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Sample records for medicine heart imaging

  1. Heart failure - medicines

    MedlinePlus

    CHF - medicines; Congestive heart failure - medicines; Cardiomyopathy - medicines; HF - medicines ... You will need to take most of your heart failure medicines every day. Some medicines are taken ...

  2. Heart failure - medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ACE inhibitors (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors) and ARBs (angiotensin II receptor blockers) work by opening blood vessels and lowering blood pressure. These medicines can: Reduce the work your heart has to do Help ...

  3. Heart imaging method

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H. Dale; Gribble, R. Parks; Busse, Lawrence J.

    1991-01-01

    A method for providing an image of the human heart's electrical system derives time-of-flight data from an array of EKG electrodes and this data is transformed into phase information. The phase information, treated as a hologram, is reconstructed to provide an image in one or two dimensions of the electrical system of the functioning heart.

  4. Heart Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Johnson Space Flight Center's device to test astronauts' heart function in microgravity has led to the MultiWire Gamma Camera, which images heart conditions six times faster than conventional devices. Dr. Jeffrey Lacy, who developed the technology as a NASA researcher, later formed Proportional Technologies, Inc. to develop a commercially viable process that would enable use of Tantalum-178 (Ta-178), a radio-pharmaceutical. His company supplies the generator for the radioactive Ta-178 to Xenos Medical Systems, which markets the camera. Ta-178 can only be optimally imaged with the camera. Because the body is subjected to it for only nine minutes, the radiation dose is significantly reduced and the technique can be used more frequently. Ta-178 also enables the camera to be used on pediatric patients who are rarely studied with conventional isotopes because of the high radiation dosage.

  5. Heart transplant - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... The main problem, as with other transplants, is graft rejection. If rejection can be controlled, then survival can ... major problems are the same all major organ transplants face: a shortage of donor hearts rejection of the transplanted heart cost of the surgery ...

  6. Heart, front view (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the heart. The vessels colored blue indicate the transport of blood with relatively low content of oxygen ... carbon dioxide. The vessels colored red indicate the transport of blood with relatively high content of oxygen ...

  7. Clinical imaging in regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Naumova, Anna V; Modo, Michel; Moore, Anna; Murry, Charles E; Frank, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    In regenerative medicine, clinical imaging is indispensable for characterizing damaged tissue and for measuring the safety and efficacy of therapy. However, the ability to track the fate and function of transplanted cells with current technologies is limited. Exogenous contrast labels such as nanoparticles give a strong signal in the short term but are unreliable long term. Genetically encoded labels are good both short- and long-term in animals, but in the human setting they raise regulatory issues related to the safety of genomic integration and potential immunogenicity of reporter proteins. Imaging studies in brain, heart and islets share a common set of challenges, including developing novel labeling approaches to improve detection thresholds and early delineation of toxicity and function. Key areas for future research include addressing safety concerns associated with genetic labels and developing methods to follow cell survival, differentiation and integration with host tissue. Imaging may bridge the gap between cell therapies and health outcomes by elucidating mechanisms of action through longitudinal monitoring. PMID:25093889

  8. Molecular Imaging in Genetic Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Ayden; Van Gestel, Frederick; Yaghoubi, Shahriar

    2016-01-01

    The field of biomedical imaging has made significant advances in recent times. This includes extremely high-resolution anatomic imaging and functional imaging of physiologic and pathologic processes as well as novel modalities in optical imaging to evaluate molecular features within the cellular environment. The latter has made it possible to image phenotypic markers of various genotypes that are implicated in human development, behavior, and disease. This article discusses the role of molecular imaging in genetic and precision medicine.  PMID:27186447

  9. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gerald W.; Brill, A. Bertrand; Bizais, Yves J. C.; Rowe, R. Wanda; Zubal, I. George

    1986-01-01

    A nuclear medicine imaging system having two large field of view scintillation cameras mounted on a rotatable gantry and being movable diametrically toward or away from each other is disclosed. In addition, each camera may be rotated about an axis perpendicular to the diameter of the gantry. The movement of the cameras allows the system to be used for a variety of studies, including positron annihilation, and conventional single photon emission, as well as static orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography. In orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography, each camera is fitted with a seven pinhole collimator to provide seven views from slightly different perspectives. By using two cameras at an angle to each other, improved sensitivity and depth resolution is achieved. The computer system and interface acquires and stores a broad range of information in list mode, including patient physiological data, energy data over the full range detected by the cameras, and the camera position. The list mode acquisition permits the study of attenuation as a result of Compton scatter, as well as studies involving the isolation and correlation of energy with a range of physiological conditions.

  10. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gerald W.; Brill, A. Bertrand; Bizais, Yves J.; Rowe, R. Wanda; Zubal, I. George

    1986-01-07

    A nuclear medicine imaging system having two large field of view scintillation cameras mounted on a rotatable gantry and being movable diametrically toward or away from each other is disclosed. In addition, each camera may be rotated about an axis perpendicular to the diameter of the gantry. The movement of the cameras allows the system to be used for a variety of studies, including positron annihilation, and conventional single photon emission, as well as static orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography. In orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography, each camera is fitted with a seven pinhole collimator to provide seven views from slightly different perspectives. By using two cameras at an angle to each other, improved sensitivity and depth resolution is achieved. The computer system and interface acquires and stores a broad range of information in list mode, including patient physiological data, energy data over the full range detected by the cameras, and the camera position. The list mode acquisition permits the study of attenuation as a result of Compton scatter, as well as studies involving the isolation and correlation of energy with a range of physiological conditions.

  11. Digoxin: A Medicine for Heart Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart failure results when the heart can't pump blood well enough to supply the body's needs. If ... failure, digoxin can improve your heart's ability to pump blood. This will often improve symptoms such as shortness ...

  12. Radiopharmaceuticals for imaging the heart

    DOEpatents

    Green, M.A.; Tsang, B.W.

    1994-06-28

    Radiopharmaceuticals for imaging myocardial tissues are prepared by forming lipophilic, cationic complexes of radioactive metal ions with metal chelating ligands comprising the Schiff base adducts of triamines and tetraamines with optionally substituted salicylaldehydes. The lipophilic, cationic, radioactive complexes of the invention exhibit high uptake and retention in myocardial tissues. Preferred gallium-68(III) complexes in accordance with this invention can be used to image the heart using positron emission tomography. 6 figures.

  13. Radiopharmaceuticals for imaging the heart

    DOEpatents

    Green, Mark A.; Tsang, Brenda W.

    1994-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals for imaging myocardial tissues are prepared by forming lipophilic, cationic complexes of radioactive metal ions with metal chelating ligands comprising the Schiff base adducts of triamines and tetraamines with optionally substituted salicylaldehydes. The lipophilic, cationic, radioactive complexes of the invention exhibit high uptake and retention in myocardial tissues. Preferred gallium-68(III) complexes in accordance with this invention can be used to image the heart using positron emission tomography.

  14. Heart Sonar Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Stanford University cardiologists, with the help of Ames engineers, have validated the operation of the echo-cardioscope to monitor cardiac functions of astronauts in flight. This device forms images of internal structures using high-frequency sound. The instrument is compact, lightweight, portable, and DC powered for safety. The battery powered ultrasonic device, being isolated from its electrical environment, has an inherent safety advantage especially with infants.

  15. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, G.W.; Brill, A.B.; Bizais, Y.J.C.; Rowe, R.W.; Zubal, I.G.

    1983-03-11

    It is an object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system having the versatility to do positron annihilation studies, rotating single or opposed camera gamma emission studies, and orthogonal gamma emission studies. It is a further object of this invention to provide an imaging system having the capability for orthogonal dual multipinhole tomography. It is another object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system in which all available energy data, as well as patient physiological data, are acquired simultaneously in list mode.

  16. Heart Palpitation From Traditional and Modern Medicine Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ershadifar, Tabassom; Minaiee, Bagher; Gharooni, Manouchehr; Isfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Nazem, Esmaiel; Gousheguir, Ashraf Aldin; Kazemi Saleh, Davod

    2014-01-01

    Background: Palpitation is a sign of a disease and is very common in general population. For this purpose we decided to explain it in this study. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe the palpitation in both modern and traditional medicine aspect. It may help us to diagnose and cure better because the traditional medicine view is holistic and different from modern medicine. Materials and Methods: We addressed some descriptions to the articles of traditional medicine subjects which have published recently. Palpitation in modern medicine was extracted from medical books such as Braunwald, Harrison and Guyton physiology and some related articles obtained from authentic journals in PubMed and Ovid and Google scholar between1990 to 2013. Results: According to modern medicine, there are many causes for palpitation and in some cases it is cured symptomatically. In traditional medicine view, palpitation has been explained completely and many causes have been described. Its aspect is holistic and it cures causatively. The traditional medicine scientists evaluated the body based on Humors and temperament. Temperament can be changed to dis-temperament in diseases. Humors are divided in 4 items: sanguine, humid or phlegm, melancholy and bile. Palpitation is a disease, it is heart vibration and is caused by an abnormal substance in the heart itself or its membrane or other adjacent organs that would result in the heart suffering. Conclusions: Our data of this article suggests that causes of palpitation in the aspect of traditional medicine are completely different from modern medicine. It can help us to approach and treat this symptom better and with lower side effects than chemical drugs. According to this article we are able to detect a new approach in palpitation. PMID:24719741

  17. Bioengineering Heart Muscle: A Paradigm for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Kathy O.; Tandon, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The idea of extending the lifetime of our organs is as old as humankind, fueled by major advances in organ transplantation, novel drugs, and medical devices. However, true regeneration of human tissue has becoming increasingly plausible only in recent years. The human heart has always been a focus of such efforts, given its notorious inability to repair itself following injury or disease. We discuss here the emerging bioengineering approaches to regeneration of heart muscle as a paradigm for regenerative medicine. Our focus is on biologically inspired strategies for heart regeneration, knowledge gained thus far about how to make a “perfect” heart graft, and the challenges that remain to be addressed for tissue-engineered heart regeneration to become a clinical reality. We emphasize the need for interdisciplinary research and training, as recent progress in the field is largely being made at the interfaces between cardiology, stem cell science, and bioengineering. PMID:21568715

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of congenital heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, B.D.; Jacobstein, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    Focusing primarily on MR imaging of the heart, this book covers other diagnostic imaging modalities as well. The authors review new technologies and diagnostic procedures pertinent to congenital heat disease and present each congenital heat abnormality as a separate entity.

  19. Heart-Lung Interactions in Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, Harold J. B.; Prisk, Gordon Kim

    1991-01-01

    Few of the heart-lung interactions that are discussed have been studied in any detail in the aerospace environment, but is seems that many such interactions must occur in the setting of altered accelerative loadings and pressure breathing. That few investigations are in progress suggests that clinical and academic laboratory investigators and aerospace organizations are further apart than during the pioneering work on pressure breathing and acceleration tolerance in the 1940s. The purpose is to reintroduce some of the perennial problems of aviation physiology as well as some newer aerospace concerns that may be of interest. Many possible heart-lung interactions are pondered, by necessity often drawing on data from within the aviation field, collected before the modern understanding of these interactions developed, or on recent laboratory data that may not be strictly applicable. In the field of zero-gravity effects, speculation inevitably outruns the sparse available data.

  20. Infant open heart surgery (image)

    MedlinePlus

    During open-heart surgery an incision is made through the breastbone (sternum) while the child is under general anesthesia. ... During open-heart surgery an incision is made through the breastbone (sternum) while the child is under general anesthesia.

  1. Functional imaging for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Leahy, Martin; Thompson, Kerry; Zafar, Haroon; Alexandrov, Sergey; Foley, Mark; O'Flatharta, Cathal; Dockery, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In vivo imaging is a platform technology with the power to put function in its natural structural context. With the drive to translate stem cell therapies into pre-clinical and clinical trials, early selection of the right imaging techniques is paramount to success. There are many instances in regenerative medicine where the biological, biochemical, and biomechanical mechanisms behind the proposed function of stem cell therapies can be elucidated by appropriate imaging. Imaging techniques can be divided according to whether labels are used and as to whether the imaging can be done in vivo. In vivo human imaging places additional restrictions on the imaging tools that can be used. Microscopies and nanoscopies, especially those requiring fluorescent markers, have made an extraordinary impact on discovery at the molecular and cellular level, but due to their very limited ability to focus in the scattering tissues encountered for in vivo applications they are largely confined to superficial imaging applications in research laboratories. Nanoscopy, which has tremendous benefits in resolution, is limited to the near-field (e.g. near-field scanning optical microscope (NSNOM)) or to very high light intensity (e.g. stimulated emission depletion (STED)) or to slow stochastic events (photo-activated localization microscopy (PALM) and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM)). In all cases, nanoscopy is limited to very superficial applications. Imaging depth may be increased using multiphoton or coherence gating tricks. Scattering dominates the limitation on imaging depth in most tissues and this can be mitigated by the application of optical clearing techniques that can impose mild (e.g. topical application of glycerol) or severe (e.g. CLARITY) changes to the tissue to be imaged. Progression of therapies through to clinical trials requires some thought as to the imaging and sensing modalities that should be used. Smoother progression is facilitated by the use of

  2. Cardiac imaging in valvular heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Choo, W S; Steeds, R P

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide a perspective on the relative importance and contribution of different imaging modalities in patients with valvular heart disease. Valvular heart disease is increasing in prevalence across Europe, at a time when the clinical ability of physicians to diagnose and assess severity is declining. Increasing reliance is placed on echocardiography, which is the mainstay of cardiac imaging in valvular heart disease. This article outlines the techniques used in this context and their limitations, identifying areas in which dynamic imaging with cardiovascular magnetic resonance and multislice CT are expanding. PMID:22723532

  3. Clinical practice of traditional Chinese medicines for chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shufei; Zhang, Junhua; Gao, Xiumei; Xia, Ye; Ferrelli, Rita; Fauci, Alice; Guerra, Ranieri; Hu, Limin

    2010-01-01

    Background Chinese medicines have been used for chronic heart failure (CHF) for thousands of years; however, the status of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) used for CHF has not been reported. This review was carried out in the framework of a joint Sino-Italian Laboratory. Objective To investigate the baseline of clinical practice of TCMs for CHF, and to provide valuable information for research and clinical practice. Methods The authors included articles about the use of TCMs for the treatment of CHF by searching the Chinese Journal Full-text Database (1994 to November 2007). Results In all, 1029 papers were included, with 239 herbs retrieved from these. The most commonly used herbs included Huangqi (Radix Astragali), Fuling (Poria), Danshen (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiae), Fuzi (Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata) and Tinglizi (Semen Lepidii). Modern Chinese patent medicines (produced by pharmaceutical companies) and traditional prescriptions (comprising several herbs) are the application forms of these drugs. Shenmai, Shengmai and Astragalus injections were the most commonly used Chinese patent medicines. Some classic prescriptions (including Zhenwu decoction, Shengmai powder and Lingguizhugan decoction) were also frequently used. The effectiveness and safety of the TCMs were both satisfactory, and the traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine therapy could significantly improve the clinical effectiveness and reduce some of the adverse reactions from western medicines used alone. Conclusion The authors have acquired overall information about the clinical application of TCMs for CHF. Modern pharmacology has provided limited evidence for the rationality of this clinical use. Further research is needed to provide more evidence. PMID:27325938

  4. Heart valve surgery - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart valves are either natural (biologic) or artificial (mechanical). Natural valves are from human donors (cadavers), modified ... artificial valves will require anticoagulation. The advantage of mechanical valves is that they last longer-thus, the ...

  5. (New imaging systems in nuclear medicine)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Further progress has been made on improving the uniformity and stability of PCR-I, the single ring analog coded tomograph. This camera has been employed in a wide range of animal studies described below. Data from PCR-I have been used in various image processing procedures. These include motion pictures of dog heart, comparison of PET and MRI image in dog heart and rat brain and quantitation of tumor metabolism in the nude mouse using blood data from heart images. A SUN workstation with TAAC board has been used to produce gated three-dimensional images of the dog heart. The ANALYZE program from the Mayo Clinic has also been mounted on a SUN workstation for comparison of images and image processing. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Nuclear Medicine Imaging in Pediatric Neurology

    PubMed Central

    Akdemir, Ümit Özgür; Atay Kapucu, Lütfiye Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging can provide important complementary information in the management of pediatric patients with neurological diseases. Pre-surgical localization of the epileptogenic focus in medically refractory epilepsy patients is the most common indication for nuclear medicine imaging in pediatric neurology. In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, nuclear medicine imaging is particularly useful when magnetic resonance imaging findings are normal or its findings are discordant with electroencephalogram findings. In pediatric patients with brain tumors, nuclear medicine imaging can be clinically helpful in the diagnosis, directing biopsy, planning therapy, differentiating tumor recurrence from post-treatment sequelae, and assessment of response to therapy. Among other neurological diseases in which nuclear medicine has proved to be useful are patients with head trauma, inflammatory-infectious diseases and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. PMID:27299282

  7. Holography for imaging in structural heart disease.

    PubMed

    Bruckheimer, Elchanan; Rotschild, Carmel

    2016-05-17

    Three-dimensional imaging modalities for structural heart disease interventions have become a common feature in the procedural workflow. The images acquired are usually presented on 2D displays, thereby restricting their usefulness and the ability to interact with them. Holographic images created in real time from the volumetric data which float in the air during the procedure, in front of the operator and above the patient, could provide an intuitive and interactive display for the interventionalist and improve procedure outcomes. PMID:27174119

  8. Insomnia in Chinese Medicine: The Heart of the Matter.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kylie; Weber, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Chronic insomnia affects a significant proportion of the general population worldwide, and is associated with several serious medical conditions. From the Western scientific literature, hyper-arousal (on the cognitive-emotional, behavioral, autonomic, or central nervous system level) is a final common pathway involved in its pathogenesis. However, from a Chinese medicine (CM) perspective, it is the Heart, capitalized to denote the functional system as described in CM theory, that is the key organ involved in insomnia due to its role as the "seat of consciousness." This article explores how insomnia is understood from the CM perspective, in particular the role of the Heart, and some of the neurophysiological evidence that supports these ancient theoretical understandings. The potential role of the vagus nerve and its relationship with the (biomedical) heart and CM Heart is also examined. Finally, some of the evidence in association with mechanisms of action of acupuncture in insomnia, in particular its impact on cardiovascular variables associated with insomnia, is presented, along with findings of systematic reviews. PMID:27526331

  9. [Multimodal imaging of ischemic heart diseases: A 2015 update].

    PubMed

    Di Marco, L; Rosset, M; Zhang-Yin, J; Ohana, M

    2016-05-01

    Current realities and future possibilities of imaging in the ischemic heart diseases are very broad and constantly evolving, with the improvement of existing technologies and the introduction of new features such as dual-energy CT, strain ultrasound, multimodality fusion or perfusion MRI. Regular collaboration between prescribing clinicians, cardiologists, radiologists and nuclear radiologists is therefore essential to tailor the examination to the specific clinical question. The indications for each modality will therefore depend on its diagnostic performance, cost, acquisition and post-processing times and eventual radiation exposure. This review will detail principles and applications of current cardiac imaging examinations: echocardiography, nuclear medicine, MRI, CT and coronary angiography, emphasizing their current strengths and weaknesses in the ischemic heart diseases management. PMID:26775644

  10. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...

  11. Imaging techniques in biology and medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Swenberg, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    This book serves as an introduction to some aspects of imaging techniques as utilized in biology and medicine. Techniques presented include image processing, ultrasound, radiotracers, autoradiography, computed tomography, and MRI (all major imaging techniques). The underlying mathematics and physics are kept to a minimum.

  12. Multimodality imaging in heart valve disease

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, John B; Myerson, Saul G; Rajani, Ronak; Morgan-Hughes, Gareth J; Dweck, Marc R

    2016-01-01

    In patients with heart valve disease, echocardiography is the mainstay for diagnosis, assessment and serial surveillance. However, other modalities, notably cardiac MRI and CT, are used if echocardiographic imaging is suboptimal but can also give complementary information to improve assessment of the valve lesion and cardiac compensation to aid the timing of surgery and determine risk. This statement discusses the way these imaging techniques are currently integrated to improve care beyond what is possible with echocardiography alone. PMID:26977308

  13. Echocardiographic image of an active human heart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Echocardiographic images provide quick, safe images of the heart as it beats. While a state-of-the art echocardiograph unit is part of the Human Research Facility on International Space Station, quick transmission of images and data to Earth is a challenge. NASA is developing techniques to improve the echocardiography available to diagnose sick astronauts as well as study the long-term effects of space travel on their health. Echocardiography uses ultrasound, generated in a sensor head placed against the patient's chest, to produce images of the structure of the heart walls and valves. However, ultrasonic imaging creates an enormous volume of data, up to 220 million bits per second. This can challenge ISS communications as well as Earth-based providers. Compressing data for rapid transmission back to Earth can degrade the quality of the images. Researchers at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation are working with NASA to develop compression techniques that meet imaging standards now used on the Internet and by the medical community, and that ensure that physicians receive quality diagnostic images.

  14. Applications of nuclear medicine in genitourinary imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Blaufox, M.D.; Kalika, V.; Scharf, S.; Milstein, D.

    1982-01-01

    Major advances in nuclear medicine instrumentation and radiopharmaceuticals for renal studies have occurred during the last decade. Current nuclear medicine methodology can be applied for accurate evaluation of renal function and for renal imaging in a wide variety of clinical situations. Total renal function can be estimated from the plasma clearance of agents excreted by glomerular filtration or tubular secretion, and individual function can be estimated by imaging combined with renography. A major area of radionuclide application is in the evaluation of obstructive uropathy. The introduction of diuretic renography and the use of computer-generated regions of interest offer the clinician added useful data which may aid in diagnosis and management. Imaging is of proven value also in trauma, renovascular hypertension, and acute and chronic renal failure. Methods for the evaluation of residual urine, vesicoureteral reflux, and testicular torsion have achieved increasing clinical use. These many procedures assure a meaningful and useful role for the application of nuclear medicine in genitourinary imaging.

  15. Imaging Techniques in Acute Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Pérez del Villar, Candelas; Yotti, Raquel; Bermejo, Javier

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, imaging techniques have revolutionized the diagnosis of heart failure. In patients with a clinical picture of acute decompensation, prognosis is largely determined by early implementation of general measures and treatment of the underlying cause. Given its diagnostic yield and portability, ultrasound has become an essential tool in the setting of acute heart failure, and is currently found in all medical departments involved in the care of the critically ill patient. Cardiac magnetic resonance and computed tomography allow detailed characterization of multiple aspects of cardiac structure and function that were previously unavailable. This helps guide and monitor many of the treatment decisions in the acute heart failure population in an entirely noninvasive way. This article aims to review the usefulness of the imaging techniques that are clinically relevant in the context of an episode of acute heart failure. We discuss the indications and limitations of these techniques in detail and describe the general principles for the appropriate interpretation of results. PMID:26002273

  16. Fluorescent Cell Imaging in Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Sapoznik, Etai; Niu, Guoguang; Zhou, Yu; Murphy, Sean V.; Soker, Shay

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent protein imaging, a promising tool in biological research, incorporates numerous applications that can be of specific use in the field of regenerative medicine. To enhance tissue regeneration efforts, scientists have been developing new ways to monitor tissue development and maturation in vitro and in vivo. To that end, new imaging tools and novel fluorescent proteins have been developed for the purpose of performing deep-tissue high-resolution imaging. These new methods, such as intra-vital microscopy and Förster resonance energy transfer, are providing new insights into cellular behavior, including cell migration, morphology, and phenotypic changes in a dynamic environment. Such applications, combined with multimodal imaging, significantly expand the utility of fluorescent protein imaging in research and clinical applications of regenerative medicine. PMID:27158228

  17. Lossy compression in nuclear medicine images.

    PubMed Central

    Rebelo, M. S.; Furuie, S. S.; Munhoz, A. C.; Moura, L.; Melo, C. P.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of image compression is to reduce the amount of data needed to represent images. In medical applications, it is not desirable to lose any information and thus lossless compression methods are often used. However, medical imaging systems have intrinsic noise associated to it. The application of a lossy technique, which acts as a low pass filter, reduces the amount of data at a higher rate without any noticeable loss in the information contained in the images. We have compressed images of nuclear medicine using the discrete cosine transform algorithm. The decompressed images were considered reliable for visual inspection. Furthermore, a parameter was computed from these images and no discernible change was found from the results obtained using the original uncompressed images. PMID:8130593

  18. HEAVY-ION IMAGING APPLIED TO MEDICINE

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Tobias, C.A.; Capp, M.P.; Benton, E.V.; Holley, W.R.

    1980-02-01

    Heavy particle radiography is a newly developed noninvasive low dose imaging procedure with increased resolution of minute density differences in soft tissues of the body. The method utilizes accelerated high energy ions, primarily carbon and neon, at the BEVALAC accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The research program applied to medicine utilizes heavy-ion radiography for low dose mammography, for treatment planning for cancer patients, and for imaging and accurate densitometry of skeletal structures and brain and spinal neoplasms. The presentation will be illustrated with clinical cases under study. Discussion will include the potential of heavy-ion imaging, and particularly reconstruction tomography, as an adjunct to existing diagnostic imaging procedures in medicine, both for the applications to the diagnosis, management and treatment of clinical cancer in man, but also for the early detection of small soft tissue tumors at low radiation dose.

  19. Coded-aperture imaging in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Warren E.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Aarsvold, John N.

    1989-11-01

    Coded-aperture imaging is a technique for imaging sources that emit high-energy radiation. This type of imaging involves shadow casting and not reflection or refraction. High-energy sources exist in x ray and gamma-ray astronomy, nuclear reactor fuel-rod imaging, and nuclear medicine. Of these three areas nuclear medicine is perhaps the most challenging because of the limited amount of radiation available and because a three-dimensional source distribution is to be determined. In nuclear medicine a radioactive pharmaceutical is administered to a patient. The pharmaceutical is designed to be taken up by a particular organ of interest, and its distribution provides clinical information about the function of the organ, or the presence of lesions within the organ. This distribution is determined from spatial measurements of the radiation emitted by the radiopharmaceutical. The principles of imaging radiopharmaceutical distributions with coded apertures are reviewed. Included is a discussion of linear shift-variant projection operators and the associated inverse problem. A system developed at the University of Arizona in Tucson consisting of small modular gamma-ray cameras fitted with coded apertures is described.

  20. Coded-aperture imaging in nuclear medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren E.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Aarsvold, John N.

    1989-01-01

    Coded-aperture imaging is a technique for imaging sources that emit high-energy radiation. This type of imaging involves shadow casting and not reflection or refraction. High-energy sources exist in x ray and gamma-ray astronomy, nuclear reactor fuel-rod imaging, and nuclear medicine. Of these three areas nuclear medicine is perhaps the most challenging because of the limited amount of radiation available and because a three-dimensional source distribution is to be determined. In nuclear medicine a radioactive pharmaceutical is administered to a patient. The pharmaceutical is designed to be taken up by a particular organ of interest, and its distribution provides clinical information about the function of the organ, or the presence of lesions within the organ. This distribution is determined from spatial measurements of the radiation emitted by the radiopharmaceutical. The principles of imaging radiopharmaceutical distributions with coded apertures are reviewed. Included is a discussion of linear shift-variant projection operators and the associated inverse problem. A system developed at the University of Arizona in Tucson consisting of small modular gamma-ray cameras fitted with coded apertures is described.

  1. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onken, Michael; Eichelberg, Marco; Riesmeier, Jörg; Jensch, Peter

    Over the past 15 years Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) has established itself as the international standard for medical image communication. Most medical imaging equipment uses DICOM network and media services to export image data, thus making this standard highly relevant for medical image processing. The first section of this chapter provides a basic introduction into DICOM with its more than 3,600 pages of technical documentation, followed by a section covering selected advanced topics of special interest for medical image processing. The introductory text familiarizes the reader with the standard's main concepts such as information objects and DICOM media and network services. The rendering pipeline for image display and the concept of DICOM conformance are also discussed. Specialized DICOM services such as advanced image display services that provide means for storing how an image was viewed ("Softcopy Presentation States") and how multiple images should be aligned on an output device ("Structured Display" and "Hanging Protocols") are described. We further describe DICOM's sophisticated approach ("Structured Reporting") for storing structured documents such as CAD information, which is then covered in more detail. Finally, the last section provides an insight into a newly developed DICOM service called "Application Hosting", which introduces a standardized plug-in architecture for image processing, thus permitting users to utilize cross-vendor image processing plug-ins in DICOM applications.

  2. Stereoscopic full aperture imaging in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strocovsky, Sergio G.; Otero, Dino

    2011-06-01

    Images of planar scintigraphy and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) used in nuclear medicine are often low quality. They usually appear to be blurred and noisy. This problem is due to the low spatial resolution and poor sensitivity of the acquisition technique with the gamma camera (GC). Other techniques, such as coded aperture imaging (CAI) reach higher spatial resolutions than GC. However, CAI is not frequently used for imaging in nuclear medicine, due to the decoding complexity of some images and the difficulty in controlling the noise magnitude. Summing up, the images obtained through GC are low quality and it is still difficult to implement CAI technique. A novel technique, full aperture Imaging (FAI), also uses gamma ray-encoding to obtain images, but the coding system and the method of images reconstruction are simpler than those used in CAI. In addition, FAI also reaches higher spatial resolution than GC. In this work, the principles of FAI technique and the method of images reconstruction are explained in detail. The FAI technique is tested by means of Monte Carlo simulations with filiform and spherical sources. Spatial resolution tests of GC versus FAI were performed using two different source-detector distances. First, simulations were made without interposing any material between the sources and the detector. Then, other more realistic simulations were made. In these, the sources were placed in the centre of a rectangular prismatic region, filled with water. A rigorous comparison was made between GC and FAI images of the linear filiform sources, by means of two methods: mean fluence profile graphs and correlation tests. Finally, three-dimensional capacity of FAI was tested with two spherical sources. The results show that FAI technique has greater sensitivity (>100 times) and greater spatial resolution (>2.6 times) than that of GC with LEHR collimator, in both cases, with and without attenuating material and long and short

  3. Image Viewer using Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraskar, Trupti N.

    2010-11-01

    Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine is a standard for handling, storing, printing, and transmitting information in medical imaging. The National Electrical Manufacturers Association holds the copyright to this standard. It was developed by the DICOM Standards committee. The other image viewers cannot collectively store the image details as well as the patient's information. So the image may get separated from the details, but DICOM file format stores the patient's information and the image details. Main objective is to develop a DICOM image viewer. The image viewer will open .dcm i.e. DICOM image file and also will have additional features such as zoom in, zoom out, black and white inverter, magnifier, blur, B/W inverter, horizontal and vertical flipping, sharpening, contrast, brightness and .gif converter are incorporated.

  4. Generation to Generation: The Heart of Family Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Robin O.

    2012-01-01

    According to the American Board of Family Medicine, "The scope of family medicine encompasses all ages, both sexes, each organ system and every disease entity." What makes the seemingly daunting task of practicing family medicine possible is that family physicians learn to utilize similar clinical reasoning for all of their patients regardless of…

  5. Image Reconstruction for Prostate Specific Nuclear Medicine imagers

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Smith

    2007-01-11

    There is increasing interest in the design and construction of nuclear medicine detectors for dedicated prostate imaging. These include detectors designed for imaging the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with single gamma as well as positron-emitting radionuclides. New detectors and acquisition geometries present challenges and opportunities for image reconstruction. In this contribution various strategies for image reconstruction for these special purpose imagers are reviewed. Iterative statistical algorithms provide a framework for reconstructing prostate images from a wide variety of detectors and acquisition geometries for PET and SPECT. The key to their success is modeling the physics of photon transport and data acquisition and the Poisson statistics of nuclear decay. Analytic image reconstruction methods can be fast and are useful for favorable acquisition geometries. Future perspectives on algorithm development and data analysis for prostate imaging are presented.

  6. Imaging the Heart of Our Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    New radio images of the center of the Milky Way are providing an unprecedented view of the structure and processes occurring in the Galactic center.JVLA images of Sgr A at 5.5 GHz. The large-scale, bright ring structure is Sgr A East, a supernova remnant. The mini-spiral structure along the lower-right edge of the ring is Sgr A West, and Sgr A* is located near the center of the mini-spiral structure. Click for a closer look! [Zhao et al. 2016]Improved Radio ViewA recent study led by Jun-Hui Zhao (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) presents new images of the Galactic center using the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) at 5.5 GHz. The images center on the radio-bright zone at the core of our galaxy, with the field of view covering the central 13 of the Milky Way equivalent to a physical size of ~100 light-years.Due to recent hardware and software improvements in the VLA, these images are much deeper than any previously obtained of the Galactic center, reaching an unprecedented 100,000:1 dynamic range. Not only do these observations provide a detailed view of previously known structures within the Sagittarius A radio complex in the Milky Ways heart, but they also reveal new features that can help us understand the processes that formed this bright complex.Features in Sagittarius ASgr A consists of three main components nested within each other: the supernova remnant Sgr A East, the mini-spiral structure Sgr A West (located off-center within the Sgr A East structure), and the compact radio source Sgr A* (located near the center of the mini-spiral). Sgr A* is the supermassive black hole that resides at the very center of the Milky Way.The newest JVLA images reveal numerous filamentary sources that trace out two radio lobes, oriented nearly perpendicular to the Galactic plane and ~50 light-years in size. These are smaller radio counterparts to the enormous (on the scale of 30,000 light-years!) gamma-ray Fermi bubbles that have been observed to extend from the

  7. Regenerative medicine for the treatment of heart disease.

    PubMed

    Hansson, E M; Lendahl, U

    2013-03-01

    Heart failure is a major cause of mortality worldwide with a steady increase in prevalence. There is currently no available cure beyond orthotopic heart transplantation, which for a number of reasons is an option only for a small fraction of all patients. Considerable hope has therefore been placed on the possibility of treating a failing heart by replacing lost cardiomyocytes, either through transplantation of various types of stem cells or by boosting endogenous regenerative mechanisms in the heart. Here, we review the current status of stem and progenitor cell-based therapies for heart disease. We discuss the pros and cons of different stem and progenitor cell types that can be considered for transplantation and describe recent advances in the understanding of how cardiomyocytes normally differentiate and how these cells can be generated from more immature cells ex vivo. Finally, we consider the possibility of activation of endogenous stem and progenitor cells to treat heart failure. PMID:23331408

  8. Multimodality Imaging Assessment of Prosthetic Heart Valves.

    PubMed

    Suchá, Dominika; Symersky, Petr; Tanis, W; Mali, Willem P Th M; Leiner, Tim; van Herwerden, Lex A; Budde, Ricardo P J

    2015-09-01

    Echocardiography and fluoroscopy are the main techniques for prosthetic heart valve (PHV) evaluation, but because of specific limitations they may not identify the morphological substrate or the extent of PHV pathology. Cardiac computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have emerged as new potential imaging modalities for valve prostheses. We present an overview of the possibilities and pitfalls of CT and MRI for PHV assessment based on a systematic literature review of all experimental and patient studies. For this, a comprehensive systematic search was performed in PubMed and Embase on March 24, 2015, containing CT/MRI and PHV synonyms. Our final selection yielded 82 articles on surgical valves. CT allowed adequate assessment of most modern PHVs and complemented echocardiography in detecting the obstruction cause (pannus or thrombus), bioprosthesis calcifications, and endocarditis extent (valve dehiscence and pseudoaneurysms). No clear advantage over echocardiography was found for the detection of vegetations or periprosthetic regurgitation. Whereas MRI metal artifacts may preclude direct prosthesis analysis, MRI provided information on PHV-related flow patterns and velocities. MRI demonstrated abnormal asymmetrical flow patterns in PHV obstruction and allowed prosthetic regurgitation assessment. Hence, CT shows great clinical relevance as a complementary imaging tool for the diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected PHV obstruction and endocarditis. MRI shows potential for functional PHV assessment although more studies are required to provide diagnostic reference values to allow discrimination of normal from pathological conditions. PMID:26353926

  9. An image-dependent Metz filter for nuclear medicine images.

    PubMed

    King, M A; Penney, B C; Glick, S J

    1988-12-01

    To provide optimal image quality, digital filters should account for both the count level and the object imaged. That is, they should be image-dependent. By using the constraint equation of constrained least-squares (CLS) restoration to determine one parameter of the Metz filter, a filter which adapts to the image has been developed. This filter has been named the Constrained Least-Squares Metz filter. The filter makes use of a regression relation to convert the Metz filter parameter determined using the CLS criterion to the value which would minimize the normalized mean square error (NMSE). The regression relation and the parameters which specify the general form of the Metz filter were determined using images of the Alderson liver and spleen phantoms. The designed filter was tested for its ability to adapt to other objects with images from each of three different test objects. When the values of the Metz filter parameters for these images determined by the CLS-Metz filter were compared by a regression analysis to those which minimized the NMSE for each image, a correlation coefficient of 0.98, a slope of 0.95, and a zero intercept of 0.1 were obtained. With clinical images, the CLS-Metz filter has been shown to provide consistently good image quality with images as diverse as heart perfusion images and bone studies. PMID:3264021

  10. Longitudinal Imaging of Heart Development With Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Michael W.; Watanabe, Michiko; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has great potential for deciphering the role of mechanics in normal and abnormal heart development. OCT images tissue microstructure and blood flow deep into the tissue (1–2mm) at high spatiotemporal resolutions allowing unprecedented images of the developing heart. Here, we review the advancement of OCT technology to image heart development and report some of our recent findings utilizing OCT imaging under environmental control for longitudinal imaging. Precise control of the environment is absolutely required in longitudinal studies that follow the growth of the embryo or studies comparing normal versus perturbed heart development to obtain meaningful in vivo results. These types of studies are essential to tease out the influence of cardiac dynamics on molecular expression and their role in the progression of congenital heart defects. PMID:26236147

  11. Heart-lung transplant - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A combined heart-lung transplant may be recommended for patients who have both cardiac and lung disease. The most common reasons for a combined heart-lung transplant are pulmonary hypertension, cystic fibrosis, ...

  12. Being active after a heart attack (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... best activity when you start exercising after a heart attack. Start slowly, and increase the amount of time ... best activity when you start exercising after a heart attack. Start slowly, and increase the amount of time ...

  13. Embryonic Heart Morphogenesis from Confocal Microscopy Imaging and Automatic Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Megan; Pertsov, Arkady M.; Shi, Pengcheng

    2013-01-01

    Embryonic heart morphogenesis (EHM) is a complex and dynamic process where the heart transforms from a single tube into a four-chambered pump. This process is of great biological and clinical interest but is still poorly understood for two main reasons. On the one hand, the existing imaging modalities for investigating EHM suffered from either limited penetration depth or limited spatial resolution. On the other hand, current works typically adopted manual segmentation, which was tedious, subjective, and time consuming considering the complexity of developing heart geometry and the large size of images. In this paper, we propose to utilize confocal microscopy imaging with tissue optical immersion clearing technique to image the heart at different stages of development for EHM study. The imaging method is able to produce high spatial resolution images and achieve large penetration depth at the same time. Furthermore, we propose a novel convex active contour model for automatic image segmentation. The model has the ability to deal with intensity fall-off in depth which is characterized by confocal microscopy images. We acquired the images of embryonic quail hearts from day 6 to day 14 of incubation for EHM study. The experimental results were promising and provided us with an insight view of early heart growth pattern and also paved the road for data-driven heart growth modeling. PMID:24454530

  14. High-speed confocal imaging of zebrafish heart development.

    PubMed

    Hove, Jay R; Craig, Michael P

    2012-01-01

    Due to its optical clarity and rudimentary heart structure (i.e., single atrium and ventricle), the zebrafish provides an excellent model for studying the genetic, morphological, and functional basis of normal and pathophysiological heart development in vivo. Recent advances in high-speed confocal imaging have made it possible to capture 2D zebrafish heart wall motions with temporal and spatial resolutions sufficient to characterize the highly dynamic intravital flow-structure environment. We have optimized protocols for introducing fluorescent tracer particles into the zebrafish cardiovasculature, imaging intravital heart wall motion, and performing high-resolution blood flow mapping that will be broadly useful in elucidating flow-structure relationships. PMID:22222541

  15. Biomarkers for Heart Failure: An Update for Practitioners of Internal Medicine.

    PubMed

    Wettersten, Nicholas; Maisel, Alan S

    2016-06-01

    Biomarkers have become an integral part of practicing medicine, especially in heart failure. The natriuretic peptides are commonly used in the evaluation of heart failure, but their role extends beyond diagnosis and includes risk stratification and management of heart failure patients. Newer biomarkers have arrived and are becoming part of routine care of heart failure patients. Both ST2 and high-sensitivity troponin have significant prognostic value for mortality, but also may assist in the titration of medical therapy. Procalcitonin can help guide appropriate antibiotic use in patients with heart failure. The ability to appropriately use and interpret these biomarkers is imperative to the care of heart failure patients, especially as these newer biomarkers become widely used. PMID:26844635

  16. Robotics and imaging in congenital heart surgery

    PubMed Central

    Vasilyev, Nikolay V; Dupont, Pierre E; del Nido, Pedro J

    2012-01-01

    The initial success seen in adult cardiac surgery with the application of available robotic systems has not been realized as broadly in pediatric cardiac surgery. The main obstacles include extended set-up time and complexity of the procedures, as well as the large size of the instruments with respect to the size of the child. Moreover, while the main advantage of robotic systems is the ability to minimize incision size, for intracardiac repairs, cardiopulmonary bypass is still required. Catheter-based interventions, on the other hand, have expanded rapidly in both application as well as the complexity of procedures and lesions being treated. However, despite the development of sophisticated devices, robotic systems to aid catheter procedures have not been commonly applied in children. In this article, we describe new catheter-like robotic delivery platforms, which facilitate safe navigation and enable complex repairs, such as tissue approximation and fixation, and tissue removal, inside the beating heart. Additional features including the tracking of rapidly moving tissue targets and novel imaging approaches are described, along with a discussion of future prospects for steerable robotic systems. PMID:22413986

  17. Anatomic and functional imaging of congenital heart disease with digital subtraction angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Buonocore, E.; Pavlicek, W.; Modic, M.T.; Meaney, T.F.; O'Donovan, P.B.; Grossman, L.B.; Moodie, D.S.; Yiannikas, J.

    1983-06-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) of the heart was performed in 54 patients for the evaluation of congenital heart diagnostic images and accurate physiologic shunt data that compared favorably with catheter angiography and nuclear medicine studies. Retrospective analysis of this series of patients indicated that DSA studies contributed sufficient informantion to shorten significantly or modify cardiac catheterization in 85% (79/93) of the defects that were identified. Interatrial septal defects were particularly well diagnosed, with identification occurring in 10 of 10 cases, wheseas intraventricular septal defects were identified in only 6 of 9 patients. Evaluation of postsurgical patients was accurate in 19 of 20 cases.

  18. Electrocardiographic textbooks based on template hearts warped using ultrasonic images.

    PubMed

    Arthur, R Martin; Trobaugh, Jason W

    2012-09-01

    Advances in technology make the application of sophisticated approaches to assessing electrical condition of the heart practical. Estimates of cardiac electrical features inferred from body-surface electrocardiographic (ECG) maps are now routinely found in a clinical setting, but errors in those inverse solutions are especially sensitive to the accuracy of heart model geometry and placement within the torso. The use of a template heart model allows for accurate generation of individualized heart models and also permits effective comparison of inferred electrical features among multiple subjects. A collection of features mapped onto a common template forms a textbook of anatomically specific ECG variability. Our template warping process to individualize heart models based on a template heart uses ultrasonic images of the heart from a conventional, phased-array system. We chose ultrasound because it is nonionizing, less expensive, and more convenient than MR or CT imaging. To find the orientation and position in the torso model of each image, we calibrated the ultrasound probe by imaging a custom phantom consisting of multiple N-fiducials and computing a transformation between ultrasound coordinates and measurements of the torso surface. The template heart was warped using a mapping of corresponding landmarks identified on both the template and the ultrasonic images. Accuracy of the method is limited by patient movement, tracking error, and image analysis. We tested our approach on one normal control and one obese diabetic patient using the mixed-boundary-value inverse method and compared results from both on the template heart. We believe that our novel textbook approach using anatomically specific heart and torso models will facilitate the identification of electrophysiological biomarkers of cardiac dysfunction. Because the necessary data can be acquired and analyzed within about 30 min, this framework has the potential for becoming a routine clinical procedure

  19. Radiolabeled dimethyl branched long chain fatty acid for heart imaging

    DOEpatents

    Knapp, Jr., Furn F.; Goodman, Mark M.; Kirsch, Gilbert

    1988-08-16

    A radiolabeled long chain fatty acid for heart imaging that has dimethyl branching at one of the carbons of the chain which inhibits the extent to which oxidation can occur. The closer to the carboxyl the branching is positioned, the more limited the oxidation, thereby resulting in prolonged retention of the radiolabeled compound in the heart.

  20. Basic imaging in congenital heart disease. 3rd Ed

    SciTech Connect

    Swischuk, L.E.; Sapire, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    The book retains its previous format with chapters on embryology, plain film interpretation, classification of pulmonary vascular patterns, cardiac malpositions and vascular anomalies, and illustrative cases. The book is organized with an abundance of illustrative figures, diagrams, and image reproductions. These include plain chest radiographs, angiograms, echocardiograms, and MR images. The authors present the pathophysiology and imaging of congenital heart lesions.

  1. Seismic imaging of the Medicine Lake Caldera

    SciTech Connect

    Zucca, J.J.; Evans, J.R.; Kasameyer, P.W.

    1987-04-01

    Medicine Lake Volcano, a broad shield volcano about 50 km east of Mount Shasta in northern California, produced rhylotic eruptions as recently as 400 years ago. Because of this recent activity it is of considerable interest to producers of geothermal energy. The USGS and LLNL conducted an active seismic experiment designed to explore the area beneath and around the caldera. This experiment had two purposes: To produce high-quality velocity and attenuation images of the young magma body presumed to be the source for the young volcanic features, and to collect a dataset that can be used to develop and test seismic imaging methods that may be useful for understanding other geothermal systems. Eight large explosions were detonated in a 50 km radius circle around the volcano, a distance chosen to produce strong upward traveling signals through the area of interest. The data were inverted using Aki's method to produce three-dimensional velocity and attenuation images of the sub-surface. Preliminary interpretation shows low velocity and attenuation on the flanks of the volcano, and coincident high attenuation values and low velocities (-20%) from 3 to 5 km beneath the center of the caldera. This zone may be a region of partial melt which fed the youngest eruptions.

  2. PET/MR Imaging in Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Rischpler, Christoph; Nekolla, Stephan G

    2016-10-01

    Hybrid PET/MR imaging is a complex imaging modality that has raised high expectations not only for oncological and neurologic imaging applications, but also for cardiac imaging applications. Initially, physicians and physicists had to become accustomed to technical challenges including attenuation correction, gating, and more complex workflow and more elaborate image analysis as compared with PET/CT or standalone MR imaging. PET/MR imaging seems to be particularly valuable to assess inflammatory myocardial diseases (such as sarcoidosis), to cross-validate PET versus MR imaging data (eg, myocardial perfusion imaging), and to help validate novel biomarkers of various disease states (eg, postinfarction inflammation). PMID:27593250

  3. Nuclear medicine imaging of bone infections.

    PubMed

    Love, C; Palestro, C J

    2016-07-01

    Osteomyelitis is a broad group of infectious diseases that involve the bone and/or bone marrow. It can arise haematogenously, via extension from a contiguous infection, or by direct inoculation during surgery or trauma. The diagnosis is not always obvious and imaging tests are frequently performed as part of the diagnostic work-up. Commonly performed radionuclide tests include technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-diphosphonate bone scintigraphy (bone), and gallium-67 ((67)Ga) and in vitro labelled leukocyte (white blood cell; WBC) imaging. Although they are useful, each of these tests has limitations. Bone scintigraphy is sensitive but not specific, especially when underlying osseous abnormalities are present. (67)Ga accumulates in tumour, trauma, and in aseptic inflammation; furthermore, there is typically an interval of 1-3 days between radiopharmaceutical injection of and imaging. Currently, this agent is used primarily for spinal infections. Except for the spine, WBC imaging is the nuclear medicine test of choice for diagnosing complicating osteomyelitis. The in vitro leukocyte labelling process requires skilled personnel, is laborious, and is not always available. Complementary marrow imaging is usually required to maximise accuracy. Not surprisingly, alternative radiopharmaceuticals are continuously being investigated. Radiolabelled anti-granulocyte antibodies and antibody fragments, investigated as in vivo leukocyte labelling agents, have their own limitations and are not widely available. (111)In-biotin is useful for diagnosing spinal infections. Radiolabelled synthetic fragments of ubiquicidin, a naturally occurring human antimicrobial peptide that targets bacteria, have shown promise as infection specific radiopharmaceuticals. 2-[(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET) with or without computed tomography (CT) is very useful in musculoskeletal infection. Sensitivities of more than 95% and specificities ranging from 75-99% have been

  4. High Contrast Ultrafast Imaging of the Human Heart

    PubMed Central

    Papadacci, Clement; Pernot, Mathieu; Couade, Mathieu; Fink, Mathias; Tanter, Mickael

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive ultrafast imaging for human cardiac applications is a big challenge to image intrinsic waves such as electromechanical waves or remotely induced shear waves in elastography imaging techniques. In this paper we propose to perform ultrafast imaging of the heart with adapted sector size by using diverging waves emitted from a classical transthoracic cardiac phased array probe. As in ultrafast imaging with plane wave coherent compounding, diverging waves can be summed coherently to obtain high-quality images of the entire heart at high frame rate in a full field-of-view. To image shear waves propagation at high SNR, the field-of-view can be adapted by changing the angular aperture of the transmitted wave. Backscattered echoes from successive circular wave acquisitions are coherently summed at every location in the image to improve the image quality while maintaining very high frame rates. The transmitted diverging waves, angular apertures and subapertures size are tested in simulation and ultrafast coherent compounding is implemented on a commercial scanner. The improvement of the imaging quality is quantified in phantom and in vivo on human heart. Imaging shear wave propagation at 2500 frame/s using 5 diverging waves provides a strong increase of the Signal to noise ratio of the tissue velocity estimates while maintaining a high frame rate. Finally, ultrafast imaging with a 1 to 5 diverging waves is used to image the human heart at a frame rate of 900 frames/s over an entire cardiac cycle. Thanks to spatial coherent compounding, a strong improvement of imaging quality is obtained with a small number of transmitted diverging waves and a high frame rate, which allows imaging the propagation of electromechanical and shear waves with good image quality. PMID:24474135

  5. Hearts and Flowers: Learning To Enlarge Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Judy

    2003-01-01

    Describes a lesson that teaches kindergarten students how to enlarge a smaller drawing onto a bigger piece of paper. Explains that the students create their heart-shape designs using tempera paint and pastels in the larger picture. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

  6. Regenerative Medicine for the Heart: Perspectives on Stem-Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Gun-Sik; Fernandez, Laviel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Despite decades of progress in cardiovascular biology and medicine, heart disease remains the leading cause of death, and there is no cure for the failing heart. Since heart failure is mostly caused by loss or dysfunction of cardiomyocytes (CMs), replacing dead or damaged CMs with new CMs might be an ideal way to reverse the disease. However, the adult heart is composed mainly of terminally differentiated CMs that have no significant self-regeneration capacity. Recent Advances: Stem cells have tremendous regenerative potential and, thus, current cardiac regenerative research has focused on developing stem cell sources to repair damaged myocardium. Critical Issues: In this review, we examine the potential sources of cells that could be used for heart therapies, including embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, as well as alternative methods for activating the endogenous regenerative mechanisms of the heart via transdifferentiation and cell reprogramming. We also discuss the current state of knowledge of cell purification, delivery, and retention. Future Directions: Efforts are underway to improve the current stem cell strategies and methodologies, which will accelerate the development of innovative stem-cell therapies for heart regeneration. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 2018–2031. PMID:25133793

  7. [Western and traditional Chinese medicine disease management programs of chronic heart failure].

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhaoming; Sheng, Xiaogang; Pan, Guangming

    2012-06-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is one of the greatest disease in modem medicine as chronic disease . It cost lots of financial resources to deal with. Western and traditional Chinese medicine Disease management programs (DMP) can notability improve the qualities of life and reduce the expenses for CHF. The disease management programs of CHF have achieved kind of success, but the management programs method witch is of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) characteristic idea carry into testing execution in few TCM hospitals only. This article review the necessary of DMP research, advances in research of DMP research, and relationship between management programs method of Western and traditional Chinese medicine and illness state improvement of CHF patients. PMID:22997809

  8. Confocal Imaging of the Embryonic Heart: How Deep?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Christine E.; Thompson, Robert P.; Bigelow, Michael R.; Gittinger, George; Trusk, Thomas C.; Sedmera, David

    2005-06-01

    Confocal microscopy allows for optical sectioning of tissues, thus obviating the need for physical sectioning and subsequent registration to obtain a three-dimensional representation of tissue architecture. However, practicalities such as tissue opacity, light penetration, and detector sensitivity have usually limited the available depth of imaging to 200 [mu]m. With the emergence of newer, more powerful systems, we attempted to push these limits to those dictated by the working distance of the objective. We used whole-mount immunohistochemical staining followed by clearing with benzyl alcohol-benzyl benzoate (BABB) to visualize three-dimensional myocardial architecture. Confocal imaging of entire chick embryonic hearts up to a depth of 1.5 mm with voxel dimensions of 3 [mu]m was achieved with a 10× dry objective. For the purpose of screening for congenital heart defects, we used endocardial painting with fluorescently labeled poly-L-lysine and imaged BABB-cleared hearts with a 5× objective up to a depth of 2 mm. Two-photon imaging of whole-mount specimens stained with Hoechst nuclear dye produced clear images all the way through stage 29 hearts without significant signal attenuation. Thus, currently available systems allow confocal imaging of fixed samples to previously unattainable depths, the current limiting factors being objective working distance, antibody penetration, specimen autofluorescence, and incomplete clearing.

  9. Certain progress in the treatment of coronary heart disease with traditional medicinal plants in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, K J

    1981-01-01

    A case of coronary heart disease in China was confirmed by the necropsy of a female body unearthed from the tomb at Changsha. It proved that such a case existed about 2,100 years ago. Research in reducing the frequency of myocardial infarction by traditional medicinal plants showed the effect of several herbs. The traditional aromatic and warm herbal medicines may have the possibility of relieving coronary arterial spasm. The clinical and experimental observations proved that the Huoxue-huayu plants' action against blood platelet aggregation and against attack was effective. PMID:6307037

  10. Advances in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging of congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Driessen, Mieke M P; Breur, Johannes M P J; Budde, Ricardo P J; van Oorschot, Joep W M; van Kimmenade, Roland R J; Sieswerda, Gertjan Tj; Meijboom, Folkert J; Leiner, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Due to advances in cardiac surgery, survival of patients with congenital heart disease has increased considerably during the past decades. Many of these patients require repeated cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to assess cardiac anatomy and function. In the past decade, technological advances have enabled faster and more robust cardiovascular magnetic resonance with improved image quality and spatial as well as temporal resolution. This review aims to provide an overview of advances in cardiovascular magnetic resonance hardware and acquisition techniques relevant to both pediatric and adult patients with congenital heart disease and discusses the techniques used to assess function, anatomy, flow and tissue characterization. PMID:25552386

  11. Cardiac image modelling: Breadth and depth in heart disease.

    PubMed

    Suinesiaputra, Avan; McCulloch, Andrew D; Nash, Martyn P; Pontre, Beau; Young, Alistair A

    2016-10-01

    With the advent of large-scale imaging studies and big health data, and the corresponding growth in analytics, machine learning and computational image analysis methods, there are now exciting opportunities for deepening our understanding of the mechanisms and characteristics of heart disease. Two emerging fields are computational analysis of cardiac remodelling (shape and motion changes due to disease) and computational analysis of physiology and mechanics to estimate biophysical properties from non-invasive imaging. Many large cohort studies now underway around the world have been specifically designed based on non-invasive imaging technologies in order to gain new information about the development of heart disease from asymptomatic to clinical manifestations. These give an unprecedented breadth to the quantification of population variation and disease development. Also, for the individual patient, it is now possible to determine biophysical properties of myocardial tissue in health and disease by interpreting detailed imaging data using computational modelling. For these population and patient-specific computational modelling methods to develop further, we need open benchmarks for algorithm comparison and validation, open sharing of data and algorithms, and demonstration of clinical efficacy in patient management and care. The combination of population and patient-specific modelling will give new insights into the mechanisms of cardiac disease, in particular the development of heart failure, congenital heart disease, myocardial infarction, contractile dysfunction and diastolic dysfunction. PMID:27349830

  12. Uptake of myocardial imaging agents by rejected hearts

    SciTech Connect

    Bergsland, J.; Carr, E.A.; Carroll, M.; Wright, J.W.; Feldman, M.J.; Massucci, J.; Bhayana, J.N.; Gona, J.M.

    1985-09-01

    Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate, Gallium 67 and Thallium 201 uptakes were measured in heterotopically transplanted rat hearts. Five days after transplantation, Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate, and Gallium 67 uptakes were significantly higher in allogeneic grafts than in syngeneic grafts. At an early stage of rejection (three days after transplantation), only Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate uptake in the left ventricle of allogeneic grafts showed a significant difference (p less than 0.04). At five days, Thallium 201 uptake was significantly lower in allo- than syngeneic grafts. There was a positive correlation between radionuclide uptake and histologic degree of rejection for Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate and Gallium 67 while Thallium 201 uptake correlated negatively. Analysis of variance revealed that hearts with no or minimal rejection had statistically different uptakes than hearts with mild to moderate rejection. These results suggest that uptake of imaging agents might be useful in the diagnosis of rejection of the transplanted heart.

  13. Radionuclide Imaging of Neurohormonal System of the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinyu; Werner, Rudolf A.; Javadi, Mehrbod S.; Maya, Yoshifumi; Decker, Michael; Lapa, Constantin; Herrmann, Ken; Higuchi, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure is one of the growing causes of death especially in developed countries due to longer life expectancy. Although many pharmacological and instrumental therapeutic approaches have been introduced for prevention and treatment of heart failure, there are still limitations and challenges. Nuclear cardiology has experienced rapid growth in the last few decades, in particular the application of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), which allow non-invasive functional assessment of cardiac condition including neurohormonal systems involved in heart failure; its application has dramatically improved the capacity for fundamental research and clinical diagnosis. In this article, we review the current status of applying radionuclide technology in non-invasive imaging of neurohormonal system in the heart, especially focusing on the tracers that are currently available. A short discussion about disadvantages and perspectives is also included. PMID:25825596

  14. Plasma metabonomics study on Chinese medicine syndrome evolution of heart failure rats caused by LAD ligation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chinese medicine syndromes (Zheng) in many disease models are not clearly characterized or validated, and the concepts of Chinese medicine syndromes are confounding and controversial. Metabonomics has been applied to the evaluation and classification of the Chinese medicine syndromes both in clinical and nonclinical studies. In this study, we aim to investigate the evolution of the Chinese medicine syndrome in myocardial infarction induced heart failure and to confirm the feasibility of the Zheng classification by plasma metabonomics in a syndrome and disease combination animal model. Methods The heart failure (HF) model was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) in Sprague–Dawley rats. The rats were divided into the following two groups: the HF model group (LAD ligation) and the sham operated group. GC-MS was used with pattern recognition technology and principal component analysis (PCA) to analyze the plasma samples at 4, 21 and 45 day after operation. Results It was determined that the period from 7 to 28 days was the stable time window of ischemic heart failure with qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome (QDBS), and the qi deficiency syndrome occurred at 1 to 4 days and 45 to 60 days after operation. The results exhibited 5 plasma metabolite changes in the same trend at 4 and 21 day after the LAD operation, 7 at 21 and 45 day, and 2 at 4 and 45 day. No metabolite showed the same change at all of the 3 time points. At day 21 (the QDBS syndrome time point) after operation, 4 plasma metabolites showed the same trends with the results of our previous study on patients with the blood stasis syndrome. Conclusions The syndrome diagnosis is reliable in the HF rat model in this study. Plasma metabolites can provide a basis for the evaluation of Chinese medicine syndrome animal models. PMID:25012233

  15. NMR clinical imaging and spectroscopy: Its impact on nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-02

    This is a collection of four papers describing aspects of past and future use of nuclear magnetic resonance as a clinical diagnostic tool. The four papers are entitled (1) What Does NMR Offer that Nuclear Medicine Does Not by Jerry W. Froelich, (2) Oncological Imaging: Now, Future and Impact Jerry W. Froelich, (3) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/Spectroscopic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine: Past, Present and Future by H. Cecil Charles, and (4) MR Cardiology: Now, Future and Impact by Robert J. Herfkens.

  16. NMR clinical imaging and spectroscopy: Its impact on nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-02

    This is a collection of four papers describing aspects of past and future use of nuclear magnetic resonance as a clinical diagnostic tool. The four papers are entitled (1) What Does NMR Offer that Nuclear Medicine Does Not? by Jerry W. Froelich, (2) Oncological Imaging: Now, Future and Impact Jerry W. Froelich, (3) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/Spectroscopic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine: Past, Present and Future by H. Cecil Charles, and (4) MR Cardiology: Now, Future and Impact by Robert J. Herfkens.

  17. Imaging Systemic Inflammatory Networks in Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nahrendorf, Matthias; Frantz, Stefan; Swirski, Filip K.; Mulder, Willem J.M.; Randolph, Gwendalyn; Ertl, Georg; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Piek, Jan; Stroes, Erik; Schwaiger, Markus; Mann, Douglas L.; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2015-01-01

    While acute myocardial infarction mortality declines, patients continue to face reinfarction and/or heart failure. The immune system, which intimately interacts with healthy and diseased tissues through resident and recruited leukocytes, is a central interface for a global host response to ischemia. Pathways that enhance the systemic leukocyte supply may be potential therapeutic targets. Pre-clinically, imaging helps identify immunity’s decision nodes, which may serve as such targets. In translating the rapidly expanding preclinical data on immune activity, the difficulty of obtaining multiple clinical tissue samples from involved organs is an obstacle that whole-body imaging can help overcome. In patients, molecular and cellular imaging can be integrated with blood-based diagnostics to assess the translatability of discoveries, including the activation of hematopoietic tissues after myocardial infarction, and serve as an endpoint in clinical trials. In this review, we discuss these concepts while focusing on imaging immune activity in organs involved in ischemic heart disease. PMID:25881940

  18. Polarized spatial frequency domain imaging of heart valve fiber structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goth, Will; Yang, Bin; Lesicko, John; Allen, Alicia; Sacks, Michael S.; Tunnell, James W.

    2016-03-01

    Our group previously introduced Polarized Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging (PSFDI), a wide-field, reflectance imaging technique which we used to empirically map fiber direction in porcine pulmonary heart valve leaflets (PHVL) without optical clearing or physical sectioning of the sample. Presented is an extended analysis of our PSFDI results using an inverse Mueller matrix model of polarized light scattering that allows additional maps of fiber orientation distribution, along with instrumentation permitting increased imaging speed for dynamic PHVL fiber measurements. We imaged electrospun fiber phantoms with PSFDI, and then compared these measurements to SEM data collected for the same phantoms. PHVL was then imaged and compared to results of the same leaflets optically cleared and imaged with small angle light scattering (SALS). The static PHVL images showed distinct regional variance of fiber orientation distribution, matching our SALS results. We used our improved imaging speed to observe bovine tendon subjected to dynamic loading using a biaxial stretching device. Our dynamic imaging experiment showed trackable changes in the fiber microstructure of biological tissue under loading. Our new PSFDI analysis model and instrumentation allows characterization of fiber structure within heart valve tissues (as validated with SALS measurements), along with imaging of dynamic fiber remodeling. The experimental data will be used as inputs to our constitutive models of PHVL tissue to fully characterize these tissues' elastic behavior, and has immediate application in determining the mechanisms of structural and functional failure in PHVLs used as bio-prosthetic implants.

  19. Roles of Chinese herbal medicines in ischemic heart diseases (IHD) by regulating oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dawei; Wang, Jin; Liu, Yuntao; Zhao, Zhen; Liu, Qing

    2016-10-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) basing on atherosclerosis (AS) is known as a top killer for decades. Oxidative stress, representing excessive oxidation and insufficient elimination, has been proved to be a critical molecular mechanism of IHD and accompanying myocardium dysfunction. Therefore, anti-oxidation therapy may be efficient. Chinese herbal medicine, including extractive compounds, decoctions, patent drugs, and injections, has shown its enormous potential in prevention and treatment of IHD as an effective antioxidant in experimental studies. The aim of this review is to highlight recent studies of Chinese herbal medicine in regulating oxidative stress in IHD. These studies represent recent progress of IHD treatment and indicate the possible pathways and target spots of Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:27390948

  20. [Current value of magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    Wiesmann, F; Taylor, A M; Neubauer, S; Pennell, D J

    1997-09-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive imaging technique with increasing importance in clinical medicine. It has become a valuable and reliable imaging tool in the diagnosis and management of many medical and surgical conditions. Important advantages of MRI are its flexibility in orientation of imaging plane and the possibility of both anatomical and functional imaging. MRI is based on the application and detection of radio signals and works without any exposure to ionizing radiation, and therefore it is regarded as a safe imaging technique. In the heart there are well established imaging indications such as in acquired and congenital heart disease, pericardial and aortic disease and visualisation of cardiac masses and hypertrophy. Its applications in coronary artery disease (CAD) have been relatively limited, but recent developments in ultrafast imaging sequences and computer hardware have led to a considerable improvement in spatial and temporal image resolution. This has made applications in CAD a possibility, particularly coronary imaging and myocardial perfusion imaging. Recent clinical studies report good correlation between Magnetic Resonance Coronary Angiography (MRCA) and conventional x-ray contrast angiography in the detection of coronary lesions. In the assessment of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patency and the definition of anomalous coronary arteries, MRI showed good sensitivity and specificity. The first results of coronary artery flow measurements have now been reported. Myocardial perfusion imaging and stress-ventriculography for detection of wall motion abnormalities are reported as indirect imaging methods with high reliability and clinical value in the diagnosis of CAD. This overview describes recent developments in cardiac MRI and assesses the current and future value of MRI for clinical cardiology. PMID:9441526

  1. Heart transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... 10 years. Alternative Names Cardiac transplant; Transplant - heart; Transplantation - heart Images Heart, section through the middle Heart, ... 28. Bernstein D. Pediatric heart and heart-lung transplantation. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton ...

  2. Electrocardiographic imaging of heart rhythm disorders: from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Rudy, Yoram; Lindsay, Bruce D

    2015-03-01

    Noninvasive electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI; also called ECG mapping) can reconstruct potentials, electrograms, activation sequences, and repolarization patterns on the epicardial surface of the heart with high resolution. ECGI can possibly be used to quantify synchrony, identify potential responders/nonresponders to cardiac resynchronization therapy, and guide electrode placement for effective resynchronization therapy. This article provides a brief description of the ECGI procedure and selected previously published examples of its application in important clinical conditions, including heart failure, cardiac resynchronization therapy, atrial arrhythmias, and ventricular tachycardia. PMID:25722753

  3. Imaging sarcomas of the great vessels and heart.

    PubMed

    Bendel, Emily C; Maleszewski, Joseph J; Araoz, Philip A

    2011-10-01

    Primary sarcomas of the aorta, pulmonary artery, superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and the heart are rare neoplasms. Aortic sarcomas are broadly categorized as either primarily luminal or primarily mural, with luminal sarcomas more likely to be misdiagnosed as thrombus. Pulmonary artery sarcomas are often mistaken for pulmonary embolism both clinically and at imaging. Vena caval sarcomas appear as intraluminal or extraluminal masses connecting to or filling the veins. The most common are leiomyosarcomas of the inferior vena cava. Primary sarcomas of the heart are rare and usually appear as heterogeneous aggressive masses. PMID:21963161

  4. Nuclear medicine annual, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    The following topics are reviewed in this work: nuclear physicians role in planning for and handling radiation accidents; the role of nuclear medicine in evaluating the hypertensive patient; studies of the heart with radionuclides; role of radionuclide imaging in the patient undergoing chemotherapy; hematologic nuclear medicine; the role of nuclear medicine in sports related injuries; radionuclide evaluation of hepatic function with emphasis on cholestatis.

  5. Postmortem magnetic resonance imaging of the heart ex situ: development of technical protocols.

    PubMed

    Bruguier, C; Egger, C; Vallée, J P; Grimm, J; Boulanger, X; Jackowski, C; Mangin, P; Grabherr, S

    2015-05-01

    Postmortem MRI (PMMR) examinations are seldom performed in legal medicine due to long examination times, unfamiliarity with the technique, and high costs. Furthermore, it is difficult to obtain access to an MRI device used for patients in clinical settings to image an entire human body. An alternative is available: ex situ organ examination. To our knowledge, there is no standardized protocol that includes ex situ organ preparation and scanning parameters for postmortem MRI. Thus, our objective was to develop a standard procedure for ex situ heart PMMR examinations. We also tested the oily contrast agent Angiofil® commonly used for PMCT angiography, for its applicability in MRI. We worked with a 3 Tesla MRI device and 32-channel head coils. Twelve porcine hearts were used to test different materials to find the best way to prepare and place organs in the device and to test scanning parameters. For coronary MR angiography, we tested different mixtures of Angiofil® and different injection materials. In a second step, 17 human hearts were examined to test the procedure and its applicability to human organs. We established two standardized protocols: one for preparation of the heart and another for scanning parameters based on experience in clinical practice. The established protocols enabled a standardized technical procedure with comparable radiological images, allowing for easy radiological reading. The performance of coronary MR angiography enabled detailed coronary assessment and revealed the utility of Angiofil® as a contrast agent for PMMR. Our simple, reproducible method for performing heart examinations ex situ yields high quality images and visualization of the coronary arteries. PMID:25108450

  6. Radionuclide Imaging Applications in Cardiomyopathies and Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Harinstein, Matthew E; Soman, Prem

    2016-03-01

    Multiple epidemiological factors including population aging and improved survival after acute coronary syndromes have contributed to a heart failure (HF) prevalence in the USA in epidemic proportions. In the absence of transplantation, HF remains a progressive disease with poor prognosis. The structural and functional abnormalities of the myocardium in HF can be assessed by various radionuclide imaging techniques. Radionuclide imaging may be uniquely suited to address several important clinical questions in HF such as identifying etiology and guiding the selection of patients for coronary revascularization. Newer approaches such as autonomic innervation imaging, phase analysis for synchrony assessment, and other molecular imaging techniques continue to expand the applications of radionuclide imaging in HF. In this manuscript, we review established and evolving applications of radionuclide imaging for the diagnosis, risk stratification, and management of HF. PMID:26841785

  7. Ultrasound imaging in research and clinical medicine.

    PubMed

    Schellpfeffer, Michael A

    2013-06-01

    The use of ultrasound imaging in clinical obstetrics continues to grow at an almost exponential rate. Ultrasound imaging in developmental biology has only begun to be used to enhance the traditional methodologies to study the developing embryo/fetus. The various modalities of ultrasound imaging are reviewed as they apply to current uses in clinical obstetrics and developmental biologic research. New modalities are also discussed in both clinical obstetrics and developmental biologic research as well as the current limitations of ultrasound imaging faced in both of these fields. PMID:23897593

  8. [The application of X-ray imaging in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Kučerová, Stěpánka; Safr, Miroslav; Ublová, Michaela; Urbanová, Petra; Hejna, Petr

    2014-07-01

    X-ray is the most common, basic and essential imaging method used in forensic medicine. It serves to display and localize the foreign objects in the body and helps to detect various traumatic and pathological changes. X-ray imaging is valuable in anthropological assessment of an individual. X-ray allows non-invasive evaluation of important findings before the autopsy and thus selection of the optimal strategy for dissection. Basic indications for postmortem X-ray imaging in forensic medicine include gunshot and explosive fatalities (identification and localization of projectiles or other components of ammunition, visualization of secondary missiles), sharp force injuries (air embolism, identification of the weapon) and motor vehicle related deaths. The method is also helpful for complex injury evaluation in abused victims or in persons where abuse is suspected. Finally, X-ray imaging still remains the gold standard method for identification of unknown deceased. With time modern imaging methods, especially computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are more and more applied in forensic medicine. Their application extends possibilities of the visualization the bony structures toward a more detailed imaging of soft tissues and internal organs. The application of modern imaging methods in postmortem body investigation is known as digital or virtual autopsy. At present digital postmortem imaging is considered as a bloodless alternative to the conventional autopsy. PMID:25186776

  9. 2D imaging of functional structures in perfused pig heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, Manfred D.; Cristea, Paul D.; Hiller, Michael; Trinks, Tobias

    2002-06-01

    In 2000 by 2D-imaging we were able for the first time to visualize in subcellular space functional structures of myocardium. For these experiments we used hemoglobin-free perfused pig hearts in our lab. Step by step we learned to understand the meaning of subcellular structures. Principally, the experiment revealed that in subcellular space very fast changes of light scattering can occur. Furthermore, coefficients of different parameters were determined on the basis of multicomponent system theory.

  10. Image-Based Predictive Modeling of Heart Mechanics.

    PubMed

    Wang, V Y; Nielsen, P M F; Nash, M P

    2015-01-01

    Personalized biophysical modeling of the heart is a useful approach for noninvasively analyzing and predicting in vivo cardiac mechanics. Three main developments support this style of analysis: state-of-the-art cardiac imaging technologies, modern computational infrastructure, and advanced mathematical modeling techniques. In vivo measurements of cardiac structure and function can be integrated using sophisticated computational methods to investigate mechanisms of myocardial function and dysfunction, and can aid in clinical diagnosis and developing personalized treatment. In this article, we review the state-of-the-art in cardiac imaging modalities, model-based interpretation of 3D images of cardiac structure and function, and recent advances in modeling that allow personalized predictions of heart mechanics. We discuss how using such image-based modeling frameworks can increase the understanding of the fundamental biophysics behind cardiac mechanics, and assist with diagnosis, surgical guidance, and treatment planning. Addressing the challenges in this field will require a coordinated effort from both the clinical-imaging and modeling communities. We also discuss future directions that can be taken to bridge the gap between basic science and clinical translation. PMID:26643023

  11. Beating heart mitral valve repair with integrated ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, A. Jonathan; Moore, John T.; Peters, Terry M.

    2015-03-01

    Beating heart valve therapies rely extensively on image guidance to treat patients who would be considered inoperable with conventional surgery. Mitral valve repair techniques including the MitrClip, NeoChord, and emerging transcatheter mitral valve replacement techniques rely on transesophageal echocardiography for guidance. These images are often difficult to interpret as the tool will cause shadowing artifacts that occlude tissue near the target site. Here, we integrate ultrasound imaging directly into the NeoChord device. This provides an unobstructed imaging plane that can visualize the valve lea ets as they are engaged by the device and can aid in achieving both a proper bite and spacing between the neochordae implants. A proof of concept user study in a phantom environment is performed to provide a proof of concept for this device.

  12. Imaging heart development using high-resolution episcopic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mohun, Timothy J; Weninger, Wolfgang J

    2011-10-01

    Development of the heart in vertebrate embryos is a complex process in which the organ is continually remodelled as chambers are formed, valves sculpted and connections established to the developing vascular system. Investigating the genetic programmes driving these changes and the environmental factors that may influence them is critical for our understanding of congenital heart disease. A recurrent challenge in this work is how to integrate studies as diverse as those of cardiac gene function and regulation with an appreciation of the localised interactions between cardiac tissues not to mention the manner in which both may be affected by cardiac function itself. Meeting this challenge requires an accurate way to analyse the changes in 3D morphology of the developing heart, which can be swift or protracted and both dramatic or subtle in consequence. Here we review the use of high-resolution episcopic microscopy as a simple and effective means to examine organ structure and one that allows modern computing methods pioneered by clinical imaging to be applied to the embryonic heart. PMID:21893408

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in medicine

    PubMed Central

    McKinstry, C S

    1986-01-01

    Using the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, MR, MRI), the first images displaying pathology in humans were published in 1980.1 Since then, there has been a rapid extension in the use of the technique, with an estimated 225 machines in use in the USA at the end of 1985.2 Considerable enthusiasm has been expressed for this new imaging technique,3 although awareness of its high cost in the present economic climate has led to reservations being expressed in other quarters.2 The aim of this article is to give an outline of the present state of NMR, and indicate some possible future developments. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3(a)Fig 3 (b)Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7 (a)Fig 7 (b)Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10 PMID:3811023

  14. Imaging of primary bone tumors in veterinary medicine: which differences?

    PubMed

    Vanel, Maïa; Blond, Laurent; Vanel, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Veterinary medicine is most often a mysterious world for the human doctors. However, animals are important for human medicine thanks to the numerous biological similarities. Primary bone tumors are not uncommon in veterinary medicine and especially in small domestic animals as dogs and cats. As in human medicine, osteosarcoma is the most common one and especially in the long bones extremities. In the malignant bone tumor family, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma are following. Benign bone tumors as osteoma, osteochondroma and bone cysts do exist but are rare and of little clinical significance. Diagnostic modalities used depend widely on the owner willing to treat his animal. Radiographs and bone biopsy are the standard to make a diagnosis but CT, nuclear medicine and MRI are more an more used. As amputation is treatment number one in appendicular bone tumor in veterinary medicine, this explains on the one hand why more recent imaging modalities are not always necessary and on the other hand, that prognostic on large animals is so poor that it is not much studied. Chemotherapy is sometimes associated with the surgery procedure, depending on the aggressivity of the tumor. Although, the strakes differs a lot between veterinary and human medicine, biological behavior are almost the same and should led to a beneficial team work between all. PMID:22197093

  15. Heart attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... a heart attack take part in a cardiac rehabilitation program. ... al. eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014: ...

  16. Molecular imaging and personalized medicine: an uncertain future.

    PubMed

    Nunn, Adrian D

    2007-12-01

    The Food and Drug Administration has described their view of the role that imaging will play in the approval, and perhaps postapproval, use of new therapeutic drugs. The therapeutic drug industry and regulatory authorities have turned to imaging to help them achieve better efficiency and efficacy. We must extend this initiative by demonstrating that molecular imaging can also improve the efficiency and efficacy of routine treatment with these same drugs. The role of molecular imaging in personalized medicine, using targeted drugs in oncology, is very attractive because of the regional information that it provides (in many cases, with a functional or dynamic component), which cannot be provided by in vitro methods ("regional proteomics"). There is great potential for molecular imaging to play a major role in selecting appropriate patients and providing early proof of response, which is critical to addressing the conflict between the high price of treatment and limited reimbursement budgets. This is a new venture in both molecular imaging and targeted drugs. However, there are various regulatory, financial, and practical barriers that must be overcome to achieve this aim, in addition to the normal scientific challenges of drug discovery. There is an urgent need to reduce the cost (i.e., time and money) of developing imaging agents for routine clinical use. The mismatch between the current regulations and personalized medicine includes molecular imaging and requires the engagement of the regulatory authorities to correct. Therapeutic companies must be engaged early in the development of new targeted drugs and molecular imaging agents to improve the fit between the two drug types. Clinical trials must be performed to generate data that not only shows the efficacy of imaging plus therapy in a medical sense, but also in a financial sense. Molecular imaging must be accepted as not just good science but also as central to routine patient management in the personalized

  17. [Impact of sleep deprivation on coronary heart disease and progress in prevention and treatment with traditional Chinese medicines].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Rong; Wang, Jie; Guo, Li-li

    2015-05-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has been taken as an independent predictor for cardiovascular risks, which was closely related to the increased morbidity and mortality in coronary heart disease (CHD). In this article, after reviewing the impact of modern medical method sleep deprivation on CHD and studies on principle method recipe medicines for preventing and treating CHD, the authors observed the autonomic nerve dysfunction, hormonal metabolism dysfunction, endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory responses after sleep deprivation, which can cause or aggravate CHD. On the basis of the traditional Chinese medicine theories of "heart dominating the blood and vessels and the mind", the authors considered that traditional Chinese medicines can tonify heart and soothe the nerves, reducing all of the risk factors through multi-target and multi-pathway, and improve sleep and decrease the risk factors caused by sleep deprivation, which provides a new idea for the prevention and treatment of CHD. PMID:26323126

  18. The Nobel Prize in Medicine for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Charles G.

    2004-01-01

    Nobel Prize in Medicine awarded in December 2003 to chemist Paul C. Lauterbur and physicist Peter Mansfield for the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a long overdue recognition of the huge impact MRI has had in medical diagnostics and research is mentioned. MRI was derived, and remains an extension of nuclear magnetic resonance…

  19. Accuracy and Precision of Radioactivity Quantification in Nuclear Medicine Images

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Eric C.; Humm, John L.; Ljungberg, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The ability to reliably quantify activity in nuclear medicine has a number of increasingly important applications. Dosimetry for targeted therapy treatment planning or for approval of new imaging agents requires accurate estimation of the activity in organs, tumors, or voxels at several imaging time points. Another important application is the use of quantitative metrics derived from images, such as the standard uptake value commonly used in positron emission tomography (PET), to diagnose and follow treatment of tumors. These measures require quantification of organ or tumor activities in nuclear medicine images. However, there are a number of physical, patient, and technical factors that limit the quantitative reliability of nuclear medicine images. There have been a large number of improvements in instrumentation, including the development of hybrid single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography and PET/computed tomography systems, and reconstruction methods, including the use of statistical iterative reconstruction methods, which have substantially improved the ability to obtain reliable quantitative information from planar, single-photon emission computed tomography, and PET images. PMID:22475429

  20. Content-Based Image Retrieval in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Long, L. Rodney; Antani, Sameer; Deserno, Thomas M.; Thoma, George R.

    2009-01-01

    Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) technology has been proposed to benefit not only the management of increasingly large image collections, but also to aid clinical care, biomedical research, and education. Based on a literature review, we conclude that there is widespread enthusiasm for CBIR in the engineering research community, but the application of this technology to solve practical medical problems is a goal yet to be realized. Furthermore, we highlight “gaps” between desired CBIR system functionality and what has been achieved to date, present for illustration a comparative analysis of four state-of-the-art CBIR implementations using the gap approach, and suggest that high-priority gaps to be overcome lie in CBIR interfaces and functionality that better serve the clinical and biomedical research communities. PMID:20523757

  1. Tissue Doppler Imaging in Coronary Artery Diseases and Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Correale, Michele; Totaro, Antonio; Ieva, Riccardo; Ferraretti, Armando; Musaico, Francesco; Biase, Matteo Di

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have explored the prognostic role of TDI-derived parameters in major cardiac diseases, such as coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF). In these conditions, myocardial mitral annular systolic (S’) and early diastolic (E’) velocities have been shown to predict mortality or cardiovascular events. In heart failure non invasive assessment of LV diastolic pressure by transmitral to mitral annular early diastolic velocity ratio (E/E’) is a strong prognosticator, especially when E/E’ is > or =15. Moreover, other parameters derived by TDI, as cardiac time intervals and Myocardial Performance Index, might play a role in the prognostic stratification in CAD and HF. Recently, a three-dimensional (3-D) TDI imaging modality, triplane TDI, has become available, and this allows calculation of 3-Dvolumes and LV ejection fraction. We present a brief update of TDI. PMID:22845815

  2. Hyperspectral imaging applied to forensic medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkoff, Donald B.; Oliver, William R.

    2000-03-01

    Remote sensing techniques now include the use of hyperspectral infrared imaging sensors covering the mid-and- long wave regions of the spectrum. They have found use in military surveillance applications due to their capability for detection and classification of a large variety of both naturally occurring and man-made substances. The images they produce reveal the spatial distributions of spectral patterns that reflect differences in material temperature, texture, and composition. A program is proposed for demonstrating proof-of-concept in using a portable sensor of this type for crime scene investigations. It is anticipated to be useful in discovering and documenting the affects of trauma and/or naturally occurring illnesses, as well as detecting blood spills, tire patterns, toxic chemicals, skin injection sites, blunt traumas to the body, fluid accumulations, congenital biochemical defects, and a host of other conditions and diseases. This approach can significantly enhance capabilities for determining the circumstances of death. Potential users include law enforcement organizations (police, FBI, CIA), medical examiners, hospitals/emergency rooms, and medical laboratories. Many of the image analysis algorithms already in place for hyperspectral remote sensing and crime scene investigations can be applied to the interpretation of data obtained in this program.

  3. Pediatric systems medicine: evaluating needs and opportunities using congenital heart block as a case study.

    PubMed

    Tegnér, Jesper; Abugessaisa, Imad

    2013-04-01

    Medicine and pediatrics are changing and health care is moving from being reactive to becoming preventive. Despite rapid developments of new technologies for molecular profiling and systems analysis of diseases, significant hurdles remain. Here, we use the clinical setting of congenital heart block (CHB) to uncover and illustrate key informatics challenges impeding the development of a systems medicine approach emphasizing the prevention and prediction of disease. We find that there is a paucity of useful bioinformatics tools enabling the integrative analysis of different databases of molecular information and clinical sources in a disease context such as CHB, contrasting with the current emphasis on developing bioinformatics tools for the analysis of individual data types. Moreover, informatics solutions for managing data, such as the Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) or Stanford Translational Research Integrated Database Environment, require serious software engineering support for the maintenance and import of data beyond the capabilities of clinicians working with CHB. Hence, there is an urgent unmet need for user-friendly tools facilitating the integrative analysis and management of omics data and clinical information. Pediatrics represents an untapped potential to execute such a systems medicine program in close collaboration with clinicians and families who are keen to do what is needed for their children to prevent and predict diseases and nurture wellness. PMID:23370412

  4. Image-Capture Devices Extend Medicine's Reach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Johnson Space Center, Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, and Houston-based Wyle Laboratories collaborated on NASA's Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity (ADUM) experiment, which developed revolutionary medical ultrasound diagnostic techniques for long-distance use. Mediphan, a Canadian company with U.S. operations in Springfield, New Jersey drew on NASA expertise to create frame-grabber and data archiving technology that enables ultrasound users with minimal training to send diagnostic-quality ultrasound images and video to medical professionals via the Internet in near real time allowing patients as varied as professional athletes, Olympians, and mountain climbers to receive medical attention as soon as it is needed.

  5. Automatic segmentation of heart cavities in multidimensional ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Ivo; Glombitza, Gerald; De Simone, Rosalyn; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    2000-06-01

    We propose a segmentation method different from active contours, which can cope with incomplete edges. The algorithm has been developed to segment heart cavities, but may be extended to more complex object shapes. Due to the almost convex geometry of heart cavities we are using a polar coordinate system with its origin near the cavity's center. The image is scanned from the origin for potential edge points. In order to assess the likelihood of an edge point to belong to the myocardial wall, region based information, such as visibility and local wall thickness, is included. The local information (edge points) progressively is expanded by first grouping the edge points to line segments and then selecting a subgroup of segments to obtain the final closed contour. This is done by means of minimizing a cost function. The plausibility of the result is checked and, if needed, the contour is corrected and/or refined by searching for additional potential edge points. For multidimensional images the algorithm is applied slice-by-slice without the need of further user interaction. The new segmentation method has been applied to clinical ultrasound images, the result being that the myocardial wall correctly was detected in the vast majority of cases.

  6. Imaging the heart in pulmonary hypertension: an update.

    PubMed

    Grünig, Ekkehard; Peacock, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Noninvasive imaging of the heart plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of pulmonary hypertension (PH), and several well-established techniques are available for assessing performance of the right ventricle, the key determinant of patient survival. While right heart catheterisation is mandatory for establishing a diagnosis of PH, echocardiography is the most important screening tool for early detection of PH. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) is also a reliable and practical tool that can be used as part of the diagnostic work-up. Echocardiography can measure a range of haemodynamic and anatomical variables (e.g. pericardial effusion and pulmonary artery pressure), whereas CMRI provides complementary information to echocardiography via high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging. Together with echocardiography and CMRI, techniques such as high-resolution computed tomography and positron emission tomography may also be valuable for screening, monitoring and follow-up assessments of patients with PH, but their clinical relevance has yet to be established. Technological advances have produced new variants of echocardiography, CMRI and positron emission tomography, and these permit closer examination of myocardial architecture, motion and deformation. Integrating these new tools into clinical practice in the future may lead to more precise noninvasive determination of diagnosis, risk and prognosis for PH. PMID:26621979

  7. (New imaging systems in nuclear medicine)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    We continue to use and maintain PCR-I, the single-slice high- resolution high-sensitivity positron emission tomograph, while development proceeds on PCR-II, a three-dimensional PET system. A two-dimensional BGO scintillation detector has been designed and we are nearing completion of the detector, including the light guide, crystals and phototube assembly, and the gantry electronics. We are currently exploring techniques for a very high resolution (sub-mm) PET imaging system. We are using the current PCR-I system to assess changes in presynaptic dopamine receptors and glucose utilization in current biological models of Huntington's disease. Our preliminary studies support the use of the primate (Cynomolgus monkey) model of Huntington's disease to monitor in vivo functional changes. We are planning to extend this study to examine the MPTP model of Parkinson disease, and to assess the therapeutic value of D{sub 1} dopamine receptor agonists for treatment of MPTP-induced neurological defects. 13 refs., 5 figs. (MHB)

  8. Spectral photoplethysmographic imaging sensor fusion for enhanced heart rate detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelard, Robert; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    Continuous heart rate monitoring can provide important context for quantitative clinical assessment in scenarios such as long-term health monitoring and disability prevention. Photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI) systems are particularly useful for such monitoring scenarios as contact-based devices pose problems related to comfort and mobility. Each pixel can be regarded as a virtual PPG sensor, thus enabling simultaneous measurements of multiple skin sites. Existing PPGI systems analyze temporal PPGI sensor uctuations related to hemodynamic pulsations across a region of interest to extract the blood pulse signal. However, due to spatially varying optical properties of the skin, the blood pulse signal may not be consistent across all PPGI sensors, leading to inaccurate heart rate monitoring. To increase the hemodynamic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), we propose a novel spectral PPGI sensor fusion method for enhanced estimation of the true blood pulse signal. Motivated by the observation that PPGI sensors with high hemodynamic SNR exhibit a spectral energy peak at the heart rate frequency, an entropy-based fusion model was formulated to combine PPGI sensors based on the sensors' spectral energy distribution. The optical PPGI device comprised a near infrared (NIR) sensitive camera and an 850 nm LED. Spatially uniform irradiance was achieved by placing optical elements along the LED beam, providing consistent illumination across the skin area. Dual-mode temporally coded illumination was used to negate the temporal effect of ambient illumination. Experimental results show that the spectrally weighted PPGI method can accurately and consistently extract heart rate information where traditional region-based averaging fails.

  9. Innovative Interventional and Imaging Registries: Precision Medicine in Cerebrovascular Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Liebeskind, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Precision medicine in cerebrovascular disorders may be greatly advanced by the use of innovative interventional and imaging-intensive registries. Registries have remained subsidiary to randomized controlled trials, yet vast opportunities exist to leverage big data in stroke. Summary This overview builds upon the rationale for innovative, imaging-intensive interventional registries as a pivotal step in realizing precision medicine for several cerebrovascular disorders. Such enhanced registries may serve as a model for expansion of our translational research pipeline to fully leverage the role of phase IV investigations. The scope and role of registries in precision medicine are considered, followed by a review on the history of stroke and interventional registries, data considerations, critiques or barriers to such initiatives, and the potential modernization of registry methods into efficient, searchable, imaging-intensive resources that simultaneously offer clinical, research and educational added value. Key Messages Recent advances in technology, informatics and endovascular stroke therapies converge to provide an exceptional opportunity for registries to catapult further progress. There is now a tremendous opportunity to deploy registries in acute stroke, intracranial atherosclerotic disease and carotid disease where other clinical trials leave questions unanswered. Unlike prior registries, imaging-intensive and modernized methods may leverage current technological capabilities around the world to efficiently address key objectives and provide added clinical, research and educational value. PMID:26600792

  10. Real-time optical gating for three-dimensional beating heart imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Jonathan M.; Saunter, Christopher D.; Love, Gordon D.; Girkin, John M.; Henderson, Deborah J.; Chaudhry, Bill

    2011-11-01

    We demonstrate real-time microscope image gating to an arbitrary position in the cycle of the beating heart of a zebrafish embryo. We show how this can be used for high-precision prospective gating of fluorescence image slices of the moving heart. We also present initial results demonstrating the application of this technique to 3-D structural imaging of the beating embryonic heart.

  11. Rheumatoid arthritis: Nuclear Medicine state-of-the-art imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rosado-de-Castro, Paulo Henrique; Lopes de Souza, Sergio Augusto; Alexandre, Dângelo; Barbosa da Fonseca, Lea Mirian; Gutfilen, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease, which is associated with systemic and chronic inflammation of the joints, resulting in synovitis and pannus formation. For several decades, the assessment of RA has been limited to conventional radiography, assisting in the diagnosis and monitoring of disease. Nevertheless, conventional radiography has poor sensitivity in the detection of the inflammatory process that happens in the initial stages of RA. In the past years, new drugs that significantly decrease the progression of RA have allowed a more efficient treatment. Nuclear Medicine provides functional assessment of physiological processes and therefore has significant potential for timely diagnosis and adequate follow-up of RA. Several single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals have been developed and applied in this field. The use of hybrid imaging, which permits computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine data to be acquired and fused, has increased even more the diagnostic accuracy of Nuclear Medicine by providing anatomical localization in SPECT/CT and PET/CT studies. More recently, fusion of PET with magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was introduced in some centers and demonstrated great potential. In this article, we will review studies that have been published using Nuclear Medicine for RA and examine key topics in the area. PMID:25035834

  12. The sociological image of medicine and the patient.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, U

    1989-01-01

    Jack Elinson raises somewhat rhetorical questions about the value of medical care and medical sociology. Behind them is a serious concern with the type and scope of medicalisation in modern society as well as its sociological criticism. This raises the issue of whether the various theoretical images of medicine and the patient which sociology provides are able to account for the effect of the social environment upon morbidity and mortality as shown, for instance, by the Alameda County Study. Three theoretically distinct approaches are discussed in detail, structural functionalism, symbolic interactionism and conflict theory. These characterise medical sociology over the last 30 years. They elucidate more clearly Elinson's own image of medicine and the patient. But none seems to match his standpoint vis-a-vis the medicalisation of care which refrains from citing psychological forces but emphasises the availability of good medical services. PMID:2672352

  13. Nuclear medicine for imaging of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Abedi, Seyed Mohammad; Mardanshahi, Alireza; Shahhosseini, Roza; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal

    2016-05-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Usually, the diagnosis of cancer at an early stage is important to facilitate proper treatment and survival. Nuclear medicine has been successfully used in the diagnosis, staging, therapy and monitoring of cancers. Single-photon emission computed tomography and PET-based companion imaging agents are in development for use as a companion diagnostic tool for patients with ovarian cancer. The present review discusses the basic and clinical studies related to the use of radiopharmaceuticals in the diagnosis and management of ovarian cancer, focusing on their utility and comparing them with other imaging techniques such as computed tomography and MRI. PMID:26984362

  14. [Molecular hyperspectral imaging (MHSI) system and application in biochemical medicine].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Ying; Li, Qing-Li; Wang, Yi-Ting; Liu, Jin-Gao; Xue, Yong-Qi

    2011-10-01

    A novel molecular hyperspectral imaging (MHSI) system based on AOTF (acousto-optic tunable filters) was presented. The system consists of microscope, AOTF-based spectrometer, matrix CCD, image collection card and computer. The spectral range of the MHSI is from 550 to 1 000 nm. The spectral resolution is less than 2 nm, and the spatial resolution is about 0.3 microm. This paper has also presented that spectral curves extracted from the corrected hyperspectral data of the sample, which have been preprocessed by the gray correction coefficient, can more truly represent biochemical characteristic of the sample. The system can supply not only single band images in the visible range, but also spectrum curve of random pixel of sample image. This system can be widely used in various fields of biomedicine, clinical medicine, material science and microelectronics. PMID:22250515

  15. EACVI appropriateness criteria for the use of cardiovascular imaging in heart failure derived from European National Imaging Societies voting.

    PubMed

    Garbi, Madalina; Edvardsen, Thor; Bax, Jeroen; Petersen, Steffen E; McDonagh, Theresa; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the first European appropriateness criteria for the use of cardiovascular imaging in heart failure, derived from voting of the European National Imaging Societies representatives. The paper describes the development process and discusses the results. PMID:27129538

  16. High-resolution positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging of the mouse heart.

    PubMed

    Greco, Adelaide; Fiumara, Giovanni; Gargiulo, Sara; Gramanzini, Matteo; Brunetti, Arturo; Cuocolo, Alberto

    2013-03-01

    Different animal models have been used to reproduce coronary heart disease, but in recent years mice have become the animals of choice, because of their short life cycle and the possibility of genetic manipulation. Various techniques are currently used for cardiovascular imaging in mice, including high-resolution ultrasound, X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear medicine procedures. In particular, molecular imaging with cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) allows non-invasive evaluation of changes in myocardial perfusion, metabolism, apoptosis, inflammation and gene expression or measurement of changes in left ventricular functional parameters. With technological advances, dedicated small laboratory PET/CT imaging has emerged in cardiovascular research, providing in vivo a non-invasive, serial and quantitative assessment of left ventricular function, myocardial perfusion and metabolism at a molecular level. This non-invasive methodology might be useful in longitudinal studies to monitor cardiac biochemical parameters and might facilitate studies to assess the effect of different interventions after acute myocardial ischaemia. PMID:23118016

  17. Nuclear medicine imaging in dementia: a practical overview for hospitalists.

    PubMed

    Toney, Lauren Kay; McCue, Tim J; Minoshima, Satoshi; Lewis, David H

    2011-08-01

    Dementia is a clinical syndrome with diverse presentation, a challenging differential diagnosis, and time-sensitive therapy. The most common cause of dementia in patients aged > 65 years is Alzheimer's disease, which now affects 4 million people in the United States, but is often underrecognized, especially in the inpatient population. The hospitalist may have the opportunity to evaluate a patient's initial presentation of dementia. Addressing the inpatient's dementia symptoms can improve overall care and outcomes, so it is imperative that the hospitalist is abreast of recent developments in the dementia workup. The focus of this article is to overview how nuclear medicine imaging of the brain can aid in this process, with perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and fludeoxyglucose F 18 ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) as the 2 most common modalities. Our discussion focuses on Alzheimer's disease, as this the most common etiology of dementia in patients aged > 65 years; however, we also touch on the other common neurodegenerative dementias (eg, dementia with Lewy bodies, vascular dementia, and frontotemporal dementia) for completeness. We begin with a summary of the most recent published guidelines for each of these neurodegenerative diseases, and then expand on the role that nuclear imaging plays in each. We provide a basic overview of the principles of these nuclear medicine techniques, and then illustrate findings in perfusion SPECT and (18)F-FDG PET for typical patterns of dementia, with emphasis on evidence regarding diagnostic accuracy of each modality, in comparison with accepted gold standards. Finally, we outline some future research topics within the field of nuclear medicine in dementia, including amyloid plaque imaging and dopamine transporter imaging. PMID:21881402

  18. Advances in material design for regenerative medicine, drug delivery and targeting/imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many of the major breakthroughs and paradigm shifts in medicine to date have occurred due to innovations and materials and/or application/implementation of materials in clinical medicine. Artificial heart valves, implantable cardiac devices, limb prosthesis, cardiovascular stents, orthopedic implan...

  19. New imaging systems in nuclear medicine. Technical progress report, January 1, 1985-November 1, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Brownell, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    Developments of improved imaging systems in nuclear medicine are reported with emphasis on development of positron emission tomographs that combine high resolution, with high sensitivity and high count rate capability. A second generation cylindrical analog positron camera design has provided excellent light collection with limited light spread, characteristics needed for high spatial and temporal resolution. Other aspects of the camera development include the design of associated electronics, and provision for data storage and processing. Utilizing the above camera basic studies have been performed to evaluate blood flow in the cat brain stem during auditory stimulation, ventilation in the dog using /sup 13/N and blood flow in the canine heart. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Japanese consensus guidelines for pediatric nuclear medicine. Part 1: Pediatric radiopharmaceutical administered doses (JSNM pediatric dosage card). Part 2: Technical considerations for pediatric nuclear medicine imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Masaki, Hidekazu; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Okuno, Mitsuo; Oguma, Eiji; Onuma, Hiroshi; Kanegawa, Kimio; Kanaya, Shinichi; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Karasawa, Kensuke; Kitamura, Masayuki; Kida, Tetsuo; Kono, Tatsuo; Kondo, Chisato; Sasaki, Masayuki; Terada, Hitoshi; Nakanishi, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Teisuke; Hataya, Hiroshi; Hamano, Shin-ichiro; Hirono, Keishi; Fujita, Yukihiko; Hoshino, Ken; Yano, Masayuki; Watanabe, Seiichi

    2014-06-01

    The Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine has recently published the consensus guidelines for pediatric nuclear medicine. This article is the English version of the guidelines. Part 1 proposes the dose optimization in pediatric nuclear medicine studies. Part 2 comprehensively discusses imaging techniques for the appropriate conduct of pediatric nuclear medicine procedures, considering the characteristics of imaging in children. PMID:24647992

  1. Heart deformation analysis: measuring regional myocardial velocity with MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai; Collins, Jeremy D; Chowdhary, Varun; Markl, Michael; Carr, James C

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that heart deformation analysis (HDA) may serve as an alternative for the quantification of regional myocardial velocity. Nineteen healthy volunteers (14 male and 5 female) without documented cardiovascular diseases were recruited following the approval of the institutional review board (IRB). For each participant, cine images (at base, mid and apex levels of the left ventricle [LV]) and tissue phase mapping (TPM, at same short-axis slices of the LV) were acquired within a single magnetic resonance (MR) scan. Regional myocardial velocities in radial and circumferential directions acquired with HDA (Vrr and Vcc) and TPM (Vr and VФ) were measured during the cardiac cycle. HDA required shorter processing time compared to TPM (2.3 ± 1.1 min/case vs. 9.5 ± 3.7 min/case, p < 0.001). Moderate to good correlations between velocity components measured with HDA and TPM could be found on multiple myocardial segments (r = 0.460-0.774) and slices (r = 0.409-0.814) with statistical significance (p < 0.05). However, significant biases of velocity measures at regional myocardial areas between HDA and TPM were also noticed. By providing comparable velocity measures as TPM does, HDA may serve as an alternative for measuring regional myocardial velocity with a faster image processing procedure. PMID:27076222

  2. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in medicine and physiology

    SciTech Connect

    Moonen, C.T.W.; van Zijl, P.C.M.; Frank, J.A.; Bihan, D.L.; Becker, E.D. )

    1990-10-05

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a well-established diagnostic tool that provides detailed information about macroscopic structure and anatomy. Recent advances in MRI allow the noninvasive spatial evaluation of various biophysical and biochemical processes in living systems. Specifically, the motion of water can be measured in processes such as vascular flow, capillary flow, diffusion, and exchange. In addition, the concentrations of various metabolites can be determined for the assessment of regional regulation of metabolism. Examples are given that demonstrate the use of functional MRI for clinical and research purposes. This development adds a new dimension to the application of magnetic resonance to medicine and physiology.

  3. [Image Feature Extraction and Discriminant Analysis of Xinjiang Uygur Medicine Based on Color Histogram].

    PubMed

    Hamit, Murat; Yun, Weikang; Yan, Chuanbo; Kutluk, Abdugheni; Fang, Yang; Alip, Elzat

    2015-06-01

    Image feature extraction is an important part of image processing and it is an important field of research and application of image processing technology. Uygur medicine is one of Chinese traditional medicine and researchers pay more attention to it. But large amounts of Uygur medicine data have not been fully utilized. In this study, we extracted the image color histogram feature of herbal and zooid medicine of Xinjiang Uygur. First, we did preprocessing, including image color enhancement, size normalizition and color space transformation. Then we extracted color histogram feature and analyzed them with statistical method. And finally, we evaluated the classification ability of features by Bayes discriminant analysis. Experimental results showed that high accuracy for Uygur medicine image classification was obtained by using color histogram feature. This study would have a certain help for the content-based medical image retrieval for Xinjiang Uygur medicine. PMID:26485983

  4. Imaging in the context of replacement heart valve development: use of the Visible Heart(®) methodologies.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Michael G; Iaizzo, Paul A

    2012-09-01

    In recent years huge strides have been made in the fields of interventional cardiology and cardiac surgery which now allow physicians and surgeons to repair or replace cardiac valves with greater success in a larger demographic of patients. Pivotal to these advances has been significant improvements in cardiac imaging and improved fundamental understanding of valvular anatomies and morphologies. We describe here a novel series of techniques utilized within the Visible Heart(®) laboratory by engineers, scientists, and/or anatomists to visualize and analyze the form and function of the four cardiac valves and to assess potential repair or replacement therapies. The study of reanimated large mammalian hearts (including human hearts) using various imaging modalities, as well as specially prepared anatomical specimens, has enhanced the design, development, and testing of novel cardiac therapies. PMID:24282719

  5. The Nobel Prize in Medicine for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Charles G.

    2004-07-01

    A review is given of the crucial work performed by Paul C. Lauterbur and Peter Mansfield that lead to their being awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 2003. Lauterbur first expounded the idea of mapping spatial information from spectral data in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) through the application of magnetic field gradients (P. C. Lauterbur, Nature 1973 , 242, 190-191). One year later Mansfield and co-workers introduced the idea of selective excitation to NMR imaging (A. N. Garroway, P. K. Grannell, and P. Mansfield. J. Phys. C: Solid State Physics 1974 , 7, L457-L462). A major step in making the technique useful for clinical imaging came with Mansfield's publication of the method known as echo planar imaging (P. Mansfield, J. Phys. C: Solid State Physics 1977, 10 (3) , L55-L58). Lauterbur's and Mansfield's work captured the essence of scientific discovery, collaboration, and concerted effort to overcome significant technical issues, and were key to the development of the technique of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Examples of how MRI technology can be extended to chemical research are given, and limitations of the technique in this regard are discussed. Discussion of how to use commonly available NMR spectrometers for chemical imaging is also provided.

  6. Entropy analysis for determining systolic and diastolic cycles in heart MR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, Fabian; Solis-Najera, Sergio; Marrufo, Oscar; Ley-Koo, Marcos; Martin, Rodrigo

    2014-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a non-invasive technique that allows the medical diagnostic via clinical images. MRI has been employed to study the cardiac function during the last 20 years. There are different techniques in clinical cardiac MR that allow studying the heart [1]. These techniques acquire several images in a short acquisition time and are repeated sequentially to display the heart functionally. The main objective of this research is to analyze the acquired images, which have been obtained with a standard heart acquisition sequence, with the computation of the entropy of the image to detect cardiac cycles. Images of the heart were segmented and processed to find the systolic and diastolic cycles.

  7. Huangqi Injection (a Traditional Chinese Patent Medicine) for Chronic Heart Failure: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shufei; Zhang, Junhua; Menniti-Ippolito, Francesca; Gao, Xiumei; Galeotti, Francesca; Massari, Marco; Hu, Limin; Zhang, Boli; Ferrelli, Rita; Fauci, Alice; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Shang, Hongcai; Guerra, Ranieri; Raschetti, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a global public health problem. Therefore, novel and effective drugs that show few side-effects are needed. Early literature studies indicated that Huangqi injection is one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese patent medicines for CHF in China. As a large number of clinical studies has been carried out and published, it is essential to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Huangqi injection. Therefore, we carried out this systematic review under the support of the framework of the Joint Sino-Italian Laboratory (JoSIL). Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Huangqi injection for CHF according to the available scientific knowledge. Methods An extensive search including PubMed, EMBASE, CBM, the Cochrane Library and Chinese literature databases was performed up to July 2008. Clinical trials regarding Huangqi injection for the treatment of CHF were searched for, irrespective of languages. The quality of each trial was assessed according to the Cochrane Reviewers' Handbook 5.0, and RevMan 5.0 provided by the Cochrane Collaboration and STATA 9.2 were used for data analysis. Results After selection of 1,205 articles, 62 RCTs and quasi-RCTs conducted in China and published in Chinese journals were included in the review. The methodological quality of the trials was low. In most trials inclusion and exclusion criteria were not specified. Furthermore, only one study evaluated the outcomes for drug efficacy after an adequate period of time. For these reasons and because of the different baseline characteristics we did not conduct a meta-analysis. Conclusions Although available studies are not adequate to draw a conclusion on the efficacy and safety of Huangqi injection (a traditional Chinese patent medicine), we hope that our work could provide useful experience on further studies on Huangqi injections. The overall level of TCM clinical research needs to be improved so that the efficacy of TCM can be evaluated

  8. High transparency coded apertures in planar nuclear medicine imaging.

    PubMed

    Starfield, David M; Rubin, David M; Marwala, Tshilidzi

    2007-01-01

    Coded apertures provide an alternative to the collimators of nuclear medicine imaging, and advances in the field have lessened the artifacts that are associated with the near-field geometry. Thickness of the aperture material, however, results in a decoded image with thickness artifacts, and constrains both image resolution and the available manufacturing techniques. Thus in theory, thin apertures are clearly desirable, but high transparency leads to a loss of contrast in the recorded data. Coupled with the quantization effects of detectors, this leads to significant noise in the decoded image. This noise must be dependent on the bit-depth of the gamma camera. If there are a sufficient number of measurable values, high transparency need not adversely affect the signal-to-noise ratio. This novel hypothesis is tested by means of a ray-tracing computer simulator. The simulation results presented in the paper show that replacing a highly opaque coded aperture with a highly transparent aperture, simulated with an 8-bit gamma camera, worsens the root-mean-square error measurement. However, when simulated with a 16-bit gamma camera, a highly transparent coded aperture significantly reduces both thickness artifacts and the root-mean-square error measurement. PMID:18002997

  9. Preliminary investigations of active pixel sensors in Nuclear Medicine imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Robert; Evans, Noel; Evans, Phil; Osmond, J.; Clark, A.; Turchetta, R.

    2009-06-01

    Three CMOS active pixel sensors have been investigated for their application to Nuclear Medicine imaging. Startracker with 525×525 25 μm square pixels has been coupled via a fibre optic stud to a 2 mm thick segmented CsI(Tl) crystal. Imaging tests were performed using 99mTc sources, which emit 140 keV gamma rays. The system was interfaced to a PC via FPGA-based DAQ and optical link enabling imaging rates of 10 f/s. System noise was measured to be >100e and it was shown that the majority of this noise was fixed pattern in nature. The intrinsic spatial resolution was measured to be ˜80 μm and the system spatial resolution measured with a slit was ˜450 μm. The second sensor, On Pixel Intelligent CMOS (OPIC), had 64×72 40 μm pixels and was used to evaluate noise characteristics and to develop a method of differentiation between fixed pattern and statistical noise. The third sensor, Vanilla, had 520×520 25 μm pixels and a measured system noise of ˜25e. This sensor was coupled directly to the segmented phosphor. Imaging results show that even at this lower level of noise the signal from 140 keV gamma rays is small as the light from the phosphor is spread over a large number of pixels. Suggestions for the 'ideal' sensor are made.

  10. Imaging atrial arrhythmic intracellular calcium in intact heart

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wenjun; Santulli, Gaetano; Guo, Xiaoxiao; Gao, Melanie; Chen, Bi-Xing; Marks, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities in intracellular Ca2+ signaling have been proposed to play an essential role in the pathophysiology of atrial arrhythmias. However, a direct observation of intracellular Ca2+ in atrial myocytes during atrial arrhythmias is lacking. Here, we have developed an ex vivo model of simultaneous Ca2+ imaging and electrocardiographic recording in cardiac atria. Using this system we were able to record atrial arrhythmic intracellular Ca2+ activities. Our results indicate that atrial arrhythmias can be tightly linked to intracellular Ca2+ waves and Ca2+ alternans. Moreover, we applied this strategy to analyze Ca2+ signals in the hearts of WT and knock-in mice harboring a ‘leaky’ type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2-R2474S). We showed that sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ leak increases the susceptibility to Ca2+ alternans and Ca2+ waves increasing the incidence of atrial arrhythmias. Reduction of SR Ca2+ leak via RyR2 by acute treatment with S107 reduced both Ca2+ alternans and Ca2+ waves, and prevented atrial arrhythmias. PMID:24041536

  11. [Present status and trend of heart fluid mechanics research based on medical image analysis].

    PubMed

    Gan, Jianhong; Yin, Lixue; Xie, Shenghua; Li, Wenhua; Lu, Jing; Luo, Anguo

    2014-06-01

    With introduction of current main methods for heart fluid mechanics researches, we studied the characteristics and weakness for three primary analysis methods based on magnetic resonance imaging, color Doppler ultrasound and grayscale ultrasound image, respectively. It is pointed out that particle image velocity (PIV), speckle tracking and block match have the same nature, and three algorithms all adopt block correlation. The further analysis shows that, with the development of information technology and sensor, the research for cardiac function and fluid mechanics will focus on energy transfer process of heart fluid, characteristics of Chamber wall related to blood fluid and Fluid-structure interaction in the future heart fluid mechanics fields. PMID:25219260

  12. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging of isolated perfused pig hearts in a 3T clinical MR scanner

    PubMed Central

    Chiribiri, Amedeo; Ishida, Masaki; Morton, Geraint; Paul, Matthias; Hussain, Shazia T.; Bigalke, Boris; Perera, Divaka; Schaeffter, Tobias; Nagel, Eike

    2012-01-01

    Purpose An isolated perfused pig heart model has recently been proposed for the development of novel methods in standard clinical magnetic resonance (MR) scanners. The original set-up required the electrical system to be within the safe part of the MR-room, which introduced significant background noise. The purpose of the current work was to refine the system to overcome this limitation so that all electrical parts are completely outside the scanner room. Methods Four pig hearts were explanted under terminal anaesthesia from large white cross landrace pigs. All hearts underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) scanning in the MR part of a novel combined 3T MR and x-ray fluoroscopy (XMR) suite. CMR scanning included real-time k-t SENSE functional imaging, k-t SENSE accelerated perfusion imaging and late gadolinium enhancement imaging. Interference with image quality was assessed by spurious echo imaging and compared to noise levels acquired while operating the electrical parts within the scanner room. Results Imaging was performed successfully in all hearts. The system proved suitable for isolated heart perfusion in a novel 3T XMR suite. No significant additional noise was introduced into the scanner room by our set-up. Conclusions We have substantially improved a previous version of an isolated perfused pig heart model and made it applicable for MR imaging in a state of the art clinical 3T XMR imaging suite. The use of this system should aid novel CMR sequence development and translation into clinical practice. PMID:24265875

  13. Time-lapse imaging of human heart motion with switched array UWB radar.

    PubMed

    Brovoll, Sverre; Berger, Tor; Paichard, Yoann; Aardal, Øyvind; Lande, Tor Sverre; Hamran, Svein-Erik

    2014-10-01

    Radar systems for detection of human heartbeats have mostly been single-channel systems with limited spatial resolution. In this paper, a radar system for ultra-wideband (UWB) imaging of the human heart is presented. To make the radar waves penetrate the human tissue the antenna is placed very close to the body. The antenna is an array with eight elements, and an antenna switch system connects the radar to the individual elements in sequence to form an image. Successive images are used to build up time-lapse movies of the beating heart. Measurements on a human test subject are presented and the heart motion is estimated at different locations inside the body. The movies show rhythmic motion consistent with the beating heart, and the location and shape of the reflections correspond well with the expected response form the heart wall. The spatial dependent heart motion is compared to ECG recordings, and it is confirmed that heartbeat modulations are seen in the radar data. This work shows that radar imaging of the human heart may provide valuable information on the mechanical movement of the heart. PMID:25350945

  14. [The image of Byzantine medicine in the satire "Timarion"].

    PubMed

    Leven, K H

    1990-01-01

    Byzantine medicine is usually regarded as a static and non-creative descendant of classical Greek medicine, a point of view confirmed by the Byzantine medical texts. In this essay, the anonymous satire "Timarion" is analyzed in respect to its image of contemporary medical theory. Timarion, the fictive narrator, falls ill with a fever and is brought to Hades by two conductors of souls. They assert that he cannot survive, because he has secreted all his elementary bile. According to a decree by Asclepios and Hippocrates posted in Hades, any person that has lost one of his four elements may not live longer. In Hades Timarion sues to the court of judges of the dead. His lawyer, the sophist Theodore of Smyrna, persuades the judges that the bile excreted by Timarion has not been elementary in the sense of humoral pathology. So Timarion is allowed to return to life. The author of the satire ridicules the fundamental axiom of the four humours. Asclepios, Hippocrates and Erasistratos, who are attached to the infernal court as experts, cannot defend their theory against the convincing arguments of a sophist. The "divine" Galen, who probably would have been able to, is absent in order to complete a book of his. The "Timarion" with its harsh critique of medical theory is very amusing and a rare example of "actuality" in Byzantine literature. PMID:2289689

  15. Searching for Linear Dependencies between Heart Magnetic Resonance Images and Lipid Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sysi-Aho, Marko; Koikkalainen, Juha; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Söderlund, Hans; Heliö, Tiina; Orešič, Matej

    Information derived from "omics" data in life science research are frequently limited by specific spatial or temporal scales these data describe. As a case study of integrating physiological and molecular data in human, here we study associations between the heart magnetic resonance images and serum lipidomic profiles. In the best case, such associations could help infer the physiologic state of the heart from a blood serum sample without need to use expensive imaging techniques. Strong marginal and partial correlations are found between the lipid profiles and parameters derived from the heart images. Regression analyses are applied to study these dependencies in more detail. This study demonstrates the feasibility of mapping lipid profiles to heart images, and thus combining information from two very different scales, small molecules and macroscopic physiologic features. Such mappings could be generalized to other "omics" data as well to complete our picture of the holistic function of a living organism.

  16. Personalized medicine in the care of the child with congenital heart disease: discovery to application.

    PubMed

    Binesh Marvasti, Tina; D'Alessandro, Lisa C A; Manase, Dorin; Papaz, Tanya; Mital, Seema

    2013-01-01

    On October 27-28, 2012, the SickKids Labatt Family Heart Centre and the Heart Centre Biobank Registry hosted the second international GenomeHeart symposium in Toronto, Ontario. The symposium featured experts in cardiology, developmental biology, pharmacology, genomics, bioinformatics, stem cell biology, biobanking, and ethics. The theme of this year's symposium was the application of emerging technologies in genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, and bioinformatics to diagnostics and therapeutics of the child with heart disease. Social, ethical, and economic issues were also discussed in the context of clinical translation. We highlight some of the themes that emerged from this exciting 2-day event. PMID:23601919

  17. Anatomical delineation of congenital heart disease using 3D magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams Bornemeier, Renee; Fellows, Kenneth E.; Fogel, Mark A.; Weinberg, Paul M.

    1994-05-01

    Anatomic delineation of the heart and great vessels is a necessity when managing children with congenital heart disease. Spatial orientation of the vessels and chambers in the heart and the heart itself may be quite abnormal. Though magnetic resonance imaging provides a noninvasive means for determining the anatomy, the intricate interrelationships between many structures are difficult to conceptualize from a 2-D format. Taking the 2-D images and using a volumetric analysis package allows for a 3-D replica of the heart to be created. This model can then be used to view the anatomy and spatial arrangement of the cardiac structures. This information may be utilized by the physicians to assist in the clinical management of these children.

  18. Use of complementary and alternative medicine and self-tests by coronary heart disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Sheila; Pattison, Helen; Jolly, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease patients have to learn to manage their condition to maximise quality of life and prevent recurrence or deterioration. They may develop their own informal methods of self-management in addition to the advice they receive as part of formal cardiac rehabilitation programmes. This study aimed to explore the use of complementary and alternative medicines and therapies (CAM), self-test kits and attitudes towards health of UK patients one year after referral to cardiac rehabilitation. Method Questionnaire given to 463 patients attending an assessment clinic for 12 month follow up in four West Midlands hospitals. Results 91.1% completed a questionnaire. 29.1% of patients used CAM and/or self-test kits for self-management but few (8.9%) used both methods. CAM was more often used for treating other illnesses than for CHD management. Self-test kit use (77.2%,) was more common than CAM (31.7%,) with BP monitors being the most prevalent (80.0%). Patients obtained self-test kits from a wide range of sources, for the most part (89.5%) purchased entirely on their own initiative. Predictors of self-management were post revascularisation status and higher scores on 'holism', 'rejection of authority' and 'individual responsibility'. Predictors of self-test kit use were higher 'holism' and 'individual responsibility' scores. Conclusion Patients are independently using new technologies to monitor their cardiovascular health, a role formerly carried out only by healthcare practitioners. Post-rehabilitation patients reported using CAM for self-management less frequently than they reported using self-test kits. Reports of CAM use were less frequent than in previous surveys of similar patient groups. Automatic assumptions cannot be made by clinicians about which CHD patients are most likely to self-manage. In order to increase trust and compliance it is important for doctors to encourage all CHD patients to disclose their self-management practices and to

  19. Four-dimensional live imaging of hemodynamics in mammalian embryonic heart with Doppler optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shang; Lakomy, David S; Garcia, Monica D; Lopez, Andrew L; Larin, Kirill V; Larina, Irina V

    2016-08-01

    Hemodynamic analysis of the mouse embryonic heart is essential for understanding the functional aspects of early cardiogenesis and advancing the research in congenital heart defects. However, high-resolution imaging of cardiac hemodynamics in mammalian models remains challenging, primarily due to the dynamic nature and deep location of the embryonic heart. Here we report four-dimensional micro-scale imaging of blood flow in the early mouse embryonic heart, enabling time-resolved measurement and analysis of flow velocity throughout the heart tube. Our method uses Doppler optical coherence tomography in live mouse embryo culture, and employs a post-processing synchronization approach to reconstruct three-dimensional data over time at a 100 Hz volume rate. Experiments were performed on live mouse embryos at embryonic day 9.0. Our results show blood flow dynamics inside the beating heart, with the capability for quantitative flow velocity assessment in the primitive atrium, atrioventricular and bulboventricular regions, and bulbus cordis. Combined cardiodynamic and hemodynamic analysis indicates this functional imaging method can be utilized to further investigate the mechanical relationship between blood flow dynamics and cardiac wall movement, bringing new possibilities to study biomechanics in early mammalian cardiogenesis. Four-dimensional live hemodynamic imaging of the mouse embryonic heart at embryonic day 9.0 using Doppler optical coherence tomography, showing directional blood flows in the sinus venosus, primitive atrium, atrioventricular region and vitelline vein. PMID:26996292

  20. Sequential en-face optical coherence tomography imaging and monitoring of Drosophila Melanogaster larval heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradu, A.; Ma, Lisha; Bloor, J.; Podoleanu, A. GH.

    2009-02-01

    This article demonstrates two modalities to acquire information on cardiac function in larval Drosophila Melanogaster: in-vivo imaging and heartbeat monitoring. To achieve these goals a dedicated imaging instrument able to provide simultaneous en-face Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM) images has been developed. With this dual imaging system, the heart can easily be located and visualised within the specimen and the change of the heart shape in a cardiac cycle monitored. The system can easily be switched to a stethoscopic regime, simply by interrupting the scanning of the light beam across the sample, after selecting the point of interest in the imaging regime. Here we have used targeted gene expression to knockdown the myospheroid (mys) gene in the larval heart using a specific RNAi construct. By knocking down a β integrin subunit encoded by mys we have recorded an enlarged heart chamber in both diastolic and systolic states. Also, the fraction of reduction of the chamber diameter was smaller in the knockdown heart. These phenotypic differences indicate that impaired cardiac contractility occurs in the heart where the integrin gene express level is reduced. As far as we are aware, this is for the first time when it is shown in Drosophila that integrins have a direct relationship to a dilated heart defect, and conseqThis article demonstrates two modalities to acquire information on cardiac function in larval Drosophila Melanogaster: in-vivo imaging and heartbeat monitoring. To achieve these goals a dedicated imaging instrument able to provide simultaneous en-face Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM) images has been developed. With this dual imaging system, the heart can easily be located and visualised within the specimen and the change of the heart shape in a cardiac cycle monitored. The system can easily be switched to a stethoscopic regime, simply by interrupting the

  1. Robust and high resolution hyperpolarized metabolic imaging of the rat heart at 7 t with 3d spectral‐spatial EPI

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jack J.; Lau, Angus Z.; Teh, Irvin; Schneider, Jürgen E.; Kinchesh, Paul; Smart, Sean; Ball, Vicky; Sibson, Nicola R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Hyperpolarized metabolic imaging has the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis and management of diseases where metabolism is dysregulated, such as heart disease. We investigated the feasibility of imaging rodent myocardial metabolism at high resolution at 7 T. Methods We present here a fly‐back spectral‐spatial radiofrequency pulse that sidestepped maximum gradient strength requirements and enabled high resolution metabolic imaging of the rodent myocardium. A 3D echo‐planar imaging readout followed, with centric ordered z‐phase encoding. The cardiac gated sequence was used to image metabolism in rodents whose metabolic state had been manipulated by being fasted, fed, or fed and given the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibitor dichloroacetate. Results We imaged hyperpolarized metabolites with a spatial resolution of 2×2×3.8 mm3 and a temporal resolution of 1.8 s in the rat heart at 7 T. Significant differences in myocardial pyruvate dehydrogenase flux were observed between the three groups of animals, concomitant with the known biochemistry. Conclusion The proposed sequence was able to image in vivo metabolism with excellent spatial resolution in the rat heart. The field of view enabled the simultaneous multi‐organ acquisition of metabolic information from the rat, which is of great utility for preclinical research in cardiovascular disease. Magn Reson Med 000:000–000, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Magn Reson Med 75:1515–1524, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance. PMID:25991606

  2. Spin echo versus stimulated echo diffusion tensor imaging of the in vivo human heart

    PubMed Central

    von Deuster, Constantin; Stoeck, Christian T.; Genet, Martin; Atkinson, David

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare signal‐to‐noise ratio (SNR) efficiency and diffusion tensor metrics of cardiac diffusion tensor mapping using acceleration‐compensated spin‐echo (SE) and stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) imaging. Methods Diffusion weighted SE and STEAM sequences were implemented on a clinical 1.5 Tesla MR system. The SNR efficiency of SE and STEAM was measured (b = 50–450 s/mm2) in isotropic agar, anisotropic diffusion phantoms and the in vivo human heart. Diffusion tensor analysis was performed on mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, helix and transverse angles. Results In the isotropic phantom, the ratio of SNR efficiency for SE versus STEAM, SNRt(SE/STEAM), was 2.84 ± 0.08 for all tested b‐values. In the anisotropic diffusion phantom the ratio decreased from 2.75 ± 0.05 to 2.20 ± 0.13 with increasing b‐value, similar to the in vivo decrease from 2.91 ± 0.43 to 2.30 ± 0.30. Diffusion tensor analysis revealed reduced deviation of helix angles from a linear transmural model and reduced transverse angle standard deviation for SE compared with STEAM. Mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy were measured to be statistically different (P < 0.001) between SE and STEAM. Conclusion Cardiac DTI using motion‐compensated SE yields a 2.3–2.9× increase in SNR efficiency relative to STEAM and improved accuracy of tensor metrics. The SE method hence presents an attractive alternative to STEAM based approaches. Magn Reson Med 76:862–872, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:26445426

  3. Optical imaging of irradiated and non-irradiated hearts (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolin, Stephanie; Chen, Guanchu; Medhora, Meetha M.; Camara, Amadou K. S.; Ranji, Mahsa

    2016-03-01

    Objective: In this study, the metabolic state of the heart tissue is studied in a rodent model of ischemia and reperfusion (IR) in rats exposed to irradiation injury using a cryofluorescence imaging technique. Mitochondrial metabolic state is evaluated by autofluorescence of mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes NADH and FAD. The redox ratio (NADH/FAD) is used as a biochemical/metabolic marker of oxidative stress, before, during and after IR. Materials and methods: Hearts were extracted from non-irradiated (control) and irradiated rats (Irr) given 15 Gy whole thorax irradiation rats (WTI). After 35 days, before the onset of radiation pneumonitis, these two groups of hearts were subjected to one of three treatments; Time control (TC; hearts perfused for the duration of the protocol without ischemia or IR), 25 minutes ischemia with no reperfusion and 25 minutes ischemia followed by 60 minutes reperfusion (IR). Hearts were removed from the Langendorff perfusion system and immediately snap frozen in liquid N2 to preserve the metabolic state after injury; 3-dimensional (3D) cryo-fluorescent imager was used to obtain in fixed time NADH and FAD fluorescence images and their distribution across the entire ventricles. In this study, a 30-μm axial resolution was used resulting in 550 cross-section images per heart. The 3D images of the redox ratio and their respective histograms were calculated in the six groups of hearts. Results: We compared the mean values of the redox ratio in each group, which demonstrate a reduced mitochondrial redox state in both irradiated and non-irradiated ischemic hearts and an oxidized mitochondrial redox state for both irradiated and non-irradiated ischemia-reperfusion hearts compared to control hearts. For non-irradiated hearts, ischemia and IR injuries resulted respectively in 61% increase and 54% decrease in redox ratio when compared with TC. For irradiated hearts, ischemia and IR injuries resulted respectively in 90% increase and 50% decrease

  4. Advances in Echocardiographic Imaging in Heart Failure With Reduced and Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    PubMed

    Omar, Alaa Mabrouk Salem; Bansal, Manish; Sengupta, Partho P

    2016-07-01

    Echocardiography, given its safety, easy availability, and the ability to permit a comprehensive assessment of cardiac structure and function, is an indispensable tool in the evaluation and management of patients with heart failure (HF). From initial phenotyping and risk stratification to providing vital data for guiding therapeutic decision-making and monitoring, echocardiography plays a pivotal role in the care of HF patients. The recent advent of multiparametric approaches for myocardial deformation imaging has provided valuable insights in the pathogenesis of HF, elucidating distinct patterns of myocardial dysfunction and events that are associated with progression from subclinical stage to overt HF. At the same time, miniaturization of echocardiography has further expanded clinical application of echocardiography, with the use of pocket cardiac ultrasound as an adjunct to physical examination demonstrated to improve diagnostic accuracy and risk stratification. Furthermore, ongoing advances in the field of big data analytics promise to create an exciting opportunity to operationalize precision medicine as the new approach to healthcare delivery that aims to individualize patient care by integrating data extracted from clinical, laboratory, echocardiographic, and genetic assessments. The present review summarizes the recent advances in the field of echocardiography, with emphasis on their role in HF phenotyping, risk stratification, and optimizing clinical outcomes. PMID:27390337

  5. Knowledge-based factor analysis of multidimensional nuclear medicine image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yap, Jeffrey T.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Cooper, Malcolm; Treffert, Jon D.

    1994-05-01

    We have developed a knowledge-based approach to analyzing dynamic nuclear medicine data sets using factor analysis. Prior knowledge is used as constraints to produce factor images and their associated time functions which are physically and physiologically realistic. These methods have been applied to both planar and tomographic image sequences acquired using various single-photon emitting and positron emitting radiotracers. Computer-simulated data, non-human primate studies, and human clinical studies have been used to develop and evaluate the methodology. The organ systems studied include the kidneys, heart, brain, liver, and bone. The factors generated represent various isolated aspects of physiologic function, such as tissue perfusion and clearance. In some clinical studies, the factors have indicated the potential to isolate diseased tissue from normally functioning tissue. In addition, the factor analysis of data acquired using newly developed radioligands has shown the ability to differentiate the specific binding of the radioligand to the targeted receptors from the non-specific binding. This suggests the potential use of factor analysis in the development and evaluation of radiolabeled compounds as well as in the investigation of specific receptor systems and their role in diagnosing disease.

  6. Chinese Herbal Medicine Image Recognition and Retrieval by Convolutional Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin; Qian, Huinan

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval have great potential of practical applications. Several previous studies have focused on the recognition with hand-crafted image features, but there are two limitations in them. Firstly, most of these hand-crafted features are low-level image representation, which is easily affected by noise and background. Secondly, the medicine images are very clean without any backgrounds, which makes it difficult to use in practical applications. Therefore, designing high-level image representation for recognition and retrieval in real world medicine images is facing a great challenge. Inspired by the recent progress of deep learning in computer vision, we realize that deep learning methods may provide robust medicine image representation. In this paper, we propose to use the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval. For the recognition problem, we use the softmax loss to optimize the recognition network; then for the retrieval problem, we fine-tune the recognition network by adding a triplet loss to search for the most similar medicine images. To evaluate our method, we construct a public database of herbal medicine images with cluttered backgrounds, which has in total 5523 images with 95 popular Chinese medicine categories. Experimental results show that our method can achieve the average recognition precision of 71% and the average retrieval precision of 53% over all the 95 medicine categories, which are quite promising given the fact that the real world images have multiple pieces of occluded herbal and cluttered backgrounds. Besides, our proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art performance by improving previous studies with a large margin. PMID:27258404

  7. Chinese Herbal Medicine Image Recognition and Retrieval by Convolutional Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Qian, Huinan

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval have great potential of practical applications. Several previous studies have focused on the recognition with hand-crafted image features, but there are two limitations in them. Firstly, most of these hand-crafted features are low-level image representation, which is easily affected by noise and background. Secondly, the medicine images are very clean without any backgrounds, which makes it difficult to use in practical applications. Therefore, designing high-level image representation for recognition and retrieval in real world medicine images is facing a great challenge. Inspired by the recent progress of deep learning in computer vision, we realize that deep learning methods may provide robust medicine image representation. In this paper, we propose to use the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval. For the recognition problem, we use the softmax loss to optimize the recognition network; then for the retrieval problem, we fine-tune the recognition network by adding a triplet loss to search for the most similar medicine images. To evaluate our method, we construct a public database of herbal medicine images with cluttered backgrounds, which has in total 5523 images with 95 popular Chinese medicine categories. Experimental results show that our method can achieve the average recognition precision of 71% and the average retrieval precision of 53% over all the 95 medicine categories, which are quite promising given the fact that the real world images have multiple pieces of occluded herbal and cluttered backgrounds. Besides, our proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art performance by improving previous studies with a large margin. PMID:27258404

  8. 4D optical coherence tomography of the embryonic heart using gated imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Michael W.; Rothenberg, Florence; Roy, Debashish; Nikolski, Vladimir P.; Wilson, David L.; Efimov, Igor R.; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2005-04-01

    Computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging have been used to image and diagnose diseases of the human heart. By gating the acquisition of the images to the heart cycle (gated imaging), these modalities enable one to produce 3D images of the heart without significant motion artifact and to more accurately calculate various parameters such as ejection fractions [1-3]. Unfortunately, these imaging modalities give inadequate resolution when investigating embryonic development in animal models. Defects in developmental mechanisms during embryogenesis have long been thought to result in congenital cardiac anomalies. Our understanding of normal mechanisms of heart development and how abnormalities can lead to defects has been hampered by our inability to detect anatomic and physiologic changes in these small (<2mm) organs. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has made it possible to visualize internal structures of the living embryonic heart with high-resolution in two- and threedimensions. OCT offers higher resolution than ultrasound (30 um axial, 90 um lateral) and magnetic resonance microscopy (25 um axial, 31 um lateral) [4, 5], with greater depth penetration over confocal microscopy (200 um). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) uses back reflected light from a sample to create an image with axial resolutions ranging from 2-15 um, while penetrating 1-2 mm in depth [6]. In the past, OCT groups estimated ejection fractions using 2D images in a Xenopus laevis [7], created 3D renderings of chick embryo hearts [8], and used a gated reconstruction technique to produce 2D Doppler OCT image of an in vivo Xenopus laevis heart [9]. In this paper we present a gated imaging system that allowed us to produce a 16-frame 3D movie of a beating chick embryo heart. The heart was excised from a day two (stage 13) chicken embryo and electrically paced at 1 Hz. We acquired 2D images (B-scans) in 62.5 ms, which provides enough temporal resolution to distinguish end

  9. Managing Your Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Managing Your Medicines Updated:Sep 2,2016 If you have heart ... Weight • Tools & Resources Heart Insight Supplement: Know Your Medicines Keeping track of your medicines can be overwhelming. ...

  10. The heart and brain imaging in lone atrial fibrillation - are we surprised?

    PubMed

    Shantsila, Eduard; Haeusler, Karl Georg; Fiebach, Jochen B; Breithardt, Gunter; Kirchhof, Paulus

    2015-01-01

    "Lone" atrial fibrillation (AF) is generally used to refer to patients with AF in the absence of structural heart disease. When the decision for oral anticoagulation is discussed, "lone" AF refers to patients who do not have established stroke risk factors. Imaging is often used to rule out structural heart disease, e.g. coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, mitral stenosis or left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Imaging of the heart has a central role in establishing the "lone" aspect in patients with "lone"AF, similar to the measurement of blood glucose and blood pressure: Patients with structural heart disease, defined as e.g. reduced LV ejection fraction, clinical evidence for heart failure, or evidence for coronary artery disease, will not be considered as patients with "lone" AF. The search for these conditions requires some cardiac imaging, often done by echocardiography and non-invasive tests for coronary artery disease or ischemia. Increasingly, brain imaging is used to define the clinical diagnosis of a stroke, thus also contributing to the detection of stroke risk factors. Cerebral imaging in AF patients without competing causes for silent strokes or microbleeds ("lone" AF, rather used in the context of anticoagulation, i.e. clinical absence of structural heart disease) would allow to better understand the contribution of AF to these brain lesions. The assumption that silent strokes are likely drivers of cognitive dysfunction, and the fact that microbleeds put patients at risk for intracerebral hemorrhage, illustrates the need to collect information on brain imaging. In this review article, we summarize current data on heart and brain imaging in patients with "lone" AF and discuss their clinical implications for risk assessment and management of patients with "lone" AF. PMID:25175092

  11. Multimodality imaging of foreign bodies in and around the heart.

    PubMed

    Illman, Jeffery E; Maleszewski, Joseph J; Byrne, Suzanne C; Gotway, Michael B; Kligerman, Seth J; Foley, Thomas A; Young, Phillip M; Bois, John P; Malik, Neera; Morris, Jonathan M; Araoz, Philip A

    2016-05-01

    Foreign objects are occasionally seen on computed tomography and could pose a diagnostic challenge to the radiologist and clinicians. It is important to recognize, characterize and localize these objects and determine their clinical significance. Most foreign objects in and around the heart are the result of direct penetrating injury or represent venous embolization to the heart. Foreign objects may cause symptoms and require prompt medical attention or maybe asymptomatic. Clinicians should be familiar with foreign objects that are encountered and understand treatment options. This paper looks at some of foreign objects that can be found and correlates with pathology where possible. PMID:27139781

  12. CdZnTe arrays for nuclear medicine imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, H.B.

    1996-12-31

    In nuclear medicine, a gamma-ray-emitting radiotracer is injected into the body, and the resulting biodistribution is imaged using a gamma camera. Current gamma cameras use a design developed by Anger. An Anger camera makes use of a slab of scintillation detector that is viewed by an array of photomultiplier tubes and uses an analog position estimation technique to determine the position of the gamma ray`s interaction. The image-forming optics is usually a multi-bore collimator made of lead. Such cameras are characterized by poor, system spatial resolution ({approximately}1 cm) due to poor detector resolution ({approximately}0.4 cm) and poor collimator performance. Arrays of semiconductor detectors are an attractive alternative to scintillators for use in gamma cameras. Semiconductor detectors have excellent energy resolution. High spatial resolution is also possible because large semiconductor detector arrays with small pixel sizes can be produced using photolithography techniques. A new crystal growth technique (high-pressure vertical Bridgman) allows production of detector grade CdTe and CdZnTe in multikilogram ingots. Although the cost of CdZnTe detectors has come down substantially in the last few years, in part because of economies of scale, costs are still more than an order of magnitude higher than those required for a commercial camera ($20--$50/gram). High detector costs are perhaps the major stumbling block to developing a semiconductor gamma camera. The photolithography techniques required to make large CdZnTe arrays have already been demonstrated. This paper discusses the recent developments made in CdZnTe detectors.

  13. Point-of-Care Technologies for the Advancement of Precision Medicine in Heart, Lung, Blood, and Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson, Brian G.; Chui, Chi On; Mao, Yufei; Shin, Kyeong-Sik; Huang, Tony Jun; Huang, Po-Hsun; Ren, Liqiang; Adhikari, Bishow; Chen, Jue; Iturriaga, Erin

    2016-01-01

    The commercialization of new point of care technologies holds great potential in facilitating and advancing precision medicine in heart, lung, blood, and sleep (HLBS) disorders. The delivery of individually tailored health care to a patient depends on how well that patient’s health condition can be interrogated and monitored. Point of care technologies may enable access to rapid and cost-effective interrogation of a patient’s health condition in near real time. Currently, physiological data are largely limited to single-time-point collection at the hospital or clinic, whereas critical information on some conditions must be collected in the home, when symptoms occur, or at regular intervals over time. A variety of HLBS disorders are highly dependent on transient variables, such as patient activity level, environment, time of day, and so on. Consequently, the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute sponsored a request for applications to support the development and commercialization of novel point-of-care technologies through small businesses (RFA-HL-14-011 and RFA-HL-14-017). Three of the supported research projects are described to highlight particular point-of-care needs for HLBS disorders and the breadth of emerging technologies. While significant obstacles remain to the commercialization of such technologies, these advancements will be required to achieve precision medicine. PMID:27602308

  14. Point-of-Care Technologies for the Advancement of Precision Medicine in Heart, Lung, Blood, and Sleep Disorders.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, Mary Emma Gorham; Jamieson, Brian G; Chui, Chi On; Mao, Yufei; Shin, Kyeong-Sik; Huang, Tony Jun; Huang, Po-Hsun; Ren, Liqiang; Adhikari, Bishow; Chen, Jue; Iturriaga, Erin

    2016-01-01

    The commercialization of new point of care technologies holds great potential in facilitating and advancing precision medicine in heart, lung, blood, and sleep (HLBS) disorders. The delivery of individually tailored health care to a patient depends on how well that patient's health condition can be interrogated and monitored. Point of care technologies may enable access to rapid and cost-effective interrogation of a patient's health condition in near real time. Currently, physiological data are largely limited to single-time-point collection at the hospital or clinic, whereas critical information on some conditions must be collected in the home, when symptoms occur, or at regular intervals over time. A variety of HLBS disorders are highly dependent on transient variables, such as patient activity level, environment, time of day, and so on. Consequently, the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute sponsored a request for applications to support the development and commercialization of novel point-of-care technologies through small businesses (RFA-HL-14-011 and RFA-HL-14-017). Three of the supported research projects are described to highlight particular point-of-care needs for HLBS disorders and the breadth of emerging technologies. While significant obstacles remain to the commercialization of such technologies, these advancements will be required to achieve precision medicine. PMID:27602308

  15. 3D imaging of the early embryonic chicken heart with focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Rennie, Monique Y.; Gahan, Curran G.; López, Claudia S.; Thornburg, Kent L.; Rugonyi, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Early embryonic heart development is a period of dynamic growth and remodeling, with rapid changes occurring at the tissue, cell, and subcellular levels. A detailed understanding of the events that establish the components of the heart wall has been hampered by a lack of methodologies for three dimensional (3D), high-resolution imaging. Focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) is a novel technology for imaging 3D tissue volumes at the subcellular level. FIB-SEM alternates between imaging the block face with a scanning electron beam and milling away thin sections of tissue with a focused ion beam, allowing for collection and analysis of 3D data. FIB-SEM was used to image the three layers of the day 4 chicken embryo heart: myocardium, cardiac jelly, and endocardium. Individual images obtained with FIB-SEM were comparable in quality and resolution to those obtained with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Up to 1100 serial images were obtained in 4 nm increments at 4.88 nm resolution, and image stacks were aligned to create volumes 800–1500 μm3 in size. Segmentation of organelles revealed their organization and distinct volume fractions between cardiac wall layers. We conclude that FIB-SEM is a powerful modality for 3D subcellular imaging of the embryonic heart wall. PMID:24742339

  16. Proton electron double resonance imaging (PEDRI) of the isolated beating rat heart.

    PubMed

    Liebgott, Thibaut; Li, Haihong; Deng, Yuanmu; Zweier, Jay L

    2003-08-01

    Proton electron double resonance imaging (PEDRI) is a double resonance technique where proton MRI is performed with irradiation of a paramagnetic solute. A low-field PEDRI system was developed at 20.1 mT suitable for imaging free radicals in biological samples. With a new small dual resonator, PEDRI was applied to image nitroxide free radicals in isolated beating rat hearts. Experiments with phantoms showed maximum image enhancement factors (IEF) of 42 or 28 with TEMPONE radical concentrations of 2-3 mM at EPR irradiation powers of 12W or 6W, respectively. In the latter case, image resolution better than 0.5 mm and radical sensitivity of 5 microM was obtained. For isolated heart studies, EPR irradiation power of 6W provided optimal compromise of modest sample heating with good SNR. Only a small increase in temperature of about 1 degrees C was observed, while cardiac function remained within 10% of control values. With infusion of 3 mM TEMPONE an IEF of 15 was observed enabling 2D or 3D images to be obtained in 27 sec or 4.5 min, respectively. These images visualized the change in radical distribution within the heart during infusion and clearance. Thus, PEDRI enables rapid and high-quality imaging of free radical uptake and clearance in perfused hearts and provides a useful technique for studying cardiac radical metabolism. PMID:12876716

  17. Spatio-temporal image correlation (STIC): new technology for evaluation of the fetal heart.

    PubMed

    DeVore, G R; Falkensammer, P; Sklansky, M S; Platt, L D

    2003-10-01

    Spatio-temporal image correlation (STIC) is a new approach for clinical assessment of the fetal heart. It offers an easy to use technique to acquire data from the fetal heart and to aid in visualization with both two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) cine sequences. The acquisition is performed in two steps: first, images are acquired by a single, automatic volume sweep. Second, the system analyzes the image data according to their spatial and temporal domain and processes an online dynamic 3D image sequence that is displayed in a multiplanar reformatted cross-sectional display and/or a surface rendered display. The examiner can navigate within the heart, re-slice, and produce all of the standard image planes necessary for a comprehensive diagnosis. The advantages of STIC for use in evaluation of the fetal heart are as follows: the technique delivers a temporal resolution which corresponds to a B-mode frame rate of approximately 80 frames/s; it provides the examiner with an unlimited number of images for review; it allows for correlation between image planes that are perpendicular to the main image acquisition plane; it may shorten the evaluation time when complex heart defects are suspected; it enables the reconstruction of a 3D rendered image that contains depth and volume which may provide additional information that is not available from the thin multiplanar image slices (e.g. for pulmonary veins, septal thickness); it lends itself to storage and review of volume data by the examiner or by experts at a remote site; it provides the examiner with the ability to review all images in a looped cine sequence. PMID:14528474

  18. TIMMI2 Images the Heart of the Orion Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    with ESO's new Thermal Infrared MultiMode Instrument (TIMMI2) , now mounted at the Cassegrain focus of the 3.6-m telescope on La Silla. The area is located close to the Trapezium cluster and is identified on a near-infrared image ( PR Photo 12a/01 ) obtained with the ISAAC instrument at the 8.2-m VLT ANTU telescope (cf. ESO PR Photos 03a-d/01 ). The complex itself is so heavily obscured by the dust cloud that it is not visible at this wavelength. However, the dust is more transparent at longer wavelengths and the complex is clearly seen on images obtained with TIMMI2 at wavelengths of 10.3 µm ( PR Photo 12b/01 ; with isophotes at the brightest object) and 20.0µm, ( PR Photo 12c/01 ). They show in some detail the structures around the compact sources and the extended thermal emission from the dust. The ratio of these two photos ( PR Photo 12d/01 ) illustrates how the temperature of the dust in this area varies. The brighter areas are the hotter ones. Technical information about these photos is available below. A group of astronomers [1] has recently imaged a star-forming region in the Orion Nebula with a new and powerful astronomical instrument, the Thermal Infrared MultiMode Instrument (TIMMI2) , now available at the La Silla Observatory. In addition to being scientifically very interesting, these observations also provide a demonstration of the impressive capabilities of this new facility. It has been known for some time that the "BN/KL Complex" is a site of recent, massive star formation. It is located deep inside the Orion Nebula ( PR Photo 12a/01 ) and is observed as a cluster of infrared-emitting objects and compact regions of ionized Hydrogen ("H II regions"), associated with intricate interstellar dust filaments and circumstellar dust clouds. There are also several hot and large stars in this heavily obscured area - together they shine as bright as 100,000 suns. It is a difficult task to identify the main sources of heating in this region - the "heart" of the

  19. Illustrated Imaging Essay on Congenital Heart Diseases: Multimodality Approach Part III: Cyanotic Heart Diseases and Complex Congenital Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Belaval, Vinay; Gadabanahalli, Karthik; Raj, Vimal; Shah, Sejal

    2016-01-01

    From the stand point of radiographic analysis most of the complex cyanotic congenital heart diseases (CHD), can be divided into those associated with decreased or increased pulmonary vascularity. Combination of a specific cardiac configuration and status of lung vasculature in a clinical context allows plain film diagnosis to be predicted in some CHD. Correlation of the position of the cardiac apex in relation to the visceral situs is an important information that can be obtained from the plain film. This information helps in gathering information about the atrio-ventricular, ventricular arterial concordance or discordance. Categorization of the cyanotic heart disease based on vascularity is presented below. Thorough understanding of cardiac anatomy by different imaging methods is essential in understanding and interpreting complex cardiac disease. Basic anatomical details and background for interpretation are provided in the previous parts of this presentation.

  20. State-of-the-Art CT Imaging Techniques for Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    CT is increasingly being used for evaluating the cardiovascular structures and airways in the patients with congenital heart disease. Multi-slice CT has traditionally been used for the evaluation of the extracardiac vascular and airway abnormalities because of its inherent high spatial resolution and excellent air-tissue contrast. Recent developments in CT technology primarily by reducing the cardiac motion and the radiation dose usage in congenital heart disease evaluation have helped expand the indications for CT usage. Tracheobronchomalacia associated with congenital heart disease can be evaluated with cine CT. Intravenous contrast injection should be tailored to unequivocally demonstrate cardiovascular abnormalities. Knowledge of the state-of-the-art CT imaging techniques that are used for evaluating congenital heart disease is helpful not only for planning and performing CT examinations, but also for interpreting and presenting the CT image findings that consequently guide the proper medical and surgical management. PMID:20046490

  1. A Novel Technique for Image-Guided Local Heart Irradiation in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sunil; Moros, Eduardo G.; Boerma, Marjan; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Han, Eun Young; Clarkson, Richard; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Corry, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    In radiotherapy treatment of thoracic, breast and chest wall tumors, the heart may be included (partially or fully) in the radiation field. As a result, patients may develop radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) several years after exposure to radiation. There are few methods available to prevent or reverse RIHD and the biological mechanisms remain poorly understood. In order to further study the effects of radiation on the heart, we developed a model of local heart irradiation in rats using an image-guided small animal conformal radiation therapy device (SACRTD) developed at our institution. First, Monte Carlo based simulations were used to design an appropriate collimator. EBT-2 films were used to measure relative dosimetry, and the absolute dose rate at the isocenter was measured using the AAPM protocol TG-61. The hearts of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with a total dose of 21 Gy. For this purpose, rats were anesthetized with isoflurane and placed in a custom-made vertical rat holder. Each heart was irradiated with a 3-beam technique (one AP field and 2 lateral fields), with each beam delivering 7 Gy. For each field, the heart was visualized with a digital flat panel X-ray imager and placed at the isocenter of the 1.8 cm diameter beam. In biological analysis of radiation exposure, immunohistochemistry showed γH2Ax foci and nitrotyrosine throughout the irradiated hearts but not in the lungs. Long-term follow-up of animals revealed histopathological manifestations of RIHD, including myocardial degeneration and fibrosis. The results demonstrate that the rat heart irradiation technique using the SACRTD was successful and that surrounding untargeted tissues were spared, making this approach a powerful tool for in vivo radiobiological studies of RIHD. Functional and structural changes in the rat heart after local irradiation are ongoing. PMID:24000983

  2. A novel technique for image-guided local heart irradiation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunil; Moros, Eduardo G; Boerma, Marjan; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Han, Eun Young; Clarkson, Richard; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Corry, Peter M

    2014-12-01

    In radiotherapy treatment of thoracic, breast and chest wall tumors, the heart may be included (partially or fully) in the radiation field. As a result, patients may develop radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) several years after exposure to radiation. There are few methods available to prevent or reverse RIHD and the biological mechanisms remain poorly understood. In order to further study the effects of radiation on the heart, we developed a model of local heart irradiation in rats using an image-guided small animal conformal radiation therapy device (SACRTD) developed at our institution. First, Monte Carlo based simulations were used to design an appropriate collimator. EBT-2 films were used to measure relative dosimetry, and the absolute dose rate at the isocenter was measured using the AAPM protocol TG-61. The hearts of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with a total dose of 21 Gy. For this purpose, rats were anesthetized with isoflurane and placed in a custom-made vertical rat holder. Each heart was irradiated with a 3-beam technique (one AP field and 2 lateral fields), with each beam delivering 7 Gy. For each field, the heart was visualized with a digital flat panel X-ray imager and placed at the isocenter of the 1.8 cm diameter beam. In biological analysis of radiation exposure, immunohistochemistry showed γH2Ax foci and nitrotyrosine throughout the irradiated hearts but not in the lungs. Long-term follow-up of animals revealed histopathological manifestations of RIHD, including myocardial degeneration and fibrosis. The results demonstrate that the rat heart irradiation technique using the SACRTD was successful and that surrounding untargeted tissues were spared, making this approach a powerful tool for in vivo radiobiological studies of RIHD. Functional and structural changes in the rat heart after local irradiation are ongoing. PMID:24000983

  3. High-Resolution Tissue Doppler Imaging of the Zebrafish Heart During Its Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ta-Han; Shih, Cho-Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The human heart cannot regenerate after injury, whereas the adult zebrafish can fully regenerate its heart even after 20% of the ventricle is amputated. Many studies have begun to reveal the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this regenerative process, which have exciting implications for human cardiac diseases. However, the dynamic functions of the zebrafish heart during regeneration are not yet understood. This study established a high-resolution echocardiography for tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) of the zebrafish heart to explore the cardiac functions during different regeneration phases. Experiments were performed on AB-line adult zebrafish (n=40) in which 15% of the ventricle was surgically removed. An 80-MHz ultrasound TDI based on color M-mode imaging technology was employed. The cardiac flow velocities and patterns from both the ventricular chamber and myocardium were measured at different regeneration phases relative to the day of amputation. The peak velocities of early diastolic inflow, early diastolic myocardial motion, late diastolic myocardial motion, early diastolic deceleration slope, and heart rate were increased at 3 days after the myocardium amputation, but these parameters gradually returned to close to their baseline values for the normal heart at 7 days after amputation. The peak velocities of late diastolic inflow, ventricular systolic outflow, and systolic myocardial motion did not significantly differ during the heart regeneration. PMID:25517185

  4. Three-dimensional segmentation of the heart muscle using image statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nillesen, Maartje M.; Lopata, Richard G. P.; Gerrits, Inge H.; Kapusta, Livia; Huisman, Henkjan H.; Thijssen, Johan M.; de Korte, Chris L.

    2006-03-01

    Segmentation of the heart muscle in 3D echocardiographic images provides a tool for visualization of cardiac anatomy and assessment of heart function, and serves as an important pre-processing step for cardiac strain imaging. By incorporating spatial and temporal information of 3D ultrasound image sequences (4D), a fully automated method using image statistics was developed to perform 3D segmentation of the heart muscle. 3D rf-data were acquired with a Philips SONOS 7500 live 3D ultrasound system, and an X4 matrix array transducer (2-4 MHz). Left ventricular images of five healthy children were taken in transthoracial short/long axis view. As a first step, image statistics of blood and heart muscle were investigated. Next, based on these statistics, an adaptive mean squares filter was selected and applied to the images. Window size was related to speckle size (5x2 speckles). The degree of adaptive filtering was automatically steered by the local homogeneity of tissue. As a result, discrimination of heart muscle and blood was optimized, while sharpness of edges was preserved. After this pre-processing stage, homomorphic filtering and automatic thresholding were performed to obtain the inner borders of the heart muscle. Finally, a deformable contour algorithm was used to yield a closed contour of the left ventricular cavity in each elevational plane. Each contour was optimized using contours of the surrounding planes (spatial and temporal) as limiting condition to ensure spatial and temporal continuity. Better segmentation of the ventricle was obtained using 4D information than using information of each plane separately.

  5. 2015 Proceedings of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's State of the Science in Transfusion Medicine Symposium

    PubMed Central

    Spitalnik, Steven L.; Triulzi, Darrell; Devine, Dana V.; Dzik, Walter H.; Eder, Anne F.; Gernsheimer, Terry; Josephson, Cassandra D.; Kor, Daryl J.; Luban, Naomi L. C.; Roubinian, Nareg H.; Mondoro, Traci; Welniak, Lisbeth A.; Zou, Shimian; Glynn, Simone

    2015-01-01

    On March 25-26, 2015, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute sponsored a meeting on the State of the Science in Transfusion Medicine on the NIH campus in Bethesda, MD, which was attended by a diverse group of 330 registrants. The meeting's goal was to identify important research questions that could be answered in the next 5-10 years, and which would have the potential to transform the clinical practice of transfusion medicine. These questions could be addressed by basic, translational, and/or clinical research studies and were focused on four areas: the three “classical” transfusion products (i.e., red blood cells, platelets, and plasma) and blood donor issues. Prior to the meeting, four Working Groups, one for each area, prepared five major questions for discussion along with a list of 5-10 additional questions for consideration. At the meeting itself, all of these questions, and others, were discussed in Keynote lectures, small group breakout sessions, and large group sessions with open discourse involving all meeting attendees. In addition to the final lists of questions, provided herein, the meeting attendees identified multiple overarching, cross-cutting themes that addressed issues common to all four areas; the latter are also provided. It is anticipated that addressing these scientific priorities, with careful attention to the overarching themes, will inform funding priorities developed by the NIH and provide a solid research platform for transforming the future practice of transfusion medicine. PMID:26260861

  6. 2015 proceedings of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's State of the Science in Transfusion Medicine symposium.

    PubMed

    Spitalnik, Steven L; Triulzi, Darrell; Devine, Dana V; Dzik, Walter H; Eder, Anne F; Gernsheimer, Terry; Josephson, Cassandra D; Kor, Daryl J; Luban, Naomi L C; Roubinian, Nareg H; Mondoro, Traci; Welniak, Lisbeth A; Zou, Shimian; Glynn, Simone

    2015-09-01

    On March 25 and 26, 2015, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute sponsored a meeting on the State of the Science in Transfusion Medicine on the National Institutes of Health (NIH) campus in Bethesda, Maryland, which was attended by a diverse group of 330 registrants. The meeting's goal was to identify important research questions that could be answered in the next 5 to 10 years and which would have the potential to transform the clinical practice of transfusion medicine. These questions could be addressed by basic, translational, and/or clinical research studies and were focused on four areas: the three "classical" transfusion products (i.e., red blood cells, platelets, and plasma) and blood donor issues. Before the meeting, four working groups, one for each area, prepared five major questions for discussion along with a list of five to 10 additional questions for consideration. At the meeting itself, all of these questions, and others, were discussed in keynote lectures, small-group breakout sessions, and large-group sessions with open discourse involving all meeting attendees. In addition to the final lists of questions, provided herein, the meeting attendees identified multiple overarching, cross-cutting themes that addressed issues common to all four areas; the latter are also provided. It is anticipated that addressing these scientific priorities, with careful attention to the overarching themes, will inform funding priorities developed by the NIH and provide a solid research platform for transforming the future practice of transfusion medicine. PMID:26260861

  7. Nuclear medicine imaging and therapy: gender biases in disease.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Valeria M; Aarsvold, John N; Alazraki, Naomi P

    2014-01-01

    Gender-based medicine is medical research and care conducted with conscious consideration of the sex and gender differences of subjects and patients. This issue of Seminars is focused on diseases for which nuclear medicine is part of routine management and for which the diseases have sex- or gender-based differences that affect incidence or pathophysiology and that thus have differences that can potentially affect the results of the relevant nuclear medicine studies. In this first article, we discuss neurologic diseases, certain gastrointestinal conditions, and thyroid conditions. The discussion is in the context of those sex- or gender-based aspects of these diseases that should be considered in the performance, interpretation, and reporting of the relevant nuclear medicine studies. Cardiovascular diseases, gynecologic diseases, bone conditions such as osteoporosis, pediatric occurrences of some diseases, human immunodeficiency virus-related conditions, and the radiation dose considerations of nuclear medicine studies are discussed in the other articles in this issue. PMID:25362232

  8. Choosing Between MRI and CT Imaging in the Adult with Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Bonnichsen, Crystal; Ammash, Naser

    2016-05-01

    Improvements in the outcomes of surgical and catheter-based interventions and medical therapy have led to a growing population of adult patients with congenital heart disease. Adult patients with previously undiagnosed congenital heart disease or those previously palliated or repaired may have challenging echocardiographic examinations. Understanding the distinct anatomic and hemodynamic features of the congenital anomaly and quantifying ventricular function and valvular dysfunction plays an important role in the management of these patients. Rapid advances in imaging technology with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography angiography (CTA) allow for improved visualization of complex cardiac anatomy in the evaluation of this unique patient population. Although echocardiography remains the most widely used imaging tool to evaluate congenital heart disease, alternative and, at times, complimentary imaging modalities should be considered. When caring for adults with congenital heart disease, it is important to choose the proper imaging study that can answer the clinical question with the highest quality images, lowest risk to the patient, and in a cost-efficient manner. PMID:27002621

  9. Induced pluripotent stem cells: at the heart of cardiovascular precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ian Y; Matsa, Elena; Wu, Joseph C

    2016-06-01

    The advent of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology has revitalized the efforts in the past decade to realize more fully the potential of human embryonic stem cells for scientific research. Adding to the possibility of generating an unlimited amount of any cell type of interest, hiPSC technology now enables the derivation of cells with patient-specific phenotypes. Given the introduction and implementation of the large-scale Precision Medicine Initiative, hiPSC technology will undoubtedly have a vital role in the advancement of cardiovascular research and medicine. In this Review, we summarize the progress that has been made in the field of hiPSC technology, with particular emphasis on cardiovascular disease modelling and drug development. The growing roles of hiPSC technology in the practice of precision medicine will also be discussed. PMID:27009425

  10. Gated magnetic resonance imaging of the normal and diseased heart

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, J.M.; Alfidi, R.J.; Nelson, A.D.; Botti, R.E.; Moir, T.W.; Haaga, J.R.; Kopiwoda, S.; Miraldi, F.D.; Cohen, A.M.; Butler, H.E.

    1984-08-01

    Gated cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained in two normal volunteers and 21 adults with a variety of cardiovascular abnormalities. The images were correlated with data from clinical examination, electrocardiograms, and cardiac catheterization. Gated cardiac images were superior to nongated images. Combined cardiac and respiratory gated images were superior to images obtained with cardiac gating only, but acquisition time was longer. Portions of the coronary arteries were visualized in seven of 23 examinations (30%), and subacute and old myocardial infarcts were seen in five of nine patients (55%) as areas of thinned myocardium. Normal cardiac anatomy (chambers, valves, and papillary muscles) was well visualized. Examples of aortic stenosis and atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta are shown.

  11. Arrangements of multiple images of human myocardium for information for the surgeon during open heart surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, Manfred D.; Cristea, Paul D.; Hiller, Michael; Trinks, Tobias

    2002-06-01

    The feasibility to obtain visualized information of myocardium by imaging is a new dimension. However, during heart surgery the surgeon does not need all data of images continuously. Therefore, development of strategies able to reduce flux of information transiently in between images might become important. Arrangements of images in 3-dimensional structures can produce better outlines. Images often contain information of several parameters. Therefore, a selection of important parts of the pictures might be helpful. Optical sensors will have the ability to detect dangerous situations in tissues which can release optical or acoustic signals.

  12. Ionic contrast terahertz time resolved imaging of frog auricular heart muscle electrical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Jean-Baptiste; Sauviat, Martin-Pierre; Gallot, Guilhem

    2006-10-01

    The authors demonstrate the direct, noninvasive and time resolved imaging of functional frog auricular fibers by ionic contrast terahertz (ICT) near field microscopy. This technique provides quantitative, time-dependent measurement of ionic flow during auricular muscle electrical activity, and opens the way of direct noninvasive imaging of cardiac activity under stimulation. ICT microscopy technique was associated with full three-dimensional simulation enabling to measure precisely the fiber sizes. This technique coupled to waveguide technology should provide the grounds to development of advanced in vivo ion flux measurement in mammalian hearts, allowing the prediction of heart attack from change in K+ fluxes.

  13. A Multiscale Computational Model of the Heart: Exploring Space Medicine and Terrestrial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladding, Patrick; Orr, Martin; Kazuaki, Negishi; Borowski, Alan; Hussan, Jagir R.; Hunter, Peter; Kassemi, Mohammed; Martin, David; Levine, Benjamin; Schlegel, Todd T.; Thomas, James D.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of long-term spaceflight on cardiac electromechanical function is unknown. Integrating heterogeneous biophysical data from sources such as echocardiography (Echo), electrocardiography (ECG), and genomics into a mathematical model could be used to predict cardiac dysfunction in space. We have developed a multiscale heart model, onto which astronaut-specific ultrasound data can be imposed, with the aim of integrating advanced ECG (A-ECG) and genomic data.

  14. [Analysis Methods of Short-term Non-linear Heart Rate Variability and Their Application in Clinical Medicine].

    PubMed

    Chi, Xianglin; Zhou, Jianhua; Shi, Ping; Liu, Chengyu

    2016-02-01

    The linear analysis for heart rate variability (HRV), including time domain method, frequency domain method and time-frequency analysis, has reached a lot of consensus. The non-linear analysis has also been widely applied in biomedical and clinical researches. However, for non-linear HRV analysis, especially for short-term non-linear HRV analysis, controversy still exists, and a unified standard and conclusion has not been formed. This paper reviews and discusses three short-term non-linear HRV analysis methods (fractal dimension, entropy and complexity) and their principles, progresses and problems in clinical application in detail, in order to provide a reference for accurate application in clinical medicine. PMID:27382764

  15. Heart PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    Heart nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Mann DL, ... A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  16. Dual-source computed tomographic coronary angiography: image quality and stenosis diagnosis in patients with high heart rates.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Minwen; Li, Jiayi; Xu, Jian; Chen, Kang; Zhao, Hongliang; Huan, Yi

    2009-01-01

    We sought to evaluate prospectively the effects of heart rate and heart-rate variability on dual-source computed tomographic coronary image quality in patients whose heart rates were high, and to determine retrospectively the accuracy of dual-source computed tomographic diagnosis of coronary artery stenosis in the same patients.We compared image quality and diagnostic accuracy in 40 patients whose heart rates exceeded 70 beats/min with the same data in 40 patients whose heart rates were 70 beats/min or slower. In both groups, we analyzed 1,133 coronary arterial segments. Five hundred forty-five segments (97.7%) in low-heart-rate patients and 539 segments (93.7%) in high-heart-rate patients were of diagnostic image quality. We considered P < 0.05 to be statistically significant. No statistically significant differences between the groups were found in diagnostic-image quality scores of total segments or of any coronary artery, nor were any significant differences found between the groups in the accurate diagnosis of angiographically significant stenosis.Calcification was the chief factor that affected diagnostic accuracy. In high-heart-rate patients, heart-rate variability was significantly related to the diagnostic image quality of all segments (P = 0.001) and of the left circumflex coronary artery (P = 0.016). Heart-rate variability of more than 5 beats/min most strongly contributed to an inability to evaluate segments in both groups. When heart rates rose, the optimal reconstruction window shifted from diastole to systole.The image quality of dual-source computed tomographic coronary angiography at high heart rates enables sufficient diagnosis of stenosis, although variability of heart rates significantly deteriorates image quality. PMID:19436804

  17. Ratiometric imaging of calcium during ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated mouse hearts using Fura-2

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We present an easily implementable method for measuring Fura-2 fluorescence from isolated mouse hearts using a commercially available switching light source and CCD camera. After calibration, it provides a good estimate of intracellular [Ca2+] with both high spatial and temporal resolutions, permitting study of changes in dispersion of diastolic [Ca2+], Ca2+ transient dynamics, and conduction velocities in mouse hearts. In a proof-of-principle study, we imaged isolated Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts with reversible regional myocardial infarctions. Methods Isolated mouse hearts were perfused in the Landendorff-mode and loaded with Fura-2. Hearts were then paced rapidly and subjected to 15 minutes of regional ischemia by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery, following which the ligation was removed to allow reperfusion for 15 minutes. Fura-2 fluorescence was recorded at regular intervals using a high-speed CCD camera. The two wavelengths of excitation light were interleaved at a rate of 1 KHz with a computer controlled switching light source to illuminate the heart. Results Fura-2 produced consistent Ca2+ transients from different hearts. Ligating the coronary artery rapidly generated a well defined region with a dramatic rise in diastolic Ca2+ without a significant change in transient amplitude; Ca2+ handling normalized during reperfusion. Conduction velocity was reduced by around 50% during ischemia, and did not recover significantly when monitored for 15 minutes following reperfusion. Conclusions Our method of imaging Fura-2 from isolated whole hearts is capable of detecting pathological changes in intracellular Ca2+ levels in cardiac tissue. The persistent change in the conduction velocities indicates that changes to tissue connectivity rather than altered intracellular Ca2+ handling may be underlying the electrical instabilities commonly seen in patients following a myocardial infarction. PMID:22812644

  18. Free-Breathing 3D Whole Heart Black Blood Imaging with Motion Sensitized Driven Equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Subashini; Hu, Peng; Kissinger, Kraig V.; Goddu, Beth; Goepfert, Lois; Schmidt, Ehud J.; Kozerke, Sebastian; Nezafat, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To assess the efficacy and robustness of motion sensitized driven equilibrium (MSDE) for blood suppression in volumetric 3D whole heart cardiac MR. Materials and Methods To investigate the efficacy of MSDE on blood suppression and myocardial SNR loss on different imaging sequences. 7 healthy adult subjects were imaged using 3D ECG-triggered MSDE-prep T1-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE), and spoiled gradient echo (GRE), after optimization of MSDE parameters in a pilot study of 5 subjects. Imaging artifacts, myocardial and blood SNR were assessed. Subsequently, the feasibility of isotropic spatial resolution MSDE-prep black-blood was assessed in 6 subjects. Finally, 15 patients with known or suspected cardiovascular disease were recruited to be imaged using conventional multi-slice 2D DIR TSE imaging sequence and 3D MSDE-prep spoiled GRE. Results The MSDE-prep yields significant blood suppression (75-92%), enabling a volumetric 3D black-blood assessment of the whole heart with significantly improved visualization of the chamber walls. The MSDE-prep also allowed successful acquisition of black-blood images with isotropic spatial resolution. In the patient study, 3D black-blood MSDE-prep and DIR resulted in similar blood suppression in LV and RV walls but the MSDE prep had superior myocardial signal and wall sharpness. Conclusion MSDE-prep allows volumetric black-blood imaging of the heart. PMID:22517477

  19. Current research in nuclear medicine and molecular imaging in Italy: highlights of the 10th National Congress of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Cuocolo, A

    2011-06-01

    The 10th National Congress of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (AIMN) took place in Rimini on March 18-21, 2011 under the chairmanship of Professor Stefano Fanti. The program was of excellent quality and put a further step for the settlement of the standardized AIMN congress structure. A large industrial exhibition demonstrated the latest technological innovations and developments within the field. The congress was a great success with more than 1100 total participants and more than 360 abstracts received. Of these, 40 abstracts were accepted for oral and 285 for poster presentations. The original investigations presented were related to different areas of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, with particular focus on advances in instrumentation and data processing, progress in radiochemistry and pharmacy, novel diagnostics and therapeutics, and new insights in well established areas of clinical application, such as oncology, cardiology, neurology, psychiatry, endocrinology, paediatrics, and infection and inflammation. Noteworthy, several presentations at this congress, focusing on quantitative interpretation of the imaging data and on pragmatic endpoints, such as adverse outcomes, identified when nuclear medicine procedures achieved clinical effectiveness for patient care and patient management and further demonstrated that nuclear medicine plays a crucial role in the contemporary medical scenario. This highlights lecture is only a brief summary of the large amount of data presented and discussed, which can be found in much greater detail in the congress abstract book, published as volume 55, supplement 1 of the Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging in April 2011. PMID:21532541

  20. Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety ... prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with ...

  1. Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... you get better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring ... can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with food or other medicines you may be taking. They ...

  2. Uncovering brain–heart information through advanced signal and image processing

    PubMed Central

    Toschi, Nicola; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Through their dynamical interplay, the brain and the heart ensure fundamental homeostasis and mediate a number of physiological functions as well as their disease-related aberrations. Although a vast number of ad hoc analytical and computational tools have been recently applied to the non-invasive characterization of brain and heart dynamic functioning, little attention has been devoted to combining information to unveil the interactions between these two physiological systems. This theme issue collects contributions from leading experts dealing with the development of advanced analytical and computational tools in the field of biomedical signal and image processing. It includes perspectives on recent advances in 7 T magnetic resonance imaging as well as electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram and cerebrovascular flow processing, with the specific aim of elucidating methods to uncover novel biological and physiological correlates of brain–heart physiology and physiopathology. PMID:27044995

  3. Uncovering brain-heart information through advanced signal and image processing.

    PubMed

    Valenza, Gaetano; Toschi, Nicola; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2016-05-13

    Through their dynamical interplay, the brain and the heart ensure fundamental homeostasis and mediate a number of physiological functions as well as their disease-related aberrations. Although a vast number of ad hoc analytical and computational tools have been recently applied to the non-invasive characterization of brain and heart dynamic functioning, little attention has been devoted to combining information to unveil the interactions between these two physiological systems. This theme issue collects contributions from leading experts dealing with the development of advanced analytical and computational tools in the field of biomedical signal and image processing. It includes perspectives on recent advances in 7 T magnetic resonance imaging as well as electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram and cerebrovascular flow processing, with the specific aim of elucidating methods to uncover novel biological and physiological correlates of brain-heart physiology and physiopathology. PMID:27044995

  4. Bodies, Hearts and Minds: Why Emotions Matter to Historians of Science and Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bound Alberti, Fay

    2015-01-01

    The history of emotion addresses many fundamental themes of science and medicine. These include the ways the body and its workings have been historically observed and measured; the rise of the mind sciences; and the anthropological analyses by which “ways of knowing” are culturally situated. Yet studying emotions brings its own challenges, not least in how historians of science and medicine view the relationship between bodies, minds and emotions. This paper explores some of the methodological challenges of emotion history, using the surgeon John Hunter’s sudden death from cardiac disease as a case study. It argues that we need to let go of many of our modern assumptions about the origin of emotions, and “brainhood” that dominate discussions of identity, in order to explore the historical meanings of emotions as products of the body as well as the mind. PMID:20380348

  5. Bodies, hearts, and minds: Why emotions matter to historians of science and medicine.

    PubMed

    Alberti, Fay Bound

    2009-12-01

    The histories of emotion address many fundamental themes of science and medicine. These include the ways the body and its workings have been historically observed and measured, the rise of the mind sciences, and the anthropological analyses by which "ways of knowing" are culturally situated. Yet such histories bring their own challenges, not least in how historians of science and medicine view the relationship between bodies, minds, and emotions. This essay explores some of the methodological challenges of emotion history, using the sudden death of the surgeon John Hunter from cardiac disease as a case study. It argues that we need to let go of many of our modem assumptions about the origin of emotions, and "brainhood", that dominate discussions of identity, in order to explore the historical meanings of emotions as products of the body as well as the mind. PMID:20380348

  6. Infectious Diseases of the Heart: Pathophysiology, Clinical and Imaging Overview.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Horacio; Restrepo, Carlos Santiago; Marmol-Velez, Juan Alejandro; Vargas, Daniel; Ocazionez, Daniel; Martinez-Jimenez, Santiago; Reddick, Robert Lee; Baxi, Ameya Jagdish

    2016-01-01

    Myriad infectious organisms can infect the endocardium, myocardium, and pericardium, including bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses. Significant cardiac infections are rare in the general population but are associated with high morbidity and mortality as well as increased risk in certain populations, such as the elderly, those undergoing cardiac instrumentation, and intravenous drug abusers. Diagnostic imaging of cardiac infections plays an important role despite its variable sensitivity and specificity, which are due in part to the nonspecific manifestations of the central inflammatory process of infection and the time of onset with respect to the time of imaging. The primary imaging modality remains echocardiography. However, cardiac computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging have emerged as the modalities of choice wherever available, especially for diagnosis of complex infectious complications including abscesses, infected prosthetic material, central lines and instruments, and the cryptic manifestations of viral and parasitic diseases. MR imaging can provide functional, morphologic, and prognostic value in a single examination by allowing characterization of inflammatory changes from the acute to chronic stages, including edema and the patterns and extent of delayed gadolinium enhancement. We review the heterogeneous and diverse group of cardiac infections based on their site of primary cardiac involvement with emphasis on their cross-sectional imaging manifestations. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27399236

  7. Nuclear medicine in the management of patients with heart failure: guidance from an expert panel of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

    PubMed Central

    Peix, Amalia; Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco; Paez, Diana; Pereira, Carlos Cunha; Felix, Renata; Gutierrez, Claudia; Jaimovich, Rodrigo; Ianni, Barbara Maria; Soares, Jose; Olaya, Pastor; Rodriguez, Ma. Victoria; Flotats, Albert; Giubbini, Raffaele; Travin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure is increasing worldwide at epidemic proportions, resulting in considerable disability, mortality, and increase in healthcare costs. Gated myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography or PET imaging is the most prominent imaging modality capable of providing information on global and regional ventricular function, the presence of intraventricular synchronism, myocardial perfusion, and viability on the same test. In addition, 123I-mIBG scintigraphy is the only imaging technique approved by various regulatory agencies able to provide information regarding the adrenergic function of the heart. Therefore, both myocardial perfusion and adrenergic imaging are useful tools in the workup and management of heart failure patients. This guide is intended to reinforce the information on the use of nuclear cardiology techniques for the assessment of heart failure and associated myocardial disease. PMID:24781009

  8. Nuclear medicine in the management of patients with heart failure: guidance from an expert panel of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

    PubMed

    Peix, Amalia; Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco; Paez, Diana; Pereira, Carlos Cunha; Felix, Renata; Gutierrez, Claudia; Jaimovich, Rodrigo; Ianni, Barbara Maria; Soares, Jose; Olaya, Pastor; Rodriguez, Ma Victoria; Flotats, Albert; Giubbini, Raffaele; Travin, Mark; Garcia, Ernest V

    2014-08-01

    Heart failure is increasing worldwide at epidemic proportions, resulting in considerable disability, mortality, and increase in healthcare costs. Gated myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography or PET imaging is the most prominent imaging modality capable of providing information on global and regional ventricular function, the presence of intraventricular synchronism, myocardial perfusion, and viability on the same test. In addition, I-mIBG scintigraphy is the only imaging technique approved by various regulatory agencies able to provide information regarding the adrenergic function of the heart. Therefore, both myocardial perfusion and adrenergic imaging are useful tools in the workup and management of heart failure patients. This guide is intended to reinforce the information on the use of nuclear cardiology techniques for the assessment of heart failure and associated myocardial disease. PMID:24781009

  9. Medicine Wheel Imag(in)ings: Exploring Holistic Curriculum Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kind, Sylvia; Irwin, Rita L.; Grauer, Kit; de Cosson, Alex

    2005-01-01

    Education is longing for a deeper more connected, more inclusive, and more aware way of knowing. One that connects heart and hand and head and does not split knowledge into dualities of thought and being, mind and body, emotion and intellect, but resonates with a wholeness and fullness that engages every part of one's being. Engagement with the…

  10. Illustrated Imaging Essay on Congenital Heart Diseases: Multimodality Approach Part I: Clinical Perspective, Anatomy and Imaging Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Belaval, Vinay; Gadabanahalli, Karthik; Raj, Vimal; Shah, Sejal

    2016-01-01

    Rapid evolution in technology in the recent years has lead to availability of multiple options for cardiac imaging. Availability of multiple options of varying capability, poses a challenge for optimal imaging choice. While new imaging choices are added, some of the established methods find their role re-defined. State of the art imaging practices are limited to few specialist cardiac centres, depriving many radiologists and radiologist in-training of optimal exposure to the field. This presentation is aimed at providing a broad idea about complexity of clinical problem, imaging options and a large library of images of congenital heart disease. Some emphasis is made as to the need of proper balance between performing examination with technical excellence in an ideal situation against the need of the majority of patients who are investigated with less optimal resources. Cases of congenital cardiac disease are presented in an illustrative way, showing imaging appearances in multiple modalities, highlighting specific observations in given instance. PMID:27376034

  11. Illustrated Imaging Essay on Congenital Heart Diseases: Multimodality Approach Part I: Clinical Perspective, Anatomy and Imaging Techniques.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Venkatraman; Belaval, Vinay; Gadabanahalli, Karthik; Raj, Vimal; Shah, Sejal

    2016-05-01

    Rapid evolution in technology in the recent years has lead to availability of multiple options for cardiac imaging. Availability of multiple options of varying capability, poses a challenge for optimal imaging choice. While new imaging choices are added, some of the established methods find their role re-defined. State of the art imaging practices are limited to few specialist cardiac centres, depriving many radiologists and radiologist in-training of optimal exposure to the field. This presentation is aimed at providing a broad idea about complexity of clinical problem, imaging options and a large library of images of congenital heart disease. Some emphasis is made as to the need of proper balance between performing examination with technical excellence in an ideal situation against the need of the majority of patients who are investigated with less optimal resources. Cases of congenital cardiac disease are presented in an illustrative way, showing imaging appearances in multiple modalities, highlighting specific observations in given instance. PMID:27376034

  12. Quantum crossing symmetry as heart of ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ion, D. B.; Ion, M. L.; Rusu, L.

    2010-03-01

    In this paper it is proved that the keys to understanding the ghost imaging are the crossing symmetric (CS) photon reactions in the nonlinear media. So CS introduced a real optical path between the object and his "ghost" image, making possible to apply the geometric optics for a rigorous proof of the essential laws of the "ghost" imaging phenomena. Hence, the laws of the plane quantum mirror (QM) and that of spherical quantum mirror, observed in the ghost-imaging experiments, are shown that can be obtained as natural consequences of the energy-momentum conservation laws. So, it is proved that the ghost imaging laws depend only on the energy-momentum conservation and not on the photons entanglement. Using DFG-typical features we obtained explicit predictions of the intensities of the idler photons in terms of the intensities of the interacting photon-(p and s)-beams in the nonlinear crystal. Two fundamental experiments for a decisive test of the [SPDC-DFG]-quantum mirrors are suggested.

  13. Horizons in nuclear medicine and molecular imaging: highlights of the Third Gulf Nuclear Medicine Conference.

    PubMed

    Elgazzar, A H

    2009-07-01

    The Third Gulf Nuclear Medicine Conference took place in the state of Kuwait at Salwa Al Sabah hall, Safir marina hotel in Salmiya. The event extended from March 29th to April 1st 2009. The assembly was a great chance for all nuclear medicine, i.e. physicians, technologists and researchers in the field to meet and exchange experience and knowledge. The number of participators registered for this conference was beyond expectations; total registrants of 611 attended the event and actively end it. The conference was attended by international, regional and local participants. There were 23 speakers, including 13 invited guest speakers who came from USA, Canada, Europe and the Gulf region. In addition to the lectures and oral presentations, there were 30 poster presentations. The latest updates in the field together with most recent findings in the participants' own research were presented. The lectures and posters covered different basic and clinical categories of nuclear medicine. This article summarizes the highlights of the major topics discussed with some recommendations when applicable. Proceedings of the conference can be found in the World Journal of Nuclear Medicine of April, 2009. PMID:20194093

  14. Assessment of three techniques for delivering stem cells to the heart using PET and MR imaging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Stem cell therapy has a promising potential for the curing of various degenerative diseases, including congestive heart failure (CHF). In this study, we determined the efficacy of different delivery methods for stem cell administration to the heart for the treatment of CHF. Both positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were utilized to assess the distribution of delivered stem cells. Methods Adipose-derived stem cells of male rats were labeled with super-paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). The left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) of the female rats was occluded to induce acute ischemic myocardial injury. Immediately after the LAD occlusion, the double-labeled stem cells were injected into the ischemic myocardium (n = 5), left ventricle (n = 5), or tail vein (n = 4). In another group of animals (n = 3), the stem cells were injected directly into the infarct rim 1 week after the LAD occlusion. Whole-body PET images and MR images were acquired to determine biodistribution of the stem cells. After the imaging, the animals were euthanized and retention of the stem cells in the vital organs was determined by measuring the cDNA specific to the Y chromosome. Results PET images showed that retention of the stem cells in the ischemic myocardium was dependent on the cell delivery method. The tail vein injection resulted in the least cell retention in the heart (1.2% ± 0.6% of total injected cells). Left ventricle injection led to 3.5% ± 0.9% cell retention and direct myocardial injection resulted in the highest rate of cell retention (14% ± 4%) in the heart. In the animals treated 1 week after the LAD occlusion, rate of cell retention in the heart was only 4.5% ±1.1%, suggesting that tissue injury has a negative impact on cell homing. In addition, there was a good agreement between the results obtained through PET-MR imaging and histochemical measurements. Conclusion PET

  15. Heart Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    James Antaki and a group of researchers from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine used many elements of the Technology Utilization Program while looking for a way to visualize and track material points within the heart muscle. What they needed were tiny artificial "eggs" containing copper sulfate solution, small enough (about 2 mm in diameter) that they would not injure the heart, and large enough to be seen in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images; they also had to be biocompatible and tough enough to withstand the beating of the muscle. The group could not make nor buy sufficient containers. After reading an article on microspheres in NASA Tech Briefs, and a complete set of reports on microencapsulation from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), JPL put Antaki in touch with Dr.Taylor Wang of Vanderbilt University who helped construct the myocardial markers. The research is expected to lead to improved understanding of how the heart works and what takes place when it fails.

  16. Summary Of Chrono-Coherent Imaging In Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spears, Kenneth G.; Serafin, Jenifer E.; Zhu, Xinming; Bjelkhagen, Hans I.

    1989-05-01

    We describe demonstration experiments for a new method of medical diagnostic imaging. The method is called Chrono-Coherent Imaging (CCI) and it can be used in a transmission geometry to form images in the presence of overwhelming scattered light, which blocks conventional image formation. Future applications are for imaging inside the human body where tissue light scattering normally obscures image formation. In a transmission geometry the scattered light will take different time delays to reach a recording medium than will the very weak unscattered light which contains image information. The recording of the image for a series of times is not done as a real image with ultrashort gating devices such as streak cameras or Kerr shutters, but the recording is done coherently like a hologram with the sub-picosecond coherence properties of the laser pulse. By using a time sweep of a reference laser beam on the recording medium, similar to Light-In-Flight Holography, we can make a series of coherent images with a single laser exposure, even in the presence of very large incoherent exposure by the scattered light. These images are much like an X-ray in that cumulati've transmission effects are recorded throughout the object, but in CCI the time series of images has both refractive index and absorption information. Many other features such as tissue selectivity by wavelength tuning, depth enhancement and three dimensional image reconstruction are possible with the new imaging method of CCI.

  17. Stability of membrane potential in heart mitochondria: Single mitochondrion imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Uechi, Yukiko; Yoshioka, Hisashi; Morikawa, Daisuke; Ohta, Yoshihiro . E-mail: ohta@cc.tuat.ac.jp

    2006-06-16

    Mitochondrial membrane potential ({delta}{psi} {sub m}) plays an important role in cellular activity. Although {delta}{psi} {sub m} of intracellular mitochondria are relatively stable, the recent experiments with isolated mitochondria demonstrate that individual mitochondria show frequent fluctuations of {delta}{psi} {sub m}. The current study is performed to investigate the factors that stabilize {delta}{psi} {sub m} in cells by observing {delta}{psi} {sub m} of individual isolated mitochondria with fluorescence microscopy. Here, we report that (1) the transient depolarizations are also induced for mitochondria in plasma membrane permeabilized cells, (2) almost all mitochondria isolated from porcine hearts show the transient depolarizations that is enhanced with the net efflux of protons from the matrix to the intermembrane space, and (3) ATP and ADP significantly inhibit the transient depolarizations by plural mechanisms. These results suggest that the suppression of acute alkalinization of the matrix together with the presence of ATP and ADP contributes to the stabilization of {delta}{psi} {sub m} in cells.

  18. Computational high-resolution heart phantoms for medical imaging and dosimetry simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Songxiang; Gupta, Rajiv; Kyprianou, Iacovos

    2011-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease in general and coronary artery disease (CAD) in particular, are the leading cause of death worldwide. They are principally diagnosed using either invasive percutaneous transluminal coronary angiograms or non-invasive computed tomography angiograms (CTA). Minimally invasive therapies for CAD such as angioplasty and stenting are rendered under fluoroscopic guidance. Both invasive and non-invasive imaging modalities employ ionizing radiation and there is concern for deterministic and stochastic effects of radiation. Accurate simulation to optimize image quality with minimal radiation dose requires detailed, gender-specific anthropomorphic phantoms with anatomically correct heart and associated vasculature. Such phantoms are currently unavailable. This paper describes an open source heart phantom development platform based on a graphical user interface. Using this platform, we have developed seven high-resolution cardiac/coronary artery phantoms for imaging and dosimetry from seven high-quality CTA datasets. To extract a phantom from a coronary CTA, the relationship between the intensity distribution of the myocardium, the ventricles and the coronary arteries is identified via histogram analysis of the CTA images. By further refining the segmentation using anatomy-specific criteria such as vesselness, connectivity criteria required by the coronary tree and image operations such as active contours, we are able to capture excellent detail within our phantoms. For example, in one of the female heart phantoms, as many as 100 coronary artery branches could be identified. Triangular meshes are fitted to segmented high-resolution CTA data. We have also developed a visualization tool for adding stenotic lesions to the coronaries. The male and female heart phantoms generated so far have been cross-registered and entered in the mesh-based Virtual Family of phantoms with matched age/gender information. Any phantom in this family, along with user

  19. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation)

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

    1992-07-01

    This document is the annual progress report for project entitled 'Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.' Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

  20. Semi-automated measurements of heart-to-mediastinum ratio on 123I-MIBG myocardial scintigrams by using image fusion method with chest X-ray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Ryosuke; Hara, Takeshi; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Ishihara, Tadahiko; Zhou, Xiangrong; Muramatsu, Chisako; Abe, Yoshiteru; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    MIBG (iodine-123-meta-iodobenzylguanidine) is a radioactive medicine that is used to help diagnose not only myocardial diseases but also Parkinson's diseases (PD) and dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). The difficulty of the segmentation around the myocardium often reduces the consistency of measurement results. One of the most common measurement methods is the ratio of the uptake values of the heart to mediastinum (H/M). This ratio will be a stable independent of the operators when the uptake value in the myocardium region is clearly higher than that in background, however, it will be unreliable indices when the myocardium region is unclear because of the low uptake values. This study aims to develop a new measurement method by using the image fusion of three modalities of MIBG scintigrams, 201-Tl scintigrams, and chest radiograms, to increase the reliability of the H/M measurement results. Our automated method consists of the following steps: (1) construct left ventricular (LV) map from 201-Tl myocardium image database, (2) determine heart region in chest radiograms, (3) determine mediastinum region in chest radiograms, (4) perform image fusion of chest radiograms and MIBG scintigrams, and 5) perform H/M measurements on MIBG scintigrams by using the locations of heart and mediastinum determined on the chest radiograms. We collected 165 cases with 201-Tl scintigrams and chest radiograms to construct the LV map. Another 65 cases with MIBG scintigrams and chest radiograms were also collected for the measurements. Four radiological technologists (RTs) manually measured the H/M in the MIBG images. We compared the four RTs' results with our computer outputs by using Pearson's correlation, the Bland-Altman method, and the equivalency test method. As a result, the correlations of the H/M between four the RTs and the computer were 0.85 to 0.88. We confirmed systematic errors between the four RTs and the computer as well as among the four RTs. The variation range of the H

  1. Exploratory multivariate analysis of the effect of fatty fish consumption and medicinal use on heart rate and heart rate variability data

    PubMed Central

    Grung, Bjørn; Hansen, Anita L.; Berg, Mari; Møen-Knudseth, Maria P.; Olson, Gina; Thornton, David; Dahl, Lisbeth; Thayer, Julian F.

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between medicinal use and fatty fish consumption on heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate (HR) in a group of forensic inpatients on a variety of medications. A total of 49 forensic inpatients, randomly assigned to a fish group (n = 27) or a control group (n = 22) were included in the present study. Before and by the end of the food intervention period HR and HRV were measured during an experimental test procedure. An additional aim of this paper is to show how multivariate data analysis can highlight differences and similarities between the groups, thus being a valuable addition to traditional statistical hypothesis testing. The results indicate that fish consumption may have a positive effect on both HR and HRV regardless of medication, but that the influence of medication is strong enough to mask the true effect of fish consumption. Without correcting for medication, the fish group and control group become indistinguishable (p = 0.0794, Cohen’s d = 0.60). The effect of medication is demonstrated by establishing a multivariate regression model that estimates HR and HRV in a recovery phase based on HR and HRV data recorded during psychological tests. The model performance is excellent for HR data, but yields poor results for HRV when employed on participants undergoing the more severe medical treatments. This indicates that the HRV behavior of this group is very different from that of the participants on no or lower level of medication. When focusing on the participants on a constant medication regime, a substantial improvement in HRV and HR for the fish group compared to the control group is indicated by a principal component analysis and t-tests (p = 0.00029, Cohen’s d = 2.72). In a group of psychiatric inpatients characterized by severe mental health problems consuming different kinds of medication, the fish diet improved HR and HRV, indices of both emotional regulation and physical

  2. Recent Developments in Vascular Imaging Techniques in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Upputuri, Paul Kumar; Sivasubramanian, Kathyayini; Mark, Chong Seow Khoon; Pramanik, Manojit

    2015-01-01

    Adequate vascularisation is key in determining the clinical outcome of stem cells and engineered tissue in regenerative medicine. Numerous imaging modalities have been developed and used for the visualization of vascularisation in tissue engineering. In this review, we briefly discuss the very recent advances aiming at high performance imaging of vasculature. We classify the vascular imaging modalities into three major groups: nonoptical methods (X-ray, magnetic resonance, ultrasound, and positron emission imaging), optical methods (optical coherence, fluorescence, multiphoton, and laser speckle imaging), and hybrid methods (photoacoustic imaging). We then summarize the strengths and challenges of these methods for preclinical and clinical applications. PMID:25821821

  3. Recent developments in vascular imaging techniques in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Upputuri, Paul Kumar; Sivasubramanian, Kathyayini; Mark, Chong Seow Khoon; Pramanik, Manojit

    2015-01-01

    Adequate vascularisation is key in determining the clinical outcome of stem cells and engineered tissue in regenerative medicine. Numerous imaging modalities have been developed and used for the visualization of vascularisation in tissue engineering. In this review, we briefly discuss the very recent advances aiming at high performance imaging of vasculature. We classify the vascular imaging modalities into three major groups: nonoptical methods (X-ray, magnetic resonance, ultrasound, and positron emission imaging), optical methods (optical coherence, fluorescence, multiphoton, and laser speckle imaging), and hybrid methods (photoacoustic imaging). We then summarize the strengths and challenges of these methods for preclinical and clinical applications. PMID:25821821

  4. Iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging of the heart in idiopathic congestive cardiomyopathy and cardiac transplants

    SciTech Connect

    Glowniak, J.V.; Turner, F.E.; Gray, L.L.; Palac, R.T.; Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Woodward, W.R.

    1989-07-01

    Iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine ((/sup 123/I)MIBG) is a norepinephrine analog which can be used to image the sympathetic innervation of the heart. In this study, cardiac imaging with (/sup 123/I)MIBG was performed in patients with idiopathic congestive cardiomyopathy and compared to normal controls. Initial uptake, half-time of tracer within the heart, and heart to lung ratios were all significantly reduced in patients compared to normals. Uptake in lungs, liver, salivary glands, and spleen was similar in controls and patients with cardiomyopathy indicating that decreased MIBG uptake was not a generalized abnormality in these patients. Iodine-123 MIBG imaging was also performed in cardiac transplant patients to determine cardiac nonneuronal uptake. Uptake in transplants was less than 10% of normals in the first 2 hr and nearly undetectable after 16 hr. The decreased uptake of MIBG suggests cardiac sympathetic nerve dysfunction while the rapid washout of MIBG from the heart suggests increased cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in idiopathic congestive cardiomyopathy.

  5. Imaging of the heart: historical perspective and recent advances.

    PubMed

    Lam, W C; Pennell, D J

    2016-02-01

    Correct diagnosis must be made before appropriate treatment can be given. The aim of cardiac imaging is to establish cardiac diagnosis as accurate as possible and to avert unnecessary invasive procedures. There are many different modalities of cardiac imaging and each of them has advanced tremendously throughout the past decades. Echocardiography, as the first-line modality in most clinical circumstances, has progressed from two-dimensional, single-planed M-mode in the 1960s to three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography nowadays. Cardiac computed tomography angiogram (CCTA) has revolutionised the management of coronary artery disease as it allows clinicians to visualise the coronary arteries without performing an invasive angiogram. Because of the high negative predictive value, CCTA plays an important reassuring role in acute chest pain management. The greatest strength of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is that it provides information in tissue characterization. It is the modality of choice in assessing myocardial viability and myocardial infiltration such as haemochromatosis or amyloidosis. Each of these modalities has its own strengths and limitations. In fact, they are complementing each other in different clinical settings. Cardiac imaging will continue to advance and, not long from now, we will not need invasive procedures to make an accurate cardiac diagnosis. PMID:26647305

  6. Multispot two-photon imaging of mice heart tissue detecting calcium waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mauro, C.; Cecchetti, C. A.; Alfieri, D.; Borile, G.; Mongillo, M.; Pavone, F. S.

    2012-06-01

    High rate, full field image acquisition in multiphoton imaging is achievable by parallelization of the excitation and of the detection paths. Via a Diffractive Optical Elements (DOEs) which splits a pulsed laser, and a spatial resolved descanned detection path, a new approach to microscopy has been developed. By exploiting the three operating mode, single beam, 16 beamlets or 64 beamlets, the best experimental conditions can be found by adapting the power per beamlet. This Multiphoton Multispot system (MCube) has been characterized in thick tissue samples, and subsequently used for the first time for Ca2+ imaging of acute heart slices. A test sample with fixed mice heart slices with embedded sub-resolution fluorescent beads has been used to test the capability of optical axial resolution up to ~200 microns in depth. Radial and axial resolutions of 0.6 microns and 3 microns have been respectively obtained with a 40X water immersion objective, getting close to the theoretical limit. Then images of heart slices cardiomyocites, loaded with Fluo4-AM have been acquired. The formation of Ca2+ waves during electrostimulated beating has been observed, and the possibility of easily acquire full frame images at 15 Hz (16 beamlets) has been demonstrated, towards the in vivo study of time resolved cellular dynamics and arrhythmia trigger mechanisms in particular. A very high speed two-photon Random Access system for in vivo electrophysiological studies, towards the correlation of voltage and calcium signals in arrhythmia phenomena, is now under developing at Light4tech.

  7. In vivo imaging of the Drosophila Melanogaster heart using a novel optical coherence tomography microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izatt, Susan D.; Choma, Michael A.; Israel, Steven; Wessells, Robert J.; Bodmer, Rolf; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2005-03-01

    Real time in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of the adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster heart using a newly designed OCT microscope allows accurate assessment of cardiac anatomy and function. D. melanogaster has been used extensively in genetic research for over a century, but in vivo evaluation of the heart has been limited by available imaging technology. The ability to assess phenotypic changes with micrometer-scale resolution noninvasively in genetic models such as D. melanogaster is needed in the advancing fields of developmental biology and genetics. We have developed a dedicated small animal OCT imaging system incorporating a state-of-the-art, real time OCT scanner integrated into a standard stereo zoom microscope which allows for simultaneous OCT and video imaging. System capabilities include A-scan, B-scan, and M-scan imaging as well as automated 3D volumetric acquisition and visualization. Transverse and sagittal B-mode scans of the four chambered D. melanogaster heart have been obtained with the OCT microscope and are consistent with detailed anatomical studies from the literature. Further analysis by M-mode scanning is currently under way to assess cardiac function as a function of age and sex by determination of shortening fraction and ejection fraction. These studies create control cardiac data on the wild type D. melanogaster, allowing subsequent evaluation of phenotypic cardiac changes in this model after regulated genetic mutation.

  8. Role of Imaging Techniques for Diagnosis, Prognosis and Management of Heart Failure Patients: Cardiac Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Jorge A.; Kramer, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) has evolved into a major tool for the diagnosis and assessment of prognosis of patients suffering from heart failure. Anatomical and structural imaging, functional assessment, T1 and T2 mapping tissue characterization and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) have provided clinicians with tools to distinguish between non-ischemic and ischemic cardiomyopathies and to identify the etiology of non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. LGE is a useful tool to predict the likelihood of functional recovery after revascularization in patients with CAD and to guide the LV lead placement in those who qualify for cardiac resynchronization (CRT) therapy. In addition, the presence of LGE and its extent in myocardial tissue relates to overall cardiovascular outcomes. Emerging roles for cardiac imaging in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction (HFpEF) are being studied and CMR continues to be among the most promising noninvasive imaging alternatives in the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:26041670

  9. A Poisson resampling method for simulating reduced counts in nuclear medicine images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Duncan; Lawson, Richard S.

    2015-05-01

    Nuclear medicine computers now commonly offer resolution recovery and other software techniques which have been developed to improve image quality for images with low counts. These techniques potentially mean that these images can give equivalent clinical information to a full-count image. Reducing the number of counts in nuclear medicine images has the benefits of either allowing reduced activity to be administered or reducing acquisition times. However, because acquisition and processing parameters vary, each user should ideally evaluate the use of images with reduced counts within their own department, and this is best done by simulating reduced-count images from the original data. Reducing the counts in an image by division and rounding off to the nearest integer value, even if additional Poisson noise is added, is inadequate because it gives incorrect counting statistics. This technical note describes how, by applying Poisson resampling to the original raw data, simulated reduced-count images can be obtained while maintaining appropriate counting statistics. The authors have developed manufacturer independent software that can retrospectively generate simulated data with reduced counts from any acquired nuclear medicine image.

  10. Molecular imaging with optics: primer and case for near-infrared fluorescence techniques in personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Rasmussen, John C.

    2010-01-01

    We compare and contrast the development of optical molecular imaging techniques with nuclear medicine with a didactic emphasis for initiating readers into the field of molecular imaging. The nuclear imaging techniques of gamma scintigraphy, single-photon emission computed tomography, and positron emission tomography are first briefly reviewed. The molecular optical imaging techniques of bioluminescence and fluorescence using gene reporter/probes and gene reporters are described prior to introducing the governing factors of autofluorescence and excitation light leakage. The use of dual-labeled, near-infrared excitable and radio-labeled agents are described with comparative measurements between planar fluorescence and nuclear molecular imaging. The concept of time-independent and -dependent measurements is described with emphasis on integrating time-dependent measurements made in the frequency domain for 3-D tomography. Finally, we comment on the challenges and progress for translating near-infrared (NIR) molecular imaging agents for personalized medicine. PMID:19021311

  11. Neuronal dysfunction and medical therapy in heart failure: can an imaging biomarker help to "personalize" therapy?

    PubMed

    Wessler, Benjamin S; Udelson, James E

    2015-06-01

    (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-MIBG) imaging is a tool for evaluating one of the fundamental pathophysiologic abnormalities seen in heart failure (HF), that of an upregulated sympathetic nervous system and its effect on the myocardium. Although this imaging technique offers information about prognosis for patients treated with contemporary guideline-based HF therapies and improves risk stratification, there are neither rigorous nor sufficient outcome data to suggest that this imaging tool can guide therapeutic decision making or better target subsets of patients with HF for particular therapies. PMID:26033899

  12. Colour atlas of first pass functional imaging of the heart

    SciTech Connect

    Schad, N.; Andrews, E.J.; Fleming, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 21 chapters. Some of the titles are: Functional imaging; Fist pass radionuclide studies in evaluation of mitral valve replacement in chronic insufficiency using Bjork-Shiley tilting disc valves; First pass radionuclide studies in evaluation of left and right ventricular function in patients with bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement after 9-11 years; and First pass radionuclide studies in the evaluation of long term (up to about 15 years) follow up of aortic valve replacement using Starr-Edwards ball prosthesis.

  13. Progressive Left Ventricular Hypertrophy after Heart Transplantation: Insights and Mechanisms Suggested by Multimodal Images

    PubMed Central

    Garikapati, Kiran; Williams, Celeste T.

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppression is the typical measure to prevent rejection after heart transplantation. Although rejection is the usual cause of cardiac hypertrophy, numerous other factors warrant consideration. Calcineurin inhibitors rarely cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; the few relevant reports have described children after orthotopic kidney or liver transplantation. We present the case of a 73-year-old woman, an asymptomatic orthotopic heart transplantation patient, in whom chronic immunosuppression with prednisone and cyclosporine apparently caused a phenotype of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The natural course of her midapical hypertrophy was revealed by single-photon-emission computed tomography, positron-emission tomography, and 2-dimensional echocardiography. Clinicians and radiographers should be alert to progressive left ventricular hypertrophy and various perfusion patterns in heart transplantation patients even in the absence of underlying coronary artery disease. Toward this end, we recommend that advanced imaging methods be used to their fullest extent. PMID:27047289

  14. Progressive Left Ventricular Hypertrophy after Heart Transplantation: Insights and Mechanisms Suggested by Multimodal Images.

    PubMed

    Ananthasubramaniam, Karthik; Garikapati, Kiran; Williams, Celeste T

    2016-02-01

    Immunosuppression is the typical measure to prevent rejection after heart transplantation. Although rejection is the usual cause of cardiac hypertrophy, numerous other factors warrant consideration. Calcineurin inhibitors rarely cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; the few relevant reports have described children after orthotopic kidney or liver transplantation. We present the case of a 73-year-old woman, an asymptomatic orthotopic heart transplantation patient, in whom chronic immunosuppression with prednisone and cyclosporine apparently caused a phenotype of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The natural course of her midapical hypertrophy was revealed by single-photon-emission computed tomography, positron-emission tomography, and 2-dimensional echocardiography. Clinicians and radiographers should be alert to progressive left ventricular hypertrophy and various perfusion patterns in heart transplantation patients even in the absence of underlying coronary artery disease. Toward this end, we recommend that advanced imaging methods be used to their fullest extent. PMID:27047289

  15. Metabolic imaging of acute and chronic infarction in the perfused rat heart using hyperpolarised [1-13C]pyruvate.

    PubMed

    Ball, Daniel R; Cruickshank, Rachel; Carr, Carolyn A; Stuckey, Daniel J; Lee, Philip; Clarke, Kieran; Tyler, Damian J

    2013-11-01

    Hyperpolarised (13)C MRI can be used to generate metabolic images of the heart in vivo. However, there have been no similar studies performed in the isolated perfused heart. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a method for the creation of (13)C metabolite maps of the perfused rat heart and to demonstrate the technique in a study of acute and chronic myocardial infarction. Male Wistar rat hearts were isolated, perfused and imaged before and after occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, creating an acute infarct group. In addition, a chronic infarct group was generated from hearts which had their LAD coronary artery occluded in vivo. Four weeks later, hearts were excised, perfused and imaged to generate metabolic maps of infused pyruvate and its metabolites lactate and bicarbonate. Myocardial perfusion and energetics were assessed by first-pass perfusion imaging and (31)P MRS, respectively. In both acute and chronically infarcted hearts, perfusion was reduced to the infarct region, as revealed by reduced gadolinium influx and lower signal intensity in the hyperpolarised pyruvate images. In the acute infarct region, there were significant alterations in the lactate (increased) and bicarbonate (decreased) signal ratios. In the chronically infarcted region, there was a significant reduction in both bicarbonate and lactate signals. (31)P-derived energetics revealed a significant decrease between control and chronic infarcted hearts. Significant decreases in contractile function between control and both acute and chronic infracted hearts were also seen. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that hyperpolarised pyruvate can detect reduced perfusion in the rat heart following both acute and chronic infarction. Changes in lactate and bicarbonate ratios indicate increased anaerobic metabolism in the acute infarct, which is not observed in the chronic infarct. Thus, this study has successfully demonstrated a novel imaging approach to assess

  16. Molecular imaging in the framework of personalized cancer medicine.

    PubMed

    Belkić, Dzevad; Belkić, Karen

    2013-11-01

    With our increased understanding of cancer cell biology, molecular imaging offers a strategic bridge to oncology. This complements anatomic imaging, particularly magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, which is sensitive but not specific. Among the potential harms of false positive findings is lowered adherence to recommended surveillance post-therapy and by persons at increased cancer risk. Positron emission tomography (PET) plus computerized tomography (CT) is the molecular imaging modality most widely used in oncology. In up to 40% of cases, PET-CT leads to changes in therapeutic management. Newer PET tracers can detect tumor hypoxia, bone metastases in androgen-sensitive prostate cancer, and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-expressive tumors. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides insight into several metabolites at the same time. Combined with MRI, this yields magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), which does not entail ionizing radiation and is thus suitable for repeated monitoring. Using advanced signal processing, quantitative information can be gleaned about molecular markers of brain, breast, prostate and other cancers. Radiation oncology has benefited from molecular imaging via PET-CT and MRSI. Advanced mathematical approaches can improve dose planning in stereotactic radiosurgery, stereotactic body radiotherapy and high dose-rate brachytherapy. Molecular imaging will likely impact profoundly on clinical decision making in oncology. Molecular imaging via MR could facilitate early detection especially in persons at high risk for specific cancers. PMID:24511645

  17. Transmembrane Current Imaging in the Heart during Pacing and Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Richard A.; Mashburn, David N.; Sidorov, Veniamin Y.; Roth, Bradley J.; Pathmanathan, Pras; Wikswo, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we described a method to quantify the time course of total transmembrane current (Im) and the relative role of its two components, a capacitive current (Ic) and a resistive current (Iion), corresponding to the cardiac action potential during stable propagation. That approach involved recording high-fidelity (200 kHz) transmembrane potential (Vm) signals with glass microelectrodes at one site using a spatiotemporal coordinate transformation via measured conduction velocity. Here we extend our method to compute these transmembrane currents during stable and unstable propagation from fluorescence signals of Vm at thousands of sites (3 kHz), thereby introducing transmembrane current imaging. In contrast to commonly used linear Laplacians of extracellular potential (Ve) to compute Im, we utilized nonlinear image processing to compute the required second spatial derivatives of Vm. We quantified the dynamic spatial patterns of current density of Im and Iion for both depolarization and repolarization during pacing (including nonplanar patterns) by calibrating data with the microelectrode signals. Compared to planar propagation, we found that the magnitude of Iion was significantly reduced at sites of wave collision during depolarization but not repolarization. Finally, we present uncalibrated dynamic patterns of Im during ventricular fibrillation and show that Im at singularity sites was monophasic and positive with a significant nonzero charge (Im integrated over 10 ms) in contrast with nonsingularity sites. Our approach should greatly enhance the understanding of the relative roles of functional (e.g., rate-dependent membrane dynamics and propagation patterns) and static spatial heterogeneities (e.g., spatial differences in tissue resistance) via recordings during normal and compromised propagation, including arrhythmias. PMID:24094412

  18. Transmembrane current imaging in the heart during pacing and fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Gray, Richard A; Mashburn, David N; Sidorov, Veniamin Y; Roth, Bradley J; Pathmanathan, Pras; Wikswo, John P

    2013-10-01

    Recently, we described a method to quantify the time course of total transmembrane current (Im) and the relative role of its two components, a capacitive current (Ic) and a resistive current (Iion), corresponding to the cardiac action potential during stable propagation. That approach involved recording high-fidelity (200 kHz) transmembrane potential (Vm) signals with glass microelectrodes at one site using a spatiotemporal coordinate transformation via measured conduction velocity. Here we extend our method to compute these transmembrane currents during stable and unstable propagation from fluorescence signals of Vm at thousands of sites (3 kHz), thereby introducing transmembrane current imaging. In contrast to commonly used linear Laplacians of extracellular potential (Ve) to compute Im, we utilized nonlinear image processing to compute the required second spatial derivatives of Vm. We quantified the dynamic spatial patterns of current density of Im and Iion for both depolarization and repolarization during pacing (including nonplanar patterns) by calibrating data with the microelectrode signals. Compared to planar propagation, we found that the magnitude of Iion was significantly reduced at sites of wave collision during depolarization but not repolarization. Finally, we present uncalibrated dynamic patterns of Im during ventricular fibrillation and show that Im at singularity sites was monophasic and positive with a significant nonzero charge (Im integrated over 10 ms) in contrast with nonsingularity sites. Our approach should greatly enhance the understanding of the relative roles of functional (e.g., rate-dependent membrane dynamics and propagation patterns) and static spatial heterogeneities (e.g., spatial differences in tissue resistance) via recordings during normal and compromised propagation, including arrhythmias. PMID:24094412

  19. Shaping the future through innovations: From medical imaging to precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Comaniciu, Dorin; Engel, Klaus; Georgescu, Bogdan; Mansi, Tommaso

    2016-10-01

    Medical images constitute a source of information essential for disease diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. In addition, due to its patient-specific nature, imaging information represents a critical component required for advancing precision medicine into clinical practice. This manuscript describes recently developed technologies for better handling of image information: photorealistic visualization of medical images with Cinematic Rendering, artificial agents for in-depth image understanding, support for minimally invasive procedures, and patient-specific computational models with enhanced predictive power. Throughout the manuscript we will analyze the capabilities of such technologies and extrapolate on their potential impact to advance the quality of medical care, while reducing its cost. PMID:27349829

  20. Photoplethysmographic imaging via spectrally demultiplexed erythema fluctuation analysis for remote heart rate monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deglint, Jason; Chung, Audrey G.; Chwyl, Brendan; Amelard, Robert; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Wang, Xiao Yu; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    Traditional photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI) systems use the red, green, and blue (RGB) broadband measurements of a consumer digital camera to remotely estimate a patients heart rate; however, these broadband RGB signals are often corrupted by ambient noise, making the extraction of subtle fluctuations indicative of heart rate difficult. Therefore, the use of narrow-band spectral measurements can significantly improve the accuracy. We propose a novel digital spectral demultiplexing (DSD) method to infer narrow-band spectral information from acquired broadband RGB measurements in order to estimate heart rate via the computation of motion- compensated skin erythema fluctuation. Using high-resolution video recordings of human participants, multiple measurement locations are automatically identified on the cheeks of an individual, and motion-compensated broadband reflectance measurements are acquired at each measurement location over time via measurement location tracking. The motion-compensated broadband reflectance measurements are spectrally demultiplexed using a non-linear inverse model based on the spectral sensitivity of the camera's detector. A PPG signal is then computed from the demultiplexed narrow-band spectral information via skin erythema fluctuation analysis, with improved signal-to-noise ratio allowing for reliable remote heart rate measurements. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed system, a set of experiments involving human motion in a front-facing position were performed under ambient lighting conditions. Experimental results indicate that the proposed system achieves robust and accurate heart rate measurements and can provide additional information about the participant beyond the capabilities of traditional PPGI methods.

  1. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  2. Digital image correlation of coated and uncoated Religa Heart_Ext ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Kopernik, Magdalena; Gawlikowski, Maciej; Milenin, Andrij; Altyntsev, Ievgenii; Kustosz, Roman; Kąc, Sławomir

    2015-01-01

    The digital image correlation is used to estimate influence of deposited heamocompatible coatings (gold and titanium nitride) on mechanical response of ventricular assist device Religa Heart_Ext made of Bionate II (thermoplastic polycarbonate urethane) under working conditions by comparison of the coated Religa Heart_Ext with uncoated Religa Heart_Ext. The DIC is applied for experimental investigation of the strains and displacements distribution on external surface of the blood chamber of ventricular assist device during loading. The experiment was conducted in a hydraulic system with water at operating temperatures of 25 and 37 °C, as well as under static pressures: 80, 120, 180, 220 and 280 mmHg, and static underpressures: -25, -45, -75 mmHg. The subsequent images were taken after stabilization of pressure on a set level. The applied research method shows that the nano-coating of 30 nm in thickness significantly affects deformation of the blood chamber of Religa Heart_Ext in macro scale. The proposed composition of coatings increases strain on external surface of the ventricular assist device. PMID:26899910

  3. Acoustic imaging with time reversal methods: From medicine to NDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Mathias

    2015-03-01

    This talk will present an overview of the research conducted on ultrasonic time-reversal methods applied to biomedical imaging and to non-destructive testing. We will first describe iterative time-reversal techniques that allow both focusing ultrasonic waves on reflectors in tissues (kidney stones, micro-calcifications, contrast agents) or on flaws in solid materials. We will also show that time-reversal focusing does not need the presence of bright reflectors but it can be achieved only from the speckle noise generated by random distributions of non-resolved scatterers. We will describe the applications of this concept to correct distortions and aberrations in ultrasonic imaging and in NDT. In the second part of the talk we will describe the concept of time-reversal processors to get ultrafast ultrasonic images with typical frame rates of order of 10.000 F/s. It is the field of ultrafast ultrasonic imaging that has plenty medical applications and can be of great interest in NDT. We will describe some applications in the biomedical domain: Quantitative Elasticity imaging of tissues by following shear wave propagation to improve cancer detection and Ultrafast Doppler imaging that allows ultrasonic functional imaging.

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance zeugmatographic imaging of the heart: application to the study of ventricular septal defect. [Lambs

    SciTech Connect

    Heneghan, M.A.; Biancaniello, T.M.; Heidel, E.; Peterson, S.B.; Marsh, M.J.; Lauterbur, P.C.

    1982-04-01

    The present work was undertaken to determine the applicability of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging to the study of congenital heart disease. Three-dimensional proton density images of preserved lamb hearts with and without an artificially created ventricular septal defect were reconstructed and displayed in multiple planes. Sections obtained in the sagittal plane through the ventricular septum clearly showed the size, shape, and location of the defect. Results of these experiments suggest that NMR zeugmatography will become a valuable addition to existing imaging techniques for the study of congenital heart disease.

  5. Chronic Chagas' heart disease: a disease on its way to becoming a worldwide health problem: epidemiology, etiopathology, treatment, pathogenesis and laboratory medicine.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Saravia, Silvia Gilka; Haberland, Annekathrin; Wallukat, Gerd; Schimke, Ingolf

    2012-01-01

    Chagas' disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is ranked as the most serious parasitic disease in Latin America. Nearly 30% of infected patients develop life-threatening complications, and with a latency of 10-30 years, mostly Chagas' heart disease which is currently the major cause of morbidity and mortality in Latin America, enormously burdening economic resources and dramatically affecting patients' social and labor situations. Because of increasing migration, international tourism and parasite transfer by blood contact, intrauterine transfer and organ transplantation, Chagas' heart disease could potentially become a worldwide problem. To raise awareness of this problem, we reflect on the epidemiology and etiopathology of Chagas' disease, particularly Chagas' heart disease. To counteract Chagas' heart disease, in addition to the general interruption of the infection cycle and chemotherapeutic elimination of the infection agent, early and effective causal or symptomatic therapies would be indispensable. Prerequisites for this are improved knowledge of the pathogenesis and optimized patient management. From economic and logistics viewpoints, this last prerequisite should be performed using laboratory medicine tools. Consequently, we first summarize the mechanisms that have been suggested as driving Chagas' heart disease, mainly those associated with the presence of autoantibodies against G-protein-coupled receptors; secondly, we indicate new treatment strategies involving autoantibody apheresis and in vivo autoantibody neutralization; thirdly, we present laboratory medicine tools such as autoantibody estimation and heart marker measurement, proposed for diagnosis, risk assessment and patient guidance and lastly, we critically reflect upon the increase in inflammation and oxidative stress markers in Chagas' heart disease. PMID:21165698

  6. Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of coronary arteries for open-heart surgery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Roderick S.; Gladysz, D.; Brown, Derek W.; Higginson, Lyall A. J.

    1991-07-01

    A technique utilizing laser induced fluorescence has been developed to obtain direct real-time imaging of the coronary artery network for open heart surgery applications. Both excimer pumped dye and cw argon-ion laser radiation transmitted through a fused silica fiber were used as laser sources to irradiate swine, bovine, and human cadaver hearts whose coronary arteries had been injected with strongly fluorescent dyes. The laser induces fluorescence originating from within the coronary arteries and detected by the surgeon's eye, allows the entire coronary network to be directly viewed. A comparison between laser induced fluorescence and the use of direct visual inspection of arteries following injection of the dye Cardio-Green(R) as well as conventional thermal imaging is presented. The limitations imposed on each technique by layers of fat on top of the coronary arteries are also described. The possibility of using these techniques to detect mechanical or laser beam perforations during laser endarterectomy procedures is discussed.

  7. Depth-resolved optical imaging of transmural electrical propagation in perfused heart

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Bernus, Olivier; Pease, Emily; Bouchard, Matthew B.; Pertsov, Arkady

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of the 3-dimensional (3D) propagation of electrical waves in the heart wall using Laminar Optical Tomography (LOT). Optical imaging contrast is provided by a voltage sensitive dye whose fluorescence reports changes in membrane potential. We examined the transmural propagation dynamics of electrical waves in the right ventricle of Langendorf perfused rat hearts, initiated either by endo-cardial or epi-cardial pacing. 3D images were acquired at an effective frame rate of 667Hz. We compare our experimental results to a mathematical model of electrical transmural propagation. We demonstrate that LOT can clearly resolve the direction of propagation of electrical waves within the cardiac wall, and that the dynamics observed agree well with the model of electrical propagation in rat ventricular tissue. PMID:18592044

  8. Mid-level image representations for real-time heart view plane classification of echocardiograms.

    PubMed

    Penatti, Otávio A B; Werneck, Rafael de O; de Almeida, Waldir R; Stein, Bernardo V; Pazinato, Daniel V; Mendes Júnior, Pedro R; Torres, Ricardo da S; Rocha, Anderson

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we explore mid-level image representations for real-time heart view plane classification of 2D echocardiogram ultrasound images. The proposed representations rely on bags of visual words, successfully used by the computer vision community in visual recognition problems. An important element of the proposed representations is the image sampling with large regions, drastically reducing the execution time of the image characterization procedure. Throughout an extensive set of experiments, we evaluate the proposed approach against different image descriptors for classifying four heart view planes. The results show that our approach is effective and efficient for the target problem, making it suitable for use in real-time setups. The proposed representations are also robust to different image transformations, e.g., downsampling, noise filtering, and different machine learning classifiers, keeping classification accuracy above 90%. Feature extraction can be performed in 30 fps or 60 fps in some cases. This paper also includes an in-depth review of the literature in the area of automatic echocardiogram view classification giving the reader a through comprehension of this field of study. PMID:26386547

  9. Discriminative boundary detection for model-based heart segmentation in CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Jochen; Ecabert, Olivier; Schramm, Hauke; Weese, Jürgen

    2007-03-01

    Segmentation of organs in medical images can be successfully performed with deformable models. Most approaches combine a boundary detection step with some smoothness or shape constraint. An objective function for the model deformation is thus established from two terms: the first one attracts the surface model to the detected boundaries while the second one keeps the surface smooth or close to expected shapes. In this work, we assign locally varying boundary detection functions to all parts of the surface model. These functions combine an edge detector with local image analysis in order to accept or reject possible edge candidates. The goal is to optimize the discrimination between the wanted and misleading boundaries. We present a method to automatically learn from a representative set of 3D training images which features are optimal at each position of the surface model. The basic idea is to simulate the boundary detection for the given 3D images and to select those features that minimize the distance between the detected position and the desired object boundary. The approach is experimentally evaluated for the complex task of full-heart segmentation in CT images. A cyclic cross-evaluation on 25 cardiac CT images shows that the optimized feature training and selection enables robust, fully automatic heart segmentation with a mean error well below 1 mm. Comparing this approach to simpler training schemes that use the same basic formalism to accept or reject edges shows the importance of the discriminative optimization.

  10. Chinese Herbal Medicine in the Treatment of Chronic Heart Failure: Three-Stage Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Liangtao; Chen, Jianxin; Guo, Shuzhen; Wang, Juan; Gao, Kuo; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Chan; Zhao, Huihui; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used in the treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF) for a long time. Treatment based on syndrome differentiation and the main characteristic of TCM is the fundamental principle of TCM practice. In this study protocol, we have designed a trial to assess the efficacy and safety of CHM on CHF based on syndrome differentiation. Methods/Design. This is a three-stage trial of CHM in the treatment of CHF. The first stage is a literature review aiming to explore the common syndromes of CHF. The second is a multicentral, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CHM for the treatment of CHF. The third is a multicentral, randomized controlled clinical trial aiming to make cost-effectiveness analysis and evaluate the feasibility, compliance, and universality of CHM on CHF. Discussion. This trial will evaluate the efficacy, safety, feasibility, compliance, and universality of CHM on CHF. The expected outcome is to provide evidence-based recommendations for CHM on CHF and develop a prescription of CHM in the treatment of CHF. This trial is registered with NCT01939236 (Stage Two of the whole trial). PMID:26089951

  11. Cardiac MR Imaging in the Evaluation of Rheumatic Valvular Heart Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Singh, SN; D’Souza, John; Perubhotla, Lakshmi Manasa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatic heart disease is the most common cause of valvular heart disease throughout the world. Echocardiography is the dominant imaging investigation in the assessment of cardiac valvular disease and the role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is so far limited. However, due to rapid improvements in the cardiac MRI technology in past few years, this non invasive technique is gaining interest in the examination of cardiac valves. Aim Our study was undertaken to define the role of MRI in the evaluation of Rheumatic valvular heart disease and to compare the role of MRI with transthoracic echocardiography with regard to quantity of stenosis and volume regurgitation. Materials and Methods ECG gated Cardiac MRI was performed with a 1.5-Tesla system (MAGNETOM SYMPHONY- Model 2005) using basic cardiac software (Argus viewer) by a phased-array multicoil on 50 subjects who were known cases of Rheumatic valvular heart disease. A chest radiograph and echocardiography were done in all patients before MR examination. Informed consent was taken from all patients. Results Mitral stenosis either as an isolated valvular abnormality or in combination with other valvular abnormalities constituted the major bulk of Rheumatic valvular heart disease in our study population. The average ejection fraction by ECHO is 64.94±7.11 and by MRI 67.52±7.84. The average mitral valve area by ECHO is 1.79±0.43 cm2 and by MRI 1.82±0.47 cm2. The average aortic valve area by ECHO is 1.10±0.21 cm2 and by MRI 1.12±0.25 cm2. The Coefficient of Correlation (r) is 0.82 for ejection fraction, 0.98 for mitral valve area and 0.92 for aortic valve area which means a strong positive association between the results by ECHO and MRI. In all instances, the p-value is <0.00001, suggesting that the test is highly significant. Conclusion In our study echocardiography was found to be the gold standard for the diagnosis of Rheumatic valvular heart disease and the role of MRI remained only

  12. Evaluation of Hydatid Disease of the Heart with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kotoulas, Grigoris K.; Magoufis, George L.; Gouliamos, Athanasios D.; Athanassopoulou, Alexandra K.; Roussakis, Arcadios C.; Koulocheri, Dimitra P.; Kalovidouris, Angelos; Vlahos, Labros

    1996-05-15

    Two patients with cardiac involvement of hydatid disease are presented: one with hydatid cyst of the interventricular septum and pulmonary arteries and the other with multiple pulmonary cysts associated with intracardiac and pericardial cysts. The ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to provide a global view of cardiac anatomy in any plane with high contrast between flowing blood and soft tissue ensures it an important role in the diagnosis and preoperative assessment of hydatid disease of the heart.

  13. Cardiac imaging in adults

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book approaches adult cardiac disease from the correlative imaging perspective. It includes chest X-rays and angiographs, 2-dimensional echocardiograms with explanatory diagrams for clarity, plus details on digital radiology, nuclear medicine techniques, CT and MRI. It also covers the normal heart, valvular heart disease, myocardial disease, pericardial disease, bacterial endocarditis, aortic aneurysm, cardiac tumors, and congenital heart disease of the adult. It points out those aspects where one imaging technique has significant superiority.

  14. 3-D Reconstruction From 2-D Radiographic Images and Its Application to Clinical Veterinary Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamamoto, Kazuhiko; Sato, Motoyoshi

    3D imaging technique is very important and indispensable in diagnosis. The main stream of the technique is one in which 3D image is reconstructed from a set of slice images, such as X-ray CT and MRI. However, these systems require large space and high costs. On the other hand, a low cost and small size 3D imaging system is needed in clinical veterinary medicine, for example, in the case of diagnosis in X-ray car or pasture area. We propose a novel 3D imaging technique using 2-D X-ray radiographic images. This system can be realized by cheaper system than X-ray CT and enables to get 3D image in X-ray car or portable X-ray equipment. In this paper, a 3D visualization technique from 2-D radiographic images is proposed and several reconstructions are shown. These reconstructions are evaluated by veterinarians.

  15. Understanding the transition from alternative medicine to mainstream science: the homocysteine theory of heart disease and the crucial role of effective mentoring.

    PubMed

    Podell, Richard N

    2003-09-01

    A deficiency of effective 'mentoring' may contribute to the relatively low quality of alternative medicine research and to the medical/scientific community's reluctance to consider even its most promising theories. This hypothesis derives from a case-study of the homocysteine theory of heart disease (HTSD), one of only a few recent theories to have made the transition from 'alternative' to 'mainstream'. PMID:12944102

  16. Congenital heart surgery in Houston. The early years.

    PubMed Central

    Takach, T J; Ott, D A

    1997-01-01

    During the 1950s and 1960s, major advances in medicine significantly influenced the development and application of surgery as treatment for congenital heart disease. The Texas Medical Center in Houston was at the forefront of these pioneering efforts and thus played an important role in the development of the art and science of congenital heart surgery. Images PMID:9339518

  17. 256-slice CT coronary angiography in atrial fibrillation: The impact of mean heart rate and heart rate variability on image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang-Kuang; Hsu, Shih-Ming; Mok, Greta S. P.; Law, Wei-Yip; Lu, Kun-Mu; Yang, Ching-Ching; Wu, Tung-Hsin

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the image quality of 256-MDCT in atrial fibrillation and to compare the findings with those among patients in sinus rhythm.MaterialsAll reconstructed images were evaluated by two independent experienced readers blinded to patient information, heart rate, and ECG results to assess the diagnostic quality of images of the coronary artery segments using axial images, multi-planar reformations, maximum intensity projections, and volume rendering technique.ResultsNo statistical significance was detected in terms of the overall image quality between patients in sinus rhythm and with atrial fibrillation. Pearson's correlation analysis showed no significant association between image quality and mean heart rate no matter for patients in sinus rhythm or with atrial fibrillation. Similarly, there was no correlation between image quality and heart rate variability for either patients in sinus rhythm or with atrial fibrillation. Our results showed that the optimal reconstruction window depends on patient's HR, and the pattern for patients in atrial fibrillation is similar to that obtained from non-atrial fibrillation patients.ConclusionThis study shows the potential of using 256-MDCT coronary angiography in patients with atrial fibrillation. Our results suggest that when appropriate reconstruction timing window is applied, patients with atrial fibrillation do not have to be excluded from MDCT coronary angiographic examinations.

  18. Role of Heart and its Diseases in the Etiology of Depression According to Avicenna's Point of View and its Comparison with Views of Classic Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Yousofpour, Mohammad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Esfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Shams, Jamal; Tehrani, Hassan Hoshdar; Bahrami, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Depression is one of the most important medical problems in today's world; despite its high prevalence, its causes unfortunately remain not fully known. Among important issues regarding this is its relation with heart diseases. Based on studies this comorbidity increase morbidity and mortality and leads to worst prognosis. However the cause of such high rate of comorbidity is unclear and instead of efforts to understand this correlation has prompted the medical world to consult other medicinal disciplines, not only to find the answer but also to increase the effectiveness of treatment and decrease its cost. Methods: We first reviewed the most important ancient causes for depression mentioned by Avicenna and considered those as the key words for our next step. Then, we made a literature search (PubMed and Scopus) with those key words to find out new scientific findings in modern medicine about the Avicenna's suggestions. Results: Avicenna does not regard depression as only a mental ailment, but as a disorder resulted by the involvement of brain, heart and blood. He believed that the main causes of depressive events are rooted in heart diseases; in most cases brain is only affected secondary to the heart. Thus he declared that for the treatment of depressive disorders, the underlying cardiovascular diseases should be considered. Conclusions: It is worthwhile to consider the Avicenna's recommended causes of depression and to design future scientific studies based on his suggestions. PMID:26124946

  19. Clinical applications of radionuclide imaging in the evaluation and management of patients with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Partington, Sara L; Valente, Anne Marie; Landzberg, Michael; Grant, Frederick; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Dorbala, Sharmila

    2016-02-01

    Non-invasive testing of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) began in the 1950s with the introduction of radionuclide studies to assess shunt fractions, pulmonary blood flow, and ventricular contractile function. Echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging have since replaced radionuclide imaging in many of these roles. Concurrently, percutaneous and surgical repairs of complex CHD evolved, creating new roles for radionuclide imaging. In this paper on applications of radionuclide imaging in CHD, we review the multiple mechanisms for myocardial ischemia in CHD. We critically compare optimal radionuclide imaging techniques to other imaging modalities for assessing ischemia in CHD. We present the current role of nuclear imaging for assessing viability and pulmonary blood flow. We highlight the value added by advances in dedicated cardiac SPECT scanners, novel reconstruction software, and cardiac PET in performing low-dose radionuclide imaging in CHD. Finally, we discuss the emerging clinical indications for radionuclide imaging in CHD including coronary flow reserve assessment and evaluation of cardiovascular prosthesis and device infections. PMID:26129940

  20. Blood Pressure Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... reducing sodium in your diet, you may need medicines. Blood pressure medicines work in different ways to lower blood pressure. ... and widen blood vessels. Often, two or more medicines work better than one. NIH: National Heart, Lung, ...

  1. Structural imaging for addiction medicine: From neurostructure to neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gregory G; Jacobus, Joanna; McKenna, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging have provided new insights into structural brain changes associated with drugs of abuse. In this chapter, we review recent studies using these methods to investigate structural brain abnormalities associated with excessive use of marijuana, stimulants, and opiates. Although many brain regions have been associated with structural abnormalities following abuse of these drugs, brain systems underlying inhibition, mood regulation, and reward are particularly involved. Candidate pathological mechanisms underlying these structural abnormalities include the direct toxic effects of the drugs, neuroinflammation, ischemia, hemorrhage, and abnormal brain development. Returning damaged brain areas to neural health would involve enhancing neuroplasticity. Behavioral, environmental, pharmacological, and cell-based therapies have been correlated with enhanced neuroplasticity following brain injury, providing a basis for new treatments of brain changes associated with excessive drug use. When testing new treatments, structural imaging may prove useful in selecting patients, monitoring recovery, and perhaps, tailoring interventions. PMID:26822356

  2. Three-phase radionuclide bone imaging in sports medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Rupani, H.D.; Holder, L.E.; Espinola, D.A.; Engin, S.I.

    1985-07-01

    Three-phase radionuclide bone (TPB) imaging was performed on 238 patients with sports-related injuries. A wide variety of lesions was encountered, but the most frequent lesions seen were stress fractures of the lower part of the leg at the junction of the middle and distal thirds of the posterior tibial cortex (42 of 79 lesions). There were no differences in the type, location, or distribution of lesions between males and females or between competitive and noncompetitive athletes. In 110 cases, bone stress lesions were often diagnosed when radiographs were normal, whereas subacute or chronic soft-tissue abnormalities had few specific scintigraphic features. TPB imaging provides significant early diagnostic information about bone stress lesions. Normal examination results (53 cases) exclude underlying osseous pathologic conditions.

  3. Genetic imaging consortium for addiction medicine: From neuroimaging to genes.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Scott; Kan, Kees-Jan; Chaarani, Bader; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Batalla, Albert; Brooks, Samantha; Cousijn, Janna; Dagher, Alain; de Ruiter, Michiel; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Goldstein, Rita Z; Goudriaan, Anna E; Heitzeg, Mary M; Hutchison, Kent; Li, Chiang-Shan R; London, Edythe D; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Luijten, Maartje; Martin-Santos, Rocio; Morales, Angelica M; Paulus, Martin P; Paus, Tomas; Pearlson, Godfrey; Schluter, Renée; Momenan, Reza; Schmaal, Lianne; Schumann, Gunter; Sinha, Rajita; Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; Stein, Dan J; Stein, Elliot A; Solowij, Nadia; Tapert, Susan; Uhlmann, Anne; Veltman, Dick; van Holst, Ruth; Walter, Henrik; Wright, Margaret J; Yucel, Murat; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah; Hibar, Derrek P; Jahanshad, Neda; Thompson, Paul M; Glahn, David C; Garavan, Hugh; Conrod, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Since the sample size of a typical neuroimaging study lacks sufficient statistical power to explore unknown genomic associations with brain phenotypes, several international genetic imaging consortia have been organized in recent years to pool data across sites. The challenges and achievements of these consortia are considered here with the goal of leveraging these resources to study addiction. The authors of this review have joined together to form an Addiction working group within the framework of the ENIGMA project, a meta-analytic approach to multisite genetic imaging data. Collectively, the Addiction working group possesses neuroimaging and genomic data obtained from over 10,000 subjects. The deadline for contributing data to the first round of analyses occurred at the beginning of May 2015. The studies performed on this data should significantly impact our understanding of the genetic and neurobiological basis of addiction. PMID:26822360

  4. Comparative imaging of cardiac structures and function for the optimization of transcatheter approaches for valvular and structural heart disease.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Michael G; Iaizzo, Paul A

    2011-12-01

    The detailed assessment of cardiac anatomy using multiple imaging modalities is essential to understand the high degree of variations that exist in human hearts (i.e., with and without pathologies). Additionally, such information should provide one with important insights regarding which imaging modality will best provide the required visualization of device placement via a given transcatheter approach. We describe here an unique set of such studies performed on either preserved heart specimens or within reanimated large mammalian hearts, including human (using Visible Heart(®) methodologies). Such anatomical and device-tissue interface knowledge is critical for both design engineers and clinicians that seek to develop and/or employ less invasive cardiac repair approaches for patients with acquired or congenital structural heart defects. PMID:21541775

  5. X-ray fluorescence microprobe imaging in biology and medicine.

    PubMed

    Paunesku, Tatjana; Vogt, Stefan; Maser, Jörg; Lai, Barry; Woloschak, Gayle

    2006-12-15

    Characteristic X-ray fluorescence is a technique that can be used to establish elemental concentrations for a large number of different chemical elements simultaneously in different locations in cell and tissue samples. Exposing the samples to an X-ray beam is the basis of X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM). This technique provides the excellent trace element sensitivity; and, due to the large penetration depth of hard X-rays, an opportunity to image whole cells and quantify elements on a per cell basis. Moreover, because specimens prepared for XFM do not require sectioning, they can be investigated close to their natural, hydrated state with cryogenic approaches. Until several years ago, XFM was not widely available to bio-medical communities, and rarely offered resolution better then several microns. This has changed drastically with the development of third-generation synchrotrons. Recent examples of elemental imaging of cells and tissues show the maturation of XFM imaging technique into an elegant and informative way to gain insight into cellular processes. Future developments of XFM-building of new XFM facilities with higher resolution, higher sensitivity or higher throughput will further advance studies of native elemental makeup of cells and provide the biological community including the budding area of bionanotechnology with a tool perfectly suited to monitor the distribution of metals including nanovectors and measure the results of interactions between the nanovectors and living cells and tissues. PMID:17006954

  6. Three-Dimensional Spectral-Spatial EPR Imaging of Free Radicals in the Heart: A Technique for Imaging Tissue Metabolism and Oxygenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuppusamy, Periannan; Chzhan, Michael; Vij, Kamal; Shteynbuk, Michael; Lefer, David J.; Giannella, Eliana; Zweier, Jay L.

    1994-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that free radical metabolism and oxygenation in living organs and tissues such as the heart may vary over the spatially defined tissue structure. In an effort to study these spatially defined differences, we have developed electron paramagnetic resonance imaging instrumentation enabling the performance of three-dimensional spectral-spatial images of free radicals infused into the heart and large vessels. Using this instrumentation, high-quality three-dimensional spectral-spatial images of isolated perfused rat hearts and rabbit aortas are obtained. In the isolated aorta, it is shown that spatially and spectrally accurate images of the vessel lumen and wall could be obtained in this living vascular tissue. In the isolated rat heart, imaging experiments were performed to determine the kinetics of radical clearance at different spatial locations within the heart during myocardial ischemia. The kinetic data show the existence of regional and transmural differences in myocardial free radical clearance. It is further demonstrated that EPR imaging can be used to noninvasively measure spatially localized oxygen concentrations in the heart. Thus, the technique of spectral-spatial EPR imaging is shown to be a powerful tool in providing spatial information regarding the free radical distribution, metabolism, and tissue oxygenation in living biological organs and tissues.

  7. Gallium-67 imaging in human heart transplantation: correlation with endomyocardial biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Meneguetti, J.C.; Camargo, E.E.; Soares, J. Jr.; Bellotti, G.; Bocchi, E.; Higuchi, M.L.; Stolff, N.; Hironaka, F.H.; Buchpiguel, C.A.; Pileggi, F.

    1987-05-01

    Endomyocardial biopsy seems to be the most accurate method to use for diagnosis and follow-up of acute rejection of the transplanted heart. This investigation compared a noninvasive procedure, gallium-67 imaging, with endomyocardial biopsy in the detection of acute rejection in heart transplantation. Seven male patients (aged 41 to 54 years) sequentially had 46 gallium-67 scintigrams and 46 endomyocardial biopsies between 1 week and 8 months after transplantation. Both studies were obtained in the same day, 48 hours after the administration of an intravenous injection of gallium-67 citrate. Cardiac uptake was graded as negative, mild, moderate, and marked according to an increasing count ratio with rib and sternal uptakes. Histologic findings were graded as negative, mild acute rejection, moderate acute rejection, severe acute rejection, resolving rejection, and nonspecific reaction. Negative biopsies were not found with moderate uptake, and neither moderate nor severe acute rejection were found with negative scintigrams. Imaging sensitivity was 83% with 17% false negatives and 9% false positives. Of seven studies with moderate uptake, five showed moderate acute rejection, and the patients had specific therapy with a decline in uptake, which correlated with resolving rejection. It is conceivable that in the future this technique may be used as a screening procedure for sequential endomyocardial biopsies in the follow-up of heart transplant patients.

  8. Optimal image reconstruction phase at low and high heart rates in dual-source CT coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Araoz, Philip A; Kirsch, Jacobo; Primak, Andrew N; Braun, Natalie N; Saba, Osama; Williamson, Eric E; Harmsen, W Scott; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cardiac phase having the highest coronary sharpness for low and high heart rate patients scanned with dual source CT (DSCT) and to compare coronary image sharpness over different cardiac phases. DSCT coronary CT scans for 30 low heart rate (< or =70 beats per minute- bpm) and 30 high heart rate (>70 bpm) patients were reconstructed into different cardiac phases, starting at 30% and increasing at 5% increments until 70%. A blinded observer graded image sharpness per coronary segment, from which sharpness scores were produced for the right (RCA), left main (LM), left anterior descending (LAD), and circumflex (Cx) coronary arteries. For each coronary artery, the phase with maximal image sharpness was identified with repeated measures analysis of variance. Comparison of coronary sharpness between low and high heart rate patients was made using generalized estimating equations. For low heart rates the highest sharpness scores for all four vessels (RCA, LM, LAD, and Cx) were at the 65 or 70% phase, which are end-diastolic cardiac phases. For high heart rates the highest sharpness scores were between the 35 and 45% phases, which are end-systolic phases. Low heart rate patients had higher coronary sharpness at most cardiac phases; however, patients with high heart rates had higher coronary sharpness in the 45% phase for all four vessels (P < 0.0001). Using DSCT scanning, optimal image sharpness is obtained in end-diastole at low heart rates and in end-systole in high heart rates. PMID:19669664

  9. Optimal image reconstruction phase at low and high heart rates in dual-source CT coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Jacobo; Primak, Andrew N.; Braun, Natalie N.; Saba, Osama; Williamson, Eric E.; Harmsen, W. Scott; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cardiac phase having the highest coronary sharpness for low and high heart rate patients scanned with dual source CT (DSCT) and to compare coronary image sharpness over different cardiac phases. DSCT coronary CT scans for 30 low heart rate (≤ 70 beats per minute- bpm) and 30 high heart rate (>70 bpm) patients were reconstructed into different cardiac phases, starting at 30% and increasing at 5% increments until 70%. A blinded observer graded image sharpness per coronary segment, from which sharpness scores were produced for the right (RCA), left main (LM), left anterior descending (LAD), and circumflex (Cx) coronary arteries. For each coronary artery, the phase with maximal image sharpness was identified with repeated measures analysis of variance. Comparison of coronary sharpness between low and high heart rate patients was made using generalized estimating equations. For low heart rates the highest sharpness scores for all four vessels (RCA, LM, LAD, and Cx) were at the 65 or 70% phase, which are end-diastolic cardiac phases. For high heart rates the highest sharpness scores were between the 35 and 45% phases, which are end-systolic phases. Low heart rate patients had higher coronary sharpness at most cardiac phases; however, patients with high heart rates had higher coronary sharpness in the 45% phase for all four vessels (P < 0.0001). Using DSCT scanning, optimal image sharpness is obtained in end-diastole at low heart rates and in end-systole in high heart rates. PMID:19669664

  10. Uptake of perfusion imaging agents by transplanted hearts: an experimental study in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bergsland, J.; Carr, E.A. Jr.; Carroll, M.; Feldman, M.J.; Kung, H.; Wright, J.R.

    1989-02-01

    There is a need for a reliable noninvasive marker of rejection in transplanted hearts. Endomyocardial biopsy is now the universally accepted diagnostic method of choice, but the invasiveness of the procedure and the limited size of the sample obtained makes this method far from ideal. As coronary blood flow may be expected to decrease during acute rejection, there has been interest in thallium-201 chloride (T1), a perfusion marker, as an imaging agent for diagnosing cardiac rejection. Hexakis(t-butylisonitrile)-technetium (Tc-TBI) is a representative of a new class of radiopharmaceuticals proposed as perfusion markers. We have compared the uptake of these imaging agents in a rat model of cardiac transplantation. Uptake of Tc-TBI as well as of T1 was significantly lower in rejecting than in nonrejecting hearts. This change was found in both left (LV) and right (RV) ventricles. Allografts in animals treated with cyclosporine (CyA) showed less severe rejection and higher uptakes of both imaging agents as compared to unmodified rejection. Our results suggest that perfusion imaging with these radionuclides is a potentially useful approach to the problem of detecting allograft rejection.

  11. Ethics and images of suffering bodies in humanitarian medicine.

    PubMed

    Calain, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Media representations of suffering bodies from medical humanitarian organisations raise ethical questions, which deserve critical attention for at least three reasons. Firstly, there is a normative vacuum at the intersection of medical ethics, humanitarian ethics and the ethics of photojournalism. Secondly, the perpetuation of stereotypes of illness, famine or disasters, and their political derivations are a source of moral criticism, to which humanitarian medicine is not immune. Thirdly, accidental encounters between members of the health professions and members of the press in the humanitarian arena can result in misunderstandings and moral tension. From an ethics perspective the problem can be specified and better understood through two successive stages of reasoning. Firstly, by applying criteria of medical ethics to the concrete example of an advertising poster from a medical humanitarian organisation, I observe that media representations of suffering bodies would generally not meet ethical standards commonly applied in medical practice. Secondly, I try to identify what overriding humanitarian imperatives could outweigh such reservations. The possibility of action and the expression of moral outrage are two relevant humanitarian values which can further be spelt out through a semantic analysis of 'témoignage' (testimony). While the exact balance between the opposing sets of considerations (medical ethics and humanitarian perspectives) is difficult to appraise, awareness of all values at stake is an important initial standpoint for ethical deliberations of media representations of suffering bodies. Future pragmatic approaches to the issue should include: exploring ethical values endorsed by photojournalism, questioning current social norms about the display of suffering, collecting empirical data from past or potential victims of disasters in diverse cultural settings, and developing new canons with more creative or less problematic representations of

  12. The Primer for Sports Medicine Professionals on Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Farshad-Amacker, Nadja A.; Jain Palrecha, Sapna; Farshad, Mazda

    2013-01-01

    Because of its inherent superior soft tissue contrast and lack of ionizing radiation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is highly suited to study the complex anatomy of the shoulder joint, particularly when assessing the relatively high incidence of shoulder injuries in young, athletic patients. This review aims to serve as a primer for understanding shoulder MRI in an algorithmical approach, including MRI protocol and technique, normal anatomy and anatomical variations of the shoulder, pathologic conditions of the rotator cuff tendons and muscles, the long head of the biceps tendon, shoulder impingement, labral and glenohumeral ligament pathology, MR findings in shoulder instability, adhesive capsulitis, and osteoarthritis. PMID:24381700

  13. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science)

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.; Beck, R.N.

    1992-06-01

    This report describes three studies aimed at using radiolabeled pharmaceuticals to explore brain function and anatomy. The first section describes the chemical preparation of (F18)fluorinated benzamides (dopamine D-2 receptor tracers), (F18)fluorinated benzazepines (dopamine D-1 receptor tracers), and tissue distribution of (F18)-fluoxetine (serotonin reuptake site tracer). The second section relates pharmacological and behavioral studies of amphetamines. The third section reports on progress made with processing of brain images from CT, MRI and PET/SPECT with regards to brain metabolism of glucose during mental tasks.

  14. The primer for sports medicine professionals on imaging: the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Farshad-Amacker, Nadja A; Jain Palrecha, Sapna; Farshad, Mazda

    2013-01-01

    Because of its inherent superior soft tissue contrast and lack of ionizing radiation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is highly suited to study the complex anatomy of the shoulder joint, particularly when assessing the relatively high incidence of shoulder injuries in young, athletic patients. This review aims to serve as a primer for understanding shoulder MRI in an algorithmical approach, including MRI protocol and technique, normal anatomy and anatomical variations of the shoulder, pathologic conditions of the rotator cuff tendons and muscles, the long head of the biceps tendon, shoulder impingement, labral and glenohumeral ligament pathology, MR findings in shoulder instability, adhesive capsulitis, and osteoarthritis. PMID:24381700

  15. Micron-scale voltage and [Ca2+]i imaging in the intact heart

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiao-long; Rubart, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Studies in isolated cardiomyocytes have provided tremendous information at the cellular and molecular level concerning regulation of transmembrane voltage (Vm) and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i). The ability to use the information gleaned to gain insight into the function of ion channels and Ca2+ handling proteins in a more complex system, e.g., the intact heart, has remained a challenge. We have developed laser scanning fluorescence microscopy-based approaches to monitor, at the sub-cellular to multi-cellular level in the immobilized, Langendorff-perfused mouse heart, dynamic changes in [Ca2+]i and Vm. This article will review the use of single- or dual-photon laser scanning microscopy [Ca2+]i imaging in conjunction with transgenic reporter technology to (a) interrogate the extent to which transplanted, donor-derived myocytes or cardiac stem cell-derived de novo myocytes are capable of forming a functional syncytium with the pre-existing myocardium, using entrainment of [Ca2+]i transients by the electrical activity of the recipient heart as a surrogate for electrical coupling, and (b) characterize the Ca2+ handling phenotypes of cellular implants. Further, we will review the ability of laser scanning fluorescence microscopy in conjunction with a fast-response voltage-sensitive to resolve, on a subcellular level in Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts, Vm dynamics that typically occur during the course of a cardiac action potential. Specifically, the utility of this technique to measure microscopic-scale voltage gradients in the normal and diseased heart is discussed. PMID:25520663

  16. Gender-specific research for emergency diagnosis and management of ischemic heart disease: proceedings from the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference Cardiovascular Research Workgroup.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Basmah; Nagurney, John T; Anise, Ayodola; DeVon, Holli A; D'Onofrio, Gail; Hess, Erik P; Hollander, Judd E; Legato, Mariane J; McGregor, Alyson J; Scott, Jane; Tewelde, Semhar; Diercks, Deborah B

    2014-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cause of death for both men and women. However, over the years, emergency physicians, cardiologists, and other health care practitioners have observed varying outcomes in men and women with symptomatic CAD. Women in general are 10 to 15 years older than men when they develop CAD, but suffer worse postinfarction outcomes compared to age-matched men. This article was developed by the cardiovascular workgroup at the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference to identify sex- and gender-specific gaps in the key themes and research questions related to emergency cardiac ischemia care. The workgroup had diverse stakeholder representation from emergency medicine, cardiology, critical care, nursing, emergency medical services, patients, and major policy-makers in government, academia, and patient care. We implemented the nominal group technique to identify and prioritize themes and research questions using electronic mail, monthly conference calls, in-person meetings, and Web-based surveys between June 2013 and May 2014. Through three rounds of nomination and refinement, followed by an in-person meeting on May 13, 2014, we achieved consensus on five priority themes and 30 research questions. The overarching themes were as follows: 1) the full spectrum of sex-specific risk as well as presentation of cardiac ischemia may not be captured by our standard definition of CAD and needs to incorporate other forms of ischemic heart disease (IHD); 2) diagnosis is further challenged by sex/gender differences in presentation and variable sensitivity of cardiac biomarkers, imaging, and risk scores; 3) sex-specific pathophysiology of cardiac ischemia extends beyond conventional obstructive CAD to include other causes such as microvascular dysfunction, takotsubo, and coronary artery dissection, better recognized as IHD; 4) treatment and prognosis are influenced by sex-specific variations in biology, as well as patient

  17. X-ray intravital microscopy for functional imaging in rat hearts using synchrotron radiation coronary microangiography

    SciTech Connect

    Umetani, K.; Fukushima, K.

    2013-03-15

    An X-ray intravital microscopy technique was developed to enable in vivo visualization of the coronary, cerebral, and pulmonary arteries in rats without exposure of organs and with spatial resolution in the micrometer range and temporal resolution in the millisecond range. We have refined the system continually in terms of the spatial resolution and exposure time. X-rays transmitted through an object are detected by an X-ray direct-conversion type detector, which incorporates an X-ray SATICON pickup tube. The spatial resolution has been improved to 6 {mu}m, yielding sharp images of small arteries. The exposure time has been shortened to around 2 ms using a new rotating-disk X-ray shutter, enabling imaging of beating rat hearts. Quantitative evaluations of the X-ray intravital microscopy technique were extracted from measurements of the smallest-detectable vessel size and detection of the vessel function. The smallest-diameter vessel viewed for measurements is determined primarily by the concentration of iodinated contrast material. The iodine concentration depends on the injection technique. We used ex vivo rat hearts under Langendorff perfusion for accurate evaluation. After the contrast agent is injected into the origin of the aorta in an isolated perfused rat heart, the contrast agent is delivered directly into the coronary arteries with minimum dilution. The vascular internal diameter response of coronary arterial circulation is analyzed to evaluate the vessel function. Small blood vessels of more than about 50 {mu}m diameters were visualized clearly at heart rates of around 300 beats/min. Vasodilation compared to the control was observed quantitatively using drug manipulation. Furthermore, the apparent increase in the number of small vessels with diameters of less than about 50 {mu}m was observed after the vasoactive agents increased the diameters of invisible small blood vessels to visible sizes. This technique is expected to offer the potential for direct

  18. X-ray intravital microscopy for functional imaging in rat hearts using synchrotron radiation coronary microangiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umetani, K.; Fukushima, K.

    2013-03-01

    An X-ray intravital microscopy technique was developed to enable in vivo visualization of the coronary, cerebral, and pulmonary arteries in rats without exposure of organs and with spatial resolution in the micrometer range and temporal resolution in the millisecond range. We have refined the system continually in terms of the spatial resolution and exposure time. X-rays transmitted through an object are detected by an X-ray direct-conversion type detector, which incorporates an X-ray SATICON pickup tube. The spatial resolution has been improved to 6 μm, yielding sharp images of small arteries. The exposure time has been shortened to around 2 ms using a new rotating-disk X-ray shutter, enabling imaging of beating rat hearts. Quantitative evaluations of the X-ray intravital microscopy technique were extracted from measurements of the smallest-detectable vessel size and detection of the vessel function. The smallest-diameter vessel viewed for measurements is determined primarily by the concentration of iodinated contrast material. The iodine concentration depends on the injection technique. We used ex vivo rat hearts under Langendorff perfusion for accurate evaluation. After the contrast agent is injected into the origin of the aorta in an isolated perfused rat heart, the contrast agent is delivered directly into the coronary arteries with minimum dilution. The vascular internal diameter response of coronary arterial circulation is analyzed to evaluate the vessel function. Small blood vessels of more than about 50 μm diameters were visualized clearly at heart rates of around 300 beats/min. Vasodilation compared to the control was observed quantitatively using drug manipulation. Furthermore, the apparent increase in the number of small vessels with diameters of less than about 50 μm was observed after the vasoactive agents increased the diameters of invisible small blood vessels to visible sizes. This technique is expected to offer the potential for direct

  19. Segmentation of multiple heart cavities in 3-D transesophageal ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Haak, Alexander; Vegas-Sánchez-Ferrero, Gonzalo; Mulder, Harriët W; Ren, Ben; Kirişli, Hortense A; Metz, Coert; van Burken, Gerard; van Stralen, Marijn; Pluim, Josien P W; van der Steen, Antonius F W; van Walsum, Theo; Bosch, Johannes G

    2015-06-01

    Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is an excellent modality for real-time visualization of the heart and monitoring of interventions. To improve the usability of 3-D TEE for intervention monitoring and catheter guidance, automated segmentation is desired. However, 3-D TEE segmentation is still a challenging task due to the complex anatomy with multiple cavities, the limited TEE field of view, and typical ultrasound artifacts. We propose to segment all cavities within the TEE view with a multi-cavity active shape model (ASM) in conjunction with a tissue/blood classification based on a gamma mixture model (GMM). 3-D TEE image data of twenty patients were acquired with a Philips X7-2t matrix TEE probe. Tissue probability maps were estimated by a two-class (blood/tissue) GMM. A statistical shape model containing the left ventricle, right ventricle, left atrium, right atrium, and aorta was derived from computed tomography angiography (CTA) segmentations by principal component analysis. ASMs of the whole heart and individual cavities were generated and consecutively fitted to tissue probability maps. First, an average whole-heart model was aligned with the 3-D TEE based on three manually indicated anatomical landmarks. Second, pose and shape of the whole-heart ASM were fitted by a weighted update scheme excluding parts outside of the image sector. Third, pose and shape of ASM for individual heart cavities were initialized by the previous whole heart ASM and updated in a regularized manner to fit the tissue probability maps. The ASM segmentations were validated against manual outlines by two observers and CTA derived segmentations. Dice coefficients and point-to-surface distances were used to determine segmentation accuracy. ASM segmentations were successful in 19 of 20 cases. The median Dice coefficient for all successful segmentations versus the average observer ranged from 90% to 71% compared with an inter-observer range of 95% to 84%. The

  20. [German Society of Nuclear Medicine procedure guideline on beta-amyloid brain PET imaging].

    PubMed

    Barthel, Henryk; Meyer, Philipp T; Drzezga, Alexander; Bartenstein, Peter; Boecker, Henning; Brust, Peter; Buchert, Ralph; Coenen, Heinz H; la Fougère, Christian; Gründer, Gerhard; Grünwald, Frank; Krause, Bernd J; Kuwert, Torsten; Schreckenberger, Matthias; Tatsch, Klaus; Langen, Karl-Josef; Sabri, Osama

    2016-08-01

    Recently, a number of positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers have been approved for clinical use. These tracers target cerebral beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Increasing use of this method implies the need for respective standards. This German Society of Nuclear Medicine guideline describes adequate procedures for Aβ plaque PET imaging. It not only discusses the tracers used for that purpose, but also lists measures for correct patient preparation, image data generation, processing, analysis and interpretation. With that, this "S1" category (according to the German Association of the Scientific Medical Societies standard) guideline aims at contributing to quality assurance of nuclear imaging in Germany. PMID:27080914

  1. Nuclear medicine and imaging research: Quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science

    SciTech Connect

    Copper, M.; Beck, R.N.

    1991-06-01

    During the past three years the program has undergone a substantial revitalization. There has been no significant change in the scientific direction of this grant, in which emphasis continues to be placed on developing new or improved methods of obtaining quantitative data from radiotracer imaging studies. However, considerable scientific progress has been made in the three areas of interest: Radiochemistry, Quantitative Methodologies, and Experimental Methods and Feasibility Studies, resulting in a sharper focus of perspective and improved integration of the overall scientific effort. Changes in Faculty and staff, including development of new collaborations, have contributed to this, as has acquisition of additional and new equipment and renovations and expansion of the core facilities. 121 refs., 30 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Role of risk stratification by SPECT, PET, and hybrid imaging in guiding management of stable patients with ischaemic heart disease: expert panel of the EANM cardiovascular committee and EACVI.

    PubMed

    Acampa, Wanda; Gaemperli, Oliver; Gimelli, Alessia; Knaapen, Paul; Schindler, Thomas H; Verberne, Hein J; Zellweger, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Risk stratification has become increasingly important in the management of patients with suspected or known ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Recent guidelines recommend that these patients have their care driven by risk assessment. The purpose of this position statement is to summarize current evidence on the value of cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and hybrid imaging in risk stratifying asymptomatic or symptomatic patients with suspected IHD, patients with stable disease, patients after coronary revascularization, heart failure patients, and specific patient population. In addition, this position statement evaluates the impact of imaging results on clinical decision-making and thereby its role in patient management. The document represents the opinion of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Cardiovascular Committee and of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) and intends to stimulate future research in this field. PMID:25902767

  3. Development of a new photon diffraction imaging system for diagnostic nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roa, D. E.; Smither, R. K.; Zhang, X.; Nie, K.; Shieh, Y. Y.; Ramsinghani, N. S.; Milne, N.; Kuo, J. V.; Redpath, J. L.; Al-Ghazi, M. S. A. L.; Caligiuri, P.

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this project is to develop and construct an innovative imaging system for nuclear medicine and molecular imaging that uses photon diffraction and is capable of generating 1 2 mm spatial resolution images in two or three dimensions. The proposed imaging system would be capable of detecting radiopharmaceuticals that emit 100 200 keV gamma rays which are typically used in diagnostic nuclear medicine and in molecular imaging. The system is expected to be optimized for the 140.6 keV gamma ray from a Tc-99m source, which is frequently used in nuclear medicine. This new system will focus the incoming gamma rays in a manner analogous to a magnifying glass focusing sunlight into a small focal point on a detector's sensitive area. Focusing gamma rays through photon diffraction has already been demonstrated with the construction of a diffraction lens telescope for astrophysics and a scaled-down lens for medical imaging, both developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). In addition, spatial resolutions of 3 mm have been achieved with a prototype medical lens. The proposed imaging system would be comprised of an array of photon diffraction lenses tuned to diffract a specific gamma ray energy (within 100 200 keV) emitted by a common source. The properties of photon diffraction make it possible to diffract only one specific gamma ray energy at a time, which significantly reduces scattering background. The system should be sufficiently sensitive to the detection of small concentrations of radioactivity that can reveal potential tumor sites at their initial stages of development. Moreover, the system's sensitivity would eliminate the need for re-injecting a patient with more radiopharmaceutical if this patient underwent a prior nuclear imaging scan. Detection of a tumor site at its inception could allow for an earlier initiation of treatment and wider treatment options, which can potentially improve the chances for cure.

  4. The application of digital image plane holography technology to identify Chinese herbal medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huaying; Guo, Zhongjia; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Zhihui

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, the imaging technology of digital image plane holography to identify the Chinese herbal medicine is studied. The optical experiment system of digital image plane holography which is the special case of pre-magnification digital holography was built. In the record system, one is an object light by using plane waves which illuminates the object, and the other one is recording hologram by using spherical light wave as reference light. There is a Micro objective lens behind the object. The second phase factor which caus ed by the Micro objective lens can be eliminated by choosing the proper position of the reference point source when digital image plane holography is recorded by spherical light. In this experiment, we use the Lygodium cells and Onion cells as the object. The experiment results with Lygodium cells and Onion cells show that digital image plane holography avoid the process of finding recording distance by using auto-focusing approach, and the phase information of the object can be reconstructed more accurately. The digital image plane holography is applied to the microscopic imaging of cells more effectively, and it is suit to apply for the identify of Chinese Herbal Medicine. And it promotes the application of digital holographic in practice.

  5. The application of digital image plane holography technology to identify Chinese herbal medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huaying; Guo, Zhongjia; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Zhihui

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, the imaging technology of digital image plane holography to identify the Chinese herbal medicine is studied. The optical experiment system of digital image plane holography which is the special case of pre-magnification digital holography was built. In the record system, one is an object light by using plane waves which illuminates the object, and the other one is recording hologram by using spherical light wave as reference light. There is a Micro objective lens behind the object. The second phase factor which caus ed by the Micro objective lens can be eliminated by choosing the proper position of the reference point source when digital image plane holography is recorded by spherical light. In this experiment, we use the Lygodium cells and Onion cells as the object. The experiment results with Lygodium cells and Onion cells show that digital image plane holography avoid the process of finding recording distance by using auto-focusing approach, and the phase information of the object can be reconstructed more accurately. The digital image plane holography is applied to the microscopic imaging of cells more effectively, and it is suit to apply for the identify of Chinese Herbal Medicine. And it promotes the application of digital holographic in practice.

  6. Advanced Imaging and Diagnostic Methods in the Assessment of Suspected Ischemic Heart Disease in Women.

    PubMed

    Joly, Joanna M; Bittner, Vera

    2016-09-01

    Although differences diminish with age, outcomes are overall worse for women compared to men who present with suspected acute coronary syndrome. The reasons for this discrepancy are multifactorial, including sex-related differences in atherosclerosis biology and fluid dynamics, as well as a premature conclusion by providers that chest pain must be noncardiac in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. In this review of existing literature, we explore the diverse differential diagnosis in this unique set of patients. Especially in women with persistent symptoms, absence of occlusive disease should prompt consideration for subangiographic plaque disruption, epicardial or microvascular endothelial dysfunction, transient neurohormonal imbalance predisposing to Takotsubo cardiomyopathy or spontaneous coronary artery dissection, underlying systemic inflammatory conditions, thromboembolic disease, myocarditis, and sequelae of congenital heart disease. As always, a thorough history and attentive physical exam will help guide further work-up, which in many cases may warrant noninvasive imaging, such as contrast-enhanced echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, or positron emission tomography, with their respective means of measuring myocardial perfusion and myocardial tissue pathology. Lastly, intracoronary imaging such as intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography and invasive diagnostic methods such as coronary reactivity testing continue to add to our understanding that what appear to be atypical presentations of ischemic heart disease in women may in fact be typical presentations of pathologic cousin entities that remain incompletely defined. PMID:27443380

  7. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science)

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.D.; Beck, R.N.

    1990-09-01

    This is a report of progress in Year Two (January 1, 1990--December 31, 1990) of Grant FG02-86ER60438, Quantitative Studies in Radiopharmaceutical Science,'' awarded for the three-year period January 1, 1989--December 31, 1991 as a competitive renewal following site visit in the fall of 1988. This program addresses the problems involving the basic science and technology underlying the physical and conceptual tools of radioactive tracer methodology as they relate to the measurement of structural and functional parameters of physiologic importance in health and disease. The principal tool is quantitative radionuclide imaging. The overall objective of this program is to further the development and transfer of radiotracer methodology from basic theory to routine clinical practice in order that individual patients and society as a whole will receive the maximum net benefit from the new knowledge gained. The focus of the research is on the development of new instruments and radiopharmaceuticals, and the evaluation of these through the phase of clinical feasibility. 25 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Application of TlBr to nuclear medicine imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirignano, Leonard; Kim, Hadong; Kargar, Alireza; Churilov, Alexei V.; Ciampi, Guido; Higgins, William; Kim, Suyoung; Barber, Bradford; Haston, Kyle; Shah, Kanai

    2012-10-01

    Thallium bromide (TlBr) has been under development for room temperature gamma ray spectroscopy due to high density, high Z and wide bandgap of the material. Furthermore, its low melting point (460 °C), cubic crystal structure and congruent melting with no solid-solid phase transitions between the melting point and room temperature, TlBr can be grown by relatively simple melt based methods. As a result of improvements in material processing and detector fabrication over the last several years, TlBr with electron mobility-lifetime products (μeτe) in the mid 10-3 cm2/V range has been obtained. In this paper we are going to report on our unipolar charging TlBr results for the application as a small animal imaging. For SPECT application, about 5 mm thick pixellated detectors were fabricated and tested. About 1 % FWHM at 662 keV energy resolution was estimated at room temperature. By applying the depth correction technique, less than 1 % energy resolution was estimated. We are going to report the results from orthogonal strip TlBr detector for PET application. In this paper we also present our latest detector highlights and recent progress made in long term stability of TlBr detectors at or near room temperature. This work is being supported by the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) and the Department of Energy (DOE).

  9. Pulsatile flow in the aorta of the LVAD supported heart studied using particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyedi, Zahra

    Currently many patients die because of the end-stage heart failure, mainly due to the reduced number of donor heart transplant organs. Studies show that a permanent left ventricular assist device (LVAD), a battery driven pump which is surgically implanted, increased the survival rate of patients with end-stage heart failure and improved considerably their quality of life. The inlet conduit of the LVAD is attached to the left ventricle and the outflow conduit anastomosed to the ascending aorta. The purpose of LVAD support is to help a weakened heart to pump blood to the rest of the body. However LVAD can cause some alterations of the natural blood flow. When your blood comes in contact with something that isn't a natural part of your body blood clots can occur and disrupt blood flow. Aortic valve integrity is vital for optimal support of left ventricular assist LVAD. Due to the existence of high continuous transvalvular pressure on the aortic valve, the opening frequency of the valve is reduced. To prevent the development of aortic insufficiency, aortic valve closure during LVAD implantation has been performed. However, the closed aortic valve reduces wash out of the aortic root, which causes blood stagnation and potential thrombus formation. So for this reason, there is a need to minimize the risks of occurring blood clot, by having more knowledge about the flow structure in the aorta during LVAD use. The current study focuses on measuring the flow field in the aorta of the LVAD assisted heart with two different types of aortic valve (Flat and Finned) using the SDSU cardiac simulator. The pulsatile pump that mimics the natural pulsing action of the heart also added to the system. The flow field is visualized using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Furthermore, The fluid mechanics of aorta has been studied when LVAD conduit attached to two different locations (proximal and distal to the aortic valve) with pump speeds of 8,000 to 10,000 revolutions per minute (RPM

  10. Who Needs Heart Surgery?

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease (CHD) Fix heart valves that don't work well Control abnormal heart rhythms Place medical devices Replace a damaged heart with a healthy one If other treatments—such as lifestyle changes, medicines, and medical ... surgeon will work with you to decide whether you need heart ...

  11. Ultrasound Current Source Density Imaging in live rabbit hearts using clinical intracardiac catheter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qian

    Ultrasound Current Source Density Imaging (UCSDI) is a noninvasive modality for mapping electrical activities in the body (brain and heart) in 4-dimensions (space + time). Conventional cardiac mapping technologies for guiding the radiofrequency ablation procedure for treatment of cardiac arrhythmias have certain limitations. UCSDI can potentially overcome these limitations and enhance the electrophysiology mapping of the heart. UCSDI exploits the acoustoelectric (AE) effect, an interaction between ultrasound pressure and electrical resistivity. When an ultrasound beam intersects a current path in a material, the local resistivity of the material is modulated by the ultrasonic pressure, and a change in voltage signal can be detected based on Ohm's Law. The degree of modulation is determined by the AE interaction constant K. K is a fundamental property of any type of material, and directly affects the amplitude of the AE signal detected in UCSDI. UCSDI requires detecting a small AE signal associated with electrocardiogram. So sensitivity becomes a major challenge for transferring UCSDI to the clinic. This dissertation will determine the limits of sensitivity and resolution for UCSDI, balancing the tradeoff between them by finding the optimal parameters for electrical cardiac mapping, and finally test the optimized system in a realistic setting. This work begins by describing a technique for measuring K, the AE interaction constant, in ionic solution and biological tissue, and reporting the value of K in excised rabbit cardiac tissue for the first time. K was found to be strongly dependent on concentration for the divalent salt CuSO4, but not for the monovalent salt NaCl, consistent with their different chemical properties. In the rabbit heart tissue, K was determined to be 0.041 +/- 0.012 %/MPa, similar to the measurement of K in physiologic saline: 0.034 +/- 0.003 %/MPa. Next, this dissertation investigates the sensitivity limit of UCSDI by quantifying the relation

  12. Congenital heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... about genetic counseling and screening if you have a family history of cogenital heart disease. ... Fraser CD, Carberry KE. Congenital heart disease. In: Townsend CM ... Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  13. Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment can include medicines, catheter procedures, surgery, and heart transplants. The treatment depends on the type of the defect, how severe it is, and a child's age, size, and general health. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  14. Heart and vascular services

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/007459.htm Heart and vascular services To use the sharing features on this page, ... blood vessels (arteries and veins). Heart and vascular services refers to the branch of medicine that focuses ...

  15. Development of more efficacious Tc-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceutical mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Heineman, W.R.

    1992-01-24

    The long-range objective of this research program is the development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents, each of which has properties optimized to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. The specific objectives during the period (9/1/89 to 8/31/92) include: (1) Development of strategies for improving yields of specific Tc-diphosphonate complexes with optimum imaging properties; (2) Development of electrodes for rapid in situ electrochemical generation of skeletal imaging agents; (3) Development of electrochemical sensors for {Tc} and Re imaging agents; (4) Characterization of stable {Tc}- and Re-diphosphonate complexes obtainable in high yield by structural studies with techniques such as NMR, EXAFS, and Raman spectroscopy; (5) Development of improved separation techniques for the characterization of diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents; (6) Evaluation of the effect of the biological milieu on {Tc}-diphosphonate complexes; and (7) Electrochemical studies of technetium and rhenium complexes synthesized by Professor Deutsch's research group for heart and brain imaging.

  16. Relation of Doppler Tissue Imaging Parameters With Heart Failure Progression in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Ankur; Harris, Kevin M; Maron, Bradley A; Maron, Martin S; Garberich, Ross F; Haas, Tammy S; Lesser, John R; Maron, Barry J

    2016-06-01

    Refractory progressive heart failure (HF) is becoming the predominant cause of mortality in nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC). To anticipate development of this important and often unpredictable clinical course, we investigated whether left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, assessed by echocardiographic Doppler parameters, could identify a subset of patients with HC without obstruction at rest who would experience progression of HF. Diastolic function parameters, assessed by Doppler tissue imaging (DTI), mitral inflow, and pulmonary venous flow were measured in 274 consecutive adult patients with HC evaluated from 2003 to 2007. DTI and other diastolic and clinical/demographic parameters were measured against the composite end point of HF/death, heart transplantation, or progression to advanced New York Heart Association functional class III/IV symptoms and sudden death (SD)/implantable defibrillator (ICD) interventions. HF end points were reached in 19 of 274 patients (7%) over a follow-up period of 4.0 ± 2.3 years. Variables significantly associated with HF outcome by univariate analysis included male gender, initial New York Heart Association class II, lower ejection fraction, and reduced septal and lateral e' mitral annular tissue velocities. Multivariable analysis showed only a reduced lateral e' mitral annular tissue velocity to be independently associated with the composite HF end points (HR 0.77; 95% CI 0.65 to 0.91; p = 0.003). In addition, estimated pulmonary arterial systolic pressure and extensive late gadolinium enhancement by magnetic resonance were also associated with HF outcome (p = 0.04 and p <0.001, respectively). No Doppler (or clinical) variable was associated with SD/appropriate ICD interventions. In conclusion, in HC without outflow obstruction at rest, diastolic dysfunction, evidenced by DTI-reduced lateral e' mitral annular tissue velocity, was associated with adverse long-term HF outcome but was unrelated to SD. This

  17. Modelling of inquiry diagnosis for coronary heart disease in traditional Chinese medicine by using multi-label learning

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a common cardiovascular disease that is extremely harmful to humans. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), the diagnosis and treatment of CHD have a long history and ample experience. However, the non-standard inquiry information influences the diagnosis and treatment in TCM to a certain extent. In this paper, we study the standardization of inquiry information in the diagnosis of CHD and design a diagnostic model to provide methodological reference for the construction of quantization diagnosis for syndromes of CHD. In the diagnosis of CHD in TCM, there could be several patterns of syndromes for one patient, while the conventional single label data mining techniques could only build one model at a time. Here a novel multi-label learning (MLL) technique is explored to solve this problem. Methods Standardization scale on inquiry diagnosis for CHD in TCM is designed, and the inquiry diagnostic model is constructed based on collected data by the MLL techniques. In this study, one popular MLL algorithm, ML-kNN, is compared with other two MLL algorithms RankSVM and BPMLL as well as one commonly used single learning algorithm, k-nearest neighbour (kNN) algorithm. Furthermore the influence of symptom selection to the diagnostic model is investigated. After the symptoms are removed by their frequency from low to high; the diagnostic models are constructed on the remained symptom subsets. Results A total of 555 cases are collected for the modelling of inquiry diagnosis of CHD. The patients are diagnosed clinically by fusing inspection, pulse feeling, palpation and the standardized inquiry information. Models of six syndromes are constructed by ML-kNN, RankSVM, BPMLL and kNN, whose mean results of accuracy of diagnosis reach 77%, 71%, 75% and 74% respectively. After removing symptoms of low frequencies, the mean accuracy results of modelling by ML-kNN, RankSVM, BPMLL and kNN reach 78%, 73%, 75% and 76% when 52 symptoms are remained

  18. The evaluation of clinical therapy effects of oral western medicine combined with magnetic pulse acupoint stimulation in treating elderly patients with coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xin; Guo, Li; Jiang, Zheng-Ming; Xu, Ai-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Treat the patients suffered from coronary heart disease with oral western medicine, combining with magnetic pulse acupoint stimulation, and observe the therapeutic effects of such combination therapy method. Methods: 56 old people with coronary heart disease are randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group. Both groups of patients are treated by the routine drugs, in addition, the patients of the treatment group are treated by magnetic pulse therapy additionally. Compare clinical symptoms, blood lipid and blood rheological indexes of the patients in the two groups when they are selected and after 30 days’ treatment. Results: after 30 days’ treatment, it is found that clinical symptoms, blood lipid and blood rheological indexes of the patients in the treatment group are significantly improved compared with those when they are selected and those of the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: patients with coronary heart disease, treated by pulsed magnetic therapy and the conventional drug intervention, had relieved synptom, improve blood lipid and heart blood supply function. PMID:26309664

  19. [Heart injury secondary to carbon monoxide poisoning--the use of imaging techniques].

    PubMed

    Kołodziej, Małgorzata; Zaleski, Kamil; Majewska, Magdalena; Górska, Agnieszka; Kwiecień-Obara, Ewelina; Szponar, Jarosław

    2013-01-01

    The heart muscle is particularly sensitive to the toxic effects of carbon monoxide. Cardiovascular complications are present in 30-40% poisoned patients. Currently, multiple ECG records and at least two-time determination of cardiac markers' concentration (mainly troponin I) are known as the gold standard practice in the diagnosis of cardiac injury especially with regard to medium and severe poisoning. So far there have not been any recommendations for further diagnostic steps in case of abnormalities in these examinations. This paper presents a review of cardiac imaging techniques as well as the analysis of their usefulness in carbon monoxide poisoning. According to the authors echocardiography is considered to be an extremely important examination which, thanks to its accessibility and non-invasive nature, should be performed on all patients with myocardium injury suspicion made on the basis of clinical image, ECG records and biochemical markers. PMID:24466706

  20. OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY HEART TUBE IMAGE DENOISING BASED ON CONTOURLET TRANSFORM.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qing; Sun, Shuifa; Dong, Fangmin; Gao, Bruce Z; Wang, Rui

    2012-01-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography(OCT) gradually becomes a very important imaging technology in the Biomedical field for its noninvasive, nondestructive and real-time properties. However, the interpretation and application of the OCT images are limited by the ubiquitous noise. In this paper, a denoising algorithm based on contourlet transform for the OCT heart tube image is proposed. A bivariate function is constructed to model the joint probability density function (pdf) of the coefficient and its cousin in contourlet domain. A bivariate shrinkage function is deduced to denoise the image by the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation. Three metrics, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and equivalent number of look (ENL), are used to evaluate the denoised image using the proposed algorithm. The results show that the signal-to-noise ratio is improved while the edges of object are preserved by the proposed algorithm. Systemic comparisons with other conventional algorithms, such as mean filter, median filter, RKT filter, Lee filter, as well as bivariate shrinkage function for wavelet-based algorithm are conducted. The advantage of the proposed algorithm over these methods is illustrated. PMID:25364626

  1. Multimodality imaging in congenital heart disease-related pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    D'Alto, Michele; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Budts, Werner; Diller, Gerhard-Paul; Di Salvo, Giovanni; Dellegrottaglie, Santo; Festa, Pierluigi; Scognamiglio, Giancarlo; Rea, Gaetano; Ait Ali, Lamia; Li, Wei; Gatzoulis, Michael A

    2016-06-15

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in adult patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The present review aims to discuss the clinical applications of invasive and non-invasive diagnostic modalities and to describe the strengths and weaknesses of each technique. Chest radiograph is an inexpensive investigation providing information on pulmonary arterial and hilar dilatation, pruning of peripheral pulmonary arteries and cardiomegaly. Transthoracic two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography is the most widely used imaging tool. It provides information on cardiac anatomy and an estimate of haemodynamics and biventricular remodelling and function. In addition, echocardiography is valuable in assessing prognosis and monitoring the efficacy of therapy. Structural and functional changes associated with CHD-PAH, mainly affecting the right ventricle and pulmonary circulation, may represent an ideal target for evaluation with cardiac magnetic resonance. This non-invasive imaging modality has a low biological impact. CT plays an important role for patients with limited echocardiographic windows and those who are unable to undergo MRI (claustrophobia, poor compliance, presence of a pacemaker/implantable cardioverter defibrillator). It is the modality of choice for detailed assessment of pulmonary vessel obstruction or thrombosis. Finally, heart catheterisation remains the gold standard for diagnosing and confirming PAH in patients with CHD and for shunt evaluation. The diagnostic assessment of CHD-PAH requires great expertise and a deep knowledge of both CHD and PAH pathophysiology and should take place in a tertiary centre, where multiple data can be appropriately integrated and applied clinically. PMID:27013702

  2. High-resolution motion-compensated imaging photoplethysmography for remote heart rate monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Audrey; Wang, Xiao Yu; Amelard, Robert; Scharfenberger, Christian; Leong, Joanne; Kulinski, Jan; Wong, Alexander; Clausi, David A.

    2015-03-01

    We present a novel non-contact photoplethysmographic (PPG) imaging system based on high-resolution video recordings of ambient reflectance of human bodies that compensates for body motion and takes advantage of skin erythema fluctuations to improve measurement reliability for the purpose of remote heart rate monitoring. A single measurement location for recording the ambient reflectance is automatically identified on an individual, and the motion for the location is determined over time via measurement location tracking. Based on the determined motion information motion-compensated reflectance measurements at different wavelengths for the measurement location can be acquired, thus providing more reliable measurements for the same location on the human over time. The reflectance measurement is used to determine skin erythema fluctuations over time, resulting in the capture of a PPG signal with a high signal-to-noise ratio. To test the efficacy of the proposed system, a set of experiments involving human motion in a front-facing position were performed under natural ambient light. The experimental results demonstrated that skin erythema fluctuations can achieve noticeably improved average accuracy in heart rate measurement when compared to previously proposed non-contact PPG imaging systems.

  3. Stem cell implantation in ischemic mouse heart: a high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging investigation.

    PubMed

    Küstermann, Ekkehard; Roell, Wilhelm; Breitbach, Martin; Wecker, Stefan; Wiedermann, Dirk; Buehrle, Christian; Welz, Armin; Hescheler, Juergen; Fleischmann, Bernd K; Hoehn, Mathias

    2005-10-01

    Advances in the biology of stem cells have evoked great interest in cell replacement therapies for the regeneration of heart tissue after myocardial infarction. However, results from human trials are controversial, since the destination of the injected cells, their engraftment and their long-term fate have remained unclear. Here we investigate whether transplanted cells can be identified in the intact and lesioned murine myocardium employing high-resolution MRI. Cardiac progenitor cells, expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), were labeled with ultra-small paramagnetic iron-oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles and transplanted into the intact or injured myocardium of mice. Their precise location was determined with high-resolution MRI and compared with histological tissue sections, stained with Prussian blue for iron content. These experiments showed that iron nanoparticle-loaded cells could be identified at high resolution in the mouse heart. However, ischemic myocardium (after cryoinjury or left coronary artery ligation) was characterized by a signal attenuation similar to that induced by USPIO-labeled cells in T2*-weighted MR images, making detection of labeled stem cells in this area by T2*-sensitive contrast rather difficult. In animals with myocardial injury only, the signal attenuated areas were of the same size in proton density- and T2*-weighted MR images. In injured animals also receiving labeled cells the lesioned area appeared larger in T2*--than in proton density-weighted MR images. This sequence-dependent lesion size change is due to the increased signal loss caused by the iron oxide nanoparticles, most sensitively detectable in the T2*-sensitive images. Thus, using the novel combination of these two parameter weightings, USPIO-labeled cells can be detected at high resolution in ischemic myocardium. PMID:15948224

  4. Personalized Medicine Based on Theranostic Radioiodine Molecular Imaging for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging based personalized therapy has been a fascinating concept for individualized therapeutic strategy, which is able to attain the highest efficacy and reduce adverse effects in certain patients. Theranostics, which integrates diagnostic testing to detect molecular targets for particular therapeutic modalities, is one of the key technologies that contribute to the success of personalized medicine. Although the term “theranostics” was used after the second millennium, its basic principle was applied more than 70 years ago in the field of thyroidology with radioiodine molecular imaging. Differentiated thyroid cancer, which arises from follicular cells in the thyroid, is the most common endocrine malignancy, and theranostic radioiodine has been successfully applied to diagnose and treat differentiated thyroid cancer, the applications of which were included in the guidelines published by various thyroid or nuclear medicine societies. Through better pathophysiologic understanding of thyroid cancer and advancements in nuclear technologies, theranostic radioiodine contributes more to modern tailored personalized management by providing high therapeutic effect and by avoiding significant adverse effects in differentiated thyroid cancer. This review details the inception of theranostic radioiodine and recent radioiodine applications for differentiated thyroid cancer management as a prototype of personalized medicine based on molecular imaging. PMID:27239470

  5. Personalized Medicine Based on Theranostic Radioiodine Molecular Imaging for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Byeong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging based personalized therapy has been a fascinating concept for individualized therapeutic strategy, which is able to attain the highest efficacy and reduce adverse effects in certain patients. Theranostics, which integrates diagnostic testing to detect molecular targets for particular therapeutic modalities, is one of the key technologies that contribute to the success of personalized medicine. Although the term "theranostics" was used after the second millennium, its basic principle was applied more than 70 years ago in the field of thyroidology with radioiodine molecular imaging. Differentiated thyroid cancer, which arises from follicular cells in the thyroid, is the most common endocrine malignancy, and theranostic radioiodine has been successfully applied to diagnose and treat differentiated thyroid cancer, the applications of which were included in the guidelines published by various thyroid or nuclear medicine societies. Through better pathophysiologic understanding of thyroid cancer and advancements in nuclear technologies, theranostic radioiodine contributes more to modern tailored personalized management by providing high therapeutic effect and by avoiding significant adverse effects in differentiated thyroid cancer. This review details the inception of theranostic radioiodine and recent radioiodine applications for differentiated thyroid cancer management as a prototype of personalized medicine based on molecular imaging. PMID:27239470

  6. Low-dose coronary-CT angiography using step and shoot at any heart rate: comparison of image quality at systole for high heart rate and diastole for low heart rate with a 128-slice dual-source machine.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jean-François; Amato, Aude; Rohnean, Adela

    2013-03-01

    To compare image quality of coronary CT angiography in step-and-shoot mode at the diastolic phase at low heart rates (<70 bpm) and systolic phase at high heart rates (≥70 bpm). We prospectively included 96 consecutive patients then excluded 5 patients with arrhythmia. Coronary CT-angiography was performed using a dual-source 128-slice CT machine, at the diastolic phase in the 55 patients with heart rates <70 bpm (group D) and at the systolic phase in the 36 patients with heart rates ≥70 (group S). Image quality was scored on a 5 point-scale (1, not interpretable; 2, insufficient for diagnosis; 3, fair, sufficient for diagnosis; 4, good; 5, excellent). In addition, we compared the number of stair-step artifacts in the two groups. Mean image quality score was 4 (0.78) in group D and 4.1 (0.34) in group S (NS), with an unequal distribution (p = 0.01). Step artifacts were seen in 44 % of group D and 18 % of group S patients (p = 0.02). In 3 group D patients and no group S patients, the image score was <3 due to artifacts, requiring repeat CT-angiography. When performing dual-source 128-slice CT-angiography, step-and-shoot acquisition provides comparable mean image quality in systole, with less variability and fewer stair-step artifacts, compared to diastole. This method may be feasible at any heart rate in most patients in sinus rhythm, allowing low-dose prospective acquisition without beta-blocker premedication. PMID:22918571

  7. Settling the 'Score' with Heart Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Technology and medicine forged a bond in 1986 when a group of dedicated NASA scientists, University of Southern California (USC) medical professors, and a Dutch cardiologist joined forces to prevent heart attacks, using ultrasound images of astronauts blood-flow patterns and the supercomputer depended upon to orchestrate the "Star Wars" Strategic Defense Initiative.

  8. Hyperspectral imaging in medicine: image pre-processing problems and solutions in Matlab.

    PubMed

    Koprowski, Robert

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents problems and solutions related to hyperspectral image pre-processing. New methods of preliminary image analysis are proposed. The paper shows problems occurring in Matlab when trying to analyse this type of images. Moreover, new methods are discussed which provide the source code in Matlab that can be used in practice without any licensing restrictions. The proposed application and sample result of hyperspectral image analysis. PMID:25676816

  9. Fast count-dependent digital filtering of nuclear medicine images: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    King, M.A.; Doherty, P.W.; Schwinger, R.B.; Jacobs, D.A.; Kidder, R.E.; Miller, T.R.

    1983-11-01

    The formulation of an ''optimal'' filter for improving the quality of digitally recorded nuclear medicine images is reported in this paper. The method forms a Metz filter for each image based upon the total number of counts in the image, which in turn determines the average noise level. The parameters of the filter were optimized for a set of simulated images using the minimization of the mean-square error as the criterion. The speed of the image formation results from the use of an array processor. In a study of localization receiver operating characteristics (LROC) using the Alderson liver phantom, a significant improvement in tumor localization was found in images filtered with this technique, compared with the original digital images and those filtered by the nine-point binomial smoothing algorithm. The technique has been found useful for the filtering of static and dynamic studies as well as the two-dimensional pre-reconstruction filtering of images from single photon emission computerized tomography.

  10. From clinical imaging and computational models to personalised medicine and image guided interventions.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, David J

    2016-10-01

    This short paper describes the development of the UCL Centre for Medical Image Computing (CMIC) from 2006 to 2016, together with reference to historical developments of the Computational Imaging sciences Group (CISG) at Guy's Hospital. Key early work in automated image registration led to developments in image guided surgery and improved cancer diagnosis and therapy. The work is illustrated with examples from neurosurgery, laparoscopic liver and gastric surgery, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer and breast cancer, and image guided radiotherapy for lung cancer. PMID:27407003

  11. Single camera system for multi-wavelength fluorescent imaging in the heart.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Takeshi; Arafune, Tatsuhiko; Shibata, Nitaro; Honjo, Haruo; Kamiya, Kaichiro; Kodama, Itsuo; Sakuma, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Optical mapping has been a powerful method to measure the cardiac electrophysiological phenomenon such as membrane potential(V(m)), intracellular calcium(Ca(2+)), and the other electrophysiological parameters. To measure two parameters simultaneously, the dual mapping system using two cameras is often used. However, the method to measure more than three parameters does not exist. To exploit the full potential of fluorescence imaging, an innovative method to measure multiple, more than three parameters is needed. In this study, we present a new optical mapping system which records multiple parameters using a single camera. Our system consists of one camera, custom-made optical lens units, and a custom-made filter wheel. The optical lens units is designed to focus the fluorescence light at filter position, and form an image on camera's sensor. To obtain optical signals with high quality, efficiency of light collection was carefully discussed in designing the optical system. The developed optical system has object space numerical aperture(NA) 0.1, and image space NA 0.23. The filter wheel was rotated by a motor, which allows filter switching corresponding with needed fluorescence wavelength. The camera exposure and filter switching were synchronized by phase locked loop, which allow this system to record multiple fluorescent signals frame by frame alternately. To validate the performance of this system, we performed experiments to observe V(m) and Ca(2+) dynamics simultaneously (frame rate: 125fps) with Langendorff perfused rabbit heart. Firstly, we applied basic stimuli to the heart base (cycle length: 500ms), and observed planer wave. The waveforms of V(m) and Ca(2+) show the same upstroke synchronized with cycle length of pacing. In addition, we recorded V(m) and Ca(2+) signals during ventricular fibrillation induced by burst pacing. According to these experiments, we showed the efficacy and availability of our method for cardiac electrophysiological research. PMID

  12. Cancer Imaging at the Crossroads of Precision Medicine: Perspective From an Academic Imaging Department in a Comprehensive Cancer Center.

    PubMed

    Van den Abbeele, Annick D; Krajewski, Katherine M; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Fennessy, Fiona M; DiPiro, Pamela J; Nguyen, Quang-Dé; Harris, Gordon J; Jacene, Heather A; Lefever, Greg; Ramaiya, Nikhil H

    2016-04-01

    The authors propose one possible vision for the transformative role that cancer imaging in an academic setting can play in the current era of personalized and precision medicine by sharing a conceptual model that is based on experience and lessons learned designing a multidisciplinary, integrated clinical and research practice at their institution. The authors' practice and focus are disease-centric rather than imaging-centric. A "wall-less" infrastructure has been developed, with bidirectional integration of preclinical and clinical cancer imaging research platforms, enabling rapid translation of novel cancer drugs from discovery to clinical trial evaluation. The talents and expertise of medical professionals, scientists, and staff members have been coordinated in a horizontal and vertical fashion through the creation of Cancer Imaging Consultation Services and the "Adopt-a-Radiologist" campaign. Subspecialized imaging consultation services at the hub of an outpatient cancer center facilitate patient decision support and management at the point of care. The Adopt-a-Radiologist campaign has led to the creation of a novel generation of imaging clinician-scientists, fostered new collaborations, increased clinical and academic productivity, and improved employee satisfaction. Translational cancer research is supported, with a focus on early in vivo testing of novel cancer drugs, co-clinical trials, and longitudinal tumor imaging metrics through the imaging research core laboratory. Finally, a dedicated cancer imaging fellowship has been developed, promoting the future generation of cancer imaging specialists as multidisciplinary, multitalented professionals who are trained to effectively communicate with clinical colleagues and positively influence patient care. PMID:26774886

  13. Pictorial review of SPECT/CT imaging applications in clinical nuclear medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Peeyush; He, Guocheng; Samarghandi, Amin; Delpassand, Ebrahim S

    2012-01-01

    Integrated SPECT/CT scanners are gaining popularity as hybrid molecular imaging devices which can acquire SPECT and CT in a single exam. CT can be a low dose non-contrast enhanced scan for attenuation correction and anatomical localization, or a contrast enhanced diagnostic quality scan for additional anatomical characterization. We present a pictorial review highlighting the usefulness of this emerging technology. We present SPECT/CT images of 13 patients where additional information was provided by the co-registered low dose non-contrast enhanced CT scan. They belong to 12 male and 1 female patients with age ranging from 28 to 76 yrs, who were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department for various indications. We describe these cases under in the following categories: bone scintigraphy (2), leukocyte scintigraphy (2), nuclear oncology (5), nuclear cardiology (1), and general nuclear medicine (3). Additional information provided by the co-registered low dose CT improves the diagnostic confidence in image interpretation of SPECT imaging. PMID:23133813

  14. Pulmonary nuclear medicine: Techniques in diagnosis of lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on the application of nuclear medicine to the diagnosis of lung diseases. Topics considered include lung physiology and anatomy, radiopharmaceuticals in pulmonary medicine, pulmonary embolism, obstructive pulmonary disease, diffuse infiltrative lung disease, pneumoconioses, tumor localization scans in primary lung tumors, the interactions of heart diseases and lung diseases on radionuclide tests of lung anatomy and function, radionuclide imaging in pediatric lung diseases, and future possibilities in pulmonary nuclear medicine.

  15. Image based evaluation of mediastinal constraints for the development of a pulsatile total artificial heart

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Good anatomical compatibility is an important aspect in the development of cardiovascular implants. This work analyzes the interaction of the pump unit of an electrically driven pulsatile Total Artificial Heart (TAH) and the mediastinum. For an adequate compliance, both overall dimensions and alignment of inlets and outlets must be matched. Methods Cross-sectional medical image data of 27 individuals, including male and female patients suffering from end stage heart failure, was segmented and reconstructed to three dimensional (3D) surface models. Dimensions and orientations of relevant structures were identified and analyzed. The TAH surface model was virtually placed in orthotopic position and aligned with atrioventricular valves and big vessels. Additionally seven conventional cadaver studies were performed to validate different pump chamber designs based on virtual findings. Thereby 3D-coordinates were captured and introduced to the virtual environment to allow quantitative comparison between different individuals. Results Spatial parameters varied more in male patients with higher values if heart failure persists. Good correlation of the virtual analysis both to literature data and conventional cadaver studies could be shown. The full data of the 27 individuals as well as the summarized values found in literature are enclosed in the appendix. By superimposing the TAH-volume model to the anatomy, various misalignments were found and the TAH-design was adjusted. Conclusions Virtual fitting allows implant design adjustments in realistic anatomy which has not been influenced by thoracotomy. Higher numbers of relevant individuals can be reasonably investigated in the virtual environment and quantitatively correlated. Using this approach, conventional cadaver studies can be significantly reduced but not obviated, due to the unavailable haptic feedback and immobility of potentially compressed structures. PMID:23941400

  16. A Java viewer to publish Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) radiologic images on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Setti, E; Musumeci, R

    2001-06-01

    The world wide web is an exciting service that allows one to publish electronic documents made of text and images on the internet. Client software called a web browser can access these documents, and display and print them. The most popular browsers are currently Microsoft Internet Explorer (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) and Netscape Communicator (Netscape Communications, Mountain View, CA). These browsers can display text in hypertext markup language (HTML) format and images in Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) and Graphic Interchange Format (GIF). Currently, neither browser can display radiologic images in native Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) format. With the aim to publish radiologic images on the internet, we wrote a dedicated Java applet. Our software can display radiologic and histologic images in DICOM, JPEG, and GIF formats, and provides a a number of functions like windowing and magnification lens. The applet is compatible with some web browsers, even the older versions. The software is free and available from the author. PMID:11442108

  17. Big heart data: advancing health informatics through data sharing in cardiovascular imaging.

    PubMed

    Suinesiaputra, Avan; Medrano-Gracia, Pau; Cowan, Brett R; Young, Alistair A

    2015-07-01

    The burden of heart disease is rapidly worsening due to the increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes. Data sharing and open database resources for heart health informatics are important for advancing our understanding of cardiovascular function, disease progression and therapeutics. Data sharing enables valuable information, often obtained at considerable expense and effort, to be reused beyond the specific objectives of the original study. Many government funding agencies and journal publishers are requiring data reuse, and are providing mechanisms for data curation and archival. Tools and infrastructure are available to archive anonymous data from a wide range of studies, from descriptive epidemiological data to gigabytes of imaging data. Meta-analyses can be performed to combine raw data from disparate studies to obtain unique comparisons or to enhance statistical power. Open benchmark datasets are invaluable for validating data analysis algorithms and objectively comparing results. This review provides a rationale for increased data sharing and surveys recent progress in the cardiovascular domain. We also highlight the potential of recent large cardiovascular epidemiological studies enabling collaborative efforts to facilitate data sharing, algorithms benchmarking, disease modeling and statistical atlases. PMID:25415993

  18. Big Heart Data: Advancing Health Informatics through Data Sharing in Cardiovascular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Suinesiaputra, Avan; Medrano-Gracia, Pau; Cowan, Brett R.; Young, Alistair A.

    2015-01-01

    The burden of heart disease is rapidly worsening due to increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes. Data sharing and open database resources for heart health informatics are important for advancing our understanding of cardiovascular function, disease progression and therapeutics. Data sharing enables valuable information, often obtained at considerable expense and effort, to be re-used beyond the specific objectives of the original study. Many government funding agencies and journal publishers are requiring data re-use, and are providing mechanisms for data curation and archival. Tools and infrastructure are available to archive anonymous data from a wide range of studies, from descriptive epidemiological data to gigabytes of imaging data. Meta-analyses can be performed to combine raw data from disparate studies to obtain unique comparisons or to enhance statistical power. Open benchmark datasets are invaluable for validating data analysis algorithms and objectively comparing results. This review provides a rationale for increased data sharing and surveys recent progress in the cardiovascular domain. We also highlight the potential of recent large cardiovascular epidemiological studies enabling collaborative efforts to facilitate data sharing, algorithms benchmarking, disease modeling and statistical atlases. PMID:25415993

  19. Redundant array of independent disks: practical on-line archiving of nuclear medicine image data.

    PubMed

    Lear, J L; Pratt, J P; Trujillo, N

    1996-02-01

    While various methods for long-term archiving of nuclear medicine image data exist, none support rapid on-line search and retrieval of information. We assembled a 90-Gbyte redundant array of independent disks (RAID) system using 10-, 9-Gbyte disk drives. The system was connected to a personal computer and software was used to partition the array into 4-Gbyte sections. All studies (50,000) acquired over a 7-year period were archived in the system. Based on patient name/number and study date, information could be located within 20 seconds and retrieved for display and analysis in less than 5 seconds. RAID offers a practical, redundant method for long-term archiving of nuclear medicine studies that supports rapid on-line retrieval. PMID:8814767

  20. PREFACE: International Conference on Image Optimisation in Nuclear Medicine (OptiNM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christofides, Stelios; Parpottas, Yiannis

    2011-09-01

    Conference logo The International Conference on Image Optimisation in Nuclear Medicine was held at the Atlantica Aeneas Resort in Ayia Napa, Cyprus between 23-26 March 2011. It was organised in the framework of the research project "Optimising Diagnostic Value in SPECT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging" (YΓΕΙΑ/ΔYΓΕΙΑ/0308/11), funded by the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation and the European Regional Development Fund, to present the highlights of the project, discuss the progress and results, and define future related goals. The aim of this International Conference was to concentrate on image optimization approaches in Nuclear Medicine. Experts in the field of nuclear medicine presented their latest research results, exchanged experiences and set future goals for image optimisation while balancing patient dose and diagnostic value. The conference was jointly organized by the Frederick Research Centre in Cyprus, the Department of Medical and Public Health Services of the Cyprus Ministry of Health, the Biomedical Research Foundation in Cyprus and the AGH University of Science and Technology in Poland. It was supported by the Cyprus Association of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, and the Cyprus Society of Nuclear Medicine. The conference was held under the auspices of the European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics and the European Association of Nuclear Medicine. The conference scientific programme covered several important topics such as functional imaging; image optimization; quantification for diagnosis; justification; simulations; patient dosimetry, staff exposures and radiation risks; quality assurance and clinical audit; education, training and radiation protection culture; hybrid systems and image registration; and new and competing technologies. The programme consisted of 13 invited and keynote presentations as well as workshops, round table discussions and a number of scientific sessions. A total of 51 speakers presented their

  1. Illustrated Imaging Essay on Congenital Heart Diseases: Multimodality Approach Part II: Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease and Extracardiac Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Venkatraman; Belaval, Vinay; Gadabanahalli, Karthik; Raj, Vimal; Shah, Sejal

    2016-06-01

    Acyanotic heart disease constitutes a significant majority of patient who may present with non-cardiac symptoms. Either they are detected incidentally or present with respiratory complaints. Equipped with knowledge of anatomy by echocardiography and radiographic methods described in previous part of this presentation, diagnosis may be confidently attempted. On plain radiography acyanotic congenital heart diseases have variable appearance depending upon severity of disease. Cardiac size, chamber enlargement and pulmonary vascular pattern are key elements. Typically left to right shunts with large volume flow are associated with pulmonary plethora. Plain radiography has an important role in detecting manifestation of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Severe stenosis of pulmonary valve is associated with pulmonary oligemia. Small intra-cardiac shunts and anomalies of coronary arteries generally present with normal cardiac size and pulmonary arterial pattern. Disease spectrum presented in this illustration demands thorough scrutiny of pulmonary, osseous and abdominal abnormalities. This section illustrates some commonly encountered spectrum of acyanotic cardiac disease. PMID:27504381

  2. Illustrated Imaging Essay on Congenital Heart Diseases: Multimodality Approach Part II: Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease and Extracardiac Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Belaval, Vinay; Gadabanahalli, Karthik; Raj, Vimal; Shah, Sejal

    2016-01-01

    Acyanotic heart disease constitutes a significant majority of patient who may present with non-cardiac symptoms. Either they are detected incidentally or present with respiratory complaints. Equipped with knowledge of anatomy by echocardiography and radiographic methods described in previous part of this presentation, diagnosis may be confidently attempted. On plain radiography acyanotic congenital heart diseases have variable appearance depending upon severity of disease. Cardiac size, chamber enlargement and pulmonary vascular pattern are key elements. Typically left to right shunts with large volume flow are associated with pulmonary plethora. Plain radiography has an important role in detecting manifestation of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Severe stenosis of pulmonary valve is associated with pulmonary oligemia. Small intra-cardiac shunts and anomalies of coronary arteries generally present with normal cardiac size and pulmonary arterial pattern. Disease spectrum presented in this illustration demands thorough scrutiny of pulmonary, osseous and abdominal abnormalities. This section illustrates some commonly encountered spectrum of acyanotic cardiac disease. PMID:27504381

  3. ECG-triggering of the laser Doppler signal: an approach for perfusion imaging on the beating calf heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardell, Karin; Karlsson, Daniel M.; Loenn, Urban; Traff, Stefan; Casimir-Ahn, Henrik

    2001-06-01

    Laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) has successfully been used to map the myocardial perfusion on patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery on the arrested heart. The need for intra-operative evaluation of graft function is obvious in routine surgery but even more imperative when adapting new surgical techniques where the procedure is performed on the beating heart. When using LDPI on the beating heart, artifacts originating from the movement of the heart are superimposed on the Doppler signal. We have investigated a method to reduce these artifacts by controlling the sampling sequence with ECG-triggering. The method has been assessed in an animal model on the beating calf heart. After sternotomy, an area covering 1 cm2 was imaged at the anterior wall of the left ventricle. In this area, six perfusion images were captured each of them recorded at fixed, but different time intervals in the cardiac cycle. In addition continuous measurements at one spot was done during 1 - 2 minutes. The signal recorded during pumping action was high compared to measurements performed in the same muscle area during infusion of blood with a syringe pump. Repeated measurements captured at a fixed delay time from the R-peak in the same areas at the same heart frequency showed reproducibility. ECG-triggering of the laser Doppler signal is the first step in our attempts to adapt LDPI to enabling assessment of myocardial perfusion on the beating heart. Further technical achievements and in-vivo investigations are, however, needed and will be performed by our research team in future studies.

  4. 3D in vivo imaging of rat hearts by high frequency ultrasound and its application in myofiber orientation wrapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xulei; Wang, Silun; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Xiaodong; Lerakis, Stamatios; Wagner, Mary B.; Fei, Baowei

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac ultrasound plays an important role in the imaging of hearts in basic cardiovascular research and clinical examinations. 3D ultrasound imaging can provide the geometry or motion information of the heart. Especially, the wrapping of cardiac fiber orientations to the ultrasound volume could supply useful information on the stress distributions and electric action spreading. However, how to acquire 3D ultrasound volumes of the heart of small animals in vivo for cardiac fiber wrapping is still a challenging problem. In this study, we provide an approach to acquire 3D ultrasound volumes of the rat hearts in vivo. The comparison between both in vivo and ex vivo geometries indicated 90.1% Dice similarity. In this preliminary study, the evaluations of the cardiac fiber orientation wrapping errors were 24.7° for the acute angle error and were 22.4° for the inclination angle error. This 3D ultrasound imaging and fiber orientation estimation technique have potential applications in cardiac imaging.

  5. 3D in vivo imaging of rat hearts by high frequency ultrasound and its application in myofiber orientation wrapping

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xulei; Wang, Silun; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Xiaodong; Lerakis, Stamatios; Wagner, Mary B.; Fei, Baowei

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac ultrasound plays an important role in the imaging of hearts in basic cardiovascular research and clinical examinations. 3D ultrasound imaging can provide the geometry or motion information of the heart. Especially, the wrapping of cardiac fiber orientations to the ultrasound volume could supply useful information on the stress distributions and electric action spreading. However, how to acquire 3D ultrasound volumes of the heart of small animals in vivo for cardiac fiber wrapping is still a challenging problem. In this study, we provide an approach to acquire 3D ultrasound volumes of the rat hearts in vivo. The comparison between both in vivo and ex vivo geometries indicated 90.1% Dice similarity. In this preliminary study, the evaluations of the cardiac fiber orientation wrapping errors were 24.7° for the acute angle error and were 22.4° for the inclination angle error. This 3D ultrasound imaging and fiber orientation estimation technique have potential applications in cardiac imaging. PMID:26412926

  6. Imaging Mass Spectrometry: Enabling a New Age of Discovery in Biology and Medicine Through Molecular Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprioli, Richard M.

    2015-06-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) has become a valuable tool for the production of molecular maps in samples ranging from solid inorganic materials to biologicals such as cells and tissues. The unique features of IMS are its ability to map a wide variety of different types of molecules, its superb molecular specificity, and its potential for discovery since no target-specific reagents are needed. IMS has made significant contributions in biology and medicine and promises to be a next generation tool in anatomic pathology.

  7. Imaging Mass Spectrometry: Enabling a New Age of Discovery in Biology and Medicine Through Molecular Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Caprioli, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) has become a valuable tool for the production of molecular maps in samples ranging from solid inorganic materials to biologicals such as cells and tissues. The unique features of IMS are its ability to map a wide variety of different types of molecules, its superb molecular specificity, and its potential for discovery since no target specific reagents are needed. IMS has made significant contributions in biology and medicine and promises to be a next generation tool in anatomic pathology. PMID:25801587

  8. Molecular imaging of amyloidosis: will the heart be the next target after the brain?

    PubMed

    Chen, Wengen; Dilsizian, Vasken

    2012-04-01

    Amyloidosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases with a common feature of extracellular deposition and infiltration of different types of amyloid fibrils in various organs. For example, Alzheimer's disease is characterized by deposition of amyloid β in the brain. Radiolabeled positron emission tomography (PET) tracers, mainly derivatives of thioflavin-T, were recently introduced for identification of amyloid β plaques in Alzheimer's patients. Such advances of amyloid β plaque imaging of the brain may shed light into imaging of other organs in amyloidosis patients, such as the heart. Cardiac infiltration of amyloid confers poor clinical outcomes, which renders early diagnosis for appropriate clinical management. At present, nuclear imaging of cardiac amyloidosis is predominantly accomplished with bone-seeking radiotracers, such as 99m-technetium-labeled pyrophosphate ((99m)Tc-PYP), 99m-technetium-methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP), and 99m-technetium-3,3,-diphosphono-1,2-propanodicarboxylic acid ((99m)Tc-DPD), with conflicting results in terms of diagnostic performance, with the exception for (99m)Tc-DPD, which may differentiate light-chain amyloidosis from transthyretin-related cardiac amyloidosis. Although other non-bone-seeking radiotracers such as iodine-123-labeled amyloid P component ((123)I-SAP), 123-iodine-Meta-iodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-mIBG), 99m-technetium-labeled protease inhibitor, and indium-111-labeled amyloid antibodies have also shown some success in identifying cardiac amyloidosis, the future, however, may lie in labeling derivatives of thioflavin-T. With the recent success of visualizing deposition of amyloid β in the brain, the US Food and Drug Administration-approved PET imaging agent (18)F-florbetapir may be used to target cardiac amyloidosis next. PMID:22193845

  9. Heart Tests Before Surgery: When You Need an Imaging Test - and When You Don't

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Heart Tests Before Chest Surgery Heart Stress Tests Before Chest Surgery When you need them—and ... If you’re having chest surgery, a stress test can sometimes be helpful. It might find problems ...

  10. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation). Progress report, January 15, 1992--January 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

    1992-07-01

    This document is the annual progress report for project entitled ``Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.`` Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

  11. Hearts Wish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lethonee A.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates characteristics and themes in 102 drawings by sexually abused children. Themes of the drawings included genitalia, the absence of specific body parts, phallic symbols, inappropriate smiles, distorted body images, kinetic activity, prominent hands and fingers, and hearts. (RJC)

  12. Heart MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... an imaging method that uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create pictures of the heart. It does ... radiation involved in MRI. The magnetic fields and radio waves used during the scan have not been shown ...

  13. Novel imaging strategies for the detection of prosthetic heart valve obstruction and endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Tanis, W; Budde, R P J; van der Bilt, I A C; Delemarre, B; Hoohenkerk, G; van Rooden, J-K; Scholtens, A M; Habets, J; Chamuleau, S

    2016-02-01

    Prosthetic heart valve (PHV) dysfunction remains difficult to recognise correctly by two-dimensional (2D) transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography (TTE/TEE). ECG-triggered multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT), 18-fluorine-fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography including low-dose CT (FDG-PET) and three-dimensional transoesophageal echocardiography (3D-TEE) may have additional value. This paper reviews the role of these novel imaging tools in the field of PHV obstruction and endocarditis.For acquired PHV obstruction, MDCT is of additional value in mechanical PHVs to differentiate pannus from thrombus as well as to dynamically study leaflet motion and opening/closing angles. For biological PHV obstruction, additional imaging is not beneficial as it does not change patient management. When performed on top of 2D-TTE/TEE, MDCT has additional value for the detection of both vegetations and pseudoaneurysms/abscesses in PHV endocarditis. FDG-PET has no complementary value for the detection of vegetations; however, it appears more sensitive in the early detection of pseudoaneurysms/abscesses. Furthermore, FDG-PET enables the detection of metastatic and primary extra-cardiac infections. Evidence for the additional value of 3D-TEE is scarce.As clinical implications are major, clinicians should have a low threshold to perform additional MDCT in acquired mechanical PHV obstruction. For suspected PHV endocarditis, both FDG-PET and MDCT have complementary value. PMID:26744343

  14. Rationale for the combination of nuclear medicine with magnetic resonance for pre-clinical imaging.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Douglas J; Kapusta, Maciej; Li, Junqiang; Patt, Bradley E

    2006-08-01

    Multi-modality combinations of SPECT/CT and PET/CT have proven to be highly successful in the clinic and small animal SPECT/CT and PET/CT are becoming the norm in the research and drug development setting. However, the use of ionizing radiation from a high-resolution CT scanner is undesirable in any setting and particularly in small animal imaging (SAI), in laboratory experiments where it can result in radiation doses of sufficient magnitude that the experimental results can be influenced by the organism's response to radiation. The alternative use of magnetic resonance (MR) would offer a high-resolution, non-ionizing method for anatomical imaging of laboratory animals. MR brings considerably more than its 3D anatomical capability, especially regarding the imaging of laboratory animals. Dynamic MR imaging techniques can facilitate studies of perfusion, oxygenation, and diffusion amongst others. Further, MR spectroscopy can provide images that can be related to the concentration of endogenous molecules in vivo. MR imaging of injected contrast agents extends MR into the domain of molecular imaging. In combination with nuclear medicine (NM) SPECT and PET modalities in small animal imaging, MR would facilitate studies of dynamic processes such as biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics. However, the detectors for nearly all PET and SPECT systems are still based on vacuum tube technology, namely: photomultiplier tubes (PMT's) in which the signal is generated by transporting electrons over a substantial distance within an evacuated glass tube, making them inoperable in even small magnetic fields. Thus the combination of SPECT or PET with MR has not been practical until the recent availability of semiconductor detectors such as silicon avalanche photodiodes (APD's) for PET and CdZnTe (CZT) detectors for SPECT coupled with the availability of high-density low noise ASIC electronics to read out the semiconductor detectors. The strong advantage of these

  15. Imaging in sport and exercise medicine: “a sports physician's outlook and needs”

    PubMed Central

    McCurdie, I

    2012-01-01

    Sport and exercise medicine (SEM) is an exciting new medical specialty that thrives on interdisciplinary practice. The SEM physician will usually be found managing a wider, multidisciplinary team of specialists, orchestrating their various inputs to ensure that the most effective management plan is delivered to the patient. One key member of this team is the radiologist, with whom the SEM physician usually has a very close working relationship. Areas of SEM practice that commonly involve significant input from radiologists include the use of appropriate imaging to confirm an accurate diagnosis and to inform management planning (such as decisions on return to play in the elite athlete), various screening and pre-participation assessments and also technical assistance with certain procedures. This article discusses the relationship between the SEM physician and the radiologist across each of these areas, illustrating the important contribution made by imaging services to the specialty of SEM. PMID:22815416

  16. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods.

    PubMed

    Jha, Abhinav K; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C

    2016-04-01

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  17. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C.

    2016-04-01

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  18. A gaussian band pass filter for digital enhancement of nuclear medicine images

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, M.T.; Park, C.H.; Hichwa, R.D.

    1985-05-01

    Information in nuclear medicine images is obscured due to the presence of Poisson noise and the finite resolution of the detection system. Many filters have been developed to recover resolution and suppress noise, most notably the Metz and Wiener filters. The generation of these filters requires knowledge of the system MTF. The authors have investigated the properties of a two dimensional circularly symmetric truncated Gaussian function as a filter to be applied in the spatial frequency domain. The filter is expressed as exp(-(..mu..-..mu../sub o/)/sup 2//2sigma/sup 2/) where ..mu../sub o/ is the displacement of the Gaussian from the origin and sigma is the degree of spread. These parameters are optimized from the image power spectrum according to the following empirical rules the magnitude at the origin is 0.3, and the spatial frequency at which the magnitude of the power spectrum exceeds twice that of the noise level is 2sigma from the mean of the Gaussian (..mu../sub o/). Condition 1 preferentially enhances the information in the middle frequencies while condition 2 assures that the filter goes to 0 at spatial frequencies where noise dominates. The filter can be generated automatically by computer program. It does not require the knowledge of MTF. In addition, the coordinate space representation is a Gaussian modulated by a cosine function which can be analytically determined allowing straightfoward application of this filter as a convolution in coordinate space. The filter has been successfully applied to all types of nuclear medicine images including PET brain section images.

  19. Dual adaptive statistical approach for quantitative noise reduction in photon-counting medical imaging: application to nuclear medicine images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannequin, Pascal Paul

    2015-06-01

    medicine images but can also be used for any other kind of photon-counting images, such as x-ray and fluorescence images.

  20. Dual adaptive statistical approach for quantitative noise reduction in photon-counting medical imaging: application to nuclear medicine images.

    PubMed

    Hannequin, Pascal Paul

    2015-06-01

    medicine images but can also be used for any other kind of photon-counting images, such as x-ray and fluorescence images. PMID:26009552

  1. Enterprise-class Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) image infrastructure.

    PubMed

    York, G; Wortmann, J; Atanasiu, R

    2001-06-01

    Most current picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) are designed for a single department or a single modality. Few PACS installations have been deployed that support the needs of the hospital or the entire Integrated Delivery Network (IDN). The authors propose a new image management architecture that can support a large, distributed enterprise. PMID:11442125

  2. Effectiveness of Using Dual-source CT and the Upshot it creates on Both Heart Rate and Image Quality

    PubMed Central

    Selçuk, Tuba; Otçu, Hafize; Yüceler, Zeyneb; Bilgili, Çiğdem; Bulakçı, Mesut; Savaş, Yıldıray; Çelik, Ömer

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) is important because of the high morbidity and mortality rates. As invasive coronary angiography (ICA) is an invasive procedure, an alternative diagnostic method; coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA), has become more widely used by the improvements in detector technology. Aims: In this study, we aimed to examine the accuracy and image quality of high-pitch 128-slice dual-source CTA taking the ICA as reference technique. We also aimed to compare the accuracy and image quality between different heart rate groups of >70 beates per minute (bpm) and ≤70 bpm. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: Among 450 patients who underwent coronary CTA with the FLASH spiral technique, performed with a second generation dual-source computed tomography device with a pitch value of 3.2, 102 patients without stent and/or bypass surgery history and clinically suspected coronary artery disease who underwent ICA within 15 days were enrolled. Image quality was assessed by two independent radiologists using a 4-point scale (1=absence of any artifacts- 4=non-evaluable). A stenosis >50% was considered significant on a per-segment, per-vessel, and per-patient basis and ICA was considered the reference method. Radiation doses were determined using dose length product (DLP) values detected by the computed tomography (CT) device. In addition, patients were classified into two groups according to their heart rates as ≤70 bpm (73 patients) and >70 bpm (29 patients). The relation between the diagnostic accuracy and heart rate groups were evaluated. Results: Overall, 1495 (98%) coronary segments were diagnostic in 102 patients (32 male, 70 female, mean heart rate: 65 bpm). There was a significant correlation between image quality and mean heart rate in the right coronary artery (RCA) segments. The effective radiation dose was 0.98±0.09 mili Sievert (mSv). On a per-patient basis, sensitivity, specificity

  3. Heart wall velocimetry and exogenous contrast-based cardiac flow imaging in Drosophila melanogaster using Doppler optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choma, Michael A.; Suter, Melissa J.; Vakoc, Benjamin J.; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2010-09-01

    Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) is a central organism in biology and is becoming increasingly important in the cardiovascular sciences. Prior work in optical imaging of the D. melanogaster heart has focused on static and dynamic structural anatomy. In the study, it is demonstrated that Doppler optical coherence tomography can quantify dynamic heart wall velocity and hemolymph flow in adult D. melanogaster. Since hemolymph is optically transparent, a novel exogenous contrast technique is demonstrated to increase the backscatter-based intracardiac Doppler flow signal. The results presented here open up new possibilities for functional cardiovascular phenotyping of normal and mutant D. melanogaster.

  4. Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Medicinal Property of Sage (Salvia) to Prevent and Cure Illnesses such as Obesity, Diabetes, Depression, Dementia, Lupus, Autism, Heart Disease, and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hamidpour, Mohsen; Hamidpour, Rafie; Hamidpour, Soheila; Shahlari, Mina

    2014-04-01

    For a long time, sage (Salvia) species have been used in traditional medicine for the relief of pain, protecting the body against oxidative stress, free radical damages, angiogenesis, inflammation, bacterial and virus infection, etc., Several studies suggest that sage species can be considered for drug development because of their reported pharmacology and therapeutic activities in many countries of Asia and Middle East, especially China and India. These studies suggest that Salvia species, in addition to treating minor common illnesses, might potentially provide novel natural treatments for the relief or cure of many serious and life-threatening diseases such as depression, dementia, obesity, diabetes, lupus, heart disease, and cancer. This article presents a comprehensive analysis of the botanical, chemical, and pharmacological aspects of sage (Saliva). PMID:24860730

  5. Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Medicinal Property of Sage (Salvia) to Prevent and Cure Illnesses such as Obesity, Diabetes, Depression, Dementia, Lupus, Autism, Heart Disease, and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hamidpour, Mohsen; Hamidpour, Rafie; Hamidpour, Soheila; Shahlari, Mina

    2014-01-01

    For a long time, sage (Salvia) species have been used in traditional medicine for the relief of pain, protecting the body against oxidative stress, free radical damages, angiogenesis, inflammation, bacterial and virus infection, etc., Several studies suggest that sage species can be considered for drug development because of their reported pharmacology and therapeutic activities in many countries of Asia and Middle East, especially China and India. These studies suggest that Salvia species, in addition to treating minor common illnesses, might potentially provide novel natural treatments for the relief or cure of many serious and life-threatening diseases such as depression, dementia, obesity, diabetes, lupus, heart disease, and cancer. This article presents a comprehensive analysis of the botanical, chemical, and pharmacological aspects of sage (Saliva). PMID:24860730

  6. The network and its role in digital imaging and communications in medicine imaging.

    PubMed

    Ballance, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    The elements of a digital imaging system are bound together by the network, so careful attention must be paid to this essential component. Networking hardware and cable choice will affect the speed of image transmission between devices within a network. Wireless networking offers convenience at the expense of speed and potentially, security. If a facility allows its network to connect to the Internet, security precautions are essential. Firewalls prevent unauthorized and destructive access to the network; virtual private networks allow encrypted communication with the network; and email and web browser encryption allow data transmitted from the network to other users on the Internet safely. This article presents an overview of this broad array of technologies. Readers are encouraged to seek additional depth as needed to address individual networking needs. PMID:18283983

  7. Dawn of Advanced Molecular Medicine: Nanotechnological Advancements in Cancer Imaging and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kaittanis, Charalambos; Shaffer, Travis M.; Thorek, Daniel L. J.; Grimm, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology plays an increasingly important role not only in our everyday life (with all its benefits and dangers) but also in medicine. Nanoparticles are to date the most intriguing option to deliver high concentrations of agents specifically and directly to cancer cells; therefore, a wide variety of these nanomaterials has been developed and explored. These span the range from simple nanoagents to sophisticated smart devices for drug delivery or imaging. Nanomaterials usually provide a large surface area, allowing for decoration with a large amount of moieties on the surface for either additional functionalities or targeting. Besides using particles solely for imaging purposes, they can also carry as a payload a therapeutic agent. If both are combined within the same particle, a theranostic agent is created. The sophistication of highly developed nanotechnology targeting approaches provides a promising means for many clinical implementations and can provide improved applications for otherwise suboptimal formulations. In this review we will explore nanotechnology both for imaging and therapy to provide a general overview of the field and its impact on cancer imaging and therapy. PMID:25271430

  8. How Is Diabetic Heart Disease Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Heart." Managing Stress Research shows that strong emotions, such as anger, can trigger a heart attack. Learning how to manage stress , relax, and cope with problems can improve your emotional and physical health. Medicines Medicines are ...

  9. [Evaluation of high-resolution images application for wild medicinal plants macro monitoring: a case of Apocynum].

    PubMed

    Na, Ren-Hua; Zheng, Jiang-Hua; Guo, Bao-Lin; Shi, Min-Hui; Sen, Ba-Ti; Sun, Zhi-Qun; Sun, Cheng-Zhong; Li, Xiao-Jin; Jia, Xiao-Guang

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the resources of medicinal plant, such as wild Apocynum, supervised classification based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and texture feature were used to monitor wild medicinal plants from image captured by ZY-3 and World-view-2 and compare which satellite Image are more appropriate to monitor the wild medicinal plants. The research results shows that: for more complex growth conditions wild medicinal plants Apocynum, high-resolution images Worldview-2 is more suitable for its remote identification, the low-resolution satellite ZY-3 can only recognizes the wild medicinal plants which distributed intensively. If the study target distribution is more intensive and larger scale, and cultivated type medicinal plants, the use of satellite ZY-3 in low resolution remote sensing data to identify the target can be a good choice, it is not necessary to buy high-resolution data, in order to avoid waste of expenditure, for the scattered distribution, the high-resolution satellite imagery data may be indispensable to identify targets. PMID:25282881

  10. The multi-modality cardiac imaging approach to the Athlete's heart: an expert consensus of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Galderisi, Maurizio; Cardim, Nuno; D'Andrea, Antonello; Bruder, Oliver; Cosyns, Bernard; Davin, Laurent; Donal, Erwan; Edvardsen, Thor; Freitas, Antonio; Habib, Gilbert; Kitsiou, Anastasia; Plein, Sven; Petersen, Steffen E; Popescu, Bogdan A; Schroeder, Stephen; Burgstahler, Christof; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2015-04-01

    The term 'athlete's heart' refers to a clinical picture characterized by a slow heart rate and enlargement of the heart. A multi-modality imaging approach to the athlete's heart aims to differentiate physiological changes due to intensive training in the athlete's heart from serious cardiac diseases with similar morphological features. Imaging assessment of the athlete's heart should begin with a thorough echocardiographic examination.Left ventricular (LV) wall thickness by echocardiography can contribute to the distinction between athlete's LV hypertrophy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). LV end-diastolic diameter becomes larger (>55 mm) than the normal limits only in end-stage HCM patients when the LV ejection fraction is <50%. Patients with HCM also show early impairment of LV diastolic function, whereas athletes have normal diastolic function.When echocardiography cannot provide a clear differential diagnosis, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging should be performed.With CMR, accurate morphological and functional assessment can be made. Tissue characterization by late gadolinium enhancement may show a distinctive, non-ischaemic pattern in HCM and a variety of other myocardial conditions such as idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy or myocarditis. The work-up of athletes with suspected coronary artery disease should start with an exercise ECG. In athletes with inconclusive exercise ECG results, exercise stress echocardiography should be considered. Nuclear cardiology techniques, coronary cardiac tomography (CCT) and/or CMR may be performed in selected cases. Owing to radiation exposure and the young age of most athletes, the use of CCT and nuclear cardiology techniques should be restricted to athletes with unclear stress echocardiography or CMR. PMID:25681828

  11. Blood flow assessment in a heart with septal defect based on optical flow analysis of magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, K.; Kuklik, P.; Kelso, R. M.; Worthley, S. G.; Sanders, P.; Mazumdar, J.; Abbott, D.

    2007-12-01

    This study describes an application based on the optical flow algorithm to construct a 2D velocity field plot. The estimated velocity field is used to track the movement of blood in real time. This methodology has been applied to medical images to quantify blood flow turbulence in the right atrium of the heart. Blood intensity fields that are obtained from clinical MRI scan sequences can be analyzed using this method. Septal defects and other heart diseases can be assessed for degrees of abnormality and post-surgical success can be evaluated. We have developed this technique specifically for characterizing the turbulence generated due to such heart abnormalities. The degree of turbulence and fluid shear stress can be determined from the measured flow field. The cardio dynamics information that is based on flow analysis and visualization of blood offers potential for the detection and quantification of myocardial malfunctioning.

  12. Augmented reality intravenous injection simulator based 3D medical imaging for veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Lee, J; Lee, A; Park, N; Lee, S; Song, S; Seo, A; Lee, H; Kim, J-I; Eom, K

    2013-05-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology which enables users to see the real world, with virtual objects superimposed upon or composited with it. AR simulators have been developed and used in human medicine, but not in veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to develop an AR intravenous (IV) injection simulator to train veterinary and pre-veterinary students to perform canine venipuncture. Computed tomographic (CT) images of a beagle dog were scanned using a 64-channel multidetector. The CT images were transformed into volumetric data sets using an image segmentation method and were converted into a stereolithography format for creating 3D models. An AR-based interface was developed for an AR simulator for IV injection. Veterinary and pre-veterinary student volunteers were randomly assigned to an AR-trained group or a control group trained using more traditional methods (n = 20/group; n = 8 pre-veterinary students and n = 12 veterinary students in each group) and their proficiency at IV injection technique in live dogs was assessed after training was completed. Students were also asked to complete a questionnaire which was administered after using the simulator. The group that was trained using an AR simulator were more proficient at IV injection technique using real dogs than the control group (P ≤ 0.01). The students agreed that they learned the IV injection technique through the AR simulator. Although the system used in this study needs to be modified before it can be adopted for veterinary educational use, AR simulation has been shown to be a very effective tool for training medical personnel. Using the technology reported here, veterinary AR simulators could be developed for future use in veterinary education. PMID:23103217

  13. High resolution MR imaging of the fetal heart with cardiac triggering: a feasibility study in the sheep fetus.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Jin; Schnackenburg, Bernhard; Kooijmann, Hendrik; Frisch, Michael; Hecher, Kurt; Adam, Gerhard; Wedegärtner, Ulrike

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to perform fetal cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with triggering of the fetal heart beat in utero in a sheep model. All experimental protocols were reviewed and the usage of ewes and fetuses was approved by the local animal protection authorities. Images of the hearts of six pregnant ewes were obtained by using a 1.5-T MR system (Philips Medical Systems, Best, Netherlands). The fetuses were chronically instrumented with a carotid catheter to measure the fetal heart frequency for the cardiac triggering. Pulse wave triggered, breath-hold cine-MRI with steady-state free precession (SSFP) was achieved in short axis, two-, four- and three-chamber views. The left ventricular volume and thus the function were measured from the short axis. The fetal heart frequencies ranged between 130 and 160 bpm. The mitral, tricuspid, aortic, and pulmonary valves could be clearly observed. The foramen ovale could be visualized. Myocardial contraction was shown in cine sequences. The average blood volume at the end systole was 3.4 + or - 0.2 ml (+ or - SD). The average volume at end diastole was 5.2 + or - 0.2 ml; thus the stroke volumes of the left ventricle in the systole were between 1.7 and 1.9 ml with ejection fractions of 38.6% and 39%, respectively. The pulse wave triggered cardiac MRI of the fetal heart allowed evaluation of anatomical structures and functional information. This feasibility study demonstrates the applicability of MRI for future evaluation of fetuses with complex congenital heart defects, once a noninvasive method has been developed to perform fetal cardiac triggering. PMID:19430796

  14. Characterization of Diffuse Fibrosis in the Failing Human Heart via Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Quantitative Histological Validation

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Osama M.; Drakos, Stavros G.; Diakos, Nikolaos A.; Wever-Pinzon, Omar; Kfoury, Abdallah G.; Stehlik, Josef; Selzman, Craig H.; Reid, Bruce B.; Brunisholz, Kim; Verma, Divya Ratan; Myrick, Craig; Sachse, Frank B.; Li, Dean Y.; Hsu, Edward W.

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive imaging techniques are highly desirable as an alternative to conventional biopsy for characterizing remodeling of tissues associated with disease progression, including end-stage heart failure. Cardiac diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has become an established method for characterizing myocardial microstructure. However, the relationships between diffuse myocardial fibrosis, which is a key biomarker for staging and treatment planning of the failing heart, and measured DTI parameters have yet to be systematically investigated. In this study, DTI was performed on left ventricular specimens collected from patients with chronic end-stage heart failure due to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (n=14) and from normal donors (n=5). Scalar DTI parameters, including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean (MD), primary (D1), secondary (D2), and tertiary (D3) diffusivities, were correlated to collagen content measured by digital microscopy. Compared to hearts from normal subjects, the FA in failing hearts decreased by 22%, whereas the MD, D2 and D3 increased by 12%, 14%, and 24% respectively (P < 0.01). No significant change was detected for D1 between the two groups. Furthermore, significant correlation was observed between the DTI scalar indices and quantitative histological measurements of collagen (i.e., fibrosis). Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) between collagen content and either FA, MD, D2, and D3 was -0.51, 0.59, 0.56 and 0.62 (P < 0.05), respectively. The correlation between D1 and collagen content was not significant (r = 0.46, P = 0.05). Computational modeling analysis indicated that the behaviors of the DTI parameters as a function of the degree of fibrosis were well explained by compartmental exchange between myocardial and collagenous tissues. Combined, these findings suggest that scalar DTI parameters can be used as metrics for noninvasive assessment of diffuse fibrosis in failing hearts. PMID:25200106

  15. The Alberta Heart Failure Etiology and Analysis Research Team (HEART) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nationally, symptomatic heart failure affects 1.5-2% of Canadians, incurs $3 billion in hospital costs annually and the global burden is expected to double in the next 1–2 decades. The current one-year mortality rate after diagnosis of heart failure remains high at >25%. Consequently, new therapeutic strategies need to be developed for this debilitating condition. Methods/Design The objective of the Alberta HEART program (http://albertaheartresearch.ca) is to develop novel diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic approaches to patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. We hypothesize that novel imaging techniques and biomarkers will aid in describing heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Furthermore, the development of new diagnostic criteria will allow us to: 1) better define risk factors associated with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; 2) elucidate clinical, cellular and molecular mechanisms involved with the development and progression of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; 3) design and test new therapeutic strategies for patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Additionally, Alberta HEART provides training and education for enhancing translational medicine, knowledge translation and clinical practice in heart failure. This is a prospective observational cohort study of patients with, or at risk for, heart failure. Patients will have sequential testing including quality of life and clinical outcomes over 12 months. After that time, study participants will be passively followed via linkage to external administrative databases. Clinical outcomes of interest include death, hospitalization, emergency department visits, physician resource use and/or heart transplant. Patients will be followed for a total of 5 years. Discussion Alberta HEART has the primary objective to define new diagnostic criteria for patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. New criteria

  16. Smartphone-based heart-rate measurement using facial images and a spatiotemporal alpha-trimmed mean filter.

    PubMed

    Lee, J-S; Lin, K-W; Syue, J-L

    2016-04-29

    Currently, cardiovascular disease affects a relatively high proportion of the world's population. Thus, developing simple and effective methods for monitoring patients with cardiovascular disease is critical for research. Monitoring the heart rate of patients is a relatively simple and effective method for managing patients with this condition. For patients, the desired heart rate monitoring equipment should be portable, instantaneous, and accurate. Because smartphones have become the most prevalent mobile device, we utilized this technology as a platform for developing a novel heart-rate measurement system. Catering to the phenomenon of people using the front camera of their smartphones as a mirror, the proposed system was designed to analyze facial-image sequences captured using the front camera. A spatiotemporal alpha-trimmed mean filter was developed to estimate a user's heart rate quickly and accurately. The experimental results show that in addition to achieving these objectives, the developed system outperforms a similar personal computer-based system. In addition, the system performs effectively even when users are wearing glasses. Hence, the proposed system demonstrates practical value for people who must monitor their heart rate daily. PMID:27177107

  17. Four-dimensional echocardiography with spatiotemporal image correlation and inversion mode for detection of congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yue; Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Xiaohang; Wang, Yu; Sun, Wei; Chen, Lizhu; Zhao, Dan; Zhan, Ying; Cai, Ailu

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of 4-D echocardiography with inversion mode and spatiotemporal image correlation (IM-STIC) in the detection of normal and abnormal fetal hearts. We retrospectively studied 112 normal fetuses and 16 fetuses with a confirmed diagnosis of congenital heart disease. Two volumes were acquired from each of the fetuses using transverse and sagittal sweeps. Volumes were reconstructed with IM-STIC. In normal fetuses, IM-STIC facilitated visualization of the interior structures of the fetal heart and great vessels. The visualization rates of intended planes obtained from IM-STIC 4D data ranged from 55% to 100%. In 16 fetuses with congenital heart disease, IM-STIC was able to display the cardiac malformations using digital casting. Some of the malformations were suspected during pre-natal 2-D echocardiography, and their pre-natal IM-STIC diagnoses were confirmed by post-natal echocardiography, surgery and/or autopsy. Hence, 4-D IM-STIC allows better visualization of complex congenital heart disease and should be considered a very useful addition to 2-D echocardiography. PMID:24785438

  18. Feasibility of long-distance heart rate monitoring using transmittance photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelard, Robert; Scharfenberger, Christian; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Pfisterer, Kaylen J.; Lin, Bill S.; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) devices are widely used for monitoring cardiovascular function. However, these devices require skin contact, which restricts their use to at-rest short-term monitoring. Photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI) has been recently proposed as a non-contact monitoring alternative by measuring blood pulse signals across a spatial region of interest. Existing systems operate in reflectance mode, many of which are limited to short-distance monitoring and are prone to temporal changes in ambient illumination. This paper is the first study to investigate the feasibility of long-distance non-contact cardiovascular monitoring at the supermeter level using transmittance PPGI. For this purpose, a novel PPGI system was designed at the hardware and software level. Temporally coded illumination (TCI) is proposed for ambient correction, and a signal processing pipeline is proposed for PPGI signal extraction. Experimental results show that the processing steps yielded a substantially more pulsatile PPGI signal than the raw acquired signal, resulting in statistically significant increases in correlation to ground-truth PPG in both short- and long-distance monitoring. The results support the hypothesis that long-distance heart rate monitoring is feasible using transmittance PPGI, allowing for new possibilities of monitoring cardiovascular function in a non-contact manner.

  19. Feasibility of long-distance heart rate monitoring using transmittance photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI).

    PubMed

    Amelard, Robert; Scharfenberger, Christian; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Pfisterer, Kaylen J; Lin, Bill S; Clausi, David A; Wong, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) devices are widely used for monitoring cardiovascular function. However, these devices require skin contact, which restricts their use to at-rest short-term monitoring. Photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI) has been recently proposed as a non-contact monitoring alternative by measuring blood pulse signals across a spatial region of interest. Existing systems operate in reflectance mode, many of which are limited to short-distance monitoring and are prone to temporal changes in ambient illumination. This paper is the first study to investigate the feasibility of long-distance non-contact cardiovascular monitoring at the supermeter level using transmittance PPGI. For this purpose, a novel PPGI system was designed at the hardware and software level. Temporally coded illumination (TCI) is proposed for ambient correction, and a signal processing pipeline is proposed for PPGI signal extraction. Experimental results show that the processing steps yielded a substantially more pulsatile PPGI signal than the raw acquired signal, resulting in statistically significant increases in correlation to ground-truth PPG in both short- and long-distance monitoring. The results support the hypothesis that long-distance heart rate monitoring is feasible using transmittance PPGI, allowing for new possibilities of monitoring cardiovascular function in a non-contact manner. PMID:26440644

  20. Feasibility of long-distance heart rate monitoring using transmittance photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI)

    PubMed Central

    Amelard, Robert; Scharfenberger, Christian; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Pfisterer, Kaylen J.; Lin, Bill S.; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) devices are widely used for monitoring cardiovascular function. However, these devices require skin contact, which restricts their use to at-rest short-term monitoring. Photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI) has been recently proposed as a non-contact monitoring alternative by measuring blood pulse signals across a spatial region of interest. Existing systems operate in reflectance mode, many of which are limited to short-distance monitoring and are prone to temporal changes in ambient illumination. This paper is the first study to investigate the feasibility of long-distance non-contact cardiovascular monitoring at the supermeter level using transmittance PPGI. For this purpose, a novel PPGI system was designed at the hardware and software level. Temporally coded illumination (TCI) is proposed for ambient correction, and a signal processing pipeline is proposed for PPGI signal extraction. Experimental results show that the processing steps yielded a substantially more pulsatile PPGI signal than the raw acquired signal, resulting in statistically significant increases in correlation to ground-truth PPG in both short- and long-distance monitoring. The results support the hypothesis that long-distance heart rate monitoring is feasible using transmittance PPGI, allowing for new possibilities of monitoring cardiovascular function in a non-contact manner. PMID:26440644

  1. In-vivo motion analysis of bi-ventricular hearts from tagged MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyoungju; Axel, Leon; Metaxas, Dimitris N.

    2005-04-01

    We conduct experiments to look at the in-vivo cardiac motion during systole, to visualize heart contraction, and to examine the clinical usefulness. Our model-based technique incorporates subject-specific modeling, motion analysis and the extraction of clinically relevant parameters within one framework. Previous bi-ventricular model based method could only handle up to the mid-ventricles and have a few test-subjects. Our parameterized model includes the LV, RV and up to the basal area for full ventricular motion study. Finite element methods capture cardiac motion by tracking the material points from tagged Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. A number of experiments from ten subjects are evaluated and analyzed. We tested subject several times and compared the resulting parameters to ensure the reproducibility and deviations. The resulting parameters can be used to describe the cardiac motion of normal subjects. The patterns of normal subjects were derived from experiments. While significant shape and motion variations were apparent in normal subjects, the quantitative analysis show typical patterns. Generally, the basal area moves downwards and the apical area contracts towards the cavity. The principal strain analysis describes the directions and magnitudes of maximum shortening, and maximum thickening.

  2. Pulse Inversion Chirp Coded Tissue Harmonic Imaging (PI-CTHI) of Zebrafish Heart Using High Frame Rate Ultrasound Biomicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinhyoung; Huang, Ying; Chen, Ruimin; Lee, Jungwoo; Cummins, Thomas M.; Zhou, Qifa; Lien, Ching-Ling; Shung, K. K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a pulse inversion chirp coded tissue harmonic imaging (PI-CTHI) method for visualizing small animal hearts that provides fine spatial resolution at a high frame rate without sacrificing the echo signal to noise ratio (eSNR). A 40 MHz lithium niobate (LiNbO3) single element transducer is employed to evaluate the performance of PI-CTHI by scanning tungsten wire targets, spherical anechoic voids, and zebrafish hearts. The wire phantom results show that PI-CTHI improves the eSNR by 4 dB from that of conventional pulse inversion tissue harmonic imaging (PI-THI), while still maintaining a spatial resolution of 88 and 110 μm in the axial and lateral directions, respectively. The range side lobe level of PI-CTHI is 11 dB lower than that of band-pass filtered CTHI (or F-CTHI). In the anechoic sphere phantom study, the contrast-to-noise ratio of PI-CTHI is found to be 2.7, indicating a 34% enhancement over conventional PI-THI. Due to such improved eSNR and contrast resolution, blood clots in zebrafish hearts can be readily visualized throughout heart regeneration after 20% of the ventricle is removed. Disappearance of the clots in the early stages of the regeneration has been observed for 7 days without sacrificing the fish. PMID:22930467

  3. High-frequency dual mode pulsed wave Doppler imaging for monitoring the functional regeneration of adult zebrafish hearts

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Bong Jin; Park, Jinhyoung; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Hyung Ham; Lee, Changyang; Hwang, Jae Youn; Lien, Ching-Ling; Shung, K. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Adult zebrafish is a well-known small animal model for studying heart regeneration. Although the regeneration of scars made by resecting the ventricular apex has been visualized with histological methods, there is no adequate imaging tool for tracking the functional recovery of the damaged heart. For this reason, high-frequency Doppler echocardiography using dual mode pulsed wave Doppler, which provides both tissue Doppler (TD) and Doppler flow in a same cardiac cycle, is developed with a 30 MHz high-frequency array ultrasound imaging system. Phantom studies show that the Doppler flow mode of the dual mode is capable of measuring the flow velocity from 0.1 to 15 cm s−1 with high accuracy (p-value = 0.974 > 0.05). In the in vivo study of zebrafish, both TD and Doppler flow signals were simultaneously obtained from the zebrafish heart for the first time, and the synchronized valve motions with the blood flow signals were identified. In the longitudinal study on the zebrafish heart regeneration, the parameters for diagnosing the diastolic dysfunction, for example, E/Em < 10, E/A < 0.14 for wild-type zebrafish, were measured, and the type of diastolic dysfunction caused by the amputation was found to be similar to the restrictive filling. The diastolic function was fully recovered within four weeks post-amputation. PMID:25505135

  4. Clinical nuclear medicine. [Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Matin, P.

    1981-01-01

    ''Clinical Nuclear Medicine'' is an update to the author's ''Handbook of Clinical Nuclear Medicine.'' Sections on placental imaging, bone marrow imaging, biliary tract imaging and scintigraphy are included in the volume. (JMT)

  5. Bone metastases: assessment of therapeutic response through radiological and nuclear medicine imaging modalities.

    PubMed

    Vassiliou, V; Andreopoulos, D; Frangos, S; Tselis, N; Giannopoulou, E; Lutz, S

    2011-11-01

    Radiological and nuclear medicine imaging modalities used for assessing bone metastases treatment response include plain and digitalised radiography (XR), skeletal scintigraphy (SS), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and PET/CT. Here we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these assessment modalities as evident through different clinical trials. Additionally, we present the more established response criteria of the International Union Against Cancer and the World Health Organization and compare them with newer MD Anderson criteria. Even though serial XR and SS have been used to assess the therapeutic response for decades, several months are required before changes are evident. Newer techniques, such as MRI or PET, may allow an earlier evaluation of response that may be quantified through monitoring changes in signal intensity and standard uptake value, respectively. Moreover, the application of PET/CT, which can follow both morphological and metabolic changes, has yielded interesting and promising results that give a new insight into the natural history of metastatic bone disease. However, only a few studies have investigated the application of these newer techniques and further clinical trials are needed to corroborate their promising results and establish the most suitable imaging parameters and evaluation time points. Last, but not least, there is an absolute need to adopt uniform response criteria for bone metastases through an international consensus in order to better assess treatment response in terms of accuracy and objectivity. PMID:21530193

  6. Medical Image Processing Server applied to Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergara, C.; Graffigna, J. P.; Marino, E.; Omati, S.; Holleywell, P.

    2016-04-01

    This paper is framed within the area of medical image processing and aims to present the process of installation, configuration and implementation of a processing server of medical images (MIPS) in the Fundación Escuela de Medicina Nuclear located in Mendoza, Argentina (FUESMEN). It has been developed in the Gabinete de Tecnologia Médica (GA.TE.ME), Facultad de Ingeniería-Universidad Nacional de San Juan. MIPS is a software that using the DICOM standard, can receive medical imaging studies of different modalities or viewing stations, then it executes algorithms and finally returns the results to other devices. To achieve the objectives previously mentioned, preliminary tests were conducted in the laboratory. More over, tools were remotely installed in clinical enviroment. The appropiate protocols for setting up and using them in different services were established once defined those suitable algorithms. Finally, it’s important to focus on the implementation and training that is provided in FUESMEN, using nuclear medicine quality control processes. Results on implementation are exposed in this work.

  7. Application methods of infrared thermal images in the health care field of traditional Chinese medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xusheng

    2008-12-01

    Infrared thermal imaging (ITI) is the potential imaging technique for the health care field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Successful application demands obeying the characteristics and regularity of the ITI of human body and designing rigorous trials. First, the influence of time must be taken into account as the ITI of human body varies with time markedly. Second, relative magnitude is preferred to be the index of the image features. Third, scatter diagrams and the method of least square could present important information for evaluating the health care effect. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial was undertaken to study the influences of Shengsheng capsule, one of the TCM health food with immunity adjustment function, on the ITI of human body. The results showed that the effect of Shengsheng capsule to people with weak constitution or in the period of being weak could be reflected objectively by ITI. The relative efficacy rate was 81.3% for the trial group and 30.0% for the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups (P=0.003). So the sensitivity and objectivity of ITI are of great importance to the health care field of TCM.

  8. Mouse Models of Breast Cancer: Platforms for Discovering Precision Imaging Diagnostics and Future Cancer Medicine.

    PubMed

    Manning, H Charles; Buck, Jason R; Cook, Rebecca S

    2016-02-01

    Representing an enormous health care and socioeconomic challenge, breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the second most common cause of cancer-related death. Although many of the challenges associated with preventing, treating, and ultimately curing breast cancer are addressable in the laboratory, successful translation of groundbreaking research to clinical populations remains an important barrier. Particularly when compared with research on other types of solid tumors, breast cancer research is hampered by a lack of tractable in vivo model systems that accurately recapitulate the relevant clinical features of the disease. A primary objective of this article was to provide a generalizable overview of the types of in vivo model systems, with an emphasis primarily on murine models, that are widely deployed in preclinical breast cancer research. Major opportunities to advance precision cancer medicine facilitated by molecular imaging of preclinical breast cancer models are discussed. PMID:26834104

  9. Mount Etna, heart of the Mediterranean, in science, narrative, and images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behncke, Boris; Patanè, Domenico; Mirella, Turco; Turi, Caggegi; Marco, Aliotta; Alfio, Amantia; Massimo, Cantarero; Francesco, Ciancitto

    2015-04-01

    A keen urge, enticing and potent at the same time, as only real passion can be, had taken hold of our hearts. It was thanks to Etna that we met. It had helped bring together communication, photography and volcanology into one single project, namely to share our emotions and those of the volcano and pass them on to whoever might believe in similar values. Two men and one woman, two Sicilians and one German, on the slopes of the mountain. Chance is the grand master of science, events, coincidences, facts and illusions which come to a crossroads where the spirit may feel at liberty. So here we are then, to tell you of the pulsating heart of a body in constant evolution, about half a million years old, to tell of the red "blood" feeding it, its destructive power, its growth and its dimensions changing in time: all evidence that our planet is very much alive. Because Etna volcano, locally called "Mungibeddu" or "a Muntagna", embodies the vital force of the Earth, to which we owe our existence. We have sought to combine science, narrative and images to meet the tastes of our cultured compatriots, those living beyond the Alps as well as those from overseas. Rightly so, because Etna belongs to humanity, and we have the privilege of dwelling in its arms. We also have the duty and the pleasure to share its existence with the few who may not know it, with the many who would like to understand its unusual aspects in greater depth and with those who walk its paths and explore its precipices perhaps to find their inner selves. The volcano shares the fears of the farm workers and of the inhabitants; it diffuses the intoxicating scent of the earth, air, water and wind. It feeds on the melancholic lullabies of those who have lost a loved one, those who have challenged the laws of nature. And always, at each moment, it is close to us, even as far as the sea of salty air and tears that mothers sometimes weep.

  10. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrition (PDF) Obesity (PDF) Peripheral Artery Disease (PDF) ... statistics, please contact the American Heart Association National Center, Office of Science & Medicine at statistics@heart.org . Please direct all ...

  11. Nuclear Medicine Imaging of Infection in Cancer Patients (With Emphasis on FDG-PET)

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Fidel J.; van der Graaf, Winette T.A.; Oyen, Wim J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Infections are a common cause of death and an even more common cause of morbidity in cancer patients. Timely and adequate diagnosis of infection is very important. This article provides clinicians as well as nuclear medicine specialists with a concise summary of the most important and widely available nuclear medicine imaging techniques for infectious and inflammatory diseases in cancer patients with an emphasis on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). 67Ga-citrate has many unfavorable characteristics, and the development of newer radiopharmaceuticals has resulted in the replacement of 67Ga-citrate scintigraphy by scintigraphy with labeled leukocytes or FDG-PET for the majority of conditions. The sensitivity of labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in non-neutropenic cancer patients is comparable with that in patients without malignancy. The specificity, however, is lower because of the uptake of labeled leukocytes in many primary tumors and metastases, most probably as a result of their inflammatory component. In addition, labeled leukocyte scintigraphy cannot be used for febrile neutropenia because of the inability to harvest sufficient peripheral leukocytes for in vitro labeling. FDG-PET has several advantages over these conventional scintigraphic techniques. FDG-PET has shown its usefulness in diagnosing septic thrombophlebitis in cancer patients. It has also been shown that imaging of infectious processes using FDG-PET is possible in patients with severe neutropenia. Although larger prospective studies examining the value of FDG-PET in cancer patients suspected of infection, especially in those with febrile neutropenia, are needed, FDG-PET appears to be the most promising scintigraphic technique for the diagnosis of infection in this patient group. PMID:21680576

  12. A system for rapid prototyping of hearts with congenital malformations based on the medical imaging interaction toolkit (MITK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Ivo; Böttger, Thomas; Rietdorf, Urte; Maleike, Daniel; Greil, Gerald; Sieverding, Ludger; Miller, Stephan; Mottl-Link, Sibylle; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    2006-03-01

    Precise knowledge of the individual cardiac anatomy is essential for diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart disease. Complex malformations of the heart can best be comprehended not from images but from anatomic specimens. Physical models can be created from data using rapid prototyping techniques, e.g., lasersintering or 3D-printing. We have developed a system for obtaining data that show the relevant cardiac anatomy from high-resolution CT/MR images and are suitable for rapid prototyping. The challenge is to preserve all relevant details unaltered in the produced models. The main anatomical structures of interest are the four heart cavities (atria, ventricles), the valves and the septum separating the cavities, and the great vessels. These can be shown either by reproducing the morphology itself or by producing a model of the blood-pool, thus creating a negative of the morphology. Algorithmically the key issue is segmentation. Practically, possibilities allowing the cardiologist or cardiac surgeon to interactively check and correct the segmentation are even more important due to the complex, irregular anatomy and imaging artefacts. The paper presents the algorithmic and interactive processing steps implemented in the system, which is based on the open-source Medical Imaging Interaction Toolkit (MITK, www.mitk.org). It is shown how the principles used in MITK enable to assemble the system from modules (functionalities) developed independently from each other. The system allows to produce models of the heart (and other anatomic structures) of individual patients as well as to reproduce unique specimens from pathology collections for teaching purposes.

  13. Denial and Self-Image in Stroke, Lung Cancer, and Heart Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Jacob; Zigler, Edward

    1975-01-01

    Stroke, lung cancer, and heart disease patients were found to employ denial, as indicated by the relatively small difference between their real and ideal selves before and after the onset of illness. The greatest amount of denial was found for stroke patients. Cancer patients displayed more denial than did heart patients. (Author)

  14. Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Left-Sided Breast Cancer Patients: Geometrical Uncertainty of the Heart

    SciTech Connect

    Topolnjak, Rajko; Borst, Gerben R.; Nijkamp, Jasper

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To quantify the geometrical uncertainties for the heart during radiotherapy treatment of left-sided breast cancer patients and to determine and validate planning organ at risk volume (PRV) margins. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two patients treated in supine position in 28 fractions with regularly acquired cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans for offline setup correction were included. Retrospectively, the CBCT scans were reconstructed into 10-phase respiration correlated four-dimensional scans. The heart was registered in each breathing phase to the planning CT scan to establish the respiratory heart motion during the CBCT scan ({sigma}{sub resp}). The average of the respiratory motion was calculated as the heart displacement error for a fraction. Subsequently, the systematic ({Sigma}), random ({sigma}), and total random ({sigma}{sub tot}={radical}({sigma}{sup 2}+{sigma}{sub resp}{sup 2})) errors of the heart position were calculated. Based on the errors a PRV margin for the heart was calculated to ensure that the maximum heart dose (D{sub max}) is not underestimated in at least 90% of the cases (M{sub heart} = 1.3{Sigma}-0.5{sigma}{sub tot}). All analysis were performed in left-right (LR), craniocaudal (CC), and anteroposterior (AP) directions with respect to both online and offline bony anatomy setup corrections. The PRV margin was validated by accumulating the dose to the heart based on the heart registrations and comparing the planned PRV D{sub max} to the accumulated heart D{sub max}. Results: For online setup correction, the cardiac geometrical uncertainties and PRV margins were N-Ary-Summation = 2.2/3.2/2.1 mm, {sigma} = 2.1/2.9/1.4 mm, and M{sub heart} = 1.6/2.3/1.3 mm for LR/CC/AP, respectively. For offline setup correction these were N-Ary-Summation = 2.4/3.7/2.2 mm, {sigma} = 2.9/4.1/2.7 mm, and M{sub heart} = 1.6/2.1/1.4 mm. Cardiac motion induced by breathing was {sigma}{sub resp} = 1.4/2.9/1.4 mm for LR/CC/AP. The PRV D{sub max

  15. Compressed sensing reconstruction for whole-heart imaging with 3D radial trajectories: a graphics processing unit implementation.

    PubMed

    Nam, Seunghoon; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Basha, Tamer; Stehning, Christian; Manning, Warren J; Tarokh, Vahid; Nezafat, Reza

    2013-01-01

    A disadvantage of three-dimensional (3D) isotropic acquisition in whole-heart coronary MRI is the prolonged data acquisition time. Isotropic 3D radial trajectories allow undersampling of k-space data in all three spatial dimensions, enabling accelerated acquisition of the volumetric data. Compressed sensing (CS) reconstruction can provide further acceleration in the acquisition by removing the incoherent artifacts due to undersampling and improving the image quality. However, the heavy computational overhead of the CS reconstruction has been a limiting factor for its application. In this article, a parallelized implementation of an iterative CS reconstruction method for 3D radial acquisitions using a commercial graphics processing unit is presented. The execution time of the graphics processing unit-implemented CS reconstruction was compared with that of the C++ implementation, and the efficacy of the undersampled 3D radial acquisition with CS reconstruction was investigated in both phantom and whole-heart coronary data sets. Subsequently, the efficacy of CS in suppressing streaking artifacts in 3D whole-heart coronary MRI with 3D radial imaging and its convergence properties were studied. The CS reconstruction provides improved image quality (in terms of vessel sharpness and suppression of noise-like artifacts) compared with the conventional 3D gridding algorithm, and the graphics processing unit implementation greatly reduces the execution time of CS reconstruction yielding 34-54 times speed-up compared with C++ implementation. PMID:22392604

  16. 1NON-INVASIVE RADIOIODINE IMAGING FOR ACCURATE QUANTITATION OF NIS REPORTER GENE EXPRESSION IN TRANSPLANTED HEARTS

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Davide; Mennander, Ari A; Pham, Linh D; Rao, Vinay P; Miyagi, Naoto; Byrne, Guerard W; Russell, Stephen J; McGregor, Christopher GA

    2008-01-01

    Objectives We studied the concordance of transgene expression in the transplanted heart using bicistronic adenoviral vector coding for a transgene of interest (human carcinoembryonic antigen: hCEA - beta human chorionic gonadotropin: βhCG) and for a marker imaging transgene (human sodium iodide symporter: hNIS). Methods Inbred Lewis rats were used for syngeneic heterotopic cardiac transplantation. Donor rat hearts were perfused ex vivo for 30 minutes prior to transplantation with University of Wisconsin (UW) solution (n=3), with 109 pfu/ml of adenovirus expressing hNIS (Ad-NIS; n=6), hNIS-hCEA (Ad-NIS-CEA; n=6) and hNIS-βhCG (Ad-NIS-CG; n=6). On post-operative day (POD) 5, 10, 15 all animals underwent micro-SPECT/CT imaging of the donor hearts after tail vein injection of 1000 μCi 123I and blood sample collection for hCEA and βhCG quantification. Results Significantly higher image intensity was noted in the hearts perfused with Ad-NIS (1.1±0.2; 0.9±0.07), Ad-NIS-CEA (1.2±0.3; 0.9±0.1) and Ad-NIS-CG (1.1±0.1; 0.9±0.1) compared to UW group (0.44±0.03; 0.47±0.06) on POD 5 and 10 (p<0.05). Serum levels of hCEA and βhCG increased in animals showing high cardiac 123I uptake, but not in those with lower uptake. Above this threshold, image intensities correlated well with serum levels of hCEA and βhCG (R2=0.99 and R2=0.96 respectively). Conclusions These data demonstrate that hNIS is an excellent reporter gene for the transplanted heart. The expression level of hNIS can be accurately and non-invasively monitored by serial radioisotopic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. High concordance has been demonstrated between imaging and soluble marker peptides at the maximum transgene expression on POD 5. PMID:17980613

  17. Imaging in the aging eye

    SciTech Connect

    Elsner, Ann E.; Remky, Andreas; Walker, Joseph P.; Wing, Glenn L.; Kelley, Linda M.; Kiesel, Cheryl

    2000-07-01

    Retinal imaging may seem a simple endeavor, given that the eye is far more transparent and accessible than internal organs such as the heart. Optical imaging techniques allow high resolution, with measurements of living tissues reported in microns, in comparison to magnetic resonance imaging. Most retinal imaging techniques are less invasive than endoscopy. There is a long-standing acceptance of retinal imaging as an important set of techniques in research and medicine.(c) 2000 Optical Society of America.

  18. Nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-10-17

    In 1985 and 1986 nuclear medicine became more and more oriented toward in vov chemistry, chiefly as a result of advances in positron emission tomography (PET). The most important trend was the extension of PET technology into the care of patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, and heart disease. A second trend was the increasing use of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

  19. Detection of coronary artery disease by vasodilator thallium imaging of the heart with amyl nitrite inhalation: a pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Rifkin, R.D.; Sharma, S.C.; Spraragen, S.; Claunch, B.; Shackford, H.; Patton, R. )

    1991-01-01

    Thallium imaging of the heart using dipyridamole-induced coronary arteriolar vasodilation has proven to be an effective means of detecting significant coronary stenosis. However, intravenous dipyridamole has not yet been made available for general use. We therefore examined the feasibility of substituting amyl nitrite inhalation as an arteriolar vasodilator prior to thallium imaging. Seventeen patients, all of whom had catheterization-proven coronary stenosis, inhaled amyl nitrite for 2-5 min. Thallium was injected after 45-60 s of inhalation. Completion of inhalation was followed immediately by planar imaging. Of 6 patients who inhaled amyl nitrite for at least 4 min, 5 had moderate or severe image defects on immediate scans which completely resolved on delayed scans. Only 3 of 11 who inhaled amyl nitrite for 2 min or less prior to scanning had similarly positive tests. Overall sensitivity for significant stenosis was 8 of 17 (47%). Inhalation was well tolerated with only one episode of angina and hypotension. We conclude that amyl nitrite inhalation for at least 4 min may offer an effective and readily available alternative to intravenous dipyridamole for vasodilator imaging of the heart.

  20. [Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging during adenosine-induced coronary vasodilation in patients with ischemic heart disease].

    PubMed

    Takeishi, Y; Chiba, J; Abe, S; Ikeda, K; Tonooka, I; Komatani, A; Takahashi, K; Nakagawa, Y; Shiraishi, T; Tomoike, H

    1992-09-01

    201Tl myocardial perfusion imaging during adenosine infusion was performed in consecutive 55 patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Adenosine was infused intravenously at a rate of 0.14 mg/kg/min for 6 minutes and a dose of 111 MBq of 201Tl was administered in a separate vein at the end of third minute of infusion. Myocardial SPECT imaging was begun 5 minutes and 3 hours after the end of adenosine infusion. For evaluating the presence of perfusion defects, 2 short axis images at the basal and apical levels and a vertical long axis image at the mid left ventricle were used. The regions with decreased 201Tl uptake were assessed semi-quantitatively. Adenosine infusion caused a slight reduction in systolic blood pressure and an increase in heart rate. The rate pressure products increased slightly (9314 +/- 2377 vs. 10360 +/- 2148, p < 0.001). Chest pain (24%) and headache (13%) were the frequent side effects. The second-degree atrioventricular block was developed in 11 of 55 (20%) patients. All symptoms and hemodynamic changes were well tolerated and disappeared within 1 or 2 minutes after discontinuing adenosine infusion. The sensitivity and specificity for the detection of patients with coronary artery disease were 100% (31/31) and 88% (7/8), respectively. 201Tl myocardial imaging during adenosine infusion was considered to be safe and useful for evaluating the patients with ischemic heart disease. PMID:1453559

  1. Clinical and Research Considerations for Patients With Hypertensive Acute Heart Failure: A Consensus Statement from the Society of Academic Emergency Medicine and the Heart Failure Society of America Acute Heart Failure Working Group.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sean P; Levy, Phillip D; Martindale, Jennifer L; Dunlap, Mark E; Storrow, Alan B; Pang, Peter S; Albert, Nancy M; Felker, G Michael; Fermann, Gregory J; Fonarow, Gregg C; Givertz, Michael M; Hollander, Judd E; Lanfear, David J; Lenihan, Daniel J; Lindenfeld, JoAnn M; Peacock, W Frank; Sawyer, Douglas B; Teerlink, John R; Butler, Javed

    2016-08-01

    Management approaches for patients in the emergency department (ED) who present with acute heart failure (AHF) have largely focused on intravenous diuretics. Yet, the primary pathophysiologic derangement underlying AHF in many patients is not solely volume overload. Patients with hypertensive AHF (H-AHF) represent a clinical phenotype with distinct pathophysiologic mechanisms that result in elevated ventricular filling pressures. To optimize treatment response and minimize adverse events in this subgroup, we propose that clinical management be tailored to a conceptual model of disease based on these mechanisms. This consensus statement reviews the relevant pathophysiology, clinical characteristics, approach to therapy, and considerations for clinical trials in ED patients with H-AHF. PMID:27262665

  2. Give your heart a workout

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Exercise - heart workout References American College of Sports Medicine. Perceived Exertion. http://www.acsm.org/docs/current- ... pdf. Accessed April 1, 2014.American College of Sports Medicine. Perceived Exertion. http://www.acsm.org/docs/current- ...

  3. Medicine and law as model professions: the heart of the matter (and how we have missed it).

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Rob

    2013-01-01

    This article has two coordinate goals: to undergird the functionalist understanding of professionalism with classical normative theory and to advance the classical theory of civic virtue with the insights of modern social science. More specifically, this article seeks to connect classical theories about the care of the body and the soul with modern theories of market and government failure. The first step is to distinguish two kinds of professions, caring professions like medicine and public professions like law, by identifying the distinctive virtue of each. The distinctive virtue of the caring professions is single-minded commitment to those in their care, their principals, to the virtual exclusion of all other concerns; the distinctive virtue of the public professions is commitment to the common good, sometimes even at the expense of their principals' self-defined interest. The next step is to show how these two distinctive professional virtues, the one principal-protecting, the other public-protecting, branch from the same root, the common function of all proper professions: guaranteeing the delivery of socially essential but necessarily esoteric knowledge when the usual protections of both private contracts and government regulation systematically fail. The third and final step is to map out the implications of this neo-classical understanding of professionalism, beginning at its core in the paradigmatic caring and public professions of medicine and law, through putative professions that take these as their models, to the kind of republican society that places care of individuals and concern for the public welfare at the center of its value system. The result of this analysis should be not only a fuller theoretical appreciation of professionalism's proper function, but also a practical guide to professionals themselves for better service to both the individuals in their care and the common good of all humankind. PMID:23668095

  4. A Spartan 6 FPGA-based data acquisition system for dedicated imagers in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fysikopoulos, E.; Loudos, G.; Georgiou, M.; David, S.; Matsopoulos, G.

    2012-12-01

    We present the development of a four-channel low-cost hardware system for data acquisition, with application in dedicated nuclear medicine imagers. A 12 bit octal channel high-speed analogue to digital converter, with up to 65 Msps sampling rate, was used for the digitization of analogue signals. The digitized data are fed into a field programmable gate array (FPGA), which contains an interface to a bank of double data rate 2 (DDR2)-type memory. The FPGA processes the digitized data and stores the results into the DDR2. An ethernet link was used for data transmission to a personal computer. The embedded system was designed using Xilinx's embedded development kit (EDK) and was based on Xilinx's Microblaze soft-core processor. The system has been evaluated using two different discrete optical detector arrays (a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube and a silicon photomultiplier) with two different pixelated scintillator arrays (BGO, LSO:Ce). The energy resolution for both detectors was approximately 25%. A clear identification of all crystal elements was achieved in all cases. The data rate of the system with this implementation can reach 60 Mbits s-1. The results have shown that this FPGA data acquisition system is a compact and flexible solution for single-photon-detection applications. This paper was originally submitted for inclusion in the special feature on Imaging Systems and Techniques 2011.

  5. [Non-destructive detection research for hollow heart of potato based on semi-transmission hyperspectral imaging and SVM].

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Li, Xiao-yu; Xu, Meng-ling; Jin, Rui; Ku, Jing; Xu, Sen-miao; Wu, Zhen-zhong

    2015-01-01

    The quality of potato is directly related to their edible value and industrial value. Hollow heart of potato, as a physiological disease occurred inside the tuber, is difficult to be detected. This paper put forward a non-destructive detection method by using semi-transmission hyperspectral imaging with support vector machine (SVM) to detect hollow heart of potato. Compared to reflection and transmission hyperspectral image, semi-transmission hyperspectral image can get clearer image which contains the internal quality information of agricultural products. In this study, 224 potato samples (149 normal samples and 75 hollow samples) were selected as the research object, and semi-transmission hyperspectral image acquisition system was constructed to acquire the hyperspectral images (390-1 040 nn) of the potato samples, and then the average spectrum of region of interest were extracted for spectral characteristics analysis. Normalize was used to preprocess the original spectrum, and prediction model were developed based on SVM using all wave bands, the accurate recognition rate of test set is only 87. 5%. In order to simplify the model competitive.adaptive reweighed sampling algorithm (CARS) and successive projection algorithm (SPA) were utilized to select important variables from the all 520 spectral variables and 8 variables were selected (454, 601, 639, 664, 748, 827, 874 and 936 nm). 94. 64% of the accurate recognition rate of test set was obtained by using the 8 variables to develop SVM model. Parameter optimization algorithms, including artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA), genetic algorithm (GA) and grid search algorithm, were used to optimize the SVM model parameters: penalty parameter c and kernel parameter g. After comparative analysis, AFSA, a new bionic optimization algorithm based on the foraging behavior of fish swarm, was proved to get the optimal model parameter (c=10. 659 1, g=0. 349 7), and the recognition accuracy of 10% were obtained for the AFSA

  6. Early management of patients with acute heart failure: state of the art and future directions. A consensus document from the society for academic emergency medicine/heart failure society of America acute heart failure working group.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sean; Storrow, Alan B; Albert, Nancy M; Butler, Javed; Ezekowitz, Justin; Felker, G Michael; Fermann, Gregory J; Fonarow, Gregg C; Givertz, Michael M; Hiestand, Brian; Hollander, Judd E; Lanfear, David E; Levy, Phillip D; Pang, Peter S; Peacock, W Frank; Sawyer, Douglas B; Teerlink, John R; Lenihan, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) afflicts nearly 6 million Americans, resulting in one million emergency department (ED) visits and over one million annual hospital discharges. An aging population and improved survival from cardiovascular diseases is expected to further increase HF prevalence. Emergency providers play a significant role in the management of patients with acute heart failure (AHF). It is crucial that emergency physicians and other providers involved in early management understand the latest developments in diagnostic testing, therapeutics and alternatives to hospitalization. Further, clinical trials must be conducted in the ED in order to improve the evidence base and drive optimal initial therapy for AHF. Should ongoing and future studies suggest early phenotype-driven therapy improves in-hospital and post-discharge outcomes, ED treatment decisions will need to evolve accordingly. The potential impact of future studies which incorporate risk-stratification into ED disposition decisions cannot be underestimated. Predictive instruments that identify a cohort of patients safe for ED discharge, while simultaneously addressing barriers to successful outpatient management, have the potential to significantly impact quality of life and resource expenditures. PMID:25042620

  7. Is hybridic positron emission tomography/computerized tomography the only option? The future of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Grammaticos, Philip; Zerva, Cherry; Asteriadis, Ioannis; Trontzos, Christos; Hatziioannou, Kostas

    2007-01-01

    sources of radiation" b) nuclear radiation and c) molecular nuclear medicine. The "European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging" shall have to erase the three last words of its title and be renamed. As Professor Abass Alavi et al (2007), have mentioned: "Is PET/CT the only option?" In favor of PET/CT are the following: Attenuation correction (AC) and better anatomical localization of lesions visualized with PET. Also PET/CT can be used as a diagnostic CT scanner (dCT). Against using the PET/CT scanners are the following arguments: a) This equipment is not necessary because we can always ask the Radiologists for a dCT scan. Many patients have already done a dCT scan at the time they are referred for a PET scan to the Nuclear Medicine Department. b) The absolute clinical indications for PET/CT with the use of a contrast agent, are under investigation. c) Although there is at present a list of indications suggested for the PET/CT scanner, there are studies disputing some of these indications, as for example in metastatic colon cancer where a high diagnostic accuracy for PET study alone, has been reported. d) The option of AC performed by the PET/CT scanner has also been questioned. Artifacts may be up to 84%. e) The PET/CT is expensive, time consuming, space occupying, and needs additional medical and technical personnel. f) Not to mention the extra radiation dose to the patients. g) Shall we inform those young medical students who wish to become nuclear medicine physicians, to hold their decision till the content of future Nuclear Medicine is clarified? We may suggest that: Our specialty could be renamed as: "Clinical Nuclear Medicine" and include additional "proper certified education" on the PET/CT equipment. The PET/CT scanner should remain in the Nuclear Medicine Department where Radiologists could act as advisors. PMID:17684579

  8. Heart Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Connected Home » Heart Health Heath and Aging Heart Health Your Heart Changes to Your Heart With ... are both taking steps toward heart health. Your Heart Your heart is a strong muscle about the ...

  9. A system for seismocardiography-based identification of quiescent heart phases: implications for cardiac imaging.

    PubMed

    Wick, Carson A; Su, Jin-Jyh; McClellan, James H; Brand, Oliver; Bhatti, Pamela T; Buice, Ashley L; Stillman, Arthur E; Tang, Xiangyang; Tridandapani, Srini

    2012-09-01

    Seismocardiography (SCG), a representation of mechanical heart motion, may more accurately determine periods of cardiac quiescence within a cardiac cycle than the electrically derived electrocardiogram (EKG) and, thus, may have implications for gating in cardiac computed tomography. We designed and implemented a system to synchronously acquire echocardiography, EKG, and SCG data. The device was used to study the variability between EKG and SCG and characterize the relationship between the mechanical and electrical activity of the heart. For each cardiac cycle, the feature of the SCG indicating Aortic Valve Closure was identified and its time position with respect to the EKG was observed. This position was found to vary for different heart rates and between two human subjects. A color map showing the magnitude of the SCG acceleration and computed velocity was derived, allowing for direct visualization of quiescent phases of the cardiac cycle with respect to heart rate. PMID:22581141

  10. Endocardial Remodeling in Heart Failure Patients with Impaired and Preserved Left Ventricular Systolic Function-A Magnetic Resonance Image Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lian-Yu; Su, Mao-Yuan M.; Pham, Van-Truong; Tran, Thi-Thao; Wang, Yung-Hung; Tseng, Wen-Yih I.; Lo, Men-Tzung; Lin, Jiunn-Lee

    2016-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) trabeculation has been studied in certain forms of cardiomyopathy. However, the changes of LV endocardial trabeculation during the remodeling process leading to heart failure (HF) are unclear. Seventy-four patients with systolic heart failure (SHF), 65 with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and 61 without HF were prospectively enrolled. All subjects received magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study including cine, T1 and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images. Trabecular-papillary muscle (TPM) mass, fractal dimension (FD) and extracellular volume (ECV) were derived. The results showed that TPM mass index was higher in patients with SHF than that in patients with HFpEF and non-HF. The TPM mass-LV mass ratio (TPMm/LVM) was higher in SHF group than that in HFpEF and non-HF. FD was not different among groups. The presence of LGE was inversely associated with TPM mass index and TPMm/LVM while the ECV were positively associated with TPMm/LVM. The FD was positively associated with LV chamber size. In conclusion, TPM increases in patients with SHF and are probably related to myocardial cell hypertrophy and fibrotic repair during remodeling. The FD increases with the dilatation of LV chamber but remain unchanged with the deterioration of LV function. PMID:26876005

  11. Fiber Bragg grating-based sensor for monitoring respiration and heart activity during magnetic resonance imaging examinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziuda, Łukasz; Skibniewski, Franciszek W.; Krej, Mariusz; Baran, Paulina M.

    2013-05-01

    We present a fiber-optic sensor for monitoring respiration and heart activity designed to operate in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) environment. The sensor employs a Plexiglas springboard, which converts movements of the patient's body lying on the board (i.e., lung- and heart-induced vibrations) to strain, where a fiber Bragg grating attached to the board is used to measure this strain. Experimental studies are carried out during thoracic spine MRI examinations. The presence of the metal-free sensor construction in the MRI environment does not pose a threat to the patient and has no influence over the quality of imaging, and the signal is identical to that obtained without any electromagnetic interference. The results show that the sensor is able to accurately reflect the ballistocardiographic signal, enabling determinations of the respiration rate (RR) and heart rate (HR). The data delivered by the sensor are normally distributed on the Bland-Altman plot for the characteristic point determination and exhibit clear dependence on the RR and HR values for the RR and HR determinations, respectively. Measurement accuracies are better than 7% of the average values, and thus, with further development, the sensor will be implemented in routine MRI examinations.

  12. Endocardial Remodeling in Heart Failure Patients with Impaired and Preserved Left Ventricular Systolic Function--A Magnetic Resonance Image Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lian-Yu; Su, Mao-Yuan M; Pham, Van-Truong; Tran, Thi-Thao; Wang, Yung-Hung; Tseng, Wen-Yih I; Lo, Men-Tzung; Lin, Jiunn-Lee

    2016-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) trabeculation has been studied in certain forms of cardiomyopathy. However, the changes of LV endocardial trabeculation during the remodeling process leading to heart failure (HF) are unclear. Seventy-four patients with systolic heart failure (SHF), 65 with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and 61 without HF were prospectively enrolled. All subjects received magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study including cine, T1 and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images. Trabecular-papillary muscle (TPM) mass, fractal dimension (FD) and extracellular volume (ECV) were derived. The results showed that TPM mass index was higher in patients with SHF than that in patients with HFpEF and non-HF. The TPM mass-LV mass ratio (TPMm/LVM) was higher in SHF group than that in HFpEF and non-HF. FD was not different among groups. The presence of LGE was inversely associated with TPM mass index and TPMm/LVM while the ECV were positively associated with TPMm/LVM. The FD was positively associated with LV chamber size. In conclusion, TPM increases in patients with SHF and are probably related to myocardial cell hypertrophy and fibrotic repair during remodeling. The FD increases with the dilatation of LV chamber but remain unchanged with the deterioration of LV function. PMID:26876005

  13. Left heart catheterization

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bonow RO. Cardiac catheterization. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook ... arteriography and intracoronary imaging In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook ...

  14. High-throughput screening of zebrafish embryos using automated heart detection and imaging.

    PubMed

    Spomer, Waldemar; Pfriem, Alexander; Alshut, Rüdiger; Just, Steffen; Pylatiuk, Christian

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decade, the zebrafish has become a key model organism in genetic screenings and drug discovery. A number of genes have been identified to affect the development of the shape and functioning of the heart, leading to zebrafish mutants with heart defects. The development of semiautomated microscopy systems has allowed for the investigation of drugs that reverse a disease phenotype on a larger scale. However, there is a lack of automated feature detection, and commercially available computer-aided microscopes are expensive. Screening of the zebrafish heart for drug discovery typically includes the identification of heart parameters, such as the frequency or fractional shortening. Until now, screening processes have been characterized by manual handling of the larvae and manual microscopy. Here, an intelligent robotic microscope is presented, which automatically identifies the orientation of a zebrafish in a micro well. A predefined region of interest, such as the heart, is detected automatically, and a video with higher magnification is recorded. Screening of a 96-well plate takes 35 to 55 min, depending on the length of the videos. Of the zebrafish hearts, 75% are recorded accurately without any user interaction. A description of the system, including the graphical user interface, is given. PMID:23053930

  15. Brain-heart interactions: challenges and opportunities with functional magnetic resonance imaging at ultra-high field.

    PubMed

    Chang, Catie; Raven, Erika P; Duyn, Jeff H

    2016-05-13

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at ultra-high field (UHF) strengths (7 T and above) offers unique opportunities for studying the human brain with increased spatial resolution, contrast and sensitivity. However, its reliability can be compromised by factors such as head motion, image distortion and non-neural fluctuations of the functional MRI signal. The objective of this review is to provide a critical discussion of the advantages and trade-offs associated with UHF imaging, focusing on the application to studying brain-heart interactions. We describe how UHF MRI may provide contrast and resolution benefits for measuring neural activity of regions involved in the control and mediation of autonomic processes, and in delineating such regions based on anatomical MRI contrast. Limitations arising from confounding signals are discussed, including challenges with distinguishing non-neural physiological effects from the neural signals of interest that reflect cardiorespiratory function. We also consider how recently developed data analysis techniques may be applied to high-field imaging data to uncover novel information about brain-heart interactions. PMID:27044994

  16. Consumption of medicinal plants by patients with heart diseases at a pharmacist-managed anticoagulation clinic in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leite, Paula Mendonça; Castilho, Rachel Oliveira; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho; Martins, Maria Auxiliadora Parreiras

    2016-04-01

    Background Medicinal plants (MP) have been used for many years with the purpose of feeding and curing. Several MP may interfere in drug response and are not always considered as potential drug-interactors in clinical practice. Objective To investigate the consumption of MP by outpatients during a one-year follow-up. Method Patients with cardiopathy diagnosis and indication(s) for long-term use of warfarin were recruited at a pharmacist-managed anticoagulation clinic of a Brazilian public hospital. This research employed a descriptive method. The consumption of MP was examined regarding the type, frequency and forms of use. Results A total of 280 patients were studied. Most patients were female (54.6 %) with an average age of 56.8 ± 13.1 years. The consumption of MP was reported by 46 (16.4 %) patients, totalizing 59 occurrences. Lemon, lemon balm and plantain were the most common MP. The main pharmacological uses involved the digestive, urinary, and respiratory tracts. Tea was the predominant form of consumption (87 %). Twelve (33.3 %) plants presented potential herb-warfarin interactions according to the literature. Conclusion We described the consumption of MP among outpatients characterized by their complex disease status, propensity for adverse events, and socioeconomic limitations. These results may guide pharmacist interventions and procedures to prevent clinical complications. PMID:26941093

  17. Conventional and Nuclear Medicine Imaging in Ectopic Cushing's Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Isidori, Andrea M.; Sbardella, Emilia; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Boschetti, Mara; Vitale, Giovanni; Colao, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Context: Ectopic Cushing's Syndrome (ECS) can be a diagnostic challenge with the hormonal source difficult to find. This study analyzes the accuracy of imaging studies in ECS localization. Evidence Acquisition: Systematic review of medical literature for ECS case series providing individual patient data on at least one conventional imaging technique (computed tomography [CT]/magnetic resonance imaging) and one of the following: 111In-pentetreotide (OCT), 131I/123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine, 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), 18F-fluorodopa-PET (F-DOPA-PET), 68Ga-DOTATATE-PET/CT or 68Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT scan (68Gallium-SSTR-PET/CT). Evidence Summary: The analysis comprised 231 patients (females, 50.2%; age, 42.6 ± 17 y). Overall, 52.4% (121/231) had “overt” ECS, 18.6% had “occult” ECS, and 29% had “covert” ECS. Tumors were located in the lung (55.3%), mediastinum-thymus (7.9%), pancreas (8.5%), adrenal glands (6.4%), gastrointestinal tract (5.4%), thyroid (3.7%), and other sites (12.8%), and primary tumors were mostly bronchial neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) (54.8%), pancreatic NETs (8%), mediastinum-thymus NETs (6.9%), gastrointestinal NETs (5.3%), pheochromocytoma (6.4%), neuroblastoma (3.2%), and medullary thyroid carcinoma (3.2%). Tumors were localized by CT in 66.2% (137/207), magnetic resonance imaging in 51.5% (53/103), OCT in 48.9% (84/172), FDG-PET in 51.7% (46/89), F-DOPA-PET in 57.1% (12/21), 131/123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine in 30.8% (4/13), and 68Gallium-SSTR-PET/CT in 81.8% (18/22) of cases. Molecular imaging discovered 79.1% (53/67) of tumors unidentified by conventional radiology, with OCT the most commonly used, revealing the tumor in 64%, followed by FDG-PET in 59.4%. F-DOPA-PET was used in only seven covert cases (sensitivity, 85.7%). Notably, 68Gallium-SSTR-PET/CT had 100% sensitivity among covert cases. Conclusions: Nuclear medicine improves the sensitivity of conventional radiology when tumor site

  18. Heart PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... A PET scan requires a small amount of radioactive material (tracer). This tracer is given through a vein (IV), ...

  19. Complex Networks Approach for Analyzing the Correlation of Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome Evolvement and Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Stable Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhuye; Li, Siwei; Jiao, Yang; Zhou, Xuezhong; Fu, Changgeng; Shi, Dazhuo; Chen, Keji

    2015-01-01

    This is a multicenter prospective cohort study to analyze the correlation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome evolvement and cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD). The impact of syndrome evolvement on cardiovascular events during the 6-month and 12-month follow-up was analyzed using complex networks approach. Results of verification using Chi-square test showed that the occurrence of cardiovascular events was positively correlated with syndrome evolvement when it evolved from toxic syndrome to Qi deficiency, blood stasis, or sustained toxic syndrome, when it evolved from Qi deficiency to blood stasis, toxic syndrome, or sustained Qi deficiency, and when it evolved from blood stasis to Qi deficiency. Blood stasis, Qi deficiency, and toxic syndrome are important syndrome factors for stable CHD. There are positive correlations between cardiovascular events and syndrome evolution from toxic syndrome to Qi deficiency or blood stasis, from Qi deficiency to blood stasis, or toxic syndrome and from blood stasis to Qi deficiency. These results indicate that stable CHD patients with pathogenesis of toxin consuming Qi, toxin leading to blood stasis, and mutual transformation of Qi deficiency and blood stasis are prone to recurrent cardiovascular events. PMID:25821500

  20. Analysis and Recognition of Traditional Chinese Medicine Pulse Based on the Hilbert-Huang Transform and Random Forest in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; Wang, Yiqin; Yan, Hanxia; Yan, Jianjun; Yuan, Fengyin; Xu, Zhaoxia; Liu, Guoping; Xu, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This research provides objective and quantitative parameters of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) pulse conditions for distinguishing between patients with the coronary heart disease (CHD) and normal people by using the proposed classification approach based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) and random forest. Methods. The energy and the sample entropy features were extracted by applying the HHT to TCM pulse by treating these pulse signals as time series. By using the random forest classifier, the extracted two types of features and their combination were, respectively, used as input data to establish classification model. Results. Statistical results showed that there were significant differences in the pulse energy and sample entropy between the CHD group and the normal group. Moreover, the energy features, sample entropy features, and their combination were inputted as pulse feature vectors; the corresponding average recognition rates were 84%, 76.35%, and 90.21%, respectively. Conclusion. The proposed approach could be appropriately used to analyze pulses of patients with CHD, which can lay a foundation for research on objective and quantitative criteria on disease diagnosis or Zheng differentiation. PMID:26180536

  1. Heart Health - Brave Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Brave Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... you can have a good life after a heart attack." Lifestyle Changes Surviving—and thriving—after such ...

  2. Performance of simultaneous cardiac-respiratory self-gated three-dimensional MR imaging of the heart: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Manka, Robert; Buehrer, Martin; Boesiger, Peter; Fleck, Eckart; Kozerke, Sebastian

    2010-06-01

    This study was approved by the local institutional ethics committee, and informed consent was obtained from all volunteers and patients. The objective of the present study was to assess the performance of high-spatial-resolution three-dimensional prospective cardiac-respiratory self-gated (CRSG) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for determining left ventricular (LV) volumes and mass, as well as right ventricular (RV) volumes, in comparison with standard electrocardiography (ECG)-triggered, two-dimensional multisection, multiple-breath-hold cine imaging. The self-gated method derives cardiac triggering and respiratory gating information prospectively on the basis of additional MR imaging signals acquired in every repetition time and, thereby, eliminates the need for ECG triggering and multiple-breath-hold procedures. Data were acquired in 15 healthy volunteers (mean age, 27.2 years +/- 7.2 [standard deviation]) and 11 patients (mean age, 60.7 years +/- 11.3). The bias between the self-gating and the reference imaging techniques was minimal for all LV and RV parameters (mean values: LV end-diastolic volume, 2.0 mL; LV end-systolic volume, 0.6 mL; RV end-diastolic volume, 2.2 mL; and RV end-systolic volume, 0.8 mL). Prospective CRSG is a valuable alternative to ECG-triggered, multisection, multiple-breath-hold cine imaging of the heart and holds considerable promise for simplifying functional imaging of the heart, particularly in patients who are unable to hold their breath for a long period and patients who show ECG signal disturbances. PMID:20501728

  3. New Perspectives Offered by Nuclear Medicine for the Imaging and Therapy of Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Mesguich, Charles; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Hindié, Elif

    2016-01-01

    The management of multiple myeloma has fundamentally changed over the years and imaging techniques able to match the therapeutic advances are now much needed. Although many patients now achieve complete response after first-line treatment, relapse is common. Therefore, it would be important to improve the initial prognostic stratification and to detect minimal residual disease after treatment. 18F-FDG-PET/CT is a useful imaging tool which has a high prognostic value at baseline evaluation and can effectively differentiate active from inactive lesions during induction treatment or after autologous stem-cell transplantation. In combination with biological data, it improves the prediction of relapse. Other PET tracers may soon enter clinical practice and overcome some of the limitations of 18F-FDG, such as the low sensitivity in detecting early bone marrow infiltration. Excellent results with 11C-Methionine are reported by Lapa and colleagues in this issue of the Journal. 11C-Methionine uptake reflects the increased protein synthesis of malignant plasmocytes and correlates well with bone marrow infiltration. Other promising PET ligands include lipid tracers, such as 11C-Choline or 11C-acetate, and some peptide tracers, such as 68Ga-Pentixafor, that targets CXCR4 (chemokine receptor-4), which is often expressed with high density by myeloma cells. Malignant plasma cells are radiosensitive and thus potentially amenable to systemic radionuclide therapy. Indeed, excellent preclinical results were obtained with radioimmunotherapy targeting CD38. Also, preliminary clinical results with peptides targeting CXCR4 (e.g. 177Lu- or 90Y-Pentixather) are encouraging. Multiple myeloma may represent a renewal of the already strong partnership between hematologists and nuclear medicine physicians. PMID:26877786

  4. New Perspectives Offered by Nuclear Medicine for the Imaging and Therapy of Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Mesguich, Charles; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Hindié, Elif

    2016-01-01

    The management of multiple myeloma has fundamentally changed over the years and imaging techniques able to match the therapeutic advances are now much needed. Although many patients now achieve complete response after first-line treatment, relapse is common. Therefore, it would be important to improve the initial prognostic stratification and to detect minimal residual disease after treatment. (18)F-FDG-PET/CT is a useful imaging tool which has a high prognostic value at baseline evaluation and can effectively differentiate active from inactive lesions during induction treatment or after autologous stem-cell transplantation. In combination with biological data, it improves the prediction of relapse. Other PET tracers may soon enter clinical practice and overcome some of the limitations of (18)F-FDG, such as the low sensitivity in detecting early bone marrow infiltration. Excellent results with (11)C-Methionine are reported by Lapa and colleagues in this issue of the Journal. (11)C-Methionine uptake reflects the increased protein synthesis of malignant plasmocytes and correlates well with bone marrow infiltration. Other promising PET ligands include lipid tracers, such as (11)C-Choline or (11)C-acetate, and some peptide tracers, such as (68)Ga-Pentixafor, that targets CXCR4 (chemokine receptor-4), which is often expressed with high density by myeloma cells. Malignant plasma cells are radiosensitive and thus potentially amenable to systemic radionuclide therapy. Indeed, excellent preclinical results were obtained with radioimmunotherapy targeting CD38. Also, preliminary clinical results with peptides targeting CXCR4 (e.g. (177)Lu- or (90)Y-Pentixather) are encouraging. Multiple myeloma may represent a renewal of the already strong partnership between hematologists and nuclear medicine physicians. PMID:26877786

  5. Fast processing of digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) metadata using multiseries DICOM format

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Mahmoud; Philbin, James

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) information model combines pixel data and its metadata in a single object. There are user scenarios that only need metadata manipulation, such as deidentification and study migration. Most picture archiving and communication system use a database to store and update the metadata rather than updating the raw DICOM files themselves. The multiseries DICOM (MSD) format separates metadata from pixel data and eliminates duplicate attributes. This work promotes storing DICOM studies in MSD format to reduce the metadata processing time. A set of experiments are performed that update the metadata of a set of DICOM studies for deidentification and migration. The studies are stored in both the traditional single frame DICOM (SFD) format and the MSD format. The results show that it is faster to update studies’ metadata in MSD format than in SFD format because the bulk data is separated in MSD and is not retrieved from the storage system. In addition, it is space efficient to store the deidentified studies in MSD format as it shares the same bulk data object with the original study. In summary, separation of metadata from pixel data using the MSD format provides fast metadata access and speeds up applications that process only the metadata. PMID:26158117

  6. Fast processing of digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) metadata using multiseries DICOM format.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Mahmoud; Philbin, James

    2015-04-01

    The digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) information model combines pixel data and its metadata in a single object. There are user scenarios that only need metadata manipulation, such as deidentification and study migration. Most picture archiving and communication system use a database to store and update the metadata rather than updating the raw DICOM files themselves. The multiseries DICOM (MSD) format separates metadata from pixel data and eliminates duplicate attributes. This work promotes storing DICOM studies in MSD format to reduce the metadata processing time. A set of experiments are performed that update the metadata of a set of DICOM studies for deidentification and migration. The studies are stored in both the traditional single frame DICOM (SFD) format and the MSD format. The results show that it is faster to update studies' metadata in MSD format than in SFD format because the bulk data is separated in MSD and is not retrieved from the storage system. In addition, it is space efficient to store the deidentified studies in MSD format as it shares the same bulk data object with the original study. In summary, separation of metadata from pixel data using the MSD format provides fast metadata access and speeds up applications that process only the metadata. PMID:26158117

  7. Endothelial dysfunction as assessed with magnetic resonance imaging - A major determinant in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Kovačić, Slavica; Plazonić, Željko; Batinac, Tanja; Miletić, Damir; Ružić, Alen

    2016-05-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a clinical syndrome resulting from interaction of different structure and functional disturbances leading to decreased heart ability to ensure adequate supply of oxygenized blood to tissues and ensure adequate metabolic needs in the cases of normal or increased afterload. Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is a pathological condition characterized by general imbalance of all major endothelial mechanisms with key role in development and progression of atherosclerotic disease. ED has been associated with most cardiovascular risk factors. There is increasing interest in assessing endothelial function non-invasively, leading to development and evaluation of new diagnostic methods. We suggest that MRI is safe and reliable test that offers important advantages over ultrasound for the detection of ED and monitoring of the expected therapeutic effect. We believe that ED plays a pivotal role in chronic heart failure development and progression, regardless of its etiology, and that MRI should be introduced as a "gold standard" in diagnostic procedure and treatment. PMID:27063091

  8. Longitudinal Evaluation of Fatty Acid Metabolism in Normal and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Hearts with Dynamic MicroSPECT Imaging

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Reutter, Bryan W.; Huesman, Ronald H.; Brennan, Kathleen M.; Boutchko, Rostyslav; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop radionuclide molecular imaging technologies using a clinical pinhole SPECT/CT scanner to quantify changes in cardiac metabolism using the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) as a model of hypertensive-related pathophysiology. This paper quantitatively compares fatty acid metabolism in hearts of SHR and Wistar-Kyoto normal rats as a function of age and thereby tracks physiological changes associated with the onset and progression of heart failure in the SHR model. The fatty acid analog, 123 I-labeled BMIPP, was used in longitudinal metabolic pinhole SPECT imaging studies performed every seven months for 21 months. The uniquenessmore » of this project is the development of techniques for estimating the blood input function from projection data acquired by a slowly rotating camera that is imaging fast circulation and the quantification of the kinetics of 123 I-BMIPP by fitting compartmental models to the blood and tissue time-activity curves.« less

  9. Cardiac imaging of congenital heart diseases during interventional procedures continues to evolve: Pros and cons of the main techniques.

    PubMed

    Hascoët, Sebastien; Warin-Fresse, Karine; Baruteau, Alban-Elouen; Hadeed, Khaled; Karsenty, Clement; Petit, Jérôme; Guérin, Patrice; Fraisse, Alain; Acar, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Cardiac catheterization has contributed to the progress made in the management of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). First, it allowed clarification of the diagnostic assessment of CHD, by offering a better understanding of normal cardiac physiology and the pathophysiology and anatomy of complex malformations. Then, it became an alternative to surgery and a major component of the therapeutic approach for some CHD lesions. Nowadays, techniques have evolved and cardiac catheterization is widely used to percutaneously close intracardiac shunts, to relieve obstructive valvar or vessel lesions, and for transcatheter valve replacement. Accurate imaging is mandatory to guide these procedures. Cardiac imaging during catheterization of CHD must provide accurate images of lesions, surrounding cardiac structures, medical devices and tools used to deliver them. Cardiac imaging has to be 'real-time' with an excellent temporal resolution to ensure 'eyes-hands' synchronization and 'device-target area' accurate positioning. In this comprehensive review, we provide an overview of conventional cardiac imaging tools used in the catheterization laboratory in daily practice, as well as the effect of recent evolution and future imaging modalities. PMID:26858142

  10. Development of more efficacious Tc-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceutical mixtures. Progress report, September 1, 1989--January 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Heineman, W.R.

    1992-01-24

    The long-range objective of this research program is the development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents, each of which has properties optimized to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. The specific objectives during the period (9/1/89 to 8/31/92) include: (1) Development of strategies for improving yields of specific Tc-diphosphonate complexes with optimum imaging properties; (2) Development of electrodes for rapid in situ electrochemical generation of skeletal imaging agents; (3) Development of electrochemical sensors for {Tc} and Re imaging agents; (4) Characterization of stable {Tc}- and Re-diphosphonate complexes obtainable in high yield by structural studies with techniques such as NMR, EXAFS, and Raman spectroscopy; (5) Development of improved separation techniques for the characterization of diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents; (6) Evaluation of the effect of the biological milieu on {Tc}-diphosphonate complexes; and (7) Electrochemical studies of technetium and rhenium complexes synthesized by Professor Deutsch`s research group for heart and brain imaging.

  11. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of carbon-11-meta-hydroxyephedrine: A false transmitter agent for heart neuronal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenspire, K.C.; Haka, M.S.; Van Dort, M.E.; Jewett, D.M.; Gildersleeve, D.L.; Schwaiger, M.; Wieland, D.M. )

    1990-08-01

    Carbon-11-meta-hydroxyephedrine is a new radiotracer developed for mapping the sympathetic nerves of the heart. Carbon-11-meta-hydroxyephedrine is synthesized by direct N-methylation of metaraminol with ({sup 11}C)methyl iodide in dimethyl formamide/dimethyl sulfoxide and purified by semi-preparative reversed-phase HPLC. Total synthesis time is 45 min from end-of-bombardment. Carbon-11-meta-hydroxyephedrine is produced in 40%-50% corrected radiochemical yield with a specific activity of 900 Ci/mmol. Routine radiochemical and chemical purity are 95% and 98%, respectively. Biodistribution studies in rats show high myocardial uptake. Pretreatment with desipramine, a drug known to selectively block neuronal uptake, results in a 92% decrease in tracer accumulation in the myocardium. Metabolic studies in guinea pigs show less than 5% metabolites in heart tissue 30 min after intravenous injection suggesting that ({sup 11}C)meta-hydroxyephedrine is suitable for kinetic modeling. These preliminary results support this new tracer as a clinical agent for neuronal imaging of the heart.

  12. Experimental investigations on the fluid-mechanics of an electrospun heart valve by means of particle image velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Del Gaudio, Costantino; Gasbarroni, Pier Luca; Romano, Giovanni Paolo

    2016-12-01

    End-stage failing heart valves are currently replaced by mechanical or biological prostheses. Both types positively contribute to restore the physiological function of native valves, but a number of drawbacks limits the expected performances. In order to improve the outcome, tissue engineering can offer an alternative approach to design and fabricate innovative heart valves capable to support the requested function and to promote the formation of a novel, viable and correctly operating physiological structure. This potential result is particularly critical if referred to the aortic valve, being the one mainly exposed to structural and functional degeneration. In this regard, the here proposed study presents the fabrication and in vitro characterization of a bioresorbable electrospun heart valve prosthesis using the particle image velocimetry technique either in physiological and pathological fluid dynamic conditions. The scaffold was designed to reproduce the aortic valve geometry, also mimicking the fibrous structure of the natural extracellular matrix. To evaluate its performances for possible implantation, the flow fields downstream the valve were accurately investigated and compared. The experimental results showed a correct functionality of the device, supported by the formation of vortex structures at the edge of the three cusps, with Reynolds stress values below the threshold for the risk of hemolysis (which can be comprised in the range 400-4000N/m(2) depending on the exposure period), and a good structural resistance to the mechanical loads generated by the driving pressure difference. PMID:27521817

  13. Optimization of a Model Corrected Blood Input Function from Dynamic FDG-PET Images of Small Animal Heart In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Min; Kundu, Bijoy K

    2013-10-01

    Quantitative evaluation of dynamic Positron Emission Tomography (PET) of mouse heart in vivo is challenging due to the small size of the heart and limited intrinsic spatial resolution of the PET scanner. Here, we optimized a compartment model which can simultaneously correct for spill over and partial volume effects for both blood pool and the myocardium, compute kinetic rate parameters and generate model corrected blood input function (MCBIF) from ordered subset expectation maximization - maximum a posteriori (OSEM-MAP) cardiac and respiratory gated (18)F-FDG PET images of mouse heart with attenuation correction in vivo, without any invasive blood sampling. Arterial blood samples were collected from a single mouse to indicate the feasibility of the proposed method. In order to establish statistical significance, venous blood samples from n=6 mice were obtained at 2 late time points, when SP contamination from the tissue to the blood is maximum. We observed that correct bounds and initial guesses for the PV and SP coefficients accurately model the wash-in and wash-out dynamics of the tracer from mouse blood. The residual plot indicated an average difference of about 1.7% between the blood samples and MCBIF. The downstream rate of myocardial FDG influx constant, Ki (0.15±0.03 min(-1)), compared well with Ki obtained from arterial blood samples (P=0.716). In conclusion, the proposed methodology is not only quantitative but also reproducible. PMID:24741130

  14. Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Heart Failure What is Heart Failure? In heart failure, the heart cannot pump enough ... failure often experience tiredness and shortness of breath. Heart Failure is Serious Heart failure is a serious and ...

  15. A Compton camera for low energy gamma ray imaging in nuclear medicine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, James Walter

    C-SPRINT is a prototype electronically-collimated imaging system that has been built using pixellated, low-noise, position-sensitive silicon as the first detector, and a sodium iodide scintillation detector ring as the second detector. The camera was intended to characterize potential performance gains of Compton cameras in nuclear medicine applications. The system consists of a single 4.5 x 1.5 x 0.03 cm3 silicon pad detector module with 2 keV energy resolution centered at the front face of a 50 cm diameter, 12 cm long NaI detector annulus. Calculations of the Uniform Cramer-Rao lower bound show that a "design Compton camera" based on our prototype can challenge existing mechanically-collimated systems at low to medium energies (˜140.5 - 400 keV) despite the deleterious effects of Doppler broadening. Measurements with our current system have yielded system sensitivity and spatial resolution estimates using 99mTc and 131I isotopes. Results showed an absolute efficiency of 1.8 x 10 -7 for 99mTc and 1.2 x 10-6 for 131I. The 99mTc value is an order of magnitude lower than predicted because of a combination of worse than expected silicon detector triggering performance, timing resolution issues, and system dead time effects. After correcting for these, efficiency predictions based on Monte Carlo analysis fall within 10% of the measured values. Spatial resolution estimates are also within 10% of analytical predictions. Measured resolution for the 99mTc point source was 15 min FWHM while in the 131I case, resolution improved to 8 mm FWHM. Extended source imaging was performed to characterize system performance under more challenging conditions. Images obtained were compared with measurements using a clinically-available mechanically collimated Anger camera. A resolution-variance study was also conducted for both isotopes. The results showed that the C-SPRINT camera performance on a per-detected photon basis was worse than the Anger camera for 99mTc but was similar for

  16. Multiplane magnetic resonance imaging of the heart and major vessels: studies in normal volunteers

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.B.; Stark, D.; McNamara, M.; Lanzer, P.; Crooks, L.E.; Kaufman, L.

    1984-04-01

    The feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging for defining anatomy of internal cardiac structures and major blood vessels was assessed in 14 normal subjects. Both electrocardiogram-gated and standard spin-echo images were obtained. Gated images provided better visualization of internal cardiac morphology and of upper mediastinal vessels than did nongated images. Trabecular detail and components of the mitral valve could be resolved. All segments of the left ventricular wall could be evaluated by combining axial, coronal, and sagittal images. Gated acquisition of magnetic resonance images did not increase imaging time; five transverse slices of the left ventricle were obtained in 6.0-8.5 min. The good image quality, ease of gated acquisition, large field of view, capability of direct imaging in multiple planes, and noninvasiveness of the technique suggest that it will be an important imaging method in cardiovascular disease.

  17. Cine viability magnetic resonance imaging of the heart without increased scan time.

    PubMed

    Hassanein, Azza S; Khalifa, Ayman M; Ibrahim, El-Sayed H

    2016-02-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides information about myocardial morphology, function, and viability from cine, tagged, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images, respectively. While the cine and tagged images are acquired in a time-resolved fashion, the LGE images are acquired at a single timeframe. The purpose of this work is to develop a method for generating cine LGE images without additional scan time. The motion field is extracted from the tagged images, and is then used to guide the deformation of the infarcted region from the acquired LGE image at the acquired timeframe to any other timeframe. Major techniques for motion estimation, including harmonic phase (HARP) and optical flow analysis, are tested in this work for motion estimation. The proposed method is tested on numerical phantom and images from four human subjects. The generated cine LGE images showed both viability and wall motion information in the same set of images without additional scan time or image misregistration problems. The band-pass optical flow analysis resulted in the most accurate motion estimation compared to other methods, especially HARP, which fails to track points at the myocardial boundary. Infarct transmurality from the generated images showed good agreement with myocardial strain, and wall thickening showed good agreement with that measured from conventional cine images. In conclusion, the developed technique allows for generating cine LGE images that enable simultaneous display of wall motion and viability information. The generated images could be useful for estimating myocardial contractility reserve and for treatment prognosis. PMID:26528793

  18. Free-breathing diffusion tensor imaging and tractography of the human heart in healthy volunteers using wavelet-based image fusion.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongjiang; Viallon, Magalie; Delattre, Benedicte M A; Moulin, Kevin; Yang, Feng; Croisille, Pierre; Zhu, Yuemin

    2015-01-01

    Free-breathing cardiac diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a promising but challenging technique for the study of fiber structures of the human heart in vivo. This work proposes a clinically compatible and robust technique to provide three-dimensional (3-D) fiber architecture properties of the human heart. To this end, 10 short-axis slices were acquired across the entire heart using a multiple shifted trigger delay (TD) strategy under free breathing conditions. Interscan motion was first corrected automatically using a nonrigid registration method. Then, two post-processing schemes were optimized and compared: an algorithm based on principal component analysis (PCA) filtering and temporal maximum intensity projection (TMIP), and an algorithm that uses the wavelet-based image fusion (WIF) method. The two methods were applied to the registered diffusion-weighted (DW) images to cope with intrascan motion-induced signal loss. The tensor fields were finally calculated, from which fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and 3-D fiber tracts were derived and compared. The results show that the comparison of the FA values (FA(PCATMIP) = 0.45 ±0.10, FA(WIF) = 0.42 ±0.05, P=0.06) showed no significant difference, while the MD values ( MD(PCATMIP)=0.83 ±0.12×10(-3) mm (2)/s, MD(WIF)=0.74±0.05×10(-3) mm (2)/s, P=0.028) were significantly different. Improved helix angle variations through the myocardium wall reflecting the rotation characteristic of cardiac fibers were observed with WIF. This study demonstrates that the combination of multiple shifted TD acquisitions and dedicated post-processing makes it feasible to retrieve in vivo cardiac tractographies from free-breathing DTI acquisitions. The substantial improvements were observed using the WIF method instead of the previously published PCATMIP technique. PMID:25216480

  19. An automated multi-modal object analysis approach to coronary calcium scoring of adaptive heart isolated MSCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jing; Ferns, Gordon; Giles, John; Lewis, Emma

    2012-02-01

    Inter- and intra- observer variability is a problem often faced when an expert or observer is tasked with assessing the severity of a disease. This issue is keenly felt in coronary calcium scoring of patients suffering from atherosclerosis where in clinical practice, the observer must identify firstly the presence, followed by the location of candidate calcified plaques found within the coronary arteries that may prevent oxygenated blood flow to the heart muscle. This can be challenging for a human observer as it is difficult to differentiate calcified plaques that are located in the coronary arteries from those found in surrounding anatomy such as the mitral valve or pericardium. The inclusion or exclusion of false positive or true positive calcified plaques respectively will alter the patient calcium score incorrectly, thus leading to the possibility of incorrect treatment prescription. In addition to the benefits to scoring accuracy, the use of fast, low dose multi-slice CT imaging to perform the cardiac scan is capable of acquiring the entire heart within a single breath hold. Thus exposing the patient to lower radiation dose, which for a progressive disease such as atherosclerosis where multiple scans may be required, is beneficial to their health. Presented here is a fully automated method for calcium scoring using both the traditional Agatston method, as well as the Volume scoring method. Elimination of the unwanted regions of the cardiac image slices such as lungs, ribs, and vertebrae is carried out using adaptive heart isolation. Such regions cannot contain calcified plaques but can be of a similar intensity and their removal will aid detection. Removal of both the ascending and descending aortas, as they contain clinical insignificant plaques, is necessary before the final calcium scores are calculated and examined against ground truth scores of three averaged expert observer results. The results presented here are intended to show the requirement and

  20. Register cardiac fiber orientations from 3D DTI volume to 2D ultrasound image of rat hearts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xulei; Wang, Silun; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Xiaodong; Lerakis, Stamatios; Wagner, Mary B.; Fei, Baowei

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound or echocardiography is one of the most widely used examinations for the diagnosis of cardiac diseases. However, it only supplies the geometric and structural information of the myocardium. In order to supply more detailed microstructure information of the myocardium, this paper proposes a registration method to map cardiac fiber orientations from three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (MR-DTI) volume to the 2D ultrasound image. It utilizes a 2D/3D intensity based registration procedure including rigid, log-demons, and affine transformations to search the best similar slice from the template volume. After registration, the cardiac fiber orientations are mapped to the 2D ultrasound image via fiber relocations and reorientations. This method was validated by six images of rat hearts ex vivo. The evaluation results indicated that the final Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) achieved more than 90% after geometric registrations; and the inclination angle errors (IAE) between the mapped fiber orientations and the gold standards were less than 15 degree. This method may provide a practical tool for cardiologists to examine cardiac fiber orientations on ultrasound images and have the potential to supply additional information for diagnosis of cardiac diseases.

  1. Dual-Source Computed Tomographic Temporal Resolution Provides Higher Image Quality Than 64-Detector Temporal Resolution at Low Heart Rates

    PubMed Central

    Araoz, Philip A.; Kirsch, Jacobo; Primak, Andrew N.; Braun, Natalie N.; Saba, Osama; Williamson, Eric E.; Harmsen, W. Scott; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare coronary image quality at temporal resolutions associated with dual-source computed tomography (DSCT; 83 milliseconds) and 64–detector row scanning (165 milliseconds). Methods In 30 patients with a heart rate of less than 70 beats per minute, DSCT coronary angiograms were reconstructed at 83- and 165-millisecond temporal resolutions over different cardiac phases. A blinded observer graded coronary quality. Results The typical DSCT temporal resolution (83 milliseconds) showed a significantly greater quality at end-systole for all coronary vessels and at end-diastole for the right coronary and left anterior descending coronary arteries. For all vessels, the end-diastole produced the highest quality for both temporal resolutions. Conclusions Imaging at 83 milliseconds creates superior quality at end-systole for all coronary vessels and at end-diastole for the right coronary and left anterior descending coronary arteries. At low heart rates, end-diastole produces the highest quality at both temporal resolutions. PMID:20118724

  2. Toward in vivo imaging of heart disease using a radiolabeled single-chain Fv fragment targeting tenascin-C.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Norihiro; Odaka, Kenichi; Uehara, Tomoya; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Kato, Yoshinori; Oyama, Hiroyuki; Tadokoro, Hiroyuki; Akizawa, Hiromichi; Tanada, Shuji; Hiroe, Michiaki; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Komuro, Issei; Arano, Yasushi; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Irie, Toshiaki

    2011-12-01

    Antibodies specific to a particular target molecule can be used as analytical reagents, not only for in vitro immunoassays but also for noninvasive in vivo imaging, e.g., immunoscintigraphies. In the latter case, it is important to reduce the size of antibody molecules in order to achieve suitable in vivo "diagnostic kinetics" and generate higher-resolution images. For these purposes, single-chain Fv fragments (scFvs; M(r) < 30 kDa) have greater potential than intact immunoglobulins (~150 kDa) or Fab (or Fab') fragments (~50 kDa). Our recent observation of enhanced tenascin-C (Tnc) expression at sites of cardiac repair after myocardial infarction prompted us to develop a radiolabeled scFv against Tnc for in vivo imaging of heart disease. We cloned the genes encoding the heavy and light chain variable domains of the mouse anti-Tnc monoclonal antibody 4F10, and combined them to create a single gene. The resulting scFv-4F10 gene was expressed in E. coli cells to produce soluble scFv proteins. scFv-4F10 has an affinity for Tnc (K(a) = 3.5 × 10(7) M(-1)), similar to the Fab fragment of antibody 4F10 (K(a) = 1.3 × 10(7) M(-1)) and high enough to be of practical use. A cysteine residue was then added to the C-terminus to achieve site-specific (111)In labeling via a chelating group. The resulting (111)In-labeled scFv was administered to a rat model of acute myocardial infarction. Biodistribution and quantitative autoradiographic studies indicated higher uptake of the radioactivity at the infarcted myocardium than the noninfarcted one. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provided in vivo cardiac images that coincided with the ex vivo observations. Our results will promote advances in diagnostic strategies for heart disease. PMID:22074352

  3. The Cardiac Atlas Project—an imaging database for computational modeling and statistical atlases of the heart

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Carissa G.; Backhaus, Michael; Bluemke, David A.; Britten, Randall D.; Chung, Jae Do; Cowan, Brett R.; Dinov, Ivo D.; Finn, J. Paul; Hunter, Peter J.; Kadish, Alan H.; Lee, Daniel C.; Lima, Joao A. C.; Medrano−Gracia, Pau; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Suinesiaputra, Avan; Tao, Wenchao; Young, Alistair A.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: Integrative mathematical and statistical models of cardiac anatomy and physiology can play a vital role in understanding cardiac disease phenotype and planning therapeutic strategies. However, the accuracy and predictive power of such models is dependent upon the breadth and depth of noninvasive imaging datasets. The Cardiac Atlas Project (CAP) has established a large-scale database of cardiac imaging examinations and associated clinical data in order to develop a shareable, web-accessible, structural and functional atlas of the normal and pathological heart for clinical, research and educational purposes. A goal of CAP is to facilitate collaborative statistical analysis of regional heart shape and wall motion and characterize cardiac function among and within population groups. Results: Three main open-source software components were developed: (i) a database with web-interface; (ii) a modeling client for 3D + time visualization and parametric description of shape and motion; and (iii) open data formats for semantic characterization of models and annotations. The database was implemented using a three-tier architecture utilizing MySQL, JBoss and Dcm4chee, in compliance with the DICOM standard to provide compatibility with existing clinical networks and devices. Parts of Dcm4chee were extended to access image specific attributes as search parameters. To date, approximately 3000 de-identified cardiac imaging examinations are available in the database. All software components developed by the CAP are open source and are freely available under the Mozilla Public License Version 1.1 (http://www.mozilla.org/MPL/MPL-1.1.txt). Availability: http://www.cardiacatlas.org Contact: a.young@auckland.ac.nz Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:21737439

  4. Postinfarct Left Ventricular Remodelling: A Prevailing Cause of Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Alessio; Lombardi, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure is a chronic disease with high morbidity and mortality, which represents a growing challenge in medicine. A major risk factor for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction is a history of myocardial infarction. The expansion of a large infarct scar and subsequent regional ventricular dilatation can cause postinfarct remodelling, leading to significant enlargement of the left ventricular chamber. It has a negative prognostic value, because it precedes the clinical manifestations of heart failure. The characteristics of the infarcted myocardium predicting postinfarct remodelling can be studied with cardiac magnetic resonance and experimental imaging modalities such as diffusion tensor imaging can identify the changes in the architecture of myocardial fibers. This review discusses all the aspects related to postinfarct left ventricular remodelling: definition, pathogenesis, diagnosis, consequences, and available therapies, together with experimental interventions that show promising results against postinfarct remodelling and heart failure. PMID:26989555

  5. Accelerating hyperpolarized metabolic imaging of the heart by exploiting spatiotemporal correlations.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Kilian; Sigfridsson, Andreas; Wissmann, Lukas; Busch, Julia; Batel, Michael; Krajewski, Marcin; Ernst, Matthias; Kozerke, Sebastian

    2013-11-01

    Hyperpolarized (13)C-labeled pyruvate is a promising tool to investigate cardiac metabolism. It has been shown that changes in substrate metabolism occur following the induction of ischemia. To investigate the metabolic changes that are confined to spatial regions, high spatiotemporal resolution is required. The present work exploits both spatial and temporal correlations using k-t principal component analysis (PCA) to undersample the spatiotemporal domain, thereby speeding up data acquisition. A numerical model was implemented to investigate optimal acquisition and reconstruction parameters for pyruvate, lactate and bicarbonate maps of the heart. Subsequently, prospectively undersampled in vivo data on rat hearts were acquired using a combination of spectral-spatial signal excitation and a variable-density single-shot echo planar readout. Using five-fold k-t PCA, a spatial resolution of 1 × 1 mm(2) at a temporal resolution of 3 s was achieved. PMID:23616307

  6. ACCF/ASNC/ACR/AHA/ASE/SCCT/SCMR/SNM 2009 appropriate use criteria for cardiac radionuclide imaging: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, the American College of Radiology, the American Heart Association, the American Society of Echocardiography, the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and the Society of Nuclear Medicine.

    PubMed

    Hendel, Robert C; Berman, Daniel S; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Heidenreich, Paul A; Henkin, Robert E; Pellikka, Patricia A; Pohost, Gerald M; Williams, Kim A

    2009-06-01

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF), along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted an appropriate use review of common clinical scenarios where cardiac radionuclide imaging (RNI) is frequently considered. This document is a revision of the original Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (SPECT MPI) Appropriateness Criteria, published 4 years earlier, written to reflect changes in test utilization and new clinical data, and to clarify RNI use where omissions or lack of clarity existed in the original criteria. This is in keeping with the commitment to revise and refine appropriate use criteria (AUC) on a frequent basis. The indications for this review were drawn from common applications or anticipated uses, as well as from current clinical practice guidelines. Sixty-seven clinical scenarios were developed by a writing group and scored by a separate technical panel on a scale of 1 to 9 to designate appropriate use, inappropriate use, or uncertain use. In general, use of cardiac RNI for diagnosis and risk assessment in intermediate- and high-risk patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) was viewed favorably, while testing in low-risk patients, routine repeat testing, and general screening in certain clinical scenarios were viewed less favorably. Additionally, use for perioperative testing was found to be inappropriate except for high selected groups of patients. It is anticipated that these results will have a significant impact on physician decision making, test performance, and reimbursement policy, and will help guide future research. PMID:19451357

  7. Development of more efficacious [Tc]-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Heineman, W.R.

    1993-05-03

    This research program is detailed at development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. Analytical techniques are being developed to enable complete analysis of radiopharmaceutical preparations so that individual complexes can be characterized with respect to imaging efficacy and to enable a radiopharmaceutical to be monitored after injection into a test animal to determine the species that actually accumulates in an organ to provide the image. Administration of the isolated, single most effective imaging complex, rather than a mixture of technetium-containing complexes, wi-11 minimize radiation exposure to the patient and maximize diagnostic information available to the clinician. This report specifically describes the development of capillary electrophoresis (CE) for characterizating diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents. Advances in the development of electrochemical and fiber optic sensors for Tc and Re imaging agents are described. These sensors will ultimately be capable of monitoring a specific chemical state of an imaging agent in vivo after injection into a test animal by implantation in the organ of interest.

  8. A Shift From Cell Cultures to Creatures: In Vivo Imaging of Small Animals in Experimental Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Studwell, Anna J; Kotton, Darrell N

    2011-01-01

    Although the use of small animals for in vivo experimentation has been widespread, only recently has there been easy availability of techniques that allow noninvasive in vivo imaging of small animals. Because these techniques allow the same individual subject to be followed longitudinally throughout the duration of an experiment, their use is rapidly changing the way small animals are employed in the laboratory. In this review, we focus on six imaging modalities that are increasingly employed for small animal in vivo imaging: optical imaging (OI), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), single-photon emission tomography (SPECT), ultrasound (US), and positron-emission tomography (PET). Each modality allows for the noninvasive tracking of cells and cell products in vivo. In addition, multimodality imaging, combining two or more of these techniques, has also been increasingly employed to overcome the limitations of each independent technique. After reviewing these available imaging modalities, we detail their experimental application, exemplified by the emerging field of regenerative medicine, referring to publications whose conclusions would otherwise be difficult to support without the availability of in vivo imaging. PMID:21952170

  9. Facilitating and securing offline e-medicine service through image steganography

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. Mahfuzul

    2014-01-01

    E-medicine is a process to provide health care services to people using the Internet or any networking technology. In this Letter, a new idea is proposed to model the physical structure of the e-medicine system to better provide offline health care services. Smart cards are used to authenticate the user singly. A very unique technique is also suggested to verify the card owner's identity and to embed secret data to the card while providing patients' reports either at booths or at the e-medicine server system. The simulation results of card authentication and embedding procedure justify the proposed implementation. PMID:26609382

  10. Facilitating and securing offline e-medicine service through image steganography.

    PubMed

    Kamal, A H M; Islam, M Mahfuzul

    2014-06-01

    E-medicine is a process to provide health care services to people using the Internet or any networking technology. In this Letter, a new idea is proposed to model the physical structure of the e-medicine system to better provide offline health care services. Smart cards are used to authenticate the user singly. A very unique technique is also suggested to verify the card owner's identity and to embed secret data to the card while providing patients' reports either at booths or at the e-medicine server system. The simulation results of card authentication and embedding procedure justify the proposed implementation. PMID:26609382

  11. Recommendations for the imaging assessment of prosthetic heart valves: a report from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging endorsed by the Chinese Society of Echocardiography, the Inter-American Society of Echocardiography, and the Brazilian Department of Cardiovascular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Lancellotti, Patrizio; Pibarot, Philippe; Chambers, John; Edvardsen, Thor; Delgado, Victoria; Dulgheru, Raluca; Pepi, Mauro; Cosyns, Bernard; Dweck, Mark R; Garbi, Madalina; Magne, Julien; Nieman, Koen; Rosenhek, Raphael; Bernard, Anne; Lowenstein, Jorge; Vieira, Marcelo Luiz Campos; Rabischoffsky, Arnaldo; Vyhmeister, Rodrigo Hernández; Zhou, Xiao; Zhang, Yun; Zamorano, Jose-Luis; Habib, Gilbert

    2016-06-01

    Prosthetic heart valve (PHV) dysfunction is rare but potentially life-threatening. Although often challenging, establishing the exact cause of PHV dysfunction is essential to determine the appropriate treatment strategy. In clinical practice, a comprehensive approach that integrates several parameters of valve morphology and function assessed with 2D/3D transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography is a key to appropriately detect and quantitate PHV dysfunction. Cinefluoroscopy, multidetector computed tomography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and to a lesser extent, nuclear imaging are complementary tools for the diagnosis and management of PHV complications. The present document provides recommendations for the use of multimodality imaging in the assessment of PHVs. PMID:27143783

  12. Factors impacting echocardiographic imaging after the Fontan procedure: a report from the pediatric heart network fontan cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Richard V; Margossian, Renee; Lu, Minmin; Atz, Andrew M; Bradley, Timothy J; Jay Campbell, Michael; Colan, Steven D; Gallagher, Dianne; Lai, Wyman W; Pearson, Gail D; Prakash, Ashwin; Shirali, Girish; Cohen, Meryl S

    2013-10-01

    Echocardiographic image quality in Fontan survivors may be limited by a variety of factors. We sought to describe echocardiographic quality and factors associated with study quality in subjects participating in the Pediatric Heart Network Fontan Cross-Sectional Study. Echocardiograms were obtained at 7 clinical sites using a standard protocol. Quality grading and analysis were performed by a core laboratory. Univariate and multivariable modeling were performed to assess factors associated with quality and ability to obtain images sufficient for prespecified quantitative analysis. A total of 543 echocardiograms were obtained. The quality of echocardiograms improved over the duration of the study. The great arteries, systemic veins, and pulmonary veins were less likely to be adequately imaged than other cardiac structures. Quantitative analysis of ventricular volume was possible in 76% overall, but only 41% of those with mixed ventricular morphology. Factors independently associated with better quality included younger age, levocardia, acquisition of the echocardiogram at a longer time since the beginning of enrollment, absence of a pulmonary artery stent, and clinical site. Patient and center-specific factors are associated with echocardiographic quality after the Fontan procedure. Increased familiarity and experience with a standard imaging protocol is likely to result in improved quality. PMID:23614708

  13. Medicines to Treat Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... lower “bad” cholesterol (also called LDL, or low-density lipoprotein) levels. Statins may also help increase “good” cholesterol (also called HDL, or high-density lipoprotein) levels. Most people who take statins will ...

  14. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Imaging Guidance in Molecular Medicine: Targeting and Monitoring of Choline and Glucose Metabolism in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Glunde, Kristine; Jiang, Lu; Moestue, Siver A.; Gribbestad, Ingrid S.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) are valuable tools to detect metabolic changes in tumors. The currently emerging era of molecular medicine, which is shaped by molecularly targeted anticancer therapies combined with molecular imaging of the effects of such therapies, requires powerful imaging technologies that are able to detect molecular information. MRS and MRSI (MRS/I) are such technologies that are able to detect metabolites arising from glucose and choline metabolism in noninvasive in vivo settings and at higher resolution in tissue samples. The roles that MRS/I plays in diagnosing different types of cancer as well as in early monitoring of tumor response to traditional chemotherapies are reviewed. Emerging roles of MRS/I in the development and detection of novel targeted anticancer therapies that target oncogenic signaling pathways or targets in choline or glucose metabolism are discussed. PMID:21793073

  15. New concepts in cardiac imaging 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Pohost, G.M.; Higgins, C.B.; Morganroth, J.; Ritchie, J.L.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents 5 specialists work on reviewing and editing the area of applications for cardiac imaging: Contents: Ultrasound Methods; 1. Echocardiography in Valvular Heart Disease, 2. Echocardiography in Ischemic Heart Disease, 3. Current Status of Doppler Ultrasound for Assessing Regurgitant Valvular Lesions, Radionuclide Methods; 4. Cardiovascular Nuclear Medicine, 5. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT): Validation and Application for Myocardial Perfusion Imaging, 6. Assessment of Regional Myocardial Perfusion with Positron Emission Tomography, 7. Assessment of Regional Myocardial Substrate Metabolism with Positron Emission Tomography, X-Ray Imaging Techniques; 8. The Evaluation of Left Ventricular Function in Ischemic Heart Disease by Digital Subtraction Angigraphy, 9. Digital Angiography in the Assessment of Coronary Artery Disease, 10. Cardiac Computed Tomography: Its Potential Use in Evaluation of Ischemic Heart Disease, Magnetic Methods; 11. NMR Evaluation of the Cardiovascular System, 12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Heart.

  16. Highlights of the 25th Anniversary EANM Congress Milan 2012: nuclear medicine and molecular imaging at its best.

    PubMed

    Langsteger, Werner; Beheshti, Mohsen

    2013-09-01

    The European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) celebrated its 25th Anniversary Congress in Milan under the chairmanship of Professor Emilio Bombardieri and the auspices of the Italian Society of Nuclear Medicine. As always, the Congress was a great success: more than 5,530 participants from 88 countries came from Europe and beyond. In spite of limited budgets, industry again made an important contribution: New innovative equipment and tracers demonstrating the latest technology and innovations were presented by 122 companies. This review is a brief summary of the major scientific contributions made in the fields of oncology, multimodality imaging, cardiovascular science, neurology and psychiatry, technological innovation and novel tracers, and in other clinical sciences as well as in radionuclide therapy, which all show promising and great innovations. PMID:23917722

  17. Pre-clinical functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Part II: The heart.

    PubMed

    Meßner, Nadja M; Zöllner, Frank G; Kalayciyan, Raffi; Schad, Lothar R

    2014-12-01

    One third of all deaths worldwide in 2008 were caused by cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and the incidence of CVD related deaths rises ever more. Thus, improved imaging techniques and modalities are needed for the evaluation of cardiac morphology and function. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) is a minimally invasive technique that is increasingly important due to its high spatial and temporal resolution, its high soft tissue contrast and its ability of functional and quantitative imaging. It is widely accepted as the gold standard of cardiac functional analysis. In the short period of small animal MRI, remarkable progress has been achieved concerning new, fast imaging schemes as well as purpose-built equipment. Dedicated small animal scanners allow for tapping the full potential of recently developed animal models of cardiac disease. In this paper, we review state-of-the-art cardiac magnetic resonance imaging techniques and applications in small animals at ultra-high fields (UHF). PMID:25023418

  18. A Model for Measured Traveling Waves at End-Diastole in Human Heart Wall by Ultrasonic Imaging Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekki, Naoaki; Shintani, Seine A.; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    We observe traveling waves, measured by the ultrasonic noninvasive imaging method, in a longitudinal beam direction from the apex to the base side on the interventricular septum (IVS) during the period from the end-diastole to the beginning of systole for a healthy human heart wall. We present a possible phenomenological model to explain part of one-dimensional cardiac behaviors for the observed traveling waves around the time of R-wave of echocardiography (ECG) in the human heart. Although the observed two-dimensional patterns of traveling waves are extremely complex and no one knows yet the exact solutions for the traveling homoclinic plane wave in the one-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau equation (CGLE), we numerically find that part of the one-dimensional homoclinic dynamics of the phase and amplitude patterns in the observed traveling waves is similar to that of the numerical homoclinic plane-wave solutions in the CGLE with periodic boundary condition in a certain parameter space. It is suggested that part of the cardiac dynamics of the traveling waves on the IVS can be qualitatively described by the CGLE model as a paradigm for understanding biophysical nonlinear phenomena.

  19. Interoperative fundus image and report sharing in compliance with integrating the healthcare enterprise conformance and web access to digital imaging and communication in medicine persistent object protocol

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hui-Qun; Lv, Zheng-Min; Geng, Xing-Yun; Jiang, Kui; Tang, Le-Min; Zhou, Guo-Min; Dong, Jian-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    AIM To address issues in interoperability between different fundus image systems, we proposed a web eye-picture archiving and communication system (PACS) framework in conformance with digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) and health level 7 (HL7) protocol to realize fundus images and reports sharing and communication through internet. METHODS Firstly, a telemedicine-based eye care work flow was established based on integrating the healthcare enterprise (IHE) Eye Care technical framework. Then, a browser/server architecture eye-PACS system was established in conformance with the web access to DICOM persistent object (WADO) protocol, which contains three tiers. RESULTS In any client system installed with web browser, clinicians could log in the eye-PACS to observe fundus images and reports. Multipurpose internet mail extensions (MIME) type of a structured report is saved as pdf/html with reference link to relevant fundus image using the WADO syntax could provide enough information for clinicians. Some functions provided by open-source Oviyam could be used to query, zoom, move, measure, view DICOM fundus images. CONCLUSION Such web eye-PACS in compliance to WADO protocol could be used to store and communicate fundus images and reports, therefore is of great significance for teleophthalmology. PMID:24392341

  20. Heart Attack Help? There's an App for That

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159504.html Heart Attack Help? There's an App for That Emergency medicine ... American Heart Association. When someone is suffering a heart attack, stroke or cardiac arrest, quick action can be ...

  1. Thermographic imaging in the beating heart: a method for coronary flow estimation based on a heat transfer model.

    PubMed

    Gordon, N; Rispler, S; Sideman, S; Shofty, R; Beyar, R

    1998-09-01

    Intraoperative thermographic imaging in open-chest conditions can provide the surgeon with important qualitative information regarding coronary flow by utilizing heat transfer analysis following injection of cold saline into the aortic root. The heat transfer model is based on the assumption that the epicardial temperature changes are mainly due to convection of heat by the blood flow, which may, therefore, be estimated by measuring the temperature variations. Hearts of eight dogs were exposed and imaged by a thermographic camera. Flow in the left arterial descending (LAD) coronary branch was measured by a transit-time flowmeter. 20 ml of cold saline were injected into the aortic root (just after the aortic valve) and the epicardial temperature images were recorded at end-diastole, for 20-30 s. Different flow rates were achieved by 1 min occlusion of the LAD, which affected a reactive hyperemic response. The dynamics of the temperature in the arterial coronary tree was obtained by averaging the temperature over an edge-detected arterial segment for each frame. The heat transfer equation was curve-fitted, and the flow-dependent heat transfer index was correlated with the experimentally determined coronary flow (r = 0.69, p < 0.001). In summary: a method for quantitative estimation of coronary blood flow by thermography and heat transfer analysis was developed and tested in animal experiments. This method can provide important information regarding coronary blood flow during open-chest surgical procedures. PMID:9796950

  2. Updated Heart Failure Treatment Guidelines Issued

    MedlinePlus

    ... as Corlanor, according to the American College of Cardiology, the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure ... best fits which treatment." Yancy is chief of cardiology at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in ...

  3. ECG gating of thallium-201 myocardial images: effect on detection of ischemic heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    McKillop, J.H.; Fawcett, H.D.; Baumert, J.E.; McDougall, I.R.; DeBusk, R.F.; Harrison, D.C.; Goris, M.L.

    1981-03-01

    Using the angiographic findings as the standard, we have examined the sensitivity and specificity of ECG-gated static thallium-201 myocardial images in 54 patients undergoing selective coronary arteriography. Gated and nongated images, each in anterior, 45 LAO, and 65 LAO projections, were processed by interpolative background subtraction. They were then analyzed separately by four independent observers who were unaware of patient identity, the results of coronary arteriography, and which studies were gated or nonongated. No significant differences were observed between the gated and ngated images regarding sensitivity or specificity, the detection rate for reversible myocardial ischmia, the accuracy of prediction of arteriographic extent of disease, or the degree of inter-or intraobserver variability. We conclude that ECG-gated acquisition of Tl-201 images does not produce any significant advantages, at least when interpolative background subtraction is used.

  4. Human torso phantom for imaging of heart with realistic modes of cardiac and respiratory motion

    DOEpatents

    Boutchko, Rostyslav; Balakrishnan, Karthikayan; Gullberg, Grant T; O& #x27; Neil, James P

    2013-09-17

    A human torso phantom and its construction, wherein the phantom mimics respiratory and cardiac cycles in a human allowing acquisition of medical imaging data under conditions simulating patient cardiac and respiratory motion.

  5. Comparison of 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography Ventilation With Nuclear Medicine Ventilation-Perfusion Imaging: A Clinical Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Koo, Phillip J.; Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Miften, Moyed; Kavanagh, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation imaging provides lung function information for lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. Before 4DCT-ventilation can be implemented clinically it needs to be validated against an established imaging modality. The purpose of this work was to compare 4DCT-ventilation to nuclear medicine ventilation, using clinically relevant global metrics and radiologist observations. Methods and Materials Fifteen lung cancer patients with 16 sets of 4DCT and nuclear medicine ventilation-perfusion (VQ) images were used for the study. The VQ-ventilation images were acquired in planar mode using Tc-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid aerosol inhalation. 4DCT data, spatial registration, and a density-change-based model were used to compute a 4DCT-based ventilation map for each patient. The percent ventilation was calculated in each lung and each lung third for both the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation scans. A nuclear medicine radiologist assessed the VQ and 4DCT scans for the presence of ventilation defects. The VQ and 4DCT-based images were compared using regional percent ventilation and radiologist clinical observations. Results Individual patient examples demonstrate good qualitative agreement between the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation scans. The correlation coefficients were 0.68 and 0.45, using the percent ventilation in each individual lung and lung third, respectively. Using radiologist-noted presence of ventilation defects and receiver operating characteristic analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the 4DCT-ventilation were 90%, 64%, and 81%, respectively. Conclusions The current work compared 4DCT with VQ-based ventilation using clinically relevant global metrics and radiologist observations. We found good agreement between the radiologist’s assessment of the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation images as well as the percent ventilation in each lung. The agreement lessened when the data were analyzed

  6. Comparison of 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography Ventilation With Nuclear Medicine Ventilation-Perfusion Imaging: A Clinical Validation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Koo, Phillip J.; Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Miften, Moyed; Kavanagh, Brian D.

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation imaging provides lung function information for lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. Before 4DCT-ventilation can be implemented clinically it needs to be validated against an established imaging modality. The purpose of this work was to compare 4DCT-ventilation to nuclear medicine ventilation, using clinically relevant global metrics and radiologist observations. Methods and Materials: Fifteen lung cancer patients with 16 sets of 4DCT and nuclear medicine ventilation-perfusion (VQ) images were used for the study. The VQ-ventilation images were acquired in planar mode using Tc-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid aerosol inhalation. 4DCT data, spatial registration, and a density-change-based model were used to compute a 4DCT-based ventilation map for each patient. The percent ventilation was calculated in each lung and each lung third for both the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation scans. A nuclear medicine radiologist assessed the VQ and 4DCT scans for the presence of ventilation defects. The VQ and 4DCT-based images were compared using regional percent ventilation and radiologist clinical observations. Results: Individual patient examples demonstrate good qualitative agreement between the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation scans. The correlation coefficients were 0.68 and 0.45, using the percent ventilation in each individual lung and lung third, respectively. Using radiologist-noted presence of ventilation defects and receiver operating characteristic analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the 4DCT-ventilation were 90%, 64%, and 81%, respectively. Conclusions: The current work compared 4DCT with VQ-based ventilation using clinically relevant global metrics and radiologist observations. We found good agreement between the radiologist's assessment of the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation images as well as the percent ventilation in each lung. The agreement lessened when the data were analyzed

  7. In situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes: linking basic nanotechniques to cell biology, immunology and medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Jiang; Jin, Hua; Yang, Fen; Chen, Zheng W.; Cai, Jiye

    2014-10-01

    The cell membrane, which consists of a viscous phospholipid bilayer, different kinds of proteins and various nano/micrometer-sized domains, plays a very important role in ensuring the stability of the intracellular environment and the order of cellular signal transductions. Exploring the precise cell membrane structure and detailed functions of the biomolecules in a cell membrane would be helpful to understand the underlying mechanisms involved in cell membrane signal transductions, which could further benefit research into cell biology, immunology and medicine. The detection of membrane biomolecules at the single molecule level can provide some subtle information about the molecular structure and the functions of the cell membrane. In particular, information obtained about the molecular mechanisms and other information at the single molecule level are significantly different from that detected from a large amount of biomolecules at the large-scale through traditional techniques, and can thus provide a novel perspective for the study of cell membrane structures and functions. However, the precise investigations of membrane biomolecules prompts researchers to explore cell membranes at the single molecule level by the use of in situ imaging methods, as the exact conformation and functions of biomolecules are highly controlled by the native cellular environment. Recently, the in situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes has attracted increasing attention from cell biologists and immunologists. The size of biomolecules and their clusters on the cell surface are set at the nanoscale, which makes it mandatory to use high- and super-resolution imaging techniques to realize the in situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes. In the past few decades, some amazing imaging techniques and instruments with super resolution have been widely developed for molecule imaging, which can also be further employed for the in situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes. In

  8. Exploring use of images in clinical articles for decision support in evidence-based medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antani, Sameer; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Li, Jiang; Srinivasan, Balaji V.; Thoma, George R.

    2008-01-01

    Essential information is often conveyed pictorially (images, illustrations, graphs, charts, etc.) in biomedical publications. A clinician's decision to access the full text when searching for evidence in support of clinical decision is frequently based solely on a short bibliographic reference. We seek to automatically augment these references with images from the article that may assist in finding evidence. In a previous study, the feasibility of automatically classifying images by usefulness (utility) in finding evidence was explored using supervised machine learning and achieved 84.3% accuracy using image captions for modality and 76.6% accuracy combining captions and image data for utility on 743 images from articles over 2 years from a clinical journal. Our results indicated that automatic augmentation of bibliographic references with relevant images was feasible. Other research in this area has determined improved user experience by showing images in addition to the short bibliographic reference. Multi-panel images used in our study had to be manually pre-processed for image analysis, however. Additionally, all image-text on figures was ignored. In this article, we report on developed methods for automatic multi-panel image segmentation using not only image features, but also clues from text analysis applied to figure captions. In initial experiments on 516 figure images we obtained 95.54% accuracy in correctly identifying and segmenting the sub-images. The errors were flagged as disagreements with automatic parsing of figure caption text allowing for supervised segmentation. For localizing text and symbols, on a randomly selected test set of 100 single panel images our methods reported, on the average, precision and recall of 78.42% and 89.38%, respectively, with an accuracy of 72.02%.

  9. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... by: Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  10. Accelerometer-Based Method for Extracting Respiratory and Cardiac Gating Information for Dual Gating during Nuclear Medicine Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pänkäälä, Mikko; Paasio, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Both respiratory and cardiac motions reduce the quality and consistency of medical imaging specifically in nuclear medicine imaging. Motion artifacts can be eliminated by gating the image acquisition based on the respiratory phase and cardiac contractions throughout the medical imaging procedure. Electrocardiography (ECG), 3-axis accelerometer, and respiration belt data were processed and analyzed from ten healthy volunteers. Seismocardiography (SCG) is a noninvasive accelerometer-based method that measures accelerations caused by respiration and myocardial movements. This study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of the accelerometer-based method in dual gating technique. The SCG provides accelerometer-derived respiratory (ADR) data and accurate information about quiescent phases within the cardiac cycle. The correct information about the status of ventricles and atria helps us to create an improved estimate for quiescent phases within a cardiac cycle. The correlation of ADR signals with the reference respiration belt was investigated using Pearson correlation. High linear correlation was observed between accelerometer-based measurement and reference measurement methods (ECG and Respiration belt). Above all, due to the simplicity of the proposed method, the technique has high potential to be applied in dual gating in clinical cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) to obtain motion-free images in the future. PMID:25120563

  11. Software development for ACR-approved phantom-based nuclear medicine tomographic image quality control with cross-platform compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jungsu S.; Choi, Jae Min; Nam, Ki Pyo; Chae, Sun Young; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Kim, Jae Seung

    2015-07-01

    Quality control and quality assurance (QC/QA) have been two of the most important issues in modern nuclear medicine (NM) imaging for both clinical practices and academic research. Whereas quantitative QC analysis software is common to modern positron emission tomography (PET) scanners, the QC of gamma cameras and/or single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanners has not been sufficiently addressed. Although a thorough standard operating process (SOP) for mechanical and software maintenance may help the QC/QA of a gamma camera and SPECT-computed tomography (CT), no previous study has addressed a unified platform or process to decipher or analyze SPECT phantom images acquired from various scanners thus far. In addition, a few approaches have established cross-platform software to enable the technologists and physicists to assess the variety of SPECT scanners from different manufacturers. To resolve these issues, we have developed Interactive Data Language (IDL)-based in-house software for crossplatform (in terms of not only operating systems (OS) but also manufacturers) analyses of the QC data on an ACR SPECT phantom, which is essential for assessing and assuring the tomographical image quality of SPECT. We applied our devised software to our routine quarterly QC of ACR SPECT phantom images acquired from a number of platforms (OS/manufacturers). Based on our experience, we suggest that our devised software can offer a unified platform that allows images acquired from various types of scanners to be analyzed with great precision and accuracy.

  12. State-of-The-Art and Applications of 3D Imaging Sensors in Industry, Cultural Heritage, Medicine, and Criminal Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Sansoni, Giovanna; Trebeschi, Marco; Docchio, Franco

    2009-01-01

    3D imaging sensors for the acquisition of three dimensional (3D) shapes have created, in recent years, a considerable degree of interest for a number of applications. The miniaturization and integration of the optical and electronic components used to build them have played a crucial role in the achievement of compactness, robustness and flexibility of the sensors. Today, several 3D sensors are available on the market, even in combination with other sensors in a “sensor fusion” approach. An importance equal to that of physical miniaturization has the portability of the measurements, via suitable interfaces, into software environments designed for their elaboration, e.g., CAD-CAM systems, virtual renders, and rapid prototyping tools. In this paper, following an overview of the state-of-art of 3D imaging sensors, a number of significant examples of their use are presented, with particular reference to industry, heritage, medicine, and criminal investigation applications. PMID:22389618

  13. State-of-The-Art and Applications of 3D Imaging Sensors in Industry, Cultural Heritage, Medicine, and Criminal Investigation.

    PubMed

    Sansoni, Giovanna; Trebeschi, Marco; Docchio, Franco

    2009-01-01

    3D imaging sensors for the acquisition of three dimensional (3D) shapes have created, in recent years, a considerable degree of interest for a number of applications. The miniaturization and integration of the optical and electronic components used to build them have played a crucial role in the achievement of compactness, robustness and flexibility of the sensors. Today, several 3D sensors are available on the market, even in combination with other sensors in a "sensor fusion" approach. An importance equal to that of physical miniaturization has the portability of the measurements, via suitable interfaces, into software environments designed for their elaboration, e.g., CAD-CAM systems, virtual renders, and rapid prototyping tools. In this paper, following an overview of the state-of-art of 3D imaging sensors, a number of significant examples of their use are presented, with particular reference to industry, heritage, medicine, and criminal investigation applications. PMID:22389618

  14. Electrocardiographic and Echocardiographic Imaging of the Heart of Athletes and Patients with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kreso, Amir; Barakovic, Fahir; Medjedovic, Senad; Halilbasic, Amela; Klepic, Muhamed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: “Athlete’s heart syndrome” is a condition characterized by structural, electrophysiologic and functional adaptation of the myocardium to physical activity (training), depending on the activity intensity, duration and type. In athletes left ventricular hypertrophy often resembles comorbid conditions (hypertension or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) so the differential diagnosis of the disease is very important and crucial, especially in people who are in active training. In fact, if an athlete has finding which indicate thickening of the left ventricle walls, should be distinguished hypertrophy which occurred as a result of many years of training from accidental existence of hypertension or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the same person. Therefore, it is important to make a diagnostic difference between healthy and sick heart. Material and methods: The study involved male persons aged 20-45 which have increased muscle mass of the left ventricle due to different etiology. Definite sample included 80 respondents divided into two groups. All respondent underwent interview, clinical examination, ECG and echocardiography. Results: Average systolic blood pressure (SBP) for the athletes were 115.8±7.2 mmHg, and in patients, with hypertension 154.4±3.5 mmHg, average values of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) for the athletes were 74.2±8.1 mmHg in patients, hypertensive 96.2 ± 3.9 mmHg. Values of SBP and DBP were significantly lower in the group of athletes compared to patients with hypertension (p=0.001). The value of the SFO/min was significantly lower in the group of athletes compared to patients with hypertension (p <0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in the sum of SV2 RV5 and between groups of athletes and groups of patients with hypertension (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the echocardiography parameters between two groups. There was a statistically significant difference in the sum of SV2 and RV5 between groups

  15. Heart imaging by cadmium telluride gamma cameraEuropean Program ``BIOMED'' consortium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheiber, Ch.; Eclancher, B.; Chambron, J.; Prat, V.; Kazandjan, A.; Jahnke, A.; Matz, R.; Thomas, S.; Warren, S.; Hage-Hali, M.; Regal, R.; Siffert, P.; Karman, M.

    1999-06-01

    Cadmium telluride semiconductor detectors (CdTe) operating at room temperature are attractive for medical imaging because of their good energy resolution providing excellent spatial and contrast resolution. The compactness of the detection system allows the building of small light camera heads which can be used for bedside imaging. A mobile pixellated gamma camera based on 2304 CdTe (pixel size: 3×3 mm, field of view: 15 cm×15 cm) has been designed for cardiac imaging. A dedicated 16-channel integrated circuit has also been designed. The acquisition hardware is fully programmable (DSP card, personal computer-based system). Analytical calculations have shown that a commercial parrallel hole collimator will fit the efficiency/resolution requirements for cardiac applications. Monte-Carlo simulations predict that the Moire effect can be reduced by a 15° tilt of the collimator with respect to the detector grid. A 16×16 CdTe module has been built for the preliminary physical tests. The energy resolution was 6.16±0.6 keV (mean ± standard deviation, n=30). Uniformity was ±10%, improving to ±1% when using a correction table. Test objects (emission data: letters 1.8 mm in width) and cold rods in scatter medium have been acquired. The CdTe images have been compared to those acquired with a conventionnal gamma camera.

  16. Evaluation of congenital heart disease by cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    SciTech Connect

    Feiglin, D.H.I.; Moodie, D.S.; O'Donnell, J.K.; Go, R.T.; Sterba, R.; MacIntyre, W.J.

    1985-05-01

    The authors studied 11 adult patients (pts) with atrial septal defect (ASD) and 4 adult pts with ventricular septal defect (VSD) using cine magnetic resonance. All studies were performed using a .6T superconducting magnet with ECG gating and electronic axial rotation when appropriate. Repeated multislice image with no change in physiologic delay of the spin echo pulse sequence, but varying the time by offsetting one slice at each imaging stage allowed for an N x N collection of data where N is the number of slices in one collection set and is equal to the number of sets collected. Algebraic manipulation of the T1 weighted images (TE=30mSec TRimaging of the atrial septum than does conventional MRI. Using this technique, the authors have identified both atrial and ventricular septal defects in all pts preoperatively and have noted an intact atrial septum following surgery. Standard MRI produced 4 false positive studies postoperatively because only 1 phase of the cardiac cycle was reviewed. Cine MRI allows better identification of septal defects than standard static acquisitions. The cine technique also provides better definition and delineation of right sided abnormalities which are maximized when viewed in a cardiac major axis obtained by electronic axial rotation.

  17. Differentiation between two "fang ji" herbal medicines, Stephania tetrandra and the nephrotoxic Aristolochia fangchi, using hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Tankeu, Sidonie; Vermaak, Ilze; Chen, Weiyang; Sandasi, Maxleene; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2016-02-01

    Stephania tetrandra ("hang fang ji") and Aristolochia fangchi ("guang fang ji") are two different plant species used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Both are commonly referred to as "fang ji" and S. tetrandra is mistakenly substituted and adulterated with the nephrotoxic A. fangchi as they have several morphological similarities. A. fangchi contains aristolochic acid, a carcinogen that causes urothelial carcinoma as well as aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN). In Belgium, 128 cases of AAN was reported while in China, a further 116 cases with end-stage renal disease were noted. Toxicity issues associated with species substitution and adulteration necessitate the development of reliable methods for the quality assessment of herbal medicines. Hyperspectral imaging in combination with partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) is suggested as an effective method to distinguish between S. tetrandra and A. fangchi root powder. Hyperspectral images were obtained in the wavelength region of 920-2514nm. Reduction of the dimensionality of the data was done by selecting the discrimination information range (964-1774nm). A discrimination model with a coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.9 and a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.23 was created. The constructed model successfully identified A. fangchi and S. tetrandra samples inserted into the model as an external validation set. In addition, adulteration detection was investigated by preparing incremental adulteration mixtures of S. tetrandra with A. fangchi (10-90%). Hyperspectral imaging showed the ability to accurately predict adulteration as low as 10%. It is evident that hyperspectral imaging has tremendous potential in the development of visual quality control methods which may prevent cases of aristolochic acid nephropathy in the future. PMID:26632529

  18. Image-based flow modeling in a two-chamber model of the left heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedula, Vijay; Seo, Jung-Hee; Shoele, Kourosh; George, Richard; Younes, Laurent; Mittal, Rajat

    2014-11-01

    Computational modeling of cardiac flows has been an active topic of discussion over the past decade. Modeling approaches have been consistently improved by inclusion of additional complexities and these continue to provide new insights into the dynamics of blood flow in health and disease. The vast majority of cardiac models have been single-chamber models, which have typically focused on the left or right ventricles, and in these models, the atria are modeled in highly simplistic ways. However, the left atrium acts as a mixing chamber and works with the left ventricle in a highly coordinated fashion to move the blood from the pulmonary veins to the aorta. The flow dynamics associated with this two-chamber interaction is not well understood. In addition, the flow in the left atrium has by itself significant clinical implications and our understanding of this is far less than that of the left ventricle. In the current study, we use 4D CT to create a physiological heart model that is functionally normal and use an experimentally validated sharp-interface immersed boundary flow solver to explore the atrio-ventricular interaction and develop insights into some of the questions addressed above. This research is supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation through NSF Grants IOS-1124804 and IIS-1344772. Computational resources are provided in part through the NSF XSEDE grants TG-CTS100002 and TG-CTS130064.

  19. Image computing requirements for the 1990s: from multimedia to medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gove, Robert J.; Lee, Woobin; Kim, Yongmin; Alexander, Thomas

    1991-05-01

    Although the computer industry has begun incorporating new features in their newest computers and workstations, it has not been clear how best to utilize these new media to improve the productivity of the user. One problem stems from relative separation of various disciplines. For example, three distinct disciplines have evolved from visual information processing: image processing, computer graphics, and pattern recognition. All of them manipulate image data in some ways. The main difference between them is the domain where each discipline takes the input and produces the output. Recognizing the importance of merging the three distinct disciplines into one so that the image data can be successfully incorporated into the future computer technology, a new discipline, denoted as image computing, has been established to provide for consistency and efficiency in managing image data. In conjunction with other technologies such as video and computer-generated audio, image computing will play a key role in developing an integrated information processing platform that will be used in many areas in the 1990s. Some of the areas where image computing technology can be applied are presented. Requirements specific to each application are also described. Functions required of a typical computing workstation will be listed and each requirement will be investigated in detail. We describe how the continuing advances in technology will benefit image computing, and predict how the software algorithms of the future will be employed in image computing. We also introduce some possible future products that incorporate image computing technology.

  20. NEED FOR INDIVIDUAL CANCER RISK ESTIMATES IN X-RAY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE IMAGING.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Sören

    2016-06-01

    To facilitate the justification of an X-ray or nuclear medicine investigation and for informing patients, it is desirable that the individual patient's radiation dose and potential cancer risk can be prospectively assessed and documented. The current dose-reporting is based on effective dose, which ignores body size and does not reflect the strong dependence of risk on the age at exposure. Risk estimations should better be done through individual organ dose assessments, which need careful exposure characterisation as well as anatomical description of the individual patient. In nuclear medicine, reference biokinetic models should also be replaced with models describing individual physiological states and biokinetics. There is a need to adjust population-based cancer risk estimates to the possible risk of leukaemia and solid tumours for the individual depending on age and gender. The article summarises reasons for individual cancer risk estimates and gives examples of methods and results of such estimates. PMID:26994092

  1. Noninvasive image derived heart input function for CMRglc measurements in small animal slow infusion FDG PET studies.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Guoming; Paul, Cumming; Todica, Andrei; Hacker, Marcus; Bartenstein, Peter; Böning, Guido

    2012-12-01

    Absolute quantitation of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) can be obtained in positron emission tomography (PET) studies when serial measurements of the arterial [(18)F]-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) input are available. Since this is not always practical in PET studies of rodents, there has been considerable interest in defining an image-derived input function (IDIF) by placing a volume of interest (VOI) within the left ventricle of the heart. However, spill-in arising from trapping of FDG in the myocardium often leads to progressive contamination of the IDIF, which propagates to underestimation of the magnitude of CMRglc. We therefore developed a novel, non-invasive method for correcting the IDIF without scaling to a blood sample. To this end, we first obtained serial arterial samples and dynamic FDG-PET data of the head and heart in a group of eight anaesthetized rats. We fitted a bi-exponential function to the serial measurements of the IDIF, and then used the linear graphical Gjedde-Patlak method to describe the accumulation in myocardium. We next estimated the magnitude of myocardial spill-in reaching the left ventricle VOI by assuming a Gaussian point-spread function, and corrected the measured IDIF for this estimated spill-in. Finally, we calculated parametric maps of CMRglc using the corrected IDIF, and for the sake of comparison, relative to serial blood sampling from the femoral artery. The uncorrected IDIF resulted in 20% underestimation of the magnitude of CMRglc relative to the gold standard arterial input method. However, there was no bias with the corrected IDIF, which was robust to the variable extent of myocardial tracer uptake, such that there was a very high correlation between individual CMRglc measurements using the corrected IDIF with gold-standard arterial input results. Based on simulation, we furthermore find that electrocardiogram-gating, i.e. ECG-gating is not necessary for IDIF quantitation using our approach. PMID:23160517

  2. Noninvasive image derived heart input function for CMRglc measurements in small animal slow infusion FDG PET studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Guoming; Cumming, Paul; Todica, Andrei; Hacker, Marcus; Bartenstein, Peter; Böning, Guido

    2012-12-01

    Absolute quantitation of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) can be obtained in positron emission tomography (PET) studies when serial measurements of the arterial [18F]-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) input are available. Since this is not always practical in PET studies of rodents, there has been considerable interest in defining an image-derived input function (IDIF) by placing a volume of interest (VOI) within the left ventricle of the heart. However, spill-in arising from trapping of FDG in the myocardium often leads to progressive contamination of the IDIF, which propagates to underestimation of the magnitude of CMRglc. We therefore developed a novel, non-invasive method for correcting the IDIF without scaling to a blood sample. To this end, we first obtained serial arterial samples and dynamic FDG-PET data of the head and heart in a group of eight anaesthetized rats. We fitted a bi-exponential function to the serial measurements of the IDIF, and then used the linear graphical Gjedde-Patlak method to describe the accumulation in myocardium. We next estimated the magnitude of myocardial spill-in reaching the left ventricle VOI by assuming a Gaussian point-spread function, and corrected the measured IDIF for this estimated spill-in. Finally, we calculated parametric maps of CMRglc using the corrected IDIF, and for the sake of comparison, relative to serial blood sampling from the femoral artery. The uncorrected IDIF resulted in 20% underestimation of the magnitude of CMRglc relative to the gold standard arterial input method. However, there was no bias with the corrected IDIF, which was robust to the variable extent of myocardial tracer uptake, such that there was a very high correlation between individual CMRglc measurements using the corrected IDIF with gold-standard arterial input results. Based on simulation, we furthermore find that electrocardiogram-gating, i.e. ECG-gating is not necessary for IDIF quantitation using our approach.

  3. The adult Göttingen minipig as a model for chronic heart failure after myocardial infarction: focus on cardiovascular imaging and regenerative therapies.

    PubMed

    Schuleri, Karl H; Boyle, Andrew J; Centola, Marco; Amado, Luciano C; Evers, Robert; Zimmet, Jeffrey M; Evers, Kristine S; Ostbye, Katherine M; Scorpio, Diana G; Hare, Joshua M; Lardo, Albert C

    2008-12-01

    Porcine models have become increasingly popular in cardiovascular research. The standard farm pig rapidly increases in body weight and size, potentially confounding serial measurements of cardiac function and morphology. We developed an adult porcine model that does not show physiologic increases in heart mass during the study period and is suitable for long-term study. We compared adult minipigs with the commonly used adolescent Yorkshire swine. Myocardial infarction was induced in adult Göttingen minipigs and adolescent Yorkshire swine by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery followed by reperfusion. At 8 wk after infarction, the left ventricular ejection fraction was 34.1 +/- 2.3% in minipigs and 30.7 +/- 2.0% in Yorkshire swine. The left ventricular end-diastolic mass in Yorkshire pigs assessed by magnetic resonance imaging increased 17 +/- 5 g, from 42.6 +/- 4.3 g at week 1 after infarction to 52.8 +/- 6.6 g at week 8, whereas it remained unchanged in minipigs. Cardiac anatomy and physiology in adult minipigs were evaluated invasively by angiography and noninvasively by Multidetector Computed Tomography and by Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 1.5 T and 3 T prior to myocardial infarction and during folow-up. This porcine heart failure model is reproducible, mimics the pathophysiology in patients who have experienced myocardial infarction, and is suitable for imaging studies. New heart failure therapies and devices can be tested preclinically in this adult animal model of chronic heart failure. PMID:19149414

  4. A review of heart chamber segmentation for structural and functional analysis using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Peng, Peng; Lekadir, Karim; Gooya, Ali; Shao, Ling; Petersen, Steffen E; Frangi, Alejandro F

    2016-04-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has become a key imaging modality in clinical cardiology practice due to its unique capabilities for non-invasive imaging of the cardiac chambers and great vessels. A wide range of CMR sequences have been developed to assess various aspects of cardiac structure and function, and significant advances have also been made in terms of imaging quality and acquisition times. A lot of research has been dedicated to the development of global and regional quantitative CMR indices that help the distinction between health and pathology. The goal of this review paper is to discuss the structural and functional CMR indices that have been proposed thus far for clinical assessment of the cardiac chambers. We include indices definitions, the requirements for the calculations, exemplar applications in cardiovascular diseases, and the corresponding normal ranges. Furthermore, we review the most recent state-of-the art techniques for the automatic segmentation of the cardiac boundaries, which are necessary for the calculation of the CMR indices. Finally, we provide a detailed discussion of the existing literature and of the future challenges that need to be addressed to enable a more robust and comprehensive assessment of the cardiac chambers in clinical practice. PMID:26811173

  5. Prevalence and correlates of increased lung/heart ratio of thallium-201 during dipyridamole stress imaging for suspected coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Villanueva, F.S.; Kaul, S.; Smith, W.H.; Watson, D.D.; Varma, S.K.; Beller, G.A. )

    1990-12-01

    There is little information concerning the prevalence and clinical correlates of increased pulmonary thallium-201 uptake during dipyridamole thallium-201 stress imaging. Accordingly, the clinical characteristics and quantitative thallium-201 findings were correlated with quantitative lung/heart thallium-201 ratio in 87 patients undergoing dipyridamole thallium-201 stress testing. Nineteen patients (22%) had an elevated ratio (greater than 0.51). These patients were more likely to have had an infarction, to be taking beta blockers, and have a lower rate-pressure product after dipyridamole administration than those with a normal ratio (p less than 0.03). An elevated ratio was associated with a greater likelihood of initial, redistribution and persistent defects, as well as left ventricular cavity dilatation on thallium-201 imaging (p less than 0.05). In addition, the number of myocardial segments demonstrating initial, redistribution and persistent defects was also greater in patients with increased ratios (p less than 0.03). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the presence of redistribution and left ventricular cavity dilatation were the most significant correlates of lung/heart thallium-201 ratio. It is concluded that the prevalence of increased lung/heart thallium-201 ratio with dipyridamole thallium-201 stress imaging is similar to that seen with exercise stress imaging. As with exercise thallium-201 imaging, increased pulmonary thallium-201 uptake may be a marker of functionally more significant coronary artery disease.

  6. Noninvasive quantification of regional blood flow in the human heart using N-13 ammonia and dynamic positron emission tomographic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, G.D.; Schwaiger, M.; Rosenspire, K.C.; Krivokapich, J.; Schelbert, H.; Kuhl, D.E. )

    1990-04-01

    Evaluation of regional myocardial blood flow by conventional scintigraphic techniques is limited to the qualitative assessment of regional tracer distribution. Dynamic imaging with positron emission tomography allows the quantitative delineation of myocardial tracer kinetics and, hence, the measurement of physiologic processes such as myocardial blood flow. To test this hypothesis, positron emission tomographic imaging in combination with N-13 ammonia was performed at rest and after pharmacologically induced vasodilation in seven healthy volunteers. Myocardial and blood time-activity curves derived from regions of interest over the heart and ventricular chamber were fitted using a three compartment model for N-13 ammonia, yielding rate constants for tracer uptake and retention. Myocardial blood flow (K1) averaged 88 +/- 17 ml/min per 100 g at rest and increased to 417 +/- 112 ml/min per 100 g after dipyridamole infusion (0.56 mg/kg) and handgrip exercise. The coronary reserve averaged 4.8 +/- 1.3 and was not significantly different in the septal, anterior and lateral walls of the left ventricle. Blood flow values showed only a minor dependence on the correction for blood metabolites of N-13 ammonia. These data demonstrate that quantification of regional myocardial blood flow is feasible by dynamic positron emission tomographic imaging. The observed coronary flow reserve after dipyridamole is in close agreement with the results obtained by invasive techniques, indicating accurate flow estimates over a wide range. Thus, positron emission tomography may provide accurate and noninvasive definition of the functional significance of coronary artery disease and may allow the improved selection of patients for revascularization.

  7. Validity of Fusion Imaging of Hamster Heart obtained by Fluorescent and Phase-Contrast X-Ray CT with Synchrotron Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Takeda, T.; Lwin, Thet Thet; Huo, Q.; Sunaguchi, N.; Murakami, T.; Mouri, S.; Nasukawa, S.; Fukami, T.; Yuasa, T.; Hyodo, K.; Hontani, H.; Minami, M.; Akatsuka, T.

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescent X-ray CT (FXCT) to depict functional information and phase-contrast X-ray CT (PCCT) to demonstrate morphological information are being developed to analyze the disease model of small animal. To understand the detailed pathological state, integration of both functional and morphological image is very useful. The feasibility of image fusion between FXCT and PCCT were examined by using ex-vivo hearts injected fatty acid metabolic agent (127I-BMIPP) in normal and cardiomyopathic hamsters. Fusion images were reconstructed from each 3D image of FXCT and PCCT. 127I-BMIPP distribution within the heart was clearly demonstrated by FXCT with 0.25 mm spatial resolution. The detailed morphological image was obtained by PCCT at about 0.03 mm spatial resolution. Using image integration technique, metabolic abnormality of fatty acid in cardiomyopathic myocardium was easily recognized corresponding to anatomical structures. Our study suggests that image fusion provides important biomedical information even in FXCT and PCCT imaging.

  8. Validity of Fusion Imaging of Hamster Heart obtained by Fluorescent and Phase-Contrast X-Ray CT with Synchrotron Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; Takeda, T.; Lwin, Thet Thet; Huo, Q.; Minami, M.; Sunaguchi, N.; Murakami, T.; Mouri, S.; Nasukawa, S.; Fukami, T.; Yuasa, T.; Akatsuka, T.; Hyodo, K.; Hontani, H.

    2007-01-19

    Fluorescent X-ray CT (FXCT) to depict functional information and phase-contrast X-ray CT (PCCT) to demonstrate morphological information are being developed to analyze the disease model of small animal. To understand the detailed pathological state, integration of both functional and morphological image is very useful. The feasibility of image fusion between FXCT and PCCT were examined by using ex-vivo hearts injected fatty acid metabolic agent (127I-BMIPP) in normal and cardiomyopathic hamsters. Fusion images were reconstructed from each 3D image of FXCT and PCCT. 127I-BMIPP distribution within the heart was clearly demonstrated by FXCT with 0.25 mm spatial resolution. The detailed morphological image was obtained by PCCT at about 0.03 mm spatial resolution. Using image integration technique, metabolic abnormality of fatty acid in cardiomyopathic myocardium was easily recognized corresponding to anatomical structures. Our study suggests that image fusion provides important biomedical information even in FXCT and PCCT imaging.

  9. Position paper of the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) on PET imaging of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bucerius, Jan; Hyafil, Fabien; Verberne, Hein J; Slart, Riemer H J A; Lindner, Oliver; Sciagra, Roberto; Agostini, Denis; Übleis, Christopher; Gimelli, Alessia; Hacker, Marcus

    2016-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death not only in Europe but also in the rest of the World. Preventive measures, however, often fail and cardiovascular disease may manifest as an acute coronary syndrome, stroke or even sudden death after years of silent progression. Thus, there is a considerable need for innovative diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to improve the quality of care and limit the burden of cardiovascular diseases. During the past 10 years, several retrospective and prospective clinical studies have been published using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques. However, the current variety of imaging protocols used for vascular (arterial) imaging with FDG PET considerably limits the ability to compare results between studies and to build large multicentre imaging registries. Based on the existing literature and the experience of the Members of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Cardiovascular Committee, the objective of this position paper was to propose optimized and standardized protocols for imaging and interpretation of PET scans in atherosclerosis. These recommendations do not, however, replace the individual responsibility of healthcare professionals to make appropriate decisions in the circumstances of the individual study protocols used and the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and, where appropriate and necessary, the patient's guardian or carer. These recommendations suffer from the absence of conclusive evidence on many of the recommendations. Therefore, they are not intended and should not be used as "strict guidelines" but should, as already mentioned, provide a basis for standardized clinical atherosclerosis PET imaging protocols, which are subject to further and continuing evaluation and improvement. However, this EANM position paper might indeed be a first step towards "official" guidelines on

  10. Can MR imaging be used to determine the efficacy of gene therapy in the heart?

    PubMed

    Edelman, Robert R

    2008-10-01

    In this issue of Radiology, Saeed et al (1) describe the intramyocardial administration of VM202, a newly constructed plasmid human hepatocyte growth factor, in a pig model of myocardial infarction. Histopathologic findings were used to characterize and quantify neovascularization, while magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings were used to quantify left ventricular function, perfusion, and infarct size. Compared with control animals, VM202-treated animals demonstrated an increase in number of capillaries, improved perfusion and left ventricular ejection fraction, and reduced infarct size. PMID:18796661

  11. Detection of calcium waves in mice heart tissue with multispot two-photon imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mauro, C.; Cecchetti, C. A.; Alfieri, D.; Borile, G.; Urbani, A.; Mongillo, M.; Pavone, F. S.

    2013-02-01

    We report on the characterization and use of a Multispot Multiphoton Microscope, to investigate calcium dy- namics at intracellular level. We apply this technique to obtain a time resolution of a few milliseconds, even in full frame images at 512x512 pixels, in order to get the most information on the evolution and propagation of ionic calcium waves across adjacent cells in an intact cardiac tissue. Further we report on the progress of development of a Random Access microscope for very high speed all optical electrophysiological signal acquisition in cell networks. Our study opens the way to the investigation of arrhythmogenic disease in animal models at cellular level.

  12. Database guided detection of anatomical landmark points in 3D images of the heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karavides, Thomas; Esther Leung, K. Y.; Paclik, Pavel; Hendriks, Emile A.; Bosch, Johan G.

    2010-03-01

    Automated landmark detection may prove invaluable in the analysis of real-time three-dimensional (3D) echocardiograms. By detecting 3D anatomical landmark points, the standard anatomical views can be extracted automatically in apically acquired 3D ultrasound images of the left ventricle, for better standardization of visualization and objective diagnosis. Furthermore, the landmarks can serve as an initialization for other analysis methods, such as segmentation. The described algorithm applies landmark detection in perpendicular planes of the 3D dataset. The landmark detection exploits a large database of expert annotated images, using an extensive set of Haar features for fast classification. The detection is performed using two cascades of Adaboost classifiers in a coarse to fine scheme. The method is evaluated by measuring the distance of detected and manually indicated landmark points in 25 patients. The method can detect landmarks accurately in the four-chamber (apex: 7.9+/-7.1mm, septal mitral valve point: 5.6+/-2.7mm lateral mitral valve point: 4.0+/-2.6mm) and two-chamber view (apex: 7.1+/-6.7mm, anterior mitral valve point: 5.8+/-3.5mm, inferior mitral valve point: 4.5+/-3.1mm). The results compare well to those reported by others.

  13. Critical care medicine in the United States: addressing the intensivist shortage and image of the specialty.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Neil A; Pastores, Stephen M; Oropello, John M; Kvetan, Vladimir

    2013-12-01

    Intensivists are increasingly needed to care for the critically ill and manage ICUs as ICU beds, utilization, acuity of illness, complexity of care and costs continue to rise. However, there is a nationwide shortage of intensivists that has occurred despite years of well publicized warnings of an impending workforce crisis from specialty societies and the federal government. The magnitude of the intensivist shortfall, however, is difficult to determine because there are many perspectives of optimal ICU administration, patient coverage and intensivist availability and a lack of national data on intensivist practices. Nevertheless, the intensivist shortfall is quite real as evidenced by the alternative solutions that hospitals are deploying to provide care for their critically ill patients. In the midst of these manpower struggles, the critical care environment is dynamically changing and becoming more stressful. Severe hospital bed availability and fiscal constraints are forcing ICUs to alter their approaches to triage, throughput and unit staffing. National and local organizations are mandating that hospitals comply with resource intensive and arguably unproven initiatives to monitor and improve patient safety and quality, and informatics systems. Lastly, there is an ongoing sense of professional dissatisfaction among intensivists and a lack of public awareness that critical care medicine is even a distinct specialty. This article offers proposals to increase the adult intensivist workforce through expansion and enhancements of internal medicine based critical care training programs, incentives for recent graduates to enter the critical care medicine field, suggestions for improvements in the critical care profession and workplace to encourage senior intensivists to remain in the field, proactive marketing of critical care, and expanded engagement by the critical care societies in the challenges facing intensivists. PMID:24132037

  14. Quantitative in vivo cell-surface receptor imaging in oncology: kinetic modeling & paired-agent principles from nuclear medicine and optical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Wang, Yu; Pogue, Brian W.; Liu, Jonathan T. C.

    2015-01-01

    The development of methods to accurately quantify cell-surface receptors in living tissues would have a seminal impact in oncology. For example, accurate measures of receptor density in vivo could enhance early detection or surgical resection of tumors via protein-based contrast, allowing removal of cancer with high phenotype specificity. Alternatively, accurate receptor expression estimation could be used as a biomarker to guide patient-specific clinical oncology targeting of the same molecular pathway. Unfortunately, conventional molecular contrast-based imaging approaches are not well adapted to accurately estimating the nanomolar-level cell-surface receptor concentrations in tumors, as most images are dominated by nonspecific sources of contrast such as high vascular permeability and lymphatic inhibition. This article reviews approaches for overcoming these limitations based upon tracer kinetic modeling and the use of emerging protocols to estimate binding potential and the related receptor concentration. Methods such as using single time point imaging or a reference-tissue approach tend to have low accuracy in tumors, whereas paired-agent methods or advanced kinetic analyses are more promising to eliminate the dominance of interstitial space in the signals. Nuclear medicine and optical molecular imaging are the primary modalities used, as they have the nanomolar level sensitivity needed to quantify cell-surface receptor concentrations present in tissue, although each likely has a different clinical niche. PMID:26134619

  15. Quantitative in vivo cell-surface receptor imaging in oncology: kinetic modeling and paired-agent principles from nuclear medicine and optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Wang, Yu; Pogue, Brian W.; Liu, Jonathan T. C.

    2015-07-01

    The development of methods to accurately quantify cell-surface receptors in living tissues would have a seminal impact in oncology. For example, accurate measures of receptor density in vivo could enhance early detection or surgical resection of tumors via protein-based contrast, allowing removal of cancer with high phenotype specificity. Alternatively, accurate receptor expression estimation could be used as a biomarker to guide patient-specific clinical oncology targeting of the same molecular pathway. Unfortunately, conventional molecular contrast-based imaging approaches are not well adapted to accurately estimating the nanomolar-level cell-surface receptor concentrations in tumors, as most images are dominated by nonspecific sources of contrast such as high vascular permeability and lymphatic inhibition. This article reviews approaches for overcoming these limitations based upon tracer kinetic modeling and the use of emerging protocols to estimate binding potential and the related receptor concentration. Methods such as using single time point imaging or a reference-tissue approach tend to have low accuracy in tumors, whereas paired-agent methods or advanced kinetic analyses are more promising to eliminate the dominance of interstitial space in the signals. Nuclear medicine and optical molecular imaging are the primary modalities used, as they have the nanomolar level sensitivity needed to quantify cell-surface receptor concentrations present in tissue, although each likely has a different clinical niche.

  16. Selecting a CT scanner for cardiac imaging: the heart of the matter.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Maria A; Pascoal, Ana; Keevil, Stephen F; Lewis, Cornelius A

    2016-09-01

    Coronary angiography to assess the presence and degree of arterial stenosis is an examination now routinely performed on CT scanners. Although developments in CT technology over recent years have made great strides in improving the diagnostic accuracy of this technique, patients with certain characteristics can still be "difficult to image". The various groups will benefit from different technological enhancements depending on the type of challenge they present. Good temporal and spatial resolution, wide longitudinal (z-axis) detector coverage and high X-ray output are the key requirements of a successful CT coronary angiography (CTCA) scan. The requirement for optimal patient dose is a given. The different scanner models recommended for CTCA all excel in different aspects. The specification data presented here for these scanners and the explanation of the impact of the different features should help in making a more informed decision when selecting a scanner for CTCA. PMID:27302494

  17. Towards myocardial contraction force image reconstruction for heart disease assessment and intervention planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, Seyyed M. H.; Drangova, Maria; White, James A.; Samani, Abbas

    2015-03-01

    It is clinically vital to devise a technique to evaluate regional functionality of the myocardium in order to determine the extent and intensity of local damage to the cardiac tissue caused by ischemic injuries. Such a technique can potentially enable cardiologists to discriminate between reversible and irreversible ischemic injuries and to devise appropriate revascularization therapy in case of reversible lesions. The technique is founded on the premise that sufficient contraction force generated by the cardiac tissue can be regarded as a direct and reliable criterion for regional analysis of tissue healthy functionality. To this end, a number of imaging techniques have been developed and, to our knowledge, none of them assess regional cardiac functionality based on a straightforward mechanical measure such as local cardiac contraction forces. . As such, a novel imaging technique is being developed on the basis of quantification and visualisation of local myocardial contraction forces. In this technique, cardiac contraction force distribution is attained through solving an inverse problem within an optimization framework which uses iterative forward mechanical modelling of the myocardium. Hence, a forward mechanical model of the myocardium which is computationally efficient, robust, and adaptable to diverse pathophysiological conditions is necessary for this development. As such, this paper is geared towards developing a novel mechanical model of the healthy and pathological myocardium which considers all aspects of the myocardial mechanics including hyperelasticity, anisotropy, and active contraction force. In this investigation, two major parts, including background tissue and reinforcement bars (fibers) have been considered for modelling the myocardium. The model was implemented using finite element (FE) approach and demonstrated very good performance in simulating normal and infarcted left ventricle (LV) contractile function.

  18. Framingham Coronary Heart Disease Risk Score Can be Predicted from Structural Brain Images in Elderly Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Rondina, Jane Maryam; Squarzoni, Paula; Souza-Duran, Fabio Luis; Tamashiro-Duran, Jaqueline Hatsuko; Scazufca, Marcia; Menezes, Paulo Rossi; Vallada, Homero; Lotufo, Paulo A.; de Toledo Ferraz Alves, Tania Correa; Busatto Filho, Geraldo

    2014-01-01

    Recent literature has presented evidence that cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) play an important role on cognitive performance in elderly individuals, both those who are asymptomatic and those who suffer from symptoms of neurodegenerative disorders. Findings from studies applying neuroimaging methods have increasingly reinforced such notion. Studies addressing the impact of CVRF on brain anatomy changes have gained increasing importance, as recent papers have reported gray matter loss predominantly in regions traditionally affected in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia in the presence of a high degree of cardiovascular risk. In the present paper, we explore the association between CVRF and brain changes using pattern recognition techniques applied to structural MRI and the Framingham score (a composite measure of cardiovascular risk largely used in epidemiological studies) in a sample of healthy elderly individuals. We aim to answer the following questions: is it possible to decode (i.e., to learn information regarding cardiovascular risk from structural brain images) enabling individual predictions? Among clinical measures comprising the Framingham score, are there particular risk factors that stand as more predictable from patterns of brain changes? Our main findings are threefold: (i) we verified that structural changes in spatially distributed patterns in the brain enable statistically significant prediction of Framingham scores. This result is still significant when controlling for the presence of the APOE 4 allele (an important genetic risk factor for both AD and cardiovascular disease). (ii) When considering each risk factor singly, we found different levels of correlation between real and predicted factors; however, single factors were not significantly predictable from brain images when considering APOE4 allele presence as covariate. (iii) We found important gender differences, and the possible causes of that finding are discussed. PMID

  19. A novel non-linear recursive filter design for extracting high rate pulse features in nuclear medicine imaging and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sajedi, Salar; Kamal Asl, Alireza; Ay, Mohammad R; Farahani, Mohammad H; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-06-01

    Applications in imaging and spectroscopy rely on pulse processing methods for appropriate data generation. Often, the particular method utilized does not highly impact data quality, whereas in some scenarios, such as in the presence of high count rates or high frequency pulses, this issue merits extra consideration. In the present study, a new approach for pulse processing in nuclear medicine imaging and spectroscopy is introduced and evaluated. The new non-linear recursive filter (NLRF) performs nonlinear processing of the input signal and extracts the main pulse characteristics, having the powerful ability to recover pulses that would ordinarily result in pulse pile-up. The filter design defines sampling frequencies lower than the Nyquist frequency. In the literature, for systems involving NaI(Tl) detectors and photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), with a signal bandwidth considered as 15 MHz, the sampling frequency should be at least 30 MHz (the Nyquist rate), whereas in the present work, a sampling rate of 3.3 MHz was shown to yield very promising results. This was obtained by exploiting the known shape feature instead of utilizing a general sampling algorithm. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed filter enhances count rates in spectroscopy. With this filter, the system behaves almost identically as a general pulse detection system with a dead time considerably reduced to the new sampling time (300 ns). Furthermore, because of its unique feature for determining exact event times, the method could prove very useful in time-of-flight PET imaging. PMID:22964063

  20. [Digital archiving of imaged heart catheter studies on CD-R. Detection of irreversible CD damage].

    PubMed

    Erbel, R; Ge, J; Haude, M

    1998-12-01

    The digital archiving has great advantages compared to the standard 35-mm X-ray cinefilm documentation. The data are immediately available and quantitative coronary angiography possible. In addition the technical progress is enhancing the availability of data. The loss of films is nearly eliminated, as only copies of the digital archive data are delivered. In addition a big advantage concerning pollution is present, when CD Rs are used. We report about the damage of CD Rs after 89, 162, 181 and 252 days when they were stored in polypropylene material containing envelopes. The damaged CD Rs all belonged to the provider Verbatim, whereas CD Rs of the provider Rank Xerox or Kodak were never damaged. In contrary to the Verbatim company, Rank Xerox gave written confirmation for 10-year storage and a written confirmation, that the storage in the polypropylene envelopes is possible. Mechanical, thermal damage and damage by humidity have to be discussed as well as chemical interactions of the CD Rs surface with the polypropylene material. As the digital storage for X-ray images has to be provided for 10 years in Germany, it is concluded, that the storage in polypropylene envelopes has to be avoided, when a written confirmation by the company is not given. These observations should stimulate to better control and analyze the real storage availabilities of digital data and provide in the future other media than CD R for long-term archiving. PMID:10023587

  1. Ligands for SPECT and PET imaging of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors of the heart and brain

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; McPherson, D.W.; Luo, H.

    1995-06-01

    Interest in the potential use of cerebral SPECT and PET imaging for determination of the density and activity of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors (mAChR) has been stimulated by the changes in these receptors which occur in many neurological diseases. In addition, the important involvement of mAChR in modulating negative inotropic cardiac activity suggests that such receptor ligands may have important applications in evaluation of changes which may occur in cardiac disease. In this paper, the properties of several key muscarinic receptor ligands being developed or which have been used for clinical SPECT and PET are discussed. In addition, the ORNL development of the new iodinated IQNP ligand based on QNB and the results of in vivo biodistribution studies in rats, in vitro competitive binding studies and ex vivo autoradiographic experiments are described. The use of radioiodinated IQNP may offer several advantages in comparison to IQNB because of its easy and high yield preparation and high brain uptake and the potential usefulness of the {open_quotes}partial{close_quotes} subtype selective IONP isomers. We also describe the development of new IQNP-type analogues which offer the opportunity for radiolabeling with positron-emitting radioisotopes (carbon-11, fluorine-18 and bromine-76) for potential use with PET.

  2. Update on intravenous dipyridamole cardiac imaging in the assessment of ischemic heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Younis, L.T.; Chaitman, B.R. )

    1990-01-01

    Intravenous dipyridamole is a relative selective coronary vasodilator which, when combined with thallium-201, provides a useful technique to assess myocardial perfusion. The intravenous dipyridamole is administered as an infusion at a rate of 0.14 mg/kg/min for 4 minutes. In the presence of significant coronary artery disease the increase of coronary blood flow is disproportionate between vessels with and without significant coronary lesions, providing the basis for detecting regional differences in flow using thallium-201. The test can be used alone or combined with low level exercise to increase test sensitivity. The test is safe when performed under medical supervision and when patient selection is done appropriately. Most of the side effects induced by dipyridamole infusion are well tolerated by patients and readily reversed with intravenous aminophylline and sublingual nitroglycerin. The average sensitivity and specificity of the dipyridamole thallium scintigraphy test from the major studies are 76% and 70%, respectively. The test is very useful in providing prognostic information in patients who are unable to exercise. A reversible thallium defect after dipyridamole infusion has been shown to be associated with significant mortality and morbidity in patients with documented or suspected coronary artery disease. The use of intravenous dipyridamole has been extended into other modalities of imaging, including 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography, to study functional changes in the left ventricular induced by the infusion of intravenous dipyridamole. 52 references.

  3. Diagnostic medicine: A comprehensive ABCDE algorithm for accurate interpretation of radiology and pathology images and data.

    PubMed

    Zioga, Christina A; Destouni, Chariklia T

    2015-01-01

    A pathway to the procedure of interpreting radiology images or pathology slides is presented. This simplified mnemonic can be used as a memory aid determining the order in which diagnosis should be approached. First, before we place the radiology image in front of the lightbox or the slide under the microscope we have to be sure that it is adequately labelled and prepared (Correct). It is also necessary to have or gather all available information concerning the patient and if possible his full medical history (A, Available Information). Once we come across the image, two fundamental questions should be answered: which part of the body does the image concern and-where applicable-if the image is adequate (B, Body). Next, we proceed to answer if we have a neoplastic tissue or not (C, Cancer). We then either form a differential diagnosis list or we reach to a final diagnosis (D, Diagnosis), which is followed by the writing of the report (E, Exhibit). These series of steps followed as an ad hoc procedure by most specialists, are important in order to achieve a complete and clear diagnosis and report, which is intended to support optimal clinical practice. This ABCDE concept is a generic standard approach which is not limited to specific specimens and can lead to faster diagnosis with less mistakes. PMID:26665217

  4. An iterative particle filter approach for respiratory motion estimation in nuclear medicine imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd. Rahni, Ashrani Aizzuddin; Wells, Kevin; Lewis, Emma; Guy, Matthew; Goswami, Budhaditya

    2011-03-01

    The continual improvement in spatial resolution of Nuclear Medicine (NM) scanners has made accurate compensation of patient motion increasingly important. A major source of corrupting motion in NM acquisition is due to respiration. Therefore a particle filter (PF) approach has been proposed as a powerful method for motion correction in NM. The probabilistic view of the system in the PF is seen as an advantage that considers the complexity and uncertainties in estimating respiratory motion. Previous tests using XCAT has shown the possibility of estimating unseen organ configuration using training data that only consist of a single respiratory cycle. This paper augments application specific adaptation methods that have been implemented for better PF estimates with an iterative model update step. Results show that errors are further reduced to an extent up to a small number of iterations and such improvements will be advantageous for the PF to cope with more realistic and complex applications.

  5. A report on the Academic Emergency Medicine 2015 consensus conference "Diagnostic imaging in the emergency department: a research agenda to optimize utilization".

    PubMed

    Gunn, Martin L; Marin, Jennifer R; Mills, Angela M; Chong, Suzanne T; Froemming, Adam T; Johnson, Jamlik O; Kumaravel, Manickam; Sodickson, Aaron D

    2016-08-01

    In May 2015, the Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Diagnostic imaging in the emergency department: a research agenda to optimize utilization" was held. The goal of the conference was to develop a high-priority research agenda regarding emergency diagnostic imaging on which to base future research. In addition to representatives from the Society of Academic Emergency Medicine, the multidisciplinary conference included members of several radiology organizations: American Society for Emergency Radiology, Radiological Society of North America, the American College of Radiology, and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. The specific aims of the conference were to (1) understand the current state of evidence regarding emergency department (ED) diagnostic imaging utilization and identify key opportunities, limitations, and gaps in knowledge; (2) develop a consensus-driven research agenda emphasizing priorities and opportunities for research in ED diagnostic imaging; and (3) explore specific funding mechanisms available to facilitate research in ED diagnostic imaging. Through a multistep consensus process, participants developed targeted research questions for future research in six content areas within emergency diagnostic imaging: clinical decision rules; use of administrative data; patient-centered outcomes research; training, education, and competency; knowledge translation and barriers to imaging optimization; and comparative effectiveness research in alternatives to traditional computed tomography use. PMID:27234978

  6. Spectral imaging applications: Remote sensing, environmental monitoring, medicine, military operations, factory automation and manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, N.; Subramanian, S.; Barhen, J.; Toomarian, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the activities at OKSI related to imaging spectroscopy presenting current and future applications of the technology. The authors discuss the development of several systems including hardware, signal processing, data classification algorithms and benchmarking techniques to determine algorithm performance. Signal processing for each application is tailored by incorporating the phenomenology appropriate to the process, into the algorithms. Pixel signatures are classified using techniques such as principal component analyses, generalized eigenvalue analysis and novel very fast neural network methods. The major hyperspectral imaging systems developed at OKSI include the Intelligent Missile Seeker (IMS) demonstration project for real-time target/decoy discrimination, and the Thermal InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (TIRIS) for detection and tracking of toxic plumes and gases. In addition, systems for applications in medical photodiagnosis, manufacturing technology, and for crop monitoring are also under development.

  7. Spectral imaging applications: Remote sensing, environmental monitoring, medicine, military operations, factory automation and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, N.; Subramanian, S.; Barhen, J.; Toomarian, N.

    1996-12-31

    This paper reviews the activities at OKSI related to imaging spectroscopy presenting current and future applications of the technology. The authors discuss the development of several systems including hardware, signal processing, data classification algorithms and benchmarking techniques to determine algorithm performance. Signal processing for each application is tailored by incorporating the phenomenology appropriate to the process, into the algorithms. Pixel signatures are classified using techniques such as principal component analyses, generalized eigenvalue analysis and novel very fast neural network methods. The major hyperspectral imaging systems developed at OKSI include the Intelligent Missile Seeker (IMS) demonstration project for real-time target/decoy discrimination, and the Thermal InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (TIRIS) for detection and tracking of toxic plumes and gases. In addition, systems for applications in medical photodiagnosis, manufacturing technology, and for crop monitoring are also under development.

  8. Hyperspectral imaging in the quality control of herbal medicines - the case of neurotoxic Japanese star anise.

    PubMed

    Vermaak, Ilze; Viljoen, Alvaro; Lindström, Susanne Wiklund

    2013-03-01

    Illicium verum (Chinese star anise) dried fruit is popularly used as a remedy to treat infant colic. However, instances of life-threatening adverse events in infants have been recorded after use, in some cases due to substitution and/or adulteration of I. verum with Illicium anisatum (Japanese star anise), which is toxic. It is evident that rapid and efficient quality control methods are of utmost importance to prevent re-occurrence of such dire consequences. The potential of short wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging and image analysis as a rapid quality control method to distinguish between I. anisatum and I. verum whole dried fruit was investigated. Images were acquired using a sisuChema SWIR hyperspectral pushbroom imaging system with a spectral range of 920-2514 nm. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the images to reduce the high dimensionality of the data, remove unwanted background and to visualise the data. A classification model with 4 principal components and an R²X_cum of 0.84 and R²Y_cum of 0.81 was developed for the 2 species using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The model was subsequently used to accurately predict the identity of I. anisatum (98.42%) and I. verum (97.85%) introduced into the model as an external dataset. The results show that SWIR hyperspectral imaging is an objective and non-destructive quality control method that can be successfully used to identify whole dried fruit of I. anisatum and I. verum. In addition, this method has the potential to detect I. anisatum whole dried fruits within large batches of I. verum through upscaling to a conveyor belt system. PMID:23277152

  9. Heart attack - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... infarction: management. In Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA:Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 55. Cannon CP, Braunwald E. Unstable angina and non-ST elevation ...

  10. Heart failure - tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the heart muscle that are not moving well. This test uses x-ray contrast fluid to fill the ... BUN) and serum creatinine tests help monitor how well your kidneys are working. You will need these test regularly if: You are taking medicines called ACE ...

  11. Application of infrared thermal imaging in the study of preventing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases with Chinese medicine health food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xusheng

    2009-08-01

    To explore the assessing technique which could objectively reflect the characteristics of Chinese medicine in the prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, four balance features of infrared thermal images (ITI) corresponding to the up and down, left and right, proximal and distal balance of blood circulation of human body were studied. First, the ITI features of the middle-aged and elderly people with lipid abnormality history were compared with those of the healthy youth. It was found that the balance state of the youth was significantly better than that of the middle-aged and elderly, P<=0.01 for all the balance features. For the youth, the balance state of females was better than that of the males. But this sexual difference disappeared for the middle-aged and elderly group. Second, a double-blind randomized trial was carried out to study the influences of Shengyi capsule, a Chinese medicine health food with the function of helping to decrease serum lipid, on the balance features. The subjects were middle-aged and elderly people with lipid abnormality history. Shengyi capsule was taken by the trial group while Xuezhikang capsule (with lovastatin as the main effective component) by the control group for 108 days. The balance features of ITI showed that Shengyi was significantly better than Xuezhikang in improving the whole body balance of blood circulation (including the up and down, left and right, proximal and distal balance). The relative efficacy rate was 81.0% for the trial group and 33.3% for the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups (P=0.002). Shengyi could effectively decrease the low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) but the effect of Xuezhikang in decreasing total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C was better than Shengyi. Though the lipid-lowering effect of Shengyi was not as good as Xuezhikang, ITI reflected the obvious advantage of Shengyi in improving the whole body balance of blood circulation which

  12. Initial experience with a handheld device digital imaging and communications in medicine viewer: OsiriX mobile on the iPhone.

    PubMed

    Choudhri, Asim F; Radvany, Martin G

    2011-04-01

    Medical imaging is commonly used to diagnose many emergent conditions, as well as plan treatment. Digital images can be reviewed on almost any computing platform. Modern mobile phones and handheld devices are portable computing platforms with robust software programming interfaces, powerful processors, and high-resolution displays. OsiriX mobile, a new Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine viewing program, is available for the iPhone/iPod touch platform. This raises the possibility of mobile review of diagnostic medical images to expedite diagnosis and treatment planning using a commercial off the shelf solution, facilitating communication among radiologists and referring clinicians. PMID:20567992

  13. Comparison of different tissue clearing methods and 3D imaging techniques for visualization of GFP-expressing mouse embryos and embryonic hearts.

    PubMed

    Kolesová, Hana; Čapek, Martin; Radochová, Barbora; Janáček, Jiří; Sedmera, David

    2016-08-01

    Our goal was to find an optimal tissue clearing protocol for whole-mount imaging of embryonic and adult hearts and whole embryos of transgenic mice that would preserve green fluorescent protein GFP fluorescence and permit comparison of different currently available 3D imaging modalities. We tested various published organic solvent- or water-based clearing protocols intended to preserve GFP fluorescence in central nervous system: tetrahydrofuran dehydration and dibenzylether protocol (DBE), SCALE, CLARITY, and CUBIC and evaluated their ability to render hearts and whole embryos transparent. DBE clearing protocol did not preserve GFP fluorescence; in addition, DBE caused considerable tissue-shrinking artifacts compared to the gold standard BABB protocol. The CLARITY method considerably improved tissue transparency at later stages, but also decreased GFP fluorescence intensity. The SCALE clearing resulted in sufficient tissue transparency up to ED12.5; at later stages the useful depth of imaging was limited by tissue light scattering. The best method for the cardiac specimens proved to be the CUBIC protocol, which preserved GFP fluorescence well, and cleared the specimens sufficiently even at the adult stages. In addition, CUBIC decolorized the blood and myocardium by removing tissue iron. Good 3D renderings of whole fetal hearts and embryos were obtained with optical projection tomography and selective plane illumination microscopy, although at resolutions lower than with a confocal microscope. Comparison of five tissue clearing protocols and three imaging methods for study of GFP mouse embryos and hearts shows that the optimal method depends on stage and level of detail required. PMID:27145961

  14. Prostate Radiotherapy in the Era of Advanced Imaging and Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Dulaney, Caleb R.; Osula, Daniel O.; Yang, Eddy S.; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush

    2016-01-01

    Tremendous technological advancements in prostate radiotherapy have decreased treatment toxicity and improved clinical outcomes for men with prostate cancer. While these advances have allowed for significant treatment volume reduction and whole-organ dose escalation, further improvement in prostate radiotherapy has been limited by classic techniques for diagnosis and risk stratification. Developments in prostate imaging, image-guided targeted biopsy, next-generation gene expression profiling, and targeted molecular therapies now provide information to stratify patients and select treatments based on tumor biology. Image-guided targeted biopsy improves detection of clinically significant cases of prostate cancer and provides important information about the biological behavior of intraprostatic lesions which can further guide treatment decisions. We review the evolution of prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRI-ultrasound fusion-guided prostate biopsy. Recent advancements in radiation therapy including dose escalation, moderate and extreme hypofractionation, partial prostate radiation therapy, and finally dose escalation by simultaneous integrated boost are discussed. We also review next-generation sequencing and discuss developments in targeted molecular therapies. Last, we review ongoing clinical trials and future treatment paradigms that integrate targeted biopsy, molecular profiling and therapy, and prostate radiotherapy. PMID:27022486

  15. Prostate Radiotherapy in the Era of Advanced Imaging and Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Dulaney, Caleb R; Osula, Daniel O; Yang, Eddy S; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush

    2016-01-01

    Tremendous technological advancements in prostate radiotherapy have decreased treatment toxicity and improved clinical outcomes for men with prostate cancer. While these advances have allowed for significant treatment volume reduction and whole-organ dose escalation, further improvement in prostate radiotherapy has been limited by classic techniques for diagnosis and risk stratification. Developments in prostate imaging, image-guided targeted biopsy, next-generation gene expression profiling, and targeted molecular therapies now provide information to stratify patients and select treatments based on tumor biology. Image-guided targeted biopsy improves detection of clinically significant cases of prostate cancer and provides important information about the biological behavior of intraprostatic lesions which can further guide treatment decisions. We review the evolution of prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRI-ultrasound fusion-guided prostate biopsy. Recent advancements in radiation therapy including dose escalation, moderate and extreme hypofractionation, partial prostate radiation therapy, and finally dose escalation by simultaneous integrated boost are discussed. We also review next-generation sequencing and discuss developments in targeted molecular therapies. Last, we review ongoing clinical trials and future treatment paradigms that integrate targeted biopsy, molecular profiling and therapy, and prostate radiotherapy. PMID:27022486

  16. Imaging agent and method of use

    DOEpatents

    Wieland, Donald M.; Brown, Lawrence E.; Beierwaltes, William H.; Wu, Jiann-long

    1986-04-22

    A new radiopharmaceutical composition for use in nuclear medicine comprises a radioiodinated meta-iodobenzylguanidine. The composition is used as an imaging agent for the heart, adrenal medulla, and tumors of the adrenal medulla and can be used for treatment of tumors of the adrenal medulla.

  17. Imaging agent and method of use

    DOEpatents

    Wieland, D.M.; Brown, L.E.; Beierwaltes, W.H.; Wu, J.L.

    1986-04-22

    A new radiopharmaceutical composition for use in nuclear medicine comprises a radioiodinated meta-iodobenzylguanidine. The composition is used as an imaging agent for the heart, adrenal medulla, and tumors of the adrenal medulla and can be used for treatment of tumors of the adrenal medulla. No Drawings

  18. Open heart surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart bypass surgery (coronary artery bypass graft - CABG) Heart transplant Heart valve surgery Hypoplastic left heart repair Minimally ... Heart bypass surgery Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive Heart transplant Heart valve surgery Hypoplastic left heart syndrome Patent ...

  19. Physical Activity and Public Health in Older Adults: Recommendation from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To issue a recommendation on the types and amounts of physical activity needed to improve and maintain health in older adults. Participants: A panel of scientists with expertise in public health, behavioral science, epidemiology, exercise science, medicine, and gerontology. Evidence: The ...

  20. Development of radiohalogenated muscarinic ligands for the in vivo imaging of m-AChR by nuclear medicine techniques

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, D.W.; Luo, H.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1994-06-01

    Alterations in the density of acetylcholinergic muscarinic receptors (m-AChR) have been observed in various dementias. This has spurred interest in the development of radiohalogenated ligands which can be used for the non-invasive in vivo detection of m-AChR by nuclear medicine techniques. We have developed a new ligand 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl ({alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-{alpha}-phenylacetate (IQNP,12) which demonstrates high affinity for the muscarinic receptor. When labeled with radioiodine it has been shown to be selective and specific for m-ACHR. Initial studies on the separation and in vivo evaluation of the various isomers of IQNP have shown that the stereochemistry of the chiral centers and the configuration around the double bond play an important role in m-AChR subtype specificity. In vivo evaluation of these stereoisomers demonstrate that E-(R,R)-IQNP has a high affinity for the M{sub 1} muscarinic subtype while Z-(R,R)-IQNP demonstrate a high affinity for M{sub 1} and M{sub 2} receptor subtypes. These data demonstrate IQNP (12) has potential for use in the non-evasive in vivo detection of m-AChR by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). A brominated analogue, ``BrQNP,`` in which the iodine has been replaced by a bromine atom, has also been prepared and was shown to block the in vivo uptake of IQNP in the brain and heart and therefore has potential for positron emission tomographic (PET) studies of m-AChR.

  1. Developing a Research Agenda to Optimize Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: An Executive Summary of the 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference.

    PubMed

    Marin, Jennifer R; Mills, Angela M

    2015-12-01

    The 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference, "Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: A Research Agenda to Optimize Utilization" was held on May 12, 2015, with the goal of developing a high-priority research agenda on which to base future research. The specific aims of the conference were to (1) understand the current state of evidence regarding emergency department (ED) diagnostic imaging use and identify key opportunities, limitations, and gaps in knowledge; (2) develop a consensus-driven research agenda emphasizing priorities and opportunities for research in ED diagnostic imaging; and (3) explore specific funding mechanisms available to facilitate research in ED diagnostic imaging. Over a 2-year period, the executive committee and other experts in the field convened regularly to identify specific areas in need of future research. Six content areas within emergency diagnostic imaging were identified before the conference and served as the breakout groups on which consensus was achieved: clinical decision rules; use of administrative data; patient-centered outcomes research; training, education, and competency; knowledge translation and barriers to imaging optimization; and comparative effectiveness research in alternatives to traditional computed tomography use. The executive committee invited key stakeholders to assist with the planning and to participate in the consensus conference to generate a multidisciplinary agenda. There were a total of 164 individuals involved in the conference and spanned various specialties, including general emergency medicine, pediatric emergency medicine, radiology, surgery, medical physics, and the decision sciences. PMID:26626899

  2. Image quality of CT angiography with model-based iterative reconstruction in young children with congenital heart disease: comparison with filtered back projection and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Son, Sung Sil; Choo, Ki Seok; Jeon, Ung Bae; Jeon, Gye Rok; Nam, Kyung Jin; Kim, Tae Un; Yeom, Jeong A; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Jeong, Dong Wook; Lim, Soo Jin

    2015-06-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the image quality of CT angiography (CTA) reconstructed by model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) and to compare this with images obtained by filtered back projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) in newborns and infants with congenital heart disease (CHD). Thirty-seven children (age 4.8 ± 3.7 months; weight 4.79 ± 0.47 kg) with suspected CHD underwent CTA on a 64detector MDCT without ECG gating (80 kVp, 40 mA using tube current modulation). Total dose length product was recorded in all patients. Images were reconstructed using FBP, ASIR, and MBIR. Objective image qualities (density, noise) were measured in the great vessels and heart chambers. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was calculated by measuring the density and noise of myocardial walls. Two radiologists evaluated images for subjective noise, diagnostic confidence, and sharpness at the level prior to the first branch of the main pulmonary artery. Images were compared with respect to reconstruction method, and reconstruction times were measured. Images from all patients were diagnostic, and the effective dose was 0.22 mSv. The objective image noise of MBIR was significantly lower than those of FBP and ASIR in the great vessels and heart chambers (P < 0.05); however, with respect to attenuations in the four chambers, ascending aorta, descending aorta, and pulmonary trunk, no statistically significant difference was observed among the three methods (P > 0.05). Mean CNR values were 8.73 for FBP, 14.54 for ASIR, and 22.95 for MBIR. In addition, the subjective image noise of MBIR was significantly lower than those of the others (P < 0.01). Furthermore, while FBP had the highest score for image sharpness, ASIR had the highest score for diagnostic confidence (P < 0.05), and mean reconstruction times were 5.1 ± 2.3 s for FBP and ASIR and 15.1 ± 2.4 min for MBIR. While CTA with MBIR in newborns and infants with CHD can reduce image noise and

  3. Ultrasound Contrast Materials in Cardiovascular Medicine: from Perfusion Assessment to Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Klibanov, Alexander L

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging is widely used in cardiovascular diagnostics. Contrast agents expand the range of tasks that ultrasound can perform. In the clinic in US, endocardial border delineation and left ventricle opacification have been an approved indication for more than a decade. However, myocardial perfusion contrast ultrasound studies are still at the clinical trials stage. Blood pool contrast and perfusion in other tissues might be an easier indication to achieve: general blood pool ultrasound contrast is in wider use in Europe, Canada, Japan, and China. Targeted (molecular) contrast microbubbles will be the next generation of ultrasound imaging probes, capable of specific delineation of the areas of disease by adherence to molecular targets. The shell of targeted microbubbles (currently in the preclinical research and early stage clinical trials) is decorated with the ligands (antibodies, peptides or mimetics, hormones, carbohydrates) that ensure firm binding to the molecular markers of disease. PMID:23913363

  4. Micro modules for mobile shape, color and spectral imaging with smartpads in industry, biology and medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Dietrich; Dittrich, Paul-Gerald; Düntsch, Eric; Kraus, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Aim of the paper is the demonstration of a paradigm shift in shape, color and spectral measurements in industry, biology and medicine as well as in measurement education and training. Innovative hardware apps (hwapps) and software apps (swapps) with smartpads are fundamental enablers for the transformation from conventional stationary working places towards innovative mobile working places with in-field measurements and point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. Mobile open online courses (MOOCs) are transforming the study habits. Practical examples for the application of innovative photonic micro shapemeters, colormeters and spectrometers will be given. The innovative approach opens so far untapped enormous markets for measurement science, engineering and training. These innovative working conditions will be fast accepted due to their convenience, reliability and affordability. A highly visible advantage of smartpads is the huge number of their distribution, their worldwide connectivity via Internet and cloud services, the standardized interfaces like USB and HDMI and the experienced capabilities of their users for practical operations, learned with their private smartpads.

  5. Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... attack treatment works best when it's given right after symptoms occur. Prompt treatment of a heart attack can help prevent or limit damage to the heart and prevent sudden death. Call 9-1-1 Right Away A heart ...

  6. Heart attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... infarction; Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction; NSTEMI; CAD-heart attack; Coronary artery disease-heart attack ... made up of cholesterol and other cells. A heart attack may occur when: A tear in the ...

  7. Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... Block Explore Heart Block What Is... Electrical System & EKG Results Types Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & ... heart block. Doctors use a test called an EKG (electrocardiogram) to help diagnose heart block. This test ...

  8. Heart Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Incredible Machine Bonus poster (PDF) The Human Heart Anatomy Blood The Conduction System The Coronary Arteries The ... of the Leg Vasculature of the Torso Heart anatomy illustrations and animations for grades K-6. Heart ...

  9. General consumer communication tools for improved image management and communication in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratib, Osman M.; Rosset, Antoine; McCoy, J. Michael

    2005-04-01

    We elected to explore emerging consumer technologies that can be adopted to improve and facilitate image and data communication in medical and clinical environment. The wide adoption of new communication paradigm such as instant messaging, chatting and direct emailing can be integrated in specific applications. The increasing capacity of portable and hand held devices such as iPod music players offer an attractive alternative for data storage that exceeds the capabilities of traditional offline storage media such as CD or even DVD. We adapted medical image display and manipulation software called OSIRIX to integrate different innovative technologies facilitating the communication and data transfer between remote users. We integrated email and instant messaging features to the program allowing users to instantaneously email an image or a set of images that are displayed on the screen. Using iChat instant messaging application from Apple a user can share the content of his screen with a remote correspondent and communicate in real time using voice and video. To provide convenient mechanism for exchange of large data sets the program can store the data in DICOM format on CD or DVD, but was also extended to use the large storage capacity of iPod hard disks as well as Apple"s online storage service "dot Mac" that users can subscribe to benefit from scalable secure storage that accessible from anywhere on the internet. The adoption of these innovative technologies is likely to change the architecture of traditional picture archiving and communication systems and provide more flexible and efficient means of communication.

  10. Diagnostic approach to assessment of valvular heart disease using magnetic resonance imaging, part II: a practical approach for native and prosthetic heart valve stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Chaothawee, Lertlak

    2012-01-01

    MRI is already an established diagnostic modality for assessing valvular stenosis although it is not usually used as the initial non-invasive test. The preferred diagnostic modality for valvular stenosis is currently echocardiography. However, MRI has been offered as a good alternative test in the event of inconclusive echocardiography results. During the course of valvular stenosis, the valve orifice area decreases and the pressure gradient across the diseased valve increases. Valvular orifice area is the major core indicator for valvular stenosis severity grading. Compared with valvular regurgitation, assessment with MRI for valvular stenosis is less complicated. The aim of this article is to detail the MRI techniques in assessing native and prosthetic heart valve stenosis.

  11. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  12. Dynamic three-dimensional echocardiographic imaging of congenital heart defects in infants and children by computer-controlled tomographic parallel slicing using a single integrated ultrasound instrument.

    PubMed

    Fulton, D R; Marx, G R; Pandian, N G; Romero, B A; Mumm, B; Krauss, M; Wollschläger, H; Ludomirsky, A; Cao, Q L

    1994-03-01

    Three-dimensional cardiac reconstruction generated from transesophageal interrogation can be performed using an integrated unit that captures, processes, and postprocesses tomographic parallel slices of the heart. This probe was used for infants and young children in the transthoracic position to evaluate the feasibility of producing three-dimensional cardiac images with capability for real-time dynamic display. Twenty-two infants and children (range 1 day-3.5 years) underwent image acquisition using a 16 mm 5 MHz 64 element probe placed over the precordium. Two infants were also imaged from the subcostal position. Data was obtained and stored over a single cardiac cycle after acceptable cardiac and respiratory gating intervals were met. The transducer was advanced in 0.5-1 mm increments over the cardiac structures using identical acquisition criteria. The images were reconstructed from the stored digital cubic format and could be oriented in any desired plane. In 9 of the 22 infants the images obtained were of optimal quality. The images obtained displayed normal cardiac structures emphasizing depth relationships as well as visualization of planes not generally demonstrated by two-dimensional imaging. Several lesions were also depicted in a unique fashion using this technique. Though the method employed was limited by movement artifact and reconstruction time, the quality of the three-dimensional display was excellent and enhanced by real-time demonstration. The transthoracic approach was successful in capturing sufficient data to create three-dimensional images, which may have further application in more accurate diagnosis of complex cardiac abnormalities and generation of planes of view which could duplicate surgical visualization of a lesion. Further assessment of the technique in infants with congenital heart disease is warranted. PMID:10146717

  13. Microscopic identification of Chinese medicinal materials based on X-ray phase contrast imaging: from qualitative to quantitative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Y.; Liang, Z.; Tan, H.; Ni, L.; Zhao, Z.; Xiao, T.; Xu, H.

    2016-07-01

    Although a variety of methods, ranging from simple morphological examination to physical and chemical analysis, and DNA molecular biology, exist for authenticating Chinese medicinal materials(CMMs), no methods can achieve both the source species identification and quality evaluation of CMMs simultaneously. Furthermore, the methods that are currently available for the identification of CMMs, including both optical and electronic microscopy, usually entail strict requirements for sample preparation or testing environment, such as the slicing of super-thin sections, or processing with specific chemical reagents. These treatments not only damage the CMMs but may also cause some of the original microstructures to be missed. Additionally, they may even yield false results. Owing to the unique penetrating character of X-rays, X-ray phase contrast imaging(XPCI) can be used to realize the inner microstructures of CMMs through nondestructive imaging. With the higher flux and luminance of the third generation of synchrotron radiation facility, XPCI can provides clearer and finer microstructures of CMMs, which are mainly composed of C, H, O, and N elements, with better spatial and density resolutions. For more than ten years, the X-ray imaging group at the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics has investigated the microstructures of CMMs by XPCI and they have established and developed a quantitative X-ray phase contrast micro-CT for investigating the characteristic microstructures of CMMs. During this period, a variety of typical CMMs have been investigated, from two-dimensional (2D) radiography to three-dimensional (3D) micro-CT, from qualitative to quantitative. Taken together, these results verify that quantitative X-ray phase contrast micro-CT is a practical tool for the microscopic investigation of CMMs. Additionally, further efforts are being made to find the relationship between the microstructures' quantitative factors and active chemical components. At present

  14. Advanced devices for photoacoustic imaging to improve cancer and cerebrovascular medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montilla Marien, Leonardo Gabriel

    Recent clinical studies have demonstrated that photoacoustic imaging (PAI) provides important diagnostic information for breast cancer staging. Despite these promising studies, PAI remains an unfeasible option for clinics due to the cost to implement, the required large modification in user conduct and the inflexibility of the hardware to accommodate other applications for the incremental enhancement in diagnostic information. The research described in this dissertation addresses these issues by designing attachments to clinical ultrasound probes and incorporating custom detectors into commercial ultrasound scanners. The ultimate benefit of these handheld devices is to expand the capability of current ultrasound systems and facilitate the translation of PAI to enhance cancer diagnostics and neurosurgical outcomes. Photoacoustic enabling devices (PEDs) were designed as attachments to two clinical ultrasound probes optimized for breast cancer diagnostics. PAI uses pulsed laser excitation to create transient heating (<1°C) and thermoelastic expansion that is detected as an ultrasonic emission. These ultrasonic emissions are remotely sensed to construct noninvasive images with optical contrast at depths much greater than other optical modalities. The PEDs are feasible in terms of cost, user familiarity and flexibility for various applications. Another possible application for PAI is in assisting neurosurgeons treating aneurysms. Aneurysms are often treated by placing a clip to prevent blood flow into the aneurysm. However, this procedure has risks associated with damaging nearby vessels. One of the developed PEDs demonstrated the feasibility to three-dimensionally image tiny microvasculature (<0.3mm) beyond large blood occlusions (>2.4mm) in a phantom model. The capability to use this during surgery would suggest decreasing the risks associated with these treatments. However, clinical ultrasound arrays are not clinically feasible for microsurgical applications due to

  15. Appropriate use criteria for amyloid PET: a report of the Amyloid Imaging Task Force, the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, and the Alzheimer's Association.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Keith A; Minoshima, Satoshi; Bohnen, Nicolaas I; Donohoe, Kevin J; Foster, Norman L; Herscovitch, Peter; Karlawish, Jason H; Rowe, Christopher C; Carrillo, Maria C; Hartley, Dean M; Hedrick, Saima; Pappas, Virginia; Thies, William H

    2013-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) of brain amyloid β is a technology that is becoming more available, but its clinical utility in medical practice requires careful definition. To provide guidance to dementia care practitioners, patients, and caregivers, the Alzheimer's Association and the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging convened the Amyloid Imaging Taskforce (AIT). The AIT considered a broad range of specific clinical scenarios in which amyloid PET could potentially be used appropriately. Peer-reviewed, published literature was searched to ascertain available evidence relevant to these scenarios, and the AIT developed a consensus of expert opinion. Although empirical evidence of impact on clinical outcomes is not yet available, a set of specific appropriate use criteria (AUC) were agreed on that define the types of patients and clinical circumstances in which amyloid PET could be used. Both appropriate and inappropriate uses were considered and formulated, and are reported and discussed here. Because both dementia care and amyloid PET technology are in active development, these AUC will require periodic reassessment. Future research directions are also outlined, including diagnostic utility and patient-centered outcomes. PMID:23359661

  16. New imaging systems in nuclear medicine. Final report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The aim of this program has been to improve the performance of positron emission tomography (PET) to achieve high resolution with high sensitivity. Towards this aim, the authors have carried out the following studies: (1) explored new techniques for detection of annihilation radiation including new detector materials and system geometries, specific areas that they have studied include--exploration of factors related to resolution and sensitivity of PET instrumentation including geometry, detection materials and coding, and the exploration of technique to improve the image quality by use of depth of interaction and increased sampling; (2) complete much of the final testing of PCR-II, an analog-coded cylindrical positron tomograph, developed and constructed during the current funding period; (3) developed the design of a positron microtomograph with mm resolution for quantitative studies in small animals, a single slice version of this device has been designed and studied by use of computer simulation; (4) continued and expanded the program of biological studies in animal models. Current studies have included imaging of animal models of Parkinson`s and Huntington`s disease and cancer. These studies have included new radiopharmaceuticals and techniques involving molecular biology.

  17. NASA high performance computing, communications, image processing, and data visualization-potential applications to medicine.

    PubMed

    Kukkonen, C A

    1995-06-01

    High-speed information processing technologies being developed and applied by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA and Department of Defense mission needs have potential dual-uses in telemedicine and other medical applications. Fiber optic ground networks connected with microwave satellite links allow NASA to communicate with its astronauts in Earth orbit or on the moon, and with its deep space probes billions of miles away. These networks monitor the health of astronauts and or robotic spacecraft. Similar communications technology will also allow patients to communicate with doctors anywhere on Earth. NASA space missions have science as a major objective. Science sensors have become so sophisticated that they can take more data than our scientists can analyze by hand. High performance computers--workstations, supercomputer and massively parallel computers are being used to transform this data into knowledge. This is done using image processing, data visualization and other techniques to present the data--one's and zero's in forms that a human analyst can readily relate to and understand. Medical sensors have also explored in the in data output--witness CT scans, MRI, and ultrasound. This data must be presented in visual form and computers will allow routine combination of many two dimensional MRI images into three dimensional reconstructions of organs that then can be fully examined by physicians. Emerging technologies such as neural networks that are being "trained" to detect craters on planets or incoming missiles amongst decoys can be used to identify microcalcification in mammograms. PMID:7643022

  18. Eleven fetal echocardiographic planes using 4-dimensional ultrasound with spatio-temporal image correlation (STIC): a logical approach to fetal heart volume analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Theoretically, a cross-sectional image of any cardiac planes can be obtained from a STIC fetal heart volume dataset. We described a method to display 11 fetal echocardiographic planes from STIC volumes. Methods Fetal heart volume datasets were acquired by transverse acquisition from 200 normal fetuses at 15 to 40 weeks of gestation. Analysis of the volume datasets using the described technique to display 11 echocardiographic planes in the multiplanar display mode were performed offline. Results Volume datasets from 18 fetuses were excluded due to poor image resolution. The mean visualization rates for all echocardiographic planes at 15-17, 18-22, 23-27, 28-32 and 33-40 weeks of gestation fetuses were 85.6% (range 45.2-96.8%, N = 31), 92.9% (range 64.0-100%, N = 64), 93.4% (range 51.4-100%, N = 37), 88.7%(range 54.5-100%, N = 33) and 81.8% (range 23.5-100%, N = 17) respectively. Conclusions Overall, the applied technique can favorably display the pertinent echocardiographic planes. Description of the presented method provides a logical approach to explore the fetal heart volumes. PMID:20843340

  19. Heart attack symptoms (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some people (the elderly, people with diabetes, and women) may have little or no chest pain. Or, they may experience unusual symptoms (shortness of breath, fatigue, weakness). Women are more likely than men to have symptoms ...

  20. Nano-imaging of the beating mouse heart in vivo: Importance of sarcomere dynamics, as opposed to sarcomere length per se, in the regulation of cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Kobirumaki-Shimozawa, Fuyu; Oyama, Kotaro; Shimozawa, Togo; Mizuno, Akari; Ohki, Takashi; Terui, Takako; Minamisawa, Susumu; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi; Fukuda, Norio

    2016-01-01

    Sarcomeric contraction in cardiomyocytes serves as the basis for the heart's pump functions in mammals. Although it plays a critical role in the circulatory system, myocardial sarcomere length (SL) change has not been directly measured in vivo under physiological conditions because of technical difficulties. In this study, we developed a high speed (100-frames per second), high resolution (20-nm) imaging system for myocardial sarcomeres in living mice. Using this system, we conducted three-dimensional analysis of sarcomere dynamics in left ventricular myocytes during the cardiac cycle, simultaneously with electrocardiogram and left ventricular pressure measurements. We found that (a) the working range of SL was on the shorter end of the resting distribution, and (b) the left ventricular-developed pressure was positively correlated with the SL change between diastole and systole. The present findings provide the first direct evidence for the tight coupling of sarcomere dynamics and ventricular pump functions in the physiology of the heart. PMID:26712849