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1

Pressurized liquid extraction of medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) in medicinal plant analysis was investigated. PLE extracts from a selection of representative herbs were compared with extracts obtained according to Pharmacopoeia monographs with respect to yield of relevant plant constituents, extraction time and solvent consumption. In all cases a significant economy in time and solvents was realized, while extraction yields of the

Björn Benthin; Henning Danz; Matthias Hamburger

1999-01-01

2

Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibacterial activity of hot aqueous and methanolic extracts prepared from six plants (Terminallia chebula, Terminallia bellerica, Phyllanthus emblica, Punica granatum, Lawsonia alba and Mikania micrantha) used in traditional folk medicines of India were screened against five pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 2940, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 441, Escherichia coli MTCC 739, Proteus vulgaris MTCC 426 and Enterobacter aerogenes MTCC 111). The

Anupam Ghosh; Bidus Kanti Das; Arup Roy; Biplab Mandal; Goutam Chandra

2008-01-01

3

Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts  

PubMed Central

To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6?mg?mL?1). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5?mg?mL?1) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3?mg?mL?1) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08?mg?mL?1) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified.

Uddin, Shaikh J.; Grice, I. Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

2011-01-01

4

Screening of medicinal plant extracts for antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanol extracts of nine medicinal plants traditionally used in Chinese medicine were screened for antioxidant activity versus resveratrol, which has been shown to protect cells from oxidative damage [Toxicol. Lett. 102 (1998) 5]. Most of the plant extracts used in this study inhibited the H2O2-induced apoptosis of Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4) cells. The extracts of Areca catechu var.

Si Eun Lee; Hyun Jin Hwang; Jung-Sun Ha; Han-Seung Jeong; Jeong Hee Kim

2003-01-01

5

Analysis of medicinal plant extracts by neutron activation method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This dissertation has presented the results from analysis of medicinal plant extracts using neutron activation method. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn,...

S. M. Vaz

1995-01-01

6

Evaluation of some Moroccan medicinal plant extracts for larvicidal activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The larvicidal properties of 16 extracts of four Moroccan medicinal plants: Calotropis procera (Wild.), Cotula cinerea (L.), Solanum sodomaeum (L.) and Solanum elaeagnifolium (CAV.) were tested against Anopheles labranchiae mosquito larvae. Among the extracts tested, nine exhibited high larvicidal activity with LC50 (24 h) ranging from 28 to 325 ppm.

M Markouk; K Bekkouche; M Larhsini; M Bousaid; H. B Lazrek; M Jana

2000-01-01

7

In vitro screening of medicinal plant extracts for macrofilaricidal activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic extracts of 20 medicinal plants were screened at 1–10 mg\\/ml for in vitro macrofilaricidal activity by worm motility\\u000a assay against adult Setaria digitata, the cattle filarial worm. Four plant extracts showed macrofilaricidal activity by worm motility at concentrations below\\u000a 4 mg\\/ml and an incubation period of 100 min. Complete inhibition of worm motility and subsequent mortality was observed at\\u000a 3, 2, 1

Mathew Nisha; M. Kalyanasundaram; K. P. Paily; Abidha; P. Vanamail; K. Balaraman

2007-01-01

8

[Effect of medicinal plant extracts on the growth of microorganisms].  

PubMed

Extracts obtained from sweatweed and licorice roots, flax seeds, milfoil, bur-marigold, plantain, coltsfoot, nettle, Indian corn stigmas, laminaria produced a stimulating effect on the growth of Candida albicans test strain and Streptococcus pyogenes test strain Dick 1. Sweatweed, licorice, Aerva lanata and violet extracts influenced the growth of Corynebacterium xerosis 1911, while sweatweed, violet, horse-tail, bur-marigold, camomile, plantain, and nettle extracts influenced the growth of shigellae. The stimulating effect could be supposedly produced by biologically active substances contained in medicinal plants (organic acids, alkaloids, carotinoids, vitamins, microelements). Further studies aimed at the identification of substances producing the stimulating effect are planned. PMID:11871308

Baronets, N G; Adlova, G P; Mel'nikova, V A

9

The antinociceptive effect of some Egyptian medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

The antinociceptive effect of methanolic extracts (200 and 400 mg kg(-1)) of eight Egyptian medicinal plants was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-flick test in mice. Oral administration of 400 mg kg(-1) methanolic extracts of Convolvulus fatmensis, Alhagi maurorum, Plantago major seeds, Conyza dioscaridis significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the nociception to acetic acid-induced writhes with a protection of 85.5-61.3%. Schouwia thebaica, Diplotaxis acris, Plantago major leaves and Mentha microphylla, in the large dose, showed a protection of 50.8-45.8%, which were significantly different as compared to control. The smaller dose of the tested plant extracts did not protect animals from painful acetic acid stimulation with the exception of Alhagi maurorum. In the tail-flick test, methanolic extracts of Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscaridis, Alhagi maurorum, Plantago major leaves, Diplotaxis acris and Convolvulus fatmensis in a dose of 400 mg kg(-1) produced significant increase in the latency to response of tail to thermal stimulation. Mild or no effect was observed by the small dose with the exception of Diplotaxis acris that had significant antinociceptive effect at the dose of 200 mg kg(-1). The extracts of all tested plants in doses up to 2 g kg(-1) b.wt. did not cause any deaths or major signs of acute toxicity. Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of unsaturated sterols, triterpenes, tannins, flavonoids and carbohydrates and/or glycosides as major constituents. PMID:15507342

Atta, A H; Abo EL-Sooud, K

2004-12-01

10

[Uterotonic action of extracts from a group of medicinal plants].  

PubMed

Water extracts (infusions) from a group of medicinal plants were studied in terms of their activity enhancing the uterine tonus in a series of experiments with a preparation of an isolated rabbit and guinea pig uterine horn. In a final extract concentration of 1 to 2 mg crude drug per 1 cm3 the plants ranked in the following descending order with regard to their tonus-raising effect on the uterus: camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), potmarigold calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) cockscomb (Celosia cristata L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata L. et Plantago major L.), symphytum (Symphytum officinale L.), shepherdspurse (Capsella bursa pastoris L.), St.-John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.). No effect showed the infusions of flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) and bearberry leaves (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L.). The combined preparation 'Antiinflamin', consisting of a pooled freeze-dried extract from three plants and chemotherapeutic agents produced a good enhancing effect, in the form of 'comprets' for intrauterine application at the rate of one compret per 2500 cm3. PMID:7314446

Shipochliev, T

1981-01-01

11

Antidiarrhoeal activity of some Egyptian medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

The antidiarrhoeal activity of six Egyptian medicinal plant extracts (200 and 400 mg kg(-1)) and their effect on motility of isolated rabbit's duodenum was investigated. Phytochemical screening of the plant extracts for their active constituents was also carried out by TLC. Oral administration of methanol extract from Conyza dioscoridis (CD) or Alhagi maurorum (AM) in a 200 mg kg(-1) dose exhibits a significant antidiarrhoeal effect against castor oil-induced diarrhoea, while Mentha microphylla (MM), Convolvulus arvensis (CA), Conyza linifolia (CL) produced no significant effect. In a dose of 400 mg kg(-1), Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscoridis, Alhagi maurorum, Zygophyllum album (ZA), and Conyza linifolia produced a significant (P<0.01) effect, while Convolvulus arvensis produced no antidiarrhoeal effect in rats. Methanol extract of Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscoridis, Zygophyllum album, and Convolvulus arvensis induced a dose-dependent (0.4-2.8 mg ml(-1)) relaxation of rabbit's duodenal smooth muscle. Alhagi maurorum and Conyza linifolia increased the contractile force in concentrations between 0.4 and 1.6 mg ml(-1). Higher concentrations (>3.2 mg ml(-1)) caused a rapid depressant effect. The depressant effect induced by Alhagi maurorum (in a higher dose) and Zygophyllum album appeared to be due to calcium channel blocking effect, since CaCl(2) could not restore the contractile response of the tissue impregnated in calcium free-medium. However, a ganglionic blocking effect appeared to be a possible mechanism of action of Mentha microphylla and Conyza dioscoridis since a stimulant dose of nicotine could not restore the contractile response of the tissue. The effect of Convolvulus arvensis and Conyza linifolia was not through any of the common mediators. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, unsaturated sterols/triterpenes, carbohydrates, lactones and proteins/amino acids as major constituents. PMID:15138016

Atta, Attia H; Mouneir, Samar M

2004-06-01

12

[Antioxidant properties of a series of extracts from medicinal plants].  

PubMed

Investigation of antioxidant properties of some plants was carried out. A group of plants affected human central nervous system was studied in detail. Efficiency of plants as antioxidants was tested by the influence of their extracts on the yield of photochemiluminescence of Gly-Trp solutions. Antioxidant properties were examined under conditions when their own absorption was minimized. Riboflavin as additional sensitizer was used in this experiment for superoxide generation. The antioxidant effect was evaluated with regard to single dose of plant extracts and their concentration in human organism. The effect decreases in the following consequence: Hypericum > Eleutherococcus > Rhodiola > Leonurus > Aralia > Valeriana > Echinopanax > Schizandra > Panax gin-seng. PMID:9172694

Bol'shakova, I V; Lozovskaia, E L; Sapezhinski?, I I

13

Antimicrobial Activities of Various Medicinal and Commercial Plant Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial activities of the alcohol, ethyl acetate, acetone and chloroform extracts of 5 plant species were studied. The extracts of Pimpinella anisum (L.) (anise, aniseed) (seed), Coriandrum sativum (L.) (coriander, cilantro) (seed), Glycyrrhiza glabra (L.) (liquorice) (root), Cinnamomum cassia Blume (cassia bark, Chinese cinnamon) (bark), and Juniperus oxycedrus (L.) (juniper) (seed) were tested in vitro against 13 bacterial species

D. Ayfer; Özlem Turgay ERDO

14

Efficacy of anthelmintic properties of medicinal plant extracts against Haemonchus contortus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of anthelmintic resistance has made the search for alternatives to control gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants imperative. Among these alternatives are several medicinal plants traditionally used as anthelmintics. This present work evaluated the efficacy of ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and seed extracts of five medicinal plants were tested in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activities on

C. Kamaraj; A. Abdul Rahuman

2011-01-01

15

Cytotoxicity screening of Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts on pancreatic cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There has been a long standing interest in the identification of medicinal plants and derived natural products for developing cancer therapeutics. Our study focuses upon pancreatic cancer, due to its high mortality rate, that is attributed in part to the lack of an effective chemotherapeutic agent. Previous reports on the use of medicinal plant extracts either alone or alongside

Sherine George; Siddharth V Bhalerao; Erich A Lidstone; Irfan S Ahmad; Atiya Abbasi; Brian T Cunningham; Kenneth L Watkin

2010-01-01

16

Antioxidant activity of some algerian medicinal plants extracts containing phenolic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytochemicals are extensively found at different levels in many medicinal plants. This work had two objectives: the first, to evaluate the total phenolic or flavonoid contents of 11 Algerian medicinal plants and second, to determine whether these compounds have an antioxidant capacity toward free radical propagation. The polyphenolic extractions of the dried powdered samples have been performed using 70% ethanol.

A. Djeridane; M. Yousfi; B. Nadjemi; D. Boutassouna; P. Stocker; N. Vidal

2006-01-01

17

Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against ticks and fluke.  

PubMed

The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wallich ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. against the adult cattle tick Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann 1897 (Acarina: Ixodidae), the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae) and sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi Zeder 1790 (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate toxic effect on parasites after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest parasitic activity was found in leaf ethyl acetate extract of A. lineata, methanol extract of A. marmelos, A. paniculata, and C. hirsutus against H. bispinosa (LC(50)?= 395.27, 358.45, 327.21 and 420.50 ppm); ethyl acetate extract of A. paniculata, C. hirsutus, methanol extracts of A. marmelos, A. lineata, and E. prostrata against the larvae of R. microplus (LC(50)?= 207.70, 258.61, 134.09, 206.00, and 274.33 ppm); hexane extract of A. lineata, ethyl acetate extract of A. paniculata, E. prostrata, acetone extracts of T. erecta, methanol extracts of A. marmelos and C. hirsutus against P. cervi (LC(50)?= 254.23, 451.17, 425.73, 253.60, 542.71, and 360.17 ppm), respectively. The present study is the first report on the veterinary parasitic activity of plant extracts from Southern India. PMID:20922419

Elango, Gandhi; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul

2010-10-05

18

Antibiotic properties of extracts derived from medicinal plants with liquid carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

UDC 615.779 We have studied the antimicrobial properties of substances extracted from spice-aromatic and medicinal plants. For evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of preparations isolated from plants, essential and extractive oils, alcohol-water extracts, freshly prepared slurry, and also tissue juices of the original raw material are used in general practice [1-3]. Substances isolated from plants that possess antimicrobial characteristics are

M. L. Khanin; A. I. Korotyaev; A. F. Prokopchuk; T. V. Perova; O. F. Vyazemskii

1968-01-01

19

Efficacy of medicinal plant extracts against Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, is among the most devastating termite pests. Natural products derived from plant extracts were tested in a discovery programme for effective, environment friendly termite control agents. Screening for anti-termitic activity of plant extracts with some known medicinal attributes could lead to the discovery of new agents for termite control. The aim of this

G. Elango; A. Abdul Rahuman; C. Kamaraj; A. Bagavan; A. Abduz Zahir; T. Santhoshkumar; S. Marimuthu; K. Velayutham; C. Jayaseelan; A. Vishnu Kirthi; G. Rajakumar

20

Antiproliferative activity of Thai medicinal plant extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic extracts of selected nine Thai medicinal plants were tested for antiproliferative activity against SKBR3 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line using MTT assay. Garcinia mangostana showed the most potent activity. However, all plant extracts showed activity in potential range for further investigation on cancer cells.

Primchanien Moongkarndi; Nuttavut Kosem; Omboon Luanratana; Suna Jongsomboonkusol; Narongchai Pongpan

2004-01-01

21

Antiproliferative activity of Thai medicinal plant extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic extracts of selected nine Thai medicinal plants were tested for antiproliferative activity against SKBR3 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line using MTT assay. Garcinia mangostana showed the most potent activity. However, all plant extracts showed activity in potential range for further investigation on cancer cells. 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Primchanien Moongkarndi; Nuttavut Kosem; Omboon Luanratana; Suna Jongsomboonkusol; Narongchai Pongpanb

2004-01-01

22

Insecticidal and larvicidal activities of medicinal plant extracts against mosquitoes.  

PubMed

In recent years, use of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed attention as agents for vector control because they are rich in bioactive chemicals, active against a limited number of species including specific target insects, and biodegradable. The present study was carried out to evaluate the adulticidal, repellent, and larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of eight plants, viz. Aristolochia indica L., Cassia angustifolia Vahl, Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb., Dolichos biflorus L., Gymnema sylvestre (Retz) Schult, Justicia procumbens L., Mimosa pudica L., and Zingiber zerumbet L., were tested against adult and early fourth instar larvae of Culex gelidus Theobald and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The effective adult mortality was observed in methanol extract of A. indica, ethyl acetate extract of D. biflorus, and ethyl acetate and hexane extract of Z. zerumbet against C. gelidus and C. quinquefasciatus (LD(50)?=37.75, 78.56, 129.44, 86.13, 80.06, 112.42, 53.83, and 46.61; LD(90)?=166.83, 379.14, 521.50, 289.83, 328.18, 455.72, 181.15, and 354.50 ppm, respectively). Complete protections for 150 min were found in hexane and methanol extract of A. indica and Z. zerumbet at 1,000 ppm against mosquito bites. The highest larval mortality was found in the hexane extract of Z. zerumbet, ethyl acetate extract of D. biflorus, and methanol extracts of A. indica against C. gelidus (LC(50)?=26.48, 33.02, and 12.47 ppm; LC(90)?=127.73, 128.79, and 62.33 ppm) and against C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50)?=69.18, 34.76, and 25.60 ppm; LC(90)?=324.40, 172.78, and 105.52 ppm), respectively, after 24 h. The plant extracts are potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the Japanese encephalitis vector, C. gelidus, and lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:20689968

Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Mahapatra, Anita; Bagavan, Asokan; Elango, Gandhi

2010-08-06

23

In vitro evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against Pestalotiopsis mangiferae.  

PubMed

A serious leaf-spot disease of Mangifera indica was noted during the last 10 years in Satpura plateau of India. On the basis of characteristic symptoms and cultural characters, the pathogen was identified as Pestalotiopsis mangiferae which is hitherto not reported from Satpura plateau of India. Screening of 17-medicinal plants against the test pathogen revealed 14 antimycotic whereas 3-plants, viz., Argemone mexicana, Caesalpinia bonducella, and Casia fistula acclerated the growth of the pathogen. The maximum activity was shown by Eucalyptus globulus (88%) and Catharanthus roseus (88%) followed by Ocimum sanctum (85.50%), Azadirachta indica (84.66%), Ricinus communis (75%) and Lawsonia inermis (74.33%) while the minimum activity was exhibited by Jatropha curcas (10%). PMID:9676046

Rai, M K

24

Medicinal plant extracts with efflux inhibitory activity against Gram-negative bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was hypothesised that extracts from plants that are used as herbal medicinal products contain inhibitors of efflux in Gram-negative bacteria. Extracts from 21 plants were screened by bioassay for synergy with ciprofloxacin against Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, including mutants in which acrB and tolC had been inactivated. The most active extracts, fractions and purified compounds were further examined by

Mark I. Garvey; M. Mukhlesur Rahman; Simon Gibbons; Laura J. V. Piddock

2011-01-01

25

Antibacterial activity of some plant extracts used in folk medicine.  

PubMed

In the present work, selected plants were screened for their potential antibacterial activity. For evaluating antibacterial activity, both aqueous and organic solvent methanol was used. The plants screened were Ocimum sanctum, Jatropha gossypifolia, Boerhavia diffusa, Azadirachta indica, Solidago virgaurea, and Commelina benghalensis. The antibacterial activity was assessed against six bacterial strains--Pseudomonas testosteroni, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus morganii, Micrococcus flavus. Agar disc diffusion method and Agar ditch diffusion method were used to study the antibacterial activity of all these plants. Ps. testosteroni and K. pneumoniae were the most resistant bacterial strains. A. indica showed strong activity against tested bacterial strains. Therefore, we conclude that A. indica may prove to be a promising agent, and further exploration into this compound should be performed to determine its full therapeutic potential. In addition, its leaf extract can also be used as a lead molecule in combating the diseases caused by the studied bacterial strains. PMID:18928141

Nair, Rathish; Kalariya, Tamanna; Chanda, Sumitra

2007-01-01

26

Antioxidant Properties of Extracts from Medicinal Plants Popularly Used in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined antioxidant activities of twenty-six medicinal herbal extracts that have been popularly used as folk medicines in Taiwan. The results of scavenging DPPH radical activity show that, among the 26 tested medicinal plants, Ludwigia octovalvis, Vitis thunbergii, Rubus parvifolius, Lindernia anagallis, and Zanthoxylum nitidum exhibited strong activities and their IC50 values for DPPH radicals were 4.6, 24, 27,

Lie-Fen Shyur; Jieh-Hen Tsung; Je-Hsin Chen; Chih-Yang Chiu; Chiu-Ping Lo

27

Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of 12 medicinal and aromatic plants were investigated for their radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays: Salvia sclarea, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia pratensis, Lavandula angustifolia, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Echinacea purpurea, Rhaponticum carthamoides, Juglans regia, Melilotus officinalis, Geranium macrorrhizum and Potentilla fruticosa. Salvia officinalis was used as a reference plant with well documented antioxidant activity. G. macrorrhizum and

G. Miliauskas; P. R. Venskutonis; T. A. van Beek

2004-01-01

28

Efficacy of anthelmintic properties of medicinal plant extracts against Haemonchus contortus.  

PubMed

The development of anthelmintic resistance has made the search for alternatives to control gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants imperative. Among these alternatives are several medicinal plants traditionally used as anthelmintics. This present work evaluated the efficacy of ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and seed extracts of five medicinal plants were tested in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activities on Haemonchus contortus. The in vitro assay was based on egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA), all plant extracts were evaluated at five concentrations 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.13 mg/ml. The leaf and seed ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol of Annona squamosa, Eclipta prostrata, Solanum torvum, Terminalia chebula, and Catharanthus roseus extracts were showed complete inhibition (100%) at the maximum concentration tested (50 mg/ml). The overall findings of the present study have shown that our experimental plant extracts contain possible anthelmintic compounds. PMID:20980034

Kamaraj, C; Rahuman, A Abdul

2010-10-25

29

Application of ionic liquids in the microwave-assisted extraction of polyphenolic compounds from medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids (ILs) solutions as solvents were successfully applied in the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of polyphenolic compounds from medicinal plants. ILs, its concentration and MAE conditions were investigated in order to extract polyphenolic compounds effectively from Psidium guajava Linn. (P. guajava) leaves and Smilax china (S. china) tubers. The results obtained indicated that the anions and cations of ILs had influences on the extraction of polyphenolic compounds as well as the ILs with electron-rich aromatic pi-system enhanced extraction ability. Under the optimized conditions, the extraction yields of the polyphenolic compounds were in the range of 79.5-93.8% with one-step extraction, and meanwhile the recoveries were in the range of 85.2-103% with relative standard deviations (R.S.D.s) lower than 5.6%. Compared to conventional extraction procedures, the results suggested that the proposed method was effective and alternative for the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from medicinal plants. In addition, the extraction mechanisms and the structures of samples before and after extraction were also investigated. ILs solutions as green solvents in the MAE of polyphenolic compounds from medicinal plant samples showed a great promising prospect. PMID:19269490

Du, Fu-You; Xiao, Xiao-Hua; Luo, Xue-Jun; Li, Gong-Ke

2009-01-30

30

Hydroalcoholic extracts of Indian medicinal plants can help in amelioration from oxidative stress through antioxidant properties.  

PubMed

The in vitro study of the antioxidant properties of the hydroalcoholic extracts of various Indian medicinal plants can logically help to develop a better and safer way of amelioration from oxidative stress. As aimed, the present study has been done to estimate and thereby conclude regarding the antioxidant activities of a few Indian medicinal plants, viz., Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis, Caesalpinia crista, Cajanus cajan, and Tinospora cordifolia. The extracts of the plants have been subjected to the evaluation of antioxidant properties through scavenging assays for reactive oxygen species like superoxide, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, hypochlorous acid, singlet oxygen, etc. and measurement of TEAC values and other phytochemical parameters. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of each plant have been found to be correlated to their individual antioxidant activity. The results showed the hydroalcoholic extracts of the plants were efficient indicators of their antioxidant capacity thus concreting their basis to be used as natural antioxidant. PMID:22624183

Sarkar, Rhitajit; Mandal, Nripendranath

2012-01-01

31

Screening of selected Arabian medicinal plant extracts for inhibitory activity against peptidases.  

PubMed

The methanolic extracts of 20 medicinal plants from the island Soqotra/Yemen were screened with respect to their inhibitory potency against angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and aminopeptidase N (APN). Eight extracts did not show significant inhibitory activity against the enzymes tested, only Kalanchoe farinacea, Boswellia elongata and Cissus hamaderohensis inhibited all three enzymes. The most active extract was prepared from Kalanchoe farinacea characterized by low IC50 values especially for NEP and APN. PMID:16649556

Oleski, A; Lindequist, U; Mothana, R A A; Melzig, M F

2006-04-01

32

Seaweed extracts control the leaf spot disease of the medicinal plant Gymnema sylvestre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Antimicrobial screening ,of 12 ,different seaweeds,extracts ,namely Chaetomorpha antennina, Dictyota dichotoma, Enteromorpha flexuosa, Laurencia obtusa, Gracilaria corticata, Gracilaria verrucosa, Grateloupia lithophila, Padina boergesenii, Sargassum wightii, Turbinaria conoides, Halimeda tuna and Ulva lactuca was carried out in vitro. The crude,extracts were,tested against,the ,phytopathogenic ,bacterium- Pseudomonas,syringae causing,leaf spot disease,of the,medicinal ,plant ,Gymnema ,sylvestre.,The methanolic,extracts of Sargassum ,wightii showed maximum,activity followed ,by

Chinnadurai Sreenath Kumar; Dronamraju V. L. Sarada; Ramasamy Rengasamy

33

Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against blood-sucking parasites.  

PubMed

The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, and methanol dried leaf, flower, and seed extracts of Cassia auriculata L., Rhinacanthus nasutus KURZ., Solanum torvum Swartz, Terminalia chebula Retz., and Vitex negundo Linn. were tested against larvae of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae), adult of Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann, 1897 (Acarina: Ixodidae), hematophagous fly Hippobosca maculata Leach (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), nymph of goat-lice Damalinia caprae Gurlt (Trichodectidae), and adult sheep parasite Paramphistomum cervi Zeder, 1790 (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate parasitic effects after 24 h of exposure at 3,000 ppm; however, the highest parasite mortality was found in leaf ethyl acetate, flower methanol of C. auriculata, leaf and seed methanol of S. torvum, seed acetone of T. chebula, and leaf hexane extracts of V. negundo against the larvae of R. microplus (LC(50) = 335.48, 309.21, 297.43, 414.99, 167.20, and 611.67 ppm; LC(90) = 1571.58, 1111.82, 950.98, 1243.64, 595.31, and 1875.50 ppm), the leaf and flower methanol of R. nasutus, leaf and seed methanol of S. torvum, and seed methanol extracts of T. chebula against the nymph of D. caprae (LC(50) = 119.26,143.10,164.93,140.47, and 155.98 ppm; LC(90) = 356.77, 224.08, 546.20, 479.72, and 496.06 ppm), the leaf methanol of R. nasutus, leaf and seed methanol of S.torvum, and seed acetone of T. chebula against the adult of H. bispinosa (LC(50) = 333.15, 328.98, 312.28, and 186.46 ppm; LC(90) = 1056.07, 955.39, 946.63, and 590.76 ppm), the leaf methanol of C. auriculata, the leaf and flower methanol of R. nasutus, the leaf ethyl acetate of S. torvum against the H. maculata (LC(50) = 303.36, 177.21, 204.58, and 211.41 ppm; LC(90) = 939.90, 539.39, 599.43, and 651.90 ppm), and the leaf acetone of C. auriculata, the flower methanol of R. nasutus, the seed methanol of S. torvum, and the seed acetone of T. chebula were tested against the adult of P. cervi (LC(50) = 180.54, 168.59, 200.89, and 87.08 ppm; LC(90) = 597.51, 558.65, 690.37, and 433.85 ppm), respectively. Therefore, this study provides first report on the veterinary parasitic activity of plant extracts from Southern India. PMID:20306205

Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Elango, Gandhi; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Marimuthu, Sampath; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram

2010-03-20

34

Cytotoxic activities of selected medicinal plants from Iran and phytochemical evaluation of the most potent extract  

PubMed Central

Methanolic extract of 15 Iranian medicinal plants were prepared and tested for their cytotoxic activities against three cancer cell lines (MCF7, HepG2, WEHI164) and one normal cell line (MDBK). Some plants showed cytotoxic activities. The extract of Ferula szowitsiana root, which proved to be the most active, was chosen for further phytochemical studies. The major compounds of the most potent acetone extract were isolated. They were identified as chimgin and chimganin, two known monoterpenoids, by spectroscopic means. Their cytotoxic activity was evaluated in three cell lines. The results show that these compounds are responsible, at least in part, for the cytotoxic activity of this plant.

Sahranavard, S.; Naghibi, F.; Mosaddegh, M.; Esmaeili, S.; Sarkhail, P.; Taghvaei, M.; Ghafari, S.

2009-01-01

35

Cytotoxic activities of selected medicinal plants from Iran and phytochemical evaluation of the most potent extract.  

PubMed

Methanolic extract of 15 Iranian medicinal plants were prepared and tested for their cytotoxic activities against three cancer cell lines (MCF7, HepG2, WEHI164) and one normal cell line (MDBK). Some plants showed cytotoxic activities. The extract of Ferula szowitsiana root, which proved to be the most active, was chosen for further phytochemical studies. The major compounds of the most potent acetone extract were isolated. They were identified as chimgin and chimganin, two known monoterpenoids, by spectroscopic means. Their cytotoxic activity was evaluated in three cell lines. The results show that these compounds are responsible, at least in part, for the cytotoxic activity of this plant. PMID:21589808

Sahranavard, S; Naghibi, F; Mosaddegh, M; Esmaeili, S; Sarkhail, P; Taghvaei, M; Ghafari, S

2009-07-01

36

Antimalarial activity of 20 crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants used in Kinshasa, Congo.  

PubMed

Twenty extracts including ten EtOH and ten CH2Cl2 from different parts of nine African medicinal plants used in Congolese traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria, were submitted to a pharmacological test in order to evaluate their effect on P. falciparum growth in vitro. Of these plant species, 14 (70%) extracts including EtOH and CH2Cl2 from Cassia occidentalis leaves, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta root bark, Euphorbia hirta whole plant, Garcinia kola stem bark and seeds, Morinda lucida leaves and Phyllanthus niruri whole plant produced more than 60% inhibition of the parasite growth in vitro at a test concentration of 6 microg/ml. Extracts from E. hirta, C. sanguinolenta and M. morindoides showed a significant chemosuppression of parasitaemia in mice infected with P. berghei berghei at orally given doses of 100-400 mg/kg per day. PMID:10624878

Tona, L; Ngimbi, N P; Tsakala, M; Mesia, K; Cimanga, K; Apers, S; De Bruyne, T; Pieters, L; Totté, J; Vlietinck, A J

1999-12-15

37

Activity of some Mexican medicinal plant extracts on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema.  

PubMed

The extracts obtained from 14 plants of the Mexican medicinal flora were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. The i.p. administration of the extracts at a dose of 400 mg/kg produced a high reduction of edema with 70% of the plant extracts. Oenothera rosea methanol extract, Sphaeralcea angustifolia chloroform extract, Acaciafarnesiana, Larrea tridentata and Rubus coriifolius methanol extracts as well as the aqueous extract of Chamaedora tepejilote were demonstrated to be particularly active against the induced hind-paw edema. Moderate inhibition of edema formation was also demonstrated with the methanol extracts of Astianthus viminalis, Brickellia paniculata, C. tepejilote and Justicia spicigera. PMID:15330501

Meckes, M; David-Rivera, A D; Nava-Aguilar, V; Jimenez, A

2004-07-01

38

Induction of apoptosis of human primary osteoclasts treated with extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Osteoclasts (OCs) are involved in rheumatoid arthritis and in several pathologies associated with bone loss. Recent results support the concept that some medicinal plants and derived natural products are of great interest for developing therapeutic strategies against bone disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. In this study we determined whether extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits display activity of possible

Letizia Penolazzi; Ilaria Lampronti; Monica Borgatti; Mahmud Tareq Hassan Khan; Margherita Zennaro; Roberta Piva; Roberto Gambari

2008-01-01

39

ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF CRUDE ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF SIX MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibacterial activity of twelve crude alcoholic and aqueous extracts from six medicinal plants against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 was studied. The medicinal plants included Alstonia macrophylla Wall., Bixa orellana L., Blumea balsamifera (L.) D.C., Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Arcangelisia flava (L.) Merr., and Leea rubra Blume. Crude ethanolic extracts from leaves of Bixa orellana L.

Metta Ongsakul; Chanapong Rojanaworarit

40

Medicinal Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)|

Phillipson, J. David

1997-01-01

41

[The antioxidant characteristics of medicinal plant extracts from Western Siberia].  

PubMed

An antioxidant activity of the water-alcohol extracts of leaves of ten herbs from Western Siberia was studied. In vivo the capability of extracts to protect cells of Escherichia coli against the bacteriostatic action of H2O2 and the influence of the extracts on the expression of the antioxidant gene katG coding catalase-hydroperoxidase I were investigated. In vitro the radical-binding activity with DPhPG (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical), the chelating capability with ferrozine, and total composition of flavonoids and tannins were determined. The extracts of Filipendula stepposa and Limonium gmelinii were characterized by the highest antioxidant activity. According to data, the test extracts could have an antioxidant effect on bacteria in different ways at once including the direct inhibition of ROS (reactive oxygen species), iron ion chelation and antioxidant gene induction. PMID:20067157

Smirnova, G V; Vysochina, G I; Muzyka, N G; Samo?lova, Z Iu; Kukushkina, T A; Oktiabr'ski?, O N

42

INHIBITORY ACTIVITY ON HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGEN SECRETION AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THAI MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven ethanol extracts of Thai medicinal plant were investigated for inhibitory activity on hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) secreted from PLC\\/PRF\\/5 cells and antibacterial activity. All samples inhibited HBsAg secretion from PLC\\/PRF\\/5 cells, calculated by IC50. The toxicity of ethanol extracts was performed and calculated by CC 50 . The selectivity index (SI, CC 50 \\/ IC 50 ) of

Sattaporn Sirotamarat; Thaveechai Vachirayonstien; Ekarin Saifah

43

Antimicrobial activity and anti-complement activity of extracts obtained from selected Hawaiian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected plants having a history of use in Polynesian traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious disease were investigated for anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-bacterial activity in vitro. Extracts from Scaevola sericea, Psychotria hawaiiensis, Pipturus albidus and Eugenia malaccensis showed selective anti-viral activity against Herpes Simplex Virus-1 and 2 and Vesicular Stomatitis Virus. Aleurites moluccana extracts showed anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus

C. P. Locher; M. T. Burch; H. F. Mower; J. Berestecky; H. Davis; B. Van Poel; A. Lasure; D. A. Vanden Berghe; A. J. Vlietinck

1995-01-01

44

Medicinal plants extracts affect virulence factors expression and biofilm formation by the uropathogenic Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are an important source for the therapeutic remedies of various diseases including urinary tract infections. This prompted us to perform research in this area. We decided to focus on medicinal plants species used in urinary tract infections prevention. The aim of our study was to determine the influence of Betula pendula, Equisetum arvense, Herniaria glabra, Galium odoratum, Urtica dioica, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea extracts on bacterial survival and virulence factors involved in tissue colonization and biofilm formation of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli rods. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of plant extracts were performed. Antimicrobial assay relied on the estimation of the colony forming unit number. Hydrophobicity of cells was established by salt aggregation test. Using motility agar, the ability of bacteria to move was examined. The erythrocyte hemagglutination test was used for fimbriae P screening. Curli expression was determined using YESCA agar supplemented with congo red. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter plate assay and a spectrophotometric method. The results of the study indicate significant differences between investigated extracts in their antimicrobial activities. The extracts of H. glabra and V. vitis-idaea showed the highest growth-inhibitory effects (p < 0.05). Surface hydrophobicity of autoaggregating E. coli strain changed after exposure to all plant extracts, except V. vitis-idaea (p > 0.05). The B. pendula and U. dioica extracts significantly reduced the motility of the E. coli rods (p < 0.05). All the extracts exhibited the anti-biofilm activity. PMID:22915095

Wojnicz, Dorota; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Sokó?-??towska, Anna; Kicia, Marta; Tichaczek-Goska, Dorota

2012-08-23

45

Cytotoxicity of six South African medicinal plant extracts used in the treatment of cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extracts prepared from six South African medicinal plants, with cancer-related ethnobotanical uses, were tested for their cytotoxic ability in vitro against three human cancer cell lines: DU-145 prostate cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells and a non-malignant breast cell line, MCF-12A. The plants studied were: Bidens pilosa, Centella asiatica, Cnicus benedictus, Dicoma capensis, Hypoxis hemerocallidea and Sutherlandia

V. Steenkamp; M. C. Gouws

2006-01-01

46

In vitro treatment of chicken peripheral blood lymphocytes, macrophages, and tumor cells with extracts of Korean medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of different medicinal plants have traditionally been used in Asian cultures as medicinal plants to enhance immunity and treat cancers. However, limited information exists on the underlying mechanisms responsible for these immune enhancing properties. The current investigation was conducted to examine the effects of methanol extracts of 3 Korean indigenous plants (dandelion root, mustard leaf, and safflower leaf)

Sung-Hyen Lee; Hyun Soon Lillehoj; Hye-Kyung Chun; Wenbin Tuo; Hong-Ju Park; Soo-Muk Cho; Young-Min Lee; Erik P. Lillehoj

2007-01-01

47

Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against blood-sucking parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of acetone, chloroform,\\u000a ethyl acetate, hexane, and methanol dried leaf, flower, and seed extracts of Cassia auriculata L., Rhinacanthus nasutus KURZ., Solanum torvum Swartz, Terminalia chebula Retz., and Vitex negundo Linn. were tested against larvae of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae),

Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Asokan Bagavan; Gandhi Elango; Govindasamy Rajakumar; Abdul Abduz Zahir; Sampath Marimuthu; Thirunavukkarasu Santhoshkumar; Chidambaram Jayaseelan

2010-01-01

48

Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against ticks and fluke  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of leaf hexane, chloroform,\\u000a ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wallich ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. against the adult cattle tick Haemaphysalis

Gandhi Elango; Abdul Abdul Rahuman

2011-01-01

49

Screening of medicinal plant extracts for antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanolic crude extracts of Desmodium gangeticum (Linn.), Eclipta alba (Linn.) Ocimum sanctum (Linn.), Piper longum (Linn.), Solanum nigrum (Linn.) and Amaranthus caudatus (Linn.) were screened for their free radical scavenging properties using ascorbic acid as standard antioxidant. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. The overall antioxidant activity of D. gangeticum was found to

Prakash Veeru; Mishra Pankaj Kishor; Mishra Meenakshi

2009-01-01

50

Insecticidal and larvicidal activities of medicinal plant extracts against mosquitoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, use of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed\\u000a attention as agents for vector control because they are rich in bioactive chemicals, active against a limited number of species\\u000a including specific target insects, and biodegradable. The present study was carried out to evaluate the adulticidal, repellent,\\u000a and larvicidal activity of crude hexane,

Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Anita Mahapatra; Asokan Bagavan; Gandhi Elango

2010-01-01

51

Antibacterial activity of crude extracts from Mexican medicinal plants and purified coumarins and xanthones.  

PubMed

Thirty-two extracts from 22 Mexican medicinal plants of 15 different families were assayed to determine their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Seventeen plants showed antibacterial activity, while five plants showed no activity against both bacteria. All of the extracts showed higher activity against Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant) than against Escherichia coli, except one. Among the plants examined, Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. (Burseraceae), Haematoxylum brasiletto H. Karst. (Fabaceae), Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Clusiaceae), and Mammea americana L. (Clusiaceae) were highly active against Staphylococcus aureus. Coumarins (mammea A/BA and mammea A/AA) and xanthones, namely jacareubin and 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxy-2-(3,3-dimethylallyl) xanthone, were isolated as the principle compounds from the last two plants. PMID:15707768

Yasunaka, Kakuko; Abe, Fumiko; Nagayama, Ariaki; Okabe, Hikaru; Lozada-Pérez, Lucio; López-Villafranco, Edith; Muńiz, Elizabeth Estrada; Aguilar, Abigail; Reyes-Chilpa, Ricardo

2005-01-12

52

Lipid Oxidation Inhibitory Effects and Phenolic Composition of Aqueous Extracts from Medicinal Plants of Colombian Amazonia  

PubMed Central

Diverse plants of ethnobotanic interest in Amazonia are commonly used in traditional medicine. We determined the antioxidant potential against lipid peroxidation, the antimicrobial activity, and the polyphenol composition of several Amazonian plants (Brownea rosademonte, Piper glandulosissimum, Piper krukoffii, Piper putumayoense, Solanum grandiflorum, and Vismia baccifera). Extracts from the plant leaf, bark, and stem were prepared as aqueous infusions, as used in folk medicine, and added to rat liver microsomes exposed to iron. The polyphenolic composition was detected by reverse-phase HPLC coupled to diode-array detector and MS/MS analysis. The antimicrobial activity was tested by the spot-on-a-lawn method against several indicator microorganisms. All the extracts inhibited lipid oxidation, except the P. glandulosissimum stem. The plant extracts exhibiting high antioxidant potential (V. baccifera and B. rosademonte) contained high levels of flavanols (particularly, catechin and epicatechin). By contrast, S. grandiflorum leaf, which exhibited very low antioxidant activity, was rich in hydroxycinnamic acids. None of the extracts showed antimicrobial activity. This study demonstrates for the first time the presence of bioactive polyphenolic compounds in several Amazonian plants, and highlights the importance of flavanols as major phenolic contributors to antioxidant activity.

Lizcano, Leandro J.; Viloria-Bernal, Maria; Vicente, Francisca; Berrueta, Luis Angel; Gallo, Blanca; Martinez-Canamero, Magdalena; Ruiz-Larrea, Maria Begona; Ruiz-Sanz, Jose Ignacio

2012-01-01

53

Screening of immunomodulatory activity of total and protein extracts of some Moroccan medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Herbal and traditional medicines are being widely used in practice in many countries for their benefits of treating different ailments. A large number of plants in Morocco were used in folk medicine to treat immune-related disorders. The objective of this study is to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of protein extracts (PEs) of 14 Moroccan medicinal plants. This activity was tested on the proliferation of immune cells. The prepared total and PEs of the plant samples were tested using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay on the splenocytes with or without stimulation by concanavalin-A (Con-A), a mitogenic agent used as positive control. The results of this study indicated different activity spectra. Three groups of activities were observed. The first group represented by Citrullus colocynthis, Urtica dioica, Elettaria cardamomum, Capparis spinosa and Piper cubeba showed a significant immunosuppressive activity. The second group that showed a significant immunostimulatory activity was represented by Aristolochia longa, Datura stramonium, Marrubium vulgare, Sinapis nigra, Delphynium staphysagria, Lepidium sativum, Ammi visnaga and Tetraclinis articulata. The rest of the plant extracts did not alter the proliferation induced by Con-A. This result was more important for the PE than for the total extract. In conclusion, this study revealed an interesting immunomodulating action of certain PEs, which could explain their traditional use. The results of this study may also have implications in therapeutic treatment of infections, such as prophylactic and adjuvant with cancer chemotherapy. PMID:22301818

Daoudi, Abdeljlil; Aarab, Lotfi; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

2012-02-02

54

Determination of selenium content in aqueous extract of medicinal plants used as herbal supplement for cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical constituents in medicinal plants (MPs), including elements, are partially responsible for their medicinal and nutritional properties as well as toxic effects. This research aimed to monitor selenium (Se) contents in aqueous extract of MPs used for treatment of cancer and different diseases. In present work the Se in MPs was extracted in aqueous media by microwave-assisted (ME) and

N. F. Kolachi; T. G. Kazi; H. I. Afridi; S. Khan; S. K. Wadhwa; A. Q. Shah; F. Shah; J. A. Baig; Sirajuddin

2010-01-01

55

Antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of some selected medicinal plants from the northwest of Iran.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of antimalarial drugs is declining at an ever accelerating rate, with consequent increase in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. The newest antiplasmodial drug from plants is needed to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to assess antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of 10 different medicinal plants from eight families against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain. The selection of the hereby studied plants was based on the existing information on their local ethnobotanic history. Plants were dried, powdered, and macerated in a hydroalcoholic solution. Resulting extracts have been assessed for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial and brine shrimp toxicity activities. Of 10 plant species tested, four plants: Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae), Myrtus communis Linn (Myrtaceae), Plantago major (Plantaginaceae), and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Papilionaceae) displayed promising antimalarial activity in vitro (50 % inhibitory concentration values of 62.77, 42.18, 40.00, and 13.56 ?g/mL, respectively) with no toxicity against brine shrimp larvae. The crude extracts of three active plants, G. glabra, M. communis, and A. officinalis, also significantly reduced parasitemia in vivo in female Swiss albino mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg compared to no treatment. Antiplasmodial activities of extracts of A. officinalis and M. communis are reported for the first time. PMID:23922204

Sangian, Hadi; Faramarzi, Hossein; Yazdinezhad, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed Javad; Zamani, Zahra; Noubarani, Maryam; Ramazani, Ali

2013-08-07

56

A New Application for the Optimal Foraging Theory: The Extraction of Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

The Optimal Foraging Theory was used to identify possible patterns in bark extraction and the selective cutting of Anadenanthera colubrina (Angico), a medicinal plant. The hypotheses were built on two approaches: selection of collection place and bark exploitation occurrence in only one of these resource areas. The results suggest that the distance that must be traveled to reach each gathering site determines the extent of the extraction process, showing that people minimize the time and energy spent in A. colubrina collection. The availability of each site appears not to influence the operation. The resource amount was the optimized variable for bark extraction, which was analyzed in only one collection zone. In contrast to the phenomenon of collection place selection, the distance between angico individuals, the management period, and the tannin content did not affect bark extraction. This study also discusses how certain cultural aspects influence the extraction of angico.

Soldati, Gustavo Taboada; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

2012-01-01

57

Multivariate optimization of cloud point extraction procedure for zinc determination in aqueous extracts of medicinal plants by flame atomic absorption spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud point extraction method has been developed for preconcentration of trace quantities of zinc (Zn) in aqueous extract of medicinal plants and blood samples of liver cancer patients using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Zn in aqueous extracts of medicinal plants (MPs) was complexed with 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (quinaldine) and 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) separately and entrapped in a non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114. After

N. F. Kolachi; T. G. Kazi; S. Khan; S. K. Wadhwa; J. A. Baig; H. I. Afridi; A. Q. Shah; F. Shah

2011-01-01

58

Larvicidal efficacy of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Natural products of plant origin with insecticidal properties have been used in recent years for control of a variety of pest insects and vectors. The present study was based on assessments of the larvicidal activity to determine the efficacies of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of ten medicinal plants tested against fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston and lymphatic filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The larvicidal activity was assessed by the procedure of WHO with some modification. The highest larval mortality was found in leaf acetone of Adhatoda vasica, bark ethyl acetate of Annona squamosa, methanol leaf and flower of Cassia auriculata, leaf ethyl acetate of Hydrocotyle javanica, methanol leaf and seed of Solanum torvum and leaf hexane extracts of Vitex negundo against the fourth instar larvae of An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The calculated LC90 for acetone, ethyl acetate, methanol and hexane extracts of dried leaf and bark of A. vasica, A. squamosa, S. torvum, and V. negundo were in the range of 70.38-210.68 ppm. Our results suggest that the leaf methanol extract of S.torvum and bark ethyl acetate extract of A. squamosa from Southern India have the potential for use to control mosquitoes. Therefore, this study provides the larvicidal activity against An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus of plant extracts. PMID:20962718

Kamaraj, C; Abdul Rahman, A; Bagavan, A; Abduz Zahir, A; Elango, G; Kandan, P; Rajakumar, G; Marimuthu, S; Santhoshkumar, T

2010-08-01

59

Medicines and Drugs from Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural preparations have been used for thousands of ages for a variety of purposes including as medicines, poisons, and psychotropic drugs. The largest grouped of preparations from living organisms are medicines, and historically these have come from plants. Quinine and aspirin are two examples of medicines which were extracted originally from plants. Mind-altering, or psychotropic, drugs come mostly from plants

William C. Agosta

1997-01-01

60

????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora ??????????????????????????? Efficacy of Medicinal Plant Crude Extracts on Growth Inhibition of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, the Vegetable Soft Rot Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficacy test of medicinal plant crude extracts on growth inhibition of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, the causal agent of vegetable soft rot was conducted. Fourteen kinds of medicinal plant were extracted by 95% ethyl alcohol. Plant crude extracts at the concentration of 100,000 ppm were tested by Paper disc diffusion method on double layer nutrient glucose agar (NGA). It was

Sasitorn Vudhivanich

61

In vitro activity of extracts and isolated polyphenols from West African medicinal plants against Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to screen 11 selected traditional medicinal plants from West Africa for their in vitro antiplasmodial activity in order to determine the activity of single and of combination of plant extracts and to examine the activity of isolated pure compounds. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the 11 selected plants and pure compounds from Phyllanthus muellerianus and Anogeissus leiocarpus were tested in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7. Proliferation inhibitory effects were monitored after 48 h. Among the plants and pure compounds investigated in this study, geraniin from P. muellerianus, ellagic, gentisic, and gallic acids from A. leiocarpus, and extracts from A. leiocarpus, P. muellerianus and combination of A. leiocarpus with P. muellerianus affected the proliferation of P. falciparum most potently. Significant inhibitory activity was observed in combination of A. leiocarpus with P. muellerianus (IC(50)?=?10.8 ?g/ml), in combination of A. leiocarpus with Khaya senegalensis (IC(50)?=?12.5 ?g/ml), ellagic acid (IC(50)?=?2.88 ?M), and geraniin (IC(50)?=?11.74 ?M). In general growth inhibition was concentration-dependent revealing IC(50) values ranging between 10.8 and -40.1 ?g/ml and 2.88 and 11.74 ?M for plant extracts and pure substances respectively. Comparison with literature sources of in vivo and in vitro toxicity data revealed that thresholds are up to two times higher than the determined IC(50) values. Thus, the present study suggests that geraniin from P. muellerianus; ellagic acid, gallic acid, and gentisic acid from A. leiocarpus; and combination of extracts from A. leiocarpus with either P. muellerianus or K. senegalensis could be a potential option for malaria treatment. PMID:22476602

Ndjonka, Dieudonné; Bergmann, Bärbel; Agyare, Christian; Zimbres, Flávia M; Lüersen, Kai; Hensel, Andreas; Wrenger, Carsten; Liebau, Eva

2012-04-05

62

Larvicidal potential of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

Mosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, methanol and petroleum ether extracts of leaf, flower and seed of Cassia auriculata L., Leucas aspera (Willd.), Rhinacanthus nasutus KURZ., Solanum torvum Swartz and Vitex negundo Linn. were tested against fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest mortality was found in leaf petroleum ether, flower methanol extracts of C. auriculata, flower methanol extracts of L. aspera and R. nasutus, leaf and seed methanol extracts of S. torvum and leaf hexane extract of V. negundo against the larvae of A. subpictus (LC(50) = 44.21, 44.69, 53.16, 41.07, 35.32, 28.90 and 44.40 ppm; LC(90) = 187.31, 188.29, 233.18, 142.66, 151.60, 121.05 and 192.11 ppm, respectively) and against the larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus (LC(50) = 69.83, 51.29, 81.24, 71.79, 44.42, 84.47 and 65.35 ppm; LC(90) = 335.26, 245.63, 300.45, 361.83, 185.09, 351.41 and 302.42 ppm, respectively). These results suggest that the leaf petroleum ether, flower methanol extracts of C. auriculata, leaf and seed methanol extracts of S. torvum and leaf hexane extract of V. negundo have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. subpictus and C. tritaeniorhynchus. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the medicinal plant extracts. PMID:19085005

Kamaraj, C; Bagavan, A; Rahuman, A Abdul; Zahir, A Abduz; Elango, G; Pandiyan, G

2008-12-16

63

Phytochemical characteristics, free radical scavenging activities, and neuroprotection of five medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine phytochemical characteristics, chemiluminescence antioxidant capacities, and neuroprotective effects on PC12 cells for methanol extracts of Spatholobus suberectus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Alpinia officinarum, Drynaria fortunei, and Crataegus pinnatifida. The C. pinnatifida extract (CPE) afforded the greatest yield and total phenolic content. The S. suberectus extract (SSE) yielded the greatest total flavonoid content. The U. rhynchophylla extract (URE) produced the greatest total tannin content, and the A. officinarum extract (AOE) produced the greatest total triterpenoid content. The D. fortunei extract, assayed using horseradish peroxidase-luminol-hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and AOE using pyrogallol-luminol assay each exhibited better antioxidant activity than the L-ascorbic acid and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid did. The CPE, SSE, and URE presented neurogrowth effects and neuroprotective activities on H(2)O(2)-induced PC12 cell death at 0.5-5.0??g/mL. The CPE represents a promising medicinal plant source for the treatment of H(2)O(2)-induced neurodegenerative disease, because of its useful phytochemical characteristics. PMID:21845204

Chang, Chia Lin; Lin, Che San; Lai, Guia Hung

2011-08-10

64

Phytochemical Characteristics, Free Radical Scavenging Activities, and Neuroprotection of Five Medicinal Plant Extracts  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine phytochemical characteristics, chemiluminescence antioxidant capacities, and neuroprotective effects on PC12 cells for methanol extracts of Spatholobus suberectus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Alpinia officinarum, Drynaria fortunei, and Crataegus pinnatifida. The C. pinnatifida extract (CPE) afforded the greatest yield and total phenolic content. The S. suberectus extract (SSE) yielded the greatest total flavonoid content. The U. rhynchophylla extract (URE) produced the greatest total tannin content, and the A. officinarum extract (AOE) produced the greatest total triterpenoid content. The D. fortunei extract, assayed using horseradish peroxidase-luminol-hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and AOE using pyrogallol-luminol assay each exhibited better antioxidant activity than the L-ascorbic acid and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid did. The CPE, SSE, and URE presented neurogrowth effects and neuroprotective activities on H2O2-induced PC12 cell death at 0.5–5.0??g/mL. The CPE represents a promising medicinal plant source for the treatment of H2O2-induced neurodegenerative disease, because of its useful phytochemical characteristics.

Chang, Chia Lin; Lin, Che San; Lai, Guia Hung

2012-01-01

65

Water-extractable magnesium, manganese and copper in leaves and herbs of medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Since herbal teas, infusions and decoctions prepared from medicinal plants are popular remedies, it remains a topical question whether these herbal drugs can be treated as sources of essential elements for humans, who often use them in their everyday diet. Therefore, total and water-extractable contents of Mg, Mn and Cu were determined in 41 leaves originating from four botanical species of Plantago lanceolata, Arctostaphyllos uva-ursi, Rubus fruticosus and Betula sp., as well as in 33 samples of herbs represented by three species of Urtica dioica, Hypericum perforatum and Achillea millefolium. The highest level was determined in the case of Mg (in a range from 2.0 to 7.0 mg/g of dry mass [d.m.]), followed by Mn (from 50.0 to 1300.0 mg/kg d.m.), and lowest of all, Cu (from 3.5 to 19.5 mg/kg d.m.). Student's t-test showed that a statistically significant difference exists between samples originating from different plant species regarding the total content and water-extractable forms of Mg, Mn and Cu. By analysis of the relations between elements, it was observed that total level of Cu correlated with total levels of Mg and Mn, which indicates a synergistic interaction between the essential elements under study. With regard to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), the leaves of Rubus fruticosus contained the highest amounts of a water-extractable bioavailable form of Mn, which guarantees from 160 to 200% of the daily requirement of Mn for women and men, respectively. On the other hand, the extract obtained from Urticae folium gave water-extractable Mg in the amount of 76 mg/500 mL, which constitutes about 20% of daily requirement. The plant material richest in water-extractable Cu was Hyperici herba, containing 154.5 microg/500 mL, or 17% of DRI for both sexes. PMID:22574504

Konieczy?ski, Pawe?; Weso?owski, Marek

66

Inhibition of HIV-1 entry by extracts derived from traditional Chinese medicinal herbal plants  

PubMed Central

Background Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) is the current HIV/AIDS treatment modality. Despite the fact that HAART is very effective in suppressing HIV-1 replication and reducing the mortality of HIV/AIDS patients, it has become increasingly clear that HAART does not offer an ultimate cure to HIV/AIDS. The high cost of the HAART regimen has impeded its delivery to over 90% of the HIV/AIDS population in the world. This reality has urgently called for the need to develop inexpensive alternative anti-HIV/AIDS therapy. This need has further manifested by recent clinical trial failures in anti-HIV-1 vaccines and microbicides. In the current study, we characterized a panel of extracts of traditional Chinese medicinal herbal plants for their activities against HIV-1 replication. Methods Crude and fractionated extracts were prepared from various parts of nine traditional Chinese medicinal herbal plants in Hainan Island, China. These extracts were first screened for their anti-HIV activity and cytotoxicity in human CD4+ Jurkat cells. Then, a single-round pseudotyped HIV-luciferase reporter virus system (HIV-Luc) was used to identify potential anti-HIV mechanisms of these extracts. Results Two extracts, one from Euphorbiaceae, Trigonostema xyphophylloides (TXE) and one from Dipterocarpaceae, Vatica astrotricha (VAD) inhibited HIV-1 replication and syncytia formation in CD4+ Jurkat cells, and had little adverse effects on host cell proliferation and survival. TXE and VAD did not show any direct inhibitory effects on the HIV-1 RT enzymatic activity. Treatment of these two extracts during the infection significantly blocked infection of the reporter virus. However, pre-treatment of the reporter virus with the extracts and treatment of the extracts post-infection had little effects on the infectivity or gene expression of the reporter virus. Conclusion These results demonstrate that TXE and VAD inhibit HIV-1 replication likely by blocking HIV-1 interaction with target cells, i.e., the interaction between gp120 and CD4/CCR5 or gp120 and CD4/CXCR4 and point to the potential of developing these two extracts to be HIV-1 entry inhibitors.

Park, In-Woo; Han, Changri; Song, Xiaoping; Green, Linden A; Wang, Ting; Liu, Ying; Cen, Changchun; Song, Xinming; Yang, Biao; Chen, Guangying; He, Johnny J

2009-01-01

67

Inhibition of Trypanosoma cruzi by plant extracts used in Chinese medicine.  

PubMed

In this work, we assessed the effect of extracts obtained from 17 plants used in traditional Chinese medicine. These extracts were tested in vitro with the epimastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi, clone Bra C(15) C(2), at 27 degrees C in F-29 medium at a concentration of 100 microg/ml in axenic cultures. Allopurinol was used as reference drug. Seven plant extracts showed inhibitory activities lower than 25%. Pueraria lobata, Mahonia beaei, Dictamus dasycarpus, Kochia scoparia, Sophora flavescens and Ligustrum lucidum showed effects with inhibition values between 25% and 60%, whereas Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Saussurea lappa, Melia toosendan and Cinnamomum cassia showed the greatest inhibitory activity of 100%. The IC(50) of these extracts were: 0.4, 2.4, 1.8 and 3.9 microg/ml, respectively. The MTT assay was made and did not show cytotoxic activity. These results allowed us to suggest that L. erythrorhizon, S. lappa, M. toosendan and C. cassia could be a source of new compounds against T. cruzi. PMID:15567249

Lirussi, D; Li, J; Prieto, J M; Gennari, M; Buschiazzo, H; Ríos, J L; Zaidenberg, A

2004-12-01

68

Screening of crude extracts of six medicinal plants used in South-West Nigerian unorthodox medicine for anti-methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Six Nigerian medicinal plants Terminalia avicennioides, Phylantus discoideus, Bridella ferruginea, Ageratum conyzoides, Ocimum gratissimum and Acalypha wilkesiana used by traditional medical practitioners for the treatment of several ailments of microbial and non-microbial origins were investigated for in vitro anti-methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity. METHODS: Fresh plant materials were collected from the users. Water and ethanol extracts of the

Kabir O Akinyemi; Olukayode Oladapo; Chidi E Okwara; Christopher C Ibe; Kehinde A Fasure

2005-01-01

69

Dietary medicinal plant extracts improve growth, immune activity and survival of tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus.  

PubMed

The effects of supplementing diets with acetone extract (1% w/w) from four medicinal plants (Bermuda grass Cynodon dactylon, H(1), beal Aegle marmelos, H(2), winter cherry Withania somnifera, H(3) and ginger Zingiber officinale, H(4)) on growth, the non-specific immune response and ability to resist pathogen infection in tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus were assessed. In addition, the antimicrobial properties of the extract were assessed against Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrioparahaemolyticus, Vibrio mimicus, Vibrio campbelli, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio harveyi and Photobacterium damselae. Oreochromis mossambicus were fed 5% of their body mass per day for 45 days, and those fed the experimental diets showed a greater increase in mass (111-139%) over the 45 days compared to those that received the control diet (98%). The specific growth rate of O. mossambicus fed the four diets was also significantly greater (1.66-1.93%) than control (1.52%) diet-fed fish. The blood plasma chemistry analysis revealed that protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, glucose and triglyceride levels of experimental fish were significantly higher than that of control fish. Packed cell volume of the blood samples of experimental diet-fed fish was also significantly higher (34.16-37.95%) than control fish (33.0%). Leucocrit value, phagocytic index and lysozyme activity were enhanced in fish fed the plant extract-supplemented diets. The acetone extract of the plants inhibited growth of Vibrio spp. and P. damselae with extracts from W. somnifera showing maximum growth inhibition. A challenge test with V. vulnificus showed 100% mortality in O. mossambicus fed the control diet by day 15, whereas the fish fed the experimental diets registered only 63-80% mortality at the end of challenge experiment (30 days). The cumulative mortality index for the control group was 12,000, which was equated to 1.0% mortality, and accordingly, the lowest mortality of 0.35% was registered in H(4)-diet-fed group. PMID:20735646

Immanuel, G; Uma, R P; Iyapparaj, P; Citarasu, T; Peter, S M Punitha; Babu, M Michael; Palavesam, A

2009-05-01

70

Repeat-dose effects of Zanthoxylum chalybeum root bark extract: A traditional medicinal plant used for various diseases in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zanthoxylum chalybeum is a traditional medicinal plant used in the treatment of various ailments in the African region. In sickle cell disease a decoction of the root bark extract is administered for life. The safety of long term use of this plant is not documented. This study investigated the systemic effects of daily administration of low and high oral doses

Ogwang P. Engeu; Tumusiime Ralph; Agwaya Moses; Mugisha Gerosome; Grace Nambatya Kyeyune; Galiwango Badru; Waako Paul

71

Anti-listerial activity of ethanolic extracts of medicinal plants, Eremophila alternifolia and Eremophila duttonii, in food homogenates and milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen responsible for the disease listeriosis. Ethanolic extracts from two native Australian traditional medicinal plants, Eremophila alternifolia and Eremophila duttonii, have been found to inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes. These plants were investigated for their ability to control the growth of L. monocytogenes in full cream milk and skim milk and in diluted homogenates

Roxanne J. Owen; Enzo A. Palombo

2007-01-01

72

Screening of Venezuelan medicinal plant extracts for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines.  

PubMed

There are estimated to be more than 20,000 species of plants in Venezuela, of which more than 1500 are used for medicinal purposes by indigenous and local communities. Only a relatively small proportion of these have been evaluated in terms of their potential as antitumor agents. In this study, we screened 308 extracts from 102 species for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against a panel of six tumor cell lines using a 24-h sulphorhodamine B assay. Extracts from Clavija lancifolia, Hamelia patens, Piper san-vicentense, Physalis cordata, Jacaranda copaia, Heliotropium indicum, and Annona squamosa were the most cytotoxic, whereas other extracts from Calotropis gigantea, Hyptis dilatata, Chromolaena odorata, Siparuna guianensis, Jacaranda obtusifolia, Tapirira guianensis, Xylopia aromatica, Protium heptaphyllum, and Piper arboreum showed the greatest cytostatic activity. These results confirm previous reports on the cytotoxic activities of the above-mentioned plants as well as prompting further studies on others such as C. lancifolia and H. dilatata that have not been so extensively studied. PMID:22648665

Taylor, Peter; Arsenak, Miriam; Abad, María Jesús; Fernández, Angel; Milano, Balentina; Gonto, Reina; Ruiz, Marie-Christine; Fraile, Silvia; Taylor, Sofía; Estrada, Omar; Michelangeli, Fabian

2012-05-31

73

Activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis and M. tuberculosis by extract of South African medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Seven ethnobotanically selected medicinal plants were screened for their antimycobacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of four plants namely Artemisia afra, Dodonea angustifolia, Drosera capensis and Galenia africana ranged from 0.781 to 6.25 mg/mL against Mycobacterium smegmatis. G. africana showed the best activity exhibiting an MIC of 0.78 mg/mL and a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 1.56 mg/mL. The MICs of ethanol extracts of D. angustifolia and G. africana against M. tuberculosis were found to be 5.0 and 1.2 mg/mL respectively. The mammalian cytotoxicity IC(50) value of the most active antimycobacterial extract, from G. africana, was found to be 101.3 microg/mL against monkey kidney Vero cells. Since the ethanol G. africana displayed the best antimycobacterial activity, it was subjected to fractionation which led to the isolation of a flavone, 5,7,2'-trihydroxyflavone. The MIC of this compound was found to be 0.031 mg/mL against M. smegmatis and 0.10 mg/mL against M. tuberculosis. This study gives some scientific basis to the traditional use of these plants for TB-related symptoms. PMID:18412151

Mativandlela, Sannah Patience Nkami; Meyer, Jacob Jacobus Marion; Hussein, Ahmed A; Houghton, Peter J; Hamilton, Chris J; Lall, Namrita

2008-06-01

74

Screening of selected food and medicinal plant extracts for pancreatic lipase inhibition.  

PubMed

Lipids are important components in human nutrition; however, their increased intake contributes to the development of obesity and can lead to multiple long-term complications. Pancreatic lipase (triacylglycerol acylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.3) is a key enzyme for the absorption of dietary triglycerides. Interference with fat hydrolysis results in the reduced utilization of ingested lipids, therefore inhibition of lipases decreases fat absorption. Extracts from 106 species of medicinal plants, vegetables and fruits were screened for potential lipase inhibitory activity. p-Nitrophenylpalmitate and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxylpalmitate were used as substrates in an in vitro test with crude porcine pancreatic lipase. Bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), garden pea (Pisum sativum), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and large-leaved lime (Tilia platyphyllos) extracts were the most active. Additionally, the activity of selected extracts with removed polyphenols was measured. Extracts of bearberry, garden pea and large-leaved lime are a promising source for developing functional foods or isolating active compounds. PMID:19107742

Slanc, Petra; Doljak, Bojan; Kreft, Samo; Lunder, Mojca; Janes, Damjan; Strukelj, Borut

2009-06-01

75

Aqueous extracts of some medicinal plants are as toxic as Imidacloprid to the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.  

PubMed

Aqueous extracts of nine plants, known to have medicinal activity, were tested for their toxicity against the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Homoptera: Aleurodidae) compared to the toxicity of the insecticide, Imidacloprid. Extracts of Lepidiuim sativum L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) killed 71 % of early stage nymphs, which was not significantly different from mortality caused by Imidacloprid. Treatment of pupae with three plant extracts, L. sativum, Achillea biebersteinii L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), or Retama raetam (Forssk.) Webb and Berthel (Fabales: Fabaceae) prevented adult development, and treatment with R. raetam extract killed adults, at levels that were not significantly different from Imidacloprid. None of the other plants showed significant toxicity. However extracts of four plants, Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), Galium longifolium (Sibth. and SM.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), R. raetam and Ballota undulata Bentham (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) had a repellent effect. PMID:19613450

Ateyyat, Mazen A; Al-Mazra'awi, Mohammad; Abu-Rjai, Talal; Shatnawi, Mohamad A

2009-01-01

76

Aqueous Extracts of Some Medicinal Plants are as Toxic as Lmidacloprid to the Sweet Potato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci  

PubMed Central

Aqueous extracts of nine plants, known to have medicinal activity, were tested for their toxicity against the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Homoptera: Aleurodidae) compared to the toxicity of the insecticide, Imidacloprid. Extracts of Lepidiuim sativum L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) killed 71 % of early stage nymphs, which was not significantly different from mortality caused by Imidacloprid. Treatment of pupae with three plant extracts, L. sativum, Achillea biebersteinii L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), or Retama raetam (Forssk.) Webb and Berthel (Fabales: Fabaceae) prevented adult development, and treatment with R. raetam extract killed adults, at levels that were not significantly different from Imidacloprid. None of the other plants showed significant toxicity. However extracts of four plants, Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), Galium longifolium (Sibth. and SM.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), R. raetam and Ballota undulata Bentham (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) had a repellent effect.

Ateyyat, Mazen A.; Al-Mazra'awi, Mohammad; Abu-Rjai, Talal; Shatnawi, Mohamad A.

2009-01-01

77

Assessment of effect of hydroalcoholic and decoction methods on extraction of antioxidants from selected Indian medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant activities of selected Indian medicinal flora. Methods Different parts of plants were extracted by hydroalcoholic and decoction methods using water and various concentrations of methanol (ME) viz. 75%, 50% and 25% ME. The antioxidant activity of all the different extracts was evaluated using two different antioxidant assays viz. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and superoxide anion radical scavenging assay. Total phenol and flavonoid content was also estimated. Results The results showed that the extracting solvent significantly altered the antioxidant property estimations of screened plants. High correlations between phenolic compositions and antioxidant activities of extracts were observed. High levels of antioxidant activities were detected in Manilkara zapota (M. zapota) as compared with other screened plants. Conclusions The results obtained appear to confirm the effect of different methods on extraction of antioxidants and antioxidant property of M. zapota.

Kaneria, Mital; Kanani, Bhavana; Chanda, Sumitra

2012-01-01

78

Antioxidant properties in vitro and total phenolic contents in methanol extracts from medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to find out new sources of safe and inexpensive antioxidants, the antioxidant capacities of 45 selected medicinal plants were evaluated using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays, respectively, and the total phenolic contents of these plants were measured by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Most of these plants were analyzed for the first time

Hua-Bin Li; Chi-Chun Wong; Ka-Wing Cheng; Feng Chen

2008-01-01

79

Evaluation of in vivo antitrypanosomal activity of selected medicinal plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was based on the observation that traditional practitioners in Kenya use plant based extracts for the treatment of parasitic diseases. This necessitated the need to investigate the potential of such plants. Four plants (Kigelia africana, Artemesia annua, Bidens pilosa and Azadirachta indica) were selected for investigation against African human trypanosomiasis. The methanol, dichloromethane and aqueous extracts of these

Ogoti Peter; Esther Magiri; Joanna Aum; Gabriel Magoma; Mabel Imbuga

2009-01-01

80

Anti-ulcerogenic evaluation of the methanolic extracts of some indigenous medicinal plants of Pakistan in aspirin-ulcerated rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anti-ulcerogenic activity of the methanolic extracts of 4 medicinal plants were studied in aspirin-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Their effects on the volume of gastric juice secreted, acid output, peptic activity, mucin activity and curative ratio were recorded. Bauhinia racemosa (flower buds) decreased the ulcer index significantly, and Moringa pterygosperma (flower buds) showed some decrease in the ulcer index. Trianthema

Abdul Hameed Akhtar; Kamal Uddin Ahmad

1995-01-01

81

Amelioration of chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis by Aegle marmelos, an Indian medicinal plant, fruit extract.  

PubMed

Chemoprevention is a novel approach to study the anti-initiating and anti-tumor-promoting efficacy of medicinal plants and their active principles. The present study investigated the chemopreventive potential of Aegle marmelos fruit extract in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced skin carcinogenesis and its influence on oxidative stress and the antioxidant defense system. The oral administration of A marmelos at 100 mg/kg body weight/day during peri-initiational, postinitiational, and peri- & postinitiational phases of papillomagenesis showed significant reduction in tumor incidence, tumor yield, tumor burden, and cumulative number of papillomas when compared with carcinogen-treated control. The average latent period significantly increased (7.88 weeks; control group) to 9.45, 11.11, and 11.54 weeks in different A marmelos extract (AME) experimental groups. Enzyme analysis of skin and liver showed a significant elevation in antioxidant parameters such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and vitamin C in AME-treated groups when compared with the carcinogen-treated control. The elevated level of lipid peroxidation in the positive control was significantly inhibited by AME administration. These results indicate that AME has the potential to reduce chemical-induced skin papillomas by enhancing the antioxidant defense system. PMID:21862519

Agrawal, Annapurna; Jahan, Swafiya; Soyal, Dhanraj; Goyal, Ekank; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar

2011-08-23

82

Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts and lignan identified in Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica roots against housefly (Musca domestica L.).  

PubMed

Medicinal plant extracts from 27 plant species in 20 families were tested for their larvicidal activity against housefly, Musca domestica (L.). Responses varied with plant material and concentration. Among plant species tested, Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica showed 100% larvicidal activity against M. domestica at 10 mg/g concentration. Larvicidal activities of Atractylodes japonica, Saussurea lappa, Asiasarum sieboldi, and Gleditsia japonica var. koraiensis were 89.3%, 85.3%, 93.3%, and 96.6% at 10 mg/g concentration, respectively. Extracts of Prunus persica, Curcuma longa, and Paeonia moutan produced moderate activity. Larvicidal activity of other plant extracts was less than 50%. Among test plant species, P. leptostachya var. asiatica showed the most potent larvicidal activity. The active constituent of P. leptostachya var. asiatica roots was identified as the leptostachyol acetate by spectroscopic analysis. The LC(50) values of leptostachyol acetate against M. domestica larvae were 0.039 mg/g. Naturally occurring medicinal plant extracts and P. leptostachya var. asiatica root-derived compounds merit further study as potential housefly larval control agents or lead compounds. PMID:22065063

Seo, Seon-Mi; Park, Il-Kwon

2011-11-09

83

Cyclooxygenase inhibition and antimycobacterial effects of extracts from Sudanese medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty one dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts obtained from seven tree species used in Sudanese traditional medicine were screened for in vitro anti-inflammatory activity using COX-1 and COX-2 assays and for antimycobacterial activity using the broth micro-dilution methods against Mycobacterium aurum A+. In the cyclooxygenase assays, all ethyl acetate (leaf, bark, root) and ethanol root extracts of Acacia seyal,

I. M. S. Eldeen; J. Van Staden

2008-01-01

84

Antibacterial activity of leaf extract of Breonadia salicina (Rubiaceae), an endangered medicinal plant of Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Wild plants can contain bioactive compounds with potential activity against disease-causing microorganisms. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, there are many plant species that may have antibacterial, antifungal, or antiviral activities, among other properties. We extracted bioactive compounds with methanol as well as with water from leaves of Breonadia salicina, which is an endangered plant found in the wild in Saudi Arabia. These extracts were tested against the bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. Both extracts showed antibacterial activity against all of the microorganisms, and thus, B. salicina leaf extract has potential as an antimicrobial agent for the preservation of foods, instead of synthetic chemical compounds. We found that the methanolic leaf extract was more effective than the aqueous crude extract against B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus. PMID:24065664

Al-Qurainy, F; Z Gaafar, Abdel-Rhman; Khan, S; Nadeem, M; Tarroum, M; Alaklabi, A; Thomas, J

2013-08-29

85

Candidates for cognitive enhancer extracted from medicinal plants: paeoniflorin and tetramethylpyrazine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A traditional Chinese medicine, Shimotsu-to, consisting of four herbs: Japanese angelica root, cnidium rhizome, peony root and rehmannia root, has been reported to improve spatial working memory in rats. The present results indicate that Paeoniflorin and tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) extracted from peony root and cnidium rhizome, respectively, are candidates for cognitive enhancer.

Hiroshi Watanabe

1997-01-01

86

Studies on the production of probiotic dairy products based on milk and medicinal plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotics are a range of functional products that have been attracting more and more consumer interest over the past few years, due to the beneficial way in which they influence the human body. The scope of this study has been the improving of these ranges of products, using medicinal herbs extracts to increase the therapeutic effects. Sensory tests have been

Gabriel D?nu? Mocanua; S. C. Hofigal; Export Import; S. A. Bucure?ti

87

Cytostatic Activity of Peptide Extracts of Medicinal Plants on Transformed A549, H1299, and HeLa Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological activity of peptide extracts of medicinal plants was studied on transformed non-small-cell lung carcinoma A549\\u000a cells, lung cancer H1299 cells, and cervical cancer HeLa cells at various cell densities. Cell survival and proliferation\\u000a were evaluated 72 h after treatment with extracts in concentrations of 0.05, 0.25, and 0.5 ?g\\/?l. The cytostatic effect was\\u000a produced by peptide extracts of Camelia sinesis Kuntze,

I. I. Tepkeeva; V. N. Aushev; I. B. Zborovskaya; V. P. Demushkin

2009-01-01

88

Protein Extraction Methods for Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis from Baphicacanthus cusia ( Nees) Bremek Leaves - A Medicinal Plant with High Contents of Interfering Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein extraction is a critical step for two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Different plant samples require different and adaptive protein extraction protocols. The leaves of medicinal plant, Baphicacanthus cusia (Nees) Bremek are notoriously recalcitrant to common protein extraction methods due to high levels of interfering compounds (especially the secondary metabolites and pigments). This study was aimed to establish a routine procedure for

Xiao-liang XIANG; Shu-ju NING; Xia JIANG; Xiao-gui GONG; Ren-lei ZHU; Dao-zhi WEI

2010-01-01

89

In vitro antibacterial activity of some Iranian medicinal plant extracts against Helicobacter pylori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helicobacter pylori infection causes lifelong chronic gastritis, which can lead to peptic ulcer, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and gastric cancer. The growing problem of antibiotic resistance by the organism demands the search for novel candidates from plant-based sources. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro anti-H. pylori activity of some selected medicinal plants on clinical isolates of H.

M. Hajimahmoodi; M. Shams-Ardakani; P. Saniee; F. Siavoshi; M. Mehrabani; H. Hosseinzadeh; P. Foroumadi; M. Safavi; M. Khanavi; T. Akbarzadeh; A. Shafiee; A. Foroumadi

2011-01-01

90

Plants: The Potentials for Extracting Protein, Medicines, and Other Useful Chemicals - Workshop Proceedings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes some opportunities and constraints of commercially developing plant extracts, examples of some work being done in this field, and workshop participants' conclusions and recommendations concerning the Government's role in the area. De...

1983-01-01

91

Effect of oil extracted from some medicinal plants on different mycotoxigenic fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils of 12 medicinal plants were tested for inhibitory activity against Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and Fusarium moniliforme. The oils of thyme and cinnamon (?500 ppm), marigold (?2000 ppm), spearmint, basil, quyssum (3000 ppm) completely inhibit all the test fungi. Caraway was inhibitory at 2000 ppm against A. flavus, A. parasiticus and 3000 ppm against A. ochraceaus

K. M Soliman; R. I Badeaa

2002-01-01

92

Biological screening of some Turkish medicinal plant extracts for antimicrobial and toxicity activities.  

PubMed

Screening of antibacterial activity and toxicity of 22 aqueous plant extracts from 17 Turkish plants was conducted. Antibacterial activity was performed with six bacteria including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Extracts of Tussilago farfara leaves, Helichyrsum plicatum flowers, Solanum dulcamara aerial parts and Urtica dioica leaves gave the best inhibitory activity against S. pyogenes, S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Of the 22 plant extracts, 20 extracts displayed toxicity (LC50 was <1000 mg L(-1)) in the brine shrimp bioassay. For radish seed bioassay, two different determinations (root length and seed germination) were performed with a comparison between two concentrations (50,000 mg L(-1) and 10,000 mg L(-1)). At low concentration (10,000 mg L(-1)), S. dulcamara aerial parts and Primula vulgaris leaf extracts were observed to inhibit the root length more than the other plant extracts. Also, the most inhibitive plant extract for seed germination was obtained with S. dulcamara aerial parts. PMID:18075897

Turker, A U; Usta, C

2008-01-20

93

Cytotoxic and Antiviral Activities of Colombian Medicinal Plant Extracts of the Euphorbia genus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-seven plant extracts of 10 species of the genus Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) used by Colombian tradi- tional healers for the treatment of ulcers, cancers, tumors, warts, and other diseases, were tested in vitro for their potential antitumour (antiproliferative and cytotoxic) and antiherpetic activity. To evaluate the capacity of the extracts to inhibit the lytic activity of herpes simplex virus type 2

LA Betancur-Galvis; GE Morales; JE Forero; J Roldan

2002-01-01

94

Snake venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plants ( Vitex negundo and Emblica officinalis) root extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanolic root extracts of Vitex negundo Linn. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. were explored for the first time for antisnake venom activity. The plant (V. negundo and E. officinalis) extracts significantly antagonized the Vipera russellii and Naja kaouthia venom induced lethal activity both in in vitro and in vivo studies. V. russellii venom-induced haemorrhage, coagulant, defibrinogenating and inflammatory activity was

M. I Alam; A Gomes

2003-01-01

95

[Photosensitizing and photoprotective properties of extracts from groups of medicinal plants].  

PubMed

Investigation of photosensitization and photoprotection induced by plant extracts was carried out. A group of plants affected human central nervous system was studied in detail. Efficiency of plants as photoprotectors and photosensitizers was tested in the frame of the influence of their extracts on the yield of photochemiluminescence of Gly-Trp solutions. Photosensitization was studied under irradiation with light lambda > 280 nm and lambda > 320 nm, as well as with monochromatic light lambda=313, 365, 405 and 436 nm. All of the plants studied acted as photoprotectors in low concentration and as photosensitizers in high concentration. The efficiency of photoprotection and photosensitization was evaluated with regard to single dose of plant extracts and their concentration in human organism. The effect decreases in the following consequence of plants: Leonurus > Hypericum > Aralia > Schizandra > Echinopanax > Eleutherococcus > Valeriana > Panax ginseng. Photosensitization is due to the components of plant extracts which have strong absorbtion at the high wavelength range. The mechanism of photosensitization was suggested. Singlet oxygen generated by photoexcited compounds is the main species resulted in chemiluminescence. Superoxide radicals does not contribute significantly to the chemiluminescence formation. PMID:9410021

Bol'shakova, I V; Lozovskaia, E L; Sapezhinski?, I I

96

Efficacy of Thai medicinal plant extracts against herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Twenty Thai medicinal plant extracts were evaluated for anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) activity. Eleven of them inhibited plaque formation of HSV-1 more than 50% at 100microg/ml in a plaque reduction assay. Aglaia odorata, Moringa oleifera, and Ventilago denticulata among the 11 were also effective against thymidine kinase-deficient HSV-1 and phosphonoacetate-resistant HSV-1 strains. These therapeutic efficacies were characterized using a cutaneous HSV-1 infection in mice. The extract of M. oleifera at a dose of 750mg/kg per day significantly delayed the development of skin lesions, prolonged the mean survival times and reduced the mortality of HSV-1 infected mice as compared with 2% DMSO in distilled water (P<0.05). The extracts of A. odorata and V. denticulata were also significantly effective in limiting the development of skin lesions (P<0.05). There were no significant difference between acyclovir and these three plant extracts in the delay of the development of skin lesions and no significant difference between acyclovir and M. oleifera in mean survival times. Toxicity of these plant extracts were not observed in treated mice. Thus, these three plant extracts may be possible candidates of anti-HSV-1 agents. PMID:14638393

Lipipun, Vimolmas; Kurokawa, Masahiko; Suttisri, Rutt; Taweechotipatr, Pagorn; Pramyothin, Pornpen; Hattori, Masao; Shiraki, Kimiyasu

2003-11-01

97

Extracts from plants used in Mexican traditional medicine activate Ca(2+)-dependent chloride channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes.  

PubMed

The two-electrode voltage-clamp technique was employed to investigate the effects of chloroform-methanol (1:1) extracts derived from five medicinal plants on Xenopus laevis oocytes. When evaluated at concentrations of 1 to 500 microg/ml, the extracts prepared from the aerial parts of Baccharis heterophylla H.B.K (Asteraceae), Chenopodium murale L. (Chenopodiaceae), Desmodium grahami Gray (Leguminosae) and Solanum rostratum Dun (Solanaceae) produced concentration-dependent oscillatory inward currents in the oocytes, while the extract of Gentiana spathacea did not induce any response. The reversal potential of the currents elicited by the active extracts was -17 +/- 2 mV and was similar to the chloride equilibrium potential in oocytes. These ionic responses were independent of extracellular calcium. However, they were eliminated by overnight incubation with BAPTA-AM (10 microM), suggesting that the currents were dependent on intracellular Ca2+ increase. Thus the plant extracts activate the typical oscillatory Ca(2+)-dependent Cl- currents generated in the Xenopus oocyte membrane more probably via a mechanism that involves release of Ca2+ from intracellular reservoirs. These observations suggest that Xenopus oocyte electrophysiological recording constitutes a suitable assay for the study of the mechanisms of action of herbal medicines. PMID:12834007

Rojas, A; Mendoza, S; Moreno, J; Arellano, R O

2003-01-01

98

Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts and isolated compound epicatechin from Ricinus communis against Paramphistomum cervi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacies of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol leaf\\u000a extracts of Euphorbia hirta L., Psidium guajava L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum trilobatum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest parasite\\u000a mortality was

Abdul Abduz Zahir; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Asokan Bagavan; Kannappan Geetha; Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Gandhi Elango

99

Antiproliferative activity of plant extracts used against cancer in traditional medicine.  

PubMed

Forty four extracts from sixteen plants used traditionally as anticancer agents were evaluated in vitro for their antiproliferative activity against Hep-2, MCF-7, and Vero cell lines. Plants were fractionated using ethanol, methanol, chloroform, n-hexane, distilled water, and butanol. The antiproliferative activity was measured by MTT assay. TLC was used to identify active fractions. The apoptotic activity of active fractions was determined using TUNEL colorimetric assay. 20 of these extracts demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity against one or more of the cell lines. These extracts were prepared from Ononis hirta, Inula viscosa, Salvia pinardi, Verbascum sinaiticum and Ononis sicula. Methanol fractions of Ononis hirta (aerial parts) and Inula viscosa (flowers) were the most active fractions against MCF-7 cells with IC(50) of 27.96 and 15.78 Îg/ml respectively and they were less toxic against other cell lines. Other extracts showed lower activity against cancer cell lines. TLC analysis showed the presence of flavonoids and terpenoids in active plants while alkaloids were detected in Ononis hirta (aerial parts) extracts. Ononis hirta (aerial parts) and Inula viscosa (flowers) extracts exerted their antiproliferative activity by inducing apoptosis in cancer cell lines. Further studies are necessary for detailed chemical characterization and more extensive biological evaluation of the most active ingredients. PMID:21179373

Talib, Wamidh H; Mahasneh, Adel M

2010-02-13

100

Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts and essential oils from medicinal plants.  

PubMed

We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus and 16 Escherichia coli strains from human specimens was carried out using the dilution method in Mueller-Hinton agar. Some phenolic compounds with antimicrobial properties were established, and all EOs had a higher antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Matricaria chamomilla extract and E. uniflora EO were efficient against S. aureus strains, while E. uniflora and V. polyanthes extracts and V. polyanthes EO showed the best antimicrobial activity against E. coli strains. Staphylococcus aureus strains were more susceptible to the tested plant products than E. coli, but all natural products promoted antimicrobial growth inhibition. PMID:22007687

Silva, N C C; Barbosa, L; Seito, L N; Fernandes, A

2011-10-19

101

Insecticidal and repellent activities of medicinal plant extracts against the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hom.: Aleyrodidae) and its parasitoid Eretmocerus mundus (Hym.: Aphelinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity and repellent activities of aqueous extracts of nine medicinal plants were evaluated on different life stages of\\u000a the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Tomato plants infested with whiteflies were dipped in 10% (wt\\/wt) of each plant extract for toxicity evaluation. Repellency\\u000a was evaluated in a choice experiment with detached tomato leaves. All extracts evaluated were relatively ineffective against\\u000a the

Mohammad S. Al-mazra’awi; Mazen Ateyyat

2009-01-01

102

Toxic and mutagenic properties of extracts from Tunisian traditional medicinal plants investigated by the neutral red uptake, VITOTOX and alkaline comet assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the genotoxic properties of a number of extracts from Tunisian traditional medicinal plants with the bacterial VITOTOX test in Salmonella typhimurium and the alkaline comet assay in human C3A cells. Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts from Marrubium alysson L. and Retama raetam (Forsk.) Webb and methanol extracts from Peganum harmala L. were investigated. Toxicity was furthermore studied with

H. Edziri; M. Mastouri; A. Mahjoub; R. Anthonissen; B. Mertens; S. Cammaerts; L. Gevaert; L. Verschaeve

2011-01-01

103

Effects of extracts from Italian medicinal plants on planktonic growth, biofilm formation and adherence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

One-third of botanical remedies from southern Italy are used to treat skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). Staphylococcus aureus, a common cause of SSTI, has generated increasing concern due to drug resistance. Many plants possess antimicrobial agents and provide effective remedies for SSTI. Our aim was to investigate plants from different ethnobotanical usage groups for inhibition of growth and biofilms in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Three groups were assessed: plant remedies for SSTI, plant remedies not involving the skin, and plants with no ethnomedical application. We screened 168 extracts, representing 104 botanical species, for activity against MRSA (ATCC 33593). We employed broth dilution methods to determine the MIC after 18 hours growth using an optical density (OD600nm) reading. Anti-biofilm effects were assessed by growing biofilms for 40 hours, then fixing and staining with crystal violet. After washing, 10% Tween 80 was added and OD570nm readings were taken. Extracts from 10 plants exhibited an IC50 ?32 ?g/ml for biofilm inhibition: Lonicera alpigena, Castanea sativa, Juglans regia, Ballota nigra, Rosmarinus officinalis, Leopoldia comosa, Malva sylvestris, Cyclamen hederifolium, Rosa canina, and Rubus ulmifolius. Limited bacteriostatic activity was evident. The anti-biofilm activity of medicinal plants was significantly greater than plants without any ethnomedical applications.

Quave, Cassandra L.; Plano, Lisa R.W.; Pantuso, Traci; Bennett, Bradley C.

2008-01-01

104

Screening of Ethanol, Petroleum Ether and Chloroform Extracts of Medicinal Plants, Lawsonia inermis L. and Mimosa pudica L. for Antibacterial Activity  

PubMed Central

Organic extracts (ethanol, petroleum ether and chloroform) of two medicinal plants Lawsonia inermis L. and Mimosa pudica L. were proven for antibacterial properties against 15 Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogenic bacteria. Among the three types of extracts tested, ethanol extract was found to possess maximum antibacterial activity. The diameter of the zone of inhibition of bacterial growth showed that Gram-negative bacteria are more sensitive than Gram-positive bacteria to plant extracts. Between the two plants species studied, Lawsonia inermis extract showed more antibacterial activity compared to Mimosa pudica extract.

Akter, A.; Neela, F. A.; Khan, M. S. I.; Islam, M. S.; Alam, M. F.

2010-01-01

105

Screening of Ethanol, Petroleum Ether and Chloroform Extracts of Medicinal Plants, Lawsonia inermis L. and Mimosa pudica L. for Antibacterial Activity.  

PubMed

Organic extracts (ethanol, petroleum ether and chloroform) of two medicinal plants Lawsonia inermis L. and Mimosa pudica L. were proven for antibacterial properties against 15 Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogenic bacteria. Among the three types of extracts tested, ethanol extract was found to possess maximum antibacterial activity. The diameter of the zone of inhibition of bacterial growth showed that Gram-negative bacteria are more sensitive than Gram-positive bacteria to plant extracts. Between the two plants species studied, Lawsonia inermis extract showed more antibacterial activity compared to Mimosa pudica extract. PMID:21188055

Akter, A; Neela, F A; Khan, M S I; Islam, M S; Alam, M F

2010-05-01

106

Adulticidal and larvicidal efficacy of some medicinal plant extracts against tick, fluke and mosquitoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adulticidal and larvicidal effect of indigenous plant extracts were investigated against the adult cattle tick Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann, 1897 (Acarina: Ixodidae), sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi Zeder, 1790 (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae), fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effect of

A. Bagavan; C. Kamaraj; G. Elango; A. Abduz Zahir; A. Abdul Rahuman

2009-01-01

107

Antioxidant activity of different extracts of Argentinian medicinal plants against arsenic-induced toxicity in renal cells.  

PubMed

Chronic toxicity of arsenic resulting from drinking water is a health problem encountered in humans, especially in South America and Asia, where a correlation between oxidative stress, tumor promotion, and arsenic exposure has been observed. Differential solvent extraction (petroleum ether (PE); dichloromethane (DCM); methanol (OL) and water (W)) was performed to compare the protective (antioxidant) activity of five Argentinian medicinal plants on arsenite-induced oxidative stress in Vero cells, assayed by hydroperoxide measurement. The results were analyzed using ANOVA followed by the LSD Fisher test. The data showed that arsenite was a pro-oxidant agent which acts in a time-dose-dependent manner. Extracts from Eupatorium buniifolium (PE), Lantana grisebachii (PE, W), Mandevilla pentlandiana (PE, W), and Sebastiania commersoniana (DCM, OL, W) prevented the formation of both aqueous and lipid hydroperoxides, but Heterothalamus alienus only impeded lipid ones. Therefore, antioxidant extracts are potentially beneficial and may have a protective activity against arsenite-induced renal injury. Among these, the aqueous extract of L. grisebachii may represent the most suitable preparation for humans since the traditional usage of this plant in popular medicine is through consumption of tea. PMID:18684805

Soria, E A; Goleniowski, M E; Cantero, J J; Bongiovanni, G A

2008-04-01

108

Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antioxidant effect of some medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antioxidant effect of the methanol extract of Alhgi maurorum, Conyza dioscoridis and Convolvulus fatmensis was investigated. The antiinflammatory effect was studied using carageenan-induced rat paw edema, while the antipyretic effect was estimated using Brewer's yeast-induced hyperpyrexia in rats. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity method of different concentrations of the plant extracts using ascorbic acid as a standard antioxidant. The results revealed that oral administration of Alhgi maurorum and Convolvulus fatmensis at 1 g/ kg exhibited anti-inflammatory effect comparable to the standard diclofenac sodium (0.03 g/kg). The anti-inflammatory effect of Conyza dioscoridis appeared at lower doses 0.5g/kg. In all cases the maximum effect was obtained 2h after administration. None of the tested plant extracts showed antipyretic effect. The tested plant extracts showed variable degrees of antioxidant activity. Conyza dioscoridis showed the highest antioxidant effect (91.14%) and Alhgi maurorum has the least (28.78%) compared to the standard ascorbic acid (87.8%). PMID:22754944

Atta, Attia H; Kenawy, Sanaa; Awaad, Amani; El-Melegy, Reham

2011-01-01

109

Assessment of DNA damage by extracts and fractions of Strychnos pseudoquina, a Brazilian medicinal plant with antiulcerogenic activity.  

PubMed

Strychnos pseudoquina St. Hil. is a native plant of the Brazilian Savannah, used in popular medicine to treat a number of conditions. Since it contains large quantities of alkaloids with proven antiulcer activity, we tested the genotoxic potential of crude extracts and fractions containing alkaloids and flavonoids from the leaves of this plant, on Salmonella typhimurium and performed the micronucleus test on peripheral blood cells of mice treated in vivo. The results showed that the methanol extract of the leaves of S. pseudoquina is mutagenic to the TA98 (-S9) and TA100 (+S9, -S9) strains of Salmonella. The dichloromethane extract was not mutagenic to any of the tested strains. Fractions enriched with alkaloids or flavonoids were not mutagenic. In vivo tests were done on the crude methanol extract in albino Swiss mice, which were treated, by gavage, with three different doses of the extract. The highest dose tested (1800 mg/kgb.w.) induced micronuclei after acute treatment, confirming the mutagenic potential of the methanol extract of the leaves of S. pseudoquina. In high doses, constituents of S. pseudoquina compounds act on DNA, causing breaks and giving rise to micronuclei in the blood cells of treated animals. PMID:16730111

Santos, F V; Colus, I M S; Silva, M A; Vilegas, W; Varanda, E A

2006-05-26

110

Cytotoxic and DNA interaction activities of extracts from medicinal plants used in Argentina.  

PubMed

Eight crude extracts from seven Argentine plants with cancer-related ethnobotanical uses have been subjected to a bioscreening study to detect cytotoxic activity. The plants studied were: Aristolochia triangularis, Baccharis grisebachii, Bolax gummifera, Eupatorium hecatanthum, Erythrina crista-galli, Pterocaulon polystachium and Salpichroa origanifolia. Crown gall tumour inhibition, DNA interaction and cytotoxicity towards KB cells were assayed using the potato disc, the DNA-methyl green (DNA-MG) and the KB cells cytotoxicity bioassays respectively. The results obtained indicate that A. triangularis (ED50=47 microg/ml), B. gummifera (ED50=32 microg/ml) and E. hecatanthum (ED50=35 microg/ml) contained cytotoxic compounds against KB cells. All of the plants studied inhibited the growth of crown gall tumours, showing correlation between the experimental data and the uses reported for these plants. Moreover, the results obtained for the extracts of E. hecatanthum and P. polystachium indicate the presence of compounds that interact with DNA (48 and 22% of absorbance decrease, respectively). The results obtained suggest that cytotoxicity could play an important role in the activities claimed for the plants under study. PMID:10904157

Mongelli, E; Pampuro, S; Coussio, J; Salomon, H; Ciccia, G

2000-07-01

111

Bioassay screening of the essential oil and various extracts from 4 spices medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Four commonly used spices plants in Iran were evaluated for cytotoxicity effect using Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL) assay. Essential oils and various extracts of Heracleum persicum, Nigella arvensis, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Zingiber officinale were assessed by two methods of disk and solution of BSL. Data were processed in probit-analysis program to estimate LC50 values. All of the tested fractions have exhibited more cytotoxicity in the solution method. Essential oils of H. persicum and C. zeylanicum have shown the most cytotoxicity with LC50 values 0.007 and 0.03 microg/ml respectively. None of aqueous extracts showed significant cytotoxicity. The analysis of the essential oil of H. persicum showed the hexyl butyrate and octyl acetate as the main compounds. These results suggest some limitation for using of these spices in diet. Furthermore, these plants could be considered as a source of cytotoxic compounds which might be studied in more details. PMID:19553182

Sharififar, Fariba; Moshafi, Mohammad Hassan; Dehghan-Nudehe, Gholamreza; Ameri, Alieh; Alishahi, Fahimeh; Pourhemati, Amin

2009-07-01

112

In vitro antimalarial activity of medicinal plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaria is a major global public health problem, and the alarming spread of drug resistance and limited number of effective\\u000a drugs now available underline how important it is to discover new antimalarial compounds. In the present study, ten plants\\u000a were extracted with ethyl acetate and methanol and tested for their antimalarial activity against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive\\u000a (3D7) and CQ-resistant (Dd2 and

Asokan Bagavan; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Naveen Kumar Kaushik; Dinkar Sahal

2011-01-01

113

In vitro antiplasmodial activity of extracts and fractions from seven medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo.  

PubMed

The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of seven EtOH extracts and twenty fractions from the partition of the initial ethanolic extracts from seven African medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo) for the treatment of malaria was evaluated. The most active EtOH extracts (IC50 < 3 microg/ml) were those from Cassia occidentalis leaves, Euphorbia hirta whole plant, Garcinia kola stem bark and Phyllanthus niruri whole plant. Their respective petroleum ether soluble fractions also exhibited an antiplasmodial activity with IC50 < 3 microg/ml. EtOH extracts from Vernonia amygdalina leaves (5 < IC50 < 10 microg/ml), Tetracera poggei leaves (10 < IC50 < 50 microg/ml) and Morinda morindoides leaves (50 < IC50 < 100 microg/ml) were less active, but their petroleum ether fractions exhibited a pronounced antiplasmodial activity (IC50 < 3 microg/ml). The same observation could also be made for the petroleum ether fraction from Cassia occidentalis, Euphorbia hirta, Garcinia kola and Phyllanthus niruri. Isoamyl alcohol fractions from Euphorbia hirta, Phyllanthus niruri and Vernonia amygdalina showed IC50) values less than 3 microg/ml, and from Cassia occidentalis, Garcinia kola, Morinda morindoides and Tetracera poggei between 10 and 50 microg/ml. The observed antiplasmodial activity may be related to the presence of terpenes, steroids, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, xanthones and anthraquinones. PMID:15182900

Tona, L; Cimanga, R K; Mesia, K; Musuamba, C T; De Bruyne, T; Apers, S; Hernans, N; Van Miert, S; Pieters, L; Totté, J; Vlietinck, A J

2004-07-01

114

Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts and isolated compound epicatechin from Ricinus communis against Paramphistomum cervi.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacies of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol leaf extracts of Euphorbia hirta L., Psidium guajava L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum trilobatum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest parasite mortality was found in the methanol extract of R. communis. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of methanol extract of R. communis led to the separation and identification of epicatechin as a potential new compound (LC(50) = 31.2; LC(90) = 105.0 ppm) against P. cervi. The structures were established from infrared, ultraviolet, (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C-NMR, and mass spectral data which confirmed the identification of the compound epicatechin from R. communis. Results of this study showed that the methanol extract of R. communis may be considered as a potent source and epicatechin as a new natural parasitic agent. PMID:21842382

Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Geetha, Kannappan; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi

2011-08-14

115

BACE1 inhibitory activity of fungal endophytic extracts from Malaysian medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Background BACE1 was found to be the major ?-secretase in neurons and its appearance and activity were found to be elevated in the brains of AD patients. Fungal endophytic extracts for BACE1 inhibitory activity and cytotoxicity against PC-12 (a rat pheochromocytoma with neuronal properties) and WRL68 (a non-tumorigenic human hepatic) were investigated. Methods Endophytes were isolated from plants collected from Kuala Pilah, Negeri Sembilan and the National Park, Pahang and the extracts were tested for BACE1 inhibition. For investigation of biological activity, the pure endophytic cultures were cultivated for 14 days on PDA plates at 28°C and underwent semipolar extraction with ethyl acetate. Results Of 212 endophytic extracts (1000 ?g/ml), 29 exhibited more than 90% inhibition of BACE1 in the preliminary screening. Four extracts from isolates HAB16R13, HAB16R14, HAB16R18 and HAB8R24 identified as Cytospora rhizophorae were the most active with IC50(BACE1) values of less than 3.0 ?g/ml. The most active extract HAB16R13 was shown to non-competitively inhibit BACE1 with Ki value of 10.0 ?g/ml. HAB16R13 was considered non-potent against PC-12 and WRL68 (IC50(CT) of 60.0 and 40.0 ?g/ml, respectively). Conclusions This first report on endophytic fungal extract with good BACE1 inhibitory activity demonstrates that more extensive study is required to uncover the potential of endophytes.

2011-01-01

116

Antiprotozoal screening of traditional medicinal plants: evaluation of crude extract of Psoralea corylifolia against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in goldfish.  

PubMed

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (also called "ich") is an external protozoan parasite that may infest almost all freshwater fish species and caused significant economic damage to the aquaculture industry. Since the use of malachite green was banned, there have been relatively few effective alternative strategies for controlling I. multifiliis infections. The present study was designed to screen potential antiparasitic medicinal plants based on our previous studies, and comprehensively evaluate in vitro and in vivo anti-ich activity of selected plant extracts. The screening results showed that the methanol extract of Psoralea corylifolia had the highest activity against I. multifiliis theronts. In vivo theront trials demonstrated that 1.25 mg/L or more concentrations of P. corylifolia methanol extract caused 100 % mortality during the 4-h exposure period, and the subsequent in vitro trials indicated that the minimum concentration of P. corylifolia methanol extract that prevented the initial infestation was 2.50 mg/L. Protomonts and encysted tomonts surviving trials suggested that encysted tomonts were less susceptible to P. corylifolia methanol extract than protomonts, and the methanol extract of P. corylifolia at a concentration of 5.00 mg/L could kill 100 % of protomonts and 88.89 % of encysted tomonts. It was also observed that after 12-h exposure of protomonts or encysted tomonts to 2.50 mg/L of P. corylifolia methanol extract, the theronts emerged from encysted tomonts led to more infection level than the ones in the other groups. The results suggested that whether the protomonts finish encystment is crucial to the survival, reproduction, and theronts infectivity. In addition, our results showed that long duration (24 h) and high concentration (5.00 mg/L) significantly reduced the survival and reproduction of I. multifiliis tomont exited from the fish after in-bath treatment, and it is indicated that P. corylifolia methanol extract had a potential detrimental effect on I. multifiliis trophont in situ. PMID:23559379

Ling, Fei; Lu, Cheng; Tu, Xiao; Yi, Yanglei; Huang, Aiguo; Zhang, Qizhong; Wang, Gaoxue

2013-04-05

117

Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankararé indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs) of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar) and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata). The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC(50) 83.426?mg/L and LC(50) 138.896?mg/L, resp.), and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC(50) 0.94?mg/L, LC(50) 13.51?mg/L, and LC(50) 20.22?mg/L, resp.). As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds. PMID:22194773

Dos Santos, Edilson Alves; de Carvalho, Cenira M; Costa, Ana L S; Conceiçăo, Adilva S; Moura, Flávia de B Prado; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

2011-12-11

118

Effect of alcoholic extracts of Indian medicinal plants on the altered enzymatic activities of diabetic rats.  

PubMed

In present study, the effect of alcoholic extract of Momordica charantia, Aegle marmelos and Eugenia jambolana was studied on serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase and serum glutamic pyruvate transminase activities and on serum urea, total protein and albumin concentrations of streptozotocin diabetic rats. Diabetes in rats was induced by single dose of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg i. p.). On confirming the diabetes after 48 h of injection, alcoholic extracts of three plants were administered orally in doses of 250 mg and 500 mg/kg/d for 30 d. Glibenclamide (300 mug/kg/d) was used as a reference drug for comparison. Streptozotocin diabetic rats showed a significant increase in serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase and serum glutamic pyruvate transminase activities and serum urea concentration but a significant decrease in serum total protein and albumin concentrations and albumin/globulin ratio. Oral administration of alcoholic extract of Momordica charantia, Aegle marmelos and Eugenia jambolana in daily doses of 250 mg and 500 mg/kg for a period of 1 mo produced dose- and duration-dependent decrease in serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase and serum glutamic pyruvate transminase activities as well as decrease in serum urea concentration and restored the serum total protein and albumin concentration and albumin/globulin ratio to a great extent in streptozotocin diabetic rats. The beneficial effects of these plants in 500 mg/kg dose in streptozotocin diabetic rats were comparable to that of glibenclamide (300 mug/kg), a standard oral hypoglycaemic drug used in clinical practice. PMID:20502588

Sundaram, E N; Reddy, P Uma Maheswara; Singh, K P

2009-09-01

119

Membrane stability of sickle erythrocytes incubated in extracts of three medicinal plants: Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa  

PubMed Central

Background: Many reports showed that medicinal plant extracts cause alterations on the shape and physiology of erythrocytes. Objective: The present study seeks to ascertain the osmotic stability of sickle erythrocytes incubated in aqueous extracts of Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa. Materials and Methods: The fraction of erythrocytes lysed when suspended in saline solution of varying concentrations was investigated by spectrophotometric method. The percentage hemolysis of erythrocytes in the control and test samples showed a sigmoidal relationship with increasing concentrations of saline solution. Membrane stability was ascertained as mean corpuscular fragility (MCF) index of erythrocytes incubated in 400 and 800 mg/dL aqueous concentrations of the three plant extracts. Results: The two experimental concentrations of P. guajava and T. catappa protected the erythrocytes against osmotic stress, as evidenced by decreases in the values of MCF compared with the control sample (P < 0.05). However, 800 mg/dL of A. occidentale promoted significant (P < 0.05) distabilization of sickle erythrocytes. Conclusion: Whereas the two experimental concentrations of aqueous extracts of P. guajava and T. catappa stabilized erythrocyte membrane, higher concentration (800 mg/dL) of A. occidentale exhibited no membrane protective effect.

Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Uwakwe, Augustine Amadikwa

2011-01-01

120

Cytotoxicity and Modes of Action of the Methanol Extracts of Six Cameroonian Medicinal Plants against Multidrug-Resistant Tumor Cells.  

PubMed

Introduction. The present study aims at evaluating the cytotoxicity of twelve parts from six Cameroonian medicinal plants on sensitive and drug-resistant cancer cell lines. We also studied the mode of action of the most active plants, Gladiolus quartinianus, Vepris soyauxii, and Anonidium mannii. Methods. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was determined using a resazurin assay. Flow cytometry was used for cell-cycle analysis and detection of apoptosis, analysis of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Results. At 40?g/mL, three extracts showed a growth of CCRF-CEM leukemia cells by less than 50%. This includes the extracts from G. quartinianus (GQW; 25.69%), Vepris soyauxii leaves (VSL; 29.82%), and Anonidium mannii leaves (AML; 31.58%). The lowest IC50 values below 30? ? g/mL were obtained with GQW, AML and VSL against 7/9, 8/9, and 9/9 tested cancer cell lines, respectively. The lowest IC50 values for each plant were 4.09? ? g/mL, and 9.14? ? g/mL (against U87MG.?EGFR cells), respectively, for VSL and AML and 10.57? ? g/mL (against CCRF-CEM cells) for GQW. GQW induced cell cycle arrest between G0/G1 and S phases, whilst VSL and AML induced arrest in G0/G1. All three extracts induced apoptosis in CCRF-CEM cells by loss of MMP, whilst AML also enhanced production of ROS. Conclusion. The three active plants may be a source for the development of new anticancer drugs. PMID:24174974

Kuete, Victor; Fankam, Aimé G; Wiench, Benjamin; Efferth, Thomas

2013-09-23

121

Cytotoxicity and Modes of Action of the Methanol Extracts of Six Cameroonian Medicinal Plants against Multidrug-Resistant Tumor Cells  

PubMed Central

Introduction. The present study aims at evaluating the cytotoxicity of twelve parts from six Cameroonian medicinal plants on sensitive and drug-resistant cancer cell lines. We also studied the mode of action of the most active plants, Gladiolus quartinianus, Vepris soyauxii, and Anonidium mannii. Methods. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was determined using a resazurin assay. Flow cytometry was used for cell-cycle analysis and detection of apoptosis, analysis of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Results. At 40?g/mL, three extracts showed a growth of CCRF-CEM leukemia cells by less than 50%. This includes the extracts from G. quartinianus (GQW; 25.69%), Vepris soyauxii leaves (VSL; 29.82%), and Anonidium mannii leaves (AML; 31.58%). The lowest IC50 values below 30??g/mL were obtained with GQW, AML and VSL against 7/9, 8/9, and 9/9 tested cancer cell lines, respectively. The lowest IC50 values for each plant were 4.09??g/mL, and 9.14??g/mL (against U87MG.?EGFR cells), respectively, for VSL and AML and 10.57??g/mL (against CCRF-CEM cells) for GQW. GQW induced cell cycle arrest between G0/G1 and S phases, whilst VSL and AML induced arrest in G0/G1. All three extracts induced apoptosis in CCRF-CEM cells by loss of MMP, whilst AML also enhanced production of ROS. Conclusion. The three active plants may be a source for the development of new anticancer drugs.

Kuete, Victor; Fankam, Aime G.; Efferth, Thomas

2013-01-01

122

Antimicrobial Screening of Medicinal Plant - Artemisia pallens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artemisia pallens Wall, a medicinally important plant, belongs to family Asteraceae. It is This plant is used in Ayurvedic system of medicines. In order to search for antimicrobial activity of secondary metabolites, screening of aerial parts of A. pallens was carried out. Air shade dried powdered plant material was extracted using solvents of increasing polarity from non polar ( n-hexane

Anjali D. Ruikar; Gayatri S. Kamble; Vedavati G. Puranik; Nirmala R. Deshpande

123

Effect of oil extracted from some medicinal plants on different mycotoxigenic fungi.  

PubMed

Essential oils of 12 medicinal plants were tested for inhibitory activity against Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and Fusarium moniliforme. The oils of thyme and cinnamon (< or = 500 ppm), marigold (< or = 2000 ppm), spearmint, basil, quyssum (3000 ppm) completely inhibit all the test fungi. Caraway was inhibitory at 2000 ppm against A. flavus, A. parasiticus and 3000 ppm against A. ochraceaus and F. moniliforme. A. flavus, A. ochraceus, A. parasiticus and F. moniliforme were completely inhibited by anise at< or = 500 ppm. However, chamomile and hazanbul at all concentrations were partially effective against the test toxigenic fungi. The results indicate that the test toxigenic fungi are sensitive to the 12 essential oils, and particularly sensitive to thyme and cinnamon. The results also showed that the essential oils of thyme, cinnamon, anise and spearmint have more effect on fungal development and subsequent mycotoxin production in wheat grains. The extent of inhibition of fungal growth and mycotoxin production was dependent on the concentration of essential oils used. PMID:12176092

Soliman, K M; Badeaa, R I

2002-11-01

124

Bioactive Markers Based Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Extracts of a Traditional Medicinal Plant, Piper sarmentosum  

PubMed Central

In vitro assays are economical and easy to perform but to establish relevance of their results to real clinical outcome in animals or human, pharmacokinetics is prerequisite. Despite various in vitro pharmacological activities of extracts of Piper sarmentosum, there is no report of pharmacokinetics. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate ethanol extract of fruit of the plant in dose of 500?mg kg?1 orally for pharmacokinetics. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into groups 1, 2, and 3 (each n = 6) to study absorption, distribution and excretion, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection was applied to quantify pellitorine, sarmentine and sarmentosine in plasma, tissues, feces and urine to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Pellitorine exhibited maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) 34.77?ng?mL?1 ± 1.040, time to achieve Cmax (Tmax) 8?h, mean resident time (MRT) 26.00 ± 0.149?h and half life (t1/2) 18.64 ± 1.65?h. Sarmentine showed Cmax 191.50 ± 12.69?ng mL?1, Tmax 6?h, MRT 11.12 ± 0.44?h and t1/2 10.30 ± 1.98?h. Sarmentosine exhibited zero oral bioavailability because it was neither detected in plasma nor in tissues, and in urine. Pellitorine was found to be distributed in intestinal wall, liver, lungs, kidney, and heart, whereas sarmentine was found only in intestinal wall and heart. The cumulative excretion of pellitorine, sarmentine and sarmentosine in feces in 72?h was 0.0773, 0.976, and 0.438??g, respectively. This study shows that pellitorine and sarmentine have good oral bioavailability while sarmentosine is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.

Hussain, Khalid; Ismail, Zhari; Sadikun, Amirin; Ibrahim, Pazillah

2011-01-01

125

In vitro antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of extracts of selected medicinal plants used by traditional healers of Western cameroon.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants play a key role in malaria control in Africa, especially in remote areas where health facilities are limited. In order to assess their acclaimed potentials, eleven extracts were prepared from seven selected plants commonly used in Western Cameroon, and tested both for their antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity. The antiplasmodial activity was assessed using Lactate Dehydrogenase Assay (pLDH) and the cytotoxicity estimated on LLC-MK2 monkey kidney epithelial cells. Seven extracts from five different plants were significantly active, with very weak or no cytotoxicity. The Dacryodes edulis leaves showed the highest activity (IC(50) of 6.45??g/mL on 3D7 and 8.2??g/mL on DD2) followed by the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina (IC(50) of 8.72 and 11.27??g/mL on 3D7 and DD2 resp.) and roots of V. amygdalina (IC(50) of 8.72??g/mL on 3D7), Coula edulis leaves (IC(50) of 13.80??g/mL and 5.79??g/mL on 3D7 and DD2 resp.), Eucalyptus globulus leaves (IC(50) of 16.80??g/mL and 26.45??g/mL on 3D7 and DD2) and Cuviera longiflora stem bark (IC(50) of 20.24??g/mL and 13.91??g/mL on 3D7 and DD2). These findings justify the use of five of the seven plants in malaria treatment by traditional healers of Western Cameroon. PMID:22312569

Zofou, Denis; Tene, Mathieu; Ngemenya, Moses N; Tane, Pierre; Titanji, Vincent P K

2011-04-12

126

In Vitro Antiplasmodial Activity and Cytotoxicity of Extracts of Selected Medicinal Plants Used by Traditional Healers of Western Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Medicinal plants play a key role in malaria control in Africa, especially in remote areas where health facilities are limited. In order to assess their acclaimed potentials, eleven extracts were prepared from seven selected plants commonly used in Western Cameroon, and tested both for their antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity. The antiplasmodial activity was assessed using Lactate Dehydrogenase Assay (pLDH) and the cytotoxicity estimated on LLC-MK2 monkey kidney epithelial cells. Seven extracts from five different plants were significantly active, with very weak or no cytotoxicity. The Dacryodes edulis leaves showed the highest activity (IC50 of 6.45??g/mL on 3D7 and 8.2??g/mL on DD2) followed by the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina (IC50 of 8.72 and 11.27??g/mL on 3D7 and DD2 resp.) and roots of V. amygdalina (IC50 of 8.72??g/mL on 3D7), Coula edulis leaves (IC50 of 13.80??g/mL and 5.79??g/mL on 3D7 and DD2 resp.), Eucalyptus globulus leaves (IC50 of 16.80??g/mL and 26.45??g/mL on 3D7 and DD2) and Cuviera longiflora stem bark (IC50 of 20.24??g/mL and 13.91??g/mL on 3D7 and DD2). These findings justify the use of five of the seven plants in malaria treatment by traditional healers of Western Cameroon.

Zofou, Denis; Tene, Mathieu; Ngemenya, Moses N.; Tane, Pierre; Titanji, Vincent P. K.

2011-01-01

127

Proliferative effects of five traditional Nigerian medicinal plant extracts on human breast and bone cancer cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevanceThe medicinal plants Hunteria umbellata (HUL), Cola lepidota (CCL), Persea americana leaf (PAL), Root bark of Persea americana (RPA) and Plukenetia conophora (PCL) are used in Nigerian traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer and cancer related diseases.

N. Engel; C. Oppermann; A. Falodun; U. Kragl

2011-01-01

128

Preparative separation and determination of matrine from the Chinese medicinal plant Sophora flavescens Ait by molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecularly imprinted microspheres (MIMs) were synthesized by micro-suspension polymerization using matrine (MT) as template. The MIMs were employed for solid-phase extraction (SPE) and as chromatographic stationary phase for the determination of MT from the Chinese medicinal plant Sophora flavescens. The effects of the various eluents, their concentrations and volumes on the retention behavior were investigated. The selectivity and capacity of

Jia-Ping Lai; Xi-Wen He; Yue Jiang; Feng Chen

2003-01-01

129

A review of modern sample-preparation techniques for the extraction and analysis of medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sample preparation is the crucial first step in the analysis of herbs. In recent years there has been increasing interest worldwide in the use of alternative\\/herbal medicine for the prevention and treatment of various illnesses. Currently, however, quality-related problems (lack of consistency, safety, and efficacy) seem to be overshadowing the potential genuine health benefits of various herbal products. Thus, the

Carmen W. Huie

2002-01-01

130

Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts and essential oils from medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus

N. C. C. Silva; L. Barbosa; L. N. Seito; A. Fernandes Junior

2012-01-01

131

Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts and essential oils from medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus

N. C. C. Silva; L. Barbosa; L. N. Seito; A. Fernandes Junior

2011-01-01

132

Effects of two medicinal plants Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) and Diospyros mespiliformis L. (Ebenaceae) leaf extracts on rat skeletal muscle cells in primary culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude decoction, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of two medicinal plants (Psidium guajava and Diospyros mespiliformis), widely used in the central plateau of Burkina Faso to treat many diseases were evaluated for their antagonistic effects\\u000a on caffeine induced calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum of rat skeletal muscle cells. These different extracts showed\\u000a a decrease of caffeine induced calcium release in a

R. G. Belemtougri; B. Constantin; C. Cognard; G. Raymond; L. Sawadogo

2006-01-01

133

Antibacterial and wound healing properties of methanolic extracts of some Nigerian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate methanolic extracts of Ageratum conyzoides, Anthocleista djalonensis, Napoleona imperialis, Ocimum gratissimum, and Psidium guajava for antibacterial and wound healing properties. Antibacterial properties of the extracts were studied against eleven wound isolates (Staphylococcus aureus (four strains), E. coli (two strains), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (one strain), Proteus spp. (three strains), and Shigella spp. (one strain)) using the well diffusion method. Wound healing properties of Ageratum conyzoides, Anthocleista djalonensis, Napoleonaea imperialis, and Ocimum gratissimum were determined using the excision wound model. Extract of Napoleona imperialis inhibited growth of all the test bacterial strains while Psidium guajava and Anthocleista djalonensis extracts prevented growth of 81.8 and 72.7% of the test organisms, respectively. Ageratum conyzoides and Ocimum gratissimum extracts did not inhibit growth of any of the test organisms. More than 90% wound healing was recorded in the extract and cicatrin powder treated groups by 14 days post surgery, where as 72% healing was observed in the distilled water-treated group. The percentage healing in the distilled water-treated group was significantly different (P<0.001) from those of extract and antibiotic-treated groups. PMID:16226414

Chah, K F; Eze, C A; Emuelosi, C E; Esimone, C O

2005-10-13

134

Antiplasmodial activity of four Kenyan medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary antiplasmodial and phytochemical screening of four Kenyan medicinal plants was carried out. The medicinal plants were extracted and tested for in vitro antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitive (K67) and chloroquine-resistant (ENT36) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Out of 16 extracts, 12 were active against ENT36 strain while seven were active against K67 strain, that is, IC50 ? 50 ?g\\/ml. The

E. Omulokoli; B. Khan; S. C. Chhabra

1997-01-01

135

Reduction of urate crystal-induced inflammation by root extracts from traditional oriental medicinal plants: elevation of prostaglandin D2 levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dried roots of the plants Acanthopanax senticosus, Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis are used in traditional oriental medicine and reportedly possess anti-inflammatory properties. Using the murine air pouch model of inflammation, we investigated the efficacy and mode of action of an extract from these three plants in crystal-induced inflammation. Air pouches were raised on the backs of 8-week-old BALB\\/c mice.

Sung Mun Jung; H Ralph Schumacher; Hocheol Kim; Miyeon Kim; Seoung Hoon Lee; Frank Pessler

2007-01-01

136

Antiproliferative effect of alcoholic extracts of some Gabonese medicinal plants on human colonic cancer cells.  

PubMed

Extracts from Piptadeniastrum africanum Brenan (Mimosaceae), Petersianthus macrocarpus (Breauv) L. (Lecydaceae), Cissus debilis Planch (Vitaceae) and Dieffenbachia seguine Jacq. (Araceae) were tested in vitro for their antiproliferative activity on human colon cancer cell line (CaCo-2). The highest antiproliferative activities were obtained with the alcoholic extracts of the roots of Piptadeniastrum africanum (G-PAR), the leaves of Petersianthus macrocarpus (G-PMF) and the stem of Cissus debilis (G-CDL), with 50% inhibition concentrations (IC(50)) of 15 microg/ml, 17 microg/ml and 25 microg/ml respectively. Only one extract (leaves of Dieffenbachia seguine (G-DSF)) exhibited weak antiproliferative activity with 50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)) higher than 50 microg/ml. PMID:20209001

Line-Edwige, Mengome; Raymond, Feuya tchouya Guy; François, Eba; Edouard, Nsi-Emvo

2009-03-07

137

Zulu medicinal plants with antibacterial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous, methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of 14 plants used in traditional Zulu medicine for treatment of ailments of an infectious nature were screened for antibacterial activity. Most of the activity detected was against Gram-positive bacteria. Tuber bark extracts of Dioscorea sylvatica had activity against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and extracts of Dioscorea dregeana, Cheilanthes viridis and Vernonia colorata were active

Jonathan E. Kelmanson; Anna K. Jäger; Johannes van Staden

2000-01-01

138

Plants and Medicinal Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)|

Bailey, D.

1977-01-01

139

Toxicity, growth regulatory and repellent activities of medicinal plant extracts on Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Housefly, Musca domestica, is a major vector for many medical and veterinary pathogenic organisms. The development of naturally occurring insecticides, represent one of the most promising approaches for their ecochemical control. Petroleum-ether extracts of Griffonia simplicifolia and Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides were assessed for their toxicity, growth regulatory and repellency to the housefly. Percent mortality and index of repellency induced by the

Hervé B. D. Bisseleua; Seth W. K. Gbewonyo; Daniel Obeng-Ofori

2008-01-01

140

Larvicidal potential of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical\\u000a origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane,\\u000a methanol and petroleum ether extracts of leaf, flower and seed of Cassia auriculata L., Leucas aspera (Willd.), Rhinacanthus nasutus KURZ., Solanum torvum Swartz and Vitex

C. Kamaraj; A. Bagavan; A. Abdul Rahuman; A. Abduz Zahir; G. Elango; G. Pandiyan

2009-01-01

141

Antidiabetic agents from medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Currently available therapeutic options for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, such as dietary modification, oral hypoglycemics, and insulin, have limitations of their own. Many natural products and herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of diabetes. The present paper reviews medicinal plants that have shown experimental or clinical antidiabetic activity and that have been used in traditional systems of medicine; the review also covers natural products (active natural components and crude extracts) isolated from the medicinal plants and reported during 2001 to 2005. Many kinds of natural products, such as terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, and some others, have shown antidiabetic potential. Particularly, schulzeines A, B, and C, radicamines A and B, 2,5-imino-1,2,5-trideoxy-L-glucitol, beta-homofuconojirimycin, myrciacitrin IV, dehydrotrametenolic acid, corosolic acid (Glucosol), 4-(alpha-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid, and 1,2,3,4,6-pentagalloylglucose have shown significant antidiabetic activities. Among active medicinal herbs, Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae), Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. (Leguminoceae), and Trigonella foenum graecum L. (Leguminosae) have been reported as beneficial for treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:16719780

Jung, Mankil; Park, Moonsoo; Lee, Hyun Chul; Kang, Yoon-Ho; Kang, Eun Seok; Kim, Sang Ki

2006-01-01

142

Haemostatic Actions of the Folkloric Medicinal Plant Extract Ankaferd Blood Stopper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ankaferd Blood Stopper ® (ABS), a standardized mixture of five plants, has been used historically as a haemostatic agent but its mechanism of action remains unknown. This study investigated the in vitro effects of ABS on haemostatic parameters. When added to plasma or serum, ABS induced the very rapid formation of a protein network and erythrocyte aggregation. The levels of

H GOKER; IC HAZNEDAROGLU; S ERCETIN; S KIRAZLI; U AKMAN; Y OZTURK; HC FIRAT

143

Medicinal plants for treatment of diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many plants have been used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Indian system of medicine and in other ancient systems\\u000a of the world. Out of these only a few have been evaluated as per modern system of medicine. From many such plants only extracts\\u000a have been prepared and their usefulness evaluated in experimental diabetes in animals. In some plants

R. Shukia; S. B. Sharma; D. Puri; K. M. Prabhu; P. S. Murthy

2000-01-01

144

Medicinal plants in therapy*  

PubMed Central

One of the prerequisites for the success of primary health care is the availability and use of suitable drugs. Plants have always been a common source of medicaments, either in the form of traditional preparations or as pure active principles. It is thus reasonable for decision-makers to identify locally available plants or plant extracts that could usefully be added to the national list of drugs, or that could even replace some pharmaceutical preparations that need to be purchased and imported. This update article presents a list of plant-derived drugs, with the names of the plant sources, and their actions or uses in therapy.

Farnsworth, Norman R.; Akerele, Olayiwola; Bingel, Audrey S.; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Guo, Zhengang

1985-01-01

145

Therapeutic potential of some plant extracts used in Turkish traditional medicine on streptozocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus in rats.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to impair many physiological functions. Some reports claim that medicinal plants can reduce these alterations caused by DM. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of aqueous-methanol extracts of Urtica dioica, Thymus vulgaris (TV), Myrtus communis (MC), Scolymus hispanicus (SH) and Cinnamomun zeylanicum (CZ) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 DM in rats. Diabetes was induced via a single i.p. injection of STZ (65 mg/kg body weight). After 1 week to allow for development of diabetes, each plant extract was administered to diabetic rats separately at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight daily for 28 days. The results showed that only SH extract significantly (P < 0.05) amended fasting blood glucose level. The lipid profile was ameliorated especially by supplementations of TV, MC and CZ extracts. Almost all plant extract treatments markedly (P < 0.05) increased reduced glutathione content and decreased lipid peroxidation levels of erythrocyte, plasma, retina and lens tissues. They also significantly (P < 0.05) amended erythrocyte catalase activity, levels of marker serum enzymes (except amylase), urea and blood urea nitrogen when compared to diabetic rats treated with nothing. Furthermore, none of the plant extracts counteracted body weight loss of diabetic rats. Our data revealed that the aforementioned plant extracts have remarkable potential to counteract DM-caused alterations, probably through their antioxidant and free radical-defusing effects. PMID:23052826

Ozkol, Halil; Tuluce, Yasin; Dilsiz, Nihat; Koyuncu, Ismail

2012-10-11

146

The in vitro antimicrobial activity of fruit and leaf crude extracts of Momordica charantia: A Tanzania medicinal plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Momordica charantia extracts on reference strains and microorganisms isolated from clinical specimens. Method: Petroleum ether and methanolic crude extracts of fruits and leaves of the plant were evaluated for antimicrobial activity using the disk diffusion method on four reference microorganisms (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus; and four clinical strains

K. D. Mwambete

147

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected medicinal plants--effects of high pressure and added ethanol on yield of extracted substances.  

PubMed

The possibilities and limitations of supercritical fluid extraction of natural products of low, medium and high polarity under very high pressure and with polar modifiers has been investigated. The medicinal herbs marigold (Calendula officinalis), hawthorn (Crataegus sp.) and chamomile (Matricaria recutita) were used as models in this study. Extraction profiles and the spectra of extractable metabolites were recorded following extraction with mixtures of carbon dioxide:ethanol of varying proportions (0-20% ethanol) and at various pressures in the range 300-689 bar. Components were identified by HPLC-PAD-MS or GC-MS and quantified by HPLC or GC as appropriate. Extraction yields under the varying conditions depended to a large extent on the profiles of secondary metabolites present in the three drugs. Whereas the extractability of lipophilic compounds increased substantially at pressures above 300 bar, the yields of polyphenolic and glycosidic compounds remained low even at 689 bar and with 20% modifier in the extraction fluid. PMID:14979527

Hamburger, M; Baumann, D; Adler, S

148

Molluscicidal activity of some Moroccan medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Among 14 plants of Moroccan folk medicine tested for molluscicidal activity, ethyl acetate extract from Origanum compactum and hexane extracts from both Chenopodium ambrosioides and Ruta chalepensis were the most active (LC(90)=2.00, 2.23 and 2.23 mg l(-1), respectively) against the schistosomiasis-transmitting snail Bulinus truncatus. PMID:10844169

Hmamouchi, M; Lahlou, M; Agoumi, A

2000-06-01

149

Screening antifungal activities of selected medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants synthesise a vast array of secondary metabolites that are gaining importance for their biotechnological applications. The antifungal activity of the ethanolic extracts of ten Argentinean plants used in native medicine is reported. Antifungal assays included radial growth inhibition, disk and well diffusion assays and growth inhibition by broth dilution tests. The chosen test fungi were yeasts, microfungi and wood-rot

Emma Nelly Quiroga; Antonio Rodolfo Sampietro; Marta Amelia Vattuone

2001-01-01

150

Anti-proliferative activity of essential oil extracted from Thai medicinal plants on KB and P388 cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anti-proliferative activity of essential oil from 17 Thai medicinal plants on human mouth epidermal carcinoma (KB) and murine leukemia (P388) cell lines using MTT assay were investigated. An amount of 1!10 4 cells\\/well of KB cell line and 1! 10 5 cells\\/well of P388 cell line were treated with the oil samples at different concentrations ranging from 0.019 to 4.962

Jiradej Manosroi; Pongsathorn Dhumtanom; Aranya Manosroi

2006-01-01

151

Anti-proliferative activity of essential oil extracted from Thai medicinal plants on KB and P388 cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anti-proliferative activity of essential oil from 17 Thai medicinal plants on human mouth epidermal carcinoma (KB) and murine leukemia (P388) cell lines using MTT assay were investigated. An amount of 1×104cells\\/well of KB cell line and 1×105cells\\/well of P388 cell line were treated with the oil samples at different concentrations ranging from 0.019 to 4.962mg\\/ml. In KB cell line, Guava

Jiradej Manosroi; Pongsathorn Dhumtanom; Aranya Manosroi

2006-01-01

152

Drug discovery from medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current research in drug discovery from medicinal plants involves a multifaceted approach combining botanical, phytochemical, biological, and molecular techniques. Medicinal plant drug discovery continues to provide new and important leads against various pharmacological targets including cancer, HIV\\/AIDS, Alzheimer's, malaria, and pain. Several natural product drugs of plant origin have either recently been introduced to the United States market, including arteether,

Marcy J. Balunas; A. Douglas Kinghorn

2005-01-01

153

Antimicrobial activity of certain Indian medicinal plants used in folkloric medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty medicinal plants belonging to 26 families were studied for their antimicrobial activity. Among 50 plants tested, 72% showed antimicrobial activity. About 22 plant extracts from 15 families exhibited activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Fourteen plants belonging to 11 families did not show activity against any of the bacteria tested. Only nine plant extracts showed antifungal activity. The

D. Srinivasan; Sangeetha Nathan; T. Suresh; P. Lakshmana Perumalsamy

2001-01-01

154

Antidiabetic Agents from Medicinal Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently available therapeutic options for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, such as dietary modification, oral hypoglycemics, and insulin, have limitations of their own. Many natural products and herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of diabetes. The present paper reviews medicinal plants that have shown experimental or clinical antidiabetic activity and that have been used in traditional systems of medicine; the

Mankil Jung; Hyun Chul Lee; Yoon-Ho Kang; Eun Seok Kang; Sang Ki Kim

2006-01-01

155

Screening of Zulu medicinal plants for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 39 plants used in traditional Zulu medicine to treat headache or inflammatory diseases were screened for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors. Extracts were tested in an in vitro assay for cyclooxygenase inhibitors. In general, ethanolic extracts caused higher inhibition than aqueous extracts. Two-thirds of the plants screened had high inhibitory activity. The highest inhibition was obtained with ethanolic

Anna K. Jäger; Anne Hutchings; Johannes van Staden

1996-01-01

156

Preparative separation and determination of matrine from the Chinese medicinal plant Sophora flavescens Ait by molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction.  

PubMed

Molecularly imprinted microspheres (MIMs) were synthesized by micro-suspension polymerization using matrine (MT) as template. The MIMs were employed for solid-phase extraction (SPE) and as chromatographic stationary phase for the determination of MT from the Chinese medicinal plant Sophora flavescens. The effects of the various eluents, their concentrations and volumes on the retention behavior were investigated. The selectivity and capacity of the imprinted microspheres against MT was also discussed. The results showed that the MIMs exhibited stronger specific affinity to MT than to oxymatrine (OMT). Methanol-water (3:7, v/v) was used for washing impurities from the MIMs-SPE cartridge loaded with the herb extracts, while methanol-glacial acetic acid (9:1, v/v) was used for eluting MT. The maximum load of MT and the recovery of MIMs cartridge towards MT were 38.7 microg g(-1) and 71.4%, respectively. The method developed might be used to separate and extract effective constituents from Chinese medicinal plants on a large scale. PMID:12560971

Lai, Jia-Ping; He, Xi-Wen; Jiang, Yue; Chen, Feng

2002-12-19

157

Cultivation of medicinal plants in Uttarakhand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to excessive extraction of medicinal plant species in high altitude areas, Uttarakhand has seen a serious depletion of its biological resources. The state government has introduced policies to promote the conservation of these species and encourage farmers to cultivate them and supplement their incomes. This paper examines the impact of the Uttarakhand government’s promotional policies and also looks at

G. Alam; L. Peppelenbos

2009-01-01

158

Antibacterial activity of East African medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an ethnopharmacological survey, extracts of the six East African medicinal plants Entada abyssinica (stem bark), Terminalia spinosa (young branches), Harrisonia abyssinica (roots), Ximenia caffra (roots), Azadirachta indica (stem bark and leaves), and Spilanthes mauritiana (roots and flowers) were tested against 105 strains of bacteria from seven genera (Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Mycobacterium). The minimum inhibitory concentration reached

Werner Fabry; Paul O Okemo; Rainer Ansorg

1998-01-01

159

Development of Drugs Based on Medicinal Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The use of medicinal plants--(Patterns of pharmaceutical development from plants and the consumption of plant-based drugs); Pharmaceutical manufacturing from medicinal plants--(Production of therapeutic agents from plants, technology requirement...

1983-01-01

160

Screening of some Indian medicinal plants for their antimicrobial properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 82 Indian medicinal plants traditionally used in medicines were subjected to preliminary antibacterial screening against several pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms. Aqueous, hexane and alcoholic extracts of each plant were tested for their antibacterial activity using agar well diffusion method at sample concentration of 200 mg\\/ml. The results indicated that out of 82 plants, 56 exhibited antibacterial activity

Iqbal Ahmad; Zafar Mehmood; Faiz Mohammad

1998-01-01

161

Antibacterial activity of traditional Australian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-six ethanolic extracts of various parts of 39 plants used in traditional Australian Aboriginal medicine were investigated for their antibacterial activities against four Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes) and four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium) bacterial species. In a plate-hole diffusion assay, 12 extracts inhibited the growth of one or

Enzo A Palombo; Susan J Semple

2001-01-01

162

Plants and Medicinal Chemistry--2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Second of a two part article on the influence of plants on medicinal chemistry. This part considers how drugs work, the attempts to develop anaesthetics safer than cocaine, and useful poisons. (Author/SL)|

Bailey, D.

1977-01-01

163

Plants and Medicinal Chemistry--2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second of a two part article on the influence of plants on medicinal chemistry. This part considers how drugs work, the attempts to develop anaesthetics safer than cocaine, and useful poisons. (Author/SL)

Bailey, D.

1977-01-01

164

Investigation on the hypoglycaemic effects of extracts of four Mexican medicinal plants in normal and alloxan-diabetic mice.  

PubMed

The hypoglycaemic activities of four water ethanol extracts (WEE) prepared from Bidens pilosa L., Salvia officinalis L., Psacalium peltatum H.B.K. (Cass) and Turnera diffusa Willd. were investigated in healthy and alloxan-diabetic mice. The WEE of S. officinalis significantly reduced the blood glucose of fasting normal mice 120 (15.7%) and 240 min (30.2%) after intraperitoneal administration (p < 0.05). The WEE of P. peltatum and B. pilosa also significantly diminished glycaemia in healthy mice at 240 min (19.6% and 13.8%, respectively). In mildly diabetic mice, the WEE of P. peltatum lowered the basal blood glucose level 120 (16%) and 240 min (54%) after intraperitoneal administration (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). The WEE of B. pilosa and S. officinalis also significantly diminished the hyperglycaemia in mildly diabetic mice at 240 mins (32.6% and 22.7%, respectively). The administration of these three extracts to animals with severe hyperglycaemia did not cause a significant decrease. The WEE of T. diffusa did not show any hypoglycaemic activity. Thus, three of the WEE studied conserved the hypoglycaemic activity originally detected in the traditional preparations of the studied antidiabetic plants. It appears that these extracts require the presence of insulin to show hypoglycaemic activity. PMID:12112298

Alarcon-Aguilar, F J; Roman-Ramos, R; Flores-Saenz, J L; Aguirre-Garcia, F

2002-06-01

165

Aqueous and Organic Solvent-Extracts of Selected South African Medicinal Plants Possess Antimicrobial Activity against Drug-Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori: Inhibitory and Bactericidal Potential  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to identify sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs against Helicobacter pylori. Solvent-extracts of selected medicinal plants; Combretum molle, Sclerocarya birrea, Garcinia kola, Alepidea amatymbica and a single Strychnos species were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori alongside a reference control strain (NCTC 11638) using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the plants demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 38 mm and 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) values ranging from 0.06 to 5.0 mg/mL. MIC50 values for amoxicillin and metronidazole ranged from 0.001 to 0.63 mg/mL and 0.004 to 5.0 mg/mL respectively. The acetone extracts of C. molle and S. birrea exhibited a remarkable bactericidal activity against H. pylori killing more than 50% of the strains within 18 h at 4× MIC and complete elimination of the organisms within 24 h. Their antimicrobial activity was comparable to the control antibiotics. However, the activity of the ethanol extract of G. kola was lower than amoxicillin (P < 0.05) as opposed to metronidazole (P > 0.05). These results demonstrate that S. birrea, C. molle and G. kola may represent good sources of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity.

Njume, Collise; Jide, Afolayan A.; Ndip, Roland N.

2011-01-01

166

Toxicity assessment and analgesic activity investigation of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f . and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae), medicinal plants of Burkina Faso  

PubMed Central

Background Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae) are traditionally used in Burkina Faso to treat several ailments, mainly pains, including abdominal infections and associated diseases. Despite the extensive use of these plants in traditional health care, literature provides little information regarding their toxicity and the pharmacology. This work was therefore designed to investigate the toxicological effects of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. Furthermore, their analgesic capacity was assessed, in order to assess the efficiency of the traditional use of these two medicinal plants from Burkina Faso. Method For acute toxicity test, mice were injected different doses of each extract by intraperitoneal route and the LD50 values were determined. For the subchronic toxicity evaluation, Wistar albinos rats were treated by gavage during 28?days at different doses of aqueous acetone extracts and then haematological and biochemical parameters were determined. The analgesic effect was evaluated in mice by the acetic-acid writhing test and by the formalin test. Results For the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of 3.2?g/kg and 3.4?g/kg respectively for S. acuta Burn f. and S. cordifolia L. were obtained. Concerning the haematological and biochemical parameters, data varied widely (increase or decrease) according to dose of extracts and weight of rats and did not show clinical correlations. The extracts have produced significant analgesic effects by the acetic acid writhing test and by the hot plate method (p <0.05) and a dose-dependent inhibition was observed. Conclusion The overall results of this study may justify the traditional uses of S. acuta and S. cordifolia .

2012-01-01

167

Medicinal plants, conservation and livelihoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many types of action can be taken in favour of the conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants. Some of these are undertaken directly at the places where the plants are found, while others are less direct, such as some of those relating to commercial systems, ex situ conservation and bioprospecting. In the latter cases, actions taken will not lead

Alan C. Hamilton

2004-01-01

168

A review of the antioxidant potential of medicinal plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some researchers suggest that two-thirds of the world's plant species have medicinal value; in particular, many medicinal plants have great antioxidant potential. Antioxidants reduce the oxidative stress in cells and are therefore useful in the treatment of many human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory diseases. This paper reviews the antioxidant potential of extracts from the stems, roots, bark,

Duduku Krishnaiah; Rosalam Sarbatly; Rajesh Nithyanandam

2011-01-01

169

Synthesis of metallic nanoparticles using plant extracts.  

PubMed

Biomolecules present in plant extracts can be used to reduce metal ions to nanoparticles in a single-step green synthesis process. This biogenic reduction of metal ion to base metal is quite rapid, readily conducted at room temperature and pressure, and easily scaled up. Synthesis mediated by plant extracts is environmentally benign. The reducing agents involved include the various water soluble plant metabolites (e.g. alkaloids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids) and co-enzymes. Silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles have been the particular focus of plant-based syntheses. Extracts of a diverse range of plant species have been successfully used in making nanoparticles. In addition to plant extracts, live plants can be used for the synthesis. Here we review the methods of making nanoparticles using plant extracts. Methods of particle characterization are reviewed and potential applications of the particles in medicine are discussed. PMID:23318667

Mittal, Amit Kumar; Chisti, Yusuf; Banerjee, Uttam Chand

2013-01-12

170

Medicinal plants of the Bulgarian dendroflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper offers characterisation of the medicinal plants of the Bulgarian dendroflora. Of the 406 species of arboreal plants found on the Bulgarian territory, 180 (44.3 %) belonging to 97 genera and 44 families are considered medicinal and are used in different areas of medicine. Pinophyta is represented by 11 species, while Magnoliophyta by 169 species. Most medicinal plants belong

Alexander N. Tashev; Evgeni I. Tsavkov

171

Ultrasonication-assisted extraction and preconcentration of medicinal products from herb by ionic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionic liquid-based extraction of medicinal or useful compounds from plants was investigated as an alternative to supercritical fluid, cloud point and conventional organic solvent extractions. The method integrated extraction and preconcentration. Medicinal products were first extracted by an ionic liquid solution, part of which was then converted to a hydrophobic form by anion metathesis for preconcentration. The remaining soluble ionic

Wentao Bi; Minglei Tian; Kyung Ho Row

2011-01-01

172

Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants grown in Jordan.  

PubMed

In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of 16 Jordanian medicinal plant extracts against four reference bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi. For that purpose, whole plants were extracted and antimicrobial susceptibility testing and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined. Ethanolic extracts of most medicinal plants exerted a dose-dependent cytotoxiciy against different reference bacteria. Origanum syriaca, Varthemia iphionoides, Psidium guajava, Sarcopoterium spinosa plant extracts were most active against S. aureus (MIC; 70 ?g/mL), E. faecalis (MIC; 130 ?g/mL), E. coli (MIC; 153 ?g/mL), and S. typhi (MIC; 110 ?g/mL), respectively. Results indicate that medicinal plants grown in Jordan might be a valuable source of starting materials for the extraction and/or isolation of new antibacterial agents. PMID:23455195

Masadeh, Majed Mohammad; Alkofahi, Ahmad Suleiman; Tumah, Haitham Najeeb; Mhaidat, Nizar Mahmoud; Alzoubi, Karem Hasan

2013-03-01

173

Cardioprotective effects of extracts from Psidium guajava L and Limonium wrightii, Okinawan medicinal plants, against ischemia-reperfusion injury in perfused rat hearts.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine whether the medicinal herbs growing in Okinawa and possessing a radical-scavenging activity would exert cardioprotective effects against ischemia-reperfusion injury using isolated perfused rat hearts. Effects of the aqueous extracts from Psidium guajava L. and Limonium wrightii at concentrations having an equipotent radical-scavenging activity on myocardial injury produced by global ischemia followed by reperfusion were tested and were further compared with those of quercetin and gallic acid, major antioxidative components of P. guajava L. and L. wrightii, respectively. Both extracts significantly attenuated ischemic contracture during ischemia and improved myocardial dysfunction after reperfusion. Decreases in high-energy phosphates and increases in malondialdehyde in the reperfused hearts were significantly lessened with both plant extracts. Quercetin and gallic acid also exerted similar beneficial effects. These results indicate that P. guajava L. and L. wrightii both have cardioprotective effects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated rat hearts, primarily through their radical-scavenging actions. PMID:12571408

Yamashiro, Satoshi; Noguchi, Katsuhiko; Matsuzaki, Toshihiro; Miyagi, Kanako; Nakasone, Junko; Sakanashi, Mayuko; Sakanashi, Makoko; Kukita, Ichiro; Aniya, Yoko; Sakanashi, Matao

2003-03-01

174

Chemically induced skin carcinogenesis in mice and its prevention by Aegle marmelos (an Indian medicinal plant) fruit extract.  

PubMed

This study assessed the chemopreventive potential of the Aegle marmelos plant on mouse skin tumorigenesis initiated by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and promoted by croton oil. A significant reduction in tumor incidence, tumor burden, tumor multiplicity, and the cumulative number of papillomas, along with a significant increase in the average latent period, was recorded in mice treated orally with A. marmelos extract (AME) at peri - and post-initiation phases (i.e., 7 days before DMBA application and continued until the end of the experiment) of papillomagenesis as compared with the carcinogen-treated controls. Furthermore, a significant increase in catalase activity, reduced glutathione and total proteins, and a depleted level of lipid peroxidation were observed in liver and skin of AME-treated animals as compared with the carcinogen-treated controls. Thus, the oral administration of AME, at a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt per day per animal, was found to be significantly effective in reducing skin tumors against chemical carcinogenesis in mice. PMID:22126618

Agrawal, Annapurna; Jahan, Swafiya; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar

2011-01-01

175

Antibacterial activity of some Indian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extracts of ten medicinal plants were examined for their antibacterial potential against some reference strains of\\u000a human pathogenic bacteria. Anethum graveolens, Elettaria cardamomum, Foeniculum vulgare, Trachyspermum ammi and Viola odorata were found to be better\\/equally effective compared to standard antibiotics. V. odorata was the most effective antibacterial with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 1 to 2%. The results

Daljit Singh Arora; Gurinder Jeet Kaur

2007-01-01

176

Traditional Medicinal Plant Extracts and Natural Products with Activity against Oral Bacteria: Potential Application in the Prevention and Treatment of Oral Diseases  

PubMed Central

Oral diseases are major health problems with dental caries and periodontal diseases among the most important preventable global infectious diseases. Oral health influences the general quality of life and poor oral health is linked to chronic conditions and systemic diseases. The association between oral diseases and the oral microbiota is well established. Of the more than 750 species of bacteria that inhabit the oral cavity, a number are implicated in oral diseases. The development of dental caries involves acidogenic and aciduric Gram-positive bacteria (mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and actinomycetes). Periodontal diseases have been linked to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium). Given the incidence of oral disease, increased resistance by bacteria to antibiotics, adverse affects of some antibacterial agents currently used in dentistry and financial considerations in developing countries, there is a need for alternative prevention and treatment options that are safe, effective and economical. While several agents are commercially available, these chemicals can alter oral microbiota and have undesirable side-effects such as vomiting, diarrhea and tooth staining. Hence, the search for alternative products continues and natural phytochemicals isolated from plants used as traditional medicines are considered as good alternatives. In this review, plant extracts or phytochemicals that inhibit the growth of oral pathogens, reduce the development of biofilms and dental plaque, influence the adhesion of bacteria to surfaces and reduce the symptoms of oral diseases will be discussed further. Clinical studies that have investigated the safety and efficacy of such plant-derived medicines will also be described.

Palombo, Enzo A.

2011-01-01

177

Anti-inflammatory activity of some Saudi Arabian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five plants which have been used for the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and gout in the traditional medicine of Saudi Arabia, were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory properties. Of these the ethanolic extract of Capparis decidua and the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa were found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced oedema in rats. These two plants were also

A. M. Ageel; N. S. Parmar; J. S. Mossa; M. A. Al-Yahya; M. S. Al-Said; M. Tariq

1986-01-01

178

Medicinal plants and antimicrobial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, we analyze the past, present and future of medicinal plants, both as potential antimicrobial crude drugs as well as a source for natural compounds that act as new anti-infection agents. In the past few decades, the search for new anti-infection agents has occupied many research groups in the field of ethnopharmacology. When we reviewed the number

J. L. Ríos; M. C. Recio

2005-01-01

179

Antimicrobial and phytochemical studies on 45 Indian medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant human pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic extracts of 45 Indian medicinal plants traditionally used in medicine were studied for their antimicrobial activity against certain drug-resistant bacteria and a yeast Candida albicans of clinical origin. Of these, 40 plant extracts showed varied levels of antimicrobial activity against one or more test bacteria. Anticandidal activity was detected in 24 plant extracts. Overall, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity was observed

Iqbal Ahmad; Arina Z. Beg

2001-01-01

180

Relative efficacy of three medicinal plant extracts in the alteration of thyroid hormone concentrations in male mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative importance of Bacopa monnieri (200 mg\\/kg), Aegle marmelos (1.00 g\\/kg) and Aloe vera (125 mg\\/kg) leaf extracts in the regulation of thyroid hormone concentrations in male mice was investigated. While serum levels of both T3 and T4 were inhibited by A. vera, A. marmelos extract could decrease only T3 concentration. On the other hand, T4 concentration was increased by

A Kar; S Panda; S Bharti

2002-01-01

181

In vivo evaluation of anthelmintic potential of medicinal plant extracts against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius auratus).  

PubMed

In the present study, an attempt has been made to petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of Prunus amygdalus Batsch seeds (Semen amygdali), Cimicifuga foetida L. rhizomes (Rhizoma Cimicifugae), Peucedanum decursivum (Miq.) Maxim roots (Radix Peucedani), Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng. seeds (Semen Momordicae), and Bupleurum chinense DC. roots (Radix Bupleuri chinensis) for their in vivo anthelmintic activity against monogenean Dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish (Carassius auratus). The results showed that the efficacies of methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts from R. Bupleuri chinensis were found to be, in this order, more effective than others with the 48 h-EC(50) and EC(90) values of 3.5 and 6.9, 6.0 and 8.4, 7.4 and 11.2 mg/L, respectively, followed by ethyl acetate extract of R. cimicifugae and chloroform extract of R. peucedani with EC(50) 189.2 and 240.4 mg/L. The promising methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts from R. Bupleuri chinensis were subjected to acute toxicity tests for the evaluation of their safety to the host. After 48-h exposure, the mortalities of goldfish were recorded, and the established LC(50) values were 10.1-, 4.2-, and 8.4-fold higher than the corresponding EC(50). These results indicated that the three extracts from R. Bupleuri chinensis exhibit potential to be used as preferred natural antiparasitics for the control of the D. intermedius, especially for the methanolic one. PMID:21153837

Wu, Zong-Fan; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Yong; Lu, Cheng; Wang, Gao-Xue

2010-12-14

182

Neurotoxicity of Coscinium fenestratum stem, a medicinal plant used in traditional medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coscinium fenestratum is a common medicinal plant widely used in the Indochina region, but scientific data on its safety is very limited. This study aimed to observe the effect of this plant on neurotoxicity and neurobehavior. Oral administration of plant alcoholic extract at dosages of 5, 10 and 20mg\\/kgBW for 14 days increased the rats body weight and decreased the

Jintanaporn Wattanathorn; Nongnut Uabundit; Wanchai Itarat; Supaporn Mucimapura; Pisamai Laopatarakasem; Bungorn Sripanidkulchai

2006-01-01

183

Effects of extracts from Italian medicinal plants on planktonic growth, biofilm formation and adherence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of studyOne-third of botanical remedies from southern Italy are used to treat skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). Staphylococcus aureus, a common cause of SSTI, has generated increasing concern due to drug resistance. Many plants possess antimicrobial agents and provide effective remedies for SSTI. Our aim was to investigate plants from different ethnobotanical usage groups for inhibition of growth

Cassandra L. Quave; Lisa R. W. Plano; Traci Pantuso; Bradley C. Bennett

2008-01-01

184

METALLOPEPTIDASES ACE, NEP AND APN INHIBITION BY PLANT EXTRACTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of fifteen medicinal plants were screened in vitro for their potency to inhibit metallopepti- dases ACE, NEP and APN. Bucco folium, Callunae flos, Epilobii angustifolii herba, Orthosiphonis folium, Ri- bes nigri folium extracts showed more than 50% inhibition of the tested peptidases activity at 1000 µg\\/ml. The results demonstrate that pharmacological activities of some medicinal plants might be related

ANNA KISS; ANNA POLCYN; ZEF KOWALSKI

185

Antiparasitic activities of medicinal plants used in Ivory Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

During an ethnopharmacological survey of antiparasitic medicinal plants used in Ivory Coast, 17 plants were identified and collected. Polar, non-polar and alkaloidic extracts of various parts of these species were evaluated in vitro in an antiparasitic drug screening. Antimalarial, leishmanicidal, trypanocidal, antihelminthiasis and antiscabies activities were determined. Among the selected plants, Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia glaucescens were strongly active against

T Okpekon; S Yolou; C Gleye; F Roblot; P Loiseau; C Bories; P Grellier; F Frappier; A Laurens; R Hocquemiller

2004-01-01

186

Screening of some Palestinian medicinal plants for antibacterial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of 15 Palestinian medicinal plants were carried against eight different species of bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, two Escherichia coli species, Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin resistant), two S. aureus (methicillin sensitive) species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus fecalis. Of the 15 plants tested, eight showed antibacterial activity. Each plant species has unique against different bacteria. The most

T Essawi; M Srour

2000-01-01

187

Medicinal Plants, Science, and Health Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discrepancy exists between the scientific understanding of botanical pharmacology and the contemporary use of medicinal plants. This article outlines and discusses scientific understanding and contemporary use of medicinal plants in the U.S. and abroad. A brief history of the use of medicinal plants in various cultures is presented, along with the scientific validation of the traditional uses of such

Bruce Barrett; David Kieffer

2001-01-01

188

Antiamoebic and phytochemical screening of some Congolese medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from the in vitro antiamoebic activity of some Congolese plant extracts used as antidiarrhoeic in traditional medicine indicated that of 45 plant extracts tested, 35 (77.78%) exhibited an antiamoebic activity and 10 (22.22%) were inactive. The highest activity (MIC<100 ?g\\/ml) was obtained with extracts from root bark of Paropsia brazzeana, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, Alchornea cordifolia, Hensia pulchella, Maprounea africana, Rauwolfia

L. Tona; K. Kambu; N. Ngimbi; K. Cimanga; A. J. Vlietinck

1998-01-01

189

In vitro antiproliferative effects on human tumor cell lines of extracts from the Bangladeshi medicinal plant Aegle marmelos Correa.  

PubMed

In the present paper we show that extracts from Aegle marmelos Correa are able to inhibit the in vitro proliferation of human tumor cell lines, including the leukemic K562, T-lymphoid Jurkat, B-lymphoid Raji, erythroleukemic HEL, melanoma Colo38, and breast cancer MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Molecules present within the studied Aegle marmelos C. extracts were identified by gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry analysis; three derivatives (butyl p-tolyl sulfide, 6-methyl-4-chromanone and butylated hydroxyanisole) were found to exhibit strong activity in inhibiting in vitro cell growth of human K562 cells. The antiproliferative activity of these compounds was found to be comparable to that of known antitumor agents, including cisplatin, chromomycin, cytosine arabinoside and 5-fluorouracil. In addition, the antiproliferative activity of butyl-p-tolyl sulfide, 6-methyl-4-chromanone and 5-methoxypsolaren was associated to activation of the differentiation pattern of K562 cells. PMID:12809360

Lampronti, I; Martello, D; Bianchi, N; Borgatti, M; Lambertini, E; Piva, R; Jabbar, S; Choudhuri, M Shahabuddin Kabir; Khan, M Tareq Hassan; Gambari, R

2003-05-01

190

Plant part substitution – a way to conserve endangered medicinal plants?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population growth, urbanization and the unrestricted collection of medicinal plants from the wild is resulting in an over-exploitation of natural resources in southern Africa. Therefore, the management of traditional medicinal plant resources has become a matter of urgency. In southern Africa the most frequently used medicinal plants are slow-growing forest trees, bulbous and tuberous plants, with bark and underground parts

S Zschocke; T Rabe; J. L. S Taylor; A. K Jäger; J van Staden

2000-01-01

191

Some anticancer medicinal plants of foreign origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt has been made to review some medicinal plants used for the prevention and treatment of cancer in foreign countries. Information on the botanical names of plants with family names, parts used and their main active components, and original\\/native place of these plants have been collected from the litera- ture. This article considers 62 medicinal plants of for- eign

S. Madhuri; Govind Pandey

192

A potential antioxidant resource: Endophytic fungi from medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants and their endophytes are important resources for discovery of natural products. Several previous studies\\u000a have found a positive correlation between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total phenolic content (TPC) of many medicinal\\u000a plant extracts. However, no information is available on whether such a relationship also exists in their endophytic fungal\\u000a metabolites. We investigated the relationship between TAC and

Wu-Yang Huang; Yi-Zhong Cai; Jie Xing; Harold Corke; Mei Sun

2007-01-01

193

Antifungal activity of Paraguayan plants used in traditional medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifungal activity of aqueous, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from 14 Paraguayan plants used in traditional medicine for the treatment of skin diseases was assayed in vitro by the agar disk diffusion method against 11 fungal strains comprising several filamentous fungi and yeasts. Among them, the dichloromethane extracts of Acanthospermum australe, Calycophyllum multiflorum, Geophila repens and Tabebuia avellanedae, as well

Aida Portillo; Roser Vila; Blanca Freixa; Tomás Adzet; Salvador Cańigueral

2001-01-01

194

Medicinal plants as immunosuppressive agents in traditional Iranian medicine.  

PubMed

Immunomodulation using medicinal plants provides an alternative to conventional chemotherapy for several diseases, especially when suppression of inflammation is desired. The "Canon of Medicine", the epochal work of Avicenna, the great Persian scientist of the middle ages, provides comprehensive information about medicinal plants which used to cure inflammatory illnesses in traditional Iranian medicine. Taking into consideration that the mechanisms of damage in these illnesses are mediated by immune responses, it is reasonable to assume that the plants used for such diseases may suppress the immune responses and the resultant inflammation. In Iran, because of great diversity of climate and geographical conditions, numerous varieties of plants grow and at least 1000 species are recorded as medicinal plants. Many of these plants such as Punica granatum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Foeniculum vulgare and Polygonum species prescribed by ancient Iranian physicians have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. In recent literature, different species of native medicinal plants such as Stachys obtusicrena, Salvia mirzayanii, Echium amoenum, Dracocephalum kotschyi and Linum persicum have been shown to have appreciable anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects including inhibitory effects on lymphocyte activation, suppression of cellular and humoral immunity and induction of apoptosis. This review focuses on plants that are used in Iranian traditional medicine and have been reported to act as immunoinhibitory agents. PMID:20574119

Amirghofran, Zahra

2010-06-01

195

Antivenom Activity of Medicinal Plants – A Mini Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts from plants have been used among traditional healers, especially in tropical areas where there are plentiful sources, as therapy for snakebite for a long time. Several medicinal plants, which appear in old drug recipes or which have been passed on by oral tradition, are believed to be snakebite antidotes. In modern science, there have been many attempts to study

2008-01-01

196

Antibacterial activity of South African plants used for medicinal purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude extracts from 21 South African medicinal plants, traditionally used for ailments of an infectious or septic nature, were screened for in vitro antibacterial activity using the agar diffusion and dilution methods. Almost all the activity exhibited was against Gram-positive bacteria, with 12 of the 21 plant species tested showing some activity against Bacillus subtilis. Only the Warburgia salutaris methanol

Tonia Rabe; Johannes van Staden

1997-01-01

197

Hepatoprotective activities of two Ethiopian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the in vivo hepatoprotective activity of two medicinal plants, namely, Justicia schimperiana (Hochst. ex Nees) (Acanthaceae) and Verbascum sinaiticum Benth. (Scrophulariaceae) used in Ethiopian traditional medical practices for the treatment of liver diseases. The levels of hepatic marker enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were used to assess their hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino mice. The results revealed that pretreating mice with the hydro-alcoholic extracts of both plants significantly suppressed the plasma AST ((P < 0.01) J. schimperiana; (P < 0.05) V. Sinaiticum) and ALT ((P < 0.05) J. schimperiana) activity when compared with the CCl4 intoxicated control. Among the Soxhlet extracts of each of the plants, the methanol extract of J. schimperiana showed significant hepatoprotective activity. Further fractionation of this extract using solid phase extraction and testing them for bioactivity indicated that the fractions did not significantly reverse liver toxicity caused by CCl4. However, the percentage hepatoprotection of the distilled water fraction was comparable with that of the standard drug silymarin at the same dose (50 mg/kg) as evidenced by biochemical parameters. Histopathological studies also supported these results. In vitro DPPH assay conducted on the water fraction of J. schimperiana and the Soxhlet methanol fraction of V. sinaiticum showed that they possess moderate radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 51.2 and 41.7 microg/mL, respectively) which led to the conclusion that the hepatoprotective activity of the plants could be in part through their antioxidant action. PMID:20645727

Umer, Shemsu; Asres, Kaleab; Veeresham, Ciddi

2010-04-01

198

Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardic glycoside distribution in ten medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Cleome nutidosperma, Emilia coccinea, Euphorbia heterophylla, Physalis angulata, Richardia bransitensis, Scopania dulcis, Sida acuta, Spigelia anthelmia, Stachytarpheta cayennensis and Tridax procumbens. All the plants were found to contain alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids

H. O. Edeoga; D. E. Okwu; B. O Mbaebie

199

Screening of selected medicinal plants of Nepal for antimicrobial activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an ethnopharmacological screening of selected medicinal plants used in Nepal, methanol extracts from 21 plant species were assayed for activity against 8 strains of bacteria and 5 strains of fungi. Duplicate assays were conducted with and without exposure to UV-A radiation to test for light-activated or light-enhanced activity. All 21 of the extracts showed activity against at least 2

R. S. Taylor; N. P. Manandhar; G. H. N. Towers

1995-01-01

200

Antifungal activity of Paraguayan plants used in traditional medicine.  

PubMed

The antifungal activity of aqueous, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from 14 Paraguayan plants used in traditional medicine for the treatment of skin diseases was assayed in vitro by the agar disk diffusion method against 11 fungal strains comprising several filamentous fungi and yeasts. Among them, the dichloromethane extracts of Acanthospermum australe, Calycophyllum multiflorum, Geophila repens and Tabebuia avellanedae, as well as the aqueous and methanol extracts of the latter, showed the highest activity. PMID:11378288

Portillo, A; Vila, R; Freixa, B; Adzet, T; Cańigueral, S

2001-06-01

201

Antiproliferative activity of Vietnamese medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Methanol, methanol-water (1:1) and water extracts were prepared from seventy-seven Vietnamese medicinal plants and tested for their antiproliferative activities against human HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells. Among them, fifteen extracts including seven methanol extracts of Caesalpinia sappan, Catharanthus roseus, Coscinium fenestratum, Eurycoma longifolia, Hydnophytum formicarum and Streptocaulon juventas (collected at two areas), six methanol-water (1:1) extracts of Cae. sappan, Cat. roseus, Co. fenestratum, H. formicarum and S. juventas (at two areas), and two water extracts of Cae. sappan and S. juventas exhibited antiproliferative activities in a concentration-dependent manner. Their antiproliferative activities against human cervix HeLa adenocarcinoma, human lung A549 adenocarcinoma, murine colon 26-L5 carcinoma, murine Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and murine B16-BL6 melanoma cells were then examined. Co. fenestratum showed selective activity against lung carcinoma and/or lung metastatic cell lines, A549, LLC and B16-BL6, while H. formicarum and S. juventas showed selective activity against human tumor cell lines, HeLa and A549. Characteristic morphological change and DNA fragmentation indicated the antiproliferative activity to be due to the induction of apoptosis. PMID:12081142

Ueda, Jun-ya; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Banskota, Arjun Hari; Le Tran, Quan; Tran, Qui Kim; Harimaya, Yuko; Saiki, Ikuo; Kadota, Shigetoshi

2002-06-01

202

Crataeva nurvala: A Valuable Medicinal Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crataeva nurvala Buch. Ham. (Capparaceae) is a high-value medicinal tree that grows almost all over India, especially in the semiarid regions. Medicinal usage has been reported in traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda and Unani, wherein the plant is frequently preferred in the treatment of urinary disorders that reoccur owing to development of antibiotic resistance by the infecting organism.

Nishritha Bopana; Sanjay Saxena

2008-01-01

203

Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of 112 traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer prevention and treatment using traditional Chinese medicines have attracted increasing interest. This study characterizes antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer, comprising 112 species from 50 plant families. The improved ABTS•+ method was used to systematically assess the total antioxidant capacity (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC) of the medicinal extracts. The TEAC values

Yizhong Cai; Qiong Luo; Mei Sun; Harold Corke

2004-01-01

204

Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes.  

PubMed

The aqueous extracts (15 micrograms ml-1 medium) of 22 plants used in folkloric medicine in Palestine were investigated for their antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against nine isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton violaceum. The extract of the different plant species reduced colony growth of the three dermatophytes by 36 to 100% compared with the control treatment. Antimycotic activity of the extract against the three dermatophytes varied significantly (P < 0.05) between test plants. Extracts of Capparis spinosa and Juglans regia completely prevented growth of M. canis and T. violaceum. The most active extracts (90-100% inhibition) were those of Anagallis arvensis, C. spinosa, J. regia, Pistacia lentiscus and Ruta chalapensis against M. canis; Inula viscosa, J. regia and P. lentiscus against T. mentagrophytes; and Asphodelus luteus, A. arvensis, C. spinosa, Clematis cirrhosa, I. viscosa, J. regia, P. lentiscus, Plumbago europea, Ruscus aculeatus, Retema raetam and Salvia fruticosa against T. violaceum. The MICs of these most active plants ranged from 0.6 to 40 micrograms ml-1. The three dermatophytes differed significantly with regard to their susceptibility to plant extracts. Trichophyton violaceum was the most susceptible being completely inhibited by 50% of the extracts followed by M. canis and T. mentagrophytes which were completely inhibited by only 23 and 14% of the extracts, respectively. PMID:10680445

Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Abu Ghdeib, S I

1999-01-01

205

Screening of some Siberian medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial activity of crude ethanolic extracts of 16 Siberian medicinal plants was tested against five species of microorganisms: Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. Of the 16 plants tested, 12 showed antimicrobial activity against one or more species of microorganisms. The most active antimicrobial plants were Bergenia crassifolia,Chelidonium majus,Rhaponticum carthamoides,Sanguisorba officinalis, and Tussilago farfara.

L. Kokoska; Z. Polesny; V. Rada; A. Nepovim; T. Vanek

2002-01-01

206

CNS acetylcholine receptor activity in European medicinal plants traditionally used to improve failing memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain Lamiaceous and Asteraceous plants have long histories of use as restoratives of lost or declining cognitive functions in western European systems of traditional medicine. Investigations were carried out to evaluate human CNS cholinergic receptor binding activity in extracts of those European medicinal plants reputed to enhance or restore mental functions including memory. Ethanolic extracts were prepared from accessions of

George Wake; Jennifer Court; Anne Pickering; Rhiannon Lewis; Richard Wilkins; Elaine Perry

2000-01-01

207

Antibacterial Activities of Four Thai Medicinal Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants have long been used and prescribed in Thailand for centuries. Some of them have been used for treating various diseases including infectious diseases. Pouzolzia pentandra Benn., Gelonium multiflorum A. Juss., Erycibe elliptilimba Merr.&Chun., Balanophora abbreviate Bl. are Thai medicinal plants from the Thai pharmacopoeia that have been prescribed for treating unknown fevers including some specific infectious diseases. This

Suwanna Trakulsomboon

208

Medicinal plants of Sikkim in Ayurvedic practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rich flora of Sikkim has a number of raw drugs described in Ayurvedic texts. There are about 420 plants used by the tribal people for various diseases in Sikkim Himalayas region, out of which few are in utilized on commercial basis. Here thirty medicinal plants are presented which have high medicinal values in Ayurveda. Most of the drugs have

Ashok Kumar Panda

209

(Precautions in the use of medicinal plants)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our country, almost medicinal plants are not scientifically validated and their safety and effectiveness are frequently unknown; therefore, like any other medicines, they should be used with caution because toxic plants consumption may carry intoxication and even death. Lippia turbinata Gris., Aristolochia triangularis Cham., Ruta graveolens L., Huperzia saururs (Lam.) Trevis, Brugmansia arborea (L.) Lagerh., among others may be

Mariela A. MARINOFF; José L. MARTÍNEZ; María A. URBINA

2009-01-01

210

From Curanderas to Gas Chromatography: Medicinal Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Medicinal Plants of the Southwest summer workshop is an inquiry-based learning approach to increase interest and skills in biomedical research. Working in teams, Hispanic and Native American students discover the chemical and biological basis for the medicinal activity of regional plants used by healers. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)|

O'Connell, Mary; Lara, Antonio

2005-01-01

211

From Curanderas to Gas Chromatography: Medicinal Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Medicinal Plants of the Southwest summer workshop is an inquiry-based learning approach to increase interest and skills in biomedical research. Working in teams, Hispanic and Native American students discover the chemical and biological basis for the medicinal activity of regional plants used by healers.

Lara, Antonio; O'Connell, Mary

2006-01-01

212

Some medicinal plants with antiasthmatic potential: a current status  

PubMed Central

Asthma is a common disease that is rising in prevalence worldwide with the highest prevalence in industrialized countries. Asthma affect about 300 million people worldwide and it has been estimated that a further 100 million will be affected by 2025. Since the ancient times, plants have been exemplary sources of medicine. Current asthma therapy lack satisfactory success due to adverse effect, hence patients are seeking complementary and alternative medicine to treat their asthma. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in various human ailments. India has about 45 000 plant species and among them several thousand are claimed to possess medicinal properties. Researches conducted in the last few decades on the plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for asthma have shown antiasthmatic, antihistaminic and antiallergic activity. This review reveals that some plants and their extract have antiasthmatic, antihistaminic, anticholinergic and antiallergic activity.

Taur, Dnyaneshwar J; Patil, Ravindra Y

2011-01-01

213

Optimising DNA isolation for medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In African traditional health care systems medicinal plants have long been known to contain pharmacologically active compounds. This has led to an excessively high demand of these plant products resulting in the extinction of some plant species. With the application of molecular techniques in plant diversity conservation becoming increasingly popular, the isolation of PCR amplifiable genomic DNA becomes an important

M. Moyo; S. O. Amoo; M. W. Bairu; J. F. Finnie; J. Van Staden

2008-01-01

214

Anti-inflammatory bioactivities in plant extracts.  

PubMed

The medical ethnobotanical knowledge propagated over generations in the coastal regions of the Eastern Mediterranean, including Lebanon, is one that has built on several ancient cultures and civilizations of these regions. Recent interest in medical ethnobotany and the use of medicinal herbs in treating or preventing ailments has rejuvenated interest in folk medicine practices, especially those transcendent across generations. According to Eastern Mediterranean folk medicine practices, herbal remedies that treat many inflammation-related ailments were typically based on plant bioactive water extracts or decoctions. Studies have shown that active anti-inflammatory ingredients in water extracts include many natural chemicals such as phenols, alkaloids, glycosides, and carbohydrates. The intent of this manuscript is twofold: first, to review the literature that describes anti-inflammatory bioactivities in plant extracts of different plant genera; and second, to evaluate indigenous folk remedies used by folk doctors to treat inflammatory ailments in this region of the world. For this aim, the reported literature of five plant genera assumed to possess anti-inflammatory bioactivities and typically prescribed by folk doctors to treat inflammation-related ailments is reviewed. PMID:17472460

Talhouk, R S; Karam, C; Fostok, S; El-Jouni, W; Barbour, E K

2007-03-01

215

Historical review of medicinal plants' usage  

PubMed Central

Healing with medicinal plants is as old as mankind itself. The connection between man and his search for drugs in nature dates from the far past, of which there is ample evidence from various sources: written documents, preserved monuments, and even original plant medicines. Awareness of medicinal plants usage is a result of the many years of struggles against illnesses due to which man learned to pursue drugs in barks, seeds, fruit bodies, and other parts of the plants. Contemporary science has acknowledged their active action, and it has included in modern pharmacotherapy a range of drugs of plant origin, known by ancient civilizations and used throughout the millennia. The knowledge of the development of ideas related to the usage of medicinal plants as well as the evolution of awareness has increased the ability of pharmacists and physicians to respond to the challenges that have emerged with the spreading of professional services in facilitation of man's life.

Petrovska, Biljana Bauer

2012-01-01

216

Antiplasmodial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants Used in Sudanese Folk-medicine  

PubMed Central

Ten plants indigenous to Sudan and of common use in Sudanese folk-medicine, were examined in vitro for antimalarial activity against schizonts maturation of Plasmodium falciparum, the major human malaria parasite. All plant samples displayed various antiplasmodial activity. Three plant extracts caused 100% inhibition of the parasite growth at concentrations of plant material ? 500 ug/ml. The two most active extracts that produced 100% inhibition of the parasite growth at concentration of plant material ? 50 ?g/ml were obtained from the seeds of Nigella sativa and the whole plant of Aristolochia bracteolata. The ten plants were phytochemically screened for their active constituents. The two most active plants showed the presence of sterols, alkaloids and tannins.

Ahmed, El-Hadi M.; Nour, Bakri Y.M.; Mohammed, Yousif G.; Khalid, Hassan S.

2010-01-01

217

Antimicrobial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants from Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: About 32 extracts from eight selected medicinal plants, n amely Pereskia bleo , Pereskia grandifolia , Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb., Curcuma zedoria , Curcuma mangga , Curcuma inodora aff. Blatter , Zingiber officinale var. officinale (jahe gajah) and Zingiber officinale var. rubrum (jahe emprit) used by Malaysia traditional health c are systems were screened for their antimicrobial activity against

Koshy Philip; Sri Nurestri; Abd Malek; Wirakarnain Sani; Sim Kae Shin; Saravana Kumar; Lee Guan Serm; Syarifah N. S. A. Rahman

2009-01-01

218

Screening of some Cuban medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial activities of 23 extracts of 12 Cuban plant species reported in traditional medicine were tested. The agar diffusion method was used to assess the activity against four bacteria and one yeast: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The results, evaluated as the diameter of the inhibition zone of microbial growth, showed that nine

M. J. Martínez; J. Betancourt; N. Alonso-González; A. Jauregui

1996-01-01

219

Antibacterial Activity of Important Medicinal Plants on Human Pathogenic Bacteria-a Comparative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of plants in treatment of burns, dermatophytes and infectious diseases is common in traditional medicine. Based on ethno pharmacological and taxonomic information, antibacterial activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of some medicinal plants were determined by in vitro by agar diffusion-method against some human pathogenic bacteria. The leaves of five different plants, belonging to the different family and

H. V. Girish; S. Satish

220

Evaluation of aqueous and ethanol extract of bioactive medicinal plant, Cassia didymobotrya (Fresenius) Irwin & Barneby against immature stages of filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate aqueous and ethanol extract of Cassia didymobotrya leaves against immature stages of Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods The mortality rate of immature mosquitoes was tested in wide and narrow range concentration of the plant extract based on WHO standard protocol. The wide range concentration tested in the present study was 10 000, 1 000, 100, 10 and 1 mg/L and narrow range concentration was 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L. Results 2nd instar larvae exposed to 100 mg/L and above concentration of ethanol extract showed 100% mortality. Remaining stages such as 3rd, 4th and pupa, 100% mortality was observed at 1 000 mg/L and above concentration after 24 h exposure period. In aqueous extract all the stages 100% mortality was recorded at 1 000 mg/L and above concentration. In narrow range concentration 2nd instar larvae 100% mortality was observed at 150 mg/L and above concentration of ethanol extract. The remaining stages 100% mortality was recorded at 250 mg/L. In aqueous extract all the tested immature stages 100% mortality was observed at 250 mg/L concentration after 24 h exposure period. The results clearly indicate that the rate of mortality was based dose of the plant extract and stage of the mosquitoes. Conclusions From this study it is confirmed and concluded that Cassia didymobotrya is having active principle which is responsible for controlling Culex quinquefasciatus. The isolation of bioactive molecules and development of simple formulation technique is important for large scale implementation.

Nagappan, Raja

2012-01-01

221

Evaluation of medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan for antimelanogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of searching for new materials to use as whitening agents, we screened 19 methanol extracts prepared from 14\\u000a medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan province, Indonesia. The screening methods used were the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl\\u000a (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay, a tyrosinase inhibition assay, and a melanin formation inhibition assay using B16 melanoma\\u000a cells. The extracts of Willughbeia coriacea (bark part of

Enos Tangke Arung; Irawan Wijaya Kusuma; Eva Oktoberiani Christy; Kuniyoshi Shimizu; Ryuichiro Kondo

2009-01-01

222

Antiviral Activity of Some Plants Used in Nepalese Traditional Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic extracts of 41 plant species belonging to 27 families used in the traditional medicine in Nepal have been investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and influenza virus A by dye uptake assay in the systems HSV-1\\/Vero cells and influenza virus A\\/MDCK cells. The extracts of Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Cassiope fastigiata and

M. Rajbhandari; R. Mentel; P. K. Jha; R. P. Chaudhary; S. Bhattarai; M. B. Gewali; N. Karmacharya; M. Hipper; U. Lindequist

2009-01-01

223

Antiviral Activity of Some Plants Used in Nepalese Traditional Medicine  

PubMed Central

Methanolic extracts of 41 plant species belonging to 27 families used in the traditional medicine in Nepal have been investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and influenza virus A by dye uptake assay in the systems HSV-1/Vero cells and influenza virus A/MDCK cells. The extracts of Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Cassiope fastigiata and Thymus linearis showed potent anti-herpes viral activity. The extracts of Allium oreoprasum, Androsace strigilosa, Asparagus filicinus, Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata and Verbascum thapsus exhibited strong anti-influenza viral activity. Only the extracts of A. rivularis and B. ciliata demonstrated remarkable activity against both viruses.

Rajbhandari, M.; Mentel, R.; Jha, P. K.; Chaudhary, R. P.; Bhattarai, S.; Gewali, M. B.; Karmacharya, N.; Hipper, M.

2009-01-01

224

Cameroonian Medicinal Plants: Pharmacology and Derived Natural Products  

PubMed Central

Many developing countries including Cameroon have mortality patterns that reflect high levels of infectious diseases and the risk of death during pregnancy and childbirth, in addition to cancers, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases that account for most deaths in the developed world. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally for their treatment. In this review, plants used in Cameroonian traditional medicine with evidence for the activities of their crude extracts and/or derived products have been discussed. A considerable number of plant extracts and isolated compounds possess significant antimicrobial, anti-parasitic including antimalarial, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes, and antioxidant effects. Most of the biologically active compounds belong to terpenoids, phenolics, and alkaloids. Terpenoids from Cameroonian plants showed best activities as anti-parasitic, but rather poor antimicrobial effects. The best antimicrobial, anti-proliferative, and antioxidant compounds were phenolics. In conclusion, many medicinal plants traditionally used in Cameroon to treat various ailments displayed good activities in vitro. This explains the endeavor of Cameroonian research institutes in drug discovery from indigenous medicinal plants. However, much work is still to be done to standardize methodologies and to study the mechanisms of action of isolated natural products.

Kuete, Victor; Efferth, Thomas

2010-01-01

225

Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important. PMID:23034115

Škrovánková, So?a; Mišurcová, Ladislava; Mach?, Ludmila

2012-01-01

226

[Salvia miltiorrhiza as medicinal model plant].  

PubMed

Research on medicinal model organism is one of the core technologies to promote the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The research progress of Salvia miltiorrhiza as medicinal model plant is summarized in this paper. The genome of S. miltiorrhiza is small and its life cycle is short, as well as this plant can be stably genetically transformed. Because S. miltiorrhiza possesses the important medicinal and economic values, recently the transcriptome and genome of S. miltiorrhiza have been significantly recovered. The research prospect of S. miltiorrhiza as medicinal model plant in TCM was discussed, including biosynthesis of active components and their genetic regulation, relationship between quality of TCM and ecological environments, and selective breeding of good quality lines. Furthermore, as medicinal model plant, the construction of mutant library for S. miltiorrhiza, the genome map with high quality, and the functional genome should be investigated. Accompanying modern investigation of life sciences, the platform for medicinal model plant, S. miltiorrhiza, will be promoted to be established. It is important to develop the ethnopharmacology and new drugs around the world. PMID:24133975

Song, Jing-Yuan; Luo, Hong-Mei; Li, Chun-Fang; Sun, Chao; Xu, Jiang; Chen, Shi-Lin

2013-07-01

227

Antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants and its relationship with their antioxidant property  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic extract (75%) of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis and their combination named ‘Triphala’ (equal proportion of above three plant extracts) are being used extensively in Indian system of medicine. They were found to inhibit lipid peroxide formation and to scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in vitro. The concentration of plant extracts that inhibited 50% of lipid peroxidation induced

M. C Sabu; Ramadasan Kuttan

2002-01-01

228

Antiparasitic activities of medicinal plants used in Ivory Coast.  

PubMed

During an ethnopharmacological survey of antiparasitic medicinal plants used in Ivory Coast, 17 plants were identified and collected. Polar, non-polar and alkaloidic extracts of various parts of these species were evaluated in vitro in an antiparasitic drug screening. Antimalarial, leishmanicidal, trypanocidal, antihelminthiasis and antiscabies activities were determined. Among the selected plants, Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia glaucescens were strongly active against Plasmodium falciparum. Lawsonia inermis, selectively prescribed against trypanosomiasis shows interesting trypanocidal activities as did other 15 plants. Anthelmintic activities were found for 10 active species and 2 species (Uvaria afzelli and Monodora myristica) were actives against mites. PMID:14698515

Okpekon, T; Yolou, S; Gleye, C; Roblot, F; Loiseau, P; Bories, C; Grellier, P; Frappier, F; Laurens, A; Hocquemiller, R

2004-01-01

229

Comparative evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of some Indian medicinal plants in alloxan diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our experiments 30 hypoglycaemic medicinal plants (known and less known) have been selected for thorough studies from indigenous folk medicines, Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha systems of medicines. In all the experiments with different herbal samples (vacuum dried 95% ethanolic extracts), definite blood glucose lowering effect within 2 weeks have been confirmed in alloxan diabetic albino rats. Blood glucose values

Ajit Kar; B. K Choudhary; N. G Bandyopadhyay

2003-01-01

230

Mutagenic effect, antioxidant and anticancer activities of six medicinal plants from Burkina Faso  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antiproliferative activities of six medicinal plant extracts from Burkina Faso were evaluated in order to justify their traditional use for the treatment of cancer. The SOS chromotest method was used in vitro on Escherichia coli PQ37 to evaluate the mutagenic effect of the plant extracts. The DPPH method was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of each plant. The antiproliferative

W. R. Sawadogo; A. Maciuk; J. T. Banzouzi; P. Champy; B. Figadere; I. P. Guissou; O. G. Nacoulma

2012-01-01

231

Mutagenic effect, antioxidant and anticancer activities of six medicinal plants from Burkina Faso  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antiproliferative activities of six medicinal plant extracts from Burkina Faso were evaluated in order to justify their traditional use for the treatment of cancer. The SOS chromotest method was used in vitro on Escherichia coli PQ37 to evaluate the mutagenic effect of the plant extracts. The DPPH method was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of each plant. The antiproliferative

W. R. Sawadogo; A. Maciuk; J. T. Banzouzi; P. Champy; B. Figadere; I. P. Guissou; O. G. Nacoulma

2011-01-01

232

Medicinal plants used in Kirklareli Province (Turkey).  

PubMed

In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from Kirklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica, Hypericum perforatum, Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis, Juglans regia, Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, Plantago lanceolata, Rosa canina, Ecballium elaterium, Artemisia absinthium, Viscum album subsp. album, Papaver rhoeas, Helleborus orientalis, Cydonia oblonga, Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla, Rubus discolor, Sorbus domestica. A total of 143 medicinal uses were obtained. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of wounds (25.3%), cold and influenza (24.6%), stomach (20%), cough (19%), kidney ailments (18.2%), diabetes (13.4%). PMID:17257791

Kültür, Sükran

2006-12-12

233

[Responses of medicinal plant to drought stress and controlled experiment].  

PubMed

Progress in the studies on responses of medicinal plants to drought stress including changes of appearance, physiological adaptation, biochemistry response and molecular mechanisms were summarized. Committed steps of controlled experiment of medicinal plants to drought stress were proposed considering the characteristics of medicinal plants, which will provide rationale basis for clear elaboration of the responses of medicinal plant to the drought stress. PMID:20931837

Zhou, Jie; Guo, Lanping; Zhang, Ji; Yang, Guang; Zhao, Manxi; Huang, Luqi

2010-08-01

234

Screening of medicinal and ornamental plants for insecticidal and growth regulating activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of 121 medicinal and ornamental plants were screened for insecticidal and growth regulating activity to milkweed\\u000a bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus Dallas. The most effective extracts stemmed from Inula helenium L., Rumex crispus L., R. acetosa L., Asarum europaeum L., and Calendula officinalis L. All these extracts exerted growth inhibiting activities and moderate or low acute toxicity. Most promising were extracts

Maja Alexenizer; August Dorn

2007-01-01

235

Anti-inflammatory activity of some Saudi Arabian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Five plants which have been used for the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and gout in the traditional medicine of Saudi Arabia, were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory properties. Of these the ethanolic extract of Capparis decidua and the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa were found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced oedema in rats. These two plants were also tested for their antipyretic and analgesic activity. C. decidua was found to possess significant antipyretic effect. Both of them are devoid of analgesic activity. PMID:3485894

Ageel, A M; Parmar, N S; Mossa, J S; Al-Yahya, M A; Al-Said, M S; Tariq, M

1986-01-01

236

[Antioxidant properties of plant extracts].  

PubMed

Investigation of antioxidant properties of some plants was carried out. A group of plants exhibited antimicrobial activity was studied in detail. Efficiency of plants as antioxidants was tested by the influence of their extracts on the yield of photochemiluminescence of Gly-Trp solutions. Antioxidant properties were examined under conditions when their own absorption was minimized. Riboflavin as additional sensitizer was used in this experiment for superoxide generation. The antioxidant effect was evaluated with regard to single dose of plant extracts and their concentration in human organism. The effect decreases in the following consequence: Hypericum perforatum > Potentilla erectra > Ledum palustre > Plantago major > Salvia officinalis > Chamomilla recutita > Arctostaphylos uva. PMID:9591094

Bol'shakova, I V; Lozovskaia, E L; Sapezhinski?, I I

237

Supplement to Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This supplement provides the medicinal properties of some 1,000 plants. The plants have been arranged in alphabetical order according to their scientific names so readers can find any particular drug on which information is required. Many of the commonly ...

R. N. Chopra I. C. Chopra B. S. Varma

1969-01-01

238

In vitro screening of five local medicinal plants for antibacterial activity using disc diffusion method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants have many traditional claims including the treatment of ailments of infectious origin. In the evaluation of traditional claims, scientific research is important. The objective of the study was to determine the presence of antibacterial activity in the crude extracts of some of the commonly used medicinal plants in Malaysia, Andrographis paniculata, Vitex negundo, Morinda citrifolia, Piper sarmentosum, and

Noor Rain; A. Adlin

239

Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of Vietnamese medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Among 288 extracts, prepared from 96 medicinal plants used in Vietnamese traditional medicine to treat gout and related symptoms, 188 demonstrated xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity at 100 microg/ml, with 46 having greater than 50% inhibition. At 50 microg/ml, 168 of the extracts were active, with 21 possessing more than 50% inhibition. At 25 microg/ml, 146 extracts exhibited inhibitory activity, with 8 showing over 50% inhibition, while 126 extracts presented activity at 10 microg/ml, with 2 having greater than 50% inhibition. The MeOH extracts of Artemisia vulgaris, Caesalpinia sappan (collected at the Seven-Mountain area), Blumea balsamifera (collected in Lam Dong province), Chrysanthemum sinense and MeOH-H(2)O extract of Tetracera scandens (Khanh Hoa province) exhibited strong XO inhibitory activity with IC(50) values less than 20 microg/ml. The most active extract was the MeOH extract of the flower of C. sinense with an IC(50) value of 5.1 microg/ml. Activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract led to the isolation of caffeic acid (1), luteolin (2), eriodictyol (3), and 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4). All these compounds showed significant XO inhibitory activity in a concentration-dependent manner, and the activity of 2 was more potent (IC(50) 1.3 microM) than the clinically used drug, allopurinol (IC(50) 2.5 microM). PMID:15340229

Nguyen, Mai Thanh Thi; Awale, Suresh; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Tran, Quan Le; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kadota, Shigetoshi

2004-09-01

240

A meta-analysis of medicinal plants to assess the evidence for toxicity  

PubMed Central

Toxicity of phytochemicals, plant-based extracts and dietary supplements, and medicinal plants in general, is of medical importance and must be considered in phytotherapy and other plant uses. We show in this report how general database analyses can provide a quantitative assessment of research and evidence related to toxicity of medicinal plants or specific phytochemicals. As examples, several medicinal plants are analyzed for their relation to nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The results of analyses in different databases are similar, and reveal the two best-established toxic effects among the group of plants that were examined: nephrotoxicity of Aristolochia fangchi and hepatotoxicity of Larrea tridentata.

Chen, Sarah; Vieira, Amandio

2010-01-01

241

Antipyretic studies on some indigenous Pakistani medicinal plants: II.  

PubMed

Eight Pakistani medicinal plants were investigated for antipyretic activity in rabbits receiving subcutaneous yeast injections. Hexane- and chloroform-soluble extracts of Aconitum napellus stems, Corchorus depressus whole plant and Gmelina asiatica roots exhibited prominent oral antipyretic activity while insignificant antipyretic effects were found in the hexane- and chloroform-soluble portions of Melia azadirachta seeds, Tinospora cordifolia stems and Vitex trifolia seeds. No antipyretic actions whatsoever were produced by extracts of A. heterophyllum roots and Hedysarum alhagi aerial parts. Toxicity studies revealed no noteworthy toxic or adverse effects for any of the above plant extracts up to the highest oral doses of 1.6 g/kg except in the case of A. napellus. PMID:3497307

Ikram, M; Khattak, S G; Gilani, S N

242

Antimicrobial activity of 20 plants used in folkloric medicine in the Palestinian area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of 20 Palestinian plant species used in folk medicine were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against five bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and one yeast (Candida albicans). The plants showed 90% of antimicrobial activity, with significant difference in activity between the different plants. The most antimicrobially active plants were

M. S Ali-Shtayeh; Reem M.-R Yaghmour; Y. R Faidi; Khalid Salem; M. A Al-Nuri

1998-01-01

243

Antimycobacterial agents from selected Mexican medicinal plants.  

PubMed

As part of the ICBG program Bioactive Agents from Dryland Biodiversity of Latin America, the present investigation was undertaken to explore the possible antimycobacterial potential of compounds derived from selected Mexican medicinal plants. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extracts of Rumex hymenosepalus (Polygonaceae), Larrea divaricata (Zygophyllaceae), Phoradendron robinsonii (Loranthaceae) and Amphipteryngium adstringens (Julianiaceae) led to the isolation of several antimycobacterial compounds. Four stilbenoids, two flavan-3-ols and three anthraquinones were isolated from R. hymenosepalus. Two flavonols and nordihydroguaiaretic acid were obtained from L. divaricata. Sakuranetin was the antimycobacterial agent isolated from P. robinsonii. Two known triterpenoids and the novel natural product 3-dodecyl-1,8-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid were obtained from A. adstringens. In general, the isolates were identified by spectral means. The antimycobacterial activity of the secondary compounds isolated from the analysed species, as well as that of nine pure compounds previously isolated in our laboratories, was investigated; the MIC values ranged from 16 to 128 microg mL-1. Among the tested compounds, the glycolipids, sesquiterpenoids and triterpenoids showed the best antimycobacterial activity. The antimycobacterial property of the glycolipids is reported for the first time. Although the tested compounds showed moderate antimycobacterial activity, their presence in the analysed species provides the rationale for their traditional use in the treatment of tuberculosis. PMID:16105233

Rivero-Cruz, Isabel; Acevedo, Laura; Guerrero, José A; Martínez, Sergio; Bye, Robert; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Franzblau, Scott; Timmermann, Barbara N; Mata, Rachel

2005-09-01

244

The antialgal activity of 40 medicinal plants against Microcystis aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In search of a botanical algicide, 40 traditional medicinal plants were screened for antialgal activity against the bloom-forming\\u000a cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa using coexistence culture system assay. The results of the coexistence assay showed that significant inhibition of the algae\\u000a at 800 mg L?1 were observed for methanolic extracts of the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae), rhizome of Acorus tatarinowii (Rhizoma

Yang-Lei Yi; Yi Lei; Yue-Bang Yin; Hong-Yu Zhang; Gao-Xue Wang

245

Antimicrobial properties of roots of medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Antibacterial properties of hexane, chloroform and aqueous extracts of roots of Acorus calamus, Aristolochia indica, Cyperus rotundus, Desmodium gangeticum, Holostemma ada- kodien and Kaempferia galanga, used in the traditional medicine were studied on Bacillus pumilis and Eschericia coli by disc diffusion method. PMID:22557193

Sini, S; Malathy, N S

2005-10-01

246

Vibriocidal activity of certain medicinal plants used in Indian folklore medicine by tribals of Mahakoshal region of central India  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Screening of the medicinal plants and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Materials and Methods: A simple in vitro screening assay was employed for the standard strain of Vibrio cholerae, 12 isolates of Vibrio cholerae non-O1, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts of different parts of the plants were investigated by using the disk diffusion method. Extracts from 16 medicinal plants were selected on account of the reported traditional uses for the treatment of cholera and gastrointestinal diseases, and they were assayed for vibriocidal activities. Results: The different extracts differed significantly in their vibriocidal properties with respect to different solvents. The MIC values of the plant extracts against test bacteria were found to be in the range of 2.5-20 mg/ml. Conclusions: The results indicated that Lawsonia inermis, Saraca indica, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia belerica, Allium sativum, and Datura stramonium served as broad-spectrum vibriocidal agents.

Sharma, Anjana; Patel, Virendra Kumar; Chaturvedi, Animesh Navin

2009-01-01

247

Insecticidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae of some medicinal South American plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The insecticidal activity of 11 extracts from nine South American medicinal plants has been studied using the Aedes aegypti larvicidal assay. Eight of the 11 plant extracts studied showed toxicity against the A. aegypti larvae (LC50<500 ?g\\/ml). The dichloromethane extracts of Abuta grandifolia and Minthostachys setosa demonstrated high larvicidal activity, the most active being the dichloromethane extract of A. grandifolia,

G Ciccia; J Coussio; E Mongelli

2000-01-01

248

Evaluation of antitumor activity of some medicinal plants of Bangladesh by potato disk bioassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antitumor activity of the ethanolic extracts of 12 medicinal plants of Bangladesh, including the vincristine–vinblastine producing Catharanthus roseus was studied using the potato disk bioassay technique. Among these, 10 plant extracts at 25.0-?g\\/disc exhibited significant inhibition of crown gall tumors caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

N. Haque; S. A. R. Chowdhury; M. T. H. Nutan; G. M. S. Rahman; K. M. Rahman; M. A. Rashid

2000-01-01

249

Antimicrobial activity of selected South African medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Background Nearly 3,000 plant species are used as medicines in South Africa, with approximately 350 species forming the most commonly traded and used medicinal plants. In the present study, twelve South African medicinal plants were selected and tested for their antimicrobial activities against eight microbial species belonging to fungi, Mycobacteria, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods The radiometric respiratory technique using the BACTEC 460 system was used for susceptibility testing against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the liquid micro-broth dilution was used for other antimicrobial assays. Results The results of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations indicated that the methanol extracts from Acacia karoo, Erythrophleum lasianthum and Salvia africana were able to prevent the growth of all the tested microorganisms. All other samples showed selective activities. MIC values below 100??g/ml were recorded with A. karoo, C. dentate, E. lasianthum, P. obligun and S. africana on at least one of the nine tested microorganisms. The best activity (MIC value of 39.06??g/ml) was noted with S. africana against E. coli, S. aureus and M. audouinii, and Knowltonia vesitoria against M. tuberculosis. Conclusion The overall results of the present work provide baseline information for the possible use of the studied South African plant extracts in the treatment of microbial infections.

2012-01-01

250

[Tissue culture of medicinal plant and abscisic acid].  

PubMed

Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in many physiological processes of plants, and it was also applied to fields of medicinal plant biotechnology. The article presents a review of some recent application of ABA in enhancing the production of secondary metabolites of medicinal plants, improving the in vitro conservation in medicinal plant tissue culture system. PMID:23596868

Fang, Hui-Yong; Zhu, Hong; Yao, Jian-Xun; Jia, Cai-Feng; Shan, Gao-Wei; Li, Min-Hui

2013-01-01

251

Medicinal plants of Mt. Pelion, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on plants used for medicinal purposes in the Mt. Pelion area of Greece; however other plant uses were noted\\u000a when discovered. A total of 225 taxa representing 77 families are presented along with habitat data and ethnobotanical information\\u000a when relevant. Some notes on related species are also included. In addition to ethnobotanical field research which included\\u000a collection

David Eric Brussell; David Eric

2004-01-01

252

Potential antileishmanial effect of three medicinal plants.  

PubMed

THE ANTILEISHMANIAL ACTIVITY OF THREE ORGANIC SOLVENT EXTRACTS AND WATER RESIDUE OF THE PLANTS: Acacia nilotica (Mimosaceae) (husk), Ambrosia miratima (Astraceae) (aerial shoot) and Azadarichta indica (Meliaceae) (leaves) were tested in vitro against Leishmania donovani promastigotes. The study revealed that the extracts of A. nilotica and A. miratima have effectious antileishmanial activity at concentrations (IC(50)) less than 8 ?g/ml, while the extracts of A. indica lack antileishmanial activity. The chromatographic analysis of the ethyl acetate extract of A. nilotica, the most potent extract, resulted in four TLC fractions. Three of these fractions possessed antileishmanial activity. Phytochemical study of the potent fractions revealed the presence of poly hydroxyl compounds. PMID:23326001

Eltayeb, A; Ibrahim, K

2012-03-01

253

Antiangiogenic activity and pharmacogenomics of medicinal plants from traditional korean medicine.  

PubMed

Aim. In the present study, we investigated the antiangiogenic properties of 59 plants used in traditional Korean medicine. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their modes of action. Methods. A modified chicken-chorioallantoic-membrane (CAM) assay using quail eggs was applied to test for antiangiogenic effects of plant extracts. A molecular docking in silico approached the binding of plant constituents to the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (VEGFR1, VEGFR2). Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling was employed to correlate the 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) of a panel of 60 NCI cell lines to these phytochemicals. Results. Extracts from Acer mono leaves, Reynoutria sachalniensis fruits, Cinnamomum japonicum stems, Eurya japonica leaves, Adenophora racemosa whole plant, Caryopteris incana leaves-stems, and Schisandra chinensis stems inhibited angiogenesis more than 50% in quail eggs. Selected phytochemicals from Korean plants were analyzed in more detail using microarray-based mRNA expression profiles and molecular docking to VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. These results indicate multifactorial modes of action of these natural products. Conclusion. The antiangiogenic activity of plants used in traditional Korean medicine implicates their possible application for diseases where inhibition of blood vessel formation is desired, for example, cancer, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and others. PMID:23970927

Seo, Ean-Jeong; Kuete, Victor; Kadioglu, Onat; Krusche, Benjamin; Schröder, Sven; Greten, Henry Johannes; Arend, Joachim; Lee, Ik-Soo; Efferth, Thomas

2013-07-22

254

Evaluation of medicinal plants from Mali for their in vitro and in vivo trypanocidal activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water, methanol and dichloromethane extracts prepared from various parts of 40 medicinal plant species from Mali were investigated for their trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Of a total of 165 extracts tested in vitro in the Low Inoculation Long Incubation Test (LILIT), 24 extracts showed a high trypanocidal activity. Using the Long-Term Viability Assay (LtVA) for corroboration of the

Nsekuye Bizimana; Uwe Tietjen; Karl-Hans Zessin; Drissa Diallo; Coulibaly Djibril; Matthias F. Melzig; Peter-Henning Clausen

2006-01-01

255

In vitro cytotoxic activity of Thai medicinal plants used traditionally to treat cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SRB assay was used to test cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines and one normal cell line of 11 Thai medicinal plant species used by traditional doctors in treating cancer patients. The extraction procedures used were similar to those practised by Thai traditional doctors (ethanolic and water extracts). Extracts were tested against the human large cell lung carcinoma

Arunporn Itharat; Peter J Houghton; E Eno-Amooquaye; P. J Burke; Julia H Sampson; Amala Raman

2004-01-01

256

In vitro pharmacological investigation of extracts from some trees used in Sudanese traditional medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts obtained from seven tree species used in Sudanese traditional medicine were screened for antibacterial, anti-cholinesterase activities and investigated for potential mutagenic effects using the Ames test. Antibacterial activity was detected using the micro-dilution assay. The extracts were tested against Gram-positive: Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative: Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Of the plant extracts investigated, 75% showed

I. M. S. Eldeen; J. Van Staden

2007-01-01

257

Unglazed Transpired Solar Dryers for Medicinal Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different solar drying methods were carried out on four different medicinal plants to investigate the benefits of using an unglazed transpired solar dryer (UTSD) over other traditional methods. Methods involved included drying in an unglazed transpired solar dryer (using suction air flow rate of 0.06 ms), drying in the open air under direct sun rays and a common traditional drying

Ahmed A. Hassanain

2010-01-01

258

Micromorphological study of plant fragments in some powdered medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oven dry powdered samples of 6 medicinal plant species were studied anatomically in search of micomorphological characters to identify the original plants used in the preparation. Moistened head of the needle was used to transfer samples unto a labeled glass slide containing 1 - 2 drops of water and glycerol\\/ethanolTS; covered with cover slip and warmed gently to remove air

Adeniyi A. Jayeola

2009-01-01

259

Antimalarial activities of medicinal plants and herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine.  

PubMed

Malaria is one of the world's leading killer infectious diseases with high incidence and morbidity. The problem of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has been aggravating particularly in Southeast Asia. Therefore, development of new potential antimalarial drugs is urgently required. The present study aimed to investigate antimalarial activities of a total of 27 medicinal plants and 5 herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine against chloroquine-resistant (K1) and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) P. falciparum clones. Antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of all plants/herbal formulations against K1 and 3D7 P. falciparum clones was assessed using SYBR Green I-based assay. All plants were initially screened at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml to select the candidate plants that inhibited malaria growth by ?50%. Each candidate plant was further assessed for the IC50 value (concentration that inhibits malaria growth by 50%) to select the potential plants. Selectivity index (SI) of each extract was determined from the IC50 ratio obtained from human renal epithelial cell and K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone. The ethanolic extracts from 19 medicinal plants/herbal formulation exhibited promising activity against both K1 and 3D7 clones of P. falciparum with survival of less than 50% at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml. Among these, the extracts from the eight medicinal plants (Plumbago indica Linn., Garcinia mangostana Linn., Dracaena loureiri Gagnep., Dioscorea membranacea Pierre., Artemisia annua Linn., Piper chaba Hunt., Myristica fragrans Houtt., Kaempferia galanga Linn.) and two herbal formulations (Benjakul Formulation 1 and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai Formulation) showed potent antimalarial activity with median range IC50 values of less than 10 ?g/ml against K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone or both. All except G. mangostana Linn. and A. annua Linn. showed high selective antimalarial activity against both clones with SI>10. Further studies on antimalarial activities in an animal model including molecular mechanisms of action of the isolated active moieties are required. PMID:23340720

Thiengsusuk, Artitaya; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

2013-01-23

260

Antibacterial activity of some selected medicinal plants of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Screening of the ethnobotenical plants is a pre-requisite to evaluate their therapeutic potential and it can lead to the isolation\\u000a of new bioactive compounds.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The crude extracts and fractions of six medicinal important plants (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, Pistacia integerrima, Aesculus indica, and Toona ciliata) were tested against three Gram positive and two Gram negative ATCC bacterial species

Yamin Bibi; Sobia Nisa; Fayyaz M Chaudhary; Muhammad Zia

2011-01-01

261

In vitro immunomodulating properties of selected Sudanese medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Ethanolic extracts of 23 medicinal plants, commonly used in Sudanese folk medicines against infectious diseases, were investigated for their immunomodulating activity using luminol/lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. Preliminary screenings on whole blood oxidative burst activity showed inhibitory activities of 14 plant extracts, while only one plant, Balanites aegyptiaca fruits exhibited a proinflammatory activity. Further investigation was conducted by monitoring their effects on oxidative burst of isolated polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) and mononuclear cells (MNCs) by using two different phagocytosis activators (serum opsonizing zymosan-A and PMA). Results obtained showed that the fruits and barks of Acacia nilotica, and leaves and barks of Khaya senegalensis, possess average inhibitory effects in the range of 70.7, 67.1, 69.5 and 67.4% on both types of phagocytes (PMNs and MNCs), respectively, at a 6.25 microg/mL concentration. Moderate inhibitory activity (52.2%) was exerted by the aerial parts of Xanthium brasilicum, while the rest of the plants showed only a weak inhibitory activity. The inhibition of oxidative burst activity was found to be irreversible in most of the extracts, except for Peganum harmala, Tephrosia apollinea, Tinospora bakis, and Vernonia amygdalina. Interestingly, the fruits of Balanites aegyptiaca exhibited a moderate proinflammatory effect (37-40.4% increases in ROS level compared to the control) at 25-100 microg/mL concentration in the case of whole blood along with PMNs phagocyte activity. The Tinospora bakis extract showed proinflammatory response at a low concentration (6.25 microg/mL) during activation with PMA. None of these extracts affected PMNs viability (90-98%) upon 2 h incubation, except of the ethanolic extracts of Acacia nilotica fruits and Balanites aegyptiaca barks. PMID:18440170

Koko, W S; Mesaik, M Ahmed; Yousaf, S; Galal, M; Choudhary, M Iqbal

2008-03-18

262

Multiresidue pesticide analysis of the medicinal plant Origanum syriacum.  

PubMed

Origanum syriacum is a medicinal plant widely used in Jordan both as a folk remedy and in the food and beverage industry. As the plant can be treated with pesticides during commercial production, three different methods for pesticide multiresidue analysis of this plant have been evaluated. One method based on soxhlet extraction followed by acetonitrile/petroleum ether (PE) partitioning was found to be particularly suitable. Extracts were cleaned-up using a Florisil column. Mean recoveries of pesticides from spiked herbal samples were 74-119%, with coefficients of variation between 1.0 and 23.6%. The limits of detection were in the range 0.0008-0.5 mg kg(-1). The method was used for the determination of pesticide residues in O. syriacum samples purchased from the local market. Seven out of eight samples contained detectable levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), folpet, dicofol, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hecachlorocyclohexane (HCH), quintozene, transchlordane and vinclozolin. PMID:17364929

Hajjo, R M; Afifi, F U; Battah, A H

2007-03-01

263

Bioactivity evaluation against Artemia salina Leach of medicinal plants used in Brazilian Northeastern folk medicine.  

PubMed

The brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality bioassay offers an advantage in standardization and quality control of botanical products. This test is well correlated with antitumor activity (cytotoxicity) and can be used to monitor the activity of bioactive natural products. This paper reports the bioactivity of ethanol extracts from seven medicinal plants from the Northeast of Brazil (Acmella uliginosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Eugenia uniflora, Plectranthus neochilus, Moringa oleifera, Justicia pectoralis and Equisetum sp.) against Artemia salina. Biological activity was evaluated for extracts at 1, 10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL in triplicate, and the mean lethal concentration values (LC50) were obtained by probit analysis. The species Acmella uliginosa showed the highest bioactivity, and its flower extract was more active than its leaf extract. PMID:22990821

Arcanjo, D D R; Albuquerque, A C M; Melo-Neto, B; Santana, L C L R; Medeiros, M G F; Citó, Amgl

2012-08-01

264

Pharmacologically active tannins isolated from medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Starting with the isolation of a crystalline tannin (geraniin) of mild property from a popular herb medicine (Geranii herba), various polyphenolic compounds including those belonging to new classes of tannins (oligomeric hydrolyzable tannins, complex tannins, and other metabolites and condensates) have been isolated from various medicinal plants. Noticeable biological and pharmacological activities (inhibition of carcinogenesis, host-mediated antitumor activity, antiviral activity, and inhibition of active oxygen, such as inhibition of lipid peroxidation and lipoxygenase, xanthine oxidase, and monoamine oxidase) have been found for several of these polyphenolic compounds. PMID:1417694

Okuda, T; Yoshida, T; Hatano, T

1992-01-01

265

Therapeutic composition from plant extracts  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Therapeutic compositions are composed of four plant extracts: ginsenoside, tetramethyl pyrazine, astragalan and atractylol. Pharmaceutical dosage units are prepared by conventional means with specific weight ranges and proportions of each of the four ingredients. The pharmaceutical dosage units are highly effective in treating cerebral vascular disease and the sequelae thereof. The dosage units are also useful for bolstering immunofunction in healthy and diseased patients.

1987-11-24

266

Evaluation of three medicinal plants for anti-microbial activity  

PubMed Central

Herbal remedies have a long history of use for gum and tooth problems such as dental caries. The present microbiological study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinal plants (Terminalia chebula Retz., Clitoria ternatea Linn., and Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck.) Merr.) on three pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Staphylococcus aureus). Aqueous extract concentrations (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%) were prepared from the fruits of Terminalia chebula, flowers of Clitoria ternatea, and leaves of Wedelia chinensis. The antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extract concentrations of each plant was tested using agar well diffusion method and the size of the inhibition zone was measured in millimeters. The results obtained showed that the diameter of zone of inhibition increased with increase in concentration of extract and the antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extracts of the three plants was observed in the increasing order – Wedelia chinensis < Clitoria ternatea < Terminalia chebula. It can be concluded that the tested extracts of all the three plants were effective against dental caries causing bacteria.

Pratap, Gowd M. J. S; Manoj, Kumar M. G.; Sai, Shankar A. J.; Sujatha, B.; Sreedevi, E.

2012-01-01

267

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS FROM THE HUAUTLA SIERRA BIOSPHERE RESERVE IN MORELOS (MÉXICO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-two extracts from nine Mexican medicinal plants of eight different families used for people neighbor to Huautla Sierra Biosphere Reserve (REBIOSH) in different infectious diseases were assayed in vitro to determine their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus fae- calis; Escherichia coli; Proteus mirabilis; Salmonella typhi and the yeast Candida albicans. Most plants showed antibacterial activity, while two plants showed

David O. Salinas Sánchez; Gema L. Arteaga Najera; Ismael León Rivera; Oscar Dorado

268

Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of medicinal plants in the world, and espe- cially in South America, contributes significantly to pri- mary health care. Many plants are used in Brazil in the form of crude extracts, infusions or plasters to treat com- mon infections without any scientific evidence of effi- cacy. Pharmacological studies done with essential oils from 15 species of aromatic plants

Fabíola Barbiéri Holetz; Greisiele Lorena Pessini; Neviton Rogério Sanches; Diógenes Aparício Garcia Cortez; Celso Vataru Nakamura; Benedito Prado Dias Filho

2002-01-01

269

PROSPECTS AND PERSPECTIVES OF NATURAL PLANTS PRODUCTS IN MEDICINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A vast majority of population particularly those living in villages depend largely on herbal medicines. Scientific data on a good number of medicinal plants investigated has been well documented. However, only very few drugs of plant origin could reach clinical use and the National Formulary could not adopt even a dozen of plant medicines. For this reason, a special

S. S. GUPTA

270

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. METHODS: Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma

Lai Wah Chan; Emily LC Cheah; Constance LL Saw; Wanyu Weng; Paul WS Heng

2008-01-01

271

Analytical supercritical fluid extraction of Chinese herbal medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique, followed by GC\\/MS, was developed to separate and determine the volatile components in Chinese herbal medicine. Three kinds of herbs, frankincense, myrrh, andEvodia rutaecarpa were extracted and analyzed. The extraction was carried out using supercritical fluid CO2 at 20 MPa and 50°C. The main factors affecting the efficiency and selectivity of the extraction

X. Ma; X. Yu; Z. Zheng; J. Mao

1991-01-01

272

Intellectual Property Rights for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants are those plants that provide medicines - to prevent disease, maintain health or cure sickness. In one or other form, these plants benefit virtually everyone on the Earth. These plants are also related to various other usages, such as for nutrition, toiletry, bodily care, incense and ritual healing. Aromatic plants are used for their aroma and flavour and

Satyabrata Maiti; Gutam Sridhar; K. A. Geetha

273

The study of antinociceptive effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Teucrium oliverianum (a plant used in southern Iranian traditional medicine) in rat by formalin test.  

PubMed

Objective: Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of hydroalcoholic extract of Teucrium Oliverianum were investigated by formalin test model. This study was conducted in on the male Wistar rats, weighting 150-180 g. The animals were divided into seven groups (n = 7) and received 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg kg(-1) of hydroalcoholic extract of teucrium oliverianum intraperitoneally, respectively. Negative control group received normal saline (5 mL kg(-1)) and the positive control groups received 2.5 mg kg(-1) morphine and 300 mg kg(-1) aspirin, intraperitoneally respectively. The results showed that all doses of extract have significant analgesic effect (p < 0.05) in all studies times in comparison with negative control. The best result achieved with 600 mg kg(-1) of extract. The result revealed that the analgesic effect of the extract (600 mg kg(-1)) \\was less than aspirin (300 mg kg(-1)) on the second phase of pain and less than morphine (2.5 mg kg(-1)) in both phases of the pain, more than aspirin in first phase of pain. One group of animals was treated with naloxone (1 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and suitable dose of extract (600 mg kg(-1), i.p.). Also, Naloxone inhibited analgesic effect of alcoholic extract of Teucrium Oliverianum. It can be concluded that the alcoholic extract of Teucrium oliverianum may exert its effect through opioid receptors, stimulating GABAergic system or promotes the release of endogenous opipeptides or decreasing free radicals. PMID:22590841

Arzi, A; Namjouyan, F; Sarahroodi, S; Khorasgani, Z Nazari; Macvandi, E

2011-12-01

274

Antibacterial activity of some selected medicinal plants of Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Screening of the ethnobotenical plants is a pre-requisite to evaluate their therapeutic potential and it can lead to the isolation of new bioactive compounds. Methods The crude extracts and fractions of six medicinal important plants (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, Pistacia integerrima, Aesculus indica, and Toona ciliata) were tested against three Gram positive and two Gram negative ATCC bacterial species using the agar well diffusion method. Results The crude extract of P. integerrima and A. indica were active against all tested bacterial strains (12-23 mm zone of inhibition). Other four plant's crude extracts (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, and Toona ciliata) were active against different bacterial strains. The crude extracts showed varying level of bactericidal activity. The aqueous fractions of A. indica and P. integerrima crude extract showed maximum activity (19.66 and 16 mm, respectively) against B. subtilis, while the chloroform fractions of T. ciliata and D. salicifolia presented good antibacterial activities (13-17 mm zone of inhibition) against all the bacterial cultures tested. Conclusion The methanol fraction of Pistacia integerrima, chloroform fractions of Debregeasia salicifolia &Toona ciliata and aqueous fraction of Aesculus indica are suitable candidates for the development of novel antibacterial compounds.

2011-01-01

275

[Silphium from Cyrenaica, an extinct medicinal plant].  

PubMed

Silphium was both a spice and a medicinal plant. It was regarded as "one of the most precious gifts of Nature to man" (Pliny), and was one of the main sources of revenue contributing to Cyrenaica's wealth. It was so critical to the Cyrenian economy that most of their coins bore a picture of the plant. But, by the time of Nero, the plant had become extinct, probably as a result of overgrazing and overcropping. The botanical identification of silphium is dificult, but the plant was an Umbellifera and most closely resembled Ferula tingitana. Hippocrates, Celsus, Galen and Oribasius recommended it for quartan fever, but it was also said to be useful for many other diseases. PMID:18663988

Haas, Charles

2008-01-01

276

LYTHRUM SALICARIA (PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE). MEDICINAL USE, EXTRACTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF ITS TOTAL PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lythrum salicaria L., known as purple loosestrife (Lythraceae) has a wide range of beneficial health effects. It is well known as a medicinal plant from ancient Greek and Roman times and it has been an important drug for centuries. Its pharmacological activity is mostly due to its phenolic compounds, mainly tannins. Therefore obtaining an extract with a high percent of

SUHAD S. HUMADI; VIORICA ISTUDOR

2009-01-01

277

Induction of seed germination in Orobanche spp. by extracts of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs.  

PubMed

The co-evolution of Orobanche spp. and their hosts within the same environment has resulted in a high degree of adaptation and effective parasitism whereby the host releases parasite germination stimulants, which are likely to be unstable in the soil. Our objective was to investigate whether extracts from non-host plants, specifically, Chinese medicinal plants, could stimulate germination of Orobanche spp. Samples of 606 Chinese medicinal herb species were extracted with deionized water and methanol. The extracts were used to induce germination of three Orobanche species; Orobanche minor, Orobanche cumana, and Orobanche aegyptiaca. O. minor exhibited a wide range of germination responses to the various herbal extracts. O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca exhibited an intermediate germination response to the herbal extracts. O. minor, which has a narrow host spectrum, showed higher germination rates in response to different herbal extracts compared with those of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca, which have a broader host spectrum. Methanolic extracts of many Chinese herbal species effectively stimulated seed germination among the Orobanche spp., even though they were not the typical hosts. The effective herbs represent interesting examples of potential trap crops. Different countries can also screen extracts from indigenous herbaceous plants for their ability to induce germination of Orobanche spp. seeds. The use of such species as trap plants could diminish the global soil seed bank of Orobanche. PMID:22527522

Ma, YongQing; Zhang, Wei; Dong, ShuQi; Ren, XiangXiang; An, Yu; Lang, Ming

2012-04-14

278

Quorum Sensing Inhibitors for Staphylococcus aureus from Italian Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

Morbidity and mortality estimates due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections continue to rise. Therapeutic options are limited by antibiotic resistance. Anti-pathogenic compounds, which inhibit quorum sensing (QS) pathways, may be a useful alternative to antibiotics. Staphylococcal QS is encoded by the agr locus and is responsible for the production of ?-hemolysin. Quantification of ?-hemolysin found in culture supernatants permits the analysis of agr activity at the translational, rather than transcriptional, level. We employed RP-HPLC techniques to investigate the anti-QS activity of 168 extracts from 104 Italian plants through quantification of ?-hemolysin. Extracts from three medicinal plants (Ballota nigra, Castanea sativa, and Sambucus ebulus) exhibited a dose-dependent response in the production of ?-hemolysin, indicating strong anti-QS activity in a pathogenic MRSA isolate.

Quave, Cassandra L.; Plano, Lisa R.W.; Bennett, Bradley C.

2010-01-01

279

Quorum sensing inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus from Italian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Morbidity and mortality estimates due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections continue to rise. Therapeutic options are limited by antibiotic resistance. Anti-pathogenic compounds, which inhibit quorum sensing (QS) pathways, may be a useful alternative to antibiotics. Staphylococcal QS is encoded by the AGR locus and is responsible for the production of ?-hemolysin. Quantification of ?-hemolysin found in culture supernatants permits the analysis of AGR activity at the translational rather than transcriptional level. We employed reversed phase high performance chromatographic (RP-HPLC) techniques to investigate the anti-QS activity of 168 extracts from 104 Italian plants through quantification of ?-hemolysin. Extracts from three medicinal plants (Ballota nigra, Castanea sativa, and Sambucus ebulus) exhibited a dose-dependent response in the production of ?-hemolysin, indicating anti-QS activity in a pathogenic MRSA isolate. PMID:20645243

Quave, Cassandra L; Plano, Lisa R W; Bennett, Bradley C

2010-07-19

280

Fungistatic and fungicidal activity of east African medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Extracts of the traditionally used medicinal plants Entada abyssinica (stem bark), Terminalia spinosa (young branches), Harrisonia abyssinica (roots), Ximenia caffra (roots), Azadirachta indica (stem bark), Zanha africana (stem bark) and Spilanthes mauritiana (roots and flowers) were investigated for fungistatic and fungicidal activity against Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. by a microtitre serial dilution technique. Entada abyssinica, T. spinosa, X. caffra, A. indica, and Z. africana showed activity against various Candida species. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 0.006 to > 8 mg ml-1 and the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) from 0.06 to > 8 mg ml-1. Extracts from S. mauritiana (both roots and flowers) exhibited no activity against Candida spp., but against Aspergillus spp., the MIC and MFC values ranged from 0.13 to 0.25 mg ml-1 and from 0.13 to 1 mg ml-1 respectively. It is concluded that the extracts contain compounds with high antifungal potency. PMID:8786762

Fabry, W; Okemo, P; Ansorg, R

281

In vitro antiplasmodial and cytotoxicity activities of 14 medicinal plants from Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic and aqueous extracts obtained from 14 Kenyan medicinal plants were screened for their antimalarial properties on two strains of Plasmodium falciparum (K1 chloroquine resistant and NF54 chloroquine sensitive). Dichloromethane extracts had the highest activities with IC50 ranging from 1.4 to 35.2 ?g\\/ml. These extracts together with methanol extract of Turraea robusta were tested for their cytotoxicity properties in vitro on

Beatrice N. Irungu; Geoffrey M. Rukunga; Geoffrey M. Mungai; Charles N. Muthaura

2007-01-01

282

Inhibition of Trypanosoma cruzi growth by medical plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the screening of extracts obtained from 18 plants and two fungi used in the Chinese and Mediterranean traditional medicines on epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. The extracts were tested against epimastigote of T. cruzi Bra C15C2 clone in vitro at 27 °C and at a concentration of 250 ?g\\/ml in axenic culture. Angelica dahurica, A. pubescens, A.

G. R Schinella; H. A Tournier; J. M Prieto; J. L R??os; H Buschiazzo; A Zaidenberg

2002-01-01

283

Medicinal plants and food medicines in the folk traditions of the upper Lucca Province, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethnopharmacobotanical survey of the medicinal plants and food medicines of the northern part of Lucca Province, north-west Tuscany, central Italy, was carried out. The geographical isolation of this area has permitted the survival of a rich folk phytotherapy involving medicinal herbs and also vegetable resources used by locals as food medicine. Among these are the uncommon use of Ballota

A Pieroni

2000-01-01

284

[Research progress in medicinal plant cell suspension culture].  

PubMed

China consumes and exports traditional Chinese medicinal resources the most in the world. However, we cannot anchor our hope on field production of traditional Chinese medicinal materials and their active ingredients, due to limited land resources. Therefore, the development of biotechnology is of great importance for China to solve the problem of traditional Chinese medicinal resources. Plant cell culture is an important approach for the sustainable development of precious medicinal resources. This essary summarizes the optimization of conditions for medicinal plant cell culture, the regulation of secondary metabolic pathways and cell bioreactor culture, and realizes that the authentic commercial production of more medicinal plants requires efforts from all aspects. PMID:23630994

Wang, Juan; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Yin, Shuang-Shuang; Liu, Hui; Wei, Chang-Long

2012-12-01

285

Antibacterial properties of traditionally used Indian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

In search of broad-spectrum antibacterial activity from traditionally used Indian medicinal plants, 66 ethanolic plant extracts were screened against nine different bacteria. Of these, 39 extracts demonstrated activity against six or more test bacteria. Twelve extracts showing broad-spectrum activity were tested against specific multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESbetaL)-producing enteric bacteria. In vitro efficacy was expressed in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of plant extracts. MIC values ranged from 0.32-7.5 mg/ml against MRSA and 0.31-6.25 mg/ml against ESbetaL-producing enteric bacteria. The overall activity against all groups of bacteria was found in order of Plumbago zeylanica > Hemidesmus indicus > Acorus calamus > Camellia sinensis > Terminalia chebula > Terminalia bellerica > Holarrhena antidysenterica > Lawsonia inermis > Mangifera indica > Punica granatum > Cichorium intybus and Delonix regia. In addition, these extracts showed synergistic interaction with tetracycline, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin against S. aureus and/or Escherichia coli. The ethanolic extracts of more than 12 plants were found nontoxic to sheep erythrocytes and nonmutagenic, determined by Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium test strains (TA 97a, TA 100, TA 102 and TA 104). Based on above properties, six plants-Plumbago zeylanica, Hemidesmus indicus, Acorus calamus, Punica granatum, Holarrhena antidysenterica and Delonix regia-were further subjected to fractionation-based study. Ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol fractions of more than six plants indicated that the active phytocompounds were distributed mainly into acetone and ethyl acetate fractions, whereas they were least prevalent in methanol fractions as evident from their antibacterial activity against MDR bacteria. Gram-positive and Gram-negative MDR bacteria are almost equally sensitive to these extracts/fractions, indicating their broad-spectrum nature. However, strain- and plant extract-dependent variations in the antibacterial activity were also evident. Time-kill assay with the most promising plant fraction Plumbago zeylanica (ethyl acetate fraction) demonstrated killing of test bacteria at the level lower than its MIC. Further, identification of active constituents in each fraction and their additive and synergistic interactions are needed to exploit them in evaluating efficacy and safety in vivo against MDR bacteria. PMID:17440624

Aqil, F; Ahmad, I

2007-03-01

286

Antimicrobial and toxicological activities of five medicinal plant species from Cameroon Traditional Medicine  

PubMed Central

Background Infectious diseases caused by multiresistant microbial strains are on the increase. Fighting these diseases with natural products may be more efficacious. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of methanolic, ethylacetate (EtOAc) and hexanic fractions of five Cameroonian medicinal plants (Piptadeniastum africana, Cissus aralioides, Hileria latifolia, Phyllanthus muellerianus and Gladiolus gregasius) against 10 pathogenic microorganisms of the urogenital and gastrointestinal tracts. Methods The fractions were screened for their chemical composition and in vivo acute toxicity was carried out on the most active extracts in order to assess their inhibitory selectivity. The agar well-diffusion and the micro dilution methods were used for the determination of the inhibition diameters (ID) and Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) respectively on 8 bacterial species including two Gram positive species (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis), and six Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi) and two fungal isolates (Candida albicans, Candida krusei). The chemical composition was done according to Harbone (1976), the acute toxicity evaluation according to WHO protocol and the hepatic as well as serum parameters measured to assess liver and kidney functions. Results The chemical components of each plant's extract varied according to the solvent used, and they were found to contain alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, triterpens, sterols, tannins, coumarins, glycosides, cardiac glycosides and reducing sugars. The methanolic and ethylacetate extracts of Phyllanthus muellerianus and Piptadeniastum africana presented the highest antimicrobial activities against all tested microorganisms with ID varying from 8 to 26 mm and MIC from 2.5 to 0.31 mg/ml. The in vivo acute toxicity study carried out on the methanolic extracts of Phyllanthus muellerianus and Piptadeniastrum africana indicated that these two plants were not toxic. At the dose of 4 g/kg body weight, kidney and liver function tests indicated that these two medicinal plants induced no adverse effect on these organs. Conclusion These results showed that, all these plant's extracts can be used as antimicrobial phytomedicines which can be therapeutically used against infections caused by multiresistant agents. Phyllanthus muellerianus, Piptadeniastum africana, antimicrobial, acute toxicity, kidney and liver function tests, Cameroon Traditional Medicine

2011-01-01

287

Mutagenic screening of some commonly used medicinal plants in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uses of medicinal plants have always been part of human culture. The World Health Organization estimates that up to 80% of the world's population relies on traditional medicinal system for some aspect of primary health care. However, there are few reports on the toxicological properties of most medicinal plants especially, their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Therefore, this research is to

Alade Akintonwa; Olufunsho Awodele; Gbenga Afolayan; Herbert A. B. Coker

2009-01-01

288

Medicinal plants: Traditions of yesterday and drugs of tomorrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants have provided Man with all his needs in terms of shelter, clothing, food, flavours and fragrances as not the least, medicines. Plants have formed the basis of sophisticated traditional medicine systems among which are Ayurvedic, Unani, Chinese amongst others. These systems of medicine have given rise to some important drugs still in use today. Among the lesser-known systems of

Ameenah Gurib-Fakim

2006-01-01

289

Biotechnology and Pharmacological Evaluation of Medicinal Plants: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants contain a wide variety of active principles that have been exploited for the treatment of various ailments by a majority of the world's population. In recent years, many advanced biotechnological methods are employed to select, multiply, improve, and analyze medicinal plants for their application in traditional and modern medicinal preparations and drug discovery. The purpose of the present

Hrudayanath Thatoi; Jayanta Kumar Patra

2011-01-01

290

Folklore medicinal plants of North Andaman Islands, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rural folk of North Andaman, India use the traditional medicine for their primary health care. Folklore medicinal uses of 72 interesting medicinal plant species along with botanical name, local name, family, habit, part used, disease for which the drug is administrated, mode of administration are presented. These 72 plant species which provide the crude drugs pertain to 67 genera

P. Rama Chandra Prasad; C. Sudhakar Reddy; S. H. Raza; C. B. S. Dutt

2008-01-01

291

Medicinal Plant Resources in Chhakinal Watershed in the Northwestern Himalaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional knowledge, uses, monetary costs, and benefits associated with medicinal plants were analyzed in the Chhakinal watershed of Northwestern Himalaya. Of 29 plant species used in folk medicine, only 3 species, Juglans regia, Picrorrhiza kurrooa, and Morchella esculenta were noted to have market value. The medicinal value of four species, Dioscorea deltoidea, Podophyllum hexandrum, Valeriana jatamansi, and Jurinea macrocephala, were

R. M. Dobriyal; G. S. Singh; K. S. Rao; K. G. Saxena

1997-01-01

292

Characterization of cysteine proteases in Malian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Extracts form 10 different Malian medicinal plants with a traditional use against schistosomiasis were investigated for their possible content of proteolytic activity. The proteolytic activity was studied by measuring the hydrolysis of two synthetic peptide substrates Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec and Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec. Legumain- and papain-like activities were found in all tested crude extracts except those from Entada africana, with the papain-like activity being the strongest. Cissus quadrangularis, Securidaca longepedunculata and Stylosanthes erecta extracts showed high proteolytic activities towards both substrates. After gel filtration the proteolytic activity towards the substrate Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec in root extract of Securidaca longepedunculata appeared to have Mr of 30 and 97kDa, while the activity in extracts from Cissus quadrangularis was at 39kDa. Enzymatic activity cleaving the substrate Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec showed apparent Mr of 97 and 26kDa in extracts from roots and leaves of Securidaca longepedunculata, while in Cissus quadrangularis extracts the activity eluted at 39 and 20kDa, with the highest activity in the latter. All Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec activities were inhibited by E-64 but unaffected by PMSF. The legumain activity was unaffected by E-64 and PMSF. The SDS-PAGE analysis exhibited five distinct gelatinolytic bands for Cissus quadrangularis extracts (115, 59, 31, 22 and 20kDa), while two bands (59 and 30kDa) were detected in Securidaca longepedunculata extracts. The inhibition profile of the gelatinolytic bands and that of the hydrolysis of the synthetic substrates indicate the cysteine protease class of the proteolytic activities. Several cysteine protease activities with different molecular weights along with a strong variability of these activities between species as well as between plant parts from the same species were observed. PMID:16621376

Bah, Sékou; Paulsen, Berit S; Diallo, Drissa; Johansen, Harald T

2006-03-22

293

Screening for Antifungal Activities of Some Medicinal Plants used Traditionally in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aly, M.M. and Bafeel, S.O. 2010. Screening for antifungal activities of some medicinal plants used traditionally in Saudi Arabia. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 38: 39–44.The antimicrobial activities of water and organic crude extracts of 6 medicinal plants (Azadirachta Indica (neem), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Eucalyptus globules, Lawsonia inermis, Lepidium sativum and Rosmarinus officinalis) were detected against different pathogenic yeasts and fungi

Magda M. Aly; Samira O. Bafeel

2010-01-01

294

The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and extracts of some medicinal plants grown in Ash-shoubak region - South of Jordan.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effects of essential oils as well as chloroformic extracts of Thymus vulgaris, Thymus serpyllum, Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum grown in Ash-shoubak region-south of Jordan and their possible individual phytochemical constituents was screened against pathogenic clinical and standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The bioassay employed was the agar well diffusion method. The essential oils and chloroformic extracts of T. vulgaris and T. serpyllum were the most effective against the tested strains of bacteria. Clinical and standard strains of S .aureus and P. aeruginosa were uninhibited by S. officinalis essential oils. P. aeruginosa tested strains were also resistant to P. anisum essential oils. For almost all bacterial strains, the highest antibacterial effect of oils was obtained with the highest tested dose (15 ?l). Chlorformic extracts of S. officinalis showed small activity against standard and clinical E. coli strains and were not effective to inhibit strains of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Chloroformic extracts obtained from P. anisum and applied at 300 ?g/cm(2) slightly inhibited E. coli, but moderately inhibited S. aureus. It is shown from the results that the antibacterial effects of the individual components varied depending upon their chemical structure, functional groups and configuration as well as doses used. This study showed the beneficial effects of the essential oils of T. serpyllum and T. vulgaris grown in Ash-shoubak in inhibiting the growth of microbes and the implications this could have in pharmacy and food technology. PMID:22186336

Abu-Darwish, Mohammad Sanad; Al-Ramamneh, Ezz Al-Dein Muhammed; Kyslychenko, Viktoria Sergeevna; Karpiuk, Uliana Vladimirovna

2012-01-01

295

Antibacterial Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants from Parangipettai Coastal Regions; Southeast Coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with the leaf extracts of 4 coastal living medicinal plants Viz., Ocimum canum, Acalypha indica, Eclipta alba and Lawsonia inermis for their antibacterial potential. The maximum antibacterial activity was observed with Acalypha indica and Lawsonia inermis against tested pathogens. Proteus mirabilis, Shigella dysenteriae and Staphylococus aureus were found susceptible to all the extracts. Methanol and chloroform

K. Devi; G. Karthikai Devi; G. Thirumaran; R. Arumugam; P. Anantharaman

2009-01-01

296

Screening of plants used in Danish folk medicine to treat epilepsy and convulsions.  

PubMed

Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 42 plants used in Danish folk medicine for the treatment of epilepsy and convulsions, or for inducing sedation, were tested for affinity to the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor in the flumazenil-binding assay. Ethanolic extracts of leaves of Primula elatior and Primula veris and aerial parts of Tanacetum parthenium exhibited good, dose-dependent affinity. PMID:16293381

Jäger, Anna K; Gauguin, Bente; Adsersen, Anne; Gudiksen, Lene

2005-11-15

297

A database of 389 medicinal plants for diabetes  

PubMed Central

Medicinal plants used to treat hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions are of considerable interest to ethno-botanical community as they are recognized to contain valuable medicinal properties in different parts of the plant. The active principles of many plant species with desired properties are isolated to cure ailments such as diabetes type-1 and type-2, respectively. Here, we describe DiaMedBase, a database containing information of medicinal plants for diabetes. Availability http://www.progenebio.in/DMP/DMP.htm

Babu, Padavala Ajay; Suneetha, Gadde; Boddepalli, Radha; Lakshmi, Vedurupaka Vasantha; Rani, Talluru Sudha; RamBabu, Yellapu; Srinivas, Kolli

2006-01-01

298

Antimicrobial activity of some Indian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial potential of seventy-seven extracts from twenty-four plants was screened against eight bacteria and four pathogenic fungi, using microbroth dilution assay. Lowest concentration of the extract, which inhibits any visual microbial growth after treatment with p-iodonitrotetrazolium violet, was considered to be minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Water extracts of Acacia nilotica, Justicia zelanica, Lantana camara and Saraca asoca exhibited good activity against all the bacteria tested and the MIC was recorded in range of 9.375-37.5 microg/ml and 75.0-300.0 microg/ml against the bacterial and fungal pathogens, respectively. The other extracts of Phyllanthus urinaria, Thevetia nerifolia, Jatropha gossypifolia Saraca asoca, Tamarindus indica, Aegle marmelos, Acacia nilotica, Chlorophytum borivilianum, Mangifera indica, Woodfordia fruticosa and Phyllanthus emblica showed antimicrobial activity in a range of 75-1200 microg/ml. PMID:20161895

Dabur, Rajesh; Gupta, Amita; Mandal, T K; Singh, Desh Deepak; Bajpai, Vivek; Gurav, A M; Lavekar, G S

2007-02-16

299

Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State  

PubMed Central

Background The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee traditional medicine. We tested the hypothesis that extracts from Haudenosaunee medicinal plants used to treat symptoms often caused by bacterial infection would show antibacterial properties in laboratory assays, and that these extracts would be more effective against moderately virulent bacteria than less virulent bacteria. Methods After identification and harvesting, a total of 57 different aqueous extractions were made from 15 plant species. Nine plant species were used in Haudenosaunee medicines and six plant species, of which three are native to the region and three are introduced, were not used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial activity against mostly avirulent (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis) and moderately virulent (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus) microbes was inferred through replicate disc diffusion assays; and observed and statistically predicted MIC values were determined through replicate serial dilution assays. Results Although there was not complete concordance between the traditional use of Haudenosaunee medicinal plants and antibacterial activity, our data support the hypothesis that the selection and use of these plants to treat disease was not random. In particular, four plant species exhibited antimicrobial properties as expected (Achillea millefolium, Ipomoea pandurata, Hieracium pilosella, and Solidago canadensis), with particularly strong effectiveness against S. typhimurium. In addition, extractions from two of the introduced species (Hesperis matronalis and Rosa multiflora) were effective against this pathogen. Conclusions Our data suggest that further screening of plants used in traditional Haudenosaunee medicine is warranted, and we put forward several species for further investigation of activity against S. typhimurium (A. millefolium, H. matronalis, I. pandurata, H. pilosella, R. multiflora, S. canadensis).

2010-01-01

300

Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of plants used in traditional Romanian herbal medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of herbal plants from Romania widely used as natural food additives or for health promotion in traditional medicine\\u000a were investigated for their antioxidant activity. Methanol extracts were obtained from plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family (lavender Lavandula angustifolia L.; lemon balm Melissa officinalis; sage Salvia officinalis; oregano Origanum vulgare L.; rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis L.; thyme Thymus vulgaris L.;

Iuliana Spiridon; Ruxanda Bodirlau; Carmen-Alice Teaca

2011-01-01

301

Antimalarial and cytotoxic activities of ethnopharmacologically selected medicinal plants from South Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaria is a major global public health problem and the alarming spread of drug resistance and limited number of effective drugs now available underline how important it is to discover new antimalarial compounds. An ethnopharmacological investigation was undertaken of medicinal plants traditionally used to treat malaria in the South Vietnam. Forty-nine plants were identified, 228 extracts were prepared and tested

Julie Nguyen-Pouplin; Hop Tran; Hung Tran; Tuyet Anh Phan; Christiane Dolecek; Jeremy Farrar; Tinh Hien Tran; Philippe Caron; Bernard Bodo; Philippe Grellier

2007-01-01

302

The transillumination technique as a method for the assessment of spermatogenesis using medicinal plants: The effect of extracts of black maca (Lepidium meyenii) and camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) on stages of the spermatogenic cycle in male rats.  

PubMed

Abstract Summary Transillumination technique for assessment of stages of spermatogenic cycle is a useful tool for toxicological studies. The present study was designed to determine the effect of two medicinal plants on spermatogenesis in male rats using the transillumination technique. For this, it was assessed the effect of the combination of a fruit with highest content of ascorbic acid (Myrciaria dubia, camu camu), and extract of black maca (Lepidium meyenii) on seminiferous tubule stages scored by transillumination on intact tubules in adult male rats. Animals were treated during 7 days with vehicle, black maca, camu camu or a mixture of black maca+camu camu and assessed daily sperm production (DSP), stages of spermatogenic cycle as well as antioxidant activity and levels of flavonoids and polyphenols. Black maca increased stages of spermiation (VII-VIII) and mitosis of germ cells (IX-XI) whereas camu camu increased stages of mitosis (IX-XI) and meiosis (XII). Mixture of maca+camu camu increased stages of spermiation, mitosis and meiosis. All treatments increased DSP (P<0.05) and epididymal sperm count (P<0.05). Total polyphenols, flavonoids levels and antioxidant activity were higher in camu camu (P<0.001) than in black maca. In conclusion, M. dubia (Camu camu) has potential effects improving spermatogenesis and co-administered with maca increase stages of mitosis, meiosis and spermiation of the spermatogenic cycle as assessed by the transillumination technique. This technique is becoming increasingly a useful tool for assessment spermatogenesis. PMID:23650963

Gonzales, Gustavo F; Vasquez, Vanessa Bertha; Gasco, Manuel

2013-05-01

303

Activations of Both Extrinsic and Intrinsic Pathways in HCT 116 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells Contribute to Apoptosis through p53-Mediated ATM/Fas Signaling by Emilia sonchifolia Extract, a Folklore Medicinal Plant  

PubMed Central

Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC (Compositae), an herbaceous plant found in Taiwan and India, is used as folk medicine. The clinical applications include inflammation, rheumatism, cough, cuts fever, dysentery, analgesic, and antibacteria. The activities of Emilia sonchifolia extract (ESE) on colorectal cancer cell death have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study explored the induction of apoptosis and its molecular mechanisms in ESE-treated HCT 116 human colorectal cancer cells in vitro. The methanolic ESE was characterized, and ?-humulene was formed as the major constituent (63.86%). ESE induced cell growth inhibition in a concentration- and time-dependent response by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells (DNA fragmentation, an apoptotic catachrestic) were found after ESE treatment by TUNEL assay and DNA gel electrophoresis. Alternatively, ESE stimulated the activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and their specific caspase inhibitors protected against ESE-induced cytotoxicity. ESE promoted the mitochondria-dependent and death-receptor-associated protein levels. Also, ESE increased ROS production and upregulated the levels of ATM, p53, and Fas in HCT 116 cells. Strikingly, p53 siRNA reversed ESE-reduced viability involved in p53-mediated ATM/Fas signaling in HCT 116 cells. In summary, our result is the first report suggesting that ESE may be potentially efficacious in the treatment of colorectal cancer.

Lan, Yu-Hsuan; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Huang, Wen-Wen; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Chung, Jing-Gung; Wu, Tian-Shung; Jhan, Jia-Hua; Lin, Kuei-Li; Pai, Shu-Jen; Chiu, Yu-Jen; Tsuzuki, Minoru; Yang, Jai-Sing

2012-01-01

304

Investigating the potential of metal-organic framework material as an adsorbent for matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction of pesticides during analysis of dehydrated Hyptis pectinata medicinal plant by GC/MS.  

PubMed

Metal-organic frameworks aluminum terephthalate MIL-53 and Cu-benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate (BTC) were tested for extraction of pyrimethanil, ametryn, dichlofluanid, tetraconazole, flumetralin, kresoximmethyl, and tebuconazole from the medicinal plant Hyptis pectinata, with analysis using GC/MS in the selected ion monitoring mode. Experiments carried out at different fortification levels (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 microg/g) resulted in recoveries in the range 61 to 107% with RSD values between 3 and 12% for the metal-organic framework materials. Detection and quantification limits ranged from 0.02 to 0.07 and 0.05 to 0.1 microg/g, respectively, for the different pesticides studied. The method developed was linear over the range tested (0.04-20.0 microg/g), with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9987 to 0.9998. Comparison of MIL-53 and Cu-BTC with C18-bonded silica showed good performance of the MIL-53 metal-organic framework as a sorbent for the pesticides tested. PMID:23175963

Aquino, Adriano; Ferreira, Jordana Alves; Navickiene, Sandro; Wanderley, Kaline A; de Sá, Gilberto F; Júnior, Severino A

305

A systematic survey of antioxidant activity of 30 Chinese medicinal plants using the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of 30 Chinese medicinal plants were evaluated using the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay and the Folin–Ciocalteu method, respectively. The Chinese medicinal plants were extracted by the traditional method, boiling in water and also in 80% methanol. A significant and linear correlation coefficient between the antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content was

Chi-Chun Wong; Hua-Bin Li; Ka-Wing Cheng; Feng Chen

2006-01-01

306

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia  

PubMed Central

Background Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. Methods Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma Imperatae (Baimaogen) were investigated for their potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Results Extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis had the strongest activities against M. Smegmatis, C. albicans, B. subtilis and S. aureus. Boiled extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, Folium Murraya Koenigii, Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis and Herba Houttuyniae demonstrated greater antioxidant activities than other tested medicinal plants. Conclusion Among the eight tested medicinal plants, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis showed the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different methods of extraction yield different spectra of bioactivities.

Chan, Lai Wah; Cheah, Emily LC; Saw, Constance LL; Weng, Wanyu; Heng, Paul WS

2008-01-01

307

Turkish folk medicinal plants, part III: ?ile (Istanbul)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, forty-three folk medicinal plants from ?ile (Turkey) have been reported. Among them 35 species were wild and eight species were cultivated plants. The folk medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of eczema, stomach and kidney ailments, asthma, cough, diabetes, and wounds.

E. Tuzlac?; E. Tolon

2000-01-01

308

Exotic multifaceted medicinal plants of drugs and pharmaceutical industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassia alata Linn, Nauclea latifolia, Clerodendron splendens and Bryophyllum pinnatum are some of the Nigerian exotic medicinal plants. These plants not only acts as ornamental but also exhibit antiviral, antifungal, antimalarial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. They are sources of drugs and are used in herbal medicine to treat measles, malaria, asthma, eczema, cough, hepatitis, ringworm, ulcer and scabies. These plants

Donatus Ebere Okwu; Nnamdi Fred Uchenna

309

Preliminary phytochemical screening and antimicrobial evaluation of three medicinal plants used in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Methanol extract of three Nigerian medicinal plants were screened for antimicrobial activity using modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and agar dilution techniques to determine the diameters of zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extracts respectively. The extract of each of the plants were tested against five clinical bacterial isolates comprising of two Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and three Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia) organisms. All the extracts exhibited moderate to high level of antimicrobial activities against these microorganisms. Phytochemical screening of powdered plant material revealed the presence of some secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins, anthraquinones and flavonoids. These Nigerian medicinal plants could be developed into cheap, safe and culturally acceptable standardized herbal products and may serve as a source of new molecules for broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. PMID:22654215

Baba, Haruna; Onanuga, Adebola

2011-06-01

310

Possibility of fighting food borne bacteria by egyptian folk medicinal herbs and spices extracts.  

PubMed

Phytotherapy (herbal medicine) have a long-standing history in Egypt. Current study investigated the antimicrobial potentialities of twenty five herbs and spices which are widely used in folk medicine by Egyptian housewives to treat gastrointestinal disorders against seven bacterial strains, mostly food borne including pathogens. They were tested by using paper disc diffusion technique as qualitative assay and agar dilution method for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of herbs extracts. Among screened plants, basil, cardamom, cinnamon, clove, lemon grass, mustard, oregano, rosemary, sage and thyme extracts exhibited notable antimicrobial activities against most of the tested strains. Cinnamon extract was the most inhibitor followed by clove, whereas extracts of chamomile, rose of Jericho, safflower and turmeric showed weak antibacterial activities against most of the tested strains. The most sensitive strain to plant extracts was B. subtilis and the most resistant strain was Ps. fluorescens. Conclusion and Recommendations: herbs and spices extracts -used in Egyptian folk medicine for treating many gastrointestinal disorders - could be successfully applied as natural antimicrobials for elimination of food borne bacteria and pathogens growth. PMID:19712651

Tayel, Ahmed A; El-Tras, Wael F

2009-01-01

311

The market for medicinal plants in sapa and hanoi, vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Market for Medicinal Plants in Sapa and Hanoi, Vietnam. Economic Botany 59(4):377-385, 2005. This article describes the market for medicinal plants sold in the Vietnamese town\\u000a of Sapa as well as in nine different markets in the Vietnamese capital city, Hanoi. A total of 44 medicinal plants were identified\\u000a botanically, 27 of which are on sale in Sapa and

Claudio O. Delang

2005-01-01

312

MULTIELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SOME TRADITIONAL PLANT MEDICINES USED IN GHANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential elements in six traditional Ghanaian plant medicines used at the Center for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM), Mampong-Akwapim, Ghana, for the management and cure of various diseases were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), using thermal neutrons at a flux of 5 E 11 ns cm. The plant medicines were: Ninga powder, Lippia tea, Ritchiea powder, Momordica powder, Kenken powder

Y. Serfor-Armah; B. J. B. Nyarko; E. H. K. Akaho; A. W. K. Kyere; S. Osae; K. Oppong-Boachie

2002-01-01

313

Antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities of five palestinian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Extracts from five indigenous Palestinian medicinal plants including Rosmarinus officinalis, Pisidium guajava, Punica granatum peel, grape seeds and Teucrium polium were investigated for antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities against eight microorganisms, using well diffusion method. The microorganisms included six bacterial isolates (i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginos, Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus) and two fungal isolates (i.e. Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger). A standard antioxidant assay was performed on the plant extracts to assess their capability in scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Of the five tested plant extract, only Rosmarinus offcinalis extract contained significant antimicrobial activity against all eight microbial isolates including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Extracts from other four plants exhibited a variable antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms, except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Significant antioxidant activity was detected in all plant extracts. However, extracts from Pisidium guajava leaves contained significantly higher antioxidant activity compared to the other extracts tested. The antimicrobial and scavenging activities detected in this in vitro study in extracts from the five Palestinian medicinal plants suggest that further study is needed to identify active compounds to target diseases caused by a wide-spectrum pathogens. PMID:24146509

Qabaha, Khaled Ibraheem

2013-05-16

314

Screening antiacne potency of Indonesian medicinal plants: antibacterial, lipase inhibition, and antioxidant activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indonesian medicinal plants were screened as potential sources of antiacne agents. The screening methods were performed using\\u000a antibacterial assay against Propionibacterium acnes, lipase inhibitor assay, and antioxidant assay. The results showed that from 40 plant materials extracted with methanol and\\u000a 50% ethanol in water, Caesalpinia sappan was the best extract based on the combined activities: antibacterial (minimum inhibitory concentration 0.13

Irmanida Batubara; Tohru Mitsunaga; Hideo Ohashi

2009-01-01

315

Potentilla fulgens (Family Rosaceae), a medicinal plant of north-east India: a natural anthelmintic?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cestode parasite, Raillietina echinobothrida and the trematode, Gastrothylax crumenifer were exposed to the ethanolic root peel extract of Potentilla fulgens, an antiparasitic local medicinal plant of Meghalaya, India, to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of the plant. The parasites\\u000a were incubated in 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 mg crude alcoholic extract per ml of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at

Bishnupada Roy; Ananta Swargiary; D. Syiem; V. Tandon

2010-01-01

316

The anti-amoebic activity of some medicinal plants used by AIDS patients in southern Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anti-amoebic activities of chloroform, methanol and water extracts from 12 Thai medicinal plants (39 extracts) commonly used by AIDS patients in southern Thailand were screened, at a concentration of 1,000 ?g\\/ml, against Entamoeba histolytica strain HTH-56:MUTM and strain HM1:IMSS growing in vitro. The extracts were incubated with 2×105\\u000a E. histolytica trophozoites\\/ml of medium at 37°C under anaerobic conditions for 24 h.

Nongyao Sawangjaroen; S. Phongpaichit; S. Subhadhirasakul; N. Srisuwan; N. Thammapalerd

2006-01-01

317

Medicinal plants and dementia therapy: herbal hopes for brain aging?  

PubMed

An escalating "epidemic" of diseases like Alzheimer's has not yet been met by effective symptomatic treatments or preventative strategies. Among a few current prescription drugs are cholinesterase inhibitors including galantamine, originating from the snowdrop. Research into ethnobotanicals for memory or cognition has burgeoned in recent years. Based on a multi-faceted review of medicinal plants or phytochemicals, including traditional uses, relevant bioactivities, psychological and clinical evidence on efficacy and safety, this overview focuses on those for which there is promising clinical trial evidence in people with dementia, together with at least one other of these lines of supporting evidence. With respect to cognitive function, such plants reviewed include sage, Ginkgo biloba, and complex mixtures of other traditional remedies. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) challenge carers and lead to institutionalization. Symptoms can be alleviated by some plant species (e.g., lemon balm and lavender alleviate agitation in people with dementia; St John's wort treats depression in the normal population). The ultimate goal of disease prevention is considered from the perspective of limited epidemiological and clinical trial evidence to date. The potential value of numerous plant extracts or chemicals (e.g., curcumin) with neuroprotective but as yet no clinical data are reviewed. Given intense clinical need and carer concerns, which lead to exploration of such alternatives as herbal medicines, the following research priorities are indicated: investigating botanical agents which enhance cognition in populations with mild memory impairment or at earliest disease stages, and those for BPSD in people with dementia at more advanced stages; establishing an ongoing authoritative database on herbal medicine for dementia; and further epidemiological and follow up studies of promising phytopharmaceuticals or related nutraceuticals for disease prevention. PMID:22070157

Perry, Elaine; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R

2010-10-18

318

Cytotoxicity of the rhizome of medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the cytotoxicity of the crude ethanol extract of the rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet (Z. zerumbet) (L) Smith. and Curcuma zedoaria (C. zedoaria) Rosc. against Artemia salina Leach. Methods Fresh rhizomes of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. and C. zedoaria Rosc. were extracted separately in cold with ethanol (2.5 L) and after concentration a brownish syrupy suspension of ethanol extracts of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. and C. zedoaria Rosc. was obtained. The cytotoxic effect of the crude ethanol extracts of both plants was determined by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results Crude ethanol extracts of the rhizome of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. showed the highest cytotoxicity (LC50 was 1.24 µg/mL) against brine shrimp nauplii as compared with C. zedoaria Rosc. (LC50 was 33.593 µg/mL) after 24 h of exposure. Conclusions It can be concluded that the rhizome of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. and C. zedoaria Rosc. can be used as a source of cytotoxic agent.

Hossain, Shakhawoat; Kader, Golam; Nikkon, Farjana; Yeasmin, Tanzima

2012-01-01

319

Screening of medicinal plants from Trinidad and Tobago for antimicrobial and insecticidal properties.  

PubMed

Antibacterial activity in 51 extracts from 29 plant species currently used in traditional medicine in Trinidad and the neighbouring Caribbean islands was tested for by the agar dilution streak method using six bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Salmonella tophimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis. The extracts from eight of the plants tested showed significant activity against one or more micro-organisms and the most susceptible bacterium was Staphylococcus aureus. In the bioassays for toxicity towards the Aedes aegypti mosquito the most effective plant extracts were from Justicia pectoralis, Manihot utilissima and Stachytarpheta jamaicensis. PMID:10363843

Chariandy, C M; Seaforth, C E; Phelps, R H; Pollard, G V; Khambay, B P

1999-03-01

320

Some bioactive natural products from chinese medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is a country rich in medicinal plants because of its wide territory and variety of geography. Plentiful experience has been accumulated and recorded in the long history of traditional Chinese medicine, but the mechanisms of many Chinese medicines remain unclear. This fascinating research field has been attracting tremendous research efforts of scientists in chemistry, biology and medical sciences. Some

Ren-Sheng Xu

2000-01-01

321

Total Antioxidant Activity and Phenols and Flavonoids Content of Several Plant Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcoholic extracts of six culinary and medicinal plants have been analyzed for their antioxidative properties. Extracts were obtained by continuous (Soxhlet) and ultrasounds extraction. A new flow injection analysis method with chemiluminescence detection based on a luminol\\/Co(II)\\/EDTA\\/H2O2 system was set up for the total antioxidant capacity determination of the studied extracts. For comparison, total phenols and flavonoids contents of plant

Claudia-Valentina Popa; Liliana Lungu; Manuela Savoiu; Corina Bradu; Vasile Dinoiu; Andrei Florin Danet

2012-01-01

322

Medicinal Plants and Phytomedicines. Linking Plant Biochemistry and Physiology to Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

phytomedicinal compounds. Horticultural research on medicinal plants has focused on developing the capacity for optimal growth in cultivation. This has been especially pertinent as many medicinal plants are still harvested in the wild, and conditions for growth in cultivation have not been optimized. Wild harvesting of medicinal plants can be problematic in terms of biodiversity loss, potential variation in me-

Donald P. Briskin

2000-01-01

323

Biological screening of traditional preparations from some medicinal plants used as antidiarrhoeal in Kinshasa, Congo.  

PubMed

Forty six aqueous extracts from 38 medicinal plant species belonging to different families were selected on the basis of their traditional medicinal use as antidiarrhoeic agents. They were submitted in a broad biological screening including antibacterial, antiamoebic and antispasmodic activities. The results of the testing have indicated that 37 extracts (80.43%), 33 (71.74%) and 32 (69.54%) exhibited some level of antibacterial, antiamoebic and antispasmodic activity respectively. Only 8 plant extracts (17.39%) would act as antidiarrhoeic agents by a triple pronounced antibacterial, antiamoebic and antispasmodic action. They include aqueous extracts from Euphorbia hirta whole plant, leaves of Psidium guajava and Tithonia diversifolia, root bark of Alchornea cordifolia, Heinsia pulchella, Paropsia brazzeana, Rauwolfia obscura and Voacanga africana. PMID:10228613

Tona, L; Kambu, K; Mesia, K; Cimanga, K; Apers, S; De Bruyne, T; Pieters, L; Totté, J; Vlietinck, A J

1999-03-01

324

Potent hypoglycemic effect of Nigerian anti-diabetic medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper was to investigate the phytochemistry and hypoglycemic activities of aqueous extracts of Anisopus mannii, Daniella olivieri, Detarium macrocarpum, Leptedenia hastate and Mimosa invisa, traditionally prescribed for diabetes mellitus. The aqueous extracts were tested for phytochemicals and free radical scavenging activity by the DPPH assay. The antidiabetic tests were performed in normoglycemic and alloxan induced diabetic mice. High intensity of saponins, xanthones, tannins and glycosides were detected in A. mannii, D. macrocarpum and M. invisa, respectively. For the free radical scavenging activity, D. macrocarpum showed the highest activity with an IC50 of 0.027 mg/ml which was 2.1 folds of ascorbic acid. All extracts showed potent hypoglycemic effects in alloxan induced diabetic mice with the highest fasting blood glucose reduction of 70.39 percent in A. mannii which was 1.54 and 0.98 fold of glibenclamide and human insulin, respectively. A. mannii showed the potent hypoglycemic activity which was 1.54 and 0.98 fold of glibenclamide and insulin, respectively. This study confirmed the traditional use of these Nigerian medicinal plants in diabetes treatment. These plants showed high potential for further investigation to novel anti-diabetic drugs. PMID:22754948

Manosroi, Jiradej; Zaruwa, Moses Z; Manosroi, Aranya

2011-01-01

325

Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Apoptosis by Gugulipid Extract of Ayurvedic Medicine Plant Commiphora mukul in Human Prostate Cancer Cells Is Regulated by c-Jun N-Terminal KinaseS?  

PubMed Central

Gugulipid (GL), extract of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, has been used to treat a variety of ailments. We report an anticancer effect and mechanism of GL against human prostate cancer cells. Treatment with GL significantly inhibited the viability of human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP (androgen-dependent) and its androgen-independent variant (C81) with an IC50 of ?1 ?M (24-h treatment), at pharmacologically relevant concentrations standardized to its major active constituent z-guggulsterone. The GL-induced growth inhibition correlated with apoptosis induction as evidenced by an increase in cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation and sub-G0/G1-DNA fraction, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. The GL-induced apoptosis was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. The induction of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak and a decrease of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein Bcl-2 were observed in GL-treated cells. SV40 immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from Bax-Bak double-knockout mice were significantly more resistant to GL-induced cell killing compared with wild-type cells. It is interesting to note that a representative normal prostate epithelial cell line (PrEC) was relatively more resistant to GL-mediated cellular responses compared with prostate cancer cells. The GL treatment caused the activation of JNK that functioned upstream of Bax activation in apoptosis response. The GL-induced conformational change of Bax and apoptosis were significantly suppressed by genetic suppression of JNK activation. In conclusion, the present study indicates that ROS-dependent apoptosis by GL is regulated by JNK signaling axis.

Zeng, Yan; Prakash, Lakshmi; Badmaev, Vladmir; Majeed, Muhammed; Singh, Shivendra V.

2011-01-01

326

Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Mexican medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial effects of the Mexican medicinal plants Guazuma ulmifolia, Justicia spicigera, Opuntia joconostle, O. leucotricha, Parkinsonia aculeata, Phoradendron longifolium, P. serotinum, Psittacanthus calyculatus, Tecoma stans and Teucrium cubense were tested against several human multi-drug resistant pathogens, including three Gram (+) and five Gram (-) bacterial species and three fungal species using the disk-diffusion assay. The cytotoxicity of plant extracts on human cancer cell lines and human normal non-cancerous cells was also evaluated using the MTT assay. Phoradendron longifolium, Teucrium cubense, Opuntia joconostle, Tecoma stans and Guazuma ulmifolia showed potent antimicrobial effects against at least one multidrug-resistant microorganism (inhibition zone > 15 mm). Only Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum extracts exerted active cytotoxic effects on human breast cancer cells (IC50 < or = 30 microg/mL). The results showed that Guazuma ulmifolia produced potent antimicrobial effects against Candida albicans and Acinetobacter lwoffii, whereas Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum exerted the highest toxic effects on MCF-7 and HeLa, respectively, which are human cancer cell lines. These three plant species may be important sources of antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents. PMID:22312741

Jacobo-Salcedo, Maria del Rosario; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; González-Espíndola, Luis Angel; Domínguez, Fabiola; Maciel-Torres, Sandra Patricia; García-Lujan, Concepción; González-Martínez, Marisela del Rocio; Gómez-Sánchez, Maricela; Estrada-Castillón, Eduardo; Zapata-Bustos, Rocio; Medellin-Milán, Pedro; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

2011-12-01

327

In vitro conservation and propagation of medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years the quest for longevity and an improved quality of life has ventured into the realm of natural therapeutics, resulting in a wider acceptance of plant-based medicine in the Western world. This increased interest in natural remedies has also brought about the great challenge of maintaining a balance between the demand of expanding markets for plant-based medicines and

Susan J. Murch; Sriyani E. Peiris; C.-Z. Liu; Praveen K. Saxena

2004-01-01

328

Ethnobotany in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique: Use of Medicinal Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communities in Cabo Delgado have a long tradition of using medicinal plants. In Mozambique, rural populations in general are highly dependent on natural resources. One example is the use of surrounding vegetation by people from Cabo Delgado. They use plants for food, handicrafts, construction, as a primary energy source and even for medicine purposes. In this survey, we examined the

Joaquim Matavele; Mohamed Habib

2000-01-01

329

Medicinal plants in Mexico: healers' consensus and cultural importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants are an important element of indigenous medical systems in Mexico. These resources are usually regarded as part of a culture's traditional knowledge. This study examines the use of medicinal plants in four indigenous groups of Mexican Indians, Maya, Nahua, Zapotec and – for comparative purposes – Mixe. With the first three the methodology was similar, making a direct

Michael Heinrich; Anita Ankli; Barbara Frei; Claudia Weimann; Otto Sticher

1998-01-01

330

The past and present use of plants for medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence of the use of plants for medicinal purposes dates as far back as 60 000 years ago (1) in both western and eastern cultures; in both developed and undeveloped countries. For example, the pharmacopoeia of Emperor Shen Nung of China, around 2730-3000 BC, describes the medicinal use of plants such as Hemp, Aconite, Opium. The Egyptian Phar- macopoeia of

M Gossell-Williams; Simon; ME West

2006-01-01

331

Medicinal plant ecology, knowledge and conservation in Kalimantan, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study documents the abundance, distribution and knowledge of medicinal plant species in a Ransa Dayak village and adjoining\\u000a forest in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Over 250 medicinal plant species from 165 genera and 75 families are utilized by the\\u000a local healer. Late successional, primary and river bench forests contained the highest diversity of locally-utilized medicinal\\u000a species and the greatest number

Izefri Caniago; F. Siebert Stephen

1998-01-01

332

Effective medicinal plants against enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stimulating effect of subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics on the production of verocytotoxin (VT) by enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 has been claimed. The purpose of this study was to find an alternative, but bioactive medicine for the treatment of this organism. Fifty-eight preparations of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 38 medicinal plant species commonly used in Thailand to cure

Supayang Voravuthikunchai; Amornrat Lortheeranuwat; Wanpen Jeeju; Trechada Sririrak; Souwalak Phongpaichit; Thanomjit Supawita

2004-01-01

333

The effect of calcineurin activator, extracted from Chinese herbal medicine, on memory and immunity in mice.  

PubMed

Calcineurin (CN) is a highly abundant phosphatase in the brain and it is the only Ca(2+)- and calmodulin-dependent protein serine/threonine phosphatase. There is considerable evidence to suggest that CN plays an essential role in activity-dependent modulation of synaptic efficacy. It has been shown recently that inhibitors of CN, such as CsA or FK506, impair memory formation in day-old chicks. In our present study, extract of Fructus cannabis (EFC) with activation of CN, extracted from Chinese traditional medicine, was used to determine the effects on memory and immunity. In the step-down-type passive avoidance test, the plant extract (0.2 g/kg) significantly improved amnesia induced by chemical drugs in mice, and greatly enhanced the ability of cell-mediated type hypersensitivity and nonspecific immune responses in normal mice. The present study provided pharmacological evidence for Chinese herbal medicine screening from molecular model. PMID:12957215

Luo, Jing; Yin, Jiang-Hua; Wei, Qun

2003-07-01

334

An Overview on the Development in Regulation and Control of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in the Indian System of Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

India have well-recorded and well practiced knowledge of traditional herbal medicines under indigenous systems of medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani. On the other hand, with about 6000 plants representing about 75% of the medicinal needs of the third world countries India is a major worldwide exporter of raw medicinal and aromatic plants and processed plant-based drugs. Government of India

Pulok K. MUKHERJEE; M. VENKATESH; V. KUMAR

2007-01-01

335

Medicinal plants in an urban environment: the medicinal flora of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh  

PubMed Central

Varanasi is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities of the world, and one of the most important Hindu pilgrimage sites. Despite this importance, very little information exits on the cities flora in general, and medicinal species found within its limit in particular. Traditional medicine plays a large role in Indian society. The presented study attempted to investigate if traditional plant use and availability of important common medicinal plants are maintained in urban environments. The paper presents information on the traditional uses of seventy-two plant species collected form the campus of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, and highlights the uses of these plants by the local inhabitants.

Verma, Archana K; Kumar, Munesh; Bussmann, Rainer W

2007-01-01

336

Anti-hyperglycemic effects of three medicinal plants in diabetic pregnancy: modulation of T cell proliferation  

PubMed Central

Background Populations in Africa mostly rely on herbal concoctions for their primarily health care, but so far scientific studies supporting the use of plants in traditional medicine remain poor. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic effects of Picralima nitida (seeds), Nauclea latifolia (root and stem) and Oxytenanthera abyssinica (leaves) commonly used, in diabetic pregnancy. Methods Pregnant wistar rats, rendered diabetic by multiple low injections of streptozotocin, were treated with selected plant extracts based on their antioxidant activities. Vitamin C concentrations, fatty acid compositions and phytochemical analysis of plants extracts were determined. Effect of selected plant extracts on human T cell proliferation was also analysed. Results All analysed plant extracts exhibited substantial antioxidant activities probably related to their content in polyphenols. Picralima nitida exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity. Ethanolic and butanolic extracts of Picralima nitida, butanolic extract of Nauclea latifolia and ethanolic extract of Oxytenanthera abyssinica significantly decreased hyperglycemia in the diabetic pregnant rats. Butanolic extract of Picralima, also appeared to be the most potent immunosuppressor although all of the analysed extracts exerted an immunosuppressive effect on T cell proliferation probably due to their linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) and/or alkaloids content. Nevertheless, all analysed plants seemed to be good source of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Conclusion By having antioxidant, anti-hyperglycemic and immunosuppressive activities, these plants could be good candidates in the treatment of diabetes and diabetic pregnancy.

2013-01-01

337

Antimicrobial activity of 20 plants used in folkloric medicine in the Palestinian area.  

PubMed

Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of 20 Palestinian plant species used in folk medicine were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against five bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and one yeast (Candida albicans). The plants showed 90% of antimicrobial activity, with significant difference in activity between the different plants. The most antimicrobially active plants were Phagnalon rupestre and Micromeria nervosa, whereas, the least active plant was Ziziphus spina-christi. Only ten of the tested plant extracts were active against C. albicans, with the most active from M. nervosa and Inula viscosa and the least active from Ruscus aculeatus. Of all extracts the ethanolic extract of M. nervosa was the most active, whereas, the aqueous extract of Phagnalon rupestre was the most active of all aqueous extracts tested. The ethanolic extracts (70%) showed activity against both Gram positive and negative bacteria and 40% of these extracts showed anticandidal activity, whereas, 50% of the aqueous extracts showed antibacterial activity and 20% of these extracts showed anticandidal activity. PMID:9613839

Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Yaghmour, R M; Faidi, Y R; Salem, K; Al-Nuri, M A

1998-04-01

338

Medicinal plants: a source of anti-parasitic secondary metabolites.  

PubMed

This review summarizes human infections caused by endoparasites, including protozoa, nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes, which affect more than 30% of the human population, and medicinal plants of potential use in their treatment. Because vaccinations do not work in most instances and the parasites have sometimes become resistant to the available synthetic therapeutics, it is important to search for alternative sources of anti-parasitic drugs. Plants produce a high diversity of secondary metabolites with interesting biological activities, such as cytotoxic, anti-parasitic and anti-microbial properties. These drugs often interfere with central targets in parasites, such as DNA (intercalation, alkylation), membrane integrity, microtubules and neuronal signal transduction. Plant extracts and isolated secondary metabolites which can inhibit protozoan parasites, such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Trichomonas and intestinal worms are discussed. The identified plants and compounds offer a chance to develop new drugs against parasitic diseases. Most of them need to be tested in more detail, especially in animal models and if successful, in clinical trials. PMID:23114614

Wink, Michael

2012-10-31

339

Endophytic fungi assemblages from 10 Dendrobium medicinal plants (Orchidaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendrobium is the largest genus of tropical epiphytic orchid, some of which are traditional Chinese medicinal plants. The therapeutic\\u000a components varied significantly among species. Endophytic microbes (fungi) hidden in medicinal plants may play an important\\u000a effect on the overall quality of herb. Investigation of fungal composition in host plants is the first step toward elucidating\\u000a the relationship endophyte-therapeutic content of

Juan Chen; Ke-Xing Hu; Xiao-Qiang Hou; Shun-Xing Guo

2011-01-01

340

Principles of classification of medicinal plants as hyperaccumulators or excluders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategies of plants, known as metallophytes, in response to metal excess are explored. Specific features of medicinal plants\\u000a related to metal exposition are discussed. Different parameters used for metallophyte classification are discussed. Bioaccumulation\\u000a and translocation factors are characterized. Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), one of the most important medicinal plants, is presented as a case history. Based on actual knowledge of

Elena Masarovi?ová; Katarína Krá?ová; Marie Kummerová

2010-01-01

341

Bioactive metabolites from the endophytic fungus Ampelomyces sp. isolated from the medicinal plant Urospermum picroides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of cultures grown in liquid or on solid rice media of the fungal endophyte Ampelomyces sp. isolated from the medicinal plant Urospermum picroides exhibited considerable cytotoxic activity when tested in vitro against L5178Y cells. Chromatographic separation yielded 14 natural products that were unequivocally identified based on their 1H and 13C NMR as well as mass spectra and comparison with

Amal H. Aly; RuAngelie Edrada-Ebel; Victor Wray; Werner E. G. Müller; Svitlana Kozytska; Ute Hentschel; Peter Proksch; Rainer Ebel

2008-01-01

342

Antimicrobial effects of Thai medicinal plants against acne-inducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis have been recognized as pus-forming bacteria triggering an inflammation in acne. The present study was conducted to evaluate antimicrobial activities of Thai medicinal plants against these etiologic agents of acne vulgaris. Crude extracts were tested for antimicrobial activities by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. The results from the disc diffusion method showed that 13

Mullika Traidej Chomnawang; Suvimol Surassmo; Veena S. Nukoolkarn; Wandee Gritsanapan

2005-01-01

343

Antimicrobial screening of plants used for traditional medicine in the state of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

Seventy-two extracts (methanol) obtained from the leaves, barks, and roots of 50 plant species used in the traditional medicine of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia, have been screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Peristrophe tinctoria, Polyalthia lateriflora, Knema malayana, Solanum torvum, Celosia argentea, Eclipta prostrata, Ancistrocladus tectorius, Dillenia suffruticosa, Piper stylosum and Rafflesia hasseltii displayed the broadest spectrum of activity. PMID:14693223

Wiart, C; Mogana, S; Khalifah, S; Mahan, M; Ismail, S; Buckle, M; Narayana, A K; Sulaiman, M

2004-01-01

344

In vitro genotoxic evaluation of the medicinal plant Chenopodium ambrosioides L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae) is an anthelmintic herb used in Latin-America's folk medicine. The aim of this work is to evaluate genetic damage induced by decoction and infusion of this plant which were assayed in different concentrations (1, 10, 100, 1000 ?g\\/ml), by addition of the extract to human lymphocyte cell cultures. The endpoints evaluated were chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid

A Gadano; A Gurni; P López; G Ferraro; M Carballo

2002-01-01

345

Anti-angiogenic and cytotoxicity studies of some medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor formation and proliferation. The development of anti-angiogenic agents to block new blood vessel growth will inhibit metastasis and induce apoptosis of the cancer cells. Nine medicinal plants, Strobilanthes crispus, Phyllanthus niruri, Phyllanthus pulcher, Phyllanthus urinaria, Ailanthus malabarica, Irvingia malayana, Smilax myosotiflora, Tinospora crispa and blumea balsamifera were screened for anti-angiogenic properties using the rat aortic ring assay. Of these, the methanol extracts of Phyllanthus species and Irvingia malayana exhibited the highest activity. At 100 microg/mL, P. pulcher, P. niruri, P. urinaria and I. malayana recorded an inhibition of 78.8 %, 59.5 %, 56.7 % and 46.4 %, respectively, against rat aortic vascular growth. Their activities were further investigated by the tube formation assay involving human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) on Matrigel. I. malayana, P. niruri and P. urinaria showed a significant decrease of 45.5, 37.9 and 35.6 %, respectively, whilst P. pulcher showed a much lower decrease of 15.5 % when compared with that of the rat aortic ring assay. All the plant extracts were evaluated for cytotoxicity on a panel of human cancer cell lines using the MTT assay. None of them displayed acute cytotoxicity. The HPLC of P. niruri, P. urinaria and P. pulcher indicated the extracts contained some identical chromatographic peaks of lignans. Further fractionation of I. malayana yielded betulinic acid reported in this plant for the first time and at 100 microg/mL it exhibited a 67.3 % inhibition of vessel outgrowth and 46.5 % inhibition of tube formation. PMID:20112179

Ng, Kwok-Wen; Salhimi, Salizawati Muhamad; Majid, Amin Malik; Chan, Kit-Lam

2010-01-28

346

Are medicinal plants polluted with phthalates?  

PubMed

Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) have been employed in polymer materials as a plasticizer to form them more flexible, adhesive, and soluble. These compounds are mainly used in paints, varnishes, personal cares, cosmetics, paper coatings, and adhesives even in bottled waters, shampoo, body deodorant, hairspray, and gels. Phthalates are able to possess remarkable toxic variations depending on their structures. So far, Di-(2-EthylHexyl) Phthalate DEHP and Di-n- Butyl Phthalate DBP have been found to cause reproductive and developmental toxicities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classified DEHP as probable human carcinogen. To the best of our knowledge, phthalates showed diverse toxicity profiles according to their structures in the liver, kidneys, thyroid, and testes, which are involved in general toxicity. Furthermore, they are introduced as hormonally-active agents, because they can interfere with the endocrine system in human. Incidence of developmental abnormalities (like skeletal malformations and cleft palate, and undescended testes, lowering testes weight and anogenital distance) seems increasing via high exposure to phthalate metabolites. Although, increasing the capacity for phthalate free plasticizer productions is the first step to restrict the distribution of these toxic manmade compounds, finding the new ways for phthalate absorption from the soil in agricultural fields may have benefits. Also, evaluation and examination of diverse sources of medicinal and food plants to determine the level of phthalate accumulation in their organs are extremely recommended to avoid creating toxicity particularly in reproductive systems. PMID:23718122

Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2013-05-29

347

Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.  

PubMed

Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use of specific plants. PMID:19429338

Al-Qura'n, S

2009-03-04

348

Assessment of Anti-Quorum Sensing Activity for Some Ornamental and Medicinal Plants Native to Egypt  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effects of some plant extracts on the bacterial communication system, expressed as quorum sensing (QS) activity. Quorum sensing has a directly proportional effect on the amount of certain compounds, such as pigments, produced by the bacteria. Alcohol extracts of 23 ornamental and medicinal plants were tested for anti-QS activity by the Chromobacterium violaceum assay using the agar cup diffusion method. The screening revealed the anti-QS activity of six plants; namely the leaves of Adhatoda vasica Nees, Bauhinia purpurea L., Lantana camara L., Myoporum laetum G. Forst.; the fruits of Piper longum L.; and the aerial parts of Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg.

Zaki, Ahmed A.; Shaaban, Mona I.; Hashish, Nadia E.; Amer, Mohamed A.; Lahloub, Mohamed-Farid

2013-01-01

349

Assessment of anti-quorum sensing activity for some ornamental and medicinal plants native to egypt.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of some plant extracts on the bacterial communication system, expressed as quorum sensing (QS) activity. Quorum sensing has a directly proportional effect on the amount of certain compounds, such as pigments, produced by the bacteria. Alcohol extracts of 23 ornamental and medicinal plants were tested for anti-QS activity by the Chromobacterium violaceum assay using the agar cup diffusion method. The screening revealed the anti-QS activity of six plants; namely the leaves of Adhatoda vasica Nees, Bauhinia purpurea L., Lantana camara L., Myoporum laetum G. Forst.; the fruits of Piper longum L.; and the aerial parts of Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. PMID:23641343

Zaki, Ahmed A; Shaaban, Mona I; Hashish, Nadia E; Amer, Mohamed A; Lahloub, Mohamed-Farid

2012-11-05

350

Determination of inorganic components in Brazilian medicinal plants by neutron activation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determinations of medicinal extracts obtained\\u000a from the plants.Cordia Verbenacea DC, Folidago Microglossa DC, and Petiveria Alliacea.\\u000a \\u000a Concentrations of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, and Zn have been determined in dried\\u000a extracts of these herbs by short and long irradiations

M. Saiki; M. B. A. Vasconcellos; J. A. A. Sertié

1990-01-01

351

Evaluation of four Cameroonian medicinal plants for anticancer, antigonorrheal and antireverse transcriptase activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanol extracts from the leaves, bark and roots of four Cameroonian medicinal plants, Bersama engleriana, Cupressus lusitanica, Vitellaria paradoxa and Guibourtia tessmannii were tested for their in vitro cytotoxicity, antigonorrheal and antireverse transcriptase activities. The XTT (2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxyanilide inner salt) assay, the dilution method and reverse transcriptase (RT) assay were used for the investigations. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the extracts was

Armelle T. Mbaveng; Victor Kuete; Brenda M. Mapunya; Veronique P. Beng; Augustin E. Nkengfack; Jacobus J. Marion Meyer; Namrita Lall

2011-01-01

352

Effect of Mongolian Medicinal Plant Stellera Chamaejasme on Chronic Leukemia Cells K562  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Programmed cell death comprises apoptosis which is manifested by caspases activations and subsequent nuclear fragmentation.\\u000a Recently the cell’s suicide program has been found to involve autophagic compartment. In this study we report that ethanol\\u000a extract of Mongolian medicinal plant Stellera chamaejasme induced autophagy in chronic leukemia cell line K562. The cells were treated with 0.002–0.5% of the extract for 24,

Soninkhishig Tsolmon; Parida Yamada; Hiroko Isoda

353

Lysis of Microcystis aeruginosa with extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs.  

PubMed

Boiling water extracts of 66 selected Chinese medicinal herbs were screened for their anticyanobaterial activity against Microcystis aeruginosa by the soft-agar overlayer (SAO) method. Results indicated that extracts from 16 materials could inhibit the growth of this bacterial species. Among these anticyanobacterial samples, eight extracts showed low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), including four extracts with MICs between 1 and 6 mg/mL, and four extracts with MICs < 1 mg/mL which could be considered useful to prevent the outbreak of cyanobacteria before the appearance of cyanobacterial blooms. Further study showed that three extracts with MIC values < 1 mg/mL induced intensive chlorophyll-a lysis within 7 days at the MIC. The results suggested that highly efficient anticyanobacterial compounds must be involved in the inhibitory activities. The final results indicated these three extracts (from Malaphis chinensis, Cynips gallae-tinctoriae and Fructus mume) had the potential to be developed as algicides due to their remarkably anticyanobacterial activities. PMID:19865537

Yang, Jing-Dong; Hu, Liang-Bin; Zhou, Wei; Yin, Yu-Fen; Chen, Jian; Shi, Zhi-Qi

2009-09-23

354

Potent antihypertensive activity of Thai-Lanna medicinal plants and recipes from "MANOSROI III" database.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Traditional medicines have long been used by Thai practitioners for the treatment of many diseases including hypertension. The antihypertensive recipes and plants were searched and selected by a computer program from Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III" using hypertensive symptoms as keywords. Objectives: To evaluate the antihypertensive potential of 30 recipes and 10 Thai-Lanna medicinal plants selected from "MANOSROI III" database using l-NAME induced hypertensive rat model. Materials and methods: Extracts from the selected recipes and plants were prepared according to the traditional indications. Antihypertensive activities including the decrease of the mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and heart rate (HR) of the extracts as well as duration of action were investigated by intra-arterial assessment technique. All extracts were screened for phytochemicals including anthraquinone, glycoside, xanthone, tannin, carotenoid, flavones and alkaloids using standard methods. Results and conclusions: All 12 of the 30 selected recipes (40%) demonstrated antihypertensive activity with the maximum decrease of MABP at 27.17?±?3.17% that was 2.41-fold of prazosin hydrochloride. Most recipes exhibiting antihypertensive activity contained plants in the families of Zingiberaceae and Piperaceae. The top five antihypertensive recipes showed the presence of glycosides, xanthones and alkaloids. Ten single plants from these recipes were extracted and evaluated for antihypertensive activity. The cassumunar ginger extract exhibited the maximum decrease of MABP at 39.83?±?3.92%, which was 3.54-times that of prazosin hydrochloride. This study demonstrated the potent antihypertensive activity of Thai medicinal plants and recipes that can be further developed as antihypertensive agents. PMID:23869399

Manosroi, Aranya; Lohcharoenkal, Warangkana; Khonsung, Parirat; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

2013-07-22

355

Screening of Malian medicinal plants for antifungal, larvicidal, molluscicidal, antioxidant and radical scavenging activities.  

PubMed

A total of 78 different extracts from 20 medicinal plants belonging to 14 plant families from Mali were tested for their antifungal, larvicidal, molluscicidal, antioxidant and radical scavenging activities. Dichloromethane, methanol, water and ethanol extracts were used. TLC autobiography for antifungal activity was run with Cladosporium cucumerinum and Candida albicans. Extracts were also tested on the larvae of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. Molluscicidal activities were established with the snails Biomphalaria glabrata, Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Bulinus truncatus. beta-Carotene and DPPH solutions sprayed on TLC plates were used for antioxidant and radical scavenging assays. Of the extracts investigated, 20% were antioxidant and radical scavengers, 19% fungicidal, 30% were larvicidal and 11% were molluscicidal. Three of the plant extracts, from Cussonia barteri (Araliaceae), Glinus oppositifolius (Aďzoaceae) and Lannea velutina (Anacardiaceae) gave positive responses in all four tests. PMID:11507731

Diallo, D; Marston, A; Terreaux, C; Touré, Y; Paulsen, B S; Hostettmann, K

2001-08-01

356

Application of some growth regulators to medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in-vivo action of plant growth hormones on medicinal plants has been investigated only sporadically in regard to growth and yield of pharmaceutically important compounds. The economic significance of attempts of manipulating the development of drug plants and of their productivity of secondary products invites a review of the literature and of current research efforts. The proliferation of the literature

Herbert Jonas

1969-01-01

357

WILD PLANTS USED AS MEDICINAL PURPOSE in YALOVA (NORTHWEST TURKEY)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, medicinal uses and methods of administration of 45 wild plant taxa belonging to 27 families in Yalova are documented. The plant specimens were collected with informants. During the field works all the settlements (58 villages) were visited. The information was recorded and the col ­ lected plants were identified and prepared voucher specimens were kept in the

Neriman ÖZHATAY

358

Medicinal plants from the “Sierra de Comechingones”, Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argentina is a country with both rich floral biodiversity and cultural diversity. Traditional herbal medicines are important in the health care of most people, and rely heavily on the use of indigenous plants. An ethnobotanical survey of the “Sierra de Comechingones” made over a 26-year period (1979–2005), indicated that 65 families and 149 different genuses were used in traditional medicines.

Marta Ester Goleniowski; G. A. Bongiovanni; L. Palacio; C. O. Nuńez; J. J. Cantero

2006-01-01

359

Bioactive alkaloids from medicinal plants of Bhutan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural products had been indispensably used by many cultures and traditions in folklore medicines for thousands of years. These traditional medicines cater to about 85% of the world population for their primary health care needs. Natural products have been intensively explored also for their bioactive pharmacophores by modern pharmaceutical companies. In fact they are the skeletal framework of about 60%

Phurpa Wangchuk

2004-01-01

360

Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Abstracts: Volume 4, Number 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Abstracts are provided of the world-wide literature concerning medicinal and aromatic plants. The following aspects of the subject are covered: Agronomy; Botany; Breeding and Genetics; Diseases and Pests; Physiology and Biochemistry; Pharmacognosy; Clinic...

1982-01-01

361

Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Abstracts. Volume 1, Number 6.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Abstracts are provided of the world-wide literature concerning medicinal and aromatic plants. The following aspects of the subject are covered: Agronomy, botany, breeding and genetics, diseases and pests, physiology and biochemistry, pharmacognosy, clinic...

Y. R. Chadha

1979-01-01

362

Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Abstracts. Volume 1, Number 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Abstracts are provided of the world-wide literature concerning medicinal and aromatic plants. The following aspects of the subject are covered: agronomy, botany, breeding, diseases and pests, physiology and biochemistry, pharmacognosy, clinical evaluation...

Y. R. Chadha

1979-01-01

363

Potential use of medicinal plants in the treatment of alcoholism.  

PubMed

The present paper briefly reviews the most relevant experimental data on the reducing effect of some medicinal herbs on voluntary alcohol intake in animal models of alcoholism. Pueraria lobata, Tabernanthe iboga, Panax ginseng, Salvia miltiorrhiza and Hypericum perforatum proved to be effective in decreasing alcohol consumption. Reduction of alcohol absorption from the gastrointestinal system appears to be a common feature among most of the above plants. These data suggest that medicinal plants may constitute novel and effective pharmacotherapies for alcoholism. PMID:10930711

Carai, M A; Agabio, R; Bombardelli, E; Bourov, I; Gessa, G L; Lobina, C; Morazzoni, P; Pani, M; Reali, R; Vacca, G; Colombo, G

2000-08-01

364

Carrier herbal medicine: traditional and contemporary plant use.  

PubMed

The Carrier, an Athapaskan-speaking people of northcentral British Columbia, occupy the sub-boreal spruce forests of the central interior. This report, which is based on field study, documents some traditional and contemporary knowledge of the medicinal use of plants by the Carrier people. Important medicinal plants include: Abies lasiocarpa, Alnus incana, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Artemisia frigida, Fragaria virginiana, Juniperus communis, Picea glauca, Pinus contorta, Populus tremuloides, Rubus idaeus and Shepherdia canadensis. PMID:8735452

Ritch-Krc, E M; Thomas, S; Turner, N J; Towers, G H

1996-06-01

365

Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation of a medicinal plant Taraxacum platycarpum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dandelion plants, the genus Taraxacum, are used in herbal medicine owing to their choleretic, diuretic and anti-carcinogenic activities and several medicinal compounds have been isolated from the roots of these plants. Metabolic manipulation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis is a potential strategy to improve the production of high-value secondary metabolites. The enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) is known to control a key

Tae Woong Bae; Hae Ryoung Park; Youn Sig Kwak; Hyo Yeon Lee; Stephen B. Ryu

2005-01-01

366

In vitro anti-plasmodial activity of some traditionally used medicinal plants against Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

The anti-plasmodial activity of different solvent extracts of Adhatoda vasica (root), Caesalpinia pulcherrima (leaf), Carica papaya (pulp), Erythroxylum monogynum (leaf), Lantana camara (whole plant), Ocimum sanctum (root) and Phyllanthus niruri (whole plant) were studied against Plasmodium falciparum. Of the 35 extracts tested, seven extracts showed good anti-plasmodial activity. Methanol extract of C. pulcherrima showed the lowest IC50 value (10.96 ?g/mL) followed by methanol extract of A. vasica (IC(50)=11.1 ?g/mL), chloroform extract of O. sanctum (IC(50)=11.47 ?g/mL), methanol extract of E. monogynum (IC(50)=12.23 ?g/mL), acetone extract of C. pulcherrima (IC(50)=12.49 ?g/mL), methanol extract of O. sanctum and acetone extract of A. vasica (IC(50)=14.04 ?g/mL). The results of the present study justify the use of these medicinal plants in traditional practice, and also, a further study on the isolation of anti-plasmodial molecules from their active crude extracts is in progress. PMID:22290450

Venkatesalu, V; Gopalan, N; Pillai, C R; Singh, Vineeta; Chandrasekaran, M; Senthilkumar, A; Chandramouli, N

2012-07-01

367

Brazilian medicinal plant acts on prostaglandin level and Helicobacter pylori.  

PubMed

Among the current treatment strategies for the peptic ulcer patient with Helicobacter pylori infection, the method of choice is triple therapy based on the concurrent use of proton inhibitors and two antibiotics. Alchornea triplinervia is a medicinal plant commonly used by people living in the Cerrado region of Brazil to treat gastrointestinal ulcers. In the present work we proposed therapy based on this medicinal plant that presents effective gastroprotective action with antibiotic effects. Oral pretreatment with methanolic extract (ME) of A. triplinervia in rats and mice decreased the gastric injuries induced by ethanol and HCl/ethanol. Increasing the dose reduced the gastroprotective effects of ME on the gastric lesions induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. After pylorus ligature of mice, oral administration of ME induced a decrease not only in total acid but also in the ulcer index. We also observed that ME displayed antibacterial activity against H. pylori. Liquid-liquid separation of ME indicated that active constituents responsible for the gastroprotective action are concentrated in the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) (50% protection) rather than in the aqueous fraction, which did not induce significant gastroprotection at the same dose (100 mg/kg). EAF induced an increase of gastric mucosa prostaglandin (PG) E(2) levels, which remained high even after previous administration of indomethacin. The phytochemical profile of ME revealed that EAF contains mainly flavonoids. In conclusion, all these results suggest that ME did not show acute toxicity, but exhibited an antisecretory property, anti-H. pylori effect, and gastroprotective action. The observed effect did not involve the participation of nitric oxide or endogenous sulfhydryl groups. However, EAF showed a more efficient gastroprotective effect than ME at a lower dose and protected the gastric mucosa by increasing PGE(2). PMID:19053863

Lima, Z P; Calvo, T R; Silva, E F; Pellizzon, C H; Vilegas, W; Brito, A R M S; Bauab, T M; Hiruma-Lima, C A

2008-12-01

368

Natural and artificial radioactivity determination of some medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Several medicinal plants used in Italy were analysed to determine natural and artificial radioactivity in those parts (leaves, fruits, seeds, roots, peduncles, flowers, barks, berries, thallus) used generally as remedies. The radionuclides were determined by alpha ((238)U, (210)Po) and gamma ((214)Pb-Bi, (210)Pb, (40)K and (137)Cs) spectrometry. (238)U ranged between <0.1 and 7.32 Bq kg(dry)(-1); (210)Po between <0.1 and 30.3 Bq kg(dry)(-1); (214)Pb-(214)Bi between <0.3 and 16.6 Bq kg(dry)(-1); (210)Pb between <3 and 58.3 Bq kg(dry)(-1); (40)K between 66.2 and 3582.0 Bq kg(dry)(-1); (137)Cs between <0.3 and 10.7 Bq kg(dry)(-1). The percentage of (210)Po extraction in infusion and decoction was also determined; the arithmetical mean value of percentage of (210)Po extraction resulted 20.7+/-7.5. PMID:20537772

Desideri, Donatella; Meli, Maria Assunta; Roselli, Carla

2010-09-01

369

Antibacterial activities of selected medicinal plants in traditional treatment of human wounds in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the activity of selected Ethiopian medicinal plants traditionally used for wound treatment against wound-causing bacteria. Methods Samples of medicinal plants (Achyranthes aspera, Brucea antidysenterica, Datura stramonium, Croton macrostachyus, Acokanthera schimperi, Phytolacca dodecandra, Millettia ferruginea, and Solanum incanum) were extracted using absolute methanol and water and tested for their antimicrobial activities against clinical isolates and standard strains of wound-causing bacteria using agar well diffusion and micro titer plate methods. Results Most of the plant extracts had antibacterial activities, among which Acokanthera schimperi and Brucea antidysenterica inhibited growth of 100% and 35% of the test organisms, respectively. Methanolic extracts had higher activities compared with their corresponding aqueous extracts. The most susceptible organism to the extracts was Streptococcus pyogens while the most resistant were Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris. Conclusions This finding justifies the use of the plants in wound healing and their potential activity against wound-causing bacteria. Their toxicity level and antimicrobial activity with different extraction solvents should further be studied to use them as sources and templates for the synthesis of drugs to control wound and other disease-causing bacteria.

Taye, Biruhalem; Giday, Mirutse; Animut, Abebe; Seid, Jemal

2011-01-01

370

Culturable endophytes of medicinal plants and the genetic basis for their bioactivity.  

PubMed

The bioactive compounds of medicinal plants are products of the plant itself or of endophytes living inside the plant. Endophytes isolated from eight different anticancer plants collected in Yunnan, China, were characterized by diverse 16S and 18S rRNA gene phylogenies. A functional gene-based molecular screening strategy was used to target nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and type I polyketide synthase (PKS) genes in endophytes. Bioinformatic analysis of these biosynthetic pathways facilitated inference of the potential bioactivity of endophyte natural products, suggesting that the isolated endophytes are capable of producing a plethora of secondary metabolites. All of the endophyte culture broth extracts demonstrated antiproliferative effects in at least one test assay, either cytotoxic, antibacterial or antifungal. From the perspective of natural product discovery, this study confirms the potential for endophytes from medicinal plants to produce anticancer, antibacterial and antifungal compounds. In addition, PKS and NRPS gene screening is a valuable method for screening isolates of biosynthetic potential. PMID:22430508

Miller, Kristin I; Qing, Chen; Sze, Daniel Man-Yuen; Roufogalis, Basil D; Neilan, Brett A

2012-03-21

371

Molecular approaches for improvement of medicinal and aromatic plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) are important sources for plant secondary metabolites, which are important for human\\u000a healthcare. Improvement of the yield and quality of these natural plant products through conventional breeding is still a\\u000a challenge. However, recent advances in plant genomics research has generated knowledge leading to a better understanding of\\u000a the complex genetics and biochemistry involved in biosynthesis

Jitendra Kumar; Pushpendra Kumar Gupta

2008-01-01

372

Protein extraction from woody plants.  

PubMed

In this chapter we present a protocol for total protein extraction optimized for wood-forming tissue (differentiating secondary xylem). The protocol is then used for a series of other organs (root, leaf, pollen, bud, flower, cambium, and phloem) in broadleaf (oak and poplar) and conifer (pine) species. Proteins are first extracted from tissue powdered in liquid nitrogen using the TCA-acetone method and then solubilized in an optimized buffer. The resulting 2D gels can be viewed at http://cbi.labri.fr/outils/protic/index.php. PMID:17093300

Plomion, Christophe; Lalanne, Céline

2007-01-01

373

Medicinal plants, traditional medicine, markets and management in far-west Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Modern therapeutic medicine is historically based on indigenous therapies and ethnopharmacological uses, which have become recognized tools in the search for new sources of pharmaceuticals. Globalization of herbal medicine along with uncontrolled exploitative practices and lack of concerted conservation efforts, have pushed many of Nepal's medicinal plants to the verge of extinction. Sustainable utilization and management of medicinal plants, based on traditional knowledge, is therefore necessary. Methods After establishing verbal informed consent with participating communities, five field surveys, roughly 20 days in duration, were carried out. In all, 176 schedules were surveyed, and 52 participants were consulted through focus group discussions and informal meetings. Altogether, 24 key informants were surveyed to verify and validate the data. A total of 252 individuals, representing non-timber forest product (NTFP) collectors, cultivators, traders, traditional healers (Baidhya), community members, etc. participated in study. Medicinal plants were free-listed and their vernacular names and folk uses were collected, recorded, and applied to assess agreement among respondents about traditional medicines, markets and management. Results Within the study area, medicinal herbs were the main ingredients of traditional therapies, and they were considered a main lifeline and frequently were the first choice. About 55% plants were ethnomedicinal, and about 37% of ethnomedicinal plants possessed the highest informant consensus value (0.86–1.00). Use of Cordyceps sinensis as an aphrodisiac, Berberis asiatica for eye problems, Bergenia ciliata for disintegration of calculi, Sapindus mukorossi for dandruff, and Zanthoxylum armatum for toothache were the most frequently mentioned. These species possess potential for pharmacology. Conclusion Medicinal plants are inseparable from local livelihoods because they have long been collected, consumed, and managed through local customs and knowledge. Management of traditional therapies is urged, because the therapies are empirically and knowledge based, often culturally inherited and important to pharmacology and local livelihoods. However, traditional therapies are currently being eroded due to changing lifestyles, perceptions, social transformations, and acculturation.

2013-01-01

374

Antioxidant activity of Paraguayan plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant properties of six medical herbs used in the traditional Paraguayan medicine were studied using free radical-generating systems. The methanol extracts from Aristolochia giberti, Cecropia pachystachya, Eugenia uniflora, Piper fulvescens, Schinus weinmannifolia and Schinus terebinthifolia protected against enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation in microsomal membranes of rat. C. pachystachya, E. uniflora, S. weinmannifolia and S.terebinthifolia showed the highest scavenging

E Velázquez; H. A Tournier; P Mordujovich de Buschiazzo; G Saavedra; G. R Schinella

2003-01-01

375

Antioxidant activity of Paraguayan plant extracts.  

PubMed

The antioxidant properties of six medical herbs used in the traditional Paraguayan medicine were studied using free radical-generating systems. The methanol extracts from Aristolochia giberti, Cecropia pachystachya, Eugenia uniflora, Piper fulvescens, Schinus weinmannifolia and Schinus terebinthifolia protected against enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation in microsomal membranes of rat. C. pachystachya, E. uniflora, S. weinmannifolia and S. terebinthifolia showed the highest scavenging activity on the superoxide and DPPH radicals. PMID:12628400

Velázquez, E; Tournier, H A; Mordujovich de Buschiazzo, P; Saavedra, G; Schinella, G R

2003-02-01

376

Contextualizing the politics of knowledge: physicians' attitudes toward medicinal plants.  

PubMed

This article examines how a group of public health physicians in the urban Amazon values medicinal plant knowledge. As biomedical health care providers, physicians routinely draw on scientific plant knowledge. At the same time, as residents of the Amazon and health care providers to the poor, they are aware of and sometimes participate in local systems of plant knowledge. When discussing medicinal plant use, physicians repeatedly mention three themes: science, superstition, and biopiracy. The way in which physicians construct and negotiate these themes is part of the process of maintaining and legitimating their expertise and authority. This analysis finds that context is key to understanding whether, when, and why physicians value certain bodies of knowledge. Locally, in clinics, scientific plant knowledge is constructed as superior. In a global context, however, local plant knowledge is explicitly valued. This situational valuation/devaluation of plant knowledge relates to the positions of power physicians occupy in each context. PMID:14716920

Wayland, Coral

2003-12-01

377

Use of a modified microplate bioassay method to investigate antibacterial activity in the Peruvian medicinal plant Peperomia galioides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A versatile microplate bioassay for quick and sensitive determination of antibacterial activity was developed for use in screening medicinal plants and identification of their active principles. This assay can be used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations for small quantities of organic or water-soluble plant extracts. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the stem and leaves of Peperomia galioides using this method found fractions

Richard D. Langfield; Frank J. Scarano; Mary E. Heitzman; Miwako Kondo; Gerald B. Hammond; Catherine C. Neto

2004-01-01

378

Integrating carbon-halogen bond formation into medicinal plant metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Halogenation, which was once considered a rare occurrence in nature, has now been observed in many natural product biosynthetic pathways. However, only a small fraction of halogenated compounds have been isolated from terrestrial plants. Given the impact that halogenation can have on the biological activity of natural products, we reasoned that the introduction of halides into medicinal plant metabolism would

Weerawat Runguphan; Xudong Qu; Sarah E. O'Connor

2010-01-01

379

Critical review on medicinally potent plant species: Gloriosa superba.  

PubMed

Gloriosa superba L. is a perennial climber and is used as an ayurvedic medicinal herb to cure diseases in various parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. The plant was under threatened category due to its imprudent harvesting from wild as it is extensively used by medicinal industries for its colchicine content. It also faces a low seed set problem, but due to its industrial demand it is now under cultivation. The plant is used to cure arthritis, gout, rheumatism, inflammation, ulcers, bleeding piles, skin diseases, leprosy, impotency, snakebites, etc. Various compounds have been isolated from the plant parts mainly tubers and seeds, viz colchicine, colchicoside (its semi-synthetic derivative - thiocolchicoside), superbine, gloriosine, lumicolchicine, 3-demethyl-N-deformyl-N-deacetylcolchicine, 3-demethylcolchicine, N-formyl deacetylcolchicine. In the present review, we have summarized the information concerning the occurrence, botanical description, ethanopharmacology, medicinal uses, biological activities and toxicological studies on this plant. PMID:21059382

Jana, Sonali; Shekhawat, G S

2010-11-06

380

Polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of Bulgarian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of 21 plants used in Bulgarian phytotherapy for the treatment of respiratory, gastrointestinal and other inflammatory disorders were screened in vitro for antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds content. Plant extracts were prepared as herbal teas following the ethnic use. The water-phase TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) of the teas were compared to that of the famous tea-like beverages mate,

D. Ivanova; D. Gerova; T. Chervenkov; T. Yankova

2005-01-01

381

Evaluation of cytotoxic, genotoxic and CYP450 enzymatic competition effects of Tanzanian plant extracts traditionally used for treatment of fungal infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV-infected patients in sub-Saharan countries highly depend on traditional medicines for the treatment of opportunistic oral infections as candidiasis. Previous investigations on antifungal activity of medicinal plant extracts utilized by traditional healers in Tanzania have revealed 12 extracts with potent antifungal activity. Although the plants may be good candidates for new treatment opportunities, they can be toxic or genotoxic and

Carolien J. P. van den Bout-van den Beukel; Omar J. M. Hamza; Mainen J. Moshi; Mecky I. N. Matee; Frans Mikx; David M. Burger; Peter P. Koopmans; Paul E. Verweij; Willem G. E. J. Schoonen; André J. A. M. van der Ven

2008-01-01

382

Screening of Yemeni medicinal plants for antibacterial and cytotoxic activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic extracts of 20 selected plant species used by Yemeni traditional healers to treat infectious diseases were screened for their antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as for cytotoxic activity. Fourteen of the ethanolic extracts showed variable degrees of antibacterial activity. The active ethanolic extracts were partitioned between ethyl acetate and water for a first separation.

N. A. Awadh Ali; W.-D Jülich; C Kusnick; U Lindequist

2001-01-01

383

Plant-derived medicines: a novel class of immunological adjuvants.  

PubMed

Plant-derived medicines have a long history of use for the prevention and treatment of human disease. Today, many pharmaceuticals currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have origins to plant sources. A major role for plant-derived compounds based on the reported immunomodulatory effects has emerged in recent times and has led to the rigorous scientific examination to determine efficacy and safety. The discovery of novel plant compounds with immune system modulating activities has become an increasingly important area of research, particularly in the search for new-generation vaccine adjuvants. This review discusses the important role of plant-derived medicines as immunomodulators and provides evidence in support of the continued investigation of this new class of drugs for the maintenance of human health. The identification and characterization of plant compounds that augment new or existing vaccines, and in particular mucosally administered vaccines, will be of significant interest to vaccinologists and immunologists. PMID:21056709

Licciardi, Paul V; Underwood, John R

2010-11-05

384

Potential pharmacokinetic interactions between antiretrovirals and medicinal plants used as complementary and African traditional medicines.  

PubMed

The use of traditional/complementary/alternate medicines (TCAMs) in HIV/AIDS patients who reside in Southern Africa is quite common. Those who use TCAMs in addition to antiretroviral (ARV) treatment may be at risk of experiencing clinically significant pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions, particularly between the TCAMs and the protease inhibitors (PIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Mechanisms of PK interactions include alterations to the normal functioning of drug efflux transporters, such as P-gp and/or CYP isoenzymes, such a CYP3A4 that mediate the absorption and elimination of drugs in the small intestine and liver. Specific mechanisms include inhibition and activation of these proteins and induction via the pregnane X receptor (PXR). Several clinical studies and case reports involving ARV-herb PK interactions have been reported. St John's Wort, Garlic and Cat's Claw exhibited potentially significant interactions, each with a PI or NNRTI. The potential for these herbs to induce PK interactions with drugs was first identified in reports of in vitro studies. Other in vitro studies have shown that several African traditional medicinal (ATM) plants and extracts may also demonstrate PK interactions with ARVs, through effects on CYP3A4, P-gp and PXR. The most complex effects were exhibited by Hypoxis hemerocallidea, Sutherlandia frutescens, Cyphostemma hildebrandtii, Acacia nilotica, Agauria salicifolia and Elaeodendron buchananii. Despite a high incidence of HIV/AIDs in the African region, only one clinical study, between efavirenz and Hypoxis hemerocallidea has been conducted. However, several issues/concerns still remain to be addressed and thus more studies on ATMs are warranted in order for more meaningful data to be generated and the true potential for such interactions to be determined. PMID:22024968

Müller, Adrienne C; Kanfer, Isadore

2011-11-01

385

People, plants and health: a conceptual framework for assessing changes in medicinal plant consumption  

PubMed Central

Background A large number of people in both developing and developed countries rely on medicinal plant products to maintain their health or treat illnesses. Available evidence suggests that medicinal plant consumption will remain stable or increase in the short to medium term. Knowledge on what factors determine medicinal plant consumption is, however, scattered across many disciplines, impeding, for example, systematic consideration of plant-based traditional medicine in national health care systems. The aim of the paper is to develop a conceptual framework for understanding medicinal plant consumption dynamics. Consumption is employed in the economic sense: use of medicinal plants by consumers or in the production of other goods. Methods PubMed and Web of Knowledge (formerly Web of Science) were searched using a set of medicinal plant key terms (folk/peasant/rural/traditional/ethno/indigenous/CAM/herbal/botanical/phytotherapy); each search terms was combined with terms related to medicinal plant consumption dynamics (medicinal plants/health care/preference/trade/treatment seeking behavior/domestication/sustainability/conservation/urban/migration/climate change/policy/production systems). To eliminate studies not directly focused on medicinal plant consumption, searches were limited by a number of terms (chemistry/clinical/in vitro/antibacterial/dose/molecular/trial/efficacy/antimicrobial/alkaloid/bioactive/inhibit/antibody/purification/antioxidant/DNA/rat/aqueous). A total of 1940 references were identified; manual screening for relevance reduced this to 645 relevant documents. As the conceptual framework emerged inductively, additional targeted literature searches were undertaken on specific factors and link, bringing the final number of references to 737. Results The paper first defines the four main groups of medicinal plant users (1. Hunter-gatherers, 2. Farmers and pastoralists, 3. Urban and peri-urban people, 4. Entrepreneurs) and the three main types of benefits (consumer, producer, society-wide) derived from medicinal plants usage. Then a single unified conceptual framework for understanding the factors influencing medicinal plant consumption in the economic sense is proposed; the framework distinguishes four spatial levels of analysis (international, national, local, household) and identifies and describes 15 factors and their relationships. Conclusions The framework provides a basis for increasing our conceptual understanding of medicinal plant consumption dynamics, allows a positioning of existing studies, and can serve to guide future research in the area. This would inform the formation of future health and natural resource management policies.

2012-01-01

386

Screening of microfilaricidal effects of plant extracts against Dirofilaria immitis.  

PubMed

Canine dirofilariasis is a common tropical parasitic disease of companion animals, caused by infestation of Dirofilaria immitis filarids within the pulmonary arteries and extending into the right heart. Increased reports of adverse reactions elicited by current microfilaricidal agents against D. immitis such as neurological disorders, circulatory collapse and potential resistance against these agents, warrant the search for new agents in forms of plant extracts. The use of plant extracts in therapeutic medicine is commonly met with scepticism by the veterinary community, thus the lack of focus on its medical potential. This study evaluated the presence of microfilaricidal activities of the aqueous extracts of Zingiber officinale, Andrographis paniculata and Tinospora crispa Miers on D. immitisin vitro at different concentrations; 10mg/ml, 1mg/ml, 100 microg/ml, 10 microg/ml and 1 microg/ml within 24h, by evaluation of relative microfilarial motility as a measure of microfilaricidal activity. All extracts showed microfilaricidal activity with Z. officinale exhibiting the strongest activity overall, followed by A. paniculata and T. crispa Miers. It is speculated that the microfilaricidal mechanism exhibited by these extracts is via spastic paralysis based upon direct observation of the microfilarial motility. PMID:19500810

Merawin, L T; Arifah, A K; Sani, R A; Somchit, M N; Zuraini, A; Ganabadi, S; Zakaria, Z A

2009-06-04

387

Medicinal Plants Used in Mapuche Traditional Medicine in Araucanía, Chile: Linking Sociocultural and Religious Values with Local Heath Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vast majority of the medicinal plants in Chile have been studied from a pharmacological point of view. These studies, although giving important insights into the understanding of the Mapuche’s traditional medicine in terms of the therapeutical value of the plants, fail, however, to portray the numerous sociocultural and symbolic aspects of this form of medicine. This article aims to

Maria Costanza Torri

2010-01-01

388

Toxicity of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Northern Peru  

PubMed Central

Aim The plant species reported here are traditionally used in Northern Peru for a wide range of illnesses. Most remedies are prepared as ethanol or aqueous extracts and then ingested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of these extracts. Materials and methods The toxicity of ethanolic and water extracts of 341 plant species was determined using a Brine-Shrimp assay. Results Overall 24% of the species in water extract and 76% of the species in alcoholic extract showed elevated toxicity levels to brine-shrimp. Although in most cases multiple extracts of the same species showed very similar toxicity values, in some cases the toxicity of different extracts of the same species varied from non-toxic to highly toxic. Conclusions Traditional preparation methods take different toxicity levels in aqueous and ethanol extracts into account when choosing the appropriate solvent for the preparation of a remedy.

Bussmann, R.W.; Malca, G.; Glenn, A.; Sharon, D.; Nilsen, B.; Parris, B.; Dubose, D; Ruiz, D.; Saleda, J.; Martinez, M.; Carillo, L.; Walker, K.; Kuhlman, A.; Townesmith, A.

2011-01-01

389

Evaluation of ?-amylase inhibitory activities of selected antidiabetic medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibitors of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes such as ?-amylase play an important role for the control of diabetes mellitus\\u000a especially in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this study we selected ten antidiabetic medicinal plants, because they have\\u000a been recommended to treat diabetes in traditional Iranian medicine, and screened them for ?-amylase inhibitory activities.\\u000a Among the tested samples, Camellia sinensis (Theaceae)

Bahman Nickavar; Nasibeh Yousefian

2011-01-01

390

Medicinal plants of Nepal — retrospects and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  The major portion of the local population which is economically depressed is scattered in different hill terrains, which are\\u000a beyond the normal mode of approach. Sometimes it takes days to reach remote corners of the country, where the usual supply\\u000a of allopathic medicine is out of the question. Due to increasing export demand, dependence of the local people on the

M. P. Singh; S. B. Malla; S. B. Rajbhandari; A. Manandhar

1979-01-01

391

Plant extracts as natural amoebicidal agents.  

PubMed

Strains of Acanthamoeba sp. constitute a factor contributing to the occurrence of chronic granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, keratitis, pneumonia, as well as inflammations of other organs. Treatment of these diseases is very difficult and not always effective. A majority of these infections have been fatal. The aim of our study was to examine the amoebicidal or amoebistatic activity of plant extracts from Rubus chamaemorus, Pueraria lobata, Solidago virgaurea and Solidago graminifolia. For the purpose of isolation of pharmacologically active substances, we used the aboveground parts of plants, together with flowers, roots and leaves. It was established that extracts from S. virgauera, P. lobata and R. chamaemorus displayed chemotherapeutic properties in vitro in concentrations of approximately 0.01-0.05 mg extract/mL, i.e., in concentrations of 0.350 microg/mL expressed in ellagic acid for R. chamaemorus and 0.053 microg/mL expressed in puerarin for P. lobata. Therapeutic index values is 3.5-20. As a result of in vivo experiments, it was found out that, following therapy using the extracts, animals infected with Acanthamoeba sp. survived for an extended period (2.5-3 times longer). It was determined that plant extracts may be used both externally and internally in the case of a combined therapy for acanthamoebiasis. The tested extracts are not toxic for animals. PMID:19050923

Derda, Monika; Hada?, Edward; Thiem, Barbara

2008-12-03

392

Assessment of Bioactivity of Indian Medicinal Plants Using Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina) Lethality Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants constitute an important component of flora and are widely distrib- uted in India. The pharmacological evaluation of substances from plants is an established method for the identification of lead compounds which can leads to the development of novel and safe medicinal agents. Based on the ethnopharmacological literature, several species of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in India

Alluri V. Krishnaraju; Tayi V. N. Rao; Dodda Sundararaju; Mulabagal Vanisree; Hsin-Sheng Tsay; Gottumukkala V. Subbaraju

393

Larvicidal and adulticidal activities of some medicinal plants against the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi (Liston).  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to test the efficacy of 11 commonly available medicinal plants and compare its efficacy in relation to larvicidal and mosquitocidal activities against larvae and adults of Anopheles stephensi (Liston). All the medicinal plants and the mixture were effective against larvae of A. stephensi as evidenced by low lethal concentration and lethal time. The lethality varied in adults and plant extracts of mixture; Eucalyptus globulus, Cymbopogan citratus, Artemisia annua, Justicia gendarussa, Myristica fragrans, Annona squamosa, and Centella asiatica were found to be most effective. Larval mortality between 80% and 100% was observed in mixture treatment, C. asiatica and E. globulus. The adults that emerged from all the treatments were malformed. Further, the treated larvae showed significant decrement in the levels of protein, carbohydrate, and lipids and affect negatively the presence of certain amino acids. The present findings have important implications in the practical control of mosquito larvae and adults in the aquatic ecosystem as the medicinal plants studied are commonly available in large quantities. These plant extracts are easy to prepare, inexpensive, and safe for mosquito control which might be used directly as larvicidal and mosquitocidal agents in small volume aquatic habitats or breeding sites of around human dwellings. PMID:18787842

Senthilkumar, N; Varma, Pushkala; Gurusubramanian, G

2008-09-12

394

Antioxidant activity of five Brazilian plants used as traditional medicines and food in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background: This study evaluates the radical-scavenging activity of five plants used as food and medicines in the northeastern region of Brazil. Materials and Methods: Spectrophotometric analysis of the plants’ ethanol extracts was carried out. The antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl) test. The antioxidant capacity was measured using ascorbic acid as a positive control. Results: All tested plant extracts showed an antioxidant activity, but the highest activity was observed with the extracts of Momordica charantia and Eugenia jambolana. Conclusions: Therefore, these species must be studied as a putative source of products for use in the prevention and treatment of diseases in which oxidants or free radicals are implicated.

Santos, Allana K. L.; Costa, Jose G. M.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Cansancao, Isaac F.; Santos, Karla K. A.; Matias, Edinardo F. F.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.

2010-01-01

395

Endophytic fungi with anti-microbial, anti-cancer and anti-malarial activities isolated from Thai medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 81 Thai medicinal plant species collected from forests in four geographical regions of Thailand were examined for\\u000a the presence of endophytic fungi with biological activity. Of 582 pure isolates obtained, 360 morphologically distinct fungi\\u000a were selected for cultivation on malt Czapek broth and yeast extract sucrose broth, from which extracts were tested for biological\\u000a activity. Extracts of

Suthep Wiyakrutta; Nongluksna Sriubolmas; Wattana Panphut; Nuntawan Thongon; Kannawat Danwisetkanjana; Nijsiri Ruangrungsi; Vithaya Meevootisom

2004-01-01

396

Evaluation of the cytotoxic and cytostatic activities of medicinal plants used by Peruvian healers against cancer-related symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve plants used medicinally in Callejon de Huaylas, Department of Ancash, northeastern Peru were selected and screened in vitro for cytotoxic and cytostatic activities. Traditional preparations, aqueous extracts and organic extracts (methanol:dimethyl chloride) were tested against murine leukemia P388 cells using flow cytometry. Seventy-five percent or more of the traditional and aqueous extracts were cytostatic at concentrations of 1mg\\/ml. For

Maria Cecilia Garcia Espinoza

2000-01-01

397

Preliminary screening of some traditional zulu medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous and methanolic extracts from different parts of nine traditional Zulu medicinal plants, of the Vitaceae from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa were evaluated for therapeutic potential as anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial agents. Of the twenty-nine crude extracts assayed for prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors, only five methanolic extracts of Cyphostemma natalitium-root, Rhoicissus digitata-leaf, R. rhomboidea-root, R. tomentosa-leaf\\/stem and R. tridentata-root showed significant inhibition of

J. Lin; A. R. Opoku; M. Geheeb-Keller; A. D. Hutchings; S. E. Terblanche; A. K. Jager; J. van Staden

1999-01-01

398

Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids in medicinal plants from Tafí del Valle (Tucumán, Argentina).  

PubMed

Preliminary studies of flavonoids have been realised in five native species from Tafí del Valle (Tucumán, Argentina) used in popular medicine. Most of compounds detected were flavonoids mono and dihydroxylated in B ring. Screening for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms has been realised with Lippia turbinata, Satureja parvifolia, Sambucus peruviana, Verbena officinalis and Chenopodium graveolens. The total extracts of flavonoids of each plant were tested and four species studied showed antimicrobial activity. PMID:11025172

Hernández, N E; Tereschuk, M L; Abdala, L R

2000-11-01

399

CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 inhibitory activities of Indonesian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty samples of Indonesian medicinal plants were analyzed for their capacity to inhibit in vitro metabolism by human cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and CYP2D6 with a radiometric assay. The MeOH-soluble fractions of 25 samples, prepared from water extracts, demonstrated inhibitory activity more than 50% on the metabolism mediated by CYP3A4, and 21 samples on the metabolism mediated by CYP2D6. Among

T. Usia; H. Iwata; A. Hiratsuka; T. Watabe; S. Kadota; Y. Tezuka

2006-01-01

400

Identification of antibacterial constituents from the indigenous Australian medicinal plant Eremophila duttonii F. Muell. (Myoporaceae).  

PubMed

This paper reports on the isolation and identification of antibacterial constituents from the indigenous Australian medicinal plant Eremophila duttonii F. Muell. (Myoporaceae). Preparations derived from this plant are used by indigenous populations in the topical treatment of minor wounds, otitis and ocular complaints, and as a gargle for sore throat. Several authors have reported extracts of this plant to effect rapid bacteriolysis and inhibit growth of a wide range of Gram-positive micro-organisms. In other studies involving screening of native medicinal plants for antibacterial activity, extracts of Eremophila duttonii have been reported to consistently exhibit the highest potency amongst all species included. From a hexane extract, we identified two diterpenes of the serrulatane class, the principal constituents responsible for antibacterial activity and present as major constituents of the resinous leaf cuticle: serrulat-14-en-7,8,20-triol (1) and serrulat-14-en-3,7,8,20-tetraol (2). In addition, a hydroxylated furanosesquiterpene with mild antibacterial activity which appeared to be a novel compound was isolated from the extract and tentatively identified as 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-1-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-5-methyl[2,3'-bifuran]-5-yl) pentan-2-one. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for each of the compounds against three Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (ARL 10582), were determined using a micro-titre plate broth dilution assay. PMID:17485184

Smith, Joshua E; Tucker, David; Watson, Kenneth; Jones, Graham Lloyd

2007-04-01

401

Anti-osteoporotic constituents from Indian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro osteogenic activities of selected medicinal plants used traditionally in India. The compounds isolated from three plants viz. Allophylus serratus, Cissus quadrangularis and Vitex negundo were evaluated for their in vitro osteogenic activities. Primary cultures of osteoblasts were used to determine the effects of these components on osteoblast functions. Five of the fourteen compounds isolated led to increase in osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. These findings lend support to the use of Allophylus serratus, Cissus quadrangularis and Vitex negundo in traditional medicine. PMID:20554183

Kumar, Manmeet; Rawat, Preeti; Dixit, Preeti; Mishra, Devendra; Gautam, Abnish K; Pandey, Rashmi; Singh, Divya; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Maurya, Rakesh

2010-05-31

402

Antioxidant activity of some Jordanian medicinal plants used traditionally for treatment of diabetes.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are being used extensively in Jordanian traditional medicinal system for the treatment of diabetes symptoms. Twenty one plant samples were collected from different Jordanian locations and used for antioxidant evaluation. The level of antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS assays in relation to the total phenolic contents of the medically used parts. The most frequently used plant parts as medicines were fruit, shoot and leaves. The total phenolic contents of methanol and aqueous extracts, from plants parts, ranged from 6.6 to 103.0 and 3.0 to 98.6 GAE mg g(-1) of plant part dry weight, respectively. DPPH-TEAC of the methanol extracts of plants parts were varied from 4.1 to 365.0 mg g(-1) of plant dry weight versus 0.6 to 267.0 mg g(-1) in aqueous extracts. Moreover, the mean values of ABTS*- (IC50) varied from 6.9 to 400.0 microg dry weight mL(-1) ABTS in methanol extracts versus 9.8 to 580.5 microg mL(-1) in aqueous extracts. According to their antioxidant capacity, the plants were divided into three categories: high (DPPH-TEAC > or = 80 mg g(-1) ), (i.e., Punica granatum peel, Quercus calliprinos leave, Quercus calliprinos fruit, Cinchona ledgeriana and Juniperus communis leave), moderate (DPPH-TEAC range 20-80 mg g(-1)) (i.e., Salvia fruticosa shoot, Crataegus azarolus stem, Crataegus azarolus leave, Varthemia iphionoides shoot, Artemisia herba-alba shoot, Thymus capitatus shoot, Morus nigra leaves and Arum palaestinum leaves) and low antioxidant plants (DPPH-TEAC < 20 mg g(-1)), (i.e., Matricaria aurea shoot, Artemisia judaica shoot, Teucrium polium shoot, Pinus halepenss pollen grains, Sarcopoterium spinosum root, Crataegus azarolus fruit, Inula viscose shoot and Achillea fragrantissima shoot). The antioxidant activity of these plant's extracts and their potential rule in radical scavenging agreed with their potential use by Jordanian population as a traditional anti-diabetic agents. PMID:18817155

Al-Mustafa, Ahmed H; Al-Thunibat, Osama Y

2008-02-01

403

Screening of Yemeni medicinal plants for antibacterial and cytotoxic activities.  

PubMed

Ethanolic extracts of 20 selected plant species used by Yemeni traditional healers to treat infectious diseases were screened for their antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as for cytotoxic activity. Fourteen of the ethanolic extracts showed variable degrees of antibacterial activity. The active ethanolic extracts were partitioned between ethyl acetate and water for a first separation. The ethyl acetate extract of Lawsonia inermis was found to be the most active one against all bacteria in the test system. Other promising results could be obtained from extracts of Aloe perryi, Indigofera oblongifolia, Meriandra benghalensis and Ziziphus spina christi. Additionally, the ethanolic extracts of the 20 plants under investigation were tested for their cytotoxic effects on FL-cells using the neutral red assay. Extracts of Calotropis procera, Chenopodium murale, Pulicaria orientalis, Tribulus terrestris and Withania somniferum displayed a remarkable activity. PMID:11167035

Ali, N A; Jülich, W D; Kusnick, C; Lindequist, U

2001-02-01

404

Assessment of antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum and phytochemical screening of some Yemeni medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Developing countries, where malaria is one of the most prevalent diseases, still rely on traditional medicine as a source for the treatment of this disease. In the present study, six selected plants (Acalypha fruticosa, Azadirachta indica, Cissus rotundifolia, Echium rauwalfii, Dendrosicyos socotrana and Boswellia elongata) commonly used in Yemen by traditional healers for the treatment of malaria as well as other diseases, were collected from different localities of Yemen, dried and extracted with methanol and water successfully. The antiplasmodial activity of the extracts was evaluated against fresh clinical isolates of Plasmodium falciparum. The selectivity parameters to evaluate the efficacy of these medicinal plants were measured by in vitro micro test (Mark III) according to World Health Organization (WHO) 1996 & WHO 2001 protocols of antimalarial drug tests. Among the investigated 12 extracts, three were found to have significant antiplasmodial activity with IC(50) values less than 4 microg/ml, namely the water extracts of A. fruticosa, A. indica and D. socotrana. Six extracts showed moderate activity with IC(50) values ranging from 10 to 30 microg/ml and three appeared to be inactive with IC(50) values more than 30 microg/ml. In addition, preliminary phytochemical screening of the methanolic and aqueous extracts indicated the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, polysaccharides and peptides. PMID:18955251

Alshawsh, Mohammed A; Mothana, Ramzi A; Al-Shamahy, Hassan A; Alsllami, Salah F; Lindequist, Ulrike

2007-10-22

405

Assessment of antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum and phytochemical screening of some Yemeni medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Developing countries, where malaria is one of the most prevalent diseases, still rely on traditional medicine as a source for the treatment of this disease. In the present study, six selected plants (Acalypha fruticosa, Azadirachta indica, Cissus rotundifolia, Echium rauwalfii, Dendrosicyos socotrana and Boswellia elongata) commonly used in Yemen by traditional healers for the treatment of malaria as well as other diseases, were collected from different localities of Yemen, dried and extracted with methanol and water successfully. The antiplasmodial activity of the extracts was evaluated against fresh clinical isolates of Plasmodium falciparum. The selectivity parameters to evaluate the efficacy of these medicinal plants were measured by in vitro micro test (Mark III) according to World Health Organization (WHO) 1996 & WHO 2001 protocols of antimalarial drug tests. Among the investigated 12 extracts, three were found to have significant antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values less than 4 µg/ml, namely the water extracts of A. fruticosa, A. indica and D. socotrana. Six extracts showed moderate activity with IC50 values ranging from 10 to 30 µg/ml and three appeared to be inactive with IC50 values more than 30 µg/ml. In addition, preliminary phytochemical screening of the methanolic and aqueous extracts indicated the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, polysaccharides and peptides.

Alshawsh, Mohammed A.; Al-shamahy, Hassan A.; Alsllami, Salah F.; Lindequist, Ulrike

2009-01-01

406

Extraction cycles design for La Hague plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper deals with the extraction cycles design for La Hague plants. The work has consisted in basic laboratory studies with elaboration of computer models and their subsequent uses in flowsheet optimized design. To highlight this work, the case of UP3...

P. Baron B. Boullis M. Germain J. P. Gue P. Miquel

1993-01-01

407

EXTRACTION OF GENOMIC DNA FROM PLANT TISSUE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three general methods that are commonly used to extract genomic DNA from plant tissue were reviewed. The principles, critical factors, and optimization procedures were discussed to help researcher to choose and modify a method according to their research purpose. Emphasis is given to a simple 96-we...

408

Inhibitory effects of essential oils of medicinal plants from growth of plant pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Plant cells produce a vast amount of secondary metabolites. Production of some compounds is restricted to a single species. Some compounds are nearly always found only in certain specific plant organs and during a specific developmental period of the plant. Some secondary metabolites of plants serve as defensive compounds against invading microorganisms. Nowadays, it is attempted to substitute the biological and natural agents with chemically synthesized fungicides. In the present research, the antifungal activities of essential oils of seven medicinal plants on mycelial growth of three soilborne plant pathogenic fungi were investigated. The plants consisted of Zataria multiflora, Thymus carmanicus, Mentha pieperata, Satureja hortensis, Lavandual officinolis, Cuminum cyminum and Azadirachta indica. The first five plants are from the family Labiatae. Examined fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani are the causal agents of tomato root rot. Essential oils of Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus, M. pieperata, S. hortensis and C. cyminum were extracted by hydro-distillation method. Essential oils of L. officinalis and A. indica were extracted by vapor-distillation method. A completely randomized design with five replicates was used to examine the inhibitory impact of each concentration (300, 600 and 900 ppm) of each essential oil. Poisoned food assay using potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was employed. Results showed that essential oils of A. indica, Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus and S. hortensis in 900 ppm at 12 days post-inoculation, when the control fungi completely covered the plates, prevented about 90% from mycelial growth of each of the fungi. While, the essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis in the same concentration and time prevented 54.86, 52.77 and 48.84%, respectively, from F. solani growth. These substances did not prevent from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and R. solani growth. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oils of T. carmanicus, Z. multiflora and A. indica from R. solani and F. solani growth was 900 and 600 ppm, respectively. In addition, the MIC of essential oils of these plants and essential oil of S. hortensis from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici growth was 900 ppm. The MIC of essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis from F. solani growth was 900 ppm. PMID:22702190

Panjehkeh, N; Jahani Hossein-Abadi, Z

2011-01-01

409

Identification of plant extracts sensitizing breast cancer cells to TRAIL.  

PubMed

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive heterogeneous cancer subgroup with a higher rate of distant recurrence and a poorer prognosis compared to other subgroups. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is an attractive molecule that induces cell death in various tumor cells without causing cytotoxicity to normal cells; however, primary or acquired resistance to TRAIL often limits its efficacy in cancer patients. To develop combination therapies to improve TRAIL efficacy and/or to overcome the resistant mechanism, we screened 138 medicinal plant extracts against TRAIL-sensitive and -insensitive TNBC cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468. Among them, 5 plant extracts, Uvaria dac, Artemisia vulgaris, Cortia depressa, Dichasia bengalensis and Cinnamomum obtusifolium did not cause apparent cytotoxicity (<20%) as a single regimen, but showed significant synergistic effects in combination with TRAIL against both cell lines. Moreover, Uvaria dac, Artemisia vulgaris and Cinnamomum obtusifolium were found to suppress the phosphorylation of p65 that is involved in TRAIL-resistant mechanisms. These observations suggest that the identified plant extracts in combination with TRAIL could lead to potential therapeutic benefits for cancer patients in the clinical setting. PMID:23426404

Abdelhamed, Sherif; Yokoyama, Satoru; Hafiyani, Lia; Kalauni, Surya K; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Awale, Suresh; Saiki, Ikuo

2013-02-19

410

Integrating carbon-halogen bond formation into medicinal plant metabolism.  

PubMed

Halogenation, which was once considered a rare occurrence in nature, has now been observed in many natural product biosynthetic pathways. However, only a small fraction of halogenated compounds have been isolated from terrestrial plants. Given the impact that halogenation can have on the biological activity of natural products, we reasoned that the introduction of halides into medicinal plant metabolism would provide the opportunity to rationally bioengineer a broad variety of novel plant products with altered, and perhaps improved, pharmacological properties. Here we report that chlorination biosynthetic machinery from soil bacteria can be successfully introduced into the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle). These prokaryotic halogenases function within the context of the plant cell to generate chlorinated tryptophan, which is then shuttled into monoterpene indole alkaloid metabolism to yield chlorinated alkaloids. A new functional group-a halide-is thereby introduced into the complex metabolism of C. roseus, and is incorporated in a predictable and regioselective manner onto the plant alkaloid products. Medicinal plants, despite their genetic and developmental complexity, therefore seem to be a viable platform for synthetic biology efforts. PMID:21048708

Runguphan, Weerawat; Qu, Xudong; O'Connor, Sarah E

2010-11-03

411

Integrating Carbon-Halogen Bond Formation into Medicinal Plant Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Halogenation, once considered a rare occurrence in nature, has now been observed in many natural product biosynthetic pathways1. However, only a small fraction of halogenated compounds have been isolated from terrestrial plants2. Given the impact that halogenation can have on the biological activity of natural products1, we rationalized that introduction of halides into medicinal plant metabolism would provide the opportunity to rationally bioengineer a broad variety of novel plant products with altered, and perhaps improved, pharmacological properties. Here we report that chlorination biosynthetic machinery from soil bacteria can be successfully introduced into the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle). These prokaryotic halogenases function within the context of the plant cell to generate chlorinated tryptophan, which is then shuttled into monoterpene indole alkaloid metabolism to yield chlorinated alkaloids. A new functional group– a halide– is thereby introduced into the complex metabolism of C. roseus, and is incorporated in a predictable and regioselective manner onto the plant alkaloid products. Medicinal plants, despite their genetic and developmental complexity, therefore appear to be a viable platform for synthetic biology efforts.

Runguphan, Weerawat; Qu, Xudong; O'Connor, Sarah E.

2010-01-01

412

Whole plant extracts versus single compounds for the treatment of malaria: synergy and positive interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In traditional medicine whole plants or mixtures of plants are used rather than isolated compounds. There is evidence that\\u000a crude plant extracts often have greater in vitro or\\/and in vivo antiplasmodial activity than isolated constituents at an equivalent\\u000a dose. The aim of this paper is to review positive interactions between components of whole plant extracts, which may explain\\u000a this.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Narrative

Philippe Rasoanaivo; Colin W Wright; Merlin L Willcox; Ben Gilbert

2011-01-01

413

Whole plant extracts versus single compounds for the treatment of malaria: synergy and positive interactions  

PubMed Central

Background In traditional medicine whole plants or mixtures of plants are used rather than isolated compounds. There is evidence that crude plant extracts often have greater in vitro or/and in vivo antiplasmodial activity than isolated constituents at an equivalent dose. The aim of this paper is to review positive interactions between components of whole plant extracts, which may explain this. Methods Narrative review. Results There is evidence for several different types of positive interactions between different components of medicinal plants used in the treatment of malaria. Pharmacodynamic synergy has been demonstrated between the Cinchona alkaloids and between various plant extracts traditionally combined. Pharmacokinetic interactions occur, for example between constituents of Artemisia annua tea so that its artemisinin is more rapidly absorbed than the pure drug. Some plant extracts may have an immunomodulatory effect as well as a direct antiplasmodial effect. Several extracts contain multidrug resistance inhibitors, although none of these has been tested clinically in malaria. Some plant constituents are added mainly to attenuate the side-effects of others, for example ginger to prevent nausea. Conclusions More clinical research is needed on all types of interaction between plant constituents. This could include clinical trials of combinations of pure compounds (such as artemisinin + curcumin + piperine) and of combinations of herbal remedies (such as Artemisia annua leaves + Curcuma longa root + Piper nigum seeds). The former may enhance the activity of existing pharmaceutical preparations, and the latter may improve the effectiveness of existing herbal remedies for use in remote areas where modern drugs are unavailable.

2011-01-01

414

Antifeedant and larvicidal effects of plant extracts against Spodoptera litura (F.), Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screening for larvicidal activity of plant extracts with some known medicinal attributes could lead to the discovery of\\u000a new agents for pest and vector control. In the backdrop of recent revival of interest in developing plant-based insecticides,\\u000a the present study was carried out to evaluate the larvicidal properties in three medicinal plants growing abundantly in the\\u000a region of Chitheri

C. Kamaraj; A. Abdul Rahuman; A. Bagavan

2008-01-01

415

Isolation of good quality RNA from a medicinal plant seabuckthorn, rich in secondary metabolites.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are being widely investigated owing to their ability to produce molecules of therapeutic significance. Isolation of good quality RNA is a tedious but primary step towards undertaking molecular biology experiments. However, medicinal plants are rich in secondary metabolites and not amenable to standard RNA isolation protocols involving Guanidine isothiocyanate (GITC). So an RNA isolation protocol from difficult samples (richer in secondary metabolites) is of highest desiderata. Here we propose a new protocol suitable for isolating RNA from plant tissues rich in secondary metabolites. To standard CTAB (Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide) buffer, addition of 2% PVPP (polyvinyl polypyrrolidone) and 350 mM beta-mercaptoethanol was found useful. Use of glacial acetic acid (1M) along with ethanol for precipitation after phenolization and chloroform extraction enhanced the RNA yield. This is the first report of using glacial acetic acid in a CTAB based protocol for the precipitation of RNA. This protocol has been validated in medicinal plant Hippophae rhamnoides vern. seabuckthorn, where standard RNA isolation methods involving GITC and TRIZol extraction buffers failed. The RNA isolated by this method was of good quality as gauged by spectrophotometric readings and denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis. To the best of our knowledge, this RNA isolation protocol has never been published before. The RNA thus obtained could be suitably used for the downstream molecular procedures like Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), Real Time-PCR, cDNA library construction, etc. PMID:19804984

Ghangal, Rajesh; Raghuvanshi, Saurabh; Chand Sharma, Prakash

2009-09-17

416

Effects of gamma irradiation on microbial contamination and extraction yields of Korean medicinal herbs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of gamma irradiation on hygienic quality and extraction yields in twenty-one kinds of Korean medicinal herbs were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 5-10 kGy inactivated contaminating microorganisms. The total extraction yield in fifteen kinds of the investigated medicinal herbs increased by 5-25% by a dose of 10 kGy.

Kim, M.-J.; Yook, H.-S.; Byun, M.-W.

2000-01-01

417

Effects of gamma irradiation on microbial contamination and extraction yields of Korean medicinal herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of gamma irradiation on hygienic quality and extraction yields in twenty-one kinds of Korean medicinal herbs were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 5–10 kGy inactivated contaminating microorganisms. The total extraction yield in fifteen kinds of the investigated medicinal herbs increased by 5–25% by a dose of 10 kGy.

Mi-Jung Kim; Hong-Sun Yook; Myung-Woo Byun

2000-01-01

418

Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of some Swedish medicinal plants. Inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis and PAF-induced exocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants used in Swedish traditional medicine to treat inflammatory diseases and\\/or wounds were selected, based on literature data, for evaluation of inhibitory activity on prostaglandin biosynthesis and platelet activating factor (PAF)-induced exocytosis in vitro. Fifty-nine water extracts from 52 different plants in 28 families were tested. A number of plants, e.g. Calluna vulgaris, Corylus avellana, Geum urbanum, Juniperus communis, Polygonum

H. Tunón; C. Olavsdotter; L. Bohlin

1995-01-01

419

In vitro hypoglycemic activity of methanolic extract of some indigenous plants.  

PubMed

Pakistan is rich in medicinally important plants and has ancient herbal treatment methods. Present work is based on the study of six indigenous plants Eugenia jambolana, Lawsonia inermis, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Nigella sativa and Trigonella foenum graecum which show the inhibitory effect of glucose utilization, and are in use as hypoglycemic agents of varying degree in traditional system of medicine. The glucose uptake activity of (methanolic extracts) of these plants was tested in vitro and glucose was estimated by glucose oxidase method. The results in three different media revealed that, hypoglycemic activity is more prominent in neutral and basic media as compared to acidic medium. PMID:17604247

Arayne, M Saeed; Sultana, Najma; Mirza, Agha Zeeshan; Zuberi, M Hashim; Siddiqui, Farhan Ahmed

2007-10-01

420

[Microscopic and polariscopic characteristics of 30 medicinal plants of Polygonum].  

PubMed

Polygonum L. s. str., belonging to Polygonaceae family, is a big genus with abundant medicinal plants. More than 10 plants are specified in Chinese Pharmacopoeia and many local medicinal standards and over 50 species are used as folk medicines. Owing to the similar morphologies and very small flowers and fruits, they are uneasily identified and often confused with each other and misused clinically. In order to provide a basis for identification of Polygonum s. str. plants, a histological study on stems and leaves of 30 species from Polygonum was undertaken by a routine/polarized light microscopy for the first time. The results showed that: (1) the transverse sections of stems of Polygonum are relatively similar, sclerenchyma such as xylem and fibres with strong polarization effects; (2) the surface views of leaves of Polygonum are distinguishable on distributions and types of stomata, with or without attachments (such as glandular hairs/scales or non-glandular hairs) and the polariscopic features of epidermal cell walls, stomata and cell contents. Observed under polarized light, it was found for the first time that stomata on leaf surface of some plants have a Maltese-cross effect with the arms of the cross intersecting at the stomatal opening. As a result, a key combining the microscopic and polariscopic characteristics of the stems as well as leaves was provided for identifying the 30 medicinal plants of Polygonum. The polarized light microscopic method was proven to be one of the quick, simple and effective techniques for the identification of medicinal plants and botanic crude materials. PMID:23227558

Wang, Ying-Yu; Zhang, Chao-Feng; Zhang, Mian

2012-09-01

421

Antioxidative activities of medicinal plants from TCM.  

PubMed

As a natural antioxidant resource, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been paid much more attentions than before. The studies on its antioxidative activity have also increased dramatically in recent years. Abundant studies on TCM show that some TCM can increase body's activity of antioxidant enzymes, enhance body's ability of scavenging free radicals and decrease the generation of lipid peroxide (LPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the body etc. The action mechanism of TCM is closely related to its active constituents, including polysaccharides, quinines, flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, terpenes, phenolic acids compounds and tannins etc. Through referring to related reports on TCM, in the last 20 years, this paper reviews literatures involved in antioxidation research on TCM. Antioxidative mechanism, functional property and application prospect of some active constituents with antioxidation in TCM are discussed. PMID:22512585

Liu, Qi-Mei; Jiang, Jian-Guo

2012-10-01

422

Plant, synthetic, and endogenous cannabinoids in medicine.  

PubMed

Although used for more than 4000 years for recreational and medicinal purposes, Cannabis and its best-known pharmacologically active constituents, the cannabinoids, became a protagonist in medical research only recently. This revival of interest is explained by the finding in the 1990s of the mechanism of action of the main psychotropic cannabinoid, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which acts through specific membrane receptors, the cannabinoid receptors. The molecular characterization of these receptors allowed the development of synthetic molecules with cannabinoid and noncannabinoid structure and with higher selectivity, metabolic stability, and efficacy than THC, as well as the development of antagonists that have already found pharmaceutical application. The finding of endogenous agonists at these receptors, the endocannabinoids, opened new therapeutic possibilities through the modulation of the activity of cannabinoid receptors by targeting the biochemical mechanisms controlling endocannabinoid tissue levels. PMID:16409166

Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Petrocellis, Luciano De

2006-01-01

423

Perilla frutescens: interesting new medicinal and melliferous plant in Italy.  

PubMed

The goal of this study is to inform those potentially interested (researchers, farmers, industry and public bodies) in the medicinal and aromatic properties, and profitability of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton (Lamiaceae). Perilla, a medicinal and edible plant of Asian origin, was recently introduced to the Piedmont Region in the north-west of Italy. P. frutescens is commonly known for its anti-allergic, anti-tumor, and anti-oxidant properties. It is also widely used as human food. We collected a variety of data on Perilla crops in the Piedmont Region, including: agricultural practices, crop profitability, and its value as a bee plant. Our results suggest that ease of cultivation, approximate break-even economics, medicinal claims, and value for bees all contribute to make Perilla of economic interest in Italy. PMID:22164783

Barbieri, Cinzia; Ferrazzi, Paola

2011-10-01

424

Microarray analysis of gene expression in medicinal plant research.  

PubMed

Expression profiling analysis offers great opportunities for the identification of novel molecular targets, drug discovery, development, and validation. The beauty of microarray analysis of gene expression is that it can be used to screen the expression of tens of thousands of genes in parallel and to identify appropriate molecular targets for therapeutic intervention. Toward identifying novel therapeutic options, natural products, notably from medicinal plants used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), have been thoroughly investigated. Increased knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of TCM-derived drugs could be achieved through application of modern molecular technologies including transcript profiling. In the present review, we introduce a brief introduction to the field of microarray technology and disclose its role in target identification and validation. Moreover, we provide examples for applications regarding molecular target discovery in medicinal plants derived TCM. This could be an attractive strategy for the development of novel and improved therapeutics. PMID:22495629

Youns, M; Efferth, T; Hoheisel, J D

2009-10-01

425

The investigation of Euphorbiaceous medicinal plants in Southern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Euphorbiaceae is an extensive family of plants that includes about 300 genera and 5000 species and is mainly distributed\\u000a in tropical areas. For a long time this family has been recognized and reported for its anti-cancer components, anti-hepatitis\\u000a B components and carcinogenic factors. In the literature of ancient traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), 33 species of plants\\u000a from 17 genera

Xu Zeng Lai; Yu Bo Yang; Xu Luo Shan

2004-01-01

426

Trace element content of medicinal plants from Algeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determination of eleven medicinal plants used to cure\\u000a the urinary tract diseases observed in Algeria. These plants include Androgena Citratus, Ceratonia Siliquata, Punica Granatum, Glyryrrhiza Glabra, Lausaunia Alba, Fragaria Vesca, Arbutus Unedol,\\u000a Hordeum Vulgaris, Papieteria Officinalis, Zea Mays L, and Davallia Seae. Concentrations of twenty elements Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co,

Z. Lamari; S. Landsberger; J. Braisted; H. Neggache; R. Larbi

2008-01-01

427

Antiviral activity of Hawaiian medicinal plants against human immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1).  

PubMed

Hawaiian medicinal plants commonly used for the treatment of a variety of infections were screened for antiviral activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Sixty-one extracts derived from seventeen plants were tested for selective viral growth inhibition using the LAI (HTLV-IIIB) isolate. The greatest degree of antiviral activity was observed with aqueous extracts made from the bark of Eugenia malaccensis (L.) and the leaves of Pluchea indica (Less.) which had antiviral selectivity indices (50% cytotoxic concentration/50% effective antiviral concentration) of 109 and 94, respectively. These and other extracts conferred 100% cell protection against viral cytopathic effect when compared with control samples. Methanol and water extracts made from the Pipturus albidus (Gray) leaves and bark also achieved a high selective inhibition of virus replication with very low cytotoxicity. Plant extracts made from Aleurites moluccana (Willd.), Psychotria hawaiiensis (Gray), Clermontia aborescens (Mann), and Scaevola sericea (Forst.) also showed antiviral activity. These data provide a rationale for the characterization of antiviral natural products from these plants and related plant species. PMID:23194626

Locher, C P; Witvrouw, M; De Béthune, M P; Burch, M T; Mower, H F; Davis, H; Lasure, A; Pauwels, R; De Clercq, E; Vlietinck, A J

1996-01-01

428

Adverse and beneficial effects of plant extracts on skin and skin disorders.  

PubMed

Plants are of relevance to dermatology for both their adverse and beneficial effects on skin and skin disorders respectively. Virtually all cultures worldwide have relied historically, or continue to rely on medicinal plants for primary health care. Approximately one-third of all traditional medicines are for treatment of wounds or skin disorders, compared to only 1-3% of modern drugs. The use of such medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of skin disorders arguably has been based largely on historical/anecdotal evidence, since there has been relatively little data available in the scientific literature, particularly with regard to the efficacy of plant extracts in controlled clinical trials. In this article therefore, adverse and beneficial aspects of medicinal plants relating to skin and skin disorders have been reviewed, based on recently available information from the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Beneficial aspects of medicinal plants on skin include: healing of wounds and burn injuries (especially Aloe vera); antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial and acaricidal activity against skin infections such as acne, herpes and scabies (especially tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil); activity against inflammatory/immune disorders affecting skin (e.g. psoriasis); and anti-tumour promoting activity against skin cancer (identified using chemically-induced two-stage carcinogenesis in mice). Adverse effects of plants on skin reviewed include: irritant contact dermatitis caused mechanically (spines, irritant hairs) or by irritant chemicals in plant sap (especially members of the Ranunculaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Compositae plant families); phytophotodermatitis resulting from skin contamination by plants containing furocoumarins, and subsequent exposure to UV light (notably members of the Umbelliferae and Rutaceae plant families); and immediate (type I) or delayed hypersensitivity contact reactions mediated by the immune system in individuals sensitized to plants or plant products (e.g. peanut allergy, poison ivy (Toxicodendron) poisoning). PMID:11482001

Mantle, D; Gok, M A; Lennard, T W

2001-06-01

429

A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological constituents and many of them are known to be effective against diabetes. Medicinal plants with antihyperglycemic activities are being more desired, owing to lesser side-effects and low cost. This review focuses on the various plants that have been reported to be effective in diabetes. A record of various medicinal plants with their established antidiabetic and other health benefits has been reported. These include Allium sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Panax ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre, Momrodica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Trigonella foenum graecum and Tinospora cordifolia. All of them have shown a certain degree of antidiabetic activity by different mechanisms of action.

Khan, Vasim; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Akhtar, Mohd.; Aqil, Mohd.; Mujeeb, Mohd.; Pillai, K. K.

2012-01-01

430

Lead and cadmium in herbs and medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this literature review was to pool data on heavy metal accumula- tion in herbs, spices and medicinal plants in Europe. A comparative study performed by MTT Agrifood Research Finland in 1990 showed that lead concentration in Finnish herbs was clearly lower that in herbs produced in other parts in Europe. Cadmium concentrations did not differ much between

Marja Roitto; Bertalan Galambosi

431

New strategy may save the medicinal plant, Goldenseal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Three research posters have recently been placed online at the Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre (ECORC) Website. This one, by A. Sinclair and P.M. Catling, proposes a recovery method for the native medicinal plant Goldenseal, threatened in Canada. All three posters are available in .pdf format.

Sinclair, A.; Catling, P. M.

432

Equilibrium Moisture Content Equations for some Medicinal and Aromatic Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, the most commonly used equilibrium moisture content (EMC) and equilibrium relative humidity (ERH) equations are compared on their ability to best fit the published sorption data for selected medicinal and aromatic plants. A non-linear regression technique is used to fit data subsets. In order to compare the performance of the EMC\\/ERH equations, three statistical error parameters are

Y. Soysal; S. Öztekin

1999-01-01

433

Antitussive activity of polysaccharides isolated from the Malian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the leaves of popular Malian medicinal plants Trichilia emetica (TE) and Opilia celtidifolia (OC), and fruits of Crossopteryx febrifuga (CF) water and water–ethanol soluble polysaccharide materials were isolated. The results of chemical analysis of the crude polysaccharides showed the dominance of the arabinogalactan (?54%) and the rhamnogalacturonan (?30%) in T. emetica leaves, the arabinogalactan (?60%), the rhamnogalacturonan (?14%) and

M. Šutovská; S. Fra?ová; L. Prisežnaková; G. Nosá?ová; A. Togola; D. Diallo; B. S. Paulsen; P. Capek

2009-01-01

434

PIXE-PIGE analysis of some Indian medicinal plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantitative estimation of various trace element concentrations in medicinal plants is necessary for determining their effectiveness in treating various diseases and for understanding their pharmacological action. Elemental concentrations of some selected medicinal plants of north east India was measured by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced ?-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.4 MeV collimated protons from the 3 MV tandetron accelerator of NCCCM, Hyderabad (India) while the PIGE measurements were carried out using 3 MeV protons from the same accelerator in the same laboratory. Accuracy and precision of the techniques were assured by analyzing certified reference materials in the same experimental conditions. Various elements of biological importance in man’s metabolism were found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied medicinal plants and no toxic heavy metals were detected. The concentration of the various elements in the medicinal plants and their role in treating various diseases are discussed.

Nomita Devi, K.; Nandakumar Sarma, H.

2010-06-01

435

Medicinal and spice plants on grassland sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to discover whether an alternative growing from officinal and spice plants on grassland sites in the north eastern part of Germany is possible. To find suitable species, special botanical studies of large grassland areas were made and analysed. Furthermore, parcel experiments with different species as well as field experiments in farms were made. First of

Gisbert Schalitz; Ralf Hebenstreit

2007-01-01

436

Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Loja province, Southern Ecuador. Two hundred fifteen plant species were collected, identified and their vernacular names and traditional uses recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors and members of the public interviewed still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. However, the area represents only an outlier of the larger Northern Peruvian cultural area, where more than 500 species of plants are used medicinally, indicating that in Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. Most plant species registered are only used medicinally, and only a few species have any other use (construction, fodder, food). The highest number of species is used for the treatment of "magical" (psychosomatic) ailments (39 species), followed by respiratory disorders (34), problems of the urinary tract (28), Fever/Malaria (25), Rheumatism (23) and nervous system problems (20).

Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

2006-01-01

437

Antibacterial efficacy and phytochemical observation of some Indian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The aim of the study is to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Pistacia integerrima, Cedrus deodara and Gymnema sylvestre against seven different microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas, Bacillus subtillis and Staphylococcus aureus by using disc diffusion method. Preliminary studies with ethanol extract and water extract of plants indicated that the growth of test organism was markedly inhibited by ethanol extract of Pistacia integerrima and Gymnema sylvestre. But in case of Cedrus deodara, water extract was more effective. Efficacy of plant extract which showed variable inhibitory activity against each bacteria was compared to standard antibiotic (tetracyclin). The two extracts were subjected to qualitative analysis to find out phytoconstituents present . Results showed that Pistacia integerrima contained all the phytochemicals, so exhibited higher antibacterial activity. PMID:22557236

Selvi, S; Devi, P Uma; Chinnaswamy, P; Giji, T M; Sharmila, S P

2007-01-01

438

Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major). The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases. PMID:12471432

Holetz, Fabíola Barbiéri; Pessini, Greisiele Lorena; Sanches, Neviton Rogério; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias

2002-10-01

439