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1

Electrophysiological Evidence of Mediolateral Functional Dichotomy in the Rat Accumbens during Cocaine Self-Administration  

PubMed Central

Given the increasing research emphasis on putative accumbal functional compartmentation, we sought to determine whether neurons that demonstrate changes in tonic firing rate during cocaine self-administration are differentially distributed across subregions of the NAcc. Rats were implanted with jugular catheters and microwire arrays targeting NAcc subregions (Core, Dorsal Shell, Ventromedial Shell, Ventrolateral Shell, Rostral Pole Shell). Recordings were obtained after acquisition of stable cocaine self-administration (0.77 mg/kg/0.2mL infusion; fixed-ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement; 6 hour daily sessions). During the self-administration phase of the experiment, neurons demonstrated either: 1) tonic suppression (or decrease), 2) tonic activation (or increase) or 3) no tonic change in firing rate with respect to rates of firing during pre- and post-drug phases. Consistent with earlier observations, tonic decrease was the predominant firing pattern observed. Differences in the prevalence of tonic increase firing were observed between the core and the dorsal shell and dorsal shell-core border regions, with the latter two areas exhibiting a virtual absence of tonic increases. Tonic suppression was exhibited to a greater extent by the dorsal shell-core border region relative to the core. These differences could reflect distinct subregional afferent processing and/or differential sensitivity of subpopulations of NAcc neurons to cocaine. Ventrolateral Shell firing topographies resembled those of core neurons. Taken together, these observations are consistent with an emerging body of literature that differentiates the accumbens mediolaterally and further advances the likelihood that distinct functions are subserved by NAcc subregions in appetitive processing.

Fabbricatore, Anthony T.; Ghitza, Udi E.; Prokopenko, Volodymyr F.; West, Mark O.

2010-01-01

2

False Dichotomies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the origins and implications of the false dichotomy between teaching and research. Finds the roots of the dichotomy in public schools. Addresses problems caused by failure to recognize the links between teaching and research, including cultural dissonance, faculty isolation from their discipline, and benefits of faculty research. (DMM)

Block, Jonathan

1991-01-01

3

Functional dichotomy of ribosomal proteins during the synthesis of mammalian 40S ribosomal subunits  

PubMed Central

Our knowledge of the functions of metazoan ribosomal proteins in ribosome synthesis remains fragmentary. Using siRNAs, we show that knockdown of 31 of the 32 ribosomal proteins of the human 40S subunit (ribosomal protein of the small subunit [RPS]) strongly affects pre–ribosomal RNA (rRNA) processing, which often correlates with nucleolar chromatin disorganization. 16 RPSs are strictly required for initiating processing of the sequences flanking the 18S rRNA in the pre-rRNA except at the metazoan-specific early cleavage site. The remaining 16 proteins are necessary for progression of the nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation steps and for nuclear export. Distribution of these two subsets of RPSs in the 40S subunit structure argues for a tight dependence of pre-rRNA processing initiation on the folding of both the body and the head of the forming subunit. Interestingly, the functional dichotomy of RPS proteins reported in this study is correlated with the mutation frequency of RPS genes in Diamond-Blackfan anemia.

O'Donohue, Marie-Francoise; Choesmel, Valerie; Faubladier, Marlene; Fichant, Gwennaele

2010-01-01

4

The dappled nature of causes of psychiatric illness: replacing the organic-functional/hardware-software dichotomy with empirically based pluralism  

PubMed Central

Our tendency to see the world of psychiatric illness in dichotomous and opposing terms has three major sources: the philosophy of Descartes, the state of neuropathology in late nineteenth century Europe (when disorders were divided into those with and without demonstrable pathology and labeled, respectively, organic and functional), and the influential concept of computer functionalism wherein the computer is viewed as a model for the human mind–brain system (brain = hardware, mind = software). These mutually re-enforcing dichotomies, which have had a pernicious influence on our field, make a clear prediction about how ‘difference-makers’ (aka causal risk factors) for psychiatric disorders should be distributed in nature. In particular, are psychiatric disorders like our laptops, which when they dysfunction, can be cleanly divided into those with software versus hardware problems? I propose 11 categories of difference-makers for psychiatric illness from molecular genetics through culture and review their distribution in schizophrenia, major depression and alcohol dependence. In no case do these distributions resemble that predicted by the organic–functional/hardware–software dichotomy. Instead, the causes of psychiatric illness are dappled, distributed widely across multiple categories. We should abandon Cartesian and computer-functionalism-based dichotomies as scientifically inadequate and an impediment to our ability to integrate the diverse information about psychiatric illness our research has produced. Empirically based pluralism provides a rigorous but dappled view of the etiology of psychiatric illness. Critically, it is based not on how we wish the world to be but how the difference-makers for psychiatric illness are in fact distributed.

Kendler, KS

2012-01-01

5

Synaptic Mechanisms Underlying Functional Dichotomy between Intrinsic-Bursting and Regular-Spiking Neurons in Auditory Cortical Layer 5  

PubMed Central

Corticofugal projections from the primary auditory cortex (A1) have been shown to play a role in modulating subcortical processing. However, functional properties of the corticofugal neurons and their synaptic circuitry mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we performed in vivo whole-cell recordings from layer 5 (L5) pyramidal neurons in the rat A1 and found two distinct neuronal classes according to their functional properties. Intrinsic-bursting (IB) neurons, the L5 corticofugal neurons, exhibited early and rather unselective spike responses to a wide range of frequencies. The exceptionally broad spectral tuning of IB neurons was attributable to their broad excitatory inputs with long temporal durations and inhibitory inputs being more narrowly tuned than excitatory inputs. This uncommon pattern of excitatory–inhibitory interplay was attributed initially to a broad thalamocortical convergence onto IB neurons, which also receive temporally prolonged intracortical excitatory input as well as feedforward inhibitory input at least partially from more narrowly tuned fast-spiking inhibitory neurons. In contrast, regular-spiking neurons, which are mainly corticocortical, exhibited sharp frequency tuning similar to L4 pyramidal cells, underlying which are well-matched purely intracortical excitation and inhibition. The functional dichotomy among L5 pyramidal neurons suggests two distinct processing streams. The spectrally and temporally broad synaptic integration in IB neurons may ensure robust feedback signals to facilitate subcortical function and plasticity in a general manner.

Sun, Yujiao J.; Kim, Young-Joo; Ibrahim, Leena A.; Tao, Huizhong W.; Zhang, Li I.

2013-01-01

6

Mechanistic and structural insight into the functional dichotomy between interleukin-2 and interleukin-15  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-15 (IL-15) and IL-2 possess distinct immunological functions despite both signaling through IL-2R? and the common cytokine receptor ?-chain, ?c, We find that in the IL-15—IL-15R?—IL-2R?—?c quaternary complex structure, IL-15 heterodimerizes IL-2R? and ?c identically to the IL-2—IL-2R?—IL-2R?—?c complex, despite differing receptor-binding chemistries. IL-15R? dramatically increases the affinity of IL-15 for IL-2R?, and this allostery is required for IL-15 trans-signaling versus IL-2 cis-signaling. Consistent with the identical IL-2R?—?c dimer geometry, IL-2 and IL-15 exhibited similar signaling properties in lymphocytes, with any differences resulting from disparate receptor affinities. Thus, IL-15 and IL-2 induce similar signals, and the cytokine-specificity of IL-2R? versus IL-15R? determines cellular responsiveness. These results provide important new insights for specific development of IL-15-versus IL-2-based immunotherapeutics.

Ring, Aaron M.; Lin, Jian-Xin; Feng, Dan; Mitra, Suman; Rickert, Mathias; Bowman, Gregory R.; Pande, Vijay S.; Li, Peng; Moraga, Ignacio; Spolski, Rosanne; Ozkan, Engin; Leonard, Warren J.; Garcia, K. Christopher

2012-01-01

7

On Mishan's Rent Dichotomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that many economics textbooks define economic rent in 1 of the 2 ways discussed 30 years ago by E. J. Mishan. Contends that the 2 definitions are not substantially different, rendering the dichotomy invalid. Examines 15 microeconomics textbooks to determine whether they validate Mishan's categories of rent definitions. (DB)

Piron, Robert

1990-01-01

8

The dappled nature of causes of psychiatric illness: replacing the organic–functional\\/hardware–software dichotomy with empirically based pluralism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our tendency to see the world of psychiatric illness in dichotomous and opposing terms has three major sources: the philosophy of Descartes, the state of neuropathology in late nineteenth century Europe (when disorders were divided into those with and without demonstrable pathology and labeled, respectively, organic and functional), and the influential concept of computer functionalism wherein the computer is viewed

K S Kendler

2012-01-01

9

Contributions of muscles to mediolateral ground reaction force over a range of walking speeds.  

PubMed

Impaired control of mediolateral body motion during walking is an important health concern. Developing treatments to improve mediolateral control is challenging, partly because the mechanisms by which muscles modulate mediolateral ground reaction force (and thereby modulate mediolateral acceleration of the body mass center) during unimpaired walking are poorly understood. To investigate this, we examined mediolateral ground reaction forces in eight unimpaired subjects walking at four speeds and determined the contributions of muscles, gravity, and velocity-related forces to the mediolateral ground reaction force by analyzing muscle-driven simulations of these subjects. During early stance (0-6% gait cycle), peak ground reaction force on the leading foot was directed laterally and increased significantly (p<0.05) with walking speed. During early single support (14-30% gait cycle), peak ground reaction force on the stance foot was directed medially and increased significantly (p<0.01) with speed. Muscles accounted for more than 92% of the mediolateral ground reaction force over all walking speeds, whereas gravity and velocity-related forces made relatively small contributions. Muscles coordinate mediolateral acceleration via an interplay between the medial ground reaction force contributed by the abductors and the lateral ground reaction forces contributed by the knee extensors, plantarflexors, and adductors. Our findings show how muscles that contribute to forward progression and body-weight support also modulate mediolateral acceleration of the body mass center while weight is transferred from one leg to another during double support. PMID:22884038

John, Chand T; Seth, Ajay; Schwartz, Michael H; Delp, Scott L

2012-09-21

10

Contributions of muscles to mediolateral ground reaction force over a range of walking speeds  

PubMed Central

Impaired control of mediolateral body motion during walking is an important health concern. Developing treatments to improve mediolateral control is challenging, partly because the mechanisms by which muscles modulate mediolateral ground reaction force (and thereby modulate mediolateral acceleration of the body mass center) during unimpaired walking are poorly understood. To investigate this, we examined mediolateral ground reaction forces in eight unimpaired subjects walking at four speeds and determined the contributions of muscles, gravity, and velocity-related forces to the mediolateral ground reaction force by analyzing muscle-driven simulations of these subjects. During early stance (0-6% gait cycle), peak ground reaction force on the leading foot was directed laterally and increased significantly (p < 0.05) with walking speed. During early single support (14-30% gait cycle), peak ground reaction force on the stance foot was directed medially and increased significantly (p < 0.01) with speed. Muscles accounted for more than 92% of the mediolateral ground reaction force over all walking speeds, whereas gravity and velocity-related forces made relatively small contributions. Muscles coordinate mediolateral acceleration via an interplay between the medial ground reaction force contributed by the abductors and the lateral ground reaction forces contributed by the knee extensors, plantarflexors, and adductors. Our findings show how muscles that contribute to forward progression and body-weight support also modulate mediolateral acceleration of the body mass center while weight is transferred from one leg to another during double support.

John, Chand T.; Seth, Ajay; Schwartz, Michael H.; Delp, Scott L.

2012-01-01

11

Medio-Lateral Postural Instability in Subjects with Tinnitus  

PubMed Central

Background: Many patients show modulation of tinnitus by gaze, jaw or neck movements, reflecting abnormal sensorimotor integration, and interaction between various inputs. Postural control is based on multi-sensory integration (visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and oculomotor) and indeed there is now evidence that posture can also be influenced by sound. Perhaps tinnitus influences posture similarly to external sound. This study examines the quality of postural performance in quiet stance in patients with modulated tinnitus. Methods: Twenty-three patients with highly modulated tinnitus were selected in the ENT service. Twelve reported exclusively or predominately left tinnitus, eight right, and three bilateral. Eighteen control subjects were also tested. Subjects were asked to fixate a target at 40?cm for 51?s; posturography was performed with the platform (Technoconcept, 40 Hz) for both the eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Results: For both conditions, tinnitus subjects showed abnormally high lateral body sway (SDx). This was corroborated by fast Fourrier Transformation (FFTx) and wavelet analysis. For patients with left tinnitus only, medio-lateral sway increased significantly when looking away from the center. Conclusion: Similarly to external sound stimulation, tinnitus could influence lateral sway by activating attention shift, and perhaps vestibular responses. Poor integration of sensorimotor signals is another possibility. Such abnormalities would be accentuated in left tinnitus because of the importance of the right cerebral cortex in processing both auditory–tinnitus eye position and attention.

Kapoula, Zoi; Yang, Qing; Le, Thanh-Thuan; Vernet, Marine; Berbey, Nolwenn; Orssaud, Christophe; Londero, Alain; Bonfils, Pierre

2011-01-01

12

Hemispheres Apart: The Crustal Dichotomy on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hemispheric dichotomy is a fundamental feature of Mars, ex- pressed by a physiographic and geologic divide between the heavily cratered southern highlands and the relatively smooth plains of the northern lowlands. The origin of the dichotomy, which may have set the course for most of the subsequent geologic evolution of Mars, remains unclear. Internally driven models for the dichotomy

Thomas R. Watters; Patrick J. McGovern; Rossman P. Irwin III

2007-01-01

13

Dichotomies and contemporary social movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this essay Vincenzo Ruggiero explores the dichotomy between theories of new social movements that draw upon rationalist\\/resource?mobilization approaches and those that focus on collective identity and cultural difference as key motivators. Taking contemporary social movements (CSMs) engaged in opposition to globalizing neo?liberalism (from anti?G8 protests to the World Social Forums) as the focus of analysis, the paper argues that

Vincenzo Ruggiero

2005-01-01

14

The influence of mediolateral deformity, tibial torsion, and foot position on femorotibial load  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of mediolateral deformity, tibial torsion, and different centers of foot support was studied with a three-dimensional computer model that incorporates the significant muscles of the lower extremities needed for quasi-static walking. This theoretical method avoids the variability in gait pattern from the pain and discomfort associated with deformity in patients. The study illustrates the possible importance of the

U. Lindgren; A. Seireg

1989-01-01

15

Coherent development of dermomyotome and dermis from the entire mediolateral extent of the dorsal somite.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that overall growth of the myotome in the mediolateral direction occurs in a coherent and uniform pattern. We asked whether development of the dermomyotome and resultant dermis follow a similar pattern or are, alternatively, controlled by restricted pools of stem cells driving directional growth. To this end, we studied cellular events that govern dermomyotome development and the regional origin of dermis. Measurements of cell proliferation, nuclear density and cellular rearrangements revealed that the developing dermomyotome can be subdivided in the transverse plane into three distinct and dynamic regions: medial, central and lateral, rather than simply into epaxial and hypaxial domains. To understand how these temporally and spatially restricted changes affect overall dermomyotome growth, lineage tracing with CM-DiI was performed. A proportional pattern of growth was measured along the entire epithelium, suggesting that mediolateral growth of the dermomyotome is coherent. Hence, they contrast with a stem cell view suggesting focal and inversely oriented sources of growth restricted to the medial and lateral edges. Consistent with this uniform mediolateral growth, lineage tracing experiments showed that the dermomyotome-derived dermis originates from progenitors that reside along the medial as well as the lateral halves of somites, and whose contribution to dermis is regionally restricted. Taken together, our results support the view that all derivatives of the dorsal somite (dermomyotome, myotome and dermis) keep a direct topographical relationship with their epithelial ascendants. PMID:12900449

Ben-Yair, Raz; Kahane, Nitza; Kalcheim, Chaya

2003-09-01

16

Cutting a mediolateral episiotomy at the correct angle: evaluation of a new device, the Episcissors-60  

PubMed Central

Background Anal incontinence is nine times more prevalent in women than in men due to obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASI). OASI is linked to midline episiotomies and mediolateral episiotomies with post-delivery angles of <30 and >60 degrees. Studies show that doctors and midwives are unable to correctly “eyeball” the safe angle required due to perineal stretching by the fetal head at crowning. A new scissor instrument (Episcissors-60) was devised to allow cutting a mediolateral episiotomy at a fixed angle of 60 degrees from the perineal midline. Methods Scissors with a marker guide limb pointing towards the anus were devised, ensuring an angle of 60 degrees between the scissor blades and the guide limb. This device was initially tested in models. Post-delivery angles were recorded on transparencies and analyzed by an author blinded to clinical details. Accoucheurs were asked to rate the ease of use on a 5-point scale. Results Of the 17 women, 14 delivered with ventouse, two with forceps, and one with sequential ventouse–forceps. Indications for instrumental delivery were suboptimal cardiotocogram and/or prolonged second stage of labor. Mean birth weight was 3.41 (2.92–4.12) kg. A mean post-delivery angle of 42.4±7 (range 30–60, median 43) degrees (95% confidence interval 38.8–46) was achieved with the Episcissors-60 instrument. Eighty-eight percent of clinicians agreed or strongly agreed that the scissors were easy to use. Conclusion The Episcissors-60 delivered a consistent post-delivery angle of 43 degrees. They could replace “eyeballing” when performing mediolateral episiotomies and form part of a preventative strategy to reduce OASI.

Freeman, R M; Hollands, H J; Barron, L F; Kapoor, D S

2014-01-01

17

An Examination of Job Satisfaction Dichotomies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Much of the recent job satisfaction literature has involved dichotomies such as intrinsic-extrinsic, motivator-hygiene, or job content-job context. In an exploratory study, responses by a sample of health managers (n=504) to 15 job satisfaction items were...

L. R. James E. A. Hartman A. P. Jones M. W. Stebbins

1975-01-01

18

Algebraic dichotomies with an application to the stability of Riemann solutions of conservation laws  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, there has been some interest on the stability of waves where the functions involved grow or decay at an algebraic rate |. In this paper we define the so-called algebraic dichotomy that may aid in treating such problems. We discuss the basic properties of the algebraic dichotomy, methods of detecting it, and calculating the power of the weight function. We present several examples: (1) The Bessel equation. (2) The n-degree Fisher type equation. (3) Hyperbolic conservation laws in similarity coordinates. (4) A system of conservation laws with a Dafermos type viscous regularization. We show that the linearized system generates an analytic semigroup in the space of algebraic decay functions. This example motivates our work on algebraic dichotomies.

Lin, Xiao-Biao

19

Frequency domain mediolateral balance assessment using a center of pressure tracking task.  

PubMed

Since impaired mediolateral balance can increase fall risk, especially in the elderly, its quantification and training might be a powerful preventive tool. We propose a visual tracking task (VTT) with increasing frequencies (.3-2.0Hz) and with center of pressure as visual feedback as an assessment method. This mediolateral balance assessment (MELBA) consists of two tasks, tracking a predictable target signal to determine physical capacity and tracking an unpredictable target signal to determine sensorimotor integration limitations. Within and between sessions learning effects and reliability in balance performance descriptors in both tasks were studied in 20 young adults. Balance performance was expressed as the phase-shift (PS) and gain (G) between the target and CoP in the frequency domain and cut-off frequencies at which the performance dropped. Results showed significant differences between the MELBA tasks in PS and G indicating a lower delay and higher accuracy in tracking the predictable target. Significant within and between sessions learning effects for the same measures were found only for the unpredictable task. Reliability of the cut-off frequencies at which PS and G performance declined and the average values within cut-off frequencies was fair to good (ICC .46-.66) for the unpredictable task and fair to excellent for the predictable task (ICC .68-.87). In conclusion, MELBA can reliably quantify balance performance using a predictable VTT. Additionally, the unpredictable tasks can give insight into the visuomotor integration mechanisms controlling balance and highlights MELBA's potential as a training tool. PMID:24103778

Cofré Lizama, L Eduardo; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Reeves, N Peter; Verschueren, Sabine M P; van Dieën, Jaap H

2013-11-15

20

Pediatric Therapy in the 1990s: The Demise of the Educational versus Medical Dichotomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes that changes in pediatric therapy in the 1990s have made the dichotomy between educational and medical therapy moot. Contemporary models of motor development and motor learning, combined with an emphasis on functional outcomes and family-centered services, are seen to pertain equally to children receiving occupational and…

McEwen, Irene R.; Shelden, M'Lisa L.

1995-01-01

21

Age and Origin of the Crustal Dichotomy in Eastern Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The crustal dichotomy in eastern Mars is largely due to the very large impact which produced the Utopia Basin. Buried impact basins on the Utopia Basin constrain the Utopia impact (and therefore the dichotomy) to be very Early Noachian in age. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Frey, H. V.

2002-01-01

22

Mediolateral foot placement ability during ambulation in individuals with chronic post-stroke hemiplegia.  

PubMed

Mediolateral (ML) foot placement is an effective way to redirect the lateral trajectory of the body center of mass (BCoM) during ambulation, but has only been partly characterized in the chronic post-stroke population despite their increased risk for falling [1]. During able-bodied gait, the locomotor system coordinates lower limb swing phase kinematics such that an appropriate ML foot placement occurs upon foot contact. Muscle weakness and abnormal motor patterns may impair foot placement ability post-stroke. The purpose of this study was to characterize ML foot placement ability during post-stroke ambulation by quantifying ML foot placement accuracy and precision, for the both sound and affected feet. Age matched able-bodied individuals were recruited for comparison. All participants were instructed to target step widths ranging from 0 to 45% leg length, as marked on the laboratory floor. Results of this study confirmed that ML foot placement accuracy and precision were significantly lower for the post-stroke group as compared to the control group (p=0.0). However, ML foot placement accuracy and precision were not significantly different between the affected and sound limbs in the post-stroke group. The lowest accuracy for post-stroke subjects was observed at both extreme step width targets (0 and 45%). Future work should explore potential mechanisms underlying these findings such as abnormal motor coordination, lower limb muscle strength, and abnormal swing phase movement patterns. PMID:24582515

Zissimopoulos, Angelika; Stine, Rebecca; Fatone, Stefania; Gard, Steven

2014-04-01

23

The Effects of Age on Medio-lateral Stability during Normal and Narrow Base Walking  

PubMed Central

We examined age-related differences in frontal plane stability during performance of narrow base (NB) walking relative to usual gait. A cross-sectional analysis of participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) was performed on data from the BLSA Motion Analysis Laboratory. Participants were thirty-four adults aged 54 to 92 without history of falls. We measured step error rates during NB gait and spatial-temporal parameters, frontal plane stability, and gait variability during usual and NB gait. There was a non-significant age-associated linear increase in step error rate (P = 0.12) during NB gait. With increasing age, step width increased (P=0.002) and step length and stride velocity decreased (P<0.001), especially during NB gait. Age-associated increases in medio-lateral (M-L) center of mass (COM) peak velocity (P<0.001) and displacement (P=0.005) were also greater during NB compared to usual gait. With increasing age there was greater variability in stride velocity (P=0.001) and step length (P<0.001) under both conditions. Age-associated differences related to M-L COM stability suggest that the quantification of COM control during NB gait may improve identification of older persons at increased falls risk.

Schrager, Matthew A.; Kelly, Valerie E.; Price, Robert; Ferrucci, Luigi; Shumway-Cook, Anne

2008-01-01

24

Neither dichotomies nor dualisms; simply genesis.  

PubMed

Our starting point is an article by Uchoa Angela Branco published in 2009 in Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Sciences (vol. 43, pp. 350-355) and titled "Why Dichotomies can be Misleading while Dualities Fit the Analysis of Complex Phenomena". She criticizes the dualist uses of the distinction between subject and object, or between subjectivist and objectivist perspectives. However we subscribe to the criticism, we argue that some kind of distinction between objectual and subjectual realities is neccesary. Our argument is grounded on the classic constructivist Psychology, especially that of James Mark Baldwin's genetic logic. We assess two theoretical perspectives -the systemic and the structuralist ones- that, in our view, are at risk of falling into objectivism because they tend to reduce subjectual activity to objectivistic or formalistic kinds of explanation. Based on a critical recovery of some ideas of the French philosopher Michel Serres, we propose that subjects and objects must be understood as interpenetrated realities in perpetual construction. PMID:22350852

Loredo-Narciandi, José C; Sánchez-González, José C

2012-09-01

25

Can Planetary Instability Explain the Kepler Dichotomy?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The planet candidates discovered by the Kepler mission provide a rich sample to constrain the architectures and relative inclinations of planetary systems within approximately 0.5 AU of their host stars. We use the triple-transit systems from the Kepler 16 months data as templates for physical triple-planet systems and perform synthetic transit observations, varying the internal inclination variation of the orbits. We find that all the Kepler triple-transit and double-transit systems can be produced from the triple-planet templates, given a low mutual inclination of around 5°. Our analysis shows that the Kepler data contain a population of planets larger than four Earth radii in single-transit systems that cannot arise from the triple-planet templates. We explore the hypothesis that high-mass counterparts of the triple-transit systems underwent dynamical instability to produce a population of massive double-planet systems of moderately high mutual inclination. We perform N-body simulations of mass-boosted triple-planet systems and observe how the systems heat up and lose planets by planet-planet collisions, and less frequently by ejections or collisions with the star, yielding transits in agreement with the large planets in the Kepler single-transit systems. The resulting population of massive double-planet systems nevertheless cannot explain the additional excess of low-mass planets among the observed single-transit systems and the lack of gas-giant planets in double-transit and triple-transit systems. Planetary instability of systems of triple gas-giant planets can be behind part of the dichotomy between systems hosting one or more small planets and those hosting a single giant planet. The main part of the dichotomy, however, is more likely to have arisen already during planet formation when the formation, migration, or scattering of a massive planet, triggered above a threshold metallicity, suppressed the formation of other planets in sub-AU orbits.

Johansen, Anders; Davies, Melvyn B.; Church, Ross P.; Holmelin, Viktor

2012-10-01

26

An Apparatus to Quantify Anteroposterior and Mediolateral Shear Reduction in Shoe Insoles  

PubMed Central

Background Many of the physiological changes that lead to diabetic foot ulceration, such as muscle atrophy and skin hardening, are manifested at the foot–ground interface via pressure and shear points. Novel shear-reducing insoles have been developed, but their magnitude of shear stiffness has not yet been compared with regular insoles. The aim of this study was to develop an apparatus that would apply shear force and displacement to an insole’s forefoot region, reliably measure deformation, and calculate insole shear stiffness. Methods An apparatus consisting of suspended weights was designed to test the forefoot region of insoles. Three separate regions representing the hallux; the first and second metatarsals; and the third, fourth, and fifth metatarsals were sheared at 20 mm/min for displacements from 0.1 to 1.0 mm in both the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions for two types of insoles (regular and shear reducing). Results Shear reduction was found to be significant for the intervention insoles under all testing conditions. The ratio of a regular insole’s effective stiffness and the experimental insole’s effective stiffness across forefoot position versus shear direction, gait instance versus shear direction, and forefoot position versus gait instance was 270% ± 79%, 270% ± 96%, and 270% ± 86%, respectively. The apparatus was reliable with an average measured coefficient of variation of 0.034 and 0.069 for the regular and shear-reducing insole, respectively. Conclusions An apparatus consisting of suspended weights resting atop three locations of interest sheared across an insole was demonstrated to be capable of measuring the insole shear stiffness accurately, thus quantifying shear-reducing effects of a new type of insole.

Belmont, Barry; Wang, Yancheng; Ammanath, Peethambaran; Wrobel, James S.; Shih, Albert

2013-01-01

27

CAN PLANETARY INSTABILITY EXPLAIN THE KEPLER DICHOTOMY?  

SciTech Connect

The planet candidates discovered by the Kepler mission provide a rich sample to constrain the architectures and relative inclinations of planetary systems within approximately 0.5 AU of their host stars. We use the triple-transit systems from the Kepler 16 months data as templates for physical triple-planet systems and perform synthetic transit observations, varying the internal inclination variation of the orbits. We find that all the Kepler triple-transit and double-transit systems can be produced from the triple-planet templates, given a low mutual inclination of around 5 Degree-Sign . Our analysis shows that the Kepler data contain a population of planets larger than four Earth radii in single-transit systems that cannot arise from the triple-planet templates. We explore the hypothesis that high-mass counterparts of the triple-transit systems underwent dynamical instability to produce a population of massive double-planet systems of moderately high mutual inclination. We perform N-body simulations of mass-boosted triple-planet systems and observe how the systems heat up and lose planets by planet-planet collisions, and less frequently by ejections or collisions with the star, yielding transits in agreement with the large planets in the Kepler single-transit systems. The resulting population of massive double-planet systems nevertheless cannot explain the additional excess of low-mass planets among the observed single-transit systems and the lack of gas-giant planets in double-transit and triple-transit systems. Planetary instability of systems of triple gas-giant planets can be behind part of the dichotomy between systems hosting one or more small planets and those hosting a single giant planet. The main part of the dichotomy, however, is more likely to have arisen already during planet formation when the formation, migration, or scattering of a massive planet, triggered above a threshold metallicity, suppressed the formation of other planets in sub-AU orbits.

Johansen, Anders; Davies, Melvyn B.; Church, Ross P.; Holmelin, Viktor [Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Box 43, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

2012-10-10

28

Separating Old and Young: The South Polar Dichotomy on Enceladus  

Microsoft Academic Search

On Enceladus, a narrow band of deformation separates the young south polar terrain from the older regions to the north. This study characterizes the dichotomy and determines its relationship to the present-day and paleo tiger stripes.

D. A. Patthoff; S. A. Kattenhorn

2011-01-01

29

Old Tiger Stripes and the South Polar Dichotomy on Enceladus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our detailed fracture and fold maps explore the relationship between the present day tiger stripes and old, non active tiger stripes and the dichotomy which surrounds the most active region of the SPT on Enceladus.

D. A. Patthoff; S. A. Kattenhorn

2010-01-01

30

Schäffer spaces and exponential dichotomy for evolutionary processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A very general characterization of exponential dichotomy for evolutionary processes in terms of the admissibility of some pair of spaces which are translation invariant (the so-called Schäffer spaces) is given. It includes, as particular cases, many interesting situations among which we note the results obtained by N. van Minh, F. Räbiger and R. Schnaubelt and the authors concerning the connections between admissibility and dichotomy.

Preda, Petre; Pogan, Alin; Preda, Ciprian

31

Axial elongation in mouse embryos involves mediolateral cell intercalation behavior in the paraxial mesoderm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cell mechanical and signaling pathways involved in gastrulation have been studied extensively in invertebrates and amphibians, such as Xenopus, and more recently in non-mammalian vertebrates such as zebrafish and chick. However, because culturing mouse embryos extra-utero is very difficult, this fundamental process has been least characterized in the mouse. As the primary mammalian model for genetics, biochemistry, and the study of human disease and birth defects, it is important to investigate how gastrulation proceeds in murine embryos. We have developed a method of using 4D multiphoton excitation microscopy and extra-utero culture to visualize and characterize the morphogenetic movements in mouse embryos dissected at 8.5 days of gestation. Cells are labeled by expression of an X chromosome-linked enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgene. This method has provided a unique approach, where, for the first time, patterns of cell behavior in the notochord and surrounding paraxial mesoderm can be visualized and traced quantitatively. Our observations of mouse embryos reveal both distinct differences as well as striking similarities in patterned cell motility relative to other vertebrate models such as Xenopus, where axial extension is driven primarily by mediolateral oriented cell behaviors in the notochord and paraxial somitic mesoderm. Unlike Xenopus, the width of the mouse notochord remains the same between 4-somite stage and 8-somite stage embryos. This implies the mouse notochord plays a lesser role in driving axial extension compared to Xenopus, although intercalation may occur where the anterior region of the node becomes notochordal plate. In contrast, the width of mouse paraxial mesoderm narrows significantly during this period and cells within the paraxial mesoderm are both elongated and aligned perpendicular to the midline. In addition, these cells are observed to intercalate, consistent with a role for paraxial mesoderm in driving convergence and extension. These cell behaviors are similar to those characterized in the axial mesoderm of frog embryos during convergence and extension[1], and suggests that tissues may play different roles in axial elongation between the frog and the mouse.

Yen, WeiWei; Burdsal, Carol; Periasamy, Ammasi; Sutherland, Ann E.

2006-03-01

32

What Causes the FRI - FRII Dichotomy?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perhaps the strongest phenomenological clue to the physical origin of radio sources is the recognition that the majority of radio galaxies can be classified, according to where most of the radio luminosity is radiated, into two morphological types: FRIs - or edge darkened, and FRIIs - or edge brightened (Fanaroff & Riley 1974). The FRI - FRII dichotomy is key in understanding the processes that lead to the onset of nuclear activity, the formation of radio jets, the time-evolution of radio lobes and the interaction of the radio structure with the surrounding medium. Until now, however, it has proven impossible to discriminate between competing scenarios, due to the lack of a critical piece of information: the mass mh of the central black hole which is at the very core of the AGN paradigm. The recent discovery of a tight correlation between mh and the large scale velocity dispersion ? of the host galaxy (Ferrarese & Merritt 2000), has put us in the unique position of being able to address this deficiency. We propose to obtain long-slit spectra with the R-C spectrograph for a sample of 19 FRI and FRII sources, selected for having optical high-resolution HST images. The combination of the KPNO data, archival HST images, and radio data already in hand will lead to a complete suite of dynamical, morphological, and nuclear information.

Ferrarese, Laura; Celotti, Annalisa

2002-02-01

33

Constraints on Early Mars Evolution and Dichotomy Origin from Relaxation Modeling of Dichotomy Boundary in the Ismenius Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Martian dichotomy is a global feature separating the northern and southern hemispheres. The 3.5 - 4 Gyr old feature is manifested by a topographic difference of 2-6 km and crustal thickness difference of approx. 15 - 30 km between the two hemispheres. In the Ismenius region, sections of the boundary are characterized by a single scarp with a slope of approx. 20 deg. - 23 deg. and are believed to be among the most well preserved parts of the dichotomy boundary. The origin of the dichotomy is unknown. Endogenic hypotheses do not predict the steep slopes (scarps) of the dichotomy boundary. Exogenic models for forming the northern lowlands by impact cratering, associate the scarps along the dichotomy boundary with craters' rims, but are not globally consistent with the topography and gravity. In order to better understand the origin of the Martian dichotomy, it is necessary to know if the steep scarps along the boundary represent the original shape of the dichotomy. Smrekar et al. presented evidence showing that the boundary scarp in Ismenius is a fault along which the highland crust was down faulted. We test whether the relaxation process could produce faulting along the dichotomy boundary and examine the crustal and mantle conditions that would allow for faulting to occur within 1 Gyr and preserve the long wavelength topography over another 3 Gyr. We approach the problem by a combination of numerical and semi-analytical modeling. We test different viscosity profiles and crustal thicknesses by comparing our modeled magnitude, location and timing of plastic strain and displacements to detailed geologic observations in the Ismenius region.

Guest, A.; Smrekar, S. E.

2004-01-01

34

Dawn: Testing Paradigms by Exploring Dichotomies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA’s Dawn mission represents a series of “firsts” for major NASA missions. Dawn is the first major NASA science mission to use ion propulsion engines, allowing Dawn to be the first mission to orbit one target and then leave its gravity well to explore a second destination. Dawn is the first science mission to the main asteroid belt, reaching protoplanet Vesta in summer 2011, and will be the first mission to reach a “dwarf planet” when it arrives at Ceres in 2015. By targeting both Vesta and Ceres, Dawn explores two intriguing dichotomies in the solar system, that of the dry rocky planets and the wet icy bodies (Fire and Ice) and the dichotomy between planets and asteroids. Is there a clear dividing line here? Vesta, the second most massive asteroid, is a protoplanet: a round, mostly intact asteroid that bears more resemblance to a planet than to smaller asteroids. Vesta is also the likely parent body of the HED meteorites that richly populate Earth’s meteorite collections. It is possible to hold a piece of Vesta in your hands. From the HED meteorites, scientists have learned the Vesta is one of few differentiated asteroids. And from its spectrum, rich in basaltic minerals, it is known to be much like a mini-version of Earth’s Moon and Mercury. Vesta’s surface once was home to floods of lava not unlike those found still today on the Earth. Vesta is very similar to a terrestrial planet. Ceres is the giant of the asteroid belt with a hydrostatic shape that earns it a dwarf planet classification. Like its larger cousins, Ceres’ round shape suggests that the body may be differentiated, but due to its low density, Ceres’ interior is more like an icy moon of Jupiter. Beneath a relatively thin clay veneer probably lies an ice-rich mantle and rocky core, and even possibly a liquid ocean. With such enticing questions posed for Vesta and Ceres, Dawn will enable scientists and the public alike to explore how planets were born, how fire and ice have shaped the solar system, and have a chance to push the boundaries of our own classification system. Dawn’s set of instrumentation, with cameras, a visible and infrared spectrometer, a gamma ray and neutron detector and radio science, will produce a wealth of information about two previously unexplored, diverse and yet somehow familiar worlds. Communication of the lessons learned by Dawn from the scientists to the public has and will occur over a range of interfaces, including a series of online activities such as Find a Meteorite, Clickworkers and a simulation of an ion engine. Other activities include Dawn “Science of the Day” archives, fun family activities and games as well as classroom materials and outreach events. Since the two bodies are the brightest sources in the main belt, an integral part of Dawn’s journey has been the integration of amateur and “backyard” astronomers. All these activities allow us to share the science with the public. Dawn arrives at Vesta in the middle of the Year of the Solar System in July 2011 and will depart for Ceres as the YSS ends.

Russell, C. T.; Schmidt, B. E.; Wise, J.; Ristvey, J.; Raymond, C. A.

2010-12-01

35

The Effect of an Early Dichotomy on Mars Mantle Convection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several attempts have been made to produce a crustal dichotomy followed by a single, stationary mantle plume, giving rise to the Tharsis volcanic province using 3D mantle convection models. If Mars evolved in such a scenario, two degree-1 (i.e., hemispherical) patterns would be required to develop at 90° to each other in the span of a few hundred million years. This has not yet been accomplished although recent numerical models (e.g. Roberts and Zhong, 2006) have made significant strides towards a solution including the use of both a lower mantle phase change and a layered viscosity mantle. Our goal is not to determine how the crustal dichotomy formed, but to assume it was already in place within the first 0.5 Ga of Mars' evolution. The presence of an early dichotomy boundary likely affected the planform of mantle convection and may have played a role in the formation of the Tharsis Rise based on the proximity of Tharsis to the dichotomy boundary. We model Martian mantle convection using the 3D finite element code CitComS (Zhong et al., 2000). Previous laboratory experiments have shown that an insulating lid overlying part of a temperature-dependent mantle will generate a large, stationary upwelling beneath the center of the lid. Thus, we incorporate a dry, Newtonian rheology with E*=300 kJ/mol and simulate a dichotomy boundary by integrating a high viscosity lid over the "southern hemisphere" of our model. Redmond and King (2004) illustrate that the effect of a strongly temperature-dependent rheology is the development of a stiff, rheological lithosphere. Thus, for small Rayleigh numbers, the initially imposed dichotomy boundary does not have an effect on the location of mantle upwellings because of the global lid that forms as a result of the temperature-dependent rheology. Our results suggest that an initially larger Rayleigh number, on the order of 107, will produce stationary upwellings beneath the imposed southern hemisphere lid before a global lid develops while upwellings in the northern hemisphere are short-lived and/or migratory until the rheological lithosphere strengthens. Thus, if the dichotomy was emplaced early on, it may be possible for mantle flow that migrates away from the initial upwelling(s) to interact with the edge of the imposed dichotomy boundary generating small-scale edge-driven convection. An edge-driven convection instability may be responsible for long-lived mantle convection at and around the Tharsis Rise volcanic province.

King, S. D.

2006-12-01

36

Topographic Change of the Dichotomy Boundary Suggested by Crustal Inversion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Linear negative gravity anomalies in Acidalia Planitia along the eastern edge of Tempe Terra and along the northern edge of Arabia Terra have been noted in Mars Global Surveyor gravity fields. Once proposed to represent buried fluvial channels, it is now believed that these gravity troughs mainly arise from partial compensation of the hemispheric dichotomy topographic scarp. A recent inversion for crustal structure finds that mantle compensation of the scarp is offset from the present-day topographic expression of the dichotomy boundary. The offset suggests that erosion or other forms of mass wasting occurred after lithosphere thickened and no longer accomodated topographic change through viscous relaxation.

Neumann, G. A.

2004-01-01

37

Mantle differentiation and the crustal dichotomy of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question of the origin and consequences of the global dichotomy of the Mars surface is examined. A comparison is given of two thermal evolution models with crust formation and mantle differentiation. The homogeneous distribution model assumes steady growth of a basaltic crust as a consequence of pressure-release partial melting of mantle. The early differentiation model incorporates the global dichotomy of the Mars surface and an early differentiation event that is assumed to have produced the primordial enriched southerly hemisphere crust. It is concluded that the differentiation model is too simplistic for Mars and that the homogeneous distribution model is more consistent with evidence from meteorites.

Breuer, D.; Spohn, T.; Wullner, U.

1993-04-01

38

A role for PHANTASTICA in medio-lateral regulation of adaxial domain development in tomato and tobacco leaves  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Diverse leaf forms in nature can be categorized into two groups: simple and compound. A simple leaf has a single blade unit, whilst a compound leaf is dissected into leaflets. For both simple and compound leaves, a MYB domain transcription factor PHANTASTICA (PHAN) plays an important role in establishing the adaxial domain in the leaf. Absence of PHAN in arabidopsis and antirrhinum leaves supresses blade development, and in tomato suppresses leaflet development. However, in the rachis and petiole regions of tomato leaves where PHAN and the adaxial domain coexist, it has been unclear why leaf blade and leaflets are not formed. We hypothesized that PHAN regulates the medio-lateral extent of the adaxial domain, thereby determining compound leaf architecture. Methods To test this hypothesis, we generated and analysed transgenic tomato plants expressing tomato PHAN (SlPHAN) under the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in both sense and antisense orientations, and tobacco plants that over-express tomato SlPHAN. Key Results Modulations in SlPHAN resulted in a variety of leaf morphologies such as simple, ternate and compound in either a peltate or non-peltate arrangement. Measurements of the extent of the adaxial domain along the wild-type tomato leaf axis showed that the adaxial domain is narrowed in the rachis and petiole in comparison with regions where laminar tissue arises. In antiSlPHAN transgenic leaves, no blade or leaflet was formed where the adaxial domain was medio-laterally narrowed, and KNOX gene expression was correlatively upregulated. CaMV35S::SlPHAN expression led to widening of the adaxial domain and ectopic blade outgrowth in the rachis of tomato and in the petiole of tobacco. Taken together, these results suggest that SlPHAN plays a role in medio-lateral extension of the adaxial domain and contributes to final leaf morphology in tomato. Conclusions This study provides a novel insight into leaf architecture in tomato and highlights how changes in the expression domain of a master regulator gene such as SlPHAN can be translated into diverse final leaf morphologies.

Zoulias, Nicholas; Koenig, Daniel; Hamidi, Ashley; McCormick, Sheila; Kim, Minsung

2012-01-01

39

Two Programs, Two Cultures: The Dichotomy of Science Teacher Preparation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper illustrates the rivalry and dichotomy between science and teacher education programs by describing and contrasting the nature of the two cultures. The two cultures are portrayed through a series of three contrasts: (1) "Weeding Out" vs. nurturing; (2) meritocratic vs. democratic; and (3) masculine vs. feminine. Two studies describing…

Duggan-Haas, Don

40

False Dichotomy? "Western" and "Confucian" Concepts of Scholarship and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discourses of "internationalisation" of the curriculum of Western universities often describe the philosophies and paradigms of "Western" and "Eastern" scholarship in binary terms, such as "deep/surface", "adversarial/harmonious", and "independent/dependent". In practice, such dichotomies can be misleading. They do not take account of the…

Ryan, Janette; Louie, Kam

2007-01-01

41

Will the Kraepelinian Dichotomy Survive DSM-V?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kraepelin proposed dementia praecox and manic-depressive illness as the two major psychotic disorders. This paradigm is still prevalent, but observations of overlapping boundaries between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia challenge this dichotomy. However, the concept of schizophrenia has been radically altered from the original Kraepelinian proposal. We defend the two psychoses positions, but suggest two flaws in the heuristic application: (1)

Bernard A Fischer; William T Carpenter

2009-01-01

42

MOLA Topography of the Crustal Dichotomy Boundary Zone, Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) profiles frequently cross the crustal dichotomy boundary where the transition zone (TZ) between cratered highland terrain (CT) and lowland smooth plains (SP) is marked by mesas and knobby terrain. The detailed topographic character of the boundary zone is longitudinally variable, as is the geomorphology of the TZ. Some portions of the boundary are associated with an outer ring of the Utopia impact basin; MOLA topography is consistent with this. The regional character of the boundary topography is a 2-4 km step function from nearly flat SP to almost as flat CT. This rise has a regional slope of 1-2 degrees, 50-100 times that of the Cr and SP away from TZ, which suggests a significant change in crustal properties (thickness, composition or both) across the TZ. The overall topography is very similar to that at some passive continent-oceanic crustal margins on the Earth, with the seafloor allowed to adjust upward after removal of the overlying water. A possible temporal constraint on the CT/SP elevation difference comes from two MOLA profiles which pass through two large (150 km diameter) craters located at the boundary in Aeolis. The N and S rims of the more degraded crater are at the same elevation; north of the N rim the topography drops by greater than 2 km to the floor of the TZ. This crater predates the elevation offset between CT and TZ floor. The better preserved crater (Gale) has a N rim 2 km lower than its S rim, and appears to have been emplaced on a pre-existing regional slope of about I degree. Gale probably post- dates the elevation difference between CT and TZ floor. Based on the stratigraphy of the units in which these craters are found, the elevation difference appears to have been in place in the Mid to Late Noachian.

Frey, Herbert V.; E. H., Susan; H., James

1998-01-01

43

Exponential stability, exponential expansiveness, and exponential dichotomy of evolution equations on the half-line  

Microsoft Academic Search

LetU=(U(t, s))t=s=O be an evolution family on the half-line of bounded linear operators on a Banach spaceX. We introduce operatorsGO,GX andIX on certain spaces ofX-valued continuous functions connected with the integral equation\\u000a$$u(t) = U(t,s)u(s) + \\\\int_s^t {U(t,\\\\xi )f(\\\\xi )d\\\\xi }$$\\u000a, and we characterize exponential stability, exponential expansiveness and exponential dichotomy ofU by properties ofGO,GX andIX, respectively. This extends

Nguyen Van Minh; Frank Räbiger; Roland Schnaubelt

1998-01-01

44

Implications of an impact origin for the martian hemispheric dichotomy.  

PubMed

The observation that one hemisphere of Mars is lower and has a thinner crust than the other (the 'martian hemispheric dichotomy') has been a puzzle for 30 years. The dichotomy may have arisen as a result of internal mechanisms such as convection. Alternatively, it may have been caused by one or several giant impacts, but quantitative tests of the impact hypothesis have not been published. Here we use a high-resolution, two-dimensional, axially symmetric hydrocode to model vertical impacts over a range of parameters appropriate to early Mars. We propose that the impact model, in addition to excavating a crustal cavity of the correct size, explains two other observations. First, crustal disruption at the impact antipode is probably responsible for the observed antipodal decline in magnetic field strength. Second, the impact-generated melt forming the northern lowlands crust is predicted to derive from a deep, depleted mantle source. This prediction is consistent with characteristics of martian shergottite meteorites and suggests a dichotomy formation time approximately 100 Myr after martian accretion, comparable to that of the Moon-forming impact on Earth. PMID:18580946

Nimmo, F; Hart, S D; Korycansky, D G; Agnor, C B

2008-06-26

45

The Mediolateral CoP Parameters can Differentiate the Fallers among the Community-dwelling Elderly Population  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] Age-related mediolateral (ML) instability of static postural control in the elderly has been well studied. Recent studies have provided evidence that ML center of pressure (CoP) parameters during dynamic postural control are more sensitive for differentiation of the fallers in the elderly. However, very limited studies have been done in which ML stability differences between fallers and non-fallers were investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in ML CoP parameters between elderly fallers and elderly non-fallers during dynamic postural control. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine community-dwelling older adults were divided into either fallers or non-fallers according to a self-report related to falling history within a year. Every participant performed 4 different tasks (static postural control tasks comprising quiet stance with eyes open and eyes closed and dynamic postural control tasks comprising stance with arm lifting and with trunk flexion) on force plates. [Results] The fallers demonstrated decreased AP and ML CoP parameters, and ML CoP distance was significantly smaller than in the non-fallers during both dynamic postural control tasks. [Conclusions] ML CoP parameters were able to differentiate the fallers from the non-fallers in a community-dwelling elderly population.

Park, Ji Won; Jung, Misook; Kweon, Migyoung

2014-01-01

46

How gravity and muscle action control mediolateral center of mass excursion during slow walking: a simulation study.  

PubMed

Maintaining mediolateral (ML) balance is very important to prevent falling during walking, especially at very slow speeds. The effect of walking speed on support and propulsion of the center of mass (COM) has been focus of previous studies. However, the influence of speed on ML COM control and the associated coupling with sagittal plane control remains unclear. Simulations of walking at very slow and normal speeds were generated for twelve healthy subjects. Our results show that gluteus medius (GMED) contributions to ML stability decrease, while its contributions to sagittal plane accelerations increase during very slow compared to normal walking. Simultaneously the destabilizing influence of gravity increases in ML direction at a very slow walking speed. This emphasizes the need for a tight balance between gravity and gluteus medius action to ensure ML stability. When walking speed increases, GMED has a unique role in controlling ML acceleration and therefore stabilizing ML COM excursion. Contributions of other muscles decrease in all directions during very slow speed. Increased contributions of these muscles are therefore required to provide for both stability and propulsion when walking speed increases. PMID:23816462

Jansen, Karen; De Groote, Friedl; Duysens, Jacques; Jonkers, Ilse

2014-01-01

47

Dichotomy in the definition of prescriptive information suggests both prescribed data and prescribed algorithms: biosemiotics applications in genomic systems.  

PubMed

The fields of molecular biology and computer science have cooperated over recent years to create a synergy between the cybernetic and biosemiotic relationship found in cellular genomics to that of information and language found in computational systems. Biological information frequently manifests its "meaning" through instruction or actual production of formal bio-function. Such information is called prescriptive information (PI). PI programs organize and execute a prescribed set of choices. Closer examination of this term in cellular systems has led to a dichotomy in its definition suggesting both prescribed data and prescribed algorithms are constituents of PI. This paper looks at this dichotomy as expressed in both the genetic code and in the central dogma of protein synthesis. An example of a genetic algorithm is modeled after the ribosome, and an examination of the protein synthesis process is used to differentiate PI data from PI algorithms. PMID:22413926

D'Onofrio, David J; Abel, David L; Johnson, Donald E

2012-01-01

48

Roughness of tempered exponential dichotomies for infinite-dimensional random difference equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study the roughness of tempered exponential dichotomies for linear random dynamical systems in Banach spaces. Such a dichotomy has a tempered bound and describes nonuniform hyperbolicity. We prove the roughness without assuming their invertibility and the integrability condition of the Multiplicative Ergodic Theorem. We give an explicit bound for the linear perturbation such that the dichotomy is persistent. We also obtain explicit forms for the exponent and the bound of tempered exponential dichotomy of the perturbed random system in terms of the original ones and the perturbations.

Zhou, Linfeng; Lu, Kening; Zhang, Weinian

49

Breaking the dichotomy of reactivity vs. chemoselectivity in catalytic SN1 reactions of alcohols.  

PubMed

The inability to decouple Lewis acid catalysis from undesirable Brønsted acid catalysed side reactions when water or other protic functional groups are necessarily present has forced chemists to choose between powerful but harsh catalysts or poor but mild ones, a dichotomy that restricts the substrate scope of dehydrative transformations such as the direct SN1 reaction of alcohols. A systematic survey of Lewis and Brønsted acids reveals that the strong non-hydrolyzable Lewis acid B(C6F5)3 leads to highly chemoselective alcohol substitution in the presence of acid-sensitive alkenes, protecting groups and other functional groups without the typical compromise in reaction rates, substrate scope and catalyst loading. PMID:24987941

Hellal, Malik; Falk, Florian C; Wolf, Eléna; Dryzhakov, Marian; Moran, Joseph

2014-07-16

50

Beyond the dichotomy: six religious views of homosexuality.  

PubMed

Using published theological and scholarly evidence, this article disrupts the stereotypical "born gay"/"sinful choice" dichotomy widely assumed to characterize religious views of homosexuality in the United States. It argues that we need to keep moral questions separate from questions about the fixity or fluidity of sexual orientation. Rather than two, American Christian and Jewish views of homosexuality can been seen on a range from the "God Hates Fags" view through "Love the Sinner, Hate the Sin," "We Don't Talk About That," "They Can't Help It," "God's Good Gift," and a queer-theological view of the "Godly Calling." PMID:24871867

Moon, Dawne

2014-09-01

51

Will The Kraepelinian Dichotomy Survive DSM-V?  

PubMed Central

Kraepelin proposed dementia praecox and manic-depressive illness as the two major psychotic disorders. This paradigm is still prevalent, but observations of overlapping boundaries between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia challenge this dichotomy. However, the concept of schizophrenia has been radically altered from the original Kraepelinian proposal. We defend the two psychoses position, but suggest two flaws in the heuristic application: 1) overlapping features such as psychotic symptoms are not decisive in differential diagnosis; and 2) each disorder is a syndrome, not a disease entity. An alternative paradigm based on domains of pathology is more powerful for studies of etiology, pathophysiology, and therapeutic discovery.

Fischer, Bernard A.; Carpenter, William T.

2009-01-01

52

Dichotomy of some satellites of the outer Solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently acquired by the Cas as ini' CIR a temperature map (11 -16 microns radiation) of small satellite Mimas caused a perplexity among the Cassini scientists (an interpretation of PIA12867). They expected to have a regular temperature map characteristic of a homogeneous spherical body heated by Sun. Instead, the bizarre map with two sharply divided temperature fields was produced (Fig. 1). The temperature difference between two fields is about 15 Kelvin that is rather remarkable. The warm part has typical temperature near 92 Kelvin, the cold part -about 77 Kelvin. Obviously there are two icy substances with different conductivity of heat composing two planetary segments (hemispheres). But in this result there is nothing new for explorers insisting for many years that all celestial bodies are tectonically dichotomous [1, 2, 3]. However, this new beautiful confirmat ion of the wave planetology theorem 1 (" Celes tial bodies are dichotomous ") is not s uperfluous , as many s cientis ts , es pecially in the USA, are not acquainted with the wave p lanetology. The fundamental wave 1 long 2?R warping any body aris es in them becaus e they move in elliptica l keple rian orbits with periodically changing acceleration. Having in rotating bodies (but all bodies rotate!) a stationary character and four interfering directions (ortho- and diagonal) these waves inevitably produce uplifting (+), subsiding (-), and neutral (0) tectonic blocks (Fig. 7). The uplifts and subsidences are in an opposition (the best examples are the terrestrial Eastern (+) and Western ( -) segments-hemispheres and mart ian Northern (-) and Southern (+) ones) [3]. The small icy Mimas (396 km in diameter) is no exclusion (Fig. 1). Its dichotomy is well pronounced in two temperature fields obviously reflect ing slightly different in composition icy materials composing two segments. Presence of two kinds of surface materials is also revealed by spectrometry under combination of the UV, green and IR emissions (Fig. 4). Around Herschel Crater material is more bluish than more greenish elsewhere (artificial colors). Presence of dark streaks on walls o f some craters also indicates at another than pure ice substance. The deep Herschel Crater on the cooler segment is somewhat warmer than surrounding terrains (Fig. 1). Thus, one may suppose that the warmer segment exposes deeper layers and is uplifted (+), the cooler segment is subsided (-). Important confirmat ions of Mimas ' dichotomy are s imi lar geometric patterns observed on Iapetus (black & white) (Fig. 2) and on Titania (Fig. 3). Such pattern can be caught under specific viewing point s of dichotomous structure. Figures 5 and 6 show dichotomies of Rhea and Dione. Fig. 7 gives a geometrical s cheme of getting dichotomies by wave interference.

Kochemasov, G. G.

2011-10-01

53

The Prokaryote-Eukaryote Dichotomy: Meanings and Mythology  

PubMed Central

Drawing on documents both published and archival, this paper explains how the prokaryote-eukaryote dichotomy of the 1960s was constructed, the purposes it served, and what it implied in terms of classification and phylogeny. In doing so, I first show how the concept was attributed to Edouard Chatton and the context in which he introduced the terms. Following, I examine the context in which the terms were reintroduced into biology in 1962 by Roger Stanier and C. B. van Niel. I study the discourse over the subsequent decade to understand how the organizational dichotomy took on the form of a natural classification as the kingdom Monera or superkingdom Procaryotae. Stanier and van Niel admitted that, in regard to constructing a natural classification of bacteria, structural characteristics were no more useful than physiological properties. They repeatedly denied that bacterial phylogenetics was possible. I thus examine the great historical irony that the “prokaryote,” in both its organizational and phylogenetic senses, was defined (negatively) on the basis of structure. Finally, we see how phylogenetic research based on 16S rRNA led by Carl Woese and his collaborators confronted the prokaryote concept while moving microbiology to the center of evolutionary biology.

Sapp, Jan

2005-01-01

54

Dichotomy and pseudogap signature in the Raman response of high- Tc cuprates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The signature of the pseudogap in the normal-state Raman response of high- Tc cuprates is examined within the rotating antiferromagnetism theory. The results for the B1g and B2g response functions, including spectral weight transfer and quasiparticle’s dichotomy, compare well with experiment. A pseudogap-induced peak in the B1g response is found to behave like the superconducting peak; the low-frequency B1g response behaves as ?a with ã3 in the clean limit, and a=1 in the dirty limit. Also, we find that the zero-frequency slopes for both B1g and B2g scale as the inverse (inverse squared) of the zero-frequency scattering rate in the clean limit (dirty limit).

Azzouz, M.; Hewitt, K. C.; Saadaoui, H.

2010-05-01

55

Martian Crustal Dichotomy: Product of Accretion and Not a Specific Event.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Attempts to explain the fundamental crustal dichotomy on Mars range from purely endogenic to extreme exogenic processes, but to date no satisfactory theory has evolved. What is accepted is: (1) the dichotomy is an ancient feature of the Martian crust, and...

H. Frey R. A. Schultz T. A. Maxwell

1987-01-01

56

Knowledge of Being v. Practice of Becoming in Higher Education: Overcoming the Dichotomy in the Humanities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay suggests ways to overcome what I take to be a widespread problem of a dichotomy between the knowledge of being and the practice of becoming and an emphasis on the former at the expense of the latter within contemporary Humanities at the university. First, I trace the genealogy of this dichotomy and its effects on contemporary…

Marquez, Ivan

2006-01-01

57

Cassini VIMS Preliminary Exploration of Titan's Surface Hemispheric Albedo Dichotomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present preliminary evidence that suggests a hemispheric albedo dichotomy on Titan, the largest planetary satellite in the Solar System. We have also studied the photometric properties of several dark circular features on Titan's surface to test if they might be of impact origin. The evidence is derived from photometric analysis of selected surface regions taken at different Titanian longitudes and solar phase angles using images from the Cassini Saturn Orbiter Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). The VIMS instrument is able to image Titan's surface at spectral windows (e.g. 2.02 microns) in its atmosphere where methane, the principal atmospheric absorber is transparent. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

Nelson, R. M.; Brown, R. H.; Hapke, B. W.; Smythe, W. D.; Kamp, L.; Boryta, M.; Baines, K. H.; Bellucci, G.; Bibring, J.-P.; Buratti, B. J.

2005-01-01

58

The Albedo Dichotomy of Iapetus Measured at UV Wavelengths  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dramatic hemispheric dichotomy in albedo displayed by Saturn's moon Iapetus has intrigued astronomers for centuries. Here we report on far-ultraviolet observations of Iapetus' bright and dark terrains from Cassini. We compare the reflectance spectra of Iapetus's dark terrain, Hyperion and Phoebe and find that both Phoebe and Hyperion are richer in water ice than Iapetus' dark terrain. Spectra of the lowest latitudes of the dark terrain display the diagnostic water ice absorption feature; water ice amounts increase within the dark material away from the apex (at 90 deg W longitude, the center of the dark leading hemisphere), consistent with thermal segregation of water ice. The water ice in the darkest, warmest low latitude regions is not expected to be stable and may be a sign of ongoing or recent emplacement of the dark material from an exogenic source.

Hendrix, Amanda R.; Hansen, Candice J.

2007-01-01

59

Workshop on Hemispheres Apart: The Origin and Modification of the Martian Crustal Dichotomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the Workshop on Hemispheres Apart: The Origin and Modification of the Martian Crustal Dichotomy, September 30-October 1, 2004, Houston, Texas.

2004-01-01

60

The Relationship Between Fracture Sets and the South-Polar Terrain Dichotomy on Enceladus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young fractured ice in the south-polar terrain (SPT) of Enceladus is separated from older regions of the moon by a narrow (9-50 km) band of deformation that defines a morphological dichotomy. The dichotomy is 100s of meters higher than the SPT and is divided into segments, some of which appear to be parallel fold-like structures and others that are dominated

D. A. Patthoff; S. A. Kattenhorn

2010-01-01

61

Dichotomy of X-Ray Jets in Solar Coronal Holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been found that there are two different types of X-ray jets observed in the Sun's polar coronal holes: standard jets and blowout jets. A proposed model of this dichotomy is that a standard jet is produced by a burst of reconnection of the ambient magnetic field with the opposite-polarity leg of the base arcade. In contrast, it appears that a blowout jet is produced when the interior of the arcade has so much pent-up free magnetic energy in the form of shear and twist in the interior field that the external reconnection unleashes the interior field to erupt open. In this project, X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes taken by Hinode were searched for X-ray jets. Co-temporal movies taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatory in 304 Å emission from He II, showing solar plasma at temperatures around 80,000 K, were examined for whether the identified blowout jets carry much more He II plasma than the identified standard jets. It was found that though some jets identified as standard from the X-ray movies could be seen in the He II 304 Å movies, the blowout jets carried much more 80,000 K plasma than did most standard jets. This finding supports the proposed model for the morphology and development of the two types of jets.

Robe, D. M.; Moore, R. L.; Falconer, D. A.

2012-12-01

62

A coordination chemistry dichotomy for icosahedral carborane-based ligands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the majority of ligands in modern chemistry take advantage of carbon-based substituent effects to tune the sterics and electronics of coordinating moieties, we describe here how icosahedral carboranes—boron-rich clusters—can influence metal-ligand interactions. Using a series of phosphine-thioether chelating ligands featuring meta- or ortho-carboranes grafted on the sulfur atom, we were able to tune the lability of the platinum-sulfur interaction of platinum(II)-thioether complexes. Experimental observations, supported by computational work, show that icosahedral carboranes can act either as strong electron-withdrawing ligands or electron-donating moieties (similar to aryl- or alkyl-based groups, respectively), depending on which atom of the carborane cage is attached to the thioether moiety. These and similar results with carborane-selenol derivatives suggest that, in contrast to carbon-based ligands, icosahedral carboranes exhibit a significant dichotomy in their coordination chemistry, and can be used as a versatile class of electronically tunable building blocks for various ligand platforms.

Spokoyny, Alexander M.; Machan, Charles W.; Clingerman, Daniel J.; Rosen, Mari S.; Wiester, Michael J.; Kennedy, Robert D.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Mirkin, Chad A.

2011-08-01

63

Reliability of mandibular canines as indicators for sexual dichotomy.  

PubMed

Introduction: Amongst the various calcified structures in the human body, teeth have gained lot of popularity in estimating the sex of an individual as they are highly resistant to destruction and decomposition. Using permanent mandibular canines many researchers have predicted a high level of accuracy in identifying the sex correctly. The purpose of our study was to gauge the effectiveness of mandibular canines in discerning sex. Materials & Methods: Fifty dental casts each of males and females were utilized for the study. Mesio-distal dimension and inter-canine distance of mandibular right and left canine was recorded using digital vernier caliper and mandibular canine index was calculated. Results: The mean value of mesio-distal dimensions of right and left mandibular canine was slightly greater in males compared to females. The mandibular canine index was equal in both sexes. Inter-canine distance was marginally higher in males compared to females. Despite of higher values in males none of the parameters were statistically significant. Conclusion: The results herein bolster contemporary studies that mesio-distal dimensions of mandibular canines and mandibular canine index do not reflect sexual dimorphism and that its application should be discontinued in sex prediction among Indian populations. How to cite this article: Hosmani J V, Nayak R S, Kotrashetti V S, Pradeep S, Babji D. Reliability of Mandibular Canines as Indicators for Sexual Dichotomy. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):1-7. PMID:24155571

Hosmani, Jagadish V; Nayak, Ramakant S; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S; S, Pradeep; Babji, Deepa

2013-02-01

64

Reliability of Mandibular Canines as Indicators for Sexual Dichotomy  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Amongst the various calcified structures in the human body, teeth have gained lot of popularity in estimating the sex of an individual as they are highly resistant to destruction and decomposition. Using permanent mandibular canines many researchers have predicted a high level of accuracy in identifying the sex correctly. The purpose of our study was to gauge the effectiveness of mandibular canines in discerning sex. Materials & Methods: Fifty dental casts each of males and females were utilized for the study. Mesio-distal dimension and inter-canine distance of mandibular right and left canine was recorded using digital vernier caliper and mandibular canine index was calculated. Results: The mean value of mesio-distal dimensions of right and left mandibular canine was slightly greater in males compared to females. The mandibular canine index was equal in both sexes. Inter-canine distance was marginally higher in males compared to females. Despite of higher values in males none of the parameters were statistically significant. Conclusion: The results herein bolster contemporary studies that mesio-distal dimensions of mandibular canines and mandibular canine index do not reflect sexual dimorphism and that its application should be discontinued in sex prediction among Indian populations. How to cite this article: Hosmani J V, Nayak R S, Kotrashetti V S, Pradeep S, Babji D. Reliability of Mandibular Canines as Indicators for Sexual Dichotomy. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):1-7.

Hosmani, Jagadish V; Nayak, Ramakant S; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S; S, Pradeep; Babji, Deepa

2013-01-01

65

Magnetometer Data Tests Models for the Origin of the Martian Crustal Dichotomy; Dichotomy Models Constrain Timing of Martian Magnetic Field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements recently supplied by the MGS Magnetometer/Electron Reflectometer (MAG/ER) on MGS can be applied to test theories of the origin of the martian crustal dichotomy. Strong (+/- 1500 nT) magnetic anomalies are observed in the Martian crust. The observations can be summarized as follows: 1) strong crustal magnetic sources are generally confined to the southern highlands, although weaker (approx. 40 nT) anomalies were observed during close periapsis; 2) strong magnetic anomalies are absent in the vicinity of Hellas and Argyre; 3) the anomalies in the region 0 deg to 90 deg S, 120 deg to 240 deg west have a linear geometry, strike generally east west for 1000s km, and show several reversals. This latter point has led to the suggestion that some form of lateral plate tectonics may have been operative in the southern highlands of Mars. These observations have led previous workers to hypothesize that the magnetic anomalies were present prior to and were destroyed by the formation of Hellas and Argyre. As such large impacts are confined to the era of heavy bombardment, this places the time of formation of large magnetic anomalies prior to approx. 3.9 Ga. One obvious extension of this is that the northern lowlands lack significant anomalies because they were erased by impacts and/or the northern lowlands represent crust completely reheated above the Curie temperature. Preliminary observations of the distributions of the large crustal magnetic anomalies show that many of them extend continuously over the highland lowland boundary. This occurs particularly north of the boundary between 30 deg W and 270 deg W, corresponding to northern Arabia, but also occurs in southern Elysium (approx. 10 deg S, 200 deg) and the SW portion of Tharsis (approx. 15 deg S, 140 deg). This suggests that, in these areas, Noachian crust containing the greater than 3.9 Ga magnetic signature, lies beneath the northern highlands. This geometry can be used to test models for the formation of the martian crustal dichotomy. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Gilmore, M. S.

1999-01-01

66

The RR Lyrae Period-Amplitude Relation as a Clueto the Origin of the Oosterhoff Dichotomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An examination of the period-V amplitude relation for RRab stars (fundamental mode pulsators) with ``normal'' light curves in the Oosterhoff type I clusters M3 and M107 and in the Oosterhoff type II clusters M9 and M68 reveals that the V amplitude for a given period is not a function of metal abundance. Rather, it is a function of the Oosterhoff type. This result is confirmed by published observations of RRab stars in M4, M5, and M92. A method devised by Jurcsik & Kovács has been used to determine whether the light curve of an RRab star is ``normal'' or ``peculiar.'' Although M3 is considered to belong to the Oosterhoff type I group, it has three bright RRab stars that seem to fit the period-amplitude relation for Oosterhoff type II RRab stars. There is evidence that these bright stars are in a more advanced evolutionary state than the other RRab stars in M3, thus leading to the conclusion that the Oosterhoff dichotomy is due to evolution. Our result gives support to the Lee, Demarque, & Zinn hypothesis that most RR Lyrae variables in Oosterhoff type I clusters are zero-age horizontal branch (ZAHB) objects, while those in the Oosterhoff type II clusters are more evolved. This may have important implications for the derived ages of Oosterhoff type II clusters. If their RR Lyrae variables have all evolved away from the ZAHB, then their ages have been overestimated in studies that assume they are ZAHB objects.

Clement, Christine M.; Shelton, Ian

1999-04-01

67

Dichotomy in Hedgehog Signaling between Human Healthy Vessel and Atherosclerotic Plaques  

PubMed Central

The major cause for plaque instability in atherosclerotic disease is neoangiogenic revascularization, but the factors controlling this process remain only partly understood. Hedgehog (HH) is a morphogen with important functions in revascularization, but its function in human healthy vessel biology as well as in atherosclerotic plaques has not been well investigated. Hence, we determined the status of HH pathway activity both in healthy vessels and atherosclerotic plaques. A series of 10 healthy organ donor–derived human vessels, 17 coronary atherosclerotic plaques and 24 atherosclerotic carotid plaques were investigated for HH pathway activity. We show that a healthy vessel is characterized by a high level of HH pathway activity but that atherosclerotic plaques are devoid of HH signaling despite the presence of HH ligand in these pathological structures. Thus, a dichotomy between healthy vessels and atherosclerotic plaques with respect to the activation status of the HH pathway exists, and it is tempting to suggest that downregulation of HH signaling contributes to long-term plaque stability.

Queiroz, Karla C S; Bijlsma, Maarten F; Tio, Rene A; Zeebregts, Clark J; Dunaeva, Marina; Ferreira, Carmen V; Fuhler, Gwenny M; Kuipers, Ernst J; Alves, Maria M; Rezaee, Farhad; Spek, C Arnold; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P

2012-01-01

68

A dichotomy in satellite quenching around L* galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the star formation properties of bright (˜0.1 L*) satellites around isolated ˜L* hosts in the local Universe using spectroscopically confirmed systems in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. Our selection method is carefully designed with the aid of N-body simulations to avoid groups and clusters. We find that satellites are significantly more likely to be quenched than a stellar mass-matched sample of isolated galaxies. Remarkably, this quenching occurs only for satellites of hosts that are themselves quenched: while star formation is unaffected in the satellites of star-forming hosts, satellites around quiescent hosts are more than twice as likely to be quenched than stellar-mass-matched field samples. One implication of this is that whatever shuts down star formation in isolated, passive L* galaxies also play at least an indirect role in quenching star formation in their bright satellites. The previously reported tendency for `galactic conformity' in colour/morphology may be a by-product of this host-specific quenching dichotomy. The Sérsic indices of quenched satellites are statistically identical to those of field galaxies with the same specific star formation rates, suggesting that environmental and secular quenching give rise to the same morphological structure. By studying the distribution of pairwise velocities between the hosts and satellites, we find dynamical evidence that passive host galaxies reside in dark matter haloes that are ˜45 per cent more massive than those of star-forming host galaxies of the same stellar mass. We emphasize that even around passive hosts, the mere fact that galaxies become satellites does not typically result in star formation quenching: we find that only ˜30 per cent of ˜0.1L* galaxies that fall in from the field are quenched around passive hosts, compared with ˜0 per cent around star-forming hosts.

Phillips, John I.; Wheeler, Coral; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bullock, James S.; Cooper, Michael C.; Tollerud, Erik J.

2014-01-01

69

THE ACS FORNAX CLUSTER SURVEY. IV. DEPROJECTION OF THE SURFACE BRIGHTNESS PROFILES OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN THE VIRGO AND FORNAX CLUSTERS: INVESTIGATING THE 'CORE/POWER-LAW DICHOTOMY'  

SciTech Connect

Although early observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) pointed to a sharp dichotomy among early-type galaxies in terms of the logarithmic slope {gamma}' of their central surface brightness profiles, several studies in the past few years have called this finding into question. In particular, recent imaging surveys of 143 early-type galaxies belonging to the Virgo and Fornax Clusters using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on board HST have not found a dichotomy in {gamma}', but instead a systematic progression from central luminosity deficit to excess relative to the inward extrapolation of the best-fitting global Sersic model. Given that earlier studies also found that the dichotomy persisted when analyzing the deprojected density profile slopes, we investigate the distribution of the three-dimensional luminosity density profiles of the ACS Virgo and Fornax Cluster Survey galaxies. Having fitted the surface brightness profiles with modified Sersic models, we then deproject the galaxies using an Abel integral and measure the inner slopes {gamma}{sub 3D} of the resulting luminosity density profiles at various fractions of the effective radius R{sub e} . We find no evidence of a dichotomy, but rather, a continuous variation in the central luminosity profiles as a function of galaxy magnitude. We introduce a parameter, {Delta}{sub 3D}, that measures the central deviation of the deprojected luminosity profiles from the global Sersic fit, showing that this parameter varies smoothly and systematically along the luminosity function.

Glass, Lisa [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Ferrarese, Laura; Cote, Patrick; Blakeslee, John P.; Chen, Chin-Wei [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Jordan, Andres; Infante, Leopoldo [Departamento de AstronomIa y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul 7820436, Santiago (Chile); Peng, Eric [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Mei, Simona [Bureau des Galaxies, Etoiles, Physique, Instrumentation (GEPI), University of Paris Denis Diderot, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Tonry, John L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); West, Michael J. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile)

2011-01-01

70

The ACS Fornax Cluster Survey. IV. Deprojection of the Surface Brightness Profiles of Early-type Galaxies in the Virgo and Fornax Clusters: Investigating the "Core/Power-law Dichotomy"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although early observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) pointed to a sharp dichotomy among early-type galaxies in terms of the logarithmic slope ?' of their central surface brightness profiles, several studies in the past few years have called this finding into question. In particular, recent imaging surveys of 143 early-type galaxies belonging to the Virgo and Fornax Clusters using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on board HST have not found a dichotomy in ?', but instead a systematic progression from central luminosity deficit to excess relative to the inward extrapolation of the best-fitting global Sérsic model. Given that earlier studies also found that the dichotomy persisted when analyzing the deprojected density profile slopes, we investigate the distribution of the three-dimensional luminosity density profiles of the ACS Virgo and Fornax Cluster Survey galaxies. Having fitted the surface brightness profiles with modified Sérsic models, we then deproject the galaxies using an Abel integral and measure the inner slopes ?3D of the resulting luminosity density profiles at various fractions of the effective radius Re . We find no evidence of a dichotomy, but rather, a continuous variation in the central luminosity profiles as a function of galaxy magnitude. We introduce a parameter, ?3D, that measures the central deviation of the deprojected luminosity profiles from the global Sérsic fit, showing that this parameter varies smoothly and systematically along the luminosity function.

Glass, Lisa; Ferrarese, Laura; Côté, Patrick; Jordán, Andrés; Peng, Eric; Blakeslee, John P.; Chen, Chin-Wei; Infante, Leopoldo; Mei, Simona; Tonry, John L.; West, Michael J.

2011-01-01

71

Geologic Evolution of the Martian Dichotomy and Plains Magnetization in the Ismenius Area of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global dichotomy divides the northern lowlands from the southern highlands, except where interrupted by relatively young volcanic provinces and impact basins. An elevation change of 2-4 km is typical across the dichotomy, and more than 6 km locally, over distances of several 100s km to as much as 1300 km [1,2]. A variety of exogenic and endogenic formation models have been proposed. Distinguishing between these models would help constrain the overall thermal evolution of the planet, possibly timing of core formation, and the associated mantle heat flux over time. A first step is to determine whether or not gravitational relaxation plays a role in modifying the boundary. Nimmo and Stevenson [3] examined 10 profiles across the dichotomy and used models of gravitational relaxation to conclude the relaxation has not occurred. In this study we begin by considering the geologic history in detail as inputs for modeling [4].

Smrekar, S. E.; McGill, G. E.; Raymond, C. A.; Dimitriou, A. M.

2004-01-01

72

Relaxation of the Martian Crustal Dichotomy Boundary in the Ismenius Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The origin of the Martian crustal dichotomy remains a puzzle that when solved can provide an insight to the geological and geophysical evolution of Mars. In this study we model crustal relaxation in order to better constrain the original topographic shape, rheology, and temperature of the Martian crust. Our approach is to model the detailed geologic history of the Ismenius region of Mars, including slope, strain, and timing of faulting [1]. This region may contain the best preserved section of the dichotomy boundary as it is relatively unaffected by large impacts and erosion. So far the only study Martian crustal relaxation [2] suggests that the original topographic shape of the dichotomy is preserved. However, in this area strain from faulting implies at least some relaxation [1].

Guest, A.; Smrekar, S. E.

2004-01-01

73

Constraints on Thermal Evolution of Mars from Relaxation Models of Crustal and Topographic Dichotomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The early thermal evolution of Mars is largely unconstrained. Models such as degree one convection [1,2,3], plate tectonics [4], and a transition to stagnant lid [5] have been proposed to explain formation of the dichotomy, the Tharsis rise, crustal production, and dynamo evolution. Here we model both the early deformation of the dichotomy and the long-term preservation as a means of examining the plausibility of a range of early thermal evolution models. Constraints include the preservation of crustal thickness and topographic differences between the northern and southern hemispheres and the geologic history of the dichotomy [6]). Our previous modeling indicates that the lower crust must have been weak enough to allow for relaxation early on, but the Martian interior had to cool fast enough to preserve the crustal difference and the associated topographic difference (5 km) over approx. 3-3.5 Gyr [7].

Guest, A.; Smrekar, S. E.

2005-01-01

74

(L(R,X),L(R,X))-admissibility and exponential dichotomies of cocycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the existence of (eventually no past) exponential and ordinary dichotomies of an exponentially bounded, strongly continuous cocycle { over a continuous semiflow ?. Our main tool is the (L(R,X),L(R,X))-admissibility condition (i.e. there exist p,q?[1,?], (p,q)?(1,?), such that for each input f?L(R,X) and ???, there exists x?X such that the output u(?;?,x,f):R?X, u(t;?,x,f)=?(?,t)x+?0t?(?(?,s),t-s)f(s) ds belongs to L(R,X)). We prove that the above admissibility condition implies that the output is bounded above by the input but nonuniformly with respect to ?. Requiring that the boundedness to be uniform with respect to ?, we prove that the above admissibility condition assures the existence of a no past exponential dichotomy for {. Variants for ordinary dichotomy and also complete characterizations for the exponential dichotomy of cocycles are obtained. It is worth to note that we involve a concept of a "no past" exponential dichotomy for cocycles weaker than the well-known concept defined by Sacker and Sell (1994) [33]. Our definition of exponential dichotomy follows partially the definition given in Chow and Leiva (1996) [2] in the sense that we allow the unstable subspace to have infinite dimension. The main difference is that we do not assume a priori that the cocycle is invertible on the unstable space (actually we do not even assume that the unstable space is invariant under the cocycle). Thus we generalize some known results due to Perron (1930) [23], Daleckij and Krein (1974) [6], Massera and Schäffer (1966) [14], Nguyen van Minh, Räbiger and R. Schnaubelt (1998) [18].

Preda, Ciprian

75

Constraints on the Evolution of the Dichotomy Boundary at 50-90E  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global dichotomy is a fundamental feature of Mars. It marks the boundary between the highly cratered, older southern highlands, and the northern plains. Recent analysis of buried craters in the northern lowlands confirms the long held suspicion that they are comparable in age to the southern highlands, but with surficial deposits of younger material. A variety of exogenic and endogenic models have been proposed for the origin of the dichotomy, including multiple impacts, plate tectonics, and degree one convection produced by core formation, a plume under the lowlands, or a plume under the highlands. New gravity and topography data from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mission favor endogenic processes. In this study we examine MGS topography, gravity and magnetic field data to constrain the tectonic history the dichotomy in the region 30-60N and 50-90E, which encompasses portions of the Ismenius Lacus quadrangle. The dichotomy formed very early the history of Mars and has undergone extensive modification by impact cratering, erosion, and faulting. This history must be carefully interpreted in order to reconstruct the original nature of the dichotomy boundary and ultimately discriminate between models of origin. In the study area boundary-parallel faults are well preserved, and may be the result of gravitational relaxation. The geologic history has been examined in detail, including estimates of volumes of material eroded. Further, it is one of the few regions where there is a correlation between the free air gravity, magnetic anomalies, and the geology. This allows to constrain subsurface faulting beneath the lowlands fill material. In addition to being an excellent location to unravel the complex history of the dichotomy, this area preserves the transition from a highly magnetized highlands crust to an unmagnetized or slightly magnetized lowlands crust.

Smrekar, S. E.; Raymond, C. A.; Dimitriou, A.; McGill, G. E.

2003-01-01

76

Wicksell’s Classical Dichotomy: Is the natural rate of interest independent of the money rate of interest?  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Wicksell’s Classical Dichotomy the money rate of interest depends on the natural rate of interest, but the latter does not depend on the former. If this Classical Dichotomy is false monetary policy may induce hysteresis because the natural rate of interest would depend upon the money rate of interest. We use data for Israel to test Wicksell’s Classical

Michael Beenstock; Alex Ilek

2010-01-01

77

The Magnetic Dichotomy of the Galilean Satellites Europa and Ganymede  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major discovery of the Galileo mission was the detection of Ganymede's self-generated magnetic field. The magnetic field also proves beyond doubt that Ganymede is fully differentiated into an iron-rich core, a silicate mantle, and an outer ice shell that most likely also contains an ocean. It is widely believed that Europa has a similar structure although the absence of a self-sustained magnetic field makes the case for a core in Europa less compelling. Since Callisto's moment-of-inertia factor suggests an undifferentiated satellite and since the absence of a magnetic of Io is best explained by tidal heating in the mantle blocking the heat flow from the core (Wienbruch and Spohn, 1995), Europa and Ganymede form a magnetic dichotomy in the Jovian system. We have used stagnant lid models of convection in the two icy satellites to calculate thermal history models with core cooling and have allowed for inner core growth through freezing. The models have stagnant lid convection or conduction in the outer ice shells (depending on material parameters), isothermal oceans, and, in the case of Ganymede, stagnant-lid convection in the ice shell underneath the ocean and above the rock mantle. For Europa the ocean interfaces with the rock mantle. We assume iron cores that start fully molten for both satellites, the radii of which were taken from Sohl et al. (2002). These models suggest that Europa has a few 100 km smaller core and thinner mantle and a substantially thinner ice shell. All but interior structure parameters equal, we find that core convection and hence dynamo action is more likely for Europa than for Ganymede. The reason are mainly the larger core and the thicker mantle. Accepting core convection in Ganymede, the question than poses itself of how to explain the absence of core convection in Europa. We find and will discuss the following possibilities: 1) Europa has no iron core. This is consistent with the observation but leaves the question why Ganymede should have fully differentiated while Europa did not. 2) A higher concentration of light elements in Europa's core. Taking Sulfur as a point in case, Europa may have more sulfur, in which case more cooling would be required to freeze the core, or may even be on the FeS rich side of the eutectic, in which case chemical convection could be less efficient in Europa. 3) Tidal heating. We find that a few times the present-day radiogenic heating rate would be required to possibly frustrate dynamo action. This much tidal heat is consistent with the models of Hussmann et al. (2002) Hussmann, H. et al., 2002. Icarus, 156, 143-151; Sohl, F. et al., 2002, Icarus, 157,104-119; Wienbruch, U. and T. Spohn, 1995, PSS, 43, 1045-1057

Breuer, D.; Hussmann, H.; Spohn, T.

2006-12-01

78

The Martian crustal dichotomy: Product of accretion and not a specific event?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attempts to explain the fundamental crustal dichotomy on Mars range from purely endogenic to extreme exogenic processes, but to date no satisfactory theory has evolved. What is accepted is: (1) the dichotomy is an ancient feature of the Martian crust, and (2) the boundary between the cratered highlands and northern plains which marks the dichotomy in parts of Mars has undergone significant and variable modification during the observable parts of Martian history. Some ascribe it to a single mega-impact event, essentially an instantaneous rearrangement of the crustal structures (topography and lithospheric thickness). Others prefer an internal mechanism: a period of vigorous convection subcrustally erodes the northern one third of Mars, causing foundering and isostatic lowering of that part of Mars. The evidence for each theory is reviewed, with the conclusion that there is little to recommend either. An alternative is suggested: the formation of the crustal dichotomy on Mars was not a specific tectonic event but a byproduct of the accretionary process and therefore a primordial characteristic of the Martian crust, predating the oldest recognizable landforms.

Frey, Herbert; Schultz, R. A.; Maxwell, T. A.

1987-01-01

79

Free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies and the Martian crustal dichotomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies from a 50x50 field, derived from re-analysis of Viking Orbiter and Mariner 9 tracking data and using a 50x50 expansion of the current Mars topography and the GSFC degree 50 geoid as the equipotential reference surface, with the Martian crustal dichotomy are compared. The spherical harmonic topography used has zero mean elevation, and differs from the USGS maps by about 2 km. In this field the dichotomy boundary in eastern Mars lies mostly at -1 to -2 km elevation. Bouguer gravity anomalies are shown on a map of Noachian, Hesperian, and Amazonian age terrains, simplified from current geologic maps. The map is centered at 300 deg W to show the continuity of the dichotomy boundary. Contour interval is 100 mgals. Gravity and topography were compared along approximately 40 profiles oriented parallel to the dichotomy boundary topographic gradient, to determine how the geophysical character of the boundary changes along its length and what this implies for its origin and development.

Frey, Herbert; Bills, Bruce G.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Nerem, R. Steven; Roark, James H.; Zuber, Maria T.

1993-01-01

80

Dichotomy, Dialectic and Dialogic: How Do Sociology Terms Assist Career Development Theory?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three concepts from sociology--dichotomy and two extensions, dialectic and dialogic--are considered here as social-psychological tools for career practitioners who analyse and investigate career patterns, career motivations and career pathways, whether at career start or at further points of transition. These terms have macro-social applications…

Burns, Edgar A. M.

2012-01-01

81

Implications of a transient–sustained dichotomy for the measurement of human performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence suggests that the human visual system has 2 components: a sustained system that will respond to static contrasts and a transient system that will only respond to rapid changes over time. The present research provided further support for a transient–sustained dichotomy of visual information processing by examining the effects of abrupt changes in visual stimulation in a variety

James T. Todd; Peter Van Gelder

1979-01-01

82

Trapped in the supranational-intergovernmental dichotomy: a response to Stone Sweet and Sandholtz  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a critical response to an article by Alec Stone Sweet and Wayne Sandholtz in the September 1997 issue of this journal in which they put forward a theory of European integration focused on supranational governance. We argue that this theory fails to address the key problem in current theorizing, namely the persistence of a supranational-intergovernmental dichotomy which

Ann P. Branch; Jakob C. Ohrgaard

1999-01-01

83

Beyond the market versus planning dichotomy: Understanding privatisation and its reverse in US cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

City service delivery requires planners and city managers to move beyond the public–private dichotomy and explore the benefits of interaction between markets and planning. Using International City County Management survey data on US local governments from 1992, 1997 and 2002, we find a shift where reverse contracting (re-internalisation) now exceeds the level of new contracting out (privatisation). We model how

Amir Hefetz; Mildred Warner

2007-01-01

84

Constraints on the formation of the Martian crustal dichotomy from remnant crustal magnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Martian crustal dichotomy characterizing the topographic difference between the northern and southern hemispheres is one of the most important features on Mars. However, the formation mechanism for the dichotomy remains controversial with two competing proposals: exogenic (e.g., a giant impact) and endogenic (e.g., degree-1 mantle convection) mechanisms. Another important observation is the Martian crustal remnant magnetism, which shows a much stronger field in the southern hemisphere than in the northern hemisphere and also magnetic lineations. In this study, we examine how exogenic and endogenic mechanisms for the crustal dichotomy are constrained by the crustal remnant magnetism. Assuming that the dichotomy is caused by a giant impact in the northern hemisphere, we estimate that the average thickness of ejecta in the southern hemisphere is 20-25 km. While such a giant impact may cause crustal demagnetization in the northern hemisphere, we suggest that the impact could also demagnetize the southern hemisphere via ejecta thermal blanketing, impact demagnetization, and heat transfer from the hot layer of ejecta, thus posing a challenge for the giant impact model. We explore how the pattern of magnetic lineations relates to endogenic theories of dichotomy formation, specifically crustal production via degree-1 mantle convection. We observe that the pattern of lineations roughly corresponds to concentric circles about a single pole, and determine the pole for the concentric circles at 76.5° E and 84.5° S, which nearly overlaps with the centroid of the thickened crust in the southern hemisphere. We suggest that the crustal magnetization pattern, magnetic lineations, and crustal dichotomy (i.e., thickened crust in the highlands) can be explained by a simple endogenic process; one-plume convection causes melting and crustal production above the plume in the southern hemisphere, and strong crustal magnetization and magnetic lineations are formed in the southern hemisphere as crustal production fronts spread radially out from the plume center and as the newly created crust cools in the presence of a dynamo with polarity reversals.

Citron, Robert I.; Zhong, Shijie

2012-12-01

85

Free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies and the Martian crustal dichotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies from a 50x50 field, derived from re-analysis of Viking Orbiter and Mariner 9 tracking data and using a 50x50 expansion of the current Mars topography and the GSFC degree 50 geoid as the equipotential reference surface, with the Martian crustal dichotomy are compared. The spherical harmonic topography used has zero mean elevation, and differs from

Herbert Frey; Bruce G. Bills; Walter S. Kiefer; R. Steven Nerem; James H. Roark; Maria T. Zuber

1993-01-01

86

The sense of smell, its signalling pathways, and the dichotomy of cilia and microvilli in olfactory sensory cells  

PubMed Central

Smell is often regarded as an ancillary perception in primates, who seem so dominated by their sense of vision. In this paper, we will portray some aspects of the significance of olfaction to human life and speculate on what evolutionary factors contribute to keeping it alive. We then outline the functional architecture of olfactory sensory neurons and their signal transduction pathways, which are the primary detectors that render olfactory perception possible. Throughout the phylogenetic tree, olfactory neurons, at their apical tip, are either decorated with cilia or with microvilli. The significance of this dichotomy is unknown. It is generally assumed that mammalian olfactory neurons are of the ciliary type only. The existance of so-called olfactory microvillar cells in mammals, however, is well documented, but their nature remains unclear and their function orphaned. This paper discusses the possibility, that in the main olfactory epithelium of mammals ciliated and microvillar sensory cells exist concurrently. We review evidence related to this hypothesis and ask, what function olfactory microvillar cells might have and what signalling mechanisms they use.

2007-01-01

87

Origin of the Martian global dichotomy by crustal thinning in the late Noachian or early Hesperian  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The marked dichotomy in topography, surface age, and crustal thickness between the northern lowland (NL) and southern upland of Mars has been explained as due to an initially inhomogeneous crust, a single megaimpact event, several overlapping large basin impacts, and first-order convective overtum of the Martian mantle. All of these hypotheses propose that the dichotomy was formed before the end of the primordial heavy bombardment. Geological data indicate episodes of fracturing and faulting in the late Noachian and the early Hesperian, within the NL and along the lowland/highland boundary. Igneous activity also peaked in the late Noachian and early Hesperian. These data suggest a tectonic event near the Noachian/Hesperian boundary characterized by enhanced heat loss and extensive fracturing, including formation of the faults that define much of the highland/lowland boundary. It is argued that the major result of this tectonic event was formation of the dichotomy by thinning of the crust above a large convection cell or plume.

McGill, George E.; Dimitriou, Andrew M.

1990-08-01

88

Reciprocal Activation of Transcription Factors Underlies the Dichotomy between Proliferation and Invasion of Glioma Cells  

PubMed Central

Histology of malignant glioma depicts dense proliferative areas rich in angiogenesis as well as dissemination of neoplastic cells into adjacent brain tissue. Although the mechanisms that trigger transition from proliferative to invasive phenotypes are complex, the dichotomy of cell proliferation and migration, the “Go or Grow” hypothesis, argues for specific and coordinated regulation of these phenotypes. We investigated transcriptional elements that accompany the phenotypes of migration and proliferation, and consider the therapeutic significance of the “Go or Grow” hypothesis. Interrogation of matched core and rim regions from human glioblastoma biopsy specimens in situ (n?=?44) revealed higher proliferation (Ki67 labeling index) in cells residing at the core compared to the rim. Profiling activated transcription factors in a panel of migration-activated versus migration-restricted GBM cells portrayed strong NF-?B activity in the migratory cell population. In contrast, increased c-Myc activity was found in migration-restricted proliferative cells. Validation of transcriptional activity by NF-?B- or c-Myc-driven GFP or RFP, respectively, showed an increased NF-?B activity in the active migrating cells, whereas the proliferative, migration restricted cells displayed increased c-Myc activity. Immunohistochemistry on clinical specimens validated a robust phosphorylated c-Myc staining in tumor cells at the core, whereas increased phosphorylated NF-?B staining was detected in the invasive tumor cells at the rim. Functional genomics revealed that depletion of c-Myc expression by siRNA oligonucleotides reduced cell proliferation in vitro, but surprisingly, cell migration was enhanced significantly. Conversely, inhibition of NF-?B by pharmacological inhibitors, SN50 or BAY-11, decreased both cell migration in vitro and invasion ex vivo. Notably, inhibition of NF-?B was found to have no effect on the proliferation rate of glioma cells. These findings suggest that the reciprocal and coordinated suppression/activation of transcription factors, such as c-Myc and NF-?B may underlie the shift of glioma cells from a “growing-to-going” phenotype.

Dhruv, Harshil D.; McDonough Winslow, Wendy S.; Armstrong, Brock; Tuncali, Serdar; Eschbacher, Jenny; Kislin, Kerri; Loftus, Joseph C.; Tran, Nhan L.; Berens, Michael E.

2013-01-01

89

Neither metaphysical dichotomy nor pure identity: clarifying the emergentist creed.  

PubMed

Emergentism is often misleadingly described as a monolithic "third way" between radical monism and pluralism. In the particular case of biology, for example, emergentism is perceived as a middle course between mechanicism and vitalism. In the present paper I propose to show that the conceptual landscape between monism and pluralism is more complex than this classical picture suggests. On the basis of two successive analyses-distinguishing three forms of tension between monism and pluralism and a distinction between derivational and functional reduction-I define three different versions of emergentism that can be considered as consistent middle courses between monism and pluralism (respectively theoretical, explanatory and causal emergence). I then emphasise the advantage of this taxonomy of the concepts of emergence by applying the results of my analysis to the historical controversy that pertains to the relationship between life and matter. PMID:23701955

Sartenaer, Olivier

2013-09-01

90

The stressful condition as a nutritionally dependent adaptive dichotomy.  

PubMed

The injured body manifests a cascade of cytokine-induced metabolic events aimed at developing defense mechanisms and tissue repair. Rising concentrations of counterregulatory hormones work in concert with cytokines to generate overall insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), postreceptor resistance and energy requirements grounded on lipid dependency. Salient features are self-sustained hypercortisolemia persisting as long as cytokines are oversecreted and down-regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis stabilized at low basal levels. Inhibition of thyroxine 5'-deiodinating activity (5'-DA) accounts for the depressed T3 values associated with the sparing of both N and energy-consuming processes. Both the liver and damaged territories adapt to stressful signals along up-regulated pathways disconnected from the central and peripheral control systems. Cytokines stimulate liver 5'-DA and suppress the synthesis of transthyretin (TTR), causing the drop of retinol-binding protein (RBP) and the leakage of increased amounts of T4 and retinol in free form. TTR and RBP thus work as prohormonal reservoirs of precursor molecules which need to be converted into bioactive derivatives (T3 and retinoic acids) to reach transcriptional efficiency. The converting steps (5'-DA and cellular retinol-binding protein-I) are activated by T4 and retinol, themselves operating as limiting factors of positive feedback loops. Healthy adults with normal macrophage functioning and liver parenchymal integrity, who submitted to a stress of medium severity, are characterized by TTR-RBP plasma levels reduced by half and an estimated ten-fold increase in free ligand disposal to target cells during the days ensuing injury. This transient hyperthyroid and hyperretinoid climate creates a second defense line strengthening and fine-tuning the effects primarily initiated by cytokines. The suicidal behavior of thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and IGFBP-3 allows the occurrence of peak endocrine and mitogenic influences at the site of inflammation. The production rate of TTR by the liver is the main determinant of both the hepatic release and blood transport of holoRBP, which explains why poor nutritional status concomitantly impairs thyroid- and retinoid-dependent acute-phase responses, hindering the stressed body to appropriately face the survival crisis. The prognostic significance of low TT4 blood levels may be assigned to the exhaustion of extrathyroidal hormonal pools normally stored in liver and plasma but markedly shrunken in protein-depleted states. These data offer new insights into the mechanisms whereby preexisting malnutrition and stressful complications are interrelated, emphasizing the pivotal role played by TTR in that context. PMID:10319365

Ingenbleek, Y; Bernstein, L

1999-04-01

91

Constraints on the radio-loud/radio-quiet dichotomy from the Fundamental Plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fundamental Plane for black hole activity constitutes a tight correlation between jet power, X-ray luminosity, and black hole mass. Under the assumption that a Blandford-Znajek-type mechanism, which relies on black hole spin, contributes non-negligibly to jet production, the sufficiently small scatter in the Fundamental Plane shows that black hole spin differences of |?a| ˜ 1 are not typical among the active galactic nuclei population. If - as it seems - radio-loud and radio-quiet objects are both faithful to the Fundamental Plane, models of black hole accretion in which the radio-loud/radio-quiet dichotomy is based on a spin dichotomy of a˜1/a˜0, respectively, are difficult to reconcile with the observations. We show how recent theoretical work based on differences in accretion flow orientation between retrograde and prograde, accommodates a small scatter in the Fundamental Plane for objects that do have non-negligible differences in black hole spin values. We also show that the dichotomy in spin between the most radio loud and the most radio quiet involves |?a| ? 0. And, finally, we show how the picture that produces compatibility with the Fundamental Plane, also allows one to interpret other otherwise puzzling observations of jets across the mass scale including (1) the recently observed inverse relation between radio and X-rays at higher Eddington ratios in both black hole X-ray binaries as well as active galactic nuclei and (2) the apparent contradiction between jet power and black hole spin observed in X-ray hard and transitory burst states in X-ray binaries.

Garofalo, David; Kim, Matthew I.; Christian, Damian J.

2014-08-01

92

Regional Studies of Highland-Lowland Age Differences Across the Mars Crustal Dichotomy Boundary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Regional differences in crater retention ages (CRAs) across the Mars dichotomy boundary are compared to the global highland-lowland age difference previously determined from visible and buried impact basins based on MOLA-derived Quasi-Circular Depressions (QCDs). Here Western Arabia (WA) is compared with Ismenius Lacus (IL). We find the buried lowlands in the two regions have total CRAs essentially identical to the global average. Even more intriguing, the WA cratered terrain appears to have a CRA like that of the adjacent buried lowlands,

Frey, H. V.; DeSoto, G. E.; Lazrus, R. M.

2005-01-01

93

On the dichotomy in auditory perception between temporal envelope and fine structure cues (L)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is important to know what cues the sensory system extracts from natural stimuli and how the brain uses them to form perception. To explore this issue, Smith, Delgutte, and Oxenham [Nature (London) 416, 87-90 (2002)] mixed one sound's temporal envelope with another sound's fine temporal structure to produce auditory chimaeras and found that ``the perceptual importance of the envelope increases with the number of frequency bands, while that of the fine structure diminishes.'' This study addressed two technical issues related to natural cochlear filtering and artificial filter ringing in the chimaerizing algorithm. In addition, this study found that the dichotomy in auditory perception revealed by auditory chimaeras is an epiphenomenon of the classic dichotomy between low- and high-frequency processing. Finally, this study found that the temporal envelope determines sound location as long as the interaural level difference cue is present. The present result reinforces the original hypothesis that the temporal envelope is critical for speech perception whereas temporal fine structure is critical for pitch perception, but does not support the assertion regarding the temporal envelope and fine structure as the acoustic basis for the ``what'' and ``where'' mechanisms.

Zeng, Fan-Gang; Nie, Kaibao; Liu, Sheng; Stickney, Ginger; del Rio, Elsa; Kong, Ying-Yee; Chen, Hongbin

2004-09-01

94

Impact Constraints on the Age and Origin of the Crustal Dichotomy on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MOLA data have revealed a large population of 'Quasi-Circular Depressions' (QCDs) with little or no visible expression in image data. These likely buried impact basins have important implications for the age of the lowland crust, how that compares with original highland crust, and when and how the crustal dichotomy may have formed. The buried lowlands are of Early Noachian age, likely slightly younger than the buried highlands but older than the exposed (visible) highland surface. A depopulation of large visible basins at diameters 800 to 1300 km suggests some global scale event early in martian history, maybe related to the formation of the lowlands and/or the development of Tharsis. A suggested early disappearance of the global magnetic field can be placed within a temporal sequence of formation of the very largest impact basins. The global field appears to have disappeared at about the time the lowlands formed. It seems likely the topographic crustal dichotomy was produced very early in martian history by processes which operated very quickly. This and the preservation of large relic impact basins in the northern hemisphere, which themselves can account for the lowland topography, suggest that large impacts played the major role in the origin Mars fundamental crustal feature.

Frey, Herbert V.

2004-01-01

95

Impact Constraints on the Age and Origin of the Crustal Dichotomy on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MOLA data have revealed a large population of "Quasi-Circular Depressions" (QCDs) with little or no visible expression in image data. These likely buried impact basins have important implications for the age of the lowland crust, how that compares with original highland crust, and when and how the crustal dichotomy may have formed. The buried lowlands are of Early Noachian age, likely slightly younger than the buried highlands but older than the exposed (visible) highland surface. A depopulation of large visible basins at diameters 800 to 1300 km suggests some global scale event early in martian history, maybe related to the formation of the lowlands andor the development of Tharsis. A suggested early disappearance of the global magnetic field can be placed within a temporal sequence of formation of the very largest impact basins. The global field appears to have disappeared at about the time the lowlands formed. It seems likely the topographic crustal dichotomy was produced very early in martian history by processes which operated very quickly. This and the preservation of large relic impact basins in the north- em hemisphere, which themselves can account for the lowland topography, suggest that large impacts played the major role in the origin Mars fundamental crustal feature.

Frey, H. V.

2004-01-01

96

EphB2 receptor controls proliferation/migration dichotomy of glioblastoma by interacting with focal adhesion kinase  

PubMed Central

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are the most frequent and aggressive primary brain tumors in adults. Uncontrolled proliferation and abnormal cell migration are two prominent spatially and temporally disassociated characteristics of GBMs. In this study, we investigated the role of the receptor tyrosine kinase EphB2 in controlling the proliferation/migration dichotomy of GBM. We studied EphB2 gain-of-function and loss-of function in glioblastoma-derived stem-like neurospheres (GBM-SCs), whose in vivo growth pattern closely replicates human GBM. EphB2 expression stimulated GBM neurosphere cell migration and invasion, and inhibited neurosphere cell proliferation in vitro. In parallel, EphB2 silencing increased tumor cell proliferation and decreased tumor cell migration. EphB2 was found to increase tumor cell invasion in vivo using an internally controlled dual-fluorescent xenograft model. Xenografts derived from EphB2 overexpressing GBM neurospheres also showed decreased cellular proliferation. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase focal adhesion kinase (FAK) was found to be co-associated with and highly activated by EphB2 expression and FAK activation facilitated focal adhesion formation, cytoskeleton structure change and cell migration in EphB2-expression GBM neurosphere cells. Taken together, our findings indicate that EphB2 has pro-invasive and anti-proliferative actions in GBM stem-like neurospheres mediated, in part, by interactions between EphB2 receptors and FAK. These novel findings suggest that tumor cell invasion can be therapeutically targeted by inhibiting EphB2 signaling and that optimal anti-tumor responses to EphB2 targeting may require the concurrent use of anti-proliferative agents.

Wang, Shervin D.; Rath, Prakash; Lal, Bachchu; Richard, Jean-Philippe; Li, Yunqing; Goodwin, C. Rory; Laterra, John; Xia, Shuli

2012-01-01

97

A psychoneuroimmunological perspective to Emil Kraepelins dichotomy: schizophrenia and major depression as inflammatory CNS disorders.  

PubMed

The Kraepelinian classification of psychiatric disorders, in particular the dichotomy of dementia praecox and manic-depressive psychosis is under discussion since a long time. In recent years, not only new research in the fields of psychopathology and clinical outcome, but also findings of biological markers in the areas of neurophysiology, neuroendocrinology, psychoneuroimmunology, genetics, or psychopharmacology show a big overlap between both groups of disorders. This overlap of symptoms and markers of both disorders intensified the discussion and the proposals for new criteria for the classification of psychiatric disorders. By means of findings from the field of psychoneuroimmunology and inflammation it will be shown that different pathological mechanisms in depression and schizophrenia may lead to the same final common pathway of inflammation. These mechanisms include the immunological balance between type-1 and type-2 immune activation which influences the tryptophan-degradating enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in the CNS in opposite ways, leading to an altered availability of tryptophan and serotonin, and a disturbance of the kynurenine metabolism with an imbalance in favor of the production of the NMDA-receptor agonist quinolinic acid in depression and of the NMDA-receptor antagonist kynurenic acid in schizophrenia. In both disorders, however, an increased production of prostaglandin E2 and increased expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 reflect a slight inflammatory process taking place probably in different regions of the CNS. Albeit this common inflammatory pathway--inflammation is a general pathway of the body as answer to a lot of different noxae and pathogens--the Kraepelinian dichotomy is important with respect to pathological mechanisms and therapeutic approaches, not only for further research in understanding the exact pathological mechanisms but also for the development of preventive strategies in high risk individuals and in patients. Opposite pathways regarding the immune activation, the neurotoxic versus neuroprotective kynurenine metabolites and the agonistic versus antagonistic effects on the NMDA receptor and the glutamatergic neurotransmission show despite a possible therapeutic advantage of anti-inflammatory therapy in both disorders that the Kraepelinian dichotomy still has a significant value from a biologic-psychiatric point of view. PMID:18516521

Müller, Norbert; Schwarz, Markus J

2008-06-01

98

The Crustal Dichotomy Boundary West of Tempe Terra: Speculation on Where it Lies Beneath Alba Patera Based on Mola Topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MOLA gridded data based on profiles collected during the Aerobraking Hiatus and Science Phasing Operations suggest the crustal dichotomy boundary west of Tempe continues beneath Alba volcanics, at least to 105 W at about 50 N. A broad shelf-like region in the Alba units is continuous with a similar region of Tempe in which Hesperian volcanics overlie Noachian cratered terrain. Perspective views show significant changes in the sloping character of the flanks of Alba east and west of 105W, with much more continuous steep topography to the west. We suggest that Alba sits astride the ancient crustal dichotomy boundary, not adjacent to it, and that its eastern half lies on old cratered terrain. If true, this would significantly affect the estimate of Alba volcanics volumes, and might also explain some of the observed asymmetries in the structure and the distribution of faults associated with this immense feature.

Frey, H.; Roark, J.; Sakimoto, S.; McGovern, P.

1999-01-01

99

Dichotomy of decorin activity on the insulin-like growth factor-I system  

PubMed Central

The stromal-specific proteoglycan decorin has emerged in recent years as a critical regulator of tumor initiation and progression. Decorin regulates the biology of various types of cancer by modulating the activity of several tyrosine-kinase receptors coordinating growth, survival, migration, and angiogenesis. Decorin binds to surface receptors for the epidermal and hepatocyte growth factors (EGF and HGF) with high affinity and negatively regulates their activity and signaling via robust internalization and eventual degradation. The insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) system plays a critical role in the regulation of cell growth both in vivo and in vitro. The IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) is also essential for cellular transformation due to its ability to enhance cell proliferation and protect cancer cells from apoptosis. Recent data have pointed out a role of decorin in regulating the IGF-I system in both non-transformed and transformed cells. Significantly, there is a surprising dichotomy in the mechanisms of decorin action on IGF-IR signaling, which considerably differs between physiological and pathological cellular models. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on decorin regulation of the IGF-I system in normal and transformed cells, and discuss possible decorin-based therapeutic approaches to target IGF-IR-driven tumors.

Morrione, Andrea; Neill, Thomas; Iozzo, Renato V.

2013-01-01

100

Massive Quiescent Cores in Orion: Dichotomy in the Dynamical Status of Cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the evolution of high mass cores we have searched for evidence of collapse motions in a large sample of starless cores in the Orion molecular cloud. We used the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory telescope to obtain spectra of the optically thin (H13CO+) and optically thick (HCO+) high density tracer molecules in 27 cores with masses > 1 MO. The red- and blue-asymmetries seen in the line profiles of the optically thick line with respect to the optically thin line indicate that 2/3 of these cores are not static and we interpret these as evidence for inward or outward motions in 19 cores. We present RATRAN radiative transfer models of these cores that support the interpretation of inward and outward motion consistent with the observed spectral asymmetries. Thus we detect infall (inward motions) in 9 cores and outward motions for 10 cores, suggesting a dichotomy in the kinematic state in this sample. This population of massive molecular cloud cores is in general likely to be dynamic, out-of-equilibrium structures, rather than quasi-hydro/magneto-static structures. Our results provide an important observational constraint on the fraction of collapsing (inward motions) versus non-collapsing (re-expanding) cores for comparison with model simulations. This work was performed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Research at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory is supported by NSF grant AST-0229008.

Velusamy, Thangasamy; Goldsmith, P. F.; Li, D.; Langer, W. D.; Pineda, J. L.; Peng, R.

2009-01-01

101

Tracing the Origins of the Relativistic Jet Dichotomy - Accretion Mode, Spin, or Something More?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many unanswered, yet central questions regarding radio-loud AGN. Though several physical mechanisms have been put forward, from the 'spin paradigm' to magnetically arrested disks, we do not yet know how relativistic jets are produced, nor do we know what kinds of plasma are being accelerated or even for certain how long they remain relativistic. Differences in black hole spin, accretion mode, and/or the merger history and extragalactic environment have all been invoked to explain both the presence and differences among relativistic jets, yet we lack a unifying picture which explains this coherently. My recent work (Meyer et al., 2011) represents the start of a major shift in our understanding of radio-loud AGN unification, showing through multi-wavelength studies of large populations that there exists a dichotomy in jetted AGN, between ‘strong’ jets of higher kinetic powers and ‘weak’ jets, associated with efficient and inefficient accretion modes, respectively (Meyer et al., 2011, 2012) as first suggested by Ghisellini et al. (2009) . This work has already brought many observations into agreement that were in conflict under the previous unification schemes and may open a way forward to finally solving some of the big questions about the physical origins of large-scale relativistic jets from supermassive black holes.

Meyer, Eileen T.; Georganopoulos, M.; Fossati, G.; Lister, M. L.

2013-04-01

102

Dichotomy of rhinoplasty practice: from the conference floor to the operating room.  

PubMed

Advancements in surgical techniques and improvements in clinical practice inevitably lag behind scientific progress and peer-led opinion. The rapid rise and fall in the popularity of rhinoplasty techniques makes scientific evidence-gathering and education a daunting task. Students of rhinoplasty face a long and steep learning curve, and need to acquire sound analytical tools to critically evaluate both literature contributions and operative reports shown in conferences. Such a complex learning process requires continuous self-examination, and must account for the increasingly sophisticated and intricate wishes of rhinoplasty patients whose desires do not always coincide with what surgeons have been taught and practiced. In contemporary practice, the developing rhinoplasty surgeon must be also familiar with the range of racial features, as the broad variety of nasal anatomies and beauty canons are truly staggering, and one formula does not fit all cases.The complex set of circumstances that lead to disharmony between scientific progress and clinical practice is addressed, and a utilitarian plan to remedy this awkward dichotomy is suggested. PMID:24810121

Palma, Pietro; Khodaei, Iman

2014-04-01

103

Geologic Evolution of the Martian Dichotomy in the Ismenius Area of Mars and Implications for Plains Magnetization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The origin of the Martian dichotomy, which divides highlands from lowlands, is unknown. We examine a section of the dichotomy ( 50 - 90E) defined by steep scarps and normal faults. Stratigraphy and age relationships preclude the formation of the 2.5 km high boundary via erosion. The abrupt disappearance of topographic knobs similar to 300 - 500 km to the northeast is interpreted as a buried fault. Alignment of the buried fault with grabens, stratigraphy, and age determinations using crater counts indicate that the lowland bench is down faulted highlands crust. The estimated local strain (3.5%) and fault pattern are broadly consistent with gravitational relaxation of a plateau boundary. Magnetic and gravity anomalies occur on either side of the buried fault. Admittance analysis indicates isostatic compensation. Although nonunique, a model with a 10 km thick intracrustal block under the lowland bench, a 20 km thick block under the plains, and an excess density of 200 kg/m(3) provides a good fit to the isostatic anomaly. A good fit to a profile of the magnetic field perpendicular to the dichotomy is produced using uniformly polarized intracrustal blocks 10 - 20 km thick, an intensity of 6 Am/m, a field inclination of -30 degrees, and gaps aligned with the isostatic anomalies. One interpretation is that high-density intrusions demagnetized the crust after dynamo cessation and that low-lying magnetized areas could be down faulted highlands crust. Another model (inclination of 30 degrees) has magnetized crust beneath the isostatic anomalies, separated by gaps. The gaps could result from hydrothermal alteration of the crust along fault zones.

Smrekar, S. E.; McGill, G. E.; Raymond, C. A.; Dimitriou, A. M.

2004-01-01

104

DISCLOSING THE RADIO LOUDNESS DISTRIBUTION DICHOTOMY IN QUASARS: AN UNBIASED MONTE CARLO APPROACH APPLIED TO THE SDSS-FIRST QUASAR SAMPLE  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the dichotomy in the radio loudness distribution of quasars by modeling their radio emission and various selection effects using a Monte Carlo approach. The existence of two physically distinct quasar populations, the radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, is controversial and over the last decade a bimodal distribution of radio loudness of quasars has been both affirmed and disputed. We model the quasar radio luminosity distribution with simple unimodal and bimodal distribution functions. The resulting simulated samples are compared to a fiducial sample of 8300 quasars drawn from the SDSS DR7 Quasar Catalog and combined with radio observations from the FIRST survey. Our results indicate that the SDSS-FIRST sample is best described by a radio loudness distribution which consists of two components, with (12 {+-} 1)% of sources in the radio-loud component. On the other hand, the evidence for a local minimum in the loudness distribution (bimodality) is not strong and we find that previous claims for its existence were probably affected by the incompleteness of the FIRST survey close to its faint limit. We also investigate the redshift and luminosity dependence of the radio loudness distribution and find tentative evidence that at high redshift radio-loud quasars were rarer, on average louder, and exhibited a smaller range in radio loudness. In agreement with other recent work, we conclude that the SDSS-FIRST sample strongly suggests that the radio loudness distribution of quasars is not a universal function, and that more complex models than presented here are needed to fully explain available observations.

Balokovic, M. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Smolcic, V. [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie, Auf dem Hugel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ivezic, Z. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Zamorani, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Schinnerer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kelly, B. C. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

2012-11-01

105

Disclosing the Radio Loudness Distribution Dichotomy in Quasars: An Unbiased Monte Carlo Approach Applied to the SDSS-FIRST Quasar Sample  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the dichotomy in the radio loudness distribution of quasars by modeling their radio emission and various selection effects using a Monte Carlo approach. The existence of two physically distinct quasar populations, the radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, is controversial and over the last decade a bimodal distribution of radio loudness of quasars has been both affirmed and disputed. We model the quasar radio luminosity distribution with simple unimodal and bimodal distribution functions. The resulting simulated samples are compared to a fiducial sample of 8300 quasars drawn from the SDSS DR7 Quasar Catalog and combined with radio observations from the FIRST survey. Our results indicate that the SDSS-FIRST sample is best described by a radio loudness distribution which consists of two components, with (12 ± 1)% of sources in the radio-loud component. On the other hand, the evidence for a local minimum in the loudness distribution (bimodality) is not strong and we find that previous claims for its existence were probably affected by the incompleteness of the FIRST survey close to its faint limit. We also investigate the redshift and luminosity dependence of the radio loudness distribution and find tentative evidence that at high redshift radio-loud quasars were rarer, on average louder, and exhibited a smaller range in radio loudness. In agreement with other recent work, we conclude that the SDSS-FIRST sample strongly suggests that the radio loudness distribution of quasars is not a universal function, and that more complex models than presented here are needed to fully explain available observations.

Balokovi?, M.; Smol?i?, V.; Ivezi?, Ž.; Zamorani, G.; Schinnerer, E.; Kelly, B. C.

2012-11-01

106

Individuality beyond the Dichotomy of "Small Self and Big Self" in Contemporary Chinese Education: Lessons from Hu Shi and Liang Shuming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article identifies the problem that an instrumentalist mode of thinking dominates China's contemporary education practice and suggests that the dichotomy between the "small self and big self," a notion that has been present throughout modern Chinese history, exacerbates this instrumentalism. It parallels the loss of…

Zhang, Huajun

2013-01-01

107

The Cool Component and the Dichotomy, Lateral Expansion, and Axial Rotation of Solar X-Ray Jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from a study of 54 polar X-ray jets that were observed in coronal X-ray movies from the X-ray Telescope on Hinode and had simultaneous coverage in movies of the cooler transition region (T ~ 105 K) taken in the He II 304 Å band of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on Solar Dynamics Observatory. These dual observations verify the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of polar X-ray jets previously found primarily from XRT movies alone. In accord with models of blowout jets and standard jets, the AIA 304 Å movies show a cool (T ~ 105 K) component in nearly all blowout X-ray jets and in a small minority of standard X-ray jets, obvious lateral expansion in blowout X-ray jets but none in standard X-ray jets, and obvious axial rotation in both blowout X-ray jets and standard X-ray jets. In our sample, the number of turns of axial rotation in the cool-component standard X-ray jets is typical of that in the blowout X-ray jets, suggesting that the closed bipolar magnetic field in the jet base has substantial twist not only in all blowout X-ray jets but also in many standard X-ray jets. We point out that our results for the dichotomy, lateral expansion, and axial rotation of X-ray jets add credence to published speculation that type-II spicules are miniature analogs of X-ray jets, are generated by granule-size emerging bipoles, and thereby carry enough energy to power the corona and solar wind.

Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.; Robe, Dominic

2013-06-01

108

Beyond the abstract—concrete dichotomy: Mode of acquisition, concreteness, imageability, familiarity, age of acquisition, context availability, and abstractness norms for a set of 417 Italian words  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study is to investigate the abstract-concrete dichotomy by introducing a new variable: the mode\\u000a of acquisition (MoA) of a concept. MoA refers to the way in which concepts are acquired: through experience, through language,\\u000a or through both. We asked 250 participants to rate 417 words on seven dimensions: age of acquisition, concreteness, familiarity,\\u000a context availability,

Pasquale A. Della Rosa; Eleonora Catricalà; Gabriella Vigliocco; Stefano F. Cappa

2010-01-01

109

Non-Markovian models for migration-proliferation dichotomy of cancer cells: Anomalous switching and spreading rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proliferation and migration dichotomy of the tumor cell invasion is examined within two non-Markovian models. We consider the tumor spheroid, which consists of the tumor core with a high density of cells and the outer invasive zone. We distinguish two different regions of the outer invasive zone and develop models for both zones. In model I we analyze the near-core-outer region, where biased migration away from the tumor spheroid core takes place. We suggest non-Markovian switching between the migrating and proliferating phenotypes of tumor cells. Nonlinear master equations for mean densities of cancer cells of both phenotypes are derived. In anomalous switching case we estimate the average size of the near-core-outer region that corresponds to sublinear growth ˜t? for 0

Fedotov, Sergei; Iomin, Alexander; Ryashko, Lev

2011-12-01

110

Exploration of the Radio-Loud/Radio Quiet Dichotomy for QSO: Using Radio Morphology and 4D Eigenvector 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reality of a RL/RQ Dichotomy for QSO remains an open problem. Recent studies not only provide us with contradictory results, but also display the confusion of comparing conclusions drawn on the basis of different views on "what means radio-loud"? We propose a definition of radio loudness based on three criteria (simultaneously applied): radio morphology, radio luminosity and radio-optical flux density ratio. Fanaroff-Riley II radio sources (FRIIs) are assumed to be the parent population of RL quasars, while the core dominated RL quasars are assumed to be preferentially aligned FRIIs. Orientation-unification then suggests the RQ-RL boundary is set by the least radio luminous FRII and by the lowest radio-optical ratio for an FRII. We also consider RL and RQ quasars in the context of a 4D Eigenvector 1 (4DE1) Parameter Space that is defined independently of any radio measure. Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic data for 400+ QSO (z<0.7 and brighter than psf g =17.5), coupled with FIRST and NVSS radio surveys (1.4GHz), we show that classical RL sources distribute very differently from the RQ majority of QSO.

Zamfir, Sebastian; Sulentic, J. W.; Marziani, P.; Dultzin, D.

2007-12-01

111

Reactivity in nucleophilic vinylic substitution (S(N)V):S(N)V? versus S(N)V? mechanistic dichotomy.  

PubMed

The intrinsic electronic factors that determine reactivity in prototypical identity nucleophilic vinylic substitution reactions, X(-) + ViX ? XVi + X(-) (Vi = vinyl), have been studied by performing quantum chemical calculations (OPBE/6-311++G(d,p)). Of the two limiting reaction types envisaged--the S(N)V? and S(N)V? mechanisms--the former is preferred for most combinations of nucleophiles and substrates, except for the combination of unactivated substrates and poor nucleophiles, as seen for the much studied reactions Cl(-) + CH2CHCl and Br(-) + CH2CHBr. It was found that periodic trends for S(N)V? are essentially the same as those previously reported for nucleophilic aromatic substitution, S(N)Ar, while intrinsic S(N)V? nucleophilicity parallels aliphatic S(N)2. It is therefore concluded that S(N)V reactivity in general can be understood in terms of this mechanistic dichotomy. Furthermore, a few representative reactions were analyzed applying two complementary schemes for energy decomposition analysis. PMID:23915397

Fernández, Israel; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias; Uggerud, Einar

2013-09-01

112

EVERY BCG WITH A STRONG RADIO AGN HAS AN X-RAY COOL CORE: IS THE COOL CORE-NONCOOL CORE DICHOTOMY TOO SIMPLE?  

SciTech Connect

The radio active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback in X-ray cool cores has been proposed as a crucial ingredient in the evolution of baryonic structures. However, it has long been known that strong radio AGNs also exist in 'noncool core' clusters, which brings up the question whether an X-ray cool core is always required for the radio feedback. In this work, we present a systematic analysis of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and strong radio AGNs in 152 groups and clusters from the Chandra archive. All 69 BCGs with radio AGN more luminous than 2 x 10{sup 23} W Hz{sup -1} at 1.4 GHz are found to have X-ray cool cores. BCG cool cores can be divided into two classes: the large cool core (LCC) class and the corona class. Small coronae, easily overlooked at z > 0.1, can trigger strong heating episodes in groups and clusters, long before LCCs are formed. Strong radio outbursts triggered by coronae may destroy embryonic LCCs and thus provide another mechanism to prevent the formation of LCCs. However, it is unclear whether coronae are decoupled from the radio feedback cycles as they have to be largely immune to strong radio outbursts. Our sample study also shows the absence of groups with a luminous cool core while hosting a strong radio AGN, which is not observed in clusters. This points to a greater impact of radio heating on low-mass systems than clusters. Few L {sub 1.4GHz} > 10{sup 24} W Hz{sup -1} radio AGNs (approx16%) host an L {sub 0.5-10keV} > 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} X-ray AGN, while above these thresholds, all X-ray AGNs in BCGs are also radio AGNs. As examples of the corona class, we also present detailed analyses of a BCG corona associated with a strong radio AGN (ESO 137-006 in A3627) and one of the faintest coronae known (NGC 4709 in the Centaurus cluster). Our results suggest that the traditional cool core/noncool core dichotomy is too simple. A better alternative is the cool core distribution function, with the enclosed X-ray luminosity or gas mass.

Sun, M., E-mail: msun@virginia.ed [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)

2009-10-20

113

DichotomY IdentitY: Euler-Bernoulli Numbers, Sets-Multisets, FD-BE Quantum-Statistics, 1/f?0-1/f?1 Power-Spectra, Ellipse-Hyperbola Conic-Sections, Local-Global Extent: "Category-Semantics"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seminal Apostol[Math.Mag.81,3,178(08);Am.Math.Month.115,9,795(08)]-Rota[Intro.Prob. Thy.(95)-p.50-55] DichotomY equivalence-class: set-theory: sets V multisets; closed V open; to Abromowitz-Stegun[Hdbk.Math.Fns.(64)]-ch.23,p.803!]: numbers/polynomials generating-functions: Euler V Bernoulli; to Siegel[Schrodinger Cent.Symp.(87); Symp.Fractals, MRS Fall Mtg.,(1989)-5-papers!] power-spectrum: 1/f?0-White V 1/f?1-Zipf/Pink (Archimedes) HYPERBOLICITY INEVITABILITY; to analytic-geometry Conic-Sections: Ellipse V (via Parabola) V Hyperbola; to Extent/Scale/Radius: Locality V Globality, Root-Causes/Ultimate-Origins: Dimensionality: odd-Z V (via fractal) V even-Z, to Symmetries/(Noether's-theorem connected)/Conservation-Laws Dichotomy: restored/conservation/convergence=0- V broken/non-conservation/divergence=/=0: with asymptotic-limit antipodes morphisms/ crossovers: Eureka!!!; "FUZZYICS"="CATEGORYICS"!!! Connection to Kummer(1850) Bernoulli-numbers proof of FLT is via Siegel(CCNY;1964) < (1994)[AMS Joint Mtg. (2002)-Abs.973-60-124] short succinct physics proof: FLT = Least-Action Principle!!!

Rota, G.-C.; Carl-Ludwig Siegel, Edward

2011-03-01

114

The young star cluster system in the Antennae: evidence for a turnover in the luminosity function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The luminosity functions (LFs) of star cluster (SC) systems (i.e. the number of clusters per luminosity interval) are vital diagnostics to probe the conditions of SC formation. Early studies have revealed a clear dichotomy between old globular clusters and young clusters, with the former characterized by Gaussian-shaped LFs, and the latter following a power law. Recently, this view was challenged

P. Anders; N. Bissantz; L. Boysen; R. de Grijs; U. Fritze-von Alvensleben

2007-01-01

115

Madonna: Like a Dichotomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in communication classes find it useful to study Madonna because she is a fascinating and prolific cultural figure whose merit and intentions are matters of great controversy. As the quintessential music-video star, she is also perhaps the medium's most significant auteur. In the areas of women's roles, motherhood, sexuality, race and…

Burns, Gary; Kizer, Elizabeth

116

Energy\\/environment dichotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dr. Sawhill, former Federal Energy Administrator, says that narrow legal grounds, rather than a rational weighing of the environmental costs and energy benefits, were the deciding factors in the Tellico Dam and Seabrook power plant controversies -- wich are representative of many such conflicts. Environmental concerns have motivated American policy since the nation began, while energy has emerged only recently

Sawhill

1978-01-01

117

Relative Ages of the Highlands, Lowlands, and Transition Zone Along a Portion of the Mars Crustal Dichotomy from Densities of Visible and Buried Impact Craters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding the fundamental age relationships of the different parts of the Mars Crustal Dichotomy is essential to fully understanding the events that shaped the early history and formation of the surface of Mars. A dominant question is what are the true relative ages of the Northern Lowlands and the Southern Highlands? Using MOLA data from the Mars Global Surveyor and Viking visual images, a dataset of both buried and visible crater diameters was created over a nine million sq km study area of a section of the dichotomy boundary stretching from Arabia Terra to Utopia Planitia. Cumulative frequency plots on a log-log scale were used to determine the relative ages for the Highlands, the Lowlands, and the Transition Zone, separately for the visible, the buried and the combined total (visible+ buried) populations. We find the overall Highland crater population in this area is slightly older than the Lowlands, consistent with previous global studies, but the Lowlands and Transition Zone are also very old and formed at roughly the same time. It appears that the formation of the Lowlands in this region formed contemporaneously with a large-scale resurfacing event in the Highlands, perhaps caused by the process responsible for the Lowland formation.

DeSoto, G. E.; Frey, H. V.

2005-01-01

118

function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integral equations for the spin-weighted spheroidal wave functions is given . For the prolate spheroidal wave function with m = 0, there exists the integral equation whose kernel is sin x x , and the sinc function kernel sin x x is of great mathematical significance. In the paper, we also extend the similar sinc function kernel sin x x

Guihua Tian

119

Photometric properties of Titan's surface from Cassini VIMS: Relevance to titan's hemispherical albedo dichotomy and surface stability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) instrument on the Cassini Saturn Orbiter returned spectral imaging data as the spacecraft undertook six close encounters with Titan beginning 7 July, 2004. Three of these flybys each produced overlapping coverage of two distinct regions of Titan's surface. Twenty-four points were selected on approximately opposite hemispheres to serve as photometric controls. Six points were selected in each of four reflectance classes. On one hemisphere each control point was observed at three distinct phase angles. From the derived phase coefficients, preliminary normal reflectances were derived for each reflectance class. The normal reflectance of Titan's surface units at 2.0178 ??m ranged from 0.079 to 0.185 for the most absorbing to the most reflective units assuming no contribution from absorbing haze. When a modest haze contribution of ??=0.1 is considered these numbers increase to 0.089-0.215. We find that the lowest three reflectance classes have comparable normal reflectance on either hemisphere. However, for the highest brightness class the normal reflectance is higher on the hemisphere encompassing longitude 14-65?? compared to the same high brightness class for the hemisphere encompassing 122-156?? longitude. We conclude that an albedo dichotomy observed in continental sized units on Titan is due not only to one unit having more areal coverage of reflective material than the other but the material on the brighter unit is intrinsically more reflective than the most reflective material on the other unit. This suggests that surface renewal processes are more widespread on Titan's more reflective units than on its less reflective units. We note that one of our photometric control points has increased in reflectance by 12% relative to the surrounding terrain from July of 2004 to April and May of 2005. Possible causes of this effect include atmospheric processes such as ground fog or orographic clouds; the suggestion of active volcanism cannot be ruled out. Several interesting circular features which resembled impact craters were identified on Titan's surface at the time of the initial Titan flyby in July of 2004. We traced photometric profiles through two of these candidate craters and attempted to fit these profiles to the photometric properties expected from model depressions. We find that the best-fit attempt to model these features as craters requires that they be unrealistically deep, approximately 70 km deep. We conclude that despite their appearance, these circular features are not craters, however, the possibility that they are palimpsests cannot be ruled out. We used two methods to test for the presence of vast expanses of liquids on Titan's surface that had been suggested to resemble oceans. Specular reflection of sunlight would be indicative of widespread liquids on the surface; we found no evidence of this. A large liquid body should also show uniformity in photometric profile; we found the profiles to be highly variable. The lack of specular reflection and the high photometric variability in the profiles across candidate oceans is inconsistent with the presence of vast expanses of flat-lying liquids on Titan's surface. While liquid accumulation may be present as small, sub-pixel-sized bodies, or in areas of the surface which still remain to be observed by VIMS, the presence of large ocean-sized accumulations of liquids can be ruled out. The Cassini orbital tour offers the opportunity for VIMS to image the same parts of Titan's surface repeatedly at many different illumination and observation geometries. This creates the possibility of understanding the properties of Titan's atmosphere and haze by iteratively adapting models to create a best fit to the surface reflectance properties. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Nelson, R. M.; Brown, R. H.; Hapke, B. W.; Smythe, W. D.; Kamp, L.; Boryta, M. D.; Leader, F.; Baines, K. H.; Bellucci, G.; Bibring, J. -P.; Buratti, B. J.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Clark, R. N.; Combes, M.; Coradini, A.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Drossart, P.; Formisano, V.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Matson, D. L.; McCord, T. B.; Mennella, V.; Nicholson, P. D.; Sicardy, B.; Sotin, C.

2006-01-01

120

The dichotomy between CO absorption and CA II emissions in the sun and stars - an indirect diagnostic for gas disturbed by magnetic fields?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been found that the cores of the strongest of the CO transitions in the solar disk do not exhibit limb-brightening, but continue to darken toward the limb. The results of research are reviewed which show that, to the extent that the hot regions of the solar atmosphere are manifestations of magnetic 'activity' and the cool zones represent the undisturbed state of the gas, simultaneous cospatial measurements of the 4.7 micron absorption bands of CO and 0.4 micron emission cores of the H and K lines of Ca(+) can be used to diagnose indirectly the presence and scale of such activity on the solar surface. The finding of a similar dichotomy between the absorptions of the fundamental CO bands in the red giant Arcturus and chromospheric models based on the prominent emission reversals of the Ca II lines is also discussed.

Ayres, T.

121

function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large complex zeros of the Jost function (poles of the S matrix) in the complex wave number-plane for s-wave scattering by truncated potentials are associated to the distribution of large prime numbers {pn} as well as to the asymptotic behavior of the imaginary parts {tn} of the zeros of the Riemann zeta function on the critical line. A variant

Sergio Joffily

122

Fractures of the middle third of the tibia treated with a functional brace.  

PubMed

It generally is accepted that fractures of the tibia located in the proximal and distal thirds tend to angulate more than midshaft fractures when treated with intramedullary nails. We therefore compared the angular deformities and final shortening of 434 closed fractures located in the middle third of the tibia treated with a functional brace with those in fractures in the proximal and distal thirds treated in the same manner. Ninety-seven percent in the middle third healed with 8 degrees or less angulation in the mediolateral plane, which was a higher percentage than we had experienced in distal and proximal third fractures treated with this method. Nonunions occurred in four (0.9%) fractures. We found correlations between initial shortening, final shortening, initial displacement, final displacement, and time to brace with initial angulation and final angulation in the mediolateral and anteroposterior planes. The overall mean final shortening of the fractures located in the middle third was 4.3 mm. These experiences suggest satisfactory results can be obtained in most instances using a functional brace for management of closed fractures of the middle third of the tibia. Level of Evidence: Level II, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18719973

Sarmiento, Augusto; Latta, Loren L

2008-12-01

123

The Dichotomy in the Preinvasive Neoplasia to Invasive Carcinoma Sequence in the Pancreas: Differential Expression of MUC1 and MUC2 Supports the Existence of Two Separate Pathways of Carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging evidence suggests a dichotomy in the dysplasia–CIS-invasive carcinoma sequence in the pancreas. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms (PanINs; small, incidental duct lesions) progress to invasive ductal adenocarcinomas (5-y survival of 55%). We explored the relationship of these lesions by examining the expression of MUC1 and MUC2, glycoproteins reportedly reflecting “aggressive” and “indolent” phenotypes in pancreas cancer, respectively. Immunohistochemical labeling with MUC1

N. Volkan Adsay; Kambiz Merati; Aleodor Andea; Fazlul Sarkar; Ralph H. Hruban; Robb E. Wilentz; Micheal Goggins; Christine Iocobuzio-Donahue; Daniel S. Longnecker; David S. Klimstra

2002-01-01

124

High baby birth weight and risk of hormone-associated cancer in mothers: the cancer-cardiovascular disease dichotomy and its possible causes.  

PubMed

The idea of intrauterine or fetal factors being the cause of several prevalent noninfectious diseases in adults has recently gained the status of an axiom. One of the most thoroughly studied predictors is birth weight (BW). Although many published studies point at relations between BW and later adult morbidity or mortality, much less attention is paid to associations between baby BW and maternal morbidity. Available data suggest a sort of dichotomy in these relationships. Thus, cardiovascular risk is higher in mothers of babies with a reduced BW, while cancer risk, mainly of the breast and some other hormone-dependent cancers, is often higher among mothers of babies with a large BW (newborn macrosomia). This review addresses possible causes and endocrine mechanisms of this topic and suggests a 'particular' and 'general' solution for arising controversy. Emphasis is placed on a probable competition between chronic diseases (mainly, between female hormone-related cancer and cardiovascular pathology) within the concept of multiple causes of death. These associations should be remembered while studying the relation between offspring BW and maternal predisposition to hormone-associated cancers and other noncommunicable diseases. PMID:23826777

Berstein, Lev M

2013-07-01

125

A potential role of reward and punishment in the facilitation of the emotion-cognition dichotomy in the Iowa Gambling Task  

PubMed Central

The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is based on the assumption that a decision maker is equally motivated to seek reward and avoid punishment, and that decision making is governed solely by the intertemporal attribute (i.e., preference for an option that produces an immediate outcome instead of one that yields a delayed outcome is believed to reflect risky decision making and is considered a deficit). It was assumed in the present study that the emotion- and cognition-based processing dichotomy manifests in the IGT as reward and punishment frequency and the intertemporal attribute. It was further proposed that the delineation of emotion- and cognition-based processing is contingent upon reward and punishment as manifested in the frame of the task (variant type) and task motivation (instruction type). The effects of IGT variant type (reward vs. punishment) and instruction type (task motivation induced by instruction types: reward, punishment, reward and punishment, or no hint) on the intertemporal and frequency attributes of IGT decision-making were analyzed. Decision making in the reward variant was equally governed by both attributes, and significantly affected by instruction type, while decision making in the punishment variant was differentially affected by the two attributes and not significantly impacted by instruction type. These results suggest that reward and punishment manifested via task frame as well as the task motivation may facilitate the differentiation of emotion- and cognition-based processing in the IGT.

Singh, Varsha

2013-01-01

126

Toward a Multidimensional Continuum Model of Functional Psychoses for Research Purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Schizophrenia (SZ), schizoaffective disorder (SA), major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BPD) are clinically\\u000a heterogeneous conditions called “functional psychoses” (FP). The paradigm, underlying the current model of FP, was based on\\u000a Kraepelinian dichotomy and was a practical starting point for the categorical classification of FP. Nevertheless, the concept\\u000a is increasingly challenged by emerging data from modern research in the

Michael S. Ritsner

127

Hot versus Cold: the Dichotomy in Spherical Accretion of Cooling Flows onto Supermassive Black Holes in Elliptical Galaxies, Galaxy Groups, and Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feedback heating from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has been commonly invoked to suppress cooling flows predicted in hot gas in elliptical galaxies, galaxy groups, and clusters. Previous studies have focused on if and how AGN feedback heats the gas but have little paid attention to its triggering mechanism. Using spherically symmetric simulations, we investigate how large-scale cooling flows are accreted by central supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in eight well-observed systems and find an interesting dichotomy. In massive clusters, the gas develops a central cooling catastrophe within about the cooling time (typically ~100-300 Myr), resulting in cold-mode accretion onto SMBHs. However, in our four simulated systems on group and galaxy scales at a low metallicity Z = 0.3 Z ?, the gas quickly settles into a long-term state that has a cuspy central temperature profile extending to several tens to about 100 pc. At the more realistic solar metallicity, two groups (with R e ~ 4 kpc) still host the long-term, hot-mode accretion. Both accretion modes naturally appear in our idealized calculations where only cooling, gas inflow, and compressional heating are considered. The long-term, hot-mode accretion is maintained by the quickly established closeness between the timescales of these processes, preferably in systems with low gas densities, low gas metallicities, and importantly, compact central galaxies, which result in strong gravitational acceleration and compressional heating at the intermediate radii. Our calculations predict that central cuspy temperature profiles appear more often in smaller systems than galaxy clusters, which instead often host significant cold gas and star formation.

Guo, Fulai; Mathews, William G.

2014-01-01

128

Stress experienced in utero reduces sexual dichotomies in neurogenesis, microenvironment, and cell death in the adult rat hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Hippocampal function and plasticity differ with gender, but the regulatory mechanisms underlying sex differences remain elusive and may be established early in life. The present study sought to elucidate sex differences in hippocampal plasticity under normal developmental conditions and in response to repetitive, predictable versus varied, unpredictable prenatal stress (PS). Adult male and diestrous female offspring of pregnant rats exposed to no stress (control), repetitive stress (PS-restraint), or a randomized sequence of varied stressors (PS-random) during the last week of pregnancy were examined for hippocampal proliferation, neurogenesis, cell death, and local microenvironment using endogenous markers. Regional volume was also estimated by stereology. Control animals had comparable proliferation and regional volume regardless of sex, but females had lower neurogenesis compared to males. Increased cell death and differential hippocampal precursor kinetics both appear to contribute to reduced neurogenesis in females. Reduced local interleukin-1beta (IL-I? immunoreactivity (IR) in females argues for a mechanistic role for the anti-apoptotic cytokine in driving sex differences in cell death. Prenatal stress significantly impacted the hippocampus, with both stress paradigms causing robust decreases in actively proliferating cells in males and females. Several other hippocampal measures were feminized in males such as precursor kinetics, IL-I?-IR density, and cell death, reducing or abolishing some sex differences. The findings expand our understanding of the mechanisms underlying sex differences and highlight the critical role early stress can play on the balance between proliferation, neurogenesis, cell death, and hippocampal microenvironment in adulthood.

Mandyam, Chitra D.; Crawford, Elena F.; Eisch, Amelia J.; Rivier, Catherine L.; Richardson, Heather N.

2013-01-01

129

The Role of Core Mass in Controlling Evaporation: The Kepler Radius Distribution and the Kepler-36 Density Dichotomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use models of coupled thermal evolution and photo-evaporative mass loss to understand the formation and evolution of the Kepler-36 system. We show that the large contrast in mean planetary density observed by Carter et al. can be explained as a natural consequence of photo-evaporation from planets that formed with similar initial compositions. However, rather than being due to differences in XUV irradiation between the planets, we find that this contrast is due to the difference in the masses of the planets' rock/iron cores and the impact that this has on mass-loss evolution. We explore in detail how our coupled models depend on irradiation, mass, age, composition, and the efficiency of mass loss. Based on fits to large numbers of coupled evolution and mass-loss runs, we provide analytic fits to understand threshold XUV fluxes for significant atmospheric loss, as a function of core mass and mass-loss efficiency. Finally we discuss these results in the context of recent studies of the radius distribution of Kepler candidates. Using our parameter study, we make testable predictions for the frequency of sub-Neptune-sized planets. We show that 1.8-4.0 R ? planets should become significantly less common on orbits within 10 days and discuss the possibility of a narrow "occurrence valley" in the radius-flux distribution. Moreover, we describe how photo-evaporation provides a natural explanation for the recent observations of Ciardi et al. that inner planets are preferentially smaller within the systems.

Lopez, Eric D.; Fortney, Jonathan J.

2013-10-01

130

The Land Use and Land Cover Dichotomy: A Comparison of Two Land Classification Systems in Support of Urban Earth Science Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One is likely to read the terms 'land use' and 'land cover' in the same sentence, yet these concepts have different origins and different applications. Land cover is typically analyzed by earth scientists working with remotely sensed images. Land use is typically studied by urban planners who must prescribe solutions that could prevent future problems. This apparent dichotomy has led to different classification systems for land-based data. The works of earth scientists and urban planning practitioners are beginning to come together in the field of spatial analysis and in their common use of new spatial analysis technology. In this context, the technology can stimulate a common 'language' that allows a broader sharing of ideas. The increasing amount of land use and land cover change challenges the various efforts to classify in ways that are efficient, effective, and agreeable to all groups of users. If land cover and land uses can be identified by remote methods using aerial photography and satellites, then these ways are more efficient than field surveys of the same area. New technology, such as high-resolution satellite sensors, and new methods, such as more refined algorithms for image interpretation, are providing refined data to better identify the actual cover and apparent use of land, thus effectiveness is improved. However, the closer together and the more vertical the land uses are, the more difficult the task of identification is, and the greater is the need to supplement remotely sensed data with field study (in situ). Thus, a number of land classification methods were developed in order to organize the greatly expanding volume of data on land characteristics in ways useful to different groups. This paper distinguishes two land based classification systems, one developed primarily for remotely sensed data, and the other, a more comprehensive system requiring in situ collection methods. The intent is to look at how the two systems developed and how they can work together so that land based information can be shared among different users and compared over time.

McAllister, William K.

2003-01-01

131

The Traditional/Communicative Dichotomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When considering the question of "traditional" versus "communicative", the first essential is definition. This article first of all attempts to clarify these ill-defined concepts before considering the degree to which they may or may not be dichotomous. The results of a small-scale study are reported involving a survey of teaching approaches…

Griffiths, Carol

2011-01-01

132

Resting-State Brain Organization Revealed by Functional Covariance Networks  

PubMed Central

Background Brain network studies using techniques of intrinsic connectivity network based on fMRI time series (TS-ICN) and structural covariance network (SCN) have mapped out functional and structural organization of human brain at respective time scales. However, there lacks a meso-time-scale network to bridge the ICN and SCN and get insights of brain functional organization. Methodology and Principal Findings We proposed a functional covariance network (FCN) method by measuring the covariance of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in BOLD signals across subjects, and compared the patterns of ALFF-FCNs with the TS-ICNs and SCNs by mapping the brain networks of default network, task-positive network and sensory networks. We demonstrated large overlap among FCNs, ICNs and SCNs and modular nature in FCNs and ICNs by using conjunctional analysis. Most interestingly, FCN analysis showed a network dichotomy consisting of anti-correlated high-level cognitive system and low-level perceptive system, which is a novel finding different from the ICN dichotomy consisting of the default-mode network and the task-positive network. Conclusion The current study proposed an ALFF-FCN approach to measure the interregional correlation of brain activity responding to short periods of state, and revealed novel organization patterns of resting-state brain activity from an intermediate time scale.

Wang, Zhengge; Yuan, Cuiping; Jiao, Qing; Chen, Huafu; Biswal, Bharat B.; Lu, Guangming; Liu, Yijun

2011-01-01

133

Comparative morphology of porpoise (Cetacea: Phocoenidae) pterygoid sinuses: phylogenetic and functional implications.  

PubMed

High-resolution X-ray computed tomographic scans were used to examine pterygoid sinus morphology within extant porpoise species and one delphinid (Tursiops truncatus), in order to consider: 1) intraspecific and interspecific variation among the studied species; 2) the most parsimonious sequence of character acquisition; and 3) the potential functional roles of the preorbital lobes of the sinuses in sound reflection. Scans revealed that the pterygoid/palatine regions are mediolaterally broader in the earliest diverging phocoenid (Neophocaena phocaenoides) and Tursiops truncatus than the dorsoventrally elongated sinuses observed in other species. Rostrocaudal lengths of the sphenoidal regions of the sinuses in all individuals studied are proportionally similar, indicating conservatism in this region across species. The neonate Phocoena phocoena has shorter preorbital lobes than adults, but they are still proportionally longer than Neophocaena phocaenoides and Phocoena spinipinnis. The preorbital lobes broaden mediolaterally to varying degrees across species; in particular, Phocoenoides dalli has the largest dorsal and lateral expansion of this region. Assuming the highest pulse frequency produced by porpoises is 150 kHz, all regions of the preorbital lobes are thick enough to reflect the wavelengths produced. In addition, the neonate preorbital lobes are not as elongated as they are in adults, and the dorsal third of this region may not reflect sound to the same extent. This study reinforces the importance of using nondestructive methods to quantify variation in endocranial anatomy and the value of CT data for recovering phylogenetically useful information, as well as functional roles sinuses play in concert with the soft tissue head anatomy for biosonar. PMID:22965565

Racicot, Rachel A; Berta, Annalisa

2013-01-01

134

Functional heterogeneity among human inducer T cell clones.  

PubMed

Analysis of mouse CD4+ inducer T cells at the clonal level has established that a dichotomy among CD4+ T cell clones exists with regard to types of lymphokines secreted. Mouse T cell clones designated Th1 have been shown to secrete IL-2 and IFN-gamma, whereas T cell clones designated Th2 have been shown to produce IL-4 but not IL-2 or IFN-gamma. To determine if such a dichotomy in the helper inducer T cell subset occurred in man, we examined a panel of human CD4+ helper/inducer T cell clones for patterns of lymphokine secretion and for functional activity. We identified human T cell clones which secrete IL-4 but not IL-2 or IFN-gamma, and which appeared to correspond to murine Th2 clones. In marked contrast to murine IL-2 secreting Th1 clones which do not produce IL-4 or IFN-gamma, we observed that some human T cell clones secrete IL-2, and IFN-gamma as well as IL-4. Southern blot analysis indicated that these multi-lymphokine-secreting clones represented the progeny of a single T cell. IL-4 secretion did not always correlated with enhanced ability to induce Ig synthesis. Although one T cell clone which secreted IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-gamma could efficiently induce Ig synthesis, another expressed potent cytolytic and growth inhibitory activity for B cells, and was ineffective or inhibitory in inducing Ig synthesis. These results indicate that although the equivalent of murine Th2 type cells appears to be present in man, the simple division of T cells into a Th1 and Th2 dichotomy may not hold true for human T cells. PMID:2967331

Umetsu, D T; Jabara, H H; DeKruyff, R H; Abbas, A K; Abrams, J S; Geha, R S

1988-06-15

135

Function and quality of life in patients with recurvatum deformity after primary total knee arthroplasty: a review of our joint registry.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to assess function and quality of life in patients with recurvatum at 2 years after primary total knee arthroplasty. This prospective study involves 2587 total knee arthroplasty from 2004 to 2008 with 2-year follow-up. Patients' demographics, diagnosis, implants, range of motion, laxity, and knee and SF-36 scores were recorded. Recurvatum deformity of 0°, 1° to 5°, 6° to 10°, and more than 10° were classified as grades 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Grade 1 had similar functional scores to grade 0 but significantly better SF1, SF4, SF5, and SF8 when compared with grades 2 and 3. Patients with mediolateral translation of more than 5 mm were more likely to have grades 2 and 3 recurvatum (P = .01), indicating global laxity. Postoperative recurvatum of more than 5° significantly impacts function and quality of life of patients. PMID:22153947

Siddiqui, Mohd Mashfiqul A; Yeo, Seng Jin; Sivaiah, Potla; Chia, Shi-Lu; Chin, Pak Lin; Lo, Ngai Nung

2012-06-01

136

Physics Proofs of Four Millennium-Problems(MP) via CATEGORY-SEMANTICS(C-S)/F=C Aristotle SQUARE-of-OPPOSITION(SoO) DEduction-LOGIC DichotomY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Siegel-Baez Cognitive-Category-Semantics"(C-C-S) tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics SoO jargonial-obfuscation elimination query WHAT? yields four "pure"-maths MP "Feet of Clay!!!" proofs: (1) Siegel [AMS Natl.Mtg.(02)-Abs.973-03-126: (CCNY;64)!!!<<<(94;Wiles)] Fermat's: Last-Thm. = Least-Action Ppl.; (2) P=/=NP TRIVIAL simple Euclid geometry/dimensions: NO computer anything"Feet of Clay!!!"; (3) Birch-Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture; (4) Riemann-hypotheses via COMBO.: Siegel[AMS Natl.Mtg.(02)-Abs.973-60-124] digits log-law inversion to ONLY BEQS with ONLY zero-digit BEC, AND Rayleigh[1870;graph-thy."short-CUT method"[Doyle-Snell, Random-Walks & Electric-Nets,MAA(81)]-"Anderson"[(58)] critical-strip C-localization!!! SoO DichotomY ("V") IdentitY: #s:( Euler v Bernoulli) = (Sets v Multisets) = Quantum-Statistics(FD v BE) = Power-Spectra(1/f?(0) v 1/f?(1)) = Conic-Sections(Ellipse v Hyperbola) = Extent(Locality v Globality);Siegel[(89)] (so MIScalled) "complexity" as UTTER-SIMPLICITY(!!!) v COMPLICATEDNESS MEASURE(S) definition.

Clay, London; Carl-Ludwig Siegel, Edward

2011-03-01

137

Physics Proofs of Four Millennium-Problems(MP) via CATEGORY-SEMANTICS(C-S)/F=C Aristotle SQUARE-of-OPPOSITION(SoO) DEduction-LOGIC DichotomY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Siegel-Baez C-S/F=C tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics SoO jargonial-obfuscation elimination query WHAT? yields four ``pure''-maths MP ``Feet of Clay!!!'' proofs:(1)Siegel [AMS Natl.Mtg.(2002)-Abs.#:973-03-126:(@CCNY;1964!!!)<<<(1994; Wiles)]Fermat's: Last-Theorem = Least-Action Principle; (2) P=/=NP TRIVIAL simple Euclid geometry/dimensions: NO computer anything;``Feet of Clay!!!''; (3)Birch-Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture; (4)Riemann-hypotheses via combination of: Siegel [AMS Natl.Mtg. (2002)-Abs.#:973-60-124 digits logarithmic-law simple algebraic- inversion to ONLY BEQS with ONLY zero-digit BEC, AND Rayleigh [(1870);graph-theory ``short-CUT method''[Doyle- Snell,Random- Walks & Electric-Networks,MAA(1981)]-``Anderson'' [PRL(1958)] critical-strip 1/2 complex-plane localization!!! SoO DichotomY (``v'') IdentitY: numbers(Euler v Bernoulli) = (Sets v Multisets) = Quantum-Statistics(F.-D. v B.-E.) = Power- Spectra(1/f^(0) v 1/f^(1.000...) = Conic-Sections(Ellipse v (Parabola) v Hyperbola) = Extent(Locality v Globality); Siegel [MRS Fractals Symp.(1989)](so MIScalled)``complexity'' as UTTER- SIMPLICITY (!!!) v COMPLICATEDNESS MEASURE(S) definition.

Clay, L.; Siegel, E.

2010-03-01

138

Overcoming the false dichotomy of curative vs palliative care for late-stage HIV/AIDS: "let me live the way I want to live, until I can't".  

PubMed

Recent advances in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) therapy have significantly reduced HIV-related mortality in the developed world, but mortality rates have plateaued, and AIDS remains a leading cause of serious illness and death for young adults. The chronic nature of the HIV disease course and the increasing burden of cumulative HIV-related morbidity and treatment-related toxic effects pose new challenges to the care of patients over time. Uncertainties about prognosis and the promise and limitations of rapidly evolving therapies have made decision making about advance care planning and end-of-life issues more complex and elusive than when the disease course was more uniform, rapid, and predictable. The emerging biomedical paradigm of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) as the cornerstone of treatment has helped to transform HIV into a manageable chronic disease, yet at the same time has resulted in a more narrow focus and a de facto separation between disease-specific "curative" and symptom-specific "palliative" care for patients with HIV/AIDS. As patients survive longer in the latter stages of progressive HIV disease, they may in fact have increasing need for comprehensive symptom management as well as wide-ranging need for psychosocial, family, and care planning support. In the HAART era, the false dichotomy of curative vs palliative care for patients with HIV/AIDS must be supplanted by a more integrated model to provide comprehensive care for patients with advanced HIV disease and their families. PMID:12915434

Selwyn, Peter A; Forstein, Marshall

2003-08-13

139

Directed functional connectivity matures with motor learning in a cortical pattern generator  

PubMed Central

Sequential motor skills may be encoded by feedforward networks that consist of groups of neurons that fire in sequence (Abeles 1991; Long et al. 2010). However, there has been no evidence of an anatomic map of activation sequence in motor control circuits, which would be potentially detectable as directed functional connectivity of coactive neuron groups. The proposed pattern generator for birdsong, the HVC (Long and Fee 2008; Vu et al. 1994), contains axons that are preferentially oriented in the rostrocaudal axis (Nottebohm et al. 1982; Stauffer et al. 2012). We used four-tetrode recordings to assess the activity of ensembles of single neurons along the rostrocaudal HVC axis in anesthetized zebra finches. We found an axial, polarized neural network in which sequential activity is directionally organized along the rostrocaudal axis in adult males, who produce a stereotyped song. Principal neurons fired in rostrocaudal order and with interneurons that were rostral to them, suggesting that groups of excitatory neurons fire at the leading edge of travelling waves of inhibition. Consistent with the synchronization of neurons by caudally travelling waves of inhibition, the activity of interneurons was more coherent in the orthogonal mediolateral axis than in the rostrocaudal axis. If directed functional connectivity within the HVC is important for stereotyped, learned song, then it may be lacking in juveniles, which sing a highly variable song. Indeed, we found little evidence for network directionality in juveniles. These data indicate that a functionally directed network within the HVC matures during sensorimotor learning and may underlie vocal patterning.

Day, Nancy F.; Terleski, Kyle L.; Nykamp, Duane Q.

2013-01-01

140

Breccia dikes and crater-related faults in impact craters on Mars: Erosion and exposure on the floor of a crater 75 km in diameter at the dichotomy boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental conditions on Mars are conducive to the modification and erosion of impact craters, potentially revealing the nature of their substructure. On Earth, postimpact erosion of complex craters in a wide range of target rocks has revealed the nature and distribution of crater-related fault structures and a complex array of breccia and pseudotachylyte dikes, which range up to tens of meters in width and tens of kilometers in length. We review the characteristics of fault structures, breccia dikes, and pseudotachylyte dikes on Earth, showing that they occur in complex network-like patterns and are often offset along late-stage crater-related faults. Individual faults and dikes can undulate in width and can branch and bifurcate along strike. Detailed geological analyses of terrestrial craters show that faults and breccia dikes form during each of the major stages of the impact-cratering process (compression, excavation, and modification). We report here on the discovery of prominent, lattice-like ridge networks occurring on the floor of a highly modified impact crater 75 km in diameter near the dichotomy boundary of the northern lowland and southern upland. Interior fill and crater-floor units have been exhumed by fluvial and eolian processes to reveal a unit below the crater floor containing a distinctive set of linear ridges of broadly similar width and forming a lattice-like pattern. Ridge exposures range from ˜1-4 km in length and ˜65-120 m in width, are broadly parallel, straight to slightly curving, and are cross-cut by near-orthogonal ridges, forming a box or lattice-like pattern. Ridges are exposed on the exhumed crater floor, extending from the base of the wall toward the center. On the basis of the strong similarities of these features to terrestrial crater-related fault structures and breccia dikes, we interpret these ridges to be faults and breccia dikes formed below the floor of the crater during the excavation and modification stages of the impact event, and subsequently exhumed by erosion. The recognition of such features on Mars will help in documenting the nature of impact-cratering processes and aid in assessment of crustal structure. Faults and breccia dikes can also be used as data for the assessment of post-cratering depths and degrees of landform exhumation.

Head, James W.; Mustard, John F.

2006-10-01

141

Lateral wedges alter mediolateral load distributions at the knee joint in obese individuals.  

PubMed

Obesity is the primary risk factor for knee osteoarthritis (OA). Greater external knee adduction moments, surrogate measures for medial compartment loading, are present in Obese individuals and may predispose them to knee OA. Laterally wedged insoles decrease the magnitude of the external adduction moment in Obese individuals but it is unknown how they alter the center of pressure on the tibial plateau. A gait analysis was performed on 14 Obese (avg. 29.3 years; BMI range: 30.3-51.6?kg/m(2) ) and 14 lean women (avg. 26.1 years; BMI range: 20.9-24.6?kg/m(2) ) with and without a full-length, wedged insole. Computed joint angles, joint moments, and knee extensor strength values were input into a musculoskeletal model to estimate center of pressure of the contact force on the tibial plateau. Statistical significance was assessed using a two-way ANOVA to compare the main effects of group and insole condition (??=?0.05). The insole resulted in a significant (p?

Russell, Elizabeth M; Miller, Ross H; Umberger, Brian R; Hamill, Joseph

2013-05-01

142

[On the social production of sexual dichotomy].  

PubMed

Notwithstanding scientific evidence about the development of sexuality and possible sexual variations, the social dogma of the duality of the sexes hardly tolerates deviations from the defined norms of female and male. The diagnosis of intersexuality is mostly considered as a treatable disease with the chance of eventual sexual adaptation; transsexuality in any form is placed at the social periphery as an individual symptomatology. This review discusses the presence, actuality and sense of coherence of heteronormativity and outlines the consequences of an attributed sexuality. PMID:21344344

Schildberger, B

2011-02-01

143

Reassessing the bipolar-unipolar dichotomy.  

PubMed

This paper is a critical review of the literature on the dichotomous classification of affective disorders into unipolar and bipolar types. The majority of genetic studies show significant overlap in the liability to develop two forms of illness, and the majority of lithium studies show a similar clinical responsiveness of both groups to both acute and maintenance treatment. Biological studies comparing the two groups are difficult to interpret as most have compared manics to depressives without controlling for motor activity, excitement, and other state-dependent clinical variables. Viewed in light of our research findings in a recent genetic study of affective states, we believe these data suggest that the separation of affective disorders by polarity may have been premature, and that the search for heterogeneity should now be carried out using alternative strategies. PMID:6176608

Taylor, M A; Abrams, R

1980-09-01

144

Dichotomies in Teaching, Application, and Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors propose a move from the old control model of teaching, managing, and leading based on stability and power to a new enterprise model based on speed and constant self-innovation. They hope to promote the practice of a rapid incremental innovation strategy that produces practitioners and educators dedicated to continuous…

Heames, Joyce T.; Service, Robert W.

2003-01-01

145

COLLECTIVE ENTREPRENEURSHIP: BEYOND DICHOTOMIES (INTERACTIVE PAPER)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until the last decade, scholars of entrepreneurship focused on the for-profit or commercial model of entrepreneurship, providing a framework for analysis of the process of entrepreneurial development. More recently, entrepreneurship researchers have recognized another form of entrepreneurship, social entrepreneurship, and have begun to turn attention to theory development and comparative study. This paper proposes that there is at least one

Elizabeth J. Gatewood; Jeanne M. Simonelli

2010-01-01

146

Coarse-fine dichotomies in human stereopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a long history of research into depth percepts from very large disparities, beyond the fusion limit. Such diplopic stimuli have repeatedly been shown to provide reliable depth percepts. A number of researchers have pointed to differences between the processing of small and large disparities, arguing that they are subserved by distinct neural mechanisms. Other studies have pointed to

Laurie M. Wilcox; Robert S. Allison

2009-01-01

147

Morphology and behaviour: functional links in development and evolution  

PubMed Central

Development and evolution of animal behaviour and morphology are frequently addressed independently, as reflected in the dichotomy of disciplines dedicated to their study distinguishing object of study (morphology versus behaviour) and perspective (ultimate versus proximate). Although traits are known to develop and evolve semi-independently, they are matched together in development and evolution to produce a unique functional phenotype. Here I highlight similarities shared by both traits, such as the decisive role played by the environment for their ontogeny. Considering the widespread developmental and functional entanglement between both traits, many cases of adaptive evolution are better understood when proximate and ultimate explanations are integrated. A field integrating these perspectives is evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), which studies the developmental basis of phenotypic diversity. Ultimate aspects in evo-devo studies—which have mostly focused on morphological traits—could become more apparent when behaviour, ‘the integrator of form and function’, is integrated into the same framework of analysis. Integrating a trait such as behaviour at a different level in the biological hierarchy will help to better understand not only how behavioural diversity is produced, but also how levels are connected to produce functional phenotypes and how these evolve. A possible framework to accommodate and compare form and function at different levels of the biological hierarchy is outlined. At the end, some methodological issues are discussed.

Bertossa, Rinaldo C.

2011-01-01

148

Vascular smooth muscle phenotypic diversity and function  

PubMed Central

The control of force production in vascular smooth muscle is critical to the normal regulation of blood flow and pressure, and altered regulation is common to diseases such as hypertension, heart failure, and ischemia. A great deal has been learned about imbalances in vasoconstrictor and vasodilator signals, e.g., angiotensin, endothelin, norepinephrine, and nitric oxide, that regulate vascular tone in normal and disease contexts. In contrast there has been limited study of how the phenotypic state of the vascular smooth muscle cell may influence the contractile response to these signaling pathways dependent upon the developmental, tissue-specific (vascular bed) or disease context. Smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle lineages are traditionally classified into fast or slow sublineages based on rates of contraction and relaxation, recognizing that this simple dichotomy vastly underrepresents muscle phenotypic diversity. A great deal has been learned about developmental specification of the striated muscle sublineages and their phenotypic interconversions in the mature animal under the control of mechanical load, neural input, and hormones. In contrast there has been relatively limited study of smooth muscle contractile phenotypic diversity. This is surprising given the number of diseases in which smooth muscle contractile dysfunction plays a key role. This review focuses on smooth muscle contractile phenotypic diversity in the vascular system, how it is generated, and how it may determine vascular function in developmental and disease contexts.

2010-01-01

149

The function of function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary analyses of biological function almost invariably advocate a naturalistic analysis, grounding biological functions in some feature of the mind-independent world. Many recent accounts suggest that no single analysis will be appropriate for all cases of use and that biological teleology should be split into several distinct categories. This paper argues that such accounts have paid too little attention to

Matthew Ratcliffe

2000-01-01

150

Highly specific role of hypocretin (orexin) neurons: differential activation as a function of diurnal phase, operant reinforcement vs. operant avoidance and light level  

PubMed Central

Hypocretin (Hcrt) cell loss is responsible for narcolepsy, but Hcrt's role in normal behavior is unclear. We found that Hcrt KO mice were unable to work for food or water reward during the light phase. However, they were unimpaired relative to wild type (WT) mice when working for reward during the dark phase or when working to avoid shock in the light or dark phases. In WT, expression of Fos in Hcrt neurons occurs only in the light phase when working for positive reinforcement. Expression was seen throughout the medio-lateral extent of the Hcrt field. Fos was not expressed when expected or unexpected, unearned rewards were presented, when working to avoid negative reinforcement, or when given or expecting shock, even though these conditions elicit maximal electroencephalographic (EEG) arousal. Fos was not expressed in the light phase when light was removed. This may explain the lack of light induced arousal in narcoleptics and its presence in normal individuals. This is the first demonstration of such specificity of arousal system function and has implications for understanding the motivational and circadian consequences of arousal system dysfunction. The current results also indicate that comparable and complementary specificities must exist in other “arousal” systems.

McGregor, Ronald; Wu, Ming-Fung; Barber, Grace; Ramanathan, Lalini; Siegel, Jerome M.

2011-01-01

151

Highly specific role of hypocretin (orexin) neurons: differential activation as a function of diurnal phase, operant reinforcement versus operant avoidance and light level.  

PubMed

Hypocretin (Hcrt) cell loss is responsible for narcolepsy, but Hcrt's role in normal behavior is unclear. We found that Hcrt knock-out mice were unable to work for food or water reward during the light phase. However, they were unimpaired relative to wild-type (WT) mice when working for reward during the dark phase or when working to avoid shock in the light or dark phase. In WT mice, expression of Fos in Hcrt neurons occurs only in the light phase when working for positive reinforcement. Expression was seen throughout the mediolateral extent of the Hcrt field. Fos was not expressed when expected or unexpected unearned rewards were presented, when working to avoid negative reinforcement, or when given or expecting shock, even though these conditions elicit maximal electroencephalogram (EEG) arousal. Fos was not expressed in the light phase when light was removed. This may explain the lack of light-induced arousal in narcoleptics and its presence in normal individuals. This is the first demonstration of such specificity of arousal system function and has implications for understanding the motivational and circadian consequences of arousal system dysfunction. The current results also indicate that comparable and complementary specificities must exist in other arousal systems. PMID:22031892

McGregor, Ronald; Wu, Ming-Fung; Barber, Grace; Ramanathan, Lalini; Siegel, Jerome M

2011-10-26

152

The functional anatomy of the hindlimb of some African Viverridae (Carnivora).  

PubMed

The functional anatomy of the hindlimb of 12 species of viverrids was studied with relation to locomotion. The animals were allocated to primary locomotor categories on the basis of their anatomy and locomotion. The climbing, arboreal walking category (Nandinia binotata) is characterized by a small sacroiliac articulation, the iliopsoas inserts onto a medially located lesser trochanter and the femoral condyles are not posteriorly placed. The hindfoot is plantigrade and its structure permits considerable movement. The pads are soft and the claws retractile. Representatives of the arboreal and terrestrial walking and jumping category (Genetta genetta, G. servalina, G. tigrina) have a plantigrade forefoot and digitigrade hindfoot. The lesser trochanter is more posteriorly placed than in the climbing category. A previously undescribed muscle, the caudofemoralis profundus extends from several anterior caudal vertebrae to the femur. The tibio-astragular joint restricts supination of the foot. There is little mediolateral movement in the digitidgrade foot. The claws are retractile. In the general terrestrial walking and scrambling group (Helogale parvula, Mungos mungo, Atilax paludinosus, Bdeogale crassicauda, Herpestes ichneumon, H. sanguineus) the animals have essentially similar hindlimbs except for size differences and modifications to the feet. Helogale and Mungos have large medial epicondyles on the humerus and large terminal phalanges. Bdeogale has a vestigial first metatarsal, while Atilax can splay its digits. In all species the distal phalanges are non-retractile. The trotting category (Civettictis civetta, Ichneumia albicauda) is characterized by longer epipodials and metapodials and a more proximal position of muscle bellies. Most of the adaptations minimize rotation, adduction and abduction of the leg and supination of the foot. The metatarsals are closely adjoined and the distal phalanx is stout and non-retractile. There appear to be two levels of locomotory adaptation. Major adaptations affect the whole appendicular skeleton and are used to assign animals to primary locomotor categories. Minor adaptations occur mainly in the foot and indicate the more specific habits of the animal. PMID:1255730

Taylor, M E

1976-02-01

153

Inverse Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using Mathcad, Maple, Mathmatica, or MatLab, learner should be able to review concepts of inverse functions, and to use those concepts, together with functions defined by integrals, to develop inverse trigonometric functions.

Smith, David; Moore, Lawrence

2001-01-25

154

Open-loop and closed-loop postural control mechanisms in Parkinson's disease: increased mediolateral activity during quiet standing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stabilogram-diffusion analysis was used to gain insights into how idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) affects the postural control mechanisms involved in maintaining erect stance. Twenty-two subjects with IPD and twenty-four healthy elderly subjects were studied under eyes-open, quiet-standing conditions. The postural control mechanisms in the parkinsonian subjects, compared to the healthy elderly, were characterized by an increase in the effective stochastic

S. L. Mitchell; J. J. Collins; C. J. De Luca; A. Burrows; L. A. Lipsitz

1995-01-01

155

Multiple functions for CD28 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 during different phases of T cell responses: implications for arthritis and autoimmune diseases  

PubMed Central

Chronic T cell responses, as they occur in rheumatoid arthritis, are complex and are likely to involve many mechanisms. There is a growing body of evidence that, in concert with the T cell antigen receptor signal, CD28 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4; CD152) are the primary regulators of T cell responses. Whereas CD28 primarily activates T cell processes, CTLA-4 inhibits them. The mechanism for this dichotomy is not fully understood, especially as CD28 and CTLA-4 recruit similar signalling molecules. In addition, recent studies demonstrate that CD28 and CTLA-4 have multiple functions during T cell responses. In particular, CTLA-4 exerts independent distinct effects during different phases of T cell responses that could be exploited for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

Brunner-Weinzierl, Monika C; Hoff, Holger; Burmester, Gerd-R

2004-01-01

156

[Report from the Health Council of the Netherlands on the chronic fatigue syndrome: moving away from the body-mind dichotomy with a view to effective prevention and treatment].  

PubMed

The Health Council of the Netherlands has issued a report on the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). CFS is a real and seriously debilitating condition which imposes limitations on an individual's personal, occupational and social functioning. It is a syndrome of unknown aetiology without physical signs or biological markers. Although there is no disease, patients both feel ill and give the appearance of being ill. There is no consensus on whether CSF patients are able to work or whether they should be entitled to social security benefits. An imbalance between demand and coping is central in CFS, with stress as an important intermediary factor. It is little use concluding that unexplained signs are 'psychological' or that 'I cannot find anything wrong with you so you must be healthy'. The classical view that mind and body are separate systems is outmoded. The bio-psycho-social model of disease may be helpful in describing the interaction between body, mind and circumstance. Putting the CFS patient at ease and explaining the pathophysiology of the symptoms is a useful approach but many patients and patient associations are still very somatically orientated, thereby sustaining the condition. However, in patients who accept that their problems may be stress-induced and are prepared to participate in therapy, some therapies have been proven to be effective, notably cognitive behavioural therapy. PMID:15835623

Bolk, J H

2005-04-01

157

Riemann-Hypothesis Millennium-Problem(MP) Physics Proof via CATEGORY-SEMANTICS(C-S)/F=C Aristotle SQUARE-of-OPPOSITION(SoO) DEduction-LOGIC DichotomY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riemann-hypothesis physics-proof combines: Siegel-Antonoff-Smith[AMS Joint Mtg.(2002)-Abs.973-03-126] digits on-average statistics HIll[Am. J. Math 123, 3, 887(1996)] logarithm-function's (1,0)-fixed-point base=units=scale-invariance proven Newcomb[Am. J. Math. 4, 39(1881)]-Weyl[Goett. Nachr.(1914); Math. Ann. 7, 313(1916)]-Benford[Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 78, 4, 51(1938)]-law [Kac, Math. of Stat.-Reasoning(1955); Raimi, Sci. Am. 221, 109(1969)] algebraic-inversion to ONLY Bose-Einstein quantum-statistics(BEQS) with digit d = 0 gapFUL Bose-Einstein Condensation(BEC) insight that digits are quanta are bosons were always digits, via Siegel-Baez category-semantics tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics in Plato-Aristotle classic "square-of-opposition" : FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS/Category-Semantics, with Goodkind Bose-Einstein condensation(BEC) ABOVE ground-state with/and Rayleigh(cut-limit of "short-cut method";1870)-Polya(1922)-"Anderson"(1958) localization [Doyle and Snell, Random-Walks and Electrical-Networks, MAA(1981)-p.99-100!!!].

Baez, J.; Lapidaryus, M.; Carl-Ludwig Siegel, Edward

2011-03-01

158

Riemann-Hypothesis Millennium-Problem(MP) Physics Proof via CATEGORY-SEMANTICS(C-S)/F=C Aristotle SQUARE-of-OPPOSITION(SoO) DEduction-LOGIC DichotomY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riemann-hypothesis physics-proof combines: Siegel-Antono-Smith[AMS Joint Mtg.(2002)- Abs.973-03-126] digits on-average statistics HIll[Am. J. Math 123, 3, 887(1996)] logarithm-function's (1,0)- xed-point base=units=scale-invariance proven Newcomb [Am. J. Math. 4, 39(1881)]-Weyl[Goett. Nachr.(1914); Math. Ann.7, 313(1916)]-Benford[Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 78, 4, 51(1938)]-law [Kac,Math. of Stat.-Reasoning(1955); Raimi, Sci. Am. 221, 109(1969)] algebraic-inversion to ONLY Bose-Einstein quantum-statistics(BEQS) with digit d = 0 gapFUL Bose-Einstein Condensation(BEC) insight that digits are quanta are bosons because bosons are and always were quanta are and always were digits, via Siegel-Baez category-semantics tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics in Plato-Aristotle classic "square-of-opposition" : FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS/Category-Semantics, with Goodkind Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC) ABOVE ground-state with/and Rayleigh(cut-limit of "short-cut method";1870)-Polya(1922)-"Anderson"(1958) localization [Doyle and Snell,Random-Walks and Electrical-Networks, MAA(1981)-p.99-100!!!] in Brillouin[Wave-Propagation in Periodic-Structures(1946) Dover(1922)]-Hubbard-Beeby[J.Phys.C(1967)] Siegel[J.Nonxline-Sol.40,453(1980)] generalized-disorder collective-boson negative-dispersion mode-softening universality-principle(GP) first use of the ``square-of-opposition'' in physics since Plato and Aristote!!!

Baez, Joao-Joan; Lapidaryus, Michelle; Carl-Ludwig Siegel, Edward

2013-03-01

159

Functional paraganglioma.  

PubMed

Paraganglioma are tumours arising from neural crest cells of the sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia. Functional paraganglioma presents with symptoms of catecholamine excess that includes hypertension, flushing, diaphoresis, etc. Non-functional paraganglioma are usually found incidentally during imaging studies. Early diagnoses of functional paraganglioma are important because their removal is often curative. We present the case of a young man who presented with hypertensive crisis and severe headache, who was later found to have functional paraganglioma. PMID:24557481

Balasubramanian, Gokulakrishnan; Nellaiappan, Vallikantha

2014-01-01

160

Function or not a Function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After completing this activity, students will understand the definition of a function and use it to identify whether or not an input-output pairing represents a function. Step by step instructions guide students in using their graphing calculators to determine if a graph represents a function by using a moving vertical line. A worksheet and teacher notes aid in teaching this lesson.

2011-11-28

161

Foot pain and functional limitation in healthy adults with hallux valgus: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Hallux valgus (HV) is a very common deformity of the first metatarsophalangeal joint that often requires surgical correction. However, the association between structural HV deformity and related foot pain and disability is unclear. Furthermore, no previous studies have investigated concerns about appearance and difficulty with footwear in a population with HV not seeking surgical correction. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate foot pain, functional limitation, concern about appearance and difficulty with footwear in otherwise healthy adults with HV compared to controls. Methods Thirty volunteers with HV (radiographic HV angle >15 degrees) and 30 matched controls were recruited for this study (50 women, 10 men; mean age 44.4 years, range 20 to 76 years). Differences between groups were examined for self-reported foot pain and disability, satisfaction with appearance, footwear difficulty, and pressure-pain threshold at the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Functional measures included balance tests, walking performance, and hallux muscle strength (abduction and plantarflexion). Mean differences (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results All self-report measures showed that HV was associated with higher levels of foot pain and disability and significant concerns about appearance and footwear (p < 0.001). Lower pressure-pain threshold was measured at the medial first metatarsophalangeal joint in participants with HV (MD = ?133.3 kPa, CI: -251.5 to ?15.1). Participants with HV also showed reduced hallux plantarflexion strength (MD = ?37.1 N, CI: -55.4 to ?18.8) and abduction strength (MD = ?9.8 N, CI: -15.6 to ?4.0), and increased mediolateral sway when standing with both feet with eyes closed (MD = 0.34 cm, CI: 0.04 to 0.63). Conclusions These findings show that HV negatively impacts on self-reported foot pain and function, and concerns about foot appearance and footwear in otherwise healthy adults. There was also evidence of impaired hallux muscle strength and increased postural sway in HV subjects compared to controls, although general physical functioning and participation in physical activity were not adversely affected.

2012-01-01

162

Function Flyer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online tool, students input a function where the constants, coefficients, and exponents can be adjusted by slider bars. This tool allows students to explore graphs of functions and how adjusting the numbers in the function affect the graph. Using tabs at the top of the page you can also access supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Shodor

2012-03-28

163

Function Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet allows learners to explore simple linear functions. Students determine the algebraic form of a linear equation by entering inputs into the machine and by looking for patterns in the outputs. The function rules available are: integers from -10 to 10 are either added to, subtracted from, or multiplied by the input x to yield the output y.

2011-01-01

164

Function Junction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity teaches students about function transformations using f(x)=x and f(x)=x^2. Step by step instructions show students how to use their graphing calculators to explore the functions. A worksheet is included to test understanding of the lesson.

2008-11-04

165

Functions Grapher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Discussing functions can be a tricky endeavor, but having a handy interactive way to talk about functions can relieve a great deal of stress. As part of the Mathematical Sciences Digital Library, this Functions Grapher application is designed to let users enter one or two functions. After doing so, users can trace along either one with coordinates shown dynamically changing at all times. The application was created by Professor Barbara Kaskosz of the University of Rhode Island, and it can be used by students in algebra, pre-calculus, or calculus courses. Of course, educators may wish to use it in their classrooms for illustrative purposes and they can also pass along to students who might find the very idea of functions and their operation a bit puzzling.

Kaskosz, Barbara

2007-09-28

166

The Multilingual/Bilingual Dichotomy: An Exploration of Individual Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bilingualism (Sanz, 2000), motivation (Pintrich, 1989), and language aptitude (Grigorenko, Sternberg, and Ehrman, 2000) are crucial individual differences that contribute to successful adult language learning. Since Gardner's (1985) seminal work on motivation, many studies have shown that motivation is dynamic and that it affects language…

Thompson, Amy S.

2009-01-01

167

Beyond Remedial Dichotomies: Are "Underprepared" College Students a Marginalized Majority?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article questions the dichotomous labeling and conceptualization of remedial and nonremedial students, particularly the added distinctions emphasized between four-year and two-year colleges, and it calls for a focus on the common challenges among all underprepared college students. The content of this article has attempted to broaden the…

Deil-Amen, Regina

2011-01-01

168

The Dangers of Dichotomy: A Reply to Hulstijn.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By presenting two theories of first and second language learning dichotomously, their fundamental similarity as information-processing theories is obscured and details of both positions are misrepresented. (Author/MSE)

Bialystok, Ellen

1990-01-01

169

A Gendered Dichotomy in Written Reflections in Professional Development Portfolios.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study that analyzed 91 written reflections in the professional-development portfolios of 13 doctoral students in educational leadership. The purpose of the research was to determine dichotomous expressions of thoughts between eight males (56 reflections) and five females (35 reflections). The study took place in a regional…

Irby, Beverly J.; Brown, Genevieve

170

Educating Moral Emotions or Moral Selves: A False Dichotomy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the post-Kohlbergian era of moral education, a "moral gap" has been identified between moral cognition and moral action. Contemporary moral psychologists lock horns over how this gap might be bridged. The two main contenders for such bridge-building are moral emotions and moral selves. I explore these two options from an Aristotelian…

Kristjansson, Kristjan

2010-01-01

171

Content vs. Learning: An Old Dichotomy in Science Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principles of course redesign that were applied to a gateway Cell Biology course at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee are applicable to courses large and small, and to institutions of any size. The challenge was to design a content-rich science course that kept pace with present and future content and at the same time use principles of…

Bergtrom, Gerald

2011-01-01

172

Tolerance to Alliance: Deconstructing Dichotomies to Advocate for All Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that teachers in the twenty-first century need to incorporate queer theory into their teaching practice and their discussions about individual differences in order to advocate for those students most likely to be bullied in schools. It provides a brief background on queer theory, gives an introduction to central ideas of the…

Berg, Margaret

2013-01-01

173

The dichotomy of relative humidity on indoor air quality.  

PubMed

Dry and irritated mucous membranes of the eyes and airways are common symptoms reported in office-like environments. Earlier studies suggested that indoor pollutants were responsible. We have re-evaluated, by review of the literature, how low relative humidity (RH) may influence the immediately perceived indoor air quality (IAQ), including odour, and cause irritation symptoms (i.e. longer-term perceived IAQ). "Relative humidity" were searched in major databases, and combined with: air quality, cabin air, dry eyes, formaldehyde, inflammation, mucous membranes, offices, ozone, pungency, sensory irritation, particles, precorneal tear film, sick building syndrome, stuffy air, and VOCs. The impact of RH on the immediately and longer-term perceived IAQ by VOCs, ozone, and particles is complex, because both the thermodynamic condition and the emission characteristics of building materials are influenced. Epidemiological, clinical, and human exposure studies indicate that low RH plays a role in the increase of reporting eye irritation symptoms and alteration of the precorneal tear film. These effects may be exacerbated during visual display unit work. The recommendation that IAQ should be "dry and cool" may be useful for evaluation of the immediately perceived IAQ in material emission testing, but should be considered cautiously about the development of irritation symptoms in eyes and upper airways during a workday. Studies indicate that RH about 40% is better for the eyes and upper airways than levels below 30%. The optimal RH may differ for the eyes and the airways regarding desiccation of the mucous membranes. PMID:17499853

Wolkoff, Peder; Kjaergaard, Søren K

2007-08-01

174

Paradigms, Perspectives and Dichotomies amongst Teacher Educators in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that the concepts, beliefs and understandings of local and non-local teacher educators in a Hong Kong university are grounded in their own cultural cognition and antecedents. It presents the viewpoint that contemporary notions of good practice were compromised when applied to a context that is strongly influenced by the tenets of…

Katyal, Kokila Roy; Fai, Pang Ming

2010-01-01

175

Dichotomies, Difference, and Ritual in Second Language Learning and Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questions the distinction between "natural" and "instructed" language learning. Introduces two extracts in which adolescents use Panjabi as a second language in peer-group recreation, and then shows how these contradict orthodox images of natural acquisition and classroom learning. (Author/VWL)

Rampton, Ben

1999-01-01

176

Isotope Analysis Reveals Foraging Area Dichotomy for Atlantic Leatherback Turtles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) has undergone a dramatic decline over the last 25 years, and this is believed to be primarily the result of mortality associated with fisheries bycatch followed by egg and nesting female harvest. Atlantic leatherback turtles undertake long migrations across ocean basins from subtropical and tropical nesting beaches to productive frontal areas. Migration between two

Stéphane Caut; Elodie Guirlet; Elena Angulo; Krishna Das; Marc Girondot

2008-01-01

177

Isotope Analysis Reveals Foraging Area Dichotomy for Atlantic Leatherback Turtles  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) has undergone a dramatic decline over the last 25 years, and this is believed to be primarily the result of mortality associated with fisheries bycatch followed by egg and nesting female harvest. Atlantic leatherback turtles undertake long migrations across ocean basins from subtropical and tropical nesting beaches to productive frontal areas. Migration between two nesting

Stéphane Caut; Elodie Guirlet; Elena Angulo; Krishna Das; Marc Girondot; Michael Somers

2008-01-01

178

Managerial Intuition across Cultures: Beyond a "West-East Dichotomy"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Studies investigating intuition from a cultural and cross-cultural perspective have a long tradition in various disciplines but, due to the increased internationalization of business, an understanding of the mental lives of other cultures became one of the priorities of management practitioners and theoreticians. Cultures of…

Wozniak, Anna

2006-01-01

179

Circuits of tourism: Stepping beyond the 'production\\/consumption' dichotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current blurring of the boundaries between economic and cultural geog raphies raises many issues within the geographical study of tourism. This paper addresses the crucial question of the value of dichotomous approaches, from either production or consumption perspectives. The neo-Gramscian concept of hegemony is then presented as a key theoretical framework that lays a foundation for stepping beyond binary

Irena Ateljevic

2000-01-01

180

The dichotomy of pathogens and allergens in vaccination approaches  

PubMed Central

Traditional prophylactic vaccination to prevent illness is the primary objective of many research activities worldwide. The golden age of vaccination began with an approach called variolation in ancient China and the evolution of vaccines still continues today with modern developments such as the production of GardasilTM against HPV and cervical cancer. The historical aspect of how different forms of vaccination have changed the face of medicine and communities is important as it dictates our future approaches on both a local and global scale. From the eradication of smallpox to the use of an experimental vaccine to save a species, this review will explore these successes in infectious disease vaccination and also discuss a few significant failures which have hampered our efforts to eradicate certain diseases. The second part of the review will explore designing a prophylactic vaccine for the growing global health concern that is allergy. Allergies are an emerging global health burden. Of particular concern is the rise of food allergies in developed countries where 1 in 10 children is currently affected. The formation of an allergic response results from the recognition of a foreign component by our immune system that is usually encountered on a regular basis. This may be a dust-mite or a prawn but this inappropriate immune response can result in a life-time of food avoidance and lifestyle restrictions. These foreign components are very similar to antigens derived from infectious pathogens. The question arises: should the allergy community be focussing on protective measures rather than ongoing therapeutic interventions to deal with these chronic inflammatory conditions? We will explore the difficulties and benefits of prophylactic vaccination against various allergens by means of genetic technology that will dictate how vaccination against allergens could be utilized in the near future.

Baird, Fiona J.; Lopata, Andreas L.

2014-01-01

181

Localising News: Translation and the "Global-National" Dichotomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to the peculiar nature of news texts, the adoption of a theory of "localisation" rather than conventional translation theories accounts more easily for both the commercial nature and the global scale of news distribution. News texts are global products which are distributed through a localisation process involving not only reception by locales…

Orengo, Alberto

2005-01-01

182

Time Irreversibility Problem and Functional Formulation of Classical Mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time irreversibility problem is the dichotomy of the reversible microscopic dynamics and the irreversible macroscopic physics. This problem was considered by Boltzmann, Poincar\\\\'e, Bogolyubov and many other authors and though some researchers claim that the problem is solved, it deserves a further study. In this paper an attempt is performed of the following solution of the irreversibility problem: a

Igor V. Volovich

2009-01-01

183

Carcinoma origin dictates differential skewing of monocyte function  

PubMed Central

Macrophages are versatile cells, which phenotype is profoundly influenced by their environment. Pro-inflammatory classically activated or M1 macrophages, and anti-inflammatory alternatively-activated or M2 macrophages represent two extremes of a continuum of functional states. Consequently, macrophages that are present in tumors can exert tumor-promoting and tumor-suppressing activity, depending on the tumor milieu. In this study we investigated how human monocytes—the precursors of macrophages—are influenced by carcinoma cells of different origin. We demonstrate that monocytes, stimulated with breast cancer supernatant, showed increased expression of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-8 and chemokines CCL17 and CCL22, which are associated with an alternatively-activated phenotype. By contrast, monocytes that were cultured in supernatants of colon cancer cells produced more pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-12 and TNF?) and reactive oxygen species. Secretome analysis revealed differential secretion of proteins by colon and breast cancer cell lines, of which the proteoglycan versican was exclusively secreted by colon carcinoma cell lines. Reducing active versican by blocking with monoclonal antibodies or shRNA diminished pro-inflammatory cytokine production by monocytes. Thus, colon carcinoma cells polarize monocytes toward a more classically-activated anti-tumorigenic phenotype, whereas breast carcinomas predispose monocytes toward an alternatively activated phenotype. Interestingly, presence of macrophages in breast or colon carcinomas correlates with poor or good prognosis in patients, respectively. The observed discrepancy in macrophage activation by either colon or breast carcinoma cells may therefore explain the dichotomy between patient prognosis and macrophage presence in these different tumors. Designing new therapies, directing development of monocytes toward M1 activated tumor macrophages in cancer patients, may have great clinical benefits.

Bogels, Marijn; Braster, Rens; Nijland, Philip G.; Gul, Nuray; van de Luijtgaarden, Wendy; Fijneman, Remond J.A.; Meijer, Gerrit A.; Jimenez, Connie R.; Beelen, Robert H.J.; van Egmond, Marjolein

2012-01-01

184

Functional metadata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current state of the art in content description (MPEG-7) does not provide a rich set of tools to create functional metadata (metadata that contains not only the description of the content but also a set of methods that can be used to interpret, change or analyze the content). This paper presents a framework of which the primary goal is the integration of functional metadata into the existing standards. Whenever it is not only important what is in the multimedia content, but also what is happening with the information in the content, functional metadata can be used to describe this. Some examples are: news tickers, sport results, online auctions. In order to extend content description schemes with extra functionality, MPEG-7 based descriptors are defined to allow the content creator to add his own properties and methods to the multimedia data, thus making the multimedia data self describing and manipulatable. These descriptors incorporate concepts from object technology such as objects, interfaces and events. Descriptors allow the content creator to add properties to these objects and interfaces, methods can be defined using a descriptor and activated using events. The generic use of these properties and methods are the core of the functional metadata framework. A complete set of MPEG-7 based descriptors and descriptor schemes is presented, enabling the content creator to add functional metadata to the multimedia data. An implementation of the proposed framework has been created proving the principles of functional metadata. This paper presents a method for adding extra functionality to metadata and hence to multimedia data. It is shown that doing so preserves existing content description methods and that the functional metadata extends the possibilities of the use of content description.

Rogge, Boris; Van de Walle, Rik; Lemahieu, Ignace L.

2001-07-01

185

Glycosphingolipid Functions  

PubMed Central

The combination of carbohydrate and lipid generates unusual molecules in which the two distinctive halves of the glycoconjugate influence the function of each other. Membrane glycolipids can act as primary receptors for carbohydrate binding proteins to mediate transmembrane signaling despite restriction to the outer bilayer leaflet. The extensive heterogeneity of the lipid moiety plays a significant, but still largely unknown, role in glycosphingolipid function. Potential interplay between glycolipids and their fatty acid isoforms, together with their preferential interaction with cholesterol, generates a complex mechanism for the regulation of their function in cellular physiology.

Lingwood, Clifford A.

2011-01-01

186

Rhinoplasty (Functional)  

MedlinePLUS

... nasal bones – may often performed to straighten the nasal bones themselves. Although cartilage grafting remains the most common type of functional ... in the nasal breathing. Benefits An improvement in ... may involve cartilage grafting, may be performed “closed” or “open”, and ...

187

Transfer functions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vulnerability of electronic equipment to carbon fibers is studied. The effectiveness of interfaces, such as filters, doors, window screens, and cabinets, which affect the concentration, exposure, or deposition of carbon fibers on both (internal and external) sides of the interface is examined. The transfer function of multilayer aluminum mesh, wet and dry, polyurethane foam, and window screen are determined as a function of air velocity. FIlters installed in typical traffic control boxes and air conditioners are also considered.

Taback, I.

1979-01-01

188

Linear Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this tutorial, "Linear functions of the form f(x) = ax + b and the properties of their graphs are explored interactively using an applet." The applet allows students to manipulate variables to discover the changes in intercepts and slope of the graphed line. There are six questions for students to answer, exploring the applet and observing changes. The questions' answers are included on this site. Additionally, a tutorial for graphing linear functions by hand is included.

Shodor

2012-03-29

189

Functional Significance May Underlie the Taxonomic Utility of Single Amino Acid Substitutions in Conserved Proteins  

PubMed Central

We hypothesized that some amino acid substitutions in conserved proteins that are strongly fixed by critical functional roles would show lineage-specific distributions. As an example of an archetypal conserved eukaryotic protein we considered the active site of ?-tubulin. Our analysis identified one amino acid substitution—?-tubulin F224—which was highly lineage specific. Investigation of ?-tubulin for other phylogenetically restricted amino acids identified several with apparent specificity for well-defined phylogenetic groups. Intriguingly, none showed specificity for “supergroups” other than the unikonts. To understand why, we analysed the ?-tubulin Neighbor-Net and demonstrated a fundamental division between core ?-tubulins (plant-like) and divergent ?-tubulins (animal and fungal). F224 was almost completely restricted to the core ?-tubulins, while divergent ?-tubulins possessed Y224. Thus, our specific example offers insight into the restrictions associated with the co-evolution of ?-tubulin during the radiation of eukaryotes, underlining a fundamental dichotomy between F-type, core ?-tubulins and Y-type, divergent ?-tubulins. More broadly our study provides proof of principle for the taxonomic utility of critical amino acids in the active sites of conserved proteins. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00239-010-9338-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Wagner, Gerd K.; Wu, Qiong; Huber, Katharina T.

2010-01-01

190

A rehabilitation tool for functional balance using altered gravity and virtual reality  

PubMed Central

Background There is a need for effective and early functional rehabilitation of patients with gait and balance problems including those with spinal cord injury, neurological diseases and recovering from hip fractures, a common consequence of falls especially in the elderly population. Gait training in these patients using partial body weight support (BWS) on a treadmill, a technique that involves unloading the subject through a harness, improves walking better than training with full weight bearing. One problem with this technique not commonly acknowledged is that the harness provides external support that essentially eliminates associated postural adjustments (APAs) required for independent gait. We have developed a device to address this issue and conducted a training study for proof of concept of efficacy. Methods We present a tool that can enhance the concept of BWS training by allowing natural APAs to occur mediolaterally. While in a supine position in a 90 deg tilted environment built around a modified hospital bed, subjects wear a backpack frame that is freely moving on air-bearings (cf. puck on an air hockey table) and attached through a cable to a pneumatic cylinder that provides a load that can be set to emulate various G-like loads. Veridical visual input is provided through two 3-D automultiscopic displays that allow glasses free 3-D vision representing a virtual surrounding environment that may be acquired from sites chosen by the patient. Two groups of 12 healthy subjects were exposed to either strength training alone or a combination of strength and balance training in such a tilted environment over a period of four weeks. Results Isokinetic strength measured during upright squat extension improved similarly in both groups. Measures of balance assessed in upright showed statistically significant improvements only when balance was part of the training in the tilted environment. Postural measures indicated less reliance on visual and/or increased use of somatosensory cues after training. Conclusion Upright balance function can be improved following balance specific training performed in a supine position in an environment providing the perception of an upright position with respect to gravity. Future studies will implement this concept in patients.

Oddsson, Lars IE; Karlsson, Robin; Konrad, Janusz; Ince, Serdar; Williams, Steve R; Zemkova, Erika

2007-01-01

191

Functional material and functional device  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Disclosed are a functional material and a functional device, each of which is capable of changing a wavelength of a transmission electromagnetic wave such as transmission light or a transmission sound wave such as a transmission ultrasonic wave through the device on the basis of a signal supplied from external. Each of the functional material and the functional device includes a periodic structure having a periodicity with a unit cycle on the order of a wavelength of an electromagnetic wave or a sound wave, and means for disturbing the periodicity which is inserted in at least one portion of the periodic structure, wherein a wavelength of the electromagnetic wave or sound wave passing through the periodic structure by controlling the means on a signal supplied from external.

2005-09-27

192

Inverse Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students use log tapes and base-two slide rules as references to graph exponential functions and log functions in base-10 and base-2. Students discover that exponential and log functions are inverse, reflecting across the y = x axis as mirror images. This is activity E2 in the "Far Out Math" educator's guide. Lessons in the guide include activities in which students measure, compare quantities as orders of magnitude, become familiar with scientific notation, and develop an understanding of exponents and logarithms using examples from NASA's GLAST mission. These are skills needed to understand the very large and very small quantities characteristic of astronomical observations. Note: In 2008, the GLAST mission was renamed Fermi, for the physicist Enrico Fermi.

193

Functional diarrhea.  

PubMed

Chronic diarrhea is a frequent and challenging problem in clinical medicine. In a considerable subgroup of these, no underlying cause is identified and this is referred to as functional diarrhea. A consensus definition for functional diarrhea is based on loose stool consistency and chronicity and absence of coexisting irritable bowel syndrome. Underlying pathophysiology includes rapid intestinal transit, which may be worsened by stress or be triggered by a preceding infectious gastroenteritis. Diagnostic work-up aims at exclusion of underlying organic disease. Treatment starts with dietary adjustments, aiming at decreasing nutrients that enhance transit and stool and at identifying precipitating food items. PMID:22917168

Tack, Jan

2012-09-01

194

Function Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two-dimensional (x,y) functions: linear (slope-intercept, point-slope, and general forms), polynomial (definition, roots, graphs), and exponential (definition, exponential growth, radioactive decay, money matters - simple, compound, and continuous interest, effective annual rate, ordinary annuity, and loans). From the Mathematics area of Zona Land: Education in Physics and Mathematics.

Zobel, Edward A.

2008-09-19

195

Function flyer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers of all algebra levels will find this applet useful when helping students understand and visualize the relationship between an equation and its graph. Assigning the applet with exploration questions to small groups of students would be an excellent introduction to how the applet works and good preparation for more in-depth exploration of issues related to whatever types of functions the class is studying.

Foundation, Shodor E.

2004-01-01

196

Functional dyspepsia  

PubMed Central

Dyspepsia is a common term used for a heterogeneous group of abdominal symptoms. Functional dyspepsia (FD) is the focus of this review. The 2006 Rome III criteria defined FD and its subgroups, postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) and epigastric pain syndrome (EPS). FD is a very common condition with a high prevalence throughout the world, adversely affecting the quality of life of patients. The pathophysiology of FD has been under investigation during the past two decades. Multiple mechanisms such as abnormal gastric emptying, visceral hypersensitivity, impaired gastric accommodation, and central nervous system factors are likely involved. Several tests are available for the assessment of various physiologic functions possibly involved in the pathogenesis of FD, and some of these could be used in clinical practice, helping to understand the abnormalities underlining patients’ complaints. Currently, the possibilities of pharmacological therapy for FD are still limited, however, experience of using prokinetics, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), and several alternative techniques has been accumulated. The different combinations of alterations in physiologic gastrointestinal and central nervous system functions result in the very heterogeneous nature of FD so combined approaches to these patients could be beneficial in challenging cases.

Brun, Rita; Kuo, Braden

2010-01-01

197

CARDIORESPIRATORY FUNCTION  

PubMed Central

Accurate evaluation of the degree of impairment of pulmonary function in persons with fibrosis and emphysema requires: (1) ventilatory measurements from rapid spirogram tracings (vital capacity, maximal breathing capacity and the time required to blow the air from the lungs); (2) determination of the degree of bronchospasm present; (3) determination of the degree of pulmonary emphysema (residual air expressed quantitatively as percent of total lung volume); (4) determination of the arterial blood oxygen saturation at rest and immediately after step-up exercise; (5) measurement of the oxygen extraction from inspired air (per cent of oxygen removed) during rest and exercise; (6) determination of the oxygen up-take during exercise; and (7) observation of the duration of dyspnea after step-up exercise. No single physiologic test is adequate in evaluating impairment of pulmonary function, and roentgenograms of the chest are unreliable as a sole basis for appraisal of disability. In industrial medicine, pulmonary function studies make possible (a) more accurate diagnosis and evaluation of pulmonary disability; and (b) earlier detection and thus prevention of prolonged exposure by susceptible individuals to environmental hazards. ImagesFigure 1-A.Figure 1-B.Figure 1-C.Figure 1-D.Figure 4.

Motley, Hurley L.

1952-01-01

198

Executive Functions  

PubMed Central

Executive functions (EFs) make possible mentally playing with ideas; taking the time to think before acting; meeting novel, unanticipated challenges; resisting temptations; and staying focused. Core EFs are inhibition [response inhibition (self-control—resisting temptations and resisting acting impulsively) and interference control (selective attention and cognitive inhibition)], working memory, and cognitive flexibility (including creatively thinking “outside the box,” seeing anything from different perspectives, and quickly and flexibly adapting to changed circumstances). The developmental progression and representative measures of each are discussed. Controversies are addressed (e.g., the relation between EFs and fluid intelligence, self-regulation, executive attention, and effortful control, and the relation between working memory and inhibition and attention). The importance of social, emotional, and physical health for cognitive health is discussed because stress, lack of sleep, loneliness, or lack of exercise each impair EFs. That EFs are trainable and can be improved with practice is addressed, including diverse methods tried thus far.

Diamond, Adele

2014-01-01

199

Hepatitis C Virus Replication and Golgi Function in Brefeldin A-Resistant Hepatoma-Derived Cells  

PubMed Central

Recent reports indicate that the replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) depends on the GBF1-Arf1-COP-I pathway. We generated Huh-7-derived cell lines resistant to brefeldin A (BFA), which is an inhibitor of this pathway. The resistant cell lines could be sorted into two phenotypes regarding BFA-induced toxicity, inhibition of albumin secretion, and inhibition of HCV infection. Two cell lines were more than 100 times more resistant to BFA than the parental Huh-7 cells in these 3 assays. This resistant phenotype was correlated with the presence of a point mutation in the Sec7 domain of GBF1, which is known to impair the binding of BFA. Surprisingly, the morphology of the cis-Golgi of these cells remained sensitive to BFA at concentrations of the drug that allowed albumin secretion, indicating a dichotomy between the phenotypes of secretion and Golgi morphology. Cells of the second group were about 10 times more resistant than parental Huh-7 cells to the BFA-induced toxicity. The EC50 for albumin secretion was only 1.5–1.8 fold higher in these cells than in Huh-7 cells. However their level of secretion in the presence of inhibitory doses of BFA was 5 to 15 times higher. Despite this partially effective secretory pathway in the presence of BFA, the HCV infection was almost as sensitive to BFA as in Huh-7 cells. This suggests that the function of GBF1 in HCV replication does not simply reflect its role of regulator of the secretory pathway of the host cell. Thus, our results confirm the involvement of GBF1 in HCV replication, and suggest that GBF1 might fulfill another function, in addition to the regulation of the secretory pathway, during HCV replication.

Farhat, Rayan; Goueslain, Lucie; Wychowski, Czeslaw; Belouzard, Sandrine; Feneant, Lucie; Jackson, Catherine L.; Dubuisson, Jean; Rouille, Yves

2013-01-01

200

Functional amyloid  

PubMed Central

Evidence is growing at an increasing-pace that amyloid fibers are not just the result of aberrant protein folding associated with neurodegenerative diseases, but are widespread in nature for beneficial reasons. Amyloid is an attractive building material because its robust design and simple repetitive structure make for very durable and metabolically cheap material. But this requires that the production of amyloid be put under firm control. This appears to involve the use of four to five chaperones that are expressed under the control of the same promoter as the amyloid proteins. Significant progress has been made in deciphering this process in E. coli's csg operon, also found in Salmonella. Recently, we have discovered a new and unrelated operon (fap) responsible for amyloid production in Pseudomonas, which also confers biofilm-forming properties to E. coli. Intriguingly, this operon shares a number of features with csg, namely two homologous proteins (one of which, FapC, has been shown to be directly involved in amyloid build-up) and a small number of auxiliary proteins. However, FapC seems to be less economically structured than its E. coli counterpart, with a smaller number of repeats and very large and variable linker regions. Furthermore, the putative chaperones are not homologous to their csg counterparts and have intriguing homologies to proteins with other functions. These findings suggest that controlled amyloid production has arisen on many independent occasions due to the usefulness of the product and offers the potential for intriguing insights into how nature disarms and reconstructs a potentially very dangerous weapon.

2010-01-01

201

Assessing Function and Functional Outcome in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The diagnosis of schizophrenia can only be made in the presence of a loss of functioning in domains such as employment, independent\\u000a living, and social functioning. Accurately measuring functioning is central to research on the course of the disorder, treatment\\u000a and rehabilitation outcomes, and biosocial factors in schizophrenia. Assessments of functional disability have described three\\u000a dimensions of functioning: functional capacity,

Elizabeth Bromley; John S. Brekke

202

The effects of disruption in attention on driving performance patterns: analysis of jerk-cost function and vehicle control data.  

PubMed

This study analyzes the effects of attention disruption factors, such as sending text messages (STM) and performing searching navigation (SN) on driving performance patterns while actively driving, centering on motion signals. To this end, it analyzes not only data on control of the vehicle including the Anterior-Posterior Coefficient of Variation (APCV), Medial-Lateral Coefficient of Variation (MLCV), and Deviation of Vehicle Speed but also motion data such as the Jerk-Cost function (JC). A total of 55 drivers including 28 males (age: 24.1 ± 1.5, driving experience: 1.8 years ± 1.7 years) and 27 females (age: 23.8 ± 2.6, driving experience: 1.5 ± 1.0) participated in this study. All subjects were instructed to drive at a constant speed (90 km/h) for 2 min while keeping a distance of 30 m from the front car also running at a speed of 90 km/h. They were requested to drive for the first 1 min and then drive only (Driving Only) or conduct tasks while driving for the subsequent 1 min (Driving + STM or Driving + SN). The information on APCV, MLCV, and deviation of speed were delivered by a driving simulator. Furthermore, the motion signal was measured using 4 high-speed infrared cameras and based on the measurement results, JCs in a total of 6 parts including left shoulder (L.shoulder), left elbow (L.elbow), left hand (L.hand), right knee (R.knee), right ankle (R.ankle), and right toe (R.toe) were calculated. Differences among the results of 3 conditions of experiment, Driving Only, Driving + STM, and Driving + SN, were compared and analyzed in terms of APCV, MLCV, Deviation of Vehicle Speed, and JC. APCV and Deviation of Vehicle Speed increased in Driving + SN, rather than in Driving Only. MLCV increased in Driving + STM and Driving + SN, rather than in Driving Only. In the case of most JCs except that of L.hand, the values increased in Driving + SN, compared to Driving Only. This study indicated that JC could be a reliable parameter for the evaluation of driving performance patterns. In addition, it was discovered that additional tasks under driving, such as STM and SN, impaired smoothness or proficiency in driving motion, thereby increasing anterior-posterior and medio-lateral variability and deviation of speed. PMID:23217629

Choi, Jin-Seung; Kim, Han-Soo; Kang, Dong-Won; Choi, Mi-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Hong, Sang-Pyo; Yu, Na-Rae; Lim, Dae-Woon; Min, Byung-Chan; Tack, Gye-Rae; Chung, Soon-Cheol

2013-07-01

203

Ocular-Motor Function and Information Processing: Implications for the Reading Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the dichotomy between continually moving eyes and the lack of blurred visual experience. A discontinuous model of visual perception is proposed, with the discontinuities being phase and temporally related to saccadic eye movements. It is further proposed that deviant duration and angular velocity characteristics of saccades in…

Leisman, Gerald; Schwartz, Joddy

204

The development of vestibular system and related functions in mammals: impact of gravity.  

PubMed

This chapter reviews the knowledge about the adaptation to Earth gravity during the development of mammals. The impact of early exposure to altered gravity is evaluated at the level of the functions related to the vestibular system, including postural control, homeostatic regulation, and spatial memory. The hypothesis of critical periods in the adaptation to gravity is discussed. Demonstrating a critical period requires removing the gravity stimulus during delimited time windows, what is impossible to do on Earth surface. The surgical destruction of the vestibular apparatus, and the use of mice strains with defective graviceptors have provided useful information on the consequences of missing gravity perception, and the possible compensatory mechanisms, but transitory suppression of the stimulus can only be operated during spatial flight. The rare studies on rat pups housed on board of space shuttle significantly contributed to this problem, but the use of hypergravity environment, produced by means of chronic centrifugation, is the only available tool when repeated experiments must be carried out on Earth. Even though hypergravity is sometimes considered as a mirror situation to microgravity, the two situations cannot be confused because a gravitational force is still present. The theoretical considerations that validate the paradigm of hypergravity to evaluate critical periods are discussed. The question of adaption of graviceptor is questioned from an evolutionary point of view. It is possible that graviception is hardwired, because life on Earth has evolved under the constant pressure of gravity. The rapid acquisition of motor programming by precocial mammals in minutes after birth is consistent with this hypothesis, but the slow development of motor skills in altricial species and the plasticity of vestibular perception in adults suggest that gravity experience is required for the tuning of graviceptors. The possible reasons for this dichotomy are discussed. PMID:24570658

Jamon, Marc

2014-01-01

205

Functional Training Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that though functional training is vital in all sporting preparation, it is only one aspect of the overall process. The paper defines functional training; discusses facets of functionality, functionality and balancing drills, and functional training and periodization; and concludes that functionality is best defined in terms of the outcome…

Siff, Mel C.

2002-01-01

206

CD8 sup + T lymphocytes of patients with AIDS maintain normal broad cytolytic function despite the loss of human immunodeficiency virus-specific cytotoxicity  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the authors have investigated the potential mechanisms responsible for the loss of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific cytolytic activity in the advanced stages of HIV-1 infection. They have demonstrated that HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes are predominantly contained within the CD8{sup +}DR{sup +} subset. Furthermore, they have shown by a redirected killing assay that there is a dichotomy between HIV-1-specific cytolytic activity and broad cytolytic potential since the cytolytic machinery of CD8{sup +}DR{sup +} cells is still functioning even in patients with AIDS who have lost their HIV-1-specific cytolytic activity. In addition, by comparative analysis of these two types of cytolytic activity over time they have demonstrated a progressive loss of HIV-1-specific cytolytic activity in the advanced stages of the disease, whereas the cytolytic potential remained unchanged regardless of the clinical stage. On the basis of these results, they propose that the loss of HIV-1-specific cytolytic activity in HIV-1-infected individuals may result at least in part from a progressive decrease in the pool of HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes belonging to the CD8{sup +}DR{sup +} subset whose ability to expand has been impaired.

Pantaleo, G.; De Maria, A.; Koenig, S.; Butini, L.; Moss, B.; Lane, H.C.; Fauci, A.S. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA)); Baseler, M. (Program Resources, Incorporated, Frederick, MD (USA))

1990-06-01

207

Functional Microorganisms for Functional Food Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional microorganisms and health benefits represent a binomial with great potential for fermented functional foods. The health benefits of fermented functional foods are expressed either directly through the interactions of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as the result of the ingestion of microbial metabolites synthesized during fermentation (biogenic effect). Since the importance of high viability

M. Gobbetti; R. Di Cagno; M. De Angelis

2010-01-01

208

An essay on Bion's beta function.  

PubMed

Among the major theorists studying the effect of the external world on the individual, none had a more ambiguous relationship to the psychic manifestations of the environment than Wilfred Bion. On the one hand his theory of the mind contained a new concept, beta elements, to depict the intrusion of the material world into the mental sphere, while on the other he radically opposed the use of sensory perception as a source for clinical insight. The author examines this dichotomy as an outgrowth of her interest in the place of external reality in psychoanalytic theory. As a result, this essay is an attempt to clarify the source for Bion's theorizing, in order to be more specific about the applicability of his concepts and his precepts. PMID:23421664

Oliner, Marion M

2013-02-01

209

Field Guide to Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This field guide contains a quick look at the functions commonly encountered in single variable calculus, with exercises for each topic: linear, polynomial, power, rational, exponential, logarithmic, trigonometric, and piecewise functions. Also algebraic operations on functions, function composition, and general types of functions.

Robson, Robert O., 1954-

2008-09-19

210

Normal Functioning Family  

MedlinePLUS

... Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Normal Functioning Family Family Life Listen Normal Functioning Family Article Body Is there any way to tell if my family is functioning normally? Many parents ask themselves this ...

211

Stieltjes Functions and Hurwitz Stable Entire Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of stability, originally introduced for polynomials, will be extended to apply to the class of entire functions.\\u000a This generalization will be called Hurwitz stablility and the class of Hurwitz stable functions will serve as the main focus\\u000a of this paper. A first theorem will show how, given a function of either of the Stieltjes classes, a Hurwitz stable

Victor Katsnelson

2011-01-01

212

Functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rome diagnostic criteria for the functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain are used widely in research and practice. A committee consensus approach, including criticism from multinational expert reviewers, was used to revise the diagnostic criteria and update diagnosis and treatment recommendations, based on research results. The terminology was clarified and the diagnostic criteria and management recommendations were revised.

W G Thompson; G F Longstreth; D A Drossman; K W Heaton; E J Irvine; S A Müller-Lissner

1999-01-01

213

Functions Analogous to Completely Convex Functions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for a function to have an absolutely convergent L sub 3,0,0) series expansion. This gives an analogue of a result of Widder who gives necessary and sufficient conditions for a function to have an absolutely co...

A. Sharma S. A. Pethe

1971-01-01

214

Sampling Functions for Geophysics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A set of spherical sampling functions is defined such that they are related to spherical-harmonic functions in the same way that the sampling functions of information theory are related to sine and cosine functions. An orderly distribution of (N + 1) squa...

G. E. Giacaglia C. A. Lunquist

1972-01-01

215

Lesson: 18 Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Beginning with linear functions, this lesson looks at functions of real world data defined by tables and graphs before moving into functions defined by equations. Function notation is introduced at the end of teh lesson and various examples are provided to get students familiar with the new notation.

2011-01-01

216

On continuous quasiconvex functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An immediate, but apparently not yet published, alternative definition for quasiconvex functions is given for the case of continuity. This, then, is immediately generalized to ?-quasiconvex functions with values from a connected quasiorder. Finally, the results obtained are investigated with respect to quasinimonotonic functions, including results on midpoint-quasimonotonic and rational-quasimonotonic functions.

Fred Alois Behringer; Rainhard Walberer

1981-01-01

217

Hidden Function Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hidden Function model evaluates a function f(x) with parameters. It is designed to teach function concepts by allowing a teacher to define a function, hide that function in a repackaged jar file, and asking students to find the hidden function. Students vary the independent variable and observe the resulting function value. If the unknown function includes arbitrary parameters (e.g., f(x)=a*x-3) the parameters appear as additional input fields. The Hidden Function model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_math_HiddenFunction.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. EJS is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is available in the OSP Collection.

Christian, Wolfgang

2012-07-12

218

Special Functions Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

EJS Special Functions Model shows how to access special functions in the OSP numerics package. The simulation displays a graph of the special function over the given range as well as the value of the selected function at a single point. The following special functions can be displayed: Legendre polynomials Pn(x) associated Legendre functions Pnm(x) Laguerre polynomials Ln(x) associated Laguerre polynomials Lnm(x) Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind Tn(x) Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind Un(x) Bessel functions Jn(x) A description of the EJS special functions along with links to more information about the functions are provided.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-12-16

219

Linear Function Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students plug values into a function to see what the output is for that function. Then based on that information, they have to guess the coefficient and constant for a linear function. This activity allows students to explore linear functions and what input values are useful to figuring out the linear function performed by the function machine. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

220

Positive Linear Function Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students investigate linear functions with positive slopes by trying to guess the slope and intercept from inputs and outputs. Positive Linear Function Machine is one of the Interactivate assessment explorers.

221

Pulmonary function tests  

MedlinePLUS

... of breath Measure whether exposure to chemicals at work affects lung function Check lung function before someone has surgery It ... the meaning of your specific test results. Different measurements ... tests include: Diffusion capacity to carbon monoxide (DLCO) ...

222

Continuous Functions: Students' Viewpoints.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates how the concept of a mathematical function is applied in science. The procedures by which 400 students ranging in age from 11 to 18 years deal spontaneously with data pairs that describe a continuous functional relationship are identified. (HM)

Karplus, Robert

1979-01-01

223

Functionally Graded Materials VII.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Functionally graded materials (FGMs) exhibit spatial variations, in composition and/or microstructure, which have been imposed for the specific purpose of controlling the resultant variations in the thermal, structural or functional properties. During the...

J. Gong L. Chen L. Zhang W. Pan

2003-01-01

224

Functional Task Test (FTT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the Functional Task Test (FTT), an interdisciplinary testing regimen that has been developed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The objectives of the project are: (1) to develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for the Constellation Program, (2) determine the ability to perform these tasks after space flight, (3) Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements and (4) Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures.

Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian T.; Rescheke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott; Lawrence, Emily; Koffman, Igor; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Spiering, Barry A.; Feeback, Daniel L.; Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M.C.; Arzeno, Natalia; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ryder, Jeffrey; Garcia, Yamil; Guilliams, Mark E.

2009-01-01

225

Monotone Boolean functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monotone Boolean functions are an important object in discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics. Topics related to these functions have been actively studied for several decades. Many results have been obtained, and many papers published. However, until now there has been no sufficiently complete monograph or survey of results of investigations concerning monotone Boolean functions. The object of this survey is to present the main results on monotone Boolean functions obtained during the last 50 years.

Korshunov, A. D.

2003-10-01

226

Benefit and Distance Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the relationship between R. W. Shephard's input distance function (“Cost and Production Functions,” Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, 1953) and D. G. Luenberger's benefit function (J. Math. Econ.21(1992a), 461–481). We point out that the latter can be recognized in a production context as a directional input distance function which can exhaustively characterize technologies in both price and input space.

Robert G. Chambers; Yangho Chung

1996-01-01

227

Searching for Cost Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boolean function design is at the heart of cryptography, and is the subject of a great deal of theoretical research. We have use a simulated annealing approach to find functions with particular desirable cryptographic properties; for functions of a small number of variables, results with properties as good as (and sometimes better than) the best so far have been achieved.

John A. Clark; Jeremy L. Jacob; Susan Stepney

2004-01-01

228

Functionality of Poultry Meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Functional foods are foods enriched with single ingredients, which influence 1 or more functions of the consumer in a favorable way, exceeding the effects of normal adequate nutrition. Consumers can expect health benefits from these products. The production of functional poultry meat is a promising future perspective, although the market share of such products will be small. The objective

M. A. Grashorn

2007-01-01

229

Functioning Mathematically: 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the first part of the closing address given by the author to the 2007 Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) Easter conference at Loughborough. In his closing address, the author focuses on functioning mathematically as opposed to functional mathematics. His view of functional mathematics is that the focus is on someone…

Cain, David

2007-01-01

230

High field functional MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become the most widely used approach for studying brain functions in humans. The rapid and widespread diffusion of fMRI has been favoured by the properties this technique presents, and particularly by its sensitivity in analysing brain functional phenomena and by the lack of biological invasiveness, resulting in an unprecedented and unparalleled flexibility of use.

F. Di Salle; F. Esposito; A. Elefante; T. Scarabino; A. Volpicelli; S. Cirillo; R. Elefante; E. Seifritz

2003-01-01

231

Piecing Together Piecewise Functions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity to teach piecewise functions using wax paper and rectangular grids. Helps students understand the idea of different pieces by literally "piecing" together a new type of mathematical function. Also describes a followup activity and explains how piecewise functions can be graphed using graphing calculators. (NB)

King, Sybrina L.

1997-01-01

232

An Exceptional Exponential Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We show that there is a link between a standard calculus problem of finding the best view of a painting and special tangent lines to the graphs of exponential functions. Surprisingly, the exponential function with the "best view" is not the one with the base "e." A similar link is established for families of functions obtained by composing…

Curgus, Branko

2006-01-01

233

Intellectual Functioning and Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a 22-year study, data were collected on aggressiveness and intellectual functioning in more than 600 subjects, their parents, and their children. Both aggression and intellectual functioning are reasonably stable in a subject's lifetime and perpetuate themselves across generations and within marriage pairs. Aggression in childhood was shown to interfere with the development of intellectual functioning and to be predictive

L. Rowell Huesmann; Leonard D. Eron; Patty Warnick Yarmel

1987-01-01

234

Weakly ??-continuous functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we introduce a new class of generalizations of continuous functions via ??-open sets called weakly ??-continuous functions. Moreover, we study some of its fundamental properties and characterizations. The concept of weak ??-continuous is weaker than ??-continuous, weakly ?-continuous and weakly ?-continuous functions, are also discussed.

Aljarrah, Heyam Hussein; Md Noorani, Mohd Salmi

2013-09-01

235

Cross-functional systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many companies, including Xerox and Texas Instruments, are using cross functional systems to deal with the increasingly complex and competitive business environment. However, few firms within the aerospace industry appear to be aware of the significant benefits that cross functional systems can provide. Those benefits are examined and a flexible methodology is discussed that companies can use to identify and develop cross functional systems that will help improve organizational performance. In addition, some of the managerial issues are addressed that cross functional systems may raise and specific examples are used to explore networking's contributions to cross functional systems.

Lee, Mark

1991-01-01

236

Lesson 30: Exponential Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Beginning with a formal definition of an exponential function, the lesson then compares the graphs of increasing and decreasing exponential functions. A comparison between exponential and power functions follows, which leads to methods for determining the h value in the power function h(x) = kx^p and the value of the base b in the exponential function f(x) = ab^x. A procedure for solving exponential equations is presented before a population application problem is solved. The lesson concludes with a discussion about using graphs to find approximate solutions to exponential equations.

2011-01-01

237

The Function of Introns  

PubMed Central

The intron–exon architecture of many eukaryotic genes raises the intriguing question of whether this unique organization serves any function, or is it simply a result of the spread of functionless introns in eukaryotic genomes. In this review, we show that introns in contemporary species fulfill a broad spectrum of functions, and are involved in virtually every step of mRNA processing. We propose that this great diversity of intronic functions supports the notion that introns were indeed selfish elements in early eukaryotes, but then independently gained numerous functions in different eukaryotic lineages. We suggest a novel criterion of evolutionary conservation, dubbed intron positional conservation, which can identify functional introns.

Chorev, Michal; Carmel, Liran

2012-01-01

238

Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders  

PubMed Central

This is the first attempt at defining criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. The decision-making process was as for adults and consisted of arriving at consensus, based on clinical experience. This paper is intended to be a quick reference. The classification system selected differs from the one used in the adult population in that it is organized according to main complaints instead of being organ-targeted. Because the child is still developing, some disorders such as toddler's diarrhea (or functional diarrhea) are linked to certain physiologic stages; others may result from behavioral responses to sphincter function acquisition such as fecal retention; others will only be recognizable after the child is cognitively mature enough to report the symptoms (e.g., dyspepsia). Infant regurgitation, rumination, and cyclic vomiting constitute the vomiting disorders. Abdominal pain disorders are classified as: functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional abdominal pain, abdominal migraine, and aerophagia. Disorders of defecation include: infant dyschezia, functional constipation, functional fecal retention, and functional non-retentive fecal soiling. Some disorders, such as IBS and dyspepsia and functional abdominal pain, are exact replications of the adult criteria because there are enough data to confirm that they represent specific and similar disorders in pediatrics. Other disorders not included in the pediatric classification, such as functional biliary disorders, do occur in children; however, existing data are insufficient to warrant including them at the present time. For these disorders, it is suggested that, for the time being, clinicians refer to the criteria established for the adult population.???Keywords: infant vomiting; cyclic vomiting syndrome; functional dyspepsia in children; irritable bowel syndrome in children; functional abdominal pain in children; functional diarrhea in children; functional constipation in children; Rome II

Rasquin-Weber, A; Hyman, P; Cucchiara, S; Fleisher, D; Hyams, J; Milla, P; Staiano, A

1999-01-01

239

Functional Explanation and the Function of Explanation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teleological explanations (TEs) account for the existence or properties of an entity in terms of a function: we have hearts because they pump blood, and telephones for communication. While many teleological explanations seem appropriate, others are clearly not warranted--for example, that rain exists for plants to grow. Five experiments explore…

Lombrozo, Tania; Carey, Susan

2006-01-01

240

Variable function programmed calculator  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A variable function calculator utilizes a fixed program memory array such as a programmed read only memory in which a number of programs are stored depending upon the desired functions of the calculator. The calculator also includes a program counter, an instruction register, control decoders, jump-condition circuits, a clock generator, a timing generator, digit and FLAG mask decoders, key input logic, a register and FLAG data storage array, a decimal and FLAG arithmetic logic unit, an output decoder, and a digit scanner which scans both the keyboard and display outputs. Aside from providing basic desk top calculator functions, the read only memory may be programmed so that the system provides metering functions, arithmetic teaching functions, control functions, etc.. A preferred embodiment of the invention is capable of being fabricated as a monolithic integrated semiconductor system utilizing contemporary metal-insulator-semiconductor techniques.

2003-11-18

241

Functional Visual Loss  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Neurologists frequently evaluate patients complaining of vision loss, especially when the patient has been examined by an ophthalmologist who has found no ocular disease. A significant proportion of patients presenting to the neurologist with visual complaints will have non-organic or functional visual loss. While there are examination techniques which can aid in the detection and diagnosis of functional visual loss, the frequency with which functional visual loss occurs concomitantly with organic disease warrants substantial caution on the part of the clinician. Furthermore, purely functional visual loss is never a diagnosis of exclusion, and must be supported by positive findings on examination that demonstrate normal visual function. The relationship of true psychological disease and functional visual loss is unclear and most patients respond well to simple reassurance.

Bruce, Beau B; Newman, Nancy J

2010-01-01

242

The functional status questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive functional assessment requires thorough and careful inquiry, which is difficult to accomplish in most busy\\u000a clinical practices. This paper examines the reliability and validity of the Functional Status Questionnaire (FSQ), a brief,\\u000a standardized, self-administered questionnaire designed to provide a comprehensive and feasible assessment of physical, psychological,\\u000a social and role function in ambulatory patients. The FSQ can be completed

Alan M. Jette; Allyson R. Davies; Paul D. Cleary; David R. Calkins; Lisa V. Rubenstein; Arlene Fink; Jacqueline Kosecoff; Roy T. Young; Robert H. Brook; Thomas L. Delbanco

1986-01-01

243

Assessing brain stem function.  

PubMed

Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring provides objective measures of nervous system function that are of value when operating in proximity to the brain stem. Real-time measurements of function can be correlated to operative manipulations in order to reduce the risk of damage in critically important regions. Techniques for evaluating brain stem function clinically and electrophysiologically are presented along with their applications during surgery of the brain stem. PMID:8353442

Sclabassi, R J; Kalia, K K; Sekhar, L; Jannetta, P J

1993-07-01

244

Balance Function Disorders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers at the Balance Function Laboratory and Clinic at the Minneapolis (MN) Neuroscience Institute on the Abbot Northwestern Hospital Campus are using a rotational chair (technically a "sinusoidal harmonic acceleration system") originally developed by NASA to investigate vestibular (inner ear) function in weightlessness to diagnose and treat patients with balance function disorders. Manufactured by ICS Medical Corporation, Schaumberg, IL, the chair system turns a patient and monitors his or her responses to rotational stimulation.

1991-01-01

245

CONMIN- CONSTRAINED FUNCTION MINIMIZATION  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In many mathematical problems, it is necessary to determine the minimum and maximum of a function of several variables, limited by various linear and nonlinear inequality constraints. It is seldom possible, in practical applications, to solve these problems directly. In most cases, an iterative method must be used to numerically obtain a solution. The CONMIN program was developed to numerically perform the minimization of a multi-variable function subject to a set of inequality constraints. The function need not be a simple analytical equation; it may be any function which can be numerically evaluated. The basic analytic technique used by CONMIN is to minimize the function until one or more of the constraints become active. The minimization process then continues by following the constraint boundaries in a direction such that the value of the function continues to decrease. When a point is reached where no further decrease in the function can be obtained, the process is terminated. Function maximization may be achieved by minimizing the negative of the function. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 43K (octal) of 60 bit words. The CONMIN program was originally developed in 1973 and last updated in 1978.

Vanderplaats, G. N.

1994-01-01

246

Renormalization group functional equations  

SciTech Connect

Functional conjugation methods are used to analyze the global structure of various renormalization group trajectories and to gain insight into the interplay between continuous and discrete rescaling. With minimal assumptions, the methods produce continuous flows from step-scaling {sigma} functions and lead to exact functional relations for the local flow {beta} functions, whose solutions may have novel, exotic features, including multiple branches. As a result, fixed points of {sigma} are sometimes not true fixed points under continuous changes in scale and zeroes of {beta} do not necessarily signal fixed points of the flow but instead may only indicate turning points of the trajectories.

Curtright, Thomas L. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida 33124-8046 (United States); Zachos, Cosmas K. [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439-4815 (United States)

2011-03-15

247

Renormalization group functional equations.  

SciTech Connect

Functional conjugation methods are used to analyze the global structure of various renormalization group trajectories and to gain insight into the interplay between continuous and discrete rescaling. With minimal assumptions, the methods produce continuous flows from step-scaling {sigma} functions and lead to exact functional relations for the local flow {beta} functions, whose solutions may have novel, exotic features, including multiple branches. As a result, fixed points of {sigma} are sometimes not true fixed points under continuous changes in scale and zeroes of {beta} do not necessarily signal fixed points of the flow but instead may only indicate turning points of the trajectories.

Curtright, T. L.; Zachos, C. K. (High Energy Physics); (Univ. of Miami)

2011-03-16

248

Congenital platelet function defects  

MedlinePLUS

... disorder; Glanzmann's thrombasthenia; Bernard-Soulier syndrome; Platelet function defects - congenital ... this condition: Bleeding time Complete blood count (CBC) Partial thromboplastin time (PTT) Platelet aggregation test Prothrombin time ( ...

249

Quadratic Functions: Workshop 4  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lesson 1 of two lessons requires students to explore quadratic functions by examining the family of functions described by y = a (x - h)squared+ k. In Lesson 2 students explore quadratic functions by using a motion detector known as a Calculator Based Ranger (CBR) to examine the heights of the different bounces of a ball. Students will represent each bounce with a quadratic function of the form y = a (x - h)squared + k. Background information, resources, references and videos of the lessons are included. Students work in teams of four.

Annenberg Media, Insights into Algebra, Teaching for Learning

2009-12-23

250

Distributed processing; distributed functions?  

PubMed

After more than twenty years busily mapping the human brain, what have we learned from neuroimaging? This review (coda) considers this question from the point of view of structure-function relationships and the two cornerstones of functional neuroimaging; functional segregation and integration. Despite remarkable advances and insights into the brain's functional architecture, the earliest and simplest challenge in human brain mapping remains unresolved: We do not have a principled way to map brain function onto its structure in a way that speaks directly to cognitive neuroscience. Having said this, there are distinct clues about how this might be done: First, there is a growing appreciation of the role of functional integration in the distributed nature of neuronal processing. Second, there is an emerging interest in data-driven cognitive ontologies, i.e., that are internally consistent with functional anatomy. We will focus this review on the growing momentum in the fields of functional connectivity and distributed brain responses and consider this in the light of meta-analyses that use very large data sets to disclose large-scale structure-function mappings in the human brain. PMID:22245638

Fox, Peter T; Friston, Karl J

2012-06-01

251

Functional Protein Microarray Technology  

PubMed Central

Functional protein microarrays are emerging as a promising new tool for large-scale and high-throughput studies. In this article, we will review their applications in basic proteomics research, where various types of assays have been developed to probe binding activities to other biomolecules, such as proteins, DNA, RNA, small molecules, and glycans. We will also report recent progress of using functional protein microarrays in profiling protein posttranslational modifications, including phosphorylation, ubiquitylation, acetylation, and nitrosylation. Finally, we will discuss potential of functional protein microarrays in biomarker identification and clinical diagnostics. We strongly believe that functional protein microarrays will soon become an indispensible and invaluable tool in proteomics research and systems biology.

Hu, Shaohui; Xie, Zhi; Qian, Jiang; Blackshaw, Seth; Zhu, Heng

2010-01-01

252

The Function Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by Utah State University, this virtual manipulative is designed to teach the concept of a function. It does so by (1) allowing users to perform a function on various numbers; (2) presenting users with the correlating outputs based on the inputs; (3) encouraging users to generate hypotheses as to the function being applied to the inputs; and (4) allowing users to apply those hypotheses to determine whether they correctly determined the function in use. This is a great "hands on" virtual resource for middle and high school teachers, as well as teachers of developmental math courses in community and technical colleges.

2008-02-19

253

Functionalization of layered titanates.  

PubMed

This review article describes the synthesis, modification, and function of lepidocrocite-type layered titanate (A(x)Ti(2-y)M(y)O4, A: A, interlayer cation; M, metal or vacancy). Due to the compositional variation, which affects cation exchange, semiconducting and swelling properties, lepidocrocite-type layered titanates have attracted increasing attention in solid-state materials chemistry. The immobilization of functional units has been done to improve the properties as well as to impart additional functions. Here, we highlight recent developments of hybrid materials derived from the intercalation of inorganic and organic cations, organic functional groups, and nanoparticles into lepidocrocite-type layered titanates. PMID:24745207

Ide, Yusuke; Sadakane, Masahiro; Sano, Tsuneji; Ogawa, Makoto

2014-03-01

254

Disentangling different functional roles of evoked K-complex components: Mapping the sleeping brain while quenching sensory processing.  

PubMed

During non-REM sleep the largest EEG response evoked by sensory stimulation is the K-complex (eKC), composed of an initial positive bump (P200) followed by a bistable cortical response: a giant negative deflection (N550) and a large positive one (P900), respectively reflecting down states and up states of < 1 Hz oscillations.Sensory-modality-independent topology of N550 and P900, with maximal detection rate on fronto-central areas, has been consistently reported, suggesting that sensory inputs arise to the cortex avoiding specific primary sensory areas. However, these studies neglected latencies of all KC components as a function of electrode sites.Our aim is to identify, component by component, which topological/dynamical properties of eKCs depend on stimulus modality and which are mainly related to local cortical properties. We measured temporal and morphological features of acoustic, tactile and visual eKCs to disentangle specific sensory excitatory activities from aspecific responses due to local proneness to bistability, measured by means of the N550 descending steepness (synchronization in falling into down state).While confirming the sensory-modality independence of N550 and P900 topology with maximal detection rate in fronto-central areas, four main original results emerge from this study: (i) the topology of P200 latency depends on the sensory modality with earliest waves in the stimulation-related primary sensory areas; (ii) P200 rapidly travels as a cortical excitation; (iii) P200-like excitations when KCs are not evoked are detected over the scalp with significantly smaller amplitudes in fronto-central areas, compared to eKC P200s; and (iv) N550 latency mirrors its mean local steepness which is a function of topological proneness to bistability.From these results we can describe the emergence N550/P900 complex as the interplay between a waxing P200 cortical travel and higher fronto-central proneness to bistability.In conclusion, eKCs exhibit a physiological dichotomy: P200 acts as a traveling cortical excitation whose function is to induce the bistable cortical response (N550/P900), which in turn is crucial for maintaining sleep and unconsciousness. PMID:24513527

Laurino, Marco; Menicucci, Danilo; Piarulli, Andrea; Mastorci, Francesca; Bedini, Remo; Allegrini, Paolo; Gemignani, Angelo

2014-02-01

255

Functional performance of pyrovalves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following several flight and ground test failures of spacecraft systems using single-shot, 'normally closed' pyrotechnically actuated valves (pyrovalves), a Government/Industry cooperative program was initiated to assess the functional performance of five qualified designs. The goal of the program was to provide information on functional performance of pyrovalves to allow users the opportunity to improve procurement requirements. Specific objectives included the demonstration of performance test methods, the seating; these gases/particles entered the fluid path of measurement of 'blowby' (the passage of gases from the pyrotechnic energy source around the activating piston into the valve's fluid path), and the quantification of functional margins for each design. Experiments were conducted at NASA's Langley Research Center on several units for each of the five valve designs. The test methods used for this program measured the forces and energies required to actuate the valves, as well as the energies and the pressures (where possible) delivered by the pyrotechnic sources. Functional performance ranged widely among the designs. Blowby cannot be prevented by o-ring seals; metal-to-metal seals were effective. Functional margin was determined by dividing the energy delivered by the pyrotechnic sources in excess to that required to accomplish the function by the energy required for that function. Two of the five designs had inadequate functional margins with the pyrotechnic cartridges evaluated.

Bement, Laurence J.

1996-01-01

256

Cognition: A Functional View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposing a shift in the locus of theoretical analysis of cognition, this paper argues that cognitive functioning may be more readily characterized without the mediation of long-term mental associations and structure. An account of cognition is proposed in which mental relations are transient functional relations, and in which psychological…

Iran-Nejad, Asghar; Ortony, Andrew

257

Non- Linear Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Quadratic Functions Students frequently ask me why the function is called a quadratic when the prefix quad means four and there arent any fours. The prefix quad is related to finding the quadrature which is trying to find a square with the same area as a given circle. Click on the ...

Mrs. D&Angelo

2008-03-08

258

Transfer-function parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer program fits linear-factored form transfer function to given frequency-response data. Program is based on conjugate-gradient search procedure that minimizes error between given frequency-response data and frequency response of transfer function that is supplied by user.

Seidel, R. C.

1977-01-01

259

Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) differs from the other functional bowel disorders; it is less common, symptoms largely are unrelated to food intake and defecation, and it has higher comorbidity with psy- chiatric disorders. The etiology and pathophysiology are incompletely understood. Because FAPS likely repre- sents a heterogenous group of disorders, peripheral neu- ropathic pain mechanisms, alterations in endogenous pain

DOUGLAS A. DROSSMAN; EMERAN A. MAYER; QASIM AZIZ; DAN L. DUMITRASCU; HUBERT MÖNNIKES; BRUCE D. NALIBOFF

2004-01-01

260

Linear Functions Matching Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to help students connect various representations (verbal, tabular, graphical) of linear functions. The activity is designed to be completed in groups of 2. This would be an appropriate review activity towards the end of the unit on graphing linear functions.

2011-01-01

261

Modeling Protein Domain Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This simple but effective laboratory exercise helps students understand the concept of protein domain function. They use foam beads, Styrofoam craft balls, and pipe cleaners to explore how domains within protein active sites interact to form a functional protein. The activity allows students to gain content mastery and an understanding of the…

Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton "Buck"; Hull, Elizabeth

2007-01-01

262

LITHIUM AND RENAL FUNCTIONS  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Thirty patients of affective disorder who were on lithium for a year and thirty patients on antidepressant were studied in detail for renal functions. Our observation is that lithium therapy does not lead to any deterioration in kidney functions. The results are discussed.

Sethi, N.; Trivedi, J.K.; Sethi, B.B.

1987-01-01

263

Pulmonary Function Tests  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary function tests are valuable investigations in the management of patients with suspected or previously diagnosed respiratory disease. They aid diagnosis, help monitor response to treatment and can guide decisions regarding further treatment and intervention. The interpretation of pulmonary functions tests requires knowledge of respiratory physiology. In this review we describe investigations routinely used and discuss their clinical implications.

Ranu, Harpreet; Wilde, Michael; Madden, Brendan

2011-01-01

264

Mapping Cognitive Function  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Cognitive functions are fundamental to being human. Although tremendous progress has been made in the science of cognition using neuroimaging, the clinical applications of neuroimaging are just beginning to be realized. A unifying theme of this chapter is the concept that a more complete understanding of cognition only comes through integration of multimodal structural and functional imaging technologies.

Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Rosen, Bruce

2009-01-01

265

Functional Assessment Inventory Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual, which provides extensive new instructions for administering the Functional Assessment Inventory (FAI), is intended to enable counselors to begin using the inventory without undergoing any special training. The first two sections deal with the need for functional assessment and issues in the development and use of the inventory. The…

Crewe, Nancy M.; Athelstan, Gary T.

266

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with its excellent spatial resolution and ability to visualize networks of neuroanatomical structures involved in complex information processing, has become the dominant technique for the study of brain function and its development. The accessibility of in-vivo pediatric brain-imaging techniques…

Voos, Avery; Pelphrey, Kevin

2013-01-01

267

Continuous Functions: Students' Viewpoints  

Microsoft Academic Search

EnglishThe concept of a mathematical function is applied widely in science to describe phenomena in which time, frequency, distance, temperature, and other continuous variables depend on one another. Two tasks were designed to test students’ conceptualization of such relations. Each task involved one independent and one dependent variable in a real?world context (bacterial growth, spacecraft design). Information about the function

Robert Karplus

1979-01-01

268

Effective classical partition functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method by which a quantum-mechanical partition function can be approximated from below by an effective classical partition function. The associated potential is obtained by a simple smearing procedure. For a strongly anharmonic oscillator and a double-well potential, the lowest approximation gives a free energy which is accurate to a few percent, even at zero temperature.

Feynman, R. P.; Kleinert, H.

1986-12-01

269

Complex Transcendental Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lang Moore for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purpose of this module is to provide an introduction to the elementary complex transcendental functions -- the exponential, sine, and cosine functions. This is one resource within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Moore, Lang

2010-05-14

270

Differential Person Functioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many testing situations, differential item functioning (DIF) is a potentially serious problem. It occurs when a test item appears to be easier for one group of examinees than another even after controlling for overall skill level. Differential person functioning (DPF) can occur when "items" can be considered raters and the persons are the…

Johanson, George; Alsmadi, Abdalla

271

Complex Function Plot Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Complex Function Plot program displays a user-defined complex function of position and time using representations that map phase into color. The default complex function is a time-dependent complex Gaussian and the representation can be changed by selecting a radio button. Additional parameters can be specified using the Display | Switch GUI menu item. Complex Function Plot is an Open Source Physics program written for the teaching of mathematical methods in the sciences. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the math_complex_function_plot.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Other mathematical methods programs are also available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Math.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-05-14

272

Functionalization of graphene nanoribbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene nanoribbon (GNR) is a recently discovered carbon allotrope, which can be described as a stripe of graphene. Pseudo-one-dimensionality exerts additional confinement on the electrons resulting in the formation of a band gap relevant for electronic devices. Due to distinct physical and chemical properties it is a promising material for several applications. To expand the range of potential applications and to improve processability, chemical functionalization of GNRs is required. This review aims to provide a concise and systematic coverage of recent work in chemical functionalization of GNRs. We will focus on longitudinal carbon nanotube unzipping, functionalization with aryl diazonium salts, non-covalent functionalization, bottom-up synthesis and one pot carbon nanotube unzipping with in situ edge functionalization.

Genorio, Bostjan; Znidarsic, Andrej

2014-03-01

273

Plant functional genomics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functional genome analysis of plants has entered the high-throughput stage. The complete genome information from key species such as Arabidopsis thaliana and rice is now available and will further boost the application of a range of new technologies to functional plant gene analysis. To broadly assign functions to unknown genes, different fast and multiparallel approaches are currently used and developed. These new technologies are based on known methods but are adapted and improved to accommodate for comprehensive, large-scale gene analysis, i.e. such techniques are novel in the sense that their design allows researchers to analyse many genes at the same time and at an unprecedented pace. Such methods allow analysis of the different constituents of the cell that help to deduce gene function, namely the transcripts, proteins and metabolites. Similarly the phenotypic variations of entire mutant collections can now be analysed in a much faster and more efficient way than before. The different methodologies have developed to form their own fields within the functional genomics technological platform and are termed transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and phenomics. Gene function, however, cannot solely be inferred by using only one such approach. Rather, it is only by bringing together all the information collected by different functional genomic tools that one will be able to unequivocally assign functions to unknown plant genes. This review focuses on current technical developments and their impact on the field of plant functional genomics. The lower plant Physcomitrella is introduced as a new model system for gene function analysis, owing to its high rate of homologous recombination.

Holtorf, Hauke; Guitton, Marie-Christine; Reski, Ralf

2002-04-01

274

Marrying Form and Function: A Place for Grammar and Total Target Language in the Secondary Modern Foreign Languages Classroom. Occasional Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the possible role of grammar throughout Key Stages 3 and 4 in the modern language curriculum where communication is the central tenet. It also discusses how total or virtually total use of target language (German) in the classroom can help deal with the dichotomy of grammar versus communication and bring about an integrated…

Hogg, Ivy

275

Functional Performance of Pyrovalves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following several flight and ground test failures of spacecraft systems using single-shot, 'normally closed' pyrotechnically actuated valves (pyrovalves), a government/industry cooperative program was initiated to assess the functional performance of five qualified designs. The goal of the program was to improve performance-based requirements for the procurement of pyrovalves. Specific objectives included the demonstration of performance test methods, the measurement of 'blowby' (the passage of gases from the pyrotechnic energy source around the activating piston into the valve's fluid path), and the quantification of functional margins for each design. Experiments were conducted in-house at NASA on several units each of the five valve designs. The test methods used for this program measured the forces and energies required to actuate the valves, as well as the energies and the pressures (where possible) delivered by the pyrotechnic sources. Functional performance ranged widely among the designs. Blowby cannot be prevented by o-ring seals; metal-to-metal seals were effective. Functional margin was determined by dividing the energy delivered by the pyrotechnic sources in excess to that required to accomplish the function by the energy required for that function. All but two designs had adequate functional margins with the pyrotechnic cartridges evaluated.

Bement, Laurence J.

1996-01-01

276

Hantush Well Function revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryIn this paper, we comment on some recent numerical and analytical work to evaluate the Hantush Well Function. We correct an expression found in a Comment by Nadarajah [Nadarajah, S., 2007. A comment on numerical evaluation of Theis and Hantush-Jacob well functions. Journal of Hydrology 338, 152-153] to a paper by Prodanoff et al. [Prodanoff, J.A., Mansur, W.J., Mascarenhas, F.C.B., 2006. Numerical evaluation of Theis and Hantush-Jacob well functions. Journal of Hydrology 318, 173-183]. We subsequently derived another analytic representation based on a generalized hypergeometric function in two variables and from the hydrological literature we cite an analytic representation by Hunt [Hunt, B., 1977. Calculation of the leaky aquifer function. Journal of Hydrology 33, 179-183]. We have implemented both representations and compared the results. Using a convergence accelerator Hunt's representation of Hantush Well Function is efficient and accurate. While checking our implementations we found that Bear's table of the Hantush Well Function [Bear, J., 1979. Hydraulics of Groundwater. McGraw-Hill, New York, Tables 8-6] contains a number of typographical errors that are not present in the original table published by Hantush [Hantush, M.S., 1956. Analysis of data from pumping tests in leaky aquifers. Transactions, American Geophysical Union 37, 702-714]. Finally, we offer a very fast approximation with a maximum relative error of 0.0033 for the parameter range in the table given by Bear.

Veling, E. J. M.; Maas, C.

2010-11-01

277

Kidney function decline and physical function in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Cross-sectional analyses of kidney function and physical function have identified profound quality of life impairments in people with advanced kidney dysfunc- tion. No data are currently available, however, on how kidney function decline may be associated with physical function. Methods. We undertook a study of kidney function de- cline and physical function in 2544 women participating in the Nurses'

Julie Lin; Gary C. Curhan

278

Approximation by hinge functions  

SciTech Connect

Breiman has defined {open_quotes}hinge functions{close_quotes} for use as basis functions in least squares approximations to data. A hinge function is the max (or min) function of two linear functions. In this paper, the author assumes the existence of smooth function f(x) and a set of samples of the form (x, f(x)) drawn from a probability distribution {rho}(x). The author hopes to find the best fitting hinge function h(x) in the least squares sense. There are two problems with this plan. First, Breiman has suggested an algorithm to perform this fit. The author shows that this algorithm is not robust and also shows how to create examples on which the algorithm diverges. Second, if the author tries to use the data to minimize the fit in the usual discrete least squares sense, the functional that must be minimized is continuous in the variables, but has a derivative which jumps at the data. This paper takes a different approach. This approach is an example of a method that the author has developed called {open_quotes}Monte Carlo Regression{close_quotes}. (A paper on the general theory is in preparation.) The author shall show that since the function f is continuous, the analytic form of the least squares equation is continuously differentiable. A local minimum is solved for by using Newton`s method, where the entries of the Hessian are estimated directly from the data by Monte Carlo. The algorithm has the desirable properties that it is quadratically convergent from any starting guess sufficiently close to a solution and that each iteration requires only a linear system solve.

Faber, V.

1997-05-01

279

Tetraspanins and vascular functions  

PubMed Central

Tetraspanins are multiple membrane-spanning proteins that likely function as the organizers of membrane microdomains. Tetraspanins associate with other membrane-bound molecules such as cell-adhesion proteins, growth factor receptors, and Ig superfamily members and regulate key cellular processes such as adhesion, migration, and fusion. Tetraspanins are widely expressed in vascular and haematopoietic cells and are involved in both physiological and pathological processes related to angiogenesis, vascular injury, thrombosis, and haemostasis. A wide body of evidence suggests that tetraspanins directly regulate the development and functions of the vascular system and the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. This article reviews current understanding of the roles of tetraspanins in vascular functions.

Zhang, Feng; Kotha, Jayaprakash; Jennings, Lisa K.; Zhang, Xin A.

2009-01-01

280

Thyroid Function and Obesity  

PubMed Central

Nowadays, childhood obesity is one of the biggest health emergencies in the developed countries. Obesity leads to multiple metabolic alterations which increase the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Thyroid function has been often described as altered in obese children, however, it is not clear whether the altered thyroid function is the cause or the consequence of fat excess. On the other hand, thyroid structure seems also to be affected. Nevertheless, both functional and structural alterations seem to improve after weight loss and therefore no treatment is needed. Conflict of interest:None declared.

Longhi, Silvia; Radetti, Giorgio

2013-01-01

281

Representations of rational functions  

SciTech Connect

Fast parallel algorithms for various problems in algebraic computation are presented. Two of the algorithms convert the coefficient representation of a rational function into a base representation, and vice versa. Combining them yields an algorithm which converts the representation of a rational function in one base of polynomials into that in another base. The existence question for representations is then discussed. Applications of the general conversion algorithms fast parallel methods to Taylor expansion, partial fraction decomposition, Chinese remainder algorithm, elementary symmetric functions, Pade approximation and various interpolation problems are given. 5 references.

Von Zur Gathen, J.

1983-01-01

282

Magnetic Function Generator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The magnetic function generator is easy and economical to produce and utilizes standard components which lend themselves to mass production manufacturing techniques. The generator structure includes E transformer laminations with a coil wound on each of t...

G. F. Harpell

1965-01-01

283

Center for Functional Nanomaterials  

ScienceCinema

Staff from Brookhaven's new Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) describe how this advanced facility will focus on the development and understanding of nanoscale materials. The CFN provides state-of-the-art capabilities for the fabrication and study

None

2010-01-08

284

Center for Functional Nanomaterials  

SciTech Connect

Staff from Brookhaven's new Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) describe how this advanced facility will focus on the development and understanding of nanoscale materials. The CFN provides state-of-the-art capabilities for the fabrication and study

2008-08-12

285

Transfer-Function Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transfer function simulator constructed from analog or both analog and digital components substitute for device that has faults that confound analysis of feedback control loop. Simulator is substitute for laser and spectrophone.

Kavaya, M. J.

1985-01-01

286

Renal Structure & Function Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity includes three sequential classroom activities for pairs of students using worksheets. This includes removeable stickers sequencing kinesthetic activity, diagram coloring and table matching to correlate nephron and cell-level anatomical features with physiological function.

Ms. Terry Thompson (Wor-Wic Community College Math/Science)

2007-07-31

287

Pulmonary Function Tests  

MedlinePLUS

... the technician know. Pulmonary function tests (PFT’s) are breathing tests to find out how well you move air in and out of your lungs and how well oxygen enters your body. The most common PFT’s are ...

288

Cross-Functional Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many companies, including Xerox and Texas Instruments, are using cross functional systems to deal with the increasingly complex and competitive business environment. However, few firms within the aerospace industry appear to be aware of the significant be...

M. Lee

1991-01-01

289

Functional Group Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Literature on analytical methods related to the functional groups of 17 chemical compounds is reviewed. These compounds include acids, acid azides, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, amino acids, aromatic hydrocarbons, carbodiimides, carbohydrates, ethers, nitro compounds, nitrosamines, organometallic compounds, peroxides, phenols, silicon compounds,…

Smith, Walter T., Jr.; Patterson, John M.

1984-01-01

290

Intellectual functioning and aggression.  

PubMed

In a 22-year study, data were collected on aggressiveness and intellectual functioning in more than 600 subjects, their parents, and their children. Both aggression and intellectual functioning are reasonably stable in a subject's lifetime and perpetuate themselves across generations and within marriage pairs. Aggression in childhood was shown to interfere with the development of intellectual functioning and to be predictive of poorer intellectual achievement as an adult. Early IQ was related to early subject aggression but did not predict changes in aggression after age 8. On the other hand, differences between early IQ and intellectual achievement in middle adulthood were predictable from early aggressive behavior. A dual-process model was offered to explain the relation between intellectual functioning and aggressive behavior. We hypothesized that low intelligence makes the learning of aggressive responses more likely at an early age, and this aggressive behavior makes continued intellectual development more difficult. PMID:3820075

Huesmann, L R; Eron, L D; Yarmel, P W

1987-01-01

291

Muscle function loss  

MedlinePLUS

... caused by: A disease of the muscle itself (myopathy) A disease of the nervous system: nerve damage ( ... that cause muscle-function loss include: Alcohol-associated myopathy Congenital myopathies (usually due to a genetic disorder) ...

292

Center for Functional Nanomaterials  

ScienceCinema

Staff from Brookhaven's new Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) describe how this advanced facility will focus on the development and understanding of nanoscale materials. The CFN provides state-of-the-art capabilities for the fabrication and study

293

Adaptive transfer functions  

SciTech Connect

This paper details the approach and methodology used to build adaptive transfer functions in a feed-forward Back-Propagation neural network, and provides insight into the structure dependent properties of using non-scaled analog inputs. The results of using adaptive transfer functions are shown to outperform conventional architectures in the implementation of a mechanical power transmission gearbox design expert system knowledge base. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Goulding, J.R. (Portland State Univ., OR (USA))

1991-01-01

294

A Function Machine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes a lesson he observed involving a function machine. This function machine was a box with a slot at the top of one side and a large cut-out hole at the bottom of the opposite side. A card with a number written on it (the input) was pushed into the slot and the teacher put their hand through the hole of the other…

Hewitt, Dave

2008-01-01

295

Biological Function of Prokineticins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secreted peptides have been implicated in diverse physiological functions. Prokineticins are a pair\\u000a of regulatory peptides that signal through two highly homologous G protein-coupled receptors. Prokineticins\\u000a possess a unique structural motif of five disulfide bonds and conserved N-terminal stretches. Diverse\\u000a biological functions, ranging from development to adult physiology, have been attributed to prokineticins.\\u000a Herein we provide an overview of current knowledge of

Q.-Y. Zhou; R. Meidan

296

Nucleon Polarized Structure Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alternative approach to QCD analysis for quark distributions and structure functions for polarized deep inelastic scattering is presented. We use very recently experimental data to parameterize our model for quark and gluon distributions up to NLO approximation. Our calculation is based on Jacobi polynomials expansion of the polarized structure functions. The final results are in good agreement with the other theoritical models and experimental data.

Arbabifar, F.; Khorramian, A. N.; Tehrani, S. Atashbar; Najafgholi, A.

2011-11-01

297

Center for Functional Nanomaterials  

ScienceCinema

Staff from Brookhaven's new Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) describe how this advanced facility will focus on the development and understanding of nanoscale materials. The CFN provides state-of-the-art capabilities for the fabrication and study of nanoscale materials, with an emphasis on atomic-level tailoring to achieve desired properties and functions. The overarching scientific theme of the CFN is the development and understanding of nanoscale materials that address the Nation's challenges in energy security.

BNL

2009-09-01

298

Center for Functional Nanomaterials  

SciTech Connect

Staff from Brookhaven's new Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) describe how this advanced facility will focus on the development and understanding of nanoscale materials. The CFN provides state-of-the-art capabilities for the fabrication and study of nanoscale materials, with an emphasis on atomic-level tailoring to achieve desired properties and functions. The overarching scientific theme of the CFN is the development and understanding of nanoscale materials that address the Nation's challenges in energy security.

BNL

2008-08-12

299

Functional Molecular Ecological Networks  

PubMed Central

Biodiversity and its responses to environmental changes are central issues in ecology and for society. Almost all microbial biodiversity research focuses on “species” richness and abundance but not on their interactions. Although a network approach is powerful in describing ecological interactions among species, defining the network structure in a microbial community is a great challenge. Also, although the stimulating effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2) on plant growth and primary productivity are well established, its influences on belowground microbial communities, especially microbial interactions, are poorly understood. Here, a random matrix theory (RMT)-based conceptual framework for identifying functional molecular ecological networks was developed with the high-throughput functional gene array hybridization data of soil microbial communities in a long-term grassland FACE (free air, CO2 enrichment) experiment. Our results indicate that RMT is powerful in identifying functional molecular ecological networks in microbial communities. Both functional molecular ecological networks under eCO2 and ambient CO2 (aCO2) possessed the general characteristics of complex systems such as scale free, small world, modular, and hierarchical. However, the topological structures of the functional molecular ecological networks are distinctly different between eCO2 and aCO2, at the levels of the entire communities, individual functional gene categories/groups, and functional genes/sequences, suggesting that eCO2 dramatically altered the network interactions among different microbial functional genes/populations. Such a shift in network structure is also significantly correlated with soil geochemical variables. In short, elucidating network interactions in microbial communities and their responses to environmental changes is fundamentally important for research in microbial ecology, systems microbiology, and global change.

Zhou, Jizhong; Deng, Ye; Luo, Feng; He, Zhili; Tu, Qichao; Zhi, Xiaoyang

2010-01-01

300

Recurrent iterated function systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recurrent iterated function systems generalize iterated function systems as introduced by Barnsley and Demko [BD] in that a Markov chain (typically with some zeros in the transition probability matrix) is used to drive a system of mapswj:K ?K,j=1, 2,?,N, whereK is a complete metric space. It is proved that under “average contractivity,” a convergence and ergodic theorem obtains, which extends

Michael F. Barnsley; John H. Elton; Douglas P. Hardin

1989-01-01

301

Elliptic Functions and Transcendence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcendental numbers form a fascinating subject: so little is known about the nature of analytic constants that more research\\u000a is needed in this area. Even when one is interested only in numbers like ? and ? that are related to the classical exponential function, it turns out that elliptic functions are required (so far, this should\\u000a not last forever!) to

Michel Waldschmidt; M. Curie

302

Structure function monitor  

SciTech Connect

Methods and apparatus for a structure function monitor provide for generation of parameters characterizing a refractive medium. In an embodiment, a structure function monitor acquires images of a pupil plane and an image plane and, from these images, retrieves the phase over an aperture, unwraps the retrieved phase, and analyzes the unwrapped retrieved phase. In an embodiment, analysis yields atmospheric parameters measured at spatial scales from zero to the diameter of a telescope used to collect light from a source.

McGraw, John T. (Placitas, NM); Zimmer, Peter C. (Albuquerque, NM); Ackermann, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-01-24

303

Center for Functional Nanomaterials  

ScienceCinema

Staff from Brookhaven's new Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) describe how this advanced facility will focus on the development and understanding of nanoscale materials. The CFN provides state-of-the-art capabilities for the fabrication and study of nanoscale materials, with an emphasis on atomic-level tailoring to achieve desired properties and functions. The overarching scientific theme of the CFN is the development and understanding of nanoscale materials that address the Nation's challenges in energy security.

304

Functional Programming and Parallel Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional languages belong to a neat and very high-level programming paradigm. A functional program is a set of function definitions. The ?-Calculus, a theory of functions under recursion, offers a solid theoretic background to functional programming. In 1978, John Backus pointed at the functional programming as a natural candidate to solve “the software crisis”.

Rafael Dueire Lins

1996-01-01

305

Wave Function Plotter Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ejs Wave Function Plotter model displays a one-dimensional wave function u(x,t) depicting a disturbance at position x and time t. The disturbance can be mass density, pressure, or electric field depending on the physical context. The default wave function is sinusoidal but any other analytic function can be entered in the text box. The number of sampling points can also be changed. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. Ejs Wave Function Plotter model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_osc_chains_WaveFunctionPlotter.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models for Newtonian mechanics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-07-05

306

Radial Distribution Functions of  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although many of the physical properties of the two metallic glasses, Fe(,40)Ni(,40)P(,14)B(,6) and Fe(,30)Ni(,50)P(,14)B(,6) have been measured and published in the literature, the structural properties of these two materials have not yet been determined. The atomic structure of amorphous materials is characterized by the reduced radial distribution function and the radial distribution function (RDF). These functions are determined by measuring the scattering of x-rays, neutrons, or electrons from the materials. For this research, the x-ray scattering from Fe(,40)Ni(,40)P(,14)B(,6) and Fe(,30)Ni(,50)P(,4)B(,6) was measured for values of the scattering parameters, K, from 1 to 17. The measurements were made with a two-theta diffractometer using MoK(alpha) radiation. The data were corrected for absorption, polarization, and multiple scattering. Theoretical Compton scattering corrections were applied. The interference function which is the corrected scattering intensity as a function of K was Fourier transformed, to obtain the reduced radial distribution function. The location of the first peak of this function gives the nearest neighbor distance as r(,1) = 2.54 angstroms, for both metallic glasses. This value is in good agreement with published results on related amorphous materials. The locations of the second and third peaks, which are not well resolved, were determined to be r(,2) = 4.18 and r(,3) = 4.80 for both materials. For comparison to dense random packing of hard spheres (DRPHS) models, r(,2) and r(,3) are expressed in terms of sphere diameters by dividing by r(,1) giving r(,2)/r(,1) = 1.65 and r(,3)/r(,1) = 1.89. These values are in very good agreement with the DRPHS model of Sadoc, Dixmier, and Guinier. The measured densities of Fe(,40)Ni(,40)P(,14)B(,6) and Fe(,30)Ni(,50)P(,14)B(,6) were 7.56 gm/cm('3) and 7.62 gm/cm('3), respectively. These densities and the reduced radial distribution functions were used to calculate the radial distribution functions. The coordination number, CN, which gives the average number of nearest neighbor atoms was calculated for each RDF. The values of CN for Fe(,40)Ni(,40)P(,14)B(,6) and Fe(,30)Ni(,50)P(,14)B(,6) were 11.7 and 11.4, respectively.

Malamas, John

307

Cardioprotective functions of HDLs.  

PubMed

Multiple human population studies have established the concentration of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol as an independent, inverse predictor of the risk of having a cardiovascular event. Furthermore, HDLs have several well-documented functions with the potential to protect against cardiovascular disease. These include an ability to promote the efflux of cholesterol from macrophages in the artery wall, inhibit the oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins (LDLs), inhibit vascular inflammation, inhibit thrombosis, promote endothelial repair, promote angiogenesis, enhance endothelial function, improve diabetic control, and inhibit hematopoietic stem cell proliferation. There are undoubtedly other beneficial functions of HDLs yet to be identified. The HDL fraction in human plasma is heterogeneous, consisting of several subpopulations of particles of varying size, density, and composition. The functions of the different HDL subpopulations remain largely unknown. Given that therapies that increase the concentration of HDL cholesterol have varying effects on the levels of specific HDL subpopulations, it is of great importance to understand how distribution of different HDL subpopulations contribute to the potentially cardioprotective functions of this lipoprotein fraction. This review summarizes current understanding of the relationship of HDL subpopulations to their cardioprotective properties and highlights the gaps in current knowledge regarding this important aspect of HDL biology. PMID:23812558

Rye, Kerry-Anne; Barter, Philip J

2014-02-01

308

ALTERNATIVE LIBRARY. Elementary Functions  

SciTech Connect

The ALTERNATIVE LIBRARY is a library of elementary functions prepared for use with the standard FORTRAN compiler under 4.2 BSD UNIX as an alternative to the standard system library. The library offers improved accuracy as well as additional capabilities. It includes routines ASIN, ACOS, COSH, EXP, LOG, LOG10, POW, SIN, COS, SINH, TAN, and TANH. These alternative routines have slightly modified domains and slightly different responses to invalid arguments. Four routines, not part of the standard library, are provided: ADX(X,N), a double-precision function that returns the double-precision argument X scaled by 2 raised to the Nth power; INTXP(X), an integer function that returns as a signed integer the exponent of the double-precision argument X; SETXP(X,N), a double-precision function that returns the double-precision argument X with its exponent replaced by N; and DCOTAN(X), a double-precision function that returns the cotangent of the double-precision argument X, where X is given in radians.

Cody, W.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1986-02-01

309

Neurophysiology of functional imaging  

PubMed Central

The successes of PET and fMRI in non-invasively localizing sensory functions had encouraged efforts to transform the subjective concepts of cognitive psychology into objective physical measures. The assumption was that mental functions could be decomposed into non-overlapping, context-independent modules that are operated on by separable areas of a computer-like brain. The modularity concept and the computer theory of brain both have been challenged by neurophysiological measures of baseline and incremental functional energetics, and by the many reports of delocalized and negative BOLD signals. Combining fMRI and electrophysiological measures of brain function we have made connections between these neurophysiological results and observable properties of mental life (i.e., awareness). We illustrate this approach with a sensory stimulation experiment; the degree of localization found in BOLD signal was related to the energetic status of the brain which, when manipulated by anesthetics, affected the degree of awareness. The influence of brain energy upon functional imaging maps is changing the interpretations of neuroimaging experiments, from psychological concepts generating computer-like responses to empirical responses dominated by the high brain activity at rest. In our view “baseline” is an operational term, an adjective that defines a property of a state of the system before it is perturbed by a stimulus. Given the dependence of observable psychological properties upon the “baseline” energy, we believe that it is unnecessarily limiting to define a particular state as the baseline.

van Eijsden, Pieter; Hyder, Fahmeed; Rothman, Douglas L.; Shulman, Robert G.

2009-01-01

310

Biological functions of sphingomyelins.  

PubMed

Sphingomyelin (SM) is a dominant sphingolipid in membranes of mammalian cells and this lipid class is specifically enriched in the plasma membrane, the endocytic recycling compartment, and the trans Golgi network. The distribution of SM and cholesterol among cellular compartments correlate. Sphingolipids have extensive hydrogen-bonding capabilities which together with their saturated nature facilitate the formation of sphingolipid and SM-enriched lateral domains in membranes. Cholesterol prefers to interact with SMs and this interaction has many important functional consequences. In this review, the synthesis, regulation, and intracellular distribution of SMs are discussed. The many direct roles played by membrane SM in various cellular functions and processes will also be discussed. These include involvement in the regulation of endocytosis and receptor-mediated ligand uptake, in ion channel and G-protein coupled receptor function, in protein sorting, and functioning as receptor molecules for various bacterial toxins, and for non-bacterial pore-forming toxins. SM is also an important constituent of the eye lens membrane, and is believed to participate in the regulation of various nuclear functions. SM is an independent risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, and new studies have shed light on possible mechanism behind its role in atherogenesis. PMID:23684760

Slotte, J Peter

2013-10-01

311

Neuropsychological functioning in kleptomania.  

PubMed

Kleptomania is characterized by the failure to resist impulses to steal objects not needed for personal use or their monetary value. The objective of this study was to examine cognitive and executive functioning in subjects with kleptomania. Fifteen women with a primary DSM-IV diagnosis of kleptomania underwent a detailed psychiatric examination, including measures of kleptomania severity, and a battery of neuropsychological tests that emphasized executive functions. Correlational analyses were computed between measures of kleptomania severity and tests of executive functioning. Kleptomania subjects reported a mean duration of illness of 17.9 years and shoplifting a mean of 1.7 times per week. All subjects reported an inability to resist urges to shoplift. Neuropsychological testing revealed group mean test scores within 0.5 standard deviations of normative standards for age. Five subjects (33.3%), however, had below-average performance on at least one measure of executive functioning, and 4 (26.7%) had below-average scores on two executive measures. Correlational analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between kleptomania severity and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance (r=-0.693, p=0.004). As a group, subjects with kleptomania did not demonstrate deficits on neuropsychological testing. Greater kleptomania symptom severity, however, was correlated with impairment in executive functioning. PMID:17007811

Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Wozniak, Jeffrey R

2007-07-01

312

Functional imaging and endoscopy  

PubMed Central

The emergence of endoscopy for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases and the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases has brought great changes. The mere observation of anatomy with the imaging mode using modern endoscopy has played a significant role in this regard. However, increasing numbers of endoscopies have exposed additional deficiencies and defects such as anatomically similar diseases. Endoscopy can be used to examine lesions that are difficult to identify and diagnose. Early disease detection requires that substantive changes in biological function should be observed, but in the absence of marked morphological changes, endoscopic detection and diagnosis are difficult. Disease detection requires not only anatomic but also functional imaging to achieve a comprehensive interpretation and understanding. Therefore, we must ask if endoscopic examination can be integrated with both anatomic imaging and functional imaging. In recent years, as molecular biology and medical imaging technology have further developed, more functional imaging methods have emerged. This paper is a review of the literature related to endoscopic optical imaging methods in the hopes of initiating integration of functional imaging and anatomical imaging to yield a new and more effective type of endoscopy.

Zhang, Jian-Guo; Liu, Hai-Feng

2011-01-01

313

Juveniles' perceptions of a protective-permissive dichotomy in the juvenile justice system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The juvenile justice system has come under increasing criticism for its traditionally paternalistic and protective posture. The literature surveyed reviews some of the major occurrences, such as the Gault decision, which have led to a new direction in legislation. It is demonstrated that while juveniles are being awarded more due process rights, they are also being held more accountable for

Robert Paul Saltstone

1983-01-01

314

On the dichotomy in auditory perception between temporal envelope and fine structure cues (L)  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to know what cues the sensory system extracts from natural stimuli and how the brain uses them to form perception. To explore this issue, Smith, Delgutte, and Oxenham [Nature (London) 416, 87-90 (2002)] mixed one sound's temporal envelope with another sound's fine temporal structure to produce auditory chimaeras and found that ``the perceptual importance of the envelope

Fan-Gang Zeng; Kaibao Nie; Sheng Liu; Ginger Stickney; Elsa del Rio; Ying-Yee Kong; Hongbin Chen

2004-01-01

315

Massive Quiescent Cores in Orion: Dichotomy in the Dynamical Status of Cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the evolution of high mass cores we have searched for evidence of collapse motions in a large sample of starless cores in the Orion molecular cloud. We used the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory telescope to obtain spectra of the optically thin (H13CO+) and optically thick (HCO+) high density tracer molecules in 27 cores with masses > 1 MO. The

Thangasamy Velusamy; P. F. Goldsmith; D. Li; W. D. Langer; J. L. Pineda; R. Peng

2009-01-01

316

Is It Dichotomy or Tension: I Am a Scientist. No, Wait! I Am a Teacher!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores through a naturalistic inquiry the tensions between a science professor's two enacted identities. More specifically, this study looks at how a biology professor's identity-in-practice shifts and evolves over time through collaborations with a science education professor. These shifts were marked by an emphasis on teaching,…

Aydeniz, Mehmet; Hodge, Lynn Liao

2011-01-01

317

The Displaced vs. the Disadvantaged: A Necessary Dichotomy? Occasional Paper 1994-2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current displaced worker initiative towers over the 30-year effort to bring the economically disadvantaged into the mainstream of the labor market. The Congressional Budget Office defines displacement as all workers 18 years of age and older who lose full-time employment due to slack work, job abolition, or plant closure. Major displaced…

Levitan, Sar A.; Mangum, Stephen L.

318

Early transient superplumes and the origin of the Martian crustal dichotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large temperature difference between the core and mantle of Mars at the end of planetary accretion creates a hot, internally convecting thermal boundary layer at the base of the mantle, whose viscosity is several orders of magnitude lower than the viscosity of the mantle above it. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations of the instability of this thermal boundary layer

Y. Ke; V. S. Solomatov

2006-01-01

319

Incorporating If … Then … Personality Signatures in Person Perception: Beyond the Person–Situation Dichotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies investigated conditions in which perceivers view dispositions and situations as interactive, rather than independent, causal forces when making judgments about another's personality. Study 1 showed that perceivers associated 5 common trait terms (e.g., friendly and shy) with characteristic if … then … (if situation a, then the person does x, but if situation b, then the person does

Lara K. Kammrath; Rodolfo Mendoza-Denton; Walter Mischel

2005-01-01

320

From Dichotomy to Divergence: Number/Gender Marking on Hebrew Nouns and Adjectives across School Ages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the development of plural adjective agreement in Hebrew, focusing on the consolidation of Hebrew number/gender morphology in children and adolescents across the school years in comparison with adults. A total of 240 Hebrew-speaking participants in seven consecutive grade levels (kindergarten to sixth grade) plus a group of…

Ravid, Dorit; Schiff, Rachel

2012-01-01

321

A NEW COMBINATORIAL APPROACH TO THE CONSTRAINT SATISFACTION PROBLEM DICHOTOMY CLASSIFICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new general polynomial-time construction- the fi- bre construction- which reduces any constraint satisfaction problem CSP(H) to the constraint satisfaction problem CSP(P ), where P is any subprojective relational structure. As a consequence we get a new proof (not using uni- versal algebra) that CSP(P ) is NP -complete for any subprojective (and so for any projective) relational

MARK H. SIGGERS

322

Moving Beyond Strawmen and Artificial Dichotomies: Adaptive Management When an Endangered Species Uses an Invasive One  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evans et al. (Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 2008) have attempted to enmesh me in their dispute with the Florida Bureau of Invasive Plant Management about a specific\\u000a system, Kings Bay\\/Crystal River. In so doing, they repeatedly mischaracterize my positions in order to depict, incorrectly,\\u000a invasion biology as monolithic and me as a representative of one extreme of a false

Daniel Simberloff

2009-01-01

323

Dichotomy between U.S. Tobacco Export Policy and Antismoking Initiatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S cigarette companies had tried for many years to expand their sales to Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand, whose markets were substantially closed to cigarette imports. Smoking is legal in these countries, however, imports were kept out by high t...

1990-01-01

324

Why dichotomies can be misleading while dualities fit the analysis of complex phenomena.  

PubMed

Humans' tendency to classify and categorize is definitely overspread, but it can be misleading at all fields, including epistemology, ontology, theory, and analysis of scientific knowledge construction itself. Sanchez and Loredo (IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science 43:4, 2009-DOI 10.1007/s12124-009-9091-1) in their article on classification of contemporary constructivists fall exactly into such pitfall- even as their effort to make sense of many outstanding theorists is impressive and inriguing. A further analysis, however, points at the theoretical trap posed by such endeavor, for models arisen from different epistemological standpoints cannot be compared along the lines of a simplistic polarity between "objectivism" and "subjectivism". There is much more to be taken into account when a intrinsically complex subject like constructivism and constructionism epistemological approach and their welcome different versions--perspectives--are submitted to analysis and critical evaluation. PMID:19756899

Branco, Angela Uchoa

2009-12-01

325

The Public/Private Dichotomy: A Threat to Children's Fellow Citizenship?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When child-raising involves violence, a conflict of values arises between the parents' autonomy and the children's right to equal participation in a democratic society. In this article I discuss, from the perspective of discourse analysis, how a dichotomous understanding of the public versus private sphere can constitute a threat to children's…

Ostrem, Solveig

2008-01-01

326

Futility without a dichotomy: towards an ideal physician-patient relationship.  

PubMed

The futility debate may be considered as an effort to provide a clear and justified borderline between physician and patient decision-making authority. In this paper we argue that the search for a definition of futility that provides physicians with a final argument in discussions about life-prolonging treatment, is misplaced. An acceptable and meaningful criterion of futility that satisfies this effort seems impossible. As a consequence, we reject a dichotomous domain of decision-making power as the starting point for definitions of futility. A good decision about withholding life-sustaining treatment should be justified from the perspectives of both physician and patient. In this light, a range of definitions of futility is still useful as it can clarify intuitions that a treatment is inappropriate. PMID:12718331

Lelie, Annique; Verweij, Marcel

2003-02-01

327

Primary marine organic aerosol: A dichotomy of low hygroscopicity and high CCN activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-time resolution measurements of primary marine organic sea-spray physico-chemical properties reveal an apparent dichotomous behavior in terms of water uptake: specifically sea-spray aerosol enriched in organic matter possesses a low hydroscopic Growth Factor (GF˜1.25) while simultaneously having a cloud condensation nucleus/condensation nuclei (CCN/CN) activation efficiency of between 83% at 0.25% supersaturation and 100% at 0.75%. In contrast, the activation efficiency of particles dominated by non-sea-salt (nss)-sulfate ranged between 48-100% over supersaturation range of 0.25%-1%. Simultaneous retrieval of Cloud Droplet Number Concentration (CDNC) during primary organic aerosol plumes reveals CDNC concentrations of 350 cm-3 for organic mass concentrations 3-4 ?g m-3. It is demonstrated that the retrieved high CDNCs under clean marine conditions can only be explained by organic sea-spray and corroborates the high CCN activation efficiency associated with primary organics. It is postulated that marine hydrogels are responsible for this dichotomous behavior.

Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Ceburnis, Darius; Martucci, Giovanni; Bialek, Jakub; Monahan, Ciaran; Rinaldi, Matteo; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Berresheim, Harald; Worsnop, Douglas R.; O'Dowd, Colin

2011-11-01

328

American black duck summer range versus winter range: a dichotomy of riches  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The status of the American black duck (Anas rubripes) population has more often been attributed to a single event than to multiple events over time and throughout space. The difference in the quality of the habitat, however defined, within breeding areas in the North and in the southerly wintering areas, especially Chesapeake Bay, also has been proposed as affecting black duck status. The obvious question is 'What variable cuts across all habitats, time, and space to affect black ducks?' This paper attempts to answer that question by examining the connectivity of seemingly unrelated variables and events associated with the black duck's summer range and its winter range relative to population change. Insights from examples of relations among these variables reveal how results may be confounded and even misleading. A perspective that may be required to ensure future black duck populations is discussed.

Longcore, J.R.

2002-01-01

329

"Glocalization": Going beyond the Dichotomy of Global versus Local through Additive Multilingualism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article interrogates the notion of "glocalization" (Moja, 2004, based on Castells, 2001) as a concept that seeks to integrate the local and the global to address both the need for social justice and the need to participate in a global market economy. The article argues that the relation between the global and the local cannot be explored…

Joseph, Michael; Ramani, Esther

2012-01-01

330

Reconstructing Multicultural Education through Personal Story: Transcending the Essentialist/Relativist Dichotomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like so many other concepts in education, multiculturalism is a term that has lost its potency because of miseducative examples that serve to maintain Whiteness as the cultural norm. At first it offered great promise, but now as a "social science" quite often one is just exchanging one type of essentialism for another. The "packet" approach that…

Lake, Robert

2010-01-01

331

Deconstructing and Transgressing the Theory-Practice Dichotomy in Early Childhood Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article theorizes and exemplifies reconceptualized teaching practices, both in early childhood education (ECE) and in a couple of programs within the new Swedish Teacher Education (since 2001). These programs are tightly knit to the last 12 years of reconceptualized early childhood education practices in and around Stockholm, built on…

Taguchi, Hillevi Lenz

2007-01-01

332

Cancer complicating systemic lupus erythematosus - a dichotomy emerging from a nested case-control study  

PubMed Central

Objectives We determined whether any individual cancers are increased or decreased in a cohort of 595 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) followed for up to 32 years at the University College London Hospitals Lupus Clinic, looking for any associated clinical or serological factors and the prognosis after cancer diagnosis. Methods We undertook a careful retrospective review of the medical records and identified all individuals diagnosed with cancer. For controls, we selected three other patients in the cohort who had not developed cancer, carefully matched for age, sex, ethnicity and disease duration, to determine if any obvious differences emerged in a nested case-control design. Results Thirty-three patients developed cancer after being diagnosed with SLE. There was a statistically insignificant small increase in overall cancer risk, standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) 1.05 (95% CI 0.52–1.58) and increased SIRs for cervical, prostate, anal and pancreatic cancers and reduction in breast cancer SIRs. Haematological and musculoskeletal manifestations, anticardiolipin and antithyroid globulin antibodies were found to be positively associated with cancer risk in multivariate analysis. There was no drug, dose or duration was associated with cancer risk. There was a reduction in survival with a cancer fatality rate of 84.2% (p?

Kenu, E; Isenberg, DA

2013-01-01

333

Deconstructing and Transgressing the Theory?Practice dichotomy in early childhood education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article theorizes and exemplifies reconceptualized teaching practices, both in early childhood education (ECE) 1 and in a couple of programs within the new Swedish Teacher Education (since 2001). 2 These programs are tightly knit to the last 12 years of reconceptualized early childhood education practices in and around Stockholm, built on deconstructive, co-constructive, and re-constructive principles, inspired by poststructural

Hillevi Lenz Taguchi

2007-01-01

334

Mars Crustal Dichotomy: Large Lowland Impact Basins may have Formed in Pre-Thinned Crust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crater retention ages of large impact basins on Mars suggest most formed in a relatively short time, perhaps in less than 200 million years. Large basins in the lowlands have thinner central regions than similar size basins in the highlands. Large lowland impact basins, which we previously suggested might explain the low topography and thin crust of the northern part of Mars, may have formed in crust already thinned by yet earlier processes.

Frey, H. V.

2008-01-01

335

"Ownership" of English in the Outer Circle: An Alternative to the NS-NNS Dichotomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The linguistic classification of English speakers from outer-circle countries, such as India, Malaysia, and Singapore, is often ambiguous because the Englishes they speak are considered different from interlanguages yet are not considered native varieties. This study investigates whether outer-circle speakers can be viewed as equivalent to…

Higgins, Christina

2003-01-01

336

The Blazar Envelope and the Relativistic Jet Dichotomy: Unification of Radio-Loud AGN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by recent successes in linking the kinetic power of relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei (AGN) to the low-frequency, isotropic lobe emission, I have re-examined the blazar and radio-loud AGN unification scheme through careful analysis of the four parameters we believe to be fundamental in producing a particular jet spectral energy distribution (SED): the kinetic power, accretion power, accretion mode, and orientation. In particular, I have compiled a multi-wavelength database for hundreds of jet SEDs in order to characterize the jet spectrum by the synchrotron peak output, and have conducted an analysis of the steep lobe emission in blazars in order to determine the intrinsic jet power. This study of the link between power and isotropic emission is likely to have a wider applicability to other types or relativistic jet phenomena, such as microquasars. Based on a well-characterized sample of over 200 sources, I suggest a new unification scheme for radio-loud AGN (Meyer et al. 2011) which compliments evidence that a transition in jet power at a few percent of the Eddington luminosity produces two types of relativistic jet (Ghisellini, et al., 2009). The 'broken power sequence' addresses a series of recent findings severely at odds with the previous unification scheme. This scheme makes many testable predictions which will can be addressed with a larger body of data, including a way to determine whether the coupling between accretion and jet power is the currently presumed one-to-one correspondence, or whether accretion power forms an upper bound, as very recent observations suggest (Fernandes et al. 2011). This work is a first step toward a unified understanding of the relativistic jets found in radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) and their connection to accretion onto the super-massive black holes from which they emanate.

Meyer, Eileen T.

337

DOES THE OOSTERHOFF DICHOTOMY EXIST IN THE ANDROMEDA GALAXY? I. THE CASE OF G11  

SciTech Connect

We present the first evidence that Oosterhoff type II globular clusters exist in the Andromeda galaxy (M31). On the basis of time-series photometry of the moderately metal-poor ([Fe/H] {approx}-1.6 dex) M31 globular cluster G11, obtained with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we detected and derived periods for 14 RR Lyrae stars, of which five are found to lie inside the cluster tidal radius. They include three fundamental-mode (RRab) and two first-overtone (RRc) pulsators, with average periods (P{sub ab} ) = 0.70 days, and (P{sub c} ) = 0.40 days, respectively. These mean periods and the position of the cluster variable stars in the period-amplitude and period-metallicity diagrams all suggest that G11 is likely to be an Oosterhoff type II globular cluster. This appears to be in agreement with the general behavior of Milky Way globular clusters with similar metallicity and horizontal branch morphology.

Contreras Ramos, Rodrigo; Clementini, Gisella; Federici, Luciana, E-mail: rodrigo.contreras@oabo.inaf.it, E-mail: gisella.clementini@oabo.inaf.it, E-mail: luciana.federici@oabo.inaf.it [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Bologna (Italy)] [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); and others

2013-03-01

338

Hepatic cirrhosis and groin hernia: binomial or dichotomy? Our experience with a safe surgical treatment protocol.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B and C are endemic in the Campania region of Italy, and as a result there are many patients with hepatitis-related cirrhosis. The medical community is therefore faced with a series of issues which must be dealt with and which are especially relevant to various areas of surgery. Abdominal wall hernias occur very frequently in cirrhotic patients, and hepatic cirrhosis has always been the harbinger of a negative outcome in patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair. The aim of this study, conducted on 52 cirrhotic patients who underwent inguinal hernioplasty, was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of surgical treatment when certain parasurgical measures are used. These measures and the notes we inserted in our surgical protocol include the following: short-term antibiotic prophylaxis, perioperative infusion of concentrated platelets, not opening the hernia sac, application of human fibrin glue, elastic compression. All patients were treated according to the same protocol and the data was analysed using the statistics software EPI INFO 3.5. PMID:21780561

Gubitosi, Adelmo; Ruggiero, Roberto; Docimo, Giovanni; Avenia, Nicola; Villaccio, Giuseppe; Esposito, Alessandro; Foroni, Fabrizio; Agresti, Massimo

2011-01-01

339

An oxygen isotope dichotomy in CM2 chondritic carbonates—A SIMS approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present petrologic and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) oxygen isotope analyses of Ca-carbonate within a group of paired Antarctic CM2 chondrites. The carbonates can be grouped into two isotopically and morphologically distinct populations. Type 1 grains (small matrix grains) possess average ? 18O of 33.7 ± 2.3‰ (1 ?) and average ? 17O of -0.81‰ ± 0.90‰ (1 ?). Type 2 grains (calcite aggregates) possess distinct oxygen isotopic compositions, average ? 18O of 19.4‰ ± 1.5‰ (1 ?) and average ? 17O of -1.98 ± 0.9‰ (1 ?). These differences are interpreted to indicate that the two populations of calcite formed under different conditions at different times. The carbonates have textural features that suggest an extraterrestrial origin. The data presented here fall within error of a previously measured array for carbonates from CM falls ( Benedix et al., 2003). The presence of two generations of carbonate suggests carbonate formation in two discrete events on the parent body of these meteorites. The oxygen isotopic data presented here deviate from prior bulk carbonate measurements undertaken for these meteorites. Most likely, this deviation is because bulk carbonate analyses included vein carbonate which formed during terrestrial weathering.

Tyra, M. A.; Farquhar, J.; Guan, Y.; Leshin, L. A.

2012-01-01

340

Fanaroff-Riley dichotomy of radio galaxies and the Malmquist bias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the possibility that a claimed dependence of the Fanaroff-Riley type I/II (FR I/II) break value in radio luminosity on the absolute magnitude of the optical host galaxy could be due to the Malmquist bias, where a redshift-luminosity correlation appears in a flux-limited sample because of an observational selection effect. In such a sample, the redshift dependence of a phenomenon could appear as a luminosity-dependent effect and may not be really representing an intrinsic property of the radio sample. We test this on the radio-complete MRC (Molonglo Reference Catalog) sample, where Spearman rank correlation and Kendall rank correlation tests show that the correlations are indeed stronger between the redshift and the optical luminosity than that between the radio luminosity and the optical luminosity, suggesting that the latter correlation perhaps arises because of the Malmquist Bias. We further show that similar effects of the Malmquist bias could also be present elsewhere in other correlations claimed in the literature between the radio luminosity and other observed properties of FR I and II sources.

Singal, Ashok K.; Rajpurohit, Kamlesh

2014-08-01

341

The Clinical–Forensic Dichotomy in Sexual Abuse Evaluations: Moving Toward an Integrative Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose the use of an approach to evaluation that can be undertaken in a clinical setting when concerns regarding child sexual abuse are unclear or ambiguous and other systems are not involved, thus providing an option for the nondisclosing child often discussed in the “delayed disclosure” literature. This approach can also be appropriate for a child with a questionable

Amy C. Tishelman; Susanne K. Meyer; Penny Haney; Sara K. McLeod

2010-01-01

342

Brain size, life history, and metabolism at the marsupial/placental dichotomy  

PubMed Central

The evolution of mammalian brain size is directly linked with the evolution of the brain's unique structure and performance. Both maternal life history investment traits and basal metabolic rate (BMR) correlate with relative brain size, but current hypotheses regarding the details of these relationships are based largely on placental mammals. Using encephalization quotients, partial correlation analyses, and bivariate regressions relating brain size to maternal investment times and BMR, we provide a direct quantitative comparison of brain size evolution in marsupials and placentals, whose reproduction and metabolism differ extensively. Our results show that the misconception that marsupials are systematically smaller-brained than placentals is driven by the inclusion of one large-brained placental clade, Primates. Marsupial and placental brain size partial correlations differ in that marsupials lack a partial correlation of BMR with brain size. This contradicts hypotheses stating that the maintenance of relatively larger brains requires higher BMRs. We suggest that a positive BMR–brain size correlation is a placental trait related to the intimate physiological contact between mother and offspring during gestation. Marsupials instead achieve brain sizes comparable to placentals through extended lactation. Comparison with avian brain evolution suggests that placental brain size should be constrained due to placentals’ relative precociality, as has been hypothesized for precocial bird hatchlings. We propose that placentals circumvent this constraint because of their focus on gestation, as opposed to the marsupial emphasis on lactation. Marsupials represent a less constrained condition, demonstrating that hypotheses regarding placental brain size evolution cannot be generalized to all mammals.

Weisbecker, Vera; Goswami, Anjali

2010-01-01

343

Young People as Teachers and Learners in the Workplace: Challenging the Novice-Expert Dichotomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conventionally, apprenticeship is understood as a linear journey from novice to expert in which "old-timers" mould their successors. This paper challenges the assumptions that expertise is equated solely with status and experience in the workplace, and that all novices and experts, regardless of context, are seen as the same.

Fuller, Alison; Unwin, Lorna

2004-01-01

344

Culture Consciousness among Hmong Immigrant Leaders: Beyond the Dichotomy of Cultural Essentialism and Cultural Hybridity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article illustrates the culture consciousness of Hmong immigrant community leaders as they made sense of the educational experiences of Hmong American children and families. It draws on the work of scholars who have theorized "critical" essentialism to suggest that Hmong leaders are critically aware of the role and import of…

Ngo, Bic

2013-01-01

345

Illumination of Parainfluenza Virus Infection and Transmission in Living Animals Reveals a Tissue-Specific Dichotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parainfluenza viruses (PIVs) are highly contagious respiratory paramyxoviruses and a leading cause of lower respiratory tract (LRT) disease. Since no vaccines or antivirals exist, non-pharmaceutical interventions are the only means of control for these pathogens. Here we used bioluminescence imaging to visualize the spatial and temporal progression of murine PIV1 (Sendai virus) infection in living mice after intranasal inoculation

Crystal W. Burke; John N. Mason; Sherri L. Surman; Bart G. Jones; Emilie Dalloneau; Julia L. Hurwitz; Charles J. Russell

2011-01-01

346

Proposed multidimensional structure of mania: beyond the euphoric-dysphoric dichotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although the construct of depression has been subjected to numerous factor analytic studies and phenomenological subtypes of clinical relevance have been delineated, this is not the case for mania. The few available studies have reported at least two factors, which consist of euphoric versus dysphoric-hostile subtypes. Our objective was to replicate and further enrich this literature. Methods: In the

H. S. Akiskal; J. M. Azorin; E. G. Hantouche

2003-01-01

347

Multi-paddock grazing on rangelands: why the perceptual dichotomy between research results and rancher experience?  

PubMed

Maintaining or enhancing the productive capacity and resilience of rangeland ecosystems is critical for the continued support of people who depend on them for their livelihoods, especially in the face of climatic change. This is also necessary for the continued delivery of ecosystem services derived from rangelands for the broader benefit of societies around the world. Multi-paddock grazing management has been recommended since the mid-20th century as an important tool to adaptively manage rangelands ecosystems to sustain productivity and improve animal management. Moreover, there is much anecdotal evidence from producers that, if applied appropriately, multi-paddock grazing can improve forage and livestock production. By contrast, recent reviews of published rangeland-based grazing systems studies have concluded that, in general, field trials show no superiority of vegetation or animal production in multi-paddock grazing relative to continuous yearlong stocking of single-paddock livestock production systems. Our goal is to provide a framework for rangeland management decisions that support the productivity and resiliency of rangelands and then to identify why different perceptions exist among rangeland managers who have effectively used multi-paddock grazing systems and research scientists who have studied them. First, we discuss the ecology of grazed ecosystems under free-ranging herbivores and under single-paddock fenced conditions. Second, we identify five principles underpinning the adaptive management actions used by successful grazing managers and the ecological, physiological, and behavioral framework they use to achieve desired conservation, production, and financial goals. Third, we examine adaptive management principles needed to successfully manage rangelands subjected to varying environmental conditions. Fourth, we describe the differences between the interpretation of results of grazing systems research reported in the scientific literature and the results reported by successful grazing managers; we highlight the shortcomings of most of the previously conducted grazing systems research for providing information relevant for rangeland managers who aim to achieve desired environmental and economic goals. Finally, we outline knowledge gaps and present testable hypotheses to broaden our understanding of how planned multi-paddock grazing management can be used at the ranching enterprise scale to facilitate the adaptive management of rangelands under dynamic environmental conditions. PMID:23850765

Teague, Richard; Provenza, Fred; Kreuter, Urs; Steffens, Tim; Barnes, Matt

2013-10-15

348

Leatherback turtles as oceanographic indicators: stable isotope analyses reveal a trophic dichotomy between ocean basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oceanographic sampling is often limited to local and temporally concise assessments of complex, transient, and widespread phenomena. However, long-lived, migratory pelagic vertebrates such as leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea, Vandelli 1761) can provide important integrated information about broad-scale oceanographic processes. Therefore, the present study analyzed stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (?13C and ?15N) of egg yolk and red blood cells

Bryan P. Wallace; Jeffrey A. Seminoff; Susan S. Kilham; James R. Spotila; Peter H. Dutton

2006-01-01

349

Affective Aspects on Mathematics Conceptualization: From Dichotomies to an Integrated Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper aims to propose a theoretical reflection in order to overcome a strong tradition in psychology concerning the analysis of cognition and affectivity as dichotomic processes explaining human behaviours. A general theory of the human subject is presented to discussion, followed by the proposition of a new unit of analysis for the…

Araujo, Claudia Roberta; Andrade, Fernanda; Hazin, Izabel; Falcao, Jorge Tarcisio da Rocha; do Nascimento, Jorge Costa; Lessa, Monica Maria Lins

2003-01-01

350

Muslim American University Students' Perceptions of Islam and Democracy: Deconstructing the Dichotomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aftermath of 9/11 and the current surge of revolutions in North Africa and the Middle East have caused Muslim Americans to be either demonized or forgotten altogether, despite the significance of their everyday navigation of both Islamic and democratic values and unique efforts toward identity construction. The neglect of the Muslim American…

Lamont, Sarah; Collet, Bruce

2013-01-01

351

Intelligent integration of medical models: a rigorous approach to resolving the dichotomy in medical models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, the dominant modeling concepts for medical information systems are based on: 1) “homeostasis”, and 2) “physical dynamics”-such as those encountered in pharmacology, quantitative pathophysiology, and more recently in immunology. We introduce the novel idea of the hybrid system state which is used to provide a basis for modeling of medical systems and the carrier manifold which is used for

John James; Nicholas DeClaris; Wolf Kohn; A. Nerode

1994-01-01

352

Caught in a "West/China Dichotomy": Doing Critical Sociolinguistic Ethnography in Zhejiang Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on how issues of power and identity were negotiated when doing a critical sociolinguistic ethnography as a Spanish researcher in the Chinese educational context. Data come from fieldwork conducted in 3 different primary and secondary schools together in Zhejiang province, where inside- and outside-classroom…

Perez-Milans, Miguel

2011-01-01

353

Knowledge management for sustainable development in the web 2.0 era: the Triangle of Dichotomies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual framework that will support the international development community in its efforts to establish web-based knowledge management platforms that maximise the opportunities offered by the recent surge of web 2.0 technologies. In order to develop such a framework, the paper reviews the key concepts that define knowledge management practices, and attempts

Alexander Voccia

2011-01-01

354

Localized and itinerant dichotomy of electrons in Ba(Fe,Co)2As2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variant approaches, either based on the Fermi surface nesting or started from the proximity to a Mott-insulator, were proposed to elucidate the physics in iron pnictides, but no consensus has been reached. A fundamental problem concerns the nature of their 3d electrons. Here we report the magnetoresistivity (\\\\rho_xx) and the Hall resistivity (\\\\rho_xy) of Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 (x=0 and 0.05) in a

H. Q. Yuan; L. Jiao; F. F. Balakirev; J. Singleton; C. Setty; J. P. Hu; T. Shang; L. J. Li; G. H. Cao; Z. A. Xu; B. Shen; H. H. Wen

2011-01-01

355

Cosmic dichotomy in the hosts of rapidly star-forming systems at low and high redshifts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a compilation of clustering results taken from the literature for galaxies with highly enhanced (SFR ? [30-103] M? yr-1) star formation activity observed in the redshift range z = [0-3]. We show that, irrespective of the selection technique and only very mildly depending on the star-forming rate, the clustering lengths of these objects present a sharp increase of about a factor 3 between z ˜ 1 and z ˜ 2, going from values of ˜5 Mpc to about 15 Mpc and higher. This behaviour is reflected in the trend of the masses of the dark matter hosts of star-forming galaxies which increase from ˜1011.5 to ˜1013.5 M? between z ˜ 1 and z ˜ 2. Our analysis shows that galaxies which actively form stars at high redshifts are not the same population of sources we observe in the more local universe. In fact, vigorous star formation in the early universe is hosted by very massive structures, while for z ? 1 a comparable activity is encountered in much smaller systems, consistent with the downsizing scenario. The available clustering data can hardly be reconciled with merging as the main trigger for intense star formation activity at high redshifts. We further argue that, after a characteristic time-scale of ˜1 Gyr, massive star-forming galaxies at z ? 2 evolve into z ? 1.5 passive galaxies with large (M* ? [1011-1012] M?) stellar masses.

Magliocchetti, M.; Lapi, A.; Negrello, M.; De Zotti, G.; Danese, L.

2014-01-01

356

New subclasses of bi-univalent functions involving polylogarithm functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, we introduce two new subclasses of the function class ? of bi-univalent functions involving polylogarithm functions defined in the open unit disc U = :{z:z?C,|z|<1}. The estimates on the coefficients the rest of this text. |a2| and |a3| for functions in these new subclasses of the function class ? are obtained in our investigation.

Siregar, Saibah; Darus, Maslina

2014-06-01

357

Ghrelin and Functional Dyspepsia  

PubMed Central

The majority of patients with dyspepsia have no identifiable cause of their disease, leading to a diagnosis of functional dyspepsia (FD). While a number of different factors affect gut activity, components of the nervous and endocrine systems are essential for normal gut function. Communication between the brain and gut occurs via direct neural connections or endocrine signaling events. Ghrelin, a peptide produced by the stomach, affects gastric motility/emptying and secretion, suggesting it may play a pathophysiological role in FD. It is also possible that the functional abnormalities in FD may affect ghrelin production in the stomach. Plasma ghrelin levels are reported to be altered in FD, correlating with FD symptom score. Furthermore, some patients with FD suffer from anorexia with body-weight loss. As ghrelin increases gastric emptying and promotes feeding, ghrelin therapy may be a new approach to the treatment of FD.

Akamizu, Takashi; Iwakura, Hiroshi; Ariyasu, Hiroyuki; Kangawa, Kenji

2010-01-01

358

Algal functional annotation tool  

SciTech Connect

The Algal Functional Annotation Tool is a web-based comprehensive analysis suite integrating annotation data from several pathway, ontology, and protein family databases. The current version provides annotation for the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in the future will include additional genomes. The site allows users to interpret large gene lists by identifying associated functional terms, and their enrichment. Additionally, expression data for several experimental conditions were compiled and analyzed to provide an expression-based enrichment search. A tool to search for functionally-related genes based on gene expression across these conditions is also provided. Other features include dynamic visualization of genes on KEGG pathway maps and batch gene identifier conversion.

Lopez, D. [UCLA; Casero, D. [UCLA; Cokus, S. J. [UCLA; Merchant, S. S. [UCLA; Pellegrini, M. [UCLA

2012-07-01

359

Functional Convergence Spasm  

PubMed Central

Convergence spasm (CS) means intermittent episodes of convergence, miosis and accommodation with disconjugate gaze mimicking abducens palsy. The organic causes range from metabolic to host of neurological and ophthalmic diseases that we describe. It was first described as a presentation of psychogenic disorders by von Graefe as early as in 1856. Nonetheless, patients exhibiting this sign are often subjected to plethora of unnecessary, sophisticated and invasive diagnostic procedures. Such functional cases were treated with either cycloplegic/placebo eye drop or amytal abreaction. Though epidemiological studies suggest that conversion disorder is equally prevalent in industrialized nations and developing countries, a few cases of functional CS are reported from West including Asia, that to, decade(s) before and none from India, to the best of our knowledge. We illustrate a case of functional CS with photograph after consent from patient and its successful treatment.

Ghosh, Abhishek; Padhy, Susanta K.; Gupta, Gourav; Goyal, Manoj K.

2014-01-01

360

Functionally stepped, resistive ceramic  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An electrically powered functionally graded ceramic composite heater and a functionally stepped ceramic composite heater useful for cigarette lighters. The electrical resistance heater includes discrete heating zones wherein each zone of the heater can be activated using an electric control module, and is capable of heating to a temperature in the range of 600.degree. C. to 900.degree. C. using portable energy devices. The ceramic heater can be made by pressing together layers of differing amounts of constituents of the ceramic precursor material followed by secondary processing steps to obtain discrete heating elements. The heater design can include a hub on one end to provide structural integrity, and function as a common for the heating zones.

1999-03-09

361

Protein Functionalized Nanodiamond Arrays  

PubMed Central

Various nanoscale elements are currently being explored for bio-applications, such as in bio-images, bio-detection, and bio-sensors. Among them, nanodiamonds possess remarkable features such as low bio-cytotoxicity, good optical property in fluorescent and Raman spectra, and good photostability for bio-applications. In this work, we devise techniques to position functionalized nanodiamonds on self-assembled monolayer (SAMs) arrays adsorbed on silicon and ITO substrates surface using electron beam lithography techniques. The nanodiamond arrays were functionalized with lysozyme to target a certain biomolecule or protein specifically. The optical properties of the nanodiamond-protein complex arrays were characterized by a high throughput confocal microscope. The synthesized nanodiamond-lysozyme complex arrays were found to still retain their functionality in interacting with E. coli.

2010-01-01

362

Pain and functional imaging.  

PubMed Central

Functional neuroimaging has fundamentally changed our knowledge about the cerebral representation of pain. For the first time it has been possible to delineate the functional anatomy of different aspects of pain in the medial and lateral pain systems in the brain. The rapid developments in imaging methods over the past years have led to a consensus in the description of the central pain responses between different studies and also to a definition of a central pain matrix with specialized subfunctions in man. In the near future we will see studies where a systems perspective allows for a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms in the higher-order frontal and parietal cortices. Also, pending the development of experimental paradigms, the functional anatomy of the emotional aspects of pain will become better known.

Ingvar, M

1999-01-01

363

Tensor distribution function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion weighted MR imaging is a powerful tool that can be employed to study white matter microstructure by examining the 3D displacement profile of water molecules in brain tissue. By applying diffusion-sensitizing gradients along a minimum of 6 directions, second-order tensors (represetnted by 3-by-3 positive definiite matrices) can be computed to model dominant diffusion processes. However, it has been shown that conventional DTI is not sufficient to resolve more complicated white matter configurations, e.g. crossing fiber tracts. More recently, High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging (HARDI) seeks to address this issue by employing more than 6 gradient directions. To account for fiber crossing when analyzing HARDI data, several methodologies have been introduced. For example, q-ball imaging was proposed to approximate Orientation Diffusion Function (ODF). Similarly, the PAS method seeks to reslove the angular structure of displacement probability functions using the maximum entropy principle. Alternatively, deconvolution methods extract multiple fiber tracts by computing fiber orientations using a pre-specified single fiber response function. In this study, we introduce Tensor Distribution Function (TDF), a probability function defined on the space of symmetric and positive definite matrices. Using calculus of variations, we solve for the TDF that optimally describes the observed data. Here, fiber crossing is modeled as an ensemble of Gaussian diffusion processes with weights specified by the TDF. Once this optimal TDF is determined, ODF can easily be computed by analytical integration of the resulting displacement probability function. Moreover, principle fiber directions can also be directly derived from the TDF.

Leow, Alex D.; Zhu, Siwei

2008-04-01

364

Heart Rate and Function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to discover and learn about heart rate and the function of the heart. The students will investigate whether their hearts beat slower/faster at different times; develop an understanding of why their hearts beat slower/faster at different times; use data to develop an explanation of why their hearts beat slower/faster at different times; be aware of the effect of exercise on respiration; and be able to describe the major function of the heart.

Mr. Mike Peterson (Frazer Public School)

1999-07-01

365

Unpolarized Structure Functions  

SciTech Connect

Over the past decade measurements of unpolarized structure functions with unprecedented precision have significantly advanced our knowledge of nucleon structure. These have for the first time allowed quantitative tests of the phenomenon of quark-hadron duality, and provided a deeper understanding of the transition from hadron to quark degrees of freedom in inclusive scattering. Dedicated Rosenbluth-separation experiments have yielded high-precision transverse and longitudinal structure functions in regions previously unexplored, and new techniques have enabled the first glimpses of the structure of the free neutron, without contamination from nuclear effects.

M. E. Christy,W. Melnitchouk

2011-06-01

366

8.F Function Rules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A function machine takes an input, and based on some rule produces an output. The tables below show some input-output pairs for different functions. Fo...

367

Peroxisome Biogenesis and Function  

PubMed Central

Peroxisomes are small and single membrane-delimited organelles that execute numerous metabolic reactions and have pivotal roles in plant growth and development. In recent years, forward and reverse genetic studies along with biochemical and cell biological analyses in Arabidopsis have enabled researchers to identify many peroxisome proteins and elucidate their functions. This review focuses on the advances in our understanding of peroxisome biogenesis and metabolism, and further explores the contribution of large-scale analysis, such as in sillco predictions and proteomics, in augmenting our knowledge of peroxisome function In Arabidopsis.

Kaur, Navneet; Reumann, Sigrun; Hu, Jianping

2009-01-01

368

Expansion of Continuum Functions on Resonance Wave Functions and Amplitudes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To overcome difficulties encountered with wave functions of continuum spectrum (for example, in a shell model with continuum) the pole expansion (by the Mittag-Leffler theorem) of wave functions, scattering amplitudes and the Green functions with positive...

J. Bang F. A. Gareev M. H. Gizzatkulov S. A. Goncharov

1978-01-01

369

Remarks on Shintani's Zeta Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a zeta function attached to a represen- tation of a group. We show that the multi-dimensional zeta function due to Shintani (Sh1), which is a generalization of the multiple Hurwitz zeta function, can be obtained in this framework. We also construct a gamma function from the zeta function attached to a representation via zeta regularization. We study then

Masato Wakayama

2005-01-01

370

Jost functions for quarkonium  

SciTech Connect

The authors examine the interaction in quarkonium by means of the potential V(r) = -..cap alpha..r + ..beta..r + V/sub o/. Within the framework of the Fuda generalization of the van Leeuwen-Reiner approach, the off-shell Jost functions and the off-shell and half-off-shell T-matrices are derived

Pikh, S.S.; Lis, O.M.

1986-11-01

371

Epoetin and cognitive function.  

PubMed

The uremia of chronic renal failure (CRF) can alter brain electrophysiology and cognitive function, even in the well-dialyzed patient. The effect of uremia on brain function can be assessed by electrophysiologic techniques such as electroencephalogram (EEG), sensory-evoked potentials (EPs), and cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs), and through a series of neuropsychologic tests. Five tests have been used clinically to measure the speed and efficiency of cognitive functioning and include the following: Number Cancellation, Trailmaking Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and Controlled Oral Word Association Test. Test performance by patients with CRF is often below that of healthy controls. Auditory ERPs, a sensitive indicator of subtle changes in central nervous system (CNS) function in uremia, result in the generation of a P300 component wave that varies in amplitude and latency with patient variables such as attention and effort. Although dialysis tends to normalize P300 latencies, the waves remain somewhat prolonged in most patients. The anemia often observed in patients receiving chronic dialysis appears to aggravate uremic encephalopathy. This effect can be reversed when anemia is corrected following administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin). Improvement in P300 amplitudes, and, in some cases, decreases in P300 latencies correlated well with epoetin-induced increases in hematocrit levels. With the correction of anemia, that component of brain dysfunction not attributable to retention of uremic toxins can largely be reversed. PMID:1626553

Nissenson, A R

1992-07-01

372

Fitting the correlation function.  

PubMed

The whole correlation function of the intensity of scattered light is usually determined from a single realization of the photocurrent. As a result, the values of the correlation function at different delay times are not statistically independent. A standard least-squares fitting procedure is not optimal for an analysis of such data. However, the benefits of mathematically rigorous but highly nonlinear and less stable methods are not known. We consider the test case of a Gaussian signal with a single-exponential correlation function without shot noise. In this case the fitting procedure, which is based on the maximum-likelihood principle for the observed signal, permits an analytical solution. We demonstrate that such a rigorous statistical analysis produces an approximately two times more-accurate result for the relaxation time than does the standard least-squares fit. This gain, however, is greatly reduced by the presence of shot noise, which introduces additional uncorrelated errors into the values of the correlation function. PMID:18360444

Lomakin, A

2001-08-20

373

Fitting the Correlation Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The whole correlation function of the intensity of scattered light is usually determined from a single realization of the photocurrent. As a result, the values of the correlation function at different delay times are not statistically independent. A standard least-squares fitting procedure is not optimal for an analysis of such data. However, the benefits of mathematically rigorous but highly nonlinear and less stable methods are not known. We consider the test case of a Gaussian signal with a single-exponential correlation function without shot noise. In this case the fitting procedure, which is based on the maximum-likelihood principle for the observed signal, permits an analytical solution. We demonstrate that such a rigorous statistical analysis produces an approximately two times more-accurate result for the relaxation time than does the standard least-squares fit. This gain, however, is greatly reduced by the presence of shot noise, which introduces additional uncorrelated errors into the values of the correlation function.

Lomakin, Aleksey

2001-08-01

374

Exact hydrogenic density functionals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exact density functionals for hydrogenic atoms are discussed, continuing the original work of Gill and Pople [Phys. Rev. A 47, 2383 (1993)]. An exchange-correlation functional whose potential exactly cancels the Coulomb potential does give the exact density, although the potential, denoted -vZJ(r), differs significantly from the conventional BLYP [A. D. Becke, Phys. Rev. A 38, 3098 (1988); C. Lee, W. Wang, and R. G. Parr, Phys. Rev. B 37, 785 (1988)] potential. Raising -vZJ(r) by the hardness of the system leads to very good agreement with BLYP in the energetically important regions, although asymptotically the BLYP potential vanishes rapidly while the shifted potential approaches the hardness of the system. These observations support the theory of Perdew, Parr, Levy, and Balduz [Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1691 (1982)] that exact exchange-correlation potentials do not vanish asymptotically. Examples of functionals that give exact hydrogenic densities and energies, with nonvanishing asymptotic potentials, are presented. The computed asymptotic potentials agree well with theoretical predictions, and arise naturally from the requirement that the functional be approximately applicable to all systems, and not just those with one electron.

Tozer, David J.

1997-10-01

375

VLSI Circuit Functionality Tester.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An integrated system that assists a user in testing the functional specification of a very large scale integration (VLSI) circuit is described. The system is based on a NEC 8001 microcomputer that communicates with a NASCOM 1 microcomputer to drive the de...

P. H. Jesty

1986-01-01

376

Shell radiance texture functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The appearance of an inhomogeneous translu- cent material depends substantially on its volumetric variations and their efiects upon subsurface scattering. For e-cient rendering that accounts for both surface mesostructures and volumetric variations of such mate- rials, shell texture functions have precomputed irradi- ance within a volume with respect to incoming illumina- tion, but even with this irradiance data a fair

Ying Song; Yanyun Chen; Xin Tong; Stephen Lin; Jiaoying Shi; Baining Guo; Heung-yeung Shum

2005-01-01

377

Advanced functional polymer membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This feature article provides a comprehensive overview on the development of polymeric membranes having advanced or novel functions in the various membrane separation processes for liquid and gaseous mixtures (gas separation, reverse osmosis, pervaporation, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, microfiltration) and in other important applications of membranes such as biomaterials, catalysis (including fuel cell systems) or lab-on-chip technologies. Important approaches toward this aim

Mathias Ulbricht

2006-01-01

378

Functions Defined by Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lang Moore and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, this module focuses on the ability to carry out an exploration of functions defined by data; to learn about data entry and plotting operations. This is one of a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Moore, Lang; Smith, David

2010-04-30

379

Functions Defined by Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lawrence Moore and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purpose of this module is to carry out an exploration of functions defined by data; to learn about data entry and plotting operations. This is one lesson in a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Moore, Lawrence C.; Smith, David

2010-05-04

380

Transfer function matrix  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Given a multivariable system, it is proved that the numerator matrix N(s) of the transfer function evaluated at any system pole either has unity rank or is a null matrix. It is also shown that N(s) evaluated at any transmission zero of the system has rank deficiency. Examples are given for illustration.

Seraji, H.

1987-01-01

381

Objectification and Semiotic Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this paper is to study students' difficulties when they have to ascribe the same meaning to different representations of the same mathematical object. We address two theoretical tools that are at the core of Radford's cultural semiotic and Godino's onto-semiotic approaches: objectification and the semiotic function. The analysis…

Santi, George

2011-01-01

382

Logarithmic-function generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solid-state logarithmic-function generator is compact and provides improved accuracy. Generator includes a stable multivibrator feeding into RC circuit. Resulting exponentially decaying voltage is compared with input signal. Generator output is proportional to time required for exponential voltage to decay from preset reference level to level of input signal.

Caron, P. R.

1975-01-01

383

Movement with Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"These three investigations use movement to reinforce the concepts of linear functions and systems of equations. Multiple representations are used throughout, along with tools such as motion detectors and remote-controlled cars. Students explore how position, speed, and varying motion are reflected in graphs, tables, and algebraic equations." from NCTM Illuminations.

Mathematics, Illuminations N.

2009-12-04

384

[Functional neuroanatomy: sensorimotor system].  

PubMed

The sensorimotor flow of information can be divided in three steps: perception, processing and reaction. Environmental impulses are conducted through receptors to the central nervous system (CNS). The impulses arriving in the somatosensory cortex are processed through complex interactions between sensory and motor areas. The motor action in response to the environmental changes is transferred from the motor cortex via the pyramidal tract, spinal tracts and motor neurons to the respective muscles. With functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) it is possible to assess somatosensory and motor activation in the different cortical areas involved. Clinically, this information is used to assess the local relationship between brain tumors and functionally important areas. This is important to ensure an optimal individual therapeutic approach with the aim of an as radical as possible tumor resection with preservation of the motor and somatosensory functions. Furthermore, fMRI enables the evaluation of pathological changes of cerebral activation. This review describes the functional somatosensory and motor systems and gives an insight into the potential of fMRI. PMID:23784618

Garcia, M; Stippich, C

2013-07-01

385

Introduction to Green's Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The tutorial introducing students to Greenâs functions was first developed by Professor John Berger of the Colorado School of Mines. That tutorial has been expanded and updated by Professor Ernian Pan and Sandra Djurkovic of the Civil Engineering and the Mathematics Departments of the University of Akron. The zip file contains an html file.

Pan, Ernian; Djurkovic, Sandra

2003-02-07

386

Functional Derivatives of Polyisobutene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods of synthesis of isobutene polymers with end groups of different types are examined. It is shown that advances in the synthesis of these compounds are associated with the progress in the field of the regulation of the cationic polymerisation and copolymerisation of isobutene and the degradation of isobutene polymers and copolymers. Examples of the employment of functional derivatives

Yu A. Sangalov; Yu B. Yasman

1985-01-01

387

Professionalism and functional outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A foundation principle of professionalism is listening carefully to clients’ needs. This paper reviews current studies that have sought to listen to the needs of people with aphasia and their families. The preliminary evidence to date suggests that people with aphasia have goals that cover the bio-psycho-social spectrum but place a lot of importance on functional outcomes such as participation

Linda Worrall

2006-01-01

388

Cognitive function and hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of lowering blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive subjects is well known but the relationship between hypertension and cognitive function is controversial. This article reviews the role of hypertension in the aetiology of cognitive impairment and the relationships between BP, cerebral perfusion and cognition. It also summarizes findings of studies addressing the effect of antihypertensive therapy and cognition. An

J Birns; L Kalra

2009-01-01

389

A Utile Function Optimizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recast the problem of unconstrained con- tinuous evolutionary optimization as inference in a fixed graphical model. This approach allows us to address several pervasive issues in optimization, including the traditionally difficult problem of selecting an algorithm that is most appropriate for a given task. This is accomplished by placing a prior distribution over the expected class of functions, then

Christopher K. Monson; Kevin D. Seppi; James L. Carroll

2007-01-01

390

Process for Functionalizing Alkanes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons selectively in the terminal position comprises: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons with a metal complex CpRhPMe sub 3 H sub 2 in the presence of ultraviolet radiation at -60 exp 0 to -17 exp 0 C to ...

R. G. Bergman A. H. Janowicz R. A. Periana-Pillai

1984-01-01

391

Assessing Functional Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term "functional communication" refers to the skills and knowledge possessed by an individual, from which that individual's competence or effectiveness may be inferred. Part one of this two-part book identifies and describes conceptual and methodological issues involved in evaluating, or empirically describing, the major components of…

Larson, Carl; And Others

392

Generalized Q-functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modulus squared of a class of wavefunctions defined on phase space is used to define a generalized family of Q or Husimi functions. A parameter ? specifies orderings in a mapping from the operator |????| to the corresponding phase space wavefunction, where ? is a given fiducial vector. The choice ? = 0 specifies the Weyl mapping and the

T. B. Smith

2006-01-01

393

Work Function Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The determination of the surface work function is an important part of the overall characterization of a surface. Any change in the chemical or physical state of the surface, such as adsorption or geometric reconstruction, can be observed through a work f...

L. W. Swanson P. R. Davis

1985-01-01

394

Iridescence: a functional perspective  

PubMed Central

In animals, iridescence is generated by the interaction of light with biological tissues that are nanostructured to produce thin films or diffraction gratings. Uniquely among animal visual signals, the study of iridescent coloration contributes to biological and physical sciences by enhancing our understanding of the evolution of communication strategies, and by providing insights into physical optics and inspiring biomimetic technologies useful to humans. Iridescent colours are found in a broad diversity of animal taxa ranging from diminutive marine copepods to terrestrial insects and birds. Iridescent coloration has received a surge of research interest of late, and studies have focused on both characterizing the nanostructures responsible for producing iridescence and identifying the behavioural functions of iridescent colours. In this paper, we begin with a brief description of colour production mechanisms in animals and provide a general overview of the taxonomic distribution of iridescent colours. We then highlight unique properties of iridescent signals and review the proposed functions of iridescent coloration, focusing, in particular, on the ways in which iridescent colours allow animals to communicate with conspecifics and avoid predators. We conclude with a brief overview of non-communicative functions of iridescence in animals. Despite the vast amount of recent work on animal iridescence, our review reveals that many proposed functions of iridescent coloration remain virtually unexplored, and this area is clearly ripe for future research.

Doucet, Stephanie M.; Meadows, Melissa G.

2009-01-01

395

Choreographing Patterns and Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors begin with a description of an algebraic dance--the translation of composite linear growing patterns into choreographed movement--which was the last component of a research-based instructional unit that focused on fostering an understanding of linear functional rules through geometric growing patterns and…

Hawes, Zachary; Moss, Joan; Finch, Heather; Katz, Jacques

2012-01-01

396

Process for functionalizing alkanes  

DOEpatents

Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons comprises: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons of the formula: R[sub 1]H wherein H represents a hydrogen atom; and R[sub 1] represents a saturated hydrocarbon radical, with a metal complex of the formula: CpRh[P(R[sub 2])[sub 3

Bergman, R.G.; Janowicz, A.H.; Periana, R.A.

1988-05-24

397

The matrix sign function  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the matrix sign function is presented including some historical background, definitions and properties, approximation theory and computational methods, and condition theory and estimation procedures, Applications to areas such as control theory, eigendecompositions, and roots of matrices are outlined, and some new theoretical results are also given

Charles S. Kenney; Alan J. Laub

1995-01-01

398

Hierarchical functional reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the use of hierarchies of function in reasoning about automotive electrical systems. Such hierarchies enable more powerful reasoning for applications such as diagnosis, failure mode and effects analysis, sneak circuit analysis and design verification, while also structuring the domain and thus reducing the complexity at any one level. The context of this discussion is the existing AutoSteve

Neal Snooke; Chris Price

1998-01-01

399

The Black Body Function.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses using black body function for radiative heat transfer, which can be used in a real-life application in a number of different topics in A-level and first-year undergraduate mathematical methods courses such as differentiation, solving nonlinear equations, and integration by substitution. (ASK)

Lawson, D. A.

1998-01-01

400

Color and Psychological Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color is a ubiquitous perceptual experience, yet little scientific information about the influence of color on affect, cognition, and behavior is available. Accordingly, we have developed a general model of color and psychological functioning, which we present in this article. We also describe a hypothesis derived from this model regarding the influence of red in achievement contexts. In addition, we

Andrew J. Elliot; Markus A. Maier

2007-01-01

401

Structure and Function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Structure and Function is a graduate-level professional development course designed to enhance your understanding and teaching of life science. In two sessions, you will investigate life science topics using hands-on activities and online resources including video segments, interactive activities, readings, and other multimedia materials. These resources are drawn from Teachers' Domain, WGBH's digital library service.

2010-01-01

402

Balance functions reexamined  

SciTech Connect

The idea of glue clusters, i.e., short-range correlations in the quark-gluon plasma close to freeze-out, is used to estimate the width of balance functions in momentum space. A good agreement is found with the recent measurements of the STAR Collaboration for central Au-Au collisions.

Bialas, A. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, Krakow (Poland) and M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

2011-02-15

403

Thyroid Function Tests  

MedlinePLUS

... T4 TSH Thyroid 2 Thyroid Tests Why do health care providers perform thyroid tests? Health care providers perform thyroid tests to assess how well ... at www.endocrine.niddk.nih.gov. What blood tests do health care providers use to check a person’s thyroid function? ...

404

Conjugate flow action functionals  

SciTech Connect

We present a new general framework to construct an action functional for a non-potential field theory. The key idea relies on representing the governing equations relative to a diffeomorphic flow of curvilinear coordinates which is assumed to be functionally dependent on the solution field. Such flow, which will be called the conjugate flow, evolves in space and time similarly to a physical fluid flow of classical mechanics and it can be selected in order to symmetrize the Gâteaux derivative of the field equations with respect to suitable local bilinear forms. This is equivalent to requiring that the governing equations of the field theory can be derived from a principle of stationary action on a Lie group manifold. By using a general operator framework, we obtain the determining equations of such manifold and the corresponding conjugate flow action functional. In particular, we study scalar and vector field theories governed by second-order nonlinear partial differential equations. The identification of transformation groups leaving the conjugate flow action functional invariant could lead to the discovery of new conservation laws in fluid dynamics and other disciplines.

Venturi, Daniele, E-mail: daniele-venturi@brown.edu [Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)] [Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)

2013-11-15

405

Statistical Decision Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The foundations of a general theory of statistical decision functions, including the classical non-sequential case as well as the sequential case, was discussed by the author in a previous publication [3]. Several assumptions made in [3] appear, however, to be unnecessarily restrictive (see conditions 1-7, pp. 297 in [3]). These assumptions, moreover, are not always fulfilled for statistical problems in

Abraham Wald

1949-01-01

406

FOC Point Spread Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim is to measure the ST\\/FOC instrumental point spread function (PSF) in the f\\/96 and f\\/288 modes at various wavelengths using a selection of color filters. The structure of the PSF has to be measured with high photometric accuracy, otherwise it is not possible to discriminate fine structure of the PSF and fine structure that may be intrinsic to

Francesco Paresce

1990-01-01

407

Autophagy: process and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autophagy is an intracellular degradation system that delivers cytoplasmic constituents to the lysosome. De- spite its simplicity, recent progress has demonstrated that autophagy plays a wide variety of physiological and pathophysiological roles, which are sometimes complex. Autophagy consists of several sequential steps—seques- tration, transport to lysosomes, degradation, and utiliza- tion of degradation products—and each step may exert different function. In

Noboru Mizushima

2007-01-01

408

Functional nausea and vomiting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although functional vomiting (FV), cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) and chronic idiopathic nausea (CIN) are fairly rare disorders, it has been increasingly recognized that these conditions can be highly disabling. Traditionally, FV, CVS and CIN have been under-investigated; however, interest in the cause and treatment of these disorders has increased, particularly with regard to their pathophysiology and the evaluation of new

Pavan Chepyala; Kevin W Olden

2008-01-01

409

Incomplete Integrals of Cylindrical Functions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Representations for incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel integrals of cylindrical functions are given in closed form by using Kampe de Feriet hypergeometric functions. In addition, reduction formulas for the Kampe de Feriet functions associated with these integral...

A. R. Miller

1990-01-01

410

Functional Brain Imaging  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The objective of this analysis is to review a spectrum of functional brain imaging technologies to identify whether there are any imaging modalities that are more effective than others for various brain pathology conditions. This evidence-based analysis reviews magnetoencephalography (MEG), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), positron emission tomography (PET), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the diagnosis or surgical management of the following conditions: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), brain tumours, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis (MS), and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive, degenerative, neurologic condition characterized by cognitive impairment and memory loss. The Canadian Study on Health and Aging estimated that there will be 97,000 incident cases (about 60,000 women) of dementia (including AD) in Canada in 2006. In Ontario, there will be an estimated 950 new cases and 580 deaths due to brain cancer in 2006. Treatments for brain tumours include surgery and radiation therapy. However, one of the limitations of radiation therapy is that it damages tissue though necrosis and scarring. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may not distinguish between radiation effects and resistant tissue, creating a potential role for functional brain imaging. Epilepsy is a chronic disorder that provokes repetitive seizures. In Ontario, the rate of epilepsy is estimated to be 5 cases per 1,000 people. Most people with epilepsy are effectively managed with drug therapy; but about 50% do not respond to drug therapy. Surgical resection of the seizure foci may be considered in these patients, and functional brain imaging may play a role in localizing the seizure foci. Multiple sclerosis is a progressive, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The cause of MS is unknown; however, it is thought to be due to a combination of etiologies, including genetic and environmental components. The prevalence of MS in Canada is 240 cases per 100,000 people. Parkinson’s disease is the most prevalent movement disorder; it affects an estimated 100,000 Canadians. Currently, the standard for measuring disease progression is through the use of scales, which are subjective measures of disease progression. Functional brain imaging may provide an objective measure of disease progression, differentiation between parkinsonian syndromes, and response to therapy. The Technology Being Reviewed Functional Brain Imaging Functional brain imaging technologies measure blood flow and metabolism. The results of these tests are often used in conjunction with structural imaging (e.g., MRI or CT). Positron emission tomography and MRS identify abnormalities in brain tissues. The former measures abnormalities through uptake of radiotracers in the brain, while the latter measures chemical shifts in metabolite ratios to identify abnormalities. The potential role of functional MRI (fMRI) is to identify the areas of the brain responsible for language, sensory and motor function (sensorimotor cortex), rather than identifying abnormalities in tissues. Magnetoencephalography measures magnetic fields of the electric currents in the brain, identifying aberrant activity. Magnetoencephalography may have the potential to localize seizure foci and to identify the sensorimotor cortex, visual cortex and auditory cortex. In terms of regulatory status, MEG and PET are licensed by Health Canada. Both MRS and fMRI use a MRI platform; thus, they do not have a separate licence from Health Canada. The radiotracers used in PET scanning are not licensed by Health Canada for general use but can be used through a Clinical Trials Application. Review Strategy The literature published up to September 2006 was searched in the following databases: MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CENTRAL, and International Network of Agencies for H

2006-01-01

411

Dyslipidemia and Auditory Function  

PubMed Central

The relationship between dyslipidemia and hearing is unclear. This study was conducted to investigate whether elevated serum lipid levels impact auditory function in humans and in guinea pigs. In the human study, a cross-sectional study of 40 volunteers with dyslipidemia was conducted. Pure tone thresholds, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, and lipid profiles were analyzed. When controlled for patient age and sex, we found that elevated triglycerides were associated with reduced hearing. In the guinea pig study, a prospective study of animals fed a high-fat diet for 14 weeks was conducted. Although the high-fat diet led to a dramatic elevation in the average weight and total cholesterol in all animals (from 61 to 589 mg/dl), there were no meaningful changes in distortion product otoacoustic emission magnitudes. These results suggest that whereas chronic dyslipidemia associated with elevated triglycerides may reduce auditory function, short-term dietary changes may not.

Evans, M. Bradley; Tonini, Ross; Shope, Cynthia Do; Oghalai, John S.; Jerger, James F.; Insull, William; Brownell, William E.

2013-01-01

412

Pancreatic exocrine function testing  

SciTech Connect

It is important to understand which pancreatic function tests are available and how to interpret them when evaluating patients with malabsorption. Available direct tests are the secretin stimulation test, the Lundh test meal, and measurement of serum or fecal enzymes. Indirect tests assess pancreatic exocrine function by measuring the effect of pancreatic secretion on various nutrients. These include triglycerides labeled with carbon 14, cobalamin labeled with cobalt 57 and cobalt 58, and para-aminobenzoic acid bound to a dipeptide. Of all these tests the secretin stimulation test is the most accurate and reliable if done by experienced personnel. However, the indirect tests are simpler to do and appear to be comparable to the secretin test at detecting pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. These indirect tests are becoming clinically available and clinicians should familiarize themselves with the strengths and weaknesses of each.

Goff, J.S.

1981-11-01

413

Process for functionalizing alkanes  

DOEpatents

Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons selectively in the terminal position comprises: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons with a metal complex CpRhPMe/sub 3/H/sub 2/ in the presence of ultraviolet radiation at -60/sup 0/ to -17/sup 0/C to form a hydridoalkyl complex CpRhPMe/sub 3/RH; (b) reacting said hydridoalkyl complex with a haloform CHX/sub 3/ at -60/sup 0/ to -17/sup 0/C to form the corresponding haloalkyl complex of step (a) CpRhPMe/sub 3/RX; and (c) reacting said haloalkyl complex with halogen -60 to 25/sup 0/C to form a functional haloalkyl compound.

Bergman, R.G.; Janowicz, A.H.; Periana-Pillai, R.A.

1984-06-12

414

Functional GPCR microarrays.  

PubMed

This paper describes G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) microarrays on porous glass substrates and functional assays based on the binding of a europium-labeled GTP analogue. The porous glass slides were made by casting a glass frit on impermeable glass slides and then coating with gamma-aminopropyl silane (GAPS). The emitted fluorescence was captured on an imager with a time-gated intensified CCD detector. Microarrays of the neurotensin receptor 1, the cholinergic receptor muscarinic 2, the opioid receptor mu, and the cannabinoid receptor 1 were fabricated by pin printing. The selective agonism of each of the receptors was observed. The screening of potential antagonists was demonstrated using a cocktail of agonists. The amount of activation observed was sufficient to permit determinations of EC50 and IC50. Such microarrays could potentially streamline drug discovery by helping integrate primary screening with selectivity and safety screening without compromising the essential functional information obtainable from cellular assays. PMID:16262381

Hong, Yulong; Webb, Brian L; Su, Hui; Mozdy, Eric J; Fang, Ye; Wu, Qi; Liu, Li; Beck, Jonathan; Ferrie, Ann M; Raghavan, Srikanth; Mauro, John; Carre, Alain; Müeller, Dirk; Lai, Fang; Rasnow, Brian; Johnson, Michael; Min, Hosung; Salon, John; Lahiri, Joydeep

2005-11-01

415

Functional genomics of trypanosomatids.  

PubMed

The decoding of the Tritryp reference genomes nearly 7 years ago provided a first peek into the biology of pathogenic trypanosomatids and a blueprint that has paved the way for genome-wide studies. Although 60-70% of the predicted protein coding genes in Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania major remain unannotated, the functional genomics landscape is rapidly changing. Facilitated by the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies, improved structural and functional annotation and genes and their products are emerging. Information is also growing for the interactions between cellular components as transcriptomes, regulatory networks and metabolomes are characterized, ushering in a new era of systems biology. Simultaneously, the launch of comparative sequencing of multiple strains of kinetoplastids will finally lead to the investigation of a vast, yet to be explored, evolutionary and pathogenomic space. PMID:22132795

Choi, J; El-Sayed, N M

2012-01-01

416

Treatment of functional dyspepsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Because there is currently no universally effective treatment for functional dyspepsia, a stepwise approach is useful. The\\u000a initial steps should include 1) making a firm clinical diagnosis and providing the patient with appropriate information and\\u000a reassurance; 2) ascertaining the reason for referral\\/consultation, as this determines what the patient will regard as a satisfactory\\u000a outcome; 3) informing the patient that

Christine Feinle-Bisset; Jane M. Andrews

2003-01-01

417

Heart Function and Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this module, developed as part of Cornell's Learning Initiative in Medicine and Bioengineering (CLIMB), students will learn the basic process of heart development, along with the anatomy and function of the heart. Students will also learn about embryonic development and be introduced to observational tools used by biomedical researchers. This module includes a teacher's guide with learning objectives outlined, classroom activities, and supporting image files. CLIMB is part of the NSF GK-12 program.

Bioengineering, Climb: C.

418

Barbie Bungee (linear functions)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The consideration of cord length is very important in a bungee jumpâtoo short, and the jumper doesn't get much of a thrill; too long, and ouch! In this lesson, students model a bungee jump using a Barbie® doll and rubber bands. The distance to which the doll will fall is directly proportional to the number of rubber bands, so this context is used to examine linear functions.

Illuminations, Nctm

2009-02-12

419

Density functional theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Density functional theory (DFT) finds increasing use in applications related to biological systems. Advancements in methodology\\u000a and implementations have reached a point where predicted properties of reasonable to high quality can be obtained. Thus, DFT\\u000a studies can complement experimental investigations, or even venture with some confidence into experimentally unexplored territory.\\u000a In the present contribution, we provide an overview of the

Maylis Orio; Dimitrios A. Pantazis; Frank Neese

2009-01-01

420

Insomnia and daytime functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from the present review challenge the assumption that daytime functioning deficits are associated with insomnia. Objectively-measured daytime sleepiness is not elevated in people with insomnia, and most cognitive\\/psychomotor tasks do not indicate deficits in people with insomnia. In contrast, a number of studies have found that people with insomnia self-report daytime symptoms such as elevated fatigue, mood disturbance and

Brant W. Riedel; Kenneth L. Lichstein

2000-01-01

421

The Protostellar Luminosity Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The protostellar luminosity function (PLF) is the present-day luminosity function of the protostars in a region of star formation. It is determined using the protostellar mass function in combination with a stellar evolutionary model that provides the luminosity as a function of instantaneous and final stellar mass. In 2010, McKee & Offner considered three main accretion models: the isothermal sphere (IS) model, the turbulent core (TC) model, and an approximation of the competitive accretion (CA) model. We also consider the effect of an accretion rate that tapers off linearly in time and an accelerating star formation rate. For each model, we characterize the luminosity distribution using the mean, median, maximum, ratio of the median to the mean, standard deviation of the logarithm of the luminosity, and the fraction of very low luminosity objects. We compare the models with bolometric luminosities observed in local star-forming regions and find that models with an approximately constant accretion time, such as the TC and CA models, appear to agree better with observation than those with a constant accretion rate, such as the IS model. We show that observations of the mean protostellar luminosity in these nearby regions of low-mass star formation suggest a mean star formation time of 0.3 ± 0.1 Myr. Such a timescale, together with some accretion that occurs non-radiatively and some that occurs in high-accretion, episodic bursts, resolves the classical "luminosity problem" in low-mass star formation, in which observed protostellar luminosities are significantly less than predicted. An accelerating star formation rate is one possible way of reconciling the observed star formation time and mean luminosity. Future observations will place tighter constraints on the observed luminosities, star formation time, and episodic accretion, enabling better discrimination between star formation models and clarifying the influence of variable accretion on the PLF.

Offner, Stella S. R.; McKee, Christopher F.

2011-07-01

422

Functional Derivatives of Polyisobutene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The methods of synthesis of isobutene polymers with end groups of different types are examined. It is shown that advances in the synthesis of these compounds are associated with the progress in the field of the regulation of the cationic polymerisation and copolymerisation of isobutene and the degradation of isobutene polymers and copolymers. Examples of the employment of functional derivatives of isobutene polymers in various branches of technology are presented. The bibliography includes 102 references.

Sangalov, Yu A.; Yasman, Yu B.

1985-07-01

423

Measuring Functional Cohesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the functional cohesion of proceduresusing a data slice abstraction. Our analysis identifiesthe data tokens that lie on more than one slice as the "glue"that binds separate components together. Cohesion is measuredin terms of the relative number of glue tokens, tokensthat lie on more than one data slice, and super-glue tokens,tokens that lie on all data slices in a

James M. Bieman; Linda M. Ott

1994-01-01

424

Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These project will explore the functionalization of carbon nanotubes via the formation of molecular complexes with perylene diimide based systems. It is anticipated that these complexes would be soluble in organic solvent and enable the homogenous dispersion of carbon nanotubes in polymer films. Molecular complexes will be prepared and characterized using standard spectroscopic and thermal analytical techniques. Polymer films will be prepared with these complexes and their properties (electrical and thermal conductivity, mechanical properties, stability) evaluated.

Webber, Stephen E.

2003-01-01

425

Executive Functioning in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

The executive function (EF) is a set of abilities, which allows us to invoke voluntary control of our behavioral responses. These functions enable human beings to develop and carry out plans, make up analogies, obey social rules, solve problems, adapt to unexpected circumstances, do many tasks simultaneously, and locate episodes in time and place. EF includes divided attention and sustained attention, working memory (WM), set-shifting, flexibility, planning, and the regulation of goal directed behavior and can be defined as a brain function underlying the human faculty to act or think not only in reaction to external events but also in relation with internal goals and states. EF is mostly associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). Besides EF, PFC is involved in self-regulation of behavior, i.e., the ability to regulate behavior according to internal goals and constraints, particularly in less structured situations. Self-regulation of behavior is subtended by ventral medial/orbital PFC. Impairment of EF is one of the most commonly observed deficits in schizophrenia through the various disease stages. Impairment in tasks measuring conceptualization, planning, cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency, ability to solve complex problems, and WM occur in schizophrenia. Disorders detected by executive tests are consistent with evidence from functional neuroimaging, which have shown PFC dysfunction in patients while performing these kinds of tasks. Schizophrenics also exhibit deficit in odor identifying, decision-making, and self-regulation of behavior suggesting dysfunction of the orbital PFC. However, impairment in executive tests is explained by dysfunction of prefronto-striato-thalamic, prefronto-parietal, and prefronto-temporal neural networks mainly. Disorders in EFs may be considered central facts with respect to schizophrenia and it has been suggested that negative symptoms may be explained by that executive dysfunction.

Orellana, Gricel; Slachevsky, Andrea

2013-01-01

426

Functional tethered lipid bilayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our strategy to provide the structural basis for the build-up of functional tethered membranes focuses on three approaches: the first one is based on the pre-organization of a monomolecular layer of a lipopolymer at the water\\/air interface which is then transferred to a solid support. Prior to deposition, the substrate is coated with a layer of benzophenone-derivatized silane molecules that

W Knoll; C. W Frank; C Heibel; R Naumann; A Offenhäusser; J Rühe; E. K Schmidt; W. W Shen; A Sinner

2000-01-01

427

Vitamins in Mitochondrial Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamins are essential in metabolic reactions in the body as catalysts in enzymatic reactions or as coenzymes carrying chemical\\u000a groups between enzymes. Many vitamins function in enzyme complexes participating in mitochondrial respiration and energy production\\u000a or they are required for synthesis of mitochondrial respiratory chain components. Biosynthesis of the component of mitochondrial\\u000a respiratory chain, coenzyme Q, is dependent on vitamins

Jarmila Kucharská

428

Thyroid Function and Obesity  

PubMed Central

Important interaction exists between thyroid function, weight control, and obesity. Several mechanisms seem to be involved, and in studies of groups of people the pattern of thyroid function tests depends on the balance of obesity and underlying thyroid disease in the cohort studied. Obese people with a normal thyroid gland tend to have activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis with higher serum TSH and thyroid hormones in serum. On the other hand, small differences in thyroid function are associated with up to 5 kg difference in body weight. The weight loss after therapy of overt hypothyroidism is caused by excretion of water bound in tissues (myxoedema). Many patients treated for hyperthyroidism experience a gain of more weight than they lost during the active phase of the disease. The mechanism for this excessive weight gain has not been fully elucidated. New studies on the relation between L-T3 therapy and weight control are discussed. The interaction between weight control and therapy of thyroid disease is important to many patients and it should be studied in more detail.

Laurberg, Peter; Knudsen, Nils; Andersen, Stig; Carle, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bulow; Karmisholt, Jesper

2012-01-01

429

Mitochondria and Endothelial Function  

PubMed Central

In contrast to their role in other cell types with higher energy demands, mitochondria in endothelial cells primarily function in signaling cellular responses to environmental cues. This article provides an overview of key aspects of mitochondrial biology in endothelial cells, including subcellular location, biogenesis, dynamics, autophagy, ROS production and signaling, calcium homeostasis, regulated cell death, and heme biosynthesis. In each section, we introduce key concepts and then review studies showing the importance of that mechanism to endothelial control of vasomotor tone, angiogenesis, and inflammatory activation. We particularly highlight the small number of clinical and translational studies that have investigated each mechanism in human subjects. Finally, we review interventions that target different aspects of mitochondrial function and their effects on endothelial function. The ultimate goal of such research is the identification of new approaches for therapy. The reviewed studies make it clear that mitochondria are important in endothelial physiology and pathophysiology. A great deal of work will be needed, however, before mitochondria-directed therapies are available for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease.

Kluge, Matthew A.; Fetterman, Jessica L.; Vita, Joseph A.

2013-01-01

430

Functionalized Amorphous Aluminosilicates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alkali treated aluminosilicate (geopolymer) was functionalized by surfactant to increase the hydrophobicity for making Pickering emulsion for the first part of this work. In the first part of this study, alkali treated metakaolin was functionalized with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide ((C16H33)N(CH 3)3Br, CTAB). The electrostatic interaction between this quaternary ammonium and the surface of the aluminosilicate which has negative charge has taken place. The particles then were used to prepare Pickering emulsion. The resulting stable dispersions, obtained very fast at very simple conditions with low ratio of aluminosilicate to liquid phase. In the second part, the interaction between geopolymer and glycerol was studied to see the covalent grafting of the geopolymer for making geopolymer composite. The composite material would be the basis material to be used as support catalyst, thin coating reagent and flame retardant material and so on, Variety of techniques, Thermogravimetric (TGA), Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), FTIR, Solid state NMR, Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), BET surface area, Elemental analysis (CHN), TEM, SEM and Optical microscopy were used to characterize the functionalized geopolymer.

Mesgar, Milad

431

Development of Functional Foods  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in intestinal microbiota research are the background for the appearance of functional foods. Lactic fermentation products are included in the functional foods and classified into 3 groups based on their mechanisms of action: probiotics, prebiotics and biogenics. Probiotics are viable microorganisms, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, that beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal bacterial balance. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients, such as oligosaccharides and dietary fiber, that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth or activities of beneficial intestinal bacteria in the colon and thus improve the health of the hosts. Biogenics are biologically active peptides, including immunopotentiators (biological response modifier: BRM), plant flavonoids, etc. They act directly or indirectly through modulation of intestinal microbiota on the health of the hosts. Thus, functional foods enhance bioregulation such as stresses, appetite and absorption; biodefence, such as immunity and suppression of allergies; prevent diseases, including diarrhea, constipation, cancer, cholesterolemia and diabetes; and suppress aging through immunostimulation as well as suppression of mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, oxidation processes, intestinal putrefaction, and cholesterolemia.

MITSUOKA, Tomotari

2014-01-01

432

Development of functional foods.  

PubMed

Recent advances in intestinal microbiota research are the background for the appearance of functional foods. Lactic fermentation products are included in the functional foods and classified into 3 groups based on their mechanisms of action: probiotics, prebiotics and biogenics. Probiotics are viable microorganisms, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, that beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal bacterial balance. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients, such as oligosaccharides and dietary fiber, that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth or activities of beneficial intestinal bacteria in the colon and thus improve the health of the hosts. Biogenics are biologically active peptides, including immunopotentiators (biological response modifier: BRM), plant flavonoids, etc. They act directly or indirectly through modulation of intestinal microbiota on the health of the hosts. Thus, functional foods enhance bioregulation such as stresses, appetite and absorption; biodefence, such as immunity and suppression of allergies; prevent diseases, including diarrhea, constipation, cancer, cholesterolemia and diabetes; and suppress aging through immunostimulation as well as suppression of mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, oxidation processes, intestinal putrefaction, and cholesterolemia. PMID:25032085

Mitsuoka, Tomotari

2014-01-01

433

Surface Functionalized Nanocoax Biosensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have adapted the nanocoax array architecture for high sensitivity, all-electronic chemical and biological sensing. We previously demonstrated ppb concentration level detection sensitivity to volatile organic compounds in dry air using the nanocoax array with nanoporous coax annuli [1]. Here, we report progress toward modifying/functionalizing the coax metal surfaces to enable specific binding of target molecules (e.g. proteins, toxins, pathogenic organisms), followed by electronic interrogation via capacitance/impedance spectroscopy. As a proxy for target molecules, and in order to confirm the ability to selectively functionalize desired surfaces in our nanopillar / nanocoax geometry, we have selectively attached strepavidin-functionalized core-shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dots to gold nanopillars. Next steps will include substituting antibodies for the quantum dots, and measuring the capacitance and impedance response to the introduction of protein (PSA , CA-125, etc.) in serum. Ref. [1]: H.Z. Zhao, B. Rizal, G. McMahon, H. Wang, P. Dhakal, T. Kirkpatrick, Z.F. Ren, T.C. Chiles, D. Cai and M.J. Naughton (submitted).

Rizal, Binod; Archibald, Michelle; McMahon, Gregory; Erdman, Natasha; Shepard, Stephen; Burns, Michael J.; Chiles, Thomas C.; Naughton, Michael J.

2012-02-01

434

Weber functions and Weierstrass sigma function associated with Hecke operators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we investigate the action of the Hecke operators to families of Weber functions and the Weierstrass ?-function. We prove that the function of -?28+log?(12,?) is an eigenfunction (or eigenform) of the Hecke operator where ?2 is a variable depending on ? in definition of Weierstrass ?-function.

Aygunes, A. Ahmet

2012-09-01

435

Functional Transformation in Simplification of Multivalued Switching Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A concept of functional transformation of multivalued switching functions, used to obtain simplified implementations is presented. Given some function f, a transformed function g is generated from f by permuting some or all of the truth values. Then, implementing g and performing a reverse permutation, a simpler implementation for f is obtained. A P matrix technique is given to facilitate

ZVONKO G. VRANESIC; KHANDKER M. WALIUZZAMAN

1972-01-01

436

[Functional pathophysiology of consciousness].  

PubMed

Consciousness (Latin conscientia "moral conscience"), according to the English philosopher John Locke (1632-1704) [103], is the awareness of all that occurs in the mind of a person, whereas the American philosopher John Searle (2000) defined it as "inner qualitative, subjective states and processes of awareness". In modern science it is defined as a continuous state of full awareness of the Self and one's relationship to the external and internal environment, describing the degree of wakefulness in which an organism recognizes stimuli. This widely discussed biological term for complex neuronal processes that allow an individuum to recognize itself and its environment and to act accordingly, has been and still is the subject of much research in philosophy and natural/neuroscience. Its definition is often used for awareness and recognition, too. While the Egyptians in the papyrus Edwin Smith already recognized the brain as the seat of consciousness, René Descartes (1644 [36]) believed its special structure should be "a small gland in the middle", but the anatomical structures and physiological processes involved in consciousness were elucidated only in the middle of the 20th century. Neuronal substrates include several functional networks that are hierarchically organized and cooperate functionally. The lowest level is the mesencephalic formatio reticularis and its projections to the thalamus that were identified als ascending reticular system (ARAS) by the classical experiments of Moruzzi and Magoun, whereas later analyses of patients with impaired consciousness provided further insights. The mesencephalic ARAS as motor of the function of higher structures projects 1. via the reticular thalamus diffusely to the cortex, 2. via hypothalamus to the basal forebrain and limbic system, and 3. to the medial raphe of the brainstem and locus coeruleus and their diffuse cortical projections. The reticular system is stimulated directly and indirectly via numerous collaterals from important somatic and sensory pathways and acts as a control system of neuronal activities of the cerebral cortex. The principal function of the ARAS is to focus our alertness on specific stimuli or internal processes, which run via complex neuronal cell groups and numerous neurotransmitters that influence various aspects of consciousness and wakefulness. Stimulation of the ARAS produces an arousal reaction as the electric correlate of consciousness; its destruction causes coma and related states. The highest level are cortical (prefrontal and association) networks for recognition, motor activity, longterm memory and attention, the left hemisphere being considered as the dominant one. Different levels of consciousness are distinguished: 1. hyperalertness, 2. alertness (normal state of wakefulness), 3. somnolence or lethargy, 4. obtundation with tendency to fall asleep, 5. stupor, 6. coma and its subtypes, like akinetic mutism, apallic syndrome or persistent vegative state, locked-in syndrome, delirium, and catatonia. They are caused by damages in various functional levels of the brain, by psychogenic factors or experimentally, and are accompanied by characteristic neurological and psychiatric disorders. The relevant morphological lesions can be detected by electrophysiological and imaging studies. The bases of functional anatomy and pathophysiology of consciousness, its cognitive aspects and its major disorders, their causes and functional substrates with reference to sleep and both spontaneous and iatrogenic disorders of consciousness are critically summarized. PMID:19573504

Jellinger, Kurt A

2009-01-01

437

NIST Handbook of Mathematical Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern developments in theoretical and applied science depend on knowledge of the properties of mathematical functions, from elementary trigonometric functions to the multitude of special functions. These functions appear whenever natural phenomena are studied, engineering problems are formulated, and numerical simulations are per- formed. They also crop up in statistics, financial models, and economic analysis. Using them effectively requires practitioners

Frank W. J. Olver; Daniel W. Lozier; Ronald F. Boisvert

2010-01-01

438

Survey of Neural Transfer Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choice of transfer functions may strongly influence complexity and performance of neural networks.Although sigmoidal transfer functions are the most common there is no apriorireason why models basedon such functions should always provide optimal decision borders. A large number of alternative transferfunctions has been described in the literature. A taxonomy of activation and output functions is proposed,and advantages of various

Wlodzislaw Duch; Norbert Jankowski

1999-01-01

439

Soy isoflavones and cognitive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing interest in the physiological functions of soy isoflavones, especially in whether they affect cognitive function and have beneficial effects on neurodegenerative diseases. Here we review the recent evidence from clinical and experimental studies supporting a role for soy isoflavones in cognitive function. Soy isoflavones may mimic the actions and functions of estrogens on brain, and they have

Yoon-Bok Lee; Hyong Joo Lee; Heon Soo Sohn

2005-01-01

440

Functional Analysis in Behavioral Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavior therapists must often design treatments for individual patients who present with a wide array of psychophysiological disorders and health problems. The functional analysis and functional analytic causal modeling is a learning-based, empirically focused assessment technique used to systematically gather, integrate, and summarize information about the form and function of a patient’s symptoms. A functional analytic case model can be

William H. O’Brien; Victoria Carhart

2011-01-01

441

Spatial characterization of landscape functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little information available on the spatial variation of landscape functions. We developed a methodological framework to map and quantify landscape functions depending on the availability of spatial information. In this framework three different methods were proposed (1) linking landscape functions to land cover or policy defined areas, (2) assessing landscape functions with empirical models using spatial indicators and

Louise Willemen; Peter H. Verburg; Lars Hein; Martinus E. F. van Mensvoort

2008-01-01

442

Functional DNA Nanomaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of DNA helical structure opened the door of modern molecular biology. Ned Seeman utilized DNA as building block to construct different nanoscale materials, and introduced a new field, know as DNA nanotechnology. After several decades of development, different DNA structures had been created, with different dimension, different morphology and even with complex curvatures. In addition, after construction of enough amounts DNA structure candidates, DNA structure template, with excellent spatial addressability, had been used to direct the assembly of different nanomaterials, including nanoparticles and proteins, to produce different functional nanomaterials. However there are still many challenges to fabricate functional DNA nanostructures. The first difficulty is that the present finite sized template dimension is still very small, usually smaller than 100nm, which will limit the application for large amount of nanomaterials assembly or large sized nanomaterials assembly. Here we tried to solve this problem through developing a new method, superorigami, to construct finite sized DNA structure with much larger dimension, which can be as large as 500nm. The second problem will be explored the ability of DNA structure to assemble inorganic nanomaterials for novel photonic or electronic properties. Here we tried to utilize DNA Origami method to assemble AuNPs with controlled 3D spacial position for possible chiral photonic complex. We also tried to assemble SWNT with discrete length for possible field effect transistor device. In addition, we tried to mimic in vivo compartment with DNA structure to study internalized enzyme behavior. From our results, constructed DNA cage origami can protect encapsulated enzyme from degradation, and internalized enzyme activity can be boosted for up to 10 folds. In summary, DNA structure can serve as an ideal template for construction of functional nanomaterials with lots of possibilities to be explored.

Zhao, Zhao

443

Bioinspired, functional nanoscale materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functional nanomaterials in nature exhibit many unique functions and optical and mechanical properties. Examples of this include the dry adhesion of a gecko's foot, the reduced drag on a shark's skin, the high strength and toughness of nacre, and the superhydrophobic self-cleaning of a lotus leaf. This dissertation is devoted to creating unique and enhanced properties by mimicking such functional materials. We have developed a novel self-pumping membrane, which does not require an applied voltage. The self-pumping membrane harvests chemical energy from a surrounding fluid and uses it for accelerated mass transport across the membrane. A device such as this has promising applications in implantable or remotely operating autonomous devices and membrane-based purification systems. Reproducible and highly active surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates were developed using a bottom-up self-assembly technology. With their high sensitivity and good reproducibility, the developed nanostructures (gold nanoparticle and nanohole arrays) as SERS substrates are very promising for applications such as ultra-sensitive detectors for chemicals and reproducible sensors for chemical and biological molecules. Binary colloidal crystals were created using a simple, fast, and scalable spin-coating technology. Although further investigation of the procedure is needed to improve the ordering of particles in the individual layers, the developed assembly technology has a promising outlook in applications such as optical integrated circuits and high-speed optical computing. Inorganic-organic nanocomposites were realized by assembling synthesized gibbsite nanoplatelets using the electrophoretic deposition and infiltration of a monomer followed by polymerization. Via surface modifications of gibbsite nanoplatelets, nanocomposites were further reinforced with covalent linkages between the inorganic platelets and organic matrix.

Jun, In-Kook

444

Graphs and Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn about NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), Earth's van Allen Radiation Belts, and space weather through reading a NASA press release and viewing a NASA eClips video segment. Then students will use simple linear functions to examine the scale of the radiation belts and the strength of Earth's magnetic field. This activity is part of the Space Math multimedia modules that integrate NASA press releases, NASA archival video, and mathematics problems targeted at specific math standards commonly encountered in middle school textbooks. The modules cover specific math topics at multiple levels of difficulty with real-world data and use the 5E instructional sequence.

445

Stress and adrenal function.  

PubMed

The natural environment is composed of various potentially hostile stressors. It is a basic requirement of life that the cells of an organism must be maintained within closely defined physiological limits. The maintenance of a constant interior mileu results from physiological and behavioural homeostatic adaptations. The physiological regulation of homeostatis is achieved by complex endocrine interactions, principally by the hormones secreted from the adrenal glands. In this brief review the responses of the avian adrenal glands to stressful stimuli, the mechanism of adrenal activation, and the function of the adrenal responses will be considered. PMID:6097634

Harvey, S; Phillips, J G; Rees, A; Hall, T R

1984-12-01

446

Compositional Belief Function Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Analogously to Graphical Markov models, also Compositional,models,serve as an,efficient tool for multidi- mensional,models,representation. The main,idea of the latter models,resembles,a jig saw puzzle: Multidimensional,models,are assembled (composed) from a large number of small pieces, from a large number,of low-dimensional,models. Originally they were designed,to represent multidimensional,probability distributions. In this paper,they will be used,to represent,multidimensional belief functions (or more precisely, multidimensional basic belief assignments)

Radim Jirousek

2008-01-01

447

Chemically functionalized surface patterning.  

PubMed

Patterning substrates with versatile chemical functionalities from micro- to nanometer scale is a long-standing and interesting topic. This review provides an overview of a range of techniques commonly used for surface patterning. The first section briefly introduces conventional micropatterning tools, such as photolithography and microcontact printing. The second section focuses on the currently used nanolithographic techniques, for example, scanning probe lithography (SPL), and their applications in surface patterning. Their advantages and disadvantages are also demonstrated. In the last section, dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) is emphatically illustrated, with a particular stress on the patterning and applications of biomolecules. PMID:21678549

Zhou, Xiaozhu; Boey, Freddy; Huo, Fengwei; Huang, Ling; Zhang, Hua

2011-08-22

448

ADAM function in embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

Cleavage of proteins inserted into the plasma membrane (shedding) is an essential process controlling many biological functions including cell signaling, cell adhesion and migration as well as proliferation and differentiation. ADAM surface metalloproteases have been shown to play an essential role in these processes. Gene inactivation during embryonic development have provided evidence of the central role of ADAM proteins in nematodes, flies, frogs, birds and mammals. The relative contribution of four subfamilies of ADAM proteins to developmental processes is the focus of this review.

Alfandari, Dominique; McCusker, Catherine; Cousin, Helene

2009-01-01

449

Fragmentation Functions at Babar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inclusive hadron production cross section in e+e- annihilation shed light on fundamental questions of hadronization and fragmentation processes. We present measurements of inclusive spectra of charged pions, kaons, and protons (antiprotons) produced in e+e- collisions at the center-of-mass energy of 10.54 GeV, and tests of QCD predictions and hadronization models. We also report the results on the measurement of the azimuthal modulation induced by the Collins effect in inclusive production of charged pion pairs e+e- ? ??X, where the two pions are produced in opposite hemispheres. These data allows the determination of the polarized Collins fragmentation functions.

Garzia, Isabella

2014-01-01

450

The Broadening Functions Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Essential assumptions and features of the Broadening Function (BF) technique are presented. A distinction between BF determination and the BF concept and utilization is made. The BF's can be determined in various ways. The approach based on linear deconvolution involving stellar templates, as used during the DDO program (1999 - 2008) is described, but the LSD technique would also give excellent results. The BF concept to prove and/or verify photometric light-curve solutions has so far been very limited to only a few W UMa-type binaries, with AW UMa giving particularly unexpected results.

Rucinski, Slavek M.

2012-04-01

451

Conventional myosins – unconventional functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the discovery of unconventional myosins raised expectations that their actions were responsible for most aspects of\\u000a actin-based cell motility, few anticipated the wide range of cellular functions that would remain the purview of conventional\\u000a two-headed myosins. The three nonsarcomeric, cellular myosins—M2A, M2B and M2C—participate in diverse roles including, but\\u000a not limited to: neuronal dynamics, axon guidance and synaptic transmission;

Peter D. Chantler; Steven R. Wylie; Caroline P. Wheeler-Jones; Imelda M. McGonnell

2010-01-01

452

Functional Dyspepsia Today  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a disorder presenting with symptoms such as postprandial fullness, early satiety or epigastric pain. Although there is a 10 to 30% reported prevalence worldwide, there is currently no clear explanation of the pathophysiology behind this condition. Motility disorders, visceral hypersensitivity, acid disorders, Helicobacter pylori infection or psychosocial factors have all been reported to play a part in the pathophysiology of FD. The diagnosis of FD is one of exclusion, based on the Rome III criteria. The main therapeutic modalities include lifestyle changes, eradicating Helicobacter pylori infection and treatment with either proton pump inhibitors, prokinetics or antidepressants.

VOIOSU, Theodor Alexandru; GIURCAN, Roxana; VOIOSU, Andrei Mihai; VOIOSU, Mihail Radu

2013-01-01

453

Functional properties of vinegar.  

PubMed

A variety of natural vinegar products are found in civilizations around the world. A review of research on these fermented products indicates numerous reports of health benefits derived by consumption of vinegar components. Therapeutic effects of vinegar arising from consuming the inherent bioactive components including acetic acid, gallic acid, catechin, ephicatechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid cause antioxidative, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antitumor, antiobesity, antihypertensive, and cholesterol-lowering responses. The aims of this article are to discuss vinegar history, production, varieties, acetic acid bacteria, and functional properties of vinegars. PMID:24811350

Budak, Nilgün H; Aykin, Elif; Seydim, Atif C; Greene, Annel K; Guzel-Seydim, Zeynep B

2014-05-01

454

Cholesterol oxidase: physiological functions  

PubMed Central

An important aspect of catalysis by cholesterol oxidase (3?-hydroxysteroid oxidase) is the nature of its association with the lipid bilayer that contains the sterol substrate. Efficient catalytic turnover is affected by the association of the protein with the membrane as well as the solubility of the substrate in the lipid bilayer. In this review, the binding of cholesterol oxidase to the lipid bilayer, its turnover of substrates presented in different physical environments, and how these conditions affect substrate specificity are discussed. The physiological functions of the enzyme in bacterial metabolism, pathogenesis, and macrolide biosynthesis are reviewed in this context.

Kreit, Joseph; Sampson, Nicole S.

2009-01-01

455

Functional imaging of craving.  

PubMed

To visualize brain activity associated with mental states, such as craving for alcohol and other drugs (AODs), researchers have begun to use functional imaging techniques. Three commonly used techniques are single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Studies using these three approaches have been reviewed in order to evaluate the validity of a proposed model of the brain regions involved in alcoholism and the craving for alcohol. This model suggests a central role for a connected group of brain regions that include the basal ganglia, thalamus, and orbital cortex. A study using SPECT technology in alcoholics, however, found altered brain activity in only some of those regions during craving. Additional studies in alcoholics, as well as cocaine users, identified several other brain regions whose activities appeared to change in response to craving. These studies have led to the development of a revised model of brain regions involved in craving for AODs. Numerous questions remain, however, that must be answered before the brain areas involved in craving can be identified conclusively. PMID:10890814

Hommer, D W

1999-01-01

456

[Dehydroepiandrosterone and brain functioning].  

PubMed

The adrenal glands synthesize dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate form (DHEAS) more intensively than they do other steroid hormones. Researchers are interested in these hormones for several reasons. Firstly, for some years they have been trying to find the reason for DHEA and DHEAS to be synthesized and present in the organism in such high concentrations. Secondly, their attention have been attracted by age-dependent regression of DHEA, which is strictly determined. Thirdly, despite longstanding efforts of scientists, the physiological role and spectrum of the biological activity of DHEA is still unclear. Evidence of that DHEA and DHEAS can be synthesized in situ in the brain tissue, received in rat experiments, urged researchers to clarify the role of these neurosteroids in the CNS. The presented review covers ways of neurosteroid synthesis, possible mechanisms of the regulation of these processes, and their dynamics under the condition of stress. The authors analyze experimental and clinical observations undertaken with a goal to clarify a possible role of DHEA in the manifestation of various brain functions. Special attention is payed to ambiguous results of modern studies, dedicated to replacement therapy of various disorders of CNS functioning (Alzheimer's disease, depression, age-specific memory impairment, sleep disturbance etc.) with DHEAS. PMID:16149434

Goncharov, N P; Katsiia, G V; Nizhnik, A N

2005-01-01

457

Oncosuppressive functions of autophagy.  

PubMed

Macroautophagy (herein referred to as autophagy) constitutes a phylogenetically old mechanism leading to the lysosomal degradation of cytoplasmic structures. At baseline levels, autophagy exerts homeostatic functions by ensuring the turnover of potentially harmful organelles and long-lived aggregate-prone proteins. Moreover, the autophagic flow can be dramatically upregulated in response to a plethora of stressful conditions, including glucose, amino acid, oxygen, or growth factor deprivation, accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, and invasion by intracellular pathogens. In some experimental settings, stress-induced autophagy has been shown to contribute to programmed cell death. Nevertheless, autophagy most often confers cytoprotection by providing cells with new metabolic substrates or by ridding them of noxious intracellular entities including protein aggregates and invading organisms. Thus, autophagy has been implicated in an ever-increasing number of human diseases including cancer. Autophagy inhibition accelerates the demise of tumor cells that are subjected to chemo- or radiotherapy, thereby constituting an interesting target for the development of anticancer strategies. However, several oncosuppressor proteins and oncoproteins have been recently shown to stimulate and inhibit the autophagic flow, respectively, suggesting that autophagy exerts bona fide tumor-suppressive functions. In this review, we will discuss the mechanisms by which autophagy may prevent oncogenesis. PMID:20712403

Morselli, Eugenia; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kepp, Oliver; Mariño, Guillermo; Michaud, Mickael; Vitale, Ilio; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Kroemer, Guido

2011-06-01

458

Fast functional MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What happens in a persons brain when they see a picture of somebody they recognize? Recognition takes place almost immediately. But where in the brain does it take place? Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is a technique which can be used to study mental activity in the brain. However as currently used, the temporal resolution of fMRI studies are too slow to answer such questions. To increase its usefulness, new methods of speeding up fMRI studies must be introduced. In this paper we discuss a method which improves the time resolution in fMRI. Using prior knowledge of the region of interest (ROI) and the time constraints we wish to obtain, the method tailors the k-space (Fourier space) sampling region and creates a matching prolate spheroidal wave function filter in order to maximize the energy concentration in the ROI. The method enables one, at high time resolution, to study the total activity over a pre-defined region of the brain. Thereby giving the opportunity to study the change in mental activity that occurs in that region, when a specific task is performed. This is a problem that, besides having a clear medical interest, also involves inter