively. These and other extracts conferred 100% cell protection against viral cytopathic effect when compared with control samples. Methanol and water extracts made from the Pipturus albidus (Gray) leaves and bark also achieved a high selective inhibition of virus replication with very low cytotoxicity. Plant extracts made from Aleurites moluccana (Willd.), Psychotria hawaiiensis (Gray), Clermontia aborescens (Mann), and Scaevola sericea (Forst.) also showed antiviral activity. These data provide a rationale for the characterization of antiviral natural products from these plants and related plant species. PMID:23194626

  9. Antithrombin activity of medicinal plants from central Florida.

    PubMed

    Chistokhodova, Natalya; Nguyen, Chi; Calvino, Tony; Kachirskaia, Ioulia; Cunningham, Glenn; Howard Miles, D

    2002-07-01

    A chromogenic bioassay was utilized to determine the antithrombin activity of methylene chloride and methanol extracts prepared from 30 plants of central Florida. Extracts of Ardisia crenata, Tetrapanax papyriferus, Lagerstroemia indica, Callistemon lanceolatus, Antigonon Leptopus, Magnolia virginiana, and Myrica cerifera demonstrated activity of 80% or higher in this bioassay system. PMID:12065163

  10. Screening of medicinal plants for PPPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma activation and evaluation of their effects on glucose uptake and 3T3-L1 adipogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Medicinal plants are a rich source of ligands for nuclear receptors. The present study was aimed to screen a collection of plant extracts for PPAR-alpha/gamma activating properties and identify the active extract that can stimulate cellular glucose uptake without enhancing the adipogenesis. A report...

  11. Phytochemica: a platform to explore phytochemicals of medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Pathania, Shivalika; Ramakrishnan, Sai Mukund; Bagler, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived molecules (PDMs) are known to be a rich source of diverse scaffolds that could serve as the basis for rational drug design. Structured compilation of phytochemicals from traditional medicinal plants can facilitate prospection for novel PDMs and their analogs as therapeutic agents. Atropa belladonna, Catharanthus roseus, Heliotropium indicum, Picrorhiza kurroa and Podophyllum hexandrum are important Himalayan medicinal plants, reported to have immense therapeutic properties against various diseases. We present Phytochemica, a structured compilation of 963 PDMs from these plants, inclusive of their plant part source, chemical classification, IUPAC names, SMILES notations, physicochemical properties and 3-dimensional structures with associated references. Phytochemica is an exhaustive resource of natural molecules facilitating prospection for therapeutic molecules from medicinally important plants. It also offers refined search option to explore the neighbourhood of chemical space against ZINC database to identify analogs of natural molecules at user-defined cut-off. Availability of phytochemical structured dataset may enable their direct use in in silico drug discovery which will hasten the process of lead identification from natural products under proposed hypothesis, and may overcome urgent need for phytomedicines. Compilation and accessibility of indigenous phytochemicals and their derivatives can be a source of considerable advantage to research institutes as well as industries. Database URL: home.iitj.ac.in/∼bagler/webservers/Phytochemica PMID:26255307

  12. Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Loja province, Southern Ecuador. Two hundred fifteen plant species were collected, identified and their vernacular names and traditional uses recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors and members of the public interviewed still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. However, the area represents only an outlier of the larger Northern Peruvian cultural area, where more than 500 species of plants are used medicinally, indicating that in Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. Most plant species registered are only used medicinally, and only a few species have any other use (construction, fodder, food). The highest number of species is used for the treatment of "magical" (psychosomatic) ailments (39 species), followed by respiratory disorders (34), problems of the urinary tract (28), Fever/Malaria (25), Rheumatism (23) and nervous system problems (20). PMID:17032450

  13. PIXE-PIGE analysis of some Indian medicinal plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomita Devi, K.; Nandakumar Sarma, H.

    2010-06-01

    The quantitative estimation of various trace element concentrations in medicinal plants is necessary for determining their effectiveness in treating various diseases and for understanding their pharmacological action. Elemental concentrations of some selected medicinal plants of north east India was measured by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced ?-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.4 MeV collimated protons from the 3 MV tandetron accelerator of NCCCM, Hyderabad (India) while the PIGE measurements were carried out using 3 MeV protons from the same accelerator in the same laboratory. Accuracy and precision of the techniques were assured by analyzing certified reference materials in the same experimental conditions. Various elements of biological importance in man's metabolism were found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied medicinal plants and no toxic heavy metals were detected. The concentration of the various elements in the medicinal plants and their role in treating various diseases are discussed.

  14. Determination of elements in ayurvedic medicinal plants by AAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teerthe, Santoshkumar S.; Kerur, B. R.

    2015-08-01

    India has a rich country for the uses of Ayurvedic medicinal plants for treatment and also the north- Karnataka boasts an unparallel diversity of medicinal plants. The present study attempts to estimate and compare the level of trace and heavy metals in some selected leaves and root samples of Ayurvedic medicinal plants such as Mg, Al, K, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd. The samples are collected from different places of North-Karnataka regions and sample solutions prepared as the ratio of 1:25:25+950ml=1000ppm.the trace and heavy elemental concentration was estimated using Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) Method. The average concentrations of Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn, are ranging from 2ppm to 5250.2ppm and potassium (K) has more concentration as compare to all other. The other elements likes Al, Cr, Cu, and Cd were also estimed and presented in the table. Therefore, these medicinal plants are rich in some essential minerals, especially K, Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn which are essential for human health

  15. A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential.

    PubMed

    Khan, Vasim; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Akhtar, Mohd; Aqil, Mohd; Mujeeb, Mohd; Pillai, K K

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological constituents and many of them are known to be effective against diabetes. Medicinal plants with antihyperglycemic activities are being more desired, owing to lesser side-effects and low cost. This review focuses on the various plants that have been reported to be effective in diabetes. A record of various medicinal plants with their established antidiabetic and other health benefits has been reported. These include Allium sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Panax ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre, Momrodica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Trigonella foenum graecum and Tinospora cordifolia. All of them have shown a certain degree of antidiabetic activity by different mechanisms of action. PMID:22368396

  16. Genotoxicity detection of five medicinal plants in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chang-Eui; Lyu, Su-Yun

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the safety of Alchornea cordifolia, Cnestis ferruginea, Lonchocarpus sericeus, Trema orientalis, and Senna alata in respect to genotoxicity. These five medicinal plants are widely distributed in Africa. They are used as a traditional medicine in many African counties for the treatment of microbial, inflammatory, and stress-related diseases. To evaluate the bacterial reverse mutation of these five medicinal plants, the in vitro Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537, and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA, with or without the addition of S9 mixture was performed. Concentrations used for this test were 625, 2,500, and 5,000 g per plate. A. cordifolia, C. ferruginea, L. sericeus, and T. orientalis showed negative results in the bacterial reverse mutation test, suggesting that it is potentially safe for these plants to be used in medicinal plants supplements at high doses. However, our experiments suggest that S. alata is a potent mutagen. Therefore, further studies are needed to evaluate the carcinogenicity of S. alata in order to adequately assess the risks for human health. PMID:21297345

  17. A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Vasim; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Akhtar, Mohd.; Aqil, Mohd.; Mujeeb, Mohd.; Pillai, K. K.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological constituents and many of them are known to be effective against diabetes. Medicinal plants with antihyperglycemic activities are being more desired, owing to lesser side-effects and low cost. This review focuses on the various plants that have been reported to be effective in diabetes. A record of various medicinal plants with their established antidiabetic and other health benefits has been reported. These include Allium sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Panax ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre, Momrodica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Trigonella foenum graecum and Tinospora cordifolia. All of them have shown a certain degree of antidiabetic activity by different mechanisms of action. PMID:22368396

  18. Preliminary Screening of Endophytic Fungi from Medicinal Plants in Malaysia for Antimicrobial and Antitumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Radu, Son; Kqueen, Cheah Yoke

    2002-01-01

    The screening of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, yeast and fungi was carried out on isopropanol extracts prepared from 121 isolates of endophytic fungi isolated from medicinal plants in Malaysia. Sensitivity was found to vary among the microorganisms. Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Alternaria sp. were susceptible to extracts from three, two and two isolates of endophytic fungi, respectively. None were found effective against Salmonella typhimurium. Sixteen endophytic fungal isolates tested were also found to exhibit antitumor activity in the yeast cell-based assay. PMID:22844221

  19. Efficacy of some nupe medicinal plants against Salmonella typhi: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Evans, C Egwim; Banso, Aderotimi; Samuel, O Adeyemo

    2002-04-01

    Different medicinal plants: Euphobia hirta (Eh); Citrus aurantifolia (Ca), Cassia occidentalis (Co), and Cassia eucalyptus (Ce), which are claimed by the Nupes of Bida in Niger State of Nigeria to be effective in the treatment of typhoid fever were collected. Ethanolic and water extracts were obtained by standard procedures. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed that alkaloids were absent in all the parts of Eh, Co, and Ca studied, but present in all the parts of Ce studied. Saponins were absent in the leaves and florescence of Eh, Ca fruits, but present in little amounts in Eh and Co roots. Saponins were present in large amounts in all the parts of Ce studied. Tannins were in little amount in all the medicinal plants studied, except in Ca. Glycosides were not present in any of the medicinal plants studied. The in vitro and microbial analysis showed that only Ce showed inhibition to Salmonella typhi growth. Ca plus 'Kanwa' (a locally mined, alkaline salt) showed inhibition only at a high concentration of 'Kanwa'. The MIC and MBC of Ce are 1 and 2 mg/ml, respectively. The paper concludes that, of all the medicinal plants claimed by the Nupes to be effective against S. typhi, only Ce contains the natural compound that can be used in the treatment of typhoid fever. PMID:11891083

  20. Effective medicinal plants against enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Voravuthikunchai, Supayang; Lortheeranuwat, Amornrat; Jeeju, Wanpen; Sririrak, Trechada; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Supawita, Thanomjit

    2004-09-01

    The stimulating effect of subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics on the production of verocytotoxin (VT) by enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 has been claimed. The purpose of this study was to find an alternative, but bioactive medicine for the treatment of this organism. Fifty-eight preparations of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 38 medicinal plant species commonly used in Thailand to cure gastrointestinal infections were tested for their antibacterial activity against different strains of Escherichia coli, including 6 strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Escherichia coli O26:H11, Escherichia coli O111:NM, Escherichia coli O22; 5 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from bovine; and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Inhibition of growth was primarily tested by the paper disc agar diffusion method. Among the medicinal plants tested, only 8 species (21.05%) exhibited antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7. Acacia catechu, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Psidium guajava, Punica granatum, Quercus infectoria, Uncaria gambir, and Walsura robusta demonstrated antibacterial activity with inhibition zones ranging from 7 to 17 mm. The greatest inhibition zone against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (RIMD 05091083) was produced from the ethanolic extract of Quercus infectoria. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by the agar microdilution method and agar dilution method in petri dishes with millipore filter. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Quercus infectoria and aqueous extract of Punica granatum were highly effective against Escherichia coli O157:H7 with the best MIC and MBC values of 0.09, 0.78, and 0.19, 0.39 mg/ml, respectively. These plant species may provide alternative but bioactive medicines for the treatment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection. PMID:15261962

  1. Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Holetz, Fabola Barbiri; Pessini, Greisiele Lorena; Sanches, Neviton Rogrio; Cortez, Digenes Aparcio Garcia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias

    2002-10-01

    Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major). The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases. PMID:12471432

  2. Medicinal plants and Alzheimer's disease: Integrating ethnobotanical and contemporary scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Perry, E K; Pickering, A T; Wang, W W; Houghton, P; Perry, N S

    1998-01-01

    The use of complementary medicines such as plant extracts in dementia therapy, varies according to the different cultural traditions. In orthodox Western medicine, contrasting with that in China and the Far East for example, pharmacological properties of traditional cognitive or memory enhancing plants have not been widely investigated in the context of current models of Alzheimer's disease. An exception is Ginkgo biloba in which the ginkgolides have antioxidant, neuroprotective, and cholinergic activities relevant to Alzheimer's disease mechanisms. The therapeutic efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extracts in Alzheimer's disease in placebo-controlled clinical trials is reportedly similar to currently prescribed drugs such as tacrine or donepezil and, importantly, undesirable side effects of Ginkgo biloba are minimal. Old European reference books (eg, medical herbals) document a variety of other plants such as Salvia officinalis (sage) and Melissa officinalis (balm) with memory improving properties, and cholinergic activities have recently been identified in extracts of these plants. Precedents for modern discovery of clinically relevant pharmacological activities in plants with long-established medicinal use include, for example, the interaction of alkaloid opioids in Papaver somniferum (Opium poppy) with endogenous opiate receptors in the brain. With recent major advances in understanding the neurobiology of Alzheimer's disease, and as yet limited efficacy of so-called rationally designed therapies, it may be timely to re-explore historical archives for new directions in drug development. This article considers not only the value of an integrative traditional and modern scientific approach to developing new treatments for dementia, but also in the understanding of disease mechanisms. Long before the current biologically based hypothesis of cholinergic derangement in Alzheimer's disease emerged, plants now known to contain cholinergic antagonists were recorded for their amnesic and dementia-inducing properties. PMID:9884179

  3. [Image Feature Extraction and Discriminant Analysis of Xinjiang Uygur Medicine Based on Color Histogram].

    PubMed

    Hamit, Murat; Yun, Weikang; Yan, Chuanbo; Kutluk, Abdugheni; Fang, Yang; Alip, Elzat

    2015-06-01

    Image feature extraction is an important part of image processing and it is an important field of research and application of image processing technology. Uygur medicine is one of Chinese traditional medicine and researchers pay more attention to it. But large amounts of Uygur medicine data have not been fully utilized. In this study, we extracted the image color histogram feature of herbal and zooid medicine of Xinjiang Uygur. First, we did preprocessing, including image color enhancement, size normalizition and color space transformation. Then we extracted color histogram feature and analyzed them with statistical method. And finally, we evaluated the classification ability of features by Bayes discriminant analysis. Experimental results showed that high accuracy for Uygur medicine image classification was obtained by using color histogram feature. This study would have a certain help for the content-based medical image retrieval for Xinjiang Uygur medicine. PMID:26485983

  4. African medicinal plants with antidiabetic potentials: a review.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Aminu; Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the major health problems in Africa. The conventional oral synthetic antidiabetic drugs available to manage the disease are costly and not readily affordable to the majority of the affected population. Interestingly, the continent is endowed with a tremendous number of medicinal plants that have been explored for their folkloric treatment of diabetes mellitus. Scientific investigations have validated the antidiabetic potentials of a number of these medicinal plants but there is no repository with information on these scientifically investigated plants as a guide for future research. In this review article, all of the in vivo antidiabetic studies conducted between January 2000 and July 2013 on African plants are systematically compiled with a closer look at some relevant plants from the continent's subregions. Plants of the Asteraceae and Lamiaceae families are the most investigated, and West Africa has the highest number of investigated plants. Although promising results were reported in many cases, unfortunately, only a few studies reported the partial characterization of bioactive principles and/or mechanisms of action. It is hoped that government agencies, pharmaceutical industries, and the scientific community will have a look at some of these plants for future research and, if possible, subsequent commercialization. PMID:24535720

  5. Protective Effect of Selected Medicinal Plants against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Damage on Biological Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Pai Kotebagilu, Namratha; Reddy Palvai, Vanitha

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is developed due to susceptibility of biological substrates to oxidation by generation of free radicals. In degenerative diseases, oxidative stress level can be reduced by antioxidants which neutralize free radicals. Primary objective of this work was to screen four medicinal plants, namely, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, for their antioxidant property using two biological substratesRBC and microsomes. The antioxidative ability of three solvent extracts, methanol (100% and 80%) and aqueous leaf extracts, was studied at different concentrations by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method using Fenton's reagent to induce oxidation in the substrates. The polyphenol and flavonoid content were analyzed to relate with the observed antioxidant effect of the extracts. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, and ?-carotene in the samples. In microsomes, 80% methanol extract of Canthium and Costus and, in RBC, 80% methanol extract of Costus showed highest inhibition of oxidation and correlated well with the polyphenol and flavonoid content. From the results it can be concluded that antioxidants from medicinal plants are capable of inhibiting oxidation in biological systems, suggesting scope for their use as nutraceuticals. PMID:25436152

  6. Screening of plants used in Argentine folk medicine for antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Anesini, C; Perez, C

    1993-06-01

    Screening of 132 extracts from Argentine folk-medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity has been conducted using a penicillin G resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger as test microorganisms. Cephazolin, ampicillin and miconazole were used as standard antibiotics and concentration-response curves were obtained using the agar-well diffusion method. Boiling water extracts of plant materials were tested and 12 species were active against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas 10 were effective against Escherichia coli and 4 against Aspergillus niger. Tabebuia impetiginosa bark, Achyrocline sp. aerials parts, Larrea divaricata leaves, Rosa borboniana flowers, Punica granatum fruit pericarp, Psidium guineense fruit pericarp, Lithrea ternifolia leaves and Allium sativum bulbs produced some of the more active extracts. PMID:8412245

  7. In vitro cytotoxic screening of selected Saudi medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Almehdar, Hussein; Abdallah, Hossam M; Osman, Abdel-Moneim M; Abdel-Sattar, Essam A

    2012-04-01

    Many natural products from plants have been identified to exert anticancer activity. It might be expected to be a challenge to look at the Saudi plants in order to discover new sources for new molecules which may have anticancer activity. The methanolic extracts of forty species of plants traditionally used in Saudi Arabia for the treatment of a variety of diseases were tested in vitro for their potential anticancer activity on different human cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic activity of the methanolic extracts of the tested plants were determined using three human cancer cell lines, namely, breast cancer (MCF7), hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2), and cervix cancer (HELA) cells. In addition, human normal melanocyte (HFB4) was used as normal nonmalignant cells. Sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay was used to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the different extracts. The growth inhibition of 50% (IC(50)) for each extract was calculated from the optical density of treated and untreated cells. Doxorubicin, a broad-spectrum anticancer drug, was used as the positive control. Nine plant extracts were chosen for further fractionation based on their activity and availability. Interesting cytotoxic activity was observed for Hypoestes forskaolii, Withania somnifera, Solanum glabratum, Adenium obesum, Pistacia vera oleoresin, Caralluma quadrangula, Eulophia petersii, Phragmanthera austroarabica, and Asparagus officinalis. Other extracts showed poor activity. PMID:21953271

  8. In Vitro Study to Evaluate Antibacterial and Non-haemolytic Activities of Four Iranian Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sepahi, S; Ghorani-Azam, A; Sepahi, S; Asoodeh, A; Rostami, S

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Aqueous extracts of four medicinal plants including Ferula gummosa, Echinophora orientalis, Nasturtium microphyllum and Verbascum thapsus were used to determine their antibacterial activities and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The aim of this study was to assess antibacterial activity of extracts of four medicinal plants against a Gram-positive and a Gram-negative bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus PTCC1431, and Escherichia coli HP101BA 7601c). Methods: Radial diffusion assay was used to assess the antibacterial activity of extracted samples. Haemolysis assay was also used to examine their nontoxic effects on human red blood cells. Results: This study showed that all the mentioned plants have satisfactory antibacterial effects against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration values of these samples were less than 750 μg/mL. In addition, no significant haemolytic activity was observed at their MIC values. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that all these studied plants have good potential for further studies for drug discovery. PMID:25429470

  9. Potent α-amylase inhibitory activity of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Indian medicinal plants used in the Ayurvedic traditional system to treat diabetes are a valuable source of novel anti-diabetic agents. Pancreatic α-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. In this study, seventeen Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for α-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on PPA (porcine pancreatic α-amylase). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the lead extracts was performed in order to determine the probable constituents. Methods Analysis of the 126 extracts, obtained from 17 plants (Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., Adansonia digitata L., Allium sativum L., Casia fistula L., Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don., Cinnamomum verum Persl., Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt., Linum usitatisumum L., Mangifera indica L., Morus alba L., Nerium oleander L., Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Piper nigrum L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers., Trigonella foenum-graceum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc.) for PPA inhibition was initially performed qualitatively by starch-iodine colour assay. The lead extracts were further quantified with respect to PPA inhibition using the chromogenic DNSA (3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid) method. Phytochemical constituents of the extracts exhibiting≥ 50% inhibition were analysed qualitatively as well as by GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry). Results Of the 126 extracts obtained from 17 plants, 17 extracts exhibited PPA inhibitory potential to varying degrees (10%-60.5%) while 4 extracts showed low inhibition (< 10%). However, strong porcine pancreatic amylase inhibitory activity (> 50%) was obtained with 3 isopropanol extracts. All these 3 extracts exhibited concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, viz., seeds of Linum usitatisumum (540 μgml-1), leaves of Morus alba (1440 μgml-1) and Ocimum tenuiflorum (8.9 μgml-1). Acarbose as the standard inhibitor exhibited an IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration)value of 10.2 μgml-1. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids with the major phytoconstituents being identified by GC-MS. Conclusions This study endorses the use of these plants for further studies to determine their potential for type 2 diabetes management. Results suggests that extracts of Linum usitatisumum, Morus alba and Ocimum tenuiflorum act effectively as PPA inhibitors leading to a reduction in starch hydrolysis and hence eventually to lowered glucose levels. PMID:21251279

  10. Ayurvedic medicinal plants for Alzheimer's disease: a review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is an age-associated, irreversible, progressive neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by severe memory loss, unusual behavior, personality changes, and a decline in cognitive function. No cure for Alzheimer's exists, and the drugs currently available to treat the disease have limited effectiveness. It is believed that therapeutic intervention that could postpone the onset or progression of Alzheimer's disease would dramatically reduce the number of cases in the next 50 years. Ayurvedic medicinal plants have been the single most productive source of leads for the development of drugs, and over a hundred new products are already in clinical development. Indeed, several scientific studies have described the use of various Ayurvedic medicinal plants and their constituents for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Although the exact mechanism of their action is still not clear, phytochemical studies of the different parts of the plants have shown the presence of many valuable compounds, such as lignans, flavonoids, tannins, polyphenols, triterpenes, sterols, and alkaloids, that show a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-amyloidogenic, anti-cholinesterase, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects. This review gathers research on various medicinal plants that have shown promise in reversing the Alzheimer's disease pathology. The report summarizes information concerning the phytochemistry, biological, and cellular activities and clinical applications of these various plants in order to provide sufficient baseline information that could be used in drug discovery campaigns and development process, thereby providing new functional leads for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:22747839

  11. Kenyan medicinal plants used as antivenin: a comparison of plant usage

    PubMed Central

    Owuor, Bethwell O; Kisangau, Daniel P

    2006-01-01

    The success of snake bite healers is vaguely understood in Kenya, partly due to their unknown materia medica and occult-mystical nature of their practice. A comparison is made of plants used in snake bite treatments by two culturally distinct African groups (the Kamba and Luo). Thirty two plants used for snakebite treatment are documented. The majority of the antidotes are prepared from freshly collected plant material frequently leaves. Though knowledge of snake bite conditions etiological perceptions of the ethnic groups is similar, field ethnobotanical data suggests that plant species used by the two ethnic groups are independently derived. Antivenin medicinal plants effectively illustrate the cultural context of medicine. Randomness or the use of a variety of species in different families appears to be a feature of traditional snake bite treatments. A high degree of informant consensus for the species was observed. The study indicates rural Kenya inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for healthcare. PMID:16451723

  12. Artemisia herba alba: a popular plant with potential medicinal properties.

    PubMed

    Moufid, Abderrahmane; Eddouks, Mohamed

    2012-12-15

    Artemisia herba alba (Asteraceae), commonly known as desert or white wormwood, is used in folk medicine for treatment of various diseases. Phytochemical studies of this plant revealed the existence of many beneficial compounds such as herbalbin, cis-chryanthenyl acetate, flavonoids (hispidulin and cirsilineol), monoterpenes, sesquiterpene. The aerial parts are characterized by a very low degree of toxicity. This study reviews the main reports of the pharmacological and toxicological properties of Artemisia herba alba in addition to the main constituents. It would appear that this plant exhibits many beneficial properties. Further studies are warranted to more integrate this popular plant in human health care system. PMID:23755405

  13. Medicinal plants used in treatment of inflammatory skin diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Skin is an organ providing contact with the environment and protecting the human body from unfavourable external factors. Skin inflammation, reflected adversely in its functioning and appearance, also unfavourably affects the psyche, the condition of which is important during treatment of chronic skin diseases. The use of plants in treatment of inflammatory skin diseases results from their influence on different stages of inflammation. The paper presents results of the study regarding the anti-inflammatory activity of the plant raw material related to its influence on skin. The mechanism of action, therapeutic indications and side effects of medicinal plants used for treatment of inflammatory diseases of the skin are described. PMID:24278070

  14. Application of plant cell and tissue culture for the production of phytochemicals in medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Pant, Bijaya

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 80% of the world inhabitants depend on the medicinal plants in the form of traditional formulations for their primary health care system well as in the treatment of a number of diseases since the ancient time. Many commercially used drugs have come from the information of indigenous knowledge of plants and their folk uses. Linking of the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants to modern research activities provides a new reliable approach, for the discovery of novel drugs much more effectively than with random collection. Increase in population and increasing demand of plant products along with illegal trade are causing depletion of medicinal plants and many are threatened in natural habitat. Plant tissue culture technique has proved potential alternative for the production of desirable bioactive components from plants, to produce the enough amounts of plant material that is needed and for the conservation of threatened species. Different plant tissue culture systems have been extensively studied to improve and enhance the production of plant chemicals in various medicinal plants. PMID:24595608

  15. Antibacterial activity of resin rich plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    Shuaib, Mohd; Ali, Abuzer; Ali, Mohd; Panda, Bibhu Prasad; Ahmad, Mohd Imtiyaz

    2013-01-01

    Background: The in vitro antibacterial activity of resin rich methanolic extracts (RRMEs) of Commiphora myrrha, Operculina turpethum, and Pinus roxburghii. Materials and Methods: Different concentration were studied by agar-well diffusion method against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae). Results: Among all the bacterial strains tested, E. faecalis was most sensitive and S. typhi was resistant to C. myrrha and P. roxburghii. The extracts of O. turpethum were active against all tested strains in which B. subtilis and S. aureus were the most sensitive. Conclusion: This suggested that the antibacterial activity of RRMEs of O. turpethum was more than C. myrrha and P. roxburghii. This probably explains the potential of these plants against a number of infections caused by bacterial strains tested. PMID:24302834

  16. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity and Antimycobacterial Activity of Madeira Archipelago Endemic Helichrysum Dietary and Medicinal Plants.

    PubMed

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C; Gouveia, Carla A; Carvalho, Maria J; Rodrigues, Ana I; Nording, Malin L; Castilho, Paula C

    2014-01-01

    The potential bioactivity of dietary and medicinal endemic Helichrysum plants from Madeira Archipelago was explored, for the first time, in order to supply new information for the general consumer. In vitro antioxidant properties were investigated using DPPH, ABTS(+), FRAP and ?-Carotene assays, and the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were also determined. Although the results generally showed a large variation among the three analyzed plants, the methanolic extracts showed the highest antioxidant capacity. Exception is made for H. devium n-hexane extract that showed good radical scavenger capacity associated to compounds with good reducing properties. In the Artemia salina toxicity assay and antimycobaterial activity, H. devium was the most potent plant with the lowest LD50 at 216.7 10.4 and MIC ? 50?gmL(-1). Chemometric evaluation (Principal Component Analysis-PCA) showed close interdependence between the ABTS, TPC and TFC methods and allowed to group H. devium samples. PMID:26785236

  17. Uncovering the Geroprotective Potential of Medicinal Plants from the Judea Region of Israel

    PubMed Central

    Budovsky, Arie; Shteinberg, Albert; Maor, Hani; Duman, Olga; Yanai, Hagai; Wolfson, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Plants growing in the Judea region are widely used in traditional medicine. This phytogeographic zone stands out in its climatic conditions and biodiversity. Consequently, both endemic and widely distributed Mediterranean plants growing in the area have unique chemotypes characterized by accumulation of relatively high levels of phytosteroids. Our comprehensive analysis revealed that many of the plants growing in the Judea region may hold a geroprotective potential. With this in mind, we undertook a wide screen of dozens of candidate herbal extracts for their cell protective, wound-healing, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. The results obtained thus far have clearly shown that the extracts tested (1) protect normal human fibroblasts from genotoxic stress (prevent DNA double-strand beaks, increase cell survival and reduce the number of cells undergoing cellular senescence), (2) decrease secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, (3) promote wound healing, and (4) exert more pronounced cytotoxicity toward cancer cells. PMID:24094064

  18. Mosquito larvicidal potential of four common medicinal plants of India

    PubMed Central

    Rawani, Anjali; Ghosh, Anupam; Chandra, Goutam

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human health diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Plants may be sources of alternative mosquito control agents. The present study was carried out to assess the role of larvicidal activities of the crude extracts of four plants viz. Alternanthera sessilis L. (Amaranthaceae), Trema orientalis L. (Cannabaceae), Gardenia carinata Smith. (Rubiaceae) and Ruellia tuberosa L. (Acanthaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say in laboratory bioassay. Methods: Selective concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5%) of crude extract of all four plant leaves were tested against Ist to IVth instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Log probit analysis (at 95% confidence level) revealed the LC50 values. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical analyses of crude extracts were also done. The lethal concentrations (%) of crude extracts at 24 h against IIIrd instar larvae were also studied on non-target organisms. Result: In a 72 h bioassay experiment with crude extract, the highest mortality was recorded in 1.5 per cent extract. A. sessilis showed the highest mortality (76.7 %) at 1.5 per cent crude extract against IInd instar larvae having LC50 value of 0.35 per cent, followed by R. tuberosa (LC50 =1.84%), G. carinata (LC50 = 2.11) and T. orientalis (LC50 = 2.95%). The regression equation showed a dose-dependent mortality, as the rate of mortality (Y) was positively correlated with the concentration (X). Phytochemical analysis of the crude extract showed the presence of many bioactive phytochemicals such as steroids, alkaloids, terpenes, saponins, etc. No changes in the swimming behaviour and survivality of non-target organism were noticed at the studied concentrations. Interpretation & conclusions: Crude extract of the four selected plants showed larvicidal activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The extracts at the studied concentrations did not produce any harmful effect on non-target organisms. PMID:25222784

  19. An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property

    PubMed Central

    Patel, DK; Prasad, SK; Kumar, R; Hemalatha, S

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders acquiring around 2.8% of the world's population and is anticipated to cross 5.4% by the year 2025. Since long back herbal medicines have been the highly esteemed source of medicine therefore, they have become a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. In view of the above aspects the present review provides profiles of plants (65 species) with hypoglycaemic properties, available through literature source from various database with proper categorization according to the parts used, mode of reduction in blood glucose (insulinomimetic or insulin secretagogues activity) and active phytoconstituents having insulin mimetics activity. From the review it was suggested that, plant showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belongs to the family Leguminoseae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Rosaceae and Araliaceae. The most active plants are Allium sativum, Gymnema sylvestre, Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum greacum, Momordica charantia and Ficus bengalensis. The review describes some new bioactive drugs and isolated compounds from plants such as roseoside, epigallocatechin gallate, beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine, cinchonain Ib, leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidin-3- O-alpha-L rhamnoside, glycyrrhetinic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, strictinin, isostrictinin, pedunculagin, epicatechin and christinin-A showing significant insulinomimetic and antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than conventional hypoglycaemic agents. Thus, from the review majorly, the antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants is attributed to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and other constituents which show reduction in blood glucose levels. The review also discusses the management aspect of diabetes mellitus using these plants and their active principles. PMID:23569923

  20. An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property.

    PubMed

    Patel, D K; Prasad, S K; Kumar, R; Hemalatha, S

    2012-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders acquiring around 2.8% of the world's population and is anticipated to cross 5.4% by the year 2025. Since long back herbal medicines have been the highly esteemed source of medicine therefore, they have become a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. In view of the above aspects the present review provides profiles of plants (65 species) with hypoglycaemic properties, available through literature source from various database with proper categorization according to the parts used, mode of reduction in blood glucose (insulinomimetic or insulin secretagogues activity) and active phytoconstituents having insulin mimetics activity. From the review it was suggested that, plant showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belongs to the family Leguminoseae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Rosaceae and Araliaceae. The most active plants are Allium sativum, Gymnema sylvestre, Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum greacum, Momordica charantia and Ficus bengalensis. The review describes some new bioactive drugs and isolated compounds from plants such as roseoside, epigallocatechin gallate, beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine, cinchonain Ib, leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidin-3- O-alpha-L rhamnoside, glycyrrhetinic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, strictinin, isostrictinin, pedunculagin, epicatechin and christinin-A showing significant insulinomimetic and antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than conventional hypoglycaemic agents. Thus, from the review majorly, the antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants is attributed to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and other constituents which show reduction in blood glucose levels. The review also discusses the management aspect of diabetes mellitus using these plants and their active principles. PMID:23569923

  1. Medicinal Plants: A Public Resource for Metabolomics and Hypothesis Development

    PubMed Central

    Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Chappell, Joe; Daniel Jones, A.; Celiz, Mary Dawn; Ransom, Nick; Hur, Manhoi; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Crispin, Matthew; Dixon, Philip; Liu, Jia; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Nikolau, Basil J.

    2012-01-01

    Specialized compounds from photosynthetic organisms serve as rich resources for drug development. From aspirin to atropine, plant-derived natural products have had a profound impact on human health. Technological advances provide new opportunities to access these natural products in a metabolic context. Here, we describe a database and platform for storing, visualizing and statistically analyzing metabolomics data from fourteen medicinal plant species. The metabolomes and associated transcriptomes (RNAseq) for each plant species, gathered from up to twenty tissue/organ samples that have experienced varied growth conditions and developmental histories, were analyzed in parallel. Three case studies illustrate different ways that the data can be integrally used to generate testable hypotheses concerning the biochemistry, phylogeny and natural product diversity of medicinal plants. Deep metabolomics analysis of Camptotheca acuminata exemplifies how such data can be used to inform metabolic understanding of natural product chemical diversity and begin to formulate hypotheses about their biogenesis. Metabolomics data from Prunella vulgaris, a species that contains a wide range ofantioxidant, antiviral, tumoricidal and anti-inflammatory constituents, provide a case study of obtaining biosystematic and developmental fingerprint information from metabolite accumulation data in a little studied species. Digitalis purpurea, well known as a source of cardiac glycosides, is used to illustrate how integrating metabolomics and transcriptomics data can lead to identification of candidate genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes in the cardiac glycoside pathway. Medicinal Plant Metabolomics Resource (MPM) [1] provides a framework for generating experimentally testable hypotheses about the metabolic networks that lead to the generation of specialized compounds, identifying genes that control their biosynthesis and establishing a basis for modeling metabolism in less studied species. The database is publicly available and can be used by researchers in medicine and plant biology. PMID:24957774

  2. Medicinal potential of Morella serata (Lam.) Killick (Myricaceae) root extracts: biological and pharmacological activities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Morella serata is a South African medicinal plant used in the treatment of microbial infections and to enhance male sexual performance. There is dearth of information in scientific literature on its efficacy and safety. Methods In the present study, the root extracts were investigated for the phytochemicals that may be present the antibacterial, anticandida activity using 96 wells microtitre plate method and cytotoxicity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality assay. Results The qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids and steroids. All the extracts including water inhibited both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria strains at minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.09 6.25mgmL-1. The best activity was observed in the acetone extract inhibiting all the bacteria tested at MIC range of 0.09 0.78mgmL-1 except Shigella flexneri KZN that was inhibited at 1.56mgmL-1. Similarly, all the extracts suppressed the growth of all Candida species and Trichophyton mucoides at MIC ranging from 0.13 3.13mgmL-1. The cytotoxicity assay revealed potent cytotoxic potential of M. serata methanol and ethanol root extracts by displaying LC50 of 0.26 and 0.18?gmL-1 respectively. Conclusion The results obtained from the present study indicated broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and justifies the use of the plant in the treatment of infectious diseases. Also the species could be a good natural source of antitumor compounds considering its lethality against brine shrimp nauplii. PMID:23829770

  3. The knowledge of medicinal plants in Africa today.

    PubMed

    Lantum, D N

    1980-03-01

    The oral tradition for communication in Africa is stressed as well as the secrecy of the treatments with plants by traditional medicine-men. This makes it difficult to obtain more exact information on all the different aspects of traditional medicine. Nevertheless, some data have been collected in the Francophone countries. In English-speaking Africa efforts to gather information have also been made and a number of valuable reports and books published. A number of books report our present knowledge in the African regions south of the equator, mainly in Zambia. PMID:7464190

  4. Identification of potent anticancer activity in Ximenia americana aqueous extracts used by African traditional medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, Cristina; Eyol, Erguel; Berger, Martin R. . E-mail: m.berger@dkfz.de

    2006-03-15

    The antineoplastic activity of a plant powder used in African traditional medicine for treating cancer was investigated by analyzing the activity of various extracts in vitro. The most active, aqueous extract was subsequently subjected to a detailed investigation in a panel of 17 tumor cell lines, showing an average IC{sub 5} of 49 mg raw powder/ml medium. The sensitivity of the cell lines varied by two orders of magnitude, from 1.7 mg/ml in MCF7 breast cancer cells to 170 mg/ml in AR230 chronic-myeloid leukemia cells. Immortalized, non-tumorigenic cell lines showed a marginal sensitivity. In addition, kinetic and recovery experiments performed in MCF7 and U87-MG cells and a comparison with the antineoplastic activity of miltefosine, gemcitabine, and cisplatinum in MCF7, U87-MG, HEp2, and SAOS2 cells revealed no obvious similarity between the sensitivity profiles of the extract and the three standard agents, suggesting a different mechanism of cytotoxicity. The in vivo antitumor activity was determined in the CC531 colorectal cancer rat model. Significant anticancer activity was found following administration of equitoxic doses of 100 (perorally) and 5 (intraperitoneally) mg raw powder/kg, indicating a 95% reduced activity following intestinal absorption. By sequencing the mitochondrial gene for the large subunit of the ribulose bis-phosphate carboxylase (rbcL) in DNA from the plant material, the source plant was identified as Ximenia americana. A physicochemical characterization showed that the active antineoplastic component(s) of the plant material are proteins with galactose affinity. Moreover, by mass spectrometry, one of these proteins was shown to contain a stretch of 11 amino acids identical to a tryptic peptide from the ribosome-inactivating protein ricin.

  5. Determination of Antibacterial and Antioxidant Potential of Some Medicinal Plants from Saurashtra Region, India

    PubMed Central

    Kaneria, M.; Baravalia, Y.; Vaghasiya, Y.; Chanda, S.

    2009-01-01

    Many plants used in Saurashtra folk medicine have been reported to exhibit high antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In the present study, some parts of five plants, Guazuma ulmifolia L., Manilkara zapota L., Melia azedarach L., Syzygium cumini L. and Wrightia tomentosa R.& S., were evaluated for their antibacterial activity, total phenol content, flavonoid content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity and phytochemical analysis, using successive extraction by cold percolation method with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. In vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated against five bacterial strains viz. Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium and Enterobacter aerogenes by agar well diffusion method. Among the plants screened, W. tomentosa leaf and fruit showed the best antibacterial activity. The Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible than Gram-negative bacteria. Methanol extract of M. zapota showed the best 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity. Highest total phenol content was shown by M. zapota and S. cumini in methanol extract, while highest flavonoid content was shown by W. tomentosa stem in petroleum ether extract and ethyl acetate extract. In all the plants, cardiac glycosides and triterpenes were more as compared to other phytoconstituents. PMID:20502546

  6. Determination of antibacterial and antioxidant potential of some medicinal plants from saurashtra region, India.

    PubMed

    Kaneria, M; Baravalia, Y; Vaghasiya, Y; Chanda, S

    2009-07-01

    Many plants used in Saurashtra folk medicine have been reported to exhibit high antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In the present study, some parts of five plants, Guazuma ulmifolia L., Manilkara zapota L., Melia azedarach L., Syzygium cumini L. and Wrightia tomentosa R.& S., were evaluated for their antibacterial activity, total phenol content, flavonoid content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity and phytochemical analysis, using successive extraction by cold percolation method with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. In vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated against five bacterial strains viz. Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium and Enterobacter aerogenes by agar well diffusion method. Among the plants screened, W. tomentosa leaf and fruit showed the best antibacterial activity. The Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible than Gram-negative bacteria. Methanol extract of M. zapota showed the best 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity. Highest total phenol content was shown by M. zapota and S. cumini in methanol extract, while highest flavonoid content was shown by W. tomentosa stem in petroleum ether extract and ethyl acetate extract. In all the plants, cardiac glycosides and triterpenes were more as compared to other phytoconstituents. PMID:20502546

  7. In vitro antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants from lower Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Zulqarnain; Rahim, Abdur; Ahmad, Khalid; Ullah, Faizan; Ullah, Hamid; Nishan, Umar

    2015-03-01

    The present studies cover antibacterial activity of the crude methanolic extracts of 11 medicinal plants viz. Adhatoda vasica, Bauhenia variegate, Bombax ceiba, Carrisa opaca, Caryopteris grata, Debregeasia salicifolia, Lantana camara, Melia azedarach, Phyllanthus emblica, Pinus roxburghii and Olea ferruginea collected from lower Himalayas against two Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus) and two Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aureginosa) bacterial strains. The extracts were applied at four different concentrations (120 mg/mL, 90mg/mL, 60mg/mL and 30mg/mL) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by using agar well diffusion method. Antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus were observed formethanolic extracts of all the above mentioned plants. Greater antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was only exhibited by Phyllanthus emblica, Pinus roxburghii, Debregeasia salicifolia and Lantana camara. Escherichia coli was highly resistant to all the plant extracts at all concentrations. It is inferred that methanolic crude extracts of the above mentioned plantsexhibitantibacterial activities against pathogenic bacteria, which proved the ethnobotanical importance of the selected plants that indigenous people use for cure against various diseases. PMID:25730791

  8. Molecularly imprinted polymers for cleanup and selective extraction of curcuminoids in medicinal herbal extracts.

    PubMed

    Wulandari, Meyliana; Urraca, Javier L; Descalzo, Ana B; Amran, M Bachri; Moreno-Bondi, Maria C

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of novel molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), prepared by a noncovalent imprinting approach, for cleanup and preconcentration of curcumin (CUR) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) from medicinal herbal extracts and further analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). Two molecular mimics, a mixture of reduced BDMCs and 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone (HPB), have been synthesized and applied as templates for MIP synthesis. The polymers were prepared using N-(2-aminoethyl) methacrylamide (EAMA) as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as the cross-linker (in a 1:5 molar ratio), and a mixture of acetonitrile/dimethylsulfoxide (90%, v/v) as porogen. MIPs prepared using a mixture of reduced BDMCs as template showed higher selectivity for CUR and BDMC than those obtained with HPB, with imprinting factors of 3.5 and 2.7 for CUR and BDMC, respectively, using H2O/acetonitrile (65:35, v/v) as mobile phase. The adsorption isotherms for CUR in the MIP and the nonimprinted polymer (NIP) were fitted to the Freundlich isotherm model, and the calculated average binding affinities for CUR were (17??2) and (8??1)?mM(-1) for the MIP and the NIP, respectively. The polymers were packed into solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges, and the optimized molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE-HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FLD) method allowed the extraction of both curcuminoids from aqueous samples (50 mM NH4Ac, pH 8.8) followed by a selective washing with acetonitrile/NH4Ac, 50 mM at pH 8.8 (30:70%, v/v), and elution with 3??1 mL of MeOH. Good recoveries and precision ranging between 87 and 92%, with relative standard deviation (RSD) of <5.3% (n?=?3), were obtained after the preconcentration of 10-mL solutions containing both CUR and BDMC at concentrations in the range of 0-500 ?g L(-1). The optimized method has been applied to the analysis of both curcuminoids in medicinal herbal extracts. PMID:25056874

  9. Ethnogynaecological Assessment of Medicinal Plants in Pashtun's Tribal Society

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Akash; AbdEIsalam, Naser M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to document detailed ethnogynaecological knowledge of selected remote regions of Pashtun's tribe in northwest Pakistan. Semistructured questionnaires were designed to collect ethnogynaecological and ethnographic data. Total of 51 medicinal plants belonging to 36 families were documented that were used by the women of studied regions for the treatment of 9 types of gynaecological complaints. Majority of the plants (19) were found used against menses followed by 11 plants each for gonorrhea and pregnancy. Bannu region has high number of gynaecological plants (22) followed by Karak (15). Women of the regions mostly used whole plants (33%) and leaves (31%) for various ethnomedicinal preparation of gynae. Fic results showed that all ailments in different areas scored high consensus ranges between 0.6 and 1.00. Majority of the female respondents (44%) were aged between 61 and 70 years, of which most were illiterate. Women in the remote regions of Pakistan have tremendous traditional knowledge in utilizing medicinal plants for their reproductive health. Plants with high Fic values should be cross-checked for their in vitro and in vivo validation. Young girls should be educated on the importance of ethnogynaecological practices to conserve this valuable knowledge. PMID:25756042

  10. Investigation of medicinal plants of togo for antiviral and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Anani, K; Hudson, J B; de Souza, C; Akpagana, K; Tower, G H; Arnason, J T; Gbeassor, M

    2000-01-01

    Methanol extracts were prepared from 19 medicinal plants of Togo and, by means of standard laboratory tests, were analysed for antiviral and antibiotic activities. Ten of the 19 showed significant antiviral activity and all but two displayed antibiotic activity. Extracts of three species, Adansonia digitata (the most potent), Conyza aegyptiaca and Palisota hirsuta , were active against all three test viruses (herpes simplex, Sindbis and poliovirus). The other seven, however, were more selective, showing activity against only one or two viruses. The antibiotic profiles varied considerably. The observation that each extract showed a distinctive permutation of target organisms suggests that different bioactive phytochemicals are present in each species. Only two of the extracts were devoid of bioactivity. PMID:21214438

  11. Further iinvestigations on the antiviral activities of medicinal plants of togo.

    PubMed

    Hudson, J B; Anani, K; Lee, M K; de Souza, C; Arnason, J T; Gbeassor, M

    2000-01-01

    Further studies were done on the antiviral activities of 10 species of Togolese medicinal plants, previously shown to possess activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV). The dominant activity in all cases was virucidal (direct inactivation of virus particles), although Adansonia digitata extracts also appeared to have intracellular antiviral activities as well, which could indicate the presence of multiple antiviral compounds, or a single compound with multiple actions. In the seven most active extracts, the anti-HSV activity was considerably enhanced by light, especially UVA (long wavelength UV), although they all showed "dark" antiviral activity as well. Thus, all the extracts contained antiviral photosensitizers. In all tests, the root-bark and leaf extracts of A. digitata were the most potent. PMID:21214439

  12. Gamma amino butyric acid accumulation in medicinal plants without stress

    PubMed Central

    Anju, P.; Moothedath, Ismail; Rema Shree, Azhimala Bhaskaranpillai

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) is an important ubiquitous four carbon nonprotein amino acid with an amino group attached to gamma carbon instead of beta carbon. It exists in different organisms including bacteria, plants, and animals and plays a crucial role in humans by regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. It is directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone and also effective in lowering stress, blood pressure, and hypertension. Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to develop the fingerprint profile of selected medicinally and economically important plants having central nervous system (CNS) activity and to determine the quantity of GABA in the selected plants grown under natural conditions without any added stress. Materials and Methods: The high-performance thin layer chromatography analysis was performed on precoated silica gel plate 60F254 plate (20 cm 10 cm) in the form of bands with width 8 mm using Hamilton syringe (100 ?l) using n-butanol, acetic acid, and water in the proportion 5:2:2 as mobile phase in a CAMAG chamber which was previously saturated for 30 min. CAMAG TLC scanner 3 was used for the densitometric scanning at 550 nm. Specific marker compounds were used for the quantification. Results and Conclusion: Among the screened medicinal plants, Zingiber officinale and Solanum torvum were found to have GABA. The percentage of GABA present in Z. officinale and S. torvum were found to be 0.0114% and 0.0119%, respectively. The present work confirmed that among the selected CNS active medicinal plants, only two plants contain GABA. We found a negative correlation with plant having CNS activity and accumulation of GABA. The GABA shunt is a conserved pathway in eukaryotes and prokaryotes but, although the role of GABA as a neurotransmitter in mammals is clearly established, its role in plants is still vague. PMID:25861139

  13. Insecticidal Activity of Some Traditionally Used Ethiopian Medicinal Plants against Sheep Ked Melophagus ovinus

    PubMed Central

    Mokonnen, Walelegn; Lemma, Hirut; Tadele, Ashenif; Urga, Kelbessa; Addis, Getachew; Debella, Asfaw; Getachew, Mesaye; Teka, Frehiwot; Yirsaw, Kidist; Mudie, Kissi; Gebre, Solomon

    2014-01-01

    Twelve medicinal plants and a commercially used drug Ivermectin were examined for insecticidal activity against Melophagus ovinus sheep ked at different time intervals using in vitro adult immersion test. The findings show that at 3.13?L/mL, 6.25?L/mL and 12.5?L/mL concentration of Cymbopogon citratus, Foeniculum vulgare and Eucalyptus globulus essential oils respectively, recorded 100% mortalities against M. ovinus within 3?hour of exposure. Significantly higher insecticidal activity of essential oils was recorded (P = 0.00) when compared to 10??g/mL Ivermectin after 3-hour exposure of M. ovinus at a concentration of ?1.57??L/mL, ?3??L/mL, and ?12.7??L/mL essential oils of C. citratus, F. vulgare, and E. globulus, respectively. Among essential oils, C. citratus has showed superior potency at a three-hour exposure of the parasite (P = 0.00) at a concentration of ?0.78??L/mL. Strong antiparasitic activity was recorded by aqueous extract of Calpurnia aurea (80% mortality) at a concentration of 200?mg/mL within 24?h among aqueous extracts of 9 medicinal plants. The results indicated all the four medicinal plants, particularly those tested essential oils, can be considered as potential candidates for biocontrol of M. ovinus sheep ked. PMID:24649357

  14. Screening of medicinal plants for induction of somatic segregation activity in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Ramos Ruiz, A; De la Torre, R A; Alonso, N; Villaescusa, A; Betancourt, J; Vizoso, A

    1996-07-01

    Knowledge about mutagenic properties of plants commonly used in traditional medicine is limited. A screening for genotoxic activity was carried out in aqueous or alcoholic extracts prepared from 13 medicinal plants widely used as folk medicine in Cuba: Lepidium virginicum L. (Brassicaceae): Plantago major L. and Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae); Ortosiphon aristatus Blume, Mentha x piperita L., Melissa officinalis L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae); Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae); Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae); Piper auritum HBK. (Piperaceae); Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardeaceae) and Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae). A plate incorporation assay with Aspergillus nidulans was employed, allowing detection of somatic segregation as a result of mitotic crossing-over, chromosome malsegregation or clastogenic effects. Aspergillus nidulans D-30, a well-marked strain carrying four recessive mutations for conidial color in heterozygosity, which permitted the direct visual detection of segregants, was used throughout this study. As a result, only in the aqueous extract of one of the plants screened (Momordica charantia) a statistical significant increase in the frequency of segregant sectors per colony was observed, and consequently, a genotoxic effect is postulated. PMID:8771452

  15. Homoisoflavonoids from the medicinal plant Portulaca oleracea.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jian; Sun, Li-Rong; Zhou, Zhong-Yu; Chen, Yu-Chan; Zhang, Wei-Min; Dai, Hao-Fu; Tan, Jian-Wen

    2012-08-01

    Four homoisoflavonoids named portulacanones A-D, identified as 2'-hydroxy- 5,7-dimethoxy-3-benzyl-chroman-4-one, 2'-hydroxy-5,6,7-trimethoxy-3-benzyl-chroman-4-one, 5,2'-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy-3-benzyl-chroman-4-one, and 5,2'-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-3-benzylidene-chroman-4-one, were isolated from aerial parts of the plant Portulaca oleracea along with nine other known metabolites. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. Portulacanones A-D is the first group of homoisoflavonoids so far reported from the family Portulacaceae. They represent a rare subclass of homoisoflavonoids in nature with a structural feature of a single hydroxyl group substituted at C-2' rather than at C-4' in ring B of the skeleton. Three homoisoflavonoids and the known compound 2,2'-dihydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxychalcone selectively showed in vitro cytotoxic activities towards four human cancer cell lines. Especially 2,2'-dihydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxychalcone showed cytotoxic activity against cell line SGC-7901 with an IC?? value of 1.6 ?g/ml, which was more potent than the reference compound mitomycin C (IC?? 13.0 ?g/ml). PMID:22683318

  16. Enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of traditional medicinal plants: Potential application in the management of hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional Indian and Australian medicinal plant extracts were investigated to determine their therapeutic potential to inhibit key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism, which has relevance to the management of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant activities were also assessed. Methods The evaluation of enzyme inhibitory activity of seven Australian aboriginal medicinal plants and five Indian Ayurvedic plants was carried out against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Antioxidant activity was determined by measuring (i) the scavenging effect of plant extracts against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2′-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) and (ii) ferric reducing power. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were also determined. Results Of the twelve plant extracts evaluated, the highest inhibitory activity against both α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes was exerted by Santalum spicatum and Pterocarpus marsupium with IC50 values of 5.43 μg/ml and 0.9 μg/ml, respectively, and 5.16 μg/ml and 1.06 μg/ml, respectively. However, the extracts of Acacia ligulata (IC50 = 1.01 μg/ml), Beyeria leshnaultii (0.39 μg/ml), Mucuna pruriens (0.8 μg/ml) and Boerhaavia diffusa (1.72 μg/ml) exhibited considerable activity against α-glucosidase enzyme only. The free radical scavenging activity was found to be prominent in extracts of Acacia kempeana, Acacia ligulata followed by Euphorbia drummondii against both DPPH and ABTS. The reducing power was more pronounced in Euphorbia drummondii and Pterocarpus marsupium extracts. The phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 0.42 to 30.27 μg/mg equivalent of gallic acid and 0.51 to 32.94 μg/mg equivalent of quercetin, respectively, in all plant extracts. Pearson’s correlation coefficient between total flavonoids and total phenolics was 0.796. Conclusion The results obtained in this study showed that most of the plant extracts have good potential for the management of hyperglycemia, diabetes and the related condition of oxidative stress. PMID:22713130

  17. Cytotoxic Activity of Some Medicinal Plants from Hamedan District of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Behzad, Sahar; Pirani, Atefeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been investigated for possible anti-cancer effects. The aim of the present study was to examine the cytotoxic activity of several medicinal plants on different tumor cell lines. 11 selected plant species which have been used in folkloric prescriptions were collected from different sites of Hamedan district of Iran. The methanolic extracts of the plants were prepared and their cytotoxic effects on four human cancer cell lines (A549, human lung adenocarcinoma; MCF7, human breast adenocarcinoma; HepG2, hepatocellular carcinoma and HT-29, human colon carcinoma) and one normal cell line (MDBK, bovine kidney) were examined using the MTT assay. Three of these were exhibited antiproliferative activity against one or more of the cell lines. The extract from Primula auriculata demonstrated the highest cytotoxicity with IC50 of 25.79, 35.79 and 43.34 μg.mL−1 against MCF7, HepG2 and HT- 29 cells, respectively. For some of the plants, their traditional use was correlated with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others the results may support the non-cytotoxicity of species used traditionally as natural remedies. The cytotoxic species could be considered as potential of anticancer compounds. PMID:24711847

  18. In vitro and in vivo antidermatophytic activities of some Iranian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Kazemi, Abdolhasan

    2015-11-01

    In the last decades, the number of people suffering from dermatophytoses has seriously increased, which may be due to the development of resistant strains to a range of antifungal drugs. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antidermatophytic properties of eight extracts from the selected spices and herbs, which were ethno-medicinally used in Iran against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton interdigitale, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum (10 strain of each). The in vitro antifungal activities of the extracts from four spices and four plants were evaluated by the broth macro dilution method against four dermatophyte strains. In addition, the in vivo therapeutic effects of Myrtus communis L. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume extracts (the most active extracts) on dermatophytosis induced by M. canis and T. mentagrophytes in guinea pigs were evaluated. Results of in vitro antifungal assay revealed that all the tested extracts demonstrated both fungistatic and fungicidal activities with the geometric mean (GM) MIC ranging from 0.058 to 3.73?mg/ml and GM (MFC) ranging from 0.058 to 7.46?mg/ml, respectively. Two extracts (M. communis and C. zeylanicum) significantly inhibited the growth of all the tested dermatophytes, while other extracts demonstrated weak (MICs of >0.625?mg/ml) to moderate (MICs ranging from 100 to 0.625?mg/ml) activities. In vivo antidermatophytic assay demonstrated that clotrimazole cured T. mentagrophytes and M. canis infection on days 21 and 17, respectively, whereas M. communis and C. zeylanicum extracts significantly (p < 0.05) cured T. mentagrophytes and M. canis infection on days 9 and 13 as well as 9, 11, respectively. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, phenols, and alkaloids in M. communis and alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins in C. zeylanicum. Findings of the present study also provided the scientific evidence that natural plants could be used in traditional medicine for the prevention and treatment of dermatophytic infections. PMID:26092105

  19. Evaluation of traditional Indian antidiabetic medicinal plants for human pancreatic amylase inhibitory effect in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ponnusamy, Sudha; Ravindran, Remya; Zinjarde, Smita; Bhargava, Shobha; Ravi Kumar, Ameeta

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. Eleven Ayurvedic Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for ?-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on pancreatic ?-amylase. Analysis of 91 extracts, showed that 10 exhibited strong Human Pancreatic Amylase (HPA) inhibitory potential. Of these, 6 extracts showed concentration dependent inhibition with IC(50) values, namely, cold and hot water extracts from Ficus bengalensis bark (4.4 and 125??gmL(-1)), Syzygium cumini seeds (42.1 and 4.1??gmL(-1)), isopropanol extracts of Cinnamomum verum leaves (1.0??gmL(-1)) and Curcuma longa rhizome (0.16??gmL(-1)). The other 4 extracts exhibited concentration independent inhibition, namely, methanol extract of Bixa orellana leaves (49??gmL(-1)), isopropanol extract from Murraya koenigii leaves (127??gmL(-1)), acetone extracts from C. longa rhizome (7.4??gmL(-1)) and Tribulus terrestris seeds (511??gmL(-1)). Thus, the probable mechanism of action of the above fractions is due to their inhibitory action on HPA, thereby reducing the rate of starch hydrolysis leading to lowered glucose levels. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, proteins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids as probable inhibitory compounds. PMID:20953430

  20. Evaluation of Traditional Indian Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants for Human Pancreatic Amylase Inhibitory Effect In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ponnusamy, Sudha; Ravindran, Remya; Zinjarde, Smita; Bhargava, Shobha; Ravi Kumar, Ameeta

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. Eleven Ayurvedic Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for ?-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on pancreatic ?-amylase. Analysis of 91 extracts, showed that 10 exhibited strong Human Pancreatic Amylase (HPA) inhibitory potential. Of these, 6 extracts showed concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, namely, cold and hot water extracts from Ficus bengalensis bark (4.4 and 125??gmL?1), Syzygium cumini seeds (42.1 and 4.1??gmL?1), isopropanol extracts of Cinnamomum verum leaves (1.0??gmL?1) and Curcuma longa rhizome (0.16??gmL?1). The other 4 extracts exhibited concentration independent inhibition, namely, methanol extract of Bixa orellana leaves (49??gmL?1), isopropanol extract from Murraya koenigii leaves (127??gmL?1), acetone extracts from C. longa rhizome (7.4??gmL?1) and Tribulus terrestris seeds (511??gmL?1). Thus, the probable mechanism of action of the above fractions is due to their inhibitory action on HPA, thereby reducing the rate of starch hydrolysis leading to lowered glucose levels. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, proteins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids as probable inhibitory compounds. PMID:20953430

  1. The evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging activity of certain Indian medicinal plants in vitro: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2004-01-01

    The plant extracts of 17 commonly used Indian medicinal plants were examined for their possible regulatory effect on nitric oxide (NO) levels using sodium nitroprusside as an NO donor in vitro. Most of the plant extracts tested demonstrated direct scavenging of NO and exhibited significant activity. The potency of scavenging activity was in the following order: Alstonia scholaris > Cynodon dactylon > Morinda citrifolia > Tylophora indica > Tectona grandis > Aegle marmelos (leaf) > Momordica charantia > Phyllanthus niruri > Ocimum sanctum > Tinospora cordifolia (hexane extract) = Coleus ambonicus > Vitex negundo (alcoholic) > T. cordifolia (dichloromethane extract) > T. cordifolia (methanol extract) > Ipomoea digitata > V. negundo (aqueous) > Boerhaavia diffusa > Eugenia jambolana (seed) > T. cordifolia (aqueous extract) > V. negundo (dichloromethane/methanol extract) > Gingko biloba > Picrorrhiza kurroa > A. marmelos (fruit) > Santalum album > E. jambolana (leaf). All the extracts evaluated exhibited a dose-dependent NO scavenging activity. The A. scholaris bark showed its greatest NO scavenging effect of 81.86% at 250 microg/mL, as compared with G. biloba, where 54.9% scavenging was observed at a similar concentration. The present results suggest that these medicinal plants might be potent and novel therapeutic agents for scavenging of NO and the regulation of pathological conditions caused by excessive generation of NO and its oxidation product, peroxynitrite. PMID:15383230

  2. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of medicinal plants used in Northern Peru as antibacterial remedies

    PubMed Central

    Malca-Garca, G.; Glenn, A.; Sharon, D.; Chait, G.; Daz, D.; Pourmand, K.; Jonat, B.; Somogy, S.; Guardado, G.; Aguirre, C.; Chan, R.; Meyer, K.; Kuhlman, A.; Townesmith, A.; Effio-Carbajal, J.; Fras-Fernandez, F.; Benito, M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim The plant species reported here are traditionally used in Northern Peru to treat bacterial infections, often addressed by the local healers as inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of their antibacterial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Materials and methods The antimicrobial activity of ethanolic and water extracts of 141 plant species was determined using a deep-well broth microdilution method on commercially available bacterial strains. Results The ethanolic extracts of 51 species inhibited Escherichia coli, and 114 ethanolic extracts inhibited Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast, only 30 aqueous extracts showed activity against E. coli and 38 extracts against S. aureus. The MIC concentrations were mostly very high and ranged from 0.008 to 256mg/ml, with only 36 species showing inhibitory concentrations of <4mg/ml. The ethanolic extracts exhibited stronger activity and a much broader spectrum of action than the aqueous extracts. Hypericum laricifolium, Hura crepitans, Caesalpinia paipai, Cassia fistula, Hyptis sidifolia, Salvia sp., Banisteriopsis caapi, Miconia salicifolia and Polygonum hydropiperoides showed the lowest MIC values and would be interesting candidates for future research. Conclusions The presence of antibacterial activity could be confirmed in most species used in traditional medicine in Peru which were assayed in this study. However, the MIC for the species employed showed a very large range, and were mostly very high. Nevertheless, traditional knowledge might provide some leads to elucidate potential candidates for future development of new antibiotic agents. PMID:20678568

  3. A brief review on anti diabetic plants: Global distribution, active ingredients, extraction techniques and acting mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chung-Hung; Ngoh, Gek-Cheng; Yusoff, Rozita

    2012-01-01

    A study has been conducted with the aim to provide researchers with general information on anti diabetic extracts based on relevant research articles collected from 34 reliable medical journals. The study showed that Asian and African continents have 56% and 17% share of the worldwide distribution of therapeutic herbal plants, respectively. In Asia, India and China are the leading countries in herbal plants research, and there has been an increase in medicinal research on plants extract for diabetes treatment since 1995 in these regions. The information collected shows that plant leaves are about 20% more favorable for storing active ingredients, as compared to other parts of herbal plants. A brief review on the extraction techniques for the mentioned parts is also included. Furthermore, the acting mechanisms for the anti diabetic activity were described, and the related active ingredients were identified. The findings reveal that most of the anti diabetic research is focused on the alteration of glucose metabolism to prevent diabetes. PMID:22654401

  4. Medicinal plants, human health and biodiversity: a broad review.

    PubMed

    Sen, Tuhinadri; Samanta, Samir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity contributes significantly towards human livelihood and development and thus plays a predominant role in the well being of the global population. According to WHO reports, around 80 % of the global population still relies on botanical drugs; today several medicines owe their origin to medicinal plants. Natural substances have long served as sources of therapeutic drugs, where drugs including digitalis (from foxglove), ergotamine (from contaminated rye), quinine (from cinchona), and salicylates (willow bark) can be cited as some classical examples.Drug discovery from natural sources involve a multifaceted approach combining botanical, phytochemical, biological, and molecular techniques. Accordingly, medicinal-plant-based drug discovery still remains an important area, hitherto unexplored, where a systematic search may definitely provide important leads against various pharmacological targets.Ironically, the potential benefits of plant-based medicines have led to unscientific exploitation of the natural resources, a phenomenon that is being observed globally. This decline in biodiversity is largely the result of the rise in the global population, rapid and sometimes unplanned industrialization, indiscriminate deforestation, overexploitation of natural resources, pollution, and finally global climate change.Therefore, it is of utmost importance that plant biodiversity be preserved, to provide future structural diversity and lead compounds for the sustainable development of human civilization at large. This becomes even more important for developing nations, where well-planned bioprospecting coupled with nondestructive commercialization could help in the conservation of biodiversity, ultimately benefiting mankind in the long run.Based on these findings, the present review is an attempt to update our knowledge about the diverse therapeutic application of different plant products against various pharmacological targets including cancer, human brain, cardiovascular function, microbial infection, inflammation, pain, and many more. PMID:25001990

  5. Screening of Korean medicinal plants for possible osteoclastogenesis effects in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Yu Na; Lim, Erang; Lee, Nari; Kim, Young Seop; Koo, Min Seon

    2007-01-01

    Bone undergoes continuous remodeling through bone formation and resorption, and maintaining the balance for skeletal rigidity. Bone resorption and loss are generally attributed to osteoclasts. Differentiation of osteoclasts is regulated by receptor activator of nuclear factor NF-kB ligand (RANKL), a member of tumor necrosis factor family. When the balance is disturbed, pathological bone abnormality ensues. Through the screening of traditional Korean medicinal plants, the effective molecules for inhibition and stimulation of RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in mouse bone marrow macrophages were identified. Among 222 methanol extracts, of medicinal plants, 10 samples exhibited ability to induce osteoclast differentiation. These include Dryobalanops aromatica, Euphoria longana, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Prunus mume, Prunus nakaii, and Polygonatum odoratum. In contrast, Ailanthus altissima, Curcuma longa, Solanum nigrum, Taraxacum platycarpa, Trichosanthes kirilowii, and Daphne genkwa showed inhibitory effects in RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. PMID:18850234

  6. Plant extracts as potential mosquito larvicides

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anupam; Chowdhury, Nandita; Chandra, Goutam

    2012-01-01

    Mosquitoes act as a vector for most of the life threatening diseases like malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya ferver, filariasis, encephalitis, West Nile Virus infection, etc. Under the Integrated Mosquito Management (IMM), emphasis was given on the application of alternative strategies in mosquito control. The continuous application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance in vector species, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain and adverse effects on environmental quality and non target organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are non-toxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In this article, the current state of knowledge on phytochemical sources and mosquitocidal activity, their mechanism of action on target population, variation of their larvicidal activity according to mosquito species, instar specificity, polarity of solvents used during extraction, nature of active ingredient and promising advances made in biological control of mosquitoes by plant derived secondary metabolites have been reviewed. PMID:22771587

  7. Antioxidant, antiglycation and cytotoxicity evaluation of selected medicinal plants of the Mascarene Islands

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many indigenous plants of Mascarene Islands have been used in folkloric medicine to manage diabetes but few species have received scientific attention. Selected traditional medicinal plants (Antidesma madagascariense Lam. -Euphorbiaceae (AM), Erythroxylum macrocarpum O.E.Schulz -Erythroxylaceae (EM), Pittosporum senacia Putterl -Pittosporaceae (PS), Faujasiopsis flexuosa Lam. C.Jeffrey -Asteraceae (FF), Momordica charantia Linn -Cucurbitaceae (MC) and Ocimum tenuiflorum L -Lamiaceae (OT) were evaluated for their antioxidant, antiglycation and cytotoxic potential in vitro. Methods Graded concentrations (1.25-100 μg/mL) of the crude methanolic and water extracts and fractions (dichloromethane, ethyl-acetate, n-butanol and water) were evaluated for abilities to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide (SO) radicals and to inhibit lipoxygenase and formation of advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) in vitro. The MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazonium bromide) cytotoxicity test was performed on 3T3 cell line. Results Only IC50 for DPPH, SO, NO and lipoxygenase for AM, FF and OT crude extracts and fractions were comparable to ascorbic acid and quercetin activity. Crude aqueous extracts of AM and FF showed IC50 of 4.08 and 3.89 μg/mL respectively for lipoxygenase which was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than quercetin (10.86 ± 0.68 μg/mL). The three crude aqueous extracts of these plants and their n-butanol fractions also showed antiglycation activities (p < 0.05) comparable to aminoguanidine. Increasing concentrations (250-2000 μg/mL) of the six crude extracts (Methanol and water) and their fractions did not inhibit mitochondrial respiration as measured by MTT cytotoxicity assay. Conclusion AM, FF and OT crude extracts and fractions have potent antioxidant and antiglycation properties with no apparent cytotoxicity and might have prophylactic and therapeutic potentials in the management of diabetes and related complications. Our study tends to validate the traditional use of these medicinal herbs and food plants as complementary and alternative medicines. PMID:23020844

  8. Inhibition of Trypanosoma cruzi growth by medical plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Schinella, G R; Tournier, H A; Prieto, J M; Ros, J L; Buschiazzo, H; Zaidenberg, A

    2002-12-01

    This study describes the screening of extracts obtained from 18 plants and two fungi used in the Chinese and Mediterranean traditional medicines on epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. The extracts were tested against epimastigote of T. cruzi Bra C15C2 clone in vitro at 27 degrees C and at a concentration of 250 microg/ml in axenic culture. Angelica dahurica, A. pubescens, A. sinensis, Astragalus membranaceus, Coptis chinensis, Haplophyllum hispanicum, Phellodendron amurense, Poria cocos, Ranunculus sceleratus and Scutellaria baicalensis showed significant effects against the parasite with a percentage of growth inhibition between 20 and 100%. C. chinensis and R. sceleratus showed the greatest activity with IC(50) values of 1.7 microg/ml for C. chinensis and 10.7 microg/ml for R. sceleratus. These activities are greater than that of allopurinol. C. chinesis and R. sceleratus extracts did not show cytotoxic effects on rat polimorphonuclear cells using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and lactic dehydrogenase assays. These results allowed us to suggest that R. sceleratus and C. chinensis could be a source of new compounds clinically active against T. cruzi. PMID:12490214

  9. Antibacterial and quorum sensing regulatory activities of some traditional Eastern-European medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Tolmacheva, Anna A; Rogozhin, Eugene A; Deryabin, Dmitry G

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to screen extracts of twenty Eastern European medicinal plants, using wild-type and reporter Chromobacterium violaceum bioassays, for novel components that target bacterial cells and their quorum sensing (QS) communication systems. Three types of activity and their combinations were revealed: (i) direct antimicrobial growth-inhibitory activity, (ii) non-specific and specific pro-QS activities, (iii) anti-QS activity. Among seven plant extracts showing direct growth-inhibitory activity, the strongest effect was shown by Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (bearberry) leaves. Many plants stimulated violacein production by wild-type C. violaceum ATCC 31532 in a non-specific manner, and only the herb Bidens tripartita (three-lobe beggarticks) contained compounds that mimic acyl-homoserine lactone and operated as a QS agonist. Anti-QS activity was found in eleven plants including Quercus robur (oak) cortex, Betula verrucosa (birch) buds and Eucalyptus viminalis (Manna Gum) leaves. Subsequent statistical analysis showed differences between antimicrobial and anti-QS activities, whereas both activities were defined by phylogenetic position of medical resource plant. Finally, extract from Quercus robur cortex revealed at least two fractions, showing different anti-QS mechanisms. These data confirm that multicomponent anti-infectious mechanisms are used by plants, which may be useful for drug development. PMID:24914718

  10. Medicinal plants and food medicines in the folk traditions of the upper Lucca Province, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pieroni, A

    2000-06-01

    An ethnopharmacobotanical survey of the medicinal plants and food medicines of the northern part of Lucca Province, north-west Tuscany, central Italy, was carried out. The geographical isolation of this area has permitted the survival of a rich folk phytotherapy involving medicinal herbs and also vegetable resources used by locals as food medicine. Among these are the uncommon use of Ballota nigra leaves as a trophic protective; the use of Lilium candidum bulbs as an antiviral to treat shingles (Herpes zoster); Parmelia sp. as a cholagogue; Crocus napolitanus flowers as antiseptic; Prunus laurocerasus drupes as a hypotensive; and the consumption of chestnut flour polenta cooked with new wine as bechic. Many wild gathered greens are eaten raw in salads, or in boiled mixtures, as 'blood cleansing' and 'intestine cleansing' agents. Of particular interest is the persistence of the archaic use of Bryonia dioica root against sciatica, and the use of ritual plant therapeuticals as good omens, or against the 'evil eye.' Over 120 species represent the heritage of the local folk pharmacopoeia in upper Garfagnana. Anthropological and ethnopharmacological considerations of the collected data are also discussed. PMID:10837988

  11. In vitro anti-rotavirus activity of some medicinal plants used in Brazil against diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Gonalves, J L S; Lopes, R C; Oliveira, D B; Costa, S S; Miranda, M M F S; Romanos, M T V; Santos, N S O; Wigg, M D

    2005-07-14

    Acute diarrhea, especially in children, is a very common disease with worldwide distribution and with a significant public health impact. Rotaviruses have been recognized as the major agents of diarrhea in infants and young children in developed as well as developing countries. In Brazil, diarrhea is one of the principal causes of death, mainly in the infant population. To fight diarrhea, traditional Brazilian medicine uses a great variety of plants. In this work, 12 medicinal plant species were screened for simian (SA-11) and human (HCR3) rotaviruses inhibition in vitro. At non-cytotoxic concentrations, the extracts from Artocarpus integrifolia L. (Moraceae) bark (480 microg/ml) and Spondias lutea L. (Anacardiaceae) leaves (160 microg/ml) had antiviral activity against both viruses. They showed inhibition of 99.2% and 97%, respectively, for human rotavirus, and 96.4% and 96.2% for simian rotavirus. The extracts from Myristica fragrans Houtt (Myristicaceae) seeds (160 microg/ml) and Spongias lutea bark (40 microg/ml) inhibited human rotavirus (90% and 82.2% inhibition, respectively), whereas the extracts from Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae) leaves (4 microg/ml) and Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) leaves (8 microg/ml) showed activity only against simian rotavirus (82.2% and 93.8% inhibition, respectively). Our results indicate that the extracts of Artocarpus integrifolia, Myristica fragrans and Spongias lutea can be useful in the treatment of human diarrhea if the etiologic agent is a rotavirus. PMID:15876501

  12. Phytochemicals from traditional medicinal plants used in the treatment of diarrhoea: modes of action and effects on intestinal function.

    PubMed

    Palombo, Enzo A

    2006-09-01

    Medicinal plants have been used as traditional treatments for numerous human diseases for thousands of years. Diarrhoeal diseases continue to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world and there is renewed interest in the discovery of novel compounds that can be used to fight these diseases. Numerous studies have validated the traditional use of antidiarrhoeal medicinal plants by investigating the biological activity of extracts of such plants, which have antispasmodic effects, delay intestinal transit, suppress gut motility, stimulate water adsorption or reduce electrolyte secretion. Of the numerous phytochemicals (such as alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and terpenes) present in active extracts, tannins and flavonoids are thought to be responsible for antidiarrhoeal activity by increasing colonic water and electrolyte reabsorption. Others act by inhibiting intestinal motility. As some of the active ingredients are potentially toxic, there is a need to evaluate the safety of plant preparations. A few clinical trials have evaluated the safety and tolerability of traditional and herbal medicine preparations used to treat diarrhoea and generally indicate that minimal side effects are observed. However, with the increased popularity of plant-derived and herbal medicines in Western society, the benefits and potential dangers of these medicines must be considered. PMID:16619336

  13. A Review on Antiulcer Activity of Few Indian Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Vimala, G.; Gricilda Shoba, F.

    2014-01-01

    Ulcer is a common gastrointestinal disorder which is seen among many people. It is basically an inflamed break in the skin or the mucus membrane lining the alimentary tract. Ulceration occurs when there is a disturbance of the normal equilibrium caused by either enhanced aggression or diminished mucosal resistance. It may be due to the regular usage of drugs, irregular food habits, stress, and so forth. Peptic ulcers are a broad term that includes ulcers of digestive tract in the stomach or the duodenum. The formation of peptic ulcers depends on the presence of acid and peptic activity in gastric juice plus a breakdown in mucosal defenses. A number of synthetic drugs are available to treat ulcers. But these drugs are expensive and are likely to produce more side effects when compared to herbal medicines. The literature revealed that many medicinal plants and polyherbal formulations are used for the treatment of ulcer by various ayurvedic doctors and traditional medicinal practitioners. The ideal aims of treatment of peptic ulcer disease are to relieve pain, heal the ulcer, and delay ulcer recurrence. In this review attempts have been made to know about some medicinal plants which may be used in ayurvedic as well as modern science for the treatment or prevention of peptic ulcer. PMID:24971094

  14. A review on antiulcer activity of few Indian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Vimala, G; Gricilda Shoba, F

    2014-01-01

    Ulcer is a common gastrointestinal disorder which is seen among many people. It is basically an inflamed break in the skin or the mucus membrane lining the alimentary tract. Ulceration occurs when there is a disturbance of the normal equilibrium caused by either enhanced aggression or diminished mucosal resistance. It may be due to the regular usage of drugs, irregular food habits, stress, and so forth. Peptic ulcers are a broad term that includes ulcers of digestive tract in the stomach or the duodenum. The formation of peptic ulcers depends on the presence of acid and peptic activity in gastric juice plus a breakdown in mucosal defenses. A number of synthetic drugs are available to treat ulcers. But these drugs are expensive and are likely to produce more side effects when compared to herbal medicines. The literature revealed that many medicinal plants and polyherbal formulations are used for the treatment of ulcer by various ayurvedic doctors and traditional medicinal practitioners. The ideal aims of treatment of peptic ulcer disease are to relieve pain, heal the ulcer, and delay ulcer recurrence. In this review attempts have been made to know about some medicinal plants which may be used in ayurvedic as well as modern science for the treatment or prevention of peptic ulcer. PMID:24971094

  15. Comparative Evaluation of Antibacterial Efficacy of Six Indian Plant Extracts against Streptococcus Mutans

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Pankaj; Bisht, Dakshina; Sharma, Alosha; Srivastava, Binita; Gupta, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To assess the antimicrobial efficacy of six plant extracts of Indian origin often used as traditional medicine against standard strains of Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of six plant extracts was determined by the agar well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the crude (raw), Organic solvent based, aqueous extracts was determined by the agar well diffusion method. Results: Out of all the six extracts evaluated, organic solvent based and aqueous extracts of all the extracts were found to have variable antimicrobial activities against the oral pathogen. The crude extract of Garlic was the most effective against Streptococcus mutans with the highest zone of inhibition (24.62 mm) followed by the aqueous extract of Amla (19.47mm) and organic solvent based extract of Ginger (18.76 mm). Conclusion: Despite of the fact that the extracts were not pure compounds and antimicrobial results were obtained. This recommends the potency of these extracts. The figment of the derivation of antimicrobial compounds from plants seems lucrative as it will lead to the development of a phytomedicine to act against microbes. PMID:25859526

  16. Screening in mice of some medicinal plants used for analgesic purposes in the state of So Paulo. Part II.

    PubMed

    Costa, M; Di Stasi, L C; Kirizawa, M; Mendaolli, S L; Gomes, C; Trolin, G

    1989-11-01

    Seventeen medicinal plants used popularly in Brazil for their reputed analgesic properties were tested in mice by the writhing and tail flick methods. All extractions were made in 50% aqueous ethanol at low temperatures. The oral dose administered was always 1 g extract/kg. Significant effects in both tests were produced by Lippia alba, Piper abutiloides, Piper cincinnatoris, Piper lindbergii and Tillandsia usneoides. PMID:2615423

  17. Isolation of (-)-avenaciolide as the antifungal and antimycobacterial constituent of a Seimatosporium sp. Endophyte from the medicinal plant Hypericum perforatum .

    PubMed

    Clark, Trevor N; Bishop, Amanda I; McLaughlin, Mark; Calhoun, Larry A; Johnson, John A; Gray, Christopher A

    2014-10-01

    An extract of Seimatosporium sp., an endophyte from the Canadian medicinal plant Hypericum perforatum, exhibited significant antifungal and antimycobacterial activity against Candida albicans and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. Bioassay guided fractionation led to the isolation of (-)-avenaciolide as the only bioactive constituent of the extract. This is the first report of both the antimycobacterial activity of avenaciolide and its isolation from a Seimatosporium sp. fungus. PMID:25522544

  18. Developing the medicinal plants sector in northern India: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Kala, Chandra Prakash; Dhyani, Pitamber Prasad; Sajwan, Bikram Singh

    2006-01-01

    The medicinal properties of plant species have made an outstanding contribution in the origin and evolution of many traditional herbal therapies. These traditional knowledge systems have started to disappear with the passage of time due to scarcity of written documents and relatively low income in these traditions. Over the past few years, however, the medicinal plants have regained a wide recognition due to an escalating faith in herbal medicine in view of its lesser side effects compared to allopathic medicine in addition the necessity of meeting the requirements of medicine for an increasing human population. Through the realization of the continuous erosion of traditional knowledge of plants used for medicine in the past and the renewed interest at the present time, a need existed to review this valuable knowledge of medicinal plants with the purpose of developing medicinal plants sectors across the different states in India. Our major objectives therefore were to explore the potential in medicinal plants resources, to understand the challenges and opportunities with the medicinal plants sector, and also to suggest recommendations based upon the present state of knowledge for the establishment and smooth functioning of the medicinal plants sector along with improving the living standards of the underprivileged communities. The review reveals that northern India harbors a rich diversity of valuable medicinal plants, and attempts are being made at different levels for sustainable utilization of this resource in order to develop the medicinal plants sector.

  19. Native medicinal plants commercialized in Brazil - priorities for conservation.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Joabe Gomes; de Amorim, Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2009-09-01

    A majority of the native medicinal plants that are commercialized in Brazil are harvested from natural populations. In addition to this essentially unrestrained collecting, these plants have been heavily impacted by the cutting and the fragmentation of forest formations throughout the country. Considering the limited availability of natural resources, threats to species diversity, and the necessity of conservation efforts in light of the rapid exhaustion of natural ecosystems, it is becoming exceedingly important to establish conservation priorities. The present work sought to identify the native medicinal plants harvested for industrial purposes and to establish conservation priorities for the species of highest commercial value. To that end, a survey of Brazilian industrial products that use medicinal plants was undertaken in 54 shops in the city of Recife (Pernambuco, NE Brazil). The survey noted information concerning the commercial name of the product, its plant composition and pharmaceutical presentation, therapeutic indications, as well as the laboratory that produced it. Only native species were considered. A total of 74 different native species used to produce more than 300 types of products were encountered in the present survey. Twelve species demonstrated significant versatility (Species which had the highest numbers of different therapeutic indications and body systems), and 58.33% of these plants were trees. Destructive collecting predominates (58.11%), greatly affecting taxa collected exclusively from wild populations (86.49%). The intensive use of exclusively wild species and the destructive harvesting techniques employed in gathering them create serious problems that will threaten the availability of these resources to future generations. PMID:18726244

  20. [Prevention of soil deterioration during cultivation of medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan-ping; Huang, Lu-qi; Jiang, You-xu; Lv, Dong-mei

    2006-05-01

    This paper summarized the aspects of the soil deterioration due to continuous growth of medicinal plants, such as nutrition insufficient, pH variation, harmful salt accumulating, harmful microbe and allelopathic substance increasing, soil physics and chemistry properties variation. And the ways to prevent and rehabilitate the deteriorated soil was indicated, which included anti-adversity species selecting, scientific management such as whorl cropping, nutrient elements supplement, usage of physical methods, nutrient liquid cultivating and VAM inoculating etc. PMID:17048673

  1. Review-An overview of Pistacia integerrima a medicinal plant species: Ethnobotany, biological activities and phytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Yamin; Zia, Muhammad; Qayyum, Abdul

    2015-05-01

    Pistacia integerrima with a common name crab's claw is an ethnobotanically important tree native to Asia. Traditionally plant parts particularly its galls have been utilized for treatment of cough, asthma, dysentery, liver disorders and for snake bite. Plant mainly contains alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and sterols in different parts including leaf, stem, bark, galls and fruit. A number of terpenoids, sterols and phenolic compounds have been isolated from Pistacia integerrima extracts. Plant has many biological activities including anti-microbial, antioxidant, analgesic, cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity due to its chemical constituents. This review covers its traditional ethnomedicinal uses along with progresses in biological and phytochemical evaluation of this medicinally important plant species and aims to serve as foundation for further exploration and utilization. PMID:26004708

  2. Large scale screening of commonly used Iranian traditional medicinal plants against urease activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose of the study H. pylori infection is an important etiologic impetus usually leading to gastric disease and urease enzyme is the most crucial role is to protect the bacteria in the acidic environment of the stomach. Then urease inhibitors would increase sensitivity of the bacteria in acidic medium. Methods 137 Iranian traditional medicinal plants were examined against Jack bean urease activity by Berthelot reaction. Each herb was extracted using 50% aqueous methanol. The more effective extracts were further tested and their IC50 values were determined. Results 37 plants out of the 137 crude extracts revealed strong urease inhibitory activity (more than 70% inhibition against urease activity at 10 mg/ml concentration). Nine of the whole studied plants crude extracts were found as the most effective with IC50 values less than 500 μg/ml including; Rheum ribes, Sambucus ebulus, Pistachia lentiscus, Myrtus communis, Areca catechu, Citrus aurantifolia, Myristica fragrans, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Nicotiana tabacum. Conclusions The most potent urease inhibitory was observed for Sambucus ebulus and Rheum ribes extracts with IC50 values of 57 and 92 μg/ml, respectively. PMID:23351780

  3. Phytochemical Analysis and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Medicinal Plants Gnidia glauca and Dioscorea bulbifera

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sougata; Derle, Abhishek; Ahire, Mehul; More, Piyush; Jagtap, Soham; Phadatare, Suvarna D.; Patil, Ajay B.; Jabgunde, Amit M.; Sharma, Geeta K.; Shinde, Vaishali S.; Pardesi, Karishma; Dhavale, Dilip D.; Chopade, Balu A.

    2013-01-01

    Gnidia glauca and Dioscorea bulbifera are traditional medicinal plants that can be considered as sources of natural antioxidants. Herein we report the phytochemical analysis and free radical scavenging activity of their sequential extracts. Phenolic and flavonoid content were determined. Scavenging activity was checked against pulse radiolysis generated ABTS•+ and OH radical, in addition to DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals by biochemical methods followed by principal component analysis. G. glauca leaf extracts were rich in phenolic and flavonoid content. Ethyl acetate extract of D. bulbifera bulbs and methanol extract of G. glauca stem exhibited excellent scavenging of pulse radiolysis generated ABTS•+ radical with a second order rate constant of 2.33×106 and 1.72×106, respectively. Similarly, methanol extract of G. glauca flower and ethyl acetate extract of D. bulbifera bulb with second order rate constants of 4.48×106 and 4.46×106 were found to be potent scavengers of pulse radiolysis generated OH radical. G. glauca leaf and stem showed excellent reducing activity and free radical scavenging activity. HPTLC fingerprinting, carried out in mobile phase, chloroform: toluene: ethanol (4: 4: 1, v/v) showed presence of florescent compound at 366 nm as well as UV active compound at 254 nm. GC-TOF-MS analysis revealed the predominance of diphenyl sulfone as major compound in G. glauca. Significant levels of n-hexadecanoic acid and octadecanoic acid were also present. Diosgenin (C27H42O3) and diosgenin (3á,25R) acetate were present as major phytoconstituents in the extracts of D. bulbifera. G. glauca and D. bulbifera contain significant amounts of phytochemicals with antioxidative properties that can be exploited as a potential source for herbal remedy for oxidative stress induced diseases. These results rationalize further investigation in the potential discovery of new natural bioactive principles from these two important medicinal plants. PMID:24367520

  4. Phytochemical analysis and free radical scavenging activity of medicinal plants Gnidia glauca and Dioscorea bulbifera.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sougata; Derle, Abhishek; Ahire, Mehul; More, Piyush; Jagtap, Soham; Phadatare, Suvarna D; Patil, Ajay B; Jabgunde, Amit M; Sharma, Geeta K; Shinde, Vaishali S; Pardesi, Karishma; Dhavale, Dilip D; Chopade, Balu A

    2013-01-01

    Gnidia glauca and Dioscorea bulbifera are traditional medicinal plants that can be considered as sources of natural antioxidants. Herein we report the phytochemical analysis and free radical scavenging activity of their sequential extracts. Phenolic and flavonoid content were determined. Scavenging activity was checked against pulse radiolysis generated ABTS(•+) and OH radical, in addition to DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals by biochemical methods followed by principal component analysis. G. glauca leaf extracts were rich in phenolic and flavonoid content. Ethyl acetate extract of D. bulbifera bulbs and methanol extract of G. glauca stem exhibited excellent scavenging of pulse radiolysis generated ABTS(•+) radical with a second order rate constant of 2.33 × 10(6) and 1.72 × 10(6), respectively. Similarly, methanol extract of G. glauca flower and ethyl acetate extract of D. bulbifera bulb with second order rate constants of 4.48 × 10(6) and 4.46 × 10(6) were found to be potent scavengers of pulse radiolysis generated OH radical. G. glauca leaf and stem showed excellent reducing activity and free radical scavenging activity. HPTLC fingerprinting, carried out in mobile phase, chloroform: toluene: ethanol (4: 4: 1, v/v) showed presence of florescent compound at 366 nm as well as UV active compound at 254 nm. GC-TOF-MS analysis revealed the predominance of diphenyl sulfone as major compound in G. glauca. Significant levels of n-hexadecanoic acid and octadecanoic acid were also present. Diosgenin (C₂₇H₄₂O₃) and diosgenin (3á,25R) acetate were present as major phytoconstituents in the extracts of D. bulbifera. G. glauca and D. bulbifera contain significant amounts of phytochemicals with antioxidative properties that can be exploited as a potential source for herbal remedy for oxidative stress induced diseases. These results rationalize further investigation in the potential discovery of new natural bioactive principles from these two important medicinal plants. PMID:24367520

  5. Crop and medicinal plants proteomics in response to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Aghaei, Keyvan; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2013-01-01

    Increasing of world population marks a serious need to create new crop cultivars and medicinal plants with high growth and production at any environmental situations. Among the environmental unfavorable conditions, salinity is the most widespread in the world. Crop production and growth severely decreases under salt stress; however, some crop cultivars show significant tolerance against the negative effects of salinity. Among salt stress responses of crops, proteomic responses play a pivotal role in their ability to cope with it and have become the main center of notification. Many physiological responses are detectable in terms of protein increase and decrease even before physiological responses take place. Thus proteomic approach makes a short cut in the way of inferring how crops response to salt stress. Nowadays many salt-responsive proteins such as heat shock proteins, pathogen-related proteins, protein kinases, ascorbate peroxidase, osmotin, ornithine decarboxylase, and some transcription factors, have been detected in some major crops which are thought to give them the ability of withstanding against salt stress. Proteomic analysis of medicinal plants also revealed that alkaloid biosynthesis related proteins such as tryptophan synthase, codeinone reductase, strictosidine synthase, and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase might have major role in production of secondary metabolites. In this review we are comparing some different or similar proteomic responses of several crops and medicinal plants to salt stress and discuss about the future prospects. PMID:23386857

  6. Crop and medicinal plants proteomics in response to salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Aghaei, Keyvan; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2013-01-01

    Increasing of world population marks a serious need to create new crop cultivars and medicinal plants with high growth and production at any environmental situations. Among the environmental unfavorable conditions, salinity is the most widespread in the world. Crop production and growth severely decreases under salt stress; however, some crop cultivars show significant tolerance against the negative effects of salinity. Among salt stress responses of crops, proteomic responses play a pivotal role in their ability to cope with it and have become the main center of notification. Many physiological responses are detectable in terms of protein increase and decrease even before physiological responses take place. Thus proteomic approach makes a short cut in the way of inferring how crops response to salt stress. Nowadays many salt-responsive proteins such as heat shock proteins, pathogen-related proteins, protein kinases, ascorbate peroxidase, osmotin, ornithine decarboxylase, and some transcription factors, have been detected in some major crops which are thought to give them the ability of withstanding against salt stress. Proteomic analysis of medicinal plants also revealed that alkaloid biosynthesis related proteins such as tryptophan synthase, codeinone reductase, strictosidine synthase, and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase might have major role in production of secondary metabolites. In this review we are comparing some different or similar proteomic responses of several crops and medicinal plants to salt stress and discuss about the future prospects. PMID:23386857

  7. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase or glutamic acid decarboxylase inhibition; a range of monoaminergic effects; and potential cannabinoid receptor modulation. Future research should focus on conducting human clinical trials on the plants reviewed with promising anxiolytic activity. PMID:23436255

  8. Antiplasmodial and GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor binding activities of five plants used in traditional medicine in Mali, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Bah, Sekou; Jger, Anna K; Adsersen, Anne; Diallo, Drissa; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2007-04-01

    Extracts of five medicinal plants: Boscia angustifolia, Cissus quadrangularis, Securidaca longipedunculata, Stylosanthes erecta and Trichilia emetica, used traditionally in Malian traditional medicine were screened for in vitro antiplasmodial activity and GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor binding activity. Four extracts showed significant antiplasmodial activities, with the dichloromethane extract of leaf of Securidaca longipedunculata being the most active (IC(50) of 7 microg/ml [95% CI: 5-9]). The dichloromethane extract of leaf of Trichilia emetica, in addition to its antiplasmodial activity (IC(50): 12 microg/ml [95% CI: 12-14]), exhibited a good binding activity to the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor, while water and methanol extracts of the same plant did not show any activity. A strong GABA(A)-receptor complex binding activity was observed in the methanol extract of aerial part of Stylosanthes erecta. The results in this study justify some of the traditional indications of the plants investigated and may thus be candidates for Improved Traditional Medicines in Mali. PMID:17126508

  9. Elemental investigation of Syrian medicinal plants using PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rihawy, M. S.; Bakraji, E. H.; Aref, S.; Shaban, R.

    2010-09-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique has been employed to perform elemental analysis of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr for Syrian medicinal plants used traditionally to enhance the body immunity. Plant samples were prepared in a simple dried base. The results were verified by comparing with those obtained from both IAEA-359 and IAEA-V10 reference materials. Relative standard deviations are mostly within 5-10% suggest good precision. A correlation between the elemental content in each medicinal plant with its traditional remedial usage has been proposed. Both K and Ca are found to be the major elements in the samples. Fe, Mn and Zn have been detected in good levels in most of these plants clarifying their possible contribution to keep the body immune system in good condition. The contribution of the elements in these plants to the dietary recommended intakes (DRI) has been evaluated. Advantages and limitations of PIXE analytical technique in this investigation have been reviewed.

  10. Studies of the in vitro cytotoxic, antioxidant, lipase inhibitory and antimicrobial activities of selected Thai medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional folk medicinal plants have recently become popular and are widely used for primary health care. Since Thailand has a great diversity of indigenous (medicinal) plant species, this research investigated 52 traditionally used species of Thai medicinal plants for their in vitro cytotoxic, antioxidant, lipase inhibitory and antimicrobial activities. Methods The 55 dried samples, derived from the medicinally used parts of the 52 plant species were sequentially extracted by hexane, dichloromethane, ethanol and water. These 220 extracts were then screened for in vitro (i) cytotoxicity against four cell lines, derived from human lung (A549), breast (MDA-MB-231), cervical (KB3-1) and colon (SW480) cancers, using the MTT cytotoxicity assay; (ii) antioxidant activity, analyzed by measuring the scavenging activity of DPPH radicals; (iii) lipase inhibitory activity, determined from the hydrolytic reaction of p-nitrophenyllaurate with pancreatic lipase; and (iv) antimicrobial activity against three Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria species plus one strain of yeast using the disc-diffusion method and determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration by the broth micro-dilution assay. Results The crude dichloromethane and/or ethanol extracts from four plant species showed an effective in vitro cytotoxic activity against the human cancer cell lines that was broadly similar to that of the specific chemotherapy drugs (etoposide, doxorubicin, vinblastine and oxaliplatin). In particular, this is the first report of the strong in vitro cytotoxic activity of Bauhinia strychnifolia vines. The tested tissue parts of only six plant species (Allium sativum, Cocoloba uvifera, Dolichandrone spathacea, Lumnitzera littorea, Sonneratia alba and Sonneratia caseolaris) showed promising potential antioxidant activity, whereas lipase inhibitory activity was only found in the ethanol extract from Coscinum fenestratum and this was weak at 17-fold lower than Orlistat, a known lipase inhibitor. The highest antimicrobial activity was observed in the extracts from S. alba and S. caseolaris against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans, respectively. Conclusion The Thai medicinal plant B. strychnifolia is first reported to exert strong in vitro cytotoxic activities against human cancer cell lines and warrants further enrichment and characterization. The broad spectrum of the biological activities from the studied plant extracts can be applied as the guideline for the selection of Thai medicinal plant species for further pharmacological and phytochemical investigations. PMID:23145786

  11. Antiprotozoal activity of medicinal plants against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Yi, Yang-Lei; Lu, Cheng; Hu, Xue-Gang; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2012-10-01

    Ichthyophthiriasis is a widespread disease in aquaculture and causes mass mortalities of fish. The development of new antiprotozoal agents for the treatment of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infections is of increasing interest. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of 30 medicinal plants against I. multifiliis. The results showed that the methanol extracts of Magnolia officinalis and Sophora alopecuroides displayed the highest antiprotozoal activity against theronts, with 4-h LC(50) values estimated to be 2.45 and 3.43 mg L(-1), respectively. Concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 mg L(-1) of M. officinalis extracts resulted in tomont mortality of 9.7, 43.7, 91.3, and 100% at 20 h, respectively. From 40 to 320 mg L(-1) of S. alopecuroides extracts, tomont mortality increased from 29.7 to 100%. Antiprotozoal efficacy against settled tomonts (2 and 10 h) was also applied; the results indicated that encysted I. multifiliis tomonts were less susceptible to these plant extract treatments. In vivo experiments demonstrated that high concentrations of M. officinalis and S. alopecuroides extracts could kill tomonts, and M. officinalis significantly reduced its reproduction (P < 0.05). These results suggested that the methanol extracts of M. officinalis and S. alopecuroides have the potential to be used as an eco-friendly approach for the control of I. multifiliis. PMID:22864919

  12. [The plant origins of herbal medicines and their quality evaluation].

    PubMed

    Nishibe, Sansei

    2002-06-01

    The caulis (stem and leaf) of Trachelospermum jasminoides (Lindl.) Lem. (Apocynaceae) is listed as the plant origin of Luoshiteng in the Chinese Pharmacopeia. However, preparations from the caulis of Ficus pumila L. (Moraceae) or Psychotria serpens L. (Rubiaceae) are distributed on the Chinese market. The fruit of Forsythia suspensa Vahl (Oleaceae) is listed as the plant origin of Forsythia Fruit in the Chinese Pharmacopeia, although the fruits of two Forsythia species, F. suspensa and F. viridissima Lindley, are listed as the plant origins in the Japanese Pharmacopeia, and fruits of three Forsythia species, F. viridissima, F. koreana Nakai, and F. suspensa, are listed in the Korean Pharmacopeia. The whole plant of Plantago asiatica L. (Plantaginaceae) is listed as the plant origin of Plantago Herb in the Japanese Phamacopeia, but the whole plants of two Plantago species, P. asiatica and P. depressa Wild, are listed as the plant origins in the Chinese Pharmacopeia. The leaves of two Plantago species, P. lanceolata L. and P. major L., are distributed as Plantain on the European market. Each of these herbal medicines is reviewed based on the differences in plant origins and their quality evaluation from the viewpoints of the morphological properties, chemical components, and biological activities, respectively. PMID:12087774

  13. Ethnobotanical and antimicrobial study of some selected medicinal plants used in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) as a potential source to cure infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Present investigation deals with antimicrobial screening of ten medicinally important plants used by the inhabitants of district Haripur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) for different infectious diseases. Methods Aqueous, n-hexane and ethanolic extracts of each plant were tested for their antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative strains of bacteria, as well as strain of yeast. Agar well diffusion and broth dilution methods were used to determine the antimicrobial activity of different plant extracts. Results The results indicated that all plants exhibited antimicrobial activity against one or more test pathogens. Interestingly, extracts of three plants showed strong and broad spectrum activity as compared to rest of the extracts which demonstrated the moderate activity. On the whole ethanolic extracts exhibited maximum antimicrobial effect than their corresponding aqueous and n-hexane extracts, when compared with standard antibiotics i.e., Streptomycin and Tetracycline. Among various extracts, only ethanloic extract of Azadirachta indica and aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Eucalyptus globulus and Bergenia ciliata and ethanolic extract of Punica granatum were found to have potentially promising activity against test microorganisms. Conclusion Different plant extracts show promising antimicrobial activity justifying their usage in traditional medicines. This study will be continued to identify more plants with potential antimicrobial components. PMID:24708514

  14. Inhibitory potential of some Romanian medicinal plants against enzymes linked to neurodegenerative diseases and their antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    Paun, Gabriela; Neagu, Elena; Albu, Camelia; Radu, Gabriel Lucian

    2015-01-01

    Context: Eryngium planum, Geum urbanum and Cnicus benedictus plants are an endemic botanical from the Romanian used in folk medicine. Objective: The extracts from three Romanian medicinal plants were investigated for their possible neuroprotective potential. Materials and Methods: Within this study, in vitro neuroprotective activity of the extracts of E. planum, G. urbanum, and C. benedictus plants were investigated via inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and tyrosinase (TYR). Total content of phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins, high-performance liquid chromatography profile of the main phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were also determined. Results: Among the tested extracts, the best inhibition of AChE (88.76 5.2%) and TYR (88.5 5.2%) was caused by C. benedictus ethanol (EtOH) extract. The G. urbanum extracts exerted remarkable scavenging effect against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (IC50, 7.8 0.5 ?g/mL aqueous extract, and IC50, 1.3 0.1 ?g/mL EtOH extract, respectively) and reducing power, whereas the EtOH extract of C. benedictus showed high scavenging activity (IC50, 0.609 0.04 mg/mL), also. Conclusion: According to our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates in vitro neuroprotective effects of E. planum, G. urbanum and C. benedictus. PMID:26109755

  15. Antibacterial screening of some Peruvian medicinal plants used in Callera District.

    PubMed

    Kloucek, P; Polesny, Z; Svobodova, B; Vlkova, E; Kokoska, L

    2005-06-01

    Nine ethanol extracts of Brunfelsia grandiflora (Solanaceae), Caesalpinia spinosa (Caesalpiniaceae), Dracontium loretense (Araceae), Equisetum giganteum (Equisetaceae), Maytenus macrocarpa (Celastraceae), Phyllanthus amarus (Euphorbiaceae), Piper aduncum (Piperaceae), Terminalia catappa (Combretaceae), and Uncaria tomentosa (Rubiaceae), medicinal plants traditionally used in Calleria District for treating conditions likely to be associated with microorganisms, were screened for antimicrobial activity against nine bacterial strains using the broth microdilution method. Among the plants tested, Phyllanthus amarus and Terminalia catappa showed the most promising antibacterial properties, inhibiting all of the strains tested with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 0.25 to 16 mg/ml. The extract from aerial part of Piper aduncum was significantly more active against Gram-positive (MICs ranging from 1 to 2 mg/ml) than against Gram-negative bacteria (MICs > 16 mg/ml). PMID:15894143

  16. A study on traditional medicinal plants of Uthapuram, Madurai District, Tamilnadu, South India

    PubMed Central

    Sivasankari, Balayogan; Pitchaimani, Subburaj; Anandharaj, Marimuthu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To record the medicinal plants of Uthapuram Village, Madurai district, Tamilnadu, South India for the first time and the usage of these medicinal plants to remediate the diseases among the peoples. Methods Explorative field trips were made to the village for about twelve months from April 2012 to May 2013 to survey the medicinal plants and collect the information from the villagers. Results From this study 52 species of valuable medicinal plants belonging to 36 families were recorded and their ethnomedicinal values were collected from the village peoples. Conclusion This study focuses the importance, utilization and conservation of the medicinal plants among the people. PMID:24093789

  17. Antileishmanial and antifungal activity of plants used in traditional medicine in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Braga, Fernanda G; Bouzada, Maria Lcia M; Fabri, Rodrigo L; de O Matos, Magnum; Moreira, Francis O; Scio, Elita; Coimbra, Elaine S

    2007-05-01

    The antileishmanial and antifungal activity of 24 methanol extracts from 20 plants, all of them used in the Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious and inflammatory disorders, were evaluated against promastigotes forms of two species of Leishmania (L. amazonensis and L. chagasi) and two yeasts (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans). Among the 20 tested methanolic extracts, those of Vernonia polyanthes was the most active against L. amazonensis (IC(50) of 4 microg/ml), those of Ocimum gratissimum exhibited the best activity against L. chagasi (IC(50) of 71 microg/ml). Concerning antifungical activity, Schinus terebintifolius, O. gratissimum, Cajanus cajan, and Piper aduncum extracts were the most active against C. albicans (MIC of 1.25 mg/ml) whereas Bixa orellana, O. gratissimum and Syzygium cumini exhibited the best activity against C. neoformans (MIC of 0.078 mg/ml). PMID:17234373

  18. Genomics and Evolution in Traditional Medicinal Plants: Road to a Healthier Life

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Da-Cheng; Xiao, Pei-Gen

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants have long been utilized in traditional medicine and ethnomedicine worldwide. This review presents a glimpse of the current status of and future trends in medicinal plant genomics, evolution, and phylogeny. These dynamic fields are at the intersection of phytochemistry and plant biology and are concerned with the evolution mechanisms and systematics of medicinal plant genomes, origin and evolution of the plant genotype and metabolic phenotype, interaction between medicinal plant genomes and their environment, the correlation between genomic diversity and metabolite diversity, and so on. Use of the emerging high-end genomic technologies can be expanded from crop plants to traditional medicinal plants, in order to expedite medicinal plant breeding and transform them into living factories of medicinal compounds. The utility of molecular phylogeny and phylogenomics in predicting chemodiversity and bioprospecting is also highlighted within the context of natural-product-based drug discovery and development. Representative case studies of medicinal plant genome, phylogeny, and evolution are summarized to exemplify the expansion of knowledge pedigree and the paradigm shift to the omics-based approaches, which update our awareness about plant genome evolution and enable the molecular breeding of medicinal plants and the sustainable utilization of plant pharmaceutical resources. PMID:26461812

  19. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants in Jeju Island, Korea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aims to analyze and record orally transmitted knowledge of medicinal plants from the indigenous people living in Hallasan National Park of Korea. Methods Data was collected through the participatory rural appraisal method involving interviews, informal meetings, open and group discussions, and overt observations with semi-structured questionnaires. Results In this study, a total of 68 families, 141 genera, and 171 species of plants that showed 777 ways of usage were recorded. Looking into the distribution of the families, 14 species of Asteraceae occupied 11.1% of the total followed by 13 species of Rosaceae, 10 species of Rutaceae, and nine species of Apiaceae which occupied 5.0%, 7.1% and 3.0% of the whole, respectively. 32 kinds of plant-parts were used for 47 various medicinal purposes. Values for the informant consensus factor regarding the ailment categories were for birth related disorders (0.92), followed by respiratory system disorders (0.90), skin disease and disorders (0.89), genitourinary system disorders (0.87), physical pain (0.87), and other conditions. According to fidelity levels, 36 plant species resulted in fidelity levels of 100%. Conclusion Consequently, results of this study will legally utilize to provide preparatory measures against the Nagoya Protocol (2010) about benefit-sharing for traditional knowledge of genetic resources. PMID:23837693

  20. Potent Antiproliferative Effect on Liver Cancer of Medicinal Plants Selected from the Thai/Lanna Medicinal Plant Recipe Database “MANOSROI III”

    PubMed Central

    Manosroi, Aranya; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Kitdamrongtham, Worapong; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2015-01-01

    Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipes have been used for the treatment of several diseases including liver cancer. In this study, methanolic extracts (MEs) of 23 plants were tested for antiproliferative activity on human hepatoma cell line (Hep G2) by the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Nine MEs with potent antiproliferative activity (IC50 < 100 µg/mL) were obtained and further semipurified by liquid/liquid partition extraction. The semipurified fractions were tested for the antiproliferative and antioxidative activities. ME of Stemona collinsae and the semipurified extract and methanol-water fraction (MF) of Gloriosa superba gave the highest antiproliferative activity on HepG2 which were 4.79- and 50.07-fold cisplatin, respectively. The semipurified fractions showed an increased antiproliferative activity. MF of Caesalpinia sappan and HF of Senna alata showed the highest free radical scavenging and metal chelating activities, respectively. The compound in n-hexane fraction (HF) of Ventilago denticulata which showed an increase in antiproliferative activity comparing to its ME was isolated and identified as emodin. This study has demonstrated the potential of the ME from S. collinsae, MF from G. superba, and emodin isolated from V. denticulata, for further development as an antiliver cancer agent. PMID:26136809

  1. Potent Antiproliferative Effect on Liver Cancer of Medicinal Plants Selected from the Thai/Lanna Medicinal Plant Recipe Database "MANOSROI III".

    PubMed

    Manosroi, Aranya; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Kitdamrongtham, Worapong; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2015-01-01

    Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipes have been used for the treatment of several diseases including liver cancer. In this study, methanolic extracts (MEs) of 23 plants were tested for antiproliferative activity on human hepatoma cell line (Hep G2) by the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Nine MEs with potent antiproliferative activity (IC50 < 100 µg/mL) were obtained and further semipurified by liquid/liquid partition extraction. The semipurified fractions were tested for the antiproliferative and antioxidative activities. ME of Stemona collinsae and the semipurified extract and methanol-water fraction (MF) of Gloriosa superba gave the highest antiproliferative activity on HepG2 which were 4.79- and 50.07-fold cisplatin, respectively. The semipurified fractions showed an increased antiproliferative activity. MF of Caesalpinia sappan and HF of Senna alata showed the highest free radical scavenging and metal chelating activities, respectively. The compound in n-hexane fraction (HF) of Ventilago denticulata which showed an increase in antiproliferative activity comparing to its ME was isolated and identified as emodin. This study has demonstrated the potential of the ME from S. collinsae, MF from G. superba, and emodin isolated from V. denticulata, for further development as an antiliver cancer agent. PMID:26136809

  2. Rapid Identification and Verification of Indirubin-Containing Medicinal Plants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhigang; Tu, Yuan; Xia, Ye; Cheng, Peipei; Sun, Wei; Shi, Yuhua; Guo, Licheng; He, Haibo; Xiong, Chao; Chen, Shilin; Zhang, Xiuqiao

    2015-01-01

    Indirubin, one of the key components of medicinal plants including Isatis tinctoria, Polygonum tinctorium, and Strobilanthes cusia, possesses great medicinal efficacy in the treatment of chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML). Due to misidentification and similar name, materials containing indirubin and their close relatives frequently fall prey to adulteration. In this study, we selected an internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) for distinguishing these indirubin-containing species from five of their usual adulterants, after assessing identification efficiency of matK, rbcL, psbA-trnH, and ITS2 among these species. The results of genetic distances and neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree indicated that ITS2 region is a powerful DNA barcode to accurately identify these indirubin-containing spec