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  1. A method for estimating age of Danish medieval sub-adults based on long bone length.

    PubMed

    Primeau, Charlotte; Friis, Laila; Sejrsen, Birgitte; Lynnerup, Niels

    2012-07-01

    The preferred method for aging archaeological sub-adult skeletons is by dental examination. In cases where no dental records are available, age estimation may be performed according to epiphyseal union, skeletal elements or diaphyseal lengths. Currently no data have been produced specifically for aging archaeological Danish sub-adults from the medieval period based on diaphyseal lengths. The problem with using data on Danish samples, which have been derived from a different population, is the possibility of skewing age estimates. In this study 58 Danish archaeological sub-adults were examined, aged from approximately six years to twenty-one years. The samples were aged according to two dental methods: Haavikko and Ubelaker. Regression formulae were constructed for aging according to their diaphyseal lengths both for individual long bones and combinations of upper and lower long bones. This study indicated that with the regression formulae developed, estimation of age can be done with reasonable results on Danish sub-adults. The Danish data were then compared to data from a different archaeological sample and a modern sample. It showed that the modern data indicated a consistently lower age compared to this sample which increased until reaching a maximum of nearly five years and six months. When comparing the archaeological data to this study, the growth profile crossed over at 12.5 years with a maximum age difference before the cross point of two years and three months lower for the archaeological data. After the cross point there was a maximum difference of three years and four months higher for the archaeological data. This study has shown the importance of using data for age estimation for archaeological material which has been developed specifically for that population. In addition it has presented a possible solution for Danish sub-adult material when dental material is not available. PMID:22928354

  2. MEDIEVAL STUDIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARTONFFY, ANDREA PONTECORVO; AND OTHERS

    A CURRICULUM GUIDE ON MEDIEVAL STUDIES IS PRESENTED, INCLUDING TEACHER MATERIALS AND STUDENT PROBLEM SETS. THE TEACHER MATERIALS DESCRIBE AND EXPLAIN THE ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL ASPECTS OF MANORIAL LIFE--THE PREDOMINANT FORM OF AGRICULTURAL LIFE IN NORTHERN FRANCE, ENGLAND, AND GERMANY DURING THE PERIOD FROM APPROXIMATELY 800 TO 1300 A.D.…

  3. Pharmacy in medieval Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Antonova, J

    2007-06-01

    A survey of the state of pharmacy in medieval Bulgaria is done, analyzing written records of various origin and content. Written documents are reviewed separately in chronological order. They all seem to lend support to the conclusion that realism is a characteristic feature of pharmacy in medieval Bulgaria. Mysticism and superstition are relatively rarely resorted to, precedence is given to real treatment with suitable and not so suitable medical plants, minerals and animal products. Relatively weak is the impact of West-European medicine and pharmacy because of the different influence of the Eastern and the Western Orthodox religion, and partly because of the territorial remoteness. During the High Middle Ages Bulgarian pharmacy developed under the influence of Hellenic ancient culture. Later, after the 15 century, the influence of the Arabian culture and medicine is also felt as a result of the complex compilation between the Bulgarian and Ottoman culture during the 500-year Turkish yoke. PMID:17663197

  4. [Sterility in medieval noblemen].

    PubMed

    van Eickels, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The social competence of the medieval nobleman was closely associated with his male sense of honour. One essential aspect of his masculinity was the ability to produce progeny. The childlessness of a good ruler needed special justification, the childlessness of a bad ruler was seen as God's punishment. In terms of canon law, the inability to procreate was irrelevant as long as the marriage could be consummated. Considering the importance of the procreative capacity and its symbolic significance one must ask to what extent it was possible to ascertain sterility in the Middle Ages. In the case of noblemen one can assume that they could obtain certainty about their fertility through their premarital and extramarital intercourse. This might explain why some rulers and nobles accepted a childless marriage without deeming it necessary to take another wife (or plan their itinerary in a way that enabled them to produce progeny). PMID:20506725

  5. Fractures in medieval Scotland.

    PubMed

    MacLennan, W J

    2001-04-01

    The prevalence of fractures in medieval Scotland is assessed, particular attention being given to excavations of cemeteries beside three Carmelite cemeteries, at Aberdeen, Perth and Linlithgow, and another one at Whithorn Abbey. In the friaries the prevalence of fractures was 7.6% and in Whithorn it was 5.0%. These figures are comparable with an estimated prevalence of 7.2% for individuals between 0 and 65 years in present day Scotland. Males were more at risk of fractures than females, but a small group from both genders had been struck on the head by weapons. A study from a rural cemetery in England indicates that both male and female peasants had a much higher risk of fractures than their urban counterparts. PMID:11394343

  6. Medieval Romances: "Perceval" to "Monty Python."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jehle, Dorothy M.

    A selection of romances from medieval literature can be used successfully in undergraduate literature classes to trace the appearance and relevance of medieval themes, motifs, and characters in works of modern poetry, fiction, and film. New scholarly editions, historiographies, translations, and modernizations give both teachers and students more…

  7. [Natural philosophy in medieval medicine].

    PubMed

    Riha, Ortrun

    2007-01-01

    Medieval medicine is not much interested in natural philosophy. Nevertheless, it is based upon clear methodological and epistemological principles, where the word 'nature' is used in several ways. The natural 'virtues' of things--including magical ones--are most important for therapy. Human health is influenced by stars (planets, zodiac) and seasons, and the physician has to take into account such cosmic effects. The chances of healing depend on the patients' 'nature' in relation to the power of illness. A strong nature makes medicine superfluous, an overwhelming disease cannot be beaten. Thus, medicine is limited to 'neutral' situations when supporting the patient makes his 'nature' win. PMID:18447188

  8. What's Wrong with Early Medieval Medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Horden, Peregrine

    2011-01-01

    The medical writings of early medieval western Europe c. 700 – c. 1000 have often been derided for their disorganised appearance, poor Latin, nebulous conceptual framework, admixtures of magic and folklore, and general lack of those positive features that historians attribute to ancient or later medieval medicine. This paper attempts to rescue the period from its negative image. It examines a number of superficially bizarre writings so as to place them in an intellectual and sociological context, and to suggest that the presumed contrast between them and their ancient and later medieval counterparts has been wrongly drawn.

  9. Astronomical Beliefs in Medieval Georgia: Innovative Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauter, Jefferson; Orchiston, W.; Stephenson, F.

    2014-01-01

    Written sources from medieval Georgia show, among other things, how astronomical ideas were adapted on the periphery of the Byzantine and Islamic worlds. In this paper, we investigate a number of Georgian beliefs about the heavens from a calendrical work and a celestial prognostication text, but also from less expected sources including the medieval life of a saint and an epic poem. For the most part, these sources were derived from Byzantine or Persian models. We show the extent to which the sources nevertheless conform to a specifically Georgian view of the cosmos. We argue that, in so doing, medieval Georgian authors employed several innovative approaches hitherto unnoticed by modern scholars.

  10. Quasicrystals in Medieval Islamic Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Peter

    2009-03-01

    The conventional view holds that girih (geometric star-and-polygon) patterns in medieval Islamic architecture were conceived by their designers as a network of zigzagging lines, and drafted directly with a straightedge and a compass. I discuss our recent findings that, by 1200 A. D., a conceptual breakthrough occurred in which girih patterns were reconceived as tessellations of a special set of equilateral polygons (girih tiles) decorated with lines. These girih tiles enabled the creation of increasingly complex periodic girih patterns, and by the 15th century, the tessellation approach was combined with self-similar transformations to construct nearly-perfect quasicrystalline patterns. These patterns have remarkable properties; they do not repeat periodically, and have special symmetry---and were not understood in the West until the 1970s. I will discuss some of the properties of Islamic quasicrystalline tilings, and their relation to the Penrose tiling, perhaps the best known quasicrystal pattern.

  11. The equations of medieval cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonanno, Roberto; Quercellini, Claudia

    2009-04-01

    In Dantean cosmography the Universe is described as a series of concentric spheres with all the known planets embedded in their rotation motion, the Earth located at the centre and Lucifer at the centre of the Earth. Beyond these "celestial spheres", Dante represents the "angelic choirs" as other nine spheres surrounding God. The rotation velocity increases with decreasing distance from God, that is with increasing Power (Virtù). We show that, adding Power as an additional fourth dimension to space, the modern equations governing the expansion of a closed Universe (i.e. with the density parameter Ω0 > 1) in the space-time, can be applied to the medieval Universe as imaged by Dante in his Divine Comedy. In this representation, the Cosmos acquires a unique description and Lucifer is not located at the centre of the hyperspheres.

  12. A Medieval Example of Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, William S.; Tremblay, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the operation of the trebuchet, a medieval device used to throw objects over castle walls. The trebuchet does not use torsion or elasticity for power, only gravity. Provides mathematical computations to find the velocity of thrown objects. (MVL)

  13. Medieval Stars in Melk Abbey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, P. G.; Zotti, G.

    2012-05-01

    Melk Abbey, a marvel of European high baroque architecture, is one of the most frequently visited tourist attractions in Austria, attracting 450 000 visitors each year. The monastery's museum presents selected aspects of Benedictine life in Melk since the monastery's foundation in 1089. After the church, the library is the second-most important room in a Benedictine monastery. Due to the wide scientific interests and contacts of the medieval monks, these libraries also contain manuscripts on mathematics, physics and astronomy. In 2009, the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009), the annual library exhibition was fully dedicated to astronomical manuscripts and early prints from the past 1000 years. Following earlier research work on astronomical manuscripts in Melk's library, we were invited to organise the exhibition. In addition, we also presented a lecture series and provided more background in an accompanying book. Because of positive feedback from the visitors, the exhibition was extended until March 2011. In the two years of its duration, the exhibition was seen by more than 900 000 visitors. In this article, we describe the background to the scientific project, how the exhibition was organised and lessons learned from this project.

  14. Greek Astronomy and the Medieval Arabic Tradition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliba, George

    2002-07-01

    Islamic scholars of the Middle Ages are often credited with preserving the scientific writings of Antiquity through the Dark Ages of Europe. Saliba argues that the medieval Islamic astronomers did far more—actually correcting and improving on Greek astronomy by creating new mathematical tools to explain the motions of celestial objects. These tools were so useful that Copernicus appears to have borrowed them for use in his heliocentric cosmology. In this new light, the medieval Islamic astronomers played a fundamental role in the scientific revolution that was forged in Europe during the Renaissance.

  15. Sex Differentials in Frailty in Medieval England

    PubMed Central

    DeWitte, Sharon N.

    2011-01-01

    In most modern populations, there are sex differentials in morbidity and mortality that favor women. This study addresses whether such female advantages existed to any appreciable degree in medieval Europe. The analyses presented here examine whether men and women with osteological stress markers faced the same risks of death in medieval London. The sample used for this study comes from the East Smithfield Black Death cemetery in London. The benefit of using this cemetery is that most, if not all, individuals interred in East Smithfield died from the same cause within a very short period of time. This allows for the analysis of the differences between men and women in the risks of mortality associated with osteological stress markers without the potential confounding effects of different causes of death. A sample of 299 adults (173 males, 126 females) from the East Smithfield cemetery was analyzed. The results indicate that the excess mortality associated with several osteological stress markers was higher for men than for women. This suggests that in this medieval population, previous physiological stress increased the risk of death for men during the Black Death to a greater extent than was true for women. Alternatively, the results might indicate that the Black Death discriminated less strongly between women with and without pre-existing health conditions than was true for men. These results are examined in light of previous analyses of East Smithfield and what is known about diet and sexually-mediated access to resources in medieval England. PMID:20853482

  16. The Medieval and Early Modern Data Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touwen, L. Jeroen

    1992-01-01

    Illustrates the use of computer data banks in history by examining the Medieval and Early Modern Data Bank (MEMDB) located at Rutgers University. States the database contains an expanding collection of historical monetary and price/wage data. Includes instructions, examples of search strategies, and an annotated bibliography. (CFR)

  17. Medieval Education of Girls and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersey, Shirley

    1980-01-01

    The author looks at what and how women were taught in the castles, convents, towns and universities of medieval Europe. She also discusses the careers of seven notable nuns and abbesses, who were both exemplars of the scholarly woman and lasting influences on female education. (SJL)

  18. Alternative medicine in ancient and medieval history.

    PubMed

    Prioreschi, P

    2000-10-01

    The author, in an attempt to clarify whether the rise of alternative medicine is a phenomenon characteristic of our time or whether it existed in the past as well, has identified at least three alternative medicines, which developed in ancient Rome, ancient India and in the medieval Islamic world. The circumstances leading to the development of alternative medicine in the past and in our time are discussed and compared. PMID:11000060

  19. Magna Carta: Teaching Medieval Topics for Historical Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Scott Alan

    2010-01-01

    The Middle Ages are an immensely important era in the Western experience. Unfortunately, medieval studies are often marginalized or trivialized in school curriculum. With the approach of the 800th anniversary of Magna Carta, the famous charter of rights from medieval England, one has a timely and useful example for considering what a focus on…

  20. Renewing Audience Response in Study of Medieval Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, David V.

    Although modern readers often find the interpretation of medieval literature difficult, they should be encouraged to use their imagination to resolve the dilemmas they encounter. Often, these are the same issues with which medieval audiences had to wrestle and which the poets intended to raise. W. Iser's and H. R. Jauss's principles of…

  1. Views on sexuality in croatian medieval sources.

    PubMed

    Fatović-Ferencić, Stella; Dürrigl, Marija-Ana

    2004-02-01

    We analyzed attitudes towards sexuality during the medieval period in Croatia. For that purpose we investigated numerous medical and literary texts, statutes, and specific natural philosophical work entitled "Lucidar". Contrary to medical books, which had a low impact on the broader community, literary texts were important in spreading messages on sexuality, as well as in shaping medieval mentality and creating sexual taboos. Consequently, a specific perspective and culture influenced rules and practices for community protection, as well as various levels of social systems. Within the three large groups of sources, we selected those typical both in their content (ideas) and forms, and representative in shaping attitudes toward sexuality on our territory. The first group of sources (examples from literary genres) were identified as an important vehicle in transferring messages of morality, moral obligation and sexuality in general. Deeply rooted in Christianity they became a pattern according to which the way of life and value were measured, a specific view toward sexuality was shaped, and notions of stigma and taboo articulated. PMID:14968448

  2. Some more earthquakes from medieval Kashmir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Bashir; Shafi, Muzamil

    2014-07-01

    Kashmir has the peculiarity of having written history of almost 5,000 years. However, the description of earthquakes in the archival contents is patchy prior to 1500 a.d. Moreover, recent search shows that there exist certain time gaps in the catalogs presently in use especially at medieval level (1128-1586 a.d.). The presence of different ruling elites in association with socioeconomic and political conditions has in many ways confused the historical context of the medieval sources. However, by a meticulous review of the Sanskrit sources (between the twelfth and sixteenth century), it has been possible to identify unspecified but fair number (eight seismic events) of earthquakes that do not exist in published catalogs of Kashmir or whose dates are very difficult to establish. Moreover, historical sources reveal that except for events which occurred during Sultan Skinder's rule (1389-1413) and during the reign of King Zain-ul-Abidin (1420-1470), all the rediscovered seismic events went into oblivion, due mainly to the fact that the sources available dedicated their interests to the military events, which often tended to overshadow/superimpose over and even concealed natural events like earthquakes, resulting in fragmentary accounts and rendering them of little value for macroseismic intensity evaluation necessary for more efficient seismic hazard assessment.

  3. PIXE analysis of medieval silver coins

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelouahed, H. Ben; Gharbi, F.; Roumie, M.; Baccouche, S.; Romdhane, K. Ben; Nsouli, B.; Trabelsi, A.

    2010-01-15

    We applied the proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analytical technique to twenty-eight medieval silver coins, selected from the Tunisian treasury. The purpose is to study the fineness evolution from the beginning of the 7th to the 15th centuries AD. Each silver coin was cleaned with a diluted acid solution and then exposed to a 3 MeV proton beam from a 1.7 MV tandem accelerator. To allow the simultaneous detection of light and heavy elements, a funny aluminum filter was positioned in front of the Si(Li) detector entrance which is placed at 135{sup o} to the beam direction. The elements Cu, Pb, and Au were observed in the studied coins along with the major component silver. The concentration of Ag, presumably the main constituent of the coins, varies from 55% to 99%. This significant variation in the concentration of the major constituent reveals the economical difficulties encountered by each dynasty. It could be also attributed to differences in the composition of the silver mines used to strike the coins in different locations. That fineness evolution also reflects the poor quality of the control practices during this medieval period. In order to verify the ability of PIXE analytical method to distinguish between apparently similar coins, we applied hierarchical cluster analysis to our results to classify them into different subgroups of similar elemental composition.

  4. Planets, Stars, and Orbs, The Medieval Cosmos, 1200-1687

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Edward

    Medieval cosmology was a fusion of pagan Greek ideas and biblical descriptions of the world, especially the creation account in Genesis. Planets, Stars, and Orbs describes medieval conceptions of the cosmos as understood by scholastic theologians and natural philosophers in the universities of western Europe from the thirteenth to the seventeenth centuries. Not only are the major ideas and arguments of medieval cosmology described and analysed, but much attention is paid to the responses of scholastic natural philosophers of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries to the challenges posed by the new science and astronomy as represented by Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, Galileo and Kepler.

  5. Origins of psychiatric hospitalization in medieval Spain.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Jesús; Baldessarini, Ross J; Undurraga, Juan; Sánchez-Moreno, José

    2012-12-01

    Specification of the earliest institution devoted primarily to the treatment of the mentally ill in the western world remains elusive. Uncertainty arises from limited documentation and gradual evolution of most candidate sites from hospices for the poor, foreign, or homeless, or as clinical centers for the care of a range of persons with general medical and psychiatric disorders. Plausible candidates identified in the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries include Bethlem Asylum in London. Much less often considered are two centers in medieval Spain: the Moorish Maristan at Granada (1365) and the Christian Hospital of Our Lady Mary for Lunatics, the Insane and Innocents at Valencia (1409). Since the early Spanish sites are not well known, we have summarized available information concerning their foundation, facilities, theories and practices, as arising from the cultural and political background of the times and regions. PMID:22350131

  6. Orientation of English Medieval Parish Churches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoare, Peter G.

    Our understanding of the alignment of English medieval parish churches, after more than three centuries of research, is far from complete. The arrangement of relatively few structures has been explained beyond reasonable doubt, and tests of the overwhelmingly popular festival orientation theory are often insufficiently rigorous to provide convincing answers. Much work remains to be done, including verifying and analyzing some of the existing raw data, determining whether the present church was dedicated at the time of construction, examining wills for evidence of early dedications, measuring the effect of eastern horizons on sunrise azimuths, and consulting excavation reports to assess whether earlier buildings may have influenced the arrangement of those churches that replaced them.

  7. Medieval iconography of watermelons in Mediterranean Europe

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Cucurbitaceae), is an important fruit vegetable in the warmer regions of the world. Watermelons were illustrated in Mediterranean Antiquity, but not as frequently as some other cucurbits. Little is known concerning the watermelons of Mediterranean Europe during medieval times. With the objective of obtaining an improved understanding of watermelon history and diversity in this region, medieval drawings purportedly of watermelons were collected, examined and compared for originality, detail and accuracy. Findings The oldest manuscript found that contains an accurate, informative image of watermelon is the Tractatus de herbis, British Library ms. Egerton 747, which was produced in southern Italy, around the year 1300. A dozen more original illustrations were found, most of them from Italy, produced during the ensuing two centuries that can be positively identified as watermelon. In most herbal-type manuscripts, the foliage is depicted realistically, the plants shown as having long internodes, alternate leaves with pinnatifid leaf laminae, and the fruits are small, round and striped. The manuscript that contains the most detailed and accurate image of watermelon is the Carrara Herbal, British Library ms. Egerton 2020. In the agriculture-based manuscripts, the foliage, if depicted, is not accurate, but variation in the size, shape and coloration of the fruits is evident. Both red-flesh and white-flesh watermelons are illustrated, corresponding to the typical sweet dessert watermelons so common today and the insipid citron watermelons, respectively. The variation in watermelon fruit size, shape and coloration depicted in the illustrations indicates that at least six cultivars of watermelon are represented, three of which probably had red, sweet flesh and three of which appear to have been citrons. Evidently, citron watermelons were more common in Mediterranean Europe in the past than they are today. PMID:23904443

  8. Danish auroral science history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, P.

    2011-01-01

    Danish auroral science history begins with the early auroral observations made by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe during the years from 1582 to 1601 preceding the Maunder minimum in solar activity. Included are also the brilliant observations made by another astronomer, Ole Rømer, from Copenhagen in 1707, as well as the early auroral observations made from Greenland by missionaries during the 18th and 19th centuries. The relations between auroras and geomagnetic variations were analysed by H. C. Ørsted, who also played a vital role in the development of Danish meteorology that came to include comprehensive auroral observations from Denmark, Iceland and Greenland as well as auroral and geomagnetic research. The very important auroral investigations made by Sophus Tromholt are outlined. His analysis from 1880 of auroral observations from Greenland prepared for the significant contributions from the Danish Meteorological Institute, DMI, (founded in 1872) to the first International Polar Year 1882/83, where an expedition headed by Adam Paulsen was sent to Greenland to conduct auroral and geomagnetic observations. Paulsen's analyses of the collected data gave many important results but also raised many new questions that gave rise to auroral expeditions to Iceland in 1899 to 1900 and to Finland in 1900 to 1901. Among the results from these expeditions were 26 unique paintings of the auroras made by the artist painter, Harald Moltke. The expedition to Finland was headed by Dan la Cour, who later as director of the DMI came to be in charge of the comprehensive international geomagnetic and auroral observations made during the Second International Polar Year in 1932/33. Finally, the article describes the important investigations made by Knud Lassen during, among others, the International Geophysical Year 1957/58 and during the International Quiet Sun Year (IQSY) in 1964/65. With his leadership the auroral and geomagnetic research at DMI reached a high international

  9. Mechanisms Underlying Early Medieval Droughts in Mesoamerica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, T.; Chiang, J. C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Multidecadal drought during the early Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, 800-1200 CE) in Mesoamerica has been implicated in the demise of many pre-Columbian societies, including the Maya. The mechanisms behind these droughts, however, are poorly understood. Researchers most often interpret these records as tracking the mean position of the ITCZ, with a southward shifted ITCZ resulting in Mesoamerican drought. This is puzzling, however, because our dynamical understanding of the ITCZ and its role in interhemispheric heat transport would suggest a more northward shifted ITCZ during the MCA. Here, we evaluate two hypotheses to reconcile existing proxies and dynamics. First, we assess whether evidence for dry conditions during the MCA is robust across multiple Mesoamerican proxy records, focusing on the influence of radiometric dating uncertainty on estimates of drought timing. Second, we use control simulations of CCSM4 and HadCM3, as well as a broader synthesis of oceanic and terrestrial proxies, to explore the mechanisms responsible for long-term drought in Mesoamerica. Ultimately, we suggest that a temporary slowdown of the AMOC, either internally or externally forced, combined with local and regional land surface feedbacks can explain these droughts in Mesoamerica.

  10. 78 FR 28274 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Medieval Treasures from...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Medieval Treasures from Hildesheim... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Medieval Treasures from Hildesheim,''...

  11. Representations of Lancet or Phlebotome in Serbian Medieval Art.

    PubMed

    Pajić, Sanja; Jurišić, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The topic of this study are representations of lancet or phlebotome in frescoes and icons of Serbian medieval art. The very presence of this medical instrument in Serbian medieval art indicates its usage in Serbian medical practices of the time. Phlebotomy is one of the oldest forms of therapy, widely spread in medieval times. It is also mentioned in Serbian medical texts, such as Chilandar Medical CodexNo. 517 and Hodoch code, i.e. translations from Latin texts originating from Salerno-Montpellier school. Lancet or phlebotome is identified based on archaeological finds from the Roman period, while finds from the Middle Ages and especially from Byzantium have been scarce. Analyses of preserved frescoes and icons has shown that, in comparison to other medical instruments, lancet is indeed predominant in Serbian medieval art, and that it makes for over 80% of all the representations, while other instruments have been depicted to a far lesser degree. Examination of written records and art points to the conclusion that Serbian medieval medicine, both in theory and in practice, belonged entirely to European traditions of the period. PMID:26727878

  12. Cranial vault trauma and selective mortality in medieval to early modern Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Boldsen, Jesper L.; Milner, George R.; Weise, Svenja

    2015-01-01

    To date, no estimates of the long-term effect of cranial vault fractures on the risk of dying have been generated from historical or prehistoric skeletons. Excess mortality provides a perspective on the efficacy of modern treatment, as well as the human cost of cranial injuries largely related to interpersonal violence in past populations. Three medieval to early modern Danish skeletal samples are used to estimate the effect of selective mortality on males with cranial vault injuries who survived long enough for bones to heal. The risk of dying for these men was 6.2 times higher than it was for their uninjured counterparts, estimated through a simulation study based on skeletal observations. That is about twice the increased risk of dying experienced by modern people with traumatic brain injuries. The mortality data indicate the initial trauma was probably often accompanied by brain injury. Although the latter cannot be directly observed in skeletal remains, it can be inferred through the relative risks of dying. The ability to identify the effects of selective mortality in this skeletal sample indicates it must be taken into account in paleopathological research. The problem is analogous to extrapolating from death register data to modern communities, so epidemiological studies based on mortality data have the same inherent possibility of biases as analyses of ancient skeletons. PMID:25624493

  13. Women performers and prostitutes in Medieval India.

    PubMed

    Bano, Shadab

    2012-01-01

    Music and dance, the esoteric performing arts, were markers of culture in medieval India. A number of these differing forms developed into well-recognized and reputed arts over time. The practitioners were, accordingly, regarded as agents of refinement and culture. At the same time, music and dance were also among the most popular forms of entertainment and physical pleasure. This aspect remained crucial in classifying musicians, singers and dancers as entertainers, alongside prostitutes. While the labelling together might have reduced the status of performers at times, the labelling hardly remained fixed. Certain practitioners, even if involved in practices otherwise considered immoral, could remain within the elite circle, while for others the ‘evil’ characteristics got emphasized. There were, within the class of women who prostituted themselves, courtesans trained in the skills of music and dancing and educated in the fine arts, who were treated more as embodiments of culture. These categories—artists, skilled entertainers, courtesans—were quite fluid, with the boundaries seemingly fused together. Still, there were certainly some distinctions among the categories and those did not totally disappear, affording sanctity and purity to certain kinds of performers and allowing them to claim distinctiveness. Notably, the class of courtesans clearly stood apart from the common prostitutes. The attempt in this article is to look at different categories of women performers and prostitutes, their apparent coalescing boundaries and specialities as a separate group, their societal position, their shifting roles and the changes that affected their status. In this, it is worthwhile to consider the state’s attitude towards them, besides societal views that remained quite diverse. PMID:22363956

  14. Role of Light - Shadow Hierophanies in Early Medieval Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataoguz, Kirsten

    In the early Middle Ages, solar observance shaped the art and architecture of Christian churches in primarily three ways. First, medieval writers from across the Mediterranean often related dramatic lighting effects to alignment with the rising sun on astronomically and liturgically significant days. Second, in still-surviving pictorial compositions, light coming in through strategically placed windows aligned with the east-west axis stands in for Christ in a variety of recognizable compositions. Third, archaeoastronomers have hypothesized that select medieval pictorial programs were coordinated with fenestration to spotlight-specific scenes and figures on specific days and at specific hours.

  15. Contributions of Medieval Islamic physicians to the history of tracheostomy.

    PubMed

    Golzari, Samad E J; Khan, Zahid Hussain; Ghabili, Kamyar; Hosseinzadeh, Hamzeh; Soleimanpour, Hassan; Azarfarin, Rasoul; Mahmoodpoor, Ata; Aslanabadi, Saeid; Ansarin, Khalil

    2013-05-01

    Tracheostomy was first described by Greco-Roman physicians, including Paulus of Aegina. Medieval Islamic clinicians extended the Greco-Roman ideas with substantial contributions to the field of surgery, including tracheostomy. Although Al-Zahrawi (936-1013 CE) stated that he had not heard or read of any Islamic physicians having performed tracheostomy, there is evidence that many prominent Islamic surgeons did practice this lifesaving procedure during medieval times. Throughout the Islamic Golden Age, Muslim physicians advanced the practice of tracheostomy with many modifications of the procedure, instrumentation, and adjuvant medicinal prescriptions. PMID:23492962

  16. Saving the Phenomena in Medieval Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeskin, K.

    2011-06-01

    Aristotle's theory of motion is based on two principles: (1) all motion to either from the midpoint of the Earth, toward it, or around it, and (2) circular motion must proceed around an immovable point. On this view, the heavenly bodies are individual points of light carried around by a series of concentric spheres rotating at a constant pace around the midpoint of the Earth. But even in Aristotle's day, it was known that this theory had a great deal of difficulty accounting for planetary motion. Ptolemy's alternative was to introduce epicycles and eccentric orbits, thus denying Aristotle's view of natural motion. There was no doubt that Ptolemy's predictions were far better than Aristotle's. But for the medievals, Aristotle's theory made better intuitive sense. Moreover, Ptolemy's theory raised the question of how one sphere could pass through another. What to do? The solution of Moses Maimonides (1138-1204) was to say that it is not the job of the astronomer to tell us how things actually are but merely to propose a series of hypotheses that allow us to explain the relevant data. This view had obvious theological implications. If astronomy could explain planetary motion in an acceptable way, there was reason to believe that the order or structure of the heavens is what it is by necessity. This suggests that God did not exercise any degree of choice in making it that way. But if astronomy cannot explain planetary motion, the most reasonable explanation is that we are dealing with contingent phenomena rather than necessary ones. If there is contingency, there is reason to think God did exercise a degree of choice in making the heavens the way they are. A God who exercises choice is much closer to the God of Scripture. Although Galileo changed all of this, and paved the way for a vastly different view of astronomy, the answer to one set of questions raises a whole different set. In short, the heavenly motion still poses ultimate questions about God, existence, and

  17. Evolution of Management Thought in the Medieval Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, C. L.

    The medieval times witnessed progress toward the growth of larger and more complex organizations and the application of increasingly sophisticated management techniques. Feudalism contributed the concept of decentralization. The concepts evolved by the Catholic Church can scarcely be improved on and are very much pertinent to the management of…

  18. Christendom: A Simulation of Medieval European Society, 600-1300.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Wendy Pearl; Albaugh, Michelle Henderson; Lacey, Bill

    This simulation allows students to experience what it was like to live in the medieval world. For three or four weeks, the classroom becomes a manor, a castle, a monastery, a town, or an army en route to Jerusalem to recapture the Holy Land from the Muslim hordes. The phases of the unit include: (1) feudalism; (2) manorialism; (3) knighthood; (4)…

  19. Portraits of Aging Men in Late Medieval Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cossar, Roisin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This essay examines the human experience of aging in the distant past by investigating a group of aging men during the 14th century in an Italian city, Bergamo, using notarial "documents of practice" from that community. Studying the aging process and its effects on the lives of people in the medieval era has three-fold significance: it…

  20. Medieval Science, the Copernican Revolution, and Physics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uritam, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    Points out the need for a greater awareness, among physicists, of medieval physical science. Reviews briefly and gives examples of notable achievements of the era and argues that the view of science of fourteenth-century nominalism has greater affinity to today's theoretical physics than that of the Scientific Revolution. (Author/GS)

  1. Medieval Day at Reynolds: An Interdisciplinary Learning Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Nancy S.

    2012-01-01

    Medieval Day at Reynolds turned a typical Friday class day into an interdisciplinary learning event, which joined faculty and students into a community of learners. From classrooms issued tales of Viking and Mongol conquests, religious crusaders, deadly plague, and majestic cathedrals and art, all told by costumed faculty members with expertise in…

  2. The Mission of the University: Medieval to Postmodern Transformations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Mission transformation, multiplicity, and complexity are analyzed. The medieval university emphasizes "teaching." Thereafter, the early modern university adopts "nationalization" (service to the nation-state). The formative U.S. college advances "democratization." Simultaneously, the German university promotes research. The modern American…

  3. Medieval Cities of Europe: Click, Tweet, Map, and Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyerson, Kathryn; Mummey, Kevin; Higdon, Jude

    2011-01-01

    During spring semester 2010, a long-standing upper-division lecture course, Medieval Cities of Europe, 500-1500 CE, underwent a course transformation. The goal was to address specific challenges with student engagement that the authors had experienced in the course in the past; their overarching strategy was to introduce technology into the course…

  4. The history of migraine from Mesopotamian to Medieval times.

    PubMed

    Rose, F C

    1995-10-01

    The first descriptions of migraine can be traced back nearly 4,000 years from the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia (Sumeria and Babylonia) through Egyptian, Greek and Roman epochs. Through Byzantine, Arabic and Medieval times there are only patchy references until the 17th century, when European physicians first gave full case reports. PMID:8749238

  5. Some Early Optics: Classical and Medieval. Experiment No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devons, Samuel

    Information related to the history of optics with emphasis on the classical and medieval periods is presented. Notes are included on experiments dealing with refraction at a plane interface between two media; refraction by transparent spheres; light, color, and reflection by transparent spheres. (Author/SA)

  6. The Medieval Kingdom Topology: Peer Relations in Kindergarten Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Andrew; Derervensky, Jeffrey

    1995-01-01

    Examines the applicability of the medieval kingdom social role topology with kindergarten children and assesses the association between the social roles children assume and seven nonbehavioral variables. Confirmed hypotheses that the topology could be distilled from a sample of kindergarten children (n=173) and that specific nonbehavioral…

  7. Corruption as a Legacy of the Medieval University: Financial Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2004-01-01

    Looking back upon the centuries one would suspect that in earlier ages universities of medieval France and Italy were very different from the multiplicity of organizational and institutional forms of higher education institutions in modern times, and yet one would be surprised how much these old "universitas" and modern universities have in…

  8. Genealogical Relationships between Early Medieval and Modern Inhabitants of Piedmont

    PubMed Central

    Vai, Stefania; Ghirotto, Silvia; Pilli, Elena; Tassi, Francesca; Lari, Martina; Rizzi, Ermanno; Matas-Lalueza, Laura; Ramirez, Oscar; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Torroni, Antonio; Lancioni, Hovirag; Giostra, Caterina; Bedini, Elena; Baricco, Luisella Pejrani; Matullo, Giuseppe; Di Gaetano, Cornelia; Piazza, Alberto; Veeramah, Krishna; Geary, Patrick; Caramelli, David; Barbujani, Guido

    2015-01-01

    In the period between 400 to 800 AD, also known as the period of the Barbarian invasions, intense migration is documented in the historical record of Europe. However, little is known about the demographic impact of these historical movements, potentially ranging from negligible to substantial. As a pilot study in a broader project on Medieval Europe, we sampled 102 specimens from 5 burial sites in Northwestern Italy, archaeologically classified as belonging to Lombards or Longobards, a Germanic people ruling over a vast section of the Italian peninsula from 568 to 774. We successfully amplified and typed the mitochondrial hypervariable region I (HVR-I) of 28 individuals. Comparisons of genetic diversity with other ancient populations and haplotype networks did not suggest that these samples are heterogeneous, and hence allowed us to jointly compare them with three isolated contemporary populations, and with a modern sample of a large city, representing a control for the effects of recent immigration. We then generated by serial coalescent simulations 16 millions of genealogies, contrasting a model of genealogical continuity with one in which the contemporary samples are genealogically independent from the medieval sample. Analyses by Approximate Bayesian Computation showed that the latter model fits the data in most cases, with one exception, Trino Vercellese, in which the evidence was compatible with persistence up to the present time of genetic features observed among this early medieval population. We conclude that it is possible, in general, to detect evidence of genealogical ties between medieval and specific modern populations. However, only seldom did mitochondrial DNA data allow us to reject with confidence either model tested, which indicates that broader analyses, based on larger assemblages of samples and genetic markers, are needed to understand in detail the effects of medieval migration. PMID:25635682

  9. The Danish vaccination register.

    PubMed

    Grove Krause, T; Jakobsen, S; Haarh, M; Mølbak, K

    2012-01-01

    Immunisation information systems (IIS) are valuable tools for monitoring vaccination coverage and for estimating vaccine effectiveness and safety. Since 2009, an advanced IIS has been developed in Denmark and will be implemented during 2012–14. This IIS is based on a database existing since 2000. The reporting of all administered vaccinations including vaccinations outside the national programme will become mandatory. Citizens will get access to data about their own vaccinations and healthcare personnel will get access to information on the vaccinations of their patients. A national concept of identification, a national solution combining a personal code and a card with codes, ensures easy and secure access to the register. From the outset, the IIS will include data on childhood vaccinations administered from 1996 and onwards. All Danish citizens have a unique identifier, a so called civil registration number, which allows the linking of information on vaccinations coming from different electronic data sources. The main challenge will be to integrate the IIS with the different electronic patient record systems currently existing at general practitioner, vaccination clinic and hospital level thereby avoiding double-entry. A need has been identified for an updated international classification of vaccine products on the market. Such a classification would also be useful for the future exchange of data on immunisations from IIS between countries. PMID:22551494

  10. Medieval Pictorial Art and Medieval Spanish Literature: A Case in Point for the Use of the Visual Arts in the Literature Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergstrom, Stanford E.

    1991-01-01

    An exploration of the connection between literature and the visual arts and its application in the foreign language literature class includes an illustration of how a medieval literary Spanish masterpiece becomes more clear when the text is compared with medieval pictorial art pieces. (four references) (Author/CB)

  11. Further Evidence for Medieval Faulting along the Puerto Rico Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, B. F.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Fuentes, Z.; Halley, R. B.; Spiske, M.; Tuttle, M. P.; Wei, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Has the Antilles Subduction Zone produced thrust or outer-rise earthquakes east of Hispaniola? An affirmative answer is suggested by tiered evidence for overwash 120 km south of the Puerto Rico Trench. The evidence comes from Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 200 km east-northeast of San Juan, Puerto Rico. PREVIOUS FINDINGS* suggested that a medieval overwash event had greater geologic effects at Anegada than did a Lisbon(?) event, and that both events outrank recent storms. The medieval overwash, in AD 1200-1450, dislodged brain corals from a reef, moved them as much as 500 m across a shallow subtidal flat, and scattered them as solitary boulders as much as 1000 m inland. Gentler overwash in 1650-1800, called Lisbon(?) because it may represent the 1755 tsunami, laid down a sheet of sand and island-derived shells as much as 1500 m from the north shore. A recent hurricane of category 4 left no durable geologic record other than sandy fans within 40 m of the south shore. NEW FINDINGS reinforce the ranking medieval > Lisbon(?) > storm: (1) The medieval event washed ashore marine shells that the Lisbon(?) event did not. An articulated marine bivalve (Codakia orbicularis), probably deposited live, is part of an overwash fan 400 m inland from Windlass Bight. The shell dates to the same time window as the medieval coral boulders. Additional articulated Codakia shells and a conch shell adjoin the buried base of one of these coral boulders 1500 m south of the fringing reef from which the coral was probably derived. (2) Lisbon(?) overwash used breaches that the medieval event had cut through beach ridges of the north shore. The re-use is marked by sand: on the muddy floor of a partly filled breach, on an organic soil in another such breach, and on a pre-existing fan south of an area of beach-ridge dissection. The buried organic soil, inset into a old breach, is 500 m inland from an area, near Cow Wreck High Point, where young beach ridges may have been breached for the first

  12. Recovery of a Medieval Brucella melitensis Genome Using Shotgun Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Gemma L.; Sergeant, Martin J.; Giuffra, Valentina; Bandiera, Pasquale; Milanese, Marco; Bramanti, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Shotgun metagenomics provides a powerful assumption-free approach to the recovery of pathogen genomes from contemporary and historical material. We sequenced the metagenome of a calcified nodule from the skeleton of a 14th-century middle-aged male excavated from the medieval Sardinian settlement of Geridu. We obtained 6.5-fold coverage of a Brucella melitensis genome. Sequence reads from this genome showed signatures typical of ancient or aged DNA. Despite the relatively low coverage, we were able to use information from single-nucleotide polymorphisms to place the medieval pathogen genome within a clade of B. melitensis strains that included the well-studied Ether strain and two other recent Italian isolates. We confirmed this placement using information from deletions and IS711 insertions. We conclude that metagenomics stands ready to document past and present infections, shedding light on the emergence, evolution, and spread of microbial pathogens. PMID:25028426

  13. Judicial astrology in theory and practice in later medieval Europe.

    PubMed

    Carey, Hilary M

    2010-06-01

    Interrogations and elections were two branches of Arabic judicial astrology made available in Latin translation to readers in western Europe from the twelfth century. Through an analysis of the theory and practice of interrogations and elections, including the writing of the Jewish astrologer Sahl b. Bishr, this essay considers the extent to which judicial astrology was practiced in the medieval west. Consideration is given to historical examples of interrogations and elections mostly from late medieval English manuscripts. These include the work of John Dunstaple (ca. 1390-1453), the musician and astrologer who is known have served at the court of John, duke of Bedford. On the basis of the relatively small number of surviving historical horoscopes, it is argued that the practice of interrogations and elections lagged behind the theory. PMID:20513620

  14. The effects of Medieval dams on genetic divergence and demographic history in brown trout populations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Habitat fragmentation has accelerated within the last century, but may have been ongoing over longer time scales. We analyzed the timing and genetic consequences of fragmentation in two isolated lake-dwelling brown trout populations. They are from the same river system (the Gudenå River, Denmark) and have been isolated from downstream anadromous trout by dams established ca. 600–800 years ago. For reference, we included ten other anadromous populations and two hatchery strains. Based on analysis of 44 microsatellite loci we investigated if the lake populations have been naturally genetically differentiated from anadromous trout for thousands of years, or have diverged recently due to the establishment of dams. Results Divergence time estimates were based on 1) Approximate Bayesian Computation and 2) a coalescent-based isolation-with-gene-flow model. Both methods suggested divergence times ca. 600–800 years bp, providing strong evidence for establishment of dams in the Medieval as the factor causing divergence. Bayesian cluster analysis showed influence of stocked trout in several reference populations, but not in the focal lake and anadromous populations. Estimates of effective population size using a linkage disequilibrium method ranged from 244 to > 1,000 in all but one anadromous population, but were lower (153 and 252) in the lake populations. Conclusions We show that genetic divergence of lake-dwelling trout in two Danish lakes reflects establishment of water mills and impassable dams ca. 600–800 years ago rather than a natural genetic population structure. Although effective population sizes of the two lake populations are not critically low they may ultimately limit response to selection and thereby future adaptation. Our results demonstrate that populations may have been affected by anthropogenic disturbance over longer time scales than normally assumed. PMID:24903056

  15. The Medieval Origins of the Concept of Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Mojtaba; Dalfardi, Behnam; Golzari, Samad E. J.; Habibi, Hamzeh; Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Despite the well-known history of hypertension research in the modern era, like many other cardiovascular concepts, main points in the medieval concept of this disease and its early management methods remain obscure. This article attempts to make a brief review on the medieval origin of the concept of this disease from the Hidayat of Al-Akhawayni (?-983 AD). This article has reviewed the chapter of “Fi al-Imtela” (About the Fullness) from the Hidβyat al-Muta’allimin fi al-Tibb (The Students' Handbook of Medicine) of Al-Akhawayni. The definition, symptoms and treatments presented for the Imtela are compared with the current knowledge on hypertension. Akhawayni believed that Imtela could result from the excessive amount of blood within the blood vessels. It can manifest with symptoms including the presence of a pulsus magnus, sleepiness, weakness, dyspnea, facial blushing, engorgement of the vessels, thick urine, vascular rupture, and hemorrhagic stroke. He also suggested some ways to manage al-Imtela'. These include recommendations of changes in lifestyle (staying away from anger and sexual intercourse) and dietary program for patients (avoiding the consumption of wine, meat, and pastries, reducing the volume of food in a meal, maintaining a low-energy diet and the dietary usage of spinach and vinegar). Al-Akhawayni's description of “Imtela,” despite of its numerous differences with current knowledge of hypertension, can be considered as medieval origin of the concept of hypertension. PMID:25538828

  16. The medieval origins of the concept of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Mojtaba; Dalfardi, Behnam; Golzari, Samad E J; Habibi, Hamzeh; Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-07-01

    Despite the well-known history of hypertension research in the modern era, like many other cardiovascular concepts, main points in the medieval concept of this disease and its early management methods remain obscure. This article attempts to make a brief review on the medieval origin of the concept of this disease from the Hidayat of Al-Akhawayni (?-983 AD). This article has reviewed the chapter of "Fi al-Imtela" (About the Fullness) from the Hidβyat al-Muta'allimin fi al-Tibb (The Students' Handbook of Medicine) of Al-Akhawayni. The definition, symptoms and treatments presented for the Imtela are compared with the current knowledge on hypertension. Akhawayni believed that Imtela could result from the excessive amount of blood within the blood vessels. It can manifest with symptoms including the presence of a pulsus magnus, sleepiness, weakness, dyspnea, facial blushing, engorgement of the vessels, thick urine, vascular rupture, and hemorrhagic stroke. He also suggested some ways to manage al-Imtela'. These include recommendations of changes in lifestyle (staying away from anger and sexual intercourse) and dietary program for patients (avoiding the consumption of wine, meat, and pastries, reducing the volume of food in a meal, maintaining a low-energy diet and the dietary usage of spinach and vinegar). Al-Akhawayni's description of "Imtela," despite of its numerous differences with current knowledge of hypertension, can be considered as medieval origin of the concept of hypertension. PMID:25538828

  17. Erecting Sex: Hermaphrodites and the Medieval Science of Surgery.

    PubMed

    DeVun, Leah

    2015-01-01

    This essay focuses on "hermaphrodites" and the emerging profession of surgery in thirteenth- and fourteenth-century Europe. During this period, surgeons made novel claims about their authority to regulate sexual difference by surgically ''correcting" errant sexual anatomies. Their theories about sex, I argue, drew upon both ancient roots and contemporary conflicts to conceptualize sexual difference in ways that influenced Western Europe for centuries thereafter. I argue that a close examination of medieval surgical texts complicates orthodox narratives in the broader history of sex and sexuality: medieval theorists approached sex in sophisticated and varied manners that belie any simple opposition of modern and premodern paradigms. In addition, because surgical treatments of hermaphrodites in the Middle Ages prefigure in many ways the treatment of atypical sex (a condition now called, controversially, intersex or disorders/differences of sex development) in the modern world, I suggest that the writings of medieval surgeons have the potential to provide new perspectives on our current debates about surgery and sexual difference. PMID:27066617

  18. Subjectless Sentences in Child Danish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Cornelia; Plunkett, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Examined data for two Danish children to determine subject omission, verb usage, and sentence subjects. Found that children exhibit asymmetry in subject omission according to verb type as subjects are omitted from main verb utterances more frequently than from copula utterances. Concluded that treatment of child subject omission should involve…

  19. Nature and Nationhood: Danish Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnack, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I shall discuss Danish perspectives on nature, showing the interdependence of conceptions of "nature" and "nationhood" in the formations of a particular cultural community. Nature, thus construed, is never innocent of culture and cannot therefore simply be "restored" to some pristine, pre-lapsarian state. On the other hand,…

  20. Code-Intermediate Phenomena in Medieval Mixed-Language Business Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a written linguistic system, evidenced in medieval mixed-language business texts, that was replaced by Early Modern English. Examines medieval mixed-language business writing from the point of view of suffix mergers, as the lack of language specific suffixes resulted in code-intermediate states. (Author/VWL)

  1. Teaching Medieval Towns: Group Exercises, Individual Presentations and Self-Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Andrew; Gunn, Vicky

    2002-01-01

    Examines the use of innovative collaborative small group activities in a Medieval History undergraduate honors course. Discusses student evaluations and feedback from a focus group to investigate the use of group exercises that involve the construction of three-dimensional models of medieval towns and the use of self-assessment. (Author/LRW)

  2. The National Standards and Medieval Music in Middle School Choral and General Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Patrick; Beegle, Amy

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how medieval music can be utilized in the choral and general music classroom to teach middle school students and to address the National Standards for Music Education. Provides background information on medieval music, ideas for lessons, and a glossary of key terms. (CMK)

  3. Medieval Universities, Legal Institutions, and the Commercial Revolution. NBER Working Paper No. 17979

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantoni, Davide; Yuchtman, Noam

    2012-01-01

    We present new data documenting medieval Europe's "Commercial Revolution'' using information on the establishment of markets in Germany. We use these data to test whether medieval universities played a causal role in expanding economic activity, examining the foundation of Germany's first universities after 1386 following the Papal Schism. We find…

  4. Diabetes and related remedies in medieval Persian medicine.

    PubMed

    Zarshenas, Mohammad M; Khademian, Sedigheh; Moein, Mahmoodreza

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is a common metabolic disorder presenting increased amounts of serum glucose and will cover 5.4% of population by year 2025. Accordingly, this review was performed to gather and discuss the stand points on diagnosis, pathophysiology, non-pharmacological therapy and drug management of diabetes this disorder as described in medieval Persian medicine. To this, reports on diabetes were collected and analyzed from selected medical and pharmaceutical textbooks of Traditional Persian Medicine. A search on databases as Pubmed, Sciencedirect, Scopus and Google scholar was also performed to reconfirm the Anti diabetic activities of reported herbs. The term, Ziabites, was used to describe what is now spoken as diabetes. It was reported that Ziabites, is highly associated with kidney function. Etiologically, Ziabites was characterized as kidney hot or cold dystemperament as well as diffusion of fluid from other organs such as liver and intestines into the kidneys. This disorder was categorized into main types as hot (Ziabites-e-har) and cold (Ziabites-e-barid) as well as sweet urine (Bole-e-shirin). Most medieval cite signs of Ziabites were remarked as unusual and excessive thirst, frequent urination and polydipsia. On the management, life style modification and observing the essential rules of prevention in Persian medicine as well as herbal therapy and special simple manipulations were recommended. Current investigation was done to clarify the knowledge of medieval scientists on diabetes and related interventions. Reported remedies which are based on centuries of experience might be of beneficial for- further studies to the management of diabetes. PMID:24741508

  5. Migration to the medieval Middle East with the crusades.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Piers D; Millard, Andrew R

    2009-11-01

    During the 12th and 13th centuries thousands of people moved from Europe to the Middle East to fight, undertake pilgrimage, or settle and make a new life. The aim of this research is to investigate two populations from the Crusader kingdom of Jerusalem, by determining who was born in Europe and who came from the Middle East. Oxygen and strontium stable isotope analyses were conducted on the enamel of teeth from skeletal remains excavated from Crusader contexts. Twenty individuals from the coastal city of Caesarea (10 high status and 10 low status), and two local Near Eastern Christian farmers from the village of Parvum Gerinum (Tel Jezreel) were analyzed as a control sample. Results were compared with known geographic values for oxygen and strontium isotopes. The population of the city of Caesarea appears to have been dominated by European-born individuals (probably 19/20, but at least 13/20), with few locals. This was surprising as a much higher proportion of locals were expected. Both controls from the farming village of Parvum Gerinum had spent their childhood in the area of the village, which matches our understanding of limited mobility among poor Medieval farmers. This is the first time that stable isotope analysis has been applied to the study of the migration of peoples between Medieval Europe and the Middle East at the time of the crusades. In view of these findings, we must now rethink past estimations of population social structure in Levantine coastal Medieval cities during the Crusader period. PMID:19530140

  6. Diabetes and related remedies in medieval Persian medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zarshenas, Mohammad M.; Khademian, Sedigheh; Moein, Mahmoodreza

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is a common metabolic disorder presenting increased amounts of serum glucose and will cover 5.4% of population by year 2025. Accordingly, this review was performed to gather and discuss the stand points on diagnosis, pathophysiology, non-pharmacological therapy and drug management of diabetes this disorder as described in medieval Persian medicine. To this, reports on diabetes were collected and analyzed from selected medical and pharmaceutical textbooks of Traditional Persian Medicine. A search on databases as Pubmed, Sciencedirect, Scopus and Google scholar was also performed to reconfirm the Anti diabetic activities of reported herbs. The term, Ziabites, was used to describe what is now spoken as diabetes. It was reported that Ziabites, is highly associated with kidney function. Etiologically, Ziabites was characterized as kidney hot or cold dystemperament as well as diffusion of fluid from other organs such as liver and intestines into the kidneys. This disorder was categorized into main types as hot (Ziabites-e-har) and cold (Ziabites-e-barid) as well as sweet urine (Bole-e-shirin). Most medieval cite signs of Ziabites were remarked as unusual and excessive thirst, frequent urination and polydipsia. On the management, life style modification and observing the essential rules of prevention in Persian medicine as well as herbal therapy and special simple manipulations were recommended. Current investigation was done to clarify the knowledge of medieval scientists on diabetes and related interventions. Reported remedies which are based on centuries of experience might be of beneficial for- further studies to the management of diabetes. PMID:24741508

  7. Finding the Sacred Direction: Medieval Books on the Qibla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rius, M.

    2009-08-01

    Medieval Islamic scholars wrote a great number of books on the qibla, the Sacred Direction. These books had a huge readership and provided instructions for finding the direction of Mecca by either exact or approximate means. In principle, the qibla was a purely religious subject, but in practice its determination required the use of astronomy as an applied science. As so often, religion and politics had many points of contact and, in this case, it was generally political considerations that prevailed. Finally, the analysis of nautical charts can offer new perspectives. As yet, modern scholarship has not established the link between this area of study and the classical literature on this subject.

  8. Genetic analysis of 7 medieval skeletons from Aragonese Pyrenees

    PubMed Central

    Núńez, Carolina; Sosa, Cecilia; Baeta, Miriam; Geppert, Maria; Turnbough, Meredith; Phillips, Nicole; Casalod, Yolanda; Bolea, Miguel; Roby, Rhonda; Budowle, Bruce; Martínez-Jarreta, Begońa

    2011-01-01

    Aim To perform a genetic characterization of 7 skeletons from medieval age found in a burial site in the Aragonese Pyrenees. Methods Allele frequencies of autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) loci were determined by 3 different STR systems. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome haplogroups were determined by sequencing of the hypervariable segment 1 of mtDNA and typing of phylogenetic Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNP) markers, respectively. Possible familial relationships were also investigated. Results Complete or partial STR profiles were obtained in 3 of the 7 samples. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup was determined in 6 samples, with 5 of them corresponding to the haplogroup H and 1 to the haplogroup U5a. Y-chromosome haplogroup was determined in 2 samples, corresponding to the haplogroup R. In one of them, the sub-branch R1b1b2 was determined. mtDNA sequences indicated that some of the individuals could be maternally related, while STR profiles indicated no direct family relationships. Conclusions Despite the antiquity of the samples and great difficulty that genetic analyses entail, the combined use of autosomal STR markers, Y-chromosome informative SNPs, and mtDNA sequences allowed us to genotype a group of skeletons from the medieval age. PMID:21674829

  9. A Medieval Perspective of Historical California and Nevada Droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatchett, B.; Boyle, D. P.; Garner, C.; Putnam, A. E.; Bassett, S.; Kaplan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Dryland closed basin lake systems are ideal natural laboratories for model-proxy evaluations of how climate change alters the regional water balance. We use an existing water balance and lake-evaporation model of the Walker Lake Basin, a 1600-year reconstruction of Walker Lake shoreline elevations, and fields from the 20th Century Reanalysis to provide the following insights: 1) The three major historical (post-Little Ice Age) droughts observed in the California-western Nevada region (the 1930s, 1987-1992, and 2012-2015) are comparable in magnitude to the severe droughts of the Medieval Climate Anomaly but not in duration; 2) The atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with these events include poleward deflections of storm tracks and reduced moisture transport into the region; 3) To produce the Medieval lowstands of Walker Lake, precipitation and circulation anomalies comparable to historical droughts must persist for a minimum of 50 years. These insights show how severe historical and ongoing droughts in this region are within the range of natural variability. The 2012-2015 drought is also shown to be exacerbated by recent positive temperature anomalies that may be outside of the range of natural variability. These results can help to improve future water resource planning for the western United States, where ongoing and future changes in climate leading to increased water scarcity will have significant negative impacts on socioeconomic and ecological systems.

  10. Genetic research at a fivefold children's burial from medieval Berlin.

    PubMed

    Rothe, Jessica; Melisch, Claudia; Powers, Natasha; Geppert, Maria; Zander, Judith; Purps, Josephine; Spors, Birgit; Nagy, Marion

    2015-03-01

    Berlin originated from the two twin cities Berlin and Cölln, which both were founded at the beginning of the 13th century. However the real date of their foundation as well as the origin of the first settlers is still unknown. On the Berlin site the historic city center is still visible in the Nikolaiviertel, but the medieval origin of Cölln disappeared almost completely. In 2007 a large scale excavation, which comprised an area of about 1700m(2) of the historical center of the St. Peters church, recovers the remains of Cölln's first citizens and span a period of 500 years of medieval population. Here we present the first genetic analysis of a fivefold children's burial from excavations in Berlin. The genetic data unveiled next to ancestry and eye color data also the kinship and the gender of the five individuals. Together with the archeological context the new gained information help to shed more light on the possible reasons for this burial. PMID:25466970

  11. Archeological Applications of XAFS: Prehistorical Paintings And Medieval Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Farges, F.; Chalmin, E.; Vignaud, C.; Pallot-Frossard, I.; Susini, J.; Bargar, J.; Brown, G.E., Jr.; Menu, M.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2006-10-27

    High-resolution manganese and iron K-edges XANES spectra were collected on several samples of archeological interest: prehistorical paintings and medieval glasses. XANES spectra were collected at the ID21 facility (ESRF, Grenoble, France) using a micro-beam device and at the 11-2 beamline (SSRL, Stanford, USA) using a submillimetric beam. The medieval glasses studied are from gothic glass windows from Normandy (XIVth century). The aim of this study is to help understand the chemical durability of these materials, exposed to weathering since the XIVth century. They are used as analogues of weathered glasses used to dump metallic wastes. These glasses show surficial enrichment in manganese, due to its oxidation from II (glass) to III/IV (surface), which precipitates as amorphous oxy-hydroxides. Similarly, iron is oxidized on the surface and forms ferrihydrite-type aggregates. The prehistorical paintings are from Lascaux and Ekain (Basque country). We choose in that study the black ones, rich in manganese to search for potential evidences of some 'savoir-faire' that the Paleolithic men could have used to realize their paint in rock art, as shown earlier for Fe-bearing pigments. A large number of highly valuable samples, micrometric scaled, were extracted from these frescoes and show large variation in the mineralogical nature of the black pigments used, from an amorphous psilomelane-type to a well-crystallized pyrolusite. Correlation with the crystals morphology helps understanding the know-how of these early artists.

  12. Fractures in late medieval skeletal populations from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Djurić, Marija P; Roberts, Charlotte A; Rakocević, Zoran B; Djonić, Danijela D; Lesić, Aleksandar R

    2006-06-01

    Bone fractures were analyzed from skeletal remains of 861 adult individuals from six cemeteries dating to the Late Medieval period in Serbia. Results of the study were compared to other cemetery populations (635 individual skeletons) of the same date and region in an attempt to understand fracture patterns. The association of types of fractures and their prevalence with sex, age at death, cemetery site, and information deriving from historical sources are discussed. Results showed that the long bone fracture frequency was 0.7%, and the majority of the fractures were the result of direct force. This rate is similar to some studies of contemporary British skeletal samples. However, it is much lower than for some other Old World sites. Cranial vault fractures had a rate of 6.7%, and of the facial skeleton, 1.3%; the frontal bone was the most affected of bones of the cranial vault. Injuries were more common on the upper extremities (0.8%) compared to the lower (0.6%). However, the fibula was the most fractured bone (2.8%), followed by the ulna (2.4%). This pattern is similar to three of six Late Medieval urban sites in Britain. These findings suggest that this rural community was exposed to a low risk of trauma, probably related mostly to accidents sustained during farming, and rarely to interpersonal violence. PMID:16365855

  13. Successful School Principalship in Danish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Lejf; Krejsler, John; Kofod, Klaus Kasper; Jensen, Bent Brandt

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims at conceptualizing and investigating the meaning of good school principalship within the space for manoeuvring that is available within the context of Danish comprehensive schools. The paper aims to present findings from case studies of two Danish schools within the frame of reference. Design/methodology/approach: Outlines the…

  14. Protracted fluvial recovery from medieval earthquakes, Pokhara, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolle, Amelie; Bernhardt, Anne; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Andermann, Christoff; Schönfeldt, Elisabeth; Seidemann, Jan; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    River response to strong earthquake shaking in mountainous terrain often entails the flushing of sediments delivered by widespread co-seismic landsliding. Detailed mass-balance studies following major earthquakes in China, Taiwan, and New Zealand suggest fluvial recovery times ranging from several years to decades. We report a detailed chronology of earthquake-induced valley fills in the Pokhara region of western-central Nepal, and demonstrate that rivers continue to adjust to several large medieval earthquakes to the present day, thus challenging the notion of transient fluvial response to seismic disturbance. The Pokhara valley features one of the largest and most extensively dated sedimentary records of earthquake-triggered sedimentation in the Himalayas, and independently augments paleo-seismological archives obtained mainly from fault trenches and historic documents. New radiocarbon dates from the catastrophically deposited Pokhara Formation document multiple phases of extremely high geomorphic activity between ˜700 and ˜1700 AD, preserved in thick sequences of alternating fluvial conglomerates, massive mud and silt beds, and cohesive debris-flow deposits. These dated fan-marginal slackwater sediments indicate pronounced sediment pulses in the wake of at least three large medieval earthquakes in ˜1100, 1255, and 1344 AD. We combine these dates with digital elevation models, geological maps, differential GPS data, and sediment logs to estimate the extent of these three pulses that are characterized by sedimentation rates of ˜200 mm yr‑1 and peak rates as high as 1,000 mm yr‑1. Some 5.5 to 9 km3 of material infilled the pre-existing topography, and is now prone to ongoing fluvial dissection along major canyons. Contemporary river incision into the Pokhara Formation is rapid (120-170 mm yr‑1), triggering widespread bank erosion, channel changes, and very high sediment yields of the order of 103 to 105 t km‑2 yr‑1, that by far outweigh bedrock

  15. How science survived: medieval manuscripts' "demography" and classic texts' extinction.

    PubMed

    Cisne, John L

    2005-02-25

    Determining what fraction of texts and manuscripts have survived from Antiquity and the Middle Ages has been highly problematic. Analyzing the transmission of texts as the "paleodemography" of their manuscripts yields definite and surprisingly high estimates. Parchment copies of the foremost medieval textbooks on arithmetical and calendrical calculation closely fit age distributions expected for populations with logistic growth and manuscripts with exponential survivorship. The estimated half-lives of copies agree with Bischoff's paleographically based suggestion that roughly one in seven manuscripts survive in some form from ninth-century Carolingian workshops. On this basis, many if not most of the leading technical titles circulating in Latin probably survived, even from late Antiquity. PMID:15731453

  16. Medieval drought in the upper Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meko, David M.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Baisan, Christopher A.; Knight, Troy; Lukas, Jeffrey J.; Hughes, Malcolm K.; Salzer, Matthew W.

    2007-05-01

    New tree-ring records of ring-width from remnant preserved wood are analyzed to extend the record of reconstructed annual flows of the Colorado River at Lee Ferry into the Medieval Climate Anomaly, when epic droughts are hypothesized from other paleoclimatic evidence to have affected various parts of western North America. The most extreme low-frequency feature of the new reconstruction, covering A.D. 762-2005, is a hydrologic drought in the mid-1100s. The drought is characterized by a decrease of more than 15% in mean annual flow averaged over 25 years, and by the absence of high annual flows over a longer period of about six decades. The drought is consistent in timing with dry conditions inferred from tree-ring data in the Great Basin and Colorado Plateau, but regional differences in intensity emphasize the importance of basin-specific paleoclimatic data in quantifying likely effects of drought on water supply.

  17. First genetic evidence of leprosy in early medieval Austria.

    PubMed

    Gausterer, Christian; Stein, Christina; Teschler-Nicola, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Leprosy used to be a widespread, dreaded disease in Europe during the middle ages, and it still remains an important health problem in some parts of the world today. Herein, we present data on the earliest 'Austrian' (an adult female from the early medieval period) proven to have suffered from leprosy. Manifestations of the disease were first identified during a systematic screening of pathological changes in skeletons recovered from an archaeological site in Pottenbrunn (Lower Austria). In the present study, DNA extracts from selected cranial and postcranial bone samples were investigated using polymerase chain reaction primers specific to the Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) repetitive element (RLEP). M. leprae traces were detected in extracts from nasal and palatine bones. Sequence analysis of informative polymorphic sites supports previous reports indicating that European M. leprae strains fall into single nucleotide polymorphism group 3. In summary, these findings put Austria on the map of confirmed leprosy cases in ancient Europe. PMID:25007893

  18. Thermodynamic model of natural, medieval and nuclear waste glass durability

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Plodinec, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    A thermodynamic model of glass durability based on hydration of structural units has been applied to natural glass, medieval window glasses, and glasses containing nuclear waste. The relative durability predicted from the calculated thermodynamics correlates directly with the experimentally observed release of structural silicon in the leaching solution in short-term laboratory tests. By choosing natural glasses and ancient glasses whose long-term performance is known, and which bracket the durability of waste glasses, the long-term stability of nuclear waste glasses can be interpolated among these materials. The current Savannah River defense waste glass formulation is as durable as natural basalt from the Hanford Reservation (10/sup 6/ years old). The thermodynamic hydration energy is shown to be related to the bond energetics of the glass. 69 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  19. [Evidence of health culture in medieval statute of Budva].

    PubMed

    Milovic Karic, Grozdana; Milovic, Dorde

    2010-01-01

    The Statute of Budva dates from the time of Nemanjics. This medieval document was approved at the time Budva was under venetian dominion and remained in force until the end of the Venetian Republic. During 17th century the Statute was translated into the Italian language. The document includes regulations which indicate a concern for the health of the public. Among the regulations is one which prohibit the sale of fisch outside the stalls of the fishmarket presumably to ensure the sale of only fresh fish. Another regulation prohibits the sale of dead animals, the sale of dog's meat instead od wether meat. There is also language indicating a concern for protecting the cleanliness of brooks, rivers and wells. Corporal punishment is mentioned but only with regard to whipping and beheading. PMID:21192114

  20. A note on liquid iron in medieval Europe.

    PubMed

    Williams, Alan

    2009-03-01

    Iron-arsenic alloys are described in many medieval chemical recipes as a means to "liquefy" iron. In fact, while such alloys have relatively low melting points, they are not the only examples of iron being known as a liquid metal. There is evidence from the analysis of swords, as well as from written references, that crucible steel, probably imported from the Middle East, was known in Western Europe from the Early Middle Ages. In addition, the "blast furnace", which produced liquid pig iron, is now known from archaeological evidence to have been operated from at least the thirteenth century in Scandinavia. The descriptions of iron-smelting and iron-working given in the accounts written by scholastic alchemists are in fact closely related to the contemporary practices of craftsmen operating iron furnaces. PMID:19831261

  1. The Relations between Astronomy and Music in Medieval Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardumyan, Arpi

    2015-07-01

    In Middle Ages Astronomy and Music were included in the four sciences, together with Mathematics and Geometry. From ancient times philosophers thought that harmony lies in the basis of world creation. The Earth was in the centre of the Universe, and the seven planets went around it, the Sun and the Moon in their number. Harmony was also in the basis of music, with seven sounds due to seven planets. It was considered that owing to harmonic rotation cosmic universal music appears, and it is not attainable for human ear as it is used to it. Medieval connoisseurs of music therapy believed that for healing a person his astrological data must first be cleared out, in order to define in which musical mode should sound the melody in order to treat him/her. Comparing music with astrology they considered easier to practise the first one because the celestial luminaries are much higher and farther from people.

  2. Water consumption in Iron Age, Roman, and Early Medieval Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lightfoot, E; Slaus, M; O'Connell, T C

    2014-08-01

    Patterns of water consumption by past human populations are rarely considered, yet drinking behavior is socially mediated and access to water sources is often socially controlled. Oxygen isotope analysis of archeological human remains is commonly used to identify migrants in the archeological record, but it can also be used to consider water itself, as this technique documents water consumption rather than migration directly. Here, we report an oxygen isotope study of humans and animals from coastal regions of Croatia in the Iron Age, Roman, and Early Medieval periods. The results show that while faunal values have little diachronic variation, the human data vary through time, and there are wide ranges of values within each period. Our interpretation is that this is not solely a result of mobility, but that human behavior can and did lead to human oxygen isotope ratios that are different from that expected from consumption of local precipitation. PMID:24888560

  3. Medieval and early modern theories of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, R

    1979-04-01

    Historians of medieval and early modern psychiatry have utilized limited source materials in their research. They have focused on printed works, particularly formal treatises by celebrated authors, and neglected manuscript collections. The resulting histories depict early European psychiatric thought as dominated by demonology. Examination of the archives of an early English legal incompetency jurisdiction flatly contradicts this picture. Starting in the 13th century, the English government conducted mental status examinations of psychiatrically disabled individuals, using commonsense, naturalistic criteria of impairment; private, supervised guardians were appointed for such persons. Furthermore, etiological theories entertained by royal officials and laymen relied on physiological and psychological notions of psychiatric illness. These findings raise serious questions about conventional accounts of this period and underline the need for more research using original manuscripts. PMID:371576

  4. [Medicinal plants and symbols in the medieval mystic altarpiece].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Louis-Paul; Verilhac, Régine; Ferrandis, Jean-Jacques; Trépardoux, Francis

    2011-01-01

    The medieval mystic altarpiece towers above the altar table. It is linked to the evocation of a religious mystery beyond our faculty of reasoning. Symbolism of an enclosed garden evokes the image of the Heavenly Garden isolated by a wall from the rest of earthly world. In this mystic chiefly Rhenan altarpiece the enclosed garden is that of Virgin Mary who in the Middle Ages was likened to the spouse in the song of songs. The Blessed Virgin is painted with flowers, lily, rose, violet, lily of the valley. Most of these are medicinal plants in order to implore a faith healing for the believers. All in all about fifty plants are showed on Rhenan altarpieces and on 14th century mystic altarpieces almost contemporary of Issenheim's altarpiece, some Italian, some Rhenan. PMID:22073760

  5. Medieval emergence of sweet melons, Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Harry S.; Amar, Zohar; Lev, Efraim

    2012-01-01

    Background Sweet melons, Cucumis melo, are a widely grown and highly prized crop. While melons were familiar in antiquity, they were grown mostly for use of the young fruits, which are similar in appearance and taste to cucumbers, C. sativus. The time and place of emergence of sweet melons is obscure, but they are generally thought to have reached Europe from the east near the end of the 15th century. The objective of the present work was to determine where and when truly sweet melons were first developed. Methods Given their large size and sweetness, melons are often confounded with watermelons, Citrullus lanatus, so a list was prepared of the characteristics distinguishing between them. An extensive search of literature from the Roman and medieval periods was conducted and the findings were considered in their context against this list and particularly in regard to the use of the word ‘melon’ and of adjectives for sweetness and colour. Findings Medieval lexicographies and an illustrated Arabic translation of Dioscorides' herbal suggest that sweet melons were present in Central Asia in the mid-9th century. A travelogue description indicates the presence of sweet melons in Khorasan and Persia by the mid-10th century. Agricultural literature from Andalusia documents the growing of sweet melons, evidently casabas (Inodorous Group), there by the second half of the 11th century, which probably arrived from Central Asia as a consequence of Islamic conquest, trade and agricultural development. Climate and geopolitical boundaries were the likely causes of the delay in the spread of sweet melons into the rest of Europe. PMID:22648880

  6. Archaeomagnetic Study performed on Early Medieval Buildings from western France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvin, A.; Lanos, P.; Dufresne, P.; Blain, S.; Guibert, P.; Oberlin, C.; Sapin, C.

    2009-05-01

    A multiple dating study, involving a collaboration between specialists of dating techniques (thermoluminescence (TL) and radiocarbon), historians of art and archaeologists, has been carried out on several early medieval buildings from western France. The early medieval period is not well known especially in France where there is a lack of visible evidence that identifies pre-Romanesque architecture. The majority of buildings to have survived from this period are religious ones, considered important enough to be made of strong, non-perishable material such as stone or brick, as for example the churches of Notre-Dame-sous- Terre in the Mont-Saint-Michel or St Martin in Angers. Due to their significance in architectural history, it is imperative to position them accurately in the chronology of the history of art. Bricks are often used to build up round-headed arches or to reinforce the frame of a wall with bonding courses in those churches. TL dating and archeomagnetic analysis were performed on cores drilled within bricks while radiocarbon dating were undertaken on coals found within mortars. In order to increase the number of data during the early Middle Ages, archeointensity determinations using the classical Thellier technique with anisotropy of thermal remanence and cooling rate corrections were performed. Archaeomagnetic directions were used to recognize the firing position of bricsk during manufacture. Reliable and precise ages were obtained on the church Notre-Dame-sous-Terre; they indicate two phases of building in 950±50AD and 990±50AD. Mean archeointensities obtained on 17 (21) samples from the first (second) phases appears very closed 69.1±1.2 and 68.3±1.6 microTesla. Ages and archeomagnetic results obtained on 4 other sites will be presented and compared to the available data in western Europe.

  7. Optical spectroscopy applied to the analysis of medieval and post-medieval plain flat glass fragments excavated in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulebroeck, W.; Wouters, H.; Baert, K.; Ceglia, A.; Terryn, H.; Nys, K.; Thienpont, H.

    2010-04-01

    Window glass fragments from four Belgian sites were studied and for a set of eighty-five samples the UV-VIS-NIR transmission spectra were analyzed. This collection contains historical and archaeological finds originating from religious buildings namely the Basilica of Our Lady of Hanswijk in Mechelen (17th-20thc) and the Church of Our Lady in Bruges (16th-20thc) as well as from secular buildings as a private house/Antwerp (18th-1948) and the castle of Middelburg-in-Flanders (1448-17thc). All sites contain material on the hinge point between the medieval and the industrial tradition. The variation in composition of the analyzed samples can be explained by the use of different glassmaking recipes, more specifically the use of different raw materials. The composition of window glass differs essentially in the type of flux, using a potash rich fluxing agent until the post-medieval times and industrial soda from the 19th century onwards. A second difference concerns the iron impurities in the glass. For all fragments a clear compositional classification could be made based on the iron concentration. These conclusions were based on archaeological research and drawn after submitting samples to expensive, complex, time-consuming and destructive chemical analyzing methods. Our study indicates that similar conclusions could be made applying the proposed optical based methodology for plain window glass. As a whole, the obtained results make it possible to cluster the fragments for a particular site based on three different sensing parameters: the UV absorption edge, the color and the presence of characteristic absorption bands. This information helps in identifying trends to date window glass collections and indicating the use of different raw materials, production technologies and/or provenance.

  8. The origins of intensive marine fishing in medieval Europe: the English evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, James H.; Locker, Alison M.; Roberts, Callum M.

    2004-01-01

    The catastrophic impact of fishing pressure on species such as cod and herring is well documented. However, the antiquity of their intensive exploitation has not been established. Systematic catch statistics are only available for ca.100 years, but large-scale fishing industries existed in medieval Europe and the expansion of cod fishing from the fourteenth century (first in Iceland, then in Newfoundland) played an important role in the European colonization of the Northwest Atlantic. History has demonstrated the scale of these late medieval and post-medieval fisheries, but only archaeology can illuminate earlier practices. Zooarchaeological evidence shows that the clearest changes in marine fishing in England between AD 600 and 1600 occurred rapidly around AD 1000 and involved large increases in catches of herring and cod. Surprisingly, this revolution predated the documented post-medieval expansion of England's sea fisheries and coincided with the Medieval Warm Period--when natural herring and cod productivity was probably low in the North Sea. This counterintuitive discovery can be explained by the concurrent rise of urbanism and human impacts on freshwater ecosystems. The search for 'pristine' baselines regarding marine ecosystems will thus need to employ medieval palaeoecological proxies in addition to recent fisheries data and early modern historical records. PMID:15590590

  9. Two medieval doctors: Gilbertus Anglicus (c1180-c1250) and John of Gaddesden (1280-1361).

    PubMed

    Pearn, John

    2013-02-01

    Biographies of medieval English doctors are uncommon and fragmentary. The two best-known English medieval physicians were Gilbertus Anglicus and John of Gaddesden. This paper brings together the known details of their lives, compiled from extant biographies and from internal references in their texts. The primary records of their writings exist in handwritten texts and thereafter in incunabula from the time of the invention of printing in 1476. The record of the lives of these two medieval physicians can be expanded, as here, by the general perspective of the life and times in which they lived. Gilbertus Anglicus, an often-quoted physician-teacher at Montpellier, wrote a seven-folio Compendium medicinae in 1271. He described pioneering procedures used later in the emergent disciplines of anaesthetics, cosmetic medicine and travel medicine. Gilbertus' texts, used extensively in European medical schools, passed in handwritten copies from student to student and eventually were printed in 1510. John of Gaddesden, an Oxford graduate in Arts, Medicine and Theology, wrote Rosa Anglica, published circa 1314. Its detailed text is an exemplar of the mixture of received Hippocratic and Galenic lore compounded by medieval astronomy and religious injunction, which mixture was the essence of medieval medicine. The writings of both these medieval English physicians formed part of the core curriculum that underpinned the practice of medicine for the next 400 years. PMID:23610221

  10. Seasonal climate variability in Medieval Europe (1000 to 1499)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfister, C.

    2009-04-01

    In his fundamental work on medieval climate Alexandre (1987) highlighted the significance of dealing with contemporary sources. Recently, long series of temperature indices for "summer" and "winter" were set up by Shabalova and van Engelen (2003) for the Low Countries, but the time resolution is not strictly seasonal. This paper worked out within the EU 6th Framework Project "Millennium" draws on critically reviewed documentary evidence from a spatially extensive area of Western and Central Europe (basically England, France, BENELUX, Western Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Poland, Hungary and todays Czech Republic. The narrative evidence is complemented with dendro-climatic series from the Alps (Büntgen et al. 2006). Each "climate observation" is georeferenced which allows producing spatial displays of the data for selected spaces and time-frames. The spatial distribution of the information charts can be used as a tool for the climatological verification of the underlying data. Reconstructions for winter (DJF) and summer (JJA) are presented in the form of time series and charts. Cold winters were frequent from 1205 to 1235 i.e. in the "Medieval Warm Period" and in the Little Ice Age (1306-1330; 1390-1470). Dry and warm summers prevailed in Western and Central Europe in the first half of the 13th century. During the Little Ice Age cold-wet summers (triggered by volcanic explosions in the tropics) were more frequent, though summer climate remained highly variable. Results are discussed with regard to the "Greenhouse Debate" and the relationship to glacier fluctuations in the Alps is explored. References -Alexandre, Pierre, 1987: Le Climat en Europe au Moyen Age. Contribution à l'histoire des variations climatiques de 1000 à 1425. Paris. -Büntgen, Ulf et al. 2006: Summer Temperature Variation in the European Alps, AD. 755-2004, J. of Climate 19 5606-5623. - Pfister, Christian et al. 1998: Winter air temperature variations in Central Europe during the Early and

  11. Medieval Japan. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.5. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.5 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of medieval Japan." Seventh-grade students describe the significance of Japan's proximity to China and Korea and the influence of these countries on Japan; discuss the reign of Japan's Prince…

  12. Medieval Europe. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.6. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.6 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Europe." Seventh-grade students study the geography of Europe and the Eurasian land mass; describe the spread of Christianity north of the Alps and the roles…

  13. Medieval horse stable; the results of multi proxy interdisciplinary research.

    PubMed

    Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisá, Lenka; Fišáková Nývltová, Miriam; Bajer, Aleš; Petr, Libor; Kočár, Petr; Kočárová, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybníček, Michal; Sůvová, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavrčík, Hanuš

    2014-01-01

    A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle. PMID:24670874

  14. Galeata: chronic migraine independently considered in a medieval headache classification

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic migraine is a quite recent concept. However, there are descriptions suggestive of episodic migraine since the beginning of scientific medicine. We aim to review main headache classifications during Classical antiquity and compared them with that proposed in the 11th century by Constantine the African in his Liber Pantegni, one of the most influential texts in medieval medicine. Method We have carried out a descriptive review of Henricum Petrum's Latin edition, year 1539. Results Headache classifications proposed by Aretaeus of Cappadocia, Galen of Pergamun and Alexander of Tralles, all of them classifying headaches into three main types, considered an entity (called Heterocrania or Hemicrania), comparable to contemporary episodic migraine. In ninth book of Liber Pantegni, headaches were also classified into three types and one of them, Galeata, consisted on a chronic pain of mild intensity with occasional superimposed exacerbations. Conclusion In Liber Pantegni we have firstly identified, as a separate entity, a headache comparable to that we currently define as chronic migraine: Galeata. PMID:24655582

  15. Bone porosity and longevity in early medieval Southern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bečić, Kristijan; Jandrić Bečić, Darija; Definis-Gojanović, Marija; Zekić Tomaš, Sandra; Anterić, Ivana; Bašić, Zeljana

    2014-03-01

    Porosity of the skull and skeletal remains, especially of the orbital roof, are one of the most frequent pathological findings on ancient human skeletal remains. There are several presumed causes of this condition and anthropologists consider skull porosities as a marker of physical and nutritional stress. A total of 115 graves were discovered at the early-medieval graveyard near Zadar (Croatia) that contained 128 partially preserved skeletons. Average estimated age at death was 37.2 ± 12.6 years for men, 31.9 ± 13.9 for women, and 5.3 ± 3.6 years for subadults. Pathological bone porosity was analysed. Cribra orbitalia was observed on 21 skulls (28.7%), signs of temporal porosity were noticed on six skulls and signs of subperiosteal bleeding on three skulls. Nineteen skulls had bone porosities in other areas. There was a significant difference (p = 0.039) in achieved age of adults with and without cribra orbitalia as those with cribra orbitalia lived on average 8.1 years longer. The bone porosity was probably caused by malnutrition that might have had a beneficial effect on longevity of adults, similar to effects of restricted food intake on extending lifespan through epigenetic signatures influencing gene expression. PMID:24219154

  16. [Meat inspection in the medieval Zähringer towns.].

    PubMed

    Häsler, S

    2010-01-01

    An explanation of medieval practices of meat supply and regulation, using examples drawn from the so-called "Zähringer towns" founded by the Dukes of Zähringen: Bern, Burgdorf, Thun, Murten, Freiburg and Rheinfelden. For the town councils it was important to be able to provide the population with sufficient quantities of good-quality meat at fair prices. After the 14th century the slaughtering of animals had to be carried out in public slaughterhouses. Meat could only be sold publicly, at designated butchers' stalls. Meat and organs were checked on a daily basis by the town's meat inspectors, who verified the names under which products were sold, their price, and hygienic conditions, including the absence of tapeworm larvae. In addition to the publicly-regulated meat trade, town dwellers could also buy meat products at the markets, and could raise their own pigs, sheep and goats to be slaughtered in the back alleys. Permission to raise small livestock at home was a privilege granted by the town council. The sale of meat by non-resident peddlers was officially forbidden, but could not be prevented entirely. PMID:20033872

  17. A Biological Stone from a Medieval Cemetery in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Gładykowska-Rzeczycka, Judyta J.; Nowakowski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature shows that origination of biological stones as well as their pathogenesis mostly depend on the environmental factors. As a result, the structural spectrum of such calculi and their chemical composition are highly diversified. It is well known that biological stones are formed mostly in the digestive and urinary tracts. However, it has been demonstrated that this kind of stony structure can be also, though rarely, found in circulatory and reproductive systems, skin, mucosa, and tear ducts. Although in palaeopathology, the list of biological stones is enriched by stony tumours and/or discharges, it is very difficult to uncover the small size deposits in excavation material. In the literature such findings, originating from different countries and centuries, are few. The described stone was found among the bones of an adult individual in the medieval cemetery of Gdańsk (Poland). The SEM, X-ray spectrometer and chemical evaluation revealed that it was a bladder calculus. PMID:25275551

  18. Advances in optics in the medieval Islamic world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Khalili, Jim

    2015-04-01

    This paper reviews the state of knowledge in the field of optics, mainly in catoptrics and dioptrics, before the birth of modern science and the well-documented contributions of men such as Kepler and Newton. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive survey of the subject such as one might find in history of science journals; instead, it is aimed at the curious physicist who has probably been taught that nothing much of note was understood about the behaviour of light, beyond outdated philosophical musings, prior to the seventeenth century. The paper will focus on advances during the medieval period between the ninth and fourteenth centuries, in both the east and the west, when the theories of the Ancient Greeks were tested, advanced, corrected and mathematised. In particular, it concentrates on a multivolume treatise on optics written one thousand years ago by the Arab scholar, Ibn al-Haytham, and examines how it influenced our understanding of the nature of reflection and refraction of light. Even the well-informed physicist should find a few surprises here, which will alter his or her view of the debt we owe to these forgotten scholars.

  19. Medieval Horse Stable; The Results of Multi Proxy Interdisciplinary Research

    PubMed Central

    Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisá, Lenka; Fišáková Nývltová, Miriam; Bajer, Aleš; Petr, Libor; Kočár, Petr; Kočárová, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybníček, Michal; Sůvová, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavrčík, Hanuš

    2014-01-01

    A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle. PMID:24670874

  20. [A brief history of recognition on urolithiasis before medieval period].

    PubMed

    Lyu, Jianlin; Wu, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Urinary stone was first found by human as early as 4900 BC when the Egyptian monks applied emesis, catharsis, diuresis, and diaphoresis for its treatment which, as they claimed, can expel the stones out of the body occasionally. In 2700 BC, definite records on urinary stone were seen in Egytian papyrus which attempted to cure this disorder by sucking method. In the 4(th) century BC, the Greek physician Alexandria mentioned that such stones can be expelled after being smashed. By then, the Greeks recognized the existence of renal stone by describing its manifestations. Sushruta, an ancient Indian royal physician mentioned in 6(th) century BC, the picking up of stones by splints through the urethra and the complications of such disorder in his Sushrutasamhita. He also recommended the removal of stones through the perineal part. Unfortunately, many patients died of such operation. Ancient Roman physicians described such operation circumstantially and the herbs for its treatment in the 1(st) century BC. During the 10(th) century, the Arabian physician Abukasis was the first to advocate the method of smashing stones in the urethra with an instrument he devised. In the period before medieval age, the removal of urinary stones through the perineal incision had been the main method which was so limited an approach due to the lack of anatomical knowledge and antiseptic conception. PMID:24774894

  1. Medieval Round Churches and the Shape of the Earth.

    PubMed

    Haagensen, Erling; Lind, Niels C

    2015-12-01

    There is a unique cluster of four medieval round churches, linked by a simple geometry, on Bornholm Island in the Baltic Sea. Why so many and why so close together? Immediate simple answers are "Just by chance" and "For no reason." Why are the churches round? "Defense." This essay proposes another hypothesis for this unique situation: the churches are astronomical observatories, meant to solve a scientific problem (Is the Earth really spherical?) and a practical problem (How far is it to sail west to the Orient?). The capacity and desire to find answers, together with other practical needs related to astronomy, can better explain these round churches' special architecture. The geometry that connects them fits the ideal pattern with an angular accuracy of 1 minute of a degree. The round churches may be the earliest astronomical observatories in Christian Europe; other hypotheses have been shown to be untenable. Their location provides for a good method to estimate the Earth's extent in the east-west direction, seemingly the earliest such measurements. PMID:27024938

  2. Mogens Jansen: An Interview with a Danish Reading Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engberg, Eva

    1985-01-01

    The president of the Danish Association of Reading Teachers discusses the positive effects of international cooperation on reading education, the influence of society's demands on curriculum, and the instinctive features and benefits of Danish Reading instruction. (FL)

  3. The Danish Collaborative Bacteraemia Network (DACOBAN) database

    PubMed Central

    Gradel, Kim Oren; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Arpi, Magnus; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Østergaard, Christian; Søgaard, Mette

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Collaborative Bacteraemia Network (DACOBAN) research database includes microbiological data obtained from positive blood cultures from a geographically and demographically well-defined population serviced by three clinical microbiology departments (1.7 million residents, 32% of the Danish population). The database also includes data on comorbidity from the Danish National Patient Registry, vital status from the Danish Civil Registration System, and clinical data on 31% of nonselected records in the database. Use of the unique civil registration number given to all Danish residents enables linkage to additional registries for specific research projects. The DACOBAN database is continuously updated, and it currently comprises 39,292 patients with 49,951 bacteremic episodes from 2000 through 2011. The database is part of an international network of population-based bacteremia registries from five developed countries on three continents. The main purpose of the DACOBAN database is to study surveillance, risk, and prognosis. Sex- and age-specific data on background populations enables the computation of incidence rates. In addition, the high number of patients facilitates studies of rare microorganisms. Thus far, studies on Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, computer algorithms for the classification of bacteremic episodes, and prognosis and risk in relation to socioeconomic factors have been published. PMID:25258557

  4. In search of "Organ III" strata-a sedimentary record of the Medieval Warm Period (ca. AD 900 to 1300)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The period AD 900 to 1300, internationally referred to as the Medieval Warm Period, is a critical time for the archaeological record of the Southwestern USA. During the Medieval Warm Period both alluvial and eolian sedimentation increased, but not to the magnitude of the middle Holocene (the Altithe...

  5. The Monk's Tale: Nero's Nets and Caesar's Father -- An Inquiry into the Transformations of Classical Roman History in Medieval Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Martha S.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the lack of consistent accuracy about historical figures in Chaucer's "Monk's Tale." The story of Nero fishing in the Tiber with golden nets is corroborated by many other ancient and medieval authors; however, the reference to Julius Caesar as being of lowly birth is peculiar only to Chaucer and a few medieval English authors. (AV)

  6. "By expresse experiment": the doubting midwife Salome in late medieval England.

    PubMed

    Swann, Alaya

    2015-01-01

    This article examines late medieval English representations of the startling and apocryphal story of Salome, the skeptical midwife who dares to touch, or at least attempt to touch, the Virgin Mary "in sexu secreto" during a postpartum examination at the nativity. Salome's story originated in the second century, but its late medieval iterations are inflected by a culture interested in evaluating and examining sensory evidence, in both medicine and religion. The story appears in sermon collections, devotional texts, the cycle nativity plays, and John Lydgate's Life of Our Lady, and these variations demonstrate the intersection of gender and experience-based knowledge in medical and devotional contexts. Salome's story provides a unique opportunity to study late medieval interpretations of female medicine, materialism, and spirituality. PMID:25913461

  7. The Gendered Nose and its Lack: "Medieval" Nose-Cutting and its Modern Manifestations.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Time magazine's cover photograph in August 2010 of a noseless Afghan woman beside the emotive strap line, "What happens if we leave Afghanistan," fuelled debate about the "medieval" practices of the Taliban, whose local commander had instructed her husband to take her nose and ears. Press reports attributed the violence to the Pashtun tradition that a dishonored husband "lost his nose." This equation of nose-cutting with tradition begs questions not only about the Orientalist lens of the western press when viewing Afghanistan, but also about the assumption that the word "medieval" can function as a label for such practices. A study of medieval nose-cutting suggests that its identification as an "eastern" practice should be challenged. Rather clearer is its connection with patriarchal values of authority and honor: the victims of such punishment have not always been women, but this is nevertheless a gendered punishment of the powerless by the powerful. PMID:24790391

  8. Microalgae on dimension stone of a medieval castle in Thuringia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallmann, C.; Stannek, L.; Fritzlar, D.; Hoppert, M.

    2012-04-01

    Phototrophic microorganisms are important primary producers on hard rock substrata as well as on building facades. These eukaryotic microalgae and cyanobacteria, along with lichens, have also been recognized as important factors for rock weathering and stone decay. The rock substratum itself mostly provides extreme environmental conditions. Composition and diversity of sub-aeric phototrophic microbial communities is up to now poorly understood. Here we present a comparative study addressing the composition of algal biofilms on sandstone substrata based on the analysis of rDNA clone libraries from environmental samples and enrichment cultures. From a W-exposed, shaded wall area of a medieval castle ruin (Burg Gleichen, Thuringia, Germany cf. Hallmann et al., 2011), green algae like Prasiococcus, Prasiola and Elliptochloris could be retrieved. A ESE, sun-exposed wall section was colonized mainly by Apatococcus, Phyllosiphon and the lichen alga Trebouxia and Myrmecia. Accordingly, cyanobacterial communities show clear differences between both wall areas: the sun exposed area was dominated by Synechococcus-like organisms while on the W-exposed area cyanobacteria were almost absent. Just a few species, in particular Stichococcus-related strains, are ubiquitous in both areas. It is obvious that, apart from few generalists, different species colonize the wall areas that are situated in close vicinity, but provide different microclimatic conditions. These differences are discussed in view of biogenic weathering phenomena: certain microalgal species colonize crusts and scales along fracture planes and may contribute to rapid detachment and turnover of dimension stone surfaces. Hallmann, C., Fritzlar, D., Stannek, L., Hoppert, M. (2011) Ascomycete fungi on dimension stone of the "Burg Gleichen", Thuringia. Env. Earth Sci. 63, 1713-1722.

  9. Geomorphic legacy of medieval Himalayan earthquakes in the Pokhara Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Andermann, Christoff; Tofelde, Stefanie; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The Himalayas and their foreland belong to the world's most earthquake-prone regions. With millions of people at risk from severe ground shaking and associated damages, reliable data on the spatial and temporal occurrence of past major earthquakes is urgently needed to inform seismic risk analysis. Beyond the instrumental record such information has been largely based on historical accounts and trench studies. Written records provide evidence for damages and fatalities, yet are difficult to interpret when derived from the far-field. Trench studies, in turn, offer information on rupture histories, lengths and displacements along faults but involve high chronological uncertainties and fail to record earthquakes that do not rupture the surface. Thus, additional and independent information is required for developing reliable earthquake histories. Here, we present exceptionally well-dated evidence of catastrophic valley infill in the Pokhara Valley, Nepal. Bayesian calibration of radiocarbon dates from peat beds, plant macrofossils, and humic silts in fine-grained tributary sediments yields a robust age distribution that matches the timing of nearby M>8 earthquakes in ~1100, 1255, and 1344 AD. The upstream dip of tributary valley fills and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry of their provenance rule out local sediment sources. Instead, geomorphic and sedimentary evidence is consistent with catastrophic fluvial aggradation and debris flows that had plugged several tributaries with tens of meters of calcareous sediment from the Annapurna Massif >60 km away. The landscape-changing consequences of past large Himalayan earthquakes have so far been elusive. Catastrophic aggradation in the wake of two historically documented medieval earthquakes and one inferred from trench studies underscores that Himalayan valley fills should be considered as potential archives of past earthquakes. Such valley fills are pervasive in the Lesser Himalaya though high erosion rates reduce

  10. Solar Influence on Medieval Megadroughts in the Greater Near East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushnir, Y.; Stein, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent surveys of medieval era chronicles provide calendar accurate information of years of unusual, extreme weather and climate events in areas surrounding the eastern Mediterranean, between the mid-A.D. 10th century and end of the 11th century. Put together, these documents show that the region was simultaneously afflicted by unprecedented sever and persistent droughts in Egypt's Nile Valley and by unusually cold and dry winters associated with crop failure and loss of pasture areas in present-day Iraq and Iran, and in historical Khurasan. We show that this documentary information is consistent with the annually dated Nile summer flood record as measured at the Cairo Nilometer site and within acceptable dating accuracies with much more coarsely resolved regional paleoclimate proxies. We furthermore note that the timing of these events coincided with the Oort Grand Solar Minimum that reached its peak between A.D. 1040 and 1080. Given the scientific evidence for the impact of solar minima on sea surface temperatures in the equatorial Pacific and how the latter affect the intensity of the African summer monsoon, we argue that the Oort Solar Minimum forced the frequent failure of the Nile summer floods resulting in dearth and famine in Egypt. Furthermore, the simultaneous cold and dry winters in the northern Near East are also consistent with the hypothesized solar minimum influence on the North Atlantic Oscillation and on the intensity of the Siberian High. This interpretation underscores the sensitivity of the climate system to variations in solar irradiance, particularly on multi-decadal time scales, to their role in regional processes, and their impact on human history and may help understand other rapid Mediterranean cooling events that occured during the Holocene.

  11. ENSO Variability at Vanuatu during the Medieval Climate Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hereid, K. A.; Quinn, T. M.; Taylor, F. W.; Edwards, R.; Cheng, H.; Shen, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; ~1050 - 1250 CE) is a period of warm temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes caused by enhanced solar forcing. The tropical response to this forcing is variable; sediment records from the tropical Pacific indicate warm conditions in the western tropics and cooler temperatures in the east during this interval, paired with precipitation changes that suggest a northward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Speleothem records and western Pacific sediment cores match this migration with a strengthened Asian monsoon, indicating a substantial reorganization in hydrology. However, the effect of these changes in zonal and meridional circulation patterns on the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the dominant mode of global interannual climate variability, is unclear. Conflicting hypotheses arise due to datasets that are too short to be representative of multidecadal ENSO variability trends, cannot identify individual ENSO events due to lower than annual resolution, or are located in remote, teleconnected regions. We present a suite of monthly resolved geochemical records from fossil Porites corals at Vanuatu (Tasmaloum, Espiritu Santo), a location whose climate is strongly influenced by variations in ENSO and the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). Our proxy coral records of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) variations provide multidecadal- to centennial-scale windows into ENSO variability and mean climate state from ~600 - 1250 CE in the deep tropics. Preliminary results, based on coral Sr/Ca variations during a portion of the MCA, suggest that SST was cooler than modern at Vanuatu, with similar levels of total variability. Additional data acquisition and future work will focus on assessing potential ENSO event frequency and magnitude changes during the MCA in the deep tropics.

  12. Adolescent mortality at Winchester College, 1393-1540: new evidence for medieval mortality and methodological considerations for historical demography.

    PubMed

    Oakes, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This article presents new data on mortality in the late medieval period, and suggests methodologies for analysing incomplete datasets. Using data collated from the records of Winchester College this study follows the lives of 2,692 individuals, and analyses adolescent mortality in the sample group for the period 1393-1540. This study of mortality among 10-18 year olds is the first of its kind to produce data for a sample of adolescents in late medieval England, and thereby contributes significant new data to our understanding of late medieval mortality. These data are placed within the context of that obtained for other medieval population samples, most notably with studies of medieval monastic groups. PMID:23057180

  13. The Danish Communicative Developmental Inventories: Validity and Main Developmental Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleses, Dorthe; Vach, Werner; Slott, Malene; Wehberg, Sonja; Thomsen, Pia; Madsen, Thomas O.; Basboll, Hans

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a large-scale cross-sectional study of Danish children's early language acquisition based on the Danish adaptation of the "MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories" (CDI). Measures of validity and reliability imply that the Danish adaptation of the American CDI has been adjusted linguistically and culturally in…

  14. Analysis of medieval limestone sculpture from southwestern France and the Paris Basin by NAA

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, L.; Harbottle, G.

    1994-12-31

    Compositional characterization of limestone from sources known to medieval craftsmen and from the monuments they built can be used in conjunction with stylistic and iconographic criteria to infer geographic origin of sculptures that have lost their histories. Limestone from 47 quarrying locations in France and from numerous medieval monuments have been subjected to neutron activation analysis (NAA) to form the nucleus of the Brookhaven Limestone Database. Even though the method and techniques of NAA are well established, this paper briefly summarizes the parameters and experimental conditions useful for determining those concentration variables for which limestone from different sources exhibits significant and reproducible differences.

  15. Padua and the Stars: Medieval Painting and Illuminated Manuscripts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canova, G. M.

    2011-06-01

    In the Middle Ages, the University of Padua was one of the most prominent centre for astrological studies in Europe. The Paduan doctor and philosopher, Pietro d'Abano, who lived in the first decades of the 14th century, was the main figure in this field. At the end of the 13th century, during a long stay in Paris, he got in contact with the new astrological doctrines flourished after the translation into Latin of Ptolemy's and Arab's works in Spain. Thus, when he went back to Padua, he published several studies on the influence of celestial bodies on human life and human physical characteristics and psychology. These ideas deeply affected the Paduan society of the 14th century and, consequently, the most important painters chose or were asked to evoke the images of stars, planets, and their properties. This adventure began with Giotto who shows a surprising interest in celestial bodies in the Scrovegni Chapel where he represented a comet, and soon after he produced a cycle of astrological paintings on the vault of the Palazzo della Ragione in the Public Palace of Padua. Unfortunately, in 1420, these paintings were destroyed in a fire, but the magnificent cycle of astrological frescoes realized soon after on the walls of the same room gives us some clues on Giotto's work and shows us the complexity of the Medieval astrological science. Other astrological paintings, still preserved, were realized by the painters of the Carrarese Court such as Guariento, who painted the planets and their influences on human ages in the church of the Eremitani, and Giusto dei Menabuoi who represented a superb zodiac around a realistic map of Earth in the Cathedral Baptistery. So Padua really became the capital of astrological painting in Europe. Other evidence of the astrological image in the Veneto Region, between the 14th and 15th centuries, can be found in the manuscripts illuminated in the milieu of the University of Padua and in the first books printed in Venice.

  16. The Danish Free School Tradition under Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2015-01-01

    The Danish free school tradition has entailed a large degree of associational freedom for non-governmental schools, religious as well as non-religious. Until the late 1990s, the non-governmental schools were under no strict ideological or pedagogical limitations; they could recruit teachers and students according to their own value base, and were…

  17. Trend Analyses of Nitrate in Danish Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Thorling, L.; Dalgaard, T.; Erlandsen, M.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first two dataset. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded in decreasing the N surplus by 40% since the mid 1980s while at the same time maintaining crop yields and increasing the animal production of especially pigs. Trend analyses prove that the youngest (0-15 years old) oxic groundwater shows more pronounced significant downward nitrate trends (44%) than the oldest (25-50 years old) oxic groundwater (9%). This amounts to clear evidence of the effect of reduced nitrate leaching on groundwater nitrate concentrations in Denmark. Are the Danish groundwater monitoring strategy obtimal for detection of nitrate trends? Will the nitrate concentrations in Danish groundwater continue to decrease or are the Danish nitrate concentration levels now appropriate according to the Water Framework Directive?

  18. Escherichia vulneris in a Danish soccer wound.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, C F; Klebe, T M; Prag, J

    1997-01-01

    Escherichia vulneris was isolated from an infected soccer wound, a finding which has not apparently been described in Europe before, but by questioning Danish clinical microbiological laboratories a further 12 cases were discovered. Treatment with simple debridement and cefuroxime quickly eradicated the bacteria in our case. PMID:9255899

  19. Evaluating University Continuing Education: A Danish Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thune, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The Danish Evaluation Institute is conducting systematic assessments of three master's programs in public administration, public policy, and public management. They have found that explicit criteria have advantages and disadvantages. Development of criteria attempts to meet the following demands: uniformity, relevance of level, scope, precision,…

  20. Care and Education in the Danish Creche

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brostrom, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to identify the relation between policy and lived life, for the small child in the Danish creche. To accomplish this, the article integrates demography, traditions, national curriculum and psychological, educational, and recent developments in research. It is an attempt to reveal knowledge and consequences, by conducting the…

  1. Be Masters in that You Teach and Continue to Learn: Medieval Muslim Thinkers on Educational Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunther, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    This article is dedicated to shedding light on a spectrum of issues in educational thought in Islam, which may--due to their universal relevance--be of interest not only to specialists but also to a wider readership. It also provides an idea of the educational views and philosophies advocated by some great medieval Muslim thinkers which offer…

  2. Becoming Artifacts Medieval Seals, Passports and the Future of Digital Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chango, Mawaki

    2012-01-01

    What does a digital identity token have to do with medieval seals? Is the history of passports of any use for enabling the discovery of Internet users' identity when crossing virtual domain boundaries during their digital browsing and transactions? The agility of the Internet architecture and its simplicity of use have been the engines of its…

  3. The Role of Women in Medieval Europe: A Unit of Study for Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himmell, Rhoda

    This unit is one of a series that represents specific moments in history from which students focus on the meanings of landmark events. This unit consists of lessons focused on selected topics in medieval history that define and describe the roles of women. The lessons examine the roles of women in the Early Middle Ages with particular emphasis on…

  4. Doing SoTL in Medieval History a Cross-Atlantic Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Vicky; Shopkow, Leah

    2007-01-01

    This article, presented as a dialogue between the authors, explores what they perceive as critical areas of teaching and learning in the discipline of Medieval Studies. Within the discussion, notions of relevance and usefulness, widening access, and epistemological assumptions about the discipline are discussed and related to the practice of…

  5. Wrestling with Stephen and Matilda: Planning Challenging Enquiries to Engage Year 7 in Medieval Anarchy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougall, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    McDougall found learning about Stephen and Matilda fascinating, was sure that her pupils would also and designed an enquiry to engage them in "the anarchy" of 1139-1153 AD. Pupils enjoyed exploring "the anarchy" and learning about it enhanced their knowledge and understanding of the medieval period considerably. However, McDougall argues, story…

  6. Islamic Roots of the Medieval University: A Forgotten Legacy. ASHE 1987 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Charles M.

    The linkage of the formal structures of higher learning in Islam and the development of higher education in the Medieval West is discussed. Recent findings indicate a transference of instructional methodology and even some organizational forms from Islamdom to the Christian West during the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Islamic models of higher…

  7. Long life, natural death. The learned ideal of dying in late medieval commentaries on Avicenna's Canon.

    PubMed

    van 't Land, Karine

    2014-01-01

    Within late medieval learned medicine, natural death functioned both as a theoretical concept and as a goal for practice. Late medieval commentaries on Avicenna's Canon are used as source material in this study, in order to investigate the ways in which these learned medical authors envisaged natural death. The findings are compared to descriptions of natural death by natural philosophers, and to ideals of dying in broader medieval culture. According to the physicians, natural death was caused by the extinction of innate heat, due to a lack of innate moisture. They discussed natural death in relation to regimen, as the right regimen protected the body's heat and moisture, and thus helped a patient to keep natural death aloof. So, in order to think about natural death, the physicians turned to the whole of life, during which heat dried out moisture and regimens ought to be followed. By contrast, natural philosophers tended to focus on the moment of death itself. The comparison of natural death with the Good Death in broad medieval culture highlights the amoral nature of the natural death. PMID:25577929

  8. The Accreditation of Hildegard Von Bingen as Medieval Female Technical Writer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauch, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Although scholars have acknowledged technical texts written during the Middle-Ages, there is no mention of "technical writer" as a profession except for Geoffrey Chaucer, and historically absent is the accreditation of medieval female writers who pioneered the field of medical-technical communication. In an era dominated by identifiable medieval…

  9. The Medieval India Bibliographical Project: Hindi-Urdu Phase. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Jack C.

    The work completed under this contract constitutes one phase of the Medieval India Bibliographical Project. This phase consisted of the systematic compilation of a bibliography of works in the Hindi and Urdu languages concerned with the premodern history of Islamic domination of the Indian subcontinent. The purpose of this research was to list…

  10. Mysteries of Antiquity: Lessons To Engage Middle School Students in Ancient/Medieval History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Max W.

    This instructional packet is intended to help classroom instructors introduce fascinating quandaries rarely featured in history textbooks about the ancient and medieval eras. Most of the 13 lesson plans require only 1 or 2 class periods to complete, permitting the teacher to enhance the presentation of a particular unit without fear of devoting…

  11. "Quid dant artes nisi luctum?": Learning, Ambition, and Careers in the Medieval University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferruolo, Stephen C.

    1988-01-01

    Focusing on the medieval university during its formative years (late 1100s and early 1200s), the author addresses questions such as "How did the ambitions of students and masters influence the organization and curriculum of these new institutions?" Concludes that society was served by these universities despite the indication that the curriculum…

  12. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    PubMed

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J

    1994-10-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7821296

  13. Drought as a Catalyst for Early Medieval European Subsistence Crises and Violence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludlow, Francis; Cook, Edward; Kostick, Conor; McCormick, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Tree-ring records provide one of most reliable means of reconstructing past climatic conditions, from longer-term multi-decadal fluctuations in temperature and precipitation to inter-annual variability, including years that experienced extreme weather. When combined with written records of past societal behaviour and the incidence of major societal stresses (e.g., famine, disease, and conflict), such records hold the potential to shed new light on historical interactions between climate and society. Recent years have seen the continued development of long dendroclimatic reconstructions, including, most recently the development of the Old World Drought Atlas (OWDA; Cook et al., 2015) which for the first time makes available a robust reconstruction of spring-summer hydroclimatic conditions and extremes for the greater European region, including the entirety of the Dark Ages. In this paper, we examine the association between hydroclimatic extremes identified in the OWDA and well-dated reports of severe drought in early medieval European annals and chronicles, and find a clear statistical correspondence, further confirming the accuracy of the OWDA and its importance as an independent record of hydroclimatic extremes, a resource that can now be drawn upon in both paleoclimatology and studies of climatic impacts on human society. We proceed to examine the association between hydroclimatic extremes identified in the OWDA and the incidence of a range of major societal stresses (scarcity and famine, epidemic disease, and mass human mortality) drawn from an exhaustive survey of early medieval European annals and chronicles. The outcome of this comparison firmly implicates drought as a significant driver of major societal stresses during early medieval times. Using a record of the violent killings of societal elites recorded on a continuous annual basis in medieval Irish monastic annals, we further examine the role of hydroclimatic extremes as triggers in medieval violence

  14. Validation of the danish national diabetes register.

    PubMed

    Green, Anders; Sortsø, Camilla; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup; Emneus, Martha

    2015-01-01

    The Danish National Diabetes Register (NDR) was established in 2006 and builds on data from Danish health registers. We validated the content of NDR, using full information from the Danish National Patient Register and data from the literature. Our study indicates that the completeness in NDR is ≥95% concerning ascertainment from data sources specific for diabetes, ie, prescriptions with antidiabetic drugs and diagnoses of diabetes in the National Patient Register. Since the NDR algorithm ignores diabetes-related hospital contacts terminated before 1990, the establishment of the date of inclusion is systematically delayed for ≥10% of the registrants in general and for ≥30% of the inclusions before 1997 in particular. This bias is enhanced for ascertainment by chiropody services and by frequent measurements of blood glucose because the date of reimbursement of services, rather than the date of encounter, has been taken as the date of inclusion in NDR. We also find that some 20% of the registrations in NDR may represent false positive inclusions of persons with frequent measurements of blood glucose without having diabetes. We conclude that NDR is a novel initiative to support research in the epidemiological and public health aspects of diabetes in Denmark, but we also present a list of recommended changes for improving validity, by reducing the impact of current sources of bias and misclassifications. PMID:25565889

  15. Second century megadrought in the Rio Grande headwaters, Colorado: How unusual was medieval drought?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Routson, Cody C.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.

    2011-11-01

    A new tree-ring record from living and remnant bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) wood from the headwaters region of the Rio Grande River, Colorado is used in conjunction with other regional records to evaluate periods of unusually severe drought over the past two millennia (B.C. 268 to A.D. 2009). Our new record contains a multi-century period of unusual dryness between 1 and 400 A.D., including an extreme drought during the 2nd century. Characterized by almost five decades of drought (below average ring width), we hypothesize this megadrought is equally, if not more severe than medieval period megadroughts in this region. Published paleoclimate time series help define the spatial extent, severity, and potential causes of the 2nd century megadrought. Furthermore, this early period of unusual dryness has intriguing similarities to later medieval period aridity. Our findings suggest we should anticipate similar severe drought conditions in an even warmer and drier future.

  16. The impact of devegetated dune fields on North American climate during the late Medieval Climate Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, B. I.; Seager, R.; Miller, R. L.

    2011-07-01

    During the Medieval Climate Anomaly, North America experienced severe droughts and widespread mobilization of dune fields that persisted for decades. We use an atmosphere general circulation model, forced by a tropical Pacific sea surface temperature reconstruction and changes in the land surface consistent with estimates of dune mobilization (conceptualized as partial devegetation), to investigate whether the devegetation could have exacerbated the medieval droughts. Presence of devegetated dunes in the model significantly increases surface temperatures, but has little impact on precipitation or drought severity, as defined by either the Palmer Drought Severity Index or the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration. Results are similar to recent studies of the 1930s Dust Bowl drought, suggesting bare soil associated with the dunes, in and of itself, is not sufficient to amplify droughts over North America.

  17. Transient Astronomical Events as Inspiration Sources of Medieval and Renaissance Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Incerti, M.; Bònoli, F.; Polcaro, V. F.

    2011-06-01

    It is known long since that a number of exceptional and highly impressive astronomical events have been represented in Medieval artworks. We just remember the Bayeux Tapestry and Giotto's The Adoration of the Magi in the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua, representing the P/Halley comet transits of 1067 and 1301, respectively, while The Apparition of Star to Magi fresco in the San Pietro in Valle Abbey in Ferentillo (1182) has been suggested to represent the 1181 supernova. However, no systematic survey of figurative Medieval and Renaissance art has been performed to date, in order to analyzing the role of transient astronomical events as inspiration sources of artworks in these epochs. In this work, we analyze a significant number of artworks, dated between the 9th and 16th century and representing figurative elements in some way connected with astronomy, in order to evaluate if they have been influenced by coeval extraordinary astronomical events.

  18. A medieval metaphor to aid use of the Neuman systems model in simulation debriefing.

    PubMed

    McClure, Marilyn; Gigliotti, Eileen

    2012-10-01

    Patient simulation is an effective clinical nursing experience and debriefing is recognized as the most crucial phase for students to internalize learning. The Neuman systems model is an excellent organizing framework for simulation debriefing to maximize learning. However, due to the model's complexity, metaphor may be useful to help students to link simulation events with the model's concepts. A medieval metaphorical adaptation of the Neuman systems model was created as an educational debriefing tool to help students bridge this gap. Neuman's concepts are represented as medieval figures encountering and dealing with stressor dragons, with assistance (nursing intervention) as necessary. The companion questionnaire allows recording of student insights and becomes an evaluation tool for student comprehension. PMID:23087338

  19. The Impact of Devegetated Dune Fields on North American Climate During the Late Medieval Climate Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, B. I.; Seager, R.; Miller, R. L.

    2011-01-01

    During the Medieval Climate Anomaly, North America experienced severe droughts and widespread mobilization of dune fields that persisted for decades. We use an atmosphere general circulation model, forced by a tropical Pacific sea surface temperature reconstruction and changes in the land surface consistent with estimates of dune mobilization (conceptualized as partial devegetation), to investigate whether the devegetation could have exacerbated the medieval droughts. Presence of devegetated dunes in the model significantly increases surface temperatures, but has little impact on precipitation or drought severity, as defined by either the Palmer Drought Severity Index or the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration. Results are similar to recent studies of the 1930s Dust Bowl drought, suggesting bare soil associated with the dunes, in and of itself, is not sufficient to amplify droughts over North America.

  20. The "Endura" of The Cathars' Heresy: Medieval Concept of Ritual Euthanasia or Suicide?

    PubMed

    Tsiamis, Costas; Tounta, Eleni; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the medieval concepts on the voluntary death of severely sick people, as they emerge through the endura (endurance) of the heresy of the Cathars in France (twelfth to fourteenth centuries). The endura was the prerequisite act of repentance that would allow the fallen soul to return to heaven. The endura was a necessary act of repentance, after the performance of a ceremonial purification of the soul (consolamentum), and consisted of the patients' voluntary abstention from vital food. The consolamentum and endura could be performed in the final stage of a disease with the consent of the patients or their relatives. The role of the Cathar physician was only to determine the severity of the disease and the forthcoming death of the patient. The physician was not allowed to take steps that would deprive the life of the patient, and the performance of the ritual endura was duty of the spiritual leaders of the community. The modern ethical approach to this subject is dictated by the medieval belief on the salvation of the soul and tries to answer the question of whether the endura could be seen as a medieval concept of a ritual euthanasia or fell within the theological sin of suicide. PMID:25716628

  1. Duration and severity of Medieval drought in the Lake Tahoe Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleppe, J.A.; Brothers, D.S.; Kent, G.M.; Biondi, F.; Jensen, S.; Driscoll, N.W.

    2011-01-01

    Droughts in the western U.S. in the past 200 years are small compared to several megadroughts that occurred during Medieval times. We reconstruct duration and magnitude of extreme droughts in the northern Sierra Nevada from hydroclimatic conditions in Fallen Leaf Lake, California. Stands of submerged trees rooted in situ below the lake surface were imaged with sidescan sonar and radiocarbon analysis yields an age estimate of ∼1250 AD. Tree-ring records and submerged paleoshoreline geomorphology suggest a Medieval low-stand of Fallen Leaf Lake lasted more than 220 years. Over eighty more trees were found lying on the lake floor at various elevations above the paleoshoreline. Water-balance calculations suggest annual precipitation was less than 60% normal from late 10th century to early 13th century AD. Hence, the lake’s shoreline dropped 40–60 m below its modern elevation. Stands of pre-Medieval trees in this lake and in Lake Tahoe suggest the region experienced severe drought at least every 650–1150 years during the mid- and late-Holocene. These observations quantify paleo-precipitation and recurrence of prolonged drought in the northern Sierra Nevada.

  2. The Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age in Chesapeake Bay and the North Atlantic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.; Hayo, K.; Thunell, R.C.; Dwyer, G.S.; Saenger, C.; Willard, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    A new 2400-year paleoclimate reconstruction from Chesapeake Bay (CB) (eastern US) was compared to other paleoclimate records in the North Atlantic region to evaluate climate variability during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA). Using Mg/Ca ratios from ostracodes and oxygen isotopes from benthic foraminifera as proxies for temperature and precipitation-driven estuarine hydrography, results show that warmest temperatures in CB reached 16-17. ??C between 600 and 950. CE (Common Era), centuries before the classic European Medieval Warm Period (950-1100. CE) and peak warming in the Nordic Seas (1000-1400. CE). A series of centennial warm/cool cycles began about 1000. CE with temperature minima of ~. 8 to 9. ??C about 1150, 1350, and 1650-1800. CE, and intervening warm periods (14-15. ??C) centered at 1200, 1400, 1500 and 1600. CE. Precipitation variability in the eastern US included multiple dry intervals from 600 to 1200. CE, which contrasts with wet medieval conditions in the Caribbean. The eastern US experienced a wet LIA between 1650 and 1800. CE when the Caribbean was relatively dry. Comparison of the CB record with other records shows that the MCA and LIA were characterized by regionally asynchronous warming and complex spatial patterns of precipitation, possibly related to ocean-atmosphere processes. ?? 2010.

  3. SharedCanvas: A Collaborative Model for Medieval Manuscript Layout Dissemination

    SciTech Connect

    Sanderson, Robert D.; Albritton, Benjamin; Schwemmer, Rafael; Van De Sompel, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a model based on the principles of Linked Data that can be used to describe the interrelationships of images, texts and other resources to facilitate the interoperability of repositories of medieval manuscripts or other culturally important handwritten documents. The model is designed from a set of requirements derived from the real world use cases of some of the largest digitized medieval content holders, and instantiations of the model are intended as the input to collection-independent page turning and scholarly presentation interfaces. A canvas painting paradigm, such as in PDF and SVG, was selected based on the lack of a one to one correlation between image and page, and to fulfill complex requirements such as when the full text of a page is known, but only fragments of the physical object remain. The model is implemented using technologies such as OAI-ORE Aggregations and OAC Annotations, as the fundamental building blocks of emerging Linked Digital Libraries. The model and implementation are evaluated through prototypes of both content providing and consuming applications. Although the system was designed from requirements drawn from the medieval manuscript domain, it is applicable to any layout-oriented presentation of images of text.

  4. Bernard de Gordon (fl. 1270-1330): medieval physician and teacher.

    PubMed

    Pearn, John

    2013-02-01

    The Montpellier physician Bernard de Gordon flourished in the late Middle Ages in the era when university education first evolved in the training of European physicians. Fragmentary details of his life and medical influence are known from seven books, particularly his extensive (163 chapters) text Lilium Medicine and from Chaucer's reference to him in the Canterbury Tales. Chaucer lists Bernard de Gordon as one whose writings were part of the core curriculum of the best-trained European doctors of medieval Europe. Bernard de Gordon was one of that small group of medieval physicians who reverently followed Galenic lore which had endured for a thousand years yet who began to challenge its details and to experiment clinically with new methods of treatment. In his writings, Bernard de Gordon made the first reference to spectacles and to the hernial truss. His writings also contained detailed desiderata for the ethical best practice of medicine of his day, extending the principles of both Hippocrates and Haly ibn Abbas. Unlike many of the surviving writings of other medieval medical teachers, his texts have within them a tone of humility and acknowledged fallibility. Bernard de Gordon holds a small but significant place in the evolving pre-Renaissance chronology of medical professionalism. PMID:23610222

  5. Annoying Danish Relatives: Comprehension and Production of Relative Clauses by Danish Children with and without SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen De Lopez, Kristine; Olsen, Lone Sundahl; Chondrogianni, Vasiliki

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI and to compare errors with those produced by TD…

  6. Parenting among Wealthy Danish Families: A Concerted Civilising Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Dil

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the parenting practices of wealthy Danish families and offers insight into the workings of dominant parenting norms within contemporary Danish society. Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted among 15 families living north of Copenhagen, Denmark, this article identifies the parenting strategies of people with ample…

  7. Educational Ambassadors in the Danish Trade Union Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keil, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The concept of Educational Ambassadors is embedded within the so-called "Danish model" of industrial relations. The Danish industrial relations system is characterised by strong collective organisations with national coverage, which conclude the collective agreements for various industries or sectors and which are mostly grouped under central…

  8. Statistical Learning in Emerging Lexicons: The Case of Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Stephanie F.; Bleses, Dorthe; Basboll, Hans; Lambertsen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research explored the impact of neighborhood density (ND), word frequency (WF), and word length (WL) on the vocabulary size of Danish-speaking children. Given the particular phonological properties of Danish, the impact was expected to differ from that reported in studies on English and French. Method: The monosyllabic words in the…

  9. Screening for celiac disease in Danish adults

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Anna; Skaaby, Tea; Kårhus, Line Lund; Schwarz, Peter; Jørgensen, Torben; Rumessen, Jüri J.; Linneberg, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The prevalence of celiac disease (CD) as recorded in the Danish National Patient Registry is ∼50/100,000 persons. This is much lower than the reported prevalence of CD in other Nordic countries and underdiagnosis is suspected. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of CD in a population-based study of Danish adults. Methods. A total of 2297 adults aged 24–76 years living in the southwestern part of Copenhagen were screened for CD by immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG antibodies to transglutaminases and deamidated gliadin. IgA/IgG-positive participants were invited to a clinical evaluation, including biopsies, by a gastroenterologist. Results. Of the invited 56 participants, 40 underwent a full clinical evaluation and 8 persons were diagnosed with CD; 2 of the 16 persons, who did not complete the clinical evaluation, were considered by experts to have probable CD. None of the above 56 participants had a known history of CD or a recorded diagnosis of CD in National Patient Registry. By combining cases of biopsy-proven CD (n = 8), probable CD (n = 2), and registry-recorded CD (n = 1), the prevalence of CD was estimated to be 479/100,000 (11/2297) persons (95% CI: 197–761). Conclusion. In this general adult population, the prevalence of CD as estimated by screening and clinical evaluation was 10 times higher than the registry-based prevalence of CD. Of 11 participants diagnosed with CD in our screening study, 10 were unaware of the diagnosis prior to the study. Thus, our study suggests that CD is markedly underdiagnosed in Danish adults. PMID:25687734

  10. Interpersonal violence: patterns in a Danish community.

    PubMed Central

    Hedeboe, J; Charles, A V; Nielsen, J; Grymer, F; Møller, B N; Møller-Madson, B; Jensen, S E

    1985-01-01

    We studied all cases of assault with violence (1,639) in a Danish population of 275,000 over a one-year period. Most victims were young men. The incidence rose during evenings, nights and weekends, and assaults were often seen in or around bars and restaurants. Women accounted for 64 per cent of all victims of assault in the home. Influence of alcohol was identified in 43 per cent of all cases. The fist was the most frequent agent of assault; use of firearms was a very rare act of violence but was associated with death in three out of five cases. There were 10 deaths in all. PMID:4003631

  11. Developing and Evaluating a Multimodal Course Format: Danish for Knowledge Workers--Labour Market-Related Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, Karen-Margrete; Laursen, Katja Årosin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents our reflections on developing the Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) course "Danish for knowledge workers--labour market-related Danish." As defined by Laursen and Frederiksen (2015), knowledge workers are "highly educated people who typically work at universities, at other institutions of higher…

  12. Thyroid function in Danish greenhouse workers

    PubMed Central

    Toft, Gunnar; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    Background From animal studies it is known that currently used pesticides can disturb thyroid function. Methods In the present study we investigated the thyroid function in 122 Danish greenhouse workers, to evaluate if greenhouse workers classified as highly exposed to pesticides experiences altered thyroid levels compared to greenhouse workers with lower exposure. Serum samples from the greenhouse workers were sampled both in the spring and the fall to evaluate if differences in pesticide use between seasons resulted in altered thyroid hormone levels. Results We found a moderate reduction of free thyroxine (FT4) (10–16%) among the persons working in greenhouses with a high spraying load both in samples collected in the spring and the fall, but none of the other measured thyroid hormones differed significantly between exposure groups in the cross-sectional comparisons. However, in longitudinal analysis of the individual thyroid hormone level between the spring and the fall, more pronounced differences where found with on average 32% higher thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level in the spring compared to the fall and at the same time a 5–9% lower total triiodthyroxin (TT3), free triiodthyroxine (FT3) and FT4. The difference between seasons was not consistently more pronounced in the group classified as high exposure compared to the low exposure groups. Conclusion The present study indicates that pesticide exposure among Danish greenhouse workers results in only minor disturbances of thyroid hormone levels. PMID:17147831

  13. Danish Ophthalmology - from start to 1865.

    PubMed

    Norn, Mogens

    2016-03-01

    This short paper mentioned the medical treatment using the 'holy' springs, the first 'eye doctor' in Denmark, the first picture of spectacles which was found in Viborg Cathedral of the high priest before he performs circumcisio praeputii on Jesus Christ, further cataract reclination in Denmark from around year zero and cataract extraction in 1667 in Denmark on a goose by Francisco Borri and on humans by the Danish Georg Heuermann in 1755. Epidemic military eye diseases in 1807, 1856 and 1865 are also described in this study. From 1856, a new ophthalmological period started in Denmark with the first eye hospital (lazaret only for eye diseases), and in 1864, patients with eye diseases were transported from the few beds in the surgical departments in the municipal hospital to the first civil eye department in Denmark, the eye hospital Sct. Annae in Copenhagen. The new scientific period started with Jacob Christian Bentz (ophthalmia granulosa, joint editor of the Danish Medical Journal) and Heinrich Lehmann. PMID:26899921

  14. Danish experiences on EIA of livestock projects

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, Per . E-mail: pc@plan.aau.dk

    2006-07-15

    Since its introduction into Danish planning in 1989, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been widely discussed. At the centre of the debate has been the question of whether EIA actually offered anything new and there has been a great deal of scepticism about the efficacy of the instrument, especially when it comes to livestock projects. In an evaluation of the Danish EIA experience, we have looked more closely at how the EIA instruments function regarding livestock projects. This article addresses both the EIA process as well as the EIA screening. It is demonstrated that the EIA screening in its own right is a kind of regulatory instrument. Examining the assessments made during screening more closely, we conclude that there is still some way to go in order to make the assessment broader and more holistic in accordance with the ambitions set out in the EIA directive to contribute to a more sustainable development. Although the provisions laid down are the same the praxis related to the field has developed at a considerable speed. In order to understand this development we have closely examined how the decisions made by the Nature Protection Board of Appeal (NPBA) have been changed and conclude that these changes definitely address some of the shortcomings found in the evaluation.

  15. The physician's civil liability under Danish law.

    PubMed

    Fenger, N; Broberg, M

    1991-01-01

    The physician's liability in Danish law is based on negligence, which is assessed by the courts largely on the basis of expert opinions. Such opinions are provided primarily by the Medico-Legal Council rather than by experts selected by the parties. The evaluation of negligence is based on a "reasonable man" standard and the performance expected of a competent colleague; a hospital will be responsible for the negligence of its employees. The burden of proof generally lies with the plaintiff; negligence will not be presumed and the assessment of the evidence of negligence will be adapted to the individual situation, e.g. factors such as the degree of specialization involved, the time which the physician had at his disposal to make his decision and the resources available to him will be taken into consideration. The courts have shown themselves willing to allow for the fact that doctors differ, i.e. recognizing that there must be scope for reasonable discretion. Because the culpa principle is central, the standard applied to medical knowledge will be that which pertained at the time of the treatment. Where a non-specialist is confronted with a problem which may go beyond the knowledge of his limits and experience, he is under an obligation to refer the patient. The principle of informed consent to treatment is accepted in Danish law, but such consent will readily be considered to have been given tacitly. PMID:23511859

  16. Annoying Danish relatives: comprehension and production of relative clauses by Danish children with and without SLI.

    PubMed

    Jensen De López, Kristine; Sundahl Olsen, Lone; Chondrogianni, Vasiliki

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI and to compare errors with those produced by TD children. Eighteen children with SLI, eighteen TD age-matched (AM) and nine TD language-matched (LM) Danish-speaking children participated in a comprehension and in a production task. All children performed better on the comprehension compared with the production task, as well as on SRCs compared to ORCs and produced various avoidance strategies. In the ORC context, children with SLI produced more reversal errors than the AM children, who opted for passive ORCs. These results are discussed within current theories of SLI and indicate a deficiency with the assignment of thematic roles rather than with the structural make-up of RCs. PMID:23200200

  17. Charlemagne's Summit Canal: An Early Medieval Hydro-Engineering Project for Passing the Central European Watershed

    PubMed Central

    Zielhofer, Christoph; Leitholdt, Eva; Werther, Lukas; Stele, Andreas; Bussmann, Jens; Linzen, Sven; Schneider, Michael; Meyer, Cornelius; Berg-Hobohm, Stefanie; Ettel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Central European Watershed divides the Rhine-Main catchment and the Danube catchment. In the Early Medieval period, when ships were important means of transportation, Charlemagne decided to link both catchments by the construction of a canal connecting the Schwabian Rezat and the Altmühl rivers. The artificial waterway would provide a continuous inland navigation route from the North Sea to the Black Sea. The shortcut is known as Fossa Carolina and represents one of the most important Early Medieval engineering achievements in Europe. Despite the important geostrategic relevance of the construction it is not clarified whether the canal was actually used as a navigation waterway. We present new geophysical data and in situ findings from the trench fills that prove for the first time a total length of the constructed Carolingian canal of at least 2300 metres. We have evidence for a conceptual width of the artificial water course between 5 and 6 metres and a water depth of at least 60 to 80 cm. This allows a crossing way passage of Carolingian cargo scows with a payload of several tons. There is strong evidence for clayey to silty layers in the trench fills which reveal suspension load limited stillwater deposition and, therefore, the evidence of former Carolingian and post-Carolingian ponds. These findings are strongly supported by numerous sapropel layers within the trench fills. Our results presented in this study indicate an extraordinarily advanced construction level of the known course of the canal. Here, the excavated levels of Carolingian trench bottoms were generally sufficient for the efficient construction of stepped ponds and prove a final concept for a summit canal. We have evidence for the artificial Carolingian dislocation of the watershed and assume a sophisticated Early Medieval hydrological engineering concept for supplying the summit of the canal with adequate water. PMID:25251589

  18. Differences in articular-eminence inclination between medieval and contemporary human populations.

    PubMed

    Kranjčić, Josip; Vojvodić, Denis; Žabarović, Domagoj; Vodanović, Marin; Komar, Daniel; Mehulić, Ketij

    2012-08-01

    The articular-eminence inclination is an important element in the biomechanics of the temporomandibular joint and the entire masticatory system; however, very little is known about this inclination in archaeological human populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the values of, in addition to the differences between, the articular-eminence inclination in medieval and contemporary human populations. The study was carried out on two dry skull groups. The first group consisted of 14 dry skulls from the medieval culture group Bijelo Brdo (BB) of East Croatia, and the other consisted of 137 recent dry skulls from the osteologic collection of the Institute of Anatomy (IA) in Zagreb. All BB skulls were dentulous, whereas the IA skulls were divided into dentulous and edentulous groups. The articular-eminence inclination was measured in relation to the Frankfurt horizontal plane on digital images of the skull's two lateral views using AutoCAD computer software. The mean value of the articular-eminence inclination in the BB sample group (49.57°) was lower, with a statistical significance (p<0.01), than those of the IA dentulous (61.56°), the IA edentulous (62.54°), and all the combined IA (61.99°) specimens. Because the values of the articular-eminence inclination can vary a lot with reference to the number of specimens and the different methods used for measuring, the obtained values yield only orientational information. Further investigations including a larger number of medieval specimens are needed to confirm the results obtained from this study. PMID:22721644

  19. Charlemagne's summit canal: an early medieval hydro-engineering project for passing the Central European Watershed.

    PubMed

    Zielhofer, Christoph; Leitholdt, Eva; Werther, Lukas; Stele, Andreas; Bussmann, Jens; Linzen, Sven; Schneider, Michael; Meyer, Cornelius; Berg-Hobohm, Stefanie; Ettel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Central European Watershed divides the Rhine-Main catchment and the Danube catchment. In the Early Medieval period, when ships were important means of transportation, Charlemagne decided to link both catchments by the construction of a canal connecting the Schwabian Rezat and the Altmühl rivers. The artificial waterway would provide a continuous inland navigation route from the North Sea to the Black Sea. The shortcut is known as Fossa Carolina and represents one of the most important Early Medieval engineering achievements in Europe. Despite the important geostrategic relevance of the construction it is not clarified whether the canal was actually used as a navigation waterway. We present new geophysical data and in situ findings from the trench fills that prove for the first time a total length of the constructed Carolingian canal of at least 2300 metres. We have evidence for a conceptual width of the artificial water course between 5 and 6 metres and a water depth of at least 60 to 80 cm. This allows a crossing way passage of Carolingian cargo scows with a payload of several tons. There is strong evidence for clayey to silty layers in the trench fills which reveal suspension load limited stillwater deposition and, therefore, the evidence of former Carolingian and post-Carolingian ponds. These findings are strongly supported by numerous sapropel layers within the trench fills. Our results presented in this study indicate an extraordinarily advanced construction level of the known course of the canal. Here, the excavated levels of Carolingian trench bottoms were generally sufficient for the efficient construction of stepped ponds and prove a final concept for a summit canal. We have evidence for the artificial Carolingian dislocation of the watershed and assume a sophisticated Early Medieval hydrological engineering concept for supplying the summit of the canal with adequate water. PMID:25251589

  20. An early-medieval account on the red colour of Sirius and its astrophysical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlosser, W.; Bergmann, W.

    1985-11-01

    New and apparently independent information about Red Sirius from an early medieval manuscript is presented. Red stars in ancient records are those with color index B-V + 1.0 or greater. Assuming an unchanged Sirius A, this lower limit for the combined color of Sirius A and B allows the computation of the region of pre-white dwarf Sirius B in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram or color-magnitude diagram. Sirius B lies on the giant branch, which fits well with the observational and theoretical framework of stellar evolution. However, the timescale of transformation of a red giant to a white dwarf is surprisingly short.

  1. Meteor Beliefs Project: The Palladium in ancient and early Medieval sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBeath, A. Alistair; Gheorghe, A. D.

    2004-08-01

    An examination of the, apparently meteoritic, object, anciently called the Palladium after the Greek goddess Pallas Athene, is presented, as discussed in various ancient and early medieval sources. Although made of wood, the Palladium was believed to have fallen from the sky. In myths, it was a powerful totemic object, first at the legendary city of Troy, then later at Rome, and had magically protective properties associated with it. Despite its implausibly meteoritic nature, the Palladium can be suggested as supporting the case for ancient meteorite worship.

  2. Experimental Analyses of Yellow Tuff Spandrels of Post-medieval Buildings in the Naples Area

    SciTech Connect

    Calderoni, B.; Cordasco, E. A.; Lenza, P.; Guerriero, L.

    2008-07-08

    Experimental analyses have been carried out on tuff masonry specimens in order to investigate the structural behaviour of historical buildings in the Naples area (Southern Italy). Spandrels of post-medieval buildings (late XVI to early XX century) have been analysed, with emphasis on morphological characteristics according to chronological indicators. Results of the experimentation on scaled models (1:10) are discussed and the better behaviour of historical masonry typologies on respect to the modern one is highlighted. Comparison with theoretical formulations of ultimate shear resistance are provided too.

  3. "Pur sarripu pursa trutin": monster-fighting and medicine in early medieval Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Hall, Alaric

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks evidence among our extensive Scandinavian mythological texts for an area which they seldom discuss explicitly: the conceptualisation and handling of illness and healing. Its core evidence is two runic texts (the Canterbury Rune-Charm and the Sigtuna Amulet) which conceptualise illness as a "purs" ("ogre, monster"). The article discusses the semantics of "purs," arguing that illness and supernatural beings could be conceptualised as identical in medieval Scandinavia. This provides a basis for arguing that myths in which gods and heroes fight monsters provided a paradigm for the struggle with illness. PMID:19753693

  4. Raman microscopy: The identification of lapis lazuli on medieval pottery fragments from the south of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Robin J. H.; Curri, M. Lucia; Laganara, Caterina

    1997-04-01

    The technique of Raman microscopy has been used to investigate the pigments used in the glazes of fragments of medieval items of pottery dating back to the second half of the 13th century, which were found buried beneath a church in the abandoned village of Castel Fiorentino, near Foggia, in Southern Italy. The research has led to the first identification of lapis lazuli in a blue pigment pottery glaze; the identification was confirmed for six other shards from the same site. The brown—black pigment in these shards could not be identified.

  5. Reconstruction of spatial patterns of climatic anomalies during the medieval warm period (AD 900-1300)

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, H.F.; Hughes, M.K.

    1992-12-31

    The workshop will focus on climatic variations during the Medieval Warm Period or Little Climatic Optimum. The nominal time interval assigned to this period is AD 900--1300, but climate information available during the century or two preceding and following this episode is welcome. The aims of the workshop will be to: examine the available evidence for the existence of this episode; assess the spatial and temporal synchronicity of the climatic signals; discuss possible forcing mechanisms; and identify areas and paleoenvironmental records where additional research efforts are needed to improve our knowledge of this period. This document consists of abstracts of eighteen papers presented at the meeting.

  6. Provenance and compositional analysis of marbles from the medieval Abbey of San Caprasio, Aulla (Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lezzerini, M.; Di Battistini, G.; Zucchi, D.; Miriello, D.

    2012-08-01

    A compositional study of twenty-two marble artefacts from the medieval Benedictine Abbey of San Caprasio at Aulla (North-western Tuscany, Central Italy) has been carried out. The mineralogical and petrographic analyses, the estimation of the maximum grain size of the calcite crystals, and the determination of carbon and oxygen stable isotopes support a provenance of most marbles from the Apuan Alps quarries (Italy). Only some marbles indicate a probable provenance from the islands of Paros and Thasos in the eastern Mediterranean area.

  7. The Ebstorf Map: tradition and contents of a medieval picture of the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pischke, G.

    2014-07-01

    The Ebstorf Map (Wilke, 2001; Kugler, 2007; Wolf, 2004, 2006, 2007, 2009a, b), the largest medieval map of the world whose original has been lost, is not only a geographical map. In the Middle Ages, a map contained mystic, historical and religious motifs. Of central importance is Jesus Christ, who, in the Ebstorf Map, is part of the earth. The Ebstorf Map contains the knowledge of the time of its creation; it can be used for example as an atlas, as a chronicle of the world, or as an illustrated Bible.

  8. Software workflow for the automatic tagging of medieval manuscript images (SWATI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandna, Swati; Tonne, Danah; Jejkal, Thomas; Stotzka, Rainer; Krause, Celia; Vanscheidt, Philipp; Busch, Hannah; Prabhune, Ajinkya

    2015-01-01

    Digital methods, tools and algorithms are gaining in importance for the analysis of digitized manuscript collections in the arts and humanities. One example is the BMBF-funded research project "eCodicology" which aims to design, evaluate and optimize algorithms for the automatic identification of macro- and micro-structural layout features of medieval manuscripts. The main goal of this research project is to provide better insights into high-dimensional datasets of medieval manuscripts for humanities scholars. The heterogeneous nature and size of the humanities data and the need to create a database of automatically extracted reproducible features for better statistical and visual analysis are the main challenges in designing a workflow for the arts and humanities. This paper presents a concept of a workflow for the automatic tagging of medieval manuscripts. As a starting point, the workflow uses medieval manuscripts digitized within the scope of the project Virtual Scriptorium St. Matthias". Firstly, these digitized manuscripts are ingested into a data repository. Secondly, specific algorithms are adapted or designed for the identification of macro- and micro-structural layout elements like page size, writing space, number of lines etc. And lastly, a statistical analysis and scientific evaluation of the manuscripts groups are performed. The workflow is designed generically to process large amounts of data automatically with any desired algorithm for feature extraction. As a result, a database of objectified and reproducible features is created which helps to analyze and visualize hidden relationships of around 170,000 pages. The workflow shows the potential of automatic image analysis by enabling the processing of a single page in less than a minute. Furthermore, the accuracy tests of the workflow on a small set of manuscripts with respect to features like page size and text areas show that automatic and manual analysis are comparable. The usage of a computer

  9. Explicit Sex--Liberation or Exploitation: Danish "Permissiveness" Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachy, Victor

    1976-01-01

    Reviews various Danish legislative actions leading up to the lifting of the ban on pornography, and discusses possible consequences of such liberalization by analyzing police statistics from a five year period. (MH)

  10. Is the Danish wind energy model replicable for other countries?

    SciTech Connect

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Lindboe, Hans H.; Odgaard, Ole

    2008-03-15

    Though aspects of the Danish wind energy model are unique, policymakers might do well to imitate such aspects as a strong political commitment, consistent policy mechanisms, and an incremental, ''hands-on'' approach to R and D. (author)

  11. Post-Cranial Traumatic Injury Patterns in Two Medieval Polish Populations: The Effects of Lifestyle Differences

    PubMed Central

    Agnew, Amanda M.; Betsinger, Tracy K.; Justus, Hedy M.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic injuries can be used as general indicators of activity patterns in past populations. This study tests the hypothesis that contemporaneous (10th–12th century) rural and urban populations in medieval Poland will have a significantly different prevalence of non-violent fractures. Traumatic injuries to the post-cranial skeleton were recorded for 180 adults from rural Giecz and for 96 adults from urban Poznań-Śródka. They were statistically analyzed by body region and individual skeletal element. Results reveal that Giecz had a significantly higher rate of trunk fractures than Poznań-Śródka (Fisher’s exact, p<0.05). In particular, rib and vertebral fractures were more common in Giecz males and females than in their Poznań-Śródka counterparts. Traumatic injuries in the extremities were comparable between the two samples, suggesting similar risks of trauma to these regions. These results indicate that in early medieval Poland, activities associated with a rural lifestyle resulted in more injuries. These stress or accidental fractures, which are related to a high-risk setting, were not consistent with an urban lifestyle. Overall, agricultural populations like Giecz were engaged in a laborious lifestyle, reflected in a variety of injuries related to repetitive, high-risk activities. Although urban populations like Poznań engaged in craft specialization participated in repetitive activities, their lifestyle resulted in lesser fracture-risk. PMID:26068106

  12. Two medieval plague treatises and their afterlife in early modern England.

    PubMed

    Keiser, George R

    2003-07-01

    This study of an adaptation of the popular John of Burgundy plague treatise by Thomas Moulton, a Dominican friar, ca. 1475, and a translation of the so-called Canutus plague treatise by Thomas Paynell, printed 1534, shows how the medieval traditions they represent were carried forward, well into the sixteenth century, and also subjected to change in light of religious, moral, and medical concerns of early modern England. The former had a long life in print, ca. 1530-1580, whereas Paynell's translation exists in one printed version. Moulton's adaptation differs from its original and from the Canutus treatise in putting great emphasis on the idea that onsets of plague were acts of divine retribution for human sinfulness. In this respect, Moulton reshaped the tradition of the medieval plague treatise and anticipated the religious and social construction of plague that would take shape in the first half of the sixteenth century. Its long history in print indicates that Moulton's treatise expressed the spirit of that construction and probably influenced the construction as well. The contrasting histories of the two treatises attest not only to the dramatic change brought about by religious and social forces in the sixteenth century, but to a growing recognition of the value of the printing press for disseminating medical information-in forms that served social and ideological ends. PMID:12938716

  13. Alchemical poetry in medieval and early modern Europe: a preliminary survey and synthesis. Part II - Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Didier

    2011-03-01

    This article provides a preliminary description of medieval and early modern alchemical poetry composed in Latin and in the principal vernacular languages of western Europe. It aims to distinguish the various genres in which this poetry flourished, and to identify the most representative aspects of each cultural epoch by considering the medieval and early modern periods in turn. Such a distinction (always somewhat artificial) between two broad historical periods may be justified by the appearance of new cultural phenomena that profoundly modified the character of early modern alchemical poetry: the ever-increasing importance of the prisca theologia, the alchemical interpretation of ancient mythology, and the rise of neo-Latin humanist poetry. Although early modern alchemy was marked by the appearance of new doctrines (notably the alchemical spiritus mundi and Paracelsianism), alchemical poetry was only superficially modified by criteria of a scientific nature, which therefore appear to be of lesser importance. This study falls into two parts. Part I provides a descriptive survey of extant poetry, and in Part II the results of the survey are analysed in order to highlight such distinctive features as the function of alchemical poetry, the influence of the book market on its evolution, its doctrinal content, and the question of whether any theory of alchemical poetry ever emerged. Part II is accompanied by an index of the authors and works cited in both parts. PMID:21797075

  14. Disease: a sign of piety?: some moral associations of disease in medieval society.

    PubMed

    Trembovler, L

    Al-Jāhiz, an Arab writer and philosopher of the ninth century C.E., one of the most brilliant intellectuals of the Abbasid period, suggested in his work "Kitāb al-Bursān wa'l-'urjān wa'l-umyān wa'l-hulan" ("The Book of the lepers, lame, blind, and cross-eyed") that disease and physical imperfections should not be considered to be social stigma, but rather signs of special divine blessings. Cripples and sick persons, in his opinion, received spiritual compensation from G-d. This idea may not seem at first glance to belong to medieval Islamic tradition. This paper tries to analyze its place in that culture and its relation to other views on disease accepted there. I will especially try to analyze the correlation between piety and disease: Was it specific to this case or characteristic of the society. The problem of the association of disease and piety and divine favor, the problems of the moral implications of disease in general is certainly a vast one. This study is restricted to some of the ethical conceptions connected with illness in medieval Moslem society, including the religious minorities which were in a sense an integral part of that society. PMID:11639666

  15. A spectroscopic study of Brazilwood paints in medieval books of hours.

    PubMed

    Melo, Maria João; Otero, Vanessa; Vitorino, Tatiana; Araújo, Rita; Muralha, Vânia S F; Lemos, Ana; Picollo, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    In this work, microspectrofluorimetry was for the first time applied to the identification of the red organic lakes that are characteristic of the lavish illuminations found in 15(th) century books of hours. Microspectrofluorimetry identified those red paints, ranging from opaque pink to dark red glazes, as brazilwood lakes. An unequivocal characterization was achieved by comparison with reference paints produced following recipes from the medieval treatise The Book on How to Make Colours, and was further confirmed by fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy (FORS). For these treasured cultural objects, microspectrofluorimetry and FORS proved to be the only techniques that could identify, in situ or in microsamples, the chromophore responsible for the pinkish hues: a brazilein-Al(3+) complex. Additionally, a multi-analytical approach provided a full characterization of the color paints, including pigments, additives, and binders. Microspectroscopic techniques, based on infrared and X-ray radiation, enabled us to disclose the full palette of these medieval manuscripts, including the elusive greens, for which, besides malachite, basic copper sulfates were found; Raman microscopy suggested a mixture of brochantite and langite. Infrared analysis proved invaluable for a full characterization of the additives that were applied as fillers or whites (chalk, gypsum, and white lead) as well as the proteinaceous and polysaccharide binders that were found pure or in mixture. PMID:24694700

  16. Graeco-Roman case histories and their influence on Medieval Islamic clinical accounts.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Millan, C

    1999-04-01

    The medieval Islamic medical tradition was the direct heir of Classical and Hellenistic medicine thanks to an unprecedented movement of translation into Arabic, commentaries and systematizations of Greek scientific texts. In the process of assimilation, not only theoretical principles, but also literary models of presenting medical knowledge were adopted, amongst them the case history. Since the clinical account can be used as a tool for medical instruction as well as an instrument for professional self-promotion, this study seeks to investigate which purpose most motivated Islamic physicians, and to demonstrate the extent to which they were influenced by the stylistic patterns which served them as a model. This article comprises an analysis of the context, literary devices and purpose of case histories of the Epidemics, Rufus of Ephesos and Galen, and compares them with those by the tenth-century Islamic physician Abu Bakr Muhammad b. Zakariya al-Razi. Author of the largest number of case histories preserved within the medieval Islamic medical literature, al-Razi's clinical records constitute an instrument with which to study and expand medical knowledge as well as providing useful material for students' medical training. Although al-Razi fused elements from the sources which served him as a model, he did not emulate Galen's use of the clinical history to assert himself in order to gain authority and prestige, but remained faithful to the Hippocratic essence. PMID:11623808

  17. Characterization of a Messer – The late-Medieval single-edged sword of Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Fajfar, Peter; Medved, Jožef; Klančnik, Grega; Lazar, Tomaž; Nečemer, Marijan; Mrvar, Primož

    2013-12-15

    Metallurgical characterization of a sword blade fragments dating from the second half of the 15th century found in central Slovenia was performed in order to determine its chemical composition, microstructure, microhardness, and to obtain insight into the methods of manufacture of a late-medieval Messer sword. As the artefact was broken, examinations were limited to six very small fragments that were allowed to be removed from the cutting edge, core and the back of the blade. Light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry, thermodynamics approach and Vickers micro-hardness tests were employed to analyze the microstructure and mechanical properties. The results show that the sword was manufactured from a single wrought iron billet. The surface of the sword was carburized. No evidence of quenching was found. The ferritic microstructure is concentrated in the core, and the pearlitic in the outer layer of the blade. All metal fragments contained non-metallic inclusions that were derived mostly from slag and some from hammer scale. - Highlights: • A metallurgical characterization of a medieval sword blade has been performed. • The carbon content decreased from the surface to the core of the blade. • The dominant microstructure in the outer layer is pearlite and in the core is ferrite. • The presence of lump shaped and elongated non-metallic inclusions was observed. • The sword was manufactured from a single wrought iron billet.

  18. Medicinal exploitation of inorganic substances in the Levant in the Medieval and early Ottoman periods.

    PubMed

    Lev, Efraim

    2002-11-01

    Various minerals, metals, clays, and rocks were among the natural medicinal substances used by physicians and pharmacists in early times in different cultures, for example, the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia. Classical physicians such as Hippocrates and Dioscorides mention tens of inorganic medicinal substances in their writings. Many references to minerals and chemicals are also found in the Muslim medical literature of the Eastern and Western Caliphates. The historical research presented in this article focuses on the inorganic substances applied as remedies by the medieval and early Ottoman (7th-17th) inhabitants of the Levant. The article is based upon a literature review covering tens of different historical sources, from the medieval and early Ottoman periods. Relevant information was found in the works of physicians such as al-Tamimi, Benevenutus, Ibn al-Baytar, Daud al-Antaki, and Hayyim Vital. The research revealed evidences of the medicinal uses of fifteen inorganic substances: Alum, Arsenic, Sulphide, Asphalt, Jew's stone, Earth sp., Galena, Haematite, iron, Lead, Pyrite, Salt, Sulphur, Thermal water, Green Vitriol, and Zinc. Inorganic materials comprise 5.2% of the list of medicinal substances. The geographic origin of most of these substances is the Levant, in which two geo-historical centers have been recorded: the Rift Valley and the northern region of the Levant, including upper Galilee, Mount Lebanon and Mount Hermon. A notable tendency to use these substances for treating diseases of the skin, the eyes, the sexual organs, and haemorrhoids was detected. PMID:20329348

  19. Near-field tsunami inferred from numerical modeling of medieval overwash at Anegada, British Virgin Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Atwater, B. F.; Tuttle, M. P.; Robert, H.; Feuillet, N.; Jennifer, W.; Fuentes, Z.

    2012-12-01

    In a comparison among numerical models of storms and tsunamis, only tsunami waves of nearby origin manage to wash over an area where coral heads of medieval age are scattered hundreds of meters inland from the north shore of Anegada, British Virgin Islands. This low-lying island faces the Puerto Rico Trench 120 km to the north. The island's north shore, fringed by a coral reef 100-1200 m offshore, displays geological evidence for two levels of overwash. The medieval overwash, dated to AD 1200-1450, was the higher one. It is evidenced by scores of coral boulders scattered hundreds of meters inland. Some of them crossed the area of the modern storm berm at Soldier Wash, continued across a broad limestone rise 3-4 m above sea level, and came to rest on lower ground farther inland. Coral heads in four other areas, also medieval or older, came to rest hundreds of meters inland from beach ridges now 2-4 m above sea level. The later, lower-elevation overwash, dated to AD 1650-1800, laid down a sheet of sand and shell that extends as much as 1.5 km inland. The hypothetical causes for each event, tested by numerical modeling, include (1) category IV and V hurricanes that differ in surge and wave heights; (2) the 1755 Lisbon earthquake or hypothetical medieval predecessor, at M 8.7 and M 9.0; (3) M 8.4 thrust earthquake along the Puerto Rico Trench between Hispaniola and Anegada; (4) M 8.7 thrust along the Puerto Rico Trench between Tortola and Antigua; (5) M 8.0 earthquake from normal faulting on the outer rise north of Anegada. The model output includes extent of onshore flooding, depth and velocity of overland flow, and energy lost by tsunami and hurricane waves as they cross the reef and continue across a shallow subtidal flat to Anegada's north shore. For the medieval overwash, the modeling is most conclusive in testing various explanations for the coral boulders inland of Soldier Wash. The simulated hurricane waves do not wash inland of the storm berm; the height of

  20. The Nature of Beauty: The Arts in Greece, Rome and the Medieval Period. Program for Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garton, Harry A.; Woodbury, Virginia Garton

    One in a series of instructional units designed for gifted students, the booklet focuses on the arts in Greece, Rome, and the Medieval period. Narrative information on Greek pottery, sculpture, architecture, music, and dance is followed by lists of suggested activities for students and reference lists of texts and media. A similar unit on the…

  1. Sex determination in skeletal remains from the medieval Eastern Adriatic coast – discriminant function analysis of humeri

    PubMed Central

    Bašić, Željana; Anterić, Ivana; Vilović, Katarina; Petaros, Anja; Bosnar, Alan; Madžar, Tomislav; Polašek, Ozren; Anđelinović, Šimun

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the usefulness of humerus measurement for sex determination in a sample of medieval skeletons from the Eastern Adriatic Coast. Additional aim was to compare the results with contemporary female population. Methods Five humerus measurements (maximum length, epicondylar width, maximum vertical diameter of the head, maximum and minimum diameter of the humerus at midshaft) for 80 male and 35 female medieval and 19 female contemporary humeri were recorded. Only sufficiently preserved skeletons and those with no obvious pathological or traumatic changes that could affect the measurements were included. For ten samples, analysis of DNA was performed in order to determine sex using amelogenin. Results The initial comparison of men and women indicated significant differences in all five measures (P < 0.001). Discriminant function for sex determination indicated that as much as 85% of cases could be properly categorized, with better results in men (86%) than women (80%). Furthermore, the comparison of the medieval and contemporary women did not show significant difference in any of the measured features. Sex results obtained by anthropological and DNA analysis matched in all 10 cases. Conclusion The results indicate that humerus measurement in Croatian medieval population may be sufficient to determine the sex of the skeleton. Furthermore, it seems that secular changes have not substantially affected contemporary population, suggesting that the results of this study are transferable to contemporary population as well. PMID:23771758

  2. The Not-so-Dark Ages: ecology for human growth in medieval and early twentieth century Portugal as inferred from skeletal growth profiles.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Garcia, Susana

    2009-02-01

    This study attempts to address the issue of relative living standards in Portuguese medieval and early 20th century periods. Since the growth of children provides a good measure of environmental quality for the overall population, the skeletal growth profiles of medieval Leiria and early 20th century Lisbon were compared. Results show that growth in femur length of medieval children did not differ significantly from that of early 20th century children, but after puberty medieval adolescents seem to have recovered, as they have significantly longer femora as adults. This is suggestive of greater potential for catch-up growth in medieval adolescents. We suggest that this results from distinct child labor practices, which impact differentially on the growth of Leiria and Lisbon adolescents. Work for medieval children and adolescents were related to family activities, and care and attention were provided by family members. Conversely, in early 20th century Lisbon children were more often sent to factories at around 12 years of age as an extra source of family income, where they were exploited for their labor. Since medieval and early 20th century children were stunted at an early age, greater potential for catch-up growth in medieval adolescents results from exhausting work being added to modern adolescent's burdens of disease and poor diet, when they entered the labor market. Although early 20th century Lisbon did not differ in overall unfavorable living conditions from medieval Leiria, after puberty different child labor practices may have placed modern adolescents at greater risk of undernutrition and poor growth. PMID:18785651

  3. House dust in seven Danish offices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mølhave, L.; Schneider, T.; Kjærgaard, S. K.; Larsen, L.; Norn, S.; Jørgensen, O.

    Floor dust from Danish offices was collected and analyzed. The dust was to be used in an exposure experiment. The dust was analyzed to show the composition of the dust which can be a source of airborne dust indoors. About 11 kg of dust from vacuum cleaner bags from seven Danish office buildings with about 1047 occupants (12 751 m 2) was processed according to a standardized procedure yielding 5.5 kg of processed bulk dust. The bulk dust contained 130.000-160.000 CFU g -1 microorganisms and 71.000-90.000 CFU g -1 microfungi. The content of culturable microfungi was 65-123 CFU 30 g -1 dust. The content of endotoxins ranged from 5.06-7.24 EU g -1 (1.45 ng g -1 to 1.01 ng g -1). Allergens (ng g -1) were from 147-159 (Mite), 395-746 (dog) and 103-330 (cat). The macro molecular organic compounds (the MOD-content) varied from 7.8-9.8 mg g -1. The threshold of release of histamine from basophil leukocytes provoked by the bulk dust was between 0.3 and 1.0 mg ml -1. The water content was 2% (WGT) and the organic fraction 33%. 6.5-5.9% (dry) was water soluble. The fiber content was less than 0.2-1.5% (WGT) and the desorbable VOCs was 176-319 μg g -1. Most of the VOC were aldehydes. However, softeners for plastic (DBP and DEHP) were present. The chemical composition includes human and animal skin fragments, paper fibers, glass wool, wood and textilefibers and inorganic and metal particles. The sizes ranged from 0.001-1 mm and the average specific density was 1.0 g m -3. The bulk dust was resuspended and injected into an exposure chamber. The airborne dust was sampled and analyzed to illustrate the exposures that can result from sedimented dirt and dust. The airborne dust resulting from the bulk dust reached concentrations ranging from 0.26-0.75 mg m -3 in average contained 300-170 CFU m -3. The organic fraction was from 55-70% and the water content about 2.5% (WGT). The content of the dust was compared to the similar results reported in the literature and its toxic potency is

  4. Reconstruction of a medieval landscape through multi-receiver electromagnetic induction survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Smedt, Philippe; Van Meirvenne, Marc; Saey, Timothy; Herremans, Davy; De Reu, Jeroen; De Clercq, Wim

    2014-05-01

    In contrast to investigations on soil variability, electromagnetic induction (EMI) instruments have been used rarely for archaeogeophysical prospection. Nevertheless, the potential of EMI sensors to record simultaneously electrical and magnetic soil properties is a major asset. In non-saline environments the measured apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) mainly relates to soil texture (primarily clay), whereas the apparent magnetic susceptibility (MSa) is often heavily influenced by anthropogenic soil disturbances and iron containing material. The latest generations of multi-receiver EMI sensors allow recording the ECa and MSa of multiple soil volumes simultaneously, enabling the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the natural and anthropogenic soil composition. Using a multi-receiver EMI instrument, we surveyed in detail an area of 8 ha located within a 25 km2 wetland area in the north of Belgium. The ECa data indicated a heterogeneous environment with accumulated peat, sandy outcrops and lacustrine marl. Within these sediments multiple traces of anthropogenic ditch systems were clearly visible. In addition, a number of regularly arranged punctual structures were detected with the MSa measurements. Based on these observations, two excavation trenches were positioned over the most characteristic anomalies to gain detailed insight into the archaeological features and the stratigraphy of the site. It appeared that most structures could be related to a medieval environment composed of ditches and brick fundaments of larger constructions associated with an adjacent monastery. To reconstruct the detected medieval landscape, the multi-layered EMI dataset was combined with the excavation data through an inversion procedure. While from one excavation trench stratigraphical information was used to calibrate this landscape model, geometrically correct profile information was used from the other trench to test the validity of the model. Finally, the multi-layered MSa

  5. Are tree-ring based estimates for Northern Hemisphere medieval temperatures fit for purpose?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Rob; Anchukaitis, Kevin; Briffa, Keith; Büntgen, Ulf; Cook, Ed; D'Arrigo, Rosanne; Esper, Jan; Frank, David; Gunnarson, Björn; Hegerl, Gabi; Krusic, Paul; Linderholm, Hans; Rydval, Milos; Tett, Simon; Wiles, Greg; Zorita, Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    At present, there are numerous millennial-length northern hemisphere reconstructions. However, only a small sub-set utilise just tree-ring data. Despite the theoretical ideal of the multi-proxy approach for producing large scale reconstructions, there still exist many problems with implementing such studies; (1) they generally do not take into account the varying seasonality of the climate signal that each constituent proxy record contains, resulting in a composite reconstruction that is a seasonal melange which is often calibrated to annual temperatures and (2) all non-tree-ring proxy archives contain small to substantial dating uncertainties that at best affords capture of temperature variations at decadal or longer time scales. These two problems conspire against the multi-proxy experiment for the robust attribution of climate forcing and characterizing the full spectrum of natural variability. We suggest that focusing on tree-ring based reconstructions will substantially improve our understanding of past climate variability as they are precisely dated and have the potential to reconstruct warm season temperatures on inter-annual to multi-centennial time scales. We present the development of an updated and expanded collection of published temperature sensitive tree-ring series (both ring-width and ring-density) for the Northern Hemisphere, which can be used not only to improve our understanding of past large-scale temperature changes but also to identify regions where currently too few data exist. Our main goals are; (1) enumerate the unique qualities of ring-width and maximum latewood density chronologies, especially for assessing volcanic forcing and seasonal response; and (2) compare the spatial robustness of gridded reconstructions, especially during the supposed warm medieval period and the more recent, but better represented, Little Ice Age. Currently, large scale single series NH temperature reconstructions do not agree well with climate model output

  6. Medieval Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, E.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    During the early Middle Ages (ca 500 to ca 1130) scholars with an interest in cosmology had little useful and dependable literature. They relied heavily on a partial Latin translation of PLATO's Timaeus by Chalcidius (4th century AD), and on a series of encyclopedic treatises associated with the names of Pliny the Elder (ca AD 23-79), Seneca (4 BC-AD 65), Macrobius (fl 5th century AD), Martianus ...

  7. Occurrence of Ionophores in the Danish Environment

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Søren Alex; Björklund, Erland

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics in the environment are a potential threat to environmental ecosystems as well as human health and safety. Antibiotics are designed to have a biological effect at low doses, and the low levels detected in the environment have turned focus on the need for more research on environmental occurrence and fate, to assess the risk and requirement for future regulation. This article describes the first occurrence study of the antibiotic polyether ionophores (lasalocid, monensin, narasin, and salinomycin) in the Danish environment. Various environmental matrices (river water, sediment, and soil) have been evaluated during two different sampling campaigns carried out in July 2011 and October 2012 in an agricultural area of Zealand, Denmark. Lasalocid was not detected in any of the samples. Monensin was measured at a concentration up to 20 ng·L−1 in river water and 13 µg·kg−1 dry weight in the sediment as well as being the most frequently detected ionophore in the soil samples with concentrations up to 8 µg·kg−1 dry weight. Narasin was measured in sediment samples at 2 µg·kg−1 dry weight and in soil between 1 and 18 µg·kg−1 dry weight. Salinomycin was detected in a single soil sample at a concentration of 30 µg·kg−1 dry weight.

  8. The 3-D reconstruction of medieval wetland reclamation through electromagnetic induction survey

    PubMed Central

    De Smedt, Philippe; Van Meirvenne, Marc; Herremans, Davy; De Reu, Jeroen; Saey, Timothy; Meerschman, Eef; Crombé, Philippe; De Clercq, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Studies of past human-landscape interactions rely upon the integration of archaeological, biological and geological information within their geographical context. However, detecting the often ephemeral traces of human activities at a landscape scale remains difficult with conventional archaeological field survey. Geophysical methods offer a solution by bridging the gap between point finds and the surrounding landscape, but these surveys often solely target archaeological features. Here we show how simultaneous mapping of multiple physical soil properties with a high resolution multi-receiver electromagnetic induction (EMI) survey permits a reconstruction of the three-dimensional layout and pedological setting of a medieval reclaimed landscape in Flanders (Belgium). Combined with limited and directed excavations, the results offer a unique insight into the way such marginal landscapes were reclaimed and occupied during the Middle Ages. This approach provides a robust foundation for unravelling complex historical landscapes and will enhance our understanding of past human-landscape interactions. PMID:23519060

  9. Seismogenic destruction of the Kamenka medieval fortress, northern Issyk-Kul region, Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korjenkov, Andrey M.; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon; Crosby, Christopher; Mamyrov, Ernes; Orlova, Lyubov A.; Povolotskaya, Irina E.; Tabaldiev, Kubatbek

    2006-10-01

    A paleoseismological study of the medieval Kamenka fortress in the northern part of the Issyk-Kul Lake depression, northern Tien Shan in Kyrgyzstan, revealed an oblique slip thrust fault scarp offsetting the fortification walls. This 700 m long scarp is not related to the 1911 Kebin Earthquake (Ms 8.2) fault scarps which are widespread in the region. As analysis of stratigraphy in a paleoseismic trench and archaeological evidence reveal, it can be assigned to a major twelfth century a.d. earthquake which produced up to 4 m of oblique slip thrusting antithetic to that of the nearby dominant faults. The inferred surface rupturing earthquake apparently caused the fortress destruction and was likely the primary reason for its abandonment, not the Mongolian Tatar invasions as previously thought.

  10. The 3-D reconstruction of medieval wetland reclamation through electromagnetic induction survey.

    PubMed

    De Smedt, Philippe; Van Meirvenne, Marc; Herremans, Davy; De Reu, Jeroen; Saey, Timothy; Meerschman, Eef; Crombé, Philippe; De Clercq, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Studies of past human-landscape interactions rely upon the integration of archaeological, biological and geological information within their geographical context. However, detecting the often ephemeral traces of human activities at a landscape scale remains difficult with conventional archaeological field survey. Geophysical methods offer a solution by bridging the gap between point finds and the surrounding landscape, but these surveys often solely target archaeological features. Here we show how simultaneous mapping of multiple physical soil properties with a high resolution multi-receiver electromagnetic induction (EMI) survey permits a reconstruction of the three-dimensional layout and pedological setting of a medieval reclaimed landscape in Flanders (Belgium). Combined with limited and directed excavations, the results offer a unique insight into the way such marginal landscapes were reclaimed and occupied during the Middle Ages. This approach provides a robust foundation for unravelling complex historical landscapes and will enhance our understanding of past human-landscape interactions. PMID:23519060

  11. Repeated catastrophic valley infill following medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Andermann, Christoff; Tofelde, Stefanie; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Geomorphic footprints of past large Himalayan earthquakes are elusive, although they are urgently needed for gauging and predicting recovery times of seismically perturbed mountain landscapes. We present evidence of catastrophic valley infill following at least three medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya. Radiocarbon dates from peat beds, plant macrofossils, and humic silts in fine-grained tributary sediments near Pokhara, Nepal’s second-largest city, match the timing of nearby M > 8 earthquakes in ~1100, 1255, and 1344 C.E. The upstream dip of tributary valley fills and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry of their provenance rule out local sources. Instead, geomorphic and sedimentary evidence is consistent with catastrophic fluvial aggradation and debris flows that had plugged several tributaries with tens of meters of calcareous sediment from a Higher Himalayan source >60 kilometers away.

  12. Solar and Calendrical Symbolism in the Early Medieval Finnish Church Murals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridderstad, Marianna

    2015-05-01

    The earliest church murals of the first stone churches in Finland were painted at the time when Christianity had only just become the official faith in the region and the old ethnic religion was still widely practiced. The 'pagan' motifs of these Early Medieval Finnish church murals reflect the complexity of the religious beliefs in this transition phase. The church actively transformed the festivals of the vernacular religion by giving Christian meanings to the symbols and rituals, as well as by replacing the ethnic deities with Christian figures. The solar symbolism and the calendrical motifs of the church murals are interpreted as imagery largely based on the Christianized remnants of the pre-Christian annual festivals. The earliest church murals thus provide important insight into the pre-Christian religious beliefs of late Iron Age Finland. Many of the motifs and symbols represented in the murals are related to the annual fertility cult and the solar goddess as one of its central figures.

  13. Global signatures and dynamical origins of the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly.

    PubMed

    Mann, Michael E; Zhang, Zhihua; Rutherford, Scott; Bradley, Raymond S; Hughes, Malcolm K; Shindell, Drew; Ammann, Caspar; Faluvegi, Greg; Ni, Fenbiao

    2009-11-27

    Global temperatures are known to have varied over the past 1500 years, but the spatial patterns have remained poorly defined. We used a global climate proxy network to reconstruct surface temperature patterns over this interval. The Medieval period is found to display warmth that matches or exceeds that of the past decade in some regions, but which falls well below recent levels globally. This period is marked by a tendency for La Niña-like conditions in the tropical Pacific. The coldest temperatures of the Little Ice Age are observed over the interval 1400 to 1700 C.E., with greatest cooling over the extratropical Northern Hemisphere continents. The patterns of temperature change imply dynamical responses of climate to natural radiative forcing changes involving El Niño and the North Atlantic Oscillation-Arctic Oscillation. PMID:19965474

  14. Medieval orthopaedic history in Germany: Hieronymus Brunschwig and Hans von Gersdorff.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Hans von Gerssdorff and Hieronymus Brunschwig, who flourished in Germany in the latter half of the fifteenth century, have both left early printed treatises on Surgery which give excellent woodcuts showing pictures of instruments, operations, and costumes, at the end of the medieval period. Hieronymus Brunschwig or Hieronymus Brunschwygk (ca. 1450 - ca. 1512), was a German surgeon (wundartzot), alchemist and botanist. He was notable for his methods of treatment of gunshot wounds. His most influential book was the Buch der Cirurgia. Gersdorff(1455-1529) was a military surgeon who gained wide experience during 40 years of campaigning and was an expert in the treatment of battlefield injuries. His work covers anatomy, surgery, leprosy, and glossaries of anatomical terms, diseases, and medications. PMID:26156720

  15. Sleep paralysis in medieval Persia - the Hidayat of Akhawayni (?-983 AD).

    PubMed

    Golzari, Samad Ej; Khodadoust, Kazem; Alakbarli, Farid; Ghabili, Kamyar; Islambulchilar, Ziba; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Khalili, Majid; Abbasnejad, Feridoon; Sheikholeslamzadeh, Niloufar; Shahabi, Nasrollah Moghaddam; Hosseini, Seyed Fazel; Ansarin, Khalil

    2012-01-01

    Among the first three manuscripts written in Persian, Akhawayni's Hidayat al-muta'allemin fi al-tibb was the most significant work compiled in the 10th century. Along with the hundreds of chapters on hygiene, anatomy, physiology, symptoms and treatments of the diseases of various organs, there is a chapter on sleep paralysis (night-mare) prior to description and treatment of epilepsy. The present article is a review of the Akhawayni's teachings on sleep paralysis and of descriptions and treatments of sleep paralysis by the Greek, medieval, and Renaissance scholars. Akhawayni's descriptions along with other early writings provide insight into sleep paralysis during the Middle Ages in general and in Persia in particular. PMID:22701323

  16. Exploring the relationship between dental wear and status in late medieval subadults from England.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Heidi; Brown, Kate Robson

    2013-03-01

    Dental wear patterns were recorded on 458 deciduous molar teeth, of 142 subadults from late medieval (AD 1086-1539) England, to explore the relationship between dental wear and burial status of children. A new ordinal method for scoring dental wear stages on the deciduous molar teeth was devised. It was postulated that if a discernible relationship between dental wear stage and burial location could be seen then this could reflect a difference in diet between those receiving higher or lower status burial. The dental wear stages recorded were statistically similar for the dentitions of subadults from different cemeteries, as well as from different burial locations, indicating a comparable diet for the children studied. PMID:23341259

  17. Paleoseismic evidence of a giant medieval earthquake in the eastern Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Rajeeb Lochan; Singh, I.; Pandey, A.; Rao, P. S.; Sahoo, H. K.; Jayangondaperumal, R.

    2016-06-01

    We present here the results of a paleoseismic investigation carried across a ~10 m high fault scarp at Panijhora village, West Bengal in northeastern India. Accelerator Mass Spectrometer analyzed 14C radiocarbon age constraints from six detrital charcoal samples ranging between 1688 B.C. and A.D. 1152 are consistent with the great medieval earthquake of A.D. 1255 that is interpreted to have produced a minimum observed fault slip of ~5 m in the trench exposure. Recalibration of radiocarbon ages from previous studies at Harmutty, Nameri, and Marha in the eastern Himalaya using Bayesian statistical analyses further substantiates the possibility that the A.D. 1255 earthquake might have ruptured the Himalayan front over a length of ~800 km from ~85.87° to 93.76°E longitudes.

  18. The little ice age and medieval warm period in the Sargasso Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Keigwin, L.D.

    1996-11-29

    Sea surface temperature (SST), salinity, and flux of terrigenous material oscillated on millennial time scales in the Pleistocene North Atlantic, but there are few records of Holocene variability. Because of high rates of sediment accumulation, Holocene oscillations are well documented in the northern Sargasso Sea. Results from a radiocarbondated box core show that SST was {approximately} 1{degree}C cooler than today {approximately} 400 years ago (the Little Ice Age) and 1700 years ago, and {approximately} 1{degree}C warmer than today 1000 years ago (the Medieval Warm Period). Thus, at least some of the warming since the Little Ice Age appears to be part of a natural oscillation. 39 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Johannitius (809-873 AD), a medieval physician, translator and author.

    PubMed

    Dalfardi, Behnam; Daneshfard, Babak; Nezhad, Golnoush Sadat Mahmoudi

    2016-08-01

    The medieval physician, translator and author Abū Zayd Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq al-'Ibādī, best known in the West as Johannitius, is considered the best translator of Greek texts, particularly medical writings, into Arabic. He made great inroads in the art of translation in the Islamic world. In addition to his own translations, Johannitius put significant effort into training pupils and passing knowledge about translation to succeeding generations. He was also a great writer, compiling over 100 books on different subjects, especially medical. Among his own works, the illustrious Kitab al-Ashr Maqalat fil-Ayn (Ten Treatises on the Eye) contains the oldest known illustration of the structure of the eye. It served as the primary source for Galen's theory of vision and subsequent use by Western scholars. PMID:24913848

  20. Persistent positive North Atlantic oscillation mode dominated the Medieval Climate Anomaly.

    PubMed

    Trouet, Valérie; Esper, Jan; Graham, Nicholas E; Baker, Andy; Scourse, James D; Frank, David C

    2009-04-01

    The Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) was the most recent pre-industrial era warm interval of European climate, yet its driving mechanisms remain uncertain. We present here a 947-year-long multidecadal North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) reconstruction and find a persistent positive NAO during the MCA. Supplementary reconstructions based on climate model results and proxy data indicate a clear shift to weaker NAO conditions into the Little Ice Age (LIA). Globally distributed proxy data suggest that this NAO shift is one aspect of a global MCA-LIA climate transition that probably was coupled to prevailing La Niña-like conditions amplified by an intensified Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the MCA. PMID:19342585

  1. Dementia, personhood and embodiment: what can we learn from the medieval history of memory?

    PubMed

    Katz, Stephen

    2013-05-01

    Memory and dementia are historical ideas that preceded the development of modern neuroscientific, psychogeriatric and medical approaches to aging and cognitive impairment. This article explores the value of such historical ideas in order to understand the discourses and metaphors by which Western thought has individualized memory as the guarantor of rational personhood, while at the same, treating memory decline as a threat to healthy and successful aging. Discussion focuses on the relationship between memory and the body in the classical and medieval ars memoria (the art of memory) and in the early modern philosophies of personhood, particularly the work of John Locke. Conclusions consider the significance of Western culture's history of embodied memory as it moved from cosmic to individual to neurocognitive sites for our wider views about the treatment of dementia. PMID:24336853

  2. Medical ‘Emplotment’ and Plotting Medicine: Health and Disease in Late Medieval Portuguese Chronicles

    PubMed Central

    McCleery, Iona

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, historians of medicine in the Middle Ages have tried to decode narratives of health and illness in their original context, attempting to uncover the meanings they may have had for the original audiences, rather than simply using these narratives to plot disease incidence. This article is a study of health, illness and traumatic injury in the chronicles of Fernão Lopes, who wrote in Portugal in the first half of the fifteenth century, focusing on the events of 1383–5, a period of civil war and foreign invasion. Arguing that Lopes made use of a series of medical ‘emplotments’ to construct his history, this study approaches medieval medicine in as broad a sense as possible engaging with the role of moral and bodily health in a dramatic tale of political ambition and national resurgence.

  3. What is “colonial” about medieval colonial medicine? Iberian health in global context

    PubMed Central

    McCleery, Iona

    2015-01-01

    Colonial medicine is a thriving field of study in the history of nineteenth- and twentieth-century medicine. Medicine can be used as a lens to view colonialism in action and as a way to critique colonialism. This article argues that key debates and ideas from that modern field can fruitfully be applied to the Middle Ages, especially for the early empires of Spain and Portugal (mid-fourteenth to mid-sixteenth centuries). The article identifies key modern debates, explores approaches to colonization and colonialism in the Middle Ages and discusses how medieval and modern medicine and healthcare could be compared using colonial and postcolonial discourses. The article ends with three case studies of healthcare encounters in Madeira, Granada and Hispaniola at the end of the fifteenth century. PMID:26550030

  4. Repeated catastrophic valley infill following medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R; Andermann, Christoff; Tofelde, Stefanie; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Geomorphic footprints of past large Himalayan earthquakes are elusive, although they are urgently needed for gauging and predicting recovery times of seismically perturbed mountain landscapes. We present evidence of catastrophic valley infill following at least three medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya. Radiocarbon dates from peat beds, plant macrofossils, and humic silts in fine-grained tributary sediments near Pokhara, Nepal's second-largest city, match the timing of nearby M > 8 earthquakes in ~1100, 1255, and 1344 C.E. The upstream dip of tributary valley fills and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry of their provenance rule out local sources. Instead, geomorphic and sedimentary evidence is consistent with catastrophic fluvial aggradation and debris flows that had plugged several tributaries with tens of meters of calcareous sediment from a Higher Himalayan source >60 kilometers away. PMID:26676354

  5. The Role of Forcing and Internal Dynamics in explaining the 'Medieval Climate Anomaly'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goossee, Hugues; Crespin, Elisabeth; Dubinkina, Svetlana; Loutre, Marie-France; Mann, Michael E.; Renssen, Hans; Shindell, Drew

    2012-01-01

    Proxy reconstructions suggest that peak global temperature during the past warm interval known as the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, roughly 950-1250 AD) has been exceeded only during the most recent decades. To better understand the origin of this warm period, we use model simulations constrained by data assimilation establishing the spatial pattern of temperature changes that is most consistent with forcing estimates, model physics and the empirical information contained in paleoclimate proxy records. These numerical experiments demonstrate that the reconstructed spatial temperature pattern of the MCA can be explained by a simple thermodynamical response of the climate system to relatively weak changes in radiative forcing combined with a modification of the atmospheric circulation, displaying some similarities with the positive phase of the so-called Arctic Oscillation, and with northward shifts in the position of the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio currents. The mechanisms underlying the MCA are thus quite different from anthropogenic mechanisms responsible for modern global warming.

  6. Cultural Trauma and Christian Identity in the Late Medieval Heroic Epic, The Siege of Jerusalem.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines scenes of violence in the late medieval poem The Siege of Jerusalem in order to reveal the ways in which trauma is used as the grounds upon which Christian/Jewish difference is established. In particular, I argue that this poem serves as an example of a widespread element in Christian chivalric identity, namely the need to manage the repetitive invocation of Christ's crucifixion (ritually repeated through liturgical and poetic invocation) as a means of asserting both the bodily and psychic integrity of the Christian subject in contrast to the violently abjected figure of the Jewish body. The failure of The Siege protagonist, Wespasian, to navigate the cultural trauma of the crucifixion is contrasted to the successful management of trauma by the martial hero, Tancred, in Tasso's epic, Gerusalemme Liberata, illustrating the range of imaginative possibilities for understanding trauma in pre-modern war literature. PMID:26949207

  7. A marvel of medieval Indian metallurgy: Thanjavur's forge-welded iron cannon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Saxena, A.; Anantharaman, Tanjore R.; Reguer, S.; Dillmann, P.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, metallurgical aspects of a 17th century forge-welded iron cannon at Thanjavur are addressed, including an analysis of manufacturing methodology based on careful observation of its constructional details. Microstructural examination of iron from the cannon reveals that the iron was extracted from ore by the direct process. Thus, the cannon was fabricated by forge welding and not by casting. Electrochemical polarization studies indicate that the corrosion rate of the cannon iron can be compared to that of 0.05% carbon mild steel under complete immersion conditions. However, the atmospheric corrosion resistance of the cannon is far superior to that of modern steel and can be attributed to the formation of an adherent protective passive film. It is concluded that this cannon constitutes a marvel of medieval Indian metallurgical skill.

  8. The Danish National Lymphoma Registry: Coverage and Data Quality

    PubMed Central

    Arboe, Bente; El-Galaly, Tarec Christoffer; Clausen, Michael Roost; Munksgaard, Peter Svenssen; Stoltenberg, Danny; Nygaard, Mette Kathrine; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt; Christensen, Jacob Haaber; Gørløv, Jette Sønderskov; Brown, Peter de Nully

    2016-01-01

    Background The Danish National Lymphoma Register (LYFO) prospectively includes information on all lymphoma patients newly diagnosed at hematology departments in Denmark. The validity of the clinical information in the LYFO has never been systematically assessed. Aim To test the coverage and data quality of the LYFO. Methods The coverage was tested by merging data of the LYFO with the Danish Cancer Register and the Danish National Patient Register, respectively. The validity of the LYFO was assessed by crosschecking with information from medical records in subgroups of patients. A random sample of 3% (N = 364) was made from all patients in the LYFO. In addition, four subtypes of lymphomas were validated: CNS lymphomas, diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, peripheral T-cell lymphomas, and Hodgkin lymphomas. A total of 1,706 patients from the period 2000–2012 were included. The positive predictive values (PPVs) and completeness of selected variables were calculated for each subgroup and for the entire cohort of patients. Results The comparison of data from the LYFO with the Danish Cancer Register and the Danish National Patient Register revealed a high coverage. In addition, the data quality was good with high PPVs (87% to 100%), and high completeness (92% to 100%). Conclusion The LYFO is a unique, nationwide clinical database characterized by high validity, good coverage and prospective data entry. It represents a valuable resource for future lymphoma research. PMID:27336800

  9. Medieval and Renaissance anatomists: the printing and unauthorized copying of illustrations, and the dissemination of ideas.

    PubMed

    Lanska, Douglas J; Lanska, John Robert

    2013-01-01

    The vanguard that began to question Galenic anatomical dogma originated in northern Italy in the latter half of the thirteenth century, and not coincidentally this was where human dissection was introduced, which in turn eventually fostered the origins of realistic anatomical illustration in the late fifteenth century. With the advent of the printing press and moveable type at this time, printed books began to supersede hand-copied medieval manuscripts, and labor-intensive techniques were soon developed to integrate text and illustrations on the printed page. The same technology was used to pirate the illustrations of prior authors with varying fidelity. Specific medieval and Renaissance anatomical illustrations can often be traced from their inceptions through different stages of development to the final printed images, and then through subsequent pirated versions in various abridgements or other compendia. The most important milestone in the development of anatomy and anatomical illustration was the publication in 1543 by Andreas Vesalii of De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body), commonly referred to simply as the Fabrica. With this work, Vesalii succeeded in coordinating a publication production team (author, artists, block cutters, publisher, and typesetters) to achieve an unprecedented integration of scientific discourse, medical illustration, and typography. However, despite Vesalii's valiant efforts to prevent unauthorized duplication, the illustrations from the Fabrica were extensively plagiarized. Although Vesalii found such piracy frustrating and annoying, the long-term effect was to make Vesalii's ideas known to a wider readership and to help solidify his own revolutionary contributions to anatomy. PMID:24041276

  10. Posterior archaeomagnetic dating for the early Medieval site Thunau am Kamp, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepp, Elisabeth; Lanos, Philippe; Obenaus, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The early medieval site Thunau am Kamp consists of a hill fort and a settlement with large burial ground at the bank of river Kamp. All these features are under archaeological investigation since many years. The settlement comprises many pit houses, some with stratigraphic order. Every pit house was equipped with at least one cupola oven and/or a hearth or fireplace. Sometimes the entire cupola was preserved. The site was occupied during the 9th and 10th AD according to potshards which seem to indicate two phases: In the older phase ovens were placed in the corner of the houses while during the younger phase they are found in the middle of the wall. In order to increase the archaeomagnetic data base 14 ovens have been sampled. They fill the temporal gap in the data base for Austria around 900 AD. Laboratory treatment included alternation field and thermal demagnetisations as well as rock magnetic experiments. The baked clay with was formed from a loess sediment has preserved stable directions. Apart from one exception the mean characteristic remanent magnetization directions are concentrated around 900 AD on the early medieval part of the directional archaeomagnetic reference curve of Austria (Schnepp & Lanos, GJI, 2006). Using this curve archaeomagnetic dating with RenDate provides ages between 800 and 1100 AD which are in agreement with archaeological dating. In one case archaeomagnetic dating is even more precise. Together with the archaeological age estimates and stratigraphic information the new data have been included into the database of the Austrian curve. It has been recalculated using a new version of RenCurve. The new data confine the curve and its error band considerably in the time interval 800 to 1100 AD. The curve calibration process also provides a probability density distribution for each structure which allows for posterior dating. This refines temporal errors considerably. Usefulness of such an approach and archaeological implications will be

  11. Recovering a collapsed medieval fresco by using 3D modeling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiabrando, F.; Rinaudo, F.

    2014-05-01

    The paper presents the results of a reconstruction of the 3D model of a dome and of a medieval fresco, collapsed after an earthquake and now reconstructed in significant portions, to offer to the visitors a possible reconstruction of the lost masterpiece of medieval art. After the earthquake the collapsed dome was replaced by means of a concrete sphere connected with the survived portions of the old dome's timber. The old dome shape and the fresco were virtually reconstructed thanks to a set of historical pictures obtained by Italian, USA and German archives; those images have been calibrated and oriented by using modern digital photogrammetric approach and a realistic 3D model of the old inner surface of the dome has been realised. By using a LiDAR survey the 3D model of the apse and of the dome, has been set up and the boundaries between original and new structures have been reconstructed by visual evidences.The new dome has been virtually erased and the old dome with the fresco 3D model inserted allowing the reconstruction of the apse as it was before the earthquake. This virtual 3D model has been used to realise a 1:1 scale model of the old dome where the restorers fit some parts of the old fresco fragments recovered just after the earthquake, cleaned and classified. The fresco images correctly oriented inside the reconstructed dome have been projected on plane surfaces by using azimuthal orthographic projections of small portions of the dome in order to reduce the geometric deformations and to allow the mosaicking of these small planes onto a spherical surface.

  12. Infection, contagion, and public health in late medieval and early modern German imperial towns.

    PubMed

    Kinzelbach, Annemarie

    2006-07-01

    From today's point of view, the concepts of "miasma" and "contagion" appear to be two mutually exclusive perceptions of the spread of epidemic diseases, and quite a number of historians have tried to discuss the history of public health and epidemic diseases in terms of a progression from the miasmic to the contagionist concept. More detailed local studies, however, indicate how extremely misleading it may be to separate such medical concepts and ideas from their actual historical context. The article presented here, based on local studies in late medieval and early modern imperial towns in southern Germany, demonstrates to what extent the inhabitants of these towns had notions of both "miasma" and "contagion." Furthermore, a contextual analysis of language shows that they did not see a necessity to strictly distinguish between these different concepts relating to the spread of diseases. Tracing the meaning of "infection" and "contagion," we find that these terms were used in connection with various diseases, and that a change in the use of the expressions does not necessarily imply a change of the corresponding notion. Moreover, a coexistence of differing perceptions cannot--as some historians have suggested--be attributed to a divergence between the academic medicine and the popular ideas of that period. A survey of measures and actions in the public health sector indicates that a coexistence of--from our point of view--inconsistent concepts helped the authorities as well as the individuals to find means of defense and consolation during all those crises caused by epidemic diseases--crises that occurred very frequently in these towns during the late medieval and early modern periods. As the article demonstrates, the interaction during such crises reveals the continuity of ancient rituals and concepts as well as the adoption of new insights resulting from changes in the economical, political, scientific, religious, and social structures. PMID:16540700

  13. Visual impairment in Danish children 1985.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, T

    1987-02-01

    In 1985 150 children aged 0-18 were reported to the Danish National Register for Visually Impaired Children. Cross tabulation of the ophthalmological diagnoses by site and type of affection was performed with respect to year of birth, aetiology, visual acuity and birth weight. Finally the relations between aetiology and the presence of additional handicaps are demonstrated. The 'incidence of notification' (IN) was calculated for each birth year as the number of notified children per 100,000 within each birth year group showing variations between 46 in the 1984 birth year group and 3 in the 1970 birth year group with a mean value of 14. The figures stress the impact of congenital and neonatal visual impairment. The significance of IN is discussed with respect to other concepts of incidence. It is concluded that the presented epidemiological method is useful as a tool of analysis in the planning of preventional strategies. From the tables the following main features may be highlighted: Nearly 90% of the blinding causes anatomically are located in the posterior segment of the eye, the optic pathways or in the brain. Isolated visual handicap was notified in 34% of the children, while another 48% presented central nervous system involvement. From an aetiological point of view it is noteworthy that no specific aetiology could be encircled in 38% of the material. In conclusion, it is proposed that future lines of ophthalmological work in the prevention of visual handicap in childhood should concentrate on a higher degree of specificity in diagnostic procedures and an intensified search for specific aetiologies in every single child with visual impairment. PMID:3577699

  14. The Nature of "Udeskole": Outdoor Learning Theory and Practice in Danish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentsen, Peter; Jensen, Frank Sondergaard

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of Danish teachers have started introducing school-based outdoor learning as a weekly or biweekly "outdoor school" day for school children--often called "udeskole" in Danish. Although at least 14% of Danish schools practise this form of outdoor teaching with some classes, it is not mentioned in the national curriculum and…

  15. Early Vocabulary Development in Danish and other Languages: A CDI-Based Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleses, Dorthe; Vach, Werner; Slott, Malene; Wehberg, Sonja; Thomsen, Pia; Madsen, Thomas O.; Basboll, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to describe the trajectory of Danish children's early lexical development relative to other languages, by comparing a Danish study based on the Danish adaptation of "The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories" (CDI) to 17 comparable CDI-studies. The second objective is to address the feasibility…

  16. Semantic Categorization of Placement Verbs in L1 and L2 Danish and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadierno, Teresa; Ibarretxe-Antuñano, Iraide; Hijazo-Gascón, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates semantic categorization of the meaning of placement verbs by Danish and Spanish native speakers and two groups of intermediate second language (L2) learners (Danish learners of L2 Spanish and Spanish learners of L2 Danish). Participants described 31 video clips picturing different types of placement events. Cluster analyses…

  17. Pre-Columbian treponemal disease from 14th century AD Safed, Israel, and implications for the medieval eastern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Piers D

    2003-06-01

    In 1912, 68 medieval crania were excavated from a cave at Safed in the eastern Mediterranean and brought to the United Kingdom. It is only recently that these skulls have been studied for evidence of disease. One adult individual demonstrates multiple lesions of the cranial vault, compatible with treponematosis. Radiocarbon dating suggests the year of death to be between 1290-1420 AD. This range equates to the mamluk period, just after the crusades. This is the oldest dated case of treponematosis in the Middle East, and the first to confirm its presence there before the epidemiologically important transatlantic voyage of Christopher Columbus. The finding has significant implications for our understanding of the introduction of the disease to the Middle East and of the medieval diagnosis of ulcerating skin conditions by medical practitioners in the Mediterranean world. PMID:12740955

  18. Hysterical paralysis and premature burial: a medieval Persian case, fear and fascination in the West, and modern practice.

    PubMed

    Agutter, Paul S; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Rashidi, Mohammad Reza; Khalili, Majid; Hosseini, Seyed Fazel; Ghabili, Kamyar; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A; Loukas, Marios

    2013-04-01

    Premature burial (taphophobia) is an ancient fear, but it became especially common in 18th and 19th century Europe and may have a modern-day counterpart. Examination of a well-documented case from medieval Persia reveals the importance of funeral practices in the risk of actual premature burial and sheds light on the question of why taphophobia became so prevalent in Europe during the early industrial revolution period. The medieval Persian case was attributed to hysterical paralysis (conversion). We discuss the relationship between hysterical paralysis and premature burial more generally and show that although understanding of conversion syndrome remains incomplete, modern knowledge and practices have limited the risk of any similar tragedy today. PMID:23472788

  19. Opisthorchiasis in infant remains from the medieval Zeleniy Yar burial ground of XII-XIII centuries AD

    PubMed Central

    Slepchenko, Sergey Mikhailovich; Gusev, Alexander Vasilevich; Ivanov, Sergey Nikolaevich; Svyatova, Evgenia Olegovna

    2015-01-01

    We present a paleoparasitological analysis of the medieval Zeleniy Yar burial ground of the XII-XII centuries AD located in the northern part of Western Siberia. Parasite eggs, identified as eggs of Opisthorchis felineus, were found in the samples from the pelvic area of a one year old infant buried at the site. Presence of these eggs in the soil samples from the infant’s abdomen suggests that he/she was infected with opisthorchiasis and imply consumption of undercooked fish. Ethnographic records collected among the population of the northern part of Western Siberia reveal numerous cases of feeding raw fish to their children. Zeleniy Yar case of opisthorchiasis suggests that this dietary custom has persisted from at least medieval times. PMID:26602874

  20. Opisthorchiasis in infant remains from the medieval Zeleniy Yar burial ground of XII-XIII centuries AD.

    PubMed

    Slepchenko, Sergey Mikhailovich; Gusev, Alexander Vasilevich; Ivanov, Sergey Nikolaevich; Svyatova, Evgenia Olegovna

    2015-12-01

    We present a paleoparasitological analysis of the medieval Zeleniy Yar burial ground of the XII-XII centuries AD located in the northern part of Western Siberia. Parasite eggs, identified as eggs of Opisthorchis felineus, were found in the samples from the pelvic area of a one year old infant buried at the site. Presence of these eggs in the soil samples from the infant's abdomen suggests that he/she was infected with opisthorchiasis and imply consumption of undercooked fish. Ethnographic records collected among the population of the northern part of Western Siberia reveal numerous cases of feeding raw fish to their children. Zeleniy Yar case of opisthorchiasis suggests that this dietary custom has persisted from at least medieval times. PMID:26602874

  1. Variable prospective financing in the Danish hospital sector and the development of a Danish case-mix system.

    PubMed

    Ankjaer-Jensen, Anni; Rosling, Pernille; Bilde, Lone

    2006-08-01

    This article aims to describe and assess the Danish case-mix system, the cost accounting applied in setting national tariffs and the introduction of variable, prospective payment in the Danish hospital sector. The tariffs are calculated as a national average from hospital data gathered in a national cost database. However, uncertainty, mainly resulting from the definition of cost centres at the individual hospital, implies that the cost weights may not fully reflect the hospital treatment cost. As variable prospective payment of hospitals currently only applies to 20% of a hospital's budget, the incentives and the effects on productivity, quality and equality are still limited. PMID:17016932

  2. Infant feeding practice in medieval Japan: stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of human skeletons from Yuigahama-minami.

    PubMed

    Tsutaya, Takumi; Shimomi, Akina; Nagaoka, Tomohito; Sawada, Junmei; Hirata, Kazuaki; Yoneda, Minoru

    2015-02-01

    A longer breastfeeding duration provides various positive effects in subadult health because of abundant immunological factors and nutrients in human breast milk, and decreases the natural fertility of a population through lactational amenorrhea. In this study, we measured stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in the bone collagen of three adults and 45 subadults from the Yuigahama-minami site (from 12th to 14th century) in Kamakura, the early medieval capital of Japan. Marine foods, C3 -based terrestrial foods, and freshwater fish are the primarily protein sources for adults. The changes in the nitrogen isotope ratios of subadults suggest that the relative dietary protein contribution from breast milk started to decrease from 1.1 years of age and ended at 3.8 years. The age at the end of weaning in the Yuigahama-minami population was greater than that in the typical non-industrial populations, a premodern population in the Edo period Japan, and medieval populations in the UK. Skeletons of townspeople from medieval Kamakura indicate severe nutritional stress (e.g., enamel hypoplasia and cribra orbitalia), yet this longer duration of breastfeeding did not compensate adverse effects for nutritional deficiency. The longer breastfeeding period may have been a consequence of complementary food shortage and bad health of subadults. Kamakura experienced urbanization and population increase in the early medieval period. The younger age-at-death distribution and high nutritional stresses in the Yuigahama-minami population and later weaning, which is closely associated with longer inter-birth interval for mothers, suggests that Kamakura developed and increased its population by immigration during urbanization. PMID:25331669

  3. Maternal Genetic Composition of a Medieval Population from a Hungarian-Slavic Contact Zone in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Csákyová, Veronika; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Csősz, Aranka; Nagy, Melinda; Fusek, Gabriel; Langó, Péter; Bauer, Miroslav; Mende, Balázs Gusztáv; Makovický, Pavol; Bauerová, Mária

    2016-01-01

    The genetic composition of the medieval populations of Central Europe has been poorly investigated to date. In particular, the region of modern-day Slovakia is a blank spot in archaeogenetic research. This paper reports the study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in ancient samples from the 9th–12th centuries originating from the cemeteries discovered in Nitra-Šindolka and Čakajovce, located in western Slovakia (Central Europe). This geographical region is interesting to study because its medieval multi-ethnic population lived in the so-called contact zone of the territory of the Great Moravian and later Hungarian state formations. We described 16 different mtDNA haplotypes in 19 individuals, which belong to the most widespread European mtDNA haplogroups: H, J, T, U and R0. Using comparative statistical and population genetic analyses, we showed the differentiation of the European gene pool in the medieval period. We also demonstrated the heterogeneous genetic characteristics of the investigated population and its affinity to the populations of modern Europe. PMID:26963389

  4. Medieval Loess Constraints On the Climate Effect of Dust Aerosols In the Great Plains of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. L.; Cook, B. I.; Seager, R.; Mason, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Loess deposits in the Great Plains of North America, together with tree ring records, suggest the occurrence of medieval megadroughts within the past millenium when rainfall was below average over several decades. Loess results from the deposition of dust aerosols, created by wind erosion, perhaps following vegetation loss after extended drought. Dust aerosols have been previously shown to exacerbate the absence of rainfall during the twentieth century Dust Bowl, reinforcing the drought and loss of vegetation. Ocean temperatures in the equatorial Pacific make the predominant contribution to hydroclimate variability in this region, but dust may have had an amplifying effect during the medieval drought once the vegetation loss was sufficiently extensive. Here, we describe GCM experiments with dust aerosols created by wind erosion over medieval sources within North America. Our goal is twofold: first, to calculate the climate effect of dust, which is believed to reduce precipitation during the Dust Bowl. Second, we calculate dust deposition for comparison to the observed thickness of loess deposits. This comparison serves as a constraint upon the total dust mobilization and the aerosol effect upon precipitation, both of which depend upon the incompletely known source extent and its productivity.

  5. Maternal Genetic Composition of a Medieval Population from a Hungarian-Slavic Contact Zone in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Csákyová, Veronika; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Csősz, Aranka; Nagy, Melinda; Fusek, Gabriel; Langó, Péter; Bauer, Miroslav; Mende, Balázs Gusztáv; Makovický, Pavol; Bauerová, Mária

    2016-01-01

    The genetic composition of the medieval populations of Central Europe has been poorly investigated to date. In particular, the region of modern-day Slovakia is a blank spot in archaeogenetic research. This paper reports the study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in ancient samples from the 9th-12th centuries originating from the cemeteries discovered in Nitra-Šindolka and Čakajovce, located in western Slovakia (Central Europe). This geographical region is interesting to study because its medieval multi-ethnic population lived in the so-called contact zone of the territory of the Great Moravian and later Hungarian state formations. We described 16 different mtDNA haplotypes in 19 individuals, which belong to the most widespread European mtDNA haplogroups: H, J, T, U and R0. Using comparative statistical and population genetic analyses, we showed the differentiation of the European gene pool in the medieval period. We also demonstrated the heterogeneous genetic characteristics of the investigated population and its affinity to the populations of modern Europe. PMID:26963389

  6. Finding the lost arches of the Medieval Avignon's Bridge (Avignon, Provence, South France): a geoarchaeological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghilardi, M.; Vella, M. A.; Hermitte, D.; Parisot, J. C.; Dussouillez, P.; Fleury, T. J.; Provansal, M.; Delanghe-Sabatier, D.; Demory, F.; Mathé, P. E.; Quesnel, Y.; Danos, S.; Balossino, S.; Delpey, Y.; Hartmann-Virnich, A.; Berthelot, M.

    2012-04-01

    This papers aims to precisely locate the medieval arches of the so called Avignon's (Saint Bénézet) Bridge (South France) and to reconstruct the fluvial dynamics of the Rhone River from Early Medieval Times to the 19th century. Until now, just four remnant arches are still visible (near Avignon) and it is estimated that 22 arches (which represents a total length of approximately 920 meters) were built to span over one of the largest French Rivers. The late roman and early mediaeval dates of several foundation poles extracted from the river bed might suggest the existence of an earlier bridge, though it remains uncertain if any of such an earlier structure was still visible when the first mediaeval bridge was built. The mediaeval bridge was erected from 1177 until 1185 (in less than 10 years), but modified a few decades later when stone arches were erected, thus raising the road level substantially. The structure of the bridge being vulnerable, seasonal floods proved a neverending threat and cause of damage which was frequently repaired with masonry or wood. Final abandon of the edifice could be placed in the late 1660s - Early 1670s according to historical sources. Questions arose about the location of the "lost arches" and evident flood events dated back to the Little Ice Age (e.g. 1500 to 1850) could be responsible of the partial destruction of the bridge. Few archaeological, architectural, historical and palaeoenvironmental works have been undertaken in order to determine the precise shape of the Saint Bénézet Bridge at certain stages of its history. Since 2010, a joint team composed by laboratories affiliated to the French Public Research Centre (CNRS) and to Universities of Avignon and of Aix-Marseille 1 is trying to link the different phases of constructions/destructions of the monument with the fluvial dynamics of the Rhone River for the concerned period (ANR PAVAGE). The geoarchaeological approach adopted comprises bathymetric surveys (SONAR and

  7. Morphological Effects in Auditory Word Recognition: Evidence from Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balling, Laura Winther; Baayen, R. Harald

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the processing of morphologically complex words in Danish using auditory lexical decision. We document a second critical point in auditory comprehension in addition to the Uniqueness Point (UP), namely the point at which competing morphological continuation forms of the base cease to be compatible with the input,…

  8. Outside the Box: The Danish Folkehojskole as Educational Innovator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, John

    2013-01-01

    Travelling between various Scandinavian adult educational institutions in 1978, the author, John Collins, picked up a couple of hitchhikers--Danish students returning to their school after a short vacation period. As they neared the Funen Island harbour village, which was their destination, the students invited Collins to visit their school. What…

  9. The Irreversible Process of University "Democratization": The Danish Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Mogens N.

    1988-01-01

    The Danish experience with university democratization suggests that the process is irreversible and that its progress is determined by how the initial change was begun two decades ago. It is also proposed that government attempts to intervene and revoke traditional institutional autonomy threaten to invalidate the progress made. (Author/MSE)

  10. Society and Education on St. Croix: The Danish Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramson, Leon

    Review of the history of education on the West Indian island of St. Croix from the 18th century to 1917 can contribute insights into the impact of schooling on social change. During this 200 year period, St. Croix changed from a Danish colony dependent upon plantation slavery to a poverty stricken American protectorate peopled by emancipated…

  11. The Emergence of the "s"-Genitive in Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perridon, Harry

    2013-01-01

    The -"s" genitives of English and Swedish play an important role in grammaticalization theory, as they are often used as counterexamples to the main tenet of that theory, viz. that grammatical change is unidirectional. In this paper I look at the emergence of the -"s" genitive in Danish, hoping that it may shed some new light on the evolution of…

  12. Independent School Success Challenging the Danish Public School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringsmose, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Denmark has had a long history of placing a high priority on education and public schooling. It is a declared goal of the Danish welfare system to provide comprehensive schooling, where children from different socioeconomic backgrounds can go to school together and have the same opportunities through education. It is also a declared goal for…

  13. Evaluation of the Danish Leave Schemes. Summary of a Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Dines; Appeldorn, Alice; Weise, Hanne

    An evaluation examined how the Danish leave schemes, an offer to employed and unemployed persons who qualify for unemployment benefits, were functioning and to what extent the objectives have been achieved. It was found that 60 percent of those taking leave had previously been unemployed; women accounted for two-thirds of those joining the scheme;…

  14. Environmental drivers of Yersinia pestis - a holistic perspective on Medieval Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buentgen, U.

    2009-09-01

    Recent studies have indicated some evidence for a link between climate variability and plague (Yersinia pestis) dynamics in Central Asia and during most of the 20th century. An intensification of plague outbreaks via population peaks in its host-species, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus) and its fleas (Xenopsylla spp) has been found to occur during periods of warmer spring and wetter summer climate. This is important, as human epidemics of plague ultimately originate in its wildlife reservoirs. Given the fact that Medieval Europe was strongly devastated by the Black Death - the second pandemic after the Justinian plague ~540AD, and that the worldwide highest quality and quantity of climate proxy data exist for Europe, we here present, for the first time, a holistic approach to enhance understanding of the mid-14th century Black Death. This is of primary importance not only for medical/epidemiological research, but also for other scientific communities, because the Black Death disease had a sustainable impact on the socio-economic development, culture, art, and religion of Medieval Europe. Palaeoclimatic records of annually resolved European temperature and drought variability are compiled, a high-resolution time-series of anthropogenic deforestation is utilized, documentary archives of socio-economic relevance are considered, and the animal-born plague bacterium is placed in the ecological web. Considering the European/North Atlantic sector and the last millennium, periods of high solar radiation and reduced volcanic activity shift the North Atlantic Oscillation into a generally positive mode, yielding towards warmer temperatures and an intensification of the hydrological cycle. We now argue that increased internal circulation resulted in an overall wetter and warmer climate ~1350AD, which most likely was able to promote the prevalence of existing and widespread Yersinia pestis bacillus. Resulting outbreaks of bubonic plague could have been also supported by the

  15. Historical Epidemics Cartography Generated by Spatial Analysis: Mapping the Heterogeneity of Three Medieval "Plagues" in Dijon

    PubMed Central

    Galanaud, Pierre; Galanaud, Anne; Giraudoux, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This work was designed to adapt Geographical Information System-based spatial analysis to the study of historical epidemics. We mapped "plague" deaths during three epidemics of the early 15th century, analyzed spatial distributions by applying the Kulldorff's method, and determined their relationships with the distribution of socio-professional categories in the city of Dijon. Materials and Methods Our study was based on a database including 50 annual tax registers (established from 1376 to 1447) indicating deaths and survivors among the heads of households, their home location, tax level and profession. The households of the deceased and survivors during 6 years with excess mortality were individually located on a georeferenced medieval map, established by taking advantage of the preserved geography of the historical center of Dijon. We searched for clusters of heads of households characterized by shared tax levels (high-tax payers, the upper decile; low-tax payers, the half charged at the minimum level) or professional activities and for clusters of differential mortality. Results High-tax payers were preferentially in the northern intramural part, as well as most wealthy or specialized professionals, whereas low-tax payers were preferentially in the southern part. During two epidemics, in 1400–1401 and 1428, areas of higher mortality were found in the northern part whereas areas of lower mortality were in the southern one. A high concentration of housing and the proximity to food stocks were common features of the most affected areas, creating suitable conditions for rats to pullulate. A third epidemic, lasting from 1438 to 1440 had a different and evolving geography: cases were initially concentrated around the southern gate, at the confluence of three rivers, they were then diffuse, and ended with residual foci of deaths in the northern suburb. Conclusion Using a selected historical source, we designed an approach allowing spatial analysis of

  16. Assortment of the plants in the Medieval diet in Czech countries (based on archaeobotanical finds).

    PubMed

    Culíková, V

    2000-01-01

    The finds of remains of useful plants in archaeological objects were drawing attention already in the last century. However, it was not until after the World War II, in relation with renovation of historical cores of the towns, when a separate branch of the botany--archaeobotany constituted. In the Czech Republic it was E. Opravil who was the first to become engaged in a systematic archaeobotanical research at the beginning of the 60's. All the vegetal remains--fruits and seeds on the first place as well as pollen grains from prehistoric times to the post-medieval period, are the subjects of archaeobotany. The medieval waste pits are the richest sources of the vegetal remains. They contain a lot of diasporas of cultural as well as wild plants. The remains of useful plants are an authentic document of the vegetal component of diet. Even though some vegetal species, such as for example garlic, onion or stalk-plants, about whose cultivation we are informed from literature, occur only seldom, there appeared also the species not mentioned in literature. All the basic cereals have been known in our country already since the early Middle Ages. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rye (Secale cereale), as well as millet (Panicum miliaceum) that, along with buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), were replaced by potatoes in the modern times were the most important. Also leguminous plants were of great importance in the diet even though their charred seeds seldom preserved. Remains of oil plants such as hemp (Cannabis sativa), flax (Linum usitatissimum) and poppy (Papaver somniferum) preserved well. It was successfully proved that cucumber (Cucumis sativus), among other numerous kinds of vegetables, was introduced by the Slavs already in the 8th century in Moravia and in the 9th century in Bohemia. The assortment of fruit was rich--especially the assortment of cultivated fruit. Among the imported kinds of fruit the first place occupied figs (Ficus carica), from the numerous finds it can

  17. The Medieval Climate Anomaly and Byzantium: A review of the evidence on climatic fluctuations, economic performance and societal change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xoplaki, Elena; Fleitmann, Dominik; Luterbacher, Juerg; Wagner, Sebastian; Haldon, John F.; Zorita, Eduardo; Telelis, Ioannis; Toreti, Andrea; Izdebski, Adam

    2016-03-01

    At the beginning of the Medieval Climate Anomaly, in the ninth and tenth century, the medieval eastern Roman empire, more usually known as Byzantium, was recovering from its early medieval crisis and experiencing favourable climatic conditions for the agricultural and demographic growth. Although in the Balkans and Anatolia such favourable climate conditions were prevalent during the eleventh century, parts of the imperial territories were facing significant challenges as a result of external political/military pressure. The apogee of medieval Byzantine socio-economic development, around AD 1150, coincides with a period of adverse climatic conditions for its economy, so it becomes obvious that the winter dryness and high climate variability at this time did not hinder Byzantine society and economy from achieving that level of expansion. Soon after this peak, towards the end of the twelfth century, the populations of the Byzantine world were experiencing unusual climatic conditions with marked dryness and cooler phases. The weakened Byzantine socio-political system must have contributed to the events leading to the fall of Constantinople in AD 1204 and the sack of the city. The final collapse of the Byzantine political control over western Anatolia took place half century later, thus contemporaneous with the strong cooling effect after a tropical volcanic eruption in AD 1257. We suggest that, regardless of a range of other influential factors, climate change was also an important contributing factor to the socio-economic changes that took place in Byzantium during the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Crucially, therefore, while the relatively sophisticated and complex Byzantine society was certainly influenced by climatic conditions, and while it nevertheless displayed a significant degree of resilience, external pressures as well as tensions within the Byzantine society more broadly contributed to an increasing vulnerability in respect of climate impacts. Our

  18. The Medieval Climate Anomaly and Byzantium: A review of the evidence on climatic fluctuations, economic performance and societal change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xoplaki, Elena; Fleitmann, Dominik; Luterbacher, Juerg; Wagner, Sebastian; Haldon, John F.; Zorita, Eduardo; Telelis, Ioannis; Toreti, Andrea; Izdebski, Adam

    2016-04-01

    At the beginning of the Medieval Climate Anomaly, in the ninth and tenth century, the medieval eastern Roman empire, more usually known as Byzantium, was recovering from its early medieval crisis and experiencing favourable climatic conditions for the agricultural and demographic growth. Although in the Balkans and Anatolia such favourable climate conditions were prevalent during the eleventh century, parts of the imperial territories were facing significant challenges as a result of external political/military pressure. The apogee of medieval Byzantine socio-economic development, around AD 1150, coincides with a period of adverse climatic conditions for its economy, so it becomes obvious that the winter dryness and high climate variability at this time did not hinder Byzantine society and economy from achieving that level of expansion. Soon after this peak, towards the end of the twelfth century, the populations of the Byzantine world were experiencing unusual climatic conditions with marked dryness and cooler phases. The weakened Byzantine socio-political system must have contributed to the events leading to the fall of Constantinople in AD 1204 and the sack of the city. The final collapse of the Byzantine political control over western Anatolia took place half century later, thus contemporaneous with the strong cooling effect after a tropical volcanic eruption in AD 1257. We suggest that, regardless of a range of other influential factors, climate change was also an important contributing factor to the socio-economic changes that took place in Byzantium during the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Crucially, therefore, while the relatively sophisticated and complex Byzantine society was certainly influenced by climatic conditions, and while it nevertheless displayed a significant degree of resilience, external pressures as well as tensions within the Byzantine society more broadly contributed to an increasing vulnerability in respect of climate impacts. Our

  19. A pluvial episode identified in arid Australia during the Medieval Climatic Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, T. J.; Nanson, G. C.; Jansen, J. D.; Gliganic, L. A.; May, J.-H.; Larsen, J. R.; Goodwin, I. D.; Browning, S.; Price, D. M.

    2012-11-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from a relict shoreline on Lake Callabonna record a major pluvial episode in southern central Australia between 1050 ± 70 and 1100 ± 60 Common Era (CE), within the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA). During this pluvial interval Lake Callabonna filled to 10-12 times the volume of the largest historical filling (1974) and reached maximum depths of 4-5 m, compared to the 0.5-1.0 m achieved today. Until now there has been no direct evidence for the MCA in the arid interior of Australia. A multi-proxy, analogue-based atmospheric circulation reconstruction indicates that the pluvial episode was associated with an anomalous meridional atmospheric circulation pattern over the Southern extratropics, with high sea-level pressure ridges in the central Indian Ocean and Tasman Sea, and a trough extending from the Southern Ocean into central Australia. A major decline in the mobility of the Australian aboriginal hunter-gatherer coincides with this MCA period, in southern central Australia.

  20. Composition analysis of medieval ceramics by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genc Oztoprak, B.; Sinmaz, M. A.; Tülek, F.

    2016-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique is expected to be one of the most preferred techniques in archaeology research since it does not disrupt the structural and chemical form of archaeological samples, and it is considered virtually nondestructive analysis method. In this work, LIBS is used for analyses of glaze, paint, and clay of medieval ceramics collected from East Plain Cilicia, Osmaniye Province during archaeological survey. Transparent glazed and colour-painted ceramics of the Islam and Byzantine pottery traditions are analysed to detect distinctive and common features of the chemical compositions of their glazes. The spectral lines of Islamic and Byzantine glazes indicate that their structures are same. However, strontium (Sr) is determined in the transparent glaze of Islamic ceramics. Elemental composition and homogeneity of paint on one of the sample are determined by LIBS analysis. Colour changes are related with composition differences of the paint content in the archaeological ceramic. In addition, the clay classification of archaeological ceramics taken from the Yapılıpınar mounds, Taşlıhöyük mounds, and Örenşehir ancient sites is done using PCA and PLS-DA chemometric techniques. According to the results of the classification, Yapılıpınar mounds terracotta ceramics differ from those of Taşlıhöyük and Örenşehir ancient sites.

  1. Early Medieval Muslim Graves in France: First Archaeological, Anthropological and Palaeogenomic Evidence.

    PubMed

    Gleize, Yves; Mendisco, Fanny; Pemonge, Marie-Hélène; Hubert, Christophe; Groppi, Alexis; Houix, Bertrand; Deguilloux, Marie-France; Breuil, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    The rapid Arab-Islamic conquest during the early Middle Ages led to major political and cultural changes in the Mediterranean world. Although the early medieval Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula is now well documented, based in the evaluation of archeological and historical sources, the Muslim expansion in the area north of the Pyrenees has only been documented so far through textual sources or rare archaeological data. Our study provides the first archaeo-anthropological testimony of the Muslim establishment in South of France through the multidisciplinary analysis of three graves excavated at Nimes. First, we argue in favor of burials that followed Islamic rites and then note the presence of a community practicing Muslim traditions in Nimes. Second, the radiometric dates obtained from all three human skeletons (between the 7th and the 9th centuries AD) echo historical sources documenting an early Muslim presence in southern Gaul (i.e., the first half of 8th century AD). Finally, palaeogenomic analyses conducted on the human remains provide arguments in favor of a North African ancestry of the three individuals, at least considering the paternal lineages. Given all of these data, we propose that the skeletons from the Nimes burials belonged to Berbers integrated into the Umayyad army during the Arab expansion in North Africa. Our discovery not only discusses the first anthropological and genetic data concerning the Muslim occupation of the Visigothic territory of Septimania but also highlights the complexity of the relationship between the two communities during this period. PMID:26910855

  2. Early Medieval Muslim Graves in France: First Archaeological, Anthropological and Palaeogenomic Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Pemonge, Marie-Hélène; Hubert, Christophe; Groppi, Alexis; Houix, Bertrand; Deguilloux, Marie-France; Breuil, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    The rapid Arab-Islamic conquest during the early Middle Ages led to major political and cultural changes in the Mediterranean world. Although the early medieval Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula is now well documented, based in the evaluation of archeological and historical sources, the Muslim expansion in the area north of the Pyrenees has only been documented so far through textual sources or rare archaeological data. Our study provides the first archaeo-anthropological testimony of the Muslim establishment in South of France through the multidisciplinary analysis of three graves excavated at Nimes. First, we argue in favor of burials that followed Islamic rites and then note the presence of a community practicing Muslim traditions in Nimes. Second, the radiometric dates obtained from all three human skeletons (between the 7th and the 9th centuries AD) echo historical sources documenting an early Muslim presence in southern Gaul (i.e., the first half of 8th century AD). Finally, palaeogenomic analyses conducted on the human remains provide arguments in favor of a North African ancestry of the three individuals, at least considering the paternal lineages. Given all of these data, we propose that the skeletons from the Nimes burials belonged to Berbers integrated into the Umayyad army during the Arab expansion in North Africa. Our discovery not only discusses the first anthropological and genetic data concerning the Muslim occupation of the Visigothic territory of Septimania but also highlights the complexity of the relationship between the two communities during this period. PMID:26910855

  3. Melancholia in medieval Persian literature: The view of Hidayat of Al-Akhawayni

    PubMed Central

    Dalfardi, Behnam; Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    “Melancholia” seems to be the oldest term used to describe the manifestations of depression. Throughout the history of medicine, melancholia has been the focus of consideration of many scholars who have provided varying definitions of this disorder and its manifestations. This continual process has resulted in the gradual development of the concept of melancholia over time. Persian scholars were among the scientists who have studied the melancholia and contributed to its concept. One figure, Al-Akhawayni Bukhari (?-983 AD), a Persian physician whose reputation was based on the treatment of patients with mental problems, investigated this disorder. He described Melancholia and explained its clinical manifestations and treatment methods. Al-Akhawayni provided an early classification of the patients suffering from this disorder. Since the medieval Persian concept of melancholia is not well-known, this paper aims to review Al-Akhawayni’s 10th century knowledge on melancholia which can represent the early concept of this disorder in the Near East. PMID:25019055

  4. Dental and oral diseases in Medieval Persia, lessons from Hedayat Akhawayni.

    PubMed

    Khodadoust, Kazem; Ardalan, Mohammadreza; Pourabbas, Reza; Abdolrahimi, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Persian physicians had a great role in assimilation and expansion of medical sciences during the medieval period and Islamic golden age. In fact the dominant medical figures of that period were of Persian origin such as Avicenna and Razes, but their works have been written in Arabic that was the lingua franca of the period. Undoubtedly the most substantial medical book of that period that has been written in Persian belongs to Abubakr Rabi ibn Ahmad al-Akhawayni al-Bokhari and his book, Hidayat al-Mutallimin fi-al-Tibb (Learner's Guide to Medicine).There are two chapters related to oral and dental diseases in the Hidayat, a chapter on dental pain and a chapter on bouccal pain. Akhawayni's views on dental diseases and treatments are mainly based on anatomical principles and less influenced by humeral theory and no mention about the charms, magic and amulets. False idea of dental worm cannot be seen among his writings. Cutting of the dental nerve for relieving the pain, using the anesthetizing fume, using the natural antiseptic and keeping the tooth extraction as the last recourse deserves high praise. PMID:24427486

  5. Characterisation of medieval yellow silver stained glass from Convento de Cristo in Tomar, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, J.; Vilarigues, M.; Ruivo, A.; Corregidor, V.; Silva, R. C. da; Alves, L. C.

    2011-10-01

    Yellow decoration effects in stained glasses using silver staining were first applied in the beginning of the 14th century. The glass piece being decorated was usually painted on its side intended to be facing the exterior environment, and then fired to temperatures between 500 and 650 °C, resulting in colours ranging from pale lemon to deep orange. Stained glass fragments painted by this process and belonging to the Convento de Cristo, in Tomar, Portugal, were characterised using micro-PIXE, and complemented with other analytical techniques, namely UV-Vis spectroscopy and XRF. Preliminary analysis showed that a mixture of Ag and Cu was used for the production of the yellow staining. In order to understand this staining process and the influence of the firing temperature on the resulting colours, several soda and potash glasses with compositions similar to those of medieval glasses were produced and characterised. The role played by the addition of Cu in the final colours was also investigated.

  6. Detection and Strain Typing of Ancient Mycobacterium leprae from a Medieval Leprosy Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, G. Michael; Tucker, Katie; Butler, Rachel; Pike, Alistair W. G.; Lewis, Jamie; Roffey, Simon; Marter, Philip; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H. T.; Minnikin, David E.; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Singh, Pushpendra; Cole, Stewart T.; Stewart, Graham R.

    2013-01-01

    Nine burials excavated from the Magdalen Hill Archaeological Research Project (MHARP) in Winchester, UK, showing skeletal signs of lepromatous leprosy (LL) have been studied using a multidisciplinary approach including osteological, geochemical and biomolecular techniques. DNA from Mycobacterium leprae was amplified from all nine skeletons but not from control skeletons devoid of indicative pathology. In several specimens we corroborated the identification of M. leprae with detection of mycolic acids specific to the cell wall of M. leprae and persistent in the skeletal samples. In five cases, the preservation of the material allowed detailed genotyping using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Three of the five cases proved to be infected with SNP type 3I-1, ancestral to contemporary M. leprae isolates found in southern states of America and likely carried by European migrants. From the remaining two burials we identified, for the first time in the British Isles, the occurrence of SNP type 2F. Stable isotope analysis conducted on tooth enamel taken from two of the type 3I-1 and one of the type 2F remains revealed that all three individuals had probably spent their formative years in the Winchester area. Previously, type 2F has been implicated as the precursor strain that migrated from the Middle East to India and South-East Asia, subsequently evolving to type 1 strains. Thus we show that type 2F had also spread westwards to Britain by the early medieval period. PMID:23638071

  7. Glacier maxima in Baffin Bay during the Medieval Warm Period coeval with Norse settlement.

    PubMed

    Young, Nicolás E; Schweinsberg, Avriel D; Briner, Jason P; Schaefer, Joerg M

    2015-12-01

    The climatic mechanisms driving the shift from the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) to the Little Ice Age (LIA) in the North Atlantic region are debated. We use cosmogenic beryllium-10 dating to develop a moraine chronology with century-scale resolution over the last millennium and show that alpine glaciers in Baffin Island and western Greenland were at or near their maximum LIA configurations during the proposed general timing of the MWP. Complimentary paleoclimate proxy data suggest that the western North Atlantic region remained cool, whereas the eastern North Atlantic region was comparatively warmer during the MWP-a dipole pattern compatible with a persistent positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation. These results demonstrate that over the last millennium, glaciers approached their eventual LIA maxima before what is considered the classic LIA in the Northern Hemisphere. Furthermore, a relatively cool western North Atlantic region during the MWP has implications for understanding Norse migration patterns during the MWP. Our results, paired with other regional climate records, point to nonclimatic factors as contributing to the Norse exodus from the western North Atlantic region. PMID:26665173

  8. Oral Health and Frailty in the Medieval English Cemetery of St. Mary Graces

    PubMed Central

    DeWitte, Sharon N.; Bekvalac, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of oral pathologies is routinely a part of bioarchaeological and paleopathological investigations. Oral health, while certainly interesting by itself, is also potentially informative about general or systemic health. Numerous studies within modern populations have shown associations between oral pathologies and other diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer, and pulmonary infections. This paper addresses the question of how oral health was associated with general health in past populations by examining the relationship between two oral pathologies (periodontal disease and dental caries) and the risk of mortality in a cemetery sample from medieval England. The effects of periodontitis and dental caries on risk of death were assessed using a sample of 190 individuals from the St. Mary Graces, London cemetery dating to approximately A.D. 1350–1538. The results suggest that the oral pathologies are associated with elevated risks of mortality in the St. Mary Graces cemetery, such that individuals with periodontitis and dental caries were more likely to die than their peers without such pathologies. The results shown here suggest that these oral pathologies can be used as informative indicators of general health in past populations. PMID:19927365

  9. The late medieval kidney--nephrology in and about the fourteenth century.

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2012-01-01

    The Late Medieval Period was a decisive period in the history of medicine. It was then that medical education was integrated into the universities that were coming into existence and when medicine made its transition from a menial trade to a regulated profession with a statutory basis of learning and graduation. It was also then that the necessities of understanding the fabric of the body was realized; for the first time in history, the study of anatomy and of human dissection were incorporated into the medical curriculum. This was a defining change whose subsequent expansion and evolution would bring about the study of function (physiology) and changes in disease (pathology). Few advances were made in the study of the kidney, which was considered part of the venous circulation, whose function was subservient to that of nutrition in eliminating excess fluid. Uroscopy flourished and reached unrealistic levels of dominance in the diagnosis, treatment, and prognostication of any and all diseases, especially in the hands of quacks and charlatans. Alchemy, a mysterious pseudo-science, blossomed into a discipline that nurtured experimentation and laid the rudimentary foundations of scientific study, chemistry, and pharmacology. It was also then that surgery took form as a specialty that actually provided much of the medical care of the period including that of the principal diseases of the kidney, obstruction and calculi, and thereby laid the foundations of what in time would become urology. PMID:22681599

  10. Eolian sand deposition during th Medieval Climatic Anomaly in Playa San Bartolo, Sonora, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, B.; Schaaf, P. E.; Murray, A.; Caballero, M.; Lozano Garcia, S.; Ramirez, A.

    2012-12-01

    Records of past climatic changes in desert environments are scarce due to the poor preservation of biological proxies. To overcome this lack we consider the paleoenvironmental significance and age of a lunette dune in the eastern rim of the Playa San Bartolo (PSB) in Sonoran Desert (Mexico). Rock magnetism, mineralogical, and geochemical analysis (major, trace and REE) allow assessment of sediment provenance and changes in the composition of the PSB dune over time. Thermoluminiscence and optical stimulated luminescence (TL and OSL) provide the chronology of lunette dune development. Dune sediments are composed by intercalated layers of sand beds and sandy silt strata. Variability in composition of dune sediments is attributed to changes in sediment sources. Mineralogical, geochemical and magnetic data show clear differences between the sand and the sandy silt of the PSB dune deposits, which suggest different sediment sources. Sand sized deposits, characterized by coarse magnetite grains, are mainly eroded from granitoids from nearby outcrops. Sandy silt deposits, rich in fine grained magnetite and evaporative minerals, resulted after the erosion of volcanic rocks and their soils from sierras at the NE of PSB during heavy rainfall episodes, the flooding of PSB and later deflation and accumulation in the dune of both detritic and authigenic components. The upper 6 m of dune accumulation occurred largely during AD 500 to 1200, a period that correlates with the Medieval climatic anomaly (AD 300 to 1300). These findings suggest that main dune accretion occurred during regionally extended drought conditions, disrupted by sporadic heavy rainfall.