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1

Pressurized liquid extraction of medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) in medicinal plant analysis was investigated. PLE extracts from a selection of representative herbs were compared with extracts obtained according to Pharmacopoeia monographs with respect to yield of relevant plant constituents, extraction time and solvent consumption. In all cases a significant economy in time and solvents was realized, while extraction yields of the

Björn Benthin; Henning Danz; Matthias Hamburger

1999-01-01

2

Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts  

PubMed Central

To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6?mg?mL?1). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5?mg?mL?1) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3?mg?mL?1) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08?mg?mL?1) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

Uddin, Shaikh J.; Grice, I. Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

2011-01-01

3

Cytotoxic effects of bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC(50) 1.1-1.6?mg?mL(-1)). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC(50) > 2.5?mg?mL(-1)) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.2-2.3?mg?mL(-1)) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.01-0.08?mg?mL(-1)) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

2011-01-01

4

Screening of medicinal plant extracts for antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanol extracts of nine medicinal plants traditionally used in Chinese medicine were screened for antioxidant activity versus resveratrol, which has been shown to protect cells from oxidative damage [Toxicol. Lett. 102 (1998) 5]. Most of the plant extracts used in this study inhibited the H2O2-induced apoptosis of Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4) cells. The extracts of Areca catechu var.

Si Eun Lee; Hyun Jin Hwang; Jung-Sun Ha; Han-Seung Jeong; Jeong Hee Kim

2003-01-01

5

Anti-HIV activity of medicinal plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of our screening of anti-AIDS agents from natural sources, ethanolic and aqueous extracts of 15 medicinal plants widely used in the folk medicine of the Iberian Peninsula were evaluated in vitro. Most of the extracts tested were relatively nontoxic to human lymphocytic MT-2 cells, but only the extracts of Tuberaria lignosa and Sanguisorba minor magnolii exhibited anti-HIV activity

L. M. Bedoya; S. Sanchez-Palomino; M. J. Abad; P. Bermejo; J. Alcami

2001-01-01

6

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC AND ACETONE EXTRACT OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN INDIAN FOLKLORE MEDICINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibacterial study of methanolic and acetone extracts of crude and treated (with 50 % lead acetate) extracts of medicinal plants viz, Alstonia scholaris Linn. R.Br. (Stem bark, Apocynaceae), Achyranthus aspera Linn. (Whole plant, Acantheceae), Moringa oleifera Lam. (Leaves, Morinaceae), Tinospora cordifolia (Stem, Menispermaceae), and Enicostema hyssopifolium (Willd) (Stem, Gentianaceae) was carried out. Extractive values in methanol were found to be

J. P. Patel

2010-01-01

7

Anti-HIV activity of medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

As part of our screening of anti-AIDS agents from natural sources, ethanolic and aqueous extracts of 15 medicinal plants widely used in the folk medicine of the Iberian Peninsula were evaluated in vitro. Most of the extracts tested were relatively nontoxic to human lymphocytic MT-2 cells, but only the extracts of Tuberaria lignosa and Sanguisorba minor magnolii exhibited anti-HIV activity in an in vitro MTT assay. The aqueous extracts of these plants showed inhibitory effects against HIV-1 induced infections in MT-2 cells at concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 50 microg/ml and 50 microg/ml, respectively. Both extracts showed no appreciable cytotoxicity at these concentrations. PMID:11483387

Bedoya, L M; Sanchez-Palomino, S; Abad, M J; Bermejo, P; Alcami, J

2001-09-01

8

The antinociceptive effect of some Egyptian medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

The antinociceptive effect of methanolic extracts (200 and 400 mg kg(-1)) of eight Egyptian medicinal plants was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-flick test in mice. Oral administration of 400 mg kg(-1) methanolic extracts of Convolvulus fatmensis, Alhagi maurorum, Plantago major seeds, Conyza dioscaridis significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the nociception to acetic acid-induced writhes with a protection of 85.5-61.3%. Schouwia thebaica, Diplotaxis acris, Plantago major leaves and Mentha microphylla, in the large dose, showed a protection of 50.8-45.8%, which were significantly different as compared to control. The smaller dose of the tested plant extracts did not protect animals from painful acetic acid stimulation with the exception of Alhagi maurorum. In the tail-flick test, methanolic extracts of Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscaridis, Alhagi maurorum, Plantago major leaves, Diplotaxis acris and Convolvulus fatmensis in a dose of 400 mg kg(-1) produced significant increase in the latency to response of tail to thermal stimulation. Mild or no effect was observed by the small dose with the exception of Diplotaxis acris that had significant antinociceptive effect at the dose of 200 mg kg(-1). The extracts of all tested plants in doses up to 2 g kg(-1) b.wt. did not cause any deaths or major signs of acute toxicity. Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of unsaturated sterols, triterpenes, tannins, flavonoids and carbohydrates and/or glycosides as major constituents. PMID:15507342

Atta, A H; Abo EL-Sooud, K

2004-12-01

9

Cytotoxic activity screening of Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

The cytotoxic activity of 23 crude methanol extracts from 19 Bangladeshi medicinal plants was investigated against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3), healthy monkey kidney (VERO) and four human cancer cell lines (gastric, AGS; colon, HT-29; and breast, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using MTT assay. High cytotoxicity across all cell lines tested was exhibited by Aegiceras corniculatum (fruit) and Hymenodictyon excelsum (bark) extracts (IC50 values ranging from 0.0005 to 0.9980 and 0.08 to 0.44 mg/mL, respectively). Fourteen extracts from 11 plant species, namely Clitoria ternatea (flower and leaf), Dillenia indica (leaf), Diospyros peregrina (leaf), Dipterocarpus turbinatus (bark and leaf), Ecbolium viride (leaf), Glinus oppositifolius (whole plant), Gnaphalium luteoalbum (leaf), Jasminum sambac (leaf), Lannea coromandelica (bark and leaf), Mussaenda glabrata (leaf) and Saraca asoca (leaf), were also significantly cytotoxic (IC50 < 1.0 mg/mL) against at least one of the cancer cell lines tested. More selectively, Avicennia alba (leaf), C. ternatea (flower and leaf), Caesalpinia pulcherrima (leaf), E. viride (leaf) and G. oppositifolius (whole plant) showed cytotoxicity only against both of the breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). In contrast, C. ternatea (flower and leaf) exhibited high cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 (IC50 values of 0.11 and 0.49 mg/mL, respectively), whereas E. viride and G. oppositifolius whole plant extracts exhibited high activity against MCF-7 cells (IC50 values of 0.06 and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively). The cytotoxic activity test results for 9 of the plant species correlate with their traditional use as anticancer agents, thus making them interesting sources for further drug development. PMID:23846168

Akter, Raushanara; Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

2014-01-01

10

[Uterotonic action of extracts from a group of medicinal plants].  

PubMed

Water extracts (infusions) from a group of medicinal plants were studied in terms of their activity enhancing the uterine tonus in a series of experiments with a preparation of an isolated rabbit and guinea pig uterine horn. In a final extract concentration of 1 to 2 mg crude drug per 1 cm3 the plants ranked in the following descending order with regard to their tonus-raising effect on the uterus: camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), potmarigold calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) cockscomb (Celosia cristata L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata L. et Plantago major L.), symphytum (Symphytum officinale L.), shepherdspurse (Capsella bursa pastoris L.), St.-John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.). No effect showed the infusions of flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) and bearberry leaves (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L.). The combined preparation 'Antiinflamin', consisting of a pooled freeze-dried extract from three plants and chemotherapeutic agents produced a good enhancing effect, in the form of 'comprets' for intrauterine application at the rate of one compret per 2500 cm3. PMID:7314446

Shipochliev, T

1981-01-01

11

Antidiarrhoeal activity of some Egyptian medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

The antidiarrhoeal activity of six Egyptian medicinal plant extracts (200 and 400 mg kg(-1)) and their effect on motility of isolated rabbit's duodenum was investigated. Phytochemical screening of the plant extracts for their active constituents was also carried out by TLC. Oral administration of methanol extract from Conyza dioscoridis (CD) or Alhagi maurorum (AM) in a 200 mg kg(-1) dose exhibits a significant antidiarrhoeal effect against castor oil-induced diarrhoea, while Mentha microphylla (MM), Convolvulus arvensis (CA), Conyza linifolia (CL) produced no significant effect. In a dose of 400 mg kg(-1), Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscoridis, Alhagi maurorum, Zygophyllum album (ZA), and Conyza linifolia produced a significant (P<0.01) effect, while Convolvulus arvensis produced no antidiarrhoeal effect in rats. Methanol extract of Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscoridis, Zygophyllum album, and Convolvulus arvensis induced a dose-dependent (0.4-2.8 mg ml(-1)) relaxation of rabbit's duodenal smooth muscle. Alhagi maurorum and Conyza linifolia increased the contractile force in concentrations between 0.4 and 1.6 mg ml(-1). Higher concentrations (>3.2 mg ml(-1)) caused a rapid depressant effect. The depressant effect induced by Alhagi maurorum (in a higher dose) and Zygophyllum album appeared to be due to calcium channel blocking effect, since CaCl(2) could not restore the contractile response of the tissue impregnated in calcium free-medium. However, a ganglionic blocking effect appeared to be a possible mechanism of action of Mentha microphylla and Conyza dioscoridis since a stimulant dose of nicotine could not restore the contractile response of the tissue. The effect of Convolvulus arvensis and Conyza linifolia was not through any of the common mediators. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, unsaturated sterols/triterpenes, carbohydrates, lactones and proteins/amino acids as major constituents. PMID:15138016

Atta, Attia H; Mouneir, Samar M

2004-06-01

12

Antibacterial activity of northern Ontario medicinal plant extracts  

E-print Network

, Apocynum androsaemifolium L., Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng, Cornus canadensis L. and Xanthium, Apocynum androsaemifolium L., Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng, Cornus canadensis L. et Xanthium extracts of Arct. uva-ursi, X. strumarium, Apoc. androsaemifolium and C. canadensis plants demonstrate

Qin, Wensheng

13

Effects of crude aqueous medicinal plant extracts on growth and invasion of breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Plants used in folklore medicine continue to be an important source of discovery and development of novel therapeutic agents. In the present study, we determined the effects of crude aqueous extracts of a panel of medicinal plants on the growth and invasion of cancer cells. Our results showed that extracts of L. tridentata (Creosote Bush) and J. communis L. (Juniper Berry) significantly decreased the growth of MCF-7/AZ breast cancer cells. The latter as well as A. californica (Yerba Mansa) inhibited invasion into the collagen type I gel layer. Furthermore, the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) decreased when the cells were exposed to aqueous extracts of L. tridentata, J. communis L. and A. californica. This study provides original scientific data on the anticancer activity of selected aqueous medicinal plant extracts used in traditional medicine. PMID:17487409

Van Slambrouck, Severine; Daniels, Amber L; Hooten, Carla J; Brock, Steven L; Jenkins, Aaron R; Ogasawara, Marcia A; Baker, Joann M; Adkins, Glen; Elias, Eerik M; Agustin, Vincent J; Constantine, Sarah R; Pullin, Michael J; Shors, Scott T; Kornienko, Alexander; Steelant, Wim F A

2007-06-01

14

Insecticidal and larvicidal activities of medicinal plant extracts against mosquitoes.  

PubMed

In recent years, use of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed attention as agents for vector control because they are rich in bioactive chemicals, active against a limited number of species including specific target insects, and biodegradable. The present study was carried out to evaluate the adulticidal, repellent, and larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of eight plants, viz. Aristolochia indica L., Cassia angustifolia Vahl, Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb., Dolichos biflorus L., Gymnema sylvestre (Retz) Schult, Justicia procumbens L., Mimosa pudica L., and Zingiber zerumbet L., were tested against adult and early fourth instar larvae of Culex gelidus Theobald and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The effective adult mortality was observed in methanol extract of A. indica, ethyl acetate extract of D. biflorus, and ethyl acetate and hexane extract of Z. zerumbet against C. gelidus and C. quinquefasciatus (LD(50)?=37.75, 78.56, 129.44, 86.13, 80.06, 112.42, 53.83, and 46.61; LD(90)?=166.83, 379.14, 521.50, 289.83, 328.18, 455.72, 181.15, and 354.50 ppm, respectively). Complete protections for 150 min were found in hexane and methanol extract of A. indica and Z. zerumbet at 1,000 ppm against mosquito bites. The highest larval mortality was found in the hexane extract of Z. zerumbet, ethyl acetate extract of D. biflorus, and methanol extracts of A. indica against C. gelidus (LC(50)?=26.48, 33.02, and 12.47 ppm; LC(90)?=127.73, 128.79, and 62.33 ppm) and against C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50)?=69.18, 34.76, and 25.60 ppm; LC(90)?=324.40, 172.78, and 105.52 ppm), respectively, after 24 h. The plant extracts are potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the Japanese encephalitis vector, C. gelidus, and lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:20689968

Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Mahapatra, Anita; Bagavan, Asokan; Elango, Gandhi

2010-11-01

15

In vitro evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against Pestalotiopsis mangiferae.  

PubMed

A serious leaf-spot disease of Mangifera indica was noted during the last 10 years in Satpura plateau of India. On the basis of characteristic symptoms and cultural characters, the pathogen was identified as Pestalotiopsis mangiferae which is hitherto not reported from Satpura plateau of India. Screening of 17-medicinal plants against the test pathogen revealed 14 antimycotic whereas 3-plants, viz., Argemone mexicana, Caesalpinia bonducella, and Casia fistula acclerated the growth of the pathogen. The maximum activity was shown by Eucalyptus globulus (88%) and Catharanthus roseus (88%) followed by Ocimum sanctum (85.50%), Azadirachta indica (84.66%), Ricinus communis (75%) and Lawsonia inermis (74.33%) while the minimum activity was exhibited by Jatropha curcas (10%). PMID:9676046

Rai, M K

1996-01-01

16

Antibacterial activity of some plant extracts used in folk medicine.  

PubMed

In the present work, selected plants were screened for their potential antibacterial activity. For evaluating antibacterial activity, both aqueous and organic solvent methanol was used. The plants screened were Ocimum sanctum, Jatropha gossypifolia, Boerhavia diffusa, Azadirachta indica, Solidago virgaurea, and Commelina benghalensis. The antibacterial activity was assessed against six bacterial strains--Pseudomonas testosteroni, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus morganii, Micrococcus flavus. Agar disc diffusion method and Agar ditch diffusion method were used to study the antibacterial activity of all these plants. Ps. testosteroni and K. pneumoniae were the most resistant bacterial strains. A. indica showed strong activity against tested bacterial strains. Therefore, we conclude that A. indica may prove to be a promising agent, and further exploration into this compound should be performed to determine its full therapeutic potential. In addition, its leaf extract can also be used as a lead molecule in combating the diseases caused by the studied bacterial strains. PMID:18928141

Nair, Rathish; Kalariya, Tamanna; Chanda, Sumitra

2007-01-01

17

Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants on Allium cepa Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants: Azadirachta indica (A. Juss), Morinda lucida (Benth.), Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf.), Mangifera indica (Linn.) and Carica papaya (Linn.) was evaluated using the Allium cepa assay. The extracts were prepared with tap water as practised locally. Onion bulbs were exposed to 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50%; and 1,

A. Akinboro; A. A. Bakare

2007-01-01

18

POSTER PRESENTATION Open Access Extracts from medicinal plants inhibit cancer cell  

E-print Network

methods such as DPPH and reducing power. Results Extracts were found to contain components that inhibitPOSTER PRESENTATION Open Access Extracts from medicinal plants inhibit cancer cell proliferation and vegetables, have been used to fight against various diseases such as cancer, microbial infections and even

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

19

Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of 12 medicinal and aromatic plants were investigated for their radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays: Salvia sclarea, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia pratensis, Lavandula angustifolia, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Echinacea purpurea, Rhaponticum carthamoides, Juglans regia, Melilotus officinalis, Geranium macrorrhizum and Potentilla fruticosa. Salvia officinalis was used as a reference plant with well documented antioxidant activity. G. macrorrhizum and

G. Miliauskas; P. R. Venskutonis; T. A. van Beek

2004-01-01

20

Hydroalcoholic extracts of Indian medicinal plants can help in amelioration from oxidative stress through antioxidant properties.  

PubMed

The in vitro study of the antioxidant properties of the hydroalcoholic extracts of various Indian medicinal plants can logically help to develop a better and safer way of amelioration from oxidative stress. As aimed, the present study has been done to estimate and thereby conclude regarding the antioxidant activities of a few Indian medicinal plants, viz., Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis, Caesalpinia crista, Cajanus cajan, and Tinospora cordifolia. The extracts of the plants have been subjected to the evaluation of antioxidant properties through scavenging assays for reactive oxygen species like superoxide, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, hypochlorous acid, singlet oxygen, etc. and measurement of TEAC values and other phytochemical parameters. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of each plant have been found to be correlated to their individual antioxidant activity. The results showed the hydroalcoholic extracts of the plants were efficient indicators of their antioxidant capacity thus concreting their basis to be used as natural antioxidant. PMID:22624183

Sarkar, Rhitajit; Mandal, Nripendranath

2012-01-01

21

Continuous subcritical water extraction of medicinal plant essential oil: comparison with conventional techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subcritical extractor equipped with a three-way inlet valve and an on\\/off outlet valve has been used for performing subcritical water extractions (SWE) in a continuous manner for the isolation of the essential oil of fennel, a medicinal plant. The target compounds were removed from the aqueous extract by a single extraction with 5 ml hexane, determined by gas-chromatography-flame ionization

L Gámiz-Gracia; M. D Luque de Castro

2000-01-01

22

Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against blood-sucking parasites.  

PubMed

The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, and methanol dried leaf, flower, and seed extracts of Cassia auriculata L., Rhinacanthus nasutus KURZ., Solanum torvum Swartz, Terminalia chebula Retz., and Vitex negundo Linn. were tested against larvae of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae), adult of Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann, 1897 (Acarina: Ixodidae), hematophagous fly Hippobosca maculata Leach (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), nymph of goat-lice Damalinia caprae Gurlt (Trichodectidae), and adult sheep parasite Paramphistomum cervi Zeder, 1790 (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate parasitic effects after 24 h of exposure at 3,000 ppm; however, the highest parasite mortality was found in leaf ethyl acetate, flower methanol of C. auriculata, leaf and seed methanol of S. torvum, seed acetone of T. chebula, and leaf hexane extracts of V. negundo against the larvae of R. microplus (LC(50) = 335.48, 309.21, 297.43, 414.99, 167.20, and 611.67 ppm; LC(90) = 1571.58, 1111.82, 950.98, 1243.64, 595.31, and 1875.50 ppm), the leaf and flower methanol of R. nasutus, leaf and seed methanol of S. torvum, and seed methanol extracts of T. chebula against the nymph of D. caprae (LC(50) = 119.26,143.10,164.93,140.47, and 155.98 ppm; LC(90) = 356.77, 224.08, 546.20, 479.72, and 496.06 ppm), the leaf methanol of R. nasutus, leaf and seed methanol of S.torvum, and seed acetone of T. chebula against the adult of H. bispinosa (LC(50) = 333.15, 328.98, 312.28, and 186.46 ppm; LC(90) = 1056.07, 955.39, 946.63, and 590.76 ppm), the leaf methanol of C. auriculata, the leaf and flower methanol of R. nasutus, the leaf ethyl acetate of S. torvum against the H. maculata (LC(50) = 303.36, 177.21, 204.58, and 211.41 ppm; LC(90) = 939.90, 539.39, 599.43, and 651.90 ppm), and the leaf acetone of C. auriculata, the flower methanol of R. nasutus, the seed methanol of S. torvum, and the seed acetone of T. chebula were tested against the adult of P. cervi (LC(50) = 180.54, 168.59, 200.89, and 87.08 ppm; LC(90) = 597.51, 558.65, 690.37, and 433.85 ppm), respectively. Therefore, this study provides first report on the veterinary parasitic activity of plant extracts from Southern India. PMID:20306205

Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Elango, Gandhi; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Marimuthu, Sampath; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram

2010-05-01

23

Cytotoxic activities of selected medicinal plants from Iran and phytochemical evaluation of the most potent extract  

PubMed Central

Methanolic extract of 15 Iranian medicinal plants were prepared and tested for their cytotoxic activities against three cancer cell lines (MCF7, HepG2, WEHI164) and one normal cell line (MDBK). Some plants showed cytotoxic activities. The extract of Ferula szowitsiana root, which proved to be the most active, was chosen for further phytochemical studies. The major compounds of the most potent acetone extract were isolated. They were identified as chimgin and chimganin, two known monoterpenoids, by spectroscopic means. Their cytotoxic activity was evaluated in three cell lines. The results show that these compounds are responsible, at least in part, for the cytotoxic activity of this plant. PMID:21589808

Sahranavard, S.; Naghibi, F.; Mosaddegh, M.; Esmaeili, S.; Sarkhail, P.; Taghvaei, M.; Ghafari, S.

2009-01-01

24

Antimalarial activity of 20 crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants used in Kinshasa, Congo.  

PubMed

Twenty extracts including ten EtOH and ten CH2Cl2 from different parts of nine African medicinal plants used in Congolese traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria, were submitted to a pharmacological test in order to evaluate their effect on P. falciparum growth in vitro. Of these plant species, 14 (70%) extracts including EtOH and CH2Cl2 from Cassia occidentalis leaves, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta root bark, Euphorbia hirta whole plant, Garcinia kola stem bark and seeds, Morinda lucida leaves and Phyllanthus niruri whole plant produced more than 60% inhibition of the parasite growth in vitro at a test concentration of 6 microg/ml. Extracts from E. hirta, C. sanguinolenta and M. morindoides showed a significant chemosuppression of parasitaemia in mice infected with P. berghei berghei at orally given doses of 100-400 mg/kg per day. PMID:10624878

Tona, L; Ngimbi, N P; Tsakala, M; Mesia, K; Cimanga, K; Apers, S; De Bruyne, T; Pieters, L; Totté, J; Vlietinck, A J

1999-12-15

25

Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetes mellitus, for a long time, has been treated with plant derived medicines in Sri Lanka. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and dose response of oral antihyperglycaemic activity of eight Sri Lankan medicinal plant extracts, which are used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Medicinal plants selected for the study on the basis of documented effectiveness and wide use among traditional Ayurveda physicians in the Southern region of Sri Lanka for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The effect of different doses of aqueous stem bark extracts of Spondias pinnata (Anacardiaceae), Kokoona zeylanica (Celastraceae), Syzygium caryophyllatum (Myrtaceae), Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae), aerial part extracts of Scoparia dulcis (Scrophulariaceae), Sida alnifolia (Malvaceae), leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) and root extract of Languas galanga (Zingiberaceae) on oral glucose tolerance test was evaluated. A single dose of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 2.00 g/kg of plant extract was administered orally to alloxan induced (150 mg/kg, ip) diabetic Wistar rats (n = 6). Glibenclamide (0.50 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. The acute effect was evaluated over a 4 h period using area under the oral glucose tolerance curve. Statistical Analysis: The results were evaluated by analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. Results: The eight plant extracts showed statistically significant dose dependent improvement on glucose tolerance (P < 0.05). The optimum effective dose on glucose tolerance for six extracts was found to be 1.00 g/kg in diabetic rats with the exception of C. grandis: 0.75 g/kg and L. galanga: 1.25 g/kg. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of G. arborea, S. pinnata, K. zeylanica, S. caryophyllatum, S. dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats. PMID:24991066

Attanayake, Anoja P.; Jayatilaka, Kamani A. P. W.; Pathirana, Chitra; Mudduwa, Lakmini K. B.

2013-01-01

26

In vitro biological evaluation of 100 selected methanol extracts from the traditional medicinal plants of Asia  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES In Asia, various medicinal plants have been used as the primary sources in the health care regimen for thousands of years. In recent decades, various studies have investigated the biological activity and potential medicinal value of the medicinal plants. In this study, 100 methanol extracts from 98 plant species were evaluated for their biological activities. MATERIALS/METHODS The research properties, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-pic-rylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ?-glucosidase and ?-tyrosinase inhibitory effects, anti-inflammatory activity, and anticancer activity were evaluated for the selected extracts. RESULTS Fifteen of the extracts scavenged more than 90% of the DPPH radical. Among the extracts, approximately 20 extracts showed a strong inhibitory effect on ?-glucosidase, while most had no effect on ?-tyrosinase. In addition, 52% of the extracts showed low toxicity to normal cells, and parts of the extracts exhibited high anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities on the murine macrophage cell (RAW 264.7) and human colon cancer cell (HT-29) lines, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Our findings may contribute to further nutrition and pharmacological studies. Detailed investigations of the outstanding samples are currently underway. PMID:24741398

Li, Chunmei

2014-01-01

27

Medicinal plants extracts affect virulence factors expression and biofilm formation by the uropathogenic Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are an important source for the therapeutic remedies of various diseases including urinary tract infections. This prompted us to perform research in this area. We decided to focus on medicinal plants species used in urinary tract infections prevention. The aim of our study was to determine the influence of Betula pendula, Equisetum arvense, Herniaria glabra, Galium odoratum, Urtica dioica, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea extracts on bacterial survival and virulence factors involved in tissue colonization and biofilm formation of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli rods. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of plant extracts were performed. Antimicrobial assay relied on the estimation of the colony forming unit number. Hydrophobicity of cells was established by salt aggregation test. Using motility agar, the ability of bacteria to move was examined. The erythrocyte hemagglutination test was used for fimbriae P screening. Curli expression was determined using YESCA agar supplemented with congo red. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter plate assay and a spectrophotometric method. The results of the study indicate significant differences between investigated extracts in their antimicrobial activities. The extracts of H. glabra and V. vitis-idaea showed the highest growth-inhibitory effects (p < 0.05). Surface hydrophobicity of autoaggregating E. coli strain changed after exposure to all plant extracts, except V. vitis-idaea (p > 0.05). The B. pendula and U. dioica extracts significantly reduced the motility of the E. coli rods (p < 0.05). All the extracts exhibited the anti-biofilm activity. PMID:22915095

Wojnicz, Dorota; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Sokó?-??towska, Anna; Kicia, Marta; Tichaczek-Goska, Dorota

2012-12-01

28

Medicinal Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

Phillipson, J. David

1997-01-01

29

Antibacterial activity of medicinal plant extracts against periodontopathic bacteria.  

PubMed

This study was performed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Althaea officinalis L. roots, Arnica montana L. flowers, Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hamamelis virginiana L. leaves, Illicium verum Hook. fruits and Melissa officinalis L. leaves, against anaerobic and facultative aerobic periodontal bacteria: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Fusobacterium nucleatum, Capnocytophaga gingivalis, Veilonella parvula, Eikenella corrodens, Peptostreptococcus micros and Actinomyces odontolyticus. The methanol extracts of H. virginiana and A. montana and, to a lesser extent, A. officinalis were shown to possess an inhibiting activity (MIC < or = 2048 mg/L) against many of the species tested. In comparison, M. officinalis and C. officinalis extracts had a lower inhibiting activity (MIC > or = 2048 mg/L) against all the tested species with the exception of Prevotella sp. Illicium verum methanol extract was not very active though it had a particular good activity against E. corrodens. The results suggest the use of the alcohol extracts of H. virginiana, A. montana and A. officinalis for topical medications in periodontal prophylactics. PMID:12820224

Iauk, L; Lo Bue, A M; Milazzo, I; Rapisarda, A; Blandino, G

2003-06-01

30

Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of the Methanol Extracts from 8 Traditional Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

The methanol extract of 12 medicinal plants were evaluated for its antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (5 strains) and Gram-negative bacteria (10 strains) by assay for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bacterial concentration (MBC) . The antibacterial activity was determined by an agar dilution method (according to the guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute) . All the compounds (12 extracts) of the 8 medicinal plants (leaf or root) were active against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Gram-negative showed a more potent action than Gram positive bacteria. The MIC concentrations were various ranged from 0.6 ?g/ml to 5000 ?g/ml. The lowest MIC (0.6 ?g/ml) and MBC (1.22 ?g/ml) values were obtained with extract on 4 and 3 of the 15 microorganisms tested, respectively. PMID:24278548

Kang, Chang-Geun; Hah, Dae-Sik; Kim, Chung-Hui; Kim, Young-Hwan; Kim, Euikyung

2011-01-01

31

Insecticidal and larvicidal activities of medicinal plant extracts against mosquitoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, use of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed\\u000a attention as agents for vector control because they are rich in bioactive chemicals, active against a limited number of species\\u000a including specific target insects, and biodegradable. The present study was carried out to evaluate the adulticidal, repellent,\\u000a and larvicidal activity of crude hexane,

Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Anita Mahapatra; Asokan Bagavan; Gandhi Elango

2010-01-01

32

Continuous subcritical water extraction of medicinal plant essential oil: comparison with conventional techniques.  

PubMed

A subcritical extractor equipped with a three-way inlet valve and an on/off outlet valve has been used for performing subcritical water extractions (SWE) in a continuous manner for the isolation of the essential oil of fennel, a medicinal plant. The target compounds were removed from the aqueous extract by a single extraction with 5 ml hexane, determined by gas-chromatography-flame ionization (GC-FID) and identified by mass spectrometry (MS). The proposed extraction method has been compared with both hydrodistillation and dichloromethane manual extraction. Better results have been obtained with the proposed method in terms of rapidity, efficiency, cleanliness and possibility of manipulating the composition of the extract. PMID:18967949

Gámiz-Gracia, L; Luque de Castro, M D

2000-05-01

33

Inhibitory effects of sudanese medicinal plant extracts on hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease.  

PubMed

One hundred fifty-two methanol and water extracts of different parts of 71 plants commonly used in Sudanese traditional medicine were screened for their inhibitory effects on hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease (PR) using in vitro assay methods. Thirty-four extracts showed significant inhibitory activity (>/=60% inhibition at 100 microg/mL). Of these, eight extracts, methanol extracts of Acacia nilotica, Boswellia carterii, Embelia schimperi, Quercus infectoria, Trachyspermum ammi and water extracts of Piper cubeba, Q. infectoria and Syzygium aromaticum, were the most active (>/=90% inhibition at 100 microg/mL). From the E. schimperi extract, two benzoquinones, embelin (I) and 5-O-methylembelin (II), were isolated and found as potent HCV-PR inhibitors with IC(50) values of 21 and 46 microM, respectively. Inhibitory activities of derivatives of I against HCV-PR as well as their effects on other serine proteases were also investigated. PMID:11054840

Hussein, G; Miyashiro, H; Nakamura, N; Hattori, M; Kakiuchi, N; Shimotohno, K

2000-11-01

34

Investigation of the antimutagenic effects of selected South African medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

Dichloromethane extracts from different parts of Rhamnus prinoides, Ornithogalum longibracteatum, Gardenia volkensii, Spirostachys africana, Diospyros whyteana, Syzigium cordatum and Prunus africana were investigated for mutagenic and antimutagenic effects in Salmonella/microsome and micronucleus tests. None of the extracts tested in the Ames test were found to induce mutations or to modify the effect of the mutagen 4-nitroquinoline-oxide (4NQO). In the micronucleus test, extracts from twigs/bark of R. prinoides, twigs of D. whyteana, P. africana and S. cordatum significantly lowered the effect of the mutagen mitomycin C (MMC). Extracts from twigs/bark of G. volkensii and S. africana were genotoxic in the micronucleus test, while extracts of O. longibracteatum leaves potentiated the genotoxicity of MMC. This preliminary investigation shows that plant extracts used in traditional medicine may have particular effects with regard to mutagenicity and antimutagenicity indicating careful use in some instances and the need to isolate their active principles for further research. PMID:14630059

Verschaeve, L; Kestens, V; Taylor, J L S; Elgorashi, E E; Maes, A; Van Puyvelde, L; De Kimpe, N; Van Staden, J

2004-02-01

35

Lipid Oxidation Inhibitory Effects and Phenolic Composition of Aqueous Extracts from Medicinal Plants of Colombian Amazonia  

PubMed Central

Diverse plants of ethnobotanic interest in Amazonia are commonly used in traditional medicine. We determined the antioxidant potential against lipid peroxidation, the antimicrobial activity, and the polyphenol composition of several Amazonian plants (Brownea rosademonte, Piper glandulosissimum, Piper krukoffii, Piper putumayoense, Solanum grandiflorum, and Vismia baccifera). Extracts from the plant leaf, bark, and stem were prepared as aqueous infusions, as used in folk medicine, and added to rat liver microsomes exposed to iron. The polyphenolic composition was detected by reverse-phase HPLC coupled to diode-array detector and MS/MS analysis. The antimicrobial activity was tested by the spot-on-a-lawn method against several indicator microorganisms. All the extracts inhibited lipid oxidation, except the P. glandulosissimum stem. The plant extracts exhibiting high antioxidant potential (V. baccifera and B. rosademonte) contained high levels of flavanols (particularly, catechin and epicatechin). By contrast, S. grandiflorum leaf, which exhibited very low antioxidant activity, was rich in hydroxycinnamic acids. None of the extracts showed antimicrobial activity. This study demonstrates for the first time the presence of bioactive polyphenolic compounds in several Amazonian plants, and highlights the importance of flavanols as major phenolic contributors to antioxidant activity. PMID:22754307

Lizcano, Leandro J.; Viloria-Bernal, Maria; Vicente, Francisca; Berrueta, Luis Angel; Gallo, Blanca; Martinez-Canamero, Magdalena; Ruiz-Larrea, Maria Begona; Ruiz-Sanz, Jose Ignacio

2012-01-01

36

Inhibitory Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts on Interactions between Transcription Factors and Target DNA Sequences  

PubMed Central

Several transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in governing the expression of different genes involved in the immune response, embryo or cell lineage development, cell apoptosis, cell cycle progression, oncogenesis, repair and fibrosis processes and inflammation. As far as inflammation, TFs playing pivotal roles are nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), activator protein (AP-1), signal transducer and activator of transcription (STATs), cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and GATA-1 factors. All these TFs regulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and are involved in the pathogenesis of a number of human disorders, particularly those with an inflammatory component. Since several medicinal plants can be employed to produce extracts exhibiting biological effects and because alteration of gene transcription represents a very interesting approach to control the expression of selected genes, this study sought to verify the ability of several extracts derived from Bangladeshi medicinal plants in interfering with molecular interactions between different TFs and specific DNA sequences. We first analyzed the antiproliferative activity of 19 medicinal plants on different human cell lines, including erythroleukemia K562, B lymphoid Raji and T lymphoid Jurkat cell lines. Secondly, we employed the electrophoretic mobility shift assay as a suitable technique for a fast screening of plant extracts altering the binding between NF-kB, AP-1, GATA-1, STAT-3, CREB and the relative target DNA elements. PMID:18830455

Lampronti, Ilaria; Khan, Mahmud T.H.; Borgatti, Monica; Bianchi, Nicoletta

2008-01-01

37

A New Application for the Optimal Foraging Theory: The Extraction of Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

The Optimal Foraging Theory was used to identify possible patterns in bark extraction and the selective cutting of Anadenanthera colubrina (Angico), a medicinal plant. The hypotheses were built on two approaches: selection of collection place and bark exploitation occurrence in only one of these resource areas. The results suggest that the distance that must be traveled to reach each gathering site determines the extent of the extraction process, showing that people minimize the time and energy spent in A. colubrina collection. The availability of each site appears not to influence the operation. The resource amount was the optimized variable for bark extraction, which was analyzed in only one collection zone. In contrast to the phenomenon of collection place selection, the distance between angico individuals, the management period, and the tannin content did not affect bark extraction. This study also discusses how certain cultural aspects influence the extraction of angico. PMID:21949671

Soldati, Gustavo Taboada; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

2012-01-01

38

In vitro antimicrobial activity of Romanian medicinal plants hydroalcoholic extracts on planktonic and adhered cells.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the antibacterial and antifungal potential of some Romanian medicinal plants, arnica--Arnica montana, wormwood--Artemisia absinthium and nettle--Urtica dioica. In order to perform this antimicrobial screening, we obtained the vegetal extracts and we tested them on a series of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and also against two fungal strains. The vegetal extracts showed antimicrobial activity preferentially directed against the planktonic fungal and bacterial growth, while the effect against biofilm formation and development was demonstrated only against S. aureus and C. albicans. Our in vitro assays indicate that the studied plant extracts are a significant source of natural alternatives to antimicrobial therapy, thus avoiding antibiotic therapy, the use of which has become excessive in recent years. PMID:21717806

Stanciuc, A M; Gaspar, A; Moldovan, L; Saviuc, C; Popa, M; M?ru?escu, L

2011-01-01

39

Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the methanolic extracts of selected Jordanian medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Background: The search for novel xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors with a higher therapeutic activity and fewer side effects are desired not only to treat gout but also to combat various other diseases associated with the XO activity. At present, the potential of developing successful natural products for the management of XO-related diseases is still largely unexplored. In the present study, we have screened the methanolic extracts of various Jordanian medicinal plants for their XO inhibitory activities using an optimized protocol. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extracts of 23 medicinal plants, belonging to 12 families, were tested in vitro, at 200 ?g/ml concentrations, for their XO inhibitory potential. The dose-dependent inhibition profiles of the most active plants were further evaluated by estimating the IC50 values of their corresponding extracts. Results: Six plants were found most active (% inhibition more than 39%). These plants are Salvia spinosa L. (IC50 = 53.7 ?g/ml), Anthemis palestina Boiss. (168.0 ?g/ml), Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (199.5 ?g/ml), Achillea biebersteinii Afansiev (360.0 ?g/ml), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (650.0 ?g/ml), and Ginkgo biloba L. (595.8 ?g/ml). Moreover, four more plants, namely Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (28.7% inhibition), Helianthemum ledifolium (L.) Mill. (28.4%), Majorana syriaca (L.) Kostel. (25.1%), and Mentha spicata L. (22.5%) showed a XO inhibitory activity in the range of 22–30%. Conclusion: The study showed that many of the tested plant species are potential sources of natural XO inhibitors that can be developed, upon further investigation, into successful herbal drugs for treatment of gout and other XO-related disorders. PMID:22262935

Hudaib, Mohammad M.; Tawaha, Khaled A.; Mohammad, Mohammad K.; Assaf, Areej M.; Issa, Ala Y.; Alali, Feras Q.; Aburjai, Talal A.; Bustanji, Yasser K.

2011-01-01

40

Herbal medicines and infectious diseases: characterization by LC-SPE-NMR of some medicinal plant extracts used against malaria.  

PubMed

The extracts of two medicinal plants used in traditionalmedicine against malariawere characterized by means of an LC?SPE?NMR and LC?MS platform. The structure of a series of major constituents from Bafodeya benna, as well as minor constituents from Ormocarpum kirkii, was determined. Bafodeya benna was found to contain (2R,3R)-taxifolin-3-O-?-L-rhamnoside or astilbin, and its isomers neoastilbin, neoisoastilbin, and isoastilbin, as well as quercetin-3-O-?-L-rhamnoside. From Ormocarpum kirkii, a series of known flavonoids and biflavonoids was obtained, as well as three new compounds, i.e., 7,7??-di-O-?-D-glucosyl-(?)-chamaejasmin, 7-O-?-D-glucosyl-(I-3,II-3)-biliquiritigenin, and isovitexin-(I-3,II-3)-naringenin. The isolated constituents may explain, at least in part, the traditional use against malaria. LC?SPE?NMR, in combination with LC?MS, is a powerful tool for the fast characterization of plant extracts, in order to define priorities at an early stage of a fractionation procedure. In addition, herbal medicinal products can completely be characterized, both with regard to their major as well as their minor constituents. PMID:21328178

Xu, Yong-Jiang; Capistrano, Rica; Dhooghe, Liene; Foubert, Kenn; Lemière, Filip; Maregesi, Sheila; Baldé, Aliou; Apers, Sandra; Pieters, Luc

2011-07-01

41

Antioxidant Activity and Glucose Diffusion Relationship of Traditional Medicinal Antihyperglycemic Plant Extracts  

PubMed Central

Plants with hypoglycemic properties are important in the treatment of diabetes. One of the mechanisms in reducing blood glucose is preventing the digestive absorption of glucose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of some traditional medicinal plants collected from different regions of Iran and their effects on glucose diffusion decrease. The amounts of phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, total polysaccharides, antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation were determined respectively by folin ciocalteu, querceting, sulfuric acid, FRAP and thiobarbituric acid - reactive substanses (TBARS) in eleven confirmed traditional antihyperglycemic medicinal plants prepared at 50g/l concentrations using the boiling method. Phenolic compounds of Eucalyptus globules (100.8± 0.01 mg /g), total flavonoids content of Juglans regia (16.9± 0.01 mg /g) and total polysaccharide amount of Allium satirum (0.28± 0.05) were the highest. Significant relationship was observed between the polyphenols and flavonoids (p <0.05). The grape seed extract showed the highest antioxidant activity (133± 0.02 mg/g) together with decreased glucose diffusion as well as increased polyphenols (p <0.05), but the increase in antioxidant activity was not related to glucose diffusion. Antihyperglycemic plant extracts containing higher polyphenols showed more efficiently in vitro glucose diffusion decrease, but no significant relationship was observed between antioxidant activity increase and glucose diffusion. PMID:24551809

Asgharpour, Fariba; Pouramir, Mahdi; Khalilpour, Asieh; Asgharpour Alamdar, Sobgol; Rezaei, Mehrasa

2013-01-01

42

Antioxidant activity and glucose diffusion relationship of traditional medicinal antihyperglycemic plant extracts.  

PubMed

Plants with hypoglycemic properties are important in the treatment of diabetes. One of the mechanisms in reducing blood glucose is preventing the digestive absorption of glucose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of some traditional medicinal plants collected from different regions of Iran and their effects on glucose diffusion decrease. The amounts of phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, total polysaccharides, antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation were determined respectively by folin ciocalteu, querceting, sulfuric acid, FRAP and thiobarbituric acid - reactive substanses (TBARS) in eleven confirmed traditional antihyperglycemic medicinal plants prepared at 50g/l concentrations using the boiling method. Phenolic compounds of Eucalyptus globules (100.8± 0.01 mg /g), total flavonoids content of Juglans regia (16.9± 0.01 mg /g) and total polysaccharide amount of Allium satirum (0.28± 0.05) were the highest. Significant relationship was observed between the polyphenols and flavonoids (p <0.05). The grape seed extract showed the highest antioxidant activity (133± 0.02 mg/g) together with decreased glucose diffusion as well as increased polyphenols (p <0.05), but the increase in antioxidant activity was not related to glucose diffusion. Antihyperglycemic plant extracts containing higher polyphenols showed more efficiently in vitro glucose diffusion decrease, but no significant relationship was observed between antioxidant activity increase and glucose diffusion. PMID:24551809

Asgharpour, Fariba; Pouramir, Mahdi; Khalilpour, Asieh; Asgharpour Alamdar, Sobgol; Rezaei, Mehrasa

2013-01-01

43

Medicinal plant extracts variously modulate susceptibility of Escherichia coli to different antibiotics.  

PubMed

Antioxidant activity of green and black tea and extracts of medicinal plants and their ability to modulate antibiotic susceptibility in Escherichia coli were studied. Among a number of extracts tested the maximal capacity to scavenge DPPH radicals and chelate iron in chemical tests was found in green and black tea, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Vaccinium vitis-idaea. These extracts contained high level of polyphenols and in aerobic conditions exhibited prooxidant features, producing H2O2 and inducing expression of the katG gene encoding catalase HPI in E. coli cells. A good correlation between the polyphenol content and the ability of extracts to protect bacteria against peroxide stress was observed (r = 0.88). Polyphenol-rich extracts and iron chelators demonstrated the highest modulating effect on the antibiotic susceptibility by changing the time period before lysis started and by influencing the colony-forming ability of bacteria. The direction of the modulating effect was dependent on nature of antibiotic applied: under treatment with ciprofloxacin and ampicillin the extracts predominantly provided protective effects, while under treatment with kanamycin a bactericidal action was enhanced. Mechanism of modulating action of extracts on bacterial antibiotic susceptibility probably involves antioxidant, preferentially iron-chelating, or prooxidant properties of polyphenols. PMID:23916388

Samoilova, Zoya; Smirnova, Galina; Muzyka, Nadezda; Oktyabrsky, Oleg

2014-04-01

44

In vitro antiplasmodial activity of extracts and fractions from seven medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of seven EtOH extracts and twenty fractions from the partition of the initial ethanolic extracts from seven African medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo) for the treatment of malaria was evaluated. The most active EtOH extracts (IC50<3?g\\/ml) were those from Cassia occidentalis leaves, Euphorbia hirta whole plant, Garcinia kola stem

L. Tona; R. K. Cimanga; K. Mesia; C. T. Musuamba; T. De Bruyne; S. Apers; N. Hernans; S. Van Miert; L. Pieters; J. Totté; A. J. Vlietinck

2004-01-01

45

Toxicity studies on dermal application of plant extract of Plumbago zeylanica used in Ethiopian traditional medicine.  

PubMed

Plant-based therapeutic preparations are cyclically returning to complement dermatologic therapy, however, data on the toxicity profile of such plants are lacking. In the present study, Plumbago zeylanica, a medicinal plant commonly used in Ethiopia for skin diseases was subjected to a systematic dermatotoxicity study. To this effect, the dermatotoxicity of 80% methanol extract of the root part of Plumbago zeylanica was investigated in animals following standard procedures for irritation, sensitization, acute toxicity and repeated toxicity tests. Extraction of plant material with 80% methanol resulted in 9.45% of crude extract of Plumbago zeylanica. The skin irritation test on rabbits showed Plumbago zeylanica extract to be a moderate irritant, with a primary irritation index of 2.00. Sensitization test on mice by the Mouse Ear Swelling Test method revealed the extract to be non-sensitizer in a dose range of 4-10mg/ml and the percent responder was zero. Acute dermal toxicity test on rats did not produce any overt signs of toxicity, except that there was a weight gain difference between the test and control groups of female rats. This was not, however, supported by other parameters, like the absolute and relative organ weights. Repeated dose toxicity test was associated with increased relative testis weight (P<0.05) as well as higher values for Blood urea nitrogen and K+ (P<0.05) in both sexes with the highest dose (1000 mg/kg) group, although histopathological analyses failed to lend support to these observations. Taken together, the dermatotoxicity test results from this study suggest that Plumbago zeylanica toxic effects might be limited to effects like moderate irritation. PMID:18339496

Teshome, Kefale; Gebre-Mariam, Tsige; Asres, Kaleab; Perry, Franklin; Engidawork, Ephrem

2008-05-01

46

Antifungal activities of extracts from Thai medicinal plants against opportunistic fungal pathogens associated with AIDS patients.  

PubMed

Summary In this study, 36 extracts derived from 10 plant species were selected to screen for their antifungal activity against clinical isolates of Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Microsporum gypseum. Selection was based on their use by traditional Thai healers or their reported antimicrobial activities in an attempt to find bioactive medicines for use in the treatment of opportunistic fungal infections in AIDS patients. The disc diffusion and hyphal extension-inhibition assays were primarily used to test for inhibition of growth. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by dilution methods. The chloroform extracts of Alpinia galanga and Boesenbergia pandurata had pronounced antifungal activity against C. neoformans and M. gypseum, but exhibited weak activity against C. albicans. Alpinia galanga and B. pandurata are excellent candidates for the development of a remedy for opportunistic fungal infections in AIDS patients. PMID:16115104

Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Subhadhirasakul, Sanan; Wattanapiromsakul, Chatchai

2005-09-01

47

Insulin-like biological activity of culinary and medicinal plant aqueous extracts in vitro.  

PubMed

To evaluate the possible effects on insulin function, 49 herb, spice, and medicinal plant extracts were tested in the insulin-dependent utilization of glucose using a rat epididymal adipocyte assay. Cinnamon was the most bioactive product followed by witch hazel, green and black teas, allspice, bay leaves, nutmeg, cloves, mushrooms, and brewer's yeast. The glucose oxidation enhancing bioactivity was lost from cinnamon, tea, witch hazel, cloves, bay leaf and allspice by poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) treatment, indicating that the active phytochemicals are likely to be phenolic in nature. The activity of sage, mushrooms, and brewers's yeast was not removed by PVP. Some products such as Korean ginseng, flaxseed meal, and basil have been reported to be effective antidiabetic agents; however, they were only marginally active in our assay. Our technique measures direct stimulation of cellular glucose metabolism, so it may be that the active phytochemicals in these plants improve glucose metabolism via other mechanisms or that this in vitro screening is not a reliable predictor of hypoglycemic effects in vivo for some products. In summary, the positive effects of specific plant extracts on insulin activity suggest a possible role of these plants in improving glucose and insulin metabolism. PMID:10725162

Broadhurst, C L; Polansky, M M; Anderson, R A

2000-03-01

48

Cytotoxicity of Selected Medicinal and Nonmedicinal Plant Extracts to Microbial and Cervical Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the cytotoxicity of 55 species of plants. Each plant was rated as medicinal, or nonmedicinal based on the existing literature. About 79% of the medicinal plants showed some cytotoxicity, while 75% of the nonmedicinal plants showed bioactivity. It appears that Asteraceae, Labiatae, Pinaceae, and Chenopodiaceae were particularly active against human cervical cancer cells. Based on the literature, only three of the 55 plants have been significantly investigated for cytotoxicity. It is clear that there is much toxicological work yet to be done with both medicinal and nonmedicinal plants. PMID:22500074

Booth, Gary M.; Malmstrom, Robert D.; Kipp, Erica; Paul, Alexandra

2012-01-01

49

Inorganic profile of some Brazilian medicinal plants obtained from ethanolic extract and ''in natura'' samples  

SciTech Connect

The Anadenathera macrocarpa, Schinus molle, Hymenaea courbaril, Cariniana legalis, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnodendron barbatiman, were collected ''in natura'' samples (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) from different commercial suppliers. The pharmaco-active compounds in ethanolic extracts had been made by the Mato Grosso Federal University (UFMT). The energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometry was used for the elemental analysis in different parts of the plants and respective ethanolic extracts. The Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn concentrations were determined by the fundamental parameters method. Some specimens showed a similar inorganic profile for ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples and some ones showed a distinct inorganic profile. For example, the Anadenathera macrocarpa showed a similar concentration in Mg, P, Cu, Zn and Rb elements in ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples; however very different concentration in Na, S, Cl, K , Ca, Mn, Fe and Sr was observed in distinctive samples. The Solidago microglossa showed the K, Ca, Cl, S, Mg, P and Fe elements as major constituents in both samples, suggesting that the extraction process did not affect in a considerable way the ''in natura'' inorganic composition. The elemental composition of the different parts of the plants (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) has been also determined. For example, the Schinus molle specimen showed P, K, Cl and Ca elements as major constituents in the seeds, Mg, K and Sr in the barks and Mg, S, Cl and Mn in the leaves, demonstrating a differentiated elementary distribution. These inorganic profiles will contribute to evaluate the quality control of the Brazilian herbaceous trade and also will assist to identify which parts of the medicinal plants has greater therapeutic effect.

Ferreira, M.O.M.; de Sousa, P.T.; Salvador, V.L.R.; Sato, I.M.

2004-10-03

50

Dietary medicinal plant extracts improve growth, immune activity and survival of tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus.  

PubMed

The effects of supplementing diets with acetone extract (1% w/w) from four medicinal plants (Bermuda grass Cynodon dactylon, H(1), beal Aegle marmelos, H(2), winter cherry Withania somnifera, H(3) and ginger Zingiber officinale, H(4)) on growth, the non-specific immune response and ability to resist pathogen infection in tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus were assessed. In addition, the antimicrobial properties of the extract were assessed against Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrioparahaemolyticus, Vibrio mimicus, Vibrio campbelli, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio harveyi and Photobacterium damselae. Oreochromis mossambicus were fed 5% of their body mass per day for 45 days, and those fed the experimental diets showed a greater increase in mass (111-139%) over the 45 days compared to those that received the control diet (98%). The specific growth rate of O. mossambicus fed the four diets was also significantly greater (1.66-1.93%) than control (1.52%) diet-fed fish. The blood plasma chemistry analysis revealed that protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, glucose and triglyceride levels of experimental fish were significantly higher than that of control fish. Packed cell volume of the blood samples of experimental diet-fed fish was also significantly higher (34.16-37.95%) than control fish (33.0%). Leucocrit value, phagocytic index and lysozyme activity were enhanced in fish fed the plant extract-supplemented diets. The acetone extract of the plants inhibited growth of Vibrio spp. and P. damselae with extracts from W. somnifera showing maximum growth inhibition. A challenge test with V. vulnificus showed 100% mortality in O. mossambicus fed the control diet by day 15, whereas the fish fed the experimental diets registered only 63-80% mortality at the end of challenge experiment (30 days). The cumulative mortality index for the control group was 12,000, which was equated to 1.0% mortality, and accordingly, the lowest mortality of 0.35% was registered in H(4)-diet-fed group. PMID:20735646

Immanuel, G; Uma, R P; Iyapparaj, P; Citarasu, T; Peter, S M Punitha; Babu, M Michael; Palavesam, A

2009-05-01

51

Screening of Venezuelan medicinal plant extracts for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines.  

PubMed

There are estimated to be more than 20,000 species of plants in Venezuela, of which more than 1500 are used for medicinal purposes by indigenous and local communities. Only a relatively small proportion of these have been evaluated in terms of their potential as antitumor agents. In this study, we screened 308 extracts from 102 species for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against a panel of six tumor cell lines using a 24-h sulphorhodamine B assay. Extracts from Clavija lancifolia, Hamelia patens, Piper san-vicentense, Physalis cordata, Jacaranda copaia, Heliotropium indicum, and Annona squamosa were the most cytotoxic, whereas other extracts from Calotropis gigantea, Hyptis dilatata, Chromolaena odorata, Siparuna guianensis, Jacaranda obtusifolia, Tapirira guianensis, Xylopia aromatica, Protium heptaphyllum, and Piper arboreum showed the greatest cytostatic activity. These results confirm previous reports on the cytotoxic activities of the above-mentioned plants as well as prompting further studies on others such as C. lancifolia and H. dilatata that have not been so extensively studied. PMID:22648665

Taylor, Peter; Arsenak, Miriam; Abad, María Jesús; Fernández, Angel; Milano, Balentina; Gonto, Reina; Ruiz, Marie-Christine; Fraile, Silvia; Taylor, Sofía; Estrada, Omar; Michelangeli, Fabian

2013-04-01

52

Induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation by medicinal plant extracts  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets high in fruits and vegetables provide a measure of cancer chemoprevention due to phytochemical constituents. Natural products are a rich source of cancer chemotherapy drugs, and primarily target rapidly cycling tumor cells. Increasing evidence indicates that many cancers contain small populations of resistant, stem-like cells that have the capacity to regenerate tumors following chemotherapy and radiation, and have been linked to the initiation of metastases. Our goal is to discover natural product-based clinical or dietary interventions that selectively target cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation. We adapted an alkaline phosphatase (AP) stain to assay plant extracts for the capacity to induce differentiation in embryonic stem (ES) cells. AP is a characteristic marker of undifferentiated ES cells, and this represents a novel approach to screening medicinal plant extracts. Following a survey of approximately 100 fractions obtained from 12 species of ethnomedically utilized plants, we found fractions from 3 species that induced differentiation, decreasing AP and transcript levels of pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct-4, Rex-1). These fractions affected proliferation of murine ES, and human embryonal, prostate, and breast carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Several phytochemical constituents were isolated; the antioxidant phytochemicals ellagic acid and gallic acid were shown to affect viability of cultured breast carcinoma cells.

Reynertson, Kurt A. [Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States) [Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Charlson, Mary E. [Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States) [Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Gudas, Lorraine J., E-mail: ljgudas@med.cornell.edu [Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

2011-01-01

53

Induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation by medicinal plant extracts  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets high in fruits and vegetables provide a measure of cancer chemoprevention due to phytochemical constituents. Natural products are a rich source of cancer chemotherapy drugs, and primarily target rapidly-cycling tumor cells. Increasing evidence indicates that many cancers contain small populations of resistant, stem-like cells that have the capacity to regenerate tumors following chemotherapy and radiation, and have been linked to the initiation of metastases. Our goal is to discover natural product-based clinical or dietary interventions that selectively target cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation. We adapted an alkaline phosphatase (AP) stain to assay plant extracts for the capacity to induce differentiation in embryonic stem (ES) cells. AP is a characteristic marker of undifferentiated ES cells, and this represents a novel approach to screening medicinal plant extracts. Following a survey of approximately 100 fractions obtained from twelve species of ethnomedically utilized plants, we found fractions from three species that induced differentiation, decreasing AP and transcript levels of pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct-4, Rex-1). These fractions affected proliferation of murine ES, and human embryonal, prostate, and breast carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Several phytochemical constituents were isolated; the antioxidant phytochemicals ellagic acid and gallic acid were shown to affect viability of cultured breast carcinoma cells. PMID:20955699

Reynertson, Kurt A.; Charlson, Mary E.; Gudas, Lorraine J.

2010-01-01

54

Activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis and M. tuberculosis by extract of South African medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Seven ethnobotanically selected medicinal plants were screened for their antimycobacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of four plants namely Artemisia afra, Dodonea angustifolia, Drosera capensis and Galenia africana ranged from 0.781 to 6.25 mg/mL against Mycobacterium smegmatis. G. africana showed the best activity exhibiting an MIC of 0.78 mg/mL and a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 1.56 mg/mL. The MICs of ethanol extracts of D. angustifolia and G. africana against M. tuberculosis were found to be 5.0 and 1.2 mg/mL respectively. The mammalian cytotoxicity IC(50) value of the most active antimycobacterial extract, from G. africana, was found to be 101.3 microg/mL against monkey kidney Vero cells. Since the ethanol G. africana displayed the best antimycobacterial activity, it was subjected to fractionation which led to the isolation of a flavone, 5,7,2'-trihydroxyflavone. The MIC of this compound was found to be 0.031 mg/mL against M. smegmatis and 0.10 mg/mL against M. tuberculosis. This study gives some scientific basis to the traditional use of these plants for TB-related symptoms. PMID:18412151

Mativandlela, Sannah Patience Nkami; Meyer, Jacob Jacobus Marion; Hussein, Ahmed A; Houghton, Peter J; Hamilton, Chris J; Lall, Namrita

2008-06-01

55

Screening of selected food and medicinal plant extracts for pancreatic lipase inhibition.  

PubMed

Lipids are important components in human nutrition; however, their increased intake contributes to the development of obesity and can lead to multiple long-term complications. Pancreatic lipase (triacylglycerol acylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.3) is a key enzyme for the absorption of dietary triglycerides. Interference with fat hydrolysis results in the reduced utilization of ingested lipids, therefore inhibition of lipases decreases fat absorption. Extracts from 106 species of medicinal plants, vegetables and fruits were screened for potential lipase inhibitory activity. p-Nitrophenylpalmitate and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxylpalmitate were used as substrates in an in vitro test with crude porcine pancreatic lipase. Bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), garden pea (Pisum sativum), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and large-leaved lime (Tilia platyphyllos) extracts were the most active. Additionally, the activity of selected extracts with removed polyphenols was measured. Extracts of bearberry, garden pea and large-leaved lime are a promising source for developing functional foods or isolating active compounds. PMID:19107742

Slanc, Petra; Doljak, Bojan; Kreft, Samo; Lunder, Mojca; Janes, Damjan; Strukelj, Borut

2009-06-01

56

In vitro antibacterial activity of some Iranian medicinal plant extracts against Helicobacter pylori.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori infection causes lifelong chronic gastritis, which can lead to peptic ulcer, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and gastric cancer. The growing problem of antibiotic resistance by the organism demands the search for novel candidates from plant-based sources. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro anti-H. pylori activity of some selected medicinal plants on clinical isolates of H. pylori. Gastric biopsy samples were obtained from patients presenting with gastroduodenal complications. Helicobacter pylori was isolated from the specimens following standard microbiology procedures. The disc-diffusion method was used to determine the susceptibility of three H. pylori isolates to methanol extracts of 23 Iranian plants. All tests were performed in triplicate. Among them, the extracts of Punica granatum and Juglans regia had remarkable anti-H. pylori activity with mean of inhibition zone diameter of 39 and 16?mm at 100?µg?disc?¹, respectively. In view of the results obtained with P. granatum (pomegranate), the peel extracts of nine cultivars of pomegranate (Shirin-e-Pust Sefid, Agha Mohammad Ali-e-Shirin, Sefid-e-Shomal, Sefid-e-Torsh, Shirin-e-Malase, Tabestani-e-Torsh, Shirin-e-Saveh Malase, Alak-e-Shirin, Pust Siyah) were further assayed against the clinical isolates of H. pylori. The results revealed that all Iranian pomegranate cultivars, except for Alak-e-Shirin, showed significant in vitro anti-H. pylori activity against the clinical isolates of H. pylori (mean of inhibition zone diameter ranging from 16 to 40 mm at 50 µg disc?¹). PMID:21726128

Hajimahmoodi, M; Shams-Ardakani, M; Saniee, P; Siavoshi, F; Mehrabani, M; Hosseinzadeh, H; Foroumadi, P; Safavi, M; Khanavi, M; Akbarzadeh, T; Shafiee, A; Foroumadi, A

2011-07-01

57

In vitro antiviral activity of plant extracts from Asteraceae medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Background Due to the high prevalence of viral infections having no specific treatment and the constant appearance of resistant viral strains, the development of novel antiviral agents is essential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiviral activity against bovine viral diarrhea virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), poliovirus type 2 (PV-2) and vesicular stomatitis virus of organic (OE) and aqueous extracts (AE) from: Baccharis gaudichaudiana, B. spicata, Bidens subalternans, Pluchea sagittalis, Tagetes minuta and Tessaria absinthioides. A characterization of the antiviral activity of B. gaudichaudiana OE and AE and the bioassay-guided fractionation of the former and isolation of one active compound is also reported. Methods The antiviral activity of the OE and AE of the selected plants was evaluated by reduction of the viral cytopathic effect. Active extracts were then assessed by plaque reduction assays. The antiviral activity of the most active extracts was characterized by evaluating their effect on the pretreatment, the virucidal activity and the effect on the adsorption or post-adsorption period of the viral cycle. The bioassay-guided fractionation of B. gaudichaudiana OE was carried out by column chromatography followed by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography fractionation of the most active fraction and isolation of an active compound. The antiviral activity of this compound was also evaluated by plaque assay. Results B. gaudichaudiana and B. spicata OE were active against PV-2 and VSV. T. absinthioides OE was only active against PV-2. The corresponding three AE were active against HSV-1. B. gaudichaudiana extracts (OE and AE) were the most selective ones with selectivity index (SI) values of 10.9 (PV-2) and >117 (HSV-1). For this reason, both extracts of B. gaudichaudiana were selected to characterize their antiviral effects. Further bioassay-guided fractionation of B. gaudichaudiana OE led to an active fraction, FC (EC50=3.1 ?g/ml; SI= 37.9), which showed antiviral activity during the first 4 h of the viral replication cycle of PV-2 and from which the flavonoid apigenin (EC50 = 12.2 ± 3.3 ?M) was isolated as a major compound. Conclusions The results showed that, among the species studied, B. gaudichaudiana seemed to be the most promising species as a source of antiviral agents. PMID:23890410

2013-01-01

58

Aqueous Extracts of Some Medicinal Plants are as Toxic as Lmidacloprid to the Sweet Potato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci  

PubMed Central

Aqueous extracts of nine plants, known to have medicinal activity, were tested for their toxicity against the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Homoptera: Aleurodidae) compared to the toxicity of the insecticide, Imidacloprid. Extracts of Lepidiuim sativum L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) killed 71 % of early stage nymphs, which was not significantly different from mortality caused by Imidacloprid. Treatment of pupae with three plant extracts, L. sativum, Achillea biebersteinii L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), or Retama raetam (Forssk.) Webb and Berthel (Fabales: Fabaceae) prevented adult development, and treatment with R. raetam extract killed adults, at levels that were not significantly different from Imidacloprid. None of the other plants showed significant toxicity. However extracts of four plants, Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), Galium longifolium (Sibth. and SM.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), R. raetam and Ballota undulata Bentham (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) had a repellent effect. PMID:19613450

Ateyyat, Mazen A.; Al-Mazra'awi, Mohammad; Abu-Rjai, Talal; Shatnawi, Mohamad A.

2009-01-01

59

New flavonoids from bioactive extract of Algerian medicinal plant Launeae arborescens  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the butanol fraction of the water/acetone extract and isolate of the new flavonoids from Launeae arboescens. Methods The compounds were isolated by liquid chromatographic methods and their structures were identified by using spectroscopic analysis. Results The isolated compounds were identified as: 7-O-[?-rhamnopyranosyl 4?,5,6-Trihydroxy flavone 1,4?,5?-Di-Methoxy 7-(5?-Me Hexan)1-oyl flavanone 2, 3?-isopropyl pyrano [1?:7,4?:6] 3?,4?,5?,5-Tetrahydroxy flavanone 3,5,4?,5?-Tri-Hydroxy 7-(3?-Me butan) -yl flavanone 4, 5,7-Dihydroxy-2?,4?,5? –trimethoxy-isoflavanone 5,5,6,7,4?-tetrahydroxy flavonol 6,7-O-[?-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->6)-?-glucopyranosyl]- 4?,5,7-tri-hydroxy-flavanone 7,7-O-[?-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->6)-?-glucopyranosyl] 3?,5-Dihydroxy 4?-Methoxy flavanone 8. Conclusions The presence of different types of bioactive flavonoids in Launeae arboescens extract can explain the large ethnopharmacological uses and the potential activity of this medicinal plant. PMID:25182549

Sekkoum, Khaled; Belboukhari, Nasser; Cheriti, Abdelkrim

2014-01-01

60

Optimization of conditions for the extraction of antioxidants from solid parts of medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of phenolic antioxidants from solid plant raw materials (bark and roots) under the action of an electric current\\u000a was studied. A relationship between the amount and antioxidant activity of extracted phenolic compounds with the particle\\u000a size and the procedure of grinding plant raw material was found. The most complete extraction of phenols was reached in experiments\\u000a with ground

N. Yu. Gribova; T. A. Filippenko; A. N. Nikolaevskii; N. I. Belaya; A. A. Tsybulenko

2008-01-01

61

Cytostatic Activity of Peptide Extracts of Medicinal Plants on Transformed A549, H1299, and HeLa Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological activity of peptide extracts of medicinal plants was studied on transformed non-small-cell lung carcinoma A549\\u000a cells, lung cancer H1299 cells, and cervical cancer HeLa cells at various cell densities. Cell survival and proliferation\\u000a were evaluated 72 h after treatment with extracts in concentrations of 0.05, 0.25, and 0.5 ?g\\/?l. The cytostatic effect was\\u000a produced by peptide extracts of Camelia sinesis Kuntze,

I. I. Tepkeeva; V. N. Aushev; I. B. Zborovskaya; V. P. Demushkin

2009-01-01

62

In vitro antimalarial activity of medicinal plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

Malaria is a major global public health problem, and the alarming spread of drug resistance and limited number of effective drugs now available underline how important it is to discover new antimalarial compounds. In the present study, ten plants were extracted with ethyl acetate and methanol and tested for their antimalarial activity against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (3D7) and CQ-resistant (Dd2 and INDO) strains of Plasmodium falciparum in culture using the fluorescence-based SYBR Green assay. Plant extracts showed moderate to good antiparasitic effects. Promising antiplasmodial activity was found in the extracts from two plants, Phyllanthus emblica leaf 50% inhibitory concentration (IC??) 3D7: 7.25 ?g/mL (ethyl acetate extract), 3.125 ?g/mL (methanol extract), and Syzygium aromaticum flower bud, IC?? 3D7:13 ?g/mL, (ethyl acetate extract) and 6.25 ?g/mL (methanol extract). Moderate activity (30-75 ?g/mL) was found in the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Abrus precatorius (seed) and Gloriosa superba (leaf); leaf ethyl acetate extracts of Annona squamosa and flower of Musa paradisiaca. The above mentioned plant extracts were also found to be active against CQ-resistant strains (Dd2 and INDO). Cytotoxicity study with P. emblica leaf and S. aromaticum flower bud, extracts showed good therapeutic indices. These results demonstrate that leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of P. emblica and flower bud extract of S. aromaticum may serve as antimalarial agents even in their crude form. The isolation of compounds from P. emblica and S. aromaticum seems to be of special interest for further antimalarial studies. PMID:20809417

Bagavan, Asokan; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Kaushik, Naveen Kumar; Sahal, Dinkar

2011-01-01

63

Biological screening of some Turkish medicinal plant extracts for antimicrobial and toxicity activities.  

PubMed

Screening of antibacterial activity and toxicity of 22 aqueous plant extracts from 17 Turkish plants was conducted. Antibacterial activity was performed with six bacteria including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Extracts of Tussilago farfara leaves, Helichyrsum plicatum flowers, Solanum dulcamara aerial parts and Urtica dioica leaves gave the best inhibitory activity against S. pyogenes, S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Of the 22 plant extracts, 20 extracts displayed toxicity (LC50 was <1000 mg L(-1)) in the brine shrimp bioassay. For radish seed bioassay, two different determinations (root length and seed germination) were performed with a comparison between two concentrations (50,000 mg L(-1) and 10,000 mg L(-1)). At low concentration (10,000 mg L(-1)), S. dulcamara aerial parts and Primula vulgaris leaf extracts were observed to inhibit the root length more than the other plant extracts. Also, the most inhibitive plant extract for seed germination was obtained with S. dulcamara aerial parts. PMID:18075897

Turker, A U; Usta, C

2008-01-20

64

Effect of oil extracted from some medicinal plants on different mycotoxigenic fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils of 12 medicinal plants were tested for inhibitory activity against Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and Fusarium moniliforme. The oils of thyme and cinnamon (?500 ppm), marigold (?2000 ppm), spearmint, basil, quyssum (3000 ppm) completely inhibit all the test fungi. Caraway was inhibitory at 2000 ppm against A. flavus, A. parasiticus and 3000 ppm against A. ochraceaus

K. M Soliman; R. I Badeaa

2002-01-01

65

Efficacy of Aqueous and Methanol Extracts of Some Medicinal Plants for Potential Antibacterial Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve medicinal plants were screened, namely Abrus precatorius L., Caesalpinia pulcherrima Swartz., Cardiospermum halicacabum L., Casuarina equisetifolia L., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Delonix regia L., Euphorbia hirta L., Euphorbia tirucalli L., Ficus benghalensis L., Gmelina asiatica L., Santalum album L., and Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem, for potential antibacterial activity against 5 medically important bacterial strains, namely Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633, Staphylococcus

Jigna PAREKH; Darshana JADEJA; Sumitra CHANDA

2005-01-01

66

Screening of 70 medicinal plant extracts for antioxidant capacity and total phenols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total phenolic content and related total antioxidant capacity of 70 medicinal plant infusions was analyzed. Infusions were prepared in common way in which teas are prepared for human consumption. The total phenolics were measured by Folin–Ciocalteau assay. The total antioxidant capacity was estimated by Ferric Reducing\\/Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay. To make practical comparison of relative antioxidant potential of phenolics

V. Katalinic; M. Milos; T. Kulisic; M. Jukic

2006-01-01

67

Snake venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plants ( Vitex negundo and Emblica officinalis) root extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanolic root extracts of Vitex negundo Linn. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. were explored for the first time for antisnake venom activity. The plant (V. negundo and E. officinalis) extracts significantly antagonized the Vipera russellii and Naja kaouthia venom induced lethal activity both in in vitro and in vivo studies. V. russellii venom-induced haemorrhage, coagulant, defibrinogenating and inflammatory activity was

M. I Alam; A Gomes

2003-01-01

68

Inhibition of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 by plant extracts used as traditional antidiabetic medicines.  

PubMed

Elevated glucocorticoids are a key risk factor for metabolic diseases, and the glucocorticoid-activating enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11beta-HSD1) represents a promising therapeutic target. We measured the potential of six traditional antidiabetic medicinal plants extracts to inhibit 11beta-HSD1 activity and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation in transfected HEK-293 cells. Leave extracts of Eriobotrya japonica preferentially inhibited 11beta-HSD1 over 11beta-HSD2. Extracts of roasted but not native coffee beans preferentially inhibited 11beta-HSD1 over 11beta-HSD2, emphasizing the importance of sample preparation. Thus, natural compounds inhibiting 11beta-HSD1 may contribute to the antidiabetic effect of the investigated plant extracts. PMID:19535018

Gumy, Christel; Thurnbichler, Carmen; Aubry, Evelyne M; Balazs, Zoltan; Pfisterer, Petra; Baumgartner, Lisa; Stuppner, Hermann; Odermatt, Alex; Rollinger, Judith M

2009-04-01

69

Adulticidal and larvicidal efficacy of some medicinal plant extracts against tick, fluke and mosquitoes.  

PubMed

The adulticidal and larvicidal effect of indigenous plant extracts were investigated against the adult cattle tick Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann, 1897 (Acarina: Ixodidae), sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi Zeder, 1790 (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae), fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effect of leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Annona squamosa L., Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, Gloriosa superba L., Mukia maderaspatensis (L.) M.Roem, Pergularia daemia (Forsk.) Chiov. and Phyllanthus emblica L. were exposed to different concentrations. All plant extracts showed moderate toxic effect on parasites after 24h of exposure; however, the highest mortality was found in leaf hexane extract of A. squamosa, methanol extracts of G. superba and P. emblica against H. bispinosa (LC(50)=145.39, 225.57 and 256.08ppm); methanol extracts of C. asiatica, G. superba, P. daemia and P. emblica against P. cervi (LC(50)=77.61, 60.16, 59.61, and 60.60ppm); acetone, ethyl acetate extracts of A. squamosa, methanol extract of C. asiatica, acetone extracts of G. superba, ethyl acetate, hexane and methanol extracts of P. daemia against A. subpictus (LC(50)=17.48, 18.60, 26.62, 18.43, 34.06, 13.63, and 50.39ppm); and chloroform, ethyl acetate extracts of A. squamosa, ethyl acetate extract of P. daemia, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of P. emblica against C. tritaeniorhynchus (LC(50)=63.81, 60.01, 31.94, 69.09, and 54.82ppm), respectively. These results demonstrate that methanol extracts of C. asiatica, G. superba, P. daemia and P. emblica extracts may serve as parasites control even in their crude form. PMID:19819626

Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Elango, G; Abduz Zahir, A; Abdul Rahuman, A

2009-12-23

70

Cytotoxic and antiviral activities of Colombian medicinal plant extracts of the Euphorbia genus.  

PubMed

Forty-seven plant extracts of 10 species of the genus Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) used by Colombian traditional healers for the treatment of ulcers, cancers, tumors, warts, and other diseases, were tested in vitro for their potential antitumour (antiproliferative and cytotoxic) and antiherpetic activity. To evaluate the capacity of the extracts to inhibit the lytic activity of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and the reduction of viability of infected or uninfected cell cultures, the end-point titration technique (EPTT) and the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] colorimetric assay were used, respectively. The therapeutic index of the positive extracts for the antiviral activity was determined by calculating the ratio CC50 (50% cytotoxic concentration) over IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration of the viral effect). Five of the 47 extracts (11%) representing 3 out of 10 Euphorbia species (30%) exhibited antiherpetic action; the highest activity was found in the leaf/stem water-methanol extracts from E. cotinifolia and E. tirucalli. The therapeutic indexes of these two plant species were > 7.1; these extracts exhibited no cytotoxicity. Six extracts (13%) representing 4 plant species (40%) showed cytotoxic activity. The highest cytotoxicity was found in the dichloromethane extract obtained from E. cotinifolia leaves and the CC50 values for the most susceptible cell lines, HEp-2 and CHO, were 35.1 and 18.1 microgram/ml, respectively. PMID:12118288

Betancur-Galvis, L A; Morales, G E; Forero, J E; Roldan, J

2002-06-01

71

Toxic effects of crotocaudin extracted from the medicinal plant Croton tiglium.  

PubMed

The compound crotocaudin extracted from the stem bark of the medicinal plant Croton tiglium Linn. was administered for 24 h or 96 h to the freshwater vector snail Lymnaea (Radix) acuminata Lamarck in order to test its toxicity. L. acuminata is the intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica which cause immense harm to man and his domestic animals. It was observed that the molluscicidal activity of crotocaudin against L. acuminata is time- as well as dose-dependent. There was a significant negative correlation among LC50 values and exposure periods, i.e. increasing the exposure time, the LC50 value of crotocaudin decreased from 5.37 microM (24 h) > 2.08 microM (48 h) > 1.36 microM (72 h) to 1.01 microM (96 h), respectively, against L. acuminata. The toxicological experiments to proof for environmental toxicity, if any, have also been carried out on the non-target freshwater fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) [Channidae (Ophicephalidae)], which shares the habitat with L. acuminata. The sublethal doses of crotocaudin (40% and 80% of LC50) administered over 24 h caused significant changes in the carbohydrate and nitrogenous metabolisms in nervous, hepatopancreas, and ovotestis tissues of Lymnaea acuminata. Channa punctatus was also exposed to sublethal doses of crotocaudin (40% and 80% of 24-h LC50 of L. acuminata) for 96 h which showed significant alterations in the metabolism in muscle, liver, and gonad tissues. After withdrawal of crotocaudin the snail tissues recovered in part after 7 days and the fish tissues completely. PMID:20653234

Yadav, Ram P; Singh, Ajay

2010-01-01

72

Extracts from plants used in Mexican traditional medicine activate Ca(2+)-dependent chloride channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes.  

PubMed

The two-electrode voltage-clamp technique was employed to investigate the effects of chloroform-methanol (1:1) extracts derived from five medicinal plants on Xenopus laevis oocytes. When evaluated at concentrations of 1 to 500 microg/ml, the extracts prepared from the aerial parts of Baccharis heterophylla H.B.K (Asteraceae), Chenopodium murale L. (Chenopodiaceae), Desmodium grahami Gray (Leguminosae) and Solanum rostratum Dun (Solanaceae) produced concentration-dependent oscillatory inward currents in the oocytes, while the extract of Gentiana spathacea did not induce any response. The reversal potential of the currents elicited by the active extracts was -17 +/- 2 mV and was similar to the chloride equilibrium potential in oocytes. These ionic responses were independent of extracellular calcium. However, they were eliminated by overnight incubation with BAPTA-AM (10 microM), suggesting that the currents were dependent on intracellular Ca2+ increase. Thus the plant extracts activate the typical oscillatory Ca(2+)-dependent Cl- currents generated in the Xenopus oocyte membrane more probably via a mechanism that involves release of Ca2+ from intracellular reservoirs. These observations suggest that Xenopus oocyte electrophysiological recording constitutes a suitable assay for the study of the mechanisms of action of herbal medicines. PMID:12834007

Rojas, A; Mendoza, S; Moreno, J; Arellano, R O

2003-01-01

73

Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts and isolated compound epicatechin from Ricinus communis against Paramphistomum cervi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacies of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol leaf\\u000a extracts of Euphorbia hirta L., Psidium guajava L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum trilobatum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest parasite\\u000a mortality was

Abdul Abduz Zahir; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Asokan Bagavan; Kannappan Geetha; Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Gandhi Elango

74

Antiproliferative Activity of Plant Extracts Used Against Cancer in Traditional Medicine  

PubMed Central

Forty four extracts from sixteen plants used traditionally as anticancer agents were evaluated in vitro for their antiproliferative activity against Hep-2, MCF-7, and Vero cell lines. Plants were fractionated using ethanol, methanol, chloroform, n-hexane, distilled water, and butanol. The antiproliferative activity was measured by MTT assay. TLC was used to identify active fractions. The apoptotic activity of active fractions was determined using TUNEL colorimetric assay. 20 of these extracts demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity against one or more of the cell lines. These extracts were prepared from Ononis hirta, Inula viscosa, Salvia pinardi, Verbascum sinaiticum and Ononis sicula. Methanol fractions of Ononis hirta (aerial parts) and Inula viscosa (flowers) were the most active fractions against MCF-7 cells with IC50 of 27.96 and 15.78 ?g/ml respectively and they were less toxic against other cell lines. Other extracts showed lower activity against cancer cell lines. TLC analysis showed the presence of flavonoids and terpenoids in active plants while alkaloids were detected in Ononis hirta (aerial parts) extracts. Ononis hirta (aerial parts) and Inula viscosa (flowers) extracts exerted their antiproliferative activity by inducing apoptosis in cancer cell lines. Further studies are necessary for detailed chemical characterization and more extensive biological evaluation of the most active ingredients. PMID:21179373

Talib, Wamidh H.; Mahasneh, Adel M.

2010-01-01

75

Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts and essential oils from medicinal plants.  

PubMed

We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus and 16 Escherichia coli strains from human specimens was carried out using the dilution method in Mueller-Hinton agar. Some phenolic compounds with antimicrobial properties were established, and all EOs had a higher antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Matricaria chamomilla extract and E. uniflora EO were efficient against S. aureus strains, while E. uniflora and V. polyanthes extracts and V. polyanthes EO showed the best antimicrobial activity against E. coli strains. Staphylococcus aureus strains were more susceptible to the tested plant products than E. coli, but all natural products promoted antimicrobial growth inhibition. PMID:22007687

Silva, N C C; Barbosa, L; Seito, L N; Fernandes, A

2012-01-01

76

Cytostatic activity of peptide extracts of medicinal plants on transformed A549, H1299, and HeLa Cells.  

PubMed

Biological activity of peptide extracts of medicinal plants was studied on transformed non-small-cell lung carcinoma A549 cells, lung cancer H1299 cells, and cervical cancer HeLa cells at various cell densities. Cell survival and proliferation were evaluated 72 h after treatment with extracts in concentrations of 0.05, 0.25, and 0.5 microg/microl. The cytostatic effect was produced by peptide extracts of Camelia sinesis Kuntze, Inonotus obliquus, and a mixture Inula helenium L., Chelidonium majus L., Equisetum arvense L., and Inonotus obliquus. Peptide extracts of Hypericum perforatum L. and Laurus nobilis L. in the same concentrations had no effects on proliferative activity and growth of tumor cells. PMID:19526129

Tepkeeva, I I; Aushev, V N; Zborovskaya, I B; Demushkin, V P

2009-01-01

77

Insecticidal and repellent activities of medicinal plant extracts against the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hom.: Aleyrodidae) and its parasitoid Eretmocerus mundus (Hym.: Aphelinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity and repellent activities of aqueous extracts of nine medicinal plants were evaluated on different life stages of\\u000a the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Tomato plants infested with whiteflies were dipped in 10% (wt\\/wt) of each plant extract for toxicity evaluation. Repellency\\u000a was evaluated in a choice experiment with detached tomato leaves. All extracts evaluated were relatively ineffective against\\u000a the

Mohammad S. Al-mazra’awi; Mazen Ateyyat

2009-01-01

78

Commercial Medicinal Plant Extraction in the Hills of Nepal: Local Management System and Ecological Sustainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a case study from Jumla District, Nepal, investigating local management systems and ecological sustainability of commercial collection of a medicinal plant, spikenard ( Nardostachys grandiflora DC, Valerianaceae), growing in alpine meadows. Interviews were undertaken with local collectors, traders, and district forest office staff, and the dynamics of people-plant interactions are analyzed using the Oakerson model. In all, 110 sample plots 1m square were laid out in three areas with differing collection and grazing pressures for recording of floristic composition and abundance of spikenard root biomass. Comparisons show significantly more root biomass in uncollected than collected areas with local management and the interpretation of differences in abundance is discussed. The combination of qualitative and quantitative investigations can provide a framework for the study of people-plant interactions, and this study can serve as first step in a compilation of cases to create a more detailed picture of local management systems of Nepali nontimber forest products in general and commercially collected medicinal and aromatic plants in particular.

Larsen, Helle Overgaard

2002-01-01

79

Screening of Ethanol, Petroleum Ether and Chloroform Extracts of Medicinal Plants, Lawsonia inermis L. and Mimosa pudica L. for Antibacterial Activity  

PubMed Central

Organic extracts (ethanol, petroleum ether and chloroform) of two medicinal plants Lawsonia inermis L. and Mimosa pudica L. were proven for antibacterial properties against 15 Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogenic bacteria. Among the three types of extracts tested, ethanol extract was found to possess maximum antibacterial activity. The diameter of the zone of inhibition of bacterial growth showed that Gram-negative bacteria are more sensitive than Gram-positive bacteria to plant extracts. Between the two plants species studied, Lawsonia inermis extract showed more antibacterial activity compared to Mimosa pudica extract. PMID:21188055

Akter, A.; Neela, F. A.; Khan, M. S. I.; Islam, M. S.; Alam, M. F.

2010-01-01

80

Anti-microbial activity and anti-complement activity of extracts obtained from selected Hawaiian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Selected plants having a history of use in Polynesian traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious disease were investigated for anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-bacterial activity in vitro. Extracts from Scaevola sericea, Psychotria hawaiiensis, Pipturus albidus and Eugenia malaccensis showed selective anti-viral activity against Herpes Simplex Virus-1 and 2 and Vesicular Stomatitis Virus. Aleurites moluccana extracts showed anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while Pipturus albidus and Eugenia malaccensis extracts showed growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Psychotria hawaiiensis and Solanum niger inhibited growth of the fungi Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum and Epidermophyton floccosum, while Ipomoea sp., Pipturus albidus, Scaevola sericea, Eugenia malaccensis, Piper methysticum, Barringtonia asiatica and Adansonia digitata extracts showed anti-fungal activity to a lesser extent. Eugenia malaccensis was also found to inhibit the classical pathway of complement suggesting that an immunological basis for its in vivo activity was identified. This study has confirmed some of the ethnobotanical reports of Hawaiian medicinal plants having curative properties against infections using biological assays in vitro. PMID:8786654

Locher, C P; Burch, M T; Mower, H F; Berestecky, J; Davis, H; Van Poel, B; Lasure, A; Vanden Berghe, D A; Vlietinck, A J

1995-11-17

81

Effects of extracts from Italian medicinal plants on planktonic growth, biofilm formation and adherence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

One-third of botanical remedies from southern Italy are used to treat skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). Staphylococcus aureus, a common cause of SSTI, has generated increasing concern due to drug resistance. Many plants possess antimicrobial agents and provide effective remedies for SSTI. Our aim was to investigate plants from different ethnobotanical usage groups for inhibition of growth and biofilms in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Three groups were assessed: plant remedies for SSTI, plant remedies not involving the skin, and plants with no ethnomedical application. We screened 168 extracts, representing 104 botanical species, for activity against MRSA (ATCC 33593). We employed broth dilution methods to determine the MIC after 18 hours growth using an optical density (OD600nm) reading. Anti-biofilm effects were assessed by growing biofilms for 40 hours, then fixing and staining with crystal violet. After washing, 10% Tween 80 was added and OD570nm readings were taken. Extracts from 10 plants exhibited an IC50 ?32 ?g/ml for biofilm inhibition: Lonicera alpigena, Castanea sativa, Juglans regia, Ballota nigra, Rosmarinus officinalis, Leopoldia comosa, Malva sylvestris, Cyclamen hederifolium, Rosa canina, and Rubus ulmifolius. Limited bacteriostatic activity was evident. The anti-biofilm activity of medicinal plants was significantly greater than plants without any ethnomedical applications. PMID:18556162

Quave, Cassandra L.; Plano, Lisa R.W.; Pantuso, Traci; Bennett, Bradley C.

2008-01-01

82

Phenolic characterization and antimicrobial activity of folk medicinal plant extracts for their applications in olive production.  

PubMed

Phytophthora spp is important in plant pathology due to the importance of the diseases it causes. In olive trees, severe damages are caused by the disease known as "dry branch" occasioned by Phytophthora nicotianae, P. citrophthora and P. palmivora. Much effort has been made to find efficient methods of control, with a low negative impact on environment. In this regard, treatment with plant extracts is a valid strategy. The aims of the present study are (i) to determine the polyphenol composition of extracts of Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Matricaria recutita, and Larrea divaricata by CZE, (ii) correlate the analytical composition of these extracts with the inhibition on the mycelial growth, and (iii) determine the individual antimicrobial activity of the most active ingredients. A simple methodology was developed for the determination of catechin, naringenin, cinnamic acid, syringic acid, chlorogenic acid, apigenin, vanillic acid, luteolin, quercetin, and caffeic acid in plant extracts by CZE. The extraction of phenolic compounds in extract was performed by a miniaturized solid phase extraction using a home-made minicolumn packed with suitable filtering material (C18 , 50 mg). The optimized analyses conditions were: 30 mM boric acid buffer, pH 9.50; capillary, 57 cm full length, 50 cm effective length, 75 ?m id, hydrodynamic injection 30 mbar, 2 s; 25 kV; 25°C, detection by UV absorbance at 290 nm. Sample results suggest that phenolic composition seems to have a great influence on inhibition of pathogens. The highest inhibitions of mycelial growth were observed for cinnamic acid and naringenin. PMID:24668423

Boiteux, Joana; Soto Vargas, Carolina; Pizzuolo, Pablo; Lucero, Gabriela; Silva, María Fernanda

2014-06-01

83

Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antioxidant effect of some medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antioxidant effect of the methanol extract of Alhgi maurorum, Conyza dioscoridis and Convolvulus fatmensis was investigated. The antiinflammatory effect was studied using carageenan-induced rat paw edema, while the antipyretic effect was estimated using Brewer's yeast-induced hyperpyrexia in rats. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity method of different concentrations of the plant extracts using ascorbic acid as a standard antioxidant. The results revealed that oral administration of Alhgi maurorum and Convolvulus fatmensis at 1 g/ kg exhibited anti-inflammatory effect comparable to the standard diclofenac sodium (0.03 g/kg). The anti-inflammatory effect of Conyza dioscoridis appeared at lower doses 0.5g/kg. In all cases the maximum effect was obtained 2h after administration. None of the tested plant extracts showed antipyretic effect. The tested plant extracts showed variable degrees of antioxidant activity. Conyza dioscoridis showed the highest antioxidant effect (91.14%) and Alhgi maurorum has the least (28.78%) compared to the standard ascorbic acid (87.8%). PMID:22754944

Atta, Attia H; Kenawy, Sanaa; Awaad, Amani; El-Melegy, Reham

2011-01-01

84

Assessment of DNA damage by extracts and fractions of Strychnos pseudoquina, a Brazilian medicinal plant with antiulcerogenic activity.  

PubMed

Strychnos pseudoquina St. Hil. is a native plant of the Brazilian Savannah, used in popular medicine to treat a number of conditions. Since it contains large quantities of alkaloids with proven antiulcer activity, we tested the genotoxic potential of crude extracts and fractions containing alkaloids and flavonoids from the leaves of this plant, on Salmonella typhimurium and performed the micronucleus test on peripheral blood cells of mice treated in vivo. The results showed that the methanol extract of the leaves of S. pseudoquina is mutagenic to the TA98 (-S9) and TA100 (+S9, -S9) strains of Salmonella. The dichloromethane extract was not mutagenic to any of the tested strains. Fractions enriched with alkaloids or flavonoids were not mutagenic. In vivo tests were done on the crude methanol extract in albino Swiss mice, which were treated, by gavage, with three different doses of the extract. The highest dose tested (1800 mg/kgb.w.) induced micronuclei after acute treatment, confirming the mutagenic potential of the methanol extract of the leaves of S. pseudoquina. In high doses, constituents of S. pseudoquina compounds act on DNA, causing breaks and giving rise to micronuclei in the blood cells of treated animals. PMID:16730111

Santos, F V; Colus, I M S; Silva, M A; Vilegas, W; Varanda, E A

2006-09-01

85

Bioassay screening of the essential oil and various extracts from 4 spices medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Four commonly used spices plants in Iran were evaluated for cytotoxicity effect using Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL) assay. Essential oils and various extracts of Heracleum persicum, Nigella arvensis, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Zingiber officinale were assessed by two methods of disk and solution of BSL. Data were processed in probit-analysis program to estimate LC50 values. All of the tested fractions have exhibited more cytotoxicity in the solution method. Essential oils of H. persicum and C. zeylanicum have shown the most cytotoxicity with LC50 values 0.007 and 0.03 microg/ml respectively. None of aqueous extracts showed significant cytotoxicity. The analysis of the essential oil of H. persicum showed the hexyl butyrate and octyl acetate as the main compounds. These results suggest some limitation for using of these spices in diet. Furthermore, these plants could be considered as a source of cytotoxic compounds which might be studied in more details. PMID:19553182

Sharififar, Fariba; Moshafi, Mohammad Hassan; Dehghan-Nudehe, Gholamreza; Ameri, Alieh; Alishahi, Fahimeh; Pourhemati, Amin

2009-07-01

86

In vitro antiplasmodial activity of extracts and fractions from seven medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo.  

PubMed

The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of seven EtOH extracts and twenty fractions from the partition of the initial ethanolic extracts from seven African medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo) for the treatment of malaria was evaluated. The most active EtOH extracts (IC50 < 3 microg/ml) were those from Cassia occidentalis leaves, Euphorbia hirta whole plant, Garcinia kola stem bark and Phyllanthus niruri whole plant. Their respective petroleum ether soluble fractions also exhibited an antiplasmodial activity with IC50 < 3 microg/ml. EtOH extracts from Vernonia amygdalina leaves (5 < IC50 < 10 microg/ml), Tetracera poggei leaves (10 < IC50 < 50 microg/ml) and Morinda morindoides leaves (50 < IC50 < 100 microg/ml) were less active, but their petroleum ether fractions exhibited a pronounced antiplasmodial activity (IC50 < 3 microg/ml). The same observation could also be made for the petroleum ether fraction from Cassia occidentalis, Euphorbia hirta, Garcinia kola and Phyllanthus niruri. Isoamyl alcohol fractions from Euphorbia hirta, Phyllanthus niruri and Vernonia amygdalina showed IC50) values less than 3 microg/ml, and from Cassia occidentalis, Garcinia kola, Morinda morindoides and Tetracera poggei between 10 and 50 microg/ml. The observed antiplasmodial activity may be related to the presence of terpenes, steroids, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, xanthones and anthraquinones. PMID:15182900

Tona, L; Cimanga, R K; Mesia, K; Musuamba, C T; De Bruyne, T; Apers, S; Hernans, N; Van Miert, S; Pieters, L; Totté, J; Vlietinck, A J

2004-07-01

87

Screening of antiviral activities in medicinal plants extracts against dengue virus using dengue NS2B-NS3 protease assay.  

PubMed

Dengue virus infects millions of people worldwide and there is no vaccine or anti-dengue therapeutic available. Screening large numbers of medicinal plants for anti-dengue activities is an alternative strategy in order to find the potent therapeutic compounds. Therefore, this study was designed to identify anti-dengue activities in nineteen medicinal plant extracts that are used in traditional medicine. Local medicinal plants Vernonia cinerea, Hemigraphis reptans, Hedyotis auricularia, Laurentia longiflora, Tridax procumbers and Senna angustifolia were used in this study. The highest inhibitory activates against dengue NS2B-NS3pro was observed in ethanolic extract of S. angustifolia leaves, methanolic extract of V. cinerea leaves and ethanol extract of T. procumbens stems. These findings were further verified by in vitro viral inhibition assay. Methanolic extract of V. cinerea leaves, ethanol extract of T. procumbens stems and at less extent ethanolic extract of S. angustifolia leaves were able to maintain the normal morphology of DENV2-infected Vero cells without causing much cytopathic effects (CPE). The percentage of viral inhibition of V. cinerea and T. procumbens extracts were significantly higher than S. angustifolia extract as measured by plaque formation assay and RT-qPCR. In conclusion, The outcome of this study showed that the methanolic extract of V. cinerea leaves and ethanol extract of T. procumbens stems possessed high inhibitory activates against dengue virus that worth more investigation. PMID:25134897

Rothan, H A; Zulqarnain, M; Ammar, Y A; Tan, E C; Rahman, N A; Yusof, R

2014-06-01

88

Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts and isolated compound epicatechin from Ricinus communis against Paramphistomum cervi.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacies of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol leaf extracts of Euphorbia hirta L., Psidium guajava L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum trilobatum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest parasite mortality was found in the methanol extract of R. communis. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of methanol extract of R. communis led to the separation and identification of epicatechin as a potential new compound (LC(50) = 31.2; LC(90) = 105.0 ppm) against P. cervi. The structures were established from infrared, ultraviolet, (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C-NMR, and mass spectral data which confirmed the identification of the compound epicatechin from R. communis. Results of this study showed that the methanol extract of R. communis may be considered as a potent source and epicatechin as a new natural parasitic agent. PMID:21842382

Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Geetha, Kannappan; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi

2012-10-01

89

BACE1 inhibitory activity of fungal endophytic extracts from Malaysian medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Background BACE1 was found to be the major ?-secretase in neurons and its appearance and activity were found to be elevated in the brains of AD patients. Fungal endophytic extracts for BACE1 inhibitory activity and cytotoxicity against PC-12 (a rat pheochromocytoma with neuronal properties) and WRL68 (a non-tumorigenic human hepatic) were investigated. Methods Endophytes were isolated from plants collected from Kuala Pilah, Negeri Sembilan and the National Park, Pahang and the extracts were tested for BACE1 inhibition. For investigation of biological activity, the pure endophytic cultures were cultivated for 14 days on PDA plates at 28°C and underwent semipolar extraction with ethyl acetate. Results Of 212 endophytic extracts (1000 ?g/ml), 29 exhibited more than 90% inhibition of BACE1 in the preliminary screening. Four extracts from isolates HAB16R13, HAB16R14, HAB16R18 and HAB8R24 identified as Cytospora rhizophorae were the most active with IC50(BACE1) values of less than 3.0 ?g/ml. The most active extract HAB16R13 was shown to non-competitively inhibit BACE1 with Ki value of 10.0 ?g/ml. HAB16R13 was considered non-potent against PC-12 and WRL68 (IC50(CT) of 60.0 and 40.0 ?g/ml, respectively). Conclusions This first report on endophytic fungal extract with good BACE1 inhibitory activity demonstrates that more extensive study is required to uncover the potential of endophytes. PMID:21943123

2011-01-01

90

Multivariate optimization of cloud point extraction procedure for zinc determination in aqueous extracts of medicinal plants by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

Cloud point extraction method has been developed for preconcentration of trace quantities of zinc (Zn) in aqueous extract of medicinal plants and blood samples of liver cancer patients using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Zn in aqueous extracts of medicinal plants (MPs) was complexed with 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (quinaldine) and 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) separately and entrapped in a non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114. After centrifugation, the surfactant-rich phase was diluted with 0.25mL acidic ethyl alcohol. The multivariate strategy was applied to estimate the optimum values of experimental variables (pH, time temperature, ligands and surfactant concentrations). Interactions between analytical factors and their optimal levels were investigated by two level factorial designs. Student's t-test on the results of factorial design with 16 runs for Zn extraction, demonstrated that the factors, ligands concentrations, pH and temperature were statistically significant. The accuracy was assessed by analysis of certified reference materials, namely, BCR 101 (spruce needles), Clincheck control-lyophilized human whole blood. Enhancement factor of 30 and 26 were achieved for the preconcentration of Zn by 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (L1) and 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (L2), respectively. The relative standard deviation for six replicate determinations of Zn at 10?g/L level using 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (L1) and 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (L2) were <4% and >5%, respectively. PMID:21756961

Kolachi, N F; Kazi, T G; Khan, S; Wadhwa, S K; Baig, J A; Afridi, H I; Shah, A Q; Shah, F

2011-10-01

91

Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankararé indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs) of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar) and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata). The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC50 83.426?mg/L and LC50 138.896?mg/L, resp.), and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC50 0.94?mg/L, LC50 13.51?mg/L, and LC50 20.22?mg/L, resp.). As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds. PMID:22194773

dos Santos, Edilson Alves; de Carvalho, Cenira M.; Costa, Ana L. S.; Conceicao, Adilva S.; Moura, Flavia de B. Prado; Santana, Antonio Euzebio Goulart

2012-01-01

92

Medicines and Drugs from Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural preparations have been used for thousands of ages for a variety of purposes including as medicines, poisons, and psychotropic drugs. The largest grouped of preparations from living organisms are medicines, and historically these have come from plants. Quinine and aspirin are two examples of medicines which were extracted originally from plants. Mind-altering, or psychotropic, drugs come mostly from plants or fungi. In many traditional cultures, sickness and death are attributed to maligned spirits so that medicine and religion become inseparable. Uses of cohohba, snakeplant, coca, and peyote are discussed. The process by which new pharmaceuticals are discovered from natural products is described. The implications of an agreement between a major pharmaceutical company and a country in the tropics are discussed.

Agosta, William C.

1997-07-01

93

Bioactive Markers Based Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Extracts of a Traditional Medicinal Plant, Piper sarmentosum  

PubMed Central

In vitro assays are economical and easy to perform but to establish relevance of their results to real clinical outcome in animals or human, pharmacokinetics is prerequisite. Despite various in vitro pharmacological activities of extracts of Piper sarmentosum, there is no report of pharmacokinetics. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate ethanol extract of fruit of the plant in dose of 500?mg kg?1 orally for pharmacokinetics. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into groups 1, 2, and 3 (each n = 6) to study absorption, distribution and excretion, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection was applied to quantify pellitorine, sarmentine and sarmentosine in plasma, tissues, feces and urine to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Pellitorine exhibited maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) 34.77?ng?mL?1 ± 1.040, time to achieve Cmax (Tmax) 8?h, mean resident time (MRT) 26.00 ± 0.149?h and half life (t1/2) 18.64 ± 1.65?h. Sarmentine showed Cmax 191.50 ± 12.69?ng mL?1, Tmax 6?h, MRT 11.12 ± 0.44?h and t1/2 10.30 ± 1.98?h. Sarmentosine exhibited zero oral bioavailability because it was neither detected in plasma nor in tissues, and in urine. Pellitorine was found to be distributed in intestinal wall, liver, lungs, kidney, and heart, whereas sarmentine was found only in intestinal wall and heart. The cumulative excretion of pellitorine, sarmentine and sarmentosine in feces in 72?h was 0.0773, 0.976, and 0.438??g, respectively. This study shows that pellitorine and sarmentine have good oral bioavailability while sarmentosine is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:19770264

Hussain, Khalid; Ismail, Zhari; Sadikun, Amirin; Ibrahim, Pazillah

2011-01-01

94

Comparative inhibitory properties of some Indian medicinal plant extracts against photosensitization-induced lipid damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective activities of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia bellerica and Terminalia chebula ethanol extracts against photosensitization-induced oxidation of rat liver mitochondrial lipid were assessed. All the extracts could effectively prevent lipid peroxidation, as assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid-reactive substrates, lipid hydroperoxide, conjugated diene and 4-hydroxynonenal. The E. officinalis extract was the most potent, revealing its superior ability to scavenge 1O2. The

Sayanti Bhattacharya; Jaya P. Kamat; Sandip K. Bandyopadhyay; Subrata Chattopadhyay

2009-01-01

95

Antifungal activity of extracts of some plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.  

PubMed

Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Almeida (Onygenales) that requires 1-2 years of treatment. In the absence of drug therapy, the disease is usually fatal, highlighting the need for the identification of safer, novel, and more effective antifungal compounds. With this need in mind, several plants employed in Brazilian traditional medicine were assayed on P. brasiliensis and murine macrophages. Extracts were prepared from 10 plant species: Inga spp. Mill. (Leguminosae), Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae), Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntze (Amaranthaceae), Piper regnellii CDC. (Piperaceae), P. abutiloides Kunth (Piperaceae), Herissantia crispa L. Briz. (Malvaceae), Rubus urticaefolius Poir (Rosaceae), Rumex acetosa L. (Polygonaceae), and Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. (Asteraceae). Hexane fractions from hydroalcoholic extracts of Piper regnellii and Baccharis dracunculifolia were the most active against the fungus, displaying minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 7.8 microg/mL and 7.8-30 mug/mL, respectively. Additionally, neither of the extracts exhibited any apparent cytotoxic effects on murine macrophages at 20 microg/mL. Analyses of these fractions using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that the major components of B. dracunculifolia were ethyl hydrocinnamate (14.35%) and spathulenol (16.02%), while the major components of the hexane fraction of Piper regnellii were 1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl) benzene (21.94%) and apiol (21.29%). The activities of these fractions against P. brasiliensis without evidence of cytotoxicity to macrophages justify their investigation as a potential source of new chemical agents for the treatment of PCM. PMID:20645716

Johann, Susana; Cisalpino, Patricia Silva; Watanabe, Gisele Almeida; Cota, Betania Barros; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Resende, Maria Aparecida

2010-04-01

96

Vasoactive effects of aqueous extracts from five Mexican medicinal plants on isolated rat aorta.  

PubMed

The present investigation describes the effects of aqueous extracts from Chiranthodendron pentadactylon flowers, Galphimia glauca leaves and flowers, Ipomoea stans roots, Juglans regia leaves and Taxodium mucronatum aerial parts on isolated rat thoracic aorta precontracted by noradrenaline (NA). In all cases, the aqueous extracts (0.5-12 mg/ml) significantly inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, the maximal contractile response induced by NA in rat aorta. The most active extract was that of G. glauca flowers. These findings indicate that the active principle(s) present in the crude extracts can exert a vasorelaxant effect. PMID:7475125

Perusquía, M; Mendoza, S; Bye, R; Linares, E; Mata, R

1995-04-01

97

A review of modern sample-preparation techniques for the extraction and analysis of medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sample preparation is the crucial first step in the analysis of herbs. In recent years there has been increasing interest worldwide in the use of alternative\\/herbal medicine for the prevention and treatment of various illnesses. Currently, however, quality-related problems (lack of consistency, safety, and efficacy) seem to be overshadowing the potential genuine health benefits of various herbal products. Thus, the

Carmen W. Huie

2002-01-01

98

Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Extracts from Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Eremomastax speciosa, Carica papaya and Polyscias fulva Medicinal Plants Collected in Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background The vast majority of the population around the world has always used medicinal plants as first source of health care to fight infectious and non infectious diseases. Most of these medicinal plants may have scientific evidence to be considered in general practice. Objective The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of leaves of Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa and the stem bark of Polyscias fulva, collected in Cameroon. Methods Chemiluminescence was used to analyze the antioxidant activities of plant extracts against hydrogen peroxide or superoxide anion. Comet assays were used to analyze the protection against antioxidant-induced DNA damage induced in white blood cells after treating with hydrogen peroxide. Flow cytometry was used to measure ?? T cells proliferation and anti-inflammatory activity of ?? T cells and of immature dendritic cells (imDC) in the presence of different concentrations of plant extracts. Results Ethanol extracts showed strong antioxidant properties against both hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. Cassia alata showed the highest antioxidant activity. The effect of plant extracts on ?? T cells and imDC was evidenced by the dose dependent reduction in TNF-? production in the presence of Cassia alata, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa Eleusine indica, and Polyscias fulva. ?? T cells proliferation was affected to the greatest extent by Polyscias fulva. Conclusion These results clearly show the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activities of plant extracts collected in Cameroon. These properties of leaves and stem bark extracts may contribute to the value for these plants in traditional medicine and in general medical practice. PMID:25090613

Sagnia, Bertrand; Fedeli, Donatella; Casetti, Rita; Montesano, Carla; Falcioni, Giancarlo; Colizzi, Vittorio

2014-01-01

99

Identification of pyrogallol as an antiproliferative compound present in extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis: effects on in vitro cell growth of human tumor cell lines.  

PubMed

In this study we compared the in vitro antiproliferative activity of extracts from medicinal plants toward human tumor cell lines, including human erythromyeloid K562, B-lymphoid Raji, T-lymphoid Jurkat, erythroleukemic HEL cell lines. Extracts from Emblica officinalis were the most active in inhibiting in vitro cell proliferation, after comparison to those from Terminalia arjuna, Aphanamixis polystachya, Oroxylum indicum, Cuscuta reflexa, Aegle marmelos, Saraca asoka, Rumex maritimus, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Red Sandalwood. Emblica officinalis extracts have been studied previously, due to their hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antifungal, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory medicinal activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses allowed to identify pyrogallol as the common compound present both in unfractionated and n-butanol fraction of Emblica officinalis extracts. Antiproliferative effects of pyrogallol were therefore determined on human tumor cell lines thus identifying pyrogallol as an active component of Emblica officinalis extracts. PMID:12063567

Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Lampronti, Ilaria; Martello, Dino; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Jabbar, Shaila; Choudhuri, Mohammad Shahabuddin Kabir; Datta, Bidduyt Kanti; Gambari, Roberto

2002-07-01

100

Anti-viral activity of the extracts of a Kenyan medicinal plant Carissa edulis against herpes simplex virus.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is a major opportunistic infection in immunosuppressed persons. It is therefore a serious disease in high HIV/AIDS prevalence areas as in sub-Saharan Africa where infections due to HSV have risen significantly. The development of resistant strains of HSV to the available drugs for infection management, as is evident in the first drug of choice acyclovir, has further compounded this situation. There is therefore an urgent need to identify and develop new alternative agents for management of HSV infections, more so, for those due to resistant strains. We report here on an aqueous total extract preparation from the roots of Carissa edulis (Forssk.) Vahl (Apocynaceae), a medicinal plant locally growing in Kenya that has exhibited remarkable anti-HSV activity in vitro and in vivo for both wild type and resistant strains of HSV. The extract significantly inhibited formation of plaques in Vero E6 cells infected with 100PFU of wild type strains of HSV (7401H HSV-1 and Ito-1262 HSV-2) or resistant strains of HSV (TK(-) 7401H HSV-1 and AP(r) 7401H HSV-1) by 100% at 50 microg/ml in vitro with minimal cell cytotoxicity (CC(50)=480 microg/ml). When the extract was examined for in vivo efficacy in a murine model using Balb/C mice cutaneously infected with wild type or resistant strains of HSV, the extract at an oral dose of 250 mg/kg significantly delayed the onset of HSV infections by over 50%. It also increased the mean survival time of treated infected mice by between 28 and 35% relative to the infected untreated mice (p<0.05 versus control by Student's t-test). The mortality rate for mice treated with extract was also significantly reduced by between 70 and 90% as compared with the infected untreated mice that exhibited 100% mortality. No acute toxicity was observed in mice at the oral therapeutic dose of 250 mg/kg. These results suggest that this herbal extract has potent anti-viral agents against herpes simplex viruses that can be exploited for development of an alternative remedy for HSV infections. PMID:16198524

Tolo, Festus M; Rukunga, Geoffrey M; Muli, Faith W; Njagi, Eliud N M; Njue, Wilson; Kumon, Kazuko; Mungai, Geoffrey M; Muthaura, Charles N; Muli, Joseph M; Keter, Lucia K; Oishi, Esau; Kofi-Tsekpo, Mawuli W

2006-03-01

101

Influence of aqueous crude extracts of medicinal plants on the osmotic stability of human erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work analyzed the effects of the aqueous crude extracts of Artemisia absinthium L., Lippia sp., Bryophyllum sp., Solidago microglossa DC, Cymbopogon citratus DC and Mentha x villosa HUDSON on the osmotic stability of human erythrocytes. Hemolysis was monitored by measurement of absorbance at 540nm following addition of erythrocytes to NaCl solutions of varying concentration. Absorbance was fitted to sigmoid

Mariana V. de Freitas; Rita de Cássia M. Netto; Juliana C. da Costa Huss; Tatiana Maria T. de Souza; Júnia O. Costa; Cynthia B. Firmino; Nilson Penha-Silva

2008-01-01

102

Influence of aqueous crude extracts of medicinal plants on the osmotic stability of human erythrocytes.  

PubMed

This work analyzed the effects of the aqueous crude extracts of Artemisia absinthium L., Lippia sp., Bryophyllum sp., Solidago microglossa DC, Cymbopogon citratus DC and Mentha x villosa HUDSON on the osmotic stability of human erythrocytes. Hemolysis was monitored by measurement of absorbance at 540 nm following addition of erythrocytes to NaCl solutions of varying concentration. Absorbance was fitted to sigmoid regression curves given by the Boltzmann equation, and hemolysis was characterized by the NaCl concentration leading to lysis of 50% of cells (H(50)), and by the intensity (H) and the amplitude (dS) of the lysis effect. The parameters were determined in the absence and presence of the crude extracts. The extracts of Artemisia absinthium, Lippia sp., C. citratus and M. villosa protected human erythrocytes against hypotonic shock, as evidenced by a decrease in the values of H and H(50) compared to the control solution (p<0.05). The extracts of Bryophyllum sp. and S. microglossa enhanced hemolysis, since their H(50) values were higher than in the control group (p<0.05), but they also showed protective effects, as evidenced by a decrease in H and an increase in dS. PMID:17855047

de Freitas, Mariana V; Netto, Rita de Cássia M; da Costa Huss, Juliana C; de Souza, Tatiana Maria T; Costa, Júnia O; Firmino, Cynthia B; Penha-Silva, Nilson

2008-02-01

103

Toxicity, growth regulatory and repellent activities of medicinal plant extracts on Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Housefly, Musca domestica, is a major vector for many medical and veterinary pathogenic organisms. The development of naturally occurring insecticides, represent one of the most promising approaches for their ecochemical control. Petroleum-ether extracts of Griffonia simplicifolia and Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides were assessed for their toxicity, growth regulatory and repellency to the housefly. Percent mortality and index of repellency induced by the

Hervé B. D. Bisseleua; Seth W. K. Gbewonyo; Daniel Obeng-Ofori

2008-01-01

104

Antiplasmodial activity of four Kenyan medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary antiplasmodial and phytochemical screening of four Kenyan medicinal plants was carried out. The medicinal plants were extracted and tested for in vitro antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitive (K67) and chloroquine-resistant (ENT36) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Out of 16 extracts, 12 were active against ENT36 strain while seven were active against K67 strain, that is, IC50 ? 50 ?g\\/ml. The

E. Omulokoli; B. Khan; S. C. Chhabra

1997-01-01

105

Zulu medicinal plants with antibacterial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous, methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of 14 plants used in traditional Zulu medicine for treatment of ailments of an infectious nature were screened for antibacterial activity. Most of the activity detected was against Gram-positive bacteria. Tuber bark extracts of Dioscorea sylvatica had activity against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and extracts of Dioscorea dregeana, Cheilanthes viridis and Vernonia colorata were active

Jonathan E. Kelmanson; Anna K. Jäger; Johannes van Staden

2000-01-01

106

Larvicidal potential of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical\\u000a origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane,\\u000a methanol and petroleum ether extracts of leaf, flower and seed of Cassia auriculata L., Leucas aspera (Willd.), Rhinacanthus nasutus KURZ., Solanum torvum Swartz and Vitex

C. Kamaraj; A. Bagavan; A. Abdul Rahuman; A. Abduz Zahir; G. Elango; G. Pandiyan

2009-01-01

107

In vitro antifugal activity of medicinal plant extract against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 the causal agent of tomato wilt.  

PubMed

Medicinal plant extracts of five plants; Adhatoda vasica, Eucalyptus globulus, Lantana camara, Nerium oleander and Ocimum basilicum collected from Cairo, Egypt were evaluated against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 in vitro conditions using water and certain organic solvents. The results revealed that cold distilled water extracts of O. basilicum and E. globulus were the most effective ones for inhibiting the growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Butanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tested plants inhibited the pathogen growth to a higher extent than water extracts. Butanolic extract of O. basilicum completely inhibited the growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici at concentrations 1.5 and 2.0% (v/v). Butanolic extracts (2.0%) of tested plants had a strong inhibitory effect on hydrolytic enzymes; ?-glucosidase, pectin lyase and protease of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. This study has confirmed that the application of plant extracts, especially from O. basilicum for controlling F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is environmentally safe, cost effective and does not disturb ecological balance. Investigations are in progress to test the efficacy of O. basilicum extract under in vivo conditions. PMID:24561899

Isaac, G S; Abu-Tahon, M A

2014-03-01

108

Haemostatic Actions of the Folkloric Medicinal Plant Extract Ankaferd Blood Stopper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ankaferd Blood Stopper ® (ABS), a standardized mixture of five plants, has been used historically as a haemostatic agent but its mechanism of action remains unknown. This study investigated the in vitro effects of ABS on haemostatic parameters. When added to plasma or serum, ABS induced the very rapid formation of a protein network and erythrocyte aggregation. The levels of

H GOKER; IC HAZNEDAROGLU; S ERCETIN; S KIRAZLI; U AKMAN; Y OZTURK; HC FIRAT

109

Plants and Medicinal Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)

Bailey, D.

1977-01-01

110

Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts inhibiting molecular interactions between nuclear factors and target DNA sequences mimicking NF-kappaB binding sites.  

PubMed

Several medicinal plants can be employed to produce extracts exhibiting biological effects. The aim of this work was to verify the ability of extracts derived from different medicinal plants of Bangladesh in interfering with specific DNA-protein interactions. The rationale for this study is based on the observation that alteration of gene transcription represents a very promising approach to control the expression of selected genes and could be obtained using different molecules acting on the interactions between DNA and transcription factors (TFs). We have analysed the antiproliferative activity of extracts from the medicinal plants Hemidesmus indicus, Polyalthia longifolia, Aphanamixis polystachya, Moringa oleifera, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Paederia foetida, Cassia sophera, Hygrophila auriculata and Ocimum sanctum. Antiproliferative activity was assayed on different human cell lines, including erythroleukemia K562, B-lymphoid Raji, T-lymphoid Jurkat and erythroleukemia HEL cell lines. We employed the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) as a suitable technique for the identification of plant extracts altering the binding between transcription factors and the specific DNA elements. We found that low concentrations of Hemidesmus indicus, Polyalthia longifolia, Moringa oleifera and Lagerstroemia speciosa, and very low concentrations of Aphanamixis polystachya extracts inhibit the interactions between nuclear factors and target DNA elements mimicking sequences recognized by the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). On the contrary, high amount of extracts from Paederia foetida, Cassia sophera, Hygrophila auriculata or Ocimum sanctum were unable to inhibit NF-kappaB/DNA interactions. Extracts inhibiting both NF-kappaB binding activity and tumor cell growth might be a source for anti-tumor compounds, while extracts inhibiting NF-kappaB/DNA interactions with lower effects on cell growth, could be of interest in the search of compounds active in inflammatory diseases, for which inhibition of NF-kappaB binding activity without toxic effects should be obtained. PMID:16789890

Lampronti, I; Khan, M T H; Bianchi, N; Ather, A; Borgatti, M; Vizziello, L; Fabbri, E; Gambari, R

2005-07-01

111

Radiation-Induced Testicular Injury and Its Amelioration by Tinospora cordifolia (An Indian Medicinal Plant) Extract  

PubMed Central

The primary objective of this investigation is to determine the deleterious effects of sub lethal gamma radiation on testes and their possible inhibition by Tinospora cordifolia extract (TCE). For this purpose, one group of male Swiss albino mice was exposed to 7.5?Gy gamma radiation to serve as the irradiated control, while the other group received TCE (75?mg/kg?b.?wt./day) orally for 5 consecutive days half an hr before irradiation to serve as experimental. Exposure of animals to 7.5?Gy gamma radiation resulted into significant decrease in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter up to 15 days of irradiation. Cent percent mortality was recorded by day 17th in irradiated control, whereas all animals survived in experimental group. TCE pretreatment rendered significant increase in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter at various intervals as compared to irradiated group. Radiation induced histological lesions in testicular architecture were observed more severe in irradiated control then the experimental. TCE administration before irradiation significantly ameliorated radiation induced elevation in lipid peroxidation and decline in glutathione concentration in testes. These observations indicate the radio- protective potential of Tinospora cordifolia root extract in testicular constituents against gamma irradiation in mice. PMID:21350610

Sharma, Priyanka; Parmar, Jyoti; Sharma, Priyanka; Verma, Preeti; Goyal, P. K.

2011-01-01

112

Medicinal plants for treatment of diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many plants have been used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Indian system of medicine and in other ancient systems\\u000a of the world. Out of these only a few have been evaluated as per modern system of medicine. From many such plants only extracts\\u000a have been prepared and their usefulness evaluated in experimental diabetes in animals. In some plants

R. Shukia; S. B. Sharma; D. Puri; K. M. Prabhu; P. S. Murthy

2000-01-01

113

Therapeutic potential of some plant extracts used in Turkish traditional medicine on streptozocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus in rats.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to impair many physiological functions. Some reports claim that medicinal plants can reduce these alterations caused by DM. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of aqueous-methanol extracts of Urtica dioica, Thymus vulgaris (TV), Myrtus communis (MC), Scolymus hispanicus (SH) and Cinnamomun zeylanicum (CZ) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 DM in rats. Diabetes was induced via a single i.p. injection of STZ (65 mg/kg body weight). After 1 week to allow for development of diabetes, each plant extract was administered to diabetic rats separately at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight daily for 28 days. The results showed that only SH extract significantly (P < 0.05) amended fasting blood glucose level. The lipid profile was ameliorated especially by supplementations of TV, MC and CZ extracts. Almost all plant extract treatments markedly (P < 0.05) increased reduced glutathione content and decreased lipid peroxidation levels of erythrocyte, plasma, retina and lens tissues. They also significantly (P < 0.05) amended erythrocyte catalase activity, levels of marker serum enzymes (except amylase), urea and blood urea nitrogen when compared to diabetic rats treated with nothing. Furthermore, none of the plant extracts counteracted body weight loss of diabetic rats. Our data revealed that the aforementioned plant extracts have remarkable potential to counteract DM-caused alterations, probably through their antioxidant and free radical-defusing effects. PMID:23052826

Ozkol, Halil; Tuluce, Yasin; Dilsiz, Nihat; Koyuncu, Ismail

2013-01-01

114

Effects of extracts from Bangladeshi medicinal plants on in vitro proliferation of human breast cancer cell lines and expression of estrogen receptor alpha gene.  

PubMed

In this study we determined the activity of extracts from Bangladeshi medicinal plants (Emblica officinalis, Aegle marmelos, Vernonia anthelmintica, Oroxylum indicum, Argemone mexicana) on human breast tumor cell lines. Extracts from E. officinalis and O. indicum displayed anti-proliferative activity on MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines, while extracts from A. mexicana were active on MCF7 cells, exhibiting on the contrary low antiproliferative effects on MDA-MB-231 cells. Extracts from A. marmelos and V. anthelmintica were antiproliferative on both cell lines, but at higher concentrations. The accumulation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) mRNA, a marker of neoplastic status, was analysed by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The data obtained demonstrated that only extracts from E. officinalis induce an increase of ERalpha mRNA in MCF7 cells. When MDA-MB-231 cell line was employed, extracts from E. officinalis, V. anthelmintica and A. mexicana were found to be inducers of the increase of ERalpha mRNA accumulation. Since activation of ERalpha gene expression could have clinical impact, our results suggest a possible use of extracts from medicinal plants to identify compounds of possible interest in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:14719119

Lambertini, Elisabetta; Piva, Roberta; Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Lampronti, Ilaria; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Borgatti, Monica; Gambari, Roberto

2004-02-01

115

From a Traditional Medicinal Plant to a Rational Drug: Understanding the Clinically Proven Wound Healing Efficacy of Birch Bark Extract  

PubMed Central

Background Birch bark has a long lasting history as a traditional medicinal remedy to accelerate wound healing. Recently, the efficacy of birch bark preparations has also been proven clinically. As active principle pentacyclic triterpenes are generally accepted. Here, we report a comprehensive study on the underlying molecular mechanisms of the wound healing properties of a well-defined birch bark preparation named as TE (triterpene extract) as well as the isolated single triterpenes in human primary keratinocytes and porcine ex-vivo wound healing models. Methodology/Principal Findings We show positive wound healing effects of TE and betulin in scratch assay experiments with primary human keratinocytes and in a porcine ex-vivo wound healing model (WHM). Mechanistical studies elucidate that TE and betulin transiently upregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and cyclooxygenase-2 on gene and protein level. For COX-2 and IL-6 this increase of mRNA is due to an mRNA stabilizing effect of TE and betulin, a process in which p38 MAPK and HuR are involved. TE promotes keratinocyte migration, putatively by increasing the formation of actin filopodia, lamellipodia and stress fibers. Detailed analyses show that the TE components betulin, lupeol and erythrodiol exert this effect even in nanomolar concentrations. Targeting the actin cytoskeleton is dependent on the activation of Rho GTPases. Conclusion/Significance Our results provide insights to understand the molecular mechanism of the clinically proven wound healing effect of birch bark. TE and betulin address the inflammatory phase of wound healing by transient up-regulation of several pro-inflammatory mediators. Further, they enhance migration of keratinocytes, which is essential in the second phase of wound healing. Our results, together with the clinically proven efficacy, identify birch bark as the first medical plant with a high potential to improve wound healing, a field which urgently needs effective remedies. PMID:24465925

Ebeling, Sandra; Naumann, Katrin; Pollok, Simone; Wardecki, Tina; Vidal-y-Sy, Sabine; Nascimento, Juliana M.; Boerries, Melanie; Schmidt, Gudula; Brandner, Johanna M.; Merfort, Irmgard

2014-01-01

116

Evaluation of the inhibitory activities of the extracts of Indonesian traditional medicinal plants against Plasmodium falciparum and Babesia gibsoni.  

PubMed

Twenty-four kinds of water extracts derived from 22 plants that are traditionally used for the treatment of malaria on Java Island, Indonesia, were screened for their antibabesial and antimalarial activities. Among the extracts, 8 extracts displayed strong antimalarial activity, with an inhibition range from 89.6 to 100%, and 15 showed strong antibabesial activity, with an inhibition range from 84.2 to 98.1%. The extracts of Achillea millefolium, Baeckea frutenscens, Brucea javanica, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Strychnos lucida and Swietenia macrophylla showed both strong antibabesial and antimalarial activities. The antimalarial activities paralleled the antibabesial activities, but the converse was not true. PMID:16141673

Murnigsih, Tri; Subeki; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Kosaku; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Yamato, Osamu; Maede, Yoshimitsu; Katakura, Ken; Suzuki, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Sumiko; Chairul; Yoshihara, Teruhiko

2005-08-01

117

Metabolic variations, antioxidant potential, and antiviral activity of different extracts of Eugenia singampattiana (an endangered medicinal plant used by Kani tribals, Tamil Nadu, India) leaf.  

PubMed

Eugenia singampattiana is an endangered medicinal plant used by the Kani tribals of South India. The plant had been studied for its antioxidant, antitumor, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic activity. But its primary and secondary metabolites profile and its antiviral properties were unknown, and so this study sought to identify this aspect in Eugenia singampattiana plant through different extraction methods along with their activities against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The GC-MS analysis revealed that 11 primary metabolites showed significant variations among the extracts. Except for fructose all other metabolites were high with water extract. Among 12 secondary metabolites showing variations, the levels of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were high with methanol extract. Since the flavonoid content of methanol extracts was high, the antioxidant potential, such as ABTS, and phosphomolybdenum activity increased. The plants antiviral activity against PRRSV was for the first time confirmed and the results revealed that methanol 25?µg and 75 to 100?µg in case of water extracts revealed antiviral activity. PMID:25133179

John, K M Maria; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Jeeva, Subbiah; Suresh, Murugesan; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Doo Hwan

2014-01-01

118

Molluscicidal activity of some Moroccan medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Among 14 plants of Moroccan folk medicine tested for molluscicidal activity, ethyl acetate extract from Origanum compactum and hexane extracts from both Chenopodium ambrosioides and Ruta chalepensis were the most active (LC(90)=2.00, 2.23 and 2.23 mg l(-1), respectively) against the schistosomiasis-transmitting snail Bulinus truncatus. PMID:10844169

Hmamouchi, M; Lahlou, M; Agoumi, A

2000-06-01

119

Effect of ethanol extracts of three Chinese medicinal plants with anti-diarrheal properties on ion transport of the rat intestinal epithelia.  

PubMed

Effects of ethanol extracts of three Chinese medicinal plants, namely, Qinpi (Fraxini cortex), Kushen (Sophora flavescens, AITON), and Huanglian (Coptis teeta, WALLICH), on ion transport of the rat intestinal epithelia were determined in this study. Rat intestinal epithelia mounted in an Ussing chamber attached to a voltage/current clamp were used for measuring changes in the short circuit current across the epithelia. Activation of the intestinal epithelia by serosal administration of 5 microM forskolin resulted in an increase in basal short circuit current. The ethanol extracts of each of the three plants partially reduced the current stimulated by forskolin. In the following experiments, ouabain and bumetanide were added prior to adding the ethanol extract of these plants for revealing their effect on Na(+) and Cl(-) movement. The results suggest that the ethanol extract of the Qinpi would affect Cl(-) transport. On the contrary, the ethanol extract of Kushen would affect Na(+) transport rather than Cl(-) movement. This study provides evidences that reveal the pharmacological mechanism of the Chinese plants with anti-diarrheal properties. PMID:14745119

Tsai, Jong-Chang; Tsai, Shuli; Chang, Weng-Cheng

2004-01-01

120

Drug discovery from medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current research in drug discovery from medicinal plants involves a multifaceted approach combining botanical, phytochemical, biological, and molecular techniques. Medicinal plant drug discovery continues to provide new and important leads against various pharmacological targets including cancer, HIV\\/AIDS, Alzheimer's, malaria, and pain. Several natural product drugs of plant origin have either recently been introduced to the United States market, including arteether,

Marcy J. Balunas; A. Douglas Kinghorn

2005-01-01

121

Efficacy and toxicity of thirteen plant leaf acetone extracts used in ethnoveterinary medicine in South Africa on egg hatching and larval development of Haemonchus contortus  

PubMed Central

Background Helminthiasis is a major limitation to the livestock industry in Africa. Haemonchus contortus is the singular most important helminth responsible for major economic losses in small ruminants. The high cost of anthelmintics to small farmers, resistance to available anthelmintics and residue problems in meat and milk consumed by humans further complicates matters. The use of plants and plant extracts as a possible source of new anthelmintics has received more interest in the last decade. Our aim was not to confirm the traditional use, but rather to determine activity of extracts. Based on our past experience acetone was used as extractant. Because it is cheaper and more reproducible to evaluate the activity of plant extracts, than doing animal studies, the activity of acetone leaf extracts of thirteen plant species used traditionally in ethnoveterinary medicine in South Africa were determined using the egg hatch assay and the larval development test. Cytotoxicity of these extracts was also evaluated using the MTT cellular assay. Results Extracts of three plant species i.e. Heteromorpha trifoliata, Maesa lanceolata and Leucosidea sericea had EC50 values of 0.62 mg/ml, 0.72 mg/ml and 1.08 mg/ml respectively for the egg hatch assay. Clausena anisata; (1.08 mg/ml) and Clerodendrum glabrum; (1.48 mg/ml) extracts were also active. In the larval development assay the H. trifoliata extract was the most effective with an EC50 of 0.64 mg/ml followed by L. sericea (1.27 mg/ml). The activities in the larval development test were generally lower in most plant species than the egg hatch assay. Based on the cytotoxicity results C. anisata was the least toxic with an LC50 of 0.17 mg/ml, while Cyathea dregei was the most toxic plant with an LC50 of 0.003 mg/ml. The C. anisata extract had the best selectivity index with a value of 0.10 and 0.08 for the two assays, followed by H. trifoliata and L. sericea with values of 0.07, 0.07 and 0.05, 0.04. The C. dregei extract had the worst selectivity index with a value of 0.00019 for both assays. Conclusion The result of this study indicates which species should be further investigated in depth for isolation of compounds. PMID:23442744

2013-01-01

122

Antimicrobial activity of certain Indian medicinal plants used in folkloric medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty medicinal plants belonging to 26 families were studied for their antimicrobial activity. Among 50 plants tested, 72% showed antimicrobial activity. About 22 plant extracts from 15 families exhibited activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Fourteen plants belonging to 11 families did not show activity against any of the bacteria tested. Only nine plant extracts showed antifungal activity. The

D. Srinivasan; Sangeetha Nathan; T. Suresh; P. Lakshmana Perumalsamy

2001-01-01

123

Anti-proliferative activity of essential oil extracted from Thai medicinal plants on KB and P388 cell lines.  

PubMed

Anti-proliferative activity of essential oil from 17 Thai medicinal plants on human mouth epidermal carcinoma (KB) and murine leukemia (P388) cell lines using MTT assay were investigated. An amount of 1 x 10(4)cells/well of KB cell line and 1 x 10(5) cells/well of P388 cell line were treated with the oil samples at different concentrations ranging from 0.019 to 4.962 mg/ml. In KB cell line, Guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf oil showed the highest anti-proliferative activity with the IC(50) value of 0.0379 mg/ml (4.37 times more potent than vincristine) whereas Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) oil gave the highest anti-proliferative activity with the IC(50) value of 0.0362 mg/ml (12.7 times less potent than 5-FU) in P388 cell line. The results demonstrated the potential of essential oil from Thai medicinal plants for cancer treatment. PMID:15979235

Manosroi, Jiradej; Dhumtanom, Pongsathorn; Manosroi, Aranya

2006-04-01

124

Screening of Zulu medicinal plants for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 39 plants used in traditional Zulu medicine to treat headache or inflammatory diseases were screened for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors. Extracts were tested in an in vitro assay for cyclooxygenase inhibitors. In general, ethanolic extracts caused higher inhibition than aqueous extracts. Two-thirds of the plants screened had high inhibitory activity. The highest inhibition was obtained with ethanolic

Anna K. Jäger; Anne Hutchings; Johannes van Staden

1996-01-01

125

Antibacterial activity of East African medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an ethnopharmacological survey, extracts of the six East African medicinal plants Entada abyssinica (stem bark), Terminalia spinosa (young branches), Harrisonia abyssinica (roots), Ximenia caffra (roots), Azadirachta indica (stem bark and leaves), and Spilanthes mauritiana (roots and flowers) were tested against 105 strains of bacteria from seven genera (Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Mycobacterium). The minimum inhibitory concentration reached

Werner Fabry; Paul O Okemo; Rainer Ansorg

1998-01-01

126

Antifungal potential of Indian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen Indian plants, selected based on their use in respiratory and other disorders in traditional systems of medicine, were analyzed for their potential activity against fungi. The antifungal activity was investigated by disc diffusion, microbroth dilution and percent spore germination inhibition tests against pathogenic Aspergilli. Methanolic extracts of Solanum xanthocarpum and Datura metel inhibited the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus, A.

Rajesh Dabur; H. Singh; A. K. Chhillar; M. Ali; G. L. Sharma

2004-01-01

127

Screening of selected Indian medicinal plants for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy-six plant extracts including methanolic and successive water extracts from 37 Indian medicinal plants were investigated for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity (in vitro).Results indicated that methanolic extracts to be more active than water extracts. The potent AChE inhibiting methanolic plant extracts included Withania somnifera (root), Semecarpus anacardium (stem bark), Embelia ribes (Root), Tinospora cordifolia (stem), Ficus religiosa (stem bark) and

B. Vinutha; D. Prashanth; K. Salma; S. L. Sreeja; D. Pratiti; R. Padmaja; S. Radhika; A. Amit; K. Venkateshwarlu; M. Deepak

2007-01-01

128

Development of a method to extract and purify target compounds from medicinal plants in a single step: online hyphenation of expanded bed adsorption chromatography and countercurrent chromatography.  

PubMed

Pure compounds extracted and purified from natural sources are crucial to lead discovery and drug screening. This study presents a novel two-dimensional hyphenation of expanded bed adsorption chromatography (EBAC) and high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) for extraction and purification of target compounds from medicinal plants in a single step. The EBAC and HSCCC were hyphenated via a six-port injection valve as an interface. Fractionation of ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Rhizoma coptidis was performed on the hyphenated system to verify its efficacy. Two compounds were harvested from Salvia miltiorrhiza, one was 52.9 mg of salvianolic acid B with an over 95% purity and the other was 2.1 mg of rosmarinic acid with a 74% purity. Another two components were purified from Rhizoma coptidis, one was 4.6 mg of coptisine with a 98% purity and one was 4.1 mg of berberine with a 82% purity. The processing time was nearly 50% that of the multistep method. The results indicate that the present method is a rapid and green way to harvest targets from medicinal plants in a single step. PMID:24588208

Li, Yang; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Min; Ito, Yoichiro; Zhang, Hongyang; Wang, Yuerong; Guo, Xin; Hu, Ping

2014-04-01

129

Antibacterial activity of traditional Australian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-six ethanolic extracts of various parts of 39 plants used in traditional Australian Aboriginal medicine were investigated for their antibacterial activities against four Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes) and four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium) bacterial species. In a plate-hole diffusion assay, 12 extracts inhibited the growth of one or

Enzo A Palombo; Susan J Semple

2001-01-01

130

Screening of some Indian medicinal plants for their antimicrobial properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 82 Indian medicinal plants traditionally used in medicines were subjected to preliminary antibacterial screening against several pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms. Aqueous, hexane and alcoholic extracts of each plant were tested for their antibacterial activity using agar well diffusion method at sample concentration of 200 mg\\/ml. The results indicated that out of 82 plants, 56 exhibited antibacterial activity

Iqbal Ahmad; Zafar Mehmood; Faiz Mohammad

1998-01-01

131

Antimicrobial activities of southern Nepalese medicinal plants.  

PubMed

In an ethnopharmacological screening of selected medicinal plants used in Nepal, methanol extracts from 20 plant species were assayed for activity against eleven strains of bacteria and four strains of fungi. Duplicate assays were conducted with and without exposure to ultraviolet (UV)-A radiation to test for light-activated or light-enhanced activity. Fifteen of the extracts showed activity against bacteria and fourteen showed activity against fungi. Five extracts were active only when exposed to UV-A light, and the antibiotic or antifungal effect of five extracts was enhanced upon exposure to light. Two of the most active extracts were from plants used to treat diarrhoea and dysentery. Bark from both Terminalia alata (Combretaceae) and Mallotus phillppensis (Euphorbiaceae) was active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:8866730

Taylor, R S; Edel, F; Manandhar, N P; Towers, G H

1996-02-01

132

Anti Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils and ethanolic extracts from the leaves and\\/or roots of 35 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened for anti-Candida albicans activity. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system. Essential oils from 13 plants showed anti-Candida activity, including Aloysia triphylla, Anthemis nobilis, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cyperus articulatus, Cyperus rotundus, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Mikania

Marta Cristina Teixeira Duarte; Glyn Mara Figueira; Adilson Sartoratto; Vera Lúcia Garcia Rehder; Camila Delarmelina

2005-01-01

133

Plants and Medicinal Chemistry--2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second of a two part article on the influence of plants on medicinal chemistry. This part considers how drugs work, the attempts to develop anaesthetics safer than cocaine, and useful poisons. (Author/SL)

Bailey, D.

1977-01-01

134

Plant extracts as modulators of genotoxic effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher plants used extensively in traditional medicines are increasingly being screened for their role in modulating the activity\\u000a of environmental genotoxicants. The property of preventing carcinogenesis has been reported in many plant extracts. The observation\\u000a of a close association between carcinogenesis and mutagenesis has extended the survey to include plant extracts and plant\\u000a products able to modify the process of

Debisri Sarkar; Archana Sharma; Geeta Talukder

1996-01-01

135

Medicinal plants make a comeback.  

PubMed

Phytotherapy--using vegetable based drug preparations--was the primary method of disease treatment until the middle of the 19th century. Gradually, chemicals and drugs were produced only from and based on the active ingredients of these plants. The International Centre of Commerce reports that medicinal plants are still vitally important in the preparation of pharmaceutical products. The proportion of medicinal plants used in the preparation of pharmaceutical products is about 1/3 that of synthetic chemicals. Raw materials for import by pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries have increased form $52.9 million in 1967 to $71.2 million in 1971, with increases averaging 7% annually. Annual quantities of some plants used in preparations are: 3,000 tons of aloes; 10,000 tons of artichoke leaves; 5,000 tons of quinquina bark; 5,000 tons of senna pods; 1,000 tons of digitalis leaves; 1,000 tons of belladonna, henbane and datura leaves. An important distinction exists between medicinal plants and vegetable drugs. Medicinal plants contain one or more endogenous substances which can be used directly for medicinal purposes or in semisynthesis of preparations. Vegetable drug refers only to the part of the plant used directly in the preparation of medicines. The pure molecules in medicinal plants can be used in the synthesis of pharmaceutical products, notably steroids which are used to produce progestational substances and oral contraceptives. Medicina plants can also aid research for development of artificial mutations of the molecules to produce new drugs, an example of which is cocaine, from which synthetic local pain killers are derived. Some medicinal plants can be used as vegetable drugs for phytotherapy either on their own or to supplement chemotherapy. Vegetable drugs are especially useful for psychosomatic complaints, various cardiovascular diseases, digestive troubles, liver and gallbladder disorders, and antiseptics, both internal and external. Continued research and devleopment on the use of medicinal plants in developing countries will enrich the present range of medicines or provide a basis for further chemical and pharmacological research. PMID:12278407

Attisso, M A

1979-07-01

136

Toxicity assessment and analgesic activity investigation of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f . and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae), medicinal plants of Burkina Faso  

PubMed Central

Background Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae) are traditionally used in Burkina Faso to treat several ailments, mainly pains, including abdominal infections and associated diseases. Despite the extensive use of these plants in traditional health care, literature provides little information regarding their toxicity and the pharmacology. This work was therefore designed to investigate the toxicological effects of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. Furthermore, their analgesic capacity was assessed, in order to assess the efficiency of the traditional use of these two medicinal plants from Burkina Faso. Method For acute toxicity test, mice were injected different doses of each extract by intraperitoneal route and the LD50 values were determined. For the subchronic toxicity evaluation, Wistar albinos rats were treated by gavage during 28?days at different doses of aqueous acetone extracts and then haematological and biochemical parameters were determined. The analgesic effect was evaluated in mice by the acetic-acid writhing test and by the formalin test. Results For the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of 3.2?g/kg and 3.4?g/kg respectively for S. acuta Burn f. and S. cordifolia L. were obtained. Concerning the haematological and biochemical parameters, data varied widely (increase or decrease) according to dose of extracts and weight of rats and did not show clinical correlations. The extracts have produced significant analgesic effects by the acetic acid writhing test and by the hot plate method (p <0.05) and a dose-dependent inhibition was observed. Conclusion The overall results of this study may justify the traditional uses of S. acuta and S. cordifolia . PMID:22883637

2012-01-01

137

Coming This Fall: Common Chinese Medicinal Plants  

E-print Network

medicinal plants and their products. 2. Learn the methods of Chinese herbal classification;2 2. To introduce students the philosophy of Traditional Chinese Medicine and herbal uses. 3Coming This Fall: Common Chinese Medicinal Plants Identification, Classification and Application

Weiblen, George D

138

Antimalarial activity of three Pakistani medicinal plants.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine the in vitro anti-malarial activity of three medicinal plants, Picrorhiza kurroa, Caesalpinia bonducella and Artemisia absinthium of Pakistan. Different extracts of various parts of these plants were prepared by maceration and percolation, and were evaluated for their antimalarial activity. Aqueous, cold alcoholic and hot alcoholic extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa showed 34%, 100% and 90% inhibition in growth of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively, at 2.00 mg/ml. While aqueous, cold alcoholic and hot alcoholic extracts of Caesalpinia bonducella showed 65%, 56% and 76% inhibition in growth of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively at same concentrations. In the case of Artemisia absinthium, aqueous, cold alcoholic and hot alcoholic extract of Artemisia absinthium showed 35%, 55% and 21% inhibition in growth of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively at 2.00 mg/ml. In our study, extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa were found good for traditional therapy with highly significant results. PMID:21959826

Irshad, Saba; Mannan, Abdul; Mirza, Bushra

2011-10-01

139

Medicinal plants, conservation and livelihoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many types of action can be taken in favour of the conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants. Some of these are undertaken directly at the places where the plants are found, while others are less direct, such as some of those relating to commercial systems, ex situ conservation and bioprospecting. In the latter cases, actions taken will not lead

Alan C. Hamilton

2004-01-01

140

FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth.

Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I.; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A.

2014-06-01

141

Traditional Medicinal Plant Extracts and Natural Products with Activity against Oral Bacteria: Potential Application in the Prevention and Treatment of Oral Diseases  

PubMed Central

Oral diseases are major health problems with dental caries and periodontal diseases among the most important preventable global infectious diseases. Oral health influences the general quality of life and poor oral health is linked to chronic conditions and systemic diseases. The association between oral diseases and the oral microbiota is well established. Of the more than 750 species of bacteria that inhabit the oral cavity, a number are implicated in oral diseases. The development of dental caries involves acidogenic and aciduric Gram-positive bacteria (mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and actinomycetes). Periodontal diseases have been linked to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium). Given the incidence of oral disease, increased resistance by bacteria to antibiotics, adverse affects of some antibacterial agents currently used in dentistry and financial considerations in developing countries, there is a need for alternative prevention and treatment options that are safe, effective and economical. While several agents are commercially available, these chemicals can alter oral microbiota and have undesirable side-effects such as vomiting, diarrhea and tooth staining. Hence, the search for alternative products continues and natural phytochemicals isolated from plants used as traditional medicines are considered as good alternatives. In this review, plant extracts or phytochemicals that inhibit the growth of oral pathogens, reduce the development of biofilms and dental plaque, influence the adhesion of bacteria to surfaces and reduce the symptoms of oral diseases will be discussed further. Clinical studies that have investigated the safety and efficacy of such plant-derived medicines will also be described. PMID:19596745

Palombo, Enzo A.

2011-01-01

142

Antibacterial activity of some Indian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extracts of ten medicinal plants were examined for their antibacterial potential against some reference strains of\\u000a human pathogenic bacteria. Anethum graveolens, Elettaria cardamomum, Foeniculum vulgare, Trachyspermum ammi and Viola odorata were found to be better\\/equally effective compared to standard antibiotics. V. odorata was the most effective antibacterial with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 1 to 2%. The results

Daljit Singh Arora; Gurinder Jeet Kaur

2007-01-01

143

Anti-inflammatory activity of some Saudi Arabian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five plants which have been used for the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and gout in the traditional medicine of Saudi Arabia, were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory properties. Of these the ethanolic extract of Capparis decidua and the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa were found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced oedema in rats. These two plants were also

A. M. Ageel; N. S. Parmar; J. S. Mossa; M. A. Al-Yahya; M. S. Al-Said; M. Tariq

1986-01-01

144

Anti cancer activity on Graviola, an exciting medicinal plant extract vs various cancer cell lines and a detailed computational study on its potent anti-cancerous leads.  

PubMed

Nature is the world's best chemist: Many naturally occurring compounds have very complicated structures that present great challenges to chemists wishing to determine their structures or replicate them. The plant derived herbal compounds have a long history of clinical use, better patient tolerance and acceptance. Their high ligand binding affinity to the target introduce the prospect of their use in chemo preventive applications; in addition they are freely available natural compounds that can be safely used to prevent various ailments. Plants became the basis of traditional medicine system throughout the world for thousands of years and continue to provide mankind with new remedies. Here, we present a research study on a medicinal plant, Graviola, a native of North America but rarely grown in India. It has a wide potent anticancerous agents coined as Acetogenins which play a key role towards many varieties of cancer, Acetogenins are potent inhibitors of NADH oxidase of the plasma membranes of cancer cells. Potent leads were taken for the study through literature survey, major types of cancer targets were identified, the natureceuticals and the cancer protein were subjected to docking analysis, further with the help of the dock score and other descriptor properties top ranked molecules were collected, commercial drug was also selected and identified as a Test compound for the study. Later, the phytochemicals were subjected to toxicity analysis. Those screened compounds were then considered for active site analysis and to find the best binding site for the study. R Programming library was used to find the best leads. Phytochemicals such as Anonaine, Friedelin, Isolaureline, Annonamine, Anomurine, Kaempferol, Asimilobine, Quercetin, Xylopine were clustered and the highly clustered compounds such as Annonamine , Kaempferol termed to be a potential lead for the study. Further study on experimental analysis may prove the potentiality of these compounds. In the experimental analysis, Graviola leaves were collected, and the extracted components were tested against the HeLa cell line and PC3 cell line. HeLa cells treated with 75 ?g of a crude leaf extract of A. muricata showing 80% of cell inhibition. Further investigation of other experimental studies may confirm that these potential lead could make a great impact in which it could help to accelerate the pipeline of drug discovery. PMID:23889049

Paul, Jeno; Gnanam, R; Jayadeepa, R M; Arul, L

2013-01-01

145

Search for antiinflammatory activity in Argentine Medicinal Plants.  

PubMed

Extracts of different polarity from four Argentine medicinal plants used in folk medicine as antiinflammatory remedies were tested for bioactivity using carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and TPA-induced ear edema in mice. A dichloromethane extract from Pluchea sagittalis showed good antiinflammatory activity in both tests. Flavonoids present in this extract may be responsible for the activity. Ipomoea fistulosa dichloromethane extract showed significant activity in the ear edema test while a dichloromethane extract from Eupatorium inulaefolium and aqueous extract of Polygonum punctatum exhibited antiinflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced edema test. PMID:23194967

Gorzalczany, S; Acevedo, C; Muschietti, L; Martino, V; Ferraro, G

1996-09-01

146

Medicinal plants and antimicrobial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, we analyze the past, present and future of medicinal plants, both as potential antimicrobial crude drugs as well as a source for natural compounds that act as new anti-infection agents. In the past few decades, the search for new anti-infection agents has occupied many research groups in the field of ethnopharmacology. When we reviewed the number

J. L. Ríos; M. C. Recio

2005-01-01

147

Antimicrobial and phytochemical studies on 45 Indian medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant human pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic extracts of 45 Indian medicinal plants traditionally used in medicine were studied for their antimicrobial activity against certain drug-resistant bacteria and a yeast Candida albicans of clinical origin. Of these, 40 plant extracts showed varied levels of antimicrobial activity against one or more test bacteria. Anticandidal activity was detected in 24 plant extracts. Overall, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity was observed

Iqbal Ahmad; Arina Z. Beg

2001-01-01

148

METALLOPEPTIDASES ACE, NEP AND APN INHIBITION BY PLANT EXTRACTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of fifteen medicinal plants were screened in vitro for their potency to inhibit metallopepti- dases ACE, NEP and APN. Bucco folium, Callunae flos, Epilobii angustifolii herba, Orthosiphonis folium, Ri- bes nigri folium extracts showed more than 50% inhibition of the tested peptidases activity at 1000 µg\\/ml. The results demonstrate that pharmacological activities of some medicinal plants might be related

ANNA KISS; ANNA POLCYN; ZEF KOWALSKI

149

In vivo evaluation of anthelmintic potential of medicinal plant extracts against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish ( Carassius auratus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, an attempt has been made to petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts\\u000a of Prunus amygdalus Batsch seeds (Semen amygdali), Cimicifuga foetida L. rhizomes (Rhizoma Cimicifugae), Peucedanum decursivum (Miq.) Maxim roots (Radix Peucedani), Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng. seeds (Semen Momordicae), and Bupleurum chinense DC. roots (Radix Bupleuri chinensis) for their in vivo anthelmintic activity against

Zong-Fan Wu; Bin Zhu; Yong Wang; Cheng Lu; Gao-Xue Wang

2011-01-01

150

Screening of some Palestinian medicinal plants for antibacterial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of 15 Palestinian medicinal plants were carried against eight different species of bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, two Escherichia coli species, Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin resistant), two S. aureus (methicillin sensitive) species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus fecalis. Of the 15 plants tested, eight showed antibacterial activity. Each plant species has unique against different bacteria. The most

T Essawi; M Srour

2000-01-01

151

Aqueous extract of the medicinal plant Mentha crispa alters the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate in Wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mentha crispa extract or 0.9% NaCl were (15 days) administered daily by gavage to Wistar rats. Animals then received Na99mTcO4 via ocular plexus and were sacrificed. Organs were isolated, radioactivity was determined, percentages of radioactivity in\\u000a each organ was calculated, and statistical analyses performed. Significant (p = 0.0061) increases of radioactivity were observed in kidney, spleen, and thyroid, which could be exampled

Sebastião David Santos-Filho; Adalgisa Ieda Maiworm; Giuseppe Antonio Presta; Severo de Paoli; Tânia Santos Giani; Mario Bernardo-Filho

2007-01-01

152

Antiamoebic and phytochemical screening of some Congolese medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from the in vitro antiamoebic activity of some Congolese plant extracts used as antidiarrhoeic in traditional medicine indicated that of 45 plant extracts tested, 35 (77.78%) exhibited an antiamoebic activity and 10 (22.22%) were inactive. The highest activity (MIC<100 ?g\\/ml) was obtained with extracts from root bark of Paropsia brazzeana, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, Alchornea cordifolia, Hensia pulchella, Maprounea africana, Rauwolfia

L. Tona; K. Kambu; N. Ngimbi; K. Cimanga; A. J. Vlietinck

1998-01-01

153

Plant part substitution – a way to conserve endangered medicinal plants?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population growth, urbanization and the unrestricted collection of medicinal plants from the wild is resulting in an over-exploitation of natural resources in southern Africa. Therefore, the management of traditional medicinal plant resources has become a matter of urgency. In southern Africa the most frequently used medicinal plants are slow-growing forest trees, bulbous and tuberous plants, with bark and underground parts

S Zschocke; T Rabe; J. L. S Taylor; A. K Jäger; J van Staden

2000-01-01

154

Removing tannins from medicinal plant extracts using an alkaline ethanol precipitation process: a case study of danshen injection.  

PubMed

The alkaline ethanol precipitation process is investigated as an example of a technique for the removal of tannins extracted from Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma for the manufacture of Danshen injection. More than 90% of the tannins can be removed. However, the recoveries of danshensu, rosmarinic acid, and salvianolic acid B were less than 60%. Total tannin removal increased as the refrigeration temperature decreased or the amount of NaOH solution added increased. Phenolic compound recoveries increased as refrigeration temperature increased or the amount of NaOH solution added decreased. When operated at a low refrigeration temperature, a relative high separation selectivity can be realized. Phenolic compound losses and tannin removal were mainly caused by precipitation. The formation of phenol salts, whose solubility is small in the mixture of ethanol and water used, is probably the reason for the precipitation. A model considering dissociation equilibrium and dissolution equilibrium was established. Satisfactory correlation results were obtained for phenolic compound recoveries and total tannin removal. Two important parameters in the model, which are the water content and pH value of alkaline supernatant, are suggested to be monitored and controlled to obtain high batch-to-batch consistency. PMID:25405288

Gong, Xingchu; Li, Yao; Qu, Haibin

2014-01-01

155

Analgesic activity of some Indian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study of some of the Indian medicinal plants Sida acuta whole plant (Malvaeae), Stylosanthes fruticosa (whole plant) (Papilionaceae), Toona ciliata (heart wood) (Meliaceao), Bougainvilla spectabilis (leaves) (Nyctaginaceae), Ficus glomerata (bark, leaves) (Moraceae) and Polyalthia longifolia (leaves) (Annonaceae). The different plants were used in folklore medicine in the treatment of toothache and strengthening of gums, anthelmintic, kidney diseases,

P. Malairajan; Geetha Gopalakrishnan; S. Narasimhan; K. Jessi Kala Veni

2006-01-01

156

In vitro screening of forty medicinal plant extracts from the United States Northern Great Plains for anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus.  

PubMed

An egg hatch assay (EHA) and a larval migration assay (LMA) involving Haemonchus contortus was used to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of methanol extracts from 40 plants that are native or naturalized within the U.S.A. Northern Great Plains. Only one of these 40 plants (i.e. Lotus corniculatus) had been previously evaluated for activity against any gastrointestinal nematode. The various extracts were initially screened at 50mg/ml diluted either in 0.5% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) or 3-(N-morpholino) propanesulfonic acid (MOPS buffer), and plants showing 100% inhibition at 50mg/ml, were further evaluated at 8 other concentrations (25-0.19 mg/ml). Extracts with 100% activity with the EHA were again screened with the LMA (50mg/ml). Two extracts with the highest LMA inhibition were also evaluated at lower concentrations (25-3.1mg/ml). Of the 40 methanolic extracts screened, 7 (Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus, Ericameria nauseosa, Liatris punctata, Melilotus alba, Melilotus officinalis, Perideridia gairdneri, and Sanguinaria canadensis) showed significant egg-hatch inhibition in DMSO and MOPS buffer. Three extracts (Geranium viscosissimum, L. corniculatus, and Rhus aromatica) only showed significant inhibition in DMSO. The 8 extracts showing 100% efficacy at 50mg/ml exhibited dose-dependent effects at the 8 lower concentrations, and R. aromatica and E. nauseosa extracts had the lowest ED50 values. Similarly, when these 8 plant extracts were further evaluated with the LMA, the extracts of E. nauseosa and R. aromatica again exhibited the highest activity (p<0.001), with ED50 values of 4.0mg/ml and 10.43 mg/ml respectively. Three other extracts (C. viscidiflorus, M. alba and M. officinalis) also showed inhibitory activity in the LMA. These results support the need for additional evaluations of the nematocidal properties for at least these 5 plants. PMID:24548703

Acharya, Jyotsna; Hildreth, Michael B; Reese, R Neil

2014-03-17

157

Cytotoxicity Potentials of Eleven Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

Various forms of cancer are rising all over the world, requiring newer therapy. The quest of anticancer drugs both from natural and synthetic sources is the demand of time. In this study, fourteen extracts of different parts of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants which have been traditionally used for the treatment of different types of carcinoma, tumor, leprosy, and diseases associated with cancer were evaluated for their cytotoxicity for the first time. Extraction was conceded using methanol. Phytochemical groups like reducing sugars, tannins, saponins, steroids, gums, flavonoids, and alkaloids were tested using standard chromogenic reagents. Plants were evaluated for cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using Artemia salina comparing with standard anticancer drug vincristine sulphate. All the extracts showed potent to moderate cytotoxicity ranging from LC50 2 to 115?µg/mL. The highest toxicity was shown by Hygrophila spinosa seeds (LC50 = 2.93?µg/mL) and the lowest by Litsea glutinosa leaves (LC50 = 114.71?µg/mL) in comparison with standard vincristine sulphate (LC50 = 2.04?µg/mL). Among the plants, the plants traditionally used in different cancer and microbial treatments showed highest cytotoxicity. The results support their ethnomedicinal uses and require advanced investigation to elucidate responsible compounds as well as their mode of action.

Haque, Tania; Akter, Mahfuja; Akter, Subarna; Jhumur, Afrin

2014-01-01

158

Anti-HIV activity of Indian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients face great socio-economic difficulties in obtaining treatment. There is an urgent need for new, safe, and cheap anti-HIV agents. Traditional medicinal plants are a valuable source of novel anti-HIV agents and may offer alternatives to expensive medicines in future. Various medicinal plants or plant-derived natural products have shown strong anti-HIV activity and are under various stages of clinical development in different parts of the world. The present study was directed towards assessment of anti-HIV activity of various extracts prepared from Indian medicinal plants. The plants were chosen on the basis of similarity of chemical constituents with reported anti-HIV compounds or on the basis of their traditional usage as immunomodulators. Different extracts were prepared by Soxhlet extraction and liquid-liquid partitioning. Ninety-two extracts were prepared from 23 plants. Anti-HIV activity was measured in a human CD4+ T-cell line, CEM-GFP cells infected with HIV-1NL4.3. Nine extracts of 8 different plants significantly reduced viral production in CEM-GFP cells infected with HIV-1NL4.3. Aegle marmelos, Argemone mexicana, Asparagus racemosus, Coleus forskohlii, and Rubia cordifolia demonstrated promising anti-HIV potential and were investigated for their active principles. PMID:21365365

Sabde, Sudeep; Bodiwala, Hardik S; Karmase, Aniket; Deshpande, Preeti J; Kaur, Amandeep; Ahmed, Nafees; Chauthe, Siddheshwar K; Brahmbhatt, Keyur G; Phadke, Rasika U; Mitra, Debashis; Bhutani, Kamlesh Kumar; Singh, Inder Pal

2011-07-01

159

Phytochemistry and medicinal properties of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl. extracts  

PubMed Central

Phaleria macrocarpa, commonly known as Mahkota dewa is a medicinal plant that is indigenous to Indonesia and Malaysia. Extracts of P. macrocarpa have been used since years in traditional medicine that are evaluated scientifically as well. The extracts are reported for a number of valuable medicinal properties such as anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-oxidant and vasorelaxant effect. The constituents isolated from different parts of P. macrocarpa include Phalerin, gallic acid, Icaricide C, magniferin, mahkoside A, dodecanoic acid, palmitic acid, des-acetylflavicordin-A, flavicordin-A, flavicordin-D, flavicordin-A glucoside, ethyl stearate, lignans, alkaloids andsaponins. The present review is an up-to-date summary of occurrence, botanical description, ethnopharmacology, bioactivity and toxicological studies related to P. macrocarpa. PMID:23922460

Altaf, Rabia; Asmawi, Mohammad Zaini Bin; Dewa, Aidiahmad; Sadikun, Amirin; Umar, Muhammad Ihtisham

2013-01-01

160

Screening of Zulu medicinal plants for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors.  

PubMed

Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 39 plants used in traditional Zulu medicine to treat headache or inflammatory diseases were screened for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors. Extracts were tested in an in vitro assay for cyclooxygenase inhibitors. In general, ethanolic extracts caused higher inhibition than aqueous extracts. Two-thirds of the plants screened had high inhibitory activity. The highest inhibition was obtained with ethanolic extracts of Bidens pilosa, Eucomis autumnalis, Harpephyllum caffrum, Helichrysum nudifolium, Leonotis intermedia, L. leonorus, Ocotea bullata, Rumex saggitatus, Solanum mauritianum, Synadenium cupulare and Trichilia dregeana. PMID:8735453

Jäger, A K; Hutchings, A; van Staden, J

1996-06-01

161

Medicinal plants--old and new.  

PubMed

The historic role of plants in healing declined early in the twentieth century with the ascendency of synthetic drugs, even though a number of basic medical tools, such as opium, strychnine, and cocaine, are of botanical origin. In recent years, interest in natural products has been restored dramatically by the discovery of penicillin, plant-derived tranquilizers, and plant precursors of cortisone. Contrary to previous beliefs, botanical drugs are proving more economical than synthetics and hold forth encouraging prospects of inhibiting or destroying tumors without undue damage to healthy tissue. Extensive plant screening programs are being conducted by governmental agencies and pharmaceutical houses. Folk remedies, still common in many tropical areas, are being evaluated. As a result of such research by Canadian and American scientists, alkaloids extracted from the Madagascar periwinkle (Vinca rosea) are being effectively employed to achieve regression in childhood leukemia. Potentially more rewarding are investigations of compounds obtained from the Australian tree, Acronychia baueri and a Chinese species, Camptotheca acuminata. Universities are reestablishing medicinal plant gardens and placing more emphasis on pharmacognosy. Experimental work with narcotic plants in psychiatric treatment has given rise to popular fascination with and abuse of certain natural hallucinogens. Among scientists engaged in chemical studies, there is an active demand for information about plants, their properties and therapeutic uses. Even the general public is being made aware that plant drugs are not obsolete but offer new hope for conquering disease. PMID:5644801

Morton, J F

1968-04-01

162

Medicinal Plants--Old and New *  

PubMed Central

The historic role of plants in healing declined early in the twentieth century with the ascendency of synthetic drugs, even though a number of basic medical tools, such as opium, strychnine, and cocaine, are of botanical origin. In recent years, interest in natural products has been restored dramatically by the discovery of penicillin, plant-derived tranquilizers, and plant precursors of cortisone. Contrary to previous beliefs, botanical drugs are proving more economical than synthetics and hold forth encouraging prospects of inhibiting or destroying tumors without undue damage to healthy tissue. Extensive plant screening programs are being conducted by governmental agencies and pharmaceutical houses. Folk remedies, still common in many tropical areas, are being evaluated. As a result of such research by Canadian and American scientists, alkaloids extracted from the Madagascar periwinkle (Vinca rosea) are being effectively employed to achieve regression in childhood leukemia. Potentially more rewarding are investigations of compounds obtained from the Australian tree, Acronychia baueri and a Chinese species, Camptotheca acuminata. Universities are reestablishing medicinal plant gardens and placing more emphasis on pharmacognosy. Experimental work with narcotic plants in psychiatric treatment has given rise to popular fascination with and abuse of certain natural hallucinogens. Among scientists engaged in chemical studies, there is an active demand for information about plants, their properties and therapeutic uses. Even the general public is being made aware that plant drugs are not obsolete but offer new hope for conquering disease. PMID:5644801

Morton, Julia F.

1968-01-01

163

Medicinal plants as immunosuppressive agents in traditional Iranian medicine.  

PubMed

Immunomodulation using medicinal plants provides an alternative to conventional chemotherapy for several diseases, especially when suppression of inflammation is desired. The "Canon of Medicine", the epochal work of Avicenna, the great Persian scientist of the middle ages, provides comprehensive information about medicinal plants which used to cure inflammatory illnesses in traditional Iranian medicine. Taking into consideration that the mechanisms of damage in these illnesses are mediated by immune responses, it is reasonable to assume that the plants used for such diseases may suppress the immune responses and the resultant inflammation. In Iran, because of great diversity of climate and geographical conditions, numerous varieties of plants grow and at least 1000 species are recorded as medicinal plants. Many of these plants such as Punica granatum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Foeniculum vulgare and Polygonum species prescribed by ancient Iranian physicians have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. In recent literature, different species of native medicinal plants such as Stachys obtusicrena, Salvia mirzayanii, Echium amoenum, Dracocephalum kotschyi and Linum persicum have been shown to have appreciable anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects including inhibitory effects on lymphocyte activation, suppression of cellular and humoral immunity and induction of apoptosis. This review focuses on plants that are used in Iranian traditional medicine and have been reported to act as immunoinhibitory agents. PMID:20574119

Amirghofran, Zahra

2010-06-01

164

Antibacterial activity of South African plants used for medicinal purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude extracts from 21 South African medicinal plants, traditionally used for ailments of an infectious or septic nature, were screened for in vitro antibacterial activity using the agar diffusion and dilution methods. Almost all the activity exhibited was against Gram-positive bacteria, with 12 of the 21 plant species tested showing some activity against Bacillus subtilis. Only the Warburgia salutaris methanol

Tonia Rabe; Johannes van Staden

1997-01-01

165

Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardic glycoside distribution in ten medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Cleome nutidosperma, Emilia coccinea, Euphorbia heterophylla, Physalis angulata, Richardia bransitensis, Scopania dulcis, Sida acuta, Spigelia anthelmia, Stachytarpheta cayennensis and Tridax procumbens. All the plants were found to contain alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids

H. O. Edeoga; D. E. Okwu; B. O Mbaebie

166

Screening of selected medicinal plants of Nepal for antimicrobial activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an ethnopharmacological screening of selected medicinal plants used in Nepal, methanol extracts from 21 plant species were assayed for activity against 8 strains of bacteria and 5 strains of fungi. Duplicate assays were conducted with and without exposure to UV-A radiation to test for light-activated or light-enhanced activity. All 21 of the extracts showed activity against at least 2

R. S. Taylor; N. P. Manandhar; G. H. N. Towers

1995-01-01

167

Antimalarial activity of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in S. Tomé and Príncipe islands.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the antimalarial activity of 13 medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in S. Tomé and Príncipe (STP) islands in the Gulf of Guinea, aiming at identifying the most effective plants for further research. Fieldwork was carried out with the collaboration of 37 traditional healers from both islands, during an ethnobotanical study, which was conducted from 1993 to 1999. Our results indicate that the traditional healers in STP use several medicinal plants against fever and/or 'malaria' which reveal strong antiparasitic activity in vitro: four of the plant extracts have evident antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum, with IC(50) values <10 microg/ml, and also revealed hepatic schizontocidal activity (<5-35 microg/ml). In vivo, the extracts caused partial reduction of Plasmodium berghei parasitaemia in mice. PMID:12020924

do Céu de Madureira, Maria; Paula Martins, Ana; Gomes, Milene; Paiva, Jorge; Proença da Cunha, António; do Rosário, Virgílio

2002-06-01

168

Antioxidant capacity of Macaronesian traditional medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The use of many traditional medicinal plants is often hampered by the absence of a proper biochemical characterization, essential to identify the bioactive compounds present. The leaves from five species endemic to the Macaronesian islands with recognized ethnobotanical applications were analysed: Apollonias barbujana (Cav.) Bornm., Ocotea foetens (Ainton) Baill, Prunus azorica (Mouill.) Rivas-Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Días, J.C. Costa & C. Aguiar, Rumex maderensis Lowe and Plantago arborescens Poir. subsp. maderensis (Dcne.) A. Hans. et Kunk.. Since oxidative stress is a common feature of most diseases traditionally treated by these plants, it is important to assess their antioxidant capacity and determine the molecules responsible for this capacity. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of these plants against two of the most important reactive species in human body (hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals) was determined. To trace the antioxidant origin total phenol and flavonoid contents as well as the polyphenolic profile and the amount of trace elements were determined. There was a wide variation among the species analysed in what concerns their total leaf phenol and flavonoid contents. From the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) electrochemically detected peaks it was possible to attribute to flavonoids the antioxidant capacity detected in A. barbujana, O. foetens, R. maderensis and P. azorica extracts. These potential reactive flavonoids were identified for A. barbujana, R. maderensis and P. azorica. For R. maderensis a high content (7 mg g-1 dry weight) of L-ascorbic acid, an already described antioxidant phytomolecule, was found. A high content in selenomethionine (414.35 microg g-1 dry weight) was obtained for P. arborescens subsp. maderensis extract. This selenocompound is already described as a hydroxyl radical scavenger is reported in this work as also possessing peroxyl radical scavenging capacity. This work is a good illustration of different phytomolecules (flavonoids, organic acids and selenocompounds), presents in leaves of the five traditional medicinal plants endemic to Macaronesia, all exhibiting antioxidant properties. PMID:20428065

Tavares, Lucélia; Carrilho, Dina; Tyagi, Meenu; Barata, David; Serra, Ana Teresa; Duarte, Catarina Maria Martins; Duarte, Rui Oliveira; Feliciano, Rodrigo Pedro; Bronze, Maria Rosário; Chicau, Paula; Espírito-Santo, Maria Dalila; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; dos Santos, Cláudia Nunes

2010-04-01

169

Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes.  

PubMed

The aqueous extracts (15 micrograms ml-1 medium) of 22 plants used in folkloric medicine in Palestine were investigated for their antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against nine isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton violaceum. The extract of the different plant species reduced colony growth of the three dermatophytes by 36 to 100% compared with the control treatment. Antimycotic activity of the extract against the three dermatophytes varied significantly (P < 0.05) between test plants. Extracts of Capparis spinosa and Juglans regia completely prevented growth of M. canis and T. violaceum. The most active extracts (90-100% inhibition) were those of Anagallis arvensis, C. spinosa, J. regia, Pistacia lentiscus and Ruta chalapensis against M. canis; Inula viscosa, J. regia and P. lentiscus against T. mentagrophytes; and Asphodelus luteus, A. arvensis, C. spinosa, Clematis cirrhosa, I. viscosa, J. regia, P. lentiscus, Plumbago europea, Ruscus aculeatus, Retema raetam and Salvia fruticosa against T. violaceum. The MICs of these most active plants ranged from 0.6 to 40 micrograms ml-1. The three dermatophytes differed significantly with regard to their susceptibility to plant extracts. Trichophyton violaceum was the most susceptible being completely inhibited by 50% of the extracts followed by M. canis and T. mentagrophytes which were completely inhibited by only 23 and 14% of the extracts, respectively. PMID:10680445

Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Abu Ghdeib, S I

1999-01-01

170

Screening of medicinal plants for induction of somatic segregation activity in Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge about mutagenic properties of plants commonly used in traditional medicine is limited. A screening for genotoxic activity was carried out in aqueous or alcoholic extracts prepared from 13 medicinal plants widely used as folk medicine in Cuba: Lepidium virginicum L. (Brassicaceae); Plantago major L. and Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae); Ortosiphon aristatus Blume, Mentha × piperita L., Melissa officinalis L.

A. Ramos Ruiz; R. A. De la Torre; N. Alonso; A. Villaescusa; J. Betancourt; A. Vizoso

1996-01-01

171

CNS acetylcholine receptor activity in European medicinal plants traditionally used to improve failing memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain Lamiaceous and Asteraceous plants have long histories of use as restoratives of lost or declining cognitive functions in western European systems of traditional medicine. Investigations were carried out to evaluate human CNS cholinergic receptor binding activity in extracts of those European medicinal plants reputed to enhance or restore mental functions including memory. Ethanolic extracts were prepared from accessions of

George Wake; Jennifer Court; Anne Pickering; Rhiannon Lewis; Richard Wilkins; Elaine Perry

2000-01-01

172

Ancient DNA extraction from plants.  

PubMed

A variety of protocols for DNA extraction from archaeological and paleobotanical plant specimens have been proposed. This is not surprising given the range of taxa and tissue types that may be preserved and the variety of conditions in which that preservation may take place. Commercially available DNA extraction kits can be used to recover ancient plant DNA, but modifications to standard approaches are often necessary to improve yield. In this chapter, I describe two protocols for extracting DNA from small amounts of ancient plant tissue. The CTAB protocol, which I recommend for use with single seeds, utilizes an incubation period in extraction buffer and subsequent chloroform extraction followed by DNA purification and suspension. The PTB protocol, which I recommend for use with gourd rind and similar tissues, utilizes an overnight incubation of pulverized tissue in extraction buffer, removal of the tissue by centrifugation, and DNA extraction from the buffer using commercial plant DNA extraction kits. PMID:22237524

Kistler, Logan

2012-01-01

173

From Curanderas to Gas Chromatography: Medicinal Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Medicinal Plants of the Southwest summer workshop is an inquiry-based learning approach to increase interest and skills in biomedical research. Working in teams, Hispanic and Native American students discover the chemical and biological basis for the medicinal activity of regional plants used by healers. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)

O'Connell, Mary; Lara, Antonio

2005-01-01

174

From Curanderas to Gas Chromatography: Medicinal Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Medicinal Plants of the Southwest summer workshop is an inquiry-based learning approach to increase interest and skills in biomedical research. Working in teams, Hispanic and Native American students discover the chemical and biological basis for the medicinal activity of regional plants used by healers.

Lara, Antonio; O'Connell, Mary

2006-01-01

175

Screening of selected Indian medicinal plants for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.  

PubMed

Seventy-six plant extracts including methanolic and successive water extracts from 37 Indian medicinal plants were investigated for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity (in vitro). Results indicated that methanolic extracts to be more active than water extracts. The potent AChE inhibiting methanolic plant extracts included Withania somnifera (root), Semecarpus anacardium (stem bark), Embelia ribes (Root), Tinospora cordifolia (stem), Ficus religiosa (stem bark) and Nardostachys jatamansi (rhizome). The IC(50) values obtained for these extracts were 33.38, 16.74, 23.04, 38.36, 73.69 and 47.21mug/ml, respectively. These results partly substantiate the traditional use of these herbs for improvement of cognition. PMID:16950584

Vinutha, B; Prashanth, D; Salma, K; Sreeja, S L; Pratiti, D; Padmaja, R; Radhika, S; Amit, A; Venkateshwarlu, K; Deepak, M

2007-01-19

176

Chromosome numbers in Indian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The paper deals with the chromosome numbers in some of the Indian medicinal plants. Of the twenty plants studied, the chromosome\\u000a numbers of nine plants are reported for the first time. Five plants had numbers different from previous observations.

R. Sundara Raghavan

1957-01-01

177

Evaluation of antitumor activity of peptide extracts from medicinal plants on the model of transplanted breast cancer in CBRB-Rb(8.17)1Iem mice.  

PubMed

We studied antitumor effects of peptide extracts from plants on slowly growing mammary adenocarcinoma in CBRB-Rb(8.17)1Iem mice used as a model of breast cancer in humans. The antitumor effect of a single injection of the test peptides was evaluated by the delay of the appearance and growth of palpable breast cancer in mice over 4 weeks. Peptides from Hypericum perforatum and a mixture of Chelidonium majus L., Inula helenium L., Equisetum arvense L., and Inonotus obliquus exhibited maximum activity. Peptide extracts from Frangula alnuc Mill. and Laurus nobilis L. were less active. No antitumor effect of Camelia sinesis Kuntze was detected. PMID:19110595

Tepkeeva, I I; Moiseeva, E V; Chaadaeva, A V; Zhavoronkova, E V; Kessler, Yu V; Semushina, S G; Demushkin, V P

2008-04-01

178

Historical review of medicinal plants' usage  

PubMed Central

Healing with medicinal plants is as old as mankind itself. The connection between man and his search for drugs in nature dates from the far past, of which there is ample evidence from various sources: written documents, preserved monuments, and even original plant medicines. Awareness of medicinal plants usage is a result of the many years of struggles against illnesses due to which man learned to pursue drugs in barks, seeds, fruit bodies, and other parts of the plants. Contemporary science has acknowledged their active action, and it has included in modern pharmacotherapy a range of drugs of plant origin, known by ancient civilizations and used throughout the millennia. The knowledge of the development of ideas related to the usage of medicinal plants as well as the evolution of awareness has increased the ability of pharmacists and physicians to respond to the challenges that have emerged with the spreading of professional services in facilitation of man's life. PMID:22654398

Petrovska, Biljana Bauer

2012-01-01

179

Brine shrimp lethality bioassay of selected Indian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic extracts of six Indian medicinal plants, piperine, guggulsterone E and guggulsterone Z were tested for cytotoxicity using brine shrimp lethality test. Piper longum showed most potent cytotoxic activity. Piperine, guggulsterone E and guggulsterone Z showed potent activity with LC50 2.4, 8.9 and 4.9, respectively.

R Padmaja; P. C Arun; D Prashanth; M Deepak; A Amit; M Anjana

2002-01-01

180

Biological activity of common mullein, a medicinal plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common Mullein (Verbascum thapsus L., Scrophulariaceae) is a medicinal plant that has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, asthma, spasmodic coughs, diarrhea and other pulmonary problems. The objective of this study was to assess the biological activity of Common Mullein extracts and commercial Mullein products using selected bench top bioassays, including antibacterial, antitumor, and two toxicity assays—brine shrimp

Arzu Ucar Turker; N. D Camper

2002-01-01

181

Screening of some Cuban medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial activities of 23 extracts of 12 Cuban plant species reported in traditional medicine were tested. The agar diffusion method was used to assess the activity against four bacteria and one yeast: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The results, evaluated as the diameter of the inhibition zone of microbial growth, showed that nine

M. J. Martínez; J. Betancourt; N. Alonso-González; A. Jauregui

1996-01-01

182

Antiplasmodial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants Used in Sudanese Folk-medicine  

PubMed Central

Ten plants indigenous to Sudan and of common use in Sudanese folk-medicine, were examined in vitro for antimalarial activity against schizonts maturation of Plasmodium falciparum, the major human malaria parasite. All plant samples displayed various antiplasmodial activity. Three plant extracts caused 100% inhibition of the parasite growth at concentrations of plant material ? 500 ug/ml. The two most active extracts that produced 100% inhibition of the parasite growth at concentration of plant material ? 50 ?g/ml were obtained from the seeds of Nigella sativa and the whole plant of Aristolochia bracteolata. The ten plants were phytochemically screened for their active constituents. The two most active plants showed the presence of sterols, alkaloids and tannins. PMID:20523878

Ahmed, El-Hadi M.; Nour, Bakri Y.M.; Mohammed, Yousif G.; Khalid, Hassan S.

2010-01-01

183

Antiviral Activity of Some Plants Used in Nepalese Traditional Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic extracts of 41 plant species belonging to 27 families used in the traditional medicine in Nepal have been investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and influenza virus A by dye uptake assay in the systems HSV-1\\/Vero cells and influenza virus A\\/MDCK cells. The extracts of Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Cassiope fastigiata and

M. Rajbhandari; R. Mentel; P. K. Jha; R. P. Chaudhary; S. Bhattarai; M. B. Gewali; N. Karmacharya; M. Hipper; U. Lindequist

2009-01-01

184

Cytogenetic toxicity of Aloe vera (a medicinal plant).  

PubMed

The cytogenetic toxicity of the crude leaf extract of Aloe vera, a medicinal plant, was evaluated in two test systems, onion and Swiss albino mice, using their root tip meristematic and bone marrow cells, respectively. No significant increase in structural abnormalities in chromosomes was observed, but a marked increase in cells with chromosome-number anomalies was found. The extract, however, significantly increased the mitotic index of both cell types. PMID:21830935

Verma, Anjana; Gupta, Ashok K; Kumar, Amod; Khan, Parimal K

2012-01-01

185

Evaluation of medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan for antimelanogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of searching for new materials to use as whitening agents, we screened 19 methanol extracts prepared from 14\\u000a medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan province, Indonesia. The screening methods used were the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl\\u000a (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay, a tyrosinase inhibition assay, and a melanin formation inhibition assay using B16 melanoma\\u000a cells. The extracts of Willughbeia coriacea (bark part of

Enos Tangke Arung; Irawan Wijaya Kusuma; Eva Oktoberiani Christy; Kuniyoshi Shimizu; Ryuichiro Kondo

2009-01-01

186

Screening of Korean medicinal plants for lipase inhibitory activity.  

PubMed

The pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of the aqueous ethanol extracts obtained from 19 medicinal plants was evaluated in vitro by a continuous-monitoring pH-Stat technique using tributyrin as a substrate. Of the extracts tested, those of Juniperus communis (bark) and Illicium religiosum (wood) exhibited the strongest activity with an IC50 value of 20.4 and 21.9 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:16041737

Kim, Hye Young; Kang, Mun Hui

2005-04-01

187

Ethnomedicinal and phytochemical review of Pakistani medicinal plants used as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Medicinal plants have always been part of human culture and have the potential to cure different diseases caused by microorganisms. In Pakistan, biologists are mainly focusing on plants’ antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli due to its increasing resistance to antibiotics. In total, extracts from 34 ethnomedicinally valuable Pakistani plants were reported for in-vitro anti-E. coli activities. Mostly methanolic extracts of medicinal plants were used in different studies, which have shown comparatively higher inhibitory activities against E. coli than n-hexane and aqueous extracts. It has been found that increasing concentration (mg/ml) of methanolic extract can significantly increase (p medicinal plants are extracted in solvents others than above, which should also be tested against E. coli. Moreover, medicinal plant species must be fully explored phytochemically, which may lead to the development of new drugs. PMID:25135359

2014-01-01

188

Cameroonian Medicinal Plants: Pharmacology and Derived Natural Products  

PubMed Central

Many developing countries including Cameroon have mortality patterns that reflect high levels of infectious diseases and the risk of death during pregnancy and childbirth, in addition to cancers, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases that account for most deaths in the developed world. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally for their treatment. In this review, plants used in Cameroonian traditional medicine with evidence for the activities of their crude extracts and/or derived products have been discussed. A considerable number of plant extracts and isolated compounds possess significant antimicrobial, anti-parasitic including antimalarial, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes, and antioxidant effects. Most of the biologically active compounds belong to terpenoids, phenolics, and alkaloids. Terpenoids from Cameroonian plants showed best activities as anti-parasitic, but rather poor antimicrobial effects. The best antimicrobial, anti-proliferative, and antioxidant compounds were phenolics. In conclusion, many medicinal plants traditionally used in Cameroon to treat various ailments displayed good activities in vitro. This explains the endeavor of Cameroonian research institutes in drug discovery from indigenous medicinal plants. However, much work is still to be done to standardize methodologies and to study the mechanisms of action of isolated natural products. PMID:21833168

Kuete, Victor; Efferth, Thomas

2010-01-01

189

Antiviral screening of British Columbian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred methanolic plant extracts were screened for antiviral activity against seven viruses. Twelve extracts were found to have antiviral activity at the non-cytotoxic concentrations tested. The extracts of Rosa nutkana and Amelanchier alnifolia, both members of the Rosaceae, were very active against an enteric coronavirus. A root extract of another member of the Rosaceae, Potentilla arguta, completely inhibited respiratory

A. R. McCutcheon; T. E. Roberts; E. Gibbons; S. M. Ellis; L. A. Babiuk; R. E. W. Hancock; G. H. N. Towers

1995-01-01

190

In vitro and in vivo inhibitory activities of four Indian medicinal plant extracts and their major components on rat aldose reductase and generation of advanced glycation endproducts.  

PubMed

The polyol enzyme aldose reductase (AR) and advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) play an important role in diabetic complications such as cataracts. The purpose of this study was to investigate four standardized plant extracts used for the treatment of diabetes and related diseases, and their principal components for AR inhibitory activity and to find out their influence in diabetic complications. Thus, Boswellia serrata Triana & Planch. (Burseraceae), Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. (Lythraceae), Ocimum gratissimum (L.) (Lamiaceae) and Syzygium cumin (L.) Skeels. (Myrthaceae) and their respective major constituents, boswellic acid, corosolic acid, ursolic acid and ellagic acid, were studied for their inhibitory activity against rat lens AR, rat kidney AR, human recombinant AR and generation of AGEs. In addition, in vivo inhibition of lens galactitol accumulation by the major constituents of the plants in galactose-fed rat has been studied. The results revealed that all the tested extracts and their active ingredients possess significant AR inhibitory actions in both in vitro and in vivo assays with urosolic acid showing the most potent effect. Furthermore, the study indicates the potential of the studied plants and their major constituents as possible protective agents against long-term diabetic complications. PMID:22826152

Rao, Ajmeera Rama; Veeresham, Ciddi; Asres, Kaleab

2013-05-01

191

Antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants and its relationship with their antioxidant property  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic extract (75%) of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis and their combination named ‘Triphala’ (equal proportion of above three plant extracts) are being used extensively in Indian system of medicine. They were found to inhibit lipid peroxide formation and to scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in vitro. The concentration of plant extracts that inhibited 50% of lipid peroxidation induced

M. C Sabu; Ramadasan Kuttan

2002-01-01

192

Comparative evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of some Indian medicinal plants in alloxan diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our experiments 30 hypoglycaemic medicinal plants (known and less known) have been selected for thorough studies from indigenous folk medicines, Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha systems of medicines. In all the experiments with different herbal samples (vacuum dried 95% ethanolic extracts), definite blood glucose lowering effect within 2 weeks have been confirmed in alloxan diabetic albino rats. Blood glucose values

Ajit Kar; B. K Choudhary; N. G Bandyopadhyay

2003-01-01

193

Medicinal plants: traditions of yesterday and drugs of tomorrow.  

PubMed

Plants have provided Man with all his needs in terms of shelter, clothing, food, flavours and fragrances as not the least, medicines. Plants have formed the basis of sophisticated traditional medicine systems among which are Ayurvedic, Unani, Chinese amongst others. These systems of medicine have given rise to some important drugs still in use today. Among the lesser-known systems of medicines are the African and Australian, Central and South American amongst others. The search for new molecules, nowadays, has taken a slightly different route where the science of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacognosy are being used as guide to lead the chemist towards different sources and classes of compounds. It is in this context that the flora of the tropics by virtue of its diversity has a significant role to play in being able to provide new leads. Nonetheless the issue of sovereignty and property rights should also be addressed in line with the Convention for Biological Diversity (CBD). This paper highlights the above, provides an overview of the classes of molecules present in plants and gives some examples of the types of molecules and secondary metabolites that have led to the development of these pharmacologically active extracts. The paper also presents some data on the use of plant products in the development of functional foods, addresses the needs for validation of plant extracts and always stressing on safety, efficacy and quality of phyto-medications. PMID:16105678

Gurib-Fakim, Ameenah

2006-02-01

194

Medicinal plants in China containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants and remedies are widely used for various ailments throughout the world. Many of these plants contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) which are hepatotoxic, pneumotoxic, genotoxic, neurotoxic, and cytotoxic. As a result of their use in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important not only in China but also in many other countries. This paper will therefore give, a critical overview of PA-containing plants belonging mainly to the families Boraginaceae, Leguminosae (Tribus Crotalarieae), and Asteraceae (Tribus Senecioneae and Eupatorieae). The PAs contained in the 38 plants described here differ widely in their structure and toxicity. Their metabolism and the resulting toxicity will be discussed, the dehydroalkaloids (DHAlk) produced in the liver playing a key role in cases of intoxications. PMID:11082830

Roeder, E

2000-10-01

195

Study of selected indigenous medicinal plants bearing Sesquiterpene Lactones for anticancer activity in Human Breast Cancer Cells.  

E-print Network

??The current study investigated cytotoxicity and apoptotic activities selected indigenous medicinal plant extracts belonging to Withania somnifera of the family Solanacea and Tinospora cordifolia of… (more)

Naseer M

2013-01-01

196

[Antioxidant properties of plant extracts].  

PubMed

Investigation of antioxidant properties of some plants was carried out. A group of plants exhibited antimicrobial activity was studied in detail. Efficiency of plants as antioxidants was tested by the influence of their extracts on the yield of photochemiluminescence of Gly-Trp solutions. Antioxidant properties were examined under conditions when their own absorption was minimized. Riboflavin as additional sensitizer was used in this experiment for superoxide generation. The antioxidant effect was evaluated with regard to single dose of plant extracts and their concentration in human organism. The effect decreases in the following consequence: Hypericum perforatum > Potentilla erectra > Ledum palustre > Plantago major > Salvia officinalis > Chamomilla recutita > Arctostaphylos uva. PMID:9591094

Bol'shakova, I V; Lozovskaia, E L; Sapezhinski?, I I

1998-01-01

197

Anti-inflammatory activity of some Saudi Arabian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Five plants which have been used for the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and gout in the traditional medicine of Saudi Arabia, were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory properties. Of these the ethanolic extract of Capparis decidua and the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa were found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced oedema in rats. These two plants were also tested for their antipyretic and analgesic activity. C. decidua was found to possess significant antipyretic effect. Both of them are devoid of analgesic activity. PMID:3485894

Ageel, A M; Parmar, N S; Mossa, J S; Al-Yahya, M A; Al-Said, M S; Tariq, M

1986-01-01

198

Antiviral screening of British Columbian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

One hundred methanolic plant extracts were screened for antiviral activity against seven viruses. Twelve extracts were found to have antiviral activity at the non-cytotoxic concentrations tested. The extracts of Rosa nutkana and Amelanchier alnifolia, both members of the Rosaceae, were very active against an enteric coronavirus. A root extract of another member of the Rosaceae, Potentilla arguta, completely inhibited respiratory syncytial virus. A Sambucus racemosa branch tip extract was also very active against respiratory syncytial virus while the inner bark extract of Oplopanax horridus partially inhibited this virus. An extract of Ipomopsis aggregata demonstrated very good activity against parainfluenza virus type 3. A Lomatium dissectum root extract completely inhibited the cytopathic effects of rotavirus. In addition to these, extracts prepared from the following plants exhibited antiviral activity against herpesvirus type 1: Cardamine angulata, Conocephalum conicum, Lysichiton americanum, Polypodium glycyrrhiza and Verbascum thapsus. PMID:8847882

McCutcheon, A R; Roberts, T E; Gibbons, E; Ellis, S M; Babiuk, L A; Hancock, R E; Towers, G H

1995-12-01

199

Antiradical efficiency of 20 selected medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant system of a plant comprises a group of chemicals that are highly diverse in their sources, effects and uses. These antioxidants are capable of contracting and damaging free radicals. This investigation deals with a screening and comparison of the antioxidant activities of 20 selected medicinal plants and their parts, individually and in combination with vitamins A, C or

Raka Kamal; Sunita Yadav; Manas Mathur; Pawan Katariya

2011-01-01

200

Antiradical efficiency of 20 selected medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant system of a plant comprises a group of chemicals that are highly diverse in their sources, effects and uses. These antioxidants are capable of contracting and damaging free radicals. This investigation deals with a screening and comparison of the antioxidant activities of 20 selected medicinal plants and their parts, individually and in combination with vitamins A, C or

Raka Kamal; Sunita Yadav; Manas Mathur; Pawan Katariya

2012-01-01

201

Plant part substitution--a way to conserve endangered medicinal plants?  

PubMed

Population growth, urbanization and the unrestricted collection of medicinal plants from the wild is resulting in an over-exploitation of natural resources in southern Africa. Therefore, the management of traditional medicinal plant resources has become a matter of urgency. In southern Africa the most frequently used medicinal plants are slow-growing forest trees, bulbous and tuberous plants, with bark and underground parts being the parts mainly utilized. A strategy which would satisfy the requirements of sustainable harvesting, yet simultaneously provide for primary health care needs, would be the substitution of bark or underground parts with leaves of the same plant. This paper outlines the concept of plant substitution, using preliminary results of our recent investigations into four of the most important and most threatened South African medicinal plants - Eucomis autumnalis (bulb), Siphonochilus aethiopicus (rhizome), Ocotea bullata (bark), and Warburgia salutaris (bark) - as a demonstration of the kind of research necessary. Extracts of various plant parts were compared chemically using TLC-analysis, and pharmacologically in terms of antibacterial activity and cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition in vitro. The importance of the concept of plant part substitution as a strategy for the conservation of medicinal plants in southern Africa is discussed in terms of the results obtained. PMID:10904175

Zschocke, S; Rabe, T; Taylor, J L; Jäger, A K; van Staden, J

2000-07-01

202

Determination of aristolochic acids in medicinal plants (Chinese) prepared medicine using capillary zone electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Aristolochic acids (I and II) are commonly found in medicinal plants such as Radix aristolochiae and have been reported to cause acute hepatitis and end-stage renal failure. The aim of this work was to develop a method for the analysis of aristolochic acids in medicinal plant/Chinese prepared medicine (CPM) using (CZE). The buffer used was 30 mM sodium tetraborate at pH 9.5, detection was at 254 nm, applied voltage at 18 kV and the temperature was set at 25 degrees C. The effect of ionic strength, pH, and applied voltage on the separation was investigated. The precision values (relative standard deviation, RSD, %) for the relative migration time and peak area or peak height for aristolochic acids I and II were found to be less than 0.3% and between 2.6 to 4.0%, respectively. The limit of detection for aristolochic acids I and II was found to be 1.2 and 0.9 mg/L, respectively. The proposed method using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with CZE was used to determine the amount of aristolochic acids in medicinal plants or CPM samples with complex matrix and the results were compared with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Method precision (RSD, n = 6) was found to be less than 4% when those from applied to medicinal plants and CPM samples. PMID:11504058

Ong, E S; Woo, S O

2001-07-01

203

Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of Vietnamese medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Among 288 extracts, prepared from 96 medicinal plants used in Vietnamese traditional medicine to treat gout and related symptoms, 188 demonstrated xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity at 100 microg/ml, with 46 having greater than 50% inhibition. At 50 microg/ml, 168 of the extracts were active, with 21 possessing more than 50% inhibition. At 25 microg/ml, 146 extracts exhibited inhibitory activity, with 8 showing over 50% inhibition, while 126 extracts presented activity at 10 microg/ml, with 2 having greater than 50% inhibition. The MeOH extracts of Artemisia vulgaris, Caesalpinia sappan (collected at the Seven-Mountain area), Blumea balsamifera (collected in Lam Dong province), Chrysanthemum sinense and MeOH-H(2)O extract of Tetracera scandens (Khanh Hoa province) exhibited strong XO inhibitory activity with IC(50) values less than 20 microg/ml. The most active extract was the MeOH extract of the flower of C. sinense with an IC(50) value of 5.1 microg/ml. Activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract led to the isolation of caffeic acid (1), luteolin (2), eriodictyol (3), and 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4). All these compounds showed significant XO inhibitory activity in a concentration-dependent manner, and the activity of 2 was more potent (IC(50) 1.3 microM) than the clinically used drug, allopurinol (IC(50) 2.5 microM). PMID:15340229

Nguyen, Mai Thanh Thi; Awale, Suresh; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Tran, Quan Le; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kadota, Shigetoshi

2004-09-01

204

Medicinal plants and Alzheimer's disease: from ethnobotany to phytotherapy.  

PubMed

The use of complementary medicines, such as plant extracts, in dementia therapy varies according to the different cultural traditions. In orthodox Western medicine, contrasting with that in China and the Far East for example, pharmacological properties of traditional cognitive- or memory-enhancing plants have not been widely investigated in the context of current models of Alzheimer's disease. An exception is Gingko biloba in which the gingkolides have antioxidant, neuroprotective and cholinergic activities relevant to Alzheimer's disease mechanisms. The therapeutic efficacy of Ginkgo extracts in Alzheimer's disease in placebo controlled clinical trials is reportedly similar to currently prescribed drugs such as tacrine or donepezil and, importantly, undesirable side effects of Gingko are minimal. Old European reference books, such as those on medicinal herbs, document a variety of other plants such as Salvia officinalis (sage) and Melissa officinalis (balm) with memory-improving properties, and cholinergic activities have recently been identified in extracts of these plants. Precedents for modern discovery of clinically relevant pharmacological activity in plants with long-established medicinal use include, for example, the interaction of alkaloid opioids in Papaver somniferum (opium poppy) with endogenous opiate receptors in the brain. With recent major advances in understanding the neurobiology of Alzheimer's disease, and as yet limited efficacy of so-called rationally designed therapies, it may be timely to re-explore historical archives for new directions in drug development. This article considers not only the value of an integrative traditional and modern scientific approach to developing new treatments for dementia, but also in the understanding of disease mechanisms. Long before the current biologically-based hypothesis of cholinergic derangement in Alzheimer' s disease emerged, plants now known to contain cholinergic antagonists were recorded for their amnesia- and dementia-inducing properties. PMID:10411211

Perry, E K; Pickering, A T; Wang, W W; Houghton, P J; Perry, N S

1999-05-01

205

Antimicrobial Activity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants Against Enterococcus  

E-print Network

Antimicrobial Activity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants Against Enterococcus faecalis By Daniel, temperate zone of Chile. The collected plants were then tested for antimicrobial activity in a laboratory. #12;Antimicrobial Activity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants Against Enterococcus faecalis Introduction

Firestone, Jeremy

206

In vitro anticancer screening of 24 locally used Nigerian medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Background Plants that are used as traditional medicine represent a relevant pool for selecting plant candidates that may have anticancer properties. In this study, the ethnomedicinal approach was used to select several medicinal plants native to Nigeria, on the basis of their local or traditional uses. The collected plants were then evaluated for cytoxicity. Methods The antitumor activity of methanolic extracts obtained from 24 of the selected plants, were evaluated in vitro on five human cancer cell lines. Results Results obtained from the plants screened indicate that 18 plant extracts of folk medicine exhibited promising cytotoxic activity against human carcinoma cell lines. Erythrophleum suaveolens (Guill. & Perr.) Brenan was found to demonstrate potent anti-cancer activity in this study exhibiting IC50 = 0.2-1.3 ?g/ml. Conclusions Based on the significantly potent activity of some plants extracts reported here, further studies aimed at mechanism elucidation and bio-guided isolation of active anticancer compounds is currently underway. PMID:23565862

2013-01-01

207

Antimicrobial activity of 20 plants used in folkloric medicine in the Palestinian area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of 20 Palestinian plant species used in folk medicine were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against five bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and one yeast (Candida albicans). The plants showed 90% of antimicrobial activity, with significant difference in activity between the different plants. The most antimicrobially active plants were

M. S Ali-Shtayeh; Reem M.-R Yaghmour; Y. R Faidi; Khalid Salem; M. A Al-Nuri

1998-01-01

208

Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities screening of some Brazilian medicinal plants used in Governador Valadares district  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol extracts from medicinal plants commonly used by Governador Valadares people were tested for antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity (BST assay). The field survey was conducted during the years 1997-2000 by means of direct interviews with healing men (\\

Beatriz Gonçalves Brasileiro; Virgínia Ramos Pizziolo; Délio Soares Raslan; Claudia Mashrouah Jamal; Dâmaris Silveira

2006-01-01

209

Screening of medicinal plants used in South African traditional medicine for genotoxic effects.  

PubMed

Dichloromethane and 90% methanol extracts from 51 South African medicinal plants were evaluated for potential genotoxic effects using the bacterial Ames and VITOTOX tests with and without metabolic activation. Dichloromethane extracts from bulbs of Crinum macowanii showed mutagenicity in strain TA98 with and without metabolic activation, whereas extracts from leaves of Chaetacme aristata and foliage of Plumbago auriculata showed mutagenicity and/or toxicity. Extracts from the leaves of Catharanthus roseus and twigs of Combretum mkhzense were mutagenic with metabolic activation only. The only 90% methanol extracts that were mutagenic in strain TA98 were from the leaves of C. roseus and Ziziphus mucronata in the presence of metabolic activation. No genotoxic effects were found in strain TA100 or in the VITOTOX test. PMID:12749823

Elgorashi, Esameldin E; Taylor, Joslyn L S; Maes, Annemarie; van Staden, Johannes; De Kimpe, Norbert; Verschaeve, Luc

2003-07-20

210

Biological activity of common mullein, a medicinal plant.  

PubMed

Common Mullein (Verbascum thapsus L., Scrophulariaceae) is a medicinal plant that has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, asthma, spasmodic coughs, diarrhea and other pulmonary problems. The objective of this study was to assess the biological activity of Common Mullein extracts and commercial Mullein products using selected bench top bioassays, including antibacterial, antitumor, and two toxicity assays--brine shrimp and radish seed. Extracts were prepared in water, ethanol and methanol. Antibacterial activity (especially the water extract) was observed with Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-induced tumors in potato disc tissue were inhibited by all extracts. Toxicity to Brine Shrimp and to radish seed germination and growth was observed at higher concentrations of the extracts. PMID:12241986

Turker, Arzu Ucar; Camper, N D

2002-10-01

211

Screening of Australian medicinal plants for antiviral activity.  

PubMed

Extracts of 40 different plant species used in the traditional medicine of the Australian Aboriginal people have been investigated for antiviral activity. The extracts have been tested for activity against one DNA virus, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and two RNA viruses, Ross River virus (RRV) and poliovirus type 1, at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The most active extracts were the aerial parts of Pterocaulon sphacelatum (Asteraceae) and roots of Dianella longifolia var. grandis (Liliaceae), which inhibited poliovirus at concentrations of 52 and 250 microg/ml, respectively. The extracts of Euphorbia australis (Euphorbiaceae) and Scaevola spinescens (Goodeniaceae) were the most active against HCMV. Extracts of Eremophila latrobei subsp. glabra (Myoporaceae) and Pittosporum phylliraeoides var. microcarpa (Pittosporaceae) exhibited antiviral activity against RRV. PMID:9582007

Semple, S J; Reynolds, G D; O'Leary, M C; Flower, R L

1998-03-01

212

Anticancer Principles from Medicinal Piper (?? H? Ji?o) Plants  

PubMed Central

The ethnomedical uses of Piper (?? Hú Ji?o) plants as anticancer agents, in vitro cytotoxic activity of both extracts and compounds from Piper plants, and in vivo antitumor activity and mechanism of action of selected compounds are reviewed in the present paper. The genus Piper (Piperaceae) contains approximately 2000 species, of which 10 species have been used in traditional medicines to treat cancer or cancer-like symptoms. Studies have shown that 35 extracts from 24 Piper species and 32 compounds from Piper plants possess cytotoxic activity. Amide alkaloids account for 53% of the major active principles. Among them, piplartine (piperlongumine) shows the most promise, being toxic to dozens of cancer cell lines and having excellent in vivo activity. It is worthwhile to conduct further anticancer studies both in vitro and in vivo on Piper plants and their active principles. PMID:24872928

Wang, Yue-Hu; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Jun; Niu, Hong-Mei; Long, Chun-Lin; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

2014-01-01

213

In vitro pharmacological investigation of extracts from some trees used in Sudanese traditional medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts obtained from seven tree species used in Sudanese traditional medicine were screened for antibacterial, anti-cholinesterase activities and investigated for potential mutagenic effects using the Ames test. Antibacterial activity was detected using the micro-dilution assay. The extracts were tested against Gram-positive: Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative: Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Of the plant extracts investigated, 75% showed

I. M. S. Eldeen; J. Van Staden

2007-01-01

214

Antihypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant activity assessment of some plants used as remedy in Turkish folk medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic and aqueous extracts from five plant species used in Turkish traditional medicine were evaluated for in vivo hypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant activities: Agrostemma githago L., Potentilla reptans L., Thymbra spicata var. spicata L., Urtica dioica L. and Viscum album var. album L. We assayed the effects of the administration of plant extracts on serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C, glucose,

Gulcan Avc?; Esra Kupeli; Abdullah Eryavuz; Erdem Yesilada; Ismail Kucukkurt

2006-01-01

215

Powerful hepatoprotective and hepatotoxic plant oligostilbenes, isolated from the Oriental medicinal plant Vitis coignetiae (Vitaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanol extract of the Oriental medicinal plantVitis coignetiae (Vitaceae) showed hepatoprotective activity in the in vitro assay method using primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Activity-guided fractionation of the extract afforded ?-viniferin as an active principle. The protective effect of ?-viniferin against mice carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury in mice was shown by serum enzyme assay as well as by pathological examination.

Y. Oshima; K. Namao; A. Kamijou; S. Matsuoka; M. Nakano; K. Terao; Y. Ohizumi

1995-01-01

216

Antimicrobial activity of selected South African medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Background Nearly 3,000 plant species are used as medicines in South Africa, with approximately 350 species forming the most commonly traded and used medicinal plants. In the present study, twelve South African medicinal plants were selected and tested for their antimicrobial activities against eight microbial species belonging to fungi, Mycobacteria, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods The radiometric respiratory technique using the BACTEC 460 system was used for susceptibility testing against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the liquid micro-broth dilution was used for other antimicrobial assays. Results The results of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations indicated that the methanol extracts from Acacia karoo, Erythrophleum lasianthum and Salvia africana were able to prevent the growth of all the tested microorganisms. All other samples showed selective activities. MIC values below 100??g/ml were recorded with A. karoo, C. dentate, E. lasianthum, P. obligun and S. africana on at least one of the nine tested microorganisms. The best activity (MIC value of 39.06??g/ml) was noted with S. africana against E. coli, S. aureus and M. audouinii, and Knowltonia vesitoria against M. tuberculosis. Conclusion The overall results of the present work provide baseline information for the possible use of the studied South African plant extracts in the treatment of microbial infections. PMID:22704594

2012-01-01

217

Efficacy of Composite Extract from Leaves and Fruits of Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Diabetic Therapy against Oxidative Stress in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress plays a vital role in diabetic complications. To suppress the oxidative stress mediated damage in diabetic pathophysiology, a special focus has been given on composite extract (CE) and making small dose of naturally occurring antidiabetic plants leaf and fruits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial role of CE against alloxan- (ALX-) induced diabetes of Wistar strain rats. A dose-dependent study for CE (25, 50, and 100?mg/kg body weight) was carried out to find the effective dose of the composite compound in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure elevated the blood glucose, plasma advanced oxidation product (AOPP), sialic acid demonstrating disturbed antioxidant status.CE at a dose of 100?mg/kg body weight restored/minimised these alterations towards normal values. In conclusion, small dose of CE possesses the capability of ameliorating the oxidative stress in ALX-induced diabetes and thus could be a promising approach in lessening diabetic complications. PMID:24729889

Kumar, Dileep; Abidi, A. B.

2014-01-01

218

Screening of Nepalese medicinal plants for antiviral activity.  

PubMed

In an ethnopharmacological screening, plants used in Nepalese traditional medicine were evaluated for antiviral activity. Methanolic and methanolic-aqueous extracts derived of 23 species were assayed in two in vitro viral systems, influenza virus/MDCK cells and herpes simplex virus/Vero cells. Two species, Bergenia ligulata and Nerium indicum showed the highest antiinfluenzaviral activity with 50% inhibitory dose of 10 microg/ml. Holoptelia integrifolia and N. indicum exhibited considerable antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus. None of these extracts showed cytotoxic effects. Additionally for B. ligulata and H. integrifolia partial protease inhibitory activity was estimated. PMID:11274826

Rajbhandari, M; Wegner, U; Jülich, M; Schöpke, T; Mentel, R

2001-03-01

219

TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL PLANTS: ANCIENT AND MODERN APPROACH  

PubMed Central

History of medicine and plants dates back to remote past when herbal treatment was the only answer to all kind of ailments. Nowadays, greater emphasis is again being laid to phytotherapy all over the world. Besides, cultivation-cum-setting up herbal gardens are also mooted on hills and plain areas as management of all kinds of diseases is possible through plant drugs sans toxicity. PMID:22556588

Sharma, S. C.; Ahmad, S. Aziz

1992-01-01

220

Antiangiogenic Activity and Pharmacogenomics of Medicinal Plants from Traditional Korean Medicine  

PubMed Central

Aim. In the present study, we investigated the antiangiogenic properties of 59 plants used in traditional Korean medicine. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their modes of action. Methods. A modified chicken-chorioallantoic-membrane (CAM) assay using quail eggs was applied to test for antiangiogenic effects of plant extracts. A molecular docking in silico approached the binding of plant constituents to the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (VEGFR1, VEGFR2). Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling was employed to correlate the 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) of a panel of 60 NCI cell lines to these phytochemicals. Results. Extracts from Acer mono leaves, Reynoutria sachalniensis fruits, Cinnamomum japonicum stems, Eurya japonica leaves, Adenophora racemosa whole plant, Caryopteris incana leaves-stems, and Schisandra chinensis stems inhibited angiogenesis more than 50% in quail eggs. Selected phytochemicals from Korean plants were analyzed in more detail using microarray-based mRNA expression profiles and molecular docking to VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. These results indicate multifactorial modes of action of these natural products. Conclusion. The antiangiogenic activity of plants used in traditional Korean medicine implicates their possible application for diseases where inhibition of blood vessel formation is desired, for example, cancer, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and others. PMID:23970927

Seo, Ean-Jeong; Kuete, Victor; Krusche, Benjamin; Schroder, Sven; Greten, Henry Johannes; Arend, Joachim; Lee, Ik-Soo; Efferth, Thomas

2013-01-01

221

Antimalarial activities of medicinal plants and herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine.  

PubMed

Malaria is one of the world's leading killer infectious diseases with high incidence and morbidity. The problem of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has been aggravating particularly in Southeast Asia. Therefore, development of new potential antimalarial drugs is urgently required. The present study aimed to investigate antimalarial activities of a total of 27 medicinal plants and 5 herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine against chloroquine-resistant (K1) and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) P. falciparum clones. Antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of all plants/herbal formulations against K1 and 3D7 P. falciparum clones was assessed using SYBR Green I-based assay. All plants were initially screened at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml to select the candidate plants that inhibited malaria growth by ?50%. Each candidate plant was further assessed for the IC50 value (concentration that inhibits malaria growth by 50%) to select the potential plants. Selectivity index (SI) of each extract was determined from the IC50 ratio obtained from human renal epithelial cell and K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone. The ethanolic extracts from 19 medicinal plants/herbal formulation exhibited promising activity against both K1 and 3D7 clones of P. falciparum with survival of less than 50% at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml. Among these, the extracts from the eight medicinal plants (Plumbago indica Linn., Garcinia mangostana Linn., Dracaena loureiri Gagnep., Dioscorea membranacea Pierre., Artemisia annua Linn., Piper chaba Hunt., Myristica fragrans Houtt., Kaempferia galanga Linn.) and two herbal formulations (Benjakul Formulation 1 and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai Formulation) showed potent antimalarial activity with median range IC50 values of less than 10 ?g/ml against K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone or both. All except G. mangostana Linn. and A. annua Linn. showed high selective antimalarial activity against both clones with SI>10. Further studies on antimalarial activities in an animal model including molecular mechanisms of action of the isolated active moieties are required. PMID:23340720

Thiengsusuk, Artitaya; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

2013-04-01

222

Repertory of drugs and medicinal plants used in traditional medicine of Afghanistan.  

PubMed

The traditional uses of plants for medicine were studied in Afghanistan. To date, 215 medicinal plants have been identified and are presented in a table with the vernacular name (in Dari, Pashto and Kati), the geographical and ecological distribution, and the medicinal use. This study of traditional medicine demonstrates a close relationship between the kinds of medicinal plants used and pathology, and thus may serve as an indicator of the major health problems of the people. PMID:3682849

Younos, C; Fleurentin, J; Notter, D; Mazars, G; Mortier, F; Pelt, J M

1987-08-01

223

Contact and fumigant activities of aromatic plant extracts and essential oils against Lasioderma serricorne (Coleoptera: Anobiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanol extracts from 30 aromatic medicinal plant species and five plant essential oils were tested for their insecticidal activities against Lasioderma serricorne (F.) adults using direct contact application and fumigation methods. Responses varied with plant material and exposure time. Good insecticidal activity against L. serricorne adults was achieved with extracts of Agastache rugosa whole plant, Cinnamomum cassia bark, Illicium verum

Soon-Il Kim; Chan Park; Myung-Hee Ohh; Hyung-Chan Cho; Young-Joon Ahn

2003-01-01

224

Analytical supercritical fluid extraction of Chinese herbal medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique, followed by GC\\/MS, was developed to separate and determine the volatile components in Chinese herbal medicine. Three kinds of herbs, frankincense, myrrh, andEvodia rutaecarpa were extracted and analyzed. The extraction was carried out using supercritical fluid CO2 at 20 MPa and 50°C. The main factors affecting the efficiency and selectivity of the extraction

X. Ma; X. Yu; Z. Zheng; J. Mao

1991-01-01

225

Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.  

PubMed

Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

2014-01-01

226

Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.  

PubMed

Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae),Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25373231

Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

2014-01-01

227

Bioactivity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants against the Cotton Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci  

PubMed Central

Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

Hammad, E. Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A.; Saliba, N.; Talhouk, S.

2014-01-01

228

Bioactivity evaluation against Artemia salina Leach of medicinal plants used in Brazilian Northeastern folk medicine.  

PubMed

The brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality bioassay offers an advantage in standardization and quality control of botanical products. This test is well correlated with antitumor activity (cytotoxicity) and can be used to monitor the activity of bioactive natural products. This paper reports the bioactivity of ethanol extracts from seven medicinal plants from the Northeast of Brazil (Acmella uliginosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Eugenia uniflora, Plectranthus neochilus, Moringa oleifera, Justicia pectoralis and Equisetum sp.) against Artemia salina. Biological activity was evaluated for extracts at 1, 10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL in triplicate, and the mean lethal concentration values (LC50) were obtained by probit analysis. The species Acmella uliginosa showed the highest bioactivity, and its flower extract was more active than its leaf extract. PMID:22990821

Arcanjo, D D R; Albuquerque, A C M; Melo-Neto, B; Santana, L C L R; Medeiros, M G F; Citó, Amgl

2012-08-01

229

ANTICANCER MEDICINAL PLANT, Epipremnum pinnatum (L.) Engl. CHLOROFORM EXTRACTS ELICITED BOTH APOPTOTIC AND NON-APOPTOTIC CELL DEATHS IN T- 47D MAMMARY CARCINOMA CELLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epipremnum pinnatum (L.) Engl. chloroform extract produced significant growth inhibition against T-47D breast carcinoma cells and analysis of cell death mechanisms indicated that the extract elicited both apoptotic and non-apoptotic programmed cell deaths. T-47D cells exposed to the extract produced a significant up-regulation of c-myc and caspase-3 mRNA expression levels as compared to untreated cells. The up-regulation of caspase-3 mRNA

Tan Mei Lan; Shaida Fariza Sulaiman; Nazalan Najimudin

230

Antiviral activity of some plants used in Nepalese traditional medicine.  

PubMed

Methanolic extracts of 41 plant species belonging to 27 families used in the traditional medicine in Nepal have been investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and influenza virus A by dye uptake assay in the systems HSV-1/Vero cells and influenza virus A/MDCK cells. The extracts of Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Cassiope fastigiata and Thymus linearis showed potent anti-herpes viral activity. The extracts of Allium oreoprasum, Androsace strigilosa, Asparagus filicinus, Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata and Verbascum thapsus exhibited strong anti-influenza viral activity. Only the extracts of A. rivularis and B. ciliata demonstrated remarkable activity against both viruses. PMID:18955262

Rajbhandari, M; Mentel, R; Jha, P K; Chaudhary, R P; Bhattarai, S; Gewali, M B; Karmacharya, N; Hipper, M; Lindequist, U

2009-12-01

231

Antiviral Activity of Some Plants Used in Nepalese Traditional Medicine  

PubMed Central

Methanolic extracts of 41 plant species belonging to 27 families used in the traditional medicine in Nepal have been investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and influenza virus A by dye uptake assay in the systems HSV-1/Vero cells and influenza virus A/MDCK cells. The extracts of Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Cassiope fastigiata and Thymus linearis showed potent anti-herpes viral activity. The extracts of Allium oreoprasum, Androsace strigilosa, Asparagus filicinus, Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata and Verbascum thapsus exhibited strong anti-influenza viral activity. Only the extracts of A. rivularis and B. ciliata demonstrated remarkable activity against both viruses. PMID:18955262

Rajbhandari, M.; Mentel, R.; Jha, P. K.; Chaudhary, R. P.; Bhattarai, S.; Gewali, M. B.; Karmacharya, N.; Hipper, M.

2009-01-01

232

Evaluation of three medicinal plants for anti-microbial activity.  

PubMed

Herbal remedies have a long history of use for gum and tooth problems such as dental caries. The present microbiological study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinal plants (Terminalia chebula Retz., Clitoria ternatea Linn., and Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck.) Merr.) on three pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Staphylococcus aureus). Aqueous extract concentrations (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%) were prepared from the fruits of Terminalia chebula, flowers of Clitoria ternatea, and leaves of Wedelia chinensis. The antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extract concentrations of each plant was tested using agar well diffusion method and the size of the inhibition zone was measured in millimeters. The results obtained showed that the diameter of zone of inhibition increased with increase in concentration of extract and the antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extracts of the three plants was observed in the increasing order - Wedelia chinensis < Clitoria ternatea < Terminalia chebula. It can be concluded that the tested extracts of all the three plants were effective against dental caries causing bacteria. PMID:23723653

Pratap, Gowd M J S; Manoj, Kumar M G; Sai, Shankar A J; Sujatha, B; Sreedevi, E

2012-07-01

233

Phylogenetic Exploration of Medicinal Plant Diversity MedPlant PhD Fellowship  

E-print Network

MedPlant Phylogenetic Exploration of Medicinal Plant Diversity MedPlant PhD Fellowship Incense Phylogenetic Exploration of Medicinal Plant Diversity, MedPlant (www.MedPlant.eu). Project description Burning of incense plants for purification and the use of smoke for medicinal purposes are ancient practices in many

Zürich, Universität

234

Ethnobotanical survey and preliminary evaluation of medicinal plants with antidiarrhoea properties in Sokoto state, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants use in Sokoto state of Nigeria for the treatment of diarrhoeal disorders was conducted. The plants documented were identified botanically and ranked based on informant frequency of citation. Ten top rank plants were then selected and screened for acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and antidiarrhoea properties. A fixed single dose (3000 mg\\/kg b.wt.) of aqueous extract

E. U. Etuk; M. O. Ugwah; O. P. Ajagbonna; P. A. Onyeyili

235

Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of medicinal plants in the world, and espe- cially in South America, contributes significantly to pri- mary health care. Many plants are used in Brazil in the form of crude extracts, infusions or plasters to treat com- mon infections without any scientific evidence of effi- cacy. Pharmacological studies done with essential oils from 15 species of aromatic plants

Fabíola Barbiéri Holetz; Greisiele Lorena Pessini; Neviton Rogério Sanches; Diógenes Aparício Garcia Cortez; Celso Vataru Nakamura; Benedito Prado Dias Filho

2002-01-01

236

PROSPECTS AND PERSPECTIVES OF NATURAL PLANTS PRODUCTS IN MEDICINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A vast majority of population particularly those living in villages depend largely on herbal medicines. Scientific data on a good number of medicinal plants investigated has been well documented. However, only very few drugs of plant origin could reach clinical use and the National Formulary could not adopt even a dozen of plant medicines. For this reason, a special

S. S. GUPTA

237

RESEARCH Open Access Medicinal plants from swidden fallows and sacred  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Medicinal plants from swidden fallows and sacred forest of the Karen and sacred forests as providers of medicinal plants among the Karen and Lawa ethnic minorities in northern equal numbers of medicinal plants were derived from the forest and the fallows. This in turn means

Schierup, Mikkel Heide

238

Medicinal plants for helminth parasite control: facts and fiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of medicinal plants for the prevention and treatment of gastro-intestinal parasitism has its origin in ethnoveterinary medicine. Although until recently the majority of the evidence on the antiparasitic activity of medicinal plants was anecdotal and lacked scientific validity, there is currently an increasing number of controlled experimental studies that aim to verify and quantify such plant activity. There

S. Athanasiadou; J. Githiori; I. Kyriazakis

2007-01-01

239

Anti-inflammatory Activity of Mycelial Extracts from Medicinal Mushrooms.  

PubMed

Medicinal mushrooms have been essential components of traditional Chinese herbal medicines for thousands of years, and they protect against diverse health-related conditions. The components responsible for their anti-inflammatory activity have yet to be fully studied. This study investigates the anti-inflammatory activity of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of mycelia in submerged culture from 5 commercially available medicinal mushrooms, namely Cephalosporium sinensis, Cordyceps mortierella, Hericium erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, and Armillaria mellea. MTT colorimetric assay was applied to measure the cytotoxic effects of different extracts. Their anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated via inhibition against production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) in murine macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7 cells. Of the 20 extracts, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts from C. sinensis, C. mortierella, and G. lucidum; chloroform extracts from H. erinaceus and A. mellea; and ethyl acetate extracts from A. mellea at nontoxic concentrations (<300 ?g/mL) dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced NO production. Among them, the chloroform extract from G. lucidum was the most effective inhibitor, with the lowest half maximal inhibitory concentration (64.09 ± 6.29 ?g/mL) of the LPS-induced NO production. These results indicate that extracts from medicinal mushrooms exhibited anti-inflammatory activity that might be attributable to the inhibition of NO generation and can therefore be considered a useful therapeutic and preventive approach to various inflammation-related diseases. PMID:25271860

Geng, Yan; Zhu, Shuiling; Lu, Zhenming; Xu, Hongyu; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

2014-01-01

240

Intellectual Property Rights for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants are those plants that provide medicines - to prevent disease, maintain health or cure sickness. In one or other form, these plants benefit virtually everyone on the Earth. These plants are also related to various other usages, such as for nutrition, toiletry, bodily care, incense and ritual healing. Aromatic plants are used for their aroma and flavour and

Satyabrata Maiti; Gutam Sridhar; K. A. Geetha

241

Medicinal plants for renal injury prevention  

PubMed Central

It has been estimated that about 20% of men and 25% of women between the ages of 65 and 74 have some degrees of chronic kidney. This complication is attributed to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is an important factor contributing to kidney damage by increasing production of oxidants, particularly insufficiency of endogenous antioxidant defense system. Medicinal plants antioxidants are able to ameliorate oxidative induced kidney damage by reduction of lipid peroxidation and enhancement of scavenging ability of antioxidant defense system. Supplementation of medicinal plants antioxidants might be considered important remedies to abrogate pathology of oxidative stress induced kidney damage, however, single antioxidants do not act the same and might not be beneficial. PMID:25340130

Rafieian-kopaei, Mahmoud

2013-01-01

242

Antiprotease activity of selected Slovak medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Fifty-six methanol extracts obtained from the barks, flowers, leaves and stems of 30 Slovak trees, bushes and herbs used in the traditional medicine of the Small Carpathians, Slovakia, have been screened for antiprotease (trypsin, thrombin and urokinase) activity using chromogenic bioassay. In this study, 14 extracts showed the strong inhibition activity to protease trypsin with IC50 values below 10 microg/mL. The highest inhibition activities were observed for methanol extracts of Acer platanoides IC50 = 1.8 microg/mL, Rhus typhina IC50 = 1.2 microg/mL and Tamarix gallica IC50 = 1.7 microg/mL. However, the results of extracts tested on thrombin were generally different from those observed for trypsin. The most marked inhibition activity to thrombin were estimated for extracts of Castanea sativa IC50 = 73.2 microg/mL, Larix decidua IC50 = 96.9 microg/mL and Rhus typhina IC50 = 20.5 microg/mL. In addition, Acer platanoides and Rhus typhina were the only extracts which showed inhibition activity to urokinase with IC50 = 171.1 microg/mL and IC50 = 38.3 microg/mL, respectively. In addition, Rhus typhina showed the broadest spectrum of inhibition activity to all tested serine proteases and seems to be a prospective new source of natural products as inhibitors of serine proteases. PMID:20225660

Jedinak, A; Valachova, M; Maliar, T; Sturdik, E

2010-02-01

243

Effectiveness of Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas in Western Ghats, India  

E-print Network

Effectiveness of Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas in Western Ghats, India Narayani Barve Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas (MPCA) ? Designated by State Forest Department ? Established early 1990s ? Network of 200 sites all over India... ? Selection based on Plant diversity and known medicinal plant hotspots The Western Ghats (Sahyadri) Biodiversity Hotspot ? Less than 6% of the land area of India, but contains more than 30% of all plant, bird, and mammal species found in the country...

Barve, Narayani

2014-04-25

244

Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Essential oils and ethanolic extracts from the leaves and/or roots of 35 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened for anti-Candida albicans activity. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system. Essential oils from 13 plants showed anti-Candida activity, including Aloysia triphylla, Anthemis nobilis, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cyperus articulatus, Cyperus rotundus, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Mikania glomerata, Mentha piperita, Mentha sp., Stachys byzantina, and Solidago chilensis. The ethanol extract was not effective at any of the concentrations tested. Chemical analyses showed the presence of compounds with known antimicrobial activity, including 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, and menthol. PMID:15707770

Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Sartoratto, Adilson; Rehder, Vera Lúcia Garcia; Delarmelina, Camila

2005-02-28

245

Quorum Sensing Inhibitors for Staphylococcus aureus from Italian Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

Morbidity and mortality estimates due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections continue to rise. Therapeutic options are limited by antibiotic resistance. Anti-pathogenic compounds, which inhibit quorum sensing (QS) pathways, may be a useful alternative to antibiotics. Staphylococcal QS is encoded by the agr locus and is responsible for the production of ?-hemolysin. Quantification of ?-hemolysin found in culture supernatants permits the analysis of agr activity at the translational, rather than transcriptional, level. We employed RP-HPLC techniques to investigate the anti-QS activity of 168 extracts from 104 Italian plants through quantification of ?-hemolysin. Extracts from three medicinal plants (Ballota nigra, Castanea sativa, and Sambucus ebulus) exhibited a dose-dependent response in the production of ?-hemolysin, indicating strong anti-QS activity in a pathogenic MRSA isolate. PMID:20645243

Quave, Cassandra L.; Plano, Lisa R.W.; Bennett, Bradley C.

2010-01-01

246

Quorum sensing inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus from Italian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Morbidity and mortality estimates due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections continue to rise. Therapeutic options are limited by antibiotic resistance. Anti-pathogenic compounds, which inhibit quorum sensing (QS) pathways, may be a useful alternative to antibiotics. Staphylococcal QS is encoded by the AGR locus and is responsible for the production of ?-hemolysin. Quantification of ?-hemolysin found in culture supernatants permits the analysis of AGR activity at the translational rather than transcriptional level. We employed reversed phase high performance chromatographic (RP-HPLC) techniques to investigate the anti-QS activity of 168 extracts from 104 Italian plants through quantification of ?-hemolysin. Extracts from three medicinal plants (Ballota nigra, Castanea sativa, and Sambucus ebulus) exhibited a dose-dependent response in the production of ?-hemolysin, indicating anti-QS activity in a pathogenic MRSA isolate. PMID:20645243

Quave, Cassandra L; Plano, Lisa R W; Bennett, Bradley C

2011-01-01

247

Search for antiviral activity in higher plant extracts.  

PubMed

In the course of our search for plant natural products as antiviral agents, extracts of ten plants from the Iberian Peninsula were tested for antiviral activity against herpes simplex type I (HSV-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and poliovirus type 1. Aqueous extracts of five of these medicinal plants, namely Nepeta nepetella (150-500 microg/mL), Nepeta coerulea (150-500 microg/mL), Nepeta tuberosa (150-500 microg/mL), Dittrichia viscosa (50-125 microg/mL) and Sanguisorba minor magnolii (50-125 microg/mL), showed a clear antiviral activity against two different DNA and RNA viruses, i.e. HSV-1 and VSV. Only the medicinal plant Dittrichia viscosa was active against an additional virus, poliovirus type 1. PMID:11113996

Abad, M J; Guerra, J A; Bermejo, P; Irurzun, A; Carrasco, L

2000-12-01

248

Medicinal plants and food medicines in the folk traditions of the upper Lucca Province, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethnopharmacobotanical survey of the medicinal plants and food medicines of the northern part of Lucca Province, north-west Tuscany, central Italy, was carried out. The geographical isolation of this area has permitted the survival of a rich folk phytotherapy involving medicinal herbs and also vegetable resources used by locals as food medicine. Among these are the uncommon use of Ballota

A Pieroni

2000-01-01

249

Antiviral activities of Nepalese medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a screening of plants used traditionally in Nepal to treat diseases that could be caused by viruses, methanol extracts from 21 species were assayed for activity against three mammalian viruses: herpes simplex virus, Sindbis virus and poliovirus. Assays were performed in UV-A or visible light, as well as dark. Individual species of Hypericum, Lygodium, and Maesa exhibited impressive antiviral

R. S. L. Taylor; N. P. Manandhar; J. B. Hudson; G. H. N. Towers

1996-01-01

250

Screening of anti- Helicobacter pylori herbs deriving from Taiwanese folk medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, extracts from 50 Taiwanese folk medicinal plants were examined and screened for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. Ninety-five percent ethanol was used for herbal extraction. Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr. (PSM), Plumbago zeylanica L. (PZL), Anisomeles indica (L.) O. Kuntze (AIOK), Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) and Alpinia speciosa (J. C. Wendl.) K. Schum. (ASKS) and Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) all

Yuan-Chuen Wang; Tung-Liang Huang

2005-01-01

251

Screening of plants used in Danish folk medicine to treat epilepsy and convulsions.  

PubMed

Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 42 plants used in Danish folk medicine for the treatment of epilepsy and convulsions, or for inducing sedation, were tested for affinity to the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor in the flumazenil-binding assay. Ethanolic extracts of leaves of Primula elatior and Primula veris and aerial parts of Tanacetum parthenium exhibited good, dose-dependent affinity. PMID:16293381

Jäger, Anna K; Gauguin, Bente; Adsersen, Anne; Gudiksen, Lene

2006-04-21

252

Biotechnology and Pharmacological Evaluation of Medicinal Plants: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants contain a wide variety of active principles that have been exploited for the treatment of various ailments by a majority of the world's population. In recent years, many advanced biotechnological methods are employed to select, multiply, improve, and analyze medicinal plants for their application in traditional and modern medicinal preparations and drug discovery. The purpose of the present

Hrudayanath Thatoi; Jayanta Kumar Patra

2011-01-01

253

[Use of medicinal plants against scorpionic and ophidian venoms].  

PubMed

The scorpionic and ophidian envenomations are a serious public health problem in Tunisia especially in Southeastern regions. In these regions Artemisia campestris L is a plant well known which has a very important place in traditional medicine for its effectiveness against alleged venom of scorpions and snakes. In this work, we tested for the first time, the anti-venomous activity of Artemisia campestris L against the scorpion Androctonus australis garzonii and the viper Macrovipera lebetina venoms. Assays were conducted by fixing the dose of extract to3 mg/mouse while doses of venom are variable. The leaves of Artemisia campestris L were extracted by various organic solvents (Ether of oil, ethyl acetate, methanol and ethanol) and each extract was tested for its venom neutralizing capacity. For the ethanolic extract, a significant activity with respect to the venoms of scorpion Androctonus australis garzonii (Aag), was detected. Similarly, a significant neutralizing activity against the venom of a viper Macrovipera lebetina (Ml), was obtained with the dichloromethane extract. These results suggest the presence of two different type of chemical components in this plant: those neutralizing the venom of scorpion are soluble in ethanol whereas those neutralizing the venom of viper are soluble in dichloromethane. PMID:19388583

Memmi, A; Sansa, G; Rjeibi, I; El Ayeb, M; Srairi-Abid, N; Bellasfer, Z; Fekhih, A

2007-01-01

254

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in medicinal plants of Mongolia, Nepal and Tibet.  

PubMed

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widely distributed in many plant families. Most of them are hazardous for humans and domestic animals. PA also occur in many medicinal plants. This is of importance because in Western countries the use of plants or preparations of them is more and more increasing. Especially plants of the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) have increased in popularity. Similarly, people are also focused on medicinal plants from other traditional medicines. Nowadays the Traditional Mongolian Medicine (TMM), the Traditional Nepalese Medicine (TNM), and the Tibetan System of Medicine (TSM) are becoming more and more of interest. In those countries application of those phytopharmaceutics is based on its traditional use but a scientific investigation--especially for possible toxic side-effects--is often missing. This paper gives an overview on traditionally used plants from Nepal, Mongolia and Tibet with respect to its content or its possible content of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. PMID:20099513

Roeder, E; Wiedenfeld, H

2009-11-01

255

Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of some Philippine medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

The genotoxicity and toxicity of ethnomedicinal Philippine plants, which include Cassia fistula, Derris elliptica, Ficus elastica, Gliciridia sepium, Michelia alba, Morus alba, Pogostemon cablin and Ricinus communis, were tested using the Vitotox assay. The plants are used traditionally to treat several disorders like diabetes, weakness, menorrhagia, headache, toothache and rheumatism. The dried leaves were homogenized for overnight soaking in methanol at room temperature. The resulting alcoholic extracts were filtered and concentrated in vacuo and tested for their genotoxicity and cytotoxicity using Vitotox®. Results showed that the medicinal plants that were tested are not genotoxic nor cytotoxic, except for R. communis and P. cablin, which showed toxicity at high doses (low dilutions) in the absence of S9. PMID:21716927

Chichioco-Hernandez, Christine; Wudarski, Jakub; Gevaert, Lieven; Verschaeve, Luc

2011-01-01

256

Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of some Philippine medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The genotoxicity and toxicity of ethnomedicinal Philippine plants, which include Cassia fistula, Derris elliptica, Ficus elastica, Gliciridia sepium, Michelia alba, Morus alba, Pogostemon cablin and Ricinus communis, were tested using the Vitotox assay. The plants are used traditionally to treat several disorders like diabetes, weakness, menorrhagia, headache, toothache and rheumatism. The dried leaves were homogenized for overnight soaking in methanol at room temperature. The resulting alcoholic extracts were filtered and concentrated in vacuo and tested for their genotoxicity and cytotoxicity using Vitotox®. Results showed that the medicinal plants that were tested are not genotoxic nor cytotoxic, except for R. communis and P. cablin, which showed toxicity at high doses (low dilutions) in the absence of S9. PMID:21716927

Chichioco-Hernandez, Christine; Wudarski, Jakub; Gevaert, Lieven; Verschaeve, Luc

2011-04-01

257

Effects of Three Medicinal Plants Extracts in Experimental Diabetes: Antioxidant Enzymes Activities and Plasma Lipids Profiles inComparison with Metformin  

PubMed Central

In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effects of methanolic extracts of the bulbs of Garlic (Allium sativum L., Alliaceae) and Persian shallot (Allium ascalonicum L., Alliaceae ) and leaves of Sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae ), ASE, AAE and SOE respectively, on the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) activities and on the levels of plasma lipids profiles such as triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) in Alloxan diabetic Wistar rats. In comparison with diabetic control rats in diabetic treated rats, AAE increases the activities of SOD (65%), GPX (43%) and CAT (55%). ASE and SOE increase SOD activity by 60% and 33% respectively. ASE reduces TC (34%), SOE decreases TG (40%) and LDL (30%) and AAE reduces VLDL (24%). Metformin exhibits mild antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. Results of quantitative phytochemical analysis show that the methanolic garlic and Persian shallot bulbs extracts contain secondary metabolites including alkaloids (3.490% and 3.430%), glycosides (18.023% and 13.301%) and saponins (0.812% and 0.752%). Methanolic sage leaves extract contains flavonoids (1.014%), glycosides (23.142%) and saponins (2.096%). The total phenolic contents of ASE, AAE and SOE were in order 4.273, 3.621 and 6.548 mg GAE/g dry weight (DW). These results suggest that Allium sativum, Allium ascalonicum and Salvia officinalis are beneficial in the control of diabetes by noticeable antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. PMID:24250517

Fehresti Sani, Mohammad; Montasser Kouhsari, Shideh; Moradabadi, Leila

2012-01-01

258

Effects of Three Medicinal Plants Extracts in Experimental Diabetes: Antioxidant Enzymes Activities and Plasma Lipids Profiles inComparison with Metformin.  

PubMed

In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effects of methanolic extracts of the bulbs of Garlic (Allium sativum L., Alliaceae) and Persian shallot (Allium ascalonicum L., Alliaceae ) and leaves of Sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae ), ASE, AAE and SOE respectively, on the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) activities and on the levels of plasma lipids profiles such as triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) in Alloxan diabetic Wistar rats. In comparison with diabetic control rats in diabetic treated rats, AAE increases the activities of SOD (65%), GPX (43%) and CAT (55%). ASE and SOE increase SOD activity by 60% and 33% respectively. ASE reduces TC (34%), SOE decreases TG (40%) and LDL (30%) and AAE reduces VLDL (24%). Metformin exhibits mild antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. Results of quantitative phytochemical analysis show that the methanolic garlic and Persian shallot bulbs extracts contain secondary metabolites including alkaloids (3.490% and 3.430%), glycosides (18.023% and 13.301%) and saponins (0.812% and 0.752%). Methanolic sage leaves extract contains flavonoids (1.014%), glycosides (23.142%) and saponins (2.096%). The total phenolic contents of ASE, AAE and SOE were in order 4.273, 3.621 and 6.548 mg GAE/g dry weight (DW). These results suggest that Allium sativum, Allium ascalonicum and Salvia officinalis are beneficial in the control of diabetes by noticeable antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. PMID:24250517

Fehresti Sani, Mohammad; Montasser Kouhsari, Shideh; Moradabadi, Leila

2012-01-01

259

Platelet anti-aggregant property of some Moroccan medicinal plants.  

PubMed

It is known that blood platelets may present some dysfunction linked to cardiovascular pathologies such as arterial hypertension. The aim of this work is to examine the in vitro anti-aggregant effect of five medicinal plants among which three were reported as antihypertensive in oriental Morocco: Arbutus unedo (Ericaceae), Urtica dioïca (Urticaceae), and Petroselinum crispum (Apiaceae). The two other plants were Cistus ladaniferus (Cistaceae) and Equisetum arvense (Equisetaceae). The results obtained showed that all extracts produced a dose-dependent inhibition of thrombin and ADP-induced aggregation. The calculated IC50 (half-maximal inhibition of thrombin and ADP-induced aggregation) was found to be identical in all plant extracts while Urtica dioïca had a higher IC50 value. The effect of plants could be related in part to the polyphenolic compounds present in their extracts suggesting their involvement in the treatment or prevention of platelet aggregation complications linked to cardiovascular diseases. Phytochemical separation must be carried out to identify the active principles responsible for the anti-aggregant effect and elucidate their mechanisms of action. PMID:15325737

Mekhfi, Hassane; El Haouari, Mohammed; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Bnouham, Mohammed; Aziz, Mohammed; Atmani, Fouad; Remmal, Adnane; Ziyyat, Abderrahim

2004-10-01

260

Distribution Mapping of Medicinal Plants: A GIS assisted approach  

E-print Network

Distribution Mapping of Medicinal Plants A GIS assisted approach Vijay Barve, KU Background • Over seven thousand medicinal plants in India being used in indigenous medical systems like Ayurveda, Sidhha, Unani, and Tibetian • Traditional... Knowledge regarding these plants is increasingly realized and being put to use in modern medicinePlant Populations are depleting oHabitat fragmentation oHigh volume trade oUnregulated destructive collection • Need conservation efforts Methodology...

Barve, Vijay

2009-11-18

261

Synergism between plant extract and antimicrobial drugs used on Staphylococcus aureus diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Searches for substances with antimicrobial activity are frequent, and medicinal plants have been considered interesting by some researchers since they are frequently used in popular medicine as remedies for many infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to verify the synergism between 13 antimicrobial drugs and 8 plant extracts - \\

Joyce Elaine Cristina Betoni; Rebeca Passarelli Mantovani; Lidiane Nunes Barbosa; Luiz Claudio Di Stasi; Ary Fernandes Junior

2006-01-01

262

[Comparative study on the original plant differences of Chinese traditional medicines and Japanese Kampo medicines].  

PubMed

Based on the Chinese pharmacopeia 2000 ed and Japanese pharmacopeia 14st ed., the original plant differencesof Chinese raditional medicines and Japanese Kampo medicines were compared by making list. The differences and reasons were analyzed. PMID:15506274

Chen, Hu-Biao; Cai, Shao-Qing; Mikage, Masayuki; Naoko, Kondo

2004-08-01

263

Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State  

PubMed Central

Background The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee traditional medicine. We tested the hypothesis that extracts from Haudenosaunee medicinal plants used to treat symptoms often caused by bacterial infection would show antibacterial properties in laboratory assays, and that these extracts would be more effective against moderately virulent bacteria than less virulent bacteria. Methods After identification and harvesting, a total of 57 different aqueous extractions were made from 15 plant species. Nine plant species were used in Haudenosaunee medicines and six plant species, of which three are native to the region and three are introduced, were not used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial activity against mostly avirulent (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis) and moderately virulent (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus) microbes was inferred through replicate disc diffusion assays; and observed and statistically predicted MIC values were determined through replicate serial dilution assays. Results Although there was not complete concordance between the traditional use of Haudenosaunee medicinal plants and antibacterial activity, our data support the hypothesis that the selection and use of these plants to treat disease was not random. In particular, four plant species exhibited antimicrobial properties as expected (Achillea millefolium, Ipomoea pandurata, Hieracium pilosella, and Solidago canadensis), with particularly strong effectiveness against S. typhimurium. In addition, extractions from two of the introduced species (Hesperis matronalis and Rosa multiflora) were effective against this pathogen. Conclusions Our data suggest that further screening of plants used in traditional Haudenosaunee medicine is warranted, and we put forward several species for further investigation of activity against S. typhimurium (A. millefolium, H. matronalis, I. pandurata, H. pilosella, R. multiflora, S. canadensis). PMID:21054887

2010-01-01

264

Screening of hundred Rwandese medicinal plants for antimicrobial and antiviral properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of 100 Rwandese medicinal plants (267 plant extracts), used by traditional healers to treat infections, were screened for antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties. The results of the testing showed that 45% were active against Staphylococcus aureus, 2% against Escherichia coli, 16% against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 7% against Candida albicans, 80% against Microsporum canis and 60% against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Not

A. J. Vlietinck; L. Van Hoof; J. Totté; A. Lasure; D. Vanden Berghe; P. C. Rwangabo; J. Mvukiyumwami

1995-01-01

265

Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of plants used in traditional Romanian herbal medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of herbal plants from Romania widely used as natural food additives or for health promotion in traditional medicine\\u000a were investigated for their antioxidant activity. Methanol extracts were obtained from plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family (lavender Lavandula angustifolia L.; lemon balm Melissa officinalis; sage Salvia officinalis; oregano Origanum vulgare L.; rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis L.; thyme Thymus vulgaris L.;

Iuliana Spiridon; Ruxanda Bodirlau; Carmen-Alice Teaca

2011-01-01

266

Multimedia-based Medicinal Plants Sustainability Management System  

E-print Network

Medicinal plants are increasingly recognized worldwide as an alternative source of efficacious and inexpensive medications to synthetic chemo-therapeutic compound. Rapid declining wild stocks of medicinal plants accompanied by adulteration and species substitutions reduce their efficacy, quality and safety. Consequently, the low accessibility to and non-affordability of orthodox medicine costs by rural dwellers to be healthy and economically productive further threaten their life expectancy. Finding comprehensive information on medicinal plants of conservation concern at a global level has been difficult. This has created a gap between computing technologies' promises and expectations in the healing process under complementary and alternative medicine. This paper presents the design and implementation of a Multimedia-based Medicinal Plants Sustainability Management System addressing these concerns. Medicinal plants' details for designing the system were collected through semi-structured interviews and databas...

Omogbadegun, Zacchaeus; Ayo, Charles; Mbarika, Victor; Omoregbe, Nicholas; Otofia, Efe; Chieze, Frank

2011-01-01

267

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia  

PubMed Central

Background Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. Methods Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma Imperatae (Baimaogen) were investigated for their potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Results Extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis had the strongest activities against M. Smegmatis, C. albicans, B. subtilis and S. aureus. Boiled extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, Folium Murraya Koenigii, Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis and Herba Houttuyniae demonstrated greater antioxidant activities than other tested medicinal plants. Conclusion Among the eight tested medicinal plants, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis showed the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different methods of extraction yield different spectra of bioactivities. PMID:19038060

Chan, Lai Wah; Cheah, Emily LC; Saw, Constance LL; Weng, Wanyu; Heng, Paul WS

2008-01-01

268

Screening Togolese medicinal plants for few pharmacological properties  

PubMed Central

Background: Terminalia macroptera Guill. et Perr. (Combretaceae), Sida alba L. (Malvaceae), Prosopis africana Guill et Perr. Taub. (Mimosaceae), Bridelia ferruginea Benth. (Euphorbiaceae), and Vetiveria nigritana Stapf. (Asteraceae) are traditionally used in Togolese folk medicine to treat several diseases including microbial infections. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and hemolytic properties of the crude extracts of the above-mentioned plants. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial and the antioxidant activities were assayed using the NCCLS microdilution method and the DPPH free radical scavenging, respectively. Human A+ red blood cells were used to perform the hemolytic assay. Phenolics were further quantified in the extracts using spectrophotometric methods. Results: Minimal inhibitory concentrations in the range of 230-1800 ?g/ml were recorded in the NCCLS broth microdilution for both bacterial and fungal strains with methanol extracts. The DPPH radical scavenging assay yielded interesting antioxidant activities of the extracts of P. africana and T. macroptera (IC50 values of 0.003 ± 0.00 ?g/ml and 0.05 ± 0.03 ?g/ml, respectively). These activities were positively correlated with the total phenolic contents and negatively correlated with the proanthocyanidin content of the extracts. The hemolytic assay revealed that great hemolysis occurred with the methanol extracts of T. macroptera, S. longepedunculata, and B. ferruginea. Conclusion: These results support in part the use of the selected plants in the treatment of microbial infections. In addition, the plant showed an interesting antioxidant activity that could be useful in the management of oxidative stress. PMID:22518084

Karou, Simplice D.; Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Tchibozo, Micheline Agassounon Djikpo; Anani, Kokou; Ouattara, Lassina; Simpore, Jacques; de Souza, Comlan

2012-01-01

269

Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants against selected human pathogenic bacteria.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are traditionally used for the treatment of human infections. The present study was undertaken to investigate Bergenia ciliata, Jasminum officinale, and Santalum album for their potential activity against human bacterial pathogens. B. ciliata, J. officinale, and S. album extracts were prepared in cold and hot water. The activity of plant extracts and selected antibiotics was evaluated against five bacterial pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli using agar well diffusion method. Among the three medicinal plants, B. ciliata extracts displayed potential activity against bacterial pathogens. Cold water extract of Bergenia ciliate showed the highest activity against B. subtilis, which is comparable with a zone of inhibition exhibited by ceftriaxone and erythromycin. J. officinale and S. album extracts demonstrated variable antibacterial activity. Further studies are needed to explore the novel antibacterial bioactive molecules. PMID:24294497

Khan, Usman Ali; Rahman, Hazir; Niaz, Zeeshan; Qasim, Muhammad; Khan, Jafar; Tayyaba; Rehman, Bushra

2013-12-01

270

Antiradical efficiency of 20 selected medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The antioxidant system of a plant comprises a group of chemicals that are highly diverse in their sources, effects and uses. These antioxidants are capable of contracting and damaging free radicals. This investigation deals with a screening and comparison of the antioxidant activities of 20 selected medicinal plants and their parts, individually and in combination with vitamins A, C or E, using the DPPH radical scavenging method. Phyllanthus emblica L., Santalum album L., Syzygium cumini L. and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. presented highly significant antiradical efficiency (AE) singly and in combination with either vitamin A, C or E. Further, Curcuma longa L., Momordica charantia L., S. cumini, T. foenum-graecum, Moringa oleifera Lam and S. album have also shown fairly significant AE in a vitamin combination dose of 0.001 mM concentration. PMID:22010999

Kamal, Raka; Yadav, Sunita; Mathur, Manas; Katariya, Pawan

2012-01-01

271

Weight Loss in Animals and Humans Treated with 'Weighlevel', a Combination of Four Medicinal Plants Used In Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weighlevel, a mixture of extract of four plants used in traditional Arabic and Islamic medicine as well as in European herbal medicine, was prepared and assessed for its safety and efficacy in weight loss. Leaves of Alchemilla vulgaris, Olea europaea and Mentha longifolia L., as well as seeds of Cuminum cyminum, were used. Cultured human fibroblasts treated with Weighlevel did

Omar Said; Bashar Saad; Stephen Fulder; Khaled Khalil; Eli Kassis

2008-01-01

272

Medicinal plants against hepatitis C virus  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global health concern which is responsible for most of the liver diseases. Currently, there is no vaccine available for prevention of HCV infection due to the high degree of strain variation. The current standard of care is a combination of pegylated interferon ? with ribavirin and boceprevir/telaprevir. This treatment was partially effective and had significant side effects. Hence, there is a need to develop new antiviral agents that interfere with different stages of the HCV life cycle. Recent advances in the understanding of both the cellular and molecular mechanisms of HCV replication have provided the basis for novel therapeutic strategies. Several hundred plant species and their phyto-constituents have been isolated for screening against HCV, and some have been shown to have great medicinal value in preventing and/or ameliorating viral diseases in pre-clinical and clinical trials. This review summarizes medicinal plants and their phytochemicals which inhibit different stages of HCV life cycle and discuss their potential use in HCV therapy. PMID:24659884

Ashfaq, Usman A; Idrees, Sobia

2014-01-01

273

Powerful hepatoprotective and hepatotoxic plant oligostilbenes, isolated from the Oriental medicinal plant Vitis coignetiae (Vitaceae).  

PubMed

The methanol extract of the Oriental medicinal plant Vitis coignetiae (Vitaceae) showed hepatoprotective activity in the in vitro assay method using primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Activity-guided fractionation of the extract afforded epsilon-viniferin as an active principle. The protective effect of epsilon-viniferin against mice carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury in mice was shown by serum enzyme assay as well as by pathological examination. In addition to epsilon-viniferin, plant oligostilbenes, ampelopsins A, C, F and the mixture of vitisin A and cis-vitisin A were also present in the extract. Among them, ampelopsin C and the mixture of vitisin A and cis-vitisin A were found to be powerful hepatotoxins. PMID:7843333

Oshima, Y; Namao, K; Kamijou, A; Matsuoka, S; Nakano, M; Terao, K; Ohizumi, Y

1995-01-15

274

Adjuvant effects and antiserum action potentiation by a (herbal) compound 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid isolated from the root extract of the Indian medicinal plant `sarsaparilla' ( Hemidesmus indicus R. Br.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adjuvant effect and antiserum potentiation of a compound 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid were explored in the present investigation. This compound, isolated and purified from the Indian medicinal plant Hemidesmus indicus R. Br, possessed antisnake venom activity. Rabbits immunized with Vipera russellii venom in the presence and absence of the compound along with Freund's complete adjuvant, produced a precipitating band in

M. I. Alam; A. Gomes

1998-01-01

275

Comparison of Artemisia annua Bioactivities between Traditional Medicine and Chemical Extracts  

PubMed Central

The present work investigates the efficacy of using Artemisia annua in traditional medicine in comparison with chemical extracts of its bioactive molecules. In addition, the effects of location (Egypt and Jericho) on the bioactivities of the plant were investigated. The results showed that water extracts of Artemisia annua from Jericho have stronger antibacterial activities than organic solvent extracts. In contrast, water and organic solvent extracts of the Artemisia annua from Egypt do not have anti-bacterial activity. Furthermore, while the methanol extract of EA displayed high anticancer affects, the water extract of Egypt and the extracts of Jericho did not show significant anticancer activity. Finally, the results showed that the methanol and water extracts of Jericho had the highest antioxidant activity, while the extracts of Egypt had none. The current results validate the scientific bases for the use of Artemisia annua in traditional medicine. In addition, our results suggest that the collection location of the Artemisia annua has an effect on its chemical composition and bioactivities. PMID:24761137

Nageeb, Ahmed; Al-Tawashi, Azza; Mohammad Emwas, Abdul-Hamid; Abdel-Halim Al-Talla, Zeyad; Al-Rifai, Nahla

2013-01-01

276

Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases.  

PubMed

More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group?I?carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-?B and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori eradication and H. pylori induced related gastric disease prevention. PMID:25132753

Wang, Yuan-Chuen

2014-08-14

277

Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Apoptosis by Gugulipid Extract of Ayurvedic Medicine Plant Commiphora mukul in Human Prostate Cancer Cells Is Regulated by c-Jun N-Terminal KinaseS?  

PubMed Central

Gugulipid (GL), extract of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, has been used to treat a variety of ailments. We report an anticancer effect and mechanism of GL against human prostate cancer cells. Treatment with GL significantly inhibited the viability of human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP (androgen-dependent) and its androgen-independent variant (C81) with an IC50 of ?1 ?M (24-h treatment), at pharmacologically relevant concentrations standardized to its major active constituent z-guggulsterone. The GL-induced growth inhibition correlated with apoptosis induction as evidenced by an increase in cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation and sub-G0/G1-DNA fraction, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. The GL-induced apoptosis was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. The induction of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak and a decrease of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein Bcl-2 were observed in GL-treated cells. SV40 immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from Bax-Bak double-knockout mice were significantly more resistant to GL-induced cell killing compared with wild-type cells. It is interesting to note that a representative normal prostate epithelial cell line (PrEC) was relatively more resistant to GL-mediated cellular responses compared with prostate cancer cells. The GL treatment caused the activation of JNK that functioned upstream of Bax activation in apoptosis response. The GL-induced conformational change of Bax and apoptosis were significantly suppressed by genetic suppression of JNK activation. In conclusion, the present study indicates that ROS-dependent apoptosis by GL is regulated by JNK signaling axis. PMID:21115635

Zeng, Yan; Prakash, Lakshmi; Badmaev, Vladmir; Majeed, Muhammed; Singh, Shivendra V.

2011-01-01

278

Biological screening of traditional preparations from some medicinal plants used as antidiarrhoeal in Kinshasa, Congo.  

PubMed

Forty six aqueous extracts from 38 medicinal plant species belonging to different families were selected on the basis of their traditional medicinal use as antidiarrhoeic agents. They were submitted in a broad biological screening including antibacterial, antiamoebic and antispasmodic activities. The results of the testing have indicated that 37 extracts (80.43%), 33 (71.74%) and 32 (69.54%) exhibited some level of antibacterial, antiamoebic and antispasmodic activity respectively. Only 8 plant extracts (17.39%) would act as antidiarrhoeic agents by a triple pronounced antibacterial, antiamoebic and antispasmodic action. They include aqueous extracts from Euphorbia hirta whole plant, leaves of Psidium guajava and Tithonia diversifolia, root bark of Alchornea cordifolia, Heinsia pulchella, Paropsia brazzeana, Rauwolfia obscura and Voacanga africana. PMID:10228613

Tona, L; Kambu, K; Mesia, K; Cimanga, K; Apers, S; De Bruyne, T; Pieters, L; Totté, J; Vlietinck, A J

1999-03-01

279

A chromosome survey of Indian medicinal plants—Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The chromosome number of twenty-eight different medicinal plants have been studied of which twenty-three are reported for\\u000a the first time. One plant had number different from previous observations.

S. N. Sobti; S. D. Singh

1961-01-01

280

Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal plants: a review.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are widely used as home remedies and raw materials for the pharmaceutical industries. Herbal remedies are used in the prevention, treatment and cure of disorders and diseases since ancient times. However, use of medicinal herbs may not meet the requirements of quality, safety and efficacy. During harvesting, handling, storage and distribution, medicinal plants are subjected to contamination by various fungi, which may be responsible for spoilage and production of mycotoxins. The increasing consumption of medicinal plants has made their use a public health problem due to the lack of effective surveillance of the use, efficacy, toxicity and quality of these natural products. The increase in use of medicinal plants may lead to an increase in the intake of mycotoxins therefore contamination of medicinal plants with mycotoxins can contribute to adverse human health problems and therefore represents a special hazard. Numerous natural occurrences of mycotoxins in medicinal plants and traditional herbal medicines have been reported from various countries including Spain, China, Germany, India, Turkey and from Middle East as well. This review discusses the important mycotoxins and their natural occurrences in medicinal plants and their products. PMID:24594211

Ashiq, Samina; Hussain, Mubbashir; Ahmad, Bashir

2014-05-01

281

Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Mexican medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial effects of the Mexican medicinal plants Guazuma ulmifolia, Justicia spicigera, Opuntia joconostle, O. leucotricha, Parkinsonia aculeata, Phoradendron longifolium, P. serotinum, Psittacanthus calyculatus, Tecoma stans and Teucrium cubense were tested against several human multi-drug resistant pathogens, including three Gram (+) and five Gram (-) bacterial species and three fungal species using the disk-diffusion assay. The cytotoxicity of plant extracts on human cancer cell lines and human normal non-cancerous cells was also evaluated using the MTT assay. Phoradendron longifolium, Teucrium cubense, Opuntia joconostle, Tecoma stans and Guazuma ulmifolia showed potent antimicrobial effects against at least one multidrug-resistant microorganism (inhibition zone > 15 mm). Only Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum extracts exerted active cytotoxic effects on human breast cancer cells (IC50 < or = 30 microg/mL). The results showed that Guazuma ulmifolia produced potent antimicrobial effects against Candida albicans and Acinetobacter lwoffii, whereas Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum exerted the highest toxic effects on MCF-7 and HeLa, respectively, which are human cancer cell lines. These three plant species may be important sources of antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents. PMID:22312741

Jacobo-Salcedo, Maria del Rosario; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; González-Espíndola, Luis Angel; Domínguez, Fabiola; Maciel-Torres, Sandra Patricia; García-Lujan, Concepción; González-Martínez, Marisela del Rocio; Gómez-Sánchez, Maricela; Estrada-Castillón, Eduardo; Zapata-Bustos, Rocio; Medellin-Milán, Pedro; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

2011-12-01

282

Effective medicinal plants against enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stimulating effect of subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics on the production of verocytotoxin (VT) by enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 has been claimed. The purpose of this study was to find an alternative, but bioactive medicine for the treatment of this organism. Fifty-eight preparations of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 38 medicinal plant species commonly used in Thailand to cure

Supayang Voravuthikunchai; Amornrat Lortheeranuwat; Wanpen Jeeju; Trechada Sririrak; Souwalak Phongpaichit; Thanomjit Supawita

2004-01-01

283

GC-MS Determination of Organochlorine Pesticides in Five Medicinal Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capilllary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the electron impact (EI) mode and using selected ion monitoring (SIM) has been used to determine the main organochlorine pesticides in five commonly used medicinal plants (mint, vervain, camomile, lime tree and tea). Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is proposed for the treatment of these medicinal herbs. Validation of this step using factorial discriminant analysis (FDA)

J. C. Moltó; B. Lejeune; P. Prognon; D. Pradeau

1994-01-01

284

Medicinal plants in Mexico: healers' consensus and cultural importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants are an important element of indigenous medical systems in Mexico. These resources are usually regarded as part of a culture's traditional knowledge. This study examines the use of medicinal plants in four indigenous groups of Mexican Indians, Maya, Nahua, Zapotec and – for comparative purposes – Mixe. With the first three the methodology was similar, making a direct

Michael Heinrich; Anita Ankli; Barbara Frei; Claudia Weimann; Otto Sticher

1998-01-01

285

Acclimatization studies with cold tolerant medicinal plants in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to find new alternative crops suitable for the Nordic climate, a series of acclimatization agronomic experiments were carried out with cold tolerant medicinal plants at Mikkeli, Finland ( 61°44 N , 27°18 E) during 1985-1999. Medicinal plants with adaptogen effects ( Leuzea carthamoides L., and Rhodiola rosea L.), essential oil containing species with anthelmintic and insect repellent effects

Bertalan Galambosi

286

Quantifying of bactericide properties of medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Extended research has been carried out to clarify the ecological role of plant secondary metabolites (SMs). Although their primary ecological function is self-defence, bioactive compounds have long been used in alternative medicine or in biological control of pests. Several members of the family Labiatae are known to have strong antimicrobial capacity. For testing and quantifying antibacterial activity, most often standard microbial protocols are used, assessing inhibitory activity on a selected strain. In this study the applicability of a microbial ecotoxtest was evaluated to quantify the aggregate bactericide capacity of Labiatae species, based on the bioluminescence inhibition of the bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Striking differences were found amongst herbs, reaching even 10-fold toxicity. Glechoma hederacea L. proved to be the most toxic, with the EC50 of 0.4073 g dried plant/l. LC50 values generated by the standard bioassay seem to be a good indicator of the bactericide property of herbs. Traditional use of the selected herbs shows a good correlation with bioactivity expressed as bioluminescence inhibition, leading to the conclusion that the Vibrio fischeri bioassay can be a good indicator of the overall antibacterial capacity of herbs, at least on a screening level. PMID:21502819

Kováts, Nora; Ács, András; Gölöncsér, Flóra; Barabás, Anikó

2011-06-01

287

Quantifying of bactericide properties of medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Extended research has been carried out to clarify the ecological role of plant secondary metabolites (SMs). Although their primary ecological function is self-defense, bioactive compounds have long been used in alternative medicine or in biological control of pests. Several members of the family Labiatae are known to have strong antimicrobial capacity. For testing and quantifying antibacterial activity, most often standard microbial protocols are used, assessing inhibitory activity on a selected strain. In this study, the applicability of a microbial ecotoxtest was evaluated to quantify the aggregate bactericide capacity of Labiatae species, based on the bioluminescence inhibition of the bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Striking differences were found amongst herbs, reaching even 10-fold toxicity. Glechoma hederacea L. proved to be the most toxic, with the EC50 of 0.4073 g dried plant/l. LC50 values generated by the standard bioassay seem to be a good indicator of the bactericide property of herbs. Traditional use of the selected herbs shows a good correlation with bioactivity expressed as bioluminescence inhibition, leading to the conclusion that the Vibrio fischeri bioassay can be a good indicator of the overall antibacterial capacity of herbs, at least on a screening level. PMID:21502819

Acs, Andras; Goloncser, Flora; Barabas, Aniko

2011-01-01

288

An Overview on the Development in Regulation and Control of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in the Indian System of Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

India have well-recorded and well practiced knowledge of traditional herbal medicines under indigenous systems of medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani. On the other hand, with about 6000 plants representing about 75% of the medicinal needs of the third world countries India is a major worldwide exporter of raw medicinal and aromatic plants and processed plant-based drugs. Government of India

Pulok K. MUKHERJEE; M. VENKATESH; V. KUMAR

2007-01-01

289

Modulation of programmed cell death by medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Programmed cell death (apoptosis), a form of cell death, described by Kerr and Wyllie some 20 years ago, has generated considerable interest in recent years. The mechanisms by which this mode of cell death (seen both in animal and plant cells), takes place have been examined in detail. Extracellular signals and intracellular events have been elaborated. Of interest to the clinician, is the concentrated effort to study pharmacological modulation of programmed cell death. The attempt to influence the natural phenomenon of programmed cell death stems from the fact that it is reduced (like in cancer) or increased (like in neurodegenerative diseases) in several clinical situations. Thus, chemicals that can modify programmed cell death are likely to be potentially useful drugs. From foxglove, which gave digitalis to the Pacific Yew from which came taxol, plants have been a source of research material for useful drugs. Recently, a variety of plant extracts have been investigated for their ability to influence the apoptotic process. This article discusses some of the interesting data. The ability of plants to influence programmed cell death in cancerous cells in an attempt to arrest their proliferation has been the topic of much research. Various cell-lines like HL60, human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (KIM-1), a cholangiocarcinoma cell-line (KMC-1), B-cell hybridomas, U937 a monocytic cell-line, HeLa cells, human lymphoid leukemia (MOLT-4B) cells and K562 cells have been studied. The agents found to induce programmed cell death (measured either morphologically or flow cytometrically) included extracts of plants like mistletoe and Semicarpus anacardium. Isolated compounds like bryonolic acid (from Trichosanthes kirilowii var. Japonica, crocin (from saffron) and allicin (from Allium sativum) have also been found to induce programmed cell death and therefore arrest proliferation. Even Chinese herbal medicine "Sho-saiko-to" induces programmed cell death in selected cancerous cell lines. Of considerable interest is the finding that Panax ginseng prevents irradiation-induced programmed cell death in hair follicles, suggesting important therapeutic implications. Nutraceuticals (dietary plants) like soya bean, garlic, ginger, green tea, etc. which have been suggested, in epidemiological studies, to reduce the incidence of cancer may do so by inducing programmed cell death. Soy bean extracts have been shown to prevent development of diseases like polycystic kidneys, while Artemisia asiatica attenuates cerulein-induced pancreatitis in rats. Interestingly enough, a number of food items as well as herbal medicines have been reported to produce toxic effects by inducing programmed cell death. For example, programmed cell death in isolated rat hepatocytes has been implicated in the hepatitis induced by a herbal medicine containing diterpinoids from germander. Other studies suggest that rapid progression of the betel- and tobacco-related oral squamous cell carcinomas may be associated with a simultaneous involvement of p53 and c-myc leading to inhibition of programmed cell death. Several mechanisms have been identified to underlie the modulation of programmed cell death by plants including endonuclease activation, induction of p53, activation of caspase 3 protease via a Bcl-2-insensitive pathway, potentiate free-radical formation and accumulation of sphinganine. Programmed cell death is a highly conserved mechanism of self-defense, also found to occur in plants. Hence, it is natural to assume that chemicals must exist in them to regulate programmed cell death in them. Thus, plants are likely to prove to be important sources of agents that will modulate programmed cell death. PMID:10726985

Thatte, U; Bagadey, S; Dahanukar, S

2000-02-01

290

Vibriocidal activity of certain medicinal plants used in Indian folklore medicine by tribals of Mahakoshal region of central India  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Screening of the medicinal plants and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Materials and Methods: A simple in vitro screening assay was employed for the standard strain of Vibrio cholerae, 12 isolates of Vibrio cholerae non-O1, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts of different parts of the plants were investigated by using the disk diffusion method. Extracts from 16 medicinal plants were selected on account of the reported traditional uses for the treatment of cholera and gastrointestinal diseases, and they were assayed for vibriocidal activities. Results: The different extracts differed significantly in their vibriocidal properties with respect to different solvents. The MIC values of the plant extracts against test bacteria were found to be in the range of 2.5-20 mg/ml. Conclusions: The results indicated that Lawsonia inermis, Saraca indica, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia belerica, Allium sativum, and Datura stramonium served as broad-spectrum vibriocidal agents. PMID:20442821

Sharma, Anjana; Patel, Virendra Kumar; Chaturvedi, Animesh Navin

2009-01-01

291

Medicinal plants in an urban environment: the medicinal flora of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh  

PubMed Central

Varanasi is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities of the world, and one of the most important Hindu pilgrimage sites. Despite this importance, very little information exits on the cities flora in general, and medicinal species found within its limit in particular. Traditional medicine plays a large role in Indian society. The presented study attempted to investigate if traditional plant use and availability of important common medicinal plants are maintained in urban environments. The paper presents information on the traditional uses of seventy-two plant species collected form the campus of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, and highlights the uses of these plants by the local inhabitants. PMID:17996050

Verma, Archana K; Kumar, Munesh; Bussmann, Rainer W

2007-01-01

292

Medicinal plants popularly used in the Brazilian Tropical Atlantic Forest.  

PubMed

A survey of medicinal plants used by rural and urban inhabitants of the three cities of the Tropical Atlantic Forest, Region of Vale do Ribeira, State of São Paulo, Brazil was performed by means of 200 interviews with medicinal plant users and extractors and, traditional healers. One hundred fourteen herbal remedies were recorded and the following information reported: Latin, vernacular and English names, plant part used, forms of preparation and application of the herbal remedies, medicinal or food uses, areas of plant collection, economic importance (when available) and other data. PMID:11864767

Di Stasi, L C; Oliveira, G P; Carvalhaes, M A; Queiroz, M; Tien, O S; Kakinami, S H; Reis, M S

2002-02-01

293

A database of 389 medicinal plants for diabetes  

PubMed Central

Medicinal plants used to treat hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions are of considerable interest to ethno-botanical community as they are recognized to contain valuable medicinal properties in different parts of the plant. The active principles of many plant species with desired properties are isolated to cure ailments such as diabetes type-1 and type-2, respectively. Here, we describe DiaMedBase, a database containing information of medicinal plants for diabetes. Availability http://www.progenebio.in/DMP/DMP.htm PMID:17597872

Babu, Padavala Ajay; Suneetha, Gadde; Boddepalli, Radha; Lakshmi, Vedurupaka Vasantha; Rani, Talluru Sudha; RamBabu, Yellapu; Srinivas, Kolli

2006-01-01

294

Gitksan medicinal plants-cultural choice and efficacy  

PubMed Central

Background The use of plants for healing by any cultural group is integrally related to local concepts of the nature of disease, the nature of plants, and the world view of the culture. The physical and chemical properties of the plants themselves also bear on their selection by people for medicines, as does the array of plants available for people to choose from. I examine use of medicinal plants from a "biobehavioral" perspective to illuminate cultural selection of plants used for medicine by the Gitksan of northwestern British Columbia, Canada. Methods Consultant consensus, "intercultural consensus", independent use of the same plants by other cultural groups, and phytochemistry and bioassay results from the literature, were employed in analysis of probable empirical efficacy of plant uses. Results 70% of 37 Gitksan medicinal plants were used similarly by other cultures where direct diffusion is not known to have occurred; eleven plants, including the eight most frequently mentioned medicinal plants, also show active phytochemicals or bioassays indicating probable physiologically based therapeutic effects. Conclusion Analysis of intercultural consensus revealed that the majority of cultures in the British Columbia region within the plant ranges use the same plants, or closely related species, in similar ways. The rigor of this analysis is effected by the lack of consistent data on all taxa of interest for all cultures within the region. PMID:16790066

Johnson, Leslie Main

2006-01-01

295

Lysis of Microcystis aeruginosa with Extracts from Chinese Medicinal Herbs  

PubMed Central

Boiling water extracts of 66 selected Chinese medicinal herbs were screened for their anticyanobaterial activity against Microcystis aeruginosa by the soft-agar overlayer (SAO) method. Results indicated that extracts from 16 materials could inhibit the growth of this bacterial species. Among these anticyanobacterial samples, eight extracts showed low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), including four extracts with MICs between 1 and 6 mg/mL, and four extracts with MICs < 1 mg/mL which could be considered useful to prevent the outbreak of cyanobacteria before the appearance of cyanobacterial blooms. Further study showed that three extracts with MIC values < 1 mg/mL induced intensive chlorophyll-a lysis within 7 days at the MIC. The results suggested that highly efficient anticyanobacterial compounds must be involved in the inhibitory activities. The final results indicated these three extracts (from Malaphis chinensis, Cynips gallae-tinctoriae and Fructus mume) had the potential to be developed as algicides due to their remarkably anticyanobacterial activities. PMID:19865537

Yang, Jing-Dong; Hu, Liang-Bin; Zhou, Wei; Yin, Yu-Fen; Chen, Jian; Shi, Zhi-Qi

2009-01-01

296

The in vitro screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant activity of medicinal plants from Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil, ethanolic extract and decoction of 10 plant species from interior Portugal were analyzed for their activity towards acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme and their antioxidant activity. Of these, Melissa officinalis, Paronychia argentea, Sanguisorba minor, Hypericum undulatum and Malva silvestris are used in herbal medicine, Laurus nobilis and Mentha suaveolens as condiments, and Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula pedunculata also

A. Ferreira; C. Proença; M. L. M. Serralheiro; M. E. M. Araújo

2006-01-01

297

In vitro antimycoplasmal activity of six Jordanian medicinal plants against three Mycoplasma species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro effect of six Jordanian traditional medicine plant methanolic extracts were tested against 32 isolates of Mycoplasma species; Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC (6), Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum (8) and M. putrefaciens (18), all isolated from either nasal swabs or milk, from sheep and goats in different regions in Jordan. All Mycoplasma species showed susceptibility to Artemisia herba-alba

W. Al-Momani; E. Abu-Basha; S. Janakat; R. A. J. Nicholas; R. D. Ayling

2007-01-01

298

A Simple Electrochemical Method for the Rapid Estimation of Antioxidant Potentials of Some Selected Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

Clinical and Epidemiological studies have shown that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancers and other related disorders. These beneficial health effects have been attributed in part to the presence of antioxidants in dietary plants. Therefore screening for antioxidant properties of plant extracts has been one of the interests of scientists in this field. Different screening methods have been reported for the evaluation of antioxidant properties of plant extracts in the literature. In the present research a rapid screening method has been introduced based on cyclic voltammetry for antioxidant screening of some selected medicinal plant extracts. Cyclic Voltammetry of methanolic extracts of seven medicinal plants: Buxus hyrcana, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium, Zataria multiflora, Ginkgo biloba, Lippia citriodora and Heptaptera anisoptera was carried out at different scan rates. Based on the interpretation of voltammograms, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium and Ginkgo biloba showed higher antioxidant capability than the others while Lippia citriodora contained the highest amount of antioxidants. Cyclic voltammetry is expected to be a simple method for screening antioxidants and estimating the antioxidant activity of foods and medicinal plants. PMID:25317192

Amidi, Salimeh; Mojab, Faraz; Bayandori Moghaddam, Abdolmajid; Tabib, Kimia; Kobarfard, Farzad

2012-01-01

299

A preliminary investigation of anticholinesterase activity of some Iranian medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some commonly used herbal medicine in Iran to introduce a new source for management of Alzheimer’s disease. A total of 18 aqueous-methanolic extract (1:1; v/v) from the following plants: Brassica alba, Brassica nigra, Camellia sinensis, Cinchona officinalis, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus x aurantium, Ferula assafoetida, Humulus lupulus, Juglans regia, Juniperus sabina, Myristica fragrans, Pelargonium graveolens, Pistacia vera, Punica granatum, Rheum officinale, Rosa damascena, Salix alba, and Zizyphus vulgaris were prepared and screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity using in vitro Ellman spectrophotometric method. Results According to the obtained results, the order of inhibitory activity (IC50 values, ?g /ml) of extracts from highest to the lowest was: C. sinensis (5.96), C. aurantifolia (19.57), Z. vulgaris (24.37), B. nigra (84.30) and R. damascena (93.1). Conclusions The results indicated and confirmed the traditional use of these herbs for management of central nervous system disorders. C. sinensis showed the highest activity in inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. However, further investigations on identification of active components in the extracts are needed. PMID:24401532

2014-01-01

300

Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by somes promising Brazilian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

A microplate assay and a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) "in situ" assay based on the Ellman assay was used to screen for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Brazilian medicinal plants of families that, according to the literature, have traditional uses that might be connected with acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Eighteen species belonging to Convolvulaceae, Crassulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Rutaceae families were tested. The most active plants were Ipomoea asarifolia (IC50 = 0.12 mg/mL), Jatropha curcas (IC50 = 0.25 mg/mL), Jatropha gossypiifolia (IC50 = 0.05 mg/mL), Kalanchoe brasiliensis (IC50 = 0.16 mg/mL) and Senna alata (IC50 = 0.08 mg/mL). The most promising extracts were the Jatropha gossypiifolia and Senna alata species assuming there were compounds with a similar activity to galanthamine, which should contain about 1% of an active compound, or if present at lower levels even more active compounds than galanthamine (IC50 = 0.37 x 10-3 mg/mL) should be present. PMID:21881804

Feitosa, C M; Freitas, R M; Luz, N N N; Bezerra, M Z B; Trevisan, M T S

2011-08-01

301

Are medicinal plants polluted with phthalates?  

PubMed Central

Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) have been employed in polymer materials as a plasticizer to form them more flexible, adhesive, and soluble. These compounds are mainly used in paints, varnishes, personal cares, cosmetics, paper coatings, and adhesives even in bottled waters, shampoo, body deodorant, hairspray, and gels. Phthalates are able to possess remarkable toxic variations depending on their structures. So far, Di-(2-EthylHexyl) Phthalate DEHP and Di-n- Butyl Phthalate DBP have been found to cause reproductive and developmental toxicities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classified DEHP as probable human carcinogen. To the best of our knowledge, phthalates showed diverse toxicity profiles according to their structures in the liver, kidneys, thyroid, and testes, which are involved in general toxicity. Furthermore, they are introduced as hormonally-active agents, because they can interfere with the endocrine system in human. Incidence of developmental abnormalities (like skeletal malformations and cleft palate, and undescended testes, lowering testes weight and anogenital distance) seems increasing via high exposure to phthalate metabolites. Although, increasing the capacity for phthalate free plasticizer productions is the first step to restrict the distribution of these toxic manmade compounds, finding the new ways for phthalate absorption from the soil in agricultural fields may have benefits. Also, evaluation and examination of diverse sources of medicinal and food plants to determine the level of phthalate accumulation in their organs are extremely recommended to avoid creating toxicity particularly in reproductive systems. PMID:23718122

2013-01-01

302

Studies of the anticancer potential of plants used in Bangladeshi folk medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study evaluated the anticancer potential of 11 plants used in Bangladeshi folk medicine. The extracts were tested for cytotoxicity using the brine shrimp lethality assay, sea urchin eggs assay, hemolysis assay and MTT assay using tumor cell lines. The extract of Oroxylum indicum showed the highest toxicity on all tumor cell lines tested, with an IC50 of 19.6?g\\/ml

Letícia Veras Costa-Lotufo; Mahmud Tareq Hassan Khan; Arjumand Ather; Diego Veras Wilke; Paula Christine Jimenez; Cláudia Pessoa; Maria Elisabete Amaral de Moraes; Manoel Odorico de Moraes

2005-01-01

303

Antimicrobial evaluation of certain plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of respiratory diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen crude extracts, including six hexanic, six chloroformic and six methanolic from six different plant species used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of respiratory infections, were evaluated for potential antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus,Enterococcus faecalis,Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. The minimal inhibitory concentration was determined for each extract using a two-fold dilution assay. The

Gabriela Rojas; Juan Lévaro; Jaime Tortoriello; Victor Navarro

2001-01-01

304

Free radical scavenging activity, phenolic contents and cytotoxicity of selected Nigerian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the antioxidant ability, phenolic contents and cytotoxic effects of seven widely edible Nigerian medicinal plants, as a means of validating their ethnomedicinal use. Standard antioxidant assays assessed the capability of the extracts in scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH), and superoxide anion (O2-) radicals, as well as in inhibiting lipid peroxidation. The extracts possessed significant antioxidant activity compared to

Francis M. Awah; Peter N. Uzoegwu; Patrick Ifeonu; Julius O. Oyugi; John Rutherford; XiaoJian Yao; Frauke Fehrmann; Keith R. Fowke; Michael O. Eze

305

Determination of inorganic components in Brazilian medicinal plants by neutron activation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determinations of medicinal extracts obtained\\u000a from the plants.Cordia Verbenacea DC, Folidago Microglossa DC, and Petiveria Alliacea.\\u000a \\u000a Concentrations of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, and Zn have been determined in dried\\u000a extracts of these herbs by short and long irradiations

M. Saiki; M. B. A. Vasconcellos; J. A. A. Sertié

1990-01-01

306

Assessment of Anti-Quorum Sensing Activity for Some Ornamental and Medicinal Plants Native to Egypt  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effects of some plant extracts on the bacterial communication system, expressed as quorum sensing (QS) activity. Quorum sensing has a directly proportional effect on the amount of certain compounds, such as pigments, produced by the bacteria. Alcohol extracts of 23 ornamental and medicinal plants were tested for anti-QS activity by the Chromobacterium violaceum assay using the agar cup diffusion method. The screening revealed the anti-QS activity of six plants; namely the leaves of Adhatoda vasica Nees, Bauhinia purpurea L., Lantana camara L., Myoporum laetum G. Forst.; the fruits of Piper longum L.; and the aerial parts of Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. PMID:23641343

Zaki, Ahmed A.; Shaaban, Mona I.; Hashish, Nadia E.; Amer, Mohamed A.; Lahloub, Mohamed-Farid

2013-01-01

307

Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.  

PubMed

Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use of specific plants. PMID:19429338

Al-Qura'n, S

2009-05-01

308

Polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of Bulgarian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Extracts of 21 plants used in Bulgarian phytotherapy for the treatment of respiratory, gastrointestinal and other inflammatory disorders were screened in vitro for antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds content. Plant extracts were prepared as herbal teas following the ethnic use. The water-phase TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) of the teas were compared to that of the famous tea-like beverages mate, rooibos and honeybush, and to that of green and black tea, well known for their high antioxidant potential. The content of total phenolics in the teas was determined spectrometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and calculated as quercetin equivalents (QE). Seven Bulgarian medicinal plants were with high phenolics content and antioxidant properties: Pulmonaria officinalis L. (Boraginaceae) (TEAC 2.02+/-0.14 mM/QE 673.39+/-9.92 microM), Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae) (TEAC 3.75+/-0.14 mM/QE 881.93+/-6.68 microM), Agrimonia eupatoria L. (Rosaceae) (TEAC 3.76+/-0.5mM/QE 702.29+/-6.82 microM), Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) (TEAC 5.87+/-0.2mM/QE 1653.61+/-11.52 microM), Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (TEAC 4.06+/-0.31 mM/QE 1370.09+/-41.38 microM), Rubus sp. diversa (Rosaceae) (TEAC 4.23+/-0,12 mM/QE 608.95+/-5.95 microM), Cotinus coggygria Scop. (Anacardiaceae) (TEAC 7.05+/-0.19 mM/QE 923.33+/-14.19 microM). Therefore, Bulgarian herbs can be considered to be a rich source of water-soluble antioxidants and/or phenolic compounds as compared to studied foreign plants. PMID:15588663

Ivanova, D; Gerova, D; Chervenkov, T; Yankova, T

2005-01-01

309

Screening of Malian medicinal plants for antifungal, larvicidal, molluscicidal, antioxidant and radical scavenging activities.  

PubMed

A total of 78 different extracts from 20 medicinal plants belonging to 14 plant families from Mali were tested for their antifungal, larvicidal, molluscicidal, antioxidant and radical scavenging activities. Dichloromethane, methanol, water and ethanol extracts were used. TLC autobiography for antifungal activity was run with Cladosporium cucumerinum and Candida albicans. Extracts were also tested on the larvae of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. Molluscicidal activities were established with the snails Biomphalaria glabrata, Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Bulinus truncatus. beta-Carotene and DPPH solutions sprayed on TLC plates were used for antioxidant and radical scavenging assays. Of the extracts investigated, 20% were antioxidant and radical scavengers, 19% fungicidal, 30% were larvicidal and 11% were molluscicidal. Three of the plant extracts, from Cussonia barteri (Araliaceae), Glinus oppositifolius (Aïzoaceae) and Lannea velutina (Anacardiaceae) gave positive responses in all four tests. PMID:11507731

Diallo, D; Marston, A; Terreaux, C; Touré, Y; Paulsen, B S; Hostettmann, K

2001-08-01

310

Drying of medicinal plants with solar energy utilization  

SciTech Connect

In the paper, a potential of solar energy for drying of medicinal plants in Polish conditions is estimated and development of solar drying technologies is presented. The results of economic assessment of flat-plate solar collectors applied for drying of medicinal plants on a farm are promising. In some specific conditions, e.g. drying of wild grown medicinal plants in remote areas, even application of photovoltaic modules for driving of a fan of a solar dryer is a profitable option and enables easy control of the drying air temperature.

Wisniewski, G. [Inst. for Building, Mechanisation and Electrification of Agriculture, Warszawa (Poland)

1997-10-01

311

Bioinformatics opportunities for identification and study of medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Plants have been used as a source of medicine since historic times and several commercially important drugs are of plant-based origin. The traditional approach towards discovery of plant-based drugs often times involves significant amount of time and expenditure. These labor-intensive approaches have struggled to keep pace with the rapid development of high-throughput technologies. In the era of high volume, high-throughput data generation across the biosciences, bioinformatics plays a crucial role. This has generally been the case in the context of drug designing and discovery. However, there has been limited attention to date to the potential application of bioinformatics approaches that can leverage plant-based knowledge. Here, we review bioinformatics studies that have contributed to medicinal plants research. In particular, we highlight areas in medicinal plant research where the application of bioinformatics methodologies may result in quicker and potentially cost-effective leads toward finding plant-based remedies. PMID:22589384

Sharma, Vivekanand

2013-01-01

312

Growth Plant Regulator Effects of Aqueous and Acetonic Extracts of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in Wheat (Triticum sativum) Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat (Triticum sativum) is a monocotyledonous plant from graminea family. The stigma of the Crocus sativus plant, commonly known as saffron is used in traditional medicine as an aphrodisiac, antispasmodic and expectorant. Recent pharmacological studies have demonstrated that saffron extract has antitumorand hypolipidemic effects but growth plant regulator effects of extracts of saffron haven't studied, along. In this investigation, we

D. Hashemloian; O. Ataei-Azimi

313

Evaluation of antibacterial properties of some medicinal plants used in Iran.  

PubMed

Forty-five species of 29 plant families used in the traditional medicine by Iranian people, showed antibacterial activities against one or more of the bacterial species: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumilus, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. No plant showed activity against Serratia marcescens; Bordetella bronchiseptica being the most susceptible species. All extracts showed the same activity 18 months later. PMID:15325735

Bonjar, Shahidi

2004-10-01

314

Traditional Medicines in Africa: An Appraisal of Ten Potent African Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

The use of medicinal plants as a fundamental component of the African traditional healthcare system is perhaps the oldest and the most assorted of all therapeutic systems. In many parts of rural Africa, traditional healers prescribing medicinal plants are the most easily accessible and affordable health resource available to the local community and at times the only therapy that subsists. Nonetheless, there is still a paucity of updated comprehensive compilation of promising medicinal plants from the African continent. The major focus of the present review is to provide an updated overview of 10 promising medicinal plants from the African biodiversity which have short- as well as long-term potential to be developed as future phytopharmaceuticals to treat and/or manage panoply of infectious and chronic conditions. In this endeavour, key scientific databases have been probed to investigate trends in the rapidly increasing number of scientific publications on African traditional medicinal plants. Within the framework of enhancing the significance of traditional African medicinal plants, aspects such as traditional use, phytochemical profile, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies and also future challenges pertaining to the use of these plants have been explored. PMID:24367388

Mahomoodally, M. Fawzi

2013-01-01

315

Preliminary Cytotoxicity Screening of Some Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytotoxic activity of the methanolic extracts of 35 plant species, including 28 traditionally used plants of Bangladesh was evaluated by the brine shrimp lethality bioassay technique. Among these, 19 plant extracts exhibited significant toxicity to brine shrimps with LC50 less than 10 µg\\/ml.

Mohammad S. Rahman; Bilkis Begum; Rasheduzzaman Chowdhury; Khondaker M. Rahman; Mohammad A. Rashid

2008-01-01

316

Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of

S. Al-Qura’n

2009-01-01

317

Potential medicinal plants for CNS disorders: an overview.  

PubMed

Although very few drugs are currently approved by regulatory authorities for treating multi-factorial ailments and disorders of cognition such as Alzheimer's disease, certain plant-derived agents, including, for example, galantamine and rivastigmine (a semi-synthetic derivative of physostigmine) are finding an application in modern medicine. However, in Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine which is more than 5000 years old, selected plants have long been classified as 'medhya rasayanas', from the Sanskrit words 'medhya', meaning intellect or cognition, and 'rasayana', meaning 'rejuvenation'. These plants are used both in herbal and conventional medicine and offer benefits that pharmaceutical drugs lack. In the present article, an attempt has been made to review the most important medicinal plants, including Ginkgo biloba, St John's wort, Kava-kava, Valerian, Bacopa monniera and Convolvulus pluricaulis, which are widely used for their reputed effectiveness in CNS disorders. PMID:16909441

Kumar, Vikas

2006-12-01

318

Plant pigments (antioxidants) of medicinal plants Malva silvestris L. and Malva moschata L. (Malvaceae).  

PubMed

Qualitative-quantitative structure of plant pigments in wild plants Malva silvestrs L. and Malva moschata L. (Malvaceae), which were collected in 20 locations in Sarajevo area and surroundings, was tested during spring and summer in 2003. Acetone extracts of both categories were made and rising paper-chromatography done for the purpose of qualitative analysis. Quantitative analysis was done by spectrophotometry. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and xanthophylls presence was confirmed by separation of pigments from acetone extract of these plant species. Spectrophotometric analysis of acetone extracts showed these results (given in mg/L): chlorophyll a 2,386, chlorophyll b 0,332 and carrotenoides 1,037. Data given in mg/g dry substance are: chlorophyll a 1,193x10(-2), chlorophyll b 1,66x10(-3), and carrotenoides 5,185x10(-3). Pigments structure (in mg/L) in species Malva moschata is 1,6 for chlorophyll; 1,419 for chlorophyll b; and 0,364 for carrotenoides. Data given in mg/g are: chlorophyll a 8x10(-3), chlorophyll b 7,09x10(-3), and carrotenoides 1,82x10(-3). Considering that species Malva moschata L. grows on ecologically clear soils as opposed to well-known medicinal species Malva sylvestris L., and considering the production of phytomass, phytochemical structure and pharmacological influence it can be considered very medical and be given advantage over this wider spread category. PMID:16053456

Redzi?, Sulejman; Hodzi?, Nizama; Tuka, Mijat

2005-05-01

319

Carrier herbal medicine: traditional and contemporary plant use.  

PubMed

The Carrier, an Athapaskan-speaking people of northcentral British Columbia, occupy the sub-boreal spruce forests of the central interior. This report, which is based on field study, documents some traditional and contemporary knowledge of the medicinal use of plants by the Carrier people. Important medicinal plants include: Abies lasiocarpa, Alnus incana, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Artemisia frigida, Fragaria virginiana, Juniperus communis, Picea glauca, Pinus contorta, Populus tremuloides, Rubus idaeus and Shepherdia canadensis. PMID:8735452

Ritch-Krc, E M; Thomas, S; Turner, N J; Towers, G H

1996-06-01

320

Carrier herbal medicine: traditional and contemporary plant use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Carrier, an Athapaskan-speaking people of northcentral British Columbia, occupy the sub-boreal spruce forests of the central interior. This report, which is based on field study, documents some traditional and contemporary knowledge of the medicinal use of plants by the Carrier people. Important medicinal plants include: Abies lasiocarpa, Alnus incana, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Artemisia frigida, Fragaria virginiana, Juniperus communis, Picea glauca,

E. M. Ritch-Krc; S. Thomas; N. J. Turner; G. H. N. Towers

1996-01-01

321

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using medicinal Zizyphus xylopyrus bark extract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Zizyphus xylopyrus bark extract is reported. Z. xylopyrus bark extract is efficiently used for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. UV-Visible spectroscopy showed surface plasmon resonance peaks in the range 413-420 nm confirming the formation of silver nanoparticles. Different factors affecting the synthesis of silver nanoparticles like methodology for the preparation of extract, concentration of silver nitrate solution used for biosynthesis and initial pH of the reaction mixture were studied. The extract prepared with 10 mM AgNO3 solution by reflux extraction method at optimum initial pH of 11, resulted in higher conversion of silver ions to silver nanoparticles as compared with those prepared by open heating or ultrasonication. SEM analysis showed that the biosynthesized nanoparticles are spherical in nature and ranged from 60 to 70 nm in size. EDX suggested that the silver nanoparticles must be capped by the organic components present in the plant extract. This simple process for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Z. xylopyrus is a green technology without the usage of hazardous and toxic solvents and chemicals and hence is environment friendly. The process has several advantages with reference to cost, compatibility for its application in medical and drug delivery, as well as for large-scale commercial production.

Sumi Maria, Babu; Devadiga, Aishwarya; Shetty Kodialbail, Vidya; Saidutta, M. B.

2014-11-01

322

Optimization of a Solvent Extraction Desalination Plant  

E-print Network

. Solvent Extraction Desalination Plant Page 106 3 ~ Solubility of Methyldiethylamine. Selectivity of Methyldiethyl amine Solubility of Methyldiethylamine and Salt Vapor Liquid Equilibria . . . . . . . . ~ Heat of Solution of Methyldiethylamine... showed that secondary and tertiary amines were the best suited solvents available. The preliminary cost estimate was based on incomplete data with tertiary octylamine chosen 1' or the solvent (4). The resulting operating cost and total plant...

Beighle, Phillip Lew

2012-06-07

323

Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of 10 medicinal plants used in northeast Mexico.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to screen the trypanocidal activity of plants used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of various diseases related to parasitic infections. Cultured Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes were incubated for 96h with different concentrations of methanolic extracts obtained from Artemisia mexicana, Castela texana, Cymbopogon citratus, Eryngium heterophyllum, Haematoxylum brasiletto, Lippia graveolens, Marrubium vulgare, Persea americana, Ruta chalepensis and Schinus molle. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined for each extract via a colorimetric method. Among the evaluated species, the methanolic extracts of E. heterophyllum, H. brasiletto, M. vulgare and S. molle exhibited the highest trypanocidal activity, showing percentages of growth inhibition between 88 and 100% at a concentration of 150?g/ml. These medicinal plants may represent a valuable source of new bioactive compounds for the therapeutic treatment of trypanosomiasis. PMID:24742906

Molina-Garza, Zinnia Judith; Bazaldúa-Rodríguez, Aldo Fabio; Quintanilla-Licea, Ramiro; Galaviz-Silva, Lucio

2014-08-01

324

Assessment of antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of some locally used medicinal plants in Sundarban mangrove forest region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyalthia longifolia (Annonaceae), Elaeocarpus serratus (Elaeocarpaceae) and Trachyspermum ammi (Umbelliferae) are traditionally employed to cure various health ailments in Bangladesh. Extracts of these medicinal plants were tested for their potential antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity using the disc diffusion method and the brine shrimp lethality tests respectively. Ethanol extracts of the barks of P. longifolia, leaves of E. serratus and seeds

Shazid M. D. Sharker; Israt Jahan Shahid

325

In Vitro Antioxidant Properties Evaluation of 10 Iranian Medicinal Plants by Different Methods  

PubMed Central

Background There is an interest in finding new and safe antioxidants from natural sources such as medicinal plants. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of ten Iranian medicinal plants extracts. Materials and Methods For antioxidant activity, the radical scavenging activity, reducing power and phenolic contents of ethanol plant extracts were determined. Gallic acid was used as standard reference with well-documented antioxidant activity. Results The highest antioxidant activity in terms of DPPH radical scavenging was found in Verbascum sinuatum L. Var (VS) with an IC50 equal to 263.52 ± 5.981 ?g/ml and Rosa damascena Mill (RD) with and IC50 equal to 287.9 ± 5.675 ?g/ml that are higher than gallic acid (IC50 = 25.32 ± 5.593 ?g/ml). The highest antioxidant activity in terms of ferric reducing capacity was also found in Verbascum sinuatum L. Var extracts (in 85.08 ± 8.66 ?g/ml concentration with absorbance 0.5). Also, this extract contains the highest phenolic compounds (8.53 ± 0.11 mg/g). Conclusion In this study, Verbascum sinuatum L. Var contains the highest level of phenolic compounds may be contribute to higher free radical scavenging activity and reducing power in comparison to the other plant extracts. Therefore this plant is a good candidate as natural antioxidant. PMID:23482923

Moein, Soheila; Moein, Mahmoodreza; Khoshnoud, Mohammad Javad; Kalanteri, Tahereh

2012-01-01

326

Antioxidant activity of Paraguayan plant extracts.  

PubMed

The antioxidant properties of six medical herbs used in the traditional Paraguayan medicine were studied using free radical-generating systems. The methanol extracts from Aristolochia giberti, Cecropia pachystachya, Eugenia uniflora, Piper fulvescens, Schinus weinmannifolia and Schinus terebinthifolia protected against enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation in microsomal membranes of rat. C. pachystachya, E. uniflora, S. weinmannifolia and S. terebinthifolia showed the highest scavenging activity on the superoxide and DPPH radicals. PMID:12628400

Velázquez, E; Tournier, H A; Mordujovich de Buschiazzo, P; Saavedra, G; Schinella, G R

2003-02-01

327

Antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants against multiple antibiotic resistant uropathogens: a study from Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

The increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens necessitates medicinal plants as an alternate therapy in restricting the resistant infectious organisms. In this primitive study, the antibiotic resistance of organisms isolated from urinary tract infected patients was evaluated using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) method and Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index values, and the MAR values was also calculated for plant extracts. The 10 common medicinal plants collected from Kolli hills, Namakkal, south India were extracted using the chloroform, methanol, acetone, ethanol and saponification procedure. The efficacy of the extracts on the uropathogens was tested by agar disc diffusion method in order to analyse the inhibitory activity of plant extract on the organisms. Azadiracta indica A. Juss., Tinospora cordifolia (Wild.) and Euphorbia hirta Linn. exhibited high inhibitory activity against most of the 11 tested organisms followed by Cassia javanica Linn. and Phyllanthus niruri Linn. The maximum zone size of 46.3 mm was exhibited by methanol extract of P. niruri Linn. against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Asparagus racemosus Willd. and Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl had the least activity against resistant pathogens. Saponified lipids of most of the plants exhibited maximum antibacterial activity. Among the tested organisms, P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the most susceptible and Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloaceae, Citrobacter koseri, and Citrobacter freundii were the least inhibited by most of the extracts of medicinal plants. It is concluded that revised antibiotic policies and more importantly the development of herbal medicine as an alternative may be incorporated in urological practice. PMID:21986363

Narayanan, A S; Raja, S S S; Ponmurugan, K; Kandekar, S C; Natarajaseenivasan, K; Maripandi, A; Mandeel, Q A

2011-09-01

328

Essential oil composition and nutrient analysis of selected medicinal plants in Sultanate of Oman  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the nutrients and essential oils of five medicinal plants, Juniperus excelsa (J. excelsa), Dodonaea viscosa, Euryops pinifolius, Teucrium polium (T. polium), and Helianthemum lippii that were collected from Jabal Al Akhdar, Oman. Methods Proximate parameters (moisture, dry matter, ash, crude fats, proteins, fibers, nitrogen, carbohydrates, and energy values) and nutrient analysis (K, Na, Ca, Fe, P, Mg etc.) were evaluated in the five medicinal plants using standard techniques. On the basis of these analysis, T. polium and J. excels were selected for essential oil analysis using a rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method and GC-MS. Results The results showed that leaves of J. excelsa had highest proportion of crude fats, fibers and energy value while ash was highest in T. polium. J. excelsa was also rich in essential minerals such as calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron while the trace elements and heavy metals composition was marginal. A rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method to extract oil from medicinal plants species showed that only T. polium and J. excelsa yielded oil. The chemical composition of essential oils showed higher proportion of delta-3-carene, limonene, ?-eudesmol, ledeneoxide (II), ?-trans-bergamatene, linalyl acetate and germacrene. Conclusions J. excelsa and T. polium are a good source of proximate, minerals and essential oils, which can be considered for healthy life besides their medicinal values.

Hussain, Javid; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Ali, Liaqat; Khan, Abdul Latif; Albroumi, Muhammad Abdullah

2013-01-01

329

Acaricidal activities of the essential oils from several medicinal plants against the carmine spider mite ( Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisd.) (Acarina: Tetranychidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screening for pesticidal activity of plant extracts with some known medicinal attributes could lead to the discovery of new agents for pest control. In the backdrop of recent revival of interest in developing plant-based insecticides, the present study was carried out to find an alternative to synthetic miticides currently used in the control of the devastating greenhouse pest, carmine

Erdal Sertkaya; Kamuran Kaya; Soner Soylu

2010-01-01

330

Inhibition of human P450 enzymes by natural extracts used in traditional medicine.  

PubMed

Different medicinal plants are widely used in Cuba and Mexico to treat several disorders. This paper reports in vitro inhibitory effects on the P450 system of herbal products commonly used by people in Cuba and Mexico in traditional medicine for decades. Experiments were conducted in human liver microsomes. The catalytic activities of CYP1A1/2, 2D6, and 3A4 were measured using specific probe substrates. The Heliopsis longipes extract exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition of the three enzymes, and similar effects were produced by affinin (an alkamide isolated from the H. longipes extract) and two catalytically reduced alkamides. Mangifera indica L. and Thalassia testudinum extracts, two natural polyphenol-rich extracts, diminished CYP1A1/2 and 3A4 activities, but not the CYP2D6 activity. These results suggest that these herbs inhibit the major human P450 enzymes involved in drug metabolism and could induce potential herbal-drug interactions. PMID:18844254

Rodeiro, Idania; Donato, María T; Jimenez, Nuria; Garrido, Gabino; Molina-Torres, Jorge; Menendez, Roberto; Castell, José V; Gómez-Lechón, María J

2009-02-01

331

Chromosome numbers in Indian medicinal plants—II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The paper deals with the chromosome numbers of 31 species of medicinal plants collected from South India, Bombay and Uttar\\u000a Pradesh. The chromosome numbers of 15 species are reported for the first time, 6 of them being now generic counts. In the\\u000a case of five plants, our findings differ from previous observations.

R. Sundara Raghavan; C. M. Arora

1958-01-01

332

Antithrombin activity of medicinal plants of the Azores.  

PubMed

A chromogenic bioassay was utilized to determine the antithrombin activity of methylene chloride and methanol extracts prepared from 50 plants of Azores. Extracts of the six plants Hedychium gardneranum, Tropaeolum majus, Gunnera tinctoria, Hedera helix, Festuca jubata and Laurus azorica demonstrated activity of 78% or higher in this bioassay system. PMID:10967467

de Medeiros, J M; Macedo, M; Contancia, J P; Nguyen, C; Cunningham, G; Miles, D H

2000-09-01

333

Polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of Bulgarian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of 21 plants used in Bulgarian phytotherapy for the treatment of respiratory, gastrointestinal and other inflammatory disorders were screened in vitro for antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds content. Plant extracts were prepared as herbal teas following the ethnic use. The water-phase TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) of the teas were compared to that of the famous tea-like beverages mate,

D. Ivanova; D. Gerova; T. Chervenkov; T. Yankova

2005-01-01

334

Screening of Yemeni medicinal plants for antibacterial and cytotoxic activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic extracts of 20 selected plant species used by Yemeni traditional healers to treat infectious diseases were screened for their antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as for cytotoxic activity. Fourteen of the ethanolic extracts showed variable degrees of antibacterial activity. The active ethanolic extracts were partitioned between ethyl acetate and water for a first separation.

N. A. Awadh Ali; W.-D Jülich; C Kusnick; U Lindequist

2001-01-01

335

Toxicity of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Northern Peru  

PubMed Central

Aim The plant species reported here are traditionally used in Northern Peru for a wide range of illnesses. Most remedies are prepared as ethanol or aqueous extracts and then ingested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of these extracts. Materials and methods The toxicity of ethanolic and water extracts of 341 plant species was determined using a Brine-Shrimp assay. Results Overall 24% of the species in water extract and 76% of the species in alcoholic extract showed elevated toxicity levels to brine-shrimp. Although in most cases multiple extracts of the same species showed very similar toxicity values, in some cases the toxicity of different extracts of the same species varied from non-toxic to highly toxic. Conclusions Traditional preparation methods take different toxicity levels in aqueous and ethanol extracts into account when choosing the appropriate solvent for the preparation of a remedy. PMID:21575699

Bussmann, R.W.; Malca, G.; Glenn, A.; Sharon, D.; Nilsen, B.; Parris, B.; Dubose, D; Ruiz, D.; Saleda, J.; Martinez, M.; Carillo, L.; Walker, K.; Kuhlman, A.; Townesmith, A.

2011-01-01

336

People, plants and health: a conceptual framework for assessing changes in medicinal plant consumption  

PubMed Central

Background A large number of people in both developing and developed countries rely on medicinal plant products to maintain their health or treat illnesses. Available evidence suggests that medicinal plant consumption will remain stable or increase in the short to medium term. Knowledge on what factors determine medicinal plant consumption is, however, scattered across many disciplines, impeding, for example, systematic consideration of plant-based traditional medicine in national health care systems. The aim of the paper is to develop a conceptual framework for understanding medicinal plant consumption dynamics. Consumption is employed in the economic sense: use of medicinal plants by consumers or in the production of other goods. Methods PubMed and Web of Knowledge (formerly Web of Science) were searched using a set of medicinal plant key terms (folk/peasant/rural/traditional/ethno/indigenous/CAM/herbal/botanical/phytotherapy); each search terms was combined with terms related to medicinal plant consumption dynamics (medicinal plants/health care/preference/trade/treatment seeking behavior/domestication/sustainability/conservation/urban/migration/climate change/policy/production systems). To eliminate studies not directly focused on medicinal plant consumption, searches were limited by a number of terms (chemistry/clinical/in vitro/antibacterial/dose/molecular/trial/efficacy/antimicrobial/alkaloid/bioactive/inhibit/antibody/purification/antioxidant/DNA/rat/aqueous). A total of 1940 references were identified; manual screening for relevance reduced this to 645 relevant documents. As the conceptual framework emerged inductively, additional targeted literature searches were undertaken on specific factors and link, bringing the final number of references to 737. Results The paper first defines the four main groups of medicinal plant users (1. Hunter-gatherers, 2. Farmers and pastoralists, 3. Urban and peri-urban people, 4. Entrepreneurs) and the three main types of benefits (consumer, producer, society-wide) derived from medicinal plants usage. Then a single unified conceptual framework for understanding the factors influencing medicinal plant consumption in the economic sense is proposed; the framework distinguishes four spatial levels of analysis (international, national, local, household) and identifies and describes 15 factors and their relationships. Conclusions The framework provides a basis for increasing our conceptual understanding of medicinal plant consumption dynamics, allows a positioning of existing studies, and can serve to guide future research in the area. This would inform the formation of future health and natural resource management policies. PMID:23148504

2012-01-01

337

Identification of Ornamental Plant Functioned as Medicinal Plant based on Redundant Discrete  

E-print Network

Human has a duty to preserve the nature. One of the examples is preserving the ornamental plant. Huge economic value of plant trading, escalating esthetical value of one space, and medicine efficacy that contained in a plant are some positive values from this plant. However, only few people know about its medicine efficacy. Considering the easiness to obtain and the medicine efficacy, this plant should be an initial treatment of a simple disease or option towards chemical based medicines. In order to let people get acquaint, a system that can proper identify this plant is needed. Therefore, this work proposesto build a system based on Redundant Discrete Wavelet Transformation (RDWT) through its leaf. Since its character is translation invariant that able to produce some robust features to identify ornamental plant. This system was successfully resulting 95.83 % of correct classification rate.

Wavelet Transformation; Kohei Arai; Indra Nugraha Abdullah

338

Antihypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant activity assessment of some plants used as remedy in Turkish folk medicine.  

PubMed

Ethanolic and aqueous extracts from five plant species used in Turkish traditional medicine were evaluated for in vivo hypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant activities: Agrostemma githago L., Potentilla reptans L., Thymbra spicata var. spicata L., Urtica dioica L. and Viscum album var. album L. We assayed the effects of the administration of plant extracts on serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C, glucose, AST and ALT concentrations in mice fed with cholesterol-rich diet. In addition, plasma TAA, MDA and NO(x) levels in the same animals were assayed. All the aqueous plant extracts did not affect the serum cholesterol concentration. However, the ethanolic extracts of Agrostemma githago, Thymbra spicata and Viscum album decreased the serum cholesterol concentration in the mice fed with high-cholesterol diet without inducing any gastric damage. The ethanolic extracts of Thymbra spicata, Viscum album, Potentilla reptans and Urtica dioica and the aqueous extract of Agrostemma githago increased the serum HDL concentration, whereas the ethanolic extracts of Agrostemma githago, Thymbra spicata, Viscum album and Urtica dioica decreased the serum LDL-C concentration. Thymbra spicata and Viscum album were observed to decrease the serum triglyceride concentration. Among the plant extracts studied, the ethanolic extracts of Thymbra spicata significantly decreased the MDA level in mice. The ethanolic extract of Potentilla reptans increased in NO(x). None of these plants showed statistically prominent activity on plasma TAA. Results of the present study indicated that the ethanolic extracts of Agrostemma githago, Thymbra spicata and Viscum album showed potent hypocholesterolaemic activity in the mice fed with a diet containing high-cholesterol. PMID:16713156

Avci, Gulcan; Kupeli, Esra; Eryavuz, Abdullah; Yesilada, Erdem; Kucukkurt, Ismail

2006-10-11

339

Phytochemical and biological activities of an anticancer plant medicine: Brucea javanica.  

PubMed

In this review, the literature data on recent advances of the medicinal plant Brucea javanica (L.) Merr. (Simaroubaceae), both phytochemical and biological investigations, are compiled. Brucea javanica is an evergreen shrub distributed widely in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. In China, the seeds of Brucea javanica have been used as traditional herbal medicine due to its multifaceted activities. To date, 153 compounds have been reported from the seeds and aerial parts of Brucea javanica. Quassinoids are the main constituents of this species. The extract of Brucea javanica and the isolated compounds especially quassinoids exhibited various biological properties, such as antitumor and antimalarial effects. PMID:24066797

Zhao, Lijuan; Li, Chao; Zhang, Yao; Wen, Qing; Ren, Dongmei

2014-03-01

340

Preliminary screening of some traditional zulu medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous and methanolic extracts from different parts of nine traditional Zulu medicinal plants, of the Vitaceae from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa were evaluated for therapeutic potential as anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial agents. Of the twenty-nine crude extracts assayed for prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors, only five methanolic extracts of Cyphostemma natalitium-root, Rhoicissus digitata-leaf, R. rhomboidea-root, R. tomentosa-leaf\\/stem and R. tridentata-root showed significant inhibition of

J. Lin; A. R. Opoku; M. Geheeb-Keller; A. D. Hutchings; S. E. Terblanche; A. K. Jager; J. van Staden

1999-01-01

341

Antioxidant activity of five Brazilian plants used as traditional medicines and food in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background: This study evaluates the radical-scavenging activity of five plants used as food and medicines in the northeastern region of Brazil. Materials and Methods: Spectrophotometric analysis of the plants’ ethanol extracts was carried out. The antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl) test. The antioxidant capacity was measured using ascorbic acid as a positive control. Results: All tested plant extracts showed an antioxidant activity, but the highest activity was observed with the extracts of Momordica charantia and Eugenia jambolana. Conclusions: Therefore, these species must be studied as a putative source of products for use in the prevention and treatment of diseases in which oxidants or free radicals are implicated. PMID:21120039

Santos, Allana K. L.; Costa, Jose G. M.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Cansancao, Isaac F.; Santos, Karla K. A.; Matias, Edinardo F. F.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.

2010-01-01

342

In vitro determination of the anti-aging potential of four southern African medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Background Aging is an inevitable process for all living organisms. During this process reactive oxygen species generation is increased which leads to the activation of hyaluronidase, collagenase and elastase, which can further contribute to skin aging. Four southern African medicinal plants; Clerodendrum glabrum, Schotia brachypetala, Psychotria capensis and Peltophorum africanum, were investigated to assess their anti-aging properties. Methods Anti-elastase, anti-collagenase and anti-hyaluronidase activities of twenty-eight samples, consisting of methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of the four plants, were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Radical scavenging activity was determined by the ability of the plant extracts to scavenge the ABTS•+ radical. Results The majority of the samples in the anti-elastase assay and nine in the anti-collagenase assay showed more than 80% inhibition. The ethyl acetate extract of S. brachypetala bark and leaves of P. capensis inhibited elastase activity by more than 90%. The methanol extract of S. brachypetala bark contained the highest anti-hyaluronidase activity (75.13?±?7.49%) whilst the ethyl acetate extract of P. africanum bark exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (IC50: 1.99?±?0.23 ?g/ml). Conclusion The free radical scavenging activity and enzyme inhibitory activity of the plant extracts investigated suggests that they can help restore skin elasticity and thereby slow the wrinkling process. P. africanum was the plant with the most promising activity and will be subjected to further testing and isolation of the active compound/s. PMID:24188320

2013-01-01

343

[The antiradical activity of plant extracts and healthful preventive combinations of these exrtacts with the phospholipid complex].  

PubMed

Using the chemiluminescence method, the effective concentration of antioxidants (AO) and its reactivity toward peroxyl radicals (ARA, the k7 constant) have been measured for 13 plant extracts. In fact all extracts demonstrated ARA higher than ionol. Larix dahurica, Hypericum perforatum, Potentilla fruticosa, Aronia melanocarpa and Rhaponticum carthamoides extracts showed the highest values of ARA. The combinations Aronia + Raponticum extracts; Larix + Hibiscus extracts; Schizandra +Aronia extracts were synergistic (the synergism effect beta of 38%, 33% and 22%). Apparently this phenomenon is the result of the synergistic interaction between compounds present in plant extracts. The Phospholipid complex--Lipoid S40, lacting any antioxidant effect alone, showed a potent synergistic effect with Aronia extract (beta3 = 60%), Silybum extract (beta3 = 41%). Clinical trials demonstrated, that combinations "Lipoid + Aronia extract", "Lipoid + Larix extract + Hibiscus extract", "Lipoid + Silybum extract", "Lipoid + Q10 + Rosa majalis extract" may be used as an additional component in the medicinal treatment, or as an individual prophylactic agent. PMID:23350203

Baranova, V S; Rusina, I F; Guseva, D A; Prozorovskaia, N N; Ipatova, O M; Kasaikina, O T

2012-01-01

344

Extractive Evidence Based Medicine Summarisation Based on Sentence-Specific Abeed Sarker Diego Molla  

E-print Network

Extractive Evidence Based Medicine Summarisation Based on Sentence-Specific Statistics Abeed Sarker system achieves a percentile rank of 97.3%. 1. Introduction Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) urges that this approach improves summarisation results in the challenging domain of Evidence Based Medicine. 1www

Aliod, Diego Mollá

345

Toxicology of some important medicinal plants in southern Africa.  

PubMed

Africa is home to two major floral kingdoms: the Paleotropical kingdom of central Africa and the Capensis kingdom of the Western Cape province of South Africa, the latter of which consists of approximately 10,000 species, representing about 20% of Africa's floral 'gold mine', better known as the Cape herbal medicine. Needless to say, such rich flora comes with numerous plants with a potential to cause poisoning to humans. This review document reports important toxic medicinal plants and their toxic ingredients for plant species resident in the southern African region. These include important medicinal uses and pharmacological properties ranging from antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory as well as those that are used as aphrodisiacs and for maternal health care. PMID:24075916

Ndhlala, Ashwell R; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Okem, Ambrose; Mulaudzi, Rofhiwa B; Van Staden, Johannes

2013-12-01

346

Chronic toxicity, genotoxic assay, and phytochemical analysis of four traditional medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Four medicinal plants--Tecoma stans, Ligusticum porteri, Monarda austromontana, and Poliomintha longiflora, which are distributed in tropical and subtropical countries of the American continent--are widely used in folk medicine to treat diseases such as diarrhea and dysentery. In addition, T. stans and P. longiflora are extensively used as hypoglycemic agents, and M. austromontana and P. longiflora are used as condiments. The plants were collected, identified, dried, and pulverized. Solvent extraction was prepared by maceration of the plant samples, and the phytochemical composition of the extracts was determined by using standard analysis procedures. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of triterpenoids/steroids, flavonoids, and phenols/tannins and, in L. porteri, traces of alkaloids. After the elimination of solvents in vacuo, the extracts were administrated to Drosophila larvae to test their toxicity and genotoxicity. Third instar larvae were chronically fed with the phytoextracts. The extract from L. porteri was toxic, whereas those from T. stans, P. longiflora, and M. austromontana were not. Genotoxic activities of the 4 plants were investigated by using the wing-spot assay of D. melanogaster. Mitomycin C was used as a positive control. No statistically significant increase was observed between treated sample series and a concurrent negative (water) or solvent control sample series. PMID:21554118

Castañeda Sortibrán, América; Téllez, María Guadalupe Ordaz; Ocotero, Verónica Muñoz; Carballo-Ontiveros, Marco Antonio; García, Angélica Méndez; Valdés, Rocio Jimena Jiménez; Gutiérrez, Elizabeth Romero; Rodríguez-Arnaiz, Rosario

2011-09-01

347

Review on medicinal uses, pharmacological, phytochemistry and immunomodulatory activity of plants.  

PubMed

Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Researchers have discovered some important compounds from plants. The present work constitutes a review of the medicinal plants whose immunomodulant activity has been proven. We performed PUBMED, EMBASE, Google scholar searches for research papers of medicinal plants having immunomodulant activity. Medicinal plants used by traditional physicians or reported as having immunomodulant activity include Acacia concocinna, Camellia sinensis, Lawsonia inermis Linn, Piper longum Linn, Gelidium amansii, Petroselinum crispum, Plantago major and Allium sativum. Immunomodulant activities of some of these medicinal plants have been investigated. The medicinal plants documented have immunomodulant activity and should be further investigated via clinical trial. PMID:25280022

Akram, M; Hamid, A; Khalil, A; Ghaffar, A; Tayyaba, N; Saeed, A; Ali, M; Naveed, A

2014-01-01

348

Identification of plant extracts sensitizing breast cancer cells to TRAIL.  

PubMed

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive heterogeneous cancer subgroup with a higher rate of distant recurrence and a poorer prognosis compared to other subgroups. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is an attractive molecule that induces cell death in various tumor cells without causing cytotoxicity to normal cells; however, primary or acquired resistance to TRAIL often limits its efficacy in cancer patients. To develop combination therapies to improve TRAIL efficacy and/or to overcome the resistant mechanism, we screened 138 medicinal plant extracts against TRAIL-sensitive and -insensitive TNBC cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468. Among them, 5 plant extracts, Uvaria dac, Artemisia vulgaris, Cortia depressa, Dichasia bengalensis and Cinnamomum obtusifolium did not cause apparent cytotoxicity (<20%) as a single regimen, but showed significant synergistic effects in combination with TRAIL against both cell lines. Moreover, Uvaria dac, Artemisia vulgaris and Cinnamomum obtusifolium were found to suppress the phosphorylation of p65 that is involved in TRAIL-resistant mechanisms. These observations suggest that the identified plant extracts in combination with TRAIL could lead to potential therapeutic benefits for cancer patients in the clinical setting. PMID:23426404

Abdelhamed, Sherif; Yokoyama, Satoru; Hafiyani, Lia; Kalauni, Surya K; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Awale, Suresh; Saiki, Ikuo

2013-05-01

349

Antioxidant activity of some Jordanian medicinal plants used traditionally for treatment of diabetes.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are being used extensively in Jordanian traditional medicinal system for the treatment of diabetes symptoms. Twenty one plant samples were collected from different Jordanian locations and used for antioxidant evaluation. The level of antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS assays in relation to the total phenolic contents of the medically used parts. The most frequently used plant parts as medicines were fruit, shoot and leaves. The total phenolic contents of methanol and aqueous extracts, from plants parts, ranged from 6.6 to 103.0 and 3.0 to 98.6 GAE mg g(-1) of plant part dry weight, respectively. DPPH-TEAC of the methanol extracts of plants parts were varied from 4.1 to 365.0 mg g(-1) of plant dry weight versus 0.6 to 267.0 mg g(-1) in aqueous extracts. Moreover, the mean values of ABTS*- (IC50) varied from 6.9 to 400.0 microg dry weight mL(-1) ABTS in methanol extracts versus 9.8 to 580.5 microg mL(-1) in aqueous extracts. According to their antioxidant capacity, the plants were divided into three categories: high (DPPH-TEAC > or = 80 mg g(-1) ), (i.e., Punica granatum peel, Quercus calliprinos leave, Quercus calliprinos fruit, Cinchona ledgeriana and Juniperus communis leave), moderate (DPPH-TEAC range 20-80 mg g(-1)) (i.e., Salvia fruticosa shoot, Crataegus azarolus stem, Crataegus azarolus leave, Varthemia iphionoides shoot, Artemisia herba-alba shoot, Thymus capitatus shoot, Morus nigra leaves and Arum palaestinum leaves) and low antioxidant plants (DPPH-TEAC < 20 mg g(-1)), (i.e., Matricaria aurea shoot, Artemisia judaica shoot, Teucrium polium shoot, Pinus halepenss pollen grains, Sarcopoterium spinosum root, Crataegus azarolus fruit, Inula viscose shoot and Achillea fragrantissima shoot). The antioxidant activity of these plant's extracts and their potential rule in radical scavenging agreed with their potential use by Jordanian population as a traditional anti-diabetic agents. PMID:18817155

Al-Mustafa, Ahmed H; Al-Thunibat, Osama Y

2008-02-01

350

Assessment of antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum and phytochemical screening of some Yemeni medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Developing countries, where malaria is one of the most prevalent diseases, still rely on traditional medicine as a source for the treatment of this disease. In the present study, six selected plants (Acalypha fruticosa, Azadirachta indica, Cissus rotundifolia, Echium rauwalfii, Dendrosicyos socotrana and Boswellia elongata) commonly used in Yemen by traditional healers for the treatment of malaria as well as other diseases, were collected from different localities of Yemen, dried and extracted with methanol and water successfully. The antiplasmodial activity of the extracts was evaluated against fresh clinical isolates of Plasmodium falciparum. The selectivity parameters to evaluate the efficacy of these medicinal plants were measured by in vitro micro test (Mark III) according to World Health Organization (WHO) 1996 & WHO 2001 protocols of antimalarial drug tests. Among the investigated 12 extracts, three were found to have significant antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values less than 4 µg/ml, namely the water extracts of A. fruticosa, A. indica and D. socotrana. Six extracts showed moderate activity with IC50 values ranging from 10 to 30 µg/ml and three appeared to be inactive with IC50 values more than 30 µg/ml. In addition, preliminary phytochemical screening of the methanolic and aqueous extracts indicated the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, polysaccharides and peptides. PMID:18955251

Alshawsh, Mohammed A.; Al-shamahy, Hassan A.; Alsllami, Salah F.; Lindequist, Ulrike

2009-01-01

351

Effect of extract of medicinal plants on the labeling of blood elements with Technetium-99m and on the morphology of red blood cells: I--a study with Paullinia cupana.  

PubMed

Drugs can alter the labeling and the morphology of red blood cells. As Paullinia cupana is used in popular medicine, we evaluated its influence on the labeling process using technetium-99m (Tc-99m). Blood was incubated with P. cupana, stannous chloride and Tc-99m. Samples were centrifuged and plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were separated and precipitated with trichloroacetic acid. Soluble (SF) and insoluble fractions (IF) were isolated. The morphology of the blood cells was evaluated under an optical microscope. The results showed a significant (P = 0.05) decrease in the uptake of radioactivity for the RBC (97.93 +/- 0.74 to 36.90 +/- 4.71%), in IF-P and in IF-BC due to P. cupana extract. The study of the morphology of the RBC revealed alterations in the shape of these cells. We suggest that the P. cupana effect could be explained by an inhibition of the stannous and pertechnetate ions or oxidation of the stannous ion or by damages in the plasma membrane. PMID:12234573

de Oliveira, J F; Avila, A S; Braga, A C S; de Oliveira, M B N; Boasquevisque, E M; Jales, R L; Cardoso, V N; Bernardo-Filho, M

2002-07-01

352

Whole plant extracts versus single compounds for the treatment of malaria: synergy and positive interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In traditional medicine whole plants or mixtures of plants are used rather than isolated compounds. There is evidence that\\u000a crude plant extracts often have greater in vitro or\\/and in vivo antiplasmodial activity than isolated constituents at an equivalent\\u000a dose. The aim of this paper is to review positive interactions between components of whole plant extracts, which may explain\\u000a this.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Narrative

Philippe Rasoanaivo; Colin W Wright; Merlin L Willcox; Ben Gilbert

2011-01-01

353

Inhibitory effects of essential oils of medicinal plants from growth of plant pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Plant cells produce a vast amount of secondary metabolites. Production of some compounds is restricted to a single species. Some compounds are nearly always found only in certain specific plant organs and during a specific developmental period of the plant. Some secondary metabolites of plants serve as defensive compounds against invading microorganisms. Nowadays, it is attempted to substitute the biological and natural agents with chemically synthesized fungicides. In the present research, the antifungal activities of essential oils of seven medicinal plants on mycelial growth of three soilborne plant pathogenic fungi were investigated. The plants consisted of Zataria multiflora, Thymus carmanicus, Mentha pieperata, Satureja hortensis, Lavandual officinolis, Cuminum cyminum and Azadirachta indica. The first five plants are from the family Labiatae. Examined fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani are the causal agents of tomato root rot. Essential oils of Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus, M. pieperata, S. hortensis and C. cyminum were extracted by hydro-distillation method. Essential oils of L. officinalis and A. indica were extracted by vapor-distillation method. A completely randomized design with five replicates was used to examine the inhibitory impact of each concentration (300, 600 and 900 ppm) of each essential oil. Poisoned food assay using potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was employed. Results showed that essential oils of A. indica, Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus and S. hortensis in 900 ppm at 12 days post-inoculation, when the control fungi completely covered the plates, prevented about 90% from mycelial growth of each of the fungi. While, the essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis in the same concentration and time prevented 54.86, 52.77 and 48.84%, respectively, from F. solani growth. These substances did not prevent from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and R. solani growth. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oils of T. carmanicus, Z. multiflora and A. indica from R. solani and F. solani growth was 900 and 600 ppm, respectively. In addition, the MIC of essential oils of these plants and essential oil of S. hortensis from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici growth was 900 ppm. The MIC of essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis from F. solani growth was 900 ppm. PMID:22702190

Panjehkeh, N; Jahani Hossein-Abadi, Z

2011-01-01

354

Integrating carbon-halogen bond formation into medicinal plant metabolism.  

PubMed

Halogenation, which was once considered a rare occurrence in nature, has now been observed in many natural product biosynthetic pathways. However, only a small fraction of halogenated compounds have been isolated from terrestrial plants. Given the impact that halogenation can have on the biological activity of natural products, we reasoned that the introduction of halides into medicinal plant metabolism would provide the opportunity to rationally bioengineer a broad variety of novel plant products with altered, and perhaps improved, pharmacological properties. Here we report that chlorination biosynthetic machinery from soil bacteria can be successfully introduced into the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle). These prokaryotic halogenases function within the context of the plant cell to generate chlorinated tryptophan, which is then shuttled into monoterpene indole alkaloid metabolism to yield chlorinated alkaloids. A new functional group-a halide-is thereby introduced into the complex metabolism of C. roseus, and is incorporated in a predictable and regioselective manner onto the plant alkaloid products. Medicinal plants, despite their genetic and developmental complexity, therefore seem to be a viable platform for synthetic biology efforts. PMID:21048708

Runguphan, Weerawat; Qu, Xudong; O'Connor, Sarah E

2010-11-18

355

Integrating Carbon-Halogen Bond Formation into Medicinal Plant Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Halogenation, once considered a rare occurrence in nature, has now been observed in many natural product biosynthetic pathways1. However, only a small fraction of halogenated compounds have been isolated from terrestrial plants2. Given the impact that halogenation can have on the biological activity of natural products1, we rationalized that introduction of halides into medicinal plant metabolism would provide the opportunity to rationally bioengineer a broad variety of novel plant products with altered, and perhaps improved, pharmacological properties. Here we report that chlorination biosynthetic machinery from soil bacteria can be successfully introduced into the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle). These prokaryotic halogenases function within the context of the plant cell to generate chlorinated tryptophan, which is then shuttled into monoterpene indole alkaloid metabolism to yield chlorinated alkaloids. A new functional group– a halide– is thereby introduced into the complex metabolism of C. roseus, and is incorporated in a predictable and regioselective manner onto the plant alkaloid products. Medicinal plants, despite their genetic and developmental complexity, therefore appear to be a viable platform for synthetic biology efforts. PMID:21048708

Runguphan, Weerawat; Qu, Xudong; O'Connor, Sarah E.

2010-01-01

356

Medicinal plants used in traditional medicine by Oromo people, Ghimbi District, Southwest Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Ethiopia is one of the six centres of biodiversity in the world with several topographies, climatic conditions and various ethnic cultures. Ethnobotanical study is a real and encourageable in rich biological resource areas for medicinal plant identification, documentation, ranking, conservation and sustainable usages. The purpose of this study was to identify the most effective medicinal plants for specific treatment through priority ranking and to assess the status of the transfer of Traditional Botanical Knowledge (TBK) based on age groups and educational levels. Methodology Ethnobotanical data were collected using field observation and semi-structured interview, A total of 30 key informants and 165 community members were interviewed and data on medicinal plant species and associated knowledge were recorded, quantified and verified using several preference ranking methods. Results The study revealed a total of 49 medicinal plant species (belonging to 31 families and 46 genera) used to treat various human ailments, the majority of which 40 (81.6%) species were collected from wild while the rests from home garden. Herbs constituted the largest growth habit (18 species, 37%) followed by trees (16 species, 32%) and shrubs (15 species, 31%). Leaf `17 (35%) is the plant part widely used followed by root 13 (27%), leafy-stem 5 (10%), and seed 6 (12%). Oral administration was the dominant route (63%), followed by dermal route (22%) and nasal (11%). The highest number of plant species being used for infectious (48%) followed by two or more diseases and non-infectious disease. Of five and seven medicinal plants of preference ranking the highest ranks were given first for Croton macrostaychus used for malaria treatment and for Prunus africana as ‘’rare” for immediate collection and use in the traditional treatment. Significantly higher average number of medicinal plants (p?medicinal knowledge. This study can be used as a basis for developing management plans for conservation, sustainable use and drug development. PMID:24885586

2014-01-01

357

[Phenylethanoid glycosides distribution in medicinal plants of Gesneriaceae].  

PubMed

To investigate the role of distribution and phylogeny of phenylethanoid glycoside in medicinal plants of Gesneriaceae, five phenylpropanoid glycosides, acteoside, paraboside B, isonuomioside A, paraboside II, and paraboside III were quantitatively determined in 12 species of Gesneriaceae by HPLC. The existence and content of these compounds were analyzed. The results showed that phenylethanoid glycosides were found in the most of those plants, but the kind of phenylethanoid glycosides varied in different species. Acteoside distribute in most of this plant group, paraboside B, isonuomioside A, paraboside II, and paraboside III were rare in those plants. The results of this study support morphological viewpoint that Trib. Trichosporeae is more developmental than Trib. Didymocarpeae. PMID:24791528

Bai, Zhen-Fang; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Xiao, Pei-Gen; Liu, Yong

2013-12-01

358

Isolation of good quality RNA from a medicinal plant seabuckthorn, rich in secondary metabolites.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are being widely investigated owing to their ability to produce molecules of therapeutic significance. Isolation of good quality RNA is a tedious but primary step towards undertaking molecular biology experiments. However, medicinal plants are rich in secondary metabolites and not amenable to standard RNA isolation protocols involving Guanidine isothiocyanate (GITC). So an RNA isolation protocol from difficult samples (richer in secondary metabolites) is of highest desiderata. Here we propose a new protocol suitable for isolating RNA from plant tissues rich in secondary metabolites. To standard CTAB (Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide) buffer, addition of 2% PVPP (polyvinyl polypyrrolidone) and 350 mM beta-mercaptoethanol was found useful. Use of glacial acetic acid (1M) along with ethanol for precipitation after phenolization and chloroform extraction enhanced the RNA yield. This is the first report of using glacial acetic acid in a CTAB based protocol for the precipitation of RNA. This protocol has been validated in medicinal plant Hippophae rhamnoides vern. seabuckthorn, where standard RNA isolation methods involving GITC and TRIZol extraction buffers failed. The RNA isolated by this method was of good quality as gauged by spectrophotometric readings and denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis. To the best of our knowledge, this RNA isolation protocol has never been published before. The RNA thus obtained could be suitably used for the downstream molecular procedures like Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), Real Time-PCR, cDNA library construction, etc. PMID:19804984

Ghangal, Rajesh; Raghuvanshi, Saurabh; Chand Sharma, Prakash

2009-01-01

359

The current status of knowledge of herbal medicine and medicinal plants in Fiche, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. Methods This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Results Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. Conclusion There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative, and concomitant sustainable programmes that support the sustainability of herbal medicine traditions may be considered as a way to collect and disseminate information thereby supporting communities in their efforts to maintain their heritage. This study contributes to the documentation of the status of current traditional herbal knowledge in Ethiopia. PMID:24885355

2014-01-01

360

Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of some Swedish medicinal plants. Inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis and PAF-induced exocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants used in Swedish traditional medicine to treat inflammatory diseases and\\/or wounds were selected, based on literature data, for evaluation of inhibitory activity on prostaglandin biosynthesis and platelet activating factor (PAF)-induced exocytosis in vitro. Fifty-nine water extracts from 52 different plants in 28 families were tested. A number of plants, e.g. Calluna vulgaris, Corylus avellana, Geum urbanum, Juniperus communis, Polygonum

H. Tunón; C. Olavsdotter; L. Bohlin

1995-01-01

361

Preliminary Screening of Endophytic Fungi from Medicinal Plants in Malaysia for Antimicrobial and Antitumor Activity  

PubMed Central

The screening of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, yeast and fungi was carried out on isopropanol extracts prepared from 121 isolates of endophytic fungi isolated from medicinal plants in Malaysia. Sensitivity was found to vary among the microorganisms. Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Alternaria sp. were susceptible to extracts from three, two and two isolates of endophytic fungi, respectively. None were found effective against Salmonella typhimurium. Sixteen endophytic fungal isolates tested were also found to exhibit antitumor activity in the yeast cell-based assay. PMID:22844221

Radu, Son; Kqueen, Cheah Yoke

2002-01-01

362

Screening of 34 Indian medicinal plants for antibacterial properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 34 plant species belonging to 18 different families, selected on the basis of folklore medicinal reports practised by the tribal people of Western Ghats, India, were assayed for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli,Klebsiella aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, and Pseudomonas aerogenes (Gram-negative bacteria) at 1000–5000 ppm using the disc diffusion method. Of these 16 plants showed activity; among them

R Perumal Samy; S Ignacimuthu; A Sen

1998-01-01

363

Extraction and GC determination of volatile aroma compounds from extracts of three plant species of the Apiaceae family  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens) and celery (Apium graveolens), three aromatic plants belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) botanical family, were selected as sources of essential or volatile oils. Essential oils are composed of a large diversity of volatile aroma compounds. Plant-derived essential oils and extracts have long been used as natural agents in food preservation, pharmaceuticals and medicinal therapies. In the present study, the plant extracts from leaves of parsley, dill and celery, were obtained by maceration, ultrasound-assisted extraction and microwave-assisted extraction. All extractions were performed at 30°C, using different solvents (ethanol, diethyl ether, n-hexane) and solvent mixtures (1:1, v/v). The most effective solvent system for the extraction of volatile aroma compounds was diethyl ether - n-hexane (1:1, v/v). Extraction efficiency and determination of aroma volatiles were performed by GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. The major volatile compounds present in plant extracts were myristicin, ?-phellandrene, ?-phellandrene, 1,3,8-p-menthatriene, apiol, dill ether and allyl phenoxyacetate.

Stan, M.; Soran, M. L.; Varodi, C.; Lung, I.; Copolovici, L.; M?ruţoiu, C.

2013-11-01

364

Moringa oleifera: a food plant with multiple medicinal uses.  

PubMed

Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) is a highly valued plant, distributed in many countries of the tropics and subtropics. It has an impressive range of medicinal uses with high nutritional value. Different parts of this plant contain a profile of important minerals, and are a good source of protein, vitamins, beta-carotene, amino acids and various phenolics. The Moringa plant provides a rich and rare combination of zeatin, quercetin, beta-sitosterol, caffeoylquinic acid and kaempferol. In addition to its compelling water purifying powers and high nutritional value, M. oleifera is very important for its medicinal value. Various parts of this plant such as the leaves, roots, seed, bark, fruit, flowers and immature pods act as cardiac and circulatory stimulants, possess antitumor, antipyretic, antiepileptic, antiinflammatory, antiulcer, antispasmodic, diuretic, antihypertensive, cholesterol lowering, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antibacterial and antifungal activities, and are being employed for the treatment of different ailments in the indigenous system of medicine, particularly in South Asia. This review focuses on the detailed phytochemical composition, medicinal uses, along with pharmacological properties of different parts of this multipurpose tree. PMID:17089328

Anwar, Farooq; Latif, Sajid; Ashraf, Muhammad; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

2007-01-01

365

PIXE-PIGE analysis of some Indian medicinal plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantitative estimation of various trace element concentrations in medicinal plants is necessary for determining their effectiveness in treating various diseases and for understanding their pharmacological action. Elemental concentrations of some selected medicinal plants of north east India was measured by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced ?-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.4 MeV collimated protons from the 3 MV tandetron accelerator of NCCCM, Hyderabad (India) while the PIGE measurements were carried out using 3 MeV protons from the same accelerator in the same laboratory. Accuracy and precision of the techniques were assured by analyzing certified reference materials in the same experimental conditions. Various elements of biological importance in man's metabolism were found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied medicinal plants and no toxic heavy metals were detected. The concentration of the various elements in the medicinal plants and their role in treating various diseases are discussed.

Nomita Devi, K.; Nandakumar Sarma, H.

2010-06-01

366

In vitro screening of Indian medicinal plants for antiplasmodial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants traditionally used in India to treat fever or malaria were examined in vitro for antiplasmodial properties against Plasmodium falciparum. Of 80 analysed ethanol extracts, from 47 species, significant effects were found for 31 of the extracts. These represent 23 different species from 20 families. Of the active species 20 were tested against P. falciparum for the first time. The

Henrik Toft Simonsen; Jesper Brændegaard Nordskjold; Ulla Wagner Smitt; Ulf Nyman; Pushpangadan Palpu; Prabhakar Joshi; George Varughese

2001-01-01

367

In vitro micropropagation of Gymnema sylvestre – A multipurpose medicinal plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the explant, seedling age, medium type, plant growth regulators, complex extracts (casein hydrolysate, coconut\\u000a milk, malt extract and yeast extract) and antioxidants (activated charcoal, ascorbic acid, citric acid and polyvinylpyrrolidone)\\u000a markedly influenced in vitro propagation of Gymnema sylvestre. A maximum number of shoots (57.2) were induced from 30 day old seedling axillary node explants on Murashige and

N. Komalavalli; M. V. Rao

2000-01-01

368

Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major). The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases. PMID:12471432

Holetz, Fabíola Barbiéri; Pessini, Greisiele Lorena; Sanches, Neviton Rogério; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias

2002-10-01

369

Application of medicinal plants in maternal healthcare and infertility: a South African perspective.  

PubMed

Plants have played significant roles as medicine during pregnancy, birth, and postpartum care in many rural areas of the world. In addition to this, plants have been used for centuries to treat infertility and related reproduction problems. The aim of this paper was to review the current status of plant species used in maternal healthcare, including infertility, in South Africa, in terms of scientific evaluation for efficacy and safety. In addition to this, the role of medicinal plants as a tool in achieving the MDG5 of reducing maternal mortality by 2015 was evaluated. A search was done with the aid of Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, peer-reviewed papers, and books, using keywords such as child birth, labour pain, maternal health, maternal mortality, menstrual pains, and postpartum. The plants listed in the different research articles were classified according to their use and the target effect of a plant extract or compound on reproductive function. Eighty-four plant species were found to be used to treat infertility and related problems. Twenty plant species are used during pregnancy, while 26 plant species are used to ease childbirth. For postpartum healing and any problems after childbirth, nine plant species were recorded. Unhealthy pregnancy and birth complications are among the factors that contribute to the loss of cognitive potential in the developing world's children, condemning them to impoverished lives. The best way to keep a country poor is to rob its children of their full developmental potential. In this respect, medicinal plants play a significant role in reducing maternal mortality and ensuring the birth of healthy children. PMID:23609109

Abdillahi, Halima S; Van Staden, Johannes

2013-05-01

370

Protective Effect of Selected Medicinal Plants against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Damage on Biological Substrates  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress is developed due to susceptibility of biological substrates to oxidation by generation of free radicals. In degenerative diseases, oxidative stress level can be reduced by antioxidants which neutralize free radicals. Primary objective of this work was to screen four medicinal plants, namely, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, for their antioxidant property using two biological substrates—RBC and microsomes. The antioxidative ability of three solvent extracts, methanol (100% and 80%) and aqueous leaf extracts, was studied at different concentrations by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method using Fenton's reagent to induce oxidation in the substrates. The polyphenol and flavonoid content were analyzed to relate with the observed antioxidant effect of the extracts. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, and ?-carotene in the samples. In microsomes, 80% methanol extract of Canthium and Costus and, in RBC, 80% methanol extract of Costus showed highest inhibition of oxidation and correlated well with the polyphenol and flavonoid content. From the results it can be concluded that antioxidants from medicinal plants are capable of inhibiting oxidation in biological systems, suggesting scope for their use as nutraceuticals.

Pai Kotebagilu, Namratha; Reddy Palvai, Vanitha

2014-01-01

371

Antioxidant Activities of Uyaku (Lindera Strychnifolia) Leaf Extract: A Natural Extract Used in Traditional Medicine  

PubMed Central

Uyaku (Lindera strychnifolia, Sieb. et Zucc.) is used in traditional Asian medicine to treat stomach and renal diseases, neuralgia, rheumatism, and aging. In this study, the effects of lyophilized extracts on hydroxyl (·OH) and superoxide (O2·?) radicals were examined using an electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer with the spin trap, 5,5'-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide. Inhibitory effects were assessed using the following reagents: for nitric oxide (NO·), the Griess reagent; for (Fe2+ + H2O2)-induced lipid peroxidation, 2-thiobarbituric acid; for (Fe2+ + H2O2)-induced protein carbonyl, 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Analysis of ESR data of the extracts indicated the direct ·OH and O2·? scavenging. The extracts scavenged NO· in a dose-dependent manner, inhibited lipid peroxidation of linolenic acid, and protein carbonyl formation in bovine serum albumin. In conclusion, the Uyaku leaf hot-water extract has potent scavenging activity against reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, and effectively inhibited lipid peroxidation. These results might contribute to understanding age-associated or free radical-related diseases induced by excess reactive oxygen and also nitrogen species. PMID:18193108

Noda, Yasuko; Mori, Akitane

2007-01-01

372

Antiviral activity of some Tunisian medicinal plants against Herpes simplex virus type 1.  

PubMed

Fifteen species of Tunisian traditional medicinal plants, belonging to 10 families, were selected for this study. They were Inula viscosa (L.) Ait and Reichardia tingitana (L.) Roth ssp. discolor (Pom.) Batt. (Asteraceae), Mesembryanthemum cristallinum L. and M. nodiflorum L. (Aizoaceae), Arthrocnemum indicum (Willd.) Moq., Atriplex inflata Muell., A. parvifolia Lowe var. ifiniensis (Caball) Maire, and Salicornia fruticosa L. (Chenopodiaceae), Cistus monspeliensis L. (Cistaceae), Juniperus phoenicea L. (Cupressaceae), Erica multiflora L. (Ericaceae), Frankenia pulverulenta L. (Frankeniaceae), Hypericum crispum L. (Hypericaceae), Plantago coronopus L. ssp. eu-coronopus Pilger var. vulgaris G.G. (Plantaginaceae) and Zygophyllum album L. (Zygophyllaceae). Fifty extracts prepared from those plants were screened in order to assay their antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), using neutral red incorporation. Extracts from eight plants among these 15 showed some degree of antiviral activity, while the methanolic extract of E. multiflora was highly active with EC(50) of 132.6 microg mL(-1). These results corroborate that medicinal plants from Tunisia can be a rich source of potential antiviral compounds. PMID:17999339

Sassi, A Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, F; Bourgougnon, N; Aouni, M

2008-01-10

373

Antiprotozoal and cytotoxic screening of 45 plant extracts from Democratic Republic of Congo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the study: To evaluate in vitro the antiprotozoal and cytotoxic activies of 80% methanol extract from 45 medicinal plants collected in Sankuru (Democratic Republic of Congo) against Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and the chloroquine-sensitive Ghanaian strain of Plasmodium falciparum, and MRC-5 cell lines respectively.

G. K. Mesia; G. L. Tona; T. H. Nanga; R. K. Cimanga; S. Apers; P. Cos; L. Maes; L. Pieters; A. J. Vlietinck

2008-01-01

374

Derivation of medicinal preparations from plants and development of medicinal-plant culture during the years of Soviet rule  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the beginning of the 30th year, a large portion of the procurement of wild medicinal stock and product\\/on of raw material from cultivated plants fell to the consumer cooperative and a special organization, the All-Union Society \\

G. T. Shul'gin; P. T. Kondratenko

1967-01-01

375

Ayurvedic medicinal plants for Alzheimer's disease: a review  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease is an age-associated, irreversible, progressive neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by severe memory loss, unusual behavior, personality changes, and a decline in cognitive function. No cure for Alzheimer's exists, and the drugs currently available to treat the disease have limited effectiveness. It is believed that therapeutic intervention that could postpone the onset or progression of Alzheimer's disease would dramatically reduce the number of cases in the next 50 years. Ayurvedic medicinal plants have been the single most productive source of leads for the development of drugs, and over a hundred new products are already in clinical development. Indeed, several scientific studies have described the use of various Ayurvedic medicinal plants and their constituents for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Although the exact mechanism of their action is still not clear, phytochemical studies of the different parts of the plants have shown the presence of many valuable compounds, such as lignans, flavonoids, tannins, polyphenols, triterpenes, sterols, and alkaloids, that show a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-amyloidogenic, anti-cholinesterase, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects. This review gathers research on various medicinal plants that have shown promise in reversing the Alzheimer's disease pathology. The report summarizes information concerning the phytochemistry, biological, and cellular activities and clinical applications of these various plants in order to provide sufficient baseline information that could be used in drug discovery campaigns and development process, thereby providing new functional leads for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:22747839

2012-01-01

376

Uncovering the geroprotective potential of medicinal plants from the Judea region of Israel.  

PubMed

Plants growing in the Judea region are widely used in traditional medicine. This phytogeographic zone stands out in its climatic conditions and biodiversity. Consequently, both endemic and widely distributed Mediterranean plants growing in the area have unique chemotypes characterized by accumulation of relatively high levels of phytosteroids. Our comprehensive analysis revealed that many of the plants growing in the Judea region may hold a geroprotective potential. With this in mind, we undertook a wide screen of dozens of candidate herbal extracts for their cell protective, wound-healing, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. The results obtained thus far have clearly shown that the extracts tested (1) protect normal human fibroblasts from genotoxic stress (prevent DNA double-strand beaks, increase cell survival and reduce the number of cells undergoing cellular senescence), (2) decrease secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, (3) promote wound healing, and (4) exert more pronounced cytotoxicity toward cancer cells. PMID:24094064

Budovsky, Arie; Shteinberg, Albert; Maor, Hani; Duman, Olga; Yanai, Hagai; Wolfson, Marina; Fraifeld, Vadim E

2014-04-01

377

In vitro cytotoxic screening of selected Saudi medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Many natural products from plants have been identified to exert anticancer activity. It might be expected to be a challenge to look at the Saudi plants in order to discover new sources for new molecules which may have anticancer activity. The methanolic extracts of forty species of plants traditionally used in Saudi Arabia for the treatment of a variety of diseases were tested in vitro for their potential anticancer activity on different human cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic activity of the methanolic extracts of the tested plants were determined using three human cancer cell lines, namely, breast cancer (MCF7), hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2), and cervix cancer (HELA) cells. In addition, human normal melanocyte (HFB4) was used as normal nonmalignant cells. Sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay was used to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the different extracts. The growth inhibition of 50% (IC(50)) for each extract was calculated from the optical density of treated and untreated cells. Doxorubicin, a broad-spectrum anticancer drug, was used as the positive control. Nine plant extracts were chosen for further fractionation based on their activity and availability. Interesting cytotoxic activity was observed for Hypoestes forskaolii, Withania somnifera, Solanum glabratum, Adenium obesum, Pistacia vera oleoresin, Caralluma quadrangula, Eulophia petersii, Phragmanthera austroarabica, and Asparagus officinalis. Other extracts showed poor activity. PMID:21953271

Almehdar, Hussein; Abdallah, Hossam M; Osman, Abdel-Moneim M; Abdel-Sattar, Essam A

2012-04-01

378

Fungal endophytes in three medicinal plants of Lamiaceae.  

PubMed

Three medicinal plants Ocimum sanctum, Ocimum bacilicum and Leucas aspera were screened to study endophytic diversity of the plants. Altogether 103 fungal endophytes belonging to fourteen genera were isolated. Leaves of all three medicinal plants were colonized by a great number of endophytic fungi. Leaves of O. sanctum were colonized by the most, that is, eleven endophytes. Highest Shannon-Wiener index (2.256) was exhibited by O. sanctum with the highest Simpson's diversity (0.8654) indicating great species specificity. O. bacilicum and L. aspera showed the highest similarity coefficient. Some fungal genera have been showed to be host specific. In the present study Curvularia sp., Hymenula sp., Tricoderma sp. and Tubercularia sp. exclusively colonized O. sanctum ; whereas Alternaria sp. and Spicaria sp. colonized only L. aspera . PMID:19789139

Banerjee, D; Manna, S; Mahapatra, S; Pati, B R

2009-09-01

379

Antifungal screening of medicinal plants of British Columbian native peoples.  

PubMed

One hundred methanolic plant extracts were screened for antifungal activity against 9 fungal species. Eighty-one were found to have some antifungal activity and 30 extracts showed activity against 4 or more of the fungi assayed. The extracts with the greatest fungal inhibition were prepared from Alnus rubra catkins, Artemisia ludoviciana aerial parts, Artemisia tridentata aerial parts, Geum macrophyllum roots, Mahonia aquifolium roots and Moneses uniflora aerial parts. In addition to these, extracts prepared from the following plants also exhibited antifungal activity against all 9 fungi: Asarum caudatum whole plant, Balsamorhiza sagittata roots, Empetrum nigrum branches, Fragaria chiloensis leaves, Gilia aggregata aerial parts and roots, Glehnia littoralis roots, Heracleum lanatum roots, Heuchera cylindrica roots and Rhus glabra branches. PMID:7898123

McCutcheon, A R; Ellis, S M; Hancock, R E; Towers, G H

1994-12-01

380

Pharmacology of Piper marginatum Jacq. a folk medicinal plant used as an analgesic, antiinflammatory and hemostatic.  

PubMed

The pharmacological activities of the water extract of Piper marginatum Jacq. (Piperaceae), a plant reputed in the Brazilian folk medicine for its analgesic/antiinflammatory, hemostatic and skin wound-healing properties, were assessed. Intraperitoneal injection (i. p.) of the extract (0.1 to 1 g/kg) in mice and rats caused piloerection, sialorrhea, lacrimation, muscle relaxation and dyspnea. At doses above 1 g/kg the extract caused respiratory arrest and death. Intravenous injection of the extract (0.1 to 0.5 mg/kg) into anesthetized rats caused a dose-related hypertension (by 27 to 48 %) that was blocked by prazosin (1 mg/kg) and yohimbine (2 mg/kg). Pithing, reserpine treatment and ganglionic blockade with hexamethonium (5 mg/kg) enhanced the effect. Oral treatment of unanesthetized rats and intragastric administration to anesthetized animals also produced hypertension. The sympathomimetic activity of the extract in isolated vas deferens, left atria and mesenteric arterial bed preparations paralleled that of noradrenaline, and was blocked to the same extent as noradrenaline by ?-blockers. The plant extract (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p. o.) also reduced carrageenin-induced paw edema in rats by 80 to 90 % of the control, but it had less effect on the volume of exudate and leucocyte migration in carrageenin-induced pleurisy. Likewise, the extract had a small analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice. It is concluded that the antiedema effect of the plant extract is mainly related to its vasoconstrictor constituent(s). This sympathomimetic activity may explain the plant's reputed hemostatic properties when applied topically to bleeding skin wounds. The predominant vasoconstrictor component of P. marginatum detected in HPLC analysis was noradrenaline, whose activity is apparently preserved in the crude extract and produces vasoconstriction after oral administration. PMID:23195243

D'Angelo, L C; Xavier, H S; Torres, L M; Lapa, A J; Souccar, C

1997-03-01

381

Medicinal potential of Morella serata (Lam.) Killick (Myricaceae) root extracts: biological and pharmacological activities  

PubMed Central

Background Morella serata is a South African medicinal plant used in the treatment of microbial infections and to enhance male sexual performance. There is dearth of information in scientific literature on its efficacy and safety. Methods In the present study, the root extracts were investigated for the phytochemicals that may be present the antibacterial, anticandida activity using 96 wells microtitre plate method and cytotoxicity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality assay. Results The qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids and steroids. All the extracts including water inhibited both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria strains at minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.09 – 6.25 mgmL-1. The best activity was observed in the acetone extract inhibiting all the bacteria tested at MIC range of 0.09 – 0.78 mgmL-1 except Shigella flexneri KZN that was inhibited at 1.56 mgmL-1. Similarly, all the extracts suppressed the growth of all Candida species and Trichophyton mucoides at MIC ranging from 0.13 – 3.13 mgmL-1. The cytotoxicity assay revealed potent cytotoxic potential of M. serata methanol and ethanol root extracts by displaying LC50 of 0.26 and 0.18 ?gmL-1 respectively. Conclusion The results obtained from the present study indicated broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and justifies the use of the plant in the treatment of infectious diseases. Also the species could be a good natural source of antitumor compounds considering its lethality against brine shrimp nauplii. PMID:23829770

2013-01-01

382

Spasmolytic potential of some plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.  

PubMed

The present investigation describes the effect on the isolated rat ileum of methanolic extracts derived from Conyza filaginoides (D. C.) Hieron (Asteraceae), Croton fragilis HBK. (Euphorbiaceae), Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. (Sapindaceae), Gymnosperma glutinosum (Spreng) Less. (Asteraceae), Parthenium tomentosum DC. var. stramonium (Greene) Rollins (Asteraceae), Potentilla thurberi A. Gray (Rosaceae), Pterogonum atrorubens (Englem.) H. Gross (Polygonaceae), Zornia venosa Mohlenbr. (Fabaceae) and Datura lanosa Barclay ex Bye (Solanaceae). In all the cases the extracts inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, the spontaneous contraction of the intestinal smooth muscle. The most active extract was that of D. viscosa. These findings tend to support the ethnomedical use of the selected species as spasmolytic agents in Mexican traditional medicine. Additionally, the potential antimicrobial activity of the extracts against pathogenic enterobacteria was investigated. Seven of the nine plants evaluated displayed antibacterial effects. PMID:23196101

Rojas, A; Cruz, S; Rauch, V; Bye, R; Linares, E; Mata, R

1995-07-01

383

Artemisia herba alba: a popular plant with potential medicinal properties.  

PubMed

Artemisia herba alba (Asteraceae), commonly known as desert or white wormwood, is used in folk medicine for treatment of various diseases. Phytochemical studies of this plant revealed the existence of many beneficial compounds such as herbalbin, cis-chryanthenyl acetate, flavonoids (hispidulin and cirsilineol), monoterpenes, sesquiterpene. The aerial parts are characterized by a very low degree of toxicity. This study reviews the main reports of the pharmacological and toxicological properties of Artemisia herba alba in addition to the main constituents. It would appear that this plant exhibits many beneficial properties. Further studies are warranted to more integrate this popular plant in human health care system. PMID:23755405

Moufid, Abderrahmane; Eddouks, Mohamed

2012-12-15

384

Medicinal plants used in treatment of inflammatory skin diseases.  

PubMed

Skin is an organ providing contact with the environment and protecting the human body from unfavourable external factors. Skin inflammation, reflected adversely in its functioning and appearance, also unfavourably affects the psyche, the condition of which is important during treatment of chronic skin diseases. The use of plants in treatment of inflammatory skin diseases results from their influence on different stages of inflammation. The paper presents results of the study regarding the anti-inflammatory activity of the plant raw material related to its influence on skin. The mechanism of action, therapeutic indications and side effects of medicinal plants used for treatment of inflammatory diseases of the skin are described. PMID:24278070

Dawid-Pa?, Renata

2013-06-01

385

Screening of medicinal plants for induction of somatic segregation activity in Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

Knowledge about mutagenic properties of plants commonly used in traditional medicine is limited. A screening for genotoxic activity was carried out in aqueous or alcoholic extracts prepared from 13 medicinal plants widely used as folk medicine in Cuba: Lepidium virginicum L. (Brassicaceae): Plantago major L. and Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae); Ortosiphon aristatus Blume, Mentha x piperita L., Melissa officinalis L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae); Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae); Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae); Piper auritum HBK. (Piperaceae); Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardeaceae) and Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae). A plate incorporation assay with Aspergillus nidulans was employed, allowing detection of somatic segregation as a result of mitotic crossing-over, chromosome malsegregation or clastogenic effects. Aspergillus nidulans D-30, a well-marked strain carrying four recessive mutations for conidial color in heterozygosity, which permitted the direct visual detection of segregants, was used throughout this study. As a result, only in the aqueous extract of one of the plants screened (Momordica charantia) a statistical significant increase in the frequency of segregant sectors per colony was observed, and consequently, a genotoxic effect is postulated. PMID:8771452

Ramos Ruiz, A; De la Torre, R A; Alonso, N; Villaescusa, A; Betancourt, J; Vizoso, A

1996-07-01

386

Insecticidal Activity of Some Traditionally Used Ethiopian Medicinal Plants against Sheep Ked Melophagus ovinus.  

PubMed

Twelve medicinal plants and a commercially used drug Ivermectin were examined for insecticidal activity against Melophagus ovinus sheep ked at different time intervals using in vitro adult immersion test. The findings show that at 3.13?µL/mL, 6.25?µL/mL and 12.5?µL/mL concentration of Cymbopogon citratus, Foeniculum vulgare and Eucalyptus globulus essential oils respectively, recorded 100% mortalities against M. ovinus within 3?hour of exposure. Significantly higher insecticidal activity of essential oils was recorded (P = 0.00) when compared to 10? ? g/mL Ivermectin after 3-hour exposure of M. ovinus at a concentration of ?1.57? ? L/mL, ?3? ? L/mL, and ?12.7? ? L/mL essential oils of C. citratus, F. vulgare, and E. globulus, respectively. Among essential oils, C. citratus has showed superior potency at a three-hour exposure of the parasite (P = 0.00) at a concentration of ?0.78? ? L/mL. Strong antiparasitic activity was recorded by aqueous extract of Calpurnia aurea (80% mortality) at a concentration of 200?mg/mL within 24?h among aqueous extracts of 9 medicinal plants. The results indicated all the four medicinal plants, particularly those tested essential oils, can be considered as potential candidates for biocontrol of M. ovinus sheep ked. PMID:24649357

Gemeda, Negero; Mokonnen, Walelegn; Lemma, Hirut; Tadele, Ashenif; Urga, Kelbessa; Addis, Getachew; Debella, Asfaw; Getachew, Mesaye; Teka, Frehiwot; Yirsaw, Kidist; Mudie, Kissi; Gebre, Solomon

2014-01-01

387

Medicinal plants: a public resource for metabolomics and hypothesis development.  

PubMed

Specialized compounds from photosynthetic organisms serve as rich resources for drug development. From aspirin to atropine, plant-derived natural products have had a profound impact on human health. Technological advances provide new opportunities to access these natural products in a metabolic context. Here, we describe a database and platform for storing, visualizing and statistically analyzing metabolomics data from fourteen medicinal plant species. The metabolomes and associated transcriptomes (RNAseq) for each plant species, gathered from up to twenty tissue/organ samples that have experienced varied growth conditions and developmental histories, were analyzed in parallel. Three case studies illustrate different ways that the data can be integrally used to generate testable hypotheses concerning the biochemistry, phylogeny and natural product diversity of medicinal plants. Deep metabolomics analysis of Camptotheca acuminata exemplifies how such data can be used to inform metabolic understanding of natural product chemical diversity and begin to formulate hypotheses about their biogenesis. Metabolomics data from Prunella vulgaris, a species that contains a wide range of antioxidant, antiviral, tumoricidal and anti-inflammatory constituents, provide a case study of obtaining biosystematic and developmental fingerprint information from metabolite accumulation data in a little studied species. Digitalis purpurea, well known as a source of cardiac glycosides, is used to illustrate how integrating metabolomics and transcriptomics data can lead to identification of candidate genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes in the cardiac glycoside pathway. Medicinal Plant Metabolomics Resource (MPM) [1] provides a framework for generating experimentally testable hypotheses about the metabolic networks that lead to the generation of specialized compounds, identifying genes that control their biosynthesis and establishing a basis for modeling metabolism in less studied species. The database is publicly available and can be used by researchers in medicine and plant biology. PMID:24957774

Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Chappell, Joe; Jones, A Daniel; Celiz, Mary Dawn; Ransom, Nick; Hur, Manhoi; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Crispin, Matthew; Dixon, Philip; Liu, Jia; P Widrlechner, Mark; Nikolau, Basil J

2012-01-01

388

Medicinal Plants: A Public Resource for Metabolomics and Hypothesis Development  

PubMed Central

Specialized compounds from photosynthetic organisms serve as rich resources for drug development. From aspirin to atropine, plant-derived natural products have had a profound impact on human health. Technological advances provide new opportunities to access these natural products in a metabolic context. Here, we describe a database and platform for storing, visualizing and statistically analyzing metabolomics data from fourteen medicinal plant species. The metabolomes and associated transcriptomes (RNAseq) for each plant species, gathered from up to twenty tissue/organ samples that have experienced varied growth conditions and developmental histories, were analyzed in parallel. Three case studies illustrate different ways that the data can be integrally used to generate testable hypotheses concerning the biochemistry, phylogeny and natural product diversity of medicinal plants. Deep metabolomics analysis of Camptotheca acuminata exemplifies how such data can be used to inform metabolic understanding of natural product chemical diversity and begin to formulate hypotheses about their biogenesis. Metabolomics data from Prunella vulgaris, a species that contains a wide range ofantioxidant, antiviral, tumoricidal and anti-inflammatory constituents, provide a case study of obtaining biosystematic and developmental fingerprint information from metabolite accumulation data in a little studied species. Digitalis purpurea, well known as a source of cardiac glycosides, is used to illustrate how integrating metabolomics and transcriptomics data can lead to identification of candidate genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes in the cardiac glycoside pathway. Medicinal Plant Metabolomics Resource (MPM) [1] provides a framework for generating experimentally testable hypotheses about the metabolic networks that lead to the generation of specialized compounds, identifying genes that control their biosynthesis and establishing a basis for modeling metabolism in less studied species. The database is publicly available and can be used by researchers in medicine and plant biology. PMID:24957774

Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Chappell, Joe; Daniel Jones, A.; Celiz, Mary Dawn; Ransom, Nick; Hur, Manhoi; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Crispin, Matthew; Dixon, Philip; Liu, Jia; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Nikolau, Basil J.

2012-01-01

389

An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders acquiring around 2.8% of the world's population and is anticipated to cross 5.4% by the year 2025. Since long back herbal medicines have been the highly esteemed source of medicine therefore, they have become a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. In view of the above aspects the present review provides profiles of plants (65 species) with hypoglycaemic properties, available through literature source from various database with proper categorization according to the parts used, mode of reduction in blood glucose (insulinomimetic or insulin secretagogues activity) and active phytoconstituents having insulin mimetics activity. From the review it was suggested that, plant showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belongs to the family Leguminoseae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Rosaceae and Araliaceae. The most active plants are Allium sativum, Gymnema sylvestre, Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum greacum, Momordica charantia and Ficus bengalensis. The review describes some new bioactive drugs and isolated compounds from plants such as roseoside, epigallocatechin gallate, beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine, cinchonain Ib, leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidin-3- O-alpha-L rhamnoside, glycyrrhetinic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, strictinin, isostrictinin, pedunculagin, epicatechin and christinin-A showing significant insulinomimetic and antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than conventional hypoglycaemic agents. Thus, from the review majorly, the antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants is attributed to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and other constituents which show reduction in blood glucose levels. The review also discusses the management aspect of diabetes mellitus using these plants and their active principles. PMID:23569923

Patel, D K; Prasad, S K; Kumar, R; Hemalatha, S

2012-04-01

390

Identification of potent anticancer activity in Ximenia americana aqueous extracts used by African traditional medicine  

SciTech Connect

The antineoplastic activity of a plant powder used in African traditional medicine for treating cancer was investigated by analyzing the activity of various extracts in vitro. The most active, aqueous extract was subsequently subjected to a detailed investigation in a panel of 17 tumor cell lines, showing an average IC{sub 5} of 49 mg raw powder/ml medium. The sensitivity of the cell lines varied by two orders of magnitude, from 1.7 mg/ml in MCF7 breast cancer cells to 170 mg/ml in AR230 chronic-myeloid leukemia cells. Immortalized, non-tumorigenic cell lines showed a marginal sensitivity. In addition, kinetic and recovery experiments performed in MCF7 and U87-MG cells and a comparison with the antineoplastic activity of miltefosine, gemcitabine, and cisplatinum in MCF7, U87-MG, HEp2, and SAOS2 cells revealed no obvious similarity between the sensitivity profiles of the extract and the three standard agents, suggesting a different mechanism of cytotoxicity. The in vivo antitumor activity was determined in the CC531 colorectal cancer rat model. Significant anticancer activity was found following administration of equitoxic doses of 100 (perorally) and 5 (intraperitoneally) mg raw powder/kg, indicating a 95% reduced activity following intestinal absorption. By sequencing the mitochondrial gene for the large subunit of the ribulose bis-phosphate carboxylase (rbcL) in DNA from the plant material, the source plant was identified as Ximenia americana. A physicochemical characterization showed that the active antineoplastic component(s) of the plant material are proteins with galactose affinity. Moreover, by mass spectrometry, one of these proteins was shown to contain a stretch of 11 amino acids identical to a tryptic peptide from the ribosome-inactivating protein ricin.

Voss, Cristina [Unit of Toxicology and Chemotherapy, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg, E100, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Eyol, Erguel [Unit of Toxicology and Chemotherapy, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg, E100, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Berger, Martin R. [Unit of Toxicology and Chemotherapy, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg, E100, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: m.berger@dkfz.de

2006-03-15

391

Mosquito larvicidal potential of four common medicinal plants of India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human health diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Plants may be sources of alternative mosquito control agents. The present study was carried out to assess the role of larvicidal activities of the crude extracts of four plants viz. Alternanthera sessilis L. (Amaranthaceae), Trema orientalis L. (Cannabaceae), Gardenia carinata Smith. (Rubiaceae) and Ruellia tuberosa L. (Acanthaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say in laboratory bioassay. Methods: Selective concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5%) of crude extract of all four plant leaves were tested against Ist to IVth instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Log probit analysis (at 95% confidence level) revealed the LC50 values. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical analyses of crude extracts were also done. The lethal concentrations (%) of crude extracts at 24 h against IIIrd instar larvae were also studied on non-target organisms. Result: In a 72 h bioassay experiment with crude extract, the highest mortality was recorded in 1.5 per cent extract. A. sessilis showed the highest mortality (76.7 %) at 1.5 per cent crude extract against IInd instar larvae having LC50 value of 0.35 per cent, followed by R. tuberosa (LC50 =1.84%), G. carinata (LC50 = 2.11) and T. orientalis (LC50 = 2.95%). The regression equation showed a dose-dependent mortality, as the rate of mortality (Y) was positively correlated with the concentration (X). Phytochemical analysis of the crude extract showed the presence of many bioactive phytochemicals such as steroids, alkaloids, terpenes, saponins, etc. No changes in the swimming behaviour and survivality of non-target organism were noticed at the studied concentrations. Interpretation & conclusions: Crude extract of the four selected plants showed larvicidal activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The extracts at the studied concentrations did not produce any harmful effect on non-target organisms. PMID:25222784

Rawani, Anjali; Ghosh, Anupam; Chandra, Goutam

2014-01-01

392

Enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of traditional medicinal plants: Potential application in the management of hyperglycemia  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional Indian and Australian medicinal plant extracts were investigated to determine their therapeutic potential to inhibit key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism, which has relevance to the management of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant activities were also assessed. Methods The evaluation of enzyme inhibitory activity of seven Australian aboriginal medicinal plants and five Indian Ayurvedic plants was carried out against ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase. Antioxidant activity was determined by measuring (i) the scavenging effect of plant extracts against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2?-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) and (ii) ferric reducing power. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were also determined. Results Of the twelve plant extracts evaluated, the highest inhibitory activity against both ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase enzymes was exerted by Santalum spicatum and Pterocarpus marsupium with IC50 values of 5.43??g/ml and 0.9??g/ml, respectively, and 5.16??g/ml and 1.06??g/ml, respectively. However, the extracts of Acacia ligulata (IC50?=?1.01??g/ml), Beyeria leshnaultii (0.39??g/ml), Mucuna pruriens (0.8??g/ml) and Boerhaavia diffusa (1.72??g/ml) exhibited considerable activity against ?-glucosidase enzyme only. The free radical scavenging activity was found to be prominent in extracts of Acacia kempeana, Acacia ligulata followed by Euphorbia drummondii against both DPPH and ABTS. The reducing power was more pronounced in Euphorbia drummondii and Pterocarpus marsupium extracts. The phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 0.42 to 30.27??g/mg equivalent of gallic acid and 0.51 to 32.94??g/mg equivalent of quercetin, respectively, in all plant extracts. Pearson’s correlation coefficient between total flavonoids and total phenolics was 0.796. Conclusion The results obtained in this study showed that most of the plant extracts have good potential for the management of hyperglycemia, diabetes and the related condition of oxidative stress. PMID:22713130

2012-01-01

393

Cytotoxic Activity of Some Medicinal Plants from Hamedan District of Iran  

PubMed Central

Medicinal plants have been investigated for possible anti-cancer effects. The aim of the present study was to examine the cytotoxic activity of several medicinal plants on different tumor cell lines. 11 selected plant species which have been used in folkloric prescriptions were collected from different sites of Hamedan district of Iran. The methanolic extracts of the plants were prepared and their cytotoxic effects on four human cancer cell lines (A549, human lung adenocarcinoma; MCF7, human breast adenocarcinoma; HepG2, hepatocellular carcinoma and HT-29, human colon carcinoma) and one normal cell line (MDBK, bovine kidney) were examined using the MTT assay. Three of these were exhibited antiproliferative activity against one or more of the cell lines. The extract from Primula auriculata demonstrated the highest cytotoxicity with IC50 of 25.79, 35.79 and 43.34 ?g.mL?1 against MCF7, HepG2 and HT- 29 cells, respectively. For some of the plants, their traditional use was correlated with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others the results may support the non-cytotoxicity of species used traditionally as natural remedies. The cytotoxic species could be considered as potential of anticancer compounds. PMID:24711847

Behzad, Sahar; Pirani, Atefeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

2014-01-01

394

Cytotoxic activity of some medicinal plants from hamedan district of iran.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants have been investigated for possible anti-cancer effects. The aim of the present study was to examine the cytotoxic activity of several medicinal plants on different tumor cell lines. 11 selected plant species which have been used in folkloric prescriptions were collected from different sites of Hamedan district of Iran. The methanolic extracts of the plants were prepared and their cytotoxic effects on four human cancer cell lines (A549, human lung adenocarcinoma; MCF7, human breast adenocarcinoma; HepG2, hepatocellular carcinoma and HT-29, human colon carcinoma) and one normal cell line (MDBK, bovine kidney) were examined using the MTT assay. Three of these were exhibited antiproliferative activity against one or more of the cell lines. The extract from Primula auriculata demonstrated the highest cytotoxicity with IC50 of 25.79, 35.79 and 43.34 ?g.mL-1 against MCF7, HepG2 and HT- 29 cells, respectively. For some of the plants, their traditional use was correlated with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others the results may support the non-cytotoxicity of species used traditionally as natural remedies. The cytotoxic species could be considered as potential of anticancer compounds. PMID:24711847

Behzad, Sahar; Pirani, Atefeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

2014-01-01

395

Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity between Korean medicinal plants and flavonoids by assay-guided comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several Korean medicinal plants were selected to evaluate for free radical scavenging capacities and antioxidant activities using commonly accepted assays. They were extracted with dichloromethane, methanol or ethanol, respectively and selected for the best antioxidant results. Flavonoids, such as catechin, morin, naringenin, quercetin and rutin, were included and used as standards in this study. Each sample under assay condition showed

Chang W Choi; Sei C Kim; Soon S Hwang; Bong K Choi; Hye J Ahn; Min Y Lee; Sang H Park; Soo K Kim

2002-01-01

396

The evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging activity of certain Indian medicinal plants in vitro: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

The plant extracts of 17 commonly used Indian medicinal plants were examined for their possible regulatory effect on nitric oxide (NO) levels using sodium nitroprusside as an NO donor in vitro. Most of the plant extracts tested demonstrated direct scavenging of NO and exhibited significant activity. The potency of scavenging activity was in the following order: Alstonia scholaris > Cynodon dactylon > Morinda citrifolia > Tylophora indica > Tectona grandis > Aegle marmelos (leaf) > Momordica charantia > Phyllanthus niruri > Ocimum sanctum > Tinospora cordifolia (hexane extract) = Coleus ambonicus > Vitex negundo (alcoholic) > T. cordifolia (dichloromethane extract) > T. cordifolia (methanol extract) > Ipomoea digitata > V. negundo (aqueous) > Boerhaavia diffusa > Eugenia jambolana (seed) > T. cordifolia (aqueous extract) > V. negundo (dichloromethane/methanol extract) > Gingko biloba > Picrorrhiza kurroa > A. marmelos (fruit) > Santalum album > E. jambolana (leaf). All the extracts evaluated exhibited a dose-dependent NO scavenging activity. The A. scholaris bark showed its greatest NO scavenging effect of 81.86% at 250 microg/mL, as compared with G. biloba, where 54.9% scavenging was observed at a similar concentration. The present results suggest that these medicinal plants might be potent and novel therapeutic agents for scavenging of NO and the regulation of pathological conditions caused by excessive generation of NO and its oxidation product, peroxynitrite. PMID:15383230

Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

2004-01-01

397

Minimum inhibitory concentrations of medicinal plants used in Northern Peru as antibacterial remedies  

PubMed Central

Aim The plant species reported here are traditionally used in Northern Peru to treat bacterial infections, often addressed by the local healers as “inflammation”. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of their antibacterial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Materials and methods The antimicrobial activity of ethanolic and water extracts of 141 plant species was determined using a deep-well broth microdilution method on commercially available bacterial strains. Results The ethanolic extracts of 51 species inhibited Escherichia coli, and 114 ethanolic extracts inhibited Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast, only 30 aqueous extracts showed activity against E. coli and 38 extracts against S. aureus. The MIC concentrations were mostly very high and ranged from 0.008 to 256mg/ml, with only 36 species showing inhibitory concentrations of <4mg/ml. The ethanolic extracts exhibited stronger activity and a much broader spectrum of action than the aqueous extracts. Hypericum laricifolium, Hura crepitans, Caesalpinia paipai, Cassia fistula, Hyptis sidifolia, Salvia sp., Banisteriopsis caapi, Miconia salicifolia and Polygonum hydropiperoides showed the lowest MIC values and would be interesting candidates for future research. Conclusions The presence of antibacterial activity could be confirmed in most species used in traditional medicine in Peru which were assayed in this study. However, the MIC for the species employed showed a very large range, and were mostly very high. Nevertheless, traditional knowledge might provide some leads to elucidate potential candidates for future development of new antibiotic agents. PMID:20678568

Malca-García, G.; Glenn, A.; Sharon, D.; Chait, G.; Díaz, D.; Pourmand, K.; Jonat, B.; Somogy, S.; Guardado, G.; Aguirre, C.; Chan, R.; Meyer, K.; Kuhlman, A.; Townesmith, A.; Effio-Carbajal, J.; Frías-Fernandez, F.; Benito, M.

2010-01-01

398

Screening of Korean medicinal plants for possible osteoclastogenesis effects in vitro  

PubMed Central

Bone undergoes continuous remodeling through bone formation and resorption, and maintaining the balance for skeletal rigidity. Bone resorption and loss are generally attributed to osteoclasts. Differentiation of osteoclasts is regulated by receptor activator of nuclear factor NF-kB ligand (RANKL), a member of tumor necrosis factor family. When the balance is disturbed, pathological bone abnormality ensues. Through the screening of traditional Korean medicinal plants, the effective molecules for inhibition and stimulation of RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in mouse bone marrow macrophages were identified. Among 222 methanol extracts, of medicinal plants, 10 samples exhibited ability to induce osteoclast differentiation. These include Dryobalanops aromatica, Euphoria longana, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Prunus mume, Prunus nakaii, and Polygonatum odoratum. In contrast, Ailanthus altissima, Curcuma longa, Solanum nigrum, Taraxacum platycarpa, Trichosanthes kirilowii, and Daphne genkwa showed inhibitory effects in RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. PMID:18850234

Youn, Yu Na; Lim, Erang; Lee, Nari; Kim, Young Seop; Koo, Min Seon

2007-01-01

399

Antioxidant, antiglycation and cytotoxicity evaluation of selected medicinal plants of the Mascarene Islands  

PubMed Central

Background Many indigenous plants of Mascarene Islands have been used in folkloric medicine to manage diabetes but few species have received scientific attention. Selected traditional medicinal plants (Antidesma madagascariense Lam. -Euphorbiaceae (AM), Erythroxylum macrocarpum O.E.Schulz -Erythroxylaceae (EM), Pittosporum senacia Putterl -Pittosporaceae (PS), Faujasiopsis flexuosa Lam. C.Jeffrey -Asteraceae (FF), Momordica charantia Linn -Cucurbitaceae (MC) and Ocimum tenuiflorum L -Lamiaceae (OT) were evaluated for their antioxidant, antiglycation and cytotoxic potential in vitro. Methods Graded concentrations (1.25-100 ?g/mL) of the crude methanolic and water extracts and fractions (dichloromethane, ethyl-acetate, n-butanol and water) were evaluated for abilities to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide (SO) radicals and to inhibit lipoxygenase and formation of advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) in vitro. The MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazonium bromide) cytotoxicity test was performed on 3T3 cell line. Results Only IC50 for DPPH, SO, NO and lipoxygenase for AM, FF and OT crude extracts and fractions were comparable to ascorbic acid and quercetin activity. Crude aqueous extracts of AM and FF showed IC50 of 4.08 and 3.89 ?g/mL respectively for lipoxygenase which was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than quercetin (10.86 ± 0.68 ?g/mL). The three crude aqueous extracts of these plants and their n-butanol fractions also showed antiglycation activities (p < 0.05) comparable to aminoguanidine. Increasing concentrations (250-2000 ?g/mL) of the six crude extracts (Methanol and water) and their fractions did not inhibit mitochondrial respiration as measured by MTT cytotoxicity assay. Conclusion AM, FF and OT crude extracts and fractions have potent antioxidant and antiglycation properties with no apparent cytotoxicity and might have prophylactic and therapeutic potentials in the management of diabetes and related complications. Our study tends to validate the traditional use of these medicinal herbs and food plants as complementary and alternative medicines. PMID:23020844

2012-01-01

400

REVIEW Open Access Traditional use of medicinal plants in the boreal  

E-print Network

REVIEW Open Access Traditional use of medicinal plants in the boreal forest of Canada: review medicinal plants in traditional health care systems for thousands of years. This knowledge, transmitted change. Until now, published reviews about traditional uses of medicinal plants in boreal Canada have

Asselin, Hugo

401

Medicinal Plant Knowledge Among Lay People in Five Eastern Tibet Villages  

E-print Network

Medicinal Plant Knowledge Among Lay People in Five Eastern Tibet Villages Anja Byg & Jan Salick of China, were interviewed about their knowledge of a number of medicinal plants and their uses remedies. Many people collected medicinal plants for their own use as well as for sale, but also obtained

Law, Wayne

402