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1

Pressurized liquid extraction of medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) in medicinal plant analysis was investigated. PLE extracts from a selection of representative herbs were compared with extracts obtained according to Pharmacopoeia monographs with respect to yield of relevant plant constituents, extraction time and solvent consumption. In all cases a significant economy in time and solvents was realized, while extraction yields of the

Björn Benthin; Henning Danz; Matthias Hamburger

1999-01-01

2

Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibacterial activity of hot aqueous and methanolic extracts prepared from six plants (Terminallia chebula, Terminallia bellerica, Phyllanthus emblica, Punica granatum, Lawsonia alba and Mikania micrantha) used in traditional folk medicines of India were screened against five pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 2940, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 441, Escherichia coli MTCC 739, Proteus vulgaris MTCC 426 and Enterobacter aerogenes MTCC 111). The

Anupam Ghosh; Bidus Kanti Das; Arup Roy; Biplab Mandal; Goutam Chandra

2008-01-01

3

Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts  

PubMed Central

To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6?mg?mL?1). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5?mg?mL?1) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3?mg?mL?1) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08?mg?mL?1) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

Uddin, Shaikh J.; Grice, I. Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

2011-01-01

4

Antibacterial activity of northern Ontario medicinal plant extracts  

E-print Network

Antibacterial activity of northern Ontario medicinal plant extracts Haider M. Hassan1 , Zi. and Qin, W. 2014. Antibacterial activity of northern Ontario medicinal plant extracts. Can. J. Plant Sci strumarium L. medicinal plants was analyzed through the hole-plate diffusion, minimum inhibitory

Qin, Wensheng

5

Screening of medicinal plant extracts for antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanol extracts of nine medicinal plants traditionally used in Chinese medicine were screened for antioxidant activity versus resveratrol, which has been shown to protect cells from oxidative damage [Toxicol. Lett. 102 (1998) 5]. Most of the plant extracts used in this study inhibited the H2O2-induced apoptosis of Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4) cells. The extracts of Areca catechu var.

Si Eun Lee; Hyun Jin Hwang; Jung-Sun Ha; Han-Seung Jeong; Jeong Hee Kim

2003-01-01

6

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC AND ACETONE EXTRACT OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN INDIAN FOLKLORE MEDICINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibacterial study of methanolic and acetone extracts of crude and treated (with 50 % lead acetate) extracts of medicinal plants viz, Alstonia scholaris Linn. R.Br. (Stem bark, Apocynaceae), Achyranthus aspera Linn. (Whole plant, Acantheceae), Moringa oleifera Lam. (Leaves, Morinaceae), Tinospora cordifolia (Stem, Menispermaceae), and Enicostema hyssopifolium (Willd) (Stem, Gentianaceae) was carried out. Extractive values in methanol were found to be

J. P. Patel

2010-01-01

7

The antinociceptive effect of some Egyptian medicinal plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antinociceptive effect of methanolic extracts (200 and 400mgkg?1) of eight Egyptian medicinal plants was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-flick test in mice. Oral administration of 400mgkg?1 methanolic extracts of Convolvulus fatmensis, Alhagi maurorum, Plantago major seeds, Conyza dioscaridis significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the nociception to acetic acid-induced writhes with a protection of 85.5–61.3%. Schouwia thebaica, Diplotaxis

A. H. Atta; K. Abo EL-Sooud

2004-01-01

8

Screening of Korean Medicinal Plant Extracts for ?-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities  

PubMed Central

Glycosidases are the enzymes involved in various biochemical processes related to metabolic disorders and diseases. Therefore, much effort has been focused on searching novel pharmacotherapy for the treatment of these ailments from medicinal plants due to higher safety margins. To pursue these efforts, the present study was performed to evaluate the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities of thirty Korean medicinal plant extracts. Among the plants studied, Euonymus sachalinensis, Rhododendron schlippenbachii, Astilbe chinensis and Juglans regia showed the strongest ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 10, 20, 30 and 80 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, Meliosma oldhamii and Symplocos chinensis showed moderate ?-glucosidase inhibition with IC50 values of 150 and 220 µg/mL, respectively. Therefore, they might prove to be a potential natural source for the treatment of metabolic ailments such as, diabetes, and need further investigations. PMID:24250352

Sancheti, Shruti; Sancheti, Sandesh; Lee, Seung-Hun; Lee, Jae-Eun; Seo, Sung-Yum

2011-01-01

9

Cytotoxic activity screening of Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

The cytotoxic activity of 23 crude methanol extracts from 19 Bangladeshi medicinal plants was investigated against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3), healthy monkey kidney (VERO) and four human cancer cell lines (gastric, AGS; colon, HT-29; and breast, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using MTT assay. High cytotoxicity across all cell lines tested was exhibited by Aegiceras corniculatum (fruit) and Hymenodictyon excelsum (bark) extracts (IC50 values ranging from 0.0005 to 0.9980 and 0.08 to 0.44 mg/mL, respectively). Fourteen extracts from 11 plant species, namely Clitoria ternatea (flower and leaf), Dillenia indica (leaf), Diospyros peregrina (leaf), Dipterocarpus turbinatus (bark and leaf), Ecbolium viride (leaf), Glinus oppositifolius (whole plant), Gnaphalium luteoalbum (leaf), Jasminum sambac (leaf), Lannea coromandelica (bark and leaf), Mussaenda glabrata (leaf) and Saraca asoca (leaf), were also significantly cytotoxic (IC50 < 1.0 mg/mL) against at least one of the cancer cell lines tested. More selectively, Avicennia alba (leaf), C. ternatea (flower and leaf), Caesalpinia pulcherrima (leaf), E. viride (leaf) and G. oppositifolius (whole plant) showed cytotoxicity only against both of the breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). In contrast, C. ternatea (flower and leaf) exhibited high cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 (IC50 values of 0.11 and 0.49 mg/mL, respectively), whereas E. viride and G. oppositifolius whole plant extracts exhibited high activity against MCF-7 cells (IC50 values of 0.06 and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively). The cytotoxic activity test results for 9 of the plant species correlate with their traditional use as anticancer agents, thus making them interesting sources for further drug development. PMID:23846168

Akter, Raushanara; Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

2014-01-01

10

[Uterotonic action of extracts from a group of medicinal plants].  

PubMed

Water extracts (infusions) from a group of medicinal plants were studied in terms of their activity enhancing the uterine tonus in a series of experiments with a preparation of an isolated rabbit and guinea pig uterine horn. In a final extract concentration of 1 to 2 mg crude drug per 1 cm3 the plants ranked in the following descending order with regard to their tonus-raising effect on the uterus: camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), potmarigold calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) cockscomb (Celosia cristata L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata L. et Plantago major L.), symphytum (Symphytum officinale L.), shepherdspurse (Capsella bursa pastoris L.), St.-John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.). No effect showed the infusions of flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) and bearberry leaves (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L.). The combined preparation 'Antiinflamin', consisting of a pooled freeze-dried extract from three plants and chemotherapeutic agents produced a good enhancing effect, in the form of 'comprets' for intrauterine application at the rate of one compret per 2500 cm3. PMID:7314446

Shipochliev, T

1981-01-01

11

Anti-HIV-1 efficacy of extracts from medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The anti-HIV-1 activities of butanol, hexane, chloroform and water extracts from four widely used folk medicinal plants (Sophora flavescens, Tulipa edulis, Herba ephedra, and Pachyma hoelen Rumph) were evaluated in this study. The hexane extract of Pachyma hoelen Rumph, PH-4, showed effective inhibition against HIV-1. The 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) of PH-4 was 37.3 microg/ml in the p24 antigen assay and 36.8% in the HIV-1 recombinant RT activity test (at 200 microg/ml). In addition, the PH-4 showed the protective effect on the infected MT-4 cells, with a 58.2% rate of protection. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC(50)) of PH-4 was 100.6 microg/ml. These results suggest that PH-4 from Pachyma hoelen Rumph might be the candidate for the chemotherapy agent against HIV-1 infection with further study. PMID:20437159

Lee, Su-A; Hong, Seong-Karp; Suh, Chang-Il; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Park, Jeong-Ho; Choi, Byoung-Wook; Park, Seung-Won; Paik, Soon-Young

2010-04-01

12

Antidiarrhoeal activity of some Egyptian medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

The antidiarrhoeal activity of six Egyptian medicinal plant extracts (200 and 400 mg kg(-1)) and their effect on motility of isolated rabbit's duodenum was investigated. Phytochemical screening of the plant extracts for their active constituents was also carried out by TLC. Oral administration of methanol extract from Conyza dioscoridis (CD) or Alhagi maurorum (AM) in a 200 mg kg(-1) dose exhibits a significant antidiarrhoeal effect against castor oil-induced diarrhoea, while Mentha microphylla (MM), Convolvulus arvensis (CA), Conyza linifolia (CL) produced no significant effect. In a dose of 400 mg kg(-1), Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscoridis, Alhagi maurorum, Zygophyllum album (ZA), and Conyza linifolia produced a significant (P<0.01) effect, while Convolvulus arvensis produced no antidiarrhoeal effect in rats. Methanol extract of Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscoridis, Zygophyllum album, and Convolvulus arvensis induced a dose-dependent (0.4-2.8 mg ml(-1)) relaxation of rabbit's duodenal smooth muscle. Alhagi maurorum and Conyza linifolia increased the contractile force in concentrations between 0.4 and 1.6 mg ml(-1). Higher concentrations (>3.2 mg ml(-1)) caused a rapid depressant effect. The depressant effect induced by Alhagi maurorum (in a higher dose) and Zygophyllum album appeared to be due to calcium channel blocking effect, since CaCl(2) could not restore the contractile response of the tissue impregnated in calcium free-medium. However, a ganglionic blocking effect appeared to be a possible mechanism of action of Mentha microphylla and Conyza dioscoridis since a stimulant dose of nicotine could not restore the contractile response of the tissue. The effect of Convolvulus arvensis and Conyza linifolia was not through any of the common mediators. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, unsaturated sterols/triterpenes, carbohydrates, lactones and proteins/amino acids as major constituents. PMID:15138016

Atta, Attia H; Mouneir, Samar M

2004-06-01

13

Antimicrobial Activities of Various Medicinal and Commercial Plant Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial activities of the alcohol, ethyl acetate, acetone and chloroform extracts of 5 plant species were studied. The extracts of Pimpinella anisum (L.) (anise, aniseed) (seed), Coriandrum sativum (L.) (coriander, cilantro) (seed), Glycyrrhiza glabra (L.) (liquorice) (root), Cinnamomum cassia Blume (cassia bark, Chinese cinnamon) (bark), and Juniperus oxycedrus (L.) (juniper) (seed) were tested in vitro against 13 bacterial species

D. Ayfer; Özlem Turgay ERDO

14

Antioxidant activity of some algerian medicinal plants extracts containing phenolic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytochemicals are extensively found at different levels in many medicinal plants. This work had two objectives: the first, to evaluate the total phenolic or flavonoid contents of 11 Algerian medicinal plants and second, to determine whether these compounds have an antioxidant capacity toward free radical propagation. The polyphenolic extractions of the dried powdered samples have been performed using 70% ethanol.

A. Djeridane; M. Yousfi; B. Nadjemi; D. Boutassouna; P. Stocker; N. Vidal

2006-01-01

15

Cytotoxicity screening of Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts on pancreatic cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There has been a long standing interest in the identification of medicinal plants and derived natural products for developing cancer therapeutics. Our study focuses upon pancreatic cancer, due to its high mortality rate, that is attributed in part to the lack of an effective chemotherapeutic agent. Previous reports on the use of medicinal plant extracts either alone or alongside

Sherine George; Siddharth V Bhalerao; Erich A Lidstone; Irfan S Ahmad; Atiya Abbasi; Brian T Cunningham; Kenneth L Watkin

2010-01-01

16

Antimalarial activity of crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants.  

PubMed

An ethnobotanical study was conducted in Comores (Ngazidja) about plant species used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases, including malaria. Antimalarial activity of 76 vegetal extracts obtained from 17 species traditionally used to treat malaria symptoms, was evaluated in vitro using Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistant strain (W2). Antiproliferative activity was evaluated on human monocytic THP1 cells and the selectivity index of the plant extracts was calculated. The results showed that 10 plant extracts had a moderate activity (5extract of Flueggea virosa (Roxb. Ex Willd.) Voigt subsp. virosa (Euphorbiaceae) (IC(50)=2 microg/ml), for roots decoction of Flueggea virosa (IC(50)=3 microg/ml) and for chloromethylenic roots extract of Vernonia colorata (Willd.) Drake subsp. grandis (DC.) C. Jeffrey (Asteraceae) (IC(50)=3 microg/ml). Three other extracts showed moderate antiplasmodial activity (IC(50)<5 microg/ml): Vernonia colorata (aerial part), Piper capense L.f. (Piperaceae), and Leptadenia madagascariensis Decne (Asclepiadaceae) chloromethylenic extracts (IC(50)=6 microg/ml; 7 microg/ml and 9 microg/ml, respectively). All the plants tested displayed a low cytotoxicity on THP1 cells. PMID:18093769

Kaou, Ali Mohamed; Mahiou-Leddet, Valérie; Hutter, Sébastien; Aïnouddine, Sidi; Hassani, Said; Yahaya, Ibrahim; Azas, Nadine; Ollivier, Evelyne

2008-02-28

17

Antimutagenic activity of methanolic extracts of four ayurvedic medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Methanolic extracts of Acorus calamus (Rhizome), Hemidesmus indicus (Stem), Holarrhena antidysenterica (Bark) and Plumbago zeylanica (Root), were tested for their antimutagenic potential. These extracts, at tested concentrations, showed no sign of mutagenicity to Salmonella typhimurium tester strains. The extracts of the plants exhibited varying level of antimutagenicity. At a dose of 100 microg/plate, the extracts exhibited the inhibition of His+ revertants from 18.51% to 82.66% against direct acting mutagens, methyl methanesulphonate (MMS) and sodium azide (NaN3) induced mutagenicity in Salmonella tester strains TA 97a, TA 100, TA 102 and TA 104. However, at lower concentrations (25 and 50 mcirog/plate) of the plant extracts, a decrease in antimutagenic activity was recorded. Dose dependent antimutagenic activity of the extracts is also evident from linear regression analysis of the data. The over all antimutagenic potential of above four extracts was found to be in order of A. calamus > H. indicus > H. antidysenterica > P. zeylanica. Further, total phenolic content of these extracts did not correlate with its antimutagenic activity in A. calamus and P. zeylanica. PMID:18949897

Aqil, Farrukh; Zahin, Maryam; Ahmad, Iqbal

2008-09-01

18

Antitumor and antiviral activity of Colombian medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

Extracts of nine species of plants traditionally used in Colombia for the treatment of a variety of diseases were tested in vitro for their potential antitumor (cytotoxicity) and antiherpetic activity. MTT (Tetrazolium blue) and Neutral Red colorimetric assays were used to evaluate the reduction of viability of cell cultures in presence and absence of the extracts. MTT was also used to evaluate the effects of the extracts on the lytic activity of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) and the 50% inhibitory concentration of the viral effect (EC50) for each extract were calculated by linear regression analysis. Extracts from Annona muricata, A. cherimolia and Rollinia membranacea, known for their cytotoxicity were used as positive controls. Likewise, acyclovir and heparin were used as positive controls of antiherpetic activity. Methanolic extract from Annona sp. on HEp-2 cells presented a CC50 value at 72 hr of 49.6x10(3)mg/ml. Neither of the other extracts examined showed a significant cytotoxicity. The aqueous extract from Beta vulgaris, the ethanol extract from Callisia grasilis and the methanol extract Annona sp. showed some antiherpetic activity with acceptable therapeutic indexes (the ratio of CC50 to EC50). These species are good candidates for further activity-monitored fractionation to identify active principles. PMID:10446015

Betancur-Galvis, L; Saez, J; Granados, H; Salazar, A; Ossa, J

1999-01-01

19

POSTER PRESENTATION Open Access Extracts from medicinal plants inhibit cancer cell  

E-print Network

POSTER PRESENTATION Open Access Extracts from medicinal plants inhibit cancer cell proliferation Washington DC, USA. 28-30 May 2014 Background For thousands of years natural products, especially plants neurodegenerative diseases. It has been shown that consumption of plants and vegetables have a direct influence

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

20

Insecticidal and larvicidal activities of medicinal plant extracts against mosquitoes.  

PubMed

In recent years, use of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed attention as agents for vector control because they are rich in bioactive chemicals, active against a limited number of species including specific target insects, and biodegradable. The present study was carried out to evaluate the adulticidal, repellent, and larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of eight plants, viz. Aristolochia indica L., Cassia angustifolia Vahl, Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb., Dolichos biflorus L., Gymnema sylvestre (Retz) Schult, Justicia procumbens L., Mimosa pudica L., and Zingiber zerumbet L., were tested against adult and early fourth instar larvae of Culex gelidus Theobald and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The effective adult mortality was observed in methanol extract of A. indica, ethyl acetate extract of D. biflorus, and ethyl acetate and hexane extract of Z. zerumbet against C. gelidus and C. quinquefasciatus (LD(50)?=37.75, 78.56, 129.44, 86.13, 80.06, 112.42, 53.83, and 46.61; LD(90)?=166.83, 379.14, 521.50, 289.83, 328.18, 455.72, 181.15, and 354.50 ppm, respectively). Complete protections for 150 min were found in hexane and methanol extract of A. indica and Z. zerumbet at 1,000 ppm against mosquito bites. The highest larval mortality was found in the hexane extract of Z. zerumbet, ethyl acetate extract of D. biflorus, and methanol extracts of A. indica against C. gelidus (LC(50)?=26.48, 33.02, and 12.47 ppm; LC(90)?=127.73, 128.79, and 62.33 ppm) and against C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50)?=69.18, 34.76, and 25.60 ppm; LC(90)?=324.40, 172.78, and 105.52 ppm), respectively, after 24 h. The plant extracts are potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the Japanese encephalitis vector, C. gelidus, and lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:20689968

Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Mahapatra, Anita; Bagavan, Asokan; Elango, Gandhi

2010-11-01

21

Cytotoxic Properties of Some Medicinal Plant Extracts from Mazandaran, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background It was shown that plants derived agents are being used for treatment of cancer. In this study, crude ethanolic extract of Consolida orientalis L., Ferula assa-foetida L., Coronilla varia L., Orobanche orientalis G. Beck were screened in vitro for cytotoxic activity on Hela (Human cervical carcinoma) cell line. Objectives We performed the present study to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of four plant extracts that we gathered from north of Iran, Mazandaran Materials and Methods Hela cells were treated with various concentrations of individual samples (0.0312, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 mg/ml) for 72 hours. Cell proliferation measured by MTT assay. Results Result from the performed assay showed that ethanolic extract of Consolida orientalis L., Ferula assa-foetida L., Coronilla varia L. has more significant cytotoxicity effect on Hela cell line than Orobanche orientalis G. Beck. Conclusions Extracts of the Consolida orientalis L., Ferula assa-foetida L., Coronilla varia L. could be considered as potential sources of anticancer compounds but further studies are necessary for isolation and identification of biologically active substances. PMID:24719689

Nemati, Farkhondeh; Dehpouri, Abbas Ali; Eslami, Bahman; Mahdavi, Vahid; Mirzanejad, Sepideh

2013-01-01

22

Genotoxicity, cytotoxicity and toxicological evaluation of whole plant extracts of the medicinal plant Phyllanthus niruri (Phyllanthaceae).  

PubMed

Phyllanthus niruri is a medicinal plant (commonly known as stone breaker) found in the tropics and other parts of the world. It is known for its capacity to block the formation of calcium oxalate crystals and kidney stone formation in urolithiasis. This plant has been used to treat hyperglycemia, hypertension, pain, and mild cases of malaria. We examined the geno-, cyto- and overall toxicity of P. niruri whole plant ethanolic extract. The extract was administered as a single dose of 30 or 300 mg/kg to laboratory rats by gavage, accompanied by negative (0.9% saline) and positive (10 mg/mL N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea) controls that were injected intramuscularly 48 h after extract administration. The ratio of polychromatic (PCE)/normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) from femur bone marrow was scored for genotoxicity. Cytotoxicity was determined using descending concentrations (0.2-0.0125 g/mL) of the extract incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Lactate dehydrogenase release from damaged cells was determined and the CC(50) calculated. Subchronic administration of the extract at 30 or 300 mg/kg was done for 90 days to determine general toxicity. PCE:NCE (%) for the extract and negative control was 63, compared to 168 (positive control). The CC(50) was 26.3 mg/mL and hepato-renal toxicity after subchronic extract administration was nil. We conclude that ethanol extract of P. niruri is not cytotoxic or genotoxic, and is generally non-toxic on subchronic administration. PMID:22290470

Asare, G A; Bugyei, K; Sittie, A; Yahaya, E S; Gyan, B; Adjei, S; Addo, P; Wiredu, E K; Adjei, D N; Nyarko, A K

2012-01-01

23

Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of 12 medicinal and aromatic plants were investigated for their radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays: Salvia sclarea, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia pratensis, Lavandula angustifolia, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Echinacea purpurea, Rhaponticum carthamoides, Juglans regia, Melilotus officinalis, Geranium macrorrhizum and Potentilla fruticosa. Salvia officinalis was used as a reference plant with well documented antioxidant activity. G. macrorrhizum and

G. Miliauskas; P. R. Venskutonis; T. A. van Beek

2004-01-01

24

Antiplasmodial activity of extracts from seven medicinal plants used in malaria treatment in Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studyIn a search for new plant-derived biologically active compounds against malaria parasites, we have carried out an ethnopharmacological study to evaluate the susceptibility of cultured Plasmodium falciparum to extracts and fractions from seven Cameroonian medicinal plants used in malaria treatment. We have also explored the inhibition of the Plasmodium falciparum cysteine protease Falcipain-2.

Fabrice Fekam Boyom; Eugénie Madiesse Kemgne; Roselyne Tepongning; Vincent Ngouana; Wilfred Fon Mbacham; Etienne Tsamo; Paul Henri Amvam Zollo; Jiri Gut; Philip J. Rosenthal

2009-01-01

25

Seaweed extracts control the leaf spot disease of the medicinal plant Gymnema sylvestre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Antimicrobial screening ,of 12 ,different seaweeds,extracts ,namely Chaetomorpha antennina, Dictyota dichotoma, Enteromorpha flexuosa, Laurencia obtusa, Gracilaria corticata, Gracilaria verrucosa, Grateloupia lithophila, Padina boergesenii, Sargassum wightii, Turbinaria conoides, Halimeda tuna and Ulva lactuca was carried out in vitro. The crude,extracts were,tested against,the ,phytopathogenic ,bacterium- Pseudomonas,syringae causing,leaf spot disease,of the,medicinal ,plant ,Gymnema ,sylvestre.,The methanolic,extracts of Sargassum ,wightii showed maximum,activity followed ,by

Chinnadurai Sreenath Kumar; Dronamraju V. L. Sarada; Ramasamy Rengasamy

26

Cytotoxic activities of selected medicinal plants from Iran and phytochemical evaluation of the most potent extract  

PubMed Central

Methanolic extract of 15 Iranian medicinal plants were prepared and tested for their cytotoxic activities against three cancer cell lines (MCF7, HepG2, WEHI164) and one normal cell line (MDBK). Some plants showed cytotoxic activities. The extract of Ferula szowitsiana root, which proved to be the most active, was chosen for further phytochemical studies. The major compounds of the most potent acetone extract were isolated. They were identified as chimgin and chimganin, two known monoterpenoids, by spectroscopic means. Their cytotoxic activity was evaluated in three cell lines. The results show that these compounds are responsible, at least in part, for the cytotoxic activity of this plant. PMID:21589808

Sahranavard, S.; Naghibi, F.; Mosaddegh, M.; Esmaeili, S.; Sarkhail, P.; Taghvaei, M.; Ghafari, S.

2009-01-01

27

Extracts of edible and medicinal plants damage membranes of Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed

The use of natural compounds from plants can provide an alternative approach against food-borne pathogens. The mechanisms of action of most plant extracts with antimicrobial activity have been poorly studied. In this work, changes in membrane integrity, membrane potential, internal pH (pH(in)), and ATP synthesis were measured in Vibrio cholerae cells after exposure to extracts of edible and medicinal plants. A preliminary screen of methanolic, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts of medicinal and edible plants was performed. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were measured for extracts showing high antimicrobial activity. Our results indicate that methanolic extracts of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica var. Villanueva L.), sweet acacia (Acacia farnesiana L.), and white sagebrush (Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt.) are the most active against V. cholera, with MBCs ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mg/ml. Using four fluorogenic techniques, we studied the membrane integrity of V. cholerae cells after exposure to these four extracts. Extracts from these plants were able to disrupt the cell membranes of V. cholerae cells, causing increased membrane permeability, a clear decrease in cytoplasmic pH, cell membrane hyperpolarization, and a decrease in cellular ATP concentration in all strains tested. These four plant extracts could be studied as future alternatives to control V. cholerae contamination in foods and the diseases associated with this microorganism. PMID:20802077

Sánchez, Eduardo; García, Santos; Heredia, Norma

2010-10-01

28

Extracts of Edible and Medicinal Plants Damage Membranes of Vibrio cholerae?  

PubMed Central

The use of natural compounds from plants can provide an alternative approach against food-borne pathogens. The mechanisms of action of most plant extracts with antimicrobial activity have been poorly studied. In this work, changes in membrane integrity, membrane potential, internal pH (pHin), and ATP synthesis were measured in Vibrio cholerae cells after exposure to extracts of edible and medicinal plants. A preliminary screen of methanolic, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts of medicinal and edible plants was performed. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were measured for extracts showing high antimicrobial activity. Our results indicate that methanolic extracts of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica var. Villanueva L.), sweet acacia (Acacia farnesiana L.), and white sagebrush (Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt.) are the most active against V. cholera, with MBCs ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mg/ml. Using four fluorogenic techniques, we studied the membrane integrity of V. cholerae cells after exposure to these four extracts. Extracts from these plants were able to disrupt the cell membranes of V. cholerae cells, causing increased membrane permeability, a clear decrease in cytoplasmic pH, cell membrane hyperpolarization, and a decrease in cellular ATP concentration in all strains tested. These four plant extracts could be studied as future alternatives to control V. cholerae contamination in foods and the diseases associated with this microorganism. PMID:20802077

Sánchez, Eduardo; García, Santos; Heredia, Norma

2010-01-01

29

Activity of some Mexican medicinal plant extracts on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema.  

PubMed

The extracts obtained from 14 plants of the Mexican medicinal flora were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. The i.p. administration of the extracts at a dose of 400 mg/kg produced a high reduction of edema with 70% of the plant extracts. Oenothera rosea methanol extract, Sphaeralcea angustifolia chloroform extract, Acaciafarnesiana, Larrea tridentata and Rubus coriifolius methanol extracts as well as the aqueous extract of Chamaedora tepejilote were demonstrated to be particularly active against the induced hind-paw edema. Moderate inhibition of edema formation was also demonstrated with the methanol extracts of Astianthus viminalis, Brickellia paniculata, C. tepejilote and Justicia spicigera. PMID:15330501

Meckes, M; David-Rivera, A D; Nava-Aguilar, V; Jimenez, A

2004-07-01

30

Antimalarial activity of 20 crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants used in Kinshasa, Congo.  

PubMed

Twenty extracts including ten EtOH and ten CH2Cl2 from different parts of nine African medicinal plants used in Congolese traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria, were submitted to a pharmacological test in order to evaluate their effect on P. falciparum growth in vitro. Of these plant species, 14 (70%) extracts including EtOH and CH2Cl2 from Cassia occidentalis leaves, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta root bark, Euphorbia hirta whole plant, Garcinia kola stem bark and seeds, Morinda lucida leaves and Phyllanthus niruri whole plant produced more than 60% inhibition of the parasite growth in vitro at a test concentration of 6 microg/ml. Extracts from E. hirta, C. sanguinolenta and M. morindoides showed a significant chemosuppression of parasitaemia in mice infected with P. berghei berghei at orally given doses of 100-400 mg/kg per day. PMID:10624878

Tona, L; Ngimbi, N P; Tsakala, M; Mesia, K; Cimanga, K; Apers, S; De Bruyne, T; Pieters, L; Totté, J; Vlietinck, A J

1999-12-15

31

Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetes mellitus, for a long time, has been treated with plant derived medicines in Sri Lanka. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and dose response of oral antihyperglycaemic activity of eight Sri Lankan medicinal plant extracts, which are used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Medicinal plants selected for the study on the basis of documented effectiveness and wide use among traditional Ayurveda physicians in the Southern region of Sri Lanka for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The effect of different doses of aqueous stem bark extracts of Spondias pinnata (Anacardiaceae), Kokoona zeylanica (Celastraceae), Syzygium caryophyllatum (Myrtaceae), Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae), aerial part extracts of Scoparia dulcis (Scrophulariaceae), Sida alnifolia (Malvaceae), leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) and root extract of Languas galanga (Zingiberaceae) on oral glucose tolerance test was evaluated. A single dose of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 2.00 g/kg of plant extract was administered orally to alloxan induced (150 mg/kg, ip) diabetic Wistar rats (n = 6). Glibenclamide (0.50 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. The acute effect was evaluated over a 4 h period using area under the oral glucose tolerance curve. Statistical Analysis: The results were evaluated by analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. Results: The eight plant extracts showed statistically significant dose dependent improvement on glucose tolerance (P < 0.05). The optimum effective dose on glucose tolerance for six extracts was found to be 1.00 g/kg in diabetic rats with the exception of C. grandis: 0.75 g/kg and L. galanga: 1.25 g/kg. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of G. arborea, S. pinnata, K. zeylanica, S. caryophyllatum, S. dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats. PMID:24991066

Attanayake, Anoja P.; Jayatilaka, Kamani A. P. W.; Pathirana, Chitra; Mudduwa, Lakmini K. B.

2013-01-01

32

In vitro biological evaluation of 100 selected methanol extracts from the traditional medicinal plants of Asia  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES In Asia, various medicinal plants have been used as the primary sources in the health care regimen for thousands of years. In recent decades, various studies have investigated the biological activity and potential medicinal value of the medicinal plants. In this study, 100 methanol extracts from 98 plant species were evaluated for their biological activities. MATERIALS/METHODS The research properties, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-pic-rylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ?-glucosidase and ?-tyrosinase inhibitory effects, anti-inflammatory activity, and anticancer activity were evaluated for the selected extracts. RESULTS Fifteen of the extracts scavenged more than 90% of the DPPH radical. Among the extracts, approximately 20 extracts showed a strong inhibitory effect on ?-glucosidase, while most had no effect on ?-tyrosinase. In addition, 52% of the extracts showed low toxicity to normal cells, and parts of the extracts exhibited high anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities on the murine macrophage cell (RAW 264.7) and human colon cancer cell (HT-29) lines, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Our findings may contribute to further nutrition and pharmacological studies. Detailed investigations of the outstanding samples are currently underway. PMID:24741398

Li, Chunmei

2014-01-01

33

Medicinal plant extracts with efflux inhibitory activity against Gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

It was hypothesised that extracts from plants that are used as herbal medicinal products contain inhibitors of efflux in Gram-negative bacteria. Extracts from 21 plants were screened by bioassay for synergy with ciprofloxacin against Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, including mutants in which acrB and tolC had been inactivated. The most active extracts, fractions and purified compounds were further examined by minimum inhibitory concentration testing with five antibiotics for activity against Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Efflux activity was determined using the fluorescent dye Hoechst 33342. Eighty-four extracts from 21 plants, 12 fractions thereof and 2 purified molecules were analysed. Of these, 12 plant extracts showed synergy with ciprofloxacin, 2 of which had activity suggesting efflux inhibition. The most active extract, from Levisticum officinale, was fractionated and the two fractions displaying the greatest synergy with the five antibiotics were further analysed. From these two fractions, falcarindiol and the fatty acids oleic acid and linoleic acid were isolated. The fractions and compounds possessed antibacterial activity especially for mutants lacking a component of AcrAB-TolC. However, no synergism was seen with the fractions or purified molecules, suggesting that a combination of compounds is required for efflux inhibition. These data indicate that medicinal plant extracts may provide suitable lead compounds for future development and possible clinical utility as inhibitors of efflux for various Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:21194895

Garvey, Mark I; Rahman, M Mukhlesur; Gibbons, Simon; Piddock, Laura J V

2011-02-01

34

Induction of apoptosis of human primary osteoclasts treated with extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Osteoclasts (OCs) are involved in rheumatoid arthritis and in several pathologies associated with bone loss. Recent results support the concept that some medicinal plants and derived natural products are of great interest for developing therapeutic strategies against bone disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. In this study we determined whether extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits display activity of possible

Letizia Penolazzi; Ilaria Lampronti; Monica Borgatti; Mahmud Tareq Hassan Khan; Margherita Zennaro; Roberta Piva; Roberto Gambari

2008-01-01

35

The antioxidant characteristics of medicinal plant extracts from Western Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An antioxidant activity of the water-alcohol extracts of leaves of ten herbs from Western Siberia was studied. In vivo the\\u000a capability of extracts to protect cells of Escherichia coli against the bacteriostatic action of H 2O2 and the influence of the extracts on the expression of the antioxidant gene katG coding catalase-hydroperoxidase I were investigated. In vitro the radical-binding activity

G. V. Smirnova; G. I. Vysochina; N. G. Muzyka; Z. Yu. Samoilova; T. A. Kukushkina; O. N. Oktyabr’ski

2009-01-01

36

Medicinal plants extracts affect virulence factors expression and biofilm formation by the uropathogenic Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are an important source for the therapeutic remedies of various diseases including urinary tract infections. This prompted us to perform research in this area. We decided to focus on medicinal plants species used in urinary tract infections prevention. The aim of our study was to determine the influence of Betula pendula, Equisetum arvense, Herniaria glabra, Galium odoratum, Urtica dioica, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea extracts on bacterial survival and virulence factors involved in tissue colonization and biofilm formation of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli rods. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of plant extracts were performed. Antimicrobial assay relied on the estimation of the colony forming unit number. Hydrophobicity of cells was established by salt aggregation test. Using motility agar, the ability of bacteria to move was examined. The erythrocyte hemagglutination test was used for fimbriae P screening. Curli expression was determined using YESCA agar supplemented with congo red. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter plate assay and a spectrophotometric method. The results of the study indicate significant differences between investigated extracts in their antimicrobial activities. The extracts of H. glabra and V. vitis-idaea showed the highest growth-inhibitory effects (p < 0.05). Surface hydrophobicity of autoaggregating E. coli strain changed after exposure to all plant extracts, except V. vitis-idaea (p > 0.05). The B. pendula and U. dioica extracts significantly reduced the motility of the E. coli rods (p < 0.05). All the extracts exhibited the anti-biofilm activity. PMID:22915095

Wojnicz, Dorota; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Sokó?-??towska, Anna; Kicia, Marta; Tichaczek-Goska, Dorota

2012-12-01

37

Antiplasmodial potential of medicinal plant extracts from Malaiyur and Javadhu hills of South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum with resistance to chloroquine (CQ), the safest and cheapest anti-malarial drug, coupled with the increasing cost of alternative\\u000a drugs especially in developing countries have necessitated the urgent need to tap the potential of plants for novel anti-malarials.\\u000a The present study investigates the anti-malarial activity of the methanolic extracts of 13 medicinal plants from

Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Naveen Kumar Kaushik; Dinesh Mohanakrishnan; Gandhi Elango; Asokan Bagavan; Abdul Abduz Zahir; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Dinkar Sahal

38

Cytotoxicity of six South African medicinal plant extracts used in the treatment of cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extracts prepared from six South African medicinal plants, with cancer-related ethnobotanical uses, were tested for their cytotoxic ability in vitro against three human cancer cell lines: DU-145 prostate cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells and a non-malignant breast cell line, MCF-12A. The plants studied were: Bidens pilosa, Centella asiatica, Cnicus benedictus, Dicoma capensis, Hypoxis hemerocallidea and Sutherlandia

V. Steenkamp; M. C. Gouws

2006-01-01

39

Identification of traditional medicinal plant extracts with novel anti-influenza activity.  

PubMed

The emergence of drug resistant variants of the influenza virus has led to a need to identify novel and effective antiviral agents. As an alternative to synthetic drugs, the consolidation of empirical knowledge with ethnopharmacological evidence of medicinal plants offers a novel platform for the development of antiviral drugs. The aim of this study was to identify plant extracts with proven activity against the influenza virus. Extracts of fifty medicinal plants, originating from the tropical rainforests of Borneo used as herbal medicines by traditional healers to treat flu-like symptoms, were tested against the H1N1 and H3N1 subtypes of the virus. In the initial phase, in vitro micro-inhibition assays along with cytotoxicity screening were performed on MDCK cells. Most plant extracts were found to be minimally cytotoxic, indicating that the compounds linked to an ethnomedical framework were relatively innocuous, and eleven crude extracts exhibited viral inhibition against both the strains. All extracts inhibited the enzymatic activity of viral neuraminidase and four extracts were also shown to act through the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) pathway. Moreover, the samples that acted through both HI and neuraminidase inhibition (NI) evidenced more than 90% reduction in virus adsorption and penetration, thereby indicating potent action in the early stages of viral replication. Concurrent studies involving Receptor Destroying Enzyme treatments of HI extracts indicated the presence of sialic acid-like component(s) that could be responsible for hemagglutination inhibition. The manifestation of both modes of viral inhibition in a single extract suggests that there may be a synergistic effect implicating more than one active component. Overall, our results provide substantive support for the use of Borneo traditional plants as promising sources of novel anti-influenza drug candidates. Furthermore, the pathways involving inhibition of hemagglutination could be a solution to the global occurrence of viral strains resistant to neuraminidase drugs. PMID:24312177

Rajasekaran, Dhivya; Palombo, Enzo A; Chia Yeo, Tiong; Lim Siok Ley, Diana; Lee Tu, Chu; Malherbe, Francois; Grollo, Lara

2013-01-01

40

Identification of Traditional Medicinal Plant Extracts with Novel Anti-Influenza Activity  

PubMed Central

The emergence of drug resistant variants of the influenza virus has led to a need to identify novel and effective antiviral agents. As an alternative to synthetic drugs, the consolidation of empirical knowledge with ethnopharmacological evidence of medicinal plants offers a novel platform for the development of antiviral drugs. The aim of this study was to identify plant extracts with proven activity against the influenza virus. Extracts of fifty medicinal plants, originating from the tropical rainforests of Borneo used as herbal medicines by traditional healers to treat flu-like symptoms, were tested against the H1N1 and H3N1 subtypes of the virus. In the initial phase, in vitro micro-inhibition assays along with cytotoxicity screening were performed on MDCK cells. Most plant extracts were found to be minimally cytotoxic, indicating that the compounds linked to an ethnomedical framework were relatively innocuous, and eleven crude extracts exhibited viral inhibition against both the strains. All extracts inhibited the enzymatic activity of viral neuraminidase and four extracts were also shown to act through the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) pathway. Moreover, the samples that acted through both HI and neuraminidase inhibition (NI) evidenced more than 90% reduction in virus adsorption and penetration, thereby indicating potent action in the early stages of viral replication. Concurrent studies involving Receptor Destroying Enzyme treatments of HI extracts indicated the presence of sialic acid-like component(s) that could be responsible for hemagglutination inhibition. The manifestation of both modes of viral inhibition in a single extract suggests that there may be a synergistic effect implicating more than one active component. Overall, our results provide substantive support for the use of Borneo traditional plants as promising sources of novel anti-influenza drug candidates. Furthermore, the pathways involving inhibition of hemagglutination could be a solution to the global occurrence of viral strains resistant to neuraminidase drugs. PMID:24312177

Rajasekaran, Dhivya; Palombo, Enzo A.; Chia Yeo, Tiong; Lim Siok Ley, Diana; Lee Tu, Chu; Malherbe, Francois; Grollo, Lara

2013-01-01

41

In vitro treatment of chicken peripheral blood lymphocytes, macrophages, and tumor cells with extracts of Korean medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of different medicinal plants have traditionally been used in Asian cultures as medicinal plants to enhance immunity and treat cancers. However, limited information exists on the underlying mechanisms responsible for these immune enhancing properties. The current investigation was conducted to examine the effects of methanol extracts of 3 Korean indigenous plants (dandelion root, mustard leaf, and safflower leaf)

Sung-Hyen Lee; Hyun Soon Lillehoj; Hye-Kyung Chun; Wenbin Tuo; Hong-Ju Park; Soo-Muk Cho; Young-Min Lee; Erik P. Lillehoj

2007-01-01

42

Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of the Methanol Extracts from 8 Traditional Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

The methanol extract of 12 medicinal plants were evaluated for its antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (5 strains) and Gram-negative bacteria (10 strains) by assay for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bacterial concentration (MBC) . The antibacterial activity was determined by an agar dilution method (according to the guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute) . All the compounds (12 extracts) of the 8 medicinal plants (leaf or root) were active against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Gram-negative showed a more potent action than Gram positive bacteria. The MIC concentrations were various ranged from 0.6 ?g/ml to 5000 ?g/ml. The lowest MIC (0.6 ?g/ml) and MBC (1.22 ?g/ml) values were obtained with extract on 4 and 3 of the 15 microorganisms tested, respectively. PMID:24278548

Kang, Chang-Geun; Hah, Dae-Sik; Kim, Chung-Hui; Kim, Young-Hwan; Kim, Euikyung

2011-01-01

43

Intensification of bioactive compounds extraction from medicinal plants using ultrasonic irradiation  

PubMed Central

Extraction processes are largely used in many chemical, biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries for recovery of bioactive compounds from medicinal plants. To replace the conventional extraction techniques, new techniques as high-pressure extraction processes that use environment friendly solvents have been developed. However, these techniques, sometimes, are associated with low extraction rate. The ultrasound can be effectively used to improve the extraction rate by the increasing the mass transfer and possible rupture of cell wall due the formation of microcavities leading to higher product yields with reduced processing time and solvent consumption. This review presents a brief survey about the mechanism and aspects that affecting the ultrasound assisted extraction focusing on the use of ultrasound irradiation for high-pressure extraction processes intensification. PMID:25125880

Vardanega, Renata; Santos, Diego T.; Meireles, M. Angela A.

2014-01-01

44

Medicinal Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

Phillipson, J. David

1997-01-01

45

The root extract of the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides is a potent HIV-1 attachment inhibitor.  

PubMed

Global HIV-1 treatment would benefit greatly from safe herbal medicines with scientifically validated novel anti-HIV-1 activities. The root extract from the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides (PS) is licensed in Germany as the herbal medicine EPs®7630, with numerous clinical trials supporting its safety in humans. Here we provide evidence from multiple cell culture experiments that PS extract displays potent anti-HIV-1 activity. We show that PS extract protects peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages from infection with various X4 and R5 tropic HIV-1 strains, including clinical isolates. Functional studies revealed that the extract from PS has a novel mode-of-action. It interferes directly with viral infectivity and blocks the attachment of HIV-1 particles to target cells, protecting them from virus entry. Analysis of the chemical footprint of anti-HIV activity indicates that HIV-1 inhibition is mediated by multiple polyphenolic compounds with low cytotoxicity and can be separated from other extract components with higher cytotoxicity. Based on our data and its excellent safety profile, we propose that PS extract represents a lead candidate for the development of a scientifically validated herbal medicine for anti-HIV-1 therapy with a mode-of-action different from and complementary to current single-molecule drugs. PMID:24489923

Helfer, Markus; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Schneider, Martha; Rebensburg, Stephanie; Forcisi, Sara; Müller, Constanze; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Schindler, Michael; Brack-Werner, Ruth

2014-01-01

46

Antibacterial activity of medicinal plant extracts against periodontopathic bacteria.  

PubMed

This study was performed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Althaea officinalis L. roots, Arnica montana L. flowers, Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hamamelis virginiana L. leaves, Illicium verum Hook. fruits and Melissa officinalis L. leaves, against anaerobic and facultative aerobic periodontal bacteria: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Fusobacterium nucleatum, Capnocytophaga gingivalis, Veilonella parvula, Eikenella corrodens, Peptostreptococcus micros and Actinomyces odontolyticus. The methanol extracts of H. virginiana and A. montana and, to a lesser extent, A. officinalis were shown to possess an inhibiting activity (MIC < or = 2048 mg/L) against many of the species tested. In comparison, M. officinalis and C. officinalis extracts had a lower inhibiting activity (MIC > or = 2048 mg/L) against all the tested species with the exception of Prevotella sp. Illicium verum methanol extract was not very active though it had a particular good activity against E. corrodens. The results suggest the use of the alcohol extracts of H. virginiana, A. montana and A. officinalis for topical medications in periodontal prophylactics. PMID:12820224

Iauk, L; Lo Bue, A M; Milazzo, I; Rapisarda, A; Blandino, G

2003-06-01

47

Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against blood-sucking parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of acetone, chloroform,\\u000a ethyl acetate, hexane, and methanol dried leaf, flower, and seed extracts of Cassia auriculata L., Rhinacanthus nasutus KURZ., Solanum torvum Swartz, Terminalia chebula Retz., and Vitex negundo Linn. were tested against larvae of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae),

Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Asokan Bagavan; Gandhi Elango; Govindasamy Rajakumar; Abdul Abduz Zahir; Sampath Marimuthu; Thirunavukkarasu Santhoshkumar; Chidambaram Jayaseelan

2010-01-01

48

An improved HPLC determination of flavonoids in medicinal plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Flavonoids of Crataegus monogyna, Passiflora incarnata, Matricaria chamomilla and Ginkgo biloba extracts have been separated\\u000a by isocratic elution on C18 columns using eluents based on C3 alcohols, tetrahydrofuran or dioxane.\\u000a \\u000a Satisfactory results have been obtained at compared to the low resolution achieved with the customary system acetonitrile-water-acetic\\u000a acid.

P. G. Pietta; P. L. Mauri; E. Manera; P. L. Ceva; A. Rava

1989-01-01

49

Screening of medicinal plant extracts for antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanolic crude extracts of Desmodium gangeticum (Linn.), Eclipta alba (Linn.) Ocimum sanctum (Linn.), Piper longum (Linn.), Solanum nigrum (Linn.) and Amaranthus caudatus (Linn.) were screened for their free radical scavenging properties using ascorbic acid as standard antioxidant. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. The overall antioxidant activity of D. gangeticum was found to

Prakash Veeru; Mishra Pankaj Kishor; Mishra Meenakshi

2009-01-01

50

Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of some crude drug extracts from Mexican medicinal plants.  

PubMed

31 crude extracts derived from 28 plants highly valued as anti-infective agents in Mexican folk medicine have been screened for antimicrobial activity against four bacteria, a yeast and two molds. The results of the quantitative study indicated that the extracts derived from five species (Malmea depressa, Heliopsis longipes, Datura lanosa, Cnidosculus tehuacanensis and Helianthella quinquenervis) possessed significant antiseptic properties, therefore supporting the ethnomedical uses of these species. The cytotoxic activity was assayed against three cell lines HT-29 (Colon adenocarcinoma), MCF-7 (Breast carcinoma), A-549 (Lung carcinoma) and only the extract of Helianthella quinquenervis possessed significant activity against the MCF-7 cell line. PMID:23194772

Gutierrez-Lugo, M T; Barrientos-Benítez, T; Luna, B; Ramirez-Gama, R M; Bye, R; Linares, E; Mata, R

1996-03-01

51

Insecticidal and larvicidal activities of medicinal plant extracts against mosquitoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, use of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed\\u000a attention as agents for vector control because they are rich in bioactive chemicals, active against a limited number of species\\u000a including specific target insects, and biodegradable. The present study was carried out to evaluate the adulticidal, repellent,\\u000a and larvicidal activity of crude hexane,

Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Anita Mahapatra; Asokan Bagavan; Gandhi Elango

2010-01-01

52

Screening of immunomodulatory activity of total and protein extracts of some Moroccan medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Herbal and traditional medicines are being widely used in practice in many countries for their benefits of treating different ailments. A large number of plants in Morocco were used in folk medicine to treat immune-related disorders. The objective of this study is to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of protein extracts (PEs) of 14 Moroccan medicinal plants. This activity was tested on the proliferation of immune cells. The prepared total and PEs of the plant samples were tested using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay on the splenocytes with or without stimulation by concanavalin-A (Con-A), a mitogenic agent used as positive control. The results of this study indicated different activity spectra. Three groups of activities were observed. The first group represented by Citrullus colocynthis, Urtica dioica, Elettaria cardamomum, Capparis spinosa and Piper cubeba showed a significant immunosuppressive activity. The second group that showed a significant immunostimulatory activity was represented by Aristolochia longa, Datura stramonium, Marrubium vulgare, Sinapis nigra, Delphynium staphysagria, Lepidium sativum, Ammi visnaga and Tetraclinis articulata. The rest of the plant extracts did not alter the proliferation induced by Con-A. This result was more important for the PE than for the total extract. In conclusion, this study revealed an interesting immunomodulating action of certain PEs, which could explain their traditional use. The results of this study may also have implications in therapeutic treatment of infections, such as prophylactic and adjuvant with cancer chemotherapy. PMID:22301818

Daoudi, Abdeljlil; Aarab, Lotfi; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

2013-04-01

53

Inhibitory activities of pancreatic lipase and phosphodiesterase from Korean medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

To find new pancreatic lipase (triacylglycerol acylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.3) inhibitors from natural products, 61 medicinal plants from Korea were screened for their antilipase activity for prevention of obesity. Dried and powdered plants were extracted three times with EtOH and extracts were obtained by removal of the solvent in vacuo. Lipase activity was determined by measuring the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl butyrate to p-nitrophenol. Also, the inhibitory effect was measured on phosphodiesterase (PDE), another therapeutic target for obesity. Of the extracts tested, Sorbus commixta (stem, leaf) and Viscum album (whole plant) exhibited antilipase activity (with IC(50) values of 29.6 µg/mL and 33.3 µg/mL, respectively) and only anti-PDE activity (IC(50) values of 20.08 µg/mL and 35.15 µg/mL, respectively). PMID:22069182

Lee, Yun Mi; Kim, Young Sook; Lee, Youngseop; Kim, Junghyun; Sun, Hang; Kim, Joo Hwan; Kim, Jin Sook

2012-05-01

54

Effect of extraction solvent/technique on the antioxidant activity of selected medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

Theeffects of four extracting solvents [absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, aqueous ethanol (ethanol: water, 80:20 v/v) and aqueous methanol (methanol: water, 80:20 v/v)] and two extraction techniques (shaking and reflux) on the antioxidant activity of extracts of barks of Azadirachta indica, Acacia nilotica, Eugenia jambolana, Terminalia arjuna, leaves and roots of Moringa oleifera, fruit of Ficus religiosa,and leaves of Aloe barbadensis were investigated. The tested plant materials contained appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (0.31-16.5 g GAE /100g DW), total flavonoid (2.63-8.66 g CE/100g DW); reducing power at 10 mg/mL extract concentration (1.36-2.91), DPPH(.) scavenging capacity (37.2-86.6%), and percent inhibition of linoleic acid (66.0-90.6%). Generally higher extract yields, phenolic contents and plant material antioxidant activity were obtained using aqueous organic solvents, as compared to the respective absolute organic solvents. Although higher extract yields were obtained by the refluxing extraction technique, in general higher amounts of total phenolic contents and better antioxidant activity were found in the extracts prepared using a shaker. PMID:19553890

Sultana, Bushra; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad

2009-01-01

55

Antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of some selected medicinal plants from the northwest of Iran.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of antimalarial drugs is declining at an ever accelerating rate, with consequent increase in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. The newest antiplasmodial drug from plants is needed to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to assess antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of 10 different medicinal plants from eight families against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain. The selection of the hereby studied plants was based on the existing information on their local ethnobotanic history. Plants were dried, powdered, and macerated in a hydroalcoholic solution. Resulting extracts have been assessed for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial and brine shrimp toxicity activities. Of 10 plant species tested, four plants: Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae), Myrtus communis Linn (Myrtaceae), Plantago major (Plantaginaceae), and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Papilionaceae) displayed promising antimalarial activity in vitro (50% inhibitory concentration values of 62.77, 42.18, 40.00, and 13.56 ?g/mL, respectively) with no toxicity against brine shrimp larvae. The crude extracts of three active plants, G. glabra, M. communis, and A. officinalis, also significantly reduced parasitemia in vivo in female Swiss albino mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg compared to no treatment. Antiplasmodial activities of extracts of A. officinalis and M. communis are reported for the first time. PMID:23922204

Sangian, Hadi; Faramarzi, Hossein; Yazdinezhad, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed Javad; Zamani, Zahra; Noubarani, Maryam; Ramazani, Ali

2013-11-01

56

Contact and fumigant toxicity of oriental medicinal plant extracts against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).  

PubMed

The acaricidal activity of methanolic extracts from 40 oriental medicinal plant species and a steam distillate of Cinnamomum camphora towards poultry house-collected adult Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer was examined using direct contact and vapour phase toxicity bioassays. Results were compared with those of 15 acaricides currently used. In filter paper contact toxicity bioassays using adult D. gallinae, C. camphora steam distillate (0.0051 mgcm(-2)) was the most toxic material, followed by extracts from Asarum sieboldii var. seoulens whole plant, Eugenia caryophyllata flower bud and Mentha arvensis var. piperascens whole plant (0.0063-0.0072 mgcm(-2)), based upon 24h LD(50) values. The acaricidal activity of these four plant preparations was almost comparable to that of profenofos (LD(50), 0.003 mgcm(-2)) but less effective than dichlorvos (LD(50), 0.0004 mgcm(-2)). The toxicity of Illicium verum fruit and Lysimachia davurica leaf extracts (0.09 mgcm(-2)) was almost comparable to that of benfuracarb, prothiofos, propoxur and fenthion (0.053-0.070mgcm(-2)). In vapour phase toxicity tests, these plant preparations were more effective in closed containers than in open ones, indicating that the mode of delivery of these plant extracts was largely a result of action in the vapour phase. Plants described herein merit further study as potential D. gallinae control agents. PMID:17289270

Kim, Soon-Il; Na, Young-Eun; Yi, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon

2007-04-30

57

A New Application for the Optimal Foraging Theory: The Extraction of Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

The Optimal Foraging Theory was used to identify possible patterns in bark extraction and the selective cutting of Anadenanthera colubrina (Angico), a medicinal plant. The hypotheses were built on two approaches: selection of collection place and bark exploitation occurrence in only one of these resource areas. The results suggest that the distance that must be traveled to reach each gathering site determines the extent of the extraction process, showing that people minimize the time and energy spent in A. colubrina collection. The availability of each site appears not to influence the operation. The resource amount was the optimized variable for bark extraction, which was analyzed in only one collection zone. In contrast to the phenomenon of collection place selection, the distance between angico individuals, the management period, and the tannin content did not affect bark extraction. This study also discusses how certain cultural aspects influence the extraction of angico. PMID:21949671

Soldati, Gustavo Taboada; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

2012-01-01

58

Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus & Culex tritaeniorhynchus  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year and the development of resistance to chemical insecticides resulting in rebounding vectorial capacity. Plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the role of larvicidal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and bark extracts of Annona squamosa L., Chrysanthemum indicum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against the fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activities of three medicinal plant extracts were studied in the range of 4.69 to 1000 mg/l in the laboratory bioassays against early 4th instar larvae of An. subpictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The mortality data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) to kill 50 and 90 per cent of the treated larvae of the respective species. Results: All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest toxic effect of bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate extract of C. indicum and leaf acetone extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of An. subpictus (LC50 = 93.80, 39.98 and 51.57 mg/l) and bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf methanol extract of C. indicum and leaf ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 =104.94, 42.29 and 69.16 mg/l) respectively. Interpretation & Conclusions: Our data suggest that the bark ethyl acetate and methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. indicum, acetone and ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens have the potential to be used as an ecofriendly approach for the control of the An. subpictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. PMID:21808141

Kamaraj, C.; Bagavan, A.; Elango, G.; Zahir, A. Abduz; Rajakumar, G.; Marimuthu, S.; Santhoshkumar, T.; Rahuman, A. Abdul

2011-01-01

59

Evaluation of genotoxicity of medicinal plant extracts by the comet and VITOTOX tests.  

PubMed

We report the results of our genotoxic evaluation of extracts from three medicinal plants Acacia nilotica, Juglans regia, and Terminalia chebula and the herbal drug Triphala employing the VITOTOX and comet tests.These tests detect DNA damage in prokaryotic and eukaryotic test systems, respectively. In the VITOTOX test, none of the extracts were identified as genotoxic. In the comet assay, extracts of Acacia nilotica showed statistically significant DNA damage only in a concentration of 2500 ppm (highest tested dose), whereas extracts from Juglans regia showed significant damage in concentrations above 250 ppm and more. Extracts from Terminalia chebula and Tripahala significantly increased DNA damage in a concentration above 500 ppm. This is not considered contradictory, because DNA damage in the alkaline comet assay may not be permanent and hence may not necessarily result in mutations. All the extracts were previously found in the Ames assay to have potent antimutagenic effects against the direct acting mutagens NPD, sodium azide, and the S9-dependent mutagen 2-AF. The results of the previous study using the Ames assay are in conformity with those of the VITOTOX test. It was found that the extracts were safe in concentrations of up to 1000 microg/0.1 mL and 2500 microg/0.1 mL. A literature survey also showed that plant extracts can be mutagenic as well as antimutagenic depending on the test system used. This indicates that a battery of assays is needed before any conclusion can be reached. PMID:16050803

Arora, Saroj; Brits, Ethel; Kaur, Swayamjot; Kaur, Kamaljeet; Sohi, Rajbir S; Kumar, Subodh; Verschaeve, Luc

2005-01-01

60

In vitro antimicrobial activity of Romanian medicinal plants hydroalcoholic extracts on planktonic and adhered cells.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the antibacterial and antifungal potential of some Romanian medicinal plants, arnica--Arnica montana, wormwood--Artemisia absinthium and nettle--Urtica dioica. In order to perform this antimicrobial screening, we obtained the vegetal extracts and we tested them on a series of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and also against two fungal strains. The vegetal extracts showed antimicrobial activity preferentially directed against the planktonic fungal and bacterial growth, while the effect against biofilm formation and development was demonstrated only against S. aureus and C. albicans. Our in vitro assays indicate that the studied plant extracts are a significant source of natural alternatives to antimicrobial therapy, thus avoiding antibiotic therapy, the use of which has become excessive in recent years. PMID:21717806

Stanciuc, A M; Gaspar, A; Moldovan, L; Saviuc, C; Popa, M; M?ru?escu, L

2011-01-01

61

Antiplasmodial potential of medicinal plant extracts from Malaiyur and Javadhu hills of South India.  

PubMed

The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum with resistance to chloroquine (CQ), the safest and cheapest anti-malarial drug, coupled with the increasing cost of alternative drugs especially in developing countries have necessitated the urgent need to tap the potential of plants for novel anti-malarials. The present study investigates the anti-malarial activity of the methanolic extracts of 13 medicinal plants from the Malaiyur and Javadhu hills of South India against blood stage CQ-sensitive (3D7) and CQ-resistant (INDO) strains of P. falciparum in culture using the fluorescence-based SYBR Green I assay. Sorbitol-synchronized parasites were incubated under normal culture conditions at 2% hematocrit and 1% parasitemia in the absence or presence of increasing concentrations of plant extracts. CQ and artemisinin were used as positive controls, while 0.4% DMSO was used as the negative control. The cytotoxic effects of extracts on host cells were assessed by functional assay using HeLa cells cultured in RPMI containing 10% fetal bovine serum, 0.21% sodium bicarbonate and 50 ?g/mL gentamycin (complete medium). Plant extracts (bark methanol extracts of Annona squamosa (IC(50), 30 ?g/mL), leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum (IC(50), 32 ?g/mL), Ocimum tenuiflorum (IC(50), 31 ?g/mL), Solanum torvum (IC(50), 31 ?g/mL) and Justicia procumbens (IC(50), 63 ?g/mL), showed moderate activity. The leaf extracts of Aristolochia indica (IC(50), 10 ?g/mL), Cassia auriculata (IC(50), 14 ?g/mL), Chrysanthemum indicum (IC(50), 20 ?g/mL) and Dolichos biflorus (IC(50), 20 ?g/mL) showed promising activity and low activity was observed in the flower methanol extracts of A. indica , leaf methanol extract of Catharanthus roseus, and Gymnema sylvestre (IC(50), >100 ?g/mL). These four extracts exhibited promising IC(50) (?g/mL) of 17, 24, 19 and 24 respectively also against the CQ resistant INDO strain of P. falciparum. The high TC(50) in mammalian cell cytotoxicity assay and the low IC(50) in anti-malarial P. falciparum assay indicates selectivity and good resistance indices in the range of 0.9-1.7 for leaf extracts of A. indica, C. auriculata, C. indicum and D. biflorus suggests that these may serve as anti-malarial agents even in their crude form. These results indicate a possible explanation of the traditional use of some of these medicinal plants against malaria or malaria-like conditions. PMID:21643655

Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Kaushik, Naveen Kumar; Mohanakrishnan, Dinesh; Elango, Gandhi; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Sahal, Dinkar

2012-08-01

62

Changes in Microbial Diversity, Methanogenesis and Fermentation Characteristics in the Rumen in Response to Medicinal Plant Extracts  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the in vitro effect of medicinal plant extracts on ruminal methanogenesis, four different groups of methanogens and ruminal fermentation characteristics. A fistulated Holstein cow was used as a donor of rumen fluid. Licorice and mugwort extracts (Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Artemisia capillaris, 0.5% and 1% of total substrate DM, respectively), previously used as folk remedies, were added to an in vitro fermentation incubated with buffered-rumen fluid. Total gas production in Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract treatment was not significantly different between treatments (p<0.05) while total gas production in the Artemisia capillaris extract treatment was lower than that of the control. Artemisia capillaris extract and Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract reduced CH4 emission by 14% (p<0.05) and 8% (p<0.05), respectively. Ciliate-associated methanogens population decreased by 18% in the medicinal plant extracts treatments. Medicinal plant extracts also affected the order Methanobacteriales community. Methanobacteriales diversity decreased by 35% in the Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract treatment and 30% in the Artemisia capillaris extract treatment. The order Methanomicrobiales population decreased by 50% in the 0.5% of Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract treatment. These findings demonstrate that medicinal plant extracts have the potential to inhibit in vitro ruminal methanogenesis. PMID:25049911

Kim, Eun Tae; Moon, Yea Hwang; Min, Kwan-Sik; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Kim, Sam Churl; Ahn, Seung Kyu; Lee, Sung Sill

2013-01-01

63

Antioxidant Activity and Glucose Diffusion Relationship of Traditional Medicinal Antihyperglycemic Plant Extracts  

PubMed Central

Plants with hypoglycemic properties are important in the treatment of diabetes. One of the mechanisms in reducing blood glucose is preventing the digestive absorption of glucose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of some traditional medicinal plants collected from different regions of Iran and their effects on glucose diffusion decrease. The amounts of phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, total polysaccharides, antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation were determined respectively by folin ciocalteu, querceting, sulfuric acid, FRAP and thiobarbituric acid - reactive substanses (TBARS) in eleven confirmed traditional antihyperglycemic medicinal plants prepared at 50g/l concentrations using the boiling method. Phenolic compounds of Eucalyptus globules (100.8± 0.01 mg /g), total flavonoids content of Juglans regia (16.9± 0.01 mg /g) and total polysaccharide amount of Allium satirum (0.28± 0.05) were the highest. Significant relationship was observed between the polyphenols and flavonoids (p <0.05). The grape seed extract showed the highest antioxidant activity (133± 0.02 mg/g) together with decreased glucose diffusion as well as increased polyphenols (p <0.05), but the increase in antioxidant activity was not related to glucose diffusion. Antihyperglycemic plant extracts containing higher polyphenols showed more efficiently in vitro glucose diffusion decrease, but no significant relationship was observed between antioxidant activity increase and glucose diffusion. PMID:24551809

Asgharpour, Fariba; Pouramir, Mahdi; Khalilpour, Asieh; Asgharpour Alamdar, Sobgol; Rezaei, Mehrasa

2013-01-01

64

Medicinal plant extracts can variously modify biofilm formation in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Low concentrations of black tea and water extracts from medicinal plants Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Tilia cordata, Betula pendula and Zea mays stimulated biofilm formation in Escherichia coli BW25113 up to three times. Similar effect was observed for tannic acid and low concentrations of quercetin. In contrast, the extract from Urtica dioica reduced biofilm production. Pretreatment with plant extracts variously modified antibiotic effects on specific biofilm formation (SBF). Extract from V. vitis-idaea increased SBF, while the extracts from Achillea millefolium, Laminaria japonica and U. dioica considerably decreased SBF in the presence of ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and cefotaxime. Stimulatory effect of the extracts and pure polyphenols on biofilm formation was probably related to their prooxidant properties. The rpoS deletion did not affect SBF significantly, but stimulation of biofilm formation by the compounds tested was accompanied by inhibition of rpoS expression, suggesting that a RpoS-independent signal transduction pathway was apparently used. PMID:24500005

Samoilova, Zoya; Muzyka, Nadezda; Lepekhina, Elena; Oktyabrsky, Oleg; Smirnova, Galina

2014-04-01

65

Herbal medicines and infectious diseases: characterization by LC-SPE-NMR of some medicinal plant extracts used against malaria.  

PubMed

The extracts of two medicinal plants used in traditionalmedicine against malariawere characterized by means of an LC?SPE?NMR and LC?MS platform. The structure of a series of major constituents from Bafodeya benna, as well as minor constituents from Ormocarpum kirkii, was determined. Bafodeya benna was found to contain (2R,3R)-taxifolin-3-O-?-L-rhamnoside or astilbin, and its isomers neoastilbin, neoisoastilbin, and isoastilbin, as well as quercetin-3-O-?-L-rhamnoside. From Ormocarpum kirkii, a series of known flavonoids and biflavonoids was obtained, as well as three new compounds, i.e., 7,7??-di-O-?-D-glucosyl-(?)-chamaejasmin, 7-O-?-D-glucosyl-(I-3,II-3)-biliquiritigenin, and isovitexin-(I-3,II-3)-naringenin. The isolated constituents may explain, at least in part, the traditional use against malaria. LC?SPE?NMR, in combination with LC?MS, is a powerful tool for the fast characterization of plant extracts, in order to define priorities at an early stage of a fractionation procedure. In addition, herbal medicinal products can completely be characterized, both with regard to their major as well as their minor constituents. PMID:21328178

Xu, Yong-Jiang; Capistrano, Rica; Dhooghe, Liene; Foubert, Kenn; Lemière, Filip; Maregesi, Sheila; Baldé, Aliou; Apers, Sandra; Pieters, Luc

2011-07-01

66

Medicinal plant extracts variously modulate susceptibility of Escherichia coli to different antibiotics.  

PubMed

Antioxidant activity of green and black tea and extracts of medicinal plants and their ability to modulate antibiotic susceptibility in Escherichia coli were studied. Among a number of extracts tested the maximal capacity to scavenge DPPH radicals and chelate iron in chemical tests was found in green and black tea, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Vaccinium vitis-idaea. These extracts contained high level of polyphenols and in aerobic conditions exhibited prooxidant features, producing H2O2 and inducing expression of the katG gene encoding catalase HPI in E. coli cells. A good correlation between the polyphenol content and the ability of extracts to protect bacteria against peroxide stress was observed (r = 0.88). Polyphenol-rich extracts and iron chelators demonstrated the highest modulating effect on the antibiotic susceptibility by changing the time period before lysis started and by influencing the colony-forming ability of bacteria. The direction of the modulating effect was dependent on nature of antibiotic applied: under treatment with ciprofloxacin and ampicillin the extracts predominantly provided protective effects, while under treatment with kanamycin a bactericidal action was enhanced. Mechanism of modulating action of extracts on bacterial antibiotic susceptibility probably involves antioxidant, preferentially iron-chelating, or prooxidant properties of polyphenols. PMID:23916388

Samoilova, Zoya; Smirnova, Galina; Muzyka, Nadezda; Oktyabrsky, Oleg

2014-04-01

67

Phytochemical Analysis of Methanolic Extracts of Leaves of Some Medicinal Plants  

E-print Network

Abstract- The present investigation deals with the phytochemical studies of leaves of different medicinal plants like Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall ex Nees of the family Acanthaceae, Bauhinia acuminata Linn. of the family Caesalpiniaceae, Clerodendrum indicum (Linn.) O. Kuntze syn. C. siphonanthus R. Br. of the family Verbenaceae, Nerium odorum Soland. of the family Apocynaceae and Sida humilis Cav. Syn. S. veronicaefolia Lam., syn. S. cordata (Burm. f.) Borss. of the family Malvaceae. Methanolic (90%) extracts of leaf powders have been screened for qualitative determination of different secondary metabolites like starch, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, reducing sugars, amino acids and lignins by specific chemical color reaction tests.

Sudipa Nag; Anirban Paul; Rituparna Dutta

68

In vitro antiplasmodial activity of extracts and fractions from seven medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of seven EtOH extracts and twenty fractions from the partition of the initial ethanolic extracts from seven African medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo) for the treatment of malaria was evaluated. The most active EtOH extracts (IC50<3?g\\/ml) were those from Cassia occidentalis leaves, Euphorbia hirta whole plant, Garcinia kola stem

L. Tona; R. K. Cimanga; K. Mesia; C. T. Musuamba; T. De Bruyne; S. Apers; N. Hernans; S. Van Miert; L. Pieters; J. Totté; A. J. Vlietinck

2004-01-01

69

Water-extractable magnesium, manganese and copper in leaves and herbs of medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Since herbal teas, infusions and decoctions prepared from medicinal plants are popular remedies, it remains a topical question whether these herbal drugs can be treated as sources of essential elements for humans, who often use them in their everyday diet. Therefore, total and water-extractable contents of Mg, Mn and Cu were determined in 41 leaves originating from four botanical species of Plantago lanceolata, Arctostaphyllos uva-ursi, Rubus fruticosus and Betula sp., as well as in 33 samples of herbs represented by three species of Urtica dioica, Hypericum perforatum and Achillea millefolium. The highest level was determined in the case of Mg (in a range from 2.0 to 7.0 mg/g of dry mass [d.m.]), followed by Mn (from 50.0 to 1300.0 mg/kg d.m.), and lowest of all, Cu (from 3.5 to 19.5 mg/kg d.m.). Student's t-test showed that a statistically significant difference exists between samples originating from different plant species regarding the total content and water-extractable forms of Mg, Mn and Cu. By analysis of the relations between elements, it was observed that total level of Cu correlated with total levels of Mg and Mn, which indicates a synergistic interaction between the essential elements under study. With regard to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), the leaves of Rubus fruticosus contained the highest amounts of a water-extractable bioavailable form of Mn, which guarantees from 160 to 200% of the daily requirement of Mn for women and men, respectively. On the other hand, the extract obtained from Urticae folium gave water-extractable Mg in the amount of 76 mg/500 mL, which constitutes about 20% of daily requirement. The plant material richest in water-extractable Cu was Hyperici herba, containing 154.5 microg/500 mL, or 17% of DRI for both sexes. PMID:22574504

Konieczy?ski, Pawe?; Weso?owski, Marek

2012-01-01

70

Cytotoxicity of Selected Medicinal and Nonmedicinal Plant Extracts to Microbial and Cervical Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the cytotoxicity of 55 species of plants. Each plant was rated as medicinal, or nonmedicinal based on the existing literature. About 79% of the medicinal plants showed some cytotoxicity, while 75% of the nonmedicinal plants showed bioactivity. It appears that Asteraceae, Labiatae, Pinaceae, and Chenopodiaceae were particularly active against human cervical cancer cells. Based on the literature, only three of the 55 plants have been significantly investigated for cytotoxicity. It is clear that there is much toxicological work yet to be done with both medicinal and nonmedicinal plants. PMID:22500074

Booth, Gary M.; Malmstrom, Robert D.; Kipp, Erica; Paul, Alexandra

2012-01-01

71

Screening of crude extracts of six medicinal plants used in South-West Nigerian unorthodox medicine for anti-methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Six Nigerian medicinal plants Terminalia avicennioides, Phylantus discoideus, Bridella ferruginea, Ageratum conyzoides, Ocimum gratissimum and Acalypha wilkesiana used by traditional medical practitioners for the treatment of several ailments of microbial and non-microbial origins were investigated for in vitro anti-methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity. METHODS: Fresh plant materials were collected from the users. Water and ethanol extracts of the

Kabir O Akinyemi; Olukayode Oladapo; Chidi E Okwara; Christopher C Ibe; Kehinde A Fasure

2005-01-01

72

Inorganic profile of some Brazilian medicinal plants obtained from ethanolic extract and ''in natura'' samples  

SciTech Connect

The Anadenathera macrocarpa, Schinus molle, Hymenaea courbaril, Cariniana legalis, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnodendron barbatiman, were collected ''in natura'' samples (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) from different commercial suppliers. The pharmaco-active compounds in ethanolic extracts had been made by the Mato Grosso Federal University (UFMT). The energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometry was used for the elemental analysis in different parts of the plants and respective ethanolic extracts. The Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn concentrations were determined by the fundamental parameters method. Some specimens showed a similar inorganic profile for ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples and some ones showed a distinct inorganic profile. For example, the Anadenathera macrocarpa showed a similar concentration in Mg, P, Cu, Zn and Rb elements in ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples; however very different concentration in Na, S, Cl, K , Ca, Mn, Fe and Sr was observed in distinctive samples. The Solidago microglossa showed the K, Ca, Cl, S, Mg, P and Fe elements as major constituents in both samples, suggesting that the extraction process did not affect in a considerable way the ''in natura'' inorganic composition. The elemental composition of the different parts of the plants (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) has been also determined. For example, the Schinus molle specimen showed P, K, Cl and Ca elements as major constituents in the seeds, Mg, K and Sr in the barks and Mg, S, Cl and Mn in the leaves, demonstrating a differentiated elementary distribution. These inorganic profiles will contribute to evaluate the quality control of the Brazilian herbaceous trade and also will assist to identify which parts of the medicinal plants has greater therapeutic effect.

Ferreira, M.O.M.; de Sousa, P.T.; Salvador, V.L.R.; Sato, I.M.

2004-10-03

73

Effects of extracts of selected medicinal plants upon hepatic oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Aqueous extracts of a few medicinal plants traditionally used in Portugal have been assayed for their effects upon hepatic oxidative stress in mice. Previous in vitro studies had allowed characterization of agrimony, sage, savory, and raspberry in terms of overall antioxidant capacity and phenolic content. In the present study, the antioxidant effect and safety of these four plants were evaluated in vivo. For this purpose, mice ingested extracts in aqueous form (or water, used as the control) for 4 weeks; damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA was evaluated by oxidative cell biomarkers by the end of that period. Levels of hepatic glutathione and activities of enzymes involved in metabolism thereof were also determined. Finally, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were quantified, as these enzymes play a crucial role in antioxidant defense. When compared with the control, both raspberry and savory produced significant lipid protection; however, protein damage was significantly lower only in raspberry-treated animals. On the other hand, DNA damage was prevented only by savory. All plants led to a decrease in catalase activity, whereas all but sage also produced a decrease in SOD activity. With regard to glutathione levels and activities of enzymes involved in its metabolism, the aforementioned extracts exhibited different effects. In general, raspberry appeared to be the most promising extract, followed by savory, sage, and agrimony, sorted by decreasing performance in protection; the latter was even slightly toxic. Hence, the plants tested possess compounds with interesting biological activities that may support eventual inclusion in food or feed as functional additives. PMID:20136446

Gião, M S; Pestana, D; Faria, A; Guimarães, J T; Pintado, M E; Calhau, C; Azevedo, I; Malcata, F X

2010-02-01

74

Induction of apoptosis of human primary osteoclasts treated with extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoclasts (OCs) are involved in rheumatoid arthritis and in several pathologies associated with bone loss. Recent results support the concept that some medicinal plants and derived natural products are of great interest for developing therapeutic strategies against bone disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. In this study we determined whether extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits display activity of possible interest for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis by activating programmed cell death of human primary osteoclasts. Methods The effects of extracts from Emblica officinalis on differentiation and survival of human primary OCs cultures obtained from peripheral blood were determined by tartrate-acid resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positivity and colorimetric MTT assay. The effects of Emblica officinalis extracts on induction of OCs apoptosis were studied using TUNEL and immunocytochemical analysis of FAS receptor expression. Finally, in vitro effects of Emblica officinalis extracts on NF-kB transcription factor activity were determined by gel shift experiments. Results Extracts of Emblica officinalis were able to induce programmed cell death of mature OCs, without altering, at the concentrations employed in our study, the process of osteoclastogenesis. Emblica officinalis increased the expression levels of Fas, a critical member of the apoptotic pathway. Gel shift experiments demonstrated that Emblica officinalis extracts act by interfering with NF-kB activity, a transcription factor involved in osteoclast biology. The data obtained demonstrate that Emblica officinalis extracts selectively compete with the binding of transcription factor NF-kB to its specific target DNA sequences. This effect might explain the observed effects of Emblica officinalis on the expression levels of interleukin-6, a NF-kB specific target gene. Conclusion Induction of apoptosis of osteoclasts could be an important strategy both in interfering with rheumatoid arthritis complications of the bone skeleton leading to joint destruction, and preventing and reducing osteoporosis. Accordingly, we suggest the application of Emblica officinalis extracts as an alternative tool for therapy applied to bone diseases. PMID:18973662

Penolazzi, Letizia; Lampronti, Ilaria; Borgatti, Monica; Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Zennaro, Margherita; Piva, Roberta; Gambari, Roberto

2008-01-01

75

An extract of the medicinal plant Artemisia annua modulates production of inflammatory markers in activated neutrophils  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the ability of a commercial extract from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua to modulate production of the cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and the cyclooxygenase (COX) inflammatory marker, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in activated neutrophils. Methods Neutrophils were harvested from rat whole blood and cultured in the presence of plant extract or control samples. Neutrophils, except unactivated control cells, were activated with 10 ?g/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The cells were cultured with a range of different concentrations of the A. annua extracts (400–1 ?g/mL) and artemisinin (200 and 100 ?g/mL) and the supernatants were then tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the concentrations of TNF-? and PGE2. Each sample was assayed in triplicate. Positive controls with an inhibitor were assayed in triplicate: chloroquine 2.58 and 5.16 ?g/mL for TNF-?, and ibuprofen 400 ?g/mL for PGE2. An unsupplemented group was also assessed in triplicate as a baseline control. Results Neutrophils were stimulated to an inflammatory state by the addition of LPS. A. annua extract significantly inhibited TNF-? production by activated neutrophils in a dose-dependent manner. There was complete inhibition by the A. annua extract at 200, 100, and 50 ?g/mL (all P?0.0003). At A. annua extract concentrations of 25, 10, and 5 ?g/mL, TNF-? production was inhibited by 89% (P<0.0001), 54% (P=0.0002), and 38% (P=0.0014), respectively. A. annua 1 ?g/mL did not significantly inhibit TNF-? production (8.8%; P>0.05). Concentrations of 400, 200, and 100 ?g/mL A. annua extract significantly inhibited PGE2 production by 87% (P=0.0128), 91% (P=0.0017), and 93% (P=0.0114), respectively. Conclusion An extract of A. annua was shown to be a potent inhibitor of TNF-? and a strong inhibitor of PGE2 production in activated neutrophils at the concentrations tested. Further studies are warranted with this promising plant extract. PMID:25609991

Hunt, Sheena; Yoshida, Mayumi; Davis, Catherine EJ; Greenhill, Nicholas S; Davis, Paul F

2015-01-01

76

Molecular dynamics simulations of the interactions of medicinal plant extracts and drugs with lipid bilayer membranes.  

PubMed

Several small drugs and medicinal plant extracts, such as the Indian spice extract curcumin, have a wide range of useful pharmacological properties that cannot be ascribed to binding to a single protein target alone. The lipid bilayer membrane is thought to mediate the effects of many such molecules directly via perturbation of the plasma membrane structure and dynamics, or indirectly by modulating transmembrane protein conformational equilibria. Furthermore, for bioavailability, drugs must interact with and eventually permeate the lipid bilayer barrier on the surface of cells. Biophysical studies of the interactions of drugs and plant extracts are therefore of interest. Molecular dynamics simulations, which can access time and length scales that are not simultaneously accessible by other experimental methods, are often used to obtain quantitative molecular and thermodynamic descriptions of these interactions, often with complementary biophysical measurements. This review considers recent molecular dynamics simulations of small drug-like molecules with membranes, and provides a biophysical description of possible routes of membrane-mediated pharmacological effects of drugs. The review is not exhaustive, and we focus on molecules containing aromatic ring-like structures to develop our hypotheses. We also show that some drugs and anesthetics may have an effect on the lipid bilayer analogous to that of cholesterol. PMID:23590201

Kope?, Wojciech; Telenius, Jelena; Khandelia, Himanshu

2013-06-01

77

Screening of Venezuelan medicinal plant extracts for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines.  

PubMed

There are estimated to be more than 20,000 species of plants in Venezuela, of which more than 1500 are used for medicinal purposes by indigenous and local communities. Only a relatively small proportion of these have been evaluated in terms of their potential as antitumor agents. In this study, we screened 308 extracts from 102 species for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against a panel of six tumor cell lines using a 24-h sulphorhodamine B assay. Extracts from Clavija lancifolia, Hamelia patens, Piper san-vicentense, Physalis cordata, Jacaranda copaia, Heliotropium indicum, and Annona squamosa were the most cytotoxic, whereas other extracts from Calotropis gigantea, Hyptis dilatata, Chromolaena odorata, Siparuna guianensis, Jacaranda obtusifolia, Tapirira guianensis, Xylopia aromatica, Protium heptaphyllum, and Piper arboreum showed the greatest cytostatic activity. These results confirm previous reports on the cytotoxic activities of the above-mentioned plants as well as prompting further studies on others such as C. lancifolia and H. dilatata that have not been so extensively studied. PMID:22648665

Taylor, Peter; Arsenak, Miriam; Abad, María Jesús; Fernández, Angel; Milano, Balentina; Gonto, Reina; Ruiz, Marie-Christine; Fraile, Silvia; Taylor, Sofía; Estrada, Omar; Michelangeli, Fabian

2013-04-01

78

Induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation by medicinal plant extracts  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets high in fruits and vegetables provide a measure of cancer chemoprevention due to phytochemical constituents. Natural products are a rich source of cancer chemotherapy drugs, and primarily target rapidly cycling tumor cells. Increasing evidence indicates that many cancers contain small populations of resistant, stem-like cells that have the capacity to regenerate tumors following chemotherapy and radiation, and have been linked to the initiation of metastases. Our goal is to discover natural product-based clinical or dietary interventions that selectively target cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation. We adapted an alkaline phosphatase (AP) stain to assay plant extracts for the capacity to induce differentiation in embryonic stem (ES) cells. AP is a characteristic marker of undifferentiated ES cells, and this represents a novel approach to screening medicinal plant extracts. Following a survey of approximately 100 fractions obtained from 12 species of ethnomedically utilized plants, we found fractions from 3 species that induced differentiation, decreasing AP and transcript levels of pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct-4, Rex-1). These fractions affected proliferation of murine ES, and human embryonal, prostate, and breast carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Several phytochemical constituents were isolated; the antioxidant phytochemicals ellagic acid and gallic acid were shown to affect viability of cultured breast carcinoma cells.

Reynertson, Kurt A. [Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States) [Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Charlson, Mary E. [Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States) [Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Gudas, Lorraine J., E-mail: ljgudas@med.cornell.edu [Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

2011-01-01

79

Induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation by medicinal plant extracts  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets high in fruits and vegetables provide a measure of cancer chemoprevention due to phytochemical constituents. Natural products are a rich source of cancer chemotherapy drugs, and primarily target rapidly-cycling tumor cells. Increasing evidence indicates that many cancers contain small populations of resistant, stem-like cells that have the capacity to regenerate tumors following chemotherapy and radiation, and have been linked to the initiation of metastases. Our goal is to discover natural product-based clinical or dietary interventions that selectively target cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation. We adapted an alkaline phosphatase (AP) stain to assay plant extracts for the capacity to induce differentiation in embryonic stem (ES) cells. AP is a characteristic marker of undifferentiated ES cells, and this represents a novel approach to screening medicinal plant extracts. Following a survey of approximately 100 fractions obtained from twelve species of ethnomedically utilized plants, we found fractions from three species that induced differentiation, decreasing AP and transcript levels of pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct-4, Rex-1). These fractions affected proliferation of murine ES, and human embryonal, prostate, and breast carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Several phytochemical constituents were isolated; the antioxidant phytochemicals ellagic acid and gallic acid were shown to affect viability of cultured breast carcinoma cells. PMID:20955699

Reynertson, Kurt A.; Charlson, Mary E.; Gudas, Lorraine J.

2010-01-01

80

Aqueous extracts of some medicinal plants are as toxic as Imidacloprid to the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.  

PubMed

Aqueous extracts of nine plants, known to have medicinal activity, were tested for their toxicity against the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Homoptera: Aleurodidae) compared to the toxicity of the insecticide, Imidacloprid. Extracts of Lepidiuim sativum L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) killed 71 % of early stage nymphs, which was not significantly different from mortality caused by Imidacloprid. Treatment of pupae with three plant extracts, L. sativum, Achillea biebersteinii L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), or Retama raetam (Forssk.) Webb and Berthel (Fabales: Fabaceae) prevented adult development, and treatment with R. raetam extract killed adults, at levels that were not significantly different from Imidacloprid. None of the other plants showed significant toxicity. However extracts of four plants, Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), Galium longifolium (Sibth. and SM.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), R. raetam and Ballota undulata Bentham (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) had a repellent effect. PMID:19613450

Ateyyat, Mazen A; Al-Mazra'awi, Mohammad; Abu-Rjai, Talal; Shatnawi, Mohamad A

2009-01-01

81

Aqueous Extracts of Some Medicinal Plants are as Toxic as Lmidacloprid to the Sweet Potato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci  

PubMed Central

Aqueous extracts of nine plants, known to have medicinal activity, were tested for their toxicity against the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Homoptera: Aleurodidae) compared to the toxicity of the insecticide, Imidacloprid. Extracts of Lepidiuim sativum L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) killed 71 % of early stage nymphs, which was not significantly different from mortality caused by Imidacloprid. Treatment of pupae with three plant extracts, L. sativum, Achillea biebersteinii L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), or Retama raetam (Forssk.) Webb and Berthel (Fabales: Fabaceae) prevented adult development, and treatment with R. raetam extract killed adults, at levels that were not significantly different from Imidacloprid. None of the other plants showed significant toxicity. However extracts of four plants, Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), Galium longifolium (Sibth. and SM.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), R. raetam and Ballota undulata Bentham (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) had a repellent effect. PMID:19613450

Ateyyat, Mazen A.; Al-Mazra'awi, Mohammad; Abu-Rjai, Talal; Shatnawi, Mohamad A.

2009-01-01

82

In vitro antiviral activity of plant extracts from Asteraceae medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Background Due to the high prevalence of viral infections having no specific treatment and the constant appearance of resistant viral strains, the development of novel antiviral agents is essential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiviral activity against bovine viral diarrhea virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), poliovirus type 2 (PV-2) and vesicular stomatitis virus of organic (OE) and aqueous extracts (AE) from: Baccharis gaudichaudiana, B. spicata, Bidens subalternans, Pluchea sagittalis, Tagetes minuta and Tessaria absinthioides. A characterization of the antiviral activity of B. gaudichaudiana OE and AE and the bioassay-guided fractionation of the former and isolation of one active compound is also reported. Methods The antiviral activity of the OE and AE of the selected plants was evaluated by reduction of the viral cytopathic effect. Active extracts were then assessed by plaque reduction assays. The antiviral activity of the most active extracts was characterized by evaluating their effect on the pretreatment, the virucidal activity and the effect on the adsorption or post-adsorption period of the viral cycle. The bioassay-guided fractionation of B. gaudichaudiana OE was carried out by column chromatography followed by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography fractionation of the most active fraction and isolation of an active compound. The antiviral activity of this compound was also evaluated by plaque assay. Results B. gaudichaudiana and B. spicata OE were active against PV-2 and VSV. T. absinthioides OE was only active against PV-2. The corresponding three AE were active against HSV-1. B. gaudichaudiana extracts (OE and AE) were the most selective ones with selectivity index (SI) values of 10.9 (PV-2) and >117 (HSV-1). For this reason, both extracts of B. gaudichaudiana were selected to characterize their antiviral effects. Further bioassay-guided fractionation of B. gaudichaudiana OE led to an active fraction, FC (EC50=3.1 ?g/ml; SI= 37.9), which showed antiviral activity during the first 4 h of the viral replication cycle of PV-2 and from which the flavonoid apigenin (EC50 = 12.2 ± 3.3 ?M) was isolated as a major compound. Conclusions The results showed that, among the species studied, B. gaudichaudiana seemed to be the most promising species as a source of antiviral agents. PMID:23890410

2013-01-01

83

Cytostatic Activity of Peptide Extracts of Medicinal Plants on Transformed A549, H1299, and HeLa Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological activity of peptide extracts of medicinal plants was studied on transformed non-small-cell lung carcinoma A549\\u000a cells, lung cancer H1299 cells, and cervical cancer HeLa cells at various cell densities. Cell survival and proliferation\\u000a were evaluated 72 h after treatment with extracts in concentrations of 0.05, 0.25, and 0.5 ?g\\/?l. The cytostatic effect was\\u000a produced by peptide extracts of Camelia sinesis Kuntze,

I. I. Tepkeeva; V. N. Aushev; I. B. Zborovskaya; V. P. Demushkin

2009-01-01

84

Anti-plasmodial activity of some Kenyan medicinal plant extracts singly and in combination with chloroquine.  

PubMed

Sixty organic and aqueous extracts of eleven plants used for the control of malaria by local communities in Kisii District, Kenya were screened for in vitro anti-plasmodial activity. The plants selection was based on existing ethnobotanical information and interviews with local communities. The extracts were tested against chloroquine sensitive and resistant laboratory adapted strains of Plasmodium falciparum. The study revealed that 63.6% of the plants were active (IC50 < or = 100 microg/mL). Extracts of four plants, Ekebergia capensis, Stephania abyssinica, Ajuga remota and Clerodendrum myricoides gave IC50 values below 30 microg/mL against both chloroquine sensitive and resistant P. falciparum strains. Combination of extracts of E. capensis and C. myricoides with chloroquine against the multi-drug resistant P. falciparum isolate (V1/S) revealed synergistic effect. The plants which showed activity may be useful as sources for novel anti-plasmodial compounds. PMID:15173997

Muregi, F W; Chhabra, S C; Njagi, E N M; Lang'at-Thoruwa, C C; Njue, W M; Orago, A S S; Omar, S A; Ndiege, I O

2004-05-01

85

Phytochemical attributes of four conventionally extracted medicinal plants and cytotoxic evaluation of their extracts on human laryngeal carcinoma (HEp2) cells.  

PubMed

The bioactive composition and cytotoxic and antioxidative/prooxidative effects of four medicinal plants: yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha L.), ground ivy (Glechoma hederacea L.), and olive (Olea europea L.) on human laryngeal carcinoma cell line (HEp2) were investigated. Water extracts of these plants obtained by infusion, maceration, and decoction were characterized for their polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. Based on the extraction efficiency of polyphenols, the final extracts were obtained whose polyphenolic profile, polysaccharides, mineral content, and cytoprotective activities were determined. The overall highest content of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity was determined in hawthorn, followed by yarrow and ground ivy, and the lowest in olive leaves extract. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenolic acids, as the most abundant bioactive compounds, followed by flavonoids, flavons, and flavonols. All examined medicinal plants reduced the cell viability and reactive oxygen species formation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Ground ivy and yarrow containing a high content of phenolic acids and polysaccharides were more efficient to decrease the cell survival when compared to olive leaf and hawthorn. Experiments confirmed the importance of polyphenolic composition rather than content of investigated plants and revealed a relationship between the polyphenolic and polysaccharide contents and antioxidant/prooxidant characters of medicinal plants. PMID:24325458

Belš?ak-Cvitanovi?, Ana; Durgo, Ksenija; Buši?, Arijana; Franeki?, Jasna; Komes, Draženka

2014-02-01

86

In vitro anthelmintic activity of crude extracts of selected medicinal plants against Haemonchus contortus from sheep.  

PubMed

Ethanol extracts of 25 plant species were screened for anthelmintic effects against Haemonchus contortus. Ethanol extracts of each plant were used at various concentrations (10, 20 and 30%) to treat 10-day faecal cultures, incubated at 27°C with control cultures which were treated with ethanol for 48 h. Five plants with high efficacies (Ananas comosus, Aloe ferox, Allium sativum, Lespedeza cuneata and Warburgia salutaris) were selected from the first screening for further investigation using ethanol, dichloromethane and water extracts at four concentrations (2.5, 5, 10 and 20%). Ethanol was the most effective solvent. Larval counts decreased with increasing extract concentrations, of which 10 and 20% had similar effects. Lespedeza cuneata caused more than 70% mortality at all concentrations. However, there remains a need to assess in vivo efficacy of these plants. PMID:22449714

Ahmed, M; Laing, M D; Nsahlai, I V

2013-06-01

87

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS GROWN IN EASTERN ETHIOPIA  

E-print Network

The aim of my research was to screen secondary metabolites and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of the leaves Vernonia amygdalina and Plantago lanceolata, and acetone extracts of the leaves Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus schimperi against two bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) and two fungi (Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum) using paper disc diffusion method. Phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins, phenolic compounds, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides and triterpenes in the plants investigated. The plant extracts were found to be more effective on bacteria than fungi. The bioassay has indicated that the inhibition effect of the extracts was proportional to the concentration. The acetone leaf extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis possess higher antibacterial properties than Vernonia amygdalina, Plantago lanceolata and Thymus schimperi. Phytochemical investigation results showed that the highest antibacterial potential of Rosmarinus officinalis may be attributed to flavonoids, phenolic compounds and triterpenes.

Kesatebrhan Haile Asressu

88

Biological screening of some Turkish medicinal plant extracts for antimicrobial and toxicity activities.  

PubMed

Screening of antibacterial activity and toxicity of 22 aqueous plant extracts from 17 Turkish plants was conducted. Antibacterial activity was performed with six bacteria including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Extracts of Tussilago farfara leaves, Helichyrsum plicatum flowers, Solanum dulcamara aerial parts and Urtica dioica leaves gave the best inhibitory activity against S. pyogenes, S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Of the 22 plant extracts, 20 extracts displayed toxicity (LC50 was <1000 mg L(-1)) in the brine shrimp bioassay. For radish seed bioassay, two different determinations (root length and seed germination) were performed with a comparison between two concentrations (50,000 mg L(-1) and 10,000 mg L(-1)). At low concentration (10,000 mg L(-1)), S. dulcamara aerial parts and Primula vulgaris leaf extracts were observed to inhibit the root length more than the other plant extracts. Also, the most inhibitive plant extract for seed germination was obtained with S. dulcamara aerial parts. PMID:18075897

Turker, A U; Usta, C

2008-01-20

89

In vitro antibacterial activity of some Iranian medicinal plant extracts against Helicobacter pylori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helicobacter pylori infection causes lifelong chronic gastritis, which can lead to peptic ulcer, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and gastric cancer. The growing problem of antibiotic resistance by the organism demands the search for novel candidates from plant-based sources. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro anti-H. pylori activity of some selected medicinal plants on clinical isolates of H.

M. Hajimahmoodi; M. Shams-Ardakani; P. Saniee; F. Siavoshi; M. Mehrabani; H. Hosseinzadeh; P. Foroumadi; M. Safavi; M. Khanavi; T. Akbarzadeh; A. Shafiee; A. Foroumadi

2011-01-01

90

Cytotoxic and Antiviral Activities of Colombian Medicinal Plant Extracts of the Euphorbia genus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-seven plant extracts of 10 species of the genus Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) used by Colombian tradi- tional healers for the treatment of ulcers, cancers, tumors, warts, and other diseases, were tested in vitro for their potential antitumour (antiproliferative and cytotoxic) and antiherpetic activity. To evaluate the capacity of the extracts to inhibit the lytic activity of herpes simplex virus type 2

LA Betancur-Galvis; GE Morales; JE Forero; J Roldan

2002-01-01

91

Effect of oil extracted from some medicinal plants on different mycotoxigenic fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils of 12 medicinal plants were tested for inhibitory activity against Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and Fusarium moniliforme. The oils of thyme and cinnamon (?500 ppm), marigold (?2000 ppm), spearmint, basil, quyssum (3000 ppm) completely inhibit all the test fungi. Caraway was inhibitory at 2000 ppm against A. flavus, A. parasiticus and 3000 ppm against A. ochraceaus

K. M Soliman; R. I Badeaa

2002-01-01

92

Screening of 70 medicinal plant extracts for antioxidant capacity and total phenols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total phenolic content and related total antioxidant capacity of 70 medicinal plant infusions was analyzed. Infusions were prepared in common way in which teas are prepared for human consumption. The total phenolics were measured by Folin–Ciocalteau assay. The total antioxidant capacity was estimated by Ferric Reducing\\/Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay. To make practical comparison of relative antioxidant potential of phenolics

V. Katalinic; M. Milos; T. Kulisic; M. Jukic

2006-01-01

93

Efficacy of Aqueous and Methanol Extracts of Some Medicinal Plants for Potential Antibacterial Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve medicinal plants were screened, namely Abrus precatorius L., Caesalpinia pulcherrima Swartz., Cardiospermum halicacabum L., Casuarina equisetifolia L., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Delonix regia L., Euphorbia hirta L., Euphorbia tirucalli L., Ficus benghalensis L., Gmelina asiatica L., Santalum album L., and Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem, for potential antibacterial activity against 5 medically important bacterial strains, namely Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633, Staphylococcus

Jigna PAREKH; Darshana JADEJA; Sumitra CHANDA

2005-01-01

94

Inhibition of advanced glycation end product formation by medicinal plant extracts correlates with phenolic metabolites and antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

Nonenzymatic formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is accelerated under hyperglycemic conditions characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus and contributes to the development of vascular complications. As such, inhibition of AGE formation represents a potential therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications. In the present study, ethanolic extracts of 17 medicinal plants were assessed for inhibitory effects on in vitro AGE formation through fluorometric and immunochemical detection of fluorescent AGEs and N(?)-(carboxymethyl)lysine adducts of albumin (CML-BSA), respectively. Most extracts inhibited fluorescent AGE formation with IC (50) values ranging from 0.4 to 38.6 µg/mL and all extracts reduced CML-BSA formation but to differing degrees. Results obtained through both methods were highly correlated. Antiglycation activities were positively correlated with total phenolic content, free radical scavenging activity and reduction in malonyldiadehyde levels following oxidation of low-density lipoprotein, but negatively correlated with lag time to formation of conjugated dienes. Together, these results provide evidence that antioxidant phenolic metabolites mediate the antiglycation activity of our medicinal plant collection, a relationship that likely extends to other medicinal and food plants. PMID:20717877

Harris, Cory S; Beaulieu, Louis-Philippe; Fraser, Marie-Hélène; McIntyre, Kristina L; Owen, Patrick L; Martineau, Louis C; Cuerrier, Alain; Johns, Timothy; Haddad, Pierre S; Bennett, Steffany A L; Arnason, John T

2011-01-01

95

Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts and isolated compound epicatechin from Ricinus communis against Paramphistomum cervi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacies of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol leaf\\u000a extracts of Euphorbia hirta L., Psidium guajava L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum trilobatum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest parasite\\u000a mortality was

Abdul Abduz Zahir; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Asokan Bagavan; Kannappan Geetha; Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Gandhi Elango

96

Insecticidal and repellent activities of medicinal plant extracts against the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hom.: Aleyrodidae) and its parasitoid Eretmocerus mundus (Hym.: Aphelinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity and repellent activities of aqueous extracts of nine medicinal plants were evaluated on different life stages of\\u000a the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Tomato plants infested with whiteflies were dipped in 10% (wt\\/wt) of each plant extract for toxicity evaluation. Repellency\\u000a was evaluated in a choice experiment with detached tomato leaves. All extracts evaluated were relatively ineffective against\\u000a the

Mohammad S. Al-mazra’awi; Mazen Ateyyat

2009-01-01

97

Antiproliferative Activity of Plant Extracts Used Against Cancer in Traditional Medicine  

PubMed Central

Forty four extracts from sixteen plants used traditionally as anticancer agents were evaluated in vitro for their antiproliferative activity against Hep-2, MCF-7, and Vero cell lines. Plants were fractionated using ethanol, methanol, chloroform, n-hexane, distilled water, and butanol. The antiproliferative activity was measured by MTT assay. TLC was used to identify active fractions. The apoptotic activity of active fractions was determined using TUNEL colorimetric assay. 20 of these extracts demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity against one or more of the cell lines. These extracts were prepared from Ononis hirta, Inula viscosa, Salvia pinardi, Verbascum sinaiticum and Ononis sicula. Methanol fractions of Ononis hirta (aerial parts) and Inula viscosa (flowers) were the most active fractions against MCF-7 cells with IC50 of 27.96 and 15.78 ?g/ml respectively and they were less toxic against other cell lines. Other extracts showed lower activity against cancer cell lines. TLC analysis showed the presence of flavonoids and terpenoids in active plants while alkaloids were detected in Ononis hirta (aerial parts) extracts. Ononis hirta (aerial parts) and Inula viscosa (flowers) extracts exerted their antiproliferative activity by inducing apoptosis in cancer cell lines. Further studies are necessary for detailed chemical characterization and more extensive biological evaluation of the most active ingredients. PMID:21179373

Talib, Wamidh H.; Mahasneh, Adel M.

2010-01-01

98

Cytostatic activity of peptide extracts of medicinal plants on transformed A549, H1299, and HeLa Cells.  

PubMed

Biological activity of peptide extracts of medicinal plants was studied on transformed non-small-cell lung carcinoma A549 cells, lung cancer H1299 cells, and cervical cancer HeLa cells at various cell densities. Cell survival and proliferation were evaluated 72 h after treatment with extracts in concentrations of 0.05, 0.25, and 0.5 microg/microl. The cytostatic effect was produced by peptide extracts of Camelia sinesis Kuntze, Inonotus obliquus, and a mixture Inula helenium L., Chelidonium majus L., Equisetum arvense L., and Inonotus obliquus. Peptide extracts of Hypericum perforatum L. and Laurus nobilis L. in the same concentrations had no effects on proliferative activity and growth of tumor cells. PMID:19526129

Tepkeeva, I I; Aushev, V N; Zborovskaya, I B; Demushkin, V P

2009-01-01

99

Effects of extracts from Italian medicinal plants on planktonic growth, biofilm formation and adherence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

One-third of botanical remedies from southern Italy are used to treat skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). Staphylococcus aureus, a common cause of SSTI, has generated increasing concern due to drug resistance. Many plants possess antimicrobial agents and provide effective remedies for SSTI. Our aim was to investigate plants from different ethnobotanical usage groups for inhibition of growth and biofilms in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Three groups were assessed: plant remedies for SSTI, plant remedies not involving the skin, and plants with no ethnomedical application. We screened 168 extracts, representing 104 botanical species, for activity against MRSA (ATCC 33593). We employed broth dilution methods to determine the MIC after 18 hours growth using an optical density (OD600nm) reading. Anti-biofilm effects were assessed by growing biofilms for 40 hours, then fixing and staining with crystal violet. After washing, 10% Tween 80 was added and OD570nm readings were taken. Extracts from 10 plants exhibited an IC50 ?32 ?g/ml for biofilm inhibition: Lonicera alpigena, Castanea sativa, Juglans regia, Ballota nigra, Rosmarinus officinalis, Leopoldia comosa, Malva sylvestris, Cyclamen hederifolium, Rosa canina, and Rubus ulmifolius. Limited bacteriostatic activity was evident. The anti-biofilm activity of medicinal plants was significantly greater than plants without any ethnomedical applications. PMID:18556162

Quave, Cassandra L.; Plano, Lisa R.W.; Pantuso, Traci; Bennett, Bradley C.

2008-01-01

100

Phenolic characterization and antimicrobial activity of folk medicinal plant extracts for their applications in olive production.  

PubMed

Phytophthora spp is important in plant pathology due to the importance of the diseases it causes. In olive trees, severe damages are caused by the disease known as "dry branch" occasioned by Phytophthora nicotianae, P. citrophthora and P. palmivora. Much effort has been made to find efficient methods of control, with a low negative impact on environment. In this regard, treatment with plant extracts is a valid strategy. The aims of the present study are (i) to determine the polyphenol composition of extracts of Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Matricaria recutita, and Larrea divaricata by CZE, (ii) correlate the analytical composition of these extracts with the inhibition on the mycelial growth, and (iii) determine the individual antimicrobial activity of the most active ingredients. A simple methodology was developed for the determination of catechin, naringenin, cinnamic acid, syringic acid, chlorogenic acid, apigenin, vanillic acid, luteolin, quercetin, and caffeic acid in plant extracts by CZE. The extraction of phenolic compounds in extract was performed by a miniaturized solid phase extraction using a home-made minicolumn packed with suitable filtering material (C18 , 50 mg). The optimized analyses conditions were: 30 mM boric acid buffer, pH 9.50; capillary, 57 cm full length, 50 cm effective length, 75 ?m id, hydrodynamic injection 30 mbar, 2 s; 25 kV; 25°C, detection by UV absorbance at 290 nm. Sample results suggest that phenolic composition seems to have a great influence on inhibition of pathogens. The highest inhibitions of mycelial growth were observed for cinnamic acid and naringenin. PMID:24668423

Boiteux, Joana; Soto Vargas, Carolina; Pizzuolo, Pablo; Lucero, Gabriela; Silva, María Fernanda

2014-06-01

101

Total phenolics concentration and antioxidant potential of extracts of medicinal plants of Pakistan.  

PubMed

Thirty-seven plant organs, traditionally used as drugs, collected in Pakistan, were extracted with 70% acetone and analyzed for their total phenolics concentration and antioxidant potential. Seven extracts showed more than 85% inhibition of lipid peroxidation in vitro as compared with blank. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (IC50 = 233.6 microg/l +/- 28.3) was the strongest antioxidant in our test system. The IC50 results indicate that the extracts of Nymphaea lotus L. flowers, Acacia nilotica (Linn.) Delile beans, Terminalia belerica Roxb. fruits, and Terminalia chebula Retz. (fruits, brown) were stronger antioxidants than alpha-tocopherol, while Terminalia chebula Retz. (fruit coat), Terminalia chebula Retz. (fruits, black) and Ricinus communis L. leaves were weaker antioxidant extracts than alpha-tocopherol and BHT. Total phenolics concentration, expressed as gallic acid equivalents, showed close correlation with the antioxidant activity. High performance liquid chromatographic analysis with diode array detection at 280 nm, of the seven extracts indicated the presence of hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonol aglycones and their glycosides as main phenolics compounds. This information, based on quick screening methods, enables us to proceed towards more detailed chemical and pharmacological understanding of these plant materials. PMID:11837686

Saleem, A; Ahotupa, M; Pihlaja, K

2001-01-01

102

Screening of Indonesian medicinal plant extracts for antibabesial activity and isolation of new quassinoids from Brucea javanica.  

PubMed

Boiled extracts derived from 28 Indonesian medicinal plants were screened for their antibabesial activity against Babesia gibsoni in vitro. Of these extracts, the fruit of Brucea javanica was the most active in inhibiting parasite growth at a concentration of 10 microg/mL. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the fruit extract of Br. javanica led to the isolation of two new quassinoids, bruceantinol B and bruceine J, and the structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic data and by chemical transformation to known compounds. In addition, the known quassinoids bruceines A-D, bruceantinol, and yadanziolide A were isolated. Antibabesial activities were also examined in vitro, and bruceine A and bruceantinol were shown to be more potent than diminazene aceturate, a drug (IC50 = 103 ng/mL) used clinically against B. gibsoni, with IC50 values of 4 and 12 ng/mL, respectively. PMID:17896817

Subeki; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Kosaku; Nabeta, Kensuke; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maede, Yoshimitsu; Katakura, Ken

2007-10-01

103

In vitro antiplasmodial activity of extracts and fractions from seven medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo.  

PubMed

The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of seven EtOH extracts and twenty fractions from the partition of the initial ethanolic extracts from seven African medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo) for the treatment of malaria was evaluated. The most active EtOH extracts (IC50 < 3 microg/ml) were those from Cassia occidentalis leaves, Euphorbia hirta whole plant, Garcinia kola stem bark and Phyllanthus niruri whole plant. Their respective petroleum ether soluble fractions also exhibited an antiplasmodial activity with IC50 < 3 microg/ml. EtOH extracts from Vernonia amygdalina leaves (5 < IC50 < 10 microg/ml), Tetracera poggei leaves (10 < IC50 < 50 microg/ml) and Morinda morindoides leaves (50 < IC50 < 100 microg/ml) were less active, but their petroleum ether fractions exhibited a pronounced antiplasmodial activity (IC50 < 3 microg/ml). The same observation could also be made for the petroleum ether fraction from Cassia occidentalis, Euphorbia hirta, Garcinia kola and Phyllanthus niruri. Isoamyl alcohol fractions from Euphorbia hirta, Phyllanthus niruri and Vernonia amygdalina showed IC50) values less than 3 microg/ml, and from Cassia occidentalis, Garcinia kola, Morinda morindoides and Tetracera poggei between 10 and 50 microg/ml. The observed antiplasmodial activity may be related to the presence of terpenes, steroids, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, xanthones and anthraquinones. PMID:15182900

Tona, L; Cimanga, R K; Mesia, K; Musuamba, C T; De Bruyne, T; Apers, S; Hernans, N; Van Miert, S; Pieters, L; Totté, J; Vlietinck, A J

2004-07-01

104

Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts and isolated compound epicatechin from Ricinus communis against Paramphistomum cervi.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacies of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol leaf extracts of Euphorbia hirta L., Psidium guajava L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum trilobatum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest parasite mortality was found in the methanol extract of R. communis. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of methanol extract of R. communis led to the separation and identification of epicatechin as a potential new compound (LC(50) = 31.2; LC(90) = 105.0 ppm) against P. cervi. The structures were established from infrared, ultraviolet, (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C-NMR, and mass spectral data which confirmed the identification of the compound epicatechin from R. communis. Results of this study showed that the methanol extract of R. communis may be considered as a potent source and epicatechin as a new natural parasitic agent. PMID:21842382

Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Geetha, Kannappan; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi

2012-10-01

105

Multivariate optimization of cloud point extraction procedure for zinc determination in aqueous extracts of medicinal plants by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

Cloud point extraction method has been developed for preconcentration of trace quantities of zinc (Zn) in aqueous extract of medicinal plants and blood samples of liver cancer patients using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Zn in aqueous extracts of medicinal plants (MPs) was complexed with 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (quinaldine) and 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) separately and entrapped in a non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114. After centrifugation, the surfactant-rich phase was diluted with 0.25mL acidic ethyl alcohol. The multivariate strategy was applied to estimate the optimum values of experimental variables (pH, time temperature, ligands and surfactant concentrations). Interactions between analytical factors and their optimal levels were investigated by two level factorial designs. Student's t-test on the results of factorial design with 16 runs for Zn extraction, demonstrated that the factors, ligands concentrations, pH and temperature were statistically significant. The accuracy was assessed by analysis of certified reference materials, namely, BCR 101 (spruce needles), Clincheck control-lyophilized human whole blood. Enhancement factor of 30 and 26 were achieved for the preconcentration of Zn by 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (L1) and 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (L2), respectively. The relative standard deviation for six replicate determinations of Zn at 10?g/L level using 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (L1) and 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (L2) were <4% and >5%, respectively. PMID:21756961

Kolachi, N F; Kazi, T G; Khan, S; Wadhwa, S K; Baig, J A; Afridi, H I; Shah, A Q; Shah, F

2011-10-01

106

Membrane stability of sickle erythrocytes incubated in extracts of three medicinal plants: Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa  

PubMed Central

Background: Many reports showed that medicinal plant extracts cause alterations on the shape and physiology of erythrocytes. Objective: The present study seeks to ascertain the osmotic stability of sickle erythrocytes incubated in aqueous extracts of Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa. Materials and Methods: The fraction of erythrocytes lysed when suspended in saline solution of varying concentrations was investigated by spectrophotometric method. The percentage hemolysis of erythrocytes in the control and test samples showed a sigmoidal relationship with increasing concentrations of saline solution. Membrane stability was ascertained as mean corpuscular fragility (MCF) index of erythrocytes incubated in 400 and 800 mg/dL aqueous concentrations of the three plant extracts. Results: The two experimental concentrations of P. guajava and T. catappa protected the erythrocytes against osmotic stress, as evidenced by decreases in the values of MCF compared with the control sample (P < 0.05). However, 800 mg/dL of A. occidentale promoted significant (P < 0.05) distabilization of sickle erythrocytes. Conclusion: Whereas the two experimental concentrations of aqueous extracts of P. guajava and T. catappa stabilized erythrocyte membrane, higher concentration (800 mg/dL) of A. occidentale exhibited no membrane protective effect. PMID:21716621

Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Uwakwe, Augustine Amadikwa

2011-01-01

107

Antioxidant extracts of African medicinal plants induce cell cycle arrest and differentiation in B16F10 melanoma cells.  

PubMed

African ethnomedicine is essentially based on the traditional use of vegetal extracts. Since these natural drugs have shown health giving properties, in the present study we increased further the scientific basis supporting these data. We investigated the effects, on murine B16F10 melanoma cells, of plant extracts that were directly obtained by a Cameroon 'traditional healer'. After a preliminary study on the antioxidant functions of these compounds, already abundant in literature, Moringa oleifera Lam., Eremomastax speciosa (Hochst.) Cufod and Aframomum melegueta K. Schum extracts were individually analyzed. We performed laboratory assessments on these medicinal preparations in order to clearly demonstrate their antineoplastic features. All the treatments caused in tumor cells a great reduction in growth and proliferation rate, cell cycle arrest, increase of p53, p21WAF1/Cip1 and p27Kip1 protein levels and induction of differentiation. These results, on the bioactivity and the biochemical characteristics of African plant extracts, may increase the comprehension of indigenous therapeutic practices and represent the first step for the individuation of new inexpensive and natural drugs able to prevent and contrast cancer onset. PMID:23817892

Gismondi, Angelo; Canuti, Lorena; Impei, Stefania; Di Marco, Gabriele; Kenzo, Maurice; Colizzi, Vittorio; Canini, Antonella

2013-09-01

108

An Extract from the Medicinal Plant Phyllanthus acidus and Its Isolated Compounds Induce Airway Chloride Secretion: A Potential Treatment for Cystic Fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to previous reports, flavonoids and nutraceuticals correct defective electrolyte transport in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways. Traditional medicinal plants from China and Thailand contain phytoflavonoids and other bioactive compounds. We examined herbal extracts of the common Thai medicinal eu- phorbiaceous plant Phyllanthus acidus for their potential effects on epithelial transport. Functional assays by Ussing chamber, patch-clamping, double-electrode voltage-clamp and Ca2

Marisa Sousa; Jiraporn Ousingsawat; Roswitha Seitz; Supaporn Puntheeranurak; A. Regalado; A. Schmidt; T. Grego; C. Jansakul; M. D. Amaral; R. Schreiber; K. Kunzelmann

2006-01-01

109

Cytotoxicity and Modes of Action of the Methanol Extracts of Six Cameroonian Medicinal Plants against Multidrug-Resistant Tumor Cells  

PubMed Central

Introduction. The present study aims at evaluating the cytotoxicity of twelve parts from six Cameroonian medicinal plants on sensitive and drug-resistant cancer cell lines. We also studied the mode of action of the most active plants, Gladiolus quartinianus, Vepris soyauxii, and Anonidium mannii. Methods. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was determined using a resazurin assay. Flow cytometry was used for cell-cycle analysis and detection of apoptosis, analysis of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Results. At 40?g/mL, three extracts showed a growth of CCRF-CEM leukemia cells by less than 50%. This includes the extracts from G. quartinianus (GQW; 25.69%), Vepris soyauxii leaves (VSL; 29.82%), and Anonidium mannii leaves (AML; 31.58%). The lowest IC50 values below 30??g/mL were obtained with GQW, AML and VSL against 7/9, 8/9, and 9/9 tested cancer cell lines, respectively. The lowest IC50 values for each plant were 4.09??g/mL, and 9.14??g/mL (against U87MG.?EGFR cells), respectively, for VSL and AML and 10.57??g/mL (against CCRF-CEM cells) for GQW. GQW induced cell cycle arrest between G0/G1 and S phases, whilst VSL and AML induced arrest in G0/G1. All three extracts induced apoptosis in CCRF-CEM cells by loss of MMP, whilst AML also enhanced production of ROS. Conclusion. The three active plants may be a source for the development of new anticancer drugs. PMID:24174974

Kuete, Victor; Fankam, Aimé G.; Efferth, Thomas

2013-01-01

110

Medicines and Drugs from Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural preparations have been used for thousands of ages for a variety of purposes including as medicines, poisons, and psychotropic drugs. The largest grouped of preparations from living organisms are medicines, and historically these have come from plants. Quinine and aspirin are two examples of medicines which were extracted originally from plants. Mind-altering, or psychotropic, drugs come mostly from plants or fungi. In many traditional cultures, sickness and death are attributed to maligned spirits so that medicine and religion become inseparable. Uses of cohohba, snakeplant, coca, and peyote are discussed. The process by which new pharmaceuticals are discovered from natural products is described. The implications of an agreement between a major pharmaceutical company and a country in the tropics are discussed.

Agosta, William C.

1997-07-01

111

Effect of oil extracted from some medicinal plants on different mycotoxigenic fungi.  

PubMed

Essential oils of 12 medicinal plants were tested for inhibitory activity against Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and Fusarium moniliforme. The oils of thyme and cinnamon (< or = 500 ppm), marigold (< or = 2000 ppm), spearmint, basil, quyssum (3000 ppm) completely inhibit all the test fungi. Caraway was inhibitory at 2000 ppm against A. flavus, A. parasiticus and 3000 ppm against A. ochraceaus and F. moniliforme. A. flavus, A. ochraceus, A. parasiticus and F. moniliforme were completely inhibited by anise at< or = 500 ppm. However, chamomile and hazanbul at all concentrations were partially effective against the test toxigenic fungi. The results indicate that the test toxigenic fungi are sensitive to the 12 essential oils, and particularly sensitive to thyme and cinnamon. The results also showed that the essential oils of thyme, cinnamon, anise and spearmint have more effect on fungal development and subsequent mycotoxin production in wheat grains. The extent of inhibition of fungal growth and mycotoxin production was dependent on the concentration of essential oils used. PMID:12176092

Soliman, K M; Badeaa, R I

2002-11-01

112

Bioactive Markers Based Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Extracts of a Traditional Medicinal Plant, Piper sarmentosum  

PubMed Central

In vitro assays are economical and easy to perform but to establish relevance of their results to real clinical outcome in animals or human, pharmacokinetics is prerequisite. Despite various in vitro pharmacological activities of extracts of Piper sarmentosum, there is no report of pharmacokinetics. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate ethanol extract of fruit of the plant in dose of 500?mg kg?1 orally for pharmacokinetics. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into groups 1, 2, and 3 (each n = 6) to study absorption, distribution and excretion, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection was applied to quantify pellitorine, sarmentine and sarmentosine in plasma, tissues, feces and urine to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Pellitorine exhibited maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) 34.77?ng?mL?1 ± 1.040, time to achieve Cmax (Tmax) 8?h, mean resident time (MRT) 26.00 ± 0.149?h and half life (t1/2) 18.64 ± 1.65?h. Sarmentine showed Cmax 191.50 ± 12.69?ng mL?1, Tmax 6?h, MRT 11.12 ± 0.44?h and t1/2 10.30 ± 1.98?h. Sarmentosine exhibited zero oral bioavailability because it was neither detected in plasma nor in tissues, and in urine. Pellitorine was found to be distributed in intestinal wall, liver, lungs, kidney, and heart, whereas sarmentine was found only in intestinal wall and heart. The cumulative excretion of pellitorine, sarmentine and sarmentosine in feces in 72?h was 0.0773, 0.976, and 0.438??g, respectively. This study shows that pellitorine and sarmentine have good oral bioavailability while sarmentosine is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:19770264

Hussain, Khalid; Ismail, Zhari; Sadikun, Amirin; Ibrahim, Pazillah

2011-01-01

113

TRIBAL MEDICINAL PLANTS OF CHITTOOR  

PubMed Central

Medicinal plants used in tribal medicine from chittoor district have been surveyed and documented systematically. The paper deals with 202 medicinal plants, indexed along with important tribal applications for the cure of various ailments. PMID:22556807

Vedavathy, S.; Sudhakar, A.; Mrdula, V.

1997-01-01

114

Proliferative effects of five traditional Nigerian medicinal plant extracts on human breast and bone cancer cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevanceThe medicinal plants Hunteria umbellata (HUL), Cola lepidota (CCL), Persea americana leaf (PAL), Root bark of Persea americana (RPA) and Plukenetia conophora (PCL) are used in Nigerian traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer and cancer related diseases.

N. Engel; C. Oppermann; A. Falodun; U. Kragl

2011-01-01

115

In vitro antibacterial activity of medicinal plant extracts against Escherichia coli strains from human clinical specimens and interactions with antimicrobial drugs.  

PubMed

The biological properties of medicinal plants have been documented worldwide for many centuries. We aimed to evaluate interactions between crude extracts from Psidium guajava, Zingiber officinale, Cymbopogon citratus, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Mikania glomerata and Allium sativum samples and antimicrobial drugs against Escherichia coli strains. The susceptibility test performed was disc diffusion, and crude extracts were diluted (%v/v) into Müller-Hinton agar (MHA) at one quarter of the minimal inhibitory concentration for 90% (MIC(90%)) of E. coli strains found previously. Synergistic interactions were observed between C. citratus and polymyxin, and A. sativum extracts and gentamicin. The crude A. sativum extract was the only one that did not show any antagonism with the antimicrobial drugs. The results thus showed the potential use of these medicinal plants against E. coli strains, although antagonism with antimicrobial drugs is a negative aspect in the combined therapy of infectious diseases caused by E. coli. PMID:22011190

Ushimaru, P I; Barbosa, L N; Fernandes, A A H; Di Stasi, L C; Fernandes, A

2012-01-01

116

Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Extracts from Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Eremomastax speciosa, Carica papaya and Polyscias fulva Medicinal Plants Collected in Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background The vast majority of the population around the world has always used medicinal plants as first source of health care to fight infectious and non infectious diseases. Most of these medicinal plants may have scientific evidence to be considered in general practice. Objective The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of leaves of Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa and the stem bark of Polyscias fulva, collected in Cameroon. Methods Chemiluminescence was used to analyze the antioxidant activities of plant extracts against hydrogen peroxide or superoxide anion. Comet assays were used to analyze the protection against antioxidant-induced DNA damage induced in white blood cells after treating with hydrogen peroxide. Flow cytometry was used to measure ?? T cells proliferation and anti-inflammatory activity of ?? T cells and of immature dendritic cells (imDC) in the presence of different concentrations of plant extracts. Results Ethanol extracts showed strong antioxidant properties against both hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. Cassia alata showed the highest antioxidant activity. The effect of plant extracts on ?? T cells and imDC was evidenced by the dose dependent reduction in TNF-? production in the presence of Cassia alata, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa Eleusine indica, and Polyscias fulva. ?? T cells proliferation was affected to the greatest extent by Polyscias fulva. Conclusion These results clearly show the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activities of plant extracts collected in Cameroon. These properties of leaves and stem bark extracts may contribute to the value for these plants in traditional medicine and in general medical practice. PMID:25090613

Sagnia, Bertrand; Fedeli, Donatella; Casetti, Rita; Montesano, Carla; Falcioni, Giancarlo; Colizzi, Vittorio

2014-01-01

117

Maintaining Medicinal Plant Germplasm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

For all plant genetic resources collections, including medicinal plant germplasm, maintaining the genetic integrity of material held ex situ is of major importance. This holds true for all intended end uses of the material whether it is as a source for crop improvement, medical research, as voucher...

118

Laboratory and field evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this study, chemical extracts of Jatropha curcas, Hyptis suaveolens, Abutilon indicum, and Leucas aspera were tested for toxicity to larvae of the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Respective median lethal concentrations (LC50) for hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts...

119

In vitro screening for anti-cholinesterase and antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of ayurvedic medicinal plants used for cognitive disorders.  

PubMed

Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is still considered as the main therapeutic strategy against Alzheimer's disease (AD). Many plant derived phytochemicals have shown AChE inhibitory activity in addition to the currently approved drugs for AD. In the present study, methanolic extracts of 20 plants used in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for improving cognitive function were screened for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by Ellman's microplate colorimetric method. Out of 20 extracts, Emblica officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi, Nelumbo nucifera, Punica granatum and Raulfia Serpentina showed IC50 values <100 µg/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Antioxidant activities of these plants were assessed by DPPH scavenging assay. Among the extracts used, antioxidant activity was highest for Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis with IC50 values <10 µg/ml. Considering the complex multifactorial etiology of AD, these plant extracts will be safer and better candidates for the future disease modifying therapies against this devastating disease. PMID:24466247

Mathew, Maya; Subramanian, Sarada

2014-01-01

120

In Vitro Screening for Anti-Cholinesterase and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants Used for Cognitive Disorders  

PubMed Central

Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is still considered as the main therapeutic strategy against Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Many plant derived phytochemicals have shown AChE inhibitory activity in addition to the currently approved drugs for AD. In the present study, methanolic extracts of 20 plants used in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for improving cognitive function were screened for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by Ellman’s microplate colorimetric method. Out of 20 extracts, Emblica officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi, Nelumbo nucifera, Punica granatum and Raulfia Serpentina showed IC50 values <100 µg/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Antioxidant activities of these plants were assessed by DPPH scavenging assay. Among the extracts used, antioxidant activity was highest for Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis with IC50 values <10 µg/ml. Considering the complex multifactorial etiology of AD, these plant extracts will be safer and better candidates for the future disease modifying therapies against this devastating disease. PMID:24466247

Mathew, Maya; Subramanian, Sarada

2014-01-01

121

A review of modern sample-preparation techniques for the extraction and analysis of medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sample preparation is the crucial first step in the analysis of herbs. In recent years there has been increasing interest worldwide in the use of alternative\\/herbal medicine for the prevention and treatment of various illnesses. Currently, however, quality-related problems (lack of consistency, safety, and efficacy) seem to be overshadowing the potential genuine health benefits of various herbal products. Thus, the

Carmen W. Huie

2002-01-01

122

Aqueous extract of some indigenous medicinal plants inhibits glycation at multiple stages and protects erythrocytes from oxidative damage-an in vitro study.  

PubMed

Azadirachta indica, Emblica officinalis, Syzygium cumini and Terminalia bellirica are common in Indian system of traditional medicine for the prevention of diabetes and its complications. The aim of the present study was to comprehensively and comparatively investigate the antiglycation potential of these plant extracts at multiple stages and their possible protective effect against glycated albumin mediated toxicity to erythrocytes. Antiglycation activities of these plant extracts was measured by co-incubation of plant extract with bovine serum albumin-fructose glycation model. The multistage glycation markers- fructosamines (early stage), protein carbonyls (intermediate stage) and AGEs (late stage) are investigated along with measurement of thiols and ? aggregation of albumin using amyloid-specific dyes-Congo red and Th T. Protection of erythrocytes from glycated albumin induced toxicity by these plant extracts was assessed by measuring erythrocytes hemolysis, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and intracellular antioxidant capacity. Total phenolics, reducing power and antioxidant activities of the plant extracts were also measured. In vitro glycation assays showed that plant extracts exerted site specific inhibitory effects at multiple stages, with T. bellirica showing maximum attenuation. In erythrocytes, along with the retardation of glycated albumin induced hemolysis and lipid-peroxidation, T. bellirica considerably maintained cellular antioxidant potential. Significant positive correlations were observed between erythrocyte protection parameters with total phenolics. These plant extracts especially T. bellirica prevents glycation induced albumin modifications and subsequent toxicity to erythrocytes which might offer additional protection against diabetic vascular complications. PMID:25829572

Tupe, Rashmi S; Sankhe, Neena M; Shaikh, Shamim A; Phatak, Devyani V; Parikh, Juhi U; Khaire, Amrita A; Kemse, Nisha G

2015-04-01

123

[Determination of trace elements in several hemostatic medicinal plants and their boiling water extracts].  

PubMed

The experimental results indicate that the amounts of Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn in Rubia cordifolia and Agrimonia pilosa var. japonica are very small in boiling water extracts (only 6%). But after digestion they may rise to 30%. It was found that the amounts of four trace elements decreased with the increase of extracting time, but the ratios of Mn/Zn and Zn/Cu were almost the same. PMID:8216788

Lin, X Y; Li, X L; Yang, Y

1993-04-01

124

Induction of neutrophil Mac1 integrin expression and superoxide production by the medicinal plant extract gossypol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gossypol is present in antiinflammatory poultices made from the medicinal treeThespesia populnea. Isolated human neutrophils exposed to 3–20µM gossypol for 15–90 min were assayed in vitro for superoxide production and surface expression of Mac-1 (CD11b\\/CD18). Gossypol increased superoxide production in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion consistent with a moderate, delayed respiratory burst. Surface Mac-1 expression was increased within 15 min

Prosper Benhaim; Stephen J. Mathes; Thomas K. Hunt; Heinz Scheuenstuhl; Christopher C. Benz

1994-01-01

125

Antiplasmodial activity of four Kenyan medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary antiplasmodial and phytochemical screening of four Kenyan medicinal plants was carried out. The medicinal plants were extracted and tested for in vitro antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitive (K67) and chloroquine-resistant (ENT36) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Out of 16 extracts, 12 were active against ENT36 strain while seven were active against K67 strain, that is, IC50 ? 50 ?g\\/ml. The

E. Omulokoli; B. Khan; S. C. Chhabra

1997-01-01

126

In vitro antifugal activity of medicinal plant extract against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 the causal agent of tomato wilt.  

PubMed

Medicinal plant extracts of five plants; Adhatoda vasica, Eucalyptus globulus, Lantana camara, Nerium oleander and Ocimum basilicum collected from Cairo, Egypt were evaluated against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 in vitro conditions using water and certain organic solvents. The results revealed that cold distilled water extracts of O. basilicum and E. globulus were the most effective ones for inhibiting the growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Butanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tested plants inhibited the pathogen growth to a higher extent than water extracts. Butanolic extract of O. basilicum completely inhibited the growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici at concentrations 1.5 and 2.0% (v/v). Butanolic extracts (2.0%) of tested plants had a strong inhibitory effect on hydrolytic enzymes; ?-glucosidase, pectin lyase and protease of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. This study has confirmed that the application of plant extracts, especially from O. basilicum for controlling F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is environmentally safe, cost effective and does not disturb ecological balance. Investigations are in progress to test the efficacy of O. basilicum extract under in vivo conditions. PMID:24561899

Isaac, G S; Abu-Tahon, M A

2014-03-01

127

Influence of aqueous crude extracts of medicinal plants on the osmotic stability of human erythrocytes.  

PubMed

This work analyzed the effects of the aqueous crude extracts of Artemisia absinthium L., Lippia sp., Bryophyllum sp., Solidago microglossa DC, Cymbopogon citratus DC and Mentha x villosa HUDSON on the osmotic stability of human erythrocytes. Hemolysis was monitored by measurement of absorbance at 540 nm following addition of erythrocytes to NaCl solutions of varying concentration. Absorbance was fitted to sigmoid regression curves given by the Boltzmann equation, and hemolysis was characterized by the NaCl concentration leading to lysis of 50% of cells (H(50)), and by the intensity (H) and the amplitude (dS) of the lysis effect. The parameters were determined in the absence and presence of the crude extracts. The extracts of Artemisia absinthium, Lippia sp., C. citratus and M. villosa protected human erythrocytes against hypotonic shock, as evidenced by a decrease in the values of H and H(50) compared to the control solution (p<0.05). The extracts of Bryophyllum sp. and S. microglossa enhanced hemolysis, since their H(50) values were higher than in the control group (p<0.05), but they also showed protective effects, as evidenced by a decrease in H and an increase in dS. PMID:17855047

de Freitas, Mariana V; Netto, Rita de Cássia M; da Costa Huss, Juliana C; de Souza, Tatiana Maria T; Costa, Júnia O; Firmino, Cynthia B; Penha-Silva, Nilson

2008-02-01

128

Influence of aqueous crude extracts of medicinal plants on the osmotic stability of human erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work analyzed the effects of the aqueous crude extracts of Artemisia absinthium L., Lippia sp., Bryophyllum sp., Solidago microglossa DC, Cymbopogon citratus DC and Mentha x villosa HUDSON on the osmotic stability of human erythrocytes. Hemolysis was monitored by measurement of absorbance at 540nm following addition of erythrocytes to NaCl solutions of varying concentration. Absorbance was fitted to sigmoid

Mariana V. de Freitas; Rita de Cássia M. Netto; Juliana C. da Costa Huss; Tatiana Maria T. de Souza; Júnia O. Costa; Cynthia B. Firmino; Nilson Penha-Silva

2008-01-01

129

Zulu medicinal plants with antibacterial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous, methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of 14 plants used in traditional Zulu medicine for treatment of ailments of an infectious nature were screened for antibacterial activity. Most of the activity detected was against Gram-positive bacteria. Tuber bark extracts of Dioscorea sylvatica had activity against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and extracts of Dioscorea dregeana, Cheilanthes viridis and Vernonia colorata were active

Jonathan E. Kelmanson; Anna K. Jäger; Johannes van Staden

2000-01-01

130

Larvicidal potential of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical\\u000a origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane,\\u000a methanol and petroleum ether extracts of leaf, flower and seed of Cassia auriculata L., Leucas aspera (Willd.), Rhinacanthus nasutus KURZ., Solanum torvum Swartz and Vitex

C. Kamaraj; A. Bagavan; A. Abdul Rahuman; A. Abduz Zahir; G. Elango; G. Pandiyan

2009-01-01

131

Haemostatic Actions of the Folkloric Medicinal Plant Extract Ankaferd Blood Stopper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ankaferd Blood Stopper ® (ABS), a standardized mixture of five plants, has been used historically as a haemostatic agent but its mechanism of action remains unknown. This study investigated the in vitro effects of ABS on haemostatic parameters. When added to plasma or serum, ABS induced the very rapid formation of a protein network and erythrocyte aggregation. The levels of

H GOKER; IC HAZNEDAROGLU; S ERCETIN; S KIRAZLI; U AKMAN; Y OZTURK; HC FIRAT

132

Therapeutic potential of some plant extracts used in Turkish traditional medicine on streptozocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus in rats.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to impair many physiological functions. Some reports claim that medicinal plants can reduce these alterations caused by DM. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of aqueous-methanol extracts of Urtica dioica, Thymus vulgaris (TV), Myrtus communis (MC), Scolymus hispanicus (SH) and Cinnamomun zeylanicum (CZ) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 DM in rats. Diabetes was induced via a single i.p. injection of STZ (65 mg/kg body weight). After 1 week to allow for development of diabetes, each plant extract was administered to diabetic rats separately at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight daily for 28 days. The results showed that only SH extract significantly (P < 0.05) amended fasting blood glucose level. The lipid profile was ameliorated especially by supplementations of TV, MC and CZ extracts. Almost all plant extract treatments markedly (P < 0.05) increased reduced glutathione content and decreased lipid peroxidation levels of erythrocyte, plasma, retina and lens tissues. They also significantly (P < 0.05) amended erythrocyte catalase activity, levels of marker serum enzymes (except amylase), urea and blood urea nitrogen when compared to diabetic rats treated with nothing. Furthermore, none of the plant extracts counteracted body weight loss of diabetic rats. Our data revealed that the aforementioned plant extracts have remarkable potential to counteract DM-caused alterations, probably through their antioxidant and free radical-defusing effects. PMID:23052826

Ozkol, Halil; Tuluce, Yasin; Dilsiz, Nihat; Koyuncu, Ismail

2013-01-01

133

Plants and Medicinal Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)

Bailey, D.

1977-01-01

134

Cytotoxic Activity of Crude Extracts as well as of Pure Components from Jatropha Species, Plants Used Extensively in African Traditional Medicine  

PubMed Central

Extracts from Jatropha curcas, a plant used in African traditional medicine for various diseases, were tested for cytotoxic activity. The root extracts strongly reduced cell growth of tumor cells in vitro, a result consistent with the knowledge of the application of these plant extracts in traditional medicine, especially to cure/ameliorate cancer. A selection of pure diterpenoids existing in extracts from Jatropha species and isolated from J. curcas, for example, curcusone C, curcusone D, multidione, 15-epi-4Z-jatrogrossidentadion, 4Z-jatrogrossidentadion, 4E-jatrogrossidentadion, 2-hydroxyisojatrogrossidion, and 2-epi-hydroxyisojatrogrossidion, were likewise tested, and they also showed strong cytotoxic activity. It turned out that these extracts are highly active against L5178y mouse lymphoma cells and HeLa human cervix carcinoma cells, while they cause none or only very low activity against neuronal cell, for example, PC12. These data underscore that extracts from J. curcas or pure secondary metabolites from the plant are promising candidates to be anticancer drug, combined with low neuroactive effects. PMID:21754941

Aiyelaagbe, Olapeju O.; Hamid, Amao A.; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Schröder, Heinz C.; Müller, Werner E. G.

2011-01-01

135

Medicinal plants for treatment of diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many plants have been used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Indian system of medicine and in other ancient systems\\u000a of the world. Out of these only a few have been evaluated as per modern system of medicine. From many such plants only extracts\\u000a have been prepared and their usefulness evaluated in experimental diabetes in animals. In some plants

R. Shukia; S. B. Sharma; D. Puri; K. M. Prabhu; P. S. Murthy

2000-01-01

136

Medicinal plants in therapy*  

PubMed Central

One of the prerequisites for the success of primary health care is the availability and use of suitable drugs. Plants have always been a common source of medicaments, either in the form of traditional preparations or as pure active principles. It is thus reasonable for decision-makers to identify locally available plants or plant extracts that could usefully be added to the national list of drugs, or that could even replace some pharmaceutical preparations that need to be purchased and imported. This update article presents a list of plant-derived drugs, with the names of the plant sources, and their actions or uses in therapy. PMID:3879679

Farnsworth, Norman R.; Akerele, Olayiwola; Bingel, Audrey S.; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Guo, Zhengang

1985-01-01

137

Anti-mumps virus activity by extracts of Mimosa pudica, a unique Indian medicinal plant.  

PubMed

Mumps is an acute and self-limiting disease characterized by parotitis, however in some cases it leads to aseptic meningitis, deafness, encephalitis and orchitis, which is a serious health concern. MMR vaccination was successful in eradicating the disease however, recent reports question the efficacy of MMR vaccine and countless outbreaks are observed in vaccinated populations throughout the world. Lack of specific treatment methods for mumps infection and inefficiency of MMR vaccine in vaccinated populations accentuates the need for the development of novel drugs to control mumps virus mediated serious infections. It was with this backdrop of information that the anti-mumps virus activity of Mimosa pudica was evaluated. Suspected mumps cases were collected to isolate a standard mumps virus by systematic laboratory testing which included IgM antibody assays, virus isolation, RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis. The virus was quantified by TCID50 assay and anti-mumps virus property was evaluated by CPE reduction assay and cytotoxicity of the extract was measured by MTT assay and phytochemical analysis was done by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The RT-PCR and phylogenetic tree analysis of the SH gene sequence of the clinical isolate showed it to be mumps virus genotype C. 150 ?g/ml concentration of M. pudica completely inhibited mumps virus and the drug was found to be non-toxic up to 2 mg/ml. M. pudica was thus found to be a potent inhibitor of MuV. PMID:24426272

Malayan, Jeevan; Selvaraj, Balaji; Warrier, Aparna; Shanmugam, Sambantham; Mathayan, Manikannan; Menon, Thangam

2013-09-01

138

Encapsulation of polyphenolic antioxidants from medicinal plant extracts in alginate–chitosan system enhanced with ascorbic acid by electrostatic extrusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the encapsulation of raspberry leaf, hawthorn, ground ivy, yarrow, nettle and olive leaf extracts was performed by electrostatic extrusion in alginate–chitosan microbeads, with ascorbic acid being used for the dissolution of chitosan. The original and encapsulated plant extracts were characterized for their polyphenol content and composition, mineral content and antioxidant capacity. Raspberry leaf encapsulating microbeads exhibited the

Ana Belš?ak-Cvitanovi?; Radoslava Stojanovi?; Verica Manojlovi?; Draženka Komes; Iva Juranovi? Cindri?; Viktor Nedovi?; Branko Bugarski

2011-01-01

139

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected medicinal plants--effects of high pressure and added ethanol on yield of extracted substances.  

PubMed

The possibilities and limitations of supercritical fluid extraction of natural products of low, medium and high polarity under very high pressure and with polar modifiers has been investigated. The medicinal herbs marigold (Calendula officinalis), hawthorn (Crataegus sp.) and chamomile (Matricaria recutita) were used as models in this study. Extraction profiles and the spectra of extractable metabolites were recorded following extraction with mixtures of carbon dioxide:ethanol of varying proportions (0-20% ethanol) and at various pressures in the range 300-689 bar. Components were identified by HPLC-PAD-MS or GC-MS and quantified by HPLC or GC as appropriate. Extraction yields under the varying conditions depended to a large extent on the profiles of secondary metabolites present in the three drugs. Whereas the extractability of lipophilic compounds increased substantially at pressures above 300 bar, the yields of polyphenolic and glycosidic compounds remained low even at 689 bar and with 20% modifier in the extraction fluid. PMID:14979527

Hamburger, M; Baumann, D; Adler, S

2004-01-01

140

Evaluation of the inhibitory activities of the extracts of Indonesian traditional medicinal plants against Plasmodium falciparum and Babesia gibsoni.  

PubMed

Twenty-four kinds of water extracts derived from 22 plants that are traditionally used for the treatment of malaria on Java Island, Indonesia, were screened for their antibabesial and antimalarial activities. Among the extracts, 8 extracts displayed strong antimalarial activity, with an inhibition range from 89.6 to 100%, and 15 showed strong antibabesial activity, with an inhibition range from 84.2 to 98.1%. The extracts of Achillea millefolium, Baeckea frutenscens, Brucea javanica, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Strychnos lucida and Swietenia macrophylla showed both strong antibabesial and antimalarial activities. The antimalarial activities paralleled the antibabesial activities, but the converse was not true. PMID:16141673

Murnigsih, Tri; Subeki; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Kosaku; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Yamato, Osamu; Maede, Yoshimitsu; Katakura, Ken; Suzuki, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Sumiko; Chairul; Yoshihara, Teruhiko

2005-08-01

141

High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of arbutin in skin-whitening creams and medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for quantitative analysis of arbutin. The arbutin was separated on an ODS Hypersil C(18) column with a mobile phase of water:methanol:0.1 M hydrochloric acid (89:10:1, v/v/v). The level of arbutin was measured by means of UV detection at 222 nm. The optimum conditions for arbutin quantitative analysis were investigated. The calibration curve was found to be linear up to 1,000 microg/ml(-1) of arbutin concentration, and the working calibration curve for arbutin determination over the range 0.5-30.0 microg/ml(-1) of arbutin (r(2)=0.9999) was established. The relative standard deviations for intraday and interday were found to be 0.98% and 1.15%, respectively. A detection limit (3sigma) and quantitation limit (10sigma) of 0.02 microg/ml(-1) and 0.2 microg/ml(-1), respectively, and a mean percentage recovery of the spiked arbutin of 99.88 +/- 1.12% were obtained. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of arbutin in commercial skin-whitening creams (Arbuwhite cream, Super Whitening cream, and Shiseido cream) with average contents of 7.60, 5.30, and 57.90 mg/g(-1), respectively. It was also applied to the determination of arbutin in medicinal plant extracts from Betula alnoides Buch. Ham., Clerodendrum petasites S. Moore, Curculigo latifolia Dryand. Var. latifolia, and Hesperethusa crenulata (Roxb.) Roem, levels of which were found to be 3.50, 1.50, 1.10, and 0.12 microg/g(-1), respectively (no article reported in the literature about arbutin analysis). The proposed HPLC method is rapid, simple, and selective for routine analysis. PMID:17342266

Thongchai, Wisanu; Liawruangrath, Boonsom; Liawruangrath, Saisunee

2007-01-01

142

Sodium metabisulfite–induced polymerization of sickle cell hemoglobin incubated in the extracts of three medicinal plants (Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa)  

PubMed Central

Background: The exploitation and utilization of vast varieties of herbal extracts may serve as alternative measures to deter aggregation of deoxygenated sickle cell hemoglobin (deoxyHbS) molecules. Objective: The present in vitro study ascertained the capacity of three medicinal plants, namely, Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa, to alter polymerization of HbS. Materials and Methods: Spectrophotometric method was used to monitor the level of polymerization of hemolysate HbS molecules treated with sodium metabisulfite (Na2 S2 O5) at a regular interval of 30 s for a period of 180 s in the presence of separate aqueous extracts of A. occidentale, P. guajava, and T. catappa. At time intervals of 30 s, the level of polymerization was expressed as percentage of absorbance relative to the control sample at the 180th s. Results: Although extracts of the three medicinal plants caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction in polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules, the corresponding capacity in this regard diminished with increase in incubation time. Aqueous extract of P. guajava exhibited the highest capacity to reduced polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules. Whereas at t > 60 s, extract concentration of 400 mg% of A. occidentale activated polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules by 6.23±1.34, 14.53±1.67, 21.15±1.89, and 24.42±1.09%, 800 mg% of T. catappa at t > 30 s gave values of 2.50±1.93, 5.09±1.96, 10.00±0.99, 15.38±1.33, and 17.31±0.97%. Conclusion: The capacity of the three medicinal plants to interfere with polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules depended on the duration of incubation and concentration of the extracts. PMID:21716622

Chikezie, Paul Chidoka

2011-01-01

143

Metabolic Variations, Antioxidant Potential, and Antiviral Activity of Different Extracts of Eugenia singampattiana (an Endangered Medicinal Plant Used by Kani Tribals, Tamil Nadu, India) Leaf  

PubMed Central

Eugenia singampattiana is an endangered medicinal plant used by the Kani tribals of South India. The plant had been studied for its antioxidant, antitumor, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic activity. But its primary and secondary metabolites profile and its antiviral properties were unknown, and so this study sought to identify this aspect in Eugenia singampattiana plant through different extraction methods along with their activities against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The GC-MS analysis revealed that 11 primary metabolites showed significant variations among the extracts. Except for fructose all other metabolites were high with water extract. Among 12 secondary metabolites showing variations, the levels of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were high with methanol extract. Since the flavonoid content of methanol extracts was high, the antioxidant potential, such as ABTS, and phosphomolybdenum activity increased. The plants antiviral activity against PRRSV was for the first time confirmed and the results revealed that methanol 25?µg and 75 to 100?µg in case of water extracts revealed antiviral activity. PMID:25133179

John, K. M. Maria; Jeeva, Subbiah; Suresh, Murugesan; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Doo Hwan

2014-01-01

144

Efficacy and toxicity of thirteen plant leaf acetone extracts used in ethnoveterinary medicine in South Africa on egg hatching and larval development of Haemonchus contortus  

PubMed Central

Background Helminthiasis is a major limitation to the livestock industry in Africa. Haemonchus contortus is the singular most important helminth responsible for major economic losses in small ruminants. The high cost of anthelmintics to small farmers, resistance to available anthelmintics and residue problems in meat and milk consumed by humans further complicates matters. The use of plants and plant extracts as a possible source of new anthelmintics has received more interest in the last decade. Our aim was not to confirm the traditional use, but rather to determine activity of extracts. Based on our past experience acetone was used as extractant. Because it is cheaper and more reproducible to evaluate the activity of plant extracts, than doing animal studies, the activity of acetone leaf extracts of thirteen plant species used traditionally in ethnoveterinary medicine in South Africa were determined using the egg hatch assay and the larval development test. Cytotoxicity of these extracts was also evaluated using the MTT cellular assay. Results Extracts of three plant species i.e. Heteromorpha trifoliata, Maesa lanceolata and Leucosidea sericea had EC50 values of 0.62 mg/ml, 0.72 mg/ml and 1.08 mg/ml respectively for the egg hatch assay. Clausena anisata; (1.08 mg/ml) and Clerodendrum glabrum; (1.48 mg/ml) extracts were also active. In the larval development assay the H. trifoliata extract was the most effective with an EC50 of 0.64 mg/ml followed by L. sericea (1.27 mg/ml). The activities in the larval development test were generally lower in most plant species than the egg hatch assay. Based on the cytotoxicity results C. anisata was the least toxic with an LC50 of 0.17 mg/ml, while Cyathea dregei was the most toxic plant with an LC50 of 0.003 mg/ml. The C. anisata extract had the best selectivity index with a value of 0.10 and 0.08 for the two assays, followed by H. trifoliata and L. sericea with values of 0.07, 0.07 and 0.05, 0.04. The C. dregei extract had the worst selectivity index with a value of 0.00019 for both assays. Conclusion The result of this study indicates which species should be further investigated in depth for isolation of compounds. PMID:23442744

2013-01-01

145

Immunoaffinity column cleanup with liquid chromatography using post-column bromination for aflatoxins in medicinal herbs and plant extracts.  

PubMed

A new and accurate method to quantitate aflatoxins in medicinal herbs is developed. This method consists of extraction of the sample with MeOH-H2O (70:30) followed by clean-up of the extracts with immunoaffinity columns and, finally, high-performance liquid chromatographic determination with fluorescence detection. Aflatoxins B1 and G1 are determined as their bromine derivatives, produced in an online post-column derivatization system. The overall average recoveries for three different medicinal herbs spiked at levels of 1.3 and 2.6 ng/g of total aflatoxins range from 93% to 97%. The detection limit is 0.15 ng/g for both G2 and B2 and 0.20 ng/g for both G1 and B1, based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1 and a precision (within-laboratory relative standard deviation) ranging from 0.8% to 1.4%. The use of immunoaffinity columns provides excellent clean-up of these particular extracts, which are generally difficult to analyze. The method is applied successfully to 96 samples of natural drugs. PMID:15808006

Zhang, Xuehui; Liu, Huiling; Chen, Jianmin

2005-01-01

146

Antioxidant activity, phenolic content, and peroxide value of essential oil and extracts of some medicinal and aromatic plants used as condiments and herbal teas in Turkey.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activity, total peroxide values, and total phenol contents of several medicinal and aromatic plant essential oil and extracts from Turkey were examined. Total phenolic contents were determined using a spectrophotometric technique and calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Total antioxidant activity of essential oil and extracts varied from 0.6853 to 1.3113 and 0.3189 to 0.6119 micromol of Trolox equivalents/g, respectively. The total phenolic content of essential oil ranged from 0.0871 to 0.5919 mg of gallic acid/g dry weight. However, the total phenolic contents of extracts were found to be higher compared with those of essential oils. The amount of total peroxide values of oils varied from 7.31 (pickling herb) to 58.23 (bitter fennel flower) mumol of H(2)O(2)/g. As a result, it is shown that medicinal plant derivatives such as extract and essential oils can be useful as a potential source of total phenol, peroxide, and antioxidant capacity for protection of processed foods. PMID:19298216

Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Erel, Ozcan; Herken, Emine Etöz

2009-02-01

147

Antimicrobial activity of certain Indian medicinal plants used in folkloric medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty medicinal plants belonging to 26 families were studied for their antimicrobial activity. Among 50 plants tested, 72% showed antimicrobial activity. About 22 plant extracts from 15 families exhibited activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Fourteen plants belonging to 11 families did not show activity against any of the bacteria tested. Only nine plant extracts showed antifungal activity. The

D. Srinivasan; Sangeetha Nathan; T. Suresh; P. Lakshmana Perumalsamy

2001-01-01

148

Drug discovery from medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current research in drug discovery from medicinal plants involves a multifaceted approach combining botanical, phytochemical, biological, and molecular techniques. Medicinal plant drug discovery continues to provide new and important leads against various pharmacological targets including cancer, HIV\\/AIDS, Alzheimer's, malaria, and pain. Several natural product drugs of plant origin have either recently been introduced to the United States market, including arteether,

Marcy J. Balunas; A. Douglas Kinghorn

2005-01-01

149

Evaluating Medicinal Plants for Anticancer Activity  

PubMed Central

Plants have been used for medical purposes since the beginning of human history and are the basis of modern medicine. Most chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer treatment are molecules identified and isolated from plants or their synthetic derivatives. Our hypothesis was that whole plant extracts selected according to ethnobotanical sources of historical use might contain multiple molecules with antitumor activities that could be very effective in killing human cancer cells. This study examined the effects of three whole plant extracts (ethanol extraction) on human tumor cells. The extracts were from Urtica membranacea (Urticaceae), Artemesia monosperma (Asteraceae), and Origanum dayi post (Labiatae). All three plant extracts exhibited dose- and time-dependent killing capabilities in various human derived tumor cell lines and primary cultures established from patients' biopsies. The killing activity was specific toward tumor cells, as the plant extracts had no effect on primary cultures of healthy human cells. Cell death caused by the whole plant extracts is via apoptosis. Plant extract 5 (Urtica membranacea) showed particularly strong anticancer capabilities since it inhibited actual tumor progression in a breast adenocarcinoma mouse model. Our results suggest that whole plant extracts are promising anticancer reagents. PMID:25478599

Solowey, Elisha; Lichtenstein, Michal; Sallon, Sarah; Paavilainen, Helena; Solowey, Elaine; Lorberboum-Galski, Haya

2014-01-01

150

Plant tissue extraction for metabolomics.  

PubMed

Plants are not only important producers of foods and energy storages (e.g., sugars, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) in the form of grains, fruits, and vegetables, they also provide many valuable products to human existence including wood, fibers, oils, resins, pigments, antioxidants, and sources of medicine. Most importantly in light of this book, plants have been a source of therapeutic and health promoting compounds throughout history. This chapter describes several essential considerations for the extraction process when aiming to study plant metabolism or to characterize the chemical composition of plant originated samples using metabolomics technologies. PMID:23963900

Roessner, Ute; Dias, Daniel Anthony

2013-01-01

151

Coming This Fall: Common Chinese Medicinal Plants  

E-print Network

Coming This Fall: Common Chinese Medicinal Plants Identification, Classification and Application used Chinese medicinal plants with Changbin Chen-- A plant scientist grew up in a remote area medicinal plants and their products. 2. Learn the methods of Chinese herbal classification

Weiblen, George D

152

Screening of Zulu medicinal plants for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 39 plants used in traditional Zulu medicine to treat headache or inflammatory diseases were screened for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors. Extracts were tested in an in vitro assay for cyclooxygenase inhibitors. In general, ethanolic extracts caused higher inhibition than aqueous extracts. Two-thirds of the plants screened had high inhibitory activity. The highest inhibition was obtained with ethanolic

Anna K. Jäger; Anne Hutchings; Johannes van Staden

1996-01-01

153

Screening of selected Indian medicinal plants for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy-six plant extracts including methanolic and successive water extracts from 37 Indian medicinal plants were investigated for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity (in vitro).Results indicated that methanolic extracts to be more active than water extracts. The potent AChE inhibiting methanolic plant extracts included Withania somnifera (root), Semecarpus anacardium (stem bark), Embelia ribes (Root), Tinospora cordifolia (stem), Ficus religiosa (stem bark) and

B. Vinutha; D. Prashanth; K. Salma; S. L. Sreeja; D. Pratiti; R. Padmaja; S. Radhika; A. Amit; K. Venkateshwarlu; M. Deepak

2007-01-01

154

Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats.  

PubMed

Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P < 0.05 in the superoxide dismutase activity of the test group administered 100?mg/kg of A. Occidentale. There was no significant difference P > 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100?mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250?mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250?mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P < 0.05 in the catalase activity, compared to test groups. While at P > 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics. PMID:25525518

Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

2014-01-01

155

Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats  

PubMed Central

Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P < 0.05 in the superoxide dismutase activity of the test group administered 100?mg/kg of A. Occidentale. There was no significant difference P > 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100?mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250?mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250?mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P < 0.05 in the catalase activity, compared to test groups. While at P > 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics. PMID:25525518

Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

2014-01-01

156

Antibacterial activity of East African medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an ethnopharmacological survey, extracts of the six East African medicinal plants Entada abyssinica (stem bark), Terminalia spinosa (young branches), Harrisonia abyssinica (roots), Ximenia caffra (roots), Azadirachta indica (stem bark and leaves), and Spilanthes mauritiana (roots and flowers) were tested against 105 strains of bacteria from seven genera (Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Mycobacterium). The minimum inhibitory concentration reached

Werner Fabry; Paul O Okemo; Rainer Ansorg

1998-01-01

157

Screening of some Indian medicinal plants for their antimicrobial properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 82 Indian medicinal plants traditionally used in medicines were subjected to preliminary antibacterial screening against several pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms. Aqueous, hexane and alcoholic extracts of each plant were tested for their antibacterial activity using agar well diffusion method at sample concentration of 200 mg\\/ml. The results indicated that out of 82 plants, 56 exhibited antibacterial activity

Iqbal Ahmad; Zafar Mehmood; Faiz Mohammad

1998-01-01

158

Antibacterial activity of traditional Australian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-six ethanolic extracts of various parts of 39 plants used in traditional Australian Aboriginal medicine were investigated for their antibacterial activities against four Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes) and four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium) bacterial species. In a plate-hole diffusion assay, 12 extracts inhibited the growth of one or

Enzo A Palombo; Susan J Semple

2001-01-01

159

Aqueous and Organic Solvent-Extracts of Selected South African Medicinal Plants Possess Antimicrobial Activity against Drug-Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori: Inhibitory and Bactericidal Potential  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to identify sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs against Helicobacter pylori. Solvent-extracts of selected medicinal plants; Combretum molle, Sclerocarya birrea, Garcinia kola, Alepidea amatymbica and a single Strychnos species were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori alongside a reference control strain (NCTC 11638) using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the plants demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 38 mm and 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) values ranging from 0.06 to 5.0 mg/mL. MIC50 values for amoxicillin and metronidazole ranged from 0.001 to 0.63 mg/mL and 0.004 to 5.0 mg/mL respectively. The acetone extracts of C. molle and S. birrea exhibited a remarkable bactericidal activity against H. pylori killing more than 50% of the strains within 18 h at 4× MIC and complete elimination of the organisms within 24 h. Their antimicrobial activity was comparable to the control antibiotics. However, the activity of the ethanol extract of G. kola was lower than amoxicillin (P < 0.05) as opposed to metronidazole (P > 0.05). These results demonstrate that S. birrea, C. molle and G. kola may represent good sources of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity. PMID:22016616

Njume, Collise; Jide, Afolayan A.; Ndip, Roland N.

2011-01-01

160

Evaluation of efficacy of bruceine A, a natural quassinoid compound extracted from a medicinal plant, Brucea javanica, for canine babesiosis.  

PubMed

Bruceine A, a natural quassinoid compound extracted from the dried fruits of Brucea javanica (L.) Merr., was evaluated for its antibabesial activity in vitro and in vivo. Bruceine A inhibited the in vitro growth of Babesia gibsoni in canine erythrocytes at lower concentration compared with the standard antibabesial drug diminazene aceturate and killed the parasites within 24 hr at a concentration of 25 nM. Oral administration of bruceine A at a dosage of 6.4 mg/kg/day for 5 days resulted in no clinical findings in a dog with normal ranges of hematological and biochemical values in the blood. Three dogs were infected with B. gibsoni and two of them were treated with bruceine A at a dosage of 6.4 mg/kg/day for 6 days from day 5 post-infection. An untreated dog developed typical acute babesiosis symptoms including severe anemia, high fever, and complete loss of appetite and movement. However, the two bruceine A-treated dogs maintained their healthy conditions throughout the experimental period of 4 weeks although complete elimination of parasites from the peripheral blood was not achieved and decreases in the packed cell volume and the erythrocyte and platelet counts were observed. Since natural quassinoid compounds have been used as traditional medicines for the treatment of various ailments including cancer and malaria, the present results suggest that bruceine A or other related compounds are potential candidates for the treatment of canine babesiosis. PMID:19194074

Nakao, Ryo; Mizukami, Chiaki; Kawamura, Yuta; Subeki; Bawm, Saw; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maede, Yoshimitsu; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Nabeta, Kensuke; Nonaka, Nariaki; Oku, Yuzaburo; Katakura, Ken

2009-01-01

161

Plants and Medicinal Chemistry--2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second of a two part article on the influence of plants on medicinal chemistry. This part considers how drugs work, the attempts to develop anaesthetics safer than cocaine, and useful poisons. (Author/SL)

Bailey, D.

1977-01-01

162

Cytotoxicity and Pharmacogenomics of Medicinal Plants from Traditional Korean Medicine  

PubMed Central

Aim. The present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity of a panel of 280 Korean medicinal plants belonging to 73 families and 198 species against human CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their mode of action. Methods. The resazurin assay was used to determine cytotoxicity of the plant extracts. Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling, COMPARE, and hierarchical cluster analyses were applied to identify which genes correlate with sensitivity or resistance to selected phytochemicals of the Korean plants. Results. The results of the resazurin assay showed that cytotoxicity extracts tested at 10??g/mL from 13 samples inhibited proliferation more than 50% (IC50 < 10??g/mL) and the most active plants are Sedum middendorffianum (15.33%) and Lycoris radiata (17.61%). Out of 13 selected phytochemicals from these plants, hopeaphenol and deoxynarciclasine were the most cytotoxic ones. Genes from various functional groups (transcriptional or translational regulation, signal transduction, cellular proliferation, intracellular trafficking, RNA metabolism, endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum function, etc.) were significantly correlated with response of tumor cell lines to these two compounds. Conclusion. The results provide evidence on the possible use of selected Korean medicinal plants and chemical constituents derived from them for the treatment of tumors. PMID:23935662

Kuete, Victor; Seo, Ean-Jeong; Krusche, Benjamin; Oswald, Mira; Schröder, Sven; Greten, Henry Johannes; Lee, Ik-Soo; Efferth, Thomas

2013-01-01

163

Antimalarial activity of three Pakistani medicinal plants.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine the in vitro anti-malarial activity of three medicinal plants, Picrorhiza kurroa, Caesalpinia bonducella and Artemisia absinthium of Pakistan. Different extracts of various parts of these plants were prepared by maceration and percolation, and were evaluated for their antimalarial activity. Aqueous, cold alcoholic and hot alcoholic extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa showed 34%, 100% and 90% inhibition in growth of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively, at 2.00 mg/ml. While aqueous, cold alcoholic and hot alcoholic extracts of Caesalpinia bonducella showed 65%, 56% and 76% inhibition in growth of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively at same concentrations. In the case of Artemisia absinthium, aqueous, cold alcoholic and hot alcoholic extract of Artemisia absinthium showed 35%, 55% and 21% inhibition in growth of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively at 2.00 mg/ml. In our study, extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa were found good for traditional therapy with highly significant results. PMID:21959826

Irshad, Saba; Mannan, Abdul; Mirza, Bushra

2011-10-01

164

MEDICINAL PLANT DISEASE LIST  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The book covers the history, production, uses, and marketing of fourteen forest medicinals: American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius), bethroot (Trillium erectum), black cohosh (Actaea racemosa), bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis), blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides), false unicorn (Chamaelirium ...

165

FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth.

Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I.; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A.

2014-06-01

166

FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants.  

PubMed

In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth. PMID:24657421

Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A

2014-06-01

167

Medicinal plants, conservation and livelihoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many types of action can be taken in favour of the conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants. Some of these are undertaken directly at the places where the plants are found, while others are less direct, such as some of those relating to commercial systems, ex situ conservation and bioprospecting. In the latter cases, actions taken will not lead

Alan C. Hamilton

2004-01-01

168

Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants grown in Jordan.  

PubMed

In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of 16 Jordanian medicinal plant extracts against four reference bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi. For that purpose, whole plants were extracted and antimicrobial susceptibility testing and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined. Ethanolic extracts of most medicinal plants exerted a dose-dependent cytotoxiciy against different reference bacteria. Origanum syriaca, Varthemia iphionoides, Psidium guajava, Sarcopoterium spinosa plant extracts were most active against S. aureus (MIC; 70 ?g/mL), E. faecalis (MIC; 130 ?g/mL), E. coli (MIC; 153 ?g/mL), and S. typhi (MIC; 110 ?g/mL), respectively. Results indicate that medicinal plants grown in Jordan might be a valuable source of starting materials for the extraction and/or isolation of new antibacterial agents. PMID:23455195

Masadeh, Majed Mohammad; Alkofahi, Ahmad Suleiman; Tumah, Haitham Najeeb; Mhaidat, Nizar Mahmoud; Alzoubi, Karem Hasan

2013-03-01

169

Traditional Medicinal Plant Extracts and Natural Products with Activity against Oral Bacteria: Potential Application in the Prevention and Treatment of Oral Diseases  

PubMed Central

Oral diseases are major health problems with dental caries and periodontal diseases among the most important preventable global infectious diseases. Oral health influences the general quality of life and poor oral health is linked to chronic conditions and systemic diseases. The association between oral diseases and the oral microbiota is well established. Of the more than 750 species of bacteria that inhabit the oral cavity, a number are implicated in oral diseases. The development of dental caries involves acidogenic and aciduric Gram-positive bacteria (mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and actinomycetes). Periodontal diseases have been linked to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium). Given the incidence of oral disease, increased resistance by bacteria to antibiotics, adverse affects of some antibacterial agents currently used in dentistry and financial considerations in developing countries, there is a need for alternative prevention and treatment options that are safe, effective and economical. While several agents are commercially available, these chemicals can alter oral microbiota and have undesirable side-effects such as vomiting, diarrhea and tooth staining. Hence, the search for alternative products continues and natural phytochemicals isolated from plants used as traditional medicines are considered as good alternatives. In this review, plant extracts or phytochemicals that inhibit the growth of oral pathogens, reduce the development of biofilms and dental plaque, influence the adhesion of bacteria to surfaces and reduce the symptoms of oral diseases will be discussed further. Clinical studies that have investigated the safety and efficacy of such plant-derived medicines will also be described. PMID:19596745

Palombo, Enzo A.

2011-01-01

170

Antimicrobial and phytochemical studies on 45 Indian medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant human pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic extracts of 45 Indian medicinal plants traditionally used in medicine were studied for their antimicrobial activity against certain drug-resistant bacteria and a yeast Candida albicans of clinical origin. Of these, 40 plant extracts showed varied levels of antimicrobial activity against one or more test bacteria. Anticandidal activity was detected in 24 plant extracts. Overall, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity was observed

Iqbal Ahmad; Arina Z. Beg

2001-01-01

171

Physico-chemical studies on the evaluation of the antioxidant activity of herbal extracts and active principles of some Indian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Understanding of the efficacy and mechanism for the reaction of the biologically important radicals with natural and/or synthetic antioxidants is the first step towards the development of future therapeutic agents. The kinetic parameters e.g., formation and decay rate constants predict the efficacy of an antioxidant and its fate after reaction. These parameters also dictate the ease with which competing reactions would occur in a bio-environment. The spectroscopic parameters provide the clue to the site of free radical attack to these antioxidants. Here, in this article an attempt has been made to show the use of physico-chemical methods in the evaluation of antioxidant activity of some important medicinal plants commonly used in India and the subcontinent. The systems chosen here for discussions are herbal extracts as such, curcumin from turmeric, methoxy phenols from Indian spices, dehydrogingerdione from ginger and bakuchiol from Psoralea corylifolia. All the examples shown in this article illustrate the potential of the pulse radiolysis coupled with kinetic spectroscopy and other physicochemical techniques for the study of antioxidants either in the form of mixture as in herbal extract or as an isolated compound. PMID:18398494

Adhikari, Soumyakanti; Indira Priyadarsini, Kavirayani; Mukherjee, Tulsi

2007-05-01

172

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of different organic crude extracts from the local medicinal plant of Thymus vulgaris L  

PubMed Central

Objective To isolate and analyze the chemical composition in different crude extracts of from the leaves of locally grown of Thymus vulgaris L (T. vulgaris) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Methods The shade dried leaves powder was extracted with methanol by using Soxhlet extractor. Methanol crude extracts of T. vulgaris and the derived fractions of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol were obtained. Results Qualitative analyses of various organic crude extracts of T. vulgaris by using GC-MS showed that there were different types of high and low molecular weight compounds. Most of the isolated and identified compounds by GC-MS in the crude extracts are basically biologically important. Further, the T. vulgaris leaf possessed certain characteristics that can be ascribed to cultivation on a domestic plantation. The crude extracts were prepared from the powder leaves of T. vulgaris for respective compounds can be chosen on the basis of above GC-MS analysis. Conclusions All the major compounds were identified and characterized by spectroscopic method in different organic crude extracts of T. vulgaris are biologically active molecules. Thus the identification of a good number of compounds in various crude extracts of T. vulgaris might have some ecological role. PMID:23570020

Hashmi, Laila Salim Al; Hossain, Mohammad Amzad; Weli, Afaf Mohammed; Al-Riyami, Qasim; Al-Sabahi, Jamal Nasser

2013-01-01

173

Anti cancer activity on Graviola, an exciting medicinal plant extract vs various cancer cell lines and a detailed computational study on its potent anti-cancerous leads.  

PubMed

Nature is the world's best chemist: Many naturally occurring compounds have very complicated structures that present great challenges to chemists wishing to determine their structures or replicate them. The plant derived herbal compounds have a long history of clinical use, better patient tolerance and acceptance. Their high ligand binding affinity to the target introduce the prospect of their use in chemo preventive applications; in addition they are freely available natural compounds that can be safely used to prevent various ailments. Plants became the basis of traditional medicine system throughout the world for thousands of years and continue to provide mankind with new remedies. Here, we present a research study on a medicinal plant, Graviola, a native of North America but rarely grown in India. It has a wide potent anticancerous agents coined as Acetogenins which play a key role towards many varieties of cancer, Acetogenins are potent inhibitors of NADH oxidase of the plasma membranes of cancer cells. Potent leads were taken for the study through literature survey, major types of cancer targets were identified, the natureceuticals and the cancer protein were subjected to docking analysis, further with the help of the dock score and other descriptor properties top ranked molecules were collected, commercial drug was also selected and identified as a Test compound for the study. Later, the phytochemicals were subjected to toxicity analysis. Those screened compounds were then considered for active site analysis and to find the best binding site for the study. R Programming library was used to find the best leads. Phytochemicals such as Anonaine, Friedelin, Isolaureline, Annonamine, Anomurine, Kaempferol, Asimilobine, Quercetin, Xylopine were clustered and the highly clustered compounds such as Annonamine , Kaempferol termed to be a potential lead for the study. Further study on experimental analysis may prove the potentiality of these compounds. In the experimental analysis, Graviola leaves were collected, and the extracted components were tested against the HeLa cell line and PC3 cell line. HeLa cells treated with 75 ?g of a crude leaf extract of A. muricata showing 80% of cell inhibition. Further investigation of other experimental studies may confirm that these potential lead could make a great impact in which it could help to accelerate the pipeline of drug discovery. PMID:23889049

Paul, Jeno; Gnanam, R; Jayadeepa, R M; Arul, L

2013-01-01

174

Medicinal plants and antimicrobial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, we analyze the past, present and future of medicinal plants, both as potential antimicrobial crude drugs as well as a source for natural compounds that act as new anti-infection agents. In the past few decades, the search for new anti-infection agents has occupied many research groups in the field of ethnopharmacology. When we reviewed the number

J. L. Ríos; M. C. Recio

2005-01-01

175

Screening of some Palestinian medicinal plants for antibacterial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of 15 Palestinian medicinal plants were carried against eight different species of bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, two Escherichia coli species, Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin resistant), two S. aureus (methicillin sensitive) species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus fecalis. Of the 15 plants tested, eight showed antibacterial activity. Each plant species has unique against different bacteria. The most

T Essawi; M Srour

2000-01-01

176

Antiparasitic activities of medicinal plants used in Ivory Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

During an ethnopharmacological survey of antiparasitic medicinal plants used in Ivory Coast, 17 plants were identified and collected. Polar, non-polar and alkaloidic extracts of various parts of these species were evaluated in vitro in an antiparasitic drug screening. Antimalarial, leishmanicidal, trypanocidal, antihelminthiasis and antiscabies activities were determined. Among the selected plants, Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia glaucescens were strongly active against

T Okpekon; S Yolou; C Gleye; F Roblot; P Loiseau; C Bories; P Grellier; F Frappier; A Laurens; R Hocquemiller

2004-01-01

177

In vivo evaluation of anthelmintic potential of medicinal plant extracts against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish ( Carassius auratus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, an attempt has been made to petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts\\u000a of Prunus amygdalus Batsch seeds (Semen amygdali), Cimicifuga foetida L. rhizomes (Rhizoma Cimicifugae), Peucedanum decursivum (Miq.) Maxim roots (Radix Peucedani), Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng. seeds (Semen Momordicae), and Bupleurum chinense DC. roots (Radix Bupleuri chinensis) for their in vivo anthelmintic activity against

Zong-Fan Wu; Bin Zhu; Yong Wang; Cheng Lu; Gao-Xue Wang

2011-01-01

178

Antiamoebic and phytochemical screening of some Congolese medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from the in vitro antiamoebic activity of some Congolese plant extracts used as antidiarrhoeic in traditional medicine indicated that of 45 plant extracts tested, 35 (77.78%) exhibited an antiamoebic activity and 10 (22.22%) were inactive. The highest activity (MIC<100 ?g\\/ml) was obtained with extracts from root bark of Paropsia brazzeana, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, Alchornea cordifolia, Hensia pulchella, Maprounea africana, Rauwolfia

L. Tona; K. Kambu; N. Ngimbi; K. Cimanga; A. J. Vlietinck

1998-01-01

179

Phytochemical Analysis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Extracts of the African Medicinal Plant Ximenia caffra  

PubMed Central

A method was developed for identification and quantification of polyphenols in the leaves of Ximenia caffra using HPLC/UV/MS. Based on analyzing the MS and UV data and in comparison to the authentic standards, a total of 10 polyphenols were identified and quantified, including gallic acid, catechin, quercetin, kaempferol, and their derivatives. The total content of these compounds was found to be approximately 19.45?mg/g in the leaf and the most abundant is quercetin-rutinoside (9.08?mg/g). The total phenolic content as measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay was 261.87 ± 7.11?mg?GAE/g and the total antioxidant capacity as measured in vitro was 1.46 ± 0.01?mmol?Trolox/g. The antiproliferative effect of the leaf extract was measured by MTS assay with IC50 value of 239.0 ± 44.5??g/mL. Cell-based assays show that the leaf extract inhibits the mRNA expression of proinflammatory genes (IL-6, iNOS, and TNF-?) by using RT-qPCR, implying its anti-inflammatory effects. It was further demonstrated that the underlying therapeutic mechanism involves the suppression of NF-?B, a shared pathway between cell death and inflammation. PMID:25785232

Zhen, Jing; Guo, Yue; Villani, Tom; Carr, Steve; Brendler, Thomas; Mumbengegwi, Davis R.; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony; Simon, James E.; Wu, Qingli

2015-01-01

180

Phytochemical Analysis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Extracts of the African Medicinal Plant Ximenia caffra.  

PubMed

A method was developed for identification and quantification of polyphenols in the leaves of Ximenia caffra using HPLC/UV/MS. Based on analyzing the MS and UV data and in comparison to the authentic standards, a total of 10 polyphenols were identified and quantified, including gallic acid, catechin, quercetin, kaempferol, and their derivatives. The total content of these compounds was found to be approximately 19.45?mg/g in the leaf and the most abundant is quercetin-rutinoside (9.08?mg/g). The total phenolic content as measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay was 261.87 ± 7.11?mg?GAE/g and the total antioxidant capacity as measured in vitro was 1.46 ± 0.01?mmol?Trolox/g. The antiproliferative effect of the leaf extract was measured by MTS assay with IC50 value of 239.0 ± 44.5??g/mL. Cell-based assays show that the leaf extract inhibits the mRNA expression of proinflammatory genes (IL-6, iNOS, and TNF-?) by using RT-qPCR, implying its anti-inflammatory effects. It was further demonstrated that the underlying therapeutic mechanism involves the suppression of NF-?B, a shared pathway between cell death and inflammation. PMID:25785232

Zhen, Jing; Guo, Yue; Villani, Tom; Carr, Steve; Brendler, Thomas; Mumbengegwi, Davis R; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony; Simon, James E; Wu, Qingli

2015-01-01

181

Plant part substitution – a way to conserve endangered medicinal plants?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population growth, urbanization and the unrestricted collection of medicinal plants from the wild is resulting in an over-exploitation of natural resources in southern Africa. Therefore, the management of traditional medicinal plant resources has become a matter of urgency. In southern Africa the most frequently used medicinal plants are slow-growing forest trees, bulbous and tuberous plants, with bark and underground parts

S Zschocke; T Rabe; J. L. S Taylor; A. K Jäger; J van Staden

2000-01-01

182

In vitro screening of forty medicinal plant extracts from the United States Northern Great Plains for anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus.  

PubMed

An egg hatch assay (EHA) and a larval migration assay (LMA) involving Haemonchus contortus was used to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of methanol extracts from 40 plants that are native or naturalized within the U.S.A. Northern Great Plains. Only one of these 40 plants (i.e. Lotus corniculatus) had been previously evaluated for activity against any gastrointestinal nematode. The various extracts were initially screened at 50mg/ml diluted either in 0.5% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) or 3-(N-morpholino) propanesulfonic acid (MOPS buffer), and plants showing 100% inhibition at 50mg/ml, were further evaluated at 8 other concentrations (25-0.19 mg/ml). Extracts with 100% activity with the EHA were again screened with the LMA (50mg/ml). Two extracts with the highest LMA inhibition were also evaluated at lower concentrations (25-3.1mg/ml). Of the 40 methanolic extracts screened, 7 (Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus, Ericameria nauseosa, Liatris punctata, Melilotus alba, Melilotus officinalis, Perideridia gairdneri, and Sanguinaria canadensis) showed significant egg-hatch inhibition in DMSO and MOPS buffer. Three extracts (Geranium viscosissimum, L. corniculatus, and Rhus aromatica) only showed significant inhibition in DMSO. The 8 extracts showing 100% efficacy at 50mg/ml exhibited dose-dependent effects at the 8 lower concentrations, and R. aromatica and E. nauseosa extracts had the lowest ED50 values. Similarly, when these 8 plant extracts were further evaluated with the LMA, the extracts of E. nauseosa and R. aromatica again exhibited the highest activity (p<0.001), with ED50 values of 4.0mg/ml and 10.43 mg/ml respectively. Three other extracts (C. viscidiflorus, M. alba and M. officinalis) also showed inhibitory activity in the LMA. These results support the need for additional evaluations of the nematocidal properties for at least these 5 plants. PMID:24548703

Acharya, Jyotsna; Hildreth, Michael B; Reese, R Neil

2014-03-17

183

Cytotoxicity Potentials of Eleven Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

Various forms of cancer are rising all over the world, requiring newer therapy. The quest of anticancer drugs both from natural and synthetic sources is the demand of time. In this study, fourteen extracts of different parts of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants which have been traditionally used for the treatment of different types of carcinoma, tumor, leprosy, and diseases associated with cancer were evaluated for their cytotoxicity for the first time. Extraction was conceded using methanol. Phytochemical groups like reducing sugars, tannins, saponins, steroids, gums, flavonoids, and alkaloids were tested using standard chromogenic reagents. Plants were evaluated for cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using Artemia salina comparing with standard anticancer drug vincristine sulphate. All the extracts showed potent to moderate cytotoxicity ranging from LC50 2 to 115?µg/mL. The highest toxicity was shown by Hygrophila spinosa seeds (LC50 = 2.93?µg/mL) and the lowest by Litsea glutinosa leaves (LC50 = 114.71?µg/mL) in comparison with standard vincristine sulphate (LC50 = 2.04?µg/mL). Among the plants, the plants traditionally used in different cancer and microbial treatments showed highest cytotoxicity. The results support their ethnomedicinal uses and require advanced investigation to elucidate responsible compounds as well as their mode of action. PMID:25431796

Haque, Tania; Akter, Mahfuja; Akter, Subarna; Jhumur, Afrin

2014-01-01

184

Cytotoxicity potentials of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Various forms of cancer are rising all over the world, requiring newer therapy. The quest of anticancer drugs both from natural and synthetic sources is the demand of time. In this study, fourteen extracts of different parts of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants which have been traditionally used for the treatment of different types of carcinoma, tumor, leprosy, and diseases associated with cancer were evaluated for their cytotoxicity for the first time. Extraction was conceded using methanol. Phytochemical groups like reducing sugars, tannins, saponins, steroids, gums, flavonoids, and alkaloids were tested using standard chromogenic reagents. Plants were evaluated for cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using Artemia salina comparing with standard anticancer drug vincristine sulphate. All the extracts showed potent to moderate cytotoxicity ranging from LC50 2 to 115 µg/mL. The highest toxicity was shown by Hygrophila spinosa seeds (LC50 = 2.93 µg/mL) and the lowest by Litsea glutinosa leaves (LC50 = 114.71 µg/mL) in comparison with standard vincristine sulphate (LC50 = 2.04 µg/mL). Among the plants, the plants traditionally used in different cancer and microbial treatments showed highest cytotoxicity. The results support their ethnomedicinal uses and require advanced investigation to elucidate responsible compounds as well as their mode of action. PMID:25431796

Khatun, Amina; Rahman, Mahmudur; Haque, Tania; Rahman, Md Mahfizur; Akter, Mahfuja; Akter, Subarna; Jhumur, Afrin

2014-01-01

185

Medicinal Plants—Old and New *  

PubMed Central

The historic role of plants in healing declined early in the twentieth century with the ascendency of synthetic drugs, even though a number of basic medical tools, such as opium, strychnine, and cocaine, are of botanical origin. In recent years, interest in natural products has been restored dramatically by the discovery of penicillin, plant-derived tranquilizers, and plant precursors of cortisone. Contrary to previous beliefs, botanical drugs are proving more economical than synthetics and hold forth encouraging prospects of inhibiting or destroying tumors without undue damage to healthy tissue. Extensive plant screening programs are being conducted by governmental agencies and pharmaceutical houses. Folk remedies, still common in many tropical areas, are being evaluated. As a result of such research by Canadian and American scientists, alkaloids extracted from the Madagascar periwinkle (Vinca rosea) are being effectively employed to achieve regression in childhood leukemia. Potentially more rewarding are investigations of compounds obtained from the Australian tree, Acronychia baueri and a Chinese species, Camptotheca acuminata. Universities are reestablishing medicinal plant gardens and placing more emphasis on pharmacognosy. Experimental work with narcotic plants in psychiatric treatment has given rise to popular fascination with and abuse of certain natural hallucinogens. Among scientists engaged in chemical studies, there is an active demand for information about plants, their properties and therapeutic uses. Even the general public is being made aware that plant drugs are not obsolete but offer new hope for conquering disease. PMID:5644801

Morton, Julia F.

1968-01-01

186

Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes.  

PubMed

The aqueous extracts (15 micrograms ml-1 medium) of 22 plants used in folkloric medicine in Palestine were investigated for their antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against nine isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton violaceum. The extract of the different plant species reduced colony growth of the three dermatophytes by 36 to 100% compared with the control treatment. Antimycotic activity of the extract against the three dermatophytes varied significantly (P < 0.05) between test plants. Extracts of Capparis spinosa and Juglans regia completely prevented growth of M. canis and T. violaceum. The most active extracts (90-100% inhibition) were those of Anagallis arvensis, C. spinosa, J. regia, Pistacia lentiscus and Ruta chalapensis against M. canis; Inula viscosa, J. regia and P. lentiscus against T. mentagrophytes; and Asphodelus luteus, A. arvensis, C. spinosa, Clematis cirrhosa, I. viscosa, J. regia, P. lentiscus, Plumbago europea, Ruscus aculeatus, Retema raetam and Salvia fruticosa against T. violaceum. The MICs of these most active plants ranged from 0.6 to 40 micrograms ml-1. The three dermatophytes differed significantly with regard to their susceptibility to plant extracts. Trichophyton violaceum was the most susceptible being completely inhibited by 50% of the extracts followed by M. canis and T. mentagrophytes which were completely inhibited by only 23 and 14% of the extracts, respectively. PMID:10680445

Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Abu Ghdeib, S I

1999-01-01

187

Screening of selected medicinal plants of Nepal for antimicrobial activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an ethnopharmacological screening of selected medicinal plants used in Nepal, methanol extracts from 21 plant species were assayed for activity against 8 strains of bacteria and 5 strains of fungi. Duplicate assays were conducted with and without exposure to UV-A radiation to test for light-activated or light-enhanced activity. All 21 of the extracts showed activity against at least 2

R. S. Taylor; N. P. Manandhar; G. H. N. Towers

1995-01-01

188

Antibacterial activity of East African medicinal plants.  

PubMed

In an ethnopharmacological survey, extracts of the six East African medicinal plants Entada abyssinica (stem bark), Terminalia spinosa (young branches), Harrisonia abyssinica (roots), Ximenia caffra (roots), Azadirachta indica (stem bark and leaves), and Spilanthes mauritiana (roots and flowers) were tested against 105 strains of bacteria from seven genera (Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Mycobacterium). The minimum inhibitory concentration reached by 50% (MIC50%) and 90% (MIC90) of the strains for the extracts of E. abyssinica, T. spinosa, X. caffra, and A. indica (stem bark) ranged from 0.13-8 mg/ml and from 0.5 to > 8 mg/ml, respectively. Their minimum bactericidal concentration by 50% (MBC50%) and MBC90% were all between 0.5 and > 8 mg/ml. H. abyssinica, A. indica (leaves), and S. mauritiana (roots and flowers) had MIC and MBC values > or = 8 mg/ml. Mycobacteria were not inhibited at extract concentrations of 0.5-2 mg/ml. It is concluded that plant extracts with low MIC and MBC values may serve as sources for compounds with therapeutic potency. PMID:9533435

Fabry, W; Okemo, P O; Ansorg, R

1998-02-01

189

Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardic glycoside distribution in ten medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Cleome nutidosperma, Emilia coccinea, Euphorbia heterophylla, Physalis angulata, Richardia bransitensis, Scopania dulcis, Sida acuta, Spigelia anthelmia, Stachytarpheta cayennensis and Tridax procumbens. All the plants were found to contain alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids

H. O. Edeoga; D. E. Okwu; B. O Mbaebie

190

Modulation of the antifungal activity of new medicinal plant extracts active on Candida glabrata by the major transporters and regulators of the pleiotropic drug-resistance network in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The increased incidence of drug-resistant fungal infections, a process in which active efflux plays an important role, calls for the development of new treatments. Candida albicans and Candida glabrata are the most frequent human fungal pathogens. The latter, in spite of its increased azole tolerance, is rarely used in medicinal plant screening. Several extracts inhibiting the growth of this pathogenic yeast are identified here. The ethyl acetate extract of the herb Dalea formosa of the American Southwest, not previously known to possess antifungal activity, proved most active against azole-sensitive and azole-resistant isolates. The model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, related to C. glabrata, was used to evaluate the influence of multidrug efflux on the antifungal activity of identified extracts and selected fractions from further purification steps, together with their ability to modulate ketoconazole resistance. The differential involvement of the major pleiotropic drug transporters of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily Pdr5p, Snq2p, and Yor1p as well as their transcriptional activators Pdr1p and Pdr3p in the detoxification of the antifungal constituents of several important medicinal plants is demonstrated. These include Artemisia annua and its widely used antimalarial component artemisinin. This approach revealed the concomitant presence of multidrug efflux pump substrates and modulators in the extract of A. annua and also allowed the identification of an extract not affected by the major pleiotropic drug-resistance genes. PMID:19216644

Kolaczkowski, Marcin; Kolaczkowska, Anna; Stermitz, Frank R

2009-03-01

191

[Chemical study of Indonesian medicinal plants].  

PubMed

A series of scientific expeditions in Indonesia for collecting informations and materials concerning locally used medicinal plants and Javanese traditional medicine "jamu" have been carried out by us since 1985. This article reviews pharmacochemical investigations of nine Indonesian medicinal plants: i.e. Pongamia pinnata (Papilionaceae), Fagara rhetza (Rutaceae), Calotropis gigantea (Asclepiadaceae), Beilschmiedia madang (Lauraceae), Caesalpinia major (Fabaceae), Peronema canescens (Verbenaceae), Taxus sumatrana (Taxaceae), Alyxia reinwardtii (Apocynaceae), and Merremia mammosa (Convolvulaceae), which were selected among plant materials collected in those surveys. PMID:8993230

Shibuya, H; Kitagawa, I

1996-12-01

192

Investigation of some bioactive Thai medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been estimated that plants are the most important source of medicine for more than 80% of the world’s population. Medicinal\\u000a plants are a vital source of medication in developing countries. Despite the wealth of human experience and folklore concerning\\u000a the medicinal uses of plants, proper scientific investigation has only been applied to a small fraction of the world’s

Chulabhorn Mahidol; Hunsa Prawat; Vilailak Prachyawarakorn; Somsak Ruchirawat

2002-01-01

193

Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of 112 traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer prevention and treatment using traditional Chinese medicines have attracted increasing interest. This study characterizes antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer, comprising 112 species from 50 plant families. The improved ABTS•+ method was used to systematically assess the total antioxidant capacity (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC) of the medicinal extracts. The TEAC values

Yizhong Cai; Qiong Luo; Mei Sun; Harold Corke

2004-01-01

194

CNS acetylcholine receptor activity in European medicinal plants traditionally used to improve failing memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain Lamiaceous and Asteraceous plants have long histories of use as restoratives of lost or declining cognitive functions in western European systems of traditional medicine. Investigations were carried out to evaluate human CNS cholinergic receptor binding activity in extracts of those European medicinal plants reputed to enhance or restore mental functions including memory. Ethanolic extracts were prepared from accessions of

George Wake; Jennifer Court; Anne Pickering; Rhiannon Lewis; Richard Wilkins; Elaine Perry

2000-01-01

195

Screening of selected Indian medicinal plants for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.  

PubMed

Seventy-six plant extracts including methanolic and successive water extracts from 37 Indian medicinal plants were investigated for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity (in vitro). Results indicated that methanolic extracts to be more active than water extracts. The potent AChE inhibiting methanolic plant extracts included Withania somnifera (root), Semecarpus anacardium (stem bark), Embelia ribes (Root), Tinospora cordifolia (stem), Ficus religiosa (stem bark) and Nardostachys jatamansi (rhizome). The IC(50) values obtained for these extracts were 33.38, 16.74, 23.04, 38.36, 73.69 and 47.21mug/ml, respectively. These results partly substantiate the traditional use of these herbs for improvement of cognition. PMID:16950584

Vinutha, B; Prashanth, D; Salma, K; Sreeja, S L; Pratiti, D; Padmaja, R; Radhika, S; Amit, A; Venkateshwarlu, K; Deepak, M

2007-01-19

196

Some medicinal plants with antiasthmatic potential: a current status.  

PubMed

Asthma is a common disease that is rising in prevalence worldwide with the highest prevalence in industrialized countries. Asthma affects about 300 million people worldwide and it has been estimated that a further 100 million will be affected by 2025. Since the ancient times, plants have been exemplary sources of medicine. Current asthma therapy lack satisfactory success due to adverse effect, hence patients are seeking complementary and alternative medicine to treat their asthma. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in various human ailments. India has about 45,000 plant species and among them several thousand are claimed to possess medicinal properties. Researches conducted in the last few decades on the plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for asthma have shown antiasthmatic, antihistaminic and antiallergic activity. This review reveals that some plants and their extract have antiasthmatic, antihistaminic, anticholinergic and antiallergic activity. PMID:23569804

Taur, Dnyaneshwar J; Patil, Ravindra Y

2011-10-01

197

Some medicinal plants with antiasthmatic potential: a current status  

PubMed Central

Asthma is a common disease that is rising in prevalence worldwide with the highest prevalence in industrialized countries. Asthma affect about 300 million people worldwide and it has been estimated that a further 100 million will be affected by 2025. Since the ancient times, plants have been exemplary sources of medicine. Current asthma therapy lack satisfactory success due to adverse effect, hence patients are seeking complementary and alternative medicine to treat their asthma. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in various human ailments. India has about 45 000 plant species and among them several thousand are claimed to possess medicinal properties. Researches conducted in the last few decades on the plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for asthma have shown antiasthmatic, antihistaminic and antiallergic activity. This review reveals that some plants and their extract have antiasthmatic, antihistaminic, anticholinergic and antiallergic activity. PMID:23569804

Taur, Dnyaneshwar J; Patil, Ravindra Y

2011-01-01

198

From Curanderas to Gas Chromatography: Medicinal Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Medicinal Plants of the Southwest summer workshop is an inquiry-based learning approach to increase interest and skills in biomedical research. Working in teams, Hispanic and Native American students discover the chemical and biological basis for the medicinal activity of regional plants used by healers. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)

O'Connell, Mary; Lara, Antonio

2005-01-01

199

From Curanderas to Gas Chromatography: Medicinal Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Medicinal Plants of the Southwest summer workshop is an inquiry-based learning approach to increase interest and skills in biomedical research. Working in teams, Hispanic and Native American students discover the chemical and biological basis for the medicinal activity of regional plants used by healers.

Antonio Lara

2006-01-01

200

Evaluation of antitumor activity of peptide extracts from medicinal plants on the model of transplanted breast cancer in CBRB-Rb(8.17)1Iem mice.  

PubMed

We studied antitumor effects of peptide extracts from plants on slowly growing mammary adenocarcinoma in CBRB-Rb(8.17)1Iem mice used as a model of breast cancer in humans. The antitumor effect of a single injection of the test peptides was evaluated by the delay of the appearance and growth of palpable breast cancer in mice over 4 weeks. Peptides from Hypericum perforatum and a mixture of Chelidonium majus L., Inula helenium L., Equisetum arvense L., and Inonotus obliquus exhibited maximum activity. Peptide extracts from Frangula alnuc Mill. and Laurus nobilis L. were less active. No antitumor effect of Camelia sinesis Kuntze was detected. PMID:19110595

Tepkeeva, I I; Moiseeva, E V; Chaadaeva, A V; Zhavoronkova, E V; Kessler, Yu V; Semushina, S G; Demushkin, V P

2008-04-01

201

Evaluation of aqueous and ethanol extract of bioactive medicinal plant, Cassia didymobotrya (Fresenius) Irwin & Barneby against immature stages of filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate aqueous and ethanol extract of Cassia didymobotrya leaves against immature stages of Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods The mortality rate of immature mosquitoes was tested in wide and narrow range concentration of the plant extract based on WHO standard protocol. The wide range concentration tested in the present study was 10 000, 1 000, 100, 10 and 1 mg/L and narrow range concentration was 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L. Results 2nd instar larvae exposed to 100 mg/L and above concentration of ethanol extract showed 100% mortality. Remaining stages such as 3rd, 4th and pupa, 100% mortality was observed at 1 000 mg/L and above concentration after 24 h exposure period. In aqueous extract all the stages 100% mortality was recorded at 1 000 mg/L and above concentration. In narrow range concentration 2nd instar larvae 100% mortality was observed at 150 mg/L and above concentration of ethanol extract. The remaining stages 100% mortality was recorded at 250 mg/L. In aqueous extract all the tested immature stages 100% mortality was observed at 250 mg/L concentration after 24 h exposure period. The results clearly indicate that the rate of mortality was based dose of the plant extract and stage of the mosquitoes. Conclusions From this study it is confirmed and concluded that Cassia didymobotrya is having active principle which is responsible for controlling Culex quinquefasciatus. The isolation of bioactive molecules and development of simple formulation technique is important for large scale implementation. PMID:23569999

Nagappan, Raja

2012-01-01

202

Screening of some Cuban medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial activities of 23 extracts of 12 Cuban plant species reported in traditional medicine were tested. The agar diffusion method was used to assess the activity against four bacteria and one yeast: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The results, evaluated as the diameter of the inhibition zone of microbial growth, showed that nine

M. J. Martínez; J. Betancourt; N. Alonso-González; A. Jauregui

1996-01-01

203

Biological activity of common mullein, a medicinal plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common Mullein (Verbascum thapsus L., Scrophulariaceae) is a medicinal plant that has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, asthma, spasmodic coughs, diarrhea and other pulmonary problems. The objective of this study was to assess the biological activity of Common Mullein extracts and commercial Mullein products using selected bench top bioassays, including antibacterial, antitumor, and two toxicity assays—brine shrimp

Arzu Ucar Turker; N. D Camper

2002-01-01

204

Ethnomedicinal and phytochemical review of Pakistani medicinal plants used as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Medicinal plants have always been part of human culture and have the potential to cure different diseases caused by microorganisms. In Pakistan, biologists are mainly focusing on plants’ antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli due to its increasing resistance to antibiotics. In total, extracts from 34 ethnomedicinally valuable Pakistani plants were reported for in-vitro anti-E. coli activities. Mostly methanolic extracts of medicinal plants were used in different studies, which have shown comparatively higher inhibitory activities against E. coli than n-hexane and aqueous extracts. It has been found that increasing concentration (mg/ml) of methanolic extract can significantly increase (p medicinal plants are extracted in solvents others than above, which should also be tested against E. coli. Moreover, medicinal plant species must be fully explored phytochemically, which may lead to the development of new drugs. PMID:25135359

2014-01-01

205

Ethnomedicinal and phytochemical review of Pakistani medicinal plants used as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants have always been part of human culture and have the potential to cure different diseases caused by microorganisms. In Pakistan, biologists are mainly focusing on plants' antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli due to its increasing resistance to antibiotics. In total, extracts from 34 ethnomedicinally valuable Pakistani plants were reported for in-vitro anti-E. coli activities. Mostly methanolic extracts of medicinal plants were used in different studies, which have shown comparatively higher inhibitory activities against E. coli than n-hexane and aqueous extracts. It has been found that increasing concentration (mg/ml) of methanolic extract can significantly increase (p<0.01) anti-E. coli activities. Not all medicinal plants are extracted in solvents others than above, which should also be tested against E. coli. Moreover, medicinal plant species must be fully explored phytochemically, which may lead to the development of new drugs. PMID:25135359

Adnan, Muhammad; Bibi, Roqaia; Mussarat, Sakina; Tariq, Akash; Shinwari, Zabta Khan

2014-01-01

206

Historical review of medicinal plants’ usage  

PubMed Central

Healing with medicinal plants is as old as mankind itself. The connection between man and his search for drugs in nature dates from the far past, of which there is ample evidence from various sources: written documents, preserved monuments, and even original plant medicines. Awareness of medicinal plants usage is a result of the many years of struggles against illnesses due to which man learned to pursue drugs in barks, seeds, fruit bodies, and other parts of the plants. Contemporary science has acknowledged their active action, and it has included in modern pharmacotherapy a range of drugs of plant origin, known by ancient civilizations and used throughout the millennia. The knowledge of the development of ideas related to the usage of medicinal plants as well as the evolution of awareness has increased the ability of pharmacists and physicians to respond to the challenges that have emerged with the spreading of professional services in facilitation of man's life. PMID:22654398

Petrovska, Biljana Bauer

2012-01-01

207

Assessment of the anthelmintic activity of medicinal plant extracts and purified condensed tannins against free-living and parasitic stages of Oesophagostomum dentatum.  

PubMed

BackgroundPlant-derived condensed tannins (CT) show promise as a complementary option to treat gastrointestinal helminth infections, thus reducing reliance on synthetic anthelmintic drugs. Most studies on the anthelmintic effects of CT have been conducted on parasites of ruminant livestock. Oesophagostomum dentatum is an economically important parasite of pigs, as well as serving as a useful laboratory model of helminth parasites due to the ability to culture it in vitro for long periods through several life-cycle stages. Here, we investigated the anthelmintic effects of CT on multiple life cycle stages of O. dentatum. MethodsExtracts and purified fractions were prepared from five plants containing CT and analysed by HPLC-MS. Anthelmintic activity was assessed at five different stages of the O. dentatum life cycle; the development of eggs to infective third-stage larvae (L3), the parasitic L3 stage, the moult from L3 to fourth-stage larvae (L4), the L4 stage and the adult stage.ResultsFree-living larvae of O. dentatum were highly susceptible to all five plant extracts. In contrast, only two of the five extracts had activity against L3, as evidenced by migration inhibition assays, whilst three of the five extracts inhibited the moulting of L3 to L4. All five extracts reduced the motility of L4, and the motility of adult worms exposed to a CT-rich extract derived from hazelnut skins was strongly inhibited, with electron microscopy demonstrating direct damage to the worm cuticle and hypodermis. Purified CT fractions retained anthelmintic activity, and depletion of CT from extracts by pre-incubation in polyvinylpolypyrrolidone removed anthelmintic effects, strongly suggesting CT as the active molecules.ConclusionsThese results suggest that CT may have promise as an alternative parasite control option for O. dentatum in pigs, particularly against adult stages. Moreover, our results demonstrate a varied susceptibility of different life-cycle stages of the same parasite to CT, which may offer an insight into the anthelmintic mechanisms of these commonly found plant compounds. PMID:25406417

Williams, Andrew R; Ropiak, Honorata M; Fryganas, Christos; Desrues, Olivier; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M

2014-11-19

208

Evaluation of antitumor activity of peptide extracts from medicinal plants on the model of transplanted breast cancer in CBRB-Rb(8.17)1Iem mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied antitumor effects of peptide extracts from plants on slowly growing mammary adenocarcinoma in CBRB-Rb(8.17)1Iem\\u000a mice used as a model of breast cancer in humans. The antitumor effect of a single injection of the test peptides was evaluated\\u000a by the delay of the appearance and growth of palpable breast cancer in mice over 4 weeks. Peptides from Hypericum perforatum

I. I. Tepkeeva; E. V. Moiseeva; A. V. Chaadaeva; E. V. Zhavoronkova; Yu. V. Kessler; S. G. Semushina; V. P. Demushkin

2008-01-01

209

Evaluation of medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan for antimelanogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of searching for new materials to use as whitening agents, we screened 19 methanol extracts prepared from 14\\u000a medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan province, Indonesia. The screening methods used were the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl\\u000a (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay, a tyrosinase inhibition assay, and a melanin formation inhibition assay using B16 melanoma\\u000a cells. The extracts of Willughbeia coriacea (bark part of

Enos Tangke Arung; Irawan Wijaya Kusuma; Eva Oktoberiani Christy; Kuniyoshi Shimizu; Ryuichiro Kondo

2009-01-01

210

Antiviral Activity of Some Plants Used in Nepalese Traditional Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic extracts of 41 plant species belonging to 27 families used in the traditional medicine in Nepal have been investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and influenza virus A by dye uptake assay in the systems HSV-1\\/Vero cells and influenza virus A\\/MDCK cells. The extracts of Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Cassiope fastigiata and

M. Rajbhandari; R. Mentel; P. K. Jha; R. P. Chaudhary; S. Bhattarai; M. B. Gewali; N. Karmacharya; M. Hipper; U. Lindequist

2009-01-01

211

Anti-inflammatory activity of Chinese medicinal vine plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts from nine vine plants used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat inflammatory conditions were evaluated against a panel of key enzymes relating to inflammation. The enzymes included cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO). The vine plants studied were: the stem of Spatholobus suberectus Dunn, the stem of Trachelospermum jasminoides

Rachel W Li; G David Lin; Stephen P Myers; David N Leach

2003-01-01

212

Cameroonian Medicinal Plants: Pharmacology and Derived Natural Products  

PubMed Central

Many developing countries including Cameroon have mortality patterns that reflect high levels of infectious diseases and the risk of death during pregnancy and childbirth, in addition to cancers, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases that account for most deaths in the developed world. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally for their treatment. In this review, plants used in Cameroonian traditional medicine with evidence for the activities of their crude extracts and/or derived products have been discussed. A considerable number of plant extracts and isolated compounds possess significant antimicrobial, anti-parasitic including antimalarial, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes, and antioxidant effects. Most of the biologically active compounds belong to terpenoids, phenolics, and alkaloids. Terpenoids from Cameroonian plants showed best activities as anti-parasitic, but rather poor antimicrobial effects. The best antimicrobial, anti-proliferative, and antioxidant compounds were phenolics. In conclusion, many medicinal plants traditionally used in Cameroon to treat various ailments displayed good activities in vitro. This explains the endeavor of Cameroonian research institutes in drug discovery from indigenous medicinal plants. However, much work is still to be done to standardize methodologies and to study the mechanisms of action of isolated natural products. PMID:21833168

Kuete, Victor; Efferth, Thomas

2010-01-01

213

Antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants and its relationship with their antioxidant property  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic extract (75%) of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis and their combination named ‘Triphala’ (equal proportion of above three plant extracts) are being used extensively in Indian system of medicine. They were found to inhibit lipid peroxide formation and to scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in vitro. The concentration of plant extracts that inhibited 50% of lipid peroxidation induced

M. C Sabu; Ramadasan Kuttan

2002-01-01

214

Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities and Phytochemical Screening of Some Yemeni Medicinal Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional medicine still plays an important role in the primary health care in Yemen. The current study represents the investigation of 16 selected plants, which were collected from different localities of Yemen. The plants were dried and extracted with two different solvents (methanol and hot water) to yield 34 crude extracts. The obtained extracts were tested for their antimicrobial

Ramzi A. A. Mothana; Salah A. A. Abdo; Sidgi Hasson; Faisal M. N. Althawab; Sama A. Z. Alaghbari; Ulrike Lindequist

2008-01-01

215

Antimicrobial Studies on Selected Medicinal Plants, Erode Region, Tamilnadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: Medicinal plants contribute in human health care system. Most of the plants utilized by villag e peoples as a folk medicine. Now we are turned in to medicinal plant analysis of active compounds and conservation aspect. In the present study we had select the four important medicinal plants in the Erode district. Such plants are widely used in

C. Chitravadivu; S. Manian; K. Kalaichelvi

216

In vitro and in vivo inhibitory activities of four Indian medicinal plant extracts and their major components on rat aldose reductase and generation of advanced glycation endproducts.  

PubMed

The polyol enzyme aldose reductase (AR) and advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) play an important role in diabetic complications such as cataracts. The purpose of this study was to investigate four standardized plant extracts used for the treatment of diabetes and related diseases, and their principal components for AR inhibitory activity and to find out their influence in diabetic complications. Thus, Boswellia serrata Triana & Planch. (Burseraceae), Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. (Lythraceae), Ocimum gratissimum (L.) (Lamiaceae) and Syzygium cumin (L.) Skeels. (Myrthaceae) and their respective major constituents, boswellic acid, corosolic acid, ursolic acid and ellagic acid, were studied for their inhibitory activity against rat lens AR, rat kidney AR, human recombinant AR and generation of AGEs. In addition, in vivo inhibition of lens galactitol accumulation by the major constituents of the plants in galactose-fed rat has been studied. The results revealed that all the tested extracts and their active ingredients possess significant AR inhibitory actions in both in vitro and in vivo assays with urosolic acid showing the most potent effect. Furthermore, the study indicates the potential of the studied plants and their major constituents as possible protective agents against long-term diabetic complications. PMID:22826152

Rao, Ajmeera Rama; Veeresham, Ciddi; Asres, Kaleab

2013-05-01

217

Antiviral screening of British Columbian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred methanolic plant extracts were screened for antiviral activity against seven viruses. Twelve extracts were found to have antiviral activity at the non-cytotoxic concentrations tested. The extracts of Rosa nutkana and Amelanchier alnifolia, both members of the Rosaceae, were very active against an enteric coronavirus. A root extract of another member of the Rosaceae, Potentilla arguta, completely inhibited respiratory

A. R. McCutcheon; T. E. Roberts; E. Gibbons; S. M. Ellis; L. A. Babiuk; R. E. W. Hancock; G. H. N. Towers

1995-01-01

218

Solvent Extract, Plant Extraction Correspondence to Author:  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT: Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. is belongs to the family Fabaceae. It is used as herbal and as vegetable from ancient times. It is abundant in tropical region of Africa and Asia. Preliminary phytochemicals investigations have been carried out on the seed extract using n-Hexane, Ethyl Acetate, Acetone, Ethanol and Methanol solvents. Qualitative phytochemicals analysis reflects the presence of Phenol, Quinone, Steroid, Flavanoids and Terpenoid in the plant extract. TLC profiling of seed extracts give an idea about the presence of various phytochemicals. Different Rf (Retention factor) value of various phytochemicals provide valuable clue regarding their polarity and selection of solvents for separation of phytochemicals. INTRODUCTION: Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. (syn. C. psoraloides) or cluster bean (also called as Guar, Guwar and Guvar bean), is a drought-tolerant summer annual legume and it is cultivated as a feed

Sunil H. Ganatra; Archana M. Ramteke; Shweta P. Durge; S. U. Patil; Dr. S. H. Ganatra

219

Comparative evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of some Indian medicinal plants in alloxan diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our experiments 30 hypoglycaemic medicinal plants (known and less known) have been selected for thorough studies from indigenous folk medicines, Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha systems of medicines. In all the experiments with different herbal samples (vacuum dried 95% ethanolic extracts), definite blood glucose lowering effect within 2 weeks have been confirmed in alloxan diabetic albino rats. Blood glucose values

Ajit Kar; B. K Choudhary; N. G Bandyopadhyay

2003-01-01

220

Bioactivity of Malva Sylvestris L., a Medicinal Plant from Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective(s) Malva sylvestris L. (Malvaceae), an annual plant, has been already commonly used as a medicinal plant in Iran. In the present work, we evaluate some bioactivities of the plant extracts. Materials and Methods The aired-dried plant flowers and leaves were extracted by soxhlet apparatus with n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol. The antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and phytotoxic of the plant extracts were evaluated using disk diffusion method, MTT, and Lettuce assays, respectively. Results Both flowers and leaves of M. sylvestris methanol extracts exhibited strong antibacterial effects against Erwinia carotovora, a plant pathogen, with MIC value of 128 and 256 µg/ml, respectively. The flowers extract also showed high antibacterial effects against some human pathogen bacteria strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Entrococcus faecalis, with MIC value of 192, 200 and 256 µg/ml, respectively. The plant methanol extracts had relatively high cytotoxic activity against MacCoy cell line. Conclusion We concluded that Malva sylvestris can be candidated as an antiseptic, a chemopreventive or a chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:23493458

Razavi, Seyed Mehdi; Zarrini, Gholamreza; Molavi, Ghader; Ghasemi, Ghader

2011-01-01

221

Medicinal plants used in Kirklareli Province (Turkey).  

PubMed

In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from Kirklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica, Hypericum perforatum, Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis, Juglans regia, Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, Plantago lanceolata, Rosa canina, Ecballium elaterium, Artemisia absinthium, Viscum album subsp. album, Papaver rhoeas, Helleborus orientalis, Cydonia oblonga, Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla, Rubus discolor, Sorbus domestica. A total of 143 medicinal uses were obtained. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of wounds (25.3%), cold and influenza (24.6%), stomach (20%), cough (19%), kidney ailments (18.2%), diabetes (13.4%). PMID:17257791

Kültür, Sükran

2007-05-01

222

Antiviral screening of British Columbian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

One hundred methanolic plant extracts were screened for antiviral activity against seven viruses. Twelve extracts were found to have antiviral activity at the non-cytotoxic concentrations tested. The extracts of Rosa nutkana and Amelanchier alnifolia, both members of the Rosaceae, were very active against an enteric coronavirus. A root extract of another member of the Rosaceae, Potentilla arguta, completely inhibited respiratory syncytial virus. A Sambucus racemosa branch tip extract was also very active against respiratory syncytial virus while the inner bark extract of Oplopanax horridus partially inhibited this virus. An extract of Ipomopsis aggregata demonstrated very good activity against parainfluenza virus type 3. A Lomatium dissectum root extract completely inhibited the cytopathic effects of rotavirus. In addition to these, extracts prepared from the following plants exhibited antiviral activity against herpesvirus type 1: Cardamine angulata, Conocephalum conicum, Lysichiton americanum, Polypodium glycyrrhiza and Verbascum thapsus. PMID:8847882

McCutcheon, A R; Roberts, T E; Gibbons, E; Ellis, S M; Babiuk, L A; Hancock, R E; Towers, G H

1995-12-01

223

PLANT CRUDE EXTRACTS COULD BE THE SOLUTION: EXTRACTS SHOWING IN VIVO ANTITUMORIGENIC ACTIVITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening active compounds from plants lead to discover new medicinal drugs which have efficient protection and treatment roles against various diseases including cancer. In our study, extracts from different plants represent seeds of: Gossypium barbadense, Ricinus communis, Sesamum indicum, Nigella sativa, Vinca rosea and Melia azedarah; fruits of: Xanthium occidental; flowers of: Atriplex nummularia; barks of: Cinnamomum zeylanicum; latex of:

AMARA AA; EL-MASRY MH; BOGDADY HH

224

Trypanocidal and cytotoxic effects of 30 Ethiopian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Trypanocidal and cytotoxic effects of traditionally used medicinal plants of Ethiopia were evaluated. A total of 60 crude plant extracts were prepared from 30 plant species using CH2Cl2 and MeOH. Effect upon cell proliferation by the extracts, for both bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei and human leukaemia HL-60 cells, was assessed using resazurin as vital stain. Of all CH2Cl2 and MeOH extracts evaluated against the trypanosomes, the CH2Cl2 extracts from five plants showed trypanocidal activity with an IC50 value below 20 microg/mL: Dovyalis abyssinica (Flacourtiaceae), IC50 = 1.4 microg/mL; Albizia schimperiana (Fabaceae), IC50 = 7.2 microg/mL; Ocimum urticifolium (Lamiaceae), IC50 = 14.0 microg/mL; Acokanthera schimperi (Apocynaceae), IC50 = 16.6 microg/mL; and Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae), IC50 = 17.1 microg/mL. A pronounced and selective killing of trypanosomes with minimal toxic effect on human cells was exhibited by Dovyalis abyssinica (CH2Cl2 extract, SI = 125.0; MeOH extract, SI = 57.7) followed by Albizia schimperiana (CH2Cl2 extract, SI = 31.3) and Ocimum urticifolium (MeOH extract, SI = 16.0). In conclusion, the screening of 30 Ethiopian medicinal plants identified three species with good antitrypanosomal activities and low toxicity towards human cells. Dovyalis abyssinica might be a promising candidate for phytotherapy of trypanosomiasis. PMID:22351978

Nibret, Endalkachew; Wink, Michael

2011-01-01

225

Antiradical efficiency of 20 selected medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant system of a plant comprises a group of chemicals that are highly diverse in their sources, effects and uses. These antioxidants are capable of contracting and damaging free radicals. This investigation deals with a screening and comparison of the antioxidant activities of 20 selected medicinal plants and their parts, individually and in combination with vitamins A, C or

Raka Kamal; Sunita Yadav; Manas Mathur; Pawan Katariya

2012-01-01

226

Antiradical efficiency of 20 selected medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant system of a plant comprises a group of chemicals that are highly diverse in their sources, effects and uses. These antioxidants are capable of contracting and damaging free radicals. This investigation deals with a screening and comparison of the antioxidant activities of 20 selected medicinal plants and their parts, individually and in combination with vitamins A, C or

Raka Kamal; Sunita Yadav; Manas Mathur; Pawan Katariya

2011-01-01

227

Antifungal Properties of Some Mexican Medicinal Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifungal properties of some extracts from Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt., Heliopsis longipes 'A. Gray' Blake., Satureja macrostema Benth. and Tagetes lucida Cav. were analyzed, using the agar disc diffusion method. After 72 h incubation, the plant extracts inhibited the growth of fungi, but the ethyl acetate and methanol-chloroform extracts from A. ludoviciana, H. longipes and T. lucida inhibited all the

Luz Maria Damian-Badillo; Rafael Salgado-Garciglia; Rosa Elisa Martinez-Munoz; Mauro Manuel Martinez-Pacheco

2008-01-01

228

Screening of some medicinal plants for anti-lipase activity.  

PubMed

In order to find new pancreatic lipase (triacylglycerol lipase, EC 3.1.1.3) inhibitors from natural sources, 75 medicinal plants belonging to different families were screened for their anti-lipase activity, using a radioactive method. On evaluating the results, methanolic extracts of three plants namely, Eriochloa villosa (Thunb.) Kunth, Orixa japonica Thunb. and Setaria italica (L.) Palib., exhibited strong in vitro anti-lipase activity (above 80%). These plants will be studied further to elucidate the structure and chemical properties of the active compound responsible for anti-lipase action. PMID:15740880

Sharma, Niti; Sharma, Vinay K; Seo, Sung-Yum

2005-03-21

229

Medicinal plants and Alzheimer's disease: from ethnobotany to phytotherapy.  

PubMed

The use of complementary medicines, such as plant extracts, in dementia therapy varies according to the different cultural traditions. In orthodox Western medicine, contrasting with that in China and the Far East for example, pharmacological properties of traditional cognitive- or memory-enhancing plants have not been widely investigated in the context of current models of Alzheimer's disease. An exception is Gingko biloba in which the gingkolides have antioxidant, neuroprotective and cholinergic activities relevant to Alzheimer's disease mechanisms. The therapeutic efficacy of Ginkgo extracts in Alzheimer's disease in placebo controlled clinical trials is reportedly similar to currently prescribed drugs such as tacrine or donepezil and, importantly, undesirable side effects of Gingko are minimal. Old European reference books, such as those on medicinal herbs, document a variety of other plants such as Salvia officinalis (sage) and Melissa officinalis (balm) with memory-improving properties, and cholinergic activities have recently been identified in extracts of these plants. Precedents for modern discovery of clinically relevant pharmacological activity in plants with long-established medicinal use include, for example, the interaction of alkaloid opioids in Papaver somniferum (opium poppy) with endogenous opiate receptors in the brain. With recent major advances in understanding the neurobiology of Alzheimer's disease, and as yet limited efficacy of so-called rationally designed therapies, it may be timely to re-explore historical archives for new directions in drug development. This article considers not only the value of an integrative traditional and modern scientific approach to developing new treatments for dementia, but also in the understanding of disease mechanisms. Long before the current biologically-based hypothesis of cholinergic derangement in Alzheimer' s disease emerged, plants now known to contain cholinergic antagonists were recorded for their amnesia- and dementia-inducing properties. PMID:10411211

Perry, E K; Pickering, A T; Wang, W W; Houghton, P J; Perry, N S

1999-05-01

230

Preliminary evaluation of the hypoglycemic effect of some Brazilian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The hypoglycemic effect of five Brazilian medicinal plants (Epidendrum monsenii, Marrubium vulgare, Rheedia gardneriana, Rubus imperialis and Wedelia paludosa) was studied on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The extract of these plants was intragastrically administered to diabetic rats. The results showed that all plants studied (except R. gardneriana) significantly lowered the blood glucose. These results suggest that these four medicinal plants could be an adjuvant agent in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:11677867

Novaes, A P; Rossi, C; Poffo, C; Pretti Júnior, E; Oliveira, A E; Schlemper, V; Niero, R; Cechinel-Filho, V; Bürger, C

2001-01-01

231

Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities screening of some Brazilian medicinal plants used in Governador Valadares district  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol extracts from medicinal plants commonly used by Governador Valadares people were tested for antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity (BST assay). The field survey was conducted during the years 1997-2000 by means of direct interviews with healing men (\\

Beatriz Gonçalves Brasileiro; Virgínia Ramos Pizziolo; Délio Soares Raslan; Claudia Mashrouah Jamal; Dâmaris Silveira

2006-01-01

232

Qualitative Analysis of Selected Medicinal Plants, Tamilnadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: The Qualitative analysis is very essential for identifying the compounds present in the medicinal plants. We have colleted four medicinally important medicinal plants such as Acalypha indica, Cassia auriculata, Eclipta alba and Phyllanthus niruri for quantitative analysis. The experiment carried out in the selected medicinal plants leaves and roots. The results are discussed with the available literature.

C. Chitravadivu; S. Manian; K. Kalaichelvi

233

Screening of estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities from medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medicinal plant extracts commercially used in Asia were screened for their estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in a recombinant yeast system featuring both a human estrogen receptor (ER) expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid. Pueraria lobata (flower) had the highest estrogenic relative potency (RP, 7.75×10?3; RP of 17?-estradiol=1), followed by Amomum xanthioides (1.25×10?3). Next potent were a group consisting of

In Gyu Kim; Se Chan Kang; Kug Chan Kim; Eui Su Choung; Ok Pyo Zee

2008-01-01

234

Insecticidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae of some medicinal South American plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The insecticidal activity of 11 extracts from nine South American medicinal plants has been studied using the Aedes aegypti larvicidal assay. Eight of the 11 plant extracts studied showed toxicity against the A. aegypti larvae (LC50<500 ?g\\/ml). The dichloromethane extracts of Abuta grandifolia and Minthostachys setosa demonstrated high larvicidal activity, the most active being the dichloromethane extract of A. grandifolia,

G Ciccia; J Coussio; E Mongelli

2000-01-01

235

Anticancer principles from medicinal piper ( hú ji?o) plants.  

PubMed

The ethnomedical uses of Piper ( Hú Ji?o) plants as anticancer agents, in vitro cytotoxic activity of both extracts and compounds from Piper plants, and in vivo antitumor activity and mechanism of action of selected compounds are reviewed in the present paper. The genus Piper (Piperaceae) contains approximately 2000 species, of which 10 species have been used in traditional medicines to treat cancer or cancer-like symptoms. Studies have shown that 35 extracts from 24 Piper species and 32 compounds from Piper plants possess cytotoxic activity. Amide alkaloids account for 53% of the major active principles. Among them, piplartine (piperlongumine) shows the most promise, being toxic to dozens of cancer cell lines and having excellent in vivo activity. It is worthwhile to conduct further anticancer studies both in vitro and in vivo on Piper plants and their active principles. PMID:24872928

Wang, Yue-Hu; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Yang, Jun; Niu, Hong-Mei; Long, Chun-Lin; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

2014-01-01

236

Antiviral activity of some South American medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Folk medicinal plants are potential sources of useful therapeutic compounds including some with antiviral activities. Extracts prepared from 10 South American medicinal plants (Baccharis trinervis, Baccharis teindalensis, Eupatorium articulatum, Eupatorium glutinosum, Tagetes pusilla, Neurolaena lobata, Conyza floribunda, Phytolacca bogotensis, Phytolacca rivinoides and Heisteria acuminata) were screened for in vitro antiviral activity against herpes simplex type I (HSV-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and poliovirus type 1. The most potent inhibition was observed with an aqueous extract of B. trinervis, which inhibited HSV-1 replication by 100% at 50-200 micrograms/mL, without showing cytotoxic effects. Good activities were also found with the ethanol extract of H. acuminata and the aqueous extract of E. articulatum, which exhibited antiviral effects against both DNA and RNA viruses (HSV-1 and VSV, respectively) at 125-250 micrograms/mL. The aqueous extracts of T. pusilla (100-250 micrograms/mL), B. teindalensis (50-125 micrograms/mL) and E. glutinosum (50-125 micrograms/mL) also inhibited the replication of VSV, but none of the extracts tested had any effect on poliovirus replication. PMID:10190189

Abad, M J; Bermejo, P; Sanchez Palomino, S; Chiriboga, X; Carrasco, L

1999-03-01

237

Antihypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant activity assessment of some plants used as remedy in Turkish folk medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic and aqueous extracts from five plant species used in Turkish traditional medicine were evaluated for in vivo hypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant activities: Agrostemma githago L., Potentilla reptans L., Thymbra spicata var. spicata L., Urtica dioica L. and Viscum album var. album L. We assayed the effects of the administration of plant extracts on serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C, glucose,

Gulcan Avc?; Esra Kupeli; Abdullah Eryavuz; Erdem Yesilada; Ismail Kucukkurt

2006-01-01

238

Biological activity of common mullein, a medicinal plant.  

PubMed

Common Mullein (Verbascum thapsus L., Scrophulariaceae) is a medicinal plant that has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, asthma, spasmodic coughs, diarrhea and other pulmonary problems. The objective of this study was to assess the biological activity of Common Mullein extracts and commercial Mullein products using selected bench top bioassays, including antibacterial, antitumor, and two toxicity assays--brine shrimp and radish seed. Extracts were prepared in water, ethanol and methanol. Antibacterial activity (especially the water extract) was observed with Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-induced tumors in potato disc tissue were inhibited by all extracts. Toxicity to Brine Shrimp and to radish seed germination and growth was observed at higher concentrations of the extracts. PMID:12241986

Turker, Arzu Ucar; Camper, N D

2002-10-01

239

Medicinal Plants and Cancer Chemoprevention  

PubMed Central

Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Although great advancements have been made in the treatment and control of cancer progression, significant deficiencies and room for improvement remain. A number of undesired side effects sometimes occur during chemotherapy. Natural therapies, such as the use of plant-derived products in cancer treatment, may reduce adverse side effects. Currently, a few plant products are being used to treat cancer. However, a myriad of many plant products exist that have shown very promising anti-cancer properties in vitro, but have yet to be evaluated in humans. Further study is required to determine the efficacy of these plant products in treating cancers in humans. This review will focus on the various plant-derived chemical compounds that have, in recent years, shown promise as anticancer agents and will outline their potential mechanism of action. PMID:18781909

Desai, Avni G.; Qazi, Ghulam N.; Ganju, Ramesh K.; El-Tamer, Mahmoud; Singh, Jaswant; Saxena, Ajit K.; Bedi, Yashbir S.; Taneja, Subhash C.; Bhat, Hari K.

2014-01-01

240

Antimicrobial activity of selected South African medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Background Nearly 3,000 plant species are used as medicines in South Africa, with approximately 350 species forming the most commonly traded and used medicinal plants. In the present study, twelve South African medicinal plants were selected and tested for their antimicrobial activities against eight microbial species belonging to fungi, Mycobacteria, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods The radiometric respiratory technique using the BACTEC 460 system was used for susceptibility testing against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the liquid micro-broth dilution was used for other antimicrobial assays. Results The results of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations indicated that the methanol extracts from Acacia karoo, Erythrophleum lasianthum and Salvia africana were able to prevent the growth of all the tested microorganisms. All other samples showed selective activities. MIC values below 100??g/ml were recorded with A. karoo, C. dentate, E. lasianthum, P. obligun and S. africana on at least one of the nine tested microorganisms. The best activity (MIC value of 39.06??g/ml) was noted with S. africana against E. coli, S. aureus and M. audouinii, and Knowltonia vesitoria against M. tuberculosis. Conclusion The overall results of the present work provide baseline information for the possible use of the studied South African plant extracts in the treatment of microbial infections. PMID:22704594

2012-01-01

241

Cinnamon: A Multifaceted Medicinal Plant  

PubMed Central

Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family. Cinnamon is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. In addition to being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-disease-lowering compound, cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. This review illustrates the pharmacological prospective of cinnamon and its use in daily life. PMID:24817901

Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Gan, Siew Hua

2014-01-01

242

Cinnamon: a multifaceted medicinal plant.  

PubMed

Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family. Cinnamon is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. In addition to being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-disease-lowering compound, cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. This review illustrates the pharmacological prospective of cinnamon and its use in daily life. PMID:24817901

Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Gan, Siew Hua

2014-01-01

243

Review: Northern Ontario medicinal plants Haider M. Hassan1  

E-print Network

Review: Northern Ontario medicinal plants Haider M. Hassan1 , Zi-Hua Jiang2 , Tarannum A. Syed3. and Qin, W. 2012. Review: Northern Ontario medicinal plants. Can. J. Plant Sci. 92: 815Á828. The majority is crucial. Hence, included in this review is a novel list of 48 northern Ontario medicinal plants that may

Qin, Wensheng

244

Antiinflammatory screening of the medicinal plant Gynura procumbens.  

PubMed

Gynura procumbens is used in Thai folk medicine to treat topical inflammation, rheumatism, and viral ailments. In the present work, attempts were made to verify the folk medicinal claim that the crude ethanolic extract of G. procumbens has antiinflammatory action and to relate the activity to particular fractions using a croton oil-induced mouse ear inflammation model. The original ethanolic extract of G. procumbens was partitioned between water and ethyl acetate. The residues were subjected to antiinflammatory evaluation. While the water extract did not show any antiinflammatory activity, the administration of the original organic extract significantly inhibited the increase in ear thickness in response to croton oil (n = 5). The activity of 0.75 mg/ear original organic extract showed similar antiinflammatory activity (inhibition 65.2%) to that of 6 mg/ear hydrocortisone 21-hemisuccinate sodium salt (inhibition 64.8%). The organic extract was then fractionated with a series of solvents in order of increasing polarity. Each fraction was dried, dissolved in acetone and monitored using the same bioassay. These experiments showed that the hexane and toluene fractions showed significant inhibitions of 44.6% and 34.8%, respectively. These two fractions had similar activities to 4 mg/ear of hydrocortisone (inhibition 35.0%). The possible chemical constituents in the extracts and fractions were investigated using thin layer chromatography and specific color reagents. These tests showed that steroids might be one class of antiinflammatory compounds in this plant. PMID:12602932

Iskander, M N; Song, Y; Coupar, I M; Jiratchariyakul, W

2002-01-01

245

Bioactivity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants against the Cotton Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci  

PubMed Central

Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

Hammad, E. Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A.; Saliba, N.; Talhouk, S.

2014-01-01

246

Role of leaf extracts of some medicinal plants in the management of seed-borne fungal diseases of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to manage the fungal pathogens in okra, seeds of variety Arka Anamika were subjected to soaking treatment with the aqueous leaf extracts of Coleus aromaticus, Adathoda vasica, Vitex negundo, Solanum nigrum, Leucas aspera, Ocimum sanctum and Catharanthus roseus. Among the extracts used, Coleus aromaticus, Vitex negundo extracts were found superior in reducing the incidence of mycoflora. These leaf

Mashooda Begum; S. Lokesh; V. B. Raghavendra

2009-01-01

247

Potent ?-amylase inhibitory activity of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Background Indian medicinal plants used in the Ayurvedic traditional system to treat diabetes are a valuable source of novel anti-diabetic agents. Pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. In this study, seventeen Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for ?-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on PPA (porcine pancreatic ?-amylase). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the lead extracts was performed in order to determine the probable constituents. Methods Analysis of the 126 extracts, obtained from 17 plants (Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., Adansonia digitata L., Allium sativum L., Casia fistula L., Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don., Cinnamomum verum Persl., Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt., Linum usitatisumum L., Mangifera indica L., Morus alba L., Nerium oleander L., Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Piper nigrum L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers., Trigonella foenum-graceum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc.) for PPA inhibition was initially performed qualitatively by starch-iodine colour assay. The lead extracts were further quantified with respect to PPA inhibition using the chromogenic DNSA (3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid) method. Phytochemical constituents of the extracts exhibiting? 50% inhibition were analysed qualitatively as well as by GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry). Results Of the 126 extracts obtained from 17 plants, 17 extracts exhibited PPA inhibitory potential to varying degrees (10%-60.5%) while 4 extracts showed low inhibition (< 10%). However, strong porcine pancreatic amylase inhibitory activity (> 50%) was obtained with 3 isopropanol extracts. All these 3 extracts exhibited concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, viz., seeds of Linum usitatisumum (540 ?gml-1), leaves of Morus alba (1440 ?gml-1) and Ocimum tenuiflorum (8.9 ?gml-1). Acarbose as the standard inhibitor exhibited an IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration)value of 10.2 ?gml-1. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids with the major phytoconstituents being identified by GC-MS. Conclusions This study endorses the use of these plants for further studies to determine their potential for type 2 diabetes management. Results suggests that extracts of Linum usitatisumum, Morus alba and Ocimum tenuiflorum act effectively as PPA inhibitors leading to a reduction in starch hydrolysis and hence eventually to lowered glucose levels. PMID:21251279

2011-01-01

248

[States of nervousness. Useful medicinal plants].  

PubMed

The author analyzes the effects of diverse medicinal plants such as poppy (papaver somniferum), Hawthorn, hypericum, and hops on those moderate nervous states which provoke insomnia, anxiety, or excitement as a complementary method to aid a patient overcome those states. PMID:15125337

Alonso Osorio, M José

2004-03-01

249

Phylogenetic Exploration of Medicinal Plant Diversity MedPlant PhD Fellowship  

E-print Network

MedPlant Phylogenetic Exploration of Medicinal Plant Diversity MedPlant PhD Fellowship Incense Phylogenetic Exploration of Medicinal Plant Diversity, MedPlant (www.MedPlant.eu). Project description Burning of incense plants for purification and the use of smoke for medicinal purposes are ancient practices in many

Zürich, Universität

250

Flavonols (kaempeferol, quercetin, myricetin) contents of selected fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of flavonols (kaempeferol, quercetin, myricetin) were determined in 22 plant materials (9 vegetables, 5 fruits, and 8 medicinal plant organs). The materials were extracted with acidified methanol (methanol\\/HCl, 100:1, v\\/v) and analyzed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) with UV detection. The total flavonols contents varied significantly (P<0.05) among vegetables, fruits and medicinal plant organs ranged from

Bushra Sultana; Farooq Anwar

2008-01-01

251

Ethnobotanical survey and preliminary evaluation of medicinal plants with antidiarrhoea properties in Sokoto state, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants use in Sokoto state of Nigeria for the treatment of diarrhoeal disorders was conducted. The plants documented were identified botanically and ranked based on informant frequency of citation. Ten top rank plants were then selected and screened for acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and antidiarrhoea properties. A fixed single dose (3000 mg\\/kg b.wt.) of aqueous extract

E. U. Etuk; M. O. Ugwah; O. P. Ajagbonna; P. A. Onyeyili

252

Antiviral Activity of Some Plants Used in Nepalese Traditional Medicine  

PubMed Central

Methanolic extracts of 41 plant species belonging to 27 families used in the traditional medicine in Nepal have been investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and influenza virus A by dye uptake assay in the systems HSV-1/Vero cells and influenza virus A/MDCK cells. The extracts of Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Cassiope fastigiata and Thymus linearis showed potent anti-herpes viral activity. The extracts of Allium oreoprasum, Androsace strigilosa, Asparagus filicinus, Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata and Verbascum thapsus exhibited strong anti-influenza viral activity. Only the extracts of A. rivularis and B. ciliata demonstrated remarkable activity against both viruses. PMID:18955262

Rajbhandari, M.; Mentel, R.; Jha, P. K.; Chaudhary, R. P.; Bhattarai, S.; Gewali, M. B.; Karmacharya, N.; Hipper, M.

2009-01-01

253

Antiviral activity of some plants used in Nepalese traditional medicine.  

PubMed

Methanolic extracts of 41 plant species belonging to 27 families used in the traditional medicine in Nepal have been investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and influenza virus A by dye uptake assay in the systems HSV-1/Vero cells and influenza virus A/MDCK cells. The extracts of Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Cassiope fastigiata and Thymus linearis showed potent anti-herpes viral activity. The extracts of Allium oreoprasum, Androsace strigilosa, Asparagus filicinus, Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata and Verbascum thapsus exhibited strong anti-influenza viral activity. Only the extracts of A. rivularis and B. ciliata demonstrated remarkable activity against both viruses. PMID:18955262

Rajbhandari, M; Mentel, R; Jha, P K; Chaudhary, R P; Bhattarai, S; Gewali, M B; Karmacharya, N; Hipper, M; Lindequist, U

2009-12-01

254

ANTICANCER MEDICINAL PLANT, Epipremnum pinnatum (L.) Engl. CHLOROFORM EXTRACTS ELICITED BOTH APOPTOTIC AND NON-APOPTOTIC CELL DEATHS IN T- 47D MAMMARY CARCINOMA CELLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epipremnum pinnatum (L.) Engl. chloroform extract produced significant growth inhibition against T-47D breast carcinoma cells and analysis of cell death mechanisms indicated that the extract elicited both apoptotic and non-apoptotic programmed cell deaths. T-47D cells exposed to the extract produced a significant up-regulation of c-myc and caspase-3 mRNA expression levels as compared to untreated cells. The up-regulation of caspase-3 mRNA

Tan Mei Lan; Shaida Fariza Sulaiman; Nazalan Najimudin

255

Antimicrobial Activity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants Against Enterococcus  

E-print Network

Antimicrobial Activity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants Against Enterococcus faecalis By Daniel setting against the antibiotic-resistant pathogen, Enterococcus faecalis. This was accomplished by first. #12;Antimicrobial Activity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants Against Enterococcus faecalis Introduction

Firestone, Jeremy

256

Quantification of gallic acidin fruits of three medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Triphala is a traditional herbal formulation consisting of dried fruits originating from three medicinal plants, namely Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica and Phyllanthus emblica. It is used in folk medicine for the treatment of headaches, dyspepsia and leucorrhoea. There are some reports regarding Triphala's pharmacological effects including its anti-cancer, radioprotective, hypocholesterolaemic, hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant activities. The most important components of these plants are the tannins and gallic acid which they contain. Gallic acid being a compound with tannin structure existing in the Triphala fruit. In this research, the gallic acid content contained in the three plants constituting Triphala was determined. Plant fruits were purchased from available Iranian markets. Milled and powdered fruits from each plant were extracted with 70% acetone and subjected to a reaction with rhodanine reagent in the process forming a colored complex. The complex's absorbance was measured at 520 nm and the amount of gallic acid was determined using its calibration curve. According to the results, the highest amount of gallic acid was observed in Phyllanthus embelica (1.79-2.18%) and the lowest amount was found in Terminalia chebula (0.28-0.80%). Moreover, differences between plant samples from different markets places were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). These differences can possibly be due to the source of plant preparation, storage condition and period of Triphala storage. In general, the rhodanine assay is a simple, rapid and reproducible method for the standardization of Triphala as gallic acid. PMID:24250348

Vazirian, Mahdi; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Amanzadeh, Yaghoub; Hajimehdipoor, Homa

2011-01-01

257

RESEARCH Open Access Medicinal plants from swidden fallows and sacred  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Medicinal plants from swidden fallows and sacred forest of the Karen and sacred forests as providers of medicinal plants among the Karen and Lawa ethnic minorities in northern equal numbers of medicinal plants were derived from the forest and the fallows. This in turn means

Schierup, Mikkel Heide

258

Induction of seed germination in Orobanche spp. by extracts of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs.  

PubMed

The co-evolution of Orobanche spp. and their hosts within the same environment has resulted in a high degree of adaptation and effective parasitism whereby the host releases parasite germination stimulants, which are likely to be unstable in the soil. Our objective was to investigate whether extracts from non-host plants, specifically, Chinese medicinal plants, could stimulate germination of Orobanche spp. Samples of 606 Chinese medicinal herb species were extracted with deionized water and methanol. The extracts were used to induce germination of three Orobanche species; Orobanche minor, Orobanche cumana, and Orobanche aegyptiaca. O. minor exhibited a wide range of germination responses to the various herbal extracts. O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca exhibited an intermediate germination response to the herbal extracts. O. minor, which has a narrow host spectrum, showed higher germination rates in response to different herbal extracts compared with those of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca, which have a broader host spectrum. Methanolic extracts of many Chinese herbal species effectively stimulated seed germination among the Orobanche spp., even though they were not the typical hosts. The effective herbs represent interesting examples of potential trap crops. Different countries can also screen extracts from indigenous herbaceous plants for their ability to induce germination of Orobanche spp. seeds. The use of such species as trap plants could diminish the global soil seed bank of Orobanche. PMID:22527522

Ma, YongQing; Zhang, Wei; Dong, ShuQi; Ren, XiangXiang; An, Yu; Lang, Ming

2012-03-01

259

Antibacterial activity of some selected medicinal plants of Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Screening of the ethnobotenical plants is a pre-requisite to evaluate their therapeutic potential and it can lead to the isolation of new bioactive compounds. Methods The crude extracts and fractions of six medicinal important plants (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, Pistacia integerrima, Aesculus indica, and Toona ciliata) were tested against three Gram positive and two Gram negative ATCC bacterial species using the agar well diffusion method. Results The crude extract of P. integerrima and A. indica were active against all tested bacterial strains (12-23 mm zone of inhibition). Other four plant's crude extracts (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, and Toona ciliata) were active against different bacterial strains. The crude extracts showed varying level of bactericidal activity. The aqueous fractions of A. indica and P. integerrima crude extract showed maximum activity (19.66 and 16 mm, respectively) against B. subtilis, while the chloroform fractions of T. ciliata and D. salicifolia presented good antibacterial activities (13-17 mm zone of inhibition) against all the bacterial cultures tested. Conclusion The methanol fraction of Pistacia integerrima, chloroform fractions of Debregeasia salicifolia &Toona ciliata and aqueous fraction of Aesculus indica are suitable candidates for the development of novel antibacterial compounds. PMID:21718504

2011-01-01

260

Indian medicinal plants as a reservoir of protective phytochemicals.  

PubMed

India is one of the 12 mega diversity countries in the world so it has a vital stake in conservation and sustainable utilization of its biodiversity resources. Plant secondary metabolites have been of interest to man for a long time due to their pharmacological relevance. With this in view, the bark powder of Acacia auriculiformis, A. nilotica, Juglans regia, and the fruit powder of Terminalia bellerica, T. chebula, Emblica officinalis, and a combination drug "Triphala," which are known to be rich in polyphenols, were tested for their antimutagenic activities. Antimutagenic activities of the extracts were estimated by employing the plate incorporation Ames Salmonella histidine reversion assay by using the frame shift mutagen tester strain TA98 and base pair substitution strain TA100 against direct acting mutagens (NPD, sodium azide), and the S9-dependent mutagen 2-aminofluorene(2AF). Acetone extracts of all the plants exhibited significant antimutagenic activities among the other extracts tested, but an acetone extract of Acacia nilotica showed a marked anti-mutagent effect. Furthermore, it was more effective against indirect acting mutagen, 2AF, in both TA98 and TA100 tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium than against the direct acting mutagens. The results indicate that an acetone extract of bark and fruit of the medicinal plants under study harbors constituents with promising antimutagenic/anticarcinogenic potential that could be investigated further. PMID:12616620

Arora, Saroj; Kaur, Kamaljit; Kaur, Swayamjot

2003-01-01

261

Effectiveness of Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas in Western Ghats, India  

E-print Network

Effectiveness of Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas in Western Ghats, India Narayani Barve Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas (MPCA) ? Designated by State Forest Department ? Established early 1990s ? Network of 200 sites all over India... ? Selection based on Plant diversity and known medicinal plant hotspots The Western Ghats (Sahyadri) Biodiversity Hotspot ? Less than 6% of the land area of India, but contains more than 30% of all plant, bird, and mammal species found in the country...

Barve, Narayani

2014-04-25

262

Activity of east African medicinal plants against Helicobacter pylori.  

PubMed

The activity of extracts from the East African medicinal plants Entada abyssinica (stem bark), Terminalia spinosa (young branches), Harrisonia abyssinica (roots), Ximenia caffra (roots), Azadirachta indica (leaves and stem bark) and Spilanthes mauritiana (roots and flowers) were evaluated against 12 strains of Helicobacter pylori. The most active extracts were those derived from T. spinosa with an MIC50 of 125 micrograms/ml, an MIC90 of 250 micrograms/ml and an MIC range of 62.5-500 micrograms/ml. An MIC50 of 250 micrograms/ml and an MIC90 of > 4,000 micrograms/ml was reached by H. abyssinica with a range of 125-->4,000 micrograms/ml and by X. caffra with a range of 62.5-->4,000 micrograms/ml, respectively. It is concluded that these plants contain compounds with antimicrobial activity against H. pylori. PMID:8874968

Fabry, W; Okemo, P; Ansorg, R

1996-01-01

263

Quorum sensing inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus from Italian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Morbidity and mortality estimates due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections continue to rise. Therapeutic options are limited by antibiotic resistance. Anti-pathogenic compounds, which inhibit quorum sensing (QS) pathways, may be a useful alternative to antibiotics. Staphylococcal QS is encoded by the AGR locus and is responsible for the production of ?-hemolysin. Quantification of ?-hemolysin found in culture supernatants permits the analysis of AGR activity at the translational rather than transcriptional level. We employed reversed phase high performance chromatographic (RP-HPLC) techniques to investigate the anti-QS activity of 168 extracts from 104 Italian plants through quantification of ?-hemolysin. Extracts from three medicinal plants (Ballota nigra, Castanea sativa, and Sambucus ebulus) exhibited a dose-dependent response in the production of ?-hemolysin, indicating anti-QS activity in a pathogenic MRSA isolate. PMID:20645243

Quave, Cassandra L; Plano, Lisa R W; Bennett, Bradley C

2011-01-01

264

Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Essential oils and ethanolic extracts from the leaves and/or roots of 35 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened for anti-Candida albicans activity. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system. Essential oils from 13 plants showed anti-Candida activity, including Aloysia triphylla, Anthemis nobilis, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cyperus articulatus, Cyperus rotundus, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Mikania glomerata, Mentha piperita, Mentha sp., Stachys byzantina, and Solidago chilensis. The ethanol extract was not effective at any of the concentrations tested. Chemical analyses showed the presence of compounds with known antimicrobial activity, including 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, and menthol. PMID:15707770

Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Sartoratto, Adilson; Rehder, Vera Lúcia Garcia; Delarmelina, Camila

2005-02-28

265

Quorum Sensing Inhibitors for Staphylococcus aureus from Italian Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

Morbidity and mortality estimates due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections continue to rise. Therapeutic options are limited by antibiotic resistance. Anti-pathogenic compounds, which inhibit quorum sensing (QS) pathways, may be a useful alternative to antibiotics. Staphylococcal QS is encoded by the agr locus and is responsible for the production of ?-hemolysin. Quantification of ?-hemolysin found in culture supernatants permits the analysis of agr activity at the translational, rather than transcriptional, level. We employed RP-HPLC techniques to investigate the anti-QS activity of 168 extracts from 104 Italian plants through quantification of ?-hemolysin. Extracts from three medicinal plants (Ballota nigra, Castanea sativa, and Sambucus ebulus) exhibited a dose-dependent response in the production of ?-hemolysin, indicating strong anti-QS activity in a pathogenic MRSA isolate. PMID:20645243

Quave, Cassandra L.; Plano, Lisa R.W.; Bennett, Bradley C.

2010-01-01

266

Fungistatic and fungicidal activity of east African medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Extracts of the traditionally used medicinal plants Entada abyssinica (stem bark), Terminalia spinosa (young branches), Harrisonia abyssinica (roots), Ximenia caffra (roots), Azadirachta indica (stem bark), Zanha africana (stem bark) and Spilanthes mauritiana (roots and flowers) were investigated for fungistatic and fungicidal activity against Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. by a microtitre serial dilution technique. Entada abyssinica, T. spinosa, X. caffra, A. indica, and Z. africana showed activity against various Candida species. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 0.006 to > 8 mg ml-1 and the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) from 0.06 to > 8 mg ml-1. Extracts from S. mauritiana (both roots and flowers) exhibited no activity against Candida spp., but against Aspergillus spp., the MIC and MFC values ranged from 0.13 to 0.25 mg ml-1 and from 0.13 to 1 mg ml-1 respectively. It is concluded that the extracts contain compounds with high antifungal potency. PMID:8786762

Fabry, W; Okemo, P; Ansorg, R

1996-01-01

267

Isolation of the plant hormone (+)-abscisic acid as an antimycobacterial constituent of the medicinal plant endophyte Nigrospora sp.  

PubMed

An extract of the endophytic fungus Nigropsora sp. (isolate TC2-054) from the Canadian medicinal plant Fragaria virginiana exhibited significant antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. Bioassay guided fractionation revealed that linoleic acid derivatives and the plant hormone (+)-abscisic acid (ABA) were responsible for the observed antimycobacterial activity. This activity of ABA has not been previously reported. PMID:24555269

Clark, Trevor N; Ellsworth, Katelyn; Li, Haoxin; Johnson, John A; Gray, Christopher A

2013-12-01

268

The market medicinal plants of Monterrey, Nuevo León, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to record the popular uses of various medicinal plants collected in the market medicinal stalls\\u000a of Monterrey, Nuevo León, México. One hundred and thirty-five medicinal plants were collected from 11 hierberias (stalls)\\u000a of two mercados (markets) and two additional medicinal plant sources. Included is a total of 70 species in 65 genera of 38

Michael S. Nicholson; Charles B. Arzeni

1993-01-01

269

Antiprotease activity of selected Slovak medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Fifty-six methanol extracts obtained from the barks, flowers, leaves and stems of 30 Slovak trees, bushes and herbs used in the traditional medicine of the Small Carpathians, Slovakia, have been screened for antiprotease (trypsin, thrombin and urokinase) activity using chromogenic bioassay. In this study, 14 extracts showed the strong inhibition activity to protease trypsin with IC50 values below 10 microg/mL. The highest inhibition activities were observed for methanol extracts of Acer platanoides IC50 = 1.8 microg/mL, Rhus typhina IC50 = 1.2 microg/mL and Tamarix gallica IC50 = 1.7 microg/mL. However, the results of extracts tested on thrombin were generally different from those observed for trypsin. The most marked inhibition activity to thrombin were estimated for extracts of Castanea sativa IC50 = 73.2 microg/mL, Larix decidua IC50 = 96.9 microg/mL and Rhus typhina IC50 = 20.5 microg/mL. In addition, Acer platanoides and Rhus typhina were the only extracts which showed inhibition activity to urokinase with IC50 = 171.1 microg/mL and IC50 = 38.3 microg/mL, respectively. In addition, Rhus typhina showed the broadest spectrum of inhibition activity to all tested serine proteases and seems to be a prospective new source of natural products as inhibitors of serine proteases. PMID:20225660

Jedinak, A; Valachova, M; Maliar, T; Sturdik, E

2010-02-01

270

Antibacterial properties of traditionally used Indian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

In search of broad-spectrum antibacterial activity from traditionally used Indian medicinal plants, 66 ethanolic plant extracts were screened against nine different bacteria. Of these, 39 extracts demonstrated activity against six or more test bacteria. Twelve extracts showing broad-spectrum activity were tested against specific multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESbetaL)-producing enteric bacteria. In vitro efficacy was expressed in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of plant extracts. MIC values ranged from 0.32-7.5 mg/ml against MRSA and 0.31-6.25 mg/ml against ESbetaL-producing enteric bacteria. The overall activity against all groups of bacteria was found in order of Plumbago zeylanica > Hemidesmus indicus > Acorus calamus > Camellia sinensis > Terminalia chebula > Terminalia bellerica > Holarrhena antidysenterica > Lawsonia inermis > Mangifera indica > Punica granatum > Cichorium intybus and Delonix regia. In addition, these extracts showed synergistic interaction with tetracycline, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin against S. aureus and/or Escherichia coli. The ethanolic extracts of more than 12 plants were found nontoxic to sheep erythrocytes and nonmutagenic, determined by Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium test strains (TA 97a, TA 100, TA 102 and TA 104). Based on above properties, six plants-Plumbago zeylanica, Hemidesmus indicus, Acorus calamus, Punica granatum, Holarrhena antidysenterica and Delonix regia-were further subjected to fractionation-based study. Ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol fractions of more than six plants indicated that the active phytocompounds were distributed mainly into acetone and ethyl acetate fractions, whereas they were least prevalent in methanol fractions as evident from their antibacterial activity against MDR bacteria. Gram-positive and Gram-negative MDR bacteria are almost equally sensitive to these extracts/fractions, indicating their broad-spectrum nature. However, strain- and plant extract-dependent variations in the antibacterial activity were also evident. Time-kill assay with the most promising plant fraction Plumbago zeylanica (ethyl acetate fraction) demonstrated killing of test bacteria at the level lower than its MIC. Further, identification of active constituents in each fraction and their additive and synergistic interactions are needed to exploit them in evaluating efficacy and safety in vivo against MDR bacteria. PMID:17440624

Aqil, F; Ahmad, I

2007-03-01

271

The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and extracts of some medicinal plants grown in Ash-shoubak region - South of Jordan.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effects of essential oils as well as chloroformic extracts of Thymus vulgaris, Thymus serpyllum, Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum grown in Ash-shoubak region-south of Jordan and their possible individual phytochemical constituents was screened against pathogenic clinical and standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The bioassay employed was the agar well diffusion method. The essential oils and chloroformic extracts of T. vulgaris and T. serpyllum were the most effective against the tested strains of bacteria. Clinical and standard strains of S .aureus and P. aeruginosa were uninhibited by S. officinalis essential oils. P. aeruginosa tested strains were also resistant to P. anisum essential oils. For almost all bacterial strains, the highest antibacterial effect of oils was obtained with the highest tested dose (15 ?l). Chlorformic extracts of S. officinalis showed small activity against standard and clinical E. coli strains and were not effective to inhibit strains of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Chloroformic extracts obtained from P. anisum and applied at 300 ?g/cm(2) slightly inhibited E. coli, but moderately inhibited S. aureus. It is shown from the results that the antibacterial effects of the individual components varied depending upon their chemical structure, functional groups and configuration as well as doses used. This study showed the beneficial effects of the essential oils of T. serpyllum and T. vulgaris grown in Ash-shoubak in inhibiting the growth of microbes and the implications this could have in pharmacy and food technology. PMID:22186336

Abu-Darwish, Mohammad Sanad; Al-Ramamneh, Ezz Al-Dein Muhammed; Kyslychenko, Viktoria Sergeevna; Karpiuk, Uliana Vladimirovna

2012-01-01

272

Screening of anti- Helicobacter pylori herbs deriving from Taiwanese folk medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, extracts from 50 Taiwanese folk medicinal plants were examined and screened for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. Ninety-five percent ethanol was used for herbal extraction. Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr. (PSM), Plumbago zeylanica L. (PZL), Anisomeles indica (L.) O. Kuntze (AIOK), Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) and Alpinia speciosa (J. C. Wendl.) K. Schum. (ASKS) and Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) all

Yuan-Chuen Wang; Tung-Liang Huang

2005-01-01

273

Screening of plants used in Danish folk medicine to treat epilepsy and convulsions.  

PubMed

Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 42 plants used in Danish folk medicine for the treatment of epilepsy and convulsions, or for inducing sedation, were tested for affinity to the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor in the flumazenil-binding assay. Ethanolic extracts of leaves of Primula elatior and Primula veris and aerial parts of Tanacetum parthenium exhibited good, dose-dependent affinity. PMID:16293381

Jäger, Anna K; Gauguin, Bente; Adsersen, Anne; Gudiksen, Lene

2006-04-21

274

Screening of plants used in Danish folk medicine to treat epilepsy and convulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 42 plants used in Danish folk medicine for the treatment of epilepsy and convulsions, or for inducing sedation, were tested for affinity to the GABAA–benzodiazepine receptor in the flumazenil-binding assay. Ethanolic extracts of leaves of Primula elatior and Primula veris and aerial parts of Tanacetum parthenium exhibited good, dose-dependent affinity.

Anna K. Jäger; Bente Gauguin; Anne Adsersen; Lene Gudiksen

2006-01-01

275

Antibacterial Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants from Parangipettai Coastal Regions; Southeast Coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with the leaf extracts of 4 coastal living medicinal plants Viz., Ocimum canum, Acalypha indica, Eclipta alba and Lawsonia inermis for their antibacterial potential. The maximum antibacterial activity was observed with Acalypha indica and Lawsonia inermis against tested pathogens. Proteus mirabilis, Shigella dysenteriae and Staphylococus aureus were found susceptible to all the extracts. Methanol and chloroform

K. Devi; G. Karthikai Devi; G. Thirumaran; R. Arumugam; P. Anantharaman

2009-01-01

276

Anticandidial and anticryptococcal activity of Euphorbia fusiformis , a rare medicinal plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work demonstrates the screening of extracts of the rare medicinal herb Euphorbia fusiformis for antifungal activity. The main aim was to investigate its antifungal properties against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, the causative agents of human candidiasis and cryptococcosis, respectively. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts from the\\u000a leaves and rootstock of the plant were tested against the fungi

D. Natarajan; N. Nagamurugan; A. Ramachandran; C. Mohanasundari; K. Srinivasan

2007-01-01

277

Antibacterial activity of three medicinal Thai plants against Campylobacter jejuni and other foodborne pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves of Adenanthera pavonina, Moringa oleifera and Annona squamosa are used in traditional Thai medicine to treat dysentery and other diseases. This study investigated the antibacterial activity of these plants against six species of foodborne pathogen. Methods and solvents employed to extract active constituents were optimised using the disc diffusion assay. Phytochemical analysis of the optimised extracts was performed by

Achara Dholvitayakhun; T. P. Tim Cushnie; Nathanon Trachoo

2012-01-01

278

Antibacterial activity of three medicinal Thai plants against Campylobacter jejuni and other foodborne pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves of Adenanthera pavonina, Moringa oleifera and Annona squamosa are used in traditional Thai medicine to treat dysentery and other diseases. This study investigated the antibacterial activity of these plants against six species of foodborne pathogen. Methods and solvents employed to extract active constituents were optimised using the disc diffusion assay. Phytochemical analysis of the optimised extracts was performed by

Achara Dholvitayakhun; T. P. Tim Cushnie; Nathanon Trachoo

2011-01-01

279

NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase 1 inducer activity of some Saudi Arabian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are a rich source of biologically-active phytochemicals and have been used in traditional medicine for centuries. Specific phytochemicals and extracts of their plant sources have the ability to reduce the risk for chronic degenerative diseases by induction of enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, many of which also have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. One such multifunctional cytoprotective enzyme is NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase. In this study, we prepared extracts of 27 Saudi Arabian medicinal plants which belong to 18 different plant families and tested their ability to induce NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase in murine hepatoma cells grown in microtiter plate wells. In addition to the Brassicaceae, a known source of NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase inducer activity, we found substantial inducer activity in extracts from the Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, and the Asteraceae families. Five out of a total of eight active extracts are from plants which belong to the Asteraceae family. We further show that artemisinin, an agent which is used clinically for the treatment of malaria, contributes but does not fully account for the inducer activity of the extract of Artemisia monosperma. In contrast to artemisinin, deoxyartemisinin is inactive in this assay, demonstrating the critical role of the endoperoxide moiety of artemisinin for inducer activity. Thus, the NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase inducer activity of extracts of some Saudi Arabian medicinal plants indicates the presence of specific phytochemicals which have the potential to protect against chronic degenerative diseases. PMID:23512501

Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Alsaid, Mansour S; Alyahya, Muhammad A; Higgins, Maureen; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T

2013-04-01

280

Characterization of cysteine proteases in Malian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Extracts form 10 different Malian medicinal plants with a traditional use against schistosomiasis were investigated for their possible content of proteolytic activity. The proteolytic activity was studied by measuring the hydrolysis of two synthetic peptide substrates Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec and Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec. Legumain- and papain-like activities were found in all tested crude extracts except those from Entada africana, with the papain-like activity being the strongest. Cissus quadrangularis, Securidaca longepedunculata and Stylosanthes erecta extracts showed high proteolytic activities towards both substrates. After gel filtration the proteolytic activity towards the substrate Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec in root extract of Securidaca longepedunculata appeared to have Mr of 30 and 97kDa, while the activity in extracts from Cissus quadrangularis was at 39kDa. Enzymatic activity cleaving the substrate Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec showed apparent Mr of 97 and 26kDa in extracts from roots and leaves of Securidaca longepedunculata, while in Cissus quadrangularis extracts the activity eluted at 39 and 20kDa, with the highest activity in the latter. All Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec activities were inhibited by E-64 but unaffected by PMSF. The legumain activity was unaffected by E-64 and PMSF. The SDS-PAGE analysis exhibited five distinct gelatinolytic bands for Cissus quadrangularis extracts (115, 59, 31, 22 and 20kDa), while two bands (59 and 30kDa) were detected in Securidaca longepedunculata extracts. The inhibition profile of the gelatinolytic bands and that of the hydrolysis of the synthetic substrates indicate the cysteine protease class of the proteolytic activities. Several cysteine protease activities with different molecular weights along with a strong variability of these activities between species as well as between plant parts from the same species were observed. PMID:16621376

Bah, Sékou; Paulsen, Berit S; Diallo, Drissa; Johansen, Harald T

2006-09-19

281

Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45?000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally

J. K. Grover; S. Yadav; V. Vats

2002-01-01

282

Medicinal plants and food medicines in the folk traditions of the upper Lucca Province, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethnopharmacobotanical survey of the medicinal plants and food medicines of the northern part of Lucca Province, north-west Tuscany, central Italy, was carried out. The geographical isolation of this area has permitted the survival of a rich folk phytotherapy involving medicinal herbs and also vegetable resources used by locals as food medicine. Among these are the uncommon use of Ballota

A Pieroni

2000-01-01

283

Platelet anti-aggregant property of some Moroccan medicinal plants.  

PubMed

It is known that blood platelets may present some dysfunction linked to cardiovascular pathologies such as arterial hypertension. The aim of this work is to examine the in vitro anti-aggregant effect of five medicinal plants among which three were reported as antihypertensive in oriental Morocco: Arbutus unedo (Ericaceae), Urtica dioïca (Urticaceae), and Petroselinum crispum (Apiaceae). The two other plants were Cistus ladaniferus (Cistaceae) and Equisetum arvense (Equisetaceae). The results obtained showed that all extracts produced a dose-dependent inhibition of thrombin and ADP-induced aggregation. The calculated IC50 (half-maximal inhibition of thrombin and ADP-induced aggregation) was found to be identical in all plant extracts while Urtica dioïca had a higher IC50 value. The effect of plants could be related in part to the polyphenolic compounds present in their extracts suggesting their involvement in the treatment or prevention of platelet aggregation complications linked to cardiovascular diseases. Phytochemical separation must be carried out to identify the active principles responsible for the anti-aggregant effect and elucidate their mechanisms of action. PMID:15325737

Mekhfi, Hassane; El Haouari, Mohammed; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Bnouham, Mohammed; Aziz, Mohammed; Atmani, Fouad; Remmal, Adnane; Ziyyat, Abderrahim

2004-10-01

284

Biotechnology and Pharmacological Evaluation of Medicinal Plants: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants contain a wide variety of active principles that have been exploited for the treatment of various ailments by a majority of the world's population. In recent years, many advanced biotechnological methods are employed to select, multiply, improve, and analyze medicinal plants for their application in traditional and modern medicinal preparations and drug discovery. The purpose of the present

Hrudayanath Thatoi; Jayanta Kumar Patra

2011-01-01

285

The transillumination technique as a method for the assessment of spermatogenesis using medicinal plants: the effect of extracts of black maca (Lepidium meyenii) and camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) on stages of the spermatogenic cycle in male rats.  

PubMed

Transillumination technique for assessment of stages of spermatogenic cycle is a useful tool for toxicological studies. This study was designed to determine the effect of two medicinal plants on spermatogenesis in male rats using the transillumination technique. For this, the effect of the combination of a fruit with highest content of ascorbic acid (Myrciaria dubia, camu camu) and extract of black maca (Lepidium meyenii) on seminiferous tubule stages scored by transillumination on intact tubules in adult male rats was assessed. Animals were treated during seven days with vehicle, black maca, camu camu or a mixture of black maca?+?camu camu and assessed for daily sperm production (DSP), stages of spermatogenic cycle as well as antioxidant activity and levels of flavonoids and polyphenols. Black maca increased stages of spermiation (VII-VIII) and mitosis of germ cells (IX-XI), whereas camu camu increased stages of mitosis (IX-XI) and meiosis (XII). Mixture of maca?+?camu camu increased stages of spermiation, mitosis and meiosis. All treatments increased DSP (p<0.05) and epididymal sperm count (p<0.05). Total polyphenols, flavonoids levels and antioxidant activity were higher in camu camu (p<0.001) than in black maca. In conclusion, M. dubia (camu camu) has potential effects improving spermatogenesis and co-administered with maca increase stages of mitosis, meiosis and spermiation of the spermatogenic cycle as assessed by the transillumination technique. This technique is becoming increasingly a useful tool for assessment spermatogenesis. PMID:23650963

Gonzales, Gustavo F; Vasquez, Vanessa Bertha; Gasco, Manuel

2013-10-01

286

Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State  

PubMed Central

Background The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee traditional medicine. We tested the hypothesis that extracts from Haudenosaunee medicinal plants used to treat symptoms often caused by bacterial infection would show antibacterial properties in laboratory assays, and that these extracts would be more effective against moderately virulent bacteria than less virulent bacteria. Methods After identification and harvesting, a total of 57 different aqueous extractions were made from 15 plant species. Nine plant species were used in Haudenosaunee medicines and six plant species, of which three are native to the region and three are introduced, were not used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial activity against mostly avirulent (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis) and moderately virulent (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus) microbes was inferred through replicate disc diffusion assays; and observed and statistically predicted MIC values were determined through replicate serial dilution assays. Results Although there was not complete concordance between the traditional use of Haudenosaunee medicinal plants and antibacterial activity, our data support the hypothesis that the selection and use of these plants to treat disease was not random. In particular, four plant species exhibited antimicrobial properties as expected (Achillea millefolium, Ipomoea pandurata, Hieracium pilosella, and Solidago canadensis), with particularly strong effectiveness against S. typhimurium. In addition, extractions from two of the introduced species (Hesperis matronalis and Rosa multiflora) were effective against this pathogen. Conclusions Our data suggest that further screening of plants used in traditional Haudenosaunee medicine is warranted, and we put forward several species for further investigation of activity against S. typhimurium (A. millefolium, H. matronalis, I. pandurata, H. pilosella, R. multiflora, S. canadensis). PMID:21054887

2010-01-01

287

Distribution Mapping of Medicinal Plants: A GIS assisted approach  

E-print Network

Distribution Mapping of Medicinal Plants A GIS assisted approach Vijay Barve, KU Background • Over seven thousand medicinal plants in India being used in indigenous medical systems like Ayurveda, Sidhha, Unani, and Tibetian • Traditional... Knowledge regarding these plants is increasingly realized and being put to use in modern medicine • Plant Populations are depleting oHabitat fragmentation oHigh volume trade oUnregulated destructive collection • Need conservation efforts Methodology...

Barve, Vijay

2009-11-18

288

[Resources and application of She's nationality wild medicinal plants].  

PubMed

To make a thorough investigation of the common She's nationality wild medicinal plants resources in our country, including the species, the distribution, the folk application and the endemic medicinal plant species, Field surveyed was conducted with 25 She people mainly lived area (county, district or city) throughout the country, the folk prescription and treatment cases provided by She's medical personnel, the drug usage and dosage, the commonly used traditional She's medicine and drug samples were collected. And the distribution, growing environment of these plants were investigated, their characteristics, photographs, GPS data and track were record , and the fresh wax leaf or plants specimens were collected. In total 1 600 varieties of folk medicine of She's nationality, 450 disease names and 1 016 prescriptions were collected. 520 kinds of these medicinal plants were commonly used, growing mainly distributed in the southeastern China, about 200 meters above sea level to 1 500 meters. There are 5 First-Grade State protection wild plants (medicinal), 15 second-Grade State protection wild plants (medicinal), and 11 She characteristic medicinal plants in our study, they belong to 144 families, 312 genera 494 species, 2 subspecies, 17 varieties, 3 forms and 1 cultivated varieties of She's nationality. Folk medicine usage is different from the traditional Chinese medicine and ethnic medicine. This survey finds out the common She's nationality wild medicinal plants resources in China, including the species, the distribution, the folk application and commonly used drugs, and found the rare and endangered medicinal plants and the She's nationality endemic medicinal plants, which provides a basis for further development and use the traditional She's medicine resources. PMID:25509311

Lei, Hou-Xing; Li, Jian-Liang; Zheng, Song-Ming; Fan, Li-Hua; Li, Shui-Fu; Cheng, Wen-Liang; Hua, Jin-Wei; Yu, Hua-Li; Dai, De-Xiong; Xie, Yuan-Wei

2014-08-01

289

Broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal properties of certain traditionally used Indian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic extracts of 22 traditionally used Indian medicinal plants were studied for their antimicrobial activity against seven bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, S. paratyphi, S. typhi, E. coli, Shigella dysenteriae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and five filamentous fungi (Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata, Fusarium chlamydosporum, Rhizoctonia bataticola and Trichoderma viride) and a yeast Candida albicans of clinical origin. Of these, 16 plant

Farrukh Aqil; Iqbal Ahmad

2003-01-01

290

Screening of hundred Rwandese medicinal plants for antimicrobial and antiviral properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of 100 Rwandese medicinal plants (267 plant extracts), used by traditional healers to treat infections, were screened for antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties. The results of the testing showed that 45% were active against Staphylococcus aureus, 2% against Escherichia coli, 16% against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 7% against Candida albicans, 80% against Microsporum canis and 60% against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Not

A. J. Vlietinck; L. Van Hoof; J. Totté; A. Lasure; D. Vanden Berghe; P. C. Rwangabo; J. Mvukiyumwami

1995-01-01

291

Effects of Three Medicinal Plants Extracts in Experimental Diabetes: Antioxidant Enzymes Activities and Plasma Lipids Profiles inComparison with Metformin.  

PubMed

In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effects of methanolic extracts of the bulbs of Garlic (Allium sativum L., Alliaceae) and Persian shallot (Allium ascalonicum L., Alliaceae ) and leaves of Sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae ), ASE, AAE and SOE respectively, on the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) activities and on the levels of plasma lipids profiles such as triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) in Alloxan diabetic Wistar rats. In comparison with diabetic control rats in diabetic treated rats, AAE increases the activities of SOD (65%), GPX (43%) and CAT (55%). ASE and SOE increase SOD activity by 60% and 33% respectively. ASE reduces TC (34%), SOE decreases TG (40%) and LDL (30%) and AAE reduces VLDL (24%). Metformin exhibits mild antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. Results of quantitative phytochemical analysis show that the methanolic garlic and Persian shallot bulbs extracts contain secondary metabolites including alkaloids (3.490% and 3.430%), glycosides (18.023% and 13.301%) and saponins (0.812% and 0.752%). Methanolic sage leaves extract contains flavonoids (1.014%), glycosides (23.142%) and saponins (2.096%). The total phenolic contents of ASE, AAE and SOE were in order 4.273, 3.621 and 6.548 mg GAE/g dry weight (DW). These results suggest that Allium sativum, Allium ascalonicum and Salvia officinalis are beneficial in the control of diabetes by noticeable antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. PMID:24250517

Fehresti Sani, Mohammad; Montasser Kouhsari, Shideh; Moradabadi, Leila

2012-01-01

292

Antimicrobial activity of some Indian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial potential of seventy-seven extracts from twenty-four plants was screened against eight bacteria and four pathogenic fungi, using microbroth dilution assay. Lowest concentration of the extract, which inhibits any visual microbial growth after treatment with p-iodonitrotetrazolium violet, was considered to be minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Water extracts of Acacia nilotica, Justicia zelanica, Lantana camara and Saraca asoca exhibited good activity against all the bacteria tested and the MIC was recorded in range of 9.375-37.5 microg/ml and 75.0-300.0 microg/ml against the bacterial and fungal pathogens, respectively. The other extracts of Phyllanthus urinaria, Thevetia nerifolia, Jatropha gossypifolia Saraca asoca, Tamarindus indica, Aegle marmelos, Acacia nilotica, Chlorophytum borivilianum, Mangifera indica, Woodfordia fruticosa and Phyllanthus emblica showed antimicrobial activity in a range of 75-1200 microg/ml. PMID:20161895

Dabur, Rajesh; Gupta, Amita; Mandal, T K; Singh, Desh Deepak; Bajpai, Vivek; Gurav, A M; Lavekar, G S

2007-01-01

293

In Vivo Anti-Diabetic Activity of the Ethanolic Crude Extract of Sorbus decora C.K.Schneid. (Rosacea): A Medicinal Plant Used by Canadian James Bay Cree Nations to Treat Symptoms Related to Diabetes  

PubMed Central

A number of potential anti-diabetic plants were identified through an ethnobotanical survey of the traditional pharmacopeia of the Cree of Eeyou Istchee (CEI—Northeastern Canada) used against symptoms of diabetes and their biological activity assessed by in vitro bioassays. Among these, Sorbus decora C.K.Schneid. (Rosacea) ranked highly and increased the transport of glucose in skeletal muscle cells in culture. The present study thus aimed at confirming the antidiabetic potential of S. decora in in vivo models of insulin resistance and diabetes, notably the streptozotocin Type 1 diabetic rat (STZ), the genetic KK-Ay Type 2 diabetic mouse and the rat rendered insulin resistant with 10% glucose water consumption for 6 weeks. Sorbus decora ethanolic crude extract (SDEE) was administered orally (200?mg?kg?1) and compared to metformin (150 or 500?mg?kg?1). The intragastric (i.g.) gavage of SDEE transiently decreased glycemia in STZ rats in a bi-phasic manner but the effect was cumulative over several days. In KK-Ay mice, SDEE incorporated in food (0.12%) decreased glycemia by 15% within 1 week as compared to vehicle controls. In pre-diabetic insulin-resistant rats, SDEE fed daily by i.g. gavage for 2 weeks significantly decreased the slight hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, without affecting sugar water intake. Using the HOMA insulin resistance parameter, the effect of SDEE was equivalent to that of metformin. In conclusion, the ethanolic crude extract of S. decora demonstrates both anti-hyperglycemic and insulin-sensitizing activity in vivo, thereby confirming anti-diabetic potential and validating CEI traditional medicine. PMID:19887507

Vianna, Rose; Brault, Antoine; Martineau, Louis C.; Couture, Réjean; Arnason, John T.; Haddad, Pierre S.

2011-01-01

294

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia  

PubMed Central

Background Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. Methods Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma Imperatae (Baimaogen) were investigated for their potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Results Extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis had the strongest activities against M. Smegmatis, C. albicans, B. subtilis and S. aureus. Boiled extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, Folium Murraya Koenigii, Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis and Herba Houttuyniae demonstrated greater antioxidant activities than other tested medicinal plants. Conclusion Among the eight tested medicinal plants, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis showed the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different methods of extraction yield different spectra of bioactivities. PMID:19038060

Chan, Lai Wah; Cheah, Emily LC; Saw, Constance LL; Weng, Wanyu; Heng, Paul WS

2008-01-01

295

A systematic survey of antioxidant activity of 30 Chinese medicinal plants using the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of 30 Chinese medicinal plants were evaluated using the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay and the Folin–Ciocalteu method, respectively. The Chinese medicinal plants were extracted by the traditional method, boiling in water and also in 80% methanol. A significant and linear correlation coefficient between the antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content was

Chi-Chun Wong; Hua-Bin Li; Ka-Wing Cheng; Feng Chen

2006-01-01

296

Evaluation of medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan for antimelanogenesis.  

PubMed

In the course of searching for new materials to use as whitening agents, we screened 19 methanol extracts prepared from 14 medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan province, Indonesia. The screening methods used were the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay, a tyrosinase inhibition assay, and a melanin formation inhibition assay using B16 melanoma cells. The extracts of Willughbeia coriacea (bark part of aerial root), Phyllanthus urinaria (root), Eleutherine palmifolia (bulb), Eusideroxylon zwageri (seed), Dendrophthoe petandra (aerial root), Passiflora foetida (stem), and Vitex pinnata (root) showed DPPH radical-scavenging activity of more than 70% at 100 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root), P. urinaria (root), and D. petandra (aerial root) showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity of more than 40% using L-tyrosine as a substrate at 500 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root) and D. petandra (aerial root) showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity of more than 40% using L-DOPA as a substrate at 500 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root, 200 microg/ml), Glochidion philippcum (aerial root, 200 and 300 microg/ml), E. palmifolia (bulb, 50 microg/ml), E. zwageri (seed, 100 microg/ml), D. petandra (aerial root, 200 microg/ml), Lansium domesticum (bark, 25 microg/ml), P. foetida (stem, fruit, 300 microg/ml), and Solanum torvum (root, 300 microg/ml) strongly inhibited the melanin production of B16 melanoma cells without significant cytotoxicity. These findings indicate that some medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan are potential ingredients for skin-whitening cosmetics if their safety can be confirmed. PMID:19618251

Arung, Enos Tangke; Kusuma, Irawan Wijaya; Christy, Eva Oktoberiani; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

2009-10-01

297

Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants against selected human pathogenic bacteria.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are traditionally used for the treatment of human infections. The present study was undertaken to investigate Bergenia ciliata, Jasminum officinale, and Santalum album for their potential activity against human bacterial pathogens. B. ciliata, J. officinale, and S. album extracts were prepared in cold and hot water. The activity of plant extracts and selected antibiotics was evaluated against five bacterial pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli using agar well diffusion method. Among the three medicinal plants, B. ciliata extracts displayed potential activity against bacterial pathogens. Cold water extract of Bergenia ciliate showed the highest activity against B. subtilis, which is comparable with a zone of inhibition exhibited by ceftriaxone and erythromycin. J. officinale and S. album extracts demonstrated variable antibacterial activity. Further studies are needed to explore the novel antibacterial bioactive molecules. PMID:24294497

Khan, Usman Ali; Rahman, Hazir; Niaz, Zeeshan; Qasim, Muhammad; Khan, Jafar; Tayyaba; Rehman, Bushra

2013-12-01

298

Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants against selected human pathogenic bacteria  

PubMed Central

Medicinal plants are traditionally used for the treatment of human infections. The present study was undertaken to investigate Bergenia ciliata, Jasminum officinale, and Santalum album for their potential activity against human bacterial pathogens. B. ciliata, J. officinale, and S. album extracts were prepared in cold and hot water. The activity of plant extracts and selected antibiotics was evaluated against five bacterial pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli using agar well diffusion method. Among the three medicinal plants, B. ciliata extracts displayed potential activity against bacterial pathogens. Cold water extract of Bergenia ciliate showed the highest activity against B. subtilis, which is comparable with a zone of inhibition exhibited by ceftriaxone and erythromycin. J. officinale and S. album extracts demonstrated variable antibacterial activity. Further studies are needed to explore the novel antibacterial bioactive molecules. PMID:24294497

Khan, Usman Ali; Niaz, Zeeshan; Qasim, Muhammad; Khan, Jafar; Tayyaba; Rehman, Bushra

2013-01-01

299

Preliminary phytochemical screening and antimicrobial evaluation of three medicinal plants used in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Methanol extract of three Nigerian medicinal plants were screened for antimicrobial activity using modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and agar dilution techniques to determine the diameters of zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extracts respectively. The extract of each of the plants were tested against five clinical bacterial isolates comprising of two Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and three Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia) organisms. All the extracts exhibited moderate to high level of antimicrobial activities against these microorganisms. Phytochemical screening of powdered plant material revealed the presence of some secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins, anthraquinones and flavonoids. These Nigerian medicinal plants could be developed into cheap, safe and culturally acceptable standardized herbal products and may serve as a source of new molecules for broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. PMID:22654215

Baba, Haruna; Onanuga, Adebola

2011-01-01

300

Multimedia-based Medicinal Plants Sustainability Management System  

E-print Network

Medicinal plants are increasingly recognized worldwide as an alternative source of efficacious and inexpensive medications to synthetic chemo-therapeutic compound. Rapid declining wild stocks of medicinal plants accompanied by adulteration and species substitutions reduce their efficacy, quality and safety. Consequently, the low accessibility to and non-affordability of orthodox medicine costs by rural dwellers to be healthy and economically productive further threaten their life expectancy. Finding comprehensive information on medicinal plants of conservation concern at a global level has been difficult. This has created a gap between computing technologies' promises and expectations in the healing process under complementary and alternative medicine. This paper presents the design and implementation of a Multimedia-based Medicinal Plants Sustainability Management System addressing these concerns. Medicinal plants' details for designing the system were collected through semi-structured interviews and databas...

Omogbadegun, Zacchaeus; Ayo, Charles; Mbarika, Victor; Omoregbe, Nicholas; Otofia, Efe; Chieze, Frank

2011-01-01

301

Antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities of five Palestinian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Extracts from five indigenous Palestinian medicinal plants including Rosmarinus officinalis, Pisidium guajava, Punica granatum peel, grape seeds and Teucrium polium were investigated for antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities against eight microorganisms, using well diffusion method. The microorganisms included six bacterial isolates (i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginos, Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus) and two fungal isolates (i.e. Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger). A standard antioxidant assay was performed on the plant extracts to assess their capability in scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Of the five tested plant extract, only Rosmarinus offcinalis extract contained significant antimicrobial activity against all eight microbial isolates including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Extracts from other four plants exhibited a variable antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms, except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Significant antioxidant activity was detected in all plant extracts. However, extracts from Pisidium guajava leaves contained significantly higher antioxidant activity compared to the other extracts tested. The antimicrobial and scavenging activities detected in this in vitro study in extracts from the five Palestinian medicinal plants suggest that further study is needed to identify active compounds to target diseases caused by a wide-spectrum pathogens. PMID:24146509

Qabaha, Khaled Ibraheem

2013-01-01

302

Screening of estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities from medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The medicinal plant extracts commercially used in Asia were screened for their estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in a recombinant yeast system featuring both a human estrogen receptor (ER) expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid. Pueraria lobata (flower) had the highest estrogenic relative potency (RP, 7.75×10(-3); RP of 17?-estradiol=1), followed by Amomum xanthioides (1.25×10(-3)). Next potent were a group consisting of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Zingiber officinale, Rheum undulatum, Curcuma aromatica, Eriobotrya japonica, Sophora flavescens, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Polygonum multiflorum, and Pueraria lobata (root) (ranging from 9.5×10(-4) to 1.0×10(-4)). Least potent were Prunus persica, Lycoppus lucidus, and Adenophora stricta (ranging from 9.0×10(-5) to 8.0×10(-5)). The extracts exerting antiestrogenic effects, Cinnamomum cassia and Prunus persica, had relative potencies of 1.14×10(-3) and 7.4×10(-4), respectively (RP of tamoxifen=1). The solvent fractions from selected estrogenic or antiestrogenic herbs had higher estrogenic relative potencies, with their RP ranging from 9.3×10(-1) to 2.7×10(-4) and from 8.2×10(-1) to 9.1×10(-3), respectively. These results support previous reports on the efficacy of Oriental medicinal plants used or not used as phytoestrogens for hormone replacement therapy. PMID:21783839

Kim, In Gyu; Kang, Se Chan; Kim, Kug Chan; Choung, Eui Su; Zee, Ok Pyo

2008-01-01

303

Tongue Area Extraction in Tongue Diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of tongue area from digital photos is essential to an automatic tongue diagnostic system in traditional Chinese medicine. Simple segmentation methods couldn't be effective due to the weak edge of tongue and the details on the tongue's surface. In this paper, we propose a unique segmentation method based on the combination of the watershed transform and active contour

Jia Wu; Yonghong Zhang; Jing Bai

2005-01-01

304

Potential of medicinal plants as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents in food industry: a hypothesis.  

PubMed

Many food preservation strategies can be used for the control of microbial spoilage and oxidation; however, these quality problems are not yet controlled adequately. Although synthetic antimicrobial and antioxidant agents are approved in many countries, the use of natural safe and effective preservatives is a demand of food consumers and producers. This paper proposes medicinal plants, traditionally used to treat health disorders and prevent diseases, as a source of bioactive compounds having food additive properties. Medicinal plants are rich in terpenes and phenolic compounds that present antimicrobial and antioxidant properties; in addition, the literature revealed that these bioactive compounds extracted from other plants have been effective in food systems. In this context, the present hypothesis paper states that bioactive molecules extracted from medicinal plants can be used as antimicrobial and antioxidant additives in the food industry. PMID:24446991

Ortega-Ramirez, Luis Alberto; Rodriguez-Garcia, Isela; Leyva, Juan Manuel; Cruz-Valenzuela, Manuel Reynaldo; Silva-Espinoza, Brenda Adriana; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Siddiqui, Wasim; Ayala-Zavala, Jesus Fernando

2014-02-01

305

Comparison of Artemisia annua Bioactivities between Traditional Medicine and Chemical Extracts  

PubMed Central

The present work investigates the efficacy of using Artemisia annua in traditional medicine in comparison with chemical extracts of its bioactive molecules. In addition, the effects of location (Egypt and Jericho) on the bioactivities of the plant were investigated. The results showed that water extracts of Artemisia annua from Jericho have stronger antibacterial activities than organic solvent extracts. In contrast, water and organic solvent extracts of the Artemisia annua from Egypt do not have anti-bacterial activity. Furthermore, while the methanol extract of EA displayed high anticancer affects, the water extract of Egypt and the extracts of Jericho did not show significant anticancer activity. Finally, the results showed that the methanol and water extracts of Jericho had the highest antioxidant activity, while the extracts of Egypt had none. The current results validate the scientific bases for the use of Artemisia annua in traditional medicine. In addition, our results suggest that the collection location of the Artemisia annua has an effect on its chemical composition and bioactivities. PMID:24761137

Nageeb, Ahmed; Al-Tawashi, Azza; Mohammad Emwas, Abdul-Hamid; Abdel-Halim Al-Talla, Zeyad; Al-Rifai, Nahla

2013-01-01

306

Effect of medicinal plants on the crystallization of cholesterol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the least desirable calcifications in the human body is the mineral deposition in atherosclerosis plaques. These plaques principally consist of lipids such as cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides. Chemical analysis of advanced plaques have shown the presence of considerable amounts of free cholesterol identified as cholesterol monohydrate crystals. Cholesterol has been crystallized in vitro. The extracts of some of the Indian medicinal plants detailed below were used as additives to study their effect on the crystallization behaviour of cholesterol. It has been found that many of the herbs have inhibitory effect on the crystallization such as nucleation, crystal size and habit modification. The inhibitory effect of the plants are graded as Commiphora mughul > Aegle marmeleos > Cynoden dactylon > Musa paradisiaca > Polygala javana > Alphinia officinarum > Solanum trilobatum > Enicostemma lyssopifolium.

Saraswathi, N. T.; Gnanam, F. D.

1997-08-01

307

Medicinal plants and dementia therapy: herbal hopes for brain aging?  

PubMed

An escalating "epidemic" of diseases like Alzheimer's has not yet been met by effective symptomatic treatments or preventative strategies. Among a few current prescription drugs are cholinesterase inhibitors including galantamine, originating from the snowdrop. Research into ethnobotanicals for memory or cognition has burgeoned in recent years. Based on a multi-faceted review of medicinal plants or phytochemicals, including traditional uses, relevant bioactivities, psychological and clinical evidence on efficacy and safety, this overview focuses on those for which there is promising clinical trial evidence in people with dementia, together with at least one other of these lines of supporting evidence. With respect to cognitive function, such plants reviewed include sage, Ginkgo biloba, and complex mixtures of other traditional remedies. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) challenge carers and lead to institutionalization. Symptoms can be alleviated by some plant species (e.g., lemon balm and lavender alleviate agitation in people with dementia; St John's wort treats depression in the normal population). The ultimate goal of disease prevention is considered from the perspective of limited epidemiological and clinical trial evidence to date. The potential value of numerous plant extracts or chemicals (e.g., curcumin) with neuroprotective but as yet no clinical data are reviewed. Given intense clinical need and carer concerns, which lead to exploration of such alternatives as herbal medicines, the following research priorities are indicated: investigating botanical agents which enhance cognition in populations with mild memory impairment or at earliest disease stages, and those for BPSD in people with dementia at more advanced stages; establishing an ongoing authoritative database on herbal medicine for dementia; and further epidemiological and follow up studies of promising phytopharmaceuticals or related nutraceuticals for disease prevention. PMID:22070157

Perry, Elaine; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R

2011-12-01

308

Cytotoxicity of the rhizome of medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the cytotoxicity of the crude ethanol extract of the rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet (Z. zerumbet) (L) Smith. and Curcuma zedoaria (C. zedoaria) Rosc. against Artemia salina Leach. Methods Fresh rhizomes of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. and C. zedoaria Rosc. were extracted separately in cold with ethanol (2.5 L) and after concentration a brownish syrupy suspension of ethanol extracts of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. and C. zedoaria Rosc. was obtained. The cytotoxic effect of the crude ethanol extracts of both plants was determined by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results Crude ethanol extracts of the rhizome of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. showed the highest cytotoxicity (LC50 was 1.24 µg/mL) against brine shrimp nauplii as compared with C. zedoaria Rosc. (LC50 was 33.593 µg/mL) after 24 h of exposure. Conclusions It can be concluded that the rhizome of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. and C. zedoaria Rosc. can be used as a source of cytotoxic agent. PMID:23569881

Hossain, Shakhawoat; Kader, Golam; Nikkon, Farjana; Yeasmin, Tanzima

2012-01-01

309

Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases  

PubMed Central

More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group?I?carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-?B and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori eradication and H. pylori induced related gastric disease prevention. PMID:25132753

Wang, Yuan-Chuen

2014-01-01

310

Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases.  

PubMed

More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group?I?carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-?B and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori eradication and H. pylori induced related gastric disease prevention. PMID:25132753

Wang, Yuan-Chuen

2014-08-14

311

Biological screening of traditional preparations from some medicinal plants used as antidiarrhoeal in Kinshasa, Congo.  

PubMed

Forty six aqueous extracts from 38 medicinal plant species belonging to different families were selected on the basis of their traditional medicinal use as antidiarrhoeic agents. They were submitted in a broad biological screening including antibacterial, antiamoebic and antispasmodic activities. The results of the testing have indicated that 37 extracts (80.43%), 33 (71.74%) and 32 (69.54%) exhibited some level of antibacterial, antiamoebic and antispasmodic activity respectively. Only 8 plant extracts (17.39%) would act as antidiarrhoeic agents by a triple pronounced antibacterial, antiamoebic and antispasmodic action. They include aqueous extracts from Euphorbia hirta whole plant, leaves of Psidium guajava and Tithonia diversifolia, root bark of Alchornea cordifolia, Heinsia pulchella, Paropsia brazzeana, Rauwolfia obscura and Voacanga africana. PMID:10228613

Tona, L; Kambu, K; Mesia, K; Cimanga, K; Apers, S; De Bruyne, T; Pieters, L; Totté, J; Vlietinck, A J

1999-03-01

312

Medicinal Plants and Phytomedicines. Linking Plant Biochemistry and Physiology to Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

phytomedicinal compounds. Horticultural research on medicinal plants has focused on developing the capacity for optimal growth in cultivation. This has been especially pertinent as many medicinal plants are still harvested in the wild, and conditions for growth in cultivation have not been optimized. Wild harvesting of medicinal plants can be problematic in terms of biodiversity loss, potential variation in me-

Donald P. Briskin

2000-01-01

313

MPDB 1.0: a medicinal plant database of Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

The term of medicinal plants include a various types of plants used in herbalism with medicinal activities. These plants are considered as rich resources of ingredients which can be used as complementary and alternative medicines and, also in drug developments and synthesis. In addition, some plants regarded as valuable origin of nutrition. Thus, all these plants are recommended as therapeutic agents. Information related to medicinal plants and herbal drugs accumulated over the ages are scattered and unstructured which make it prudent to develop a curated database for medicinal plants. MPDB 1.0 database is dedicated to provide the first window to find the plants around Bangladesh claimed to have medicinal and/or nutritive values by accumulating data from the published literatures. This database contains 406 medicinal plants with their corresponding scientific, family and local names as well as utilized parts for treatment from different districts of Bangladesh. Information regarding ailments is available for 353 plants. In addition, we have found active compounds for 78 plants with their corresponding PubMed ID. Availability www.medicinalplantbd.net PMID:25097384

Ashraf, Mohammad Arif; Khatun, Achia; Sharmin, Tanzila; Mobin, Faraid; Tanu, Arifur Rahman; Morshed, Toufique; Fakir, Tawkir Ahmad; Begum, Rifat Ara; Nabi, AHM Nurun

2014-01-01

314

Overcoming DNA extraction problems from carnivorous plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fleischmann, A. & Heubl, G. 2009. Overcoming DNA extraction problems from carnivorous plants. Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 66(2): 209-215. We tested previously published protocols for DNA isolation from plants with high contents of polyphenols and polysaccharides for several taxa of carnivorous plants. However, we did not get satisfying results with fresh or silica dried leaf tissue obtained from field collected

Andreas Fleischmann; Günther Heubl

2009-01-01

315

Effective medicinal plants against enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stimulating effect of subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics on the production of verocytotoxin (VT) by enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 has been claimed. The purpose of this study was to find an alternative, but bioactive medicine for the treatment of this organism. Fifty-eight preparations of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 38 medicinal plant species commonly used in Thailand to cure

Supayang Voravuthikunchai; Amornrat Lortheeranuwat; Wanpen Jeeju; Trechada Sririrak; Souwalak Phongpaichit; Thanomjit Supawita

2004-01-01

316

Introducing Urtica dioica, A Native Plant of Khuzestan, As an Antibacterial Medicinal Plant  

PubMed Central

Background: Urtica dioica is a flowering plant with long history of use in folk medicine and as a food source. Objectives: This study examined in vitro antibacterial potential of alcoholic extracts of U. dioica. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extracts from aerial parts were prepared using aqueous solution of ethanol and methanol and their inhibitory effects against clinical isolates was examined by disc diffusion method at different doses. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) indexes were also investigated. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was also performed to find structural changes of affected bacteria consequent to exposing with extracts. Results: Both extracts were active against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli with respectively 16, 10, 18, and 14 mm (methanolic) and 11, 9, 17, and 16 mm (ethanolic) inhibition zone. The MIC of ethanolic extract against S. epidermidis and E. coli was respectively 10 and 40 mg/mL. The MIC of methanolic extract against S. aureus and S. epidermidis was 40 and 10 mg/mL, respectively. The MBC was found only for S. epidermidis (20 mg/mL). In SEM analysis the round shape of S. epidermidis was changed and irregular shapes were appeared, which suggest that the main target of these extracts was cell wall. Conclusions: Extracts of U. dioica showed significant antibacterial effect against some clinically important pathogenic bacteria. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that U. dioica is useful as antibacterial and bactericidal agent in treating infectious diseases. PMID:25625045

Motamedi, Hossein; Seyyednejad, Seyyed Mansour; Bakhtiari, Ameneh; Vafaei, Mozhan

2014-01-01

317

Anti-hyperglycemic effects of three medicinal plants in diabetic pregnancy: modulation of T cell proliferation  

PubMed Central

Background Populations in Africa mostly rely on herbal concoctions for their primarily health care, but so far scientific studies supporting the use of plants in traditional medicine remain poor. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic effects of Picralima nitida (seeds), Nauclea latifolia (root and stem) and Oxytenanthera abyssinica (leaves) commonly used, in diabetic pregnancy. Methods Pregnant wistar rats, rendered diabetic by multiple low injections of streptozotocin, were treated with selected plant extracts based on their antioxidant activities. Vitamin C concentrations, fatty acid compositions and phytochemical analysis of plants extracts were determined. Effect of selected plant extracts on human T cell proliferation was also analysed. Results All analysed plant extracts exhibited substantial antioxidant activities probably related to their content in polyphenols. Picralima nitida exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity. Ethanolic and butanolic extracts of Picralima nitida, butanolic extract of Nauclea latifolia and ethanolic extract of Oxytenanthera abyssinica significantly decreased hyperglycemia in the diabetic pregnant rats. Butanolic extract of Picralima, also appeared to be the most potent immunosuppressor although all of the analysed extracts exerted an immunosuppressive effect on T cell proliferation probably due to their linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) and/or alkaloids content. Nevertheless, all analysed plants seemed to be good source of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Conclusion By having antioxidant, anti-hyperglycemic and immunosuppressive activities, these plants could be good candidates in the treatment of diabetes and diabetic pregnancy. PMID:23565805

2013-01-01

318

MEDICINAL PLANT WEALTH OF ANDHRA PRADESH – PART I  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the Medical Plant Wealth of Andhra Pradesh based on the results of Medico – Ethno – Botanical exploration undertaken during the last fourteen years (1971 – 72 till the end of 1984). In all, 117 well known medicinal plants widely used in Ayurveda, Siddha and other systems of Medicine are enumerated here. PMID:22557569

Hemadri, Koppula; Sarma, C. Raja Rajeswari; Rao, Swahari Sasibushana

1987-01-01

319

Medicinal plants in Mexico: healers' consensus and cultural importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants are an important element of indigenous medical systems in Mexico. These resources are usually regarded as part of a culture's traditional knowledge. This study examines the use of medicinal plants in four indigenous groups of Mexican Indians, Maya, Nahua, Zapotec and – for comparative purposes – Mixe. With the first three the methodology was similar, making a direct

Michael Heinrich; Anita Ankli; Barbara Frei; Claudia Weimann; Otto Sticher

1998-01-01

320

Bioactivity of Iranian medicinal plants against Yersinia enterocolitica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Plant materials continue to play a major role in primary health care as therapeutic remedies in many developing countries. Medicinal herbs contain physiologically active principles that over the years have been exploited in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments as they contain antimicrobial properties. This paper aims to determine the antibacterial activity of Iranian endemic plants.

Abdollah Ghasemi Pirbalouti; Arian Asadpoor; Behzad Hamedi; Ahmad Reza Golparvar

2010-01-01

321

The past and present use of plants for medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence of the use of plants for medicinal purposes dates as far back as 60 000 years ago (1) in both western and eastern cultures; in both developed and undeveloped countries. For example, the pharmacopoeia of Emperor Shen Nung of China, around 2730-3000 BC, describes the medicinal use of plants such as Hemp, Aconite, Opium. The Egyptian Phar- macopoeia of

M Gossell-Williams; Simon; ME West

2006-01-01

322

Medicinal plant ecology, knowledge and conservation in Kalimantan, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study documents the abundance, distribution and knowledge of medicinal plant species in a Ransa Dayak village and adjoining\\u000a forest in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Over 250 medicinal plant species from 165 genera and 75 families are utilized by the\\u000a local healer. Late successional, primary and river bench forests contained the highest diversity of locally-utilized medicinal\\u000a species and the greatest number

Izefri Caniago; F. Siebert Stephen

1998-01-01

323

Accentuating the prodigious significance of Eclipta alba - an inestimable medicinal plant.  

PubMed

Eclipta alba is a small branched perennial herb, which has been used as a traditional medicine in different countries mainly in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The plant E. alba plays a significant role in the ayurvedic, traditional and unani systems of medicine. It is popularly known as "Bhringaraj". The herb has been known for its medicinal value and has been used as an analgesic, antimytotoxic, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antioxidant, antihaemorrhagic, antihyperglycemic and immunomodulatory and also recognized as a reincarnated plant. Broad range of chemical constituents have been detached from E. alba including coumestans, alkaloids, thiopenes, flavonoids, polyacetylenes, triterpenes and their glycosides. Pharmacological activities have been seen in the metabolites and extracts of this plant. Therefore this herb produces robust curative lead compounds, which would be propitious for humanity. The purpose of this review recapitulates all data related to E. alba considering its prodigious medicinal importance. PMID:24191336

Sidra, Sidra; Hussain, Shahzad; Malik, Farnaz

2013-11-01

324

Vibriocidal activity of certain medicinal plants used in Indian folklore medicine by tribals of Mahakoshal region of central India  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Screening of the medicinal plants and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Materials and Methods: A simple in vitro screening assay was employed for the standard strain of Vibrio cholerae, 12 isolates of Vibrio cholerae non-O1, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts of different parts of the plants were investigated by using the disk diffusion method. Extracts from 16 medicinal plants were selected on account of the reported traditional uses for the treatment of cholera and gastrointestinal diseases, and they were assayed for vibriocidal activities. Results: The different extracts differed significantly in their vibriocidal properties with respect to different solvents. The MIC values of the plant extracts against test bacteria were found to be in the range of 2.5-20 mg/ml. Conclusions: The results indicated that Lawsonia inermis, Saraca indica, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia belerica, Allium sativum, and Datura stramonium served as broad-spectrum vibriocidal agents. PMID:20442821

Sharma, Anjana; Patel, Virendra Kumar; Chaturvedi, Animesh Navin

2009-01-01

325

Quantifying of bactericide properties of medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Extended research has been carried out to clarify the ecological role of plant secondary metabolites (SMs). Although their primary ecological function is self-defense, bioactive compounds have long been used in alternative medicine or in biological control of pests. Several members of the family Labiatae are known to have strong antimicrobial capacity. For testing and quantifying antibacterial activity, most often standard microbial protocols are used, assessing inhibitory activity on a selected strain. In this study, the applicability of a microbial ecotoxtest was evaluated to quantify the aggregate bactericide capacity of Labiatae species, based on the bioluminescence inhibition of the bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Striking differences were found amongst herbs, reaching even 10-fold toxicity. Glechoma hederacea L. proved to be the most toxic, with the EC50 of 0.4073 g dried plant/l. LC50 values generated by the standard bioassay seem to be a good indicator of the bactericide property of herbs. Traditional use of the selected herbs shows a good correlation with bioactivity expressed as bioluminescence inhibition, leading to the conclusion that the Vibrio fischeri bioassay can be a good indicator of the overall antibacterial capacity of herbs, at least on a screening level. PMID:21502819

Ács, András; Gölöncsér, Flóra; Barabás, Anikó

2011-01-01

326

Medicinal plants used in K?rklareli Province (Turkey)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from K?rklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica,

?ükran Kültür

2007-01-01

327

Gitksan medicinal plants-cultural choice and efficacy  

PubMed Central

Background The use of plants for healing by any cultural group is integrally related to local concepts of the nature of disease, the nature of plants, and the world view of the culture. The physical and chemical properties of the plants themselves also bear on their selection by people for medicines, as does the array of plants available for people to choose from. I examine use of medicinal plants from a "biobehavioral" perspective to illuminate cultural selection of plants used for medicine by the Gitksan of northwestern British Columbia, Canada. Methods Consultant consensus, "intercultural consensus", independent use of the same plants by other cultural groups, and phytochemistry and bioassay results from the literature, were employed in analysis of probable empirical efficacy of plant uses. Results 70% of 37 Gitksan medicinal plants were used similarly by other cultures where direct diffusion is not known to have occurred; eleven plants, including the eight most frequently mentioned medicinal plants, also show active phytochemicals or bioassays indicating probable physiologically based therapeutic effects. Conclusion Analysis of intercultural consensus revealed that the majority of cultures in the British Columbia region within the plant ranges use the same plants, or closely related species, in similar ways. The rigor of this analysis is effected by the lack of consistent data on all taxa of interest for all cultures within the region. PMID:16790066

Johnson, Leslie Main

2006-01-01

328

Medicinal plants in an urban environment: the medicinal flora of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh.  

PubMed

Varanasi is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities of the world, and one of the most important Hindu pilgrimage sites. Despite this importance, very little information exits on the cities flora in general, and medicinal species found within its limit in particular. Traditional medicine plays a large role in Indian society. The presented study attempted to investigate if traditional plant use and availability of important common medicinal plants are maintained in urban environments. The paper presents information on the traditional uses of seventy-two plant species collected form the campus of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, and highlights the uses of these plants by the local inhabitants. PMID:17996050

Verma, Archana K; Kumar, Munesh; Bussmann, Rainer W

2007-01-01

329

A simple electrochemical method for the rapid estimation of antioxidant potentials of some selected medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Clinical and Epidemiological studies have shown that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancers and other related disorders. These beneficial health effects have been attributed in part to the presence of antioxidants in dietary plants. Therefore screening for antioxidant properties of plant extracts has been one of the interests of scientists in this field. Different screening methods have been reported for the evaluation of antioxidant properties of plant extracts in the literature. In the present research a rapid screening method has been introduced based on cyclic voltammetry for antioxidant screening of some selected medicinal plant extracts. CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF SEVEN MEDICINAL PLANTS: Buxus hyrcana, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium, Zataria multiflora, Ginkgo biloba, Lippia citriodora and Heptaptera anisoptera was carried out at different scan rates. Based on the interpretation of voltammograms, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium and Ginkgo biloba showed higher antioxidant capability than the others while Lippia citriodora contained the highest amount of antioxidants. Cyclic voltammetry is expected to be a simple method for screening antioxidants and estimating the antioxidant activity of foods and medicinal plants. PMID:25317192

Amidi, Salimeh; Mojab, Faraz; Bayandori Moghaddam, Abdolmajid; Tabib, Kimia; Kobarfard, Farzad

2012-01-01

330

Coupling SFE to uterotonic bioassay: an on-line approach to analysing medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical fluid extraction has been directly coupled on-line to a uterotonic bioassay, using guinea pig uterine smooth muscle in vitro. This technique was developed for the detection of uterotonic compounds present in medicinal plants used during pregnancy to induce or augment labour. The direct passage of CO2 into the muscle chamber led to adiabatic cooling of the physiological fluid and

Vikash Sewram; Mark W Raynor; Deshandra M Raidoo; Dulcie A Mulholland

1998-01-01

331

Antimicrobial activities of some selected traditional Ethiopian medicinal plants used in the treatment of skin disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroalcoholic extracts of eight species of medicinal plants, namely, Acokanthera schimperi (Apocynaceae), Calpurnia aurea (Leguminosae), Kalanchoe petitiana (Crassulaceae), Lippia adoensis (Verbenaceae), Malva parviflora (Malvaceae), Olinia rochetiana (Oliniaceae), Phytolacca dodecandra (Phytolaccaceae) and Verbascum sinaiticum (Scrophulariaceae), traditionally used in the treatment of various skin disorders were screened for antimicrobial activity against different strains of bacteria and fungi which are known to cause

Hailu Tadeg; Endris Mohammed; Kaleab Asres; Tsige Gebre-Mariam

2005-01-01

332

Antimicrobial effects of Thai medicinal plants against acne-inducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis have been recognized as pus-forming bacteria triggering an inflammation in acne. The present study was conducted to evaluate antimicrobial activities of Thai medicinal plants against these etiologic agents of acne vulgaris. Crude extracts were tested for antimicrobial activities by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. The results from the disc diffusion method showed that 13

Mullika Traidej Chomnawang; Suvimol Surassmo; Veena S. Nukoolkarn; Wandee Gritsanapan

2005-01-01

333

Antidiabetic medicinal plants as a source of alpha glucosidase inhibitors.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to collate all available data on antidiabetic plants that inhibit alpha glucosidase, reported mainly by Medline (PubMed) these last years. In the present study, interest is focused on experimental researches conducted on hypoglycemic plants particularly those which show alpha glucosidase inhibitor activity alongside bioactive components. This study describes 47 species that belong to 29 families. The plant families, which enclose the species, studied most as inhibitors of alphaglucosidase, are Fabaceae (6 species.), Crassulaceae (3 species), Hippocrateacaea (3 species), Lamiaceae (3 species), and Myrtaceae (3 species), with most studied species being Salacia reticulata (Hippocrateaceae) and Morus alba (Moraceae). The study also covers natural products (active natural components and crude extracts) isolated from the medicinal plants which inhibit alpha glucosidase as reported this last decade. Many kinds of these isolated natural products show strong activity such as, Alkaloids, stilbenoids (polyphenol), triterpene, acids (chlorogenic acid, betulinic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, bartogenic acid, oleanolic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, corosolic acid, ellagic acid, ursolic acid, gallic acid), phytosterol, myoinositol, flavonoids, Flavonolignans, anthraquinones, anthrones, and xanthones, Feruloylglucosides, flavanone glucosides, acetophenone glucosides, glucopyranoside derivatives, genine derivatives, flavonol, anthocyanin and others. PMID:20522017

Benalla, Wafaa; Bellahcen, Saïd; Bnouham, Mohamed

2010-07-01

334

Lysis of Microcystis aeruginosa with Extracts from Chinese Medicinal Herbs  

PubMed Central

Boiling water extracts of 66 selected Chinese medicinal herbs were screened for their anticyanobaterial activity against Microcystis aeruginosa by the soft-agar overlayer (SAO) method. Results indicated that extracts from 16 materials could inhibit the growth of this bacterial species. Among these anticyanobacterial samples, eight extracts showed low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), including four extracts with MICs between 1 and 6 mg/mL, and four extracts with MICs < 1 mg/mL which could be considered useful to prevent the outbreak of cyanobacteria before the appearance of cyanobacterial blooms. Further study showed that three extracts with MIC values < 1 mg/mL induced intensive chlorophyll-a lysis within 7 days at the MIC. The results suggested that highly efficient anticyanobacterial compounds must be involved in the inhibitory activities. The final results indicated these three extracts (from Malaphis chinensis, Cynips gallae-tinctoriae and Fructus mume) had the potential to be developed as algicides due to their remarkably anticyanobacterial activities. PMID:19865537

Yang, Jing-Dong; Hu, Liang-Bin; Zhou, Wei; Yin, Yu-Fen; Chen, Jian; Shi, Zhi-Qi

2009-01-01

335

Anti-angiogenic and cytotoxicity studies of some medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor formation and proliferation. The development of anti-angiogenic agents to block new blood vessel growth will inhibit metastasis and induce apoptosis of the cancer cells. Nine medicinal plants, Strobilanthes crispus, Phyllanthus niruri, Phyllanthus pulcher, Phyllanthus urinaria, Ailanthus malabarica, Irvingia malayana, Smilax myosotiflora, Tinospora crispa and blumea balsamifera were screened for anti-angiogenic properties using the rat aortic ring assay. Of these, the methanol extracts of Phyllanthus species and Irvingia malayana exhibited the highest activity. At 100 microg/mL, P. pulcher, P. niruri, P. urinaria and I. malayana recorded an inhibition of 78.8 %, 59.5 %, 56.7 % and 46.4 %, respectively, against rat aortic vascular growth. Their activities were further investigated by the tube formation assay involving human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) on Matrigel. I. malayana, P. niruri and P. urinaria showed a significant decrease of 45.5, 37.9 and 35.6 %, respectively, whilst P. pulcher showed a much lower decrease of 15.5 % when compared with that of the rat aortic ring assay. All the plant extracts were evaluated for cytotoxicity on a panel of human cancer cell lines using the MTT assay. None of them displayed acute cytotoxicity. The HPLC of P. niruri, P. urinaria and P. pulcher indicated the extracts contained some identical chromatographic peaks of lignans. Further fractionation of I. malayana yielded betulinic acid reported in this plant for the first time and at 100 microg/mL it exhibited a 67.3 % inhibition of vessel outgrowth and 46.5 % inhibition of tube formation. PMID:20112179

Ng, Kwok-Wen; Salhimi, Salizawati Muhamad; Majid, Amin Malik; Chan, Kit-Lam

2010-06-01

336

Assessment of Anti-Quorum Sensing Activity for Some Ornamental and Medicinal Plants Native to Egypt  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effects of some plant extracts on the bacterial communication system, expressed as quorum sensing (QS) activity. Quorum sensing has a directly proportional effect on the amount of certain compounds, such as pigments, produced by the bacteria. Alcohol extracts of 23 ornamental and medicinal plants were tested for anti-QS activity by the Chromobacterium violaceum assay using the agar cup diffusion method. The screening revealed the anti-QS activity of six plants; namely the leaves of Adhatoda vasica Nees, Bauhinia purpurea L., Lantana camara L., Myoporum laetum G. Forst.; the fruits of Piper longum L.; and the aerial parts of Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. PMID:23641343

Zaki, Ahmed A.; Shaaban, Mona I.; Hashish, Nadia E.; Amer, Mohamed A.; Lahloub, Mohamed-Farid

2013-01-01

337

Assessment of anti-quorum sensing activity for some ornamental and medicinal plants native to egypt.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of some plant extracts on the bacterial communication system, expressed as quorum sensing (QS) activity. Quorum sensing has a directly proportional effect on the amount of certain compounds, such as pigments, produced by the bacteria. Alcohol extracts of 23 ornamental and medicinal plants were tested for anti-QS activity by the Chromobacterium violaceum assay using the agar cup diffusion method. The screening revealed the anti-QS activity of six plants; namely the leaves of Adhatoda vasica Nees, Bauhinia purpurea L., Lantana camara L., Myoporum laetum G. Forst.; the fruits of Piper longum L.; and the aerial parts of Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. PMID:23641343

Zaki, Ahmed A; Shaaban, Mona I; Hashish, Nadia E; Amer, Mohamed A; Lahloub, Mohamed-Farid

2013-03-01

338

A database of 389 medicinal plants for diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants used to treat hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions are of considerable interest to ethno-botanical community as they are recognized to contain valuable medicinal properties in different parts of the plant. The active principles of many plant species with desired properties are isolated to cure ailments such as diabetes type-1 and type-2, respectively. Here, we describe DiaMedBase, a database containing

Padavala Ajay Babu; Gadde Suneetha; Radha Boddepalli; Vedurupaka Vasantha Lakshmi; Talluru Sudha Rani

339

Antityrosinase and antimicrobial activities from Thai medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Various dermatological disorders and microbial skin infection can cause hyperpigmentation. Therefore, screenings for whitening and antimicrobial agents from Thai medicinal plants have been of research interest. Seventy-seven ethanol plant extracts were investigated for antityrosinase activity, eleven samples showed the tyrosinase inhibition more than 50 % were further preliminary screening for antimicrobial activity by agar disc diffusion and broth micro-dilution methods. Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr. (Moraceae) root extract, which showed the potential of tyrosinase inhibition with 90.57 ± 2.93 % and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Propionibacterium acnes and Trichophyton mentagophytes with inhibition zone as 9.10 ± 0.00, 10.67 ± 0.09, 15.25 ± 0.05 and 6.60 ± 0.17 mm, respectively was selected for phytochemical investigation. Three pure compounds were isolated as artocarpin, cudraflavone C and artocarpanone. And artocarpanone exhibited anti-tyrosinase effect; artocarpin and cudraflavone C also showed the potential of antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. epidermidis and P. acnes with MIC at 2, 4 and 2 ?g/ml, respectively and MBC at 32 ?g/ml for these bacteria. So, these pure compounds are interesting for further study in order to provide possibilities of new whitening and antibacterial development. This will be the first report of phytochemical investigation of A. integer root. PMID:23835832

Dej-Adisai, Sukanya; Meechai, Imron; Puripattanavong, Jindaporn; Kummee, Sopa

2014-04-01

340

Antitussive activity of polysaccharides isolated from the Malian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

From the leaves of popular Malian medicinal plants Trichilia emetica (TE) and Opilia celtidifolia (OC), and fruits of Crossopteryx febrifuga (CF) water and water-ethanol soluble polysaccharide materials were isolated. The results of chemical analysis of the crude polysaccharides showed the dominance of the arabinogalactan ( approximately 54%) and the rhamnogalacturonan ( approximately 30%) in T. emetica leaves, the arabinogalactan ( approximately 60%), the rhamnogalacturonan ( approximately 14%) and the glucuronoxylan ( approximately 14%) in O. celtidifolia leaves, and pectic type of polysaccharides ( approximately 75%) with a lower content of the arabinogalactan ( approximately 17%) in C. febrifuga fruits. The plant polysaccharides showed various biological effects on the citric acid-induced cough reflex and reactivity of airways smooth muscle in vivo conditions. T. emetica and O. celtidifolia polysaccharides possessed significant cough-suppressive effect on chemically induced cough. Furthermore, values of specific airways resistance pointed on bronchodilatory property of polysaccharides isolated from O. celtidifolia. However, the crude extract from C. febrifuga in the same dose as T. emetica and O. celtidifolia did not influence the experimentally induced cough as well as reactivity of airways smooth muscle despite of the fact that the water-ethanol extract is recommended for cough therapy in Mali in the form of syrup. PMID:19150368

Sutovská, M; Franová, S; Priseznaková, L; Nosálová, G; Togola, A; Diallo, D; Paulsen, B S; Capek, P

2009-04-01

341

Ovicidal activity of crude extracts of few traditional plants against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cipadessa baccifera Miq., Melia dubia (Cav.) (Meliaceae); Clausena dentata (Rutaceae) and Dodonaea angustifolia (Sapindaceae) are common medicinal plants found in Western Ghats and are used traditionally for various purposes. The petroleum ether, chloroform, hexane, acetone and water extracts of the leaves were investigated for their ovicidal property against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae). The different extracts of the test

S. Malarvannan; R. Giridharan; S. Sekar; V. R. Prabavathy; Sudha Nair

2009-01-01

342

[Review on application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation].  

PubMed

Plant growth retardants are widely used in cultivation of medicinal plant, but there is still lack of scientific guidance. In order to guide the use of plant growth retardants in medicinal plant cultivation efficiently and reasonably, this paper reviewed the mechanism, function characteristic, plant and soil residue of plant growth retardants, such as chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, paclobutrazol, unicnazle and succinic acid, and summarized the application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation in recent years, with focus on the effect of growth and yield of the officinal organs and secondary metabolites. PMID:24380290

Zhai, Yu-Yao; Guo, Bao-Lin; Cheng, Ming

2013-09-01

343

A preliminary investigation of anticholinesterase activity of some Iranian medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some commonly used herbal medicine in Iran to introduce a new source for management of Alzheimer’s disease. A total of 18 aqueous-methanolic extract (1:1; v/v) from the following plants: Brassica alba, Brassica nigra, Camellia sinensis, Cinchona officinalis, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus x aurantium, Ferula assafoetida, Humulus lupulus, Juglans regia, Juniperus sabina, Myristica fragrans, Pelargonium graveolens, Pistacia vera, Punica granatum, Rheum officinale, Rosa damascena, Salix alba, and Zizyphus vulgaris were prepared and screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity using in vitro Ellman spectrophotometric method. Results According to the obtained results, the order of inhibitory activity (IC50 values, ?g /ml) of extracts from highest to the lowest was: C. sinensis (5.96), C. aurantifolia (19.57), Z. vulgaris (24.37), B. nigra (84.30) and R. damascena (93.1). Conclusions The results indicated and confirmed the traditional use of these herbs for management of central nervous system disorders. C. sinensis showed the highest activity in inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. However, further investigations on identification of active components in the extracts are needed. PMID:24401532

2014-01-01

344

AN INDEX OF THE AVAILABLE MEDICINAL PLANTS, USED IN INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE FROM JAMMU AND KASHMIR STATE  

PubMed Central

The medicinal plants used in Indian system of medicine and its distribution in Jammu and Kashmir has been categorized systematically here. The paper deals with 246 medicinal plants and has to off-set an index which is not there so far. Out of 246 medicinal plants 12 plants are considered to be controversial. Substitutes, Adulterants of these plants which are being used in various parts of India were also recorded separately in this study. PMID:22557549

Srivastava, T. N.; Rajasekharan, S.; Badola, D. P.; Shah, D. C.

1986-01-01

345

The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health.  

PubMed

Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants' flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome. PMID:24391634

Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

2013-01-01

346

Polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of Bulgarian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Extracts of 21 plants used in Bulgarian phytotherapy for the treatment of respiratory, gastrointestinal and other inflammatory disorders were screened in vitro for antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds content. Plant extracts were prepared as herbal teas following the ethnic use. The water-phase TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) of the teas were compared to that of the famous tea-like beverages mate, rooibos and honeybush, and to that of green and black tea, well known for their high antioxidant potential. The content of total phenolics in the teas was determined spectrometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and calculated as quercetin equivalents (QE). Seven Bulgarian medicinal plants were with high phenolics content and antioxidant properties: Pulmonaria officinalis L. (Boraginaceae) (TEAC 2.02+/-0.14 mM/QE 673.39+/-9.92 microM), Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae) (TEAC 3.75+/-0.14 mM/QE 881.93+/-6.68 microM), Agrimonia eupatoria L. (Rosaceae) (TEAC 3.76+/-0.5mM/QE 702.29+/-6.82 microM), Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) (TEAC 5.87+/-0.2mM/QE 1653.61+/-11.52 microM), Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (TEAC 4.06+/-0.31 mM/QE 1370.09+/-41.38 microM), Rubus sp. diversa (Rosaceae) (TEAC 4.23+/-0,12 mM/QE 608.95+/-5.95 microM), Cotinus coggygria Scop. (Anacardiaceae) (TEAC 7.05+/-0.19 mM/QE 923.33+/-14.19 microM). Therefore, Bulgarian herbs can be considered to be a rich source of water-soluble antioxidants and/or phenolic compounds as compared to studied foreign plants. PMID:15588663

Ivanova, D; Gerova, D; Chervenkov, T; Yankova, T

2005-01-01

347

Evaluation of the In Vitro Antiplasmodial, Antileishmanial, and Antitrypanosomal Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Saudi and Yemeni Traditional Medicine  

PubMed Central

The antiplasmodial, antileishmanial, and antitrypanosomal activity of twenty-five medicinal plants distributed in Saudi Arabia and Yemen was evaluated. The plants were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi, and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. To assess selectivity, cytotoxicity was determined on MRC-5 cells. Criteria for activity were an IC50 < 10??g/mL and high selectivity (SI). Seven plants showed interesting antiprotozoal activity in one or more models. Extracts of Caralluma penicillata and Acalypha ciliata showed fairly good activity against P. falciparum with IC50 of 6.7 and 10.8??g/mL and adequate selectivity (SI > 9.6 and >5.9). Interesting activity against L. infantum was obtained with Verbascum bottae (IC50 of 3.2??g/mL, SI 10.2) and Solanum glabratum (IC50 8.1??g/mL, SI 3.4). The extracts of C. penicillata, Leucas virgata, Loranthus regularis, and V. bottae exhibited moderate activity against T. brucei (IC50 8.5, 8.1, 8.3, and 2.3??g/mL; SI > 7.6, 7.7, 4.3, and >14.1). These results partly support the traditional use of some of the selected medicinal plants and warrant further investigations into the putative active constituents. PMID:24963330

Mothana, Ramzi A.; Al-Musayeib, Nawal M.; Al-Ajmi, Mohamed F.; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis

2014-01-01

348

Drying of medicinal plants with solar energy utilization  

SciTech Connect

In the paper, a potential of solar energy for drying of medicinal plants in Polish conditions is estimated and development of solar drying technologies is presented. The results of economic assessment of flat-plate solar collectors applied for drying of medicinal plants on a farm are promising. In some specific conditions, e.g. drying of wild grown medicinal plants in remote areas, even application of photovoltaic modules for driving of a fan of a solar dryer is a profitable option and enables easy control of the drying air temperature.

Wisniewski, G. [Inst. for Building, Mechanisation and Electrification of Agriculture, Warszawa (Poland)

1997-10-01

349

Bioinformatics opportunities for identification and study of medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Plants have been used as a source of medicine since historic times and several commercially important drugs are of plant-based origin. The traditional approach towards discovery of plant-based drugs often times involves significant amount of time and expenditure. These labor-intensive approaches have struggled to keep pace with the rapid development of high-throughput technologies. In the era of high volume, high-throughput data generation across the biosciences, bioinformatics plays a crucial role. This has generally been the case in the context of drug designing and discovery. However, there has been limited attention to date to the potential application of bioinformatics approaches that can leverage plant-based knowledge. Here, we review bioinformatics studies that have contributed to medicinal plants research. In particular, we highlight areas in medicinal plant research where the application of bioinformatics methodologies may result in quicker and potentially cost-effective leads toward finding plant-based remedies. PMID:22589384

Sharma, Vivekanand

2013-01-01

350

Antimutagenic Effect of Medicinal Plants Achillea millefolium and Bauhinia forficata In Vivo.  

PubMed

The investigation of traditionally used medicinal plants is valuable both as a source of potential chemotherapeutic drugs and as a measure of safety for the continued use of these medicinal plants. Achillea millefolium L. (AM) is an ancient remedial herb native to Europe that is used to treat wounds, gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders, inflammation, headaches, and pain. Bauhinia forficata Link (BF), an Asiatic plant, is one of the most commonly used plants in folk medicine against diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and antimutagenic potential of aqueous extracts of AM and BF on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats treated in vivo. These plant extracts possess considerable antioxidant activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds. These compounds were determinants to noncytotoxic and antimutagenic/protective action of these plants, that reduced statistically the percentage of chromosomal alterations induced by the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide in simultaneous (AM, 68%; BF, 91%), pre- (AM, 68%; BF, 71%), and post-treatment (AM, 67%; BF, 95%). Therefore, the results of this study indicate that extracts of A. millefolium and B. forficata have antimutagenic potential and that their consumption can benefit the health of those using them as an alternative therapy. PMID:24459532

Düsman, Elisângela; de Almeida, Igor Vivian; Coelho, Ana Carolina; Balbi, Thiago José; Düsman Tonin, Lilian Tatiani; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta

2013-01-01

351

Antimutagenic Effect of Medicinal Plants Achillea millefolium and Bauhinia forficata In Vivo  

PubMed Central

The investigation of traditionally used medicinal plants is valuable both as a source of potential chemotherapeutic drugs and as a measure of safety for the continued use of these medicinal plants. Achillea millefolium L. (AM) is an ancient remedial herb native to Europe that is used to treat wounds, gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders, inflammation, headaches, and pain. Bauhinia forficata Link (BF), an Asiatic plant, is one of the most commonly used plants in folk medicine against diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and antimutagenic potential of aqueous extracts of AM and BF on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats treated in vivo. These plant extracts possess considerable antioxidant activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds. These compounds were determinants to noncytotoxic and antimutagenic/protective action of these plants, that reduced statistically the percentage of chromosomal alterations induced by the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide in simultaneous (AM, 68%; BF, 91%), pre- (AM, 68%; BF, 71%), and post-treatment (AM, 67%; BF, 95%). Therefore, the results of this study indicate that extracts of A. millefolium and B. forficata have antimutagenic potential and that their consumption can benefit the health of those using them as an alternative therapy. PMID:24459532

de Almeida, Igor Vivian; Coelho, Ana Carolina; Balbi, Thiago José; Düsman Tonin, Lilian Tatiani; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta

2013-01-01

352

In vitro anti-plasmodial activity of some traditionally used medicinal plants against Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

The anti-plasmodial activity of different solvent extracts of Adhatoda vasica (root), Caesalpinia pulcherrima (leaf), Carica papaya (pulp), Erythroxylum monogynum (leaf), Lantana camara (whole plant), Ocimum sanctum (root) and Phyllanthus niruri (whole plant) were studied against Plasmodium falciparum. Of the 35 extracts tested, seven extracts showed good anti-plasmodial activity. Methanol extract of C. pulcherrima showed the lowest IC50 value (10.96 ?g/mL) followed by methanol extract of A. vasica (IC(50)=11.1 ?g/mL), chloroform extract of O. sanctum (IC(50)=11.47 ?g/mL), methanol extract of E. monogynum (IC(50)=12.23 ?g/mL), acetone extract of C. pulcherrima (IC(50)=12.49 ?g/mL), methanol extract of O. sanctum and acetone extract of A. vasica (IC(50)=14.04 ?g/mL). The results of the present study justify the use of these medicinal plants in traditional practice, and also, a further study on the isolation of anti-plasmodial molecules from their active crude extracts is in progress. PMID:22290450

Venkatesalu, V; Gopalan, N; Pillai, C R; Singh, Vineeta; Chandrasekaran, M; Senthilkumar, A; Chandramouli, N

2012-07-01

353

Traditional Medicines in Africa: An Appraisal of Ten Potent African Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

The use of medicinal plants as a fundamental component of the African traditional healthcare system is perhaps the oldest and the most assorted of all therapeutic systems. In many parts of rural Africa, traditional healers prescribing medicinal plants are the most easily accessible and affordable health resource available to the local community and at times the only therapy that subsists. Nonetheless, there is still a paucity of updated comprehensive compilation of promising medicinal plants from the African continent. The major focus of the present review is to provide an updated overview of 10 promising medicinal plants from the African biodiversity which have short- as well as long-term potential to be developed as future phytopharmaceuticals to treat and/or manage panoply of infectious and chronic conditions. In this endeavour, key scientific databases have been probed to investigate trends in the rapidly increasing number of scientific publications on African traditional medicinal plants. Within the framework of enhancing the significance of traditional African medicinal plants, aspects such as traditional use, phytochemical profile, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies and also future challenges pertaining to the use of these plants have been explored. PMID:24367388

Mahomoodally, M. Fawzi

2013-01-01

354

Plant pigments (antioxidants) of medicinal plants Malva silvestris L. and Malva moschata L. (Malvaceae).  

PubMed

Qualitative-quantitative structure of plant pigments in wild plants Malva silvestrs L. and Malva moschata L. (Malvaceae), which were collected in 20 locations in Sarajevo area and surroundings, was tested during spring and summer in 2003. Acetone extracts of both categories were made and rising paper-chromatography done for the purpose of qualitative analysis. Quantitative analysis was done by spectrophotometry. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and xanthophylls presence was confirmed by separation of pigments from acetone extract of these plant species. Spectrophotometric analysis of acetone extracts showed these results (given in mg/L): chlorophyll a 2,386, chlorophyll b 0,332 and carrotenoides 1,037. Data given in mg/g dry substance are: chlorophyll a 1,193x10(-2), chlorophyll b 1,66x10(-3), and carrotenoides 5,185x10(-3). Pigments structure (in mg/L) in species Malva moschata is 1,6 for chlorophyll; 1,419 for chlorophyll b; and 0,364 for carrotenoides. Data given in mg/g are: chlorophyll a 8x10(-3), chlorophyll b 7,09x10(-3), and carrotenoides 1,82x10(-3). Considering that species Malva moschata L. grows on ecologically clear soils as opposed to well-known medicinal species Malva sylvestris L., and considering the production of phytomass, phytochemical structure and pharmacological influence it can be considered very medical and be given advantage over this wider spread category. PMID:16053456

Redzi?, Sulejman; Hodzi?, Nizama; Tuka, Mijat

2005-05-01

355

SOME RARE HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINAL PLANTS OF SOUTH INDIA  

PubMed Central

This present study describes 11 species under 11 generate and 10 families of rare Homoeopathic Medicinal Plants introduced and cultivated in the Nilgiri district, Tamil Nadu, South India. The original citation, description, distribution and their medicinal uses are given. PMID:22556647

Rajan, S.

1993-01-01

356

Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of

S. Al-Qura’n

2009-01-01

357

Antiinflammatory screening of the medicinal plant Gynura procumbens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gynura procumbens isused in Thai folk medicine to treat topicalinflammation, rheumatism, and viral ailments. In thepresent work, attempts were made to verify the folkmedicinal claim that the crude ethanolic extract ofG. procumbens has antinflammatory action and torelate the activity to particular fractions using acroton oil-induced mouse ear inflammation model. Theoriginal ethanolic extract of G. procumbens waspartitioned between water and ethyl

M. N. Iskander; Y. Song; I. M. Coupar; W. Jiratchariyakul

2002-01-01

358

Potential medicinal plants for CNS disorders: an overview.  

PubMed

Although very few drugs are currently approved by regulatory authorities for treating multi-factorial ailments and disorders of cognition such as Alzheimer's disease, certain plant-derived agents, including, for example, galantamine and rivastigmine (a semi-synthetic derivative of physostigmine) are finding an application in modern medicine. However, in Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine which is more than 5000 years old, selected plants have long been classified as 'medhya rasayanas', from the Sanskrit words 'medhya', meaning intellect or cognition, and 'rasayana', meaning 'rejuvenation'. These plants are used both in herbal and conventional medicine and offer benefits that pharmaceutical drugs lack. In the present article, an attempt has been made to review the most important medicinal plants, including Ginkgo biloba, St John's wort, Kava-kava, Valerian, Bacopa monniera and Convolvulus pluricaulis, which are widely used for their reputed effectiveness in CNS disorders. PMID:16909441

Kumar, Vikas

2006-12-01

359

FOLK-LORE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF DUMKA (BIHAR)  

PubMed Central

The present paper reports medicinal properties of 69 plants of Dumka forest division of Dumka district of Bihar. The information is gathered from the tribals and local physicians inhabiting the forest. PMID:22557475

Chandra, K.; Paney, B.N.; Lal, V.K.

1985-01-01

360

Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of 10 medicinal plants used in northeast Mexico.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to screen the trypanocidal activity of plants used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of various diseases related to parasitic infections. Cultured Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes were incubated for 96h with different concentrations of methanolic extracts obtained from Artemisia mexicana, Castela texana, Cymbopogon citratus, Eryngium heterophyllum, Haematoxylum brasiletto, Lippia graveolens, Marrubium vulgare, Persea americana, Ruta chalepensis and Schinus molle. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined for each extract via a colorimetric method. Among the evaluated species, the methanolic extracts of E. heterophyllum, H. brasiletto, M. vulgare and S. molle exhibited the highest trypanocidal activity, showing percentages of growth inhibition between 88 and 100% at a concentration of 150?g/ml. These medicinal plants may represent a valuable source of new bioactive compounds for the therapeutic treatment of trypanosomiasis. PMID:24742906

Molina-Garza, Zinnia Judith; Bazaldúa-Rodríguez, Aldo Fabio; Quintanilla-Licea, Ramiro; Galaviz-Silva, Lucio

2014-08-01

361

Assessment of antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of some locally used medicinal plants in Sundarban mangrove forest region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyalthia longifolia (Annonaceae), Elaeocarpus serratus (Elaeocarpaceae) and Trachyspermum ammi (Umbelliferae) are traditionally employed to cure various health ailments in Bangladesh. Extracts of these medicinal plants were tested for their potential antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity using the disc diffusion method and the brine shrimp lethality tests respectively. Ethanol extracts of the barks of P. longifolia, leaves of E. serratus and seeds

Shazid M. D. Sharker; Israt Jahan Shahid

362

Antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants against multiple antibiotic resistant uropathogens: a study from Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

The increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens necessitates medicinal plants as an alternate therapy in restricting the resistant infectious organisms. In this primitive study, the antibiotic resistance of organisms isolated from urinary tract infected patients was evaluated using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) method and Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index values, and the MAR values was also calculated for plant extracts. The 10 common medicinal plants collected from Kolli hills, Namakkal, south India were extracted using the chloroform, methanol, acetone, ethanol and saponification procedure. The efficacy of the extracts on the uropathogens was tested by agar disc diffusion method in order to analyse the inhibitory activity of plant extract on the organisms. Azadiracta indica A. Juss., Tinospora cordifolia (Wild.) and Euphorbia hirta Linn. exhibited high inhibitory activity against most of the 11 tested organisms followed by Cassia javanica Linn. and Phyllanthus niruri Linn. The maximum zone size of 46.3 mm was exhibited by methanol extract of P. niruri Linn. against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Asparagus racemosus Willd. and Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl had the least activity against resistant pathogens. Saponified lipids of most of the plants exhibited maximum antibacterial activity. Among the tested organisms, P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the most susceptible and Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloaceae, Citrobacter koseri, and Citrobacter freundii were the least inhibited by most of the extracts of medicinal plants. It is concluded that revised antibiotic policies and more importantly the development of herbal medicine as an alternative may be incorporated in urological practice. PMID:21986363

Narayanan, A S; Raja, S S S; Ponmurugan, K; Kandekar, S C; Natarajaseenivasan, K; Maripandi, A; Mandeel, Q A

2011-09-01

363

Antibacterial activities of selected medicinal plants in traditional treatment of human wounds in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the activity of selected Ethiopian medicinal plants traditionally used for wound treatment against wound-causing bacteria. Methods Samples of medicinal plants (Achyranthes aspera, Brucea antidysenterica, Datura stramonium, Croton macrostachyus, Acokanthera schimperi, Phytolacca dodecandra, Millettia ferruginea, and Solanum incanum) were extracted using absolute methanol and water and tested for their antimicrobial activities against clinical isolates and standard strains of wound-causing bacteria using agar well diffusion and micro titer plate methods. Results Most of the plant extracts had antibacterial activities, among which Acokanthera schimperi and Brucea antidysenterica inhibited growth of 100% and 35% of the test organisms, respectively. Methanolic extracts had higher activities compared with their corresponding aqueous extracts. The most susceptible organism to the extracts was Streptococcus pyogens while the most resistant were Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris. Conclusions This finding justifies the use of the plants in wound healing and their potential activity against wound-causing bacteria. Their toxicity level and antimicrobial activity with different extraction solvents should further be studied to use them as sources and templates for the synthesis of drugs to control wound and other disease-causing bacteria. PMID:23569795

Taye, Biruhalem; Giday, Mirutse; Animut, Abebe; Seid, Jemal

2011-01-01

364

Recent literature extols Tibetan medicine and its plants (Kletter and Kriechbaum 2001; Dash  

E-print Network

Recent literature extols Tibetan medicine and its plants (Kletter and Kriechbaum 2001; Dash 1994 and standardization of Tibetan medicine. Here we investigate how much variation in the use of medicinal plants remains in contemporary Tibetan medicine. Medicinal plants used and/or sold by fifteen Tibetan medical institutions

Amend, Anthony S.

365

Presence of phthalate derivatives in the essential oils of a medicinal plant Achillea tenuifolia.  

PubMed

BackgroundPhthalate, esters of phthalic acid, are mainly applied as plasticizers and cause several human health and environment hazards. The essential oils of Achillea species have attracted a great concern, since several biological activities have been reported from varieties of these medicinal species. On the other side, due to the problems regarding the waste disposal in developing countries, phthalate derivatives can easily release from waste disposal to the water and soil resulting in probable absorption and accumulation by medicinal and dietary plants. As a matter of fact, although the toxicity of phthalate derivatives in human is well-known, food crops and medicinal plants have been exposing to phthalates that can be detected in their extracts and essential oils. Achillea tenuifolia (Compositea) is one of these herbaceous plants with traditional applications which widely growing in Iran.FindingThe plant root was subjected to hydro-distillation for 4 h using Clevenger type apparatus to obtain its essential oil before and after acid treatment. Both of the hydro-distilled essential oils were analysed by GC-MS method resulted in recognition of their constituent. Phthalate contamination as (1, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis (2-methylpropyl) ester (5.4%) and phthalic acid (4.5%), were identified in the first and second extracted oils, respectively.ConclusionAs a warning, due to the potential role of phthalates to cause reproductive toxicity, disturb of endocrine system and causing cancers, medicinal plants have to be considered through quality control for detection of these compounds. PMID:25429772

Manayi, Azadeh; Kurepaz-Mahmoodabadi, Mahdieh; Gohari, Ahmad R; Ajani, Yousef; Saeidnia, Soodabeh

2014-11-28

366

Carrier herbal medicine: traditional and contemporary plant use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Carrier, an Athapaskan-speaking people of northcentral British Columbia, occupy the sub-boreal spruce forests of the central interior. This report, which is based on field study, documents some traditional and contemporary knowledge of the medicinal use of plants by the Carrier people. Important medicinal plants include: Abies lasiocarpa, Alnus incana, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Artemisia frigida, Fragaria virginiana, Juniperus communis, Picea glauca,

E. M. Ritch-Krc; S. Thomas; N. J. Turner; G. H. N. Towers

1996-01-01

367

Carrier herbal medicine: traditional and contemporary plant use.  

PubMed

The Carrier, an Athapaskan-speaking people of northcentral British Columbia, occupy the sub-boreal spruce forests of the central interior. This report, which is based on field study, documents some traditional and contemporary knowledge of the medicinal use of plants by the Carrier people. Important medicinal plants include: Abies lasiocarpa, Alnus incana, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Artemisia frigida, Fragaria virginiana, Juniperus communis, Picea glauca, Pinus contorta, Populus tremuloides, Rubus idaeus and Shepherdia canadensis. PMID:8735452

Ritch-Krc, E M; Thomas, S; Turner, N J; Towers, G H

1996-06-01

368

ETHNOBOTANY OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS OF SRIKAKULAM DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESH  

PubMed Central

India has a rich heritage of herbal medicine of which the most important system namely Ayurveda needs even today a critical scientific scrutiny both in the correct identity of the proper drug plants and in the standard of the preparation of Ayurveda drugs. Authentic data on the medicinal plants growing in the Srikakulam district of Northern Andhra Pradesh is presented in the paper along with their etnobotainical data and their distribution in the district. PMID:22557487

Rao, K. Prakasa; Sreeramulu, S. Hara

1985-01-01

369

Plant extracts as natural amoebicidal agents.  

PubMed

Strains of Acanthamoeba sp. constitute a factor contributing to the occurrence of chronic granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, keratitis, pneumonia, as well as inflammations of other organs. Treatment of these diseases is very difficult and not always effective. A majority of these infections have been fatal. The aim of our study was to examine the amoebicidal or amoebistatic activity of plant extracts from Rubus chamaemorus, Pueraria lobata, Solidago virgaurea and Solidago graminifolia. For the purpose of isolation of pharmacologically active substances, we used the aboveground parts of plants, together with flowers, roots and leaves. It was established that extracts from S. virgauera, P. lobata and R. chamaemorus displayed chemotherapeutic properties in vitro in concentrations of approximately 0.01-0.05 mg extract/mL, i.e., in concentrations of 0.350 microg/mL expressed in ellagic acid for R. chamaemorus and 0.053 microg/mL expressed in puerarin for P. lobata. Therapeutic index values is 3.5-20. As a result of in vivo experiments, it was found out that, following therapy using the extracts, animals infected with Acanthamoeba sp. survived for an extended period (2.5-3 times longer). It was determined that plant extracts may be used both externally and internally in the case of a combined therapy for acanthamoebiasis. The tested extracts are not toxic for animals. PMID:19050923

Derda, Monika; Hada?, Edward; Thiem, Barbara

2009-02-01

370

Molecular approaches for improvement of medicinal and aromatic plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) are important sources for plant secondary metabolites, which are important for human\\u000a healthcare. Improvement of the yield and quality of these natural plant products through conventional breeding is still a\\u000a challenge. However, recent advances in plant genomics research has generated knowledge leading to a better understanding of\\u000a the complex genetics and biochemistry involved in biosynthesis

Jitendra Kumar; Pushpendra Kumar Gupta

2008-01-01

371

Essential oil composition and nutrient analysis of selected medicinal plants in Sultanate of Oman  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the nutrients and essential oils of five medicinal plants, Juniperus excelsa (J. excelsa), Dodonaea viscosa, Euryops pinifolius, Teucrium polium (T. polium), and Helianthemum lippii that were collected from Jabal Al Akhdar, Oman. Methods Proximate parameters (moisture, dry matter, ash, crude fats, proteins, fibers, nitrogen, carbohydrates, and energy values) and nutrient analysis (K, Na, Ca, Fe, P, Mg etc.) were evaluated in the five medicinal plants using standard techniques. On the basis of these analysis, T. polium and J. excels were selected for essential oil analysis using a rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method and GC-MS. Results The results showed that leaves of J. excelsa had highest proportion of crude fats, fibers and energy value while ash was highest in T. polium. J. excelsa was also rich in essential minerals such as calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron while the trace elements and heavy metals composition was marginal. A rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method to extract oil from medicinal plants species showed that only T. polium and J. excelsa yielded oil. The chemical composition of essential oils showed higher proportion of delta-3-carene, limonene, ?-eudesmol, ledeneoxide (II), ?-trans-bergamatene, linalyl acetate and germacrene. Conclusions J. excelsa and T. polium are a good source of proximate, minerals and essential oils, which can be considered for healthy life besides their medicinal values.

Hussain, Javid; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Ali, Liaqat; Khan, Abdul Latif; Albroumi, Muhammad Abdullah

2013-01-01

372

Medicinal Plant List for the St. Clare Garden Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, California  

E-print Network

1 Medicinal Plant List for the St. Clare Garden Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, California distinguish between ornamental and medicinal plants. In the pre-modern period, most ornamental plants were used medicinally, and many medicinal plants (such as lavender and box) were ornamental. TREES, SHRUBS

Schwarz, Thomas

373

Screening of plants used in Danish folk medicine to treat memory dysfunction for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.  

PubMed

Aqueous and methanolic extracts of 11 plants, used in Danish folk medicine for improvement of memory and cognition, and 3 Corydalis species were tested for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity using the Ellman colorimetric method. Significant inhibitory activity in dose-dependent manner was observed for extracts of Corydalis cava, Corydalis intermedia, Corydalis solida ssp. laxa and Corydalis solida ssp. slivenensis. Extracts of Ruta graveolens, Lavandula angustifolia, Rosmarinus officinalis, Petroselinum crispum and Mentha spicata exhibited moderate inhibition of the enzyme, defined as more than 15% at 0.1 mg/ml. PMID:16280217

Adsersen, Anne; Gauguin, Bente; Gudiksen, Lene; Jäger, Anna K

2006-04-01

374

[The antiradical activity of plant extracts and healthful preventive combinations of these exrtacts with the phospholipid complex].  

PubMed

Using the chemiluminescence method, the effective concentration of antioxidants (AO) and its reactivity toward peroxyl radicals (ARA, the k7 constant) have been measured for 13 plant extracts. In fact all extracts demonstrated ARA higher than ionol. Larix dahurica, Hypericum perforatum, Potentilla fruticosa, Aronia melanocarpa and Rhaponticum carthamoides extracts showed the highest values of ARA. The combinations Aronia + Raponticum extracts; Larix + Hibiscus extracts; Schizandra +Aronia extracts were synergistic (the synergism effect beta of 38%, 33% and 22%). Apparently this phenomenon is the result of the synergistic interaction between compounds present in plant extracts. The Phospholipid complex--Lipoid S40, lacting any antioxidant effect alone, showed a potent synergistic effect with Aronia extract (beta3 = 60%), Silybum extract (beta3 = 41%). Clinical trials demonstrated, that combinations "Lipoid + Aronia extract", "Lipoid + Larix extract + Hibiscus extract", "Lipoid + Silybum extract", "Lipoid + Q10 + Rosa majalis extract" may be used as an additional component in the medicinal treatment, or as an individual prophylactic agent. PMID:23350203

Baranova, V S; Rusina, I F; Guseva, D A; Prozorovskaia, N N; Ipatova, O M; Kasaikina, O T

2012-01-01

375

Medicinal plants, traditional medicine, markets and management in far-west Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Modern therapeutic medicine is historically based on indigenous therapies and ethnopharmacological uses, which have become recognized tools in the search for new sources of pharmaceuticals. Globalization of herbal medicine along with uncontrolled exploitative practices and lack of concerted conservation efforts, have pushed many of Nepal's medicinal plants to the verge of extinction. Sustainable utilization and management of medicinal plants, based on traditional knowledge, is therefore necessary. Methods After establishing verbal informed consent with participating communities, five field surveys, roughly 20 days in duration, were carried out. In all, 176 schedules were surveyed, and 52 participants were consulted through focus group discussions and informal meetings. Altogether, 24 key informants were surveyed to verify and validate the data. A total of 252 individuals, representing non-timber forest product (NTFP) collectors, cultivators, traders, traditional healers (Baidhya), community members, etc. participated in study. Medicinal plants were free-listed and their vernacular names and folk uses were collected, recorded, and applied to assess agreement among respondents about traditional medicines, markets and management. Results Within the study area, medicinal herbs were the main ingredients of traditional therapies, and they were considered a main lifeline and frequently were the first choice. About 55% plants were ethnomedicinal, and about 37% of ethnomedicinal plants possessed the highest informant consensus value (0.86–1.00). Use of Cordyceps sinensis as an aphrodisiac, Berberis asiatica for eye problems, Bergenia ciliata for disintegration of calculi, Sapindus mukorossi for dandruff, and Zanthoxylum armatum for toothache were the most frequently mentioned. These species possess potential for pharmacology. Conclusion Medicinal plants are inseparable from local livelihoods because they have long been collected, consumed, and managed through local customs and knowledge. Management of traditional therapies is urged, because the therapies are empirically and knowledge based, often culturally inherited and important to pharmacology and local livelihoods. However, traditional therapies are currently being eroded due to changing lifestyles, perceptions, social transformations, and acculturation. PMID:23587109

2013-01-01

376

Coupling SFE to uterotonic bioassay: an on-line approach to analysing medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Supercritical fluid extraction has been directly coupled on-line to a uterotonic bioassay, using guinea pig uterine smooth muscle in vitro. This technique was developed for the detection of uterotonic compounds present in medicinal plants used during pregnancy to induce or augment labour. The direct passage of CO2 into the muscle chamber led to adiabatic cooling of the physiological fluid and inhibition of muscle contraction. This was alleviated by the construction of a CO2 reduction interface together with the passage of carbogen which aided in the rapid displacement of excess CO2. The on-line system was evaluated with four plants (Clivia miniata (Lindl.) Regel, Ekebergia capensis Sparrm., Grewia occidentalis L. and Asclepias fruticosa L.) that are currently used during pregnancy by some black South African women. Extractions were performed with water modified supercritical CO2. Fractions of supercritical fluid extracts, obtained by sequentially increasing the pressure from 200 to 300 and 400 atm at constant temperature were transferred directly to the muscle chamber to identify the active fractions. The 400 atm extracts of C. miniata, A. fruticosa and E. capensis displayed maximum uterotonic activity while only the 300 atm extract of G. occidentalis induced uterine muscle contraction. This technique proved to be a safe and sensitive method for analyzing medicinal plants that contain uterotonic substances hence assisting in rapidly validating the uterotonic properties and detecting any toxic effects of these extracts. PMID:10096825

Sewram, V; Raynor, M W; Raidoo, D M; Mulholland, D A

1998-11-01

377

Polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of Bulgarian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of 21 plants used in Bulgarian phytotherapy for the treatment of respiratory, gastrointestinal and other inflammatory disorders were screened in vitro for antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds content. Plant extracts were prepared as herbal teas following the ethnic use. The water-phase TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) of the teas were compared to that of the famous tea-like beverages mate,

D. Ivanova; D. Gerova; T. Chervenkov; T. Yankova

2005-01-01

378

Antithrombin activity of medicinal plants of the Azores.  

PubMed

A chromogenic bioassay was utilized to determine the antithrombin activity of methylene chloride and methanol extracts prepared from 50 plants of Azores. Extracts of the six plants Hedychium gardneranum, Tropaeolum majus, Gunnera tinctoria, Hedera helix, Festuca jubata and Laurus azorica demonstrated activity of 78% or higher in this bioassay system. PMID:10967467

de Medeiros, J M; Macedo, M; Contancia, J P; Nguyen, C; Cunningham, G; Miles, D H

2000-09-01

379

EXTRACTION OF GENOMIC DNA FROM PLANT TISSUE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three general methods that are commonly used to extract genomic DNA from plant tissue were reviewed. The principles, critical factors, and optimization procedures were discussed to help researcher to choose and modify a method according to their research purpose. Emphasis is given to a simple 96-we...

380

Micropropagation of Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. an important medicinal plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid micropropagation protocol was established for Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr., an important medicinal plant for the treatment of various ailments such as diabetes, hypertension and urinary tract infection. The nodal segments of one year old mature plants was used as the explants for the initiation of axillary branching using Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium (MS) supplemeted with 2 mg

Chan Lai Keng; Lim Su Yee; Pan Lay Pin

2009-01-01

381

Screening of Yemeni medicinal plants for antibacterial and cytotoxic activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic extracts of 20 selected plant species used by Yemeni traditional healers to treat infectious diseases were screened for their antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as for cytotoxic activity. Fourteen of the ethanolic extracts showed variable degrees of antibacterial activity. The active ethanolic extracts were partitioned between ethyl acetate and water for a first separation.

N. A. Awadh Ali; W.-D Jülich; C Kusnick; U Lindequist

2001-01-01

382

A Review of Hepatoprotective Plants Used in Saudi Traditional Medicine  

PubMed Central

Liver disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality across the world. According to WHO estimates, about 500 million people are living with chronic hepatitis infections resulting in the death of over one million people annually. Medicinal plants serve as a vital source of potentially useful new compounds for the development of effective therapy to combat liver problems. Moreover herbal products have the advantage of better affordability and acceptability, better compatibility with the human body, and minimal side effects and is easier to store. In this review attempt has been made to summarize the scientific data published on hepatoprotective plants used in Saudi Arabian traditional medicine. The information includes medicinal uses of the plants, distribution in Saudi Arabia, ethnopharmacological profile, possible mechanism of action, chemical constituents, and toxicity data. Comprehensive scientific studies on safety and efficacy of these plants can revitalise the treatment of liver diseases. PMID:25587347

Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman K.; Al-Elaiwi, Abdulrahman M.; Athar, Md Tanwir; Tariq, Mohammad; Al Eid, Ahmed; Al-Asmary, Saeed M.

2014-01-01

383

People, plants and health: a conceptual framework for assessing changes in medicinal plant consumption  

PubMed Central

Background A large number of people in both developing and developed countries rely on medicinal plant products to maintain their health or treat illnesses. Available evidence suggests that medicinal plant consumption will remain stable or increase in the short to medium term. Knowledge on what factors determine medicinal plant consumption is, however, scattered across many disciplines, impeding, for example, systematic consideration of plant-based traditional medicine in national health care systems. The aim of the paper is to develop a conceptual framework for understanding medicinal plant consumption dynamics. Consumption is employed in the economic sense: use of medicinal plants by consumers or in the production of other goods. Methods PubMed and Web of Knowledge (formerly Web of Science) were searched using a set of medicinal plant key terms (folk/peasant/rural/traditional/ethno/indigenous/CAM/herbal/botanical/phytotherapy); each search terms was combined with terms related to medicinal plant consumption dynamics (medicinal plants/health care/preference/trade/treatment seeking behavior/domestication/sustainability/conservation/urban/migration/climate change/policy/production systems). To eliminate studies not directly focused on medicinal plant consumption, searches were limited by a number of terms (chemistry/clinical/in vitro/antibacterial/dose/molecular/trial/efficacy/antimicrobial/alkaloid/bioactive/inhibit/antibody/purification/antioxidant/DNA/rat/aqueous). A total of 1940 references were identified; manual screening for relevance reduced this to 645 relevant documents. As the conceptual framework emerged inductively, additional targeted literature searches were undertaken on specific factors and link, bringing the final number of references to 737. Results The paper first defines the four main groups of medicinal plant users (1. Hunter-gatherers, 2. Farmers and pastoralists, 3. Urban and peri-urban people, 4. Entrepreneurs) and the three main types of benefits (consumer, producer, society-wide) derived from medicinal plants usage. Then a single unified conceptual framework for understanding the factors influencing medicinal plant consumption in the economic sense is proposed; the framework distinguishes four spatial levels of analysis (international, national, local, household) and identifies and describes 15 factors and their relationships. Conclusions The framework provides a basis for increasing our conceptual understanding of medicinal plant consumption dynamics, allows a positioning of existing studies, and can serve to guide future research in the area. This would inform the formation of future health and natural resource management policies. PMID:23148504

2012-01-01

384

Medicinal herb extract and a single-compound drug confer similar complex pharmacogenomic activities in mcf-7 cells.  

PubMed

Metabolite profiling and DNA microarray analysis of global gene expression profiles were employed to characterize the bioactivities of the herbal extract of Anoectochilus formosanus (AF), a popular folk medicine with anticancer activity, in MCF-7 cancer cells. The pharmacogenomic activities of this plant extract as a crude phytocompound mixture were compared to those conferred by the single-compound drug, plumbagin. A similar level of complexity in transcriptional regulation at the genomic level was observed for both AF extract- and plumbagin-treated MCF-7 cells, as revealed by the number of up- or downregulated genes as well as by the specific but distinct patterns found in the gene-clustering analysis. This finding offers evidence to support the search for fractionated medicinal herb extracts or phytocompound mixtures, in addition to single-compound drugs, as defined therapeutic agents. PMID:15067226

Yang, Ning-Sun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Chen, Chih-Huai; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Tzeng, Chi-Meng

2004-01-01

385

Antifeedant and larvicidal effects of plant extracts against Spodoptera litura (F.), Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screening for larvicidal activity of plant extracts with some known medicinal attributes could lead to the discovery of\\u000a new agents for pest and vector control. In the backdrop of recent revival of interest in developing plant-based insecticides,\\u000a the present study was carried out to evaluate the larvicidal properties in three medicinal plants growing abundantly in the\\u000a region of Chitheri

C. Kamaraj; A. Abdul Rahuman; A. Bagavan

2008-01-01

386

Preliminary screening of some traditional zulu medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous and methanolic extracts from different parts of nine traditional Zulu medicinal plants, of the Vitaceae from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa were evaluated for therapeutic potential as anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial agents. Of the twenty-nine crude extracts assayed for prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors, only five methanolic extracts of Cyphostemma natalitium-root, Rhoicissus digitata-leaf, R. rhomboidea-root, R. tomentosa-leaf\\/stem and R. tridentata-root showed significant inhibition of

J. Lin; A. R. Opoku; M. Geheeb-Keller; A. D. Hutchings; S. E. Terblanche; A. K. Jager; J. van Staden

1999-01-01

387

Antioxidant activity of five Brazilian plants used as traditional medicines and food in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background: This study evaluates the radical-scavenging activity of five plants used as food and medicines in the northeastern region of Brazil. Materials and Methods: Spectrophotometric analysis of the plants’ ethanol extracts was carried out. The antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl) test. The antioxidant capacity was measured using ascorbic acid as a positive control. Results: All tested plant extracts showed an antioxidant activity, but the highest activity was observed with the extracts of Momordica charantia and Eugenia jambolana. Conclusions: Therefore, these species must be studied as a putative source of products for use in the prevention and treatment of diseases in which oxidants or free radicals are implicated. PMID:21120039

Santos, Allana K. L.; Costa, José G. M.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Cansanção, Isaac F.; Santos, Karla K. A.; Matias, Edinardo F. F.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.

2010-01-01

388

In vitro determination of the anti-aging potential of four southern African medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Background Aging is an inevitable process for all living organisms. During this process reactive oxygen species generation is increased which leads to the activation of hyaluronidase, collagenase and elastase, which can further contribute to skin aging. Four southern African medicinal plants; Clerodendrum glabrum, Schotia brachypetala, Psychotria capensis and Peltophorum africanum, were investigated to assess their anti-aging properties. Methods Anti-elastase, anti-collagenase and anti-hyaluronidase activities of twenty-eight samples, consisting of methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of the four plants, were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Radical scavenging activity was determined by the ability of the plant extracts to scavenge the ABTS•+ radical. Results The majority of the samples in the anti-elastase assay and nine in the anti-collagenase assay showed more than 80% inhibition. The ethyl acetate extract of S. brachypetala bark and leaves of P. capensis inhibited elastase activity by more than 90%. The methanol extract of S. brachypetala bark contained the highest anti-hyaluronidase activity (75.13?±?7.49%) whilst the ethyl acetate extract of P. africanum bark exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (IC50: 1.99?±?0.23 ?g/ml). Conclusion The free radical scavenging activity and enzyme inhibitory activity of the plant extracts investigated suggests that they can help restore skin elasticity and thereby slow the wrinkling process. P. africanum was the plant with the most promising activity and will be subjected to further testing and isolation of the active compound/s. PMID:24188320

2013-01-01

389

DNA isolation methods for medicinal and aromatic plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several protocols described for plant DNA isolation fail to produce good quality DNA from medicinal herbs and aromatic plants.\\u000a These plants contain exceptionally high amounts of secondary metabolites that interfere with DNA isolation. To address this\\u000a problem, we developed 2 DNA isolation methods for sundew and tarragon that produce DNA suitable for molecular biological applications.\\u000a One of the methods also

Anna Maria Pirttilä; Merja Hirsikorpi; Terttu Kämäräinen; Laura Jaakola; Anja Hohtola

2001-01-01

390

Larvicidal and adulticidal activities of some medicinal plants against the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi (Liston).  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to test the efficacy of 11 commonly available medicinal plants and compare its efficacy in relation to larvicidal and mosquitocidal activities against larvae and adults of Anopheles stephensi (Liston). All the medicinal plants and the mixture were effective against larvae of A. stephensi as evidenced by low lethal concentration and lethal time. The lethality varied in adults and plant extracts of mixture; Eucalyptus globulus, Cymbopogan citratus, Artemisia annua, Justicia gendarussa, Myristica fragrans, Annona squamosa, and Centella asiatica were found to be most effective. Larval mortality between 80% and 100% was observed in mixture treatment, C. asiatica and E. globulus. The adults that emerged from all the treatments were malformed. Further, the treated larvae showed significant decrement in the levels of protein, carbohydrate, and lipids and affect negatively the presence of certain amino acids. The present findings have important implications in the practical control of mosquito larvae and adults in the aquatic ecosystem as the medicinal plants studied are commonly available in large quantities. These plant extracts are easy to prepare, inexpensive, and safe for mosquito control which might be used directly as larvicidal and mosquitocidal agents in small volume aquatic habitats or breeding sites of around human dwellings. PMID:18787842

Senthilkumar, N; Varma, Pushkala; Gurusubramanian, G

2009-01-01

391

Extraction and GC determination of volatile aroma compounds from extracts of three plant species of the Apiaceae family  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens) and celery (Apium graveolens), three aromatic plants belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) botanical family, were selected as sources of essential or volatile oils. Essential oils are composed of a large diversity of volatile aroma compounds. Plant-derived essential oils and extracts have long been used as natural agents in food preservation, pharmaceuticals and medicinal therapies. In the present study, the plant extracts from leaves of parsley, dill and celery, were obtained by maceration, ultrasound-assisted extraction and microwave-assisted extraction. All extractions were performed at 30°C, using different solvents (ethanol, diethyl ether, n-hexane) and solvent mixtures (1:1, v/v). The most effective solvent system for the extraction of volatile aroma compounds was diethyl ether - n-hexane (1:1, v/v). Extraction efficiency and determination of aroma volatiles were performed by GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. The major volatile compounds present in plant extracts were myristicin, ?-phellandrene, ?-phellandrene, 1,3,8-p-menthatriene, apiol, dill ether and allyl phenoxyacetate.

Stan, M.; Soran, M. L.; Varodi, C.; Lung, I.; Copolovici, L.; M?ruţoiu, C.

2013-11-01

392

Assessment of Bioactivity of Indian Medicinal Plants Using Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina) Lethality Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants constitute an important component of flora and are widely distrib- uted in India. The pharmacological evaluation of substances from plants is an established method for the identification of lead compounds which can leads to the development of novel and safe medicinal agents. Based on the ethnopharmacological literature, several species of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in India

Alluri V. Krishnaraju; Tayi V. N. Rao; Dodda Sundararaju; Mulabagal Vanisree; Hsin-Sheng Tsay; Gottumukkala V. Subbaraju

393

Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids in medicinal plants from Tafí del Valle (Tucumán, Argentina).  

PubMed

Preliminary studies of flavonoids have been realised in five native species from Tafí del Valle (Tucumán, Argentina) used in popular medicine. Most of compounds detected were flavonoids mono and dihydroxylated in B ring. Screening for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms has been realised with Lippia turbinata, Satureja parvifolia, Sambucus peruviana, Verbena officinalis and Chenopodium graveolens. The total extracts of flavonoids of each plant were tested and four species studied showed antimicrobial activity. PMID:11025172

Hernández, N E; Tereschuk, M L; Abdala, L R

2000-11-01

394

Antiviral activity of ancient system of ayurvedic medicinal plant Cissus quadrangularis L. (Vitaceae).  

PubMed

Partially purified methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis (belonging to Vitaceae member, South Indian medicinal plant) have been explored for antiviral activity and their phytochemical characterisation. In vitro antiviral activity against HSV type1 and 2, and Vero cells at non-cytotoxic concentration were determined. HSV1 and HSV2 showed more sensitivity against the partially purified compound. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of the Steroids and Terpenoids. PMID:25206252

Balasubramanian, P; Jayalakshmi, K; Vidhya, N; Prasad, R; Sheriff, A Khaleefathullah; Kathiravan, G; Rajagopal, K; Sureban, Sripathi M

2009-12-01

395

Laboratory evaluation of four medicinal plants as protectants against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Mots)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The petroleum ether extract of four medicinal plants; Aristolochia ringens (Vahl), Allium sativum (L), Ficus exasperata (L) and Garcinia kola (H), were evaluated as grain protectant against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Mots) in the laboratory at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% (w\\/v) concentrations. Parameters assessed were adult mortality, rate of adult emergence, grain damage effect and weevil peforation index (WPI).

S. T. Arannilewa; T. Ekrakene; J. O. Akinneye

396

Screening of antimutagenicity via antioxidant activity in Cuban medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The reducing activity on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, z.rad;OH radical scavenging potential, in vitro inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of mutagenicity induced by ter-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) in Escherichia coli were sequentially screened in 45 species of plants used with medicinal purposes in Cuba, in a search for antioxidant agents which protect DNA against oxidative stress.Five species, e.g. Tamarindus indica L., Lippia alba L., Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr, Rheedia aristata Griseb. and Curcuma longa L. displayed IC(50)<30 micro g/ml in the DPPH radical reduction assay and IC(50)<32 micro g/ml in lipid peroxidation inhibition testing. Pimenta dioica and Curcuma longa L. showed also a 20% inhibition of the in vitro induced z.rad;OH attack to deoxyglucose. Further antimutagenesis assay in Escherichia coli IC 188 evidenced that only Pimenta dioica prevents DNA damage by TBH to the test bacteria. A role of antioxidant enzymes is presumed in this case, as judged by a different response in the isogenic Escherichia coli IC 203 deficient in catalase and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase and the discrete inhibition of oxidative mutagenesis also observed when pre-treatment of the extract was assayed. Eugenol, the main constituent of the essential oil of Pimenta dioica, also inhibited oxidative mutagenesis by TBH in Escherichia coli, at concentrations ranging from 150 to 400 micro g/plate. PMID:12860316

Ramos, A; Visozo, A; Piloto, J; García, A; Rodríguez, C A; Rivero, R

2003-08-01

397

Medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in the centre east region of Burkina Faso.  

PubMed

The present research focused on the inventory and the use of plants in traditional medicine for the treatment of diseases in this area. The method was based on ethnobotanical surveys with semi-directing interview, conducted from November 2006 to December 2007 among a sample of 50 people aged between 40 and 80 years and very experienced in traditional medicine in the municipalities of Bissiga, Lalgaye and Tenkodogo. We identify 73 phytogenetic species and 175 therapeutic indications used to treat 52 diseases and the principal ones are the gastrointestinal diseases, the malaria, the various fevers, the jaundice, the skin diseases, the respiratory affections, the reproduction diseases, the hemorrhoids and the infantile diseases. In traditional veterinary pharmacopoeia, 18 phytogenetic species are used with 33 therapeutic indications to treat diseases including trypanosomiasis, tuberculosis, diarrheas and wounds. The interest of people of this area for medicinal plants, command a special attention to organize the actors and preserve the plant genetic resources. PMID:20387743

Ky, J M K; Zerbo, P; Gnoula, C; Simpore, J; Nikiema, J B; Millogo-Rasolodimby, J

2009-10-01

398

Toxicology of some important medicinal plants in southern Africa.  

PubMed

Africa is home to two major floral kingdoms: the Paleotropical kingdom of central Africa and the Capensis kingdom of the Western Cape province of South Africa, the latter of which consists of approximately 10,000 species, representing about 20% of Africa's floral 'gold mine', better known as the Cape herbal medicine. Needless to say, such rich flora comes with numerous plants with a potential to cause poisoning to humans. This review document reports important toxic medicinal plants and their toxic ingredients for plant species resident in the southern African region. These include important medicinal uses and pharmacological properties ranging from antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory as well as those that are used as aphrodisiacs and for maternal health care. PMID:24075916

Ndhlala, Ashwell R; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Okem, Ambrose; Mulaudzi, Rofhiwa B; Van Staden, Johannes

2013-12-01

399

Assessment of antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum and phytochemical screening of some Yemeni medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Developing countries, where malaria is one of the most prevalent diseases, still rely on traditional medicine as a source for the treatment of this disease. In the present study, six selected plants (Acalypha fruticosa, Azadirachta indica, Cissus rotundifolia, Echium rauwalfii, Dendrosicyos socotrana and Boswellia elongata) commonly used in Yemen by traditional healers for the treatment of malaria as well as other diseases, were collected from different localities of Yemen, dried and extracted with methanol and water successfully. The antiplasmodial activity of the extracts was evaluated against fresh clinical isolates of Plasmodium falciparum. The selectivity parameters to evaluate the efficacy of these medicinal plants were measured by in vitro micro test (Mark III) according to World Health Organization (WHO) 1996 & WHO 2001 protocols of antimalarial drug tests. Among the investigated 12 extracts, three were found to have significant antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values less than 4 µg/ml, namely the water extracts of A. fruticosa, A. indica and D. socotrana. Six extracts showed moderate activity with IC50 values ranging from 10 to 30 µg/ml and three appeared to be inactive with IC50 values more than 30 µg/ml. In addition, preliminary phytochemical screening of the methanolic and aqueous extracts indicated the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, polysaccharides and peptides. PMID:18955251

Alshawsh, Mohammed A.; Al-shamahy, Hassan A.; Alsllami, Salah F.; Lindequist, Ulrike

2009-01-01

400

Screening of medicinal plants for PPPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma activation and evaluation of their effects on glucose uptake and 3T3-L1 adipogenesis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Medicinal plants are a rich source of ligands for nuclear receptors. The present study was aimed to screen a collection of plant extracts for PPAR-alpha/gamma activating properties and identify the active extract that can stimulate cellular glucose uptake without enhancing the adipogenesis. A report...

401

Effects of gamma irradiation on microbial contamination and extraction yields of Korean medicinal herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of gamma irradiation on hygienic quality and extraction yields in twenty-one kinds of Korean medicinal herbs were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 5–10 kGy inactivated contaminating microorganisms. The total extraction yield in fifteen kinds of the investigated medicinal herbs increased by 5–25% by a dose of 10 kGy.

Mi-Jung Kim; Hong-Sun Yook; Myung-Woo Byun

2000-01-01

402

Effects of gamma irradiation on microbial contamination and extraction yields of Korean medicinal herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of gamma irradiation on hygienic quality and extraction yields in twenty-one kinds of Korean medicinal herbs were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 5-10 kGy inactivated contaminating microorganisms. The total extraction yield in fifteen kinds of the investigated medicinal herbs increased by 5-25% by a dose of 10 kGy.

M.-J. Kim; H.-S. Yook; M.-W. Byun

2000-01-01

403

Inhibitory effects of essential oils of medicinal plants from growth of plant pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Plant cells produce a vast amount of secondary metabolites. Production of some compounds is restricted to a single species. Some compounds are nearly always found only in certain specific plant organs and during a specific developmental period of the plant. Some secondary metabolites of plants serve as defensive compounds against invading microorganisms. Nowadays, it is attempted to substitute the biological and natural agents with chemically synthesized fungicides. In the present research, the antifungal activities of essential oils of seven medicinal plants on mycelial growth of three soilborne plant pathogenic fungi were investigated. The plants consisted of Zataria multiflora, Thymus carmanicus, Mentha pieperata, Satureja hortensis, Lavandual officinolis, Cuminum cyminum and Azadirachta indica. The first five plants are from the family Labiatae. Examined fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani are the causal agents of tomato root rot. Essential oils of Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus, M. pieperata, S. hortensis and C. cyminum were extracted by hydro-distillation method. Essential oils of L. officinalis and A. indica were extracted by vapor-distillation method. A completely randomized design with five replicates was used to examine the inhibitory impact of each concentration (300, 600 and 900 ppm) of each essential oil. Poisoned food assay using potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was employed. Results showed that essential oils of A. indica, Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus and S. hortensis in 900 ppm at 12 days post-inoculation, when the control fungi completely covered the plates, prevented about 90% from mycelial growth of each of the fungi. While, the essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis in the same concentration and time prevented 54.86, 52.77 and 48.84%, respectively, from F. solani growth. These substances did not prevent from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and R. solani growth. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oils of T. carmanicus, Z. multiflora and A. indica from R. solani and F. solani growth was 900 and 600 ppm, respectively. In addition, the MIC of essential oils of these plants and essential oil of S. hortensis from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici growth was 900 ppm. The MIC of essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis from F. solani growth was 900 ppm. PMID:22702190

Panjehkeh, N; Jahani Hossein-Abadi, Z

2011-01-01

404

Anti-osteoporotic constituents from Indian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro osteogenic activities of selected medicinal plants used traditionally in India. The compounds isolated from three plants viz. Allophylus serratus, Cissus quadrangularis and Vitex negundo were evaluated for their in vitro osteogenic activities. Primary cultures of osteoblasts were used to determine the effects of these components on osteoblast functions. Five of the fourteen compounds isolated led to increase in osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. These findings lend support to the use of Allophylus serratus, Cissus quadrangularis and Vitex negundo in traditional medicine. PMID:20554183

Kumar, Manmeet; Rawat, Preeti; Dixit, Preeti; Mishra, Devendra; Gautam, Abnish K; Pandey, Rashmi; Singh, Divya; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Maurya, Rakesh

2010-11-01

405

Effects of plant extracts on gene expression profiling: from macroarrays to microarray technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA hybridization arrays (macro- and microarrays) are very useful tools for the analysis of gene expression profiles in human pathologies. In addition, macro- and microarrays can be used in pharmacogenomic and toxicogenomic experiments, aimed at extensive analyses of the effects of therapeutic drugs on overall gene expression of target cells. Despite the fact that extracts from medicinal plants have been

Carlo Mischiati; Alessia Sereni; Mahmud Tareq Hassan Khan; Ilaria Lampronti; Roberto Gambari

2006-01-01

406

Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of some Swedish medicinal plants. Inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis and PAF-induced exocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants used in Swedish traditional medicine to treat inflammatory diseases and\\/or wounds were selected, based on literature data, for evaluation of inhibitory activity on prostaglandin biosynthesis and platelet activating factor (PAF)-induced exocytosis in vitro. Fifty-nine water extracts from 52 different plants in 28 families were tested. A number of plants, e.g. Calluna vulgaris, Corylus avellana, Geum urbanum, Juniperus communis, Polygonum

H. Tunón; C. Olavsdotter; L. Bohlin

1995-01-01

407

Brine shrimp toxicity of some plants used as traditional medicines in Kagera Region, north western Tanzania.  

PubMed

Dichloromethane and/or ethanol extracts of 30 plants used as traditional medicines in Bukoba district, northwestern Tanzania were evaluated for brine shrimp toxicity. Among the 50 extracts tested, 32 extracts (64%) showed very low toxicity with LC50 values above 100 microg/ml. Among these 12 (24%) which had LC50 >500 microg/ml can be categorized as being practically non-toxic. Among the remaining extracts 19 (38%) which showed LC50 > 100 < 500 microg/ml are also considered to be non-toxic. Extracts that showed LC50 results between 30-100 microg/ml have been categorized as mildly toxic; these include ethanol extracts of Lantana trifolia (LC50 32.3 microg/ml), Vernonia bradycalyx (LC50 33.9 microg/ml), Antiaris toxicaria (LC50 38.2 microg/ml) and Rubus rigidus (LC50 41.7 microg/ml) and the dichloromethane extracts of Gynura scandens (LC50 36.5 microg/ml) and Bridelia micrantha (LC50 32.0 microg/ml). The dichloromethane extracts of Picralima nitida (LC50 18.3 microg/ml) and Rubus rigidus (LC50 19.8 microg/ml), were only moderately toxic. Picralima nitida and Rubus rigidus extracts are only 1.1 and 1.2 less toxic than the standard drug, cyclophosphamide (LC50 16.3 microg/ml). In conclusion, the results indicate that among the 30 plants used as traditional medicines, 28 are safe for short term use. Picralima nitida and Rubus rigidus extracts are mildly toxic, but by comparison have a remote possibility to yield active anticancer compounds. PMID:20737830

Moshi, M J; Innocent, E; Magadula, J J; Otieno, D F; Weisheit, A; Mbabazi, P K; Nondo, R S O

2010-01-01

408

Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars  

PubMed Central

Hypertrophic scar is a complication of wound healing and has a high recurrence rate which can lead to significant abnormity in aesthetics and functions. To date, no ideal treatment method has been established. Meanwhile, the underlying mechanism of hypertrophic scarring has not been clearly defined. Although a large amount of scientific research has been reported on the use of medicinal plants as a natural source of treatment for hypertrophic scarring, it is currently scattered across a wide range of publications. Therefore, a systematic summary and knowledge for future prospects are necessary to facilitate further medicinal plant research for their potential use as antihypertrophic scar agents. A bibliographic investigation was accomplished by focusing on medicinal plants which have been scientifically tested in vitro and/or in vivo and proved as potential agents for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. Although the chemical components and mechanisms of action of medicinal plants with antihypertrophic scarring potential have been investigated, many others remain unknown. More investigations and clinical trials are necessary to make use of these medical plants reasonably and phytotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach against hypertrophic scars.

Ye, Qi; Wang, Su-Juan; Chen, Jian-Yu; Xin, Hai-Liang; Zhang, Hong

2015-01-01

409

In vitro antimalarial activity and cytotoxicity of some selected cuban medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Terrestrial plants have been demonstrated to be sources of antimalarial compounds. In Cuba, little is known about antimalarial potentials of plant species used as medicinals. For that reason, we evaluated the antimalarial activity of 14 plant species used in Cuba as antimalarial, antipyretic and/or antiparasitic. Hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared and tested in vitro for the antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum Ghana strain and over human cell line MRC-5 to determine cytotoxicity. Parasite multiplication was determined microscopically by the direct count of Giemsa stained parasites. A colorimetric assay was used to quantify cytotoxicity. Nine extracts showed IC50 values lower than 100 µg/mL against P. falciparum, four extracts were classified as marginally active (SI < 4), one as partially active (Parthenium hysterophorus) exhibiting SI equal to 6.2 and two extracts as active (Bambusa vulgaris and Punica granatum), showing SI > 10. B. vulgaris showed the most potent and specific antiplasmodial action (IC50 = 4.7 µg/mL, SI = 28.9). Phytochemical characterization of active extracts confirmed the presence of triterpenoids in B. vulgaris and polar compounds with phenol free groups and fluorescent metabolites in both extracts as major phytocompounds, by thin layer chromatography. In conclusion, antimalarial use of B. vulgaris and P. hysterophorus was validated. B. vulgaris and P. granatum extracts were selected for follow-up because of their strong antimalarial activity. PMID:21748227

Valdés, Aymé Fernández-Calienes; Martínez, Judith Mendiola; Lizama, Ramón Scull; Gaitén, Yamilet Gutiérrez; Rodríguez, Deyanira Acuña; Payrol, Juan Abreu

2010-01-01

410

Preliminary Screening of Endophytic Fungi from Medicinal Plants in Malaysia for Antimicrobial and Antitumor Activity  

PubMed Central

The screening of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, yeast and fungi was carried out on isopropanol extracts prepared from 121 isolates of endophytic fungi isolated from medicinal plants in Malaysia. Sensitivity was found to vary among the microorganisms. Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Alternaria sp. were susceptible to extracts from three, two and two isolates of endophytic fungi, respectively. None were found effective against Salmonella typhimurium. Sixteen endophytic fungal isolates tested were also found to exhibit antitumor activity in the yeast cell-based assay. PMID:22844221

Radu, Son; Kqueen, Cheah Yoke

2002-01-01

411

Evaluation of indigenous plant extracts against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the larvicidal potential of indigenous plant extracts from commonly used medicinal herbs as an environmentally\\u000a safe measure to control the filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The early fourth-instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, reared in the laboratory, were used for larvicidal assay with water, hot water, acetone, chloroform, and methanol leaf,\\u000a stem-bark, and flower extracts of

A. Abdul Rahuman; A. Bagavan; C. Kamaraj; M. Vadivelu; A. Abduz Zahir; G. Elango; G. Pandiyan

2009-01-01

412

Chemical composition of essential oils and in vitro antioxidant activity of fresh and dry leaves crude extracts of medicinal plant of Lactuca Sativa L. native to Sultanate of Oman  

PubMed Central

Objective To isolate and analyse the chemical composition in the essential oils and free radical scavenging activity of different crude extracts from the fresh and dry leaves of vegetable plants of Lactuca sativa L. (L. sativa). Methods The essential oils and volatile chemical constituents were isolated from the fresh and dry leaves of L. sativa (lettuce) grown in Sultanate of Oman by hydro distillation method. The antioxidant activity of the crude extracts was carried out by well established free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) method. Results About 20 chemical compounds of different concentration representing 83.07% and 79.88% respectively were isolated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in the essential oils isolated from the fresh and dry leaves as ?-pinene (5.11% and 4.05%), ?-cymene (2.07% and 1.92%), thymol (11.55% and 10.73%), durenol (52.00% and 49.79%), ?-terpinene (1.66% and 1.34%), thymol acetate (0.99% and 0.67%), caryophyllene (2.11% and 1.98%), spathulenol (3.09% and 2.98%), camphene (4.11% and 3.65%), limonene (1.28% and 1.11%) representing these major chemical compounds. However, some other minor chemical constituents were also isolated and identified from the essential oil of lettuce including ?-pinene, ?-terpinolene, linalool, 4-terpineol, ?-terpineol, o-methylthymol, L-alloaromadendrene and viridiflorene. Conclusions The chemical constituents in the essential oils from the locally grown lettuce were identified in the following classes or groups of chemical compounds such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes volatile organic compounds and their oxygenated hydrocarbons. Therefore, the essential oils and the crude extracts from Omani vegetable species of lettuce are active candidates which would be used as antioxidant, antifungal or antimicrobial agents in new drugs preparation for therapy of infectious diseases. PMID:23646297

Al Nomaani, Rahma Said Salim; Hossain, Mohammad Amzad; Weli, Afaf Mohammed; Al-Riyami, Qasim; Al-Sabahi, Jamal Nasser

2013-01-01

413

Pressurized liquid extraction as a green approach in food and herbal plants extraction: A review.  

PubMed

Pressurized liquid extraction is a "green" technology for the extraction of nutraceuticals from foods and herbal plants. This review discusses the extraction principles and the optimization of the extraction parameters that improves the extraction efficiency. The use of different solvent mixtures and other extraction additives to enhance the efficiency of the extraction are discussed. Dynamic mode of extraction in Pressurized liquid extraction, and the use of combined and hyphenated sample preparation and analytical techniques are presented. This work discusses how different studies used Pressurized liquid extraction to enrich phenolic compounds, lignans, carotenoids, oils and lipids, essential oils and other nutraceuticals from foods and herbal plants. PMID:21843670

Mustafa, Arwa; Turner, Charlotta

2011-10-01

414

Iranian medicinal plants for diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.  

PubMed

In the Iranian traditional medicine a significant usage of herbs is promoted for their anti-diabetic activity. The aim of this review to assess the efficacy of glucose lowering effects of medicinal plants cultivated in Iran. An electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library Database, Ebsco and Google Scholar from database inception conducted up to May 2012. A total of 85 studies (18 humans and 67 animals) examining 62 plants were reviewed. The quality of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) assessed by using the Jadad scale. Among the RCTs studies, the best results in glycemic control was found in Aloe vera, Citrullus colocynthus, Plantago ovata, Silybum marianum, Rheum ribes and Urtica dioica. The majority of plants that have been studied for antidiabetic activity showed promising results. However, efficacy and safety of the most plants used in the treatment of diabetes are not sufficient. PMID:24498803

Rashidi, Ali Akbar; Mirhashemi, Seyyed Mehdi; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Sarkhail, Parisa

2013-05-01

415

Evaluation of some plants used in Turkish folk medicine against parasitic infections for their in vivo anthelmintic activity.  

PubMed

Ethanolic and aqueous extracts obtained from nine plant species from seven families selected depending on their use in Turkish folk medicine, including Citrillus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. (seed), Jasminum fruticans L. (branches), Juniperus drupacea Labill. (fruits), Juniperus nana L. (fruit and leaves), Juniperus oxcycedrus L (fruit and leaves), Mentha longifolia L. (herba), Pinus nigra ssp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Richt. (fruits), Plantago lanceolata L. (leaves), and Zea mays L. (seed) were evaluated for their in vivo anthelmintic activity. Among the plant extracts studied, both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Jasminum fruticans, Mentha longifolia and Pinus nigra ssp. pallasiana, the aqueous extracts of Zea mays, the ethanolic extracts of Citrillus lanatus, Juniperus drupacea (fruit), Juniperus oxcycedrus and Plantago lanceolata displayed significant anthelmintic activity against pinworms, Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera, in mice. Rest of the extracts from plants did not show any remarkable anthelmintic activity. The results were considered significant at p<0.05. PMID:16790330

Kozan, Esma; Küpeli, Esra; Yesilada, Erdem

2006-11-24

416

Plant biotechnology patents: applications in agriculture and medicine.  

PubMed

Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have enabled the field of plant biology to move forward in great leaps and bounds. In particular, recent breakthroughs in molecular biology, plant genomics and crop science have brought about a paradigm shift of thought regarding the manner by which plants can be utilized both in agriculture and in medicine. Besides the more well known improvements in agronomic traits of crops such as disease resistance and drought tolerance, plants can now be associated with topics as diverse as biofuel production, phytoremediation, the improvement of nutritional qualities in edible plants, the identification of compounds for medicinal purposes in plants and the use of plants as therapeutic protein production platforms. This diversification of plant science has been accompanied by the great abundance of new patents issued in these fields and, as many of these inventions approach commercial realization, the subsequent increase in agriculturally-based industries. While this review chapter is written primarily for plant scientists who have great interest in the new directions being taken with respect to applications in agricultural biotechnology, those in other disciplines, such as medical researchers, environmental scientists and engineers, may find significant value in reading this article as well. The review attempts to provide an overview of the most recent patents issued for plant biotechnology with respect to both agriculture and medicine. The chapter concludes with the proposal that the combined driving forces of climate change, as well as the ever increasing needs for clean energy and food security will play a pivotal role in leading the direction for applied plant biotechnology research in the future. PMID:20180763

Hefferon, Kathleen

2010-06-01

417

Medicinal plants used in traditional medicine by Oromo people, Ghimbi District, Southwest Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Ethiopia is one of the six centres of biodiversity in the world with several topographies, climatic conditions and various ethnic cultures. Ethnobotanical study is a real and encourageable in rich biological resource areas for medicinal plant identification, documentation, ranking, conservation and sustainable usages. The purpose of this study was to identify the most effective medicinal plants for specific treatment through priority ranking and to assess the status of the transfer of Traditional Botanical Knowledge (TBK) based on age groups and educational levels. Methodology Ethnobotanical data were collected using field observation and semi-structured interview, A total of 30 key informants and 165 community members were interviewed and data on medicinal plant species and associated knowledge were recorded, quantified and verified using several preference ranking methods. Results The study revealed a total of 49 medicinal plant species (belonging to 31 families and 46 genera) used to treat various human ailments, the majority of which 40 (81.6%) species were collected from wild while the rests from home garden. Herbs constituted the largest growth habit (18 species, 37%) followed by trees (16 species, 32%) and shrubs (15 species, 31%). Leaf `17 (35%) is the plant part widely used followed by root 13 (27%), leafy-stem 5 (10%), and seed 6 (12%). Oral administration was the dominant route (63%), followed by dermal route (22%) and nasal (11%). The highest number of plant species being used for infectious (48%) followed by two or more diseases and non-infectious disease. Of five and seven medicinal plants of preference ranking the highest ranks were given first for Croton macrostaychus used for malaria treatment and for Prunus africana as ‘’rare” for immediate collection and use in the traditional treatment. Significantly higher average number of medicinal plants (p?medicinal knowledge. This study can be used as a basis for developing management plans for conservation, sustainable use and drug development. PMID:24885586

2014-01-01

418

FURTHER NOMENCLATURAL CHANGES IN INDIAN HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINAL PLANTS  

PubMed Central

Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu is one of the most botanised areas of Southern India. In spite of it a number of wild plants had been missed by earlier collectors. Moreover, many exotics and ornamentals having importance in alternative systems of medicine have not been collected and preserved. The present paper lists 34 species of plants used in homeopathy belonging to 31 genera under 23 families. PMID:22556573

Baburaj, D. Suresh; Nain, S.S

1992-01-01

419

Protective Effect of Selected Medicinal Plants against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Damage on Biological Substrates  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress is developed due to susceptibility of biological substrates to oxidation by generation of free radicals. In degenerative diseases, oxidative stress level can be reduced by antioxidants which neutralize free radicals. Primary objective of this work was to screen four medicinal plants, namely, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, for their antioxidant property using two biological substrates—RBC and microsomes. The antioxidative ability of three solvent extracts, methanol (100% and 80%) and aqueous leaf extracts, was studied at different concentrations by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method using Fenton's reagent to induce oxidation in the substrates. The polyphenol and flavonoid content were analyzed to relate with the observed antioxidant effect of the extracts. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, and ?-carotene in the samples. In microsomes, 80% methanol extract of Canthium and Costus and, in RBC, 80% methanol extract of Costus showed highest inhibition of oxidation and correlated well with the polyphenol and flavonoid content. From the results it can be concluded that antioxidants from medicinal plants are capable of inhibiting oxidation in biological systems, suggesting scope for their use as nutraceuticals. PMID:25436152

Pai Kotebagilu, Namratha; Reddy Palvai, Vanitha

2014-01-01

420

Perilla frutescens: interesting new medicinal and melliferous plant in Italy.  

PubMed

The goal of this study is to inform those potentially interested (researchers, farmers, industry and public bodies) in the medicinal and aromatic properties, and profitability of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton (Lamiaceae). Perilla, a medicinal and edible plant of Asian origin, was recently introduced to the Piedmont Region in the north-west of Italy. P. frutescens is commonly known for its anti-allergic, anti-tumor, and anti-oxidant properties. It is also widely used as human food. We collected a variety of data on Perilla crops in the Piedmont Region, including: agricultural practices, crop profitability, and its value as a bee plant. Our results suggest that ease of cultivation, approximate break-even economics, medicinal claims, and value for bees all contribute to make Perilla of economic interest in Italy. PMID:22164783

Barbieri, Cinzia; Ferrazzi, Paola

2011-10-01