These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

THE RATIONAL--TRANSCENDENTAL DICHOTOMY OF MAHLER FUNCTIONS  

E-print Network

THE RATIONAL--TRANSCENDENTAL DICHOTOMY OF MAHLER FUNCTIONS JASON P. BELL, MICHAEL COONS, AND ERIC approximation. Date: October 15, 2012. 1 #12; 2 JASON P. BELL, MICHAEL COONS, AND ERIC ROWLAND Focusing

Rowland, Eric

2

Arousal and reward: a dichotomy in orexin function  

E-print Network

. The treatment of addictions to drugs such as heroin and cocaine often fails, and a high percentage of addicts in reward processing and addiction. We propose that the current evidence indicates a dichotomy in orexin of addiction, occasional recreational use of drugs can expand into compulsive uncontrollable abuse of drugs

Aston-Jones, Gary

3

Neurocognitive Functioning in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: Clarifying Concepts of Diagnostic Dichotomy vs. Continuum  

PubMed Central

The Kraepelinian dichotomy posits that patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) present as two separate psychotic entities such that they differ in terms of clinical severity including neurocognitive functioning. Our study aimed to specifically compare and contrast the level of neurocognitive functioning between SCZ and BD patients and identify predictors of their poor neurocognitive functioning. We hypothesized that patients with SCZ had a similar level of neurocognitive impairment compared with BD. About 49 healthy controls (HC), 72 SCZ, and 42 BD patients who were matched for age, gender, and premorbid IQ were administered the Brief Assessment of Cognition battery (BAC). Severity of psychopathology and socio-occupational functioning were assessed for both patients groups. Both BD and SCZ groups demonstrated similar patterns of neurocognitive deficits across several domains (verbal memory, working memory, semantic fluency, processing speed) compared with HC subjects. However, no significant difference was found in neurocognitive functioning between BD and SCZ patients, suggesting that both patient groups suffer the same degree of neurocognitive impairment. Patients with lower level of psychosocial functioning [F(1,112)?=?2.661, p?=?0.009] and older age [F(1,112)?=??2.625, p?=?0.010], not diagnosis or doses of psychotropic medications, predicted poorer overall neurocognitive functioning as measured by the lower BAC composite score. Our findings of comparable neurocognitive impairments between SCZ and BD affirm our hypothesis and support less the Kraepelinian concept of dichotomy but more of a continuum of psychotic spectrum conditions. This should urge clinicians to investigate further the underlying neural basis of these neurocognitive deficits, and be attentive to the associated socio-demographic and clinical profile in order to recognize and optimize early the management of the widespread neurocognitive deficits in patients with SCZ and BD. PMID:24367337

Kuswanto, Carissa N.; Sum, Min Y.; Sim, Kang

2013-01-01

4

Dichotomy between Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Klebsiella pneumoniae on dendritic cell phenotype and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction of the intestinal immune system to intestinal bacteria shows striking differences between various bacterial strains. Whereas Klebsiella pneumoniae induces a fierce proinflammatory reaction, the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus has clear anti-inflammatory effect in gastrointestinal disease and allergy. The molecular basis for this dichotomy is poorly understood but is likely to involve different modulation of antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DC)

Henri Braat; Esther C. de Jong; Jan M. H. van den Brande; Martien L. Kapsenberg; Maikel P. Peppelenbosch; Eric A. F. van Tol; Sander J. H. van Deventer

2004-01-01

5

The dappled nature of causes of psychiatric illness: replacing the organic–functional/hardware–software dichotomy with empirically based pluralism  

PubMed Central

Our tendency to see the world of psychiatric illness in dichotomous and opposing terms has three major sources: the philosophy of Descartes, the state of neuropathology in late nineteenth century Europe (when disorders were divided into those with and without demonstrable pathology and labeled, respectively, organic and functional), and the influential concept of computer functionalism wherein the computer is viewed as a model for the human mind–brain system (brain = hardware, mind = software). These mutually re-enforcing dichotomies, which have had a pernicious influence on our field, make a clear prediction about how ‘difference-makers’ (aka causal risk factors) for psychiatric disorders should be distributed in nature. In particular, are psychiatric disorders like our laptops, which when they dysfunction, can be cleanly divided into those with software versus hardware problems? I propose 11 categories of difference-makers for psychiatric illness from molecular genetics through culture and review their distribution in schizophrenia, major depression and alcohol dependence. In no case do these distributions resemble that predicted by the organic–functional/hardware–software dichotomy. Instead, the causes of psychiatric illness are dappled, distributed widely across multiple categories. We should abandon Cartesian and computer-functionalism-based dichotomies as scientifically inadequate and an impediment to our ability to integrate the diverse information about psychiatric illness our research has produced. Empirically based pluralism provides a rigorous but dappled view of the etiology of psychiatric illness. Critically, it is based not on how we wish the world to be but how the difference-makers for psychiatric illness are in fact distributed. PMID:22230881

Kendler, KS

2012-01-01

6

Synaptic Mechanisms Underlying Functional Dichotomy between Intrinsic-Bursting and Regular-Spiking Neurons in Auditory Cortical Layer 5  

PubMed Central

Corticofugal projections from the primary auditory cortex (A1) have been shown to play a role in modulating subcortical processing. However, functional properties of the corticofugal neurons and their synaptic circuitry mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we performed in vivo whole-cell recordings from layer 5 (L5) pyramidal neurons in the rat A1 and found two distinct neuronal classes according to their functional properties. Intrinsic-bursting (IB) neurons, the L5 corticofugal neurons, exhibited early and rather unselective spike responses to a wide range of frequencies. The exceptionally broad spectral tuning of IB neurons was attributable to their broad excitatory inputs with long temporal durations and inhibitory inputs being more narrowly tuned than excitatory inputs. This uncommon pattern of excitatory–inhibitory interplay was attributed initially to a broad thalamocortical convergence onto IB neurons, which also receive temporally prolonged intracortical excitatory input as well as feedforward inhibitory input at least partially from more narrowly tuned fast-spiking inhibitory neurons. In contrast, regular-spiking neurons, which are mainly corticocortical, exhibited sharp frequency tuning similar to L4 pyramidal cells, underlying which are well-matched purely intracortical excitation and inhibition. The functional dichotomy among L5 pyramidal neurons suggests two distinct processing streams. The spectrally and temporally broad synaptic integration in IB neurons may ensure robust feedback signals to facilitate subcortical function and plasticity in a general manner. PMID:23516297

Sun, Yujiao J.; Kim, Young-Joo; Ibrahim, Leena A.; Tao, Huizhong W.; Zhang, Li I.

2013-01-01

7

Mechanistic and structural insight into the functional dichotomy between interleukin-2 and interleukin-15  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-15 (IL-15) and IL-2 possess distinct immunological functions despite both signaling through IL-2R? and the common cytokine receptor ?-chain, ?c, We find that in the IL-15—IL-15R?—IL-2R?—?c quaternary complex structure, IL-15 heterodimerizes IL-2R? and ?c identically to the IL-2—IL-2R?—IL-2R?—?c complex, despite differing receptor-binding chemistries. IL-15R? dramatically increases the affinity of IL-15 for IL-2R?, and this allostery is required for IL-15 trans-signaling versus IL-2 cis-signaling. Consistent with the identical IL-2R?—?c dimer geometry, IL-2 and IL-15 exhibited similar signaling properties in lymphocytes, with any differences resulting from disparate receptor affinities. Thus, IL-15 and IL-2 induce similar signals, and the cytokine-specificity of IL-2R? versus IL-15R? determines cellular responsiveness. These results provide important new insights for specific development of IL-15-versus IL-2-based immunotherapeutics. PMID:23104097

Ring, Aaron M.; Lin, Jian-Xin; Feng, Dan; Mitra, Suman; Rickert, Mathias; Bowman, Gregory R.; Pande, Vijay S.; Li, Peng; Moraga, Ignacio; Spolski, Rosanne; Özkan, Engin; Leonard, Warren J.; Garcia, K. Christopher

2012-01-01

8

THE BIMODAL GALAXY STELLAR MASS FUNCTION IN THE COSMOS SURVEY TO z approx 1: A STEEP FAINT END AND A NEW GALAXY DICHOTOMY  

SciTech Connect

We present a new analysis of stellar mass functions in the COSMOS field to fainter limits than has been previously probed at z <= 1. The increase in dynamic range reveals features in the shape of the stellar mass function that deviate from a single Schechter function. Neither the total nor the red (passive) or blue (star-forming) galaxy stellar mass functions can be well fitted with a single Schechter function once the mass completeness limit of the sample probes below approx3 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}. We observe a dip or plateau at masses approx10{sup 10} M{sub sun}, just below the traditional M*, and an upturn toward a steep faint-end slope of alpha approx -1.7 at lower mass at all redshifts <=1. This bimodal nature of the mass function is not solely a result of the blue/red dichotomy. Indeed, the blue mass function is by itself bimodal at z approx 1. This suggests a new dichotomy in galaxy formation that predates the appearance of the red sequence. We propose two interpretations for this bimodal distribution. If the gas fraction increases toward lower mass, galaxies with M{sub baryon} approx 10{sup 10} M{sub sun} would shift to lower stellar masses, creating the observed dip. This would indicate a change in star formation efficiency, perhaps linked to supernovae feedback becoming much more efficient below approx10{sup 10} M{sub sun}. Therefore, we investigate whether the dip is present in the baryonic (stars+gas) mass function. Alternatively, the dip could be created by an enhancement of the galaxy assembly rate at approx10{sup 11} M{sub sun}, a phenomenon that naturally arises if the baryon fraction peaks at M{sub halo} approx 10{sup 12} M{sub sun}. In this scenario, galaxies occupying the bump around M{sub *} would be identified with central galaxies and the second fainter component of the mass function having a steep faint-end slope with satellite galaxies. The low-mass end of the blue and total mass functions exhibit a steeper slope than has been detected in previous work that may increasingly approach the halo mass function value of -2. While the dip feature is apparent in the total mass function at all redshifts, it appears to shift from the blue to the red population, likely as a result of transforming high-mass blue galaxies into red ones. At the same time, we detect a drastic upturn in the number of low-mass red galaxies. Their increase with time seems to reflect a decrease in the number of blue systems and so we tentatively associate them with satellite dwarf (spheroidal) galaxies that have undergone quenching due to environmental processes.

Drory, N. [Max-Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Bundy, K. [Astronomy Department, 601 Campbell Hall, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Leauthaud, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Scoville, N.; Capak, P.; Salvato, M. [California Institute of Technology, MC 105-24, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ilbert, O.; Kneib, J. P. [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (UMR 6110), CNRS-Universite de Provence, BP 8, 13376 Marseille Cedex 12 (France); Kartaltepe, J. S. [NOAO, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); McCracken, H. J. [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Sanders, D. B. [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Thompson, D. [LBT Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Willott, C. J., E-mail: drory@mpe.mpg.d [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

2009-12-20

9

Medio-Lateral Postural Instability in Subjects with Tinnitus  

PubMed Central

Background: Many patients show modulation of tinnitus by gaze, jaw or neck movements, reflecting abnormal sensorimotor integration, and interaction between various inputs. Postural control is based on multi-sensory integration (visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and oculomotor) and indeed there is now evidence that posture can also be influenced by sound. Perhaps tinnitus influences posture similarly to external sound. This study examines the quality of postural performance in quiet stance in patients with modulated tinnitus. Methods: Twenty-three patients with highly modulated tinnitus were selected in the ENT service. Twelve reported exclusively or predominately left tinnitus, eight right, and three bilateral. Eighteen control subjects were also tested. Subjects were asked to fixate a target at 40?cm for 51?s; posturography was performed with the platform (Technoconcept, 40 Hz) for both the eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Results: For both conditions, tinnitus subjects showed abnormally high lateral body sway (SDx). This was corroborated by fast Fourrier Transformation (FFTx) and wavelet analysis. For patients with left tinnitus only, medio-lateral sway increased significantly when looking away from the center. Conclusion: Similarly to external sound stimulation, tinnitus could influence lateral sway by activating attention shift, and perhaps vestibular responses. Poor integration of sensorimotor signals is another possibility. Such abnormalities would be accentuated in left tinnitus because of the importance of the right cerebral cortex in processing both auditory–tinnitus eye position and attention. PMID:21647364

Kapoula, Zoi; Yang, Qing; Lê, Thanh-Thuan; Vernet, Marine; Berbey, Nolwenn; Orssaud, Christophe; Londero, Alain; Bonfils, Pierre

2011-01-01

10

The Angular Momentum Dichotomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of the formation of spiral galaxies the evolution and distribution of the angular momentum of dark matter halos have been discussed for more than 20 years, especially the idea that the specific angular momentum of the halo can be estimated from the specific angular momentum of its disk (e.g. Fall & Efstathiou (1980), Fall (1983) and Mo et al. (1998)). We use a new set of hydrodynamic cosmological simulations called Magneticum Pathfinder which allow us to split the galaxies into spheroidal and disk galaxies via the circularity parameter ?, as commonly used (e.g. Scannapieco et al. (2008)). Here, we focus on the dimensionless spin parameter ? = J |E|1/2 / (G M5/2) (Peebles 1969, 1971), which is a measure of the rotation of the total halo and can be fitted by a lognormal distribution, e.g. Mo et al. (1998). The spin parameter allows one to compare the relative angular momentum of halos across different masses and different times. Fig. 1 reveals a dichotomy in the distribution of ? at all redshifts when the galaxies are split into spheroids (dashed) and disk galaxies (dash-dotted). The disk galaxies preferentially live in halos with slightly larger spin parameter compared to spheroidal galaxies. Thus, we see that the ? of the whole halo reflects the morphology of its central galaxy. For more details and a larger study of the angular momentum properties of disk and spheroidal galaxies, see Teklu et al. (in prep.).

Teklu, Adelheid; Remus, Rhea-Silvia; Dolag, Klaus; Burkert, Andreas

2015-02-01

11

Hemispheres Apart: The Crustal Dichotomy on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hemispheric dichotomy is a fundamental feature of Mars, ex- pressed by a physiographic and geologic divide between the heavily cratered southern highlands and the relatively smooth plains of the northern lowlands. The origin of the dichotomy, which may have set the course for most of the subsequent geologic evolution of Mars, remains unclear. Internally driven models for the dichotomy

Thomas R. Watters; Patrick J. McGovern; Rossman P. Irwin III

2007-01-01

12

Numerische Bestimmung der mediolateralen Kraftverteilung in einem Numerical determination of the mediolateral force distribution in an  

E-print Network

on the stresses, in particular on the medio-lateral distribution of the total contact force. Figure 1 Placement was used to measure the ground reaction forces. At a recording fre- quency of 60 Hz one gait cycle amounted in the femur Figure 3 Total contact force and medio­lateral force distri- bution per time step tibia. To force

Kornhuber, Ralf

13

Light touch and medio-lateral postural stability during short distance gait.  

PubMed

While standing, light fingertip touch on an external stable object attenuates sway and improves balance in healthy adults as well as in individuals with poor postural control. The effect of light touch on balance during gait is, however, not well known. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to study the effects of light fingertip touch on balance during gait. We hypothesized that similar to its effect during stance light touch would increase postural stability. Forty healthy young adults were tested under four gait conditions: (1) eyes open (EO), (2) eyes closed (EC), (3) eyes closed while lightly touching a static object on the right side of the walking lane (ECLTS), (4) eyes closed while lightly touching a dynamic object, namely, a stick that was moved forwards by the subject with the right hand (ECLTD). The main outcome measure was medio-lateral step width variability, a well established indicator of gait balance in the medio-lateral plane. During the EC condition, light touch of an external static object (ECLTS) decreased medio-lateral variability (i.e., balance improved); however, this stabilizing effect was not observed with light touch on the stick. The availability of self positional and spatial cues when touching a static external reference, and their absence when touching a stick that is moved forwards by the subject as he walks, can explain the different effects of light touch in the ECLTS vs the ECLTD gait conditions. PMID:25450148

Kodesh, E; Falash, F; Sprecher, E; Dickstein, R

2015-01-01

14

Does mediolateral episiotomy decrease central defects of the anterior vaginal wall?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  This retrospective study investigates the effects of mediolateral episiotomy on the pelvic floor.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Premenopausal women suffering from urinary incontinence\\/genital prolapse who delivered only by vaginal route were enrolled\\u000a into the study. History of diabetes, morbid obesity (BMI > 40 kg\\/m2), vacuum\\/forceps extraction, perineal lacerations that warranted repair during labor and any pelvic surgery were the exclusion\\u000a criteria. Evaluation of the patients included pelvic

Cetin Cam; Mehmet Resit Asoglu; Selcuk Selcuk; Turan Aran; Niyazi Tug; Ates Karateke

15

Femoral loading mechanics in the Virginia opossum, Didelphis virginiana: torsion and mediolateral bending in mammalian locomotion.  

PubMed

Studies of limb bone loading in terrestrial mammals have typically found anteroposterior bending to be the primary loading regime, with torsion contributing minimally. However, previous studies have focused on large, cursorial eutherian species in which the limbs are held essentially upright. Recent in vivo strain data from the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), a marsupial that uses a crouched rather than an upright limb posture, have indicated that its femur experiences appreciable torsion during locomotion as well as strong mediolateral bending. The elevated femoral torsion and strong mediolateral bending observed in D. virginiana might result from external forces such as a medial inclination of the ground reaction force (GRF), internal forces deriving from a crouched limb posture, or a combination of these factors. To evaluate the mechanism underlying the loading regime of opossum femora, we filmed D. virginiana running over a force platform, allowing us to measure the magnitude of the GRF and its three-dimensional orientation relative to the limb, facilitating estimates of limb bone stresses. This three-dimensional analysis also allows evaluations of muscular forces, particularly those of hip adductor muscles, in the appropriate anatomical plane to a greater degree than previous two-dimensional analyses. At peak GRF and stress magnitudes, the GRF is oriented nearly vertically, inducing a strong abductor moment at the hip that is countered by adductor muscles on the medial aspect of the femur that place this surface in compression and induce mediolateral bending, corroborating and explaining loading patterns that were identified in strain analyses. The crouched orientation of the femur during stance in opossums also contributes to levels of femoral torsion as high as those seen in many reptilian taxa. Femoral safety factors were as high as those of non-avian reptiles and greater than those of upright, cursorial mammals, primarily because the load magnitudes experienced by opossums are lower than those of most mammals. Thus, the evolutionary transition from crouched to upright posture in mammalian ancestors may have been accompanied by an increase in limb bone load magnitudes. PMID:21957109

Gosnell, W Casey; Butcher, Michael T; Maie, Takashi; Blob, Richard W

2011-10-15

16

Centre of pressure or centre of mass feedback in mediolateral balance assessment.  

PubMed

The mediolateral balance assessment method (MELBA) consists of tracking a sinusoidal or multisine target with the center of pressure as feedback (CoPfb). The aim of the CoP trajectory is to elicit weight-shifting, i.e. movement of the center of mass (CoM). However, it is not known whether CoPfb elicits consistent mediolateral displacements of the CoM, whether CoM feedback (CoMfb) is required to achieve this and whether CoPfb or CoMfb elicit different kinematic strategies. The aims of this study were to determine (1) the extent to which CoP imposes CoM displacements (CoMd) during CoPfb, (2) whether larger CoMd are elicited by CoMfb and (3) whether different kinematic strategies arise when using CoPfb or CoMfb. Nineteen young adults performed MELBA with CoPfb and CoMfb from which coherence, gain and phase-shift between CoP-CoM and leg-trunk kinematics were calculated. CoMd and CoPd and leg and trunk excursions were also calculated. Results show that for CoPfb tasks, CoP-CoM coherence was high, while the gain dropped with increasing frequency. The drop in gain was highly consistent between subjects. Reasonable trunk-leg coherence (?.6) was found over all frequencies and tasks. The leg-trunk angle gain increased with frequency in all tasks and was significantly higher in the CoMfb compared to the CoPfb. Significant interaction indicated that this difference increased with frequency. CoPfb in MELBA elicits consistent CoMd. However, different kinematics are employed in CoMfb with more trunk movement and an ankle-to-hip shift as frequency increases. Hence CoMfb may be preferable over CoPfb despite the larger measurement effort involved. PMID:25547025

Cofré Lizama, L Eduardo; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Reeves, N Peter; Verschueren, Sabine M; van Dieën, Jaap H

2015-02-01

17

Visual areas PPA and pSTS diverge from other processing modules during perceptual closure: functional dichotomies within category selective networks.  

PubMed

The nature of neural processing within category-preferring visual networks remains an open topic in human neuroscience. Although the topography of face, scene, and object-preferring modules in the human brain is well established, the functional characterization, in terms of dynamic selectivity across their nodes is still elusive. Here, we use long trials of perceptually impoverished images of faces and objects to assess the dynamics of BOLD activity and selectivity induced by perceptual closure within these regions of interest. Departing from paradigms involving immediate percepts, we used ambiguous images favoring holistic search and independence from low level stimulus properties. By assessing the neural responses to images that go beyond the preferred category of the studied ROIs we could dissect the specificity of these processes as a function of the timing of perceptual closure and contribute to the debate regarding specialization of these modules. We found that pSTS is a notable exception to the observation that category selective high-level visual areas also participate on the perceptual closure of their non-preferred category. A similar observation was found for PPA responses to faces. Most importantly, these observations directly link the pSTS region with the social processing network, which cannot be engaged by object stimuli. PMID:24949555

Rebola, José; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

2014-08-01

18

Reconceptualizing the Native/Nonnative Speaker Dichotomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reconceptualizes the native/nonnative dichotomy and provides a powerful lens to examine linguistic identities. In a study of 25 linguistically diverse teacher candidates in Canada, the respondents' native and nonnative self-ascription and self-assessed level of proficiency was juxtaposed with the judgment of their instructors. This…

Faez, Farahnaz

2011-01-01

19

The End of a Chemical Dichotomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organic v inorganic dichotomy in chemistry has begun to disappear while a new formal research discipline, bioinorganic chemistry, is emerging. The field has been developed with the realization that a third of all proteins and bioenzymes contain an inorganic element such as a metal critical to their chemical nature. (Author/RE)

MOSAIC, 1980

1980-01-01

20

Challenging the Traditional/Communicative Dichotomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary aim of this paper is to explore a common dichotomy that characterizes debate about what has come to be termed "appropriate methodology". It is that between "traditional" and "communicative" approaches to language teaching, a distinction that persists despite arguments by some that the term "communicative" should be superseded or even…

Beaumont, Mike; Chang, Kyung-Suk

2011-01-01

21

Effect of Running Speed and Leg Prostheses on Mediolateral Foot Placement and Its Variability  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effects of speed and leg prostheses on mediolateral (ML) foot placement and its variability in sprinters with and without transtibial amputations. We hypothesized that ML foot placement variability would: 1. increase with running speed up to maximum speed and 2. be symmetrical between the legs of non-amputee sprinters but asymmetrically greater for the affected leg of sprinters with a unilateral transtibial amputation. We measured the midline of the body (kinematic data) and center of pressure (kinetic data) in the ML direction while 12 non-amputee sprinters and 7 Paralympic sprinters with transtibial amputations (6 unilateral, 1 bilateral) ran across a range of speeds up to maximum speed on a high-speed force measuring treadmill. We quantified ML foot placement relative to the body’s midline and its variability. We interpret our results with respect to a hypothesized relation between ML foot placement variability and lateral balance. We infer that greater ML foot placement variability indicates greater challenges with maintaining lateral balance. In non-amputee sprinters, ML foot placement variability for each leg increased substantially and symmetrically across speed. In sprinters with a unilateral amputation, ML foot placement variability for the affected and unaffected leg also increased substantially, but was asymmetric across speeds. In general, ML foot placement variability for sprinters with a unilateral amputation was within the range observed in non-amputee sprinters. For the sprinter with bilateral amputations, both affected legs exhibited the greatest increase in ML foot placement variability with speed. Overall, we find that maintaining lateral balance becomes increasingly challenging at faster speeds up to maximum speed but was equally challenging for sprinters with and without a unilateral transtibial amputation. Finally, when compared to all other sprinters in our subject pool, maintaining lateral balance appears to be the most challenging for the Paralympic sprinter with bilateral transtibial amputations. PMID:25590634

Arellano, Christopher J.; McDermott, William J.; Kram, Rodger; Grabowski, Alena M.

2015-01-01

22

Axial elongation in mouse embryos involves mediolateral cell intercalation behavior in the paraxial mesoderm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cell mechanical and signaling pathways involved in gastrulation have been studied extensively in invertebrates and amphibians, such as Xenopus, and more recently in non-mammalian vertebrates such as zebrafish and chick. However, because culturing mouse embryos extra-utero is very difficult, this fundamental process has been least characterized in the mouse. As the primary mammalian model for genetics, biochemistry, and the study of human disease and birth defects, it is important to investigate how gastrulation proceeds in murine embryos. We have developed a method of using 4D multiphoton excitation microscopy and extra-utero culture to visualize and characterize the morphogenetic movements in mouse embryos dissected at 8.5 days of gestation. Cells are labeled by expression of an X chromosome-linked enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgene. This method has provided a unique approach, where, for the first time, patterns of cell behavior in the notochord and surrounding paraxial mesoderm can be visualized and traced quantitatively. Our observations of mouse embryos reveal both distinct differences as well as striking similarities in patterned cell motility relative to other vertebrate models such as Xenopus, where axial extension is driven primarily by mediolateral oriented cell behaviors in the notochord and paraxial somitic mesoderm. Unlike Xenopus, the width of the mouse notochord remains the same between 4-somite stage and 8-somite stage embryos. This implies the mouse notochord plays a lesser role in driving axial extension compared to Xenopus, although intercalation may occur where the anterior region of the node becomes notochordal plate. In contrast, the width of mouse paraxial mesoderm narrows significantly during this period and cells within the paraxial mesoderm are both elongated and aligned perpendicular to the midline. In addition, these cells are observed to intercalate, consistent with a role for paraxial mesoderm in driving convergence and extension. These cell behaviors are similar to those characterized in the axial mesoderm of frog embryos during convergence and extension[1], and suggests that tissues may play different roles in axial elongation between the frog and the mouse.

Yen, WeiWei; Burdsal, Carol; Periasamy, Ammasi; Sutherland, Ann E.

2006-02-01

23

The kraepelinian dichotomy viewed by neuroimaging.  

PubMed

The Kraepelinian dichotomy between schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) is being challenged by recent epidemiological and biological studies. We performed a comparative review of neuroimaging features in both conditions at several scales: whole-brain and regional volumes, brain activity, connectivity, and networks. Structural volumetric neuroimaging studies suggest a common pattern of volume decreases, but networks studies reveal a clearer distinction between BD and SZ with an altered connectivity generalized to all brain networks in SZ and restricted to limbic, paralimbic, and interhemispheric networks in BD. PMID:25533269

d'Albis, Marc-Antoine; Houenou, Josselin

2015-03-01

24

Dichotomies in Music Education--Real or Unreal?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this keynote, the author discusses dichotomies having to do with: (1) technology/digital proponents versus non-technology/analogue proponents; (2) a formal/formalist position versus an informal/informalist position; and (3) educator/teacher views versus artist/musician views. The author often wonders what the essence of these dichotomies are,…

Espeland, Magne

2010-01-01

25

The Biological Implausibility of the Nature-Nurture Dichotomy and What It Means for the Study of Infancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the time of the Greeks, philosophers and scientists have wondered about the origins of structure and function. Plato proposed that the origins of structure and function lie in the organism's nature whereas Aristotle proposed that they lie in its nurture. This nature-nurture dichotomy and the emphasis on the origins question has had a…

Lewkowicz, David J.

2011-01-01

26

Neither dichotomies nor dualisms; simply genesis.  

PubMed

Our starting point is an article by Uchoa Angela Branco published in 2009 in Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Sciences (vol. 43, pp. 350-355) and titled "Why Dichotomies can be Misleading while Dualities Fit the Analysis of Complex Phenomena". She criticizes the dualist uses of the distinction between subject and object, or between subjectivist and objectivist perspectives. However we subscribe to the criticism, we argue that some kind of distinction between objectual and subjectual realities is neccesary. Our argument is grounded on the classic constructivist Psychology, especially that of James Mark Baldwin's genetic logic. We assess two theoretical perspectives -the systemic and the structuralist ones- that, in our view, are at risk of falling into objectivism because they tend to reduce subjectual activity to objectivistic or formalistic kinds of explanation. Based on a critical recovery of some ideas of the French philosopher Michel Serres, we propose that subjects and objects must be understood as interpenetrated realities in perpetual construction. PMID:22350852

Loredo-Narciandi, José C; Sánchez-González, José C

2012-09-01

27

Random graphs: structural-contextual dichotomy.  

PubMed

A formal definition of random graphs is introduced which is applicable to graphical pattern recognition problems. The definition is used to formulate rigorously the structural-contextual dichotomy of random graphs. The probability of outcome graphs is expressed as the product of two terms, one due to the statistical variability of structure among the outcome graphs and the other due to their contextual variability. Expressions are obtained to estimate the various probability, typicality, and entropy measures. The members in an ensemble of signed digraphs are interpreted as outcome graphs of a random graph. The synthesized random graph is used to quantify the structural, contextual, and overall typicality of the outcome graphs with respect to the random graph. PMID:21868910

Wong, A K; Ghahraman, D E

1980-04-01

28

Kinetic measures of restabilisation during volitional stepping reveal age-related alterations in the control of mediolateral dynamic stability.  

PubMed

Research examining age-related changes in dynamic stability during stepping has recognised the importance of the restabilisation phase, subsequent to foot-contact. While regulation of the net ground reaction force (GRFnet) line of action is believed to influence dynamic stability during steady-state locomotion, such control during restabilisation remains unknown. This work explored the origins of age-related decline in mediolateral dynamic stability by examining the line of action of GRFnet relative to the centre of mass (COM) during restabilisation following voluntary stepping. Healthy younger and older adults (n=20 per group) performed three single-step tasks (varying speed and step placement), altering the challenge to stability control. Age-related differences in magnitude and intertrial variability of the angle of divergence of GRFnet line of action relative to the COM were quantified, along with the peak mediolateral and vertical GRFnet components. The angle of divergence was further examined at discrete points during restabilisation, to uncover events of potential importance to stability control. Older adults exhibited a reduced angle of divergence throughout restabilisation. Temporal and spatial constraints on stepping increased the magnitude and intertrial variability of the angle of divergence, although not differentially among the older adults. Analysis of the time-varying angle of divergence revealed age-related reductions in magnitude, with increases in timing and intertrial timing variability during the later phase of restabilisation. This work further supports the idea that age-related challenges in lateral stability control emerge during restabilisation. Age-related alterations during the later phase of restabilisation may signify challenges with reactive control. PMID:25262875

Singer, Jonathan C; McIlroy, William E; Prentice, Stephen D

2014-11-01

29

Impact origin for the Martian crustal dichotomy: Half emptied or half filled?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One possible mechanism for Martian hemispherical dichotomy formation is excavation of the northern lowland basin in the existing crust by a single giant impact. Here we explore a related scenario in which the impact melt volume is sufficient to fill the excavated cavity, produce a thickened crust, and generate a topographic basin centered on the opposite side of the planet. We investigate this mechanism by formulating a model for viscous spreading of a partially molten layer over a spherical surface. We derive numerical solutions and calculate the final area of the spreading layer as a function of impactor size and shape of the layer boundary due to an initially asymmetric melt region. Results are compared with observations, including lowland basin size, shape of the dichotomy boundary, age difference between crustal provinces, and crustal thickness.

Reese, C. C.; Orth, C. P.; Solomatov, V. S.

2010-05-01

30

Constraints on Early Mars Evolution and Dichotomy Origin from Relaxation Modeling of Dichotomy Boundary in the Ismenius Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Martian dichotomy is a global feature separating the northern and southern hemispheres. The 3.5 - 4 Gyr old feature is manifested by a topographic difference of 2-6 km and crustal thickness difference of approx. 15 - 30 km between the two hemispheres. In the Ismenius region, sections of the boundary are characterized by a single scarp with a slope of approx. 20 deg. - 23 deg. and are believed to be among the most well preserved parts of the dichotomy boundary. The origin of the dichotomy is unknown. Endogenic hypotheses do not predict the steep slopes (scarps) of the dichotomy boundary. Exogenic models for forming the northern lowlands by impact cratering, associate the scarps along the dichotomy boundary with craters' rims, but are not globally consistent with the topography and gravity. In order to better understand the origin of the Martian dichotomy, it is necessary to know if the steep scarps along the boundary represent the original shape of the dichotomy. Smrekar et al. presented evidence showing that the boundary scarp in Ismenius is a fault along which the highland crust was down faulted. We test whether the relaxation process could produce faulting along the dichotomy boundary and examine the crustal and mantle conditions that would allow for faulting to occur within 1 Gyr and preserve the long wavelength topography over another 3 Gyr. We approach the problem by a combination of numerical and semi-analytical modeling. We test different viscosity profiles and crustal thicknesses by comparing our modeled magnitude, location and timing of plastic strain and displacements to detailed geologic observations in the Ismenius region.

Guest, A.; Smrekar, S. E.

2004-01-01

31

Dawn: Testing Paradigms by Exploring Dichotomies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA’s Dawn mission represents a series of “firsts” for major NASA missions. Dawn is the first major NASA science mission to use ion propulsion engines, allowing Dawn to be the first mission to orbit one target and then leave its gravity well to explore a second destination. Dawn is the first science mission to the main asteroid belt, reaching protoplanet Vesta in summer 2011, and will be the first mission to reach a “dwarf planet” when it arrives at Ceres in 2015. By targeting both Vesta and Ceres, Dawn explores two intriguing dichotomies in the solar system, that of the dry rocky planets and the wet icy bodies (Fire and Ice) and the dichotomy between planets and asteroids. Is there a clear dividing line here? Vesta, the second most massive asteroid, is a protoplanet: a round, mostly intact asteroid that bears more resemblance to a planet than to smaller asteroids. Vesta is also the likely parent body of the HED meteorites that richly populate Earth’s meteorite collections. It is possible to hold a piece of Vesta in your hands. From the HED meteorites, scientists have learned the Vesta is one of few differentiated asteroids. And from its spectrum, rich in basaltic minerals, it is known to be much like a mini-version of Earth’s Moon and Mercury. Vesta’s surface once was home to floods of lava not unlike those found still today on the Earth. Vesta is very similar to a terrestrial planet. Ceres is the giant of the asteroid belt with a hydrostatic shape that earns it a dwarf planet classification. Like its larger cousins, Ceres’ round shape suggests that the body may be differentiated, but due to its low density, Ceres’ interior is more like an icy moon of Jupiter. Beneath a relatively thin clay veneer probably lies an ice-rich mantle and rocky core, and even possibly a liquid ocean. With such enticing questions posed for Vesta and Ceres, Dawn will enable scientists and the public alike to explore how planets were born, how fire and ice have shaped the solar system, and have a chance to push the boundaries of our own classification system. Dawn’s set of instrumentation, with cameras, a visible and infrared spectrometer, a gamma ray and neutron detector and radio science, will produce a wealth of information about two previously unexplored, diverse and yet somehow familiar worlds. Communication of the lessons learned by Dawn from the scientists to the public has and will occur over a range of interfaces, including a series of online activities such as Find a Meteorite, Clickworkers and a simulation of an ion engine. Other activities include Dawn “Science of the Day” archives, fun family activities and games as well as classroom materials and outreach events. Since the two bodies are the brightest sources in the main belt, an integral part of Dawn’s journey has been the integration of amateur and “backyard” astronomers. All these activities allow us to share the science with the public. Dawn arrives at Vesta in the middle of the Year of the Solar System in July 2011 and will depart for Ceres as the YSS ends.

Russell, C. T.; Schmidt, B. E.; Wise, J.; Ristvey, J.; Raymond, C. A.

2010-12-01

32

Phenotypic Dichotomies in the Foreign Body Reaction  

PubMed Central

To better understand the relationship between macrophage/foreign body giant cell adhesion and activation on surface-modified biomaterials, quantitative assessment of adherent cell density (cells per mm²) and cytokine production (pgs per mL) were determined by ELISA. Further analysis to identify cellular activation was carried out by normalizing the cytokine concentration data to provide a measure of cellular activation. This method of analysis demonstrated that hydrophobic surfaces provided statistically significantly greater adherent cell densities than hydrophilic/neutral surfaces. However, when cell activation parameters were determined by normalization to the adherent cell density, the hydrophilic/neutral surfaces demonstrated statistically significantly greater levels of activation and production of IL-10, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and MIP-1?. With increasing time, production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 increased, whereas IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-8 decreased and MIP-1? was relatively constant over the culture time period. This observed dichotomy or disparity between adhesion and activation may be related to surface-induced adherent cell apoptosis. Further evaluation of macrophage activation on biomaterial surfaces indicated that an apparent phenotypic switch in macrophage phenotype occurred over the course of the in vitro culture. Analysis of cytokine/chemokine profiles with surface-modified biomaterials revealed similarities between the classically activated macrophages and the biomaterial-adherent macrophages early (day 3) in culture, while at later timepoints the biomaterial-adherent macrophages produced profiles similar to alternatively activated macrophages. Classically activated macrophages are those commonly activated by LPS (lipopolysaccharide) or IFN-? (interferon-?) and alternatively activated macrophages are those activated by IL-4/IL-13 or IL-10. Surface modification of biomaterials offers an opportunity to control cellular activation and cytokine profiles in the phenotypic switch, and may provide a means by which macrophages can be induced to regulate particular secretory proteins that direct inflammation, the foreign body reaction, wound healing, and ultimately biocompatibility. PMID:17706278

Anderson, James M.; Jones, Jacqueline A.

2007-01-01

33

Martian Tectonics: Why the Global Dichotomy and the Tharsis Uplift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two of the major tectonic features on Mars are the global crustal dichotomy and the Tharsis uplift. One explanation for the dichotomy is that hemispheric subduction occurred during the early evolution of Mars. The lithosphere in the northern hemisphere was subducted one or more times removing the primordial crust. As the planet cooled and the global lithosphere stabilized, heat was lost by continuous volcanism in one region, the Tharsis uplift. This volcanic construct can be best explained by pressure release melting in an ascending limb of a global mantle convection system.

Turcotte, D. L.

1996-03-01

34

Mantle differentiation and the crustal dichotomy of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question of the origin and consequences of the global dichotomy of the Mars surface is examined. A comparison is given of two thermal evolution models with crust formation and mantle differentiation. The homogeneous distribution model assumes steady growth of a basaltic crust as a consequence of pressure-release partial melting of mantle. The early differentiation model incorporates the global dichotomy of the Mars surface and an early differentiation event that is assumed to have produced the primordial enriched southerly hemisphere crust. It is concluded that the differentiation model is too simplistic for Mars and that the homogeneous distribution model is more consistent with evidence from meteorites.

Breuer, D.; Spohn, T.; Wullner, U.

1993-04-01

35

The Effect of an Early Dichotomy on Mars Mantle Convection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several attempts have been made to produce a crustal dichotomy followed by a single, stationary mantle plume, giving rise to the Tharsis volcanic province using 3D mantle convection models. If Mars evolved in such a scenario, two degree-1 (i.e., hemispherical) patterns would be required to develop at 90° to each other in the span of a few hundred million years. This has not yet been accomplished although recent numerical models (e.g. Roberts and Zhong, 2006) have made significant strides towards a solution including the use of both a lower mantle phase change and a layered viscosity mantle. Our goal is not to determine how the crustal dichotomy formed, but to assume it was already in place within the first 0.5 Ga of Mars' evolution. The presence of an early dichotomy boundary likely affected the planform of mantle convection and may have played a role in the formation of the Tharsis Rise based on the proximity of Tharsis to the dichotomy boundary. We model Martian mantle convection using the 3D finite element code CitComS (Zhong et al., 2000). Previous laboratory experiments have shown that an insulating lid overlying part of a temperature-dependent mantle will generate a large, stationary upwelling beneath the center of the lid. Thus, we incorporate a dry, Newtonian rheology with E*=300 kJ/mol and simulate a dichotomy boundary by integrating a high viscosity lid over the "southern hemisphere" of our model. Redmond and King (2004) illustrate that the effect of a strongly temperature-dependent rheology is the development of a stiff, rheological lithosphere. Thus, for small Rayleigh numbers, the initially imposed dichotomy boundary does not have an effect on the location of mantle upwellings because of the global lid that forms as a result of the temperature-dependent rheology. Our results suggest that an initially larger Rayleigh number, on the order of 107, will produce stationary upwellings beneath the imposed southern hemisphere lid before a global lid develops while upwellings in the northern hemisphere are short-lived and/or migratory until the rheological lithosphere strengthens. Thus, if the dichotomy was emplaced early on, it may be possible for mantle flow that migrates away from the initial upwelling(s) to interact with the edge of the imposed dichotomy boundary generating small-scale edge-driven convection. An edge-driven convection instability may be responsible for long-lived mantle convection at and around the Tharsis Rise volcanic province.

King, S. D.

2006-12-01

36

FORCELESS, INEFFECTIVE, POWERLESS PROOFS OF DESCRIPTIVE DICHOTOMY THEOREMS  

E-print Network

of the collection of derivatives in the mathematical universe is the force underlying the great variety of dichotomy as effective descriptive set theory, as well as the method of forc- ing, which was initially developed by Cohen? Could it be that the old intuition was correct, and it is really this rich collection of derivatives

Miller, Benjamin

37

Direct Instruction vs. Arts Integration: A False Dichotomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author takes on what he considers to be the false dichotomy between direct instruction and arts integration. He contends that at a time when national issues of sustainability and conservation of energy and resources become ever more urgent, it is time that those committed to quality arts education stop squandering time, money,…

Aprill, Arnold

2010-01-01

38

Toward a "Just" Configuration: Dichotomies Which Confront the Community College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community colleges in Kentucky, like much of higher education nationwide, are facing a number of dichotomous conditions that need to be reconciled before a "just" educational system can be achieved. Connected to the development of systems approaches to higher education, these dichotomies include the following: (1) community colleges are funded at…

Watson, Rollin J.

39

The Biological Implausibility of the Nature-Nurture Dichotomy & What It Means for the Study of Infancy  

PubMed Central

Since the time of the Greeks, philosophers and scientists have wondered about the origins of structure and function. Plato proposed that the origins of structure and function lie in the organism's nature whereas Aristotle proposed that they lie in its nurture. This nature/nurture dichotomy and the emphasis on the origins question has had a powerful effect on our thinking about development right into modern times. Despite this, empirical findings from various branches of developmental science have made a compelling case that the nature/nurture dichotomy is biologically implausible and, thus, that a search for developmental origins must be replaced by research into developmental processes. This change in focus recognizes that development is an immensely complex, dynamic, embedded, interdependent, and probabilistic process and, therefore, renders simplistic questions such as whether a particular behavioral capacity is innate or acquired scientifically uninteresting. PMID:21709807

Lewkowicz, David J.

2011-01-01

40

Dichotomy in the definition of prescriptive information suggests both prescribed data and prescribed algorithms: biosemiotics applications in genomic systems.  

PubMed

The fields of molecular biology and computer science have cooperated over recent years to create a synergy between the cybernetic and biosemiotic relationship found in cellular genomics to that of information and language found in computational systems. Biological information frequently manifests its "meaning" through instruction or actual production of formal bio-function. Such information is called prescriptive information (PI). PI programs organize and execute a prescribed set of choices. Closer examination of this term in cellular systems has led to a dichotomy in its definition suggesting both prescribed data and prescribed algorithms are constituents of PI. This paper looks at this dichotomy as expressed in both the genetic code and in the central dogma of protein synthesis. An example of a genetic algorithm is modeled after the ribosome, and an examination of the protein synthesis process is used to differentiate PI data from PI algorithms. PMID:22413926

D'Onofrio, David J; Abel, David L; Johnson, Donald E

2012-01-01

41

Dichotomy in the definition of prescriptive information suggests both prescribed data and prescribed algorithms: biosemiotics applications in genomic systems  

PubMed Central

The fields of molecular biology and computer science have cooperated over recent years to create a synergy between the cybernetic and biosemiotic relationship found in cellular genomics to that of information and language found in computational systems. Biological information frequently manifests its "meaning" through instruction or actual production of formal bio-function. Such information is called Prescriptive Information (PI). PI programs organize and execute a prescribed set of choices. Closer examination of this term in cellular systems has led to a dichotomy in its definition suggesting both prescribed data and prescribed algorithms are constituents of PI. This paper looks at this dichotomy as expressed in both the genetic code and in the central dogma of protein synthesis. An example of a genetic algorithm is modeled after the ribosome, and an examination of the protein synthesis process is used to differentiate PI data from PI algorithms. PMID:22413926

2012-01-01

42

Tharsis: Consequence of Mars' Dichotomy and Layered Mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two largest and most striking features on Mars are the crustal dichotomy, the nearly hemispheric division in topography, gravity, crustal thickness, and age, and Tharsis, a volcanic center active from the Noachian to the present. Tharsis' long-term persistence of localized volcanism is, to the best of our knowledge, unique in the solar system. Explaining the timing of Tharsis volcanism, from initiation early in martian history to recent activity, has been an enduring challenge. Here we present an model of the martian mantle that can explain early and persistent volcanism at Tharsis by incorporating the effects of the crustal dichotomy and a compositionally layered mantle. As the crust is expected to be enriched in heat-producing elements, this dichotomy in thickness leads to a dichotomous heat flux boundary condition on the mantle, which affects the internal dynamics. The evidence for layering includes the ability of a layered mantle to simultaneously meet a chondritic bulk composition and the moment-of-inertia factor (Elkins-Tanton et al., in revision), which can not be done with a one-layered mantle. In addition, studies of the martian meteorites suggest that the martian mantle is heterogeneous, a constraint that can be met with layering. We perform analog laboratory experiments with corn syrup to simulate Mars' thermal evolution. We vary the presence of a partial insulating lid, to simulate the effect of the dichotomy, and layering in the convecting fluid. We show that in the case of a layered mantle and an insulating lid, a large swell, which acts to localize upwelling plumes under the lid, forms early and endures for the scaled equivalent of billions of years. Linda T. Elkins-Tanton, E. M. Parmentier, and P. C. Hess, "Magma ocean fractional crystallization and cumulate overturn in terrestrial planets: implications for Mars," in revision for Meteoritics and Planetary Science.

Wenzel, M. J.; Manga, M.; Jellinek, A. M.

2003-12-01

43

Impact of posterior tibial nail malpositioning on iatrogenic injuries by distal medio-lateral interlocking screws. A cadaveric study on plastinated specimens.  

PubMed

In intramedullary tibial nailing, multi-planar locking makes stabilization of proximal and distal metaphyseal fractures possible. A known complication in intramedullary nailing of the tibia is iatrogenic injury to neuro-vascular structures caused by the insertion of locking screws. As shown in previous studies, the distal positioning of the nail is important, as it determines the course of the locking bolts. The goal of the present study was to display the consequences of posterior nail malpositioning with respect to the safety of the distal medio-lateral locking screws and the available options. Human cadaveric legs were plastinated according to the sequential plastination technique after intramedullary nailing of the tibia and were then cut transversely. The tibial nails were placed centrally or posteriorly. Macroscopic analysis showed a distinct drawback of posterior nail positioning, with diminished options for the placement of the locking screws and thereby a risk of damaging the anterior and posterior neuro-vascular bundles by distal medio-lateral locking screws. PMID:23409576

Wegmann, Kilian; Burkhart, Klaus Josef; Buhl, Jörg; Gausepohl, Thomas; Koebke, Jürgen; Müller, Lars Peter

2012-12-01

44

DICHOTOMY OF SOLAR CORONAL JETS: STANDARD JETS AND BLOWOUT JETS  

SciTech Connect

By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/X-Ray Telescope coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop H{alpha} macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major coronal mass ejections. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 A snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T {approx} 10{sup 4} - 10{sup 5} K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

Moore, Ronald L.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A., E-mail: ron.moore@nasa.go [Space Science Office, VP62, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

2010-09-01

45

Dichotomy of Solar Coronal Jets: Standard Jets and Blowout Jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/XRT coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop H alpha macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major CMEs. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 Angstrom snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 5) K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

Moore, R. L.; Cirtain, J. W.; Sterling, A. C.; Falconer, D. A.

2010-01-01

46

Models of Sensory Deprivation: The Nature\\/Nurture Dichotomy and Spatial Representation in the Blind  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that models of sensory deprivation often depend on a nativist versus empiricist dichotomy which has little basis in empirical fact. Fallacies about the nature of abilities and learning and about the interaction between sense modalities which follow from the dichotomy are examined in relation to explanations of spatial development in the blind. It is suggested that interactions

Susanna Millar

1988-01-01

47

Fractalsmall-world dichotomy in real-world networks Gbor Csnyi*  

E-print Network

Fractal­small-world dichotomy in real-world networks Gábor Csányi* TCM Group, Cavendish Laboratory dichotomy between small-world networks exhibiting exponential neighborhood growth, and fractal-like networks, where neighborhoods grow according to a power law. This distinction is observed in a number of real-world

Szendröi, Balázs

48

‘No Personal Motive?’ Volunteers, Biodiversity, and the False Dichotomies of Participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of participation usually assume a dichotomy between ‘instrumental’ and ‘transformative’ approaches. However, this study of voluntary biological monitoring experiences and outcomes finds that they cannot be fitted into such a dichotomy. They can enhance the information base for environmental management; change participants through education about scientific practice and ecological change; lead to changes in life direction or group organisation;

Anna Lawrence

2006-01-01

49

The Borealis basin and the origin of the martian crustal dichotomy.  

PubMed

The most prominent feature on the surface of Mars is the near-hemispheric dichotomy between the southern highlands and northern lowlands. The root of this dichotomy is a change in crustal thickness along an apparently irregular boundary, which can be traced around the planet, except where it is presumably buried beneath the Tharsis volcanic rise. The isostatic compensation of these distinct provinces and the ancient population of impact craters buried beneath the young lowlands surface suggest that the dichotomy is one of the most ancient features on the planet. However, the origin of this dichotomy has remained uncertain, with little evidence to distinguish between the suggested causes: a giant impact or mantle convection/overturn. Here we use the gravity and topography of Mars to constrain the location of the dichotomy boundary beneath Tharsis, taking advantage of the different modes of compensation for Tharsis and the dichotomy to separate their effects. We find that the dichotomy boundary along its entire path around the planet is accurately fitted by an ellipse measuring approximately 10,600 by 8,500 km, centred at 67 degrees N, 208 degrees E. We suggest that the elliptical nature of the crustal dichotomy is most simply explained by a giant impact, representing the largest such structure thus far identified in the Solar System. PMID:18580944

Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C; Zuber, Maria T; Banerdt, W Bruce

2008-06-26

50

The Prokaryote-Eukaryote Dichotomy: Meanings and Mythology  

PubMed Central

Drawing on documents both published and archival, this paper explains how the prokaryote-eukaryote dichotomy of the 1960s was constructed, the purposes it served, and what it implied in terms of classification and phylogeny. In doing so, I first show how the concept was attributed to Edouard Chatton and the context in which he introduced the terms. Following, I examine the context in which the terms were reintroduced into biology in 1962 by Roger Stanier and C. B. van Niel. I study the discourse over the subsequent decade to understand how the organizational dichotomy took on the form of a natural classification as the kingdom Monera or superkingdom Procaryotae. Stanier and van Niel admitted that, in regard to constructing a natural classification of bacteria, structural characteristics were no more useful than physiological properties. They repeatedly denied that bacterial phylogenetics was possible. I thus examine the great historical irony that the “prokaryote,” in both its organizational and phylogenetic senses, was defined (negatively) on the basis of structure. Finally, we see how phylogenetic research based on 16S rRNA led by Carl Woese and his collaborators confronted the prokaryote concept while moving microbiology to the center of evolutionary biology. PMID:15944457

Sapp, Jan

2005-01-01

51

Hydrophobic–hydrophilic dichotomy of the butterfly proboscis  

PubMed Central

Mouthparts of fluid-feeding insects have unique material properties with no human-engineered analogue: the feeding devices acquire sticky and viscous liquids while remaining clean. We discovered that the external surface of the butterfly proboscis has a sharp boundary separating a hydrophilic drinking region and a hydrophobic non-drinking region. The structural arrangement of the proboscis provides the basis for the wetting dichotomy. Theoretical and experimental analyses show that fluid uptake is associated with enlargement of hydrophilic cuticular structures, the legulae, which link the two halves of the proboscis together. We also show that an elliptical proboscis produces a higher external meniscus than does a cylindrical proboscis of the same circumference. Fluid uptake is additionally facilitated in sap-feeding butterflies that have a proboscis with enlarged chemosensory structures forming a brush near the tip. This structural modification of the proboscis enables sap feeders to exploit films of liquid more efficiently. Structural changes along the proboscis, including increased legular width and presence of a brush-like tip, occur in a wide range of species, suggesting that a wetting dichotomy is widespread in the Lepidoptera. PMID:23760299

Lehnert, Matthew S.; Monaenkova, Daria; Andrukh, Taras; Beard, Charles E.; Adler, Peter H.; Kornev, Konstantin G.

2013-01-01

52

A NOVEL METHOD TO QUANTIFY HISTOCHEMICAL CHANGES THROUGHOUT THE MEDIOLATERAL AXIS OF THE SUBSTANTIA GELATINOSA AFTER SPARED NERVE INJURY: CHARACTERIZATION WITH TRPV1 AND SUBSTANCE P  

PubMed Central

Nerve injury dramatically increases or decreases protein expression in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Whether the spatial distribution of these changes is restricted to the central innervation territories of injured nerves or could spread to adjacent territories in the dorsal horn is not understood. To address this question, we developed a simple computer software-assisted method to precisely distinguish and efficiently quantify immunohistochemical staining patterns across the mediolateral axis of the dorsal horn 2 wk after transection of either the tibial and common peroneal nerves (thus sparing the sural branch, spared nerve injury, SNI), the tibial nerve, or the common peroneal and sural nerves. Using thiamine monophosphatase (TMP) histochemistry, we determined that central terminals of the tibial, common peroneal, sural, and posterior cutaneous nerves occupy the medial 35%, medial-central 20%, central-lateral 20%, and lateral 25% of the substantia gelatinosa, respectively. We then used these calculations to show that SNI reduced the expression of SP and TRPV1 immunoreactivity within the tibial and peroneal innervation territories in the L4 dorsal horn, without changing expression in the uninjured, sural sector. We conclude that SNI-induced loss of SP and TRPV1 in central terminals of dorsal horn is restricted to injured fibers. Our new method enables direct comparison of injured and uninjured terminals in the dorsal horn so as to better understand their relative contributions to mechanisms of chronic pain. PMID:20350706

Corder, G.; Siegel, A.; Intondi, A.B.; Zhang, X.; Zadina, J.E.; Taylor, B.K.

2010-01-01

53

Is it time to pull the plug on the hostile versus instrumental aggression dichotomy?  

PubMed

Psychologists have often categorized human aggression as hostile or instrumental. Hostile aggression is "hot," impulsive behavior that is motivated by a desire to hurt someone; instrumental aggression is "cold," premeditated behavior used as a means to some other end. This dichotomy was useful to the early development of aggression theories and continues to capture important features of nonhuman aggression, but it has outlived its usefulness as a descriptor of fundamentally different kinds of human aggression. It is confounded with the automatic-controlled information-processing dichotomy, and it fails to consider aggressive acts with multiple motives. Knowledge structure models of aggression easily handle these problems. Taking extreme measures to preserve the hostile-instrumental dichotomy will delay further advances in understanding and controlling human aggression. Therefore, this seems a proper time to "pull the plug" and allow the hostile-instrumental aggression dichotomy a dignified death. PMID:11212630

Bushman, B J; Anderson, C A

2001-01-01

54

Workshop on Hemispheres Apart: The Origin and Modification of the Martian Crustal Dichotomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the Workshop on Hemispheres Apart: The Origin and Modification of the Martian Crustal Dichotomy, September 30-October 1, 2004, Houston, Texas.

2004-01-01

55

Impact Origin for the Martian Crustal Dichotomy: Half-Emptied or Half-Filled?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We suggest an alternative impact origin for the martian crustal dichotomy in which impact generated melt floods the excavated cavity, produces thickened crust, and generates an antipodal topographic basin.

Reese, C. C.; Orth, C. P.; Solomatov, V. S.

2010-03-01

56

Magnetometer Data Tests Models for the Origin of the Martian Crustal Dichotomy; Dichotomy Models Constrain Timing of Martian Magnetic Field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements recently supplied by the MGS Magnetometer/Electron Reflectometer (MAG/ER) on MGS can be applied to test theories of the origin of the martian crustal dichotomy. Strong (+/- 1500 nT) magnetic anomalies are observed in the Martian crust. The observations can be summarized as follows: 1) strong crustal magnetic sources are generally confined to the southern highlands, although weaker (approx. 40 nT) anomalies were observed during close periapsis; 2) strong magnetic anomalies are absent in the vicinity of Hellas and Argyre; 3) the anomalies in the region 0 deg to 90 deg S, 120 deg to 240 deg west have a linear geometry, strike generally east west for 1000s km, and show several reversals. This latter point has led to the suggestion that some form of lateral plate tectonics may have been operative in the southern highlands of Mars. These observations have led previous workers to hypothesize that the magnetic anomalies were present prior to and were destroyed by the formation of Hellas and Argyre. As such large impacts are confined to the era of heavy bombardment, this places the time of formation of large magnetic anomalies prior to approx. 3.9 Ga. One obvious extension of this is that the northern lowlands lack significant anomalies because they were erased by impacts and/or the northern lowlands represent crust completely reheated above the Curie temperature. Preliminary observations of the distributions of the large crustal magnetic anomalies show that many of them extend continuously over the highland lowland boundary. This occurs particularly north of the boundary between 30 deg W and 270 deg W, corresponding to northern Arabia, but also occurs in southern Elysium (approx. 10 deg S, 200 deg) and the SW portion of Tharsis (approx. 15 deg S, 140 deg). This suggests that, in these areas, Noachian crust containing the greater than 3.9 Ga magnetic signature, lies beneath the northern highlands. This geometry can be used to test models for the formation of the martian crustal dichotomy. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Gilmore, M. S.

1999-01-01

57

THE ACS FORNAX CLUSTER SURVEY. IV. DEPROJECTION OF THE SURFACE BRIGHTNESS PROFILES OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN THE VIRGO AND FORNAX CLUSTERS: INVESTIGATING THE 'CORE/POWER-LAW DICHOTOMY'  

SciTech Connect

Although early observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) pointed to a sharp dichotomy among early-type galaxies in terms of the logarithmic slope {gamma}' of their central surface brightness profiles, several studies in the past few years have called this finding into question. In particular, recent imaging surveys of 143 early-type galaxies belonging to the Virgo and Fornax Clusters using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on board HST have not found a dichotomy in {gamma}', but instead a systematic progression from central luminosity deficit to excess relative to the inward extrapolation of the best-fitting global Sersic model. Given that earlier studies also found that the dichotomy persisted when analyzing the deprojected density profile slopes, we investigate the distribution of the three-dimensional luminosity density profiles of the ACS Virgo and Fornax Cluster Survey galaxies. Having fitted the surface brightness profiles with modified Sersic models, we then deproject the galaxies using an Abel integral and measure the inner slopes {gamma}{sub 3D} of the resulting luminosity density profiles at various fractions of the effective radius R{sub e} . We find no evidence of a dichotomy, but rather, a continuous variation in the central luminosity profiles as a function of galaxy magnitude. We introduce a parameter, {Delta}{sub 3D}, that measures the central deviation of the deprojected luminosity profiles from the global Sersic fit, showing that this parameter varies smoothly and systematically along the luminosity function.

Glass, Lisa [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Ferrarese, Laura; Cote, Patrick; Blakeslee, John P.; Chen, Chin-Wei [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Jordan, Andres; Infante, Leopoldo [Departamento de AstronomIa y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul 7820436, Santiago (Chile); Peng, Eric [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Mei, Simona [Bureau des Galaxies, Etoiles, Physique, Instrumentation (GEPI), University of Paris Denis Diderot, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Tonry, John L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); West, Michael J. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile)

2011-01-01

58

Geologic Evolution of the Martian Dichotomy and Plains Magnetization in the Ismenius Area of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global dichotomy divides the northern lowlands from the southern highlands, except where interrupted by relatively young volcanic provinces and impact basins. An elevation change of 2-4 km is typical across the dichotomy, and more than 6 km locally, over distances of several 100s km to as much as 1300 km [1,2]. A variety of exogenic and endogenic formation models have been proposed. Distinguishing between these models would help constrain the overall thermal evolution of the planet, possibly timing of core formation, and the associated mantle heat flux over time. A first step is to determine whether or not gravitational relaxation plays a role in modifying the boundary. Nimmo and Stevenson [3] examined 10 profiles across the dichotomy and used models of gravitational relaxation to conclude the relaxation has not occurred. In this study we begin by considering the geologic history in detail as inputs for modeling [4].

Smrekar, S. E.; McGill, G. E.; Raymond, C. A.; Dimitriou, A. M.

2004-01-01

59

Constraints on Thermal Evolution of Mars from Relaxation Models of Crustal and Topographic Dichotomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The early thermal evolution of Mars is largely unconstrained. Models such as degree one convection [1,2,3], plate tectonics [4], and a transition to stagnant lid [5] have been proposed to explain formation of the dichotomy, the Tharsis rise, crustal production, and dynamo evolution. Here we model both the early deformation of the dichotomy and the long-term preservation as a means of examining the plausibility of a range of early thermal evolution models. Constraints include the preservation of crustal thickness and topographic differences between the northern and southern hemispheres and the geologic history of the dichotomy [6]). Our previous modeling indicates that the lower crust must have been weak enough to allow for relaxation early on, but the Martian interior had to cool fast enough to preserve the crustal difference and the associated topographic difference (5 km) over approx. 3-3.5 Gyr [7].

Guest, A.; Smrekar, S. E.

2005-01-01

60

Relaxation of the Martian Crustal Dichotomy Boundary in the Ismenius Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The origin of the Martian crustal dichotomy remains a puzzle that when solved can provide an insight to the geological and geophysical evolution of Mars. In this study we model crustal relaxation in order to better constrain the original topographic shape, rheology, and temperature of the Martian crust. Our approach is to model the detailed geologic history of the Ismenius region of Mars, including slope, strain, and timing of faulting [1]. This region may contain the best preserved section of the dichotomy boundary as it is relatively unaffected by large impacts and erosion. So far the only study Martian crustal relaxation [2] suggests that the original topographic shape of the dichotomy is preserved. However, in this area strain from faulting implies at least some relaxation [1].

Guest, A.; Smrekar, S. E.

2004-01-01

61

Iapetus: Unique Surface Properties and a Global Color Dichotomy from Cassini Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2004, Saturn’s moon Iapetus has been observed repeatedly with the Imaging Science Subsystem of the Cassini spacecraft. The images show numerous impact craters down to the resolution limit of ~10 meters per pixel. Small, bright craters within the dark hemisphere indicate a dark blanket thickness on the order of meters or less. Dark, equator-facing and bright, poleward-facing crater walls suggest temperature-driven water-ice sublimation as the process responsible for local albedo patterns. Imaging data also reveal a global color dichotomy, wherein both dark and bright materials on the leading side have a substantially redder color than the respective trailing-side materials. This global pattern indicates an exogenic origin for the redder leading-side parts and suggests that the global color dichotomy initiated the thermal formation of the global albedo dichotomy.

Denk, Tilmann; Neukum, Gerhard; Roatsch, Thomas; Porco, Carolyn C.; Burns, Joseph A.; Galuba, Götz G.; Schmedemann, Nico; Helfenstein, Paul; Thomas, Peter C.; Wagner, Roland J.; West, Robert A.

2010-01-01

62

Iapetus: unique surface properties and a global color dichotomy from Cassini imaging.  

PubMed

Since 2004, Saturn's moon Iapetus has been observed repeatedly with the Imaging Science Subsystem of the Cassini spacecraft. The images show numerous impact craters down to the resolution limit of approximately 10 meters per pixel. Small, bright craters within the dark hemisphere indicate a dark blanket thickness on the order of meters or less. Dark, equator-facing and bright, poleward-facing crater walls suggest temperature-driven water-ice sublimation as the process responsible for local albedo patterns. Imaging data also reveal a global color dichotomy, wherein both dark and bright materials on the leading side have a substantially redder color than the respective trailing-side materials. This global pattern indicates an exogenic origin for the redder leading-side parts and suggests that the global color dichotomy initiated the thermal formation of the global albedo dichotomy. PMID:20007863

Denk, Tilmann; Neukum, Gerhard; Roatsch, Thomas; Porco, Carolyn C; Burns, Joseph A; Galuba, Götz G; Schmedemann, Nico; Helfenstein, Paul; Thomas, Peter C; Wagner, Roland J; West, Robert A

2010-01-22

63

Constraints on the Evolution of the Dichotomy Boundary at 50-90E  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global dichotomy is a fundamental feature of Mars. It marks the boundary between the highly cratered, older southern highlands, and the northern plains. Recent analysis of buried craters in the northern lowlands confirms the long held suspicion that they are comparable in age to the southern highlands, but with surficial deposits of younger material. A variety of exogenic and endogenic models have been proposed for the origin of the dichotomy, including multiple impacts, plate tectonics, and degree one convection produced by core formation, a plume under the lowlands, or a plume under the highlands. New gravity and topography data from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mission favor endogenic processes. In this study we examine MGS topography, gravity and magnetic field data to constrain the tectonic history the dichotomy in the region 30-60N and 50-90E, which encompasses portions of the Ismenius Lacus quadrangle. The dichotomy formed very early the history of Mars and has undergone extensive modification by impact cratering, erosion, and faulting. This history must be carefully interpreted in order to reconstruct the original nature of the dichotomy boundary and ultimately discriminate between models of origin. In the study area boundary-parallel faults are well preserved, and may be the result of gravitational relaxation. The geologic history has been examined in detail, including estimates of volumes of material eroded. Further, it is one of the few regions where there is a correlation between the free air gravity, magnetic anomalies, and the geology. This allows to constrain subsurface faulting beneath the lowlands fill material. In addition to being an excellent location to unravel the complex history of the dichotomy, this area preserves the transition from a highly magnetized highlands crust to an unmagnetized or slightly magnetized lowlands crust.

Smrekar, S. E.; Raymond, C. A.; Dimitriou, A.; McGill, G. E.

2003-01-01

64

Dichotomy Boundary Glaciation Models: Implications for Timing and Glacial Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated system with glacial features exists at 34E, 41N in the Deuteronilus-Protonilus Mensae region. This 30,000 km2 valley system is typical of dozens of fretted valleys in this region along the dichotomy boundary. We compare features described in current geological observations with results from the University of Maine Ice Sheet Model (UMISM) that we feel support the glacial interpretation of these features and also allow speculation as to the timing and processes responsible for the formation of these features. Geological observations identify evidence for a number of features that are felt to be indicative of glacial flow. These include: 1) localized alcoves from which emanate narrow, lobate concentric-ridged flows interpreted to be remnants of debris-covered glaciers; 2) alcove depressions perhaps indicating sublimation of material from relict ice-rich accumulation zones; 3) plateau-ridge remnants between alcoves typical of glacially eroded aretes; 4) horseshoe-shaped ridges upstream of topographic obstacles; 5) convergence and merging of LVF fabric in the down-valley direction; 6) deformation, distortion and folding of LVF in the vicinity of convergence; 7) LVF with pits and elongated troughs in distorted areas; 8) distinctive lobe-shaped termini with associated pitting where the LVF emerges into the northern lowlands. This evidence defines a coherent, unified flow regime extending from the upper valley reaches down to the northern lowlands. Additional support for the glacial hypothesis comes from a GCM for a dusty-atmosphere Mars with obliquity set to 35o and a water source in the Tharsis region. The GCM generates a pattern of ice accumulation in good agreement with these geological observations. This climate is what one might expect to follow a high- obliquity excursion of the sort that built ice sheets on the Tharsis volcanoes. UMISM as used here is an adaptation for the Martian environment of a thermo-mechanically coupled shallow- ice approximation terrestrial ice sheet model used for time-dependent reconstructions of Antarctic, Greenland, and paleo-icesheet evolution on Earth. Starting with no ice, the model is run for 2 million years. While this is longer that is expected for any steady climate to hold on Mars, it delivers a flow pattern that can be compared to the geological interpretations. We present ice thicknesses, surface elevations, and velocity maps at four times during the growth of this ice sheet. At 300Ka the flow from the sides has not yet merged in the centers of the valleys, a configuration that would not produce the turning flow observed. By 500Ka the beginning of a coherent downvalley flow is observed with ice from each side of the valley merging in the center. By 1000Ka there is a well-established valley glacier extending to the mouths of the valleys. Velocities are as high as 250 mm/year. By 1500Ka, the glacier extends out of the valleys onto the northern lowlands. Either 1000Ka or 1500Ka would produce the observed landforms. We also present comparisons of flow features in high-resolution THEMIS images with modeled flow at 1000Ka.

Fastook, J. L.; Head, J. W.

2008-12-01

65

Dichotomy, Dialectic and Dialogic: How Do Sociology Terms Assist Career Development Theory?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three concepts from sociology--dichotomy and two extensions, dialectic and dialogic--are considered here as social-psychological tools for career practitioners who analyse and investigate career patterns, career motivations and career pathways, whether at career start or at further points of transition. These terms have macro-social applications…

Burns, Edgar A. M.

2012-01-01

66

Dysfunctional Dichotomies? Deflating Bipolar Constructions of Curriculum and Pedagogy through Case Studies from Music and History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent public discussions of curriculum and pedagogy that have accompanied the English National Curriculum review have been structured around clichéd dichotomies that generate more heat than light and that, as Robin Alexander has argued, reduce complex educational debates to oppositional and incompatible slogans. This paper begins by exploring the…

Cain, Tim; Chapman, Arthur

2014-01-01

67

Are You a Native Speaker of English? Moving beyond a Simplistic Dichotomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite considerable discussion and controversy over the native/nonnative distinction, there is no satisfactory definition of the terms. In addition, the literature tends to reduce the complexity of the distinction to an overly simplistic and problematic dichotomy. Using a qualitative case study approach, this research article examines the…

Faez, Farahnaz

2011-01-01

68

Minority Parents as Researchers: Beyond a Dichotomy in Parent Involvement in Schooling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article documents the work of parent-driven research teams in two school boards in the Greater Toronto Area. Motivated by a desire to move beyond a school-centred/family-centred dichotomy, this parent-lead project explores a middle space for collective learning among multiple stakeholders in publicly-funded schooling. Drawing on participatory…

Ippolito, John

2010-01-01

69

The HMA-LMA Dichotomy Revisited: an Electron Microscopical Survey of 56 Sponge Species  

E-print Network

, and the Poecilosclerida were composed only of LMA sponges. Other taxa contained both types of microbial associations (e. The dichotomy between high microbial abun- dance (HMA) and low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges has been long not be identified. For a few sponge species, an intermediate microbial load was determined, and the microscopy data

Pawlik, Joseph

70

Impact origin for the Martian crustal dichotomy: Half emptied or half filled?  

Microsoft Academic Search

One possible mechanism for Martian hemispherical dichotomy formation is excavation of the northern lowland basin in the existing crust by a single giant impact. Here we explore a related scenario in which the impact melt volume is sufficient to fill the excavated cavity, produce a thickened crust, and generate a topographic basin centered on the opposite side of the planet.

C. C. Reese; C. P. Orth; V. S. Solomatov

2010-01-01

71

Reconciling Evidenced-Based Research Practice with Rehabilitation Philosophy, Ethics and Practice: From Dichotomy to Dialectic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent shift in the helping professions to the implementation of evidenced-based practice (EBP) presents challenges to the field of rehabilitation counseling, most notably in the areas of integrating rehabilitation philosophy, ethics, and the relationship between research and practice. A dichotomy between the history and the future of the…

Tarvydas, Vilia; Addy, Amanda; Fleming, Allison

2010-01-01

72

Growth of the hemispheric dichotomy and the cessation of plate tectonics on Mars  

E-print Network

Growth of the hemispheric dichotomy and the cessation of plate tectonics on Mars A. Lenardic 2004. [1] Although Mars is currently not tectonically active, it may have experienced plate tectonics for the Earth predict that it should operate in the plate tectonic regime now but that it may have experienced

Nimmo, Francis

73

Sedimentary resurfacing and fretted terrain development along the crustal dichotomy boundary, Aeolis Mensae, Mars  

E-print Network

Sedimentary resurfacing and fretted terrain development along the crustal dichotomy boundary. For a study area at Aeolis Mensae we show that fretted terrain formed exclusively in a >2 km thick, late slope. In this equatorial study area, fretted terrain does not exhibit the debris aprons or lineated

Howard, Alan D.

74

Examining the ‘terrorism–war’ dichotomy in the ‘Russia–Chechnya’ case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrorism has become a part of our habitat but conceptualization of this phenomenon, as well as formulation of a coherent counter-terrorist doctrine, are lagging behind. One reason for this may be a common linking of terrorism with war which reduces the complex dichotomy of these two phenomena to a simple two-step sequence. The article introduces a schematic model of the

Pavel Baev

2003-01-01

75

Martian crustal dichotomy and Tharsis formation by partial melting coupled to early plume migration  

E-print Network

[Elkins-Tanton et al., 2003, 2005] or an early episode of plate tectonics on Mars [Sleep, 1994; Lenardic of Mars suggest a timed sequence of tectonic centers and an early migration of Tharsis volcanism from of the Tharsis volcanic province on Mars to the preexisting hemispheric dichotomy (Zhong, 2009). A key aspect

Zhong, Shijie

76

MEVTV study: Early tectonic evolution of Mars: Crustal dichotomy to Valles Marineris  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several fundamental problems were addressed in the early impact, tectonic, and volcanic evolution of the martian lithosphere: (1) origin and evolution of the fundamental crustal dichotomy, including development of the highland/lowland transition zone; (2) growth and evolution of the Valles Marineris; and (3) nature and role of major resurfacing events in early martian history. The results in these areas are briefly summarized.

Frey, Herbert V.; Schultz, Richard A.

1990-01-01

77

MEVTV study: Early tectonic evolution of Mars: Crustal dichotomy to Valles Marineris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several fundamental problems were addressed in the early impact, tectonic, and volcanic evolution of the martian lithosphere: (1) origin and evolution of the fundamental crustal dichotomy, including development of the highland\\/lowland transition zone; (2) growth and evolution of the Valles Marineris; and (3) nature and role of major resurfacing events in early martian history. The results in these areas are

Herbert V. Frey; Richard A. Schultz

1990-01-01

78

Geologic evolution of the Martian dichotomy in the Ismenius area of Mars and implications for plains magnetization  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) The origin of the Martian dichotomy, which divides highlands from lowlands, is unknown. We examine a section of the dichotomy (50-90E) defined by steep scarps and normal faults. Stratigraphy and age relationships preclude the formation of the 2.5 km high boundary via erosion. The abrupt disappearance of topographic knobs 300-500 km to the northeast is interpreted as a buried

S. E. Smrekar; G. E. McGill; C. A. Raymond; A. M. Dimitriou

2004-01-01

79

ARE YOU A NATIVE SPEAKER OF ENGLISH? MOVING BEYOND A SIMPLISTIC DICHOTOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite considerable discussion and controversy over the native\\/nonnative distinction, there is no satisfactory definition of the terms. In addition, the literature tends to reduce the complexity of the distinction to an overly simplistic and problematic dichotomy. Using a qualitative case study approach, this research article examines the native\\/nonnative status of six linguistically diverse teacher candidates in Canada. The candidates' self-designation

Farahnaz Faez

2011-01-01

80

Avalidated FISH trisomy index demonstrates the hyperdiploid and nonhyperdiploid dichotomy in MGUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two major genetic categories of multiple myeloma (MM) exist. Hyperdiploid MM (48 to 74chromosomes,median53chromosomes) is associated with trisomies especially of chromosomes3,7,9,11,15,and19,whereas the nonhyperdiploid (<48 chromosomes or more than 74 chromosomes) MM is associ- ated with primary translocations such as t(11;14), t(4;14), and t(14;16). Whether this dichotomy exists in monoclonal gammopa- thy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is uncertain due to limitations

Wee Joo Chng; Scott A. Van Wier; Gregory J. Ahmann; Jerry M. Winkler; Syed M. Jalal; Peter Leif Bergsagel; Marta Chesi; Mike C. Trendle; Martin M. Oken; Emily Blood; Kim Henderson; Rafael Santana-Davila; Robert A. Kyle; Morie A. Gertz; Martha Q. Lacy; Angela Dispenzieri; Philip R. Greipp; Rafael Fonseca

2005-01-01

81

Origin of the Martian global dichotomy by crustal thinning in the late Noachian or early Hesperian  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The marked dichotomy in topography, surface age, and crustal thickness between the northern lowland (NL) and southern upland of Mars has been explained as due to an initially inhomogeneous crust, a single megaimpact event, several overlapping large basin impacts, and first-order convective overtum of the Martian mantle. All of these hypotheses propose that the dichotomy was formed before the end of the primordial heavy bombardment. Geological data indicate episodes of fracturing and faulting in the late Noachian and the early Hesperian, within the NL and along the lowland/highland boundary. Igneous activity also peaked in the late Noachian and early Hesperian. These data suggest a tectonic event near the Noachian/Hesperian boundary characterized by enhanced heat loss and extensive fracturing, including formation of the faults that define much of the highland/lowland boundary. It is argued that the major result of this tectonic event was formation of the dichotomy by thinning of the crust above a large convection cell or plume.

McGill, George E.; Dimitriou, Andrew M.

1990-08-01

82

Origin of the Martian global dichotomy by crustal thinning in the late Noachian or early Hesperian  

SciTech Connect

The marked dichotomy in topography, surface age, and crustal thickness between the northern lowland and southern upland Mars has been explained as due to an initially inhomogeneous crust, a single mega-impact event, several overlapping large basin impacts, and first-order convective overturn of the martian mantle. All of the published hypotheses propose that the dichotomy was formed early in martian history; before the end of the primordial heavy bombardment. A primordial origin is inherent in the initial crustal inhomogeneity hypothesis, and required for both impact hypotheses. Endogenic hypotheses are not so constrained. Geological data indicate episodes of fracturing and faulting in the late Noachian and the early Hesperian. This fracturing and faulting occurred primarily within the northern lowland and along the boundary between lowland and highland. Igneous activity also peaked in the late Noachian and early Hesperian. These data suggest a tectonic event near the Noachian/Hesperian boundary characterized by enhanced heat loss and extensive fracturing, including formation of the faults that define much of the highland/lowland boundary. The authors argue that the major result of this tectonic event was formation of the dichotomy by thinning of the crust above a large convection cell or plume.

McGill, G.E.; Dimitriou, A.M. (Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst (United States))

1990-08-10

83

Origin of the Martian global dichotomy by crustal thinning in the late Noachian or early Hesperian  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The marked dichotomy in topography, surface age, and crustal thickness between the northern lowland (NL) and southern upland of Mars has been explained as due to an initially inhomogeneous crust, a single megaimpact event, several overlapping large basin impacts, and first-order convective overtum of the Martian mantle. All of these hypotheses propose that the dichotomy was formed before the end of the primordial heavy bombardment. Geological data indicate episodes of fracturing and faulting in the late Noachian and the early Hesperian, within the NL and along the lowland/highland boundary. Igneous activity also peaked in the late Noachian and early Hesperian. These data suggest a tectonic event near the Noachian/Hesperian boundary characterized by enhanced heat loss and extensive fracturing, including formation of the faults that define much of the highland/lowland boundary. It is argued that the major result of this tectonic event was formation of the dichotomy by thinning of the crust above a large convection cell or plume.

Mcgill, George E.; Dimitriou, Andrew M.

1990-01-01

84

Familiarity for Associations? A Test of the Domain Dichotomy Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Episodic recognition memory is mediated by functionally separable retrieval processes, notably familiarity (a general sense of prior exposure) and recollection (the retrieval of contextual details), whose relative engagement depends partly on the nature of the information being retrieved. Currently, the specific contribution of familiarity to…

Harlow, Iain M.; Mackenzie, Graham; Donaldson, David I.

2010-01-01

85

Dichotomy in host environments and signs of recycled AGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyse the relation between AGN host properties and large scale\\u000aenvironment for a representative red and blue AGN host galaxy sample selected\\u000afrom the DR4 SDSS. A comparison is made with two carefully constructed control\\u000asamples of non-active galaxies, covering the same redshift range and color\\u000abaseline. The cross-correlation functions show that the density distribution of\\u000aneighbours is almost

Georgina V. Coldwell; Diego G. Lambas; Ilona K. Soechting; Sebastian Gurovich

2009-01-01

86

Dichotomy in host environments and signs of recycled AGN  

E-print Network

We analyse the relation between AGN host properties and large scale environment for a representative red and blue AGN host galaxy sample selected from the DR4 SDSS. A comparison is made with two carefully constructed control samples of non-active galaxies, covering the same redshift range and color baseline. The cross-correlation functions show that the density distribution of neighbours is almost identical for blue galaxies, either active, or non-active. Although active red galaxies inhabit environments less dense compared to non-active red galaxies, both reside in environments considerably denser than those of blue hosts. Moreover, the radial density profile of AGN, relative to galaxy group centres is less concentrated than galaxies. This is particularly evident when comparing red AGN and non-active galaxies. The properties of the neighbouring galaxies of blue and red AGN and non active galaxies reflect this effect. While the neighbourhood of the blue samples is indistinguishable, the red AGN environs show ...

Coldwell, Georgina V; Soechting, Ilona K; Gurovich, Sebastian

2009-01-01

87

Neither metaphysical dichotomy nor pure identity: clarifying the emergentist creed.  

PubMed

Emergentism is often misleadingly described as a monolithic "third way" between radical monism and pluralism. In the particular case of biology, for example, emergentism is perceived as a middle course between mechanicism and vitalism. In the present paper I propose to show that the conceptual landscape between monism and pluralism is more complex than this classical picture suggests. On the basis of two successive analyses-distinguishing three forms of tension between monism and pluralism and a distinction between derivational and functional reduction-I define three different versions of emergentism that can be considered as consistent middle courses between monism and pluralism (respectively theoretical, explanatory and causal emergence). I then emphasise the advantage of this taxonomy of the concepts of emergence by applying the results of my analysis to the historical controversy that pertains to the relationship between life and matter. PMID:23701955

Sartenaer, Olivier

2013-09-01

88

Subsurface Structure of the Ismenius Area and Implications for Evolution of the Martian Dichotomy and Magnetic Field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Martian dichotomy divides the smooth, northern lowlands from the rougher southern highlands. The northern lowlands are largely free of magnetic anomalies, while the majority of the significant magnetic anomalies are located in the southern highlands. An elevation change of 2-4 km is typical across the dichotomy, and is up to 6 km locally. We examine a part of the dichotomy that is likely to preserve the early history of the dichotomy as it is relatively unaffected by major impacts and erosion. This study contains three parts: 1) the geologic history, which is summarized below and detailed in McGill et al., 2) the study of the gravity and magnetic field to better constrain the subsurface structure and history of the magnetic field (this abstract), and 3) modeling of the relaxation of this area. Our overall goal is to place constraints on formation models of the dichotomy by constraining lithospheric properties. Initial results for the analysis of the geology, gravity, and magnetic field studies are synthesized in Smrekar et al..

Smrekar, S. E.; Raymond, C. A.; McGill, G. E.

2004-01-01

89

The formation of Valles Marineris: 2. Stress focusing along the buried dichotomy boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although Valles Marineris is widely regarded as an extensional tectonic feature, the source of stress responsible for its formation remains unknown. This study argues that the tensile stresses that triggered Valles Marineris tectonism are a result of its location south of and subparallel to the buried crustal dichotomy boundary beneath Tharsis. The emplacement of the Tharsis volcanic load straddling the pre-existing topographic step of the crustal dichotomy boundary would have resulted in an abrupt change in the thickness of the load, causing differential subsidence and extension across the boundary. Thin-shell flexural models predict a narrow belt of focused tensile stresses south of the buried dichotomy boundary, coinciding with the location of present-day Valles Marineris. The interaction of these boundary-generated stresses with the competing stress fields associated with Tharsis loading can explain the formation of Noctis Labyrinthus in the west, and the deflection of the Valles Marineris troughs away from the buried boundary toward the east. Finite element models demonstrate that the magnitudes and vertical variations of stress at Valles Marineris are sensitive to the timing of loading and flexure in Tharsis. The incremental loading and flexure expected for a large volcanic rise results in the maximum tensile stress at Valles Marineris occurring at depth, with tensile stresses through the majority of the lithospheric column. Dikes forming within this tensile stress belt would propagate through the full vertical extent of the lithosphere due to the stress release associated with the dilation of the dikes, playing a crucial role in the formation of the Valles Marineris troughs.

Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C.

2012-04-01

90

Constraints on the radio-loud/radio-quiet dichotomy from the Fundamental Plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fundamental Plane for black hole activity constitutes a tight correlation between jet power, X-ray luminosity, and black hole mass. Under the assumption that a Blandford-Znajek-type mechanism, which relies on black hole spin, contributes non-negligibly to jet production, the sufficiently small scatter in the Fundamental Plane shows that black hole spin differences of |?a| ˜ 1 are not typical among the active galactic nuclei population. If - as it seems - radio-loud and radio-quiet objects are both faithful to the Fundamental Plane, models of black hole accretion in which the radio-loud/radio-quiet dichotomy is based on a spin dichotomy of a˜1/a˜0, respectively, are difficult to reconcile with the observations. We show how recent theoretical work based on differences in accretion flow orientation between retrograde and prograde, accommodates a small scatter in the Fundamental Plane for objects that do have non-negligible differences in black hole spin values. We also show that the dichotomy in spin between the most radio loud and the most radio quiet involves |?a| ? 0. And, finally, we show how the picture that produces compatibility with the Fundamental Plane, also allows one to interpret other otherwise puzzling observations of jets across the mass scale including (1) the recently observed inverse relation between radio and X-rays at higher Eddington ratios in both black hole X-ray binaries as well as active galactic nuclei and (2) the apparent contradiction between jet power and black hole spin observed in X-ray hard and transitory burst states in X-ray binaries.

Garofalo, David; Kim, Matthew I.; Christian, Damian J.

2014-08-01

91

Ethical dichotomies in organ transplantation. A time for bridge building.  

PubMed

Rapid advances of the past 15 years have resolved many of the technical and immunologic limitations to organ transplantation. With the success rates that can now be achieved, there is increased attention to the limited supply of donor organs and to cost considerations, the remaining obstacles to wide application of organ transplantation. Competition for organs and for funding demands greater focus on patient selection and resource allocation. As Charles Taylor, philosopher and political scientist, has written, ethical formulations inevitably conflict when each is taken to its logical end point. In the 1960s, a life boat ethics framework predominated for selection of transplant recipients. The opposing egalitarian framework of recent decades has allowed for enrollment of older transplant recipients and those with histories of substance abuse. In the United States, alcoholic liver disease has been the most common indication for orthotopic liver transplantation since 1987. Among those awaiting transplantation, urgency has been a priority over time waiting. But many potential transplant candidates who are young and who appear relatively stable die while waiting. Despite the shortage of cadaveric organs, physicians and ethicists have for the most part eschewed rewards or reimbursement for living related organ donation. Such conventions are a function of the prevailing zeitgeist and are susceptible to a paradigm shift in parallel with overall changes in societal regulation of medical practice. Theorists and practitioners are immersed in the trends of the day and the approach at each moment seems preferable to that of the moment preceding. From a practical standpoint it may be possible to bridge disparate ethical constructs. For example, in the wait for solid organ transplantation, a bicameral approach could alternatively accommodate time waiting and urgency. Selection of older patients and those with a past substance abuse history could be limited to those with the best prognosis for compliance and posttransplantation quality of life. Living organ donors and families of nonliving donors could receive incentives of a noncoercive nature that would stimulate participation without sacrificing altruism. Creative approaches are needed to improve fairness and efficacy in solid organ transplantation. PMID:8937918

Surman, O S; Cosimi, A B

1996-11-01

92

The HMA-LMA dichotomy revisited: an electron microscopical survey of 56 sponge species.  

PubMed

The dichotomy between high microbial abundance (HMA) and low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges has been long recognized. In the present study, 56 sponge species from three geographic regions (greater Caribbean, Mediterranean, Red Sea) were investigated by transmission electron microscopy for the presence of microorganisms in the mesohyl matrix. Additionally, bacterial enumeration by DAPI-counting was performed on a subset of samples. Of the 56 species investigated, 28 were identified as belonging to the HMA and 28 to the LMA category. The sponge orders Agelasida and Verongida consisted exclusively of HMA species, and the Poecilosclerida were composed only of LMA sponges. Other taxa contained both types of microbial associations (e.g., marine Haplosclerida, Homoscleromorpha, Dictyoceratida), and a clear phylogenetic pattern could not be identified. For a few sponge species, an intermediate microbial load was determined, and the microscopy data did not suffice to reliably determine HMA or LMA status. To experimentally determine the HMA or LMA status of a sponge species, we therefore recommend a combination of transmission electron microscopy and 16S rRNA gene sequence data. This study significantly expands previous reports on microbial abundances in sponge tissues and contributes to a better understanding of the HMA-LMA dichotomy in sponge-microbe symbioses. PMID:25216505

Gloeckner, Volker; Wehrl, Markus; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Gernert, Christine; Schupp, Peter; Pawlik, Joseph R; Lindquist, Niels L; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Wörheide, Gert; Hentschel, Ute

2014-08-01

93

Nodal-antinodal dichotomy and magic doping fractions in a stripe-ordered antiferromagnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a model of a stripe-ordered doped antiferromagnet consisting of coupled Hubbard ladders which can be tuned from quasi-one-dimensional to two-dimensional. We solve for the magnetization and charge density on the ladders by Hartree-Fock theory and find a set of solutions with lightly doped “spin-stripes” which are antiferromagnetic and more heavily doped antiphase “charge-stripes.” Both the spin- and charge-stripes have electronic spectral weight near the Fermi energy but in different regions of the Brillouin zone; the spin-stripes in the “nodal” region, near (?/2,?/2) , and the charge-stripes in the “antinodal” region, near (?,0) . We find a striking dichotomy between nodal and antinodal states in which the nodal states are essentially delocalized and two-dimensional whereas the antinodal states are quasi-one-dimensional, localized on individual charge-stripes. When supplemented by known results for the interacting quasi-one-dimensional electron gas the present work can provide a framework for understanding the nodal-antinodal dichotomy of the underdoped high- Tc cuprates. For bond-centered stripes we also find an even-odd effect of the charge periodicity on the spectral weight in the nodal region. We speculate that this may be related to observed nonmonotonous variations with doping of the low-temperature resistivity in La2-xSrxCuO4 .

Granath, Mats

2006-12-01

94

Sprouting by semi-arid plants: testing a dichotomy and predictive Peter A. Vesk, David I. Warton and Mark Westoby  

E-print Network

Sprouting by semi-arid plants: testing a dichotomy and predictive traits Peter A. Vesk, David I. Warton and Mark Westoby Vesk, P. A., Warton, D. I. and Westoby, M. 2004. Sprouting by semi-arid plants of a semi- arid flora to experimental disturbance; (2) how similar were sprouting responses to treatments

Vesk, Peter

95

Components of Candidate Images: Statistical Analysis of the Issue-Persona Dichotomy in the Presidential Campaign of 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the results of a study intended to test a specific hypothesis and a research question related to the theoretical development of the candidate image construct in political communication. Tests the long-standing assumption that there is a dichotomy between candidate issue positions and candidate persona impressions ("images"). Finds no…

Hacker, Kenneth L.; Zakahi, Walter R.; Giles, Maury J.; McQuitty, Shaun

2000-01-01

96

Structure of the Dichotomy Boundary at 50-90E Revealed by Geologic Mapping and Gravity and Magnetic Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the 50-90E section of the dichotomy, the gravity and magnetic fields correlate with a buried fault. These data will be used to infer fault slip and thickness of the magnetic layer. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Smrekar, S. E.; Raymond, C. A.; McGill, G. E.

2002-01-01

97

Indigenous Knowledge and Education from the Quechua Community to School: Beyond the Formal/Non-Formal Dichotomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we propose to approach Indigenous education beyond the formal/non-formal dichotomy. We argue that there is a critical need to conscientiously include Indigenous knowledge in education processes from the school to the community; particularly, when formal systems exclude Indigenous cultures and languages. Based on ethnographic…

Sumida Huaman, Elizabeth; Valdiviezo, Laura Alicia

2014-01-01

98

A Diurnal Dichotomy in Venus Upper Atmospheric Circulation: June 2012 Solar Transit Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We obtained sub-millimeter line absorption spectra of 12CO (346 gHz) and 13CO (330 gHz) around the atmospheric limb of Venus; as illuminated by the Sun during the June 5, 2012 solar transit, and as observed from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Doppler line shifts retrieved around the Venus atmospheric limb, associated with upper mesospheric/lower thermospheric (90-115 km) winds, indicate strong axis-symmetric subsolar-to-antisolar (SSAS) circulation across the circumdisk terminator of Venus. This SSAS circulation contrasts with the full nightside circulation revealed by on-disk Doppler wind measurements, obtained before, during, and after solar transit, that indicate a strong retrograde zonal wind component. These unique Venus solar transit observations thus demonstrate a striking dichotomy in the dayside and nightside circulations of the Venus upper atmosphere.

Clancy, R. T.; Sandor, B. J.; Hoge, J.

2012-10-01

99

On the fundamental dichotomy in the local radio-AGN population: accretion, evolution and host galaxy properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sample of 18 286 radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) is presented, constructed by combining the seventh data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with the NRAO (National Radio Astronomy Observatory) VLA (Very Large Array) Sky Survey (NVSS) and the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimetres (FIRST) survey. Using this sample, the differences between radio galaxies of 'high-excitation' ('quasar-mode'; hereafer HERG) and 'low-excitation' ('radio-mode'; LERG) are investigated. A primary difference between the two radio source classes is the distinct nature of the Eddington-scaled accretion rate on to their central black holes: HERGs typically have accretion rates between one per cent and 10 per cent of their Eddington rate, whereas LERGs predominately accrete at a rate below one per cent Eddington. This is consistent with models whereby the population dichotomy is caused by a switch between radiatively efficient and radiatively inefficient accretion modes at low accretion rates. Local radio luminosity functions are derived separately for the two populations, for the first time, showing that although LERGs dominate at low radio luminosity and HERGs begin to take over at L1.4 GHz˜ 1026 W Hz-1, examples of both classes are found at all radio luminosities. Using the V/Vmax test it is shown that the two populations show differential cosmic evolution at fixed radio luminosity: HERGs evolve strongly at all radio luminosities, while LERGs show weak or no evolution. This suggests that the luminosity dependence of the evolution previously seen in the radio luminosity function is driven, at least in part, by the changing relative contributions of these two populations with luminosity. The host galaxies of the radio sources are also distinct: HERGs are typically of lower stellar mass, with lower black hole masses, bluer colours, lower concentration indices and less pronounced 4000 Å breaks indicating younger stellar populations. Even if samples are matched in radio luminosity and stellar and black hole masses, significant differences still remain between the accretion rates, stellar populations and structural properties of the host galaxies of the two radio source classes. These results offer strong support to the developing picture of radio-loud AGN in which HERGs are fuelled at high rates through radiatively efficient standard accretion discs by cold gas, perhaps brought in through mergers and interactions, while LERGs are fuelled via radiatively inefficient flows at low accretion rates. In this picture, the gas supplying the LERGs is frequently associated with the hot X-ray haloes surrounding massive galaxies, groups and clusters, as part of a radio-AGN feedback loop.

Best, P. N.; Heckman, T. M.

2012-04-01

100

The Crustal Dichotomy Boundary West of Tempe Terra: Speculation on Where it Lies Beneath Alba Patera Based on Mola Topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MOLA gridded data based on profiles collected during the Aerobraking Hiatus and Science Phasing Operations suggest the crustal dichotomy boundary west of Tempe continues beneath Alba volcanics, at least to 105 W at about 50 N. A broad shelf-like region in the Alba units is continuous with a similar region of Tempe in which Hesperian volcanics overlie Noachian cratered terrain. Perspective views show significant changes in the sloping character of the flanks of Alba east and west of 105W, with much more continuous steep topography to the west. We suggest that Alba sits astride the ancient crustal dichotomy boundary, not adjacent to it, and that its eastern half lies on old cratered terrain. If true, this would significantly affect the estimate of Alba volcanics volumes, and might also explain some of the observed asymmetries in the structure and the distribution of faults associated with this immense feature.

Frey, H.; Roark, J.; Sakimoto, S.; McGovern, P.

1999-01-01

101

Is there an association between postural balance and pulmonary function in adults with asthma?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Asthma may cause systemic repercussions due to its severity and the effects of treatment. Our objective was to compare posture, balance, functional capacity, and quality of life (QOL) according to the severity of disease, as assessed by pulmonary function levels. METHOD: This cross-sectional study evaluated fifty individuals with asthma. We compared two groups of adult individuals who were divided according to the median of the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) as follows: group A ?=? FEV1>74% predicted; group B ?=? FEV1<74% predicted. All patients underwent the following tests: spirometry, whole-body plethysmography, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco), respiratory muscle strength, posture assessment, stabilometry, six-minute walking distance (6MWD), and QOL. RESULTS: All pulmonary function variables exhibited statistically significant differences between the two groups, except for the DLco. The maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), and 6MWD were lower in group B. The maximal mediolateral velocity and the mediolateral displacement were significantly different, while the postural changes and QOL were similar between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: In adult individuals with asthma, the pulmonary function is associated with balance control in the mediolateral direction but does not influence the postural changes or QOL. PMID:24270954

de Almeida, Vívian Pinto; Guimarães, Fernando Silva; Moço, Vanessa Joaquim Ribeiro; de Sá Ferreira, Arthur; de Menezes, Sara Lucia Silveira; Lopes, Agnaldo José

2013-01-01

102

EXAMINING THE RADIO-LOUD/RADIO-QUIET DICHOTOMY WITH NEW CHANDRA AND VLA OBSERVATIONS OF 13 UGC GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We present the results from new {approx}15 ks Chandra-ACIS and 4.9 GHz Very Large Array (VLA) observations of 13 galaxies hosting low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This completes the multiwavelength study of a sample of 51 nearby early-type galaxies described in Capetti and Balmaverde and Balmaverde and Capetti. The aim of the three previous papers was to explore the connection between the host galaxies and AGN activity in a radio-selected sample. We detect nuclear X-ray emission in eight sources and radio emission in all but one (viz., UGC 6985). The new VLA observations improve the spatial resolution by a factor of 10: the presence of nuclear radio sources in 12 of the 13 galaxies confirms their AGN nature. As previously indicated, the behavior of the X-ray and radio emission in these sources depends strongly on the form of their optical surface brightness profiles derived from Hubble Space Telescope imaging, i.e., on their classification as 'core', 'power-law', or 'intermediate' galaxies. With more than twice the number of 'power-law' and 'intermediate' galaxies compared to previous work, we confirm with a much higher statistical significance that these galaxies lie well above the radio-X-ray correlation established in Fanaroff-Riley type I radio galaxies and the low-luminosity 'core' galaxies. This result highlights the fact that the 'radio-loud/radio-quiet' dichotomy is a function of the host galaxy's optical surface brightness profile. We present radio-optical-X-ray spectral indices for all 51 sample galaxies. Survival statistics point to significant differences in the radio-to-optical and radio-to-X-ray spectral indices between the 'core' and 'power-law galaxies (Gehan's Generalized Wilcoxon test probability p for the two classes being statistically similar is <10{sup -5}), but not in the optical-to-X-ray spectral indices (p = 0.25). Therefore, the primary difference between the 'core' and 'power-law' galaxies is in their ability to launch powerful radio outflows. This result is consistent with the hypothesis of different formation processes and evolution histories in 'core' and 'power-law' galaxies: major mergers are likely to have created 'core' galaxies, while minor mergers were instrumental in the creation of 'power-law' galaxies.

Kharb, P.; Axon, D. J.; Robinson, A. [Physics Department, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Capetti, A.; Balmaverde, B. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, Strada Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Chiaberge, M.; Macchetto, D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Grandi, P. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Bologna (Italy); Giovannini, G. [INAF, Istituto di Radioastronomia di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Montez, R., E-mail: kharb@cis.rit.edu [Center for Imaging Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

2012-04-15

103

Black Hole Spin and Radio Loud/Quiet Dichotomy of Active Galactic Nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio loud active galactic nuclei are on average 1000 times brighter in the radio band than radio quiet ones. We investigate whether this radio loud/quiet dichotomy can be due to differences in the spin of central black holes (BHs) that power the radio emitting jets. We construct steady state axisymmetric numerical models for a wide range of BH spin, a. We assume that the magnetic flux that threads the BH is held constant. For a BH surrounded by a thin accretion disk, we find that the conventional expression for BH power, P a2, is accurate to within a factor of a few. We conclude that in this scenario differences in spin can account for power variations of at most a few tens. However, if the disk is thick, the power variation becomes much steeper, P a4 or even a6. Power variations of 1000 are then possible for realistic BH spin distributions. We derive an analytic solution that accurately reproduces the steeper scaling of jet power with spin.

Tchekhovskoy, Alexander; Narayan, R.; McKinney, J. C.

2011-09-01

104

EMBRYO IMPACTS AND GAS GIANT MERGERS. I. DICHOTOMY OF JUPITER AND SATURN's CORE MASS  

SciTech Connect

Interior to the gaseous envelopes of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, there are high-density cores with masses larger than 10 Earth masses. According to the conventional sequential accretion hypothesis, such massive cores are needed for the onset of efficient accretion of their gaseous envelopes. However, Jupiter's gaseous envelope is more massive and its core may be less massive than those of Saturn. In order to account for this structural diversity and the super-solar metallicity in the envelope of Jupiter and Saturn, we investigate the possibility that they may have either merged with other gas giants or consumed several Earth-mass protoplanetary embryos during or after the rapid accretion of their envelope. In general, impinging sub-Earth-mass planetesimals disintegrate in gas giants' envelopes, deposit heavy elements well outside the cores, and locally suppress the convection. Consequently, their fragments sediment to promote the growth of cores. Through a series of numerical simulations, we show that it is possible for colliding super-Earth-mass embryos to reach the cores of gas giants. Direct parabolic collisions also lead to the coalescence of gas giants and merging of their cores. In these cases, the energy released from the impact leads to vigorous convective motion throughout the envelope and the erosion of the cores. This dichotomy contributes to the observed dispersion in the internal structure and atmospheric composition between Jupiter and Saturn and other gas giant planets and elsewhere.

Li Shulin [Department of Astronomy, Kavli Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing (China); Agnor, C.B. [Astronomy Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London (United Kingdom); Lin, D. N. C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz (United States)

2010-09-10

105

Stabilization of fluorescent silver clusters by RNA homopolymers and their DNA analogs: C,G vs A,T(U) Dichotomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that single-stranded RNA stabilizes fluorescent silver nanoclusters (Ag:RNAs) in aqueous solution, analogous to previously studied Ag:DNAs. To determine whether the different canonical nucleosides play similar roles in stabilizing fluorescent silver species in RNA and DNA hosts, we compare RNA homopolymers of rA,rC,rG and rU to their DNA counterparts, and observe the same base-dependent dichotomy: visible- to IR-emitting silver complexes are stabilized by C and G homopolymers, but not by A or T(U) homopolymers at neutral pH. Shifts in emission wavelengths between Ag:RNA and Ag:DNA analogs show that both base and sugar influence populations of fluorescent species. The data indicate a minimum binding-pocket size of roughly five C or G bases for fluorescent species. These findings open the scope of silver cluster fluorophores to the diversely structured and functional arena of RNA and have implications for rational designs of nucleic acid hosts. Supported by NSF CHE-0848375.

Schultz, Danielle; Gwinn, Elisabeth

2011-03-01

106

VISIR/VLT mid-infrared imaging of Seyfert nuclei: Nuclear dust emission and the Seyfert-2 dichotomy  

E-print Network

Half of the Seyfert-2 galaxies escaped detection of broad lines in their polarised spectra observed so far. Some authors have suspected that these non-HBLRs contain real Sy2 nuclei without intrinsic broad line region hidden behind a dust torus. If this were true, then their nuclear structure would fundamentally differ from that of Sy2s with polarised broad lines: in particular, they would not be explained by orientation-based AGN unification. Further arguments for two physically different Sy2 populations have been derived from the warm and cool IRAS F25/F60 ratios. These ratios, however, refer to the entire host galaxies and are unsuitable to conclusively establish the absence of a nuclear dust torus. Instead, a study of the Seyfert-2 dichotomy should be performed on the basis of nuclear properties only. Here we present the first comparison between [OIII] 5007A and mid-infrared imaging at matching spatial resolution. Exploring the Seyfert-2 dichotomy we find that the distributions of nuclear mid-infrared/[OIII] luminosity ratios are indistinguishable for Sy1s and Sy2s with and without detected polarised broad lines and irrespective of having warm or cool IRAS F25/F60 ratios. We find no evidence for the existence of a population of real Sy2s with a deficit of nuclear dust emission. Our results suggest 1) that all Seyfert nuclei possess the same physical structure including the putative dust torus and 2) that the cool IRAS colours are caused by a low contrast of AGN to host galaxy. Then the Seyfert-2 dichotomy is explained in part by unification of non-HBLRs with narrow-line Sy1s and to a larger rate by observational biases caused by a low AGN/host contrast and/or an unfavourable scattering geometry.

Martin Haas; Ralf Siebenmorgen; Eric Pantin; Hannes Horst; Alain Smette; Hans-Ulrich Kaufl; Pierre-Olivier Lagage; Rolf Chini

2007-07-18

107

Geologic Evolution of the Martian Dichotomy in the Ismenius Area of Mars and Implications for Plains Magnetization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The origin of the Martian dichotomy, which divides highlands from lowlands, is unknown. We examine a section of the dichotomy ( 50 - 90E) defined by steep scarps and normal faults. Stratigraphy and age relationships preclude the formation of the 2.5 km high boundary via erosion. The abrupt disappearance of topographic knobs similar to 300 - 500 km to the northeast is interpreted as a buried fault. Alignment of the buried fault with grabens, stratigraphy, and age determinations using crater counts indicate that the lowland bench is down faulted highlands crust. The estimated local strain (3.5%) and fault pattern are broadly consistent with gravitational relaxation of a plateau boundary. Magnetic and gravity anomalies occur on either side of the buried fault. Admittance analysis indicates isostatic compensation. Although nonunique, a model with a 10 km thick intracrustal block under the lowland bench, a 20 km thick block under the plains, and an excess density of 200 kg/m(3) provides a good fit to the isostatic anomaly. A good fit to a profile of the magnetic field perpendicular to the dichotomy is produced using uniformly polarized intracrustal blocks 10 - 20 km thick, an intensity of 6 Am/m, a field inclination of -30 degrees, and gaps aligned with the isostatic anomalies. One interpretation is that high-density intrusions demagnetized the crust after dynamo cessation and that low-lying magnetized areas could be down faulted highlands crust. Another model (inclination of 30 degrees) has magnetized crust beneath the isostatic anomalies, separated by gaps. The gaps could result from hydrothermal alteration of the crust along fault zones.

Smrekar, S. E.; McGill, G. E.; Raymond, C. A.; Dimitriou, A. M.

2004-01-01

108

Three-dimensional simulations of the southern polar giant impact hypothesis for the origin of the Martian dichotomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

demonstrate via numerical simulations that the impact of a ~lunar-sized body with Mars is capable of creating a hemispherical magma ocean that upon cooling and solidification resulted in the formation of the southern highlands and thus the Martian dichotomy. The giant impact may have contributed a significant amount of iron to the Martian core and generated a deep thermal anomaly that led to the onset and development of the volcanism in the southern highlands. Our model predicts several mantle plumes converging to the South Pole from the equatorial regions as well as new plumes forming in the equatorial region and also an absence of significant large-scale volcanism in the northern lowlands. The core heat flux evolution obtained from our numerical models is consistent with the decline of the magnetic field. We argue that such a scenario is more consistent with a range of observations than a northern giant impact (excavating the Borealis basin) for the formation of the Martian dichotomy.

Leone, Giovanni; Tackley, Paul J.; Gerya, Taras V.; May, Dave A.; Zhu, Guizhi

2014-12-01

109

DISCLOSING THE RADIO LOUDNESS DISTRIBUTION DICHOTOMY IN QUASARS: AN UNBIASED MONTE CARLO APPROACH APPLIED TO THE SDSS-FIRST QUASAR SAMPLE  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the dichotomy in the radio loudness distribution of quasars by modeling their radio emission and various selection effects using a Monte Carlo approach. The existence of two physically distinct quasar populations, the radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, is controversial and over the last decade a bimodal distribution of radio loudness of quasars has been both affirmed and disputed. We model the quasar radio luminosity distribution with simple unimodal and bimodal distribution functions. The resulting simulated samples are compared to a fiducial sample of 8300 quasars drawn from the SDSS DR7 Quasar Catalog and combined with radio observations from the FIRST survey. Our results indicate that the SDSS-FIRST sample is best described by a radio loudness distribution which consists of two components, with (12 {+-} 1)% of sources in the radio-loud component. On the other hand, the evidence for a local minimum in the loudness distribution (bimodality) is not strong and we find that previous claims for its existence were probably affected by the incompleteness of the FIRST survey close to its faint limit. We also investigate the redshift and luminosity dependence of the radio loudness distribution and find tentative evidence that at high redshift radio-loud quasars were rarer, on average louder, and exhibited a smaller range in radio loudness. In agreement with other recent work, we conclude that the SDSS-FIRST sample strongly suggests that the radio loudness distribution of quasars is not a universal function, and that more complex models than presented here are needed to fully explain available observations.

Balokovic, M. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Smolcic, V. [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie, Auf dem Hugel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ivezic, Z. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Zamorani, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Schinnerer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kelly, B. C. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

2012-11-01

110

Melnikov vector function for high-dimensional maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using the exponential dichotomy and a unified geometrical method we calculate explicitly the Melnikov vector function assuring the existence of transversal homoclinic points for general perturbations of high-dimensional maps possessing a saddle connection, thus generalizing the results of Glasser et al. [SIAM J. Appl. Math. 49 (1989) 692] and Easton [Nonl. Anal. Theory Meth. Appl. 8 (1984) 1].

Sun, J. H.

1996-02-01

111

Water in the Lunar Interior and the Apparent KREEP-Mare Dichotomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent SIMS analysis of lunar apatite has shown that hydroxyl is structurally bound within lunar apatite from a number of different lunar lithologic types (McCubbin et al., 2010a, 2010b; Boyce et al., 2010; Greenwood et al., 2010). These studies along with previous SIMS analyses of lunar fire fountain glasses (Saal et al., 2008) confirm that there is at least some water in the lunar interior, with abundance estimates in magmatic source regions ranging from 64 ppb to 5 ppm water (McCubbin et al., 2010a). Surprisingly, apatite from rocks with KREEP-rich incompatible trace element signatures are depleted in hydroxyl in comparison to apatite from typical mare basalts. This result is counter-intuitive to the lunar magma ocean model, which predicts that incompatible constituents (e.g., water) would have been concentrated in the last dregs of liquid referred to as “urKREEP”. The mare basalts, which formed by partial melting of earlier LMO cumulates, are typically depleted in these incompatible constituents. Complicating the issue further, chlorine, another incompatible magmatic volatile element in apatite, follows the predicted trend with apatite from KREEP-rich rocks containing significant chlorine concentrations in comparison to apatite from mare basalts (McCubbin et al., 2009). The preceding results imply one of two scenarios 1) Water did not behave incompatibly during LMO crystallization and was preferentially stored within the LMO cumulate minerals 2) A secondary process such as degassing has perturbed the initial volatile contents of the urKREEP liquid or of the secondary magmas that have KREEP-rich incompatible trace element signatures. In regards to the first scenario, the mineral melt partition coefficients for water would need to have exceeded unity at the very low water concentrations of the LMO liquid. This scenario is consistent with the behavior of chlorine, as chlorine is not typically stored in nominally anhydrous phases like pyroxene or olivine, likely due to its large ionic radius. However, there is no empirical or experimental evidence to support the elevated D values for water. Regarding the second scenario, if significant degassing of the urKREEP liquid or KREEP-rich secondary magmas occurred, water would have certainly been lost preferentially to the other volatile constituents in apatite (fluorine and chlorine); however chlorine isotopes analyzed in lunar apatites are highly fractionated (Sharp et al., 2010), indicating degassing of chlorine in the absence of water. Therefore, this scenario only works if degassing on the Moon was a multi-stage and complex process where water and chlorine degassing are decoupled, which is not typically the case for terrestrial systems (Aiuppa et al., 2009, Webster and De Vivo, 2002; Webster et al., 1999). Solving this apparent KREEP-mare dichotomy regarding magmatic volatiles in the lunar interior is the next important step in figuring out the importance, relevance, and implications of water in the lunar interior. Moreover, it will lend insight into the roles of the other magmatic volatiles during the thermal and magmatic evolution of the Moon.

McCubbin, F. M.; Nekvasil, H.

2010-12-01

112

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 365, 178180 (2006) doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2005.09720.x The period dichotomy in terrestrial impact crater ages  

E-print Network

dichotomy in terrestrial impact crater ages Richard B. Stothers NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies form 2005 August 8 ABSTRACT Impact cratering on the Earth during the past 250 Myr has occurred with either of two apparent periodicities, 30 or 35 Myr, depending on the set of impact crater ages

113

Dementia praecox and manic-depressive insanity in 1908: a Grade of Membership analysis of the Kraepelinian dichotomy.  

PubMed

Grade of Membership (GoM) analysis, a multivariate classification technique based on fuzzy-set mathematics, was applied to the demographic, history, and mental-state data on 53 dementia praecox cases and 134 manic-depressive insanity cases admitted to Kraepelin's University Psychiatric Clinic in Munich in 1908. The original data recorded by Kraepelin and his collaborators on special Zählkarten (counting cards) were rated and coded in terms of the Present State Examination (PSE) Syndrome Check List. The statistical analysis resulted in a high degree of replication of Kraepelin's clinical entities. However, the dichotomy of dementia praecox and manic-depressive insanity was not fully supported. The catatonic syndrome tended to occupy an intermediate position between the two major psychoses. The possibility is discussed that catatonia in Kraepelin's time shared certain clinical features with the later diagnostic groupings of schizoaffective disorder, cycloid psychoses, and other "atypical" forms of psychotic illnesses. PMID:7578282

Jablensky, A; Woodbury, M A

1995-01-01

114

Fire-mediated disruptive selection can explain the reseeder-resprouter dichotomy in Mediterranean-type vegetation.  

PubMed

Crown fire is a key selective pressure in Mediterranean-type plant communities. Adaptive responses to fire regimes involve trade-offs between investment for persistence (fire survival and resprouting) and reproduction (fire mortality, fast growth to reproductive maturity, and reseeding) as investments that enhance adult survival lower growth and reproductive rates. Southern hemisphere Mediterranean-type ecosystems are dominated by species with either endogenous regeneration from adult resprouting or fire-triggered seedling recruitment. Specifically, on nutrient-poor soils, these are either resprouting or reseeding life histories, with few intermediate forms, despite the fact that the transition between strategies is evolutionarily labile. How did this strong dichotomy evolve? We address this question by developing a stochastic demographic model to assess determinants of relative fitness of reseeders, resprouters and hypothetical intermediate forms. The model was parameterised using published demographic data from South African protea species and run over various relevant fire regime parameters facets. At intermediate fire return intervals, trade-offs between investment in growth versus fire resilience can cause fitness to peak at either of the extremes of the reseeder-resprouter continuum, especially when assuming realistic non-linear shapes for these trade-offs. Under these circumstances, the fitness landscape exhibits a saddle which could lead to disruptive selection. The fitness gradient between the peaks was shallow, which may explain why this life-history trait is phylogenetically labile. Resprouters had maximum fitness at shorter fire-return intervals than reseeders. The model suggests that a strong dichotomy in fire survival strategy depends on a non-linear trade-off between growth and fire persistence traits. PMID:25348575

Altwegg, Res; De Klerk, Helen M; Midgley, Guy F

2015-02-01

115

The Smoking Gun: Remanent Magnetic Anomalies on Mars and the Formation of the Crustal Dichotomy via Giant Impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of large-scale crustal magnetic anomalies in the Southern Highlands of Mars is equivocal. Though some are indeed elongated primarily in the east-west direction, initial map projections exacerbated their linear nature, leading to the hypothesis that the anomalies are equivalent to magnetic stripes due to spreading of Earth's sea floor and hence to the proposal of plate tectonics on Mars. This interpretation, however, is inconsistent with Martian geology. For instance, a plate-tectonics model predicts the anomalies should be formed in thin, oceanic crust at low elevation, but instead they are found in the thick crust of the Highlands, not in the thin crust of the Northern Lowlands. Indeed, the formation of this Crustal Dichotomy is also equivocal, with models ranging from a giant impact (or multiple smaller impacts) near either the current north or south poles, to plate tectonics-like processes, to mantle convection, either eroding the crust in the northern hemisphere or thickening the crust in the south. Recently, the idea of a giant impact in the north has been resurrected, with the proposal that the Dichotomy results from the formation of an elliptical basin by a giant impact very early in Martian history. While it may be tempting to suggest that the current, generally demagnetized state of the Northern Lowlands may be related to this impact, this linkage makes implicit assumptions about the timing of dynamo shut-off on Mars, and it neglects other demagnetization mechanisms possibly operating in the Lowlands after such an impact (e.g., later hydrothermal processing). More direct magnetic evidence for the giant impact hypothesis would come if the remanent magnetism in Southern Highlands were relatable in a unique way to the putative impact. Here, we show that the positions of many of the dominant elongated magnetic anomalies on Mars are consistent with the first ring of a multi-ring basin. The best match comes from an ellipse ~2200 km wider than the inferred boundary of the basin. This distance is the square root of 2 minus 1 of the long axis, and root-2 spacing is characteristic of the inward dipping normal faults in multi-ring basins. The constant distance of our predicted ring, as opposed to variable spacing due to the elliptical nature of the basin, is also consistent with the idea that multi-ring basins form from stress release during inward collapse of the transient crater. Because of the size of the basin, the second ring would be found in the antipodal region, where its formation is dubious and where seismic focusing from the impact has been proposed to explain the generally absent magnetic anomalies in the south polar region. The observation that the elongated magnetic anomalies on Mars mark the first ring around a basin both provides an explanation for the formation of many of the anomalies, and supports the hypothesis that the Crustal Dichotomy of Mars is the product of a giant impact that formed an elliptical basin.

Dombard, A. J.; Johnson, C. L.

2011-12-01

116

EVERY BCG WITH A STRONG RADIO AGN HAS AN X-RAY COOL CORE: IS THE COOL CORE-NONCOOL CORE DICHOTOMY TOO SIMPLE?  

SciTech Connect

The radio active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback in X-ray cool cores has been proposed as a crucial ingredient in the evolution of baryonic structures. However, it has long been known that strong radio AGNs also exist in 'noncool core' clusters, which brings up the question whether an X-ray cool core is always required for the radio feedback. In this work, we present a systematic analysis of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and strong radio AGNs in 152 groups and clusters from the Chandra archive. All 69 BCGs with radio AGN more luminous than 2 x 10{sup 23} W Hz{sup -1} at 1.4 GHz are found to have X-ray cool cores. BCG cool cores can be divided into two classes: the large cool core (LCC) class and the corona class. Small coronae, easily overlooked at z > 0.1, can trigger strong heating episodes in groups and clusters, long before LCCs are formed. Strong radio outbursts triggered by coronae may destroy embryonic LCCs and thus provide another mechanism to prevent the formation of LCCs. However, it is unclear whether coronae are decoupled from the radio feedback cycles as they have to be largely immune to strong radio outbursts. Our sample study also shows the absence of groups with a luminous cool core while hosting a strong radio AGN, which is not observed in clusters. This points to a greater impact of radio heating on low-mass systems than clusters. Few L {sub 1.4GHz} > 10{sup 24} W Hz{sup -1} radio AGNs (approx16%) host an L {sub 0.5-10keV} > 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} X-ray AGN, while above these thresholds, all X-ray AGNs in BCGs are also radio AGNs. As examples of the corona class, we also present detailed analyses of a BCG corona associated with a strong radio AGN (ESO 137-006 in A3627) and one of the faintest coronae known (NGC 4709 in the Centaurus cluster). Our results suggest that the traditional cool core/noncool core dichotomy is too simple. A better alternative is the cool core distribution function, with the enclosed X-ray luminosity or gas mass.

Sun, M., E-mail: msun@virginia.ed [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)

2009-10-20

117

Numerical study of the blowup/global existence dichotomy for the focusing cubic nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present some numerical findings concerning the nature of the blowup versus global existence dichotomy for the focusing cubic nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation in three dimensions for radial data. The context of this study is provided by the classic paper by Payne and Sattinger (1975 Israel J. Math. 22 273-303), as well as the recent work by Nakanishi and Schlag (2010 J. Diff. Eqns arXiv:1005.4894). Specifically, we numerically investigate the boundary of the forward scattering region. While the results of (2010 J. Diff. Eqns arXiv:1005.4894) guarantee that this boundary is smooth at energies which are near the ground state energy, it is currently unknown whether or not it continues to be a smooth manifold at higher energies. While we do not find convincing evidence of either smoothness or singularity formation, our numerical work does indicate that at larger energies the boundary becomes much more complicated than at energies near that of the ground state.

Donninger, R.; Schlag, W.

2011-09-01

118

Probabilistic approach to a proliferation and migration dichotomy in tumor cell invasion Sergei Fedotov1  

E-print Network

that the diffusion coefficient of cancer cells is a decreasing function of cell density 4 . As a result the cancer. The balance equations for the cancer cells of two phenotypes with random switching between cell proliferation brain cancer is the ability of tumor cells to invade the normal tissue away from the multicell tumor

Fedotov, Sergei

119

Dichotomy in host environments and signs of recycled active galactic nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyse the relation between active galactic nuclei (AGN) host properties and large-scale environment for a representative red and blue AGN host galaxy sample selected from the Data Release 4 Sloan Digital Sky Survey. A comparison is made with two carefully constructed control samples of non-active galaxies, covering the same redshift range and colour baseline. The cross-correlation functions show that

Georgina V. Coldwell; Diego G. Lambas; Ilona K. Söchting; Sebastián Gurovich

2009-01-01

120

SERPINE1: A Molecular Switch in the Proliferation-Migration Dichotomy in Wound-“Activated” Keratinocytes  

PubMed Central

Significance: A highly interactive serine protease/plasmin/matrix metalloproteinase axis regulates stromal remodeling in the wound microenvironment. Current findings highlight the importance of stringent controls on protease expression and their topographic activities in cell proliferation, migration, and tissue homeostasis. Targeting elements in this cascading network may lead to novel therapeutic approaches for fibrotic diseases and chronic wounds. Recent Advances: Matrix-active proteases and their inhibitors orchestrate wound site tissue remodeling, cell migration, and proliferation. Indeed, the serine proteases urokinase plasminogen activator and tissue-type plasminogen activator (uPA/tPA) and their major phsyiological inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1; serine protease inhibitor clade E member 1 [SERPINE1]), are upregulated in several cell types during injury repair. Coordinate expression of proteolytic enzymes and their inhibitors in the wound bed provides a mechanism for fine control of focal proteolysis to facilitate matrix restructuring and cell motility in complex environments. Critical Issues: Cosmetic and tissue functional consequences of wound repair anomalies affect the quality of life of millions of patients in the United States alone. The development of novel therapeutics to manage individuals most affected by healing anomalies will likely derive from the identification of critical, translationally accessible, control elements in the wound site microenvironment. Future Directions: Activation of the PAI-1 gene early after wounding, its prominence in the repair transcriptome and varied functions suggest a key role in the global cutaneous injury response program. Targeting PAI-1 gene expression and/or PAI-1 function with molecular genetic constructs, neutralizing antibodies or small molecule inhibitors may provide a novel, therapeutically relevant approach, to manage the pathophysiology of wound healing disorders associated with deficient or excessive PAI-1 levels. PMID:24669362

Simone, Tessa M.; Higgins, Craig E.; Czekay, Ralf-Peter; Law, Brian K.; Higgins, Stephen P.; Archambeault, Jaclyn; Kutz, Stacie M.; Higgins, Paul J.

2014-01-01

121

Towards self-consistent modelling of the Martian dichotomy: Coupled models of simultaneous core and crust formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most striking surface features on Mars is the crustal dichotomy. The crustal dichotomy, a large difference in elevation and crustal thickness between the southern highlands and the northern lowlands, is the oldest geological feature on Mars. It was formed more than 4.1 Ga ago [Solomon et al., 2005; Nimmo and Tanaka, 2005; Frey, 2006] owing to either exogenic [e.g. Nimmo et al., 2008; Andrews-Hanna et al., 2008] or endogenic processes [e.g. Zhong and Zuber, 2001; Roberts and Zhong, 2006; Keller and Tackley, 2009]. Based on the geochemical analysis of SNC meteorites it was suggested that a primordial crust with up to 45 km thickness can be formed already during the Martian core formation [Norman, 1999]. The final accretion stage of terrestrial planets is based on stochastically distributed impacts [e.g. Chambers, 2004; Rubie et al., 2007]. Therefore we suggest that the sinking of iron diapirs, delivered by late pre-differentiated impactors, might have induced shear heating-related temperature anomalies in the mantle, which fostered the formation of early Martian crust. In this study, we examine parameter sets that will likely cause an onset of hemispherical low-degree mantle convection directly after, and coupled to, an already asymmetrical core formation. To test this hypothesis we use a numerical model, where we self-consistently couple the formation of the Martian iron core to the onset of mantle convection and crust formation. We perform 2D spherical simulations using the code I2ELVIS applying the newly developed "spherical-Cartesian" methodology [Gerya and Yuen, 2007]. It combines finite differences on a fully staggered rectangular Eulerian grid and Lagrangian marker-in-cell technique for solving momentum, continuity and temperature equations as well as Poisson equation for gravity potential in a self-gravitating planetary body. In this model, the planet is surrounded by a low viscosity, massless fluid ("sticky air") to simulate a free surface [Schmeling et al., 2008]. Previous studies showed that the convection patterns in the Martian mantle are highly dependent on its effective viscosity structure [e.g. Harder and Christensen, 1996; Keller and Tackley, 2009]. Therefore we apply a temperature, stress- and phase-dependent viscoplastic rheology inside a Mars-sized planet and include radioactive-, shear- and adiabatic heating. As initial condition we employ randomly distributed diapirs with 75 km radius inside the accreting planet, which represent the iron delivered by predifferentiated impactors. Additionally, we explore the effect of a giant impactor core on the planetary evolution. To self-consistently simulate the mineralogical phase changes expected inside a Mars-sized body, we employ the thermodynamical PerpleX database [Connolly, 2005]. First results indicate that both the presence of one large impactor core and viscosity layering due to phase-dependent rheology might induce low-degree convection already during core formation. Furthermore, the amplitude of shear heating anomalies generally well exceeds the solidus of primitive mantle material. Therefore the formation of a considerable amount of melt is to be expected. Since preliminary studies indicate that most heat is released at mid-mantle depth, some of the generated melt will segregate to the surface to form basaltic crust, whereas negatively buoyant melt from deeper sources will sink to the CMB. The depth of neutral buoyancy will be determined by the difference in compressibility of melt relative to solid silicates. Both the hemispherical asymmetry induced by a giant impactor as well as the low-degree pattern of convection caused by phase-dependent viscosity may therefore contribute to an early evolution of a dichotomous crustal thickness distribution.

Keller, T.; Golabek, G.; Gerya, T. V.; Connolly, J.

2009-04-01

122

Dissecting the polar dichotomy of the noncondensable gas enhancement on Mars using the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric processes underlying the observed spatial and temporal enhancement of noncondensing gases in Mars' atmosphere are investigated. The Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on board Mars Odyssey has obtained measurements indicating that the absolute and relative column abundance of noncondensing gases (primarily argon and nitrogen) maximizes at high latitudes in both hemispheres during winter as CO2 gas condenses and forms the seasonal polar ice cap. This condensing CO2 "leaves behind" noncondensing gases whose local absolute and relative column abundances can increase at a rate controlled by mixing with less-enhanced air from lower latitudes. Understanding the processes responsible for the magnitude and seasonal variations of these enhancement values is an aid in understanding atmospheric transport processes. The NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model is employed to help understand the atmospheric thermodynamical mechanisms that give rise to the observed temporal and magnitude variations in the polar enhancement values. The model produces a threefold noncondensable gas enhancement in the south polar region and an approximate 1.4-fold increase in noncondensables in the north polar region. These model results are temporally consistent with observed values, but the observed enhancement magnitudes exceed those modeled by up to a factor of two. The difference in strength and the season of formation between transient eddies in the southern and northern hemispheres may play a large role in determining the different character of the two polar enhancements. Model simulations also illuminate the effect that topography, orbital eccentricity, and atmospheric dust opacity have on producing the north versus south polar enhancement dichotomy.

Nelli, Steven M.; Murphy, James R.; Sprague, Ann L.; Boynton, William V.; Kerry, Kris E.; Janes, Daniel M.; Metzger, Albert E.

2007-08-01

123

Relative Ages of the Highlands, Lowlands, and Transition Zone Along a Portion of the Mars Crustal Dichotomy from Densities of Visible and Buried Impact Craters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding the fundamental age relationships of the different parts of the Mars Crustal Dichotomy is essential to fully understanding the events that shaped the early history and formation of the surface of Mars. A dominant question is what are the true relative ages of the Northern Lowlands and the Southern Highlands? Using MOLA data from the Mars Global Surveyor and Viking visual images, a dataset of both buried and visible crater diameters was created over a nine million sq km study area of a section of the dichotomy boundary stretching from Arabia Terra to Utopia Planitia. Cumulative frequency plots on a log-log scale were used to determine the relative ages for the Highlands, the Lowlands, and the Transition Zone, separately for the visible, the buried and the combined total (visible+ buried) populations. We find the overall Highland crater population in this area is slightly older than the Lowlands, consistent with previous global studies, but the Lowlands and Transition Zone are also very old and formed at roughly the same time. It appears that the formation of the Lowlands in this region formed contemporaneously with a large-scale resurfacing event in the Highlands, perhaps caused by the process responsible for the Lowland formation.

DeSoto, G. E.; Frey, H. V.

2005-01-01

124

Fractures of the Middle Third of the Tibia Treated with a Functional Brace  

PubMed Central

It generally is accepted that fractures of the tibia located in the proximal and distal thirds tend to angulate more than midshaft fractures when treated with intramedullary nails. We therefore compared the angular deformities and final shortening of 434 closed fractures located in the middle third of the tibia treated with a functional brace with those in fractures in the proximal and distal thirds treated in the same manner. Ninety-seven percent in the middle third healed with 8° or less angulation in the mediolateral plane, which was a higher percentage than we had experienced in distal and proximal third fractures treated with this method. Nonunions occurred in four (0.9%) fractures. We found correlations between initial shortening, final shortening, initial displacement, final displacement, and time to brace with initial angulation and final angulation in the mediolateral and anteroposterior planes. The overall mean final shortening of the fractures located in the middle third was 4.3 mm. These experiences suggest satisfactory results can be obtained in most instances using a functional brace for management of closed fractures of the middle third of the tibia. Level of Evidence: Level II, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18719973

Latta, Loren L.

2008-01-01

125

Photometric properties of Titan's surface from Cassini VIMS: Relevance to titan's hemispherical albedo dichotomy and surface stability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) instrument on the Cassini Saturn Orbiter returned spectral imaging data as the spacecraft undertook six close encounters with Titan beginning 7 July, 2004. Three of these flybys each produced overlapping coverage of two distinct regions of Titan's surface. Twenty-four points were selected on approximately opposite hemispheres to serve as photometric controls. Six points were selected in each of four reflectance classes. On one hemisphere each control point was observed at three distinct phase angles. From the derived phase coefficients, preliminary normal reflectances were derived for each reflectance class. The normal reflectance of Titan's surface units at 2.0178 ??m ranged from 0.079 to 0.185 for the most absorbing to the most reflective units assuming no contribution from absorbing haze. When a modest haze contribution of ??=0.1 is considered these numbers increase to 0.089-0.215. We find that the lowest three reflectance classes have comparable normal reflectance on either hemisphere. However, for the highest brightness class the normal reflectance is higher on the hemisphere encompassing longitude 14-65?? compared to the same high brightness class for the hemisphere encompassing 122-156?? longitude. We conclude that an albedo dichotomy observed in continental sized units on Titan is due not only to one unit having more areal coverage of reflective material than the other but the material on the brighter unit is intrinsically more reflective than the most reflective material on the other unit. This suggests that surface renewal processes are more widespread on Titan's more reflective units than on its less reflective units. We note that one of our photometric control points has increased in reflectance by 12% relative to the surrounding terrain from July of 2004 to April and May of 2005. Possible causes of this effect include atmospheric processes such as ground fog or orographic clouds; the suggestion of active volcanism cannot be ruled out. Several interesting circular features which resembled impact craters were identified on Titan's surface at the time of the initial Titan flyby in July of 2004. We traced photometric profiles through two of these candidate craters and attempted to fit these profiles to the photometric properties expected from model depressions. We find that the best-fit attempt to model these features as craters requires that they be unrealistically deep, approximately 70 km deep. We conclude that despite their appearance, these circular features are not craters, however, the possibility that they are palimpsests cannot be ruled out. We used two methods to test for the presence of vast expanses of liquids on Titan's surface that had been suggested to resemble oceans. Specular reflection of sunlight would be indicative of widespread liquids on the surface; we found no evidence of this. A large liquid body should also show uniformity in photometric profile; we found the profiles to be highly variable. The lack of specular reflection and the high photometric variability in the profiles across candidate oceans is inconsistent with the presence of vast expanses of flat-lying liquids on Titan's surface. While liquid accumulation may be present as small, sub-pixel-sized bodies, or in areas of the surface which still remain to be observed by VIMS, the presence of large ocean-sized accumulations of liquids can be ruled out. The Cassini orbital tour offers the opportunity for VIMS to image the same parts of Titan's surface repeatedly at many different illumination and observation geometries. This creates the possibility of understanding the properties of Titan's atmosphere and haze by iteratively adapting models to create a best fit to the surface reflectance properties. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Nelson, R.M.; Brown, R.H.; Hapke, B.W.; Smythe, W.D.; Kamp, L.; Boryta, M.D.; Leader, F.; Baines, K.H.; Bellucci, G.; Bibring, J.-P.; Buratti, B.J.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Clark, R.N.; Combes, M.; Coradini, A.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Drossart, P.; Formisano, V.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Matson, D.L.; McCord, T.B.; Mennella, V.; Nicholson, P.D.; Sicardy, B.; Sotin, C.

2006-01-01

126

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 421, 15691582 (2012) doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.20414.x On the fundamental dichotomy in the local radio-AGN population  

E-print Network

data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with the NRAO (National Radio Astronomy Observatory) VLA. Best1 and T. M. Heckman2 1SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill On the fundamental dichotomy in the local radio-AGN population: accretion, evolution and host galaxy properties P. N

Best, Philip

127

A potential role of reward and punishment in the facilitation of the emotion-cognition dichotomy in the Iowa Gambling Task  

PubMed Central

The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is based on the assumption that a decision maker is equally motivated to seek reward and avoid punishment, and that decision making is governed solely by the intertemporal attribute (i.e., preference for an option that produces an immediate outcome instead of one that yields a delayed outcome is believed to reflect risky decision making and is considered a deficit). It was assumed in the present study that the emotion- and cognition-based processing dichotomy manifests in the IGT as reward and punishment frequency and the intertemporal attribute. It was further proposed that the delineation of emotion- and cognition-based processing is contingent upon reward and punishment as manifested in the frame of the task (variant type) and task motivation (instruction type). The effects of IGT variant type (reward vs. punishment) and instruction type (task motivation induced by instruction types: reward, punishment, reward and punishment, or no hint) on the intertemporal and frequency attributes of IGT decision-making were analyzed. Decision making in the reward variant was equally governed by both attributes, and significantly affected by instruction type, while decision making in the punishment variant was differentially affected by the two attributes and not significantly impacted by instruction type. These results suggest that reward and punishment manifested via task frame as well as the task motivation may facilitate the differentiation of emotion- and cognition-based processing in the IGT. PMID:24381567

Singh, Varsha

2013-01-01

128

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 84, 061131 (2011) Non-Markovian models for migration-proliferation dichotomy of cancer  

E-print Network

. It was suggested by Khain et al. [3,4] that the motility of cancer cells is a function of their density of cancer cells: Anomalous switching and spreading rate Sergei Fedotov,1 Alexander Iomin,2 and Lev Ryashko3 densities of cancer cells of both phenotypes are derived. In anomalous switching case we estimate

Fedotov, Sergei

129

PUNCTATE VASCULAR EXPRESSION1 Is a Novel Maize Gene Required for Leaf Pattern Formation That Functions Downstream of the Trans-Acting Small Interfering RNA Pathway1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

The maize (Zea mays) gene RAGGED SEEDLING2-R (RGD2-R) encodes an ARGONAUTE7-like protein required for the biogenesis of trans-acting small interfering RNA, which regulates the accumulation of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR3A transcripts in shoots. Although dorsiventral polarity is established in the narrow and cylindrical leaves of rgd2-R mutant plants, swapping of adaxial/abaxial epidermal identity occurs and suggests a model wherein RGD2 is required to coordinate dorsiventral and mediolateral patterning in maize leaves. Laser microdissection-microarray analyses of the rgd2-R mutant shoot apical meristem identified a novel gene, PUNCTATE VASCULAR EXPRESSION1 (PVE1), that is down-regulated in rgd2-R mutant apices. Transcripts of PVE1 provide an early molecular marker for vascular morphogenesis. Reverse genetic analyses suggest that PVE1 functions during vascular development and in mediolateral and dorsiventral patterning of maize leaves. Molecular genetic analyses of PVE1 and of rgd2-R;pve1-M2 double mutants suggest a model wherein PVE1 functions downstream of RGD2 in a pathway that intersects and interacts with the trans-acting small interfering RNA pathway. PMID:22669891

Zhang, Xiaolan; Douglas, Ryan N.; Strable, Josh; Lee, Michelle; Buckner, Brent; Janick-Buckner, Diane; Schnable, Patrick S.; Timmermans, Marja C.P.; Scanlon, Michael J.

2012-01-01

130

A Genetic Dichotomy between Pure Sclerosing Epithelioid Fibrosarcoma (SEF) and Hybrid SEF/Low Grade Fibromyxoid Sarcoma: A Pathologic and Molecular Study of 18 cases  

PubMed Central

Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is a rare soft tissue tumor exhibiting considerable morphologic overlap with low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS). Moreover, both SEF and LGFMS show MUC4 expression by immunohistochemistry. While the majority of LGFMS cases are characterized by a FUS-CREB3L1 fusion, both FUS-CREB3L2 and EWSR1-CREB3L1 fusions were recently demonstrated in a small number of LGFMS and SEF/LGFMS hybrid tumors. In contrast, recent studies pointed out that SEF harbor frequent EWSR1 rearrangements, with only a minority of cases showing FUS-CREB3L2 fusions. In an effort to further characterize the molecular characteristics of pure SEF and hybrid SEF/LGFMS lesions, we undertook a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical and genetic analysis of a series of 10 SEF and 8 hybrid SEF/LGFMS tumors. The mortality rate was similar between the two groups, 44% within the pure SEF group and 37% in the hybrid SEF/LGFMS with a mean overall follow-up of 66 months. All but one pure SEF and all hybrid SEF/LGFMS tested cases showed MUC4 immunoreactivity. The majority (90%) of pure SEF cases showed EWSR1 gene rearrangements by FISH with only one case exhibiting FUS rearrangement. Of the 9 EWSR1 positive cases, 6 cases harbored CREB3L1 break-apart, two had CREB3L2 rearrangement (a previously unreported finding) and one lacked evidence of CREB3L1/2 abnormalities. In contrast, all hybrid SEF/LGFMS tumors exhibited FUS and CREB3L2 rearrangements. These results further demarcate a relative cytogenetic dichotomy between pure SEF, often characterized by EWSR1 rearrangements, and hybrid SEF/LGFMS, harboring FUS-CREB3L2 fusion; the latter group recapitulating the genotype of LGFMS. PMID:25231134

Prieto-Granada, Carlos; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Hsiao-Wei; Sung, Yun-Shao; Agaram, Narasimhan P; Jungbluth, Achim; Antonescu, Cristina R

2014-01-01

131

Interaction of age, cognitive function, and gait performance in 50-80-year-olds.  

PubMed

The variability of walking gait timing increases with age and is strongly related to fall risk. The purpose of the study was to examine the interaction of age, cognitive function, and gait performance during dual-task walking. Forty-two, healthy men and women, 50-80 years old, completed the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) and Trail Making Test (TMT) to assess cognitive performance and were separated into groups by decade of life. They then performed dual-task walking, at a self-selected pace, on an instrumented treadmill during three cognitive loading conditions: (1) no cognitive load, (2) subtraction from 100 by 1s, and (3) subtraction from 100 by 3s. The treadmill recorded spatiotemporal gait parameters that were used to calculate the mean and coefficient of variation for each variable over ten strides. Time to complete the TMT was positively correlated with age, stride time, double-limb support time, and mediolateral instability and was inversely correlated with single-limb support time. Subjects in their 70s increased their stride time and double-limb support time during the most challenging dual-task condition (subtraction by 3s), whereas subjects in their 50s and 60s did not. Across conditions, the variability of stride length, stride time, and single-limb support time was greatest in the 70s. Mediolateral instability increased only for subjects in their 70s in the subtraction by 3s condition. Reduced cognitive function with age makes it difficult for older adults to maintain a normal, rhythmical gait pattern while performing a cognitive task, which may place them at greater risk for falling. PMID:25073454

LaRoche, Dain P; Greenleaf, Brittnee L; Croce, Ronald V; McGaughy, Jill A

2014-01-01

132

Stress experienced in utero reduces sexual dichotomies in neurogenesis, microenvironment, and cell death in the adult rat hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Hippocampal function and plasticity differ with gender, but the regulatory mechanisms underlying sex differences remain elusive and may be established early in life. The present study sought to elucidate sex differences in hippocampal plasticity under normal developmental conditions and in response to repetitive, predictable versus varied, unpredictable prenatal stress (PS). Adult male and diestrous female offspring of pregnant rats exposed to no stress (control), repetitive stress (PS-restraint), or a randomized sequence of varied stressors (PS-random) during the last week of pregnancy were examined for hippocampal proliferation, neurogenesis, cell death, and local microenvironment using endogenous markers. Regional volume was also estimated by stereology. Control animals had comparable proliferation and regional volume regardless of sex, but females had lower neurogenesis compared to males. Increased cell death and differential hippocampal precursor kinetics both appear to contribute to reduced neurogenesis in females. Reduced local interleukin-1beta (IL-I? immunoreactivity (IR) in females argues for a mechanistic role for the anti-apoptotic cytokine in driving sex differences in cell death. Prenatal stress significantly impacted the hippocampus, with both stress paradigms causing robust decreases in actively proliferating cells in males and females. Several other hippocampal measures were feminized in males such as precursor kinetics, IL-I?-IR density, and cell death, reducing or abolishing some sex differences. The findings expand our understanding of the mechanisms underlying sex differences and highlight the critical role early stress can play on the balance between proliferation, neurogenesis, cell death, and hippocampal microenvironment in adulthood. PMID:18264994

Mandyam, Chitra D.; Crawford, Elena F.; Eisch, Amelia J.; Rivier, Catherine L.; Richardson, Heather N.

2013-01-01

133

THE ROLE OF CORE MASS IN CONTROLLING EVAPORATION: THE KEPLER RADIUS DISTRIBUTION AND THE KEPLER-36 DENSITY DICHOTOMY  

SciTech Connect

We use models of coupled thermal evolution and photo-evaporative mass loss to understand the formation and evolution of the Kepler-36 system. We show that the large contrast in mean planetary density observed by Carter et al. can be explained as a natural consequence of photo-evaporation from planets that formed with similar initial compositions. However, rather than being due to differences in XUV irradiation between the planets, we find that this contrast is due to the difference in the masses of the planets' rock/iron cores and the impact that this has on mass-loss evolution. We explore in detail how our coupled models depend on irradiation, mass, age, composition, and the efficiency of mass loss. Based on fits to large numbers of coupled evolution and mass-loss runs, we provide analytic fits to understand threshold XUV fluxes for significant atmospheric loss, as a function of core mass and mass-loss efficiency. Finally we discuss these results in the context of recent studies of the radius distribution of Kepler candidates. Using our parameter study, we make testable predictions for the frequency of sub-Neptune-sized planets. We show that 1.8-4.0 R{sub ?} planets should become significantly less common on orbits within 10 days and discuss the possibility of a narrow 'occurrence valley' in the radius-flux distribution. Moreover, we describe how photo-evaporation provides a natural explanation for the recent observations of Ciardi et al. that inner planets are preferentially smaller within the systems.

Lopez, Eric D.; Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

2013-10-10

134

Radio-loud AGN in the XMM-LSS field. II. A dichotomy in environment and accretion mode?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, several authors have argued that low luminosity radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) have a different mode of accretion, triggered by different physical mechanisms, than “normal” optically- or X-ray-selected AGN. The latter have a radiatively efficient nucleus (sometimes called “Quasar-mode”), which according to the unified scheme may be obscured from direct view at optical wavelengths, whereas essentially all of the energetic output of the low-luminosity radio-loud AGN is in their radio jets (“Radio-mode”). In this paper, we independently study the internal and environmental properties of the optical hosts of the sample of ˜ 110 radio sources with redshifts 0.1 < z < 1.2 in the XMM-LSS Survey region. We do this by building a comoving-scale-dependent overdensity parameter, based on the photometric redshift probability functions, to constrain the small (~75 kpc) and large (~450 kpc) scale environments of radio sources independently from their stellar mass estimates. Our results support the picture in which the comoving evolution of radio sources in the redshift range ? 1 is caused by two distinct galaxy populations, whose radio source activity is triggered by two different mechanisms. The first population, which dominates at high stellar masses (M > 1010.5-10.8~M?) is that of massive elliptical galaxies, lying in galaxy groups or clusters, where the radio source is triggered by the cooling of the hot gas in their atmosphere. At these stellar masses, we find that the fraction of galaxies that host radio-loud AGN is essentially the same as that in the local Universe. The second population of radio sources have lower stellar masses, lie in large scale underdensities, and show excess mid-IR emission consistent with a hidden radiatively efficient active nucleus. The radio-loud fraction at these masses is increased relative to the local Universe. We argue that galaxy mergers and interactions may play an important role in triggering the AGN activity of this second population.

Tasse, C.; Best, P. N.; Röttgering, H.; Le Borgne, D.

2008-11-01

135

Demand functions and reflexivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the theory of ordered spaces and in microeconomic theory two important notions, the notion of the base for a cone which is defined by a continuous linear functional and the notion of the budget set are equivalent. In economic theory the maximization of the preference relation of a consumer on any budget set defines the demand correspondence which at any price vector indicates the preferred vectors of goods and this is one of the fundamental notions of this theory. Contrary to the finite-dimensional economies, in the infinite-dimensional ones, the existence of the demand correspondence is not ensured. In this article we show that in reflexive spaces (and in some other classes of Banach spaces), there are only two classes of closed cones, i.e. cones whose any budget set is bounded and cones whose any budget set is unbounded. Based on this dichotomy result, we prove that in the first category of these cones the demand correspondence exists and that it is upper hemicontinuous. We prove also a characterization of reflexive spaces based on the existence of the demand correspondences.

Polyrakis, Ioannis A.

2008-02-01

136

The Land Use and Land Cover Dichotomy: A Comparison of Two Land Classification Systems in Support of Urban Earth Science Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One is likely to read the terms 'land use' and 'land cover' in the same sentence, yet these concepts have different origins and different applications. Land cover is typically analyzed by earth scientists working with remotely sensed images. Land use is typically studied by urban planners who must prescribe solutions that could prevent future problems. This apparent dichotomy has led to different classification systems for land-based data. The works of earth scientists and urban planning practitioners are beginning to come together in the field of spatial analysis and in their common use of new spatial analysis technology. In this context, the technology can stimulate a common 'language' that allows a broader sharing of ideas. The increasing amount of land use and land cover change challenges the various efforts to classify in ways that are efficient, effective, and agreeable to all groups of users. If land cover and land uses can be identified by remote methods using aerial photography and satellites, then these ways are more efficient than field surveys of the same area. New technology, such as high-resolution satellite sensors, and new methods, such as more refined algorithms for image interpretation, are providing refined data to better identify the actual cover and apparent use of land, thus effectiveness is improved. However, the closer together and the more vertical the land uses are, the more difficult the task of identification is, and the greater is the need to supplement remotely sensed data with field study (in situ). Thus, a number of land classification methods were developed in order to organize the greatly expanding volume of data on land characteristics in ways useful to different groups. This paper distinguishes two land based classification systems, one developed primarily for remotely sensed data, and the other, a more comprehensive system requiring in situ collection methods. The intent is to look at how the two systems developed and how they can work together so that land based information can be shared among different users and compared over time.

McAllister, William K.

2003-01-01

137

Evidence of stratabound liquefaction in the formation of fractured topographic margins, cone chains and pit catenas along the Martian Dichotomy Boundary and in Isidis Planitia, Mars.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the low-lying plains along much of the Martian Dichotomy Boundary (MDB) and in the Isidis impact basin, cones and curving chains of cones, referred to as thumbprint terrain (TPT), are common. In the same settings, pit chains (catenas) occur in orthogonal to curving and conchoidal fracture sets between mesa-like crustal blocks, generally at or near topographic margins. Many of the fractures consist of linked pits rather than simple propagated cracks. These assemblages are often associated with the more disaggregated populations of blocks comprising chaos terrain. We show that the local planimetric arrangement of the cone chains, fractures and pit catenas is strikingly similar in both shape and scale, including lateral separation, length, longitudinal slope and radius of curvature. The summits of cones tend to be closely accordant along individual cone chains. Neighbouring cone chains tend to be mutually accordant on low gradient basin surfaces but generally stepped en echelon closer to the fractured basin margins. Similarly, the crustal blocks (including very isolated block sets) are often mutually stepped, and fractures between these en echelon blocks tend to be very close to horizontal. Hence, many cone chains, fractures and pit catenas in fractures share the property of being arranged along strike. They diverge morphologically by the cone chains being positive forms separated by narrow gulfs but the pit catenas being negative forms separated by planar blocks. All of these characteristics point to the possibility that the arcuate cone chains and the arcuate pit catenas have a common origin. In particular, we hypothesise that the cone chains characteristic of TPT along the MDB and in Isidis are filled, indurated and then exhumed pit catenas revealed by the stripping-away of intervening blocks [cf. 1]. Many other surfaces on Mars are pervaded by pits and pit catenas, with evidence of former water flow through the catenas suggesting that ground-ice thaw played a role in at least one mode of catena formation [2]. As well as presenting the morphological evidence for a genetic association between TPT and pit catenas, we present corroborative evidence that fluvial channel networks on Mars have in places increased in complexity through the linking of pits arranged in linear to arcuate arrays, culminating in a pseudo-branching channel network. Such systems do not occur at topographic margins and did not disintegrate into stepped crustal blocks. However, the scale of these channels and the volumes of liquid intermittently impounded in craters along these channel systems indicate that pit chains are associated with significant excess groundwater production leading to channelized flow, including catastrophic discharges when crater-impounded lakes along-flow were breached. Are the MDB and Isidis cone chains exhumed pit catenas and are the pits the surface expression of more deep-seated conduits? Do pit catenas indicate excess pore-water production, sufficient to link individual pits and dissect crustal blocks? Together, do these assemblages reflect the degradation of the MDB and Isidis margins and the subsequent stripping of adjacent low-lying plains? The crucial observations presented in this research (cone chains lying between crustal blocks, together with the morphometric similarities) are consistent with the interpretation of the cones and catenas having a common origin. Consequently, we hypothesise that the translated, back-rotated, tilted and capsized disposition of en echelon blocks is very reminiscent of the morphology produced during lateral spreading [3] associated with stratabound liquefaction below a low-gradient, rigid, insensitive surface. Significantly, such liquefaction events cause extensive, arcuate ground fractures along with the discharge of sediment-laden groundwater from the liquefiable substratum to the surface through pipes and conical boils confined within inter-block fractures. These conduits and their injectite are frequently indurated by secondary mineralisation, often making them more competent and le

Gallagher, C.; Balme, M. R.

2012-04-01

138

The dichotomy in the preinvasive neoplasia to invasive carcinoma sequence in the pancreas: differential expression of MUC1 and MUC2 supports the existence of two separate pathways of carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Emerging evidence suggests a dichotomy in the dysplasia-CIS-invasive carcinoma sequence in the pancreas. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms (PanINs; small, incidental duct lesions) progress to invasive ductal adenocarcinomas (5-y survival of < 15%), whereas intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (large, intraductal tumors with ductal dilatation) are often associated with colloid carcinoma (5-y survival of > 55%). We explored the relationship of these lesions by examining the expression of MUC1 and MUC2, glycoproteins reportedly reflecting "aggressive" and "indolent" phenotypes in pancreas cancer, respectively. Immunohistochemical labeling with MUC1 (clone Ma695) and MUC2 (clone Ccp58) antibodies was performed on PanINs (n = 43), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (n = 74), ductal adenocarcinomas (n = 136), and colloid carcinomas (n = 15). Fifty-four percent of the intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms expressed MUC2, whereas none of the PanINs did. In contrast, PanINs, especially higher grade lesions, were often positive for MUC1 (61% of PanIN 3), whereas the expression of this glycoprotein was infrequent in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (20%). This dichotomy was further accentuated in the invasive carcinomas with which these two preinvasive pathways are respectively associated: all colloid carcinomas were MUC2+ (100%) and MUC1- (0%), whereas the labeling pattern was the reverse for ductal adenocarcinomas: 63% were MUC1+ and only 1% were MUC2+. These results support a dichotomy in the dysplasia-CIS sequence in the pancreas. Because these two pathways often lead to different types of invasive carcinomas, this is an invaluable model for the study of carcinogenesis. The findings here also support the previous impression that MUC2 (the mucin associated with gel formation) is a marker of the "indolent" pathway (intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm and colloid carcinoma), whereas MUC1 (the glycoprotein known to have an inhibitory role in cell-cell and cell-stroma interactions as well as in immunoresistance of tumor cells) is a marker of the "aggressive" pathway (PanIN to ductal adenocarcinoma). PMID:12379756

Adsay, N Volkan; Merati, Kambiz; Andea, Aleodor; Sarkar, Fazlul; Hruban, Ralph H; Wilentz, Robb E; Goggins, Micheal; Iocobuzio-Donahue, Christine; Longnecker, Daniel S; Klimstra, David S

2002-10-01

139

Contributions of muscles to mediolateral ground reaction force over a range of walking speeds  

E-print Network

The James R. Gage Center for Gait and Motion Analysis, Gillette Children's Specialty Healthcare, St. Paul stance (0­6% gait cycle), peak ground reaction force on the leading foot was directed laterally and increased significantly (po0.05) with walking speed. During early single support (14­30% gait cycle), peak

Delp, Scott

140

Physics Proofs of Four Millennium-Problems(MP) via CATEGORY-SEMANTICS(C-S)/F=C Aristotle SQUARE-of-OPPOSITION(SoO) DEduction-LOGIC DichotomY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Siegel-Baez C-S/F=C tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics SoO jargonial-obfuscation elimination query WHAT? yields four ``pure''-maths MP ``Feet of Clay!!!'' proofs:(1)Siegel [AMS Natl.Mtg.(2002)-Abs.#:973-03-126:(@CCNY;1964!!!)<<<(1994; Wiles)]Fermat's: Last-Theorem = Least-Action Principle; (2) P=/=NP TRIVIAL simple Euclid geometry/dimensions: NO computer anything;``Feet of Clay!!!''; (3)Birch-Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture; (4)Riemann-hypotheses via combination of: Siegel [AMS Natl.Mtg. (2002)-Abs.#:973-60-124 digits logarithmic-law simple algebraic- inversion to ONLY BEQS with ONLY zero-digit BEC, AND Rayleigh [(1870);graph-theory ``short-CUT method''[Doyle- Snell,Random- Walks & Electric-Networks,MAA(1981)]-``Anderson'' [PRL(1958)] critical-strip 1/2 complex-plane localization!!! SoO DichotomY (``v'') IdentitY: numbers(Euler v Bernoulli) = (Sets v Multisets) = Quantum-Statistics(F.-D. v B.-E.) = Power- Spectra(1/f^(0) v 1/f^(1.000...) = Conic-Sections(Ellipse v (Parabola) v Hyperbola) = Extent(Locality v Globality); Siegel [MRS Fractals Symp.(1989)](so MIScalled)``complexity'' as UTTER- SIMPLICITY (!!!) v COMPLICATEDNESS MEASURE(S) definition.

Clay, L.; Siegel, E.

2010-03-01

141

Physics Proofs of Four Millennium-Problems(MP) via CATEGORY-SEMANTICS(C-S)/F=C Aristotle SQUARE-of-OPPOSITION(SoO) DEduction-LOGIC DichotomY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Siegel-Baez Cognitive-Category-Semantics"(C-C-S) tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics SoO jargonial-obfuscation elimination query WHAT? yields four "pure"-maths MP "Feet of Clay!!!" proofs: (1) Siegel [AMS Natl.Mtg.(02)-Abs.973-03-126: (CCNY;64)!!!<<<(94;Wiles)] Fermat's: Last-Thm. = Least-Action Ppl.; (2) P=/=NP TRIVIAL simple Euclid geometry/dimensions: NO computer anything"Feet of Clay!!!"; (3) Birch-Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture; (4) Riemann-hypotheses via COMBO.: Siegel[AMS Natl.Mtg.(02)-Abs.973-60-124] digits log-law inversion to ONLY BEQS with ONLY zero-digit BEC, AND Rayleigh[1870;graph-thy."short-CUT method"[Doyle-Snell, Random-Walks & Electric-Nets,MAA(81)]-"Anderson"[(58)] critical-strip C-localization!!! SoO DichotomY ("V") IdentitY: #s:( Euler v Bernoulli) = (Sets v Multisets) = Quantum-Statistics(FD v BE) = Power-Spectra(1/f?(0) v 1/f?(1)) = Conic-Sections(Ellipse v Hyperbola) = Extent(Locality v Globality);Siegel[(89)] (so MIScalled) "complexity" as UTTER-SIMPLICITY(!!!) v COMPLICATEDNESS MEASURE(S) definition.

Clay, London; Carl-Ludwig Siegel, Edward

2011-03-01

142

Twelve weeks of BodyBalance® training improved balance and functional task performance in middle-aged and older adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of BodyBalance® training on balance, functional task performance, fear of falling, and health-related quality of life in adults aged over 55 years. Participants and methods A total of 28 healthy, active adults aged 66±5 years completed the randomized controlled trial. Balance, functional task performance, fear of falling, and self-reported quality of life were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Participants either undertook two sessions of BodyBalance per week for 12 weeks (n=15) or continued with their normal activities (n=13). Results Significant group-by-time interactions were found for the timed up and go (P=0.038), 30-second chair stand (P=0.037), and mediolateral center-of-pressure range in narrow stance with eyes closed (P=0.017). There were no significant effects on fear of falling or self-reported quality of life. Conclusion Twelve weeks of BodyBalance training is effective at improving certain balance and functional based tasks in healthy older adults. PMID:25395844

Nicholson, Vaughan P; McKean, Mark R; Burkett, Brendan J

2014-01-01

143

Melt - Fluid Dichotomy vs. a Regime Involving Liquids Supercritical With Respect to the Endpoint of the Solidus and Geochemical Consequences for Subduction Zones (or: the end of the ''Melting the Slab'' - Myth)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At crustal pressures, phase relations in natural rock-H2O systems involve low density aqueous fluids (supercritical with respect to the endpoint of the H2O melt-gas phase) and/or high density hydrous melts. The wide miscibility gap between these two liquid phases leads to a dichotomy of mobile phases with quite distinct element solubilites and geochemical signatures. As pressure increases, the fluid-melt miscibility gap closes at ever lower temperatures, until the crest of the miscibility gap intersects the ''wet'' solidus at it's endpoint, leaving a single liquid, that has chemical and physical properties continuously evolving with temperature, and which is supercritical with respect to the endpoint of the solidus. These facts are well known and the principal necessary phase diagrams have been completed at latest with Ricci (1951). The question is then, at what conditions would the endpoint of the solidus be relevant for natural rock compositions. We have determined this endpoint by two different methods. In a potassium-enriched MORB, a greywacke, and a metapelite (Schmidt et al, 2004, EPSL) a discontinuous melting reaction where phengite disappears in favor of a quenchable hydrous melt exists to 5 GPa. Continuous dissolution of phengite in all three compositions is observed at 6 GPa, a quenchable K-bearing phase was then not formed. Secondly, in a K-free MORB, we measured the composition of the liquid phase from a diamond trap including H2O-contents (Kessel et al, 2005, EPSL), again observing classical melting at 5 GPa but a continuously evolving liquid composition at 6 GPa. The subsolidus assemblage consisted always of cpx+gar+coes±ky(+phengite in K2O bearing bulks), the main differences being omphacitic instead of jadeitic cpx and grossular enriched garnets in MORBs, and of course phase abundances. At 3-5 GPa, melting reactions and initial granitic melt compositions are similar in clastic metasediments and K-bearing MORB, a quartz poor greywacke would have the highest melt productivity. Locating the endpoint of the solidus between 5 and 6 GPa, 900-1000 °C indicates, that (i) at higher pressures, the dichotomy of fluid vs. melt ceases to exist in the oceanic crust, and (ii) that relatively small amounts of CaO, MgO and FeO (in the metapelite) shifts the solidus' endpoint to quite high pressures, i.e. from 1.0 and 1.5 GPa in the SiO2- and albite-H2O systems, respectively. The consequences of the solidus' endpoint were investigated by measuring trace element partitioning between cpx-gar-liquid, the latter either an aqueous fluid, hydrous melt, or supercritical liquid. Hydrous melts and supercritical liquids (the latter down to at least 200 °C below the hypothetical extension of the solidus) are almost undistinguishable in their trace element pattern, in particular, both have bulk Dsolid/liquidTh > Dsolid/liquidu, the mobility of Th and Be is even increased in the supercritical liquid (Kessel et al, 2005, Nature). Thus, recycling rates of these elements are not indicative of melting, and in the fast and steep circum-pacific subduction zones, they most likely testify for production of a mobile phase from the subducting crust in the supercritical liquid regime (beyond the endpoint of the solidus).

Schmidt, M. W.; Kessel, R.

2005-12-01

144

Cellular Dichotomy Between Anchorage-Independent Growth Responses to bFGF and TA Reflects Molecular Switch in Commitment to Carcinogenesis  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated gene expression patterns underlying reversible and irreversible anchorage-independent growth (AIG) phenotypes to identify more sensitive markers of cell transformation for studies directed at interrogating carcinogenesis responses. In JB6 mouse epidermal cells, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induces an unusually efficient and reversible AIG response, relative to 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced AIG which is irreversible. The reversible and irreversible AIG phenotypes are characterized by largely non-overlapping global gene expression profiles. However, a subset of differentially expressed genes were identified as common to reversible and irreversible AIG phenotypes, including genes regulated in a reciprocal fashion. Hepatic leukemia factor (HLF) and D-site albumin promoter-binding protein (DBP) were increased in both bFGF and TPA soft agar colonies and selected for functional validation. Ectopic expression of human HLF and DBP in JB6 cells resulted in a marked increase in TPA- and bFGF-regulated AIG responses. HLF and DBP expression were increased in soft agar colonies arising from JB6 cells exposed to gamma radiation and in a human basal cell carcinoma tumor tissue, relative to paired non-tumor tissue. Subsequent biological network analysis suggests that many of the differentially expressed genes that are common to bFGF- and TPA-dependent AIG are regulated by c-Myc, SP-1 and HNF-4 transcription factors. Collectively, we have identified a potential molecular switch that mediates the transition from reversible to irreversible AIG.

Waters, Katrina M.; Tan, Ruimin; Opresko, Lee K.; Quesenberry, Ryan D.; Bandyopadhyay, Somnath; Chrisler, William B.; Weber, Thomas J.

2009-11-01

145

Vascular smooth muscle phenotypic diversity and function  

PubMed Central

The control of force production in vascular smooth muscle is critical to the normal regulation of blood flow and pressure, and altered regulation is common to diseases such as hypertension, heart failure, and ischemia. A great deal has been learned about imbalances in vasoconstrictor and vasodilator signals, e.g., angiotensin, endothelin, norepinephrine, and nitric oxide, that regulate vascular tone in normal and disease contexts. In contrast there has been limited study of how the phenotypic state of the vascular smooth muscle cell may influence the contractile response to these signaling pathways dependent upon the developmental, tissue-specific (vascular bed) or disease context. Smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle lineages are traditionally classified into fast or slow sublineages based on rates of contraction and relaxation, recognizing that this simple dichotomy vastly underrepresents muscle phenotypic diversity. A great deal has been learned about developmental specification of the striated muscle sublineages and their phenotypic interconversions in the mature animal under the control of mechanical load, neural input, and hormones. In contrast there has been relatively limited study of smooth muscle contractile phenotypic diversity. This is surprising given the number of diseases in which smooth muscle contractile dysfunction plays a key role. This review focuses on smooth muscle contractile phenotypic diversity in the vascular system, how it is generated, and how it may determine vascular function in developmental and disease contexts. PMID:20736412

2010-01-01

146

Hypergeometric Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page includes the encyclopedia entries for hypergeometric functions including Hermit, parabolic cylinder and Laguerre functions, Chebyshev and Fibonacci functions, Legendre functions, Gegenbauer and Jacobi functions, confluent hypergeometric functions, hypergeometric functions, Meijer G functions, hypergeometric functions of several variables and angular momentum functions.

147

Influence of Resistance Exercise Training to Strengthen Muscles across Multiple Joints of the Lower Limbs on Dynamic Balance Functions of Stroke Patients  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training for strengthening muscles across multiple joints on the dynamic balance function of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects in the training group (n=14) and the control group (n=14) received conservative physical therapy for 30 minutes per day, five days per week, for a period of six weeks. The training group additionally performed three sets (eight to 10 repetitions per set) of resistance exercise at 70% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM) to strengthen muscles across multiple joints. The control group did the same exercises for the same duration but without resistance. To assess dynamic balance function, before and after the intervention, we measured antero-posterior (A-P) and medio-lateral (M-L) sway distances, the Berg balance scale (BBS), and the timed up and go (TUG) times. [Results] Compared to pre-intervention values, the BBS score showed significant increases in both groups, and A-P and M-L sway distances and TUG times showed significant decreases in both groups. Changes in A-P and M-L sway distances, BBS scores, and TUG times were significantly different between the muscle training group and the control group. [Conclusion] Training involving muscle strength across multiple joints is an effective intervention for improvement of dynamic balance function of stroke patients. PMID:25202193

Son, Sung Min; Park, Myung Kyu; Lee, Na Kyung

2014-01-01

148

Elliptic Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page includes the encyclopedia entries for elliptic functions including Jacobi theta functions, Siegel theta functions, Neville theta functions, Weierstrass functions and inverses, Weierstrass utility functions, Jacobi functions and inverses, modular functions and inverses, arithmetic geometric mean and elliptic exponential and logarithmic functions.

149

Beyond dichotomy--towards creative synthesis.  

PubMed

There are two ways for overcoming limitations of methods used in psychology, as Toomela (Integr. Physiol. Behav. Sci. doi:10.1007/s12124-007-9004-0, 2007) points out. These are inventing new methods of research, and looking back into the history of methodological thought for new ideas. Though he limited the former as if it is a quantitative area and he declared to take the latter path, his paper actually advocates the need to create new methodology for understanding the human psyche through historical approach. We discuss problems of sampling and generalization in that context, and suggest a new way to creative synthesis through elaboration of qualitative methodologies. To us this direction constitutes an updated version of the German-Austrian methodology exactly as Toomela suggests. PMID:17992869

Sato, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Omi, Yasuhiro

2007-03-01

150

Beyond Dichotomy—Towards Creative Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two ways for overcoming limitations of methods used in psychology, as Toomela (Integr. Physiol. Behav. Sci. doi:10.1007\\/s12124-007-9004-0, 2007) points out. These are inventing new methods of research, and looking back into the history of methodological thought for\\u000a new ideas. Though he limited the former as if it is a quantitative area and he declared to take the latter

Tatsuya Sato; Yoshiyuki Watanabe; Yasuhiro Omi

2007-01-01

151

Work and Leisure A Fading Dichotomy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult and continuing education developed as ad hoc responses to concrete and partial needs. The fact that adult education has gained a broader mission and become regarded as encompassing political and citizenship education, vocational training, general adult education and access courses, and leisure courses presents an ambiguous challenge to the…

Olesen, Henning Salling

152

[On the social production of sexual dichotomy].  

PubMed

Notwithstanding scientific evidence about the development of sexuality and possible sexual variations, the social dogma of the duality of the sexes hardly tolerates deviations from the defined norms of female and male. The diagnosis of intersexuality is mostly considered as a treatable disease with the chance of eventual sexual adaptation; transsexuality in any form is placed at the social periphery as an individual symptomatology. This review discusses the presence, actuality and sense of coherence of heteronormativity and outlines the consequences of an attributed sexuality. PMID:21344344

Schildberger, B

2011-02-01

153

COLLECTIVE ENTREPRENEURSHIP: BEYOND DICHOTOMIES (INTERACTIVE PAPER)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until the last decade, scholars of entrepreneurship focused on the for-profit or commercial model of entrepreneurship, providing a framework for analysis of the process of entrepreneurial development. More recently, entrepreneurship researchers have recognized another form of entrepreneurship, social entrepreneurship, and have begun to turn attention to theory development and comparative study. This paper proposes that there is at least one

Elizabeth J. Gatewood; Jeanne M. Simonelli

2010-01-01

154

Wave-function functionals  

SciTech Connect

We extend our prior work on the construction of variational wave functions {psi} that are functionals of functions {chi}:{psi}={psi}[{chi}] rather than simply being functions. In this manner, the space of variations is expanded over those of traditional variational wave functions. In this article we perform the constrained search over the functions {chi} chosen such that the functional {psi}[{chi}] satisfies simultaneously the constraints of normalization and the exact expectation value of an arbitrary single- or two-particle Hermitian operator, while also leading to a rigorous upper bound to the energy. As such the wave function functional is accurate not only in the region of space in which the principal contributions to the energy arise but also in the other region of the space represented by the Hermitian operator. To demonstrate the efficacy of these ideas, we apply such a constrained search to the ground state of the negative ion of atomic hydrogen H{sup -}, the helium atom He, and its positive ions Li{sup +} and Be{sup 2+}. The operators W whose expectations are obtained exactly are the sum of the single-particle operators W={Sigma}{sub i}r{sub i}{sup n},n=-2,-1,1,2, W={Sigma}{sub i{delta}}(r{sub i}), W=-(1/2){Sigma}{sub i{nabla}i}{sup 2}, and the two-particle operators W={Sigma}{sub n}u{sup n},n=-2,-1,1,2, where u=|r{sub i}-r{sub j}|. Comparisons with the method of Lagrangian multipliers and of other constructions of wave-function functionals are made. Finally, we present further insights into the construction of wave-function functionals by studying a previously proposed construction of functionals {psi}[{chi}] that lead to the exact expectation of arbitrary Hermitian operators. We discover that analogous to the solutions of the Schroedinger equation, there exist {psi}[{chi}] that are unphysical in that they lead to singular values for the expectations. We also explain the origin of the singularity.

Pan Xiaoyin; Slamet, Marlina; Sahni, Viraht [Faculty of Science, Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315211 (China); Sacred Heart University, Fairfield, Connecticut 06825 (United States); Brooklyn College and The Graduate School of the City University of New York, New York, New York 10016 (United States)

2010-04-15

155

Functional focal retrograde amnesia: lost access to abstract autobiographical knowledge?  

PubMed

We describe three patients exhibiting an acute reversible amnesia characterised by an impaired recollection of past events with preserved anterograde memory, thus consistent with a focal retrograde amnesia (FRA). This occurred after variable events: state of fugue, road accident, post-traumatic headache. Retrograde amnesia affected autobiographical memory so severely as to cover all of the patients' lives and to erase knowledge of their own identity. The retrieval of public events was variably affected, ranging from normality to severe impairment. No lesions were found on neuroimaging, and neurophysiological findings were unimpressive. FRA subsided in a few days, leaving a gap for the onset. The hypothesis of a psychogenic amnesia is considered, but overcoming the organic/psychogenic dichotomy the episodes appear as examples of "functional" memory inhibition, potentially triggered by different conditions, including events classifiable as psychic trauma. The clinical and neuropsychological traits of functional FRA are discussed. According to a current theory of autobiographical memory, the memory profile may be explained by a lost access to abstract autobiographical knowledge. Given some analogies with the more common transient global amnesia, a mechanism of spreading depression may also be hypothesised for functional FRA. PMID:16191819

Stracciari, Andrea; Mattarozzi, Katia; Fonti, Cristina; Guarino, Maria

2005-10-01

156

Elementary Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page includes the encyclopedia entries for power functions (square root and power), exponential functions, trigonometric functions (e.g. sin, cos), inverse trigonometric functions (e.g. arcSin, arcCos), hyperbolic functions (e.g. sinh, cosh), inverse hyperbolic functions (e.g. arcSinh, arcCosh), product logarightms, roots, maximum and minimum and cardinal functions.

157

Steady-state probability density function of the phase error for a DPLL with an integrate-and-dump device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The steady-state behavior of a particular type of digital phase-locked loop (DPLL) with an integrate-and-dump circuit following the phase detector is characterized in terms of the probability density function (pdf) of the phase error in the loop. Although the loop is entirely digital from an implementation standpoint, it operates at two extremely different sampling rates. In particular, the combination of a phase detector and an integrate-and-dump circuit operates at a very high rate whereas the loop update rate is very slow by comparison. Because of this dichotomy, the loop can be analyzed by hybrid analog/digital (s/z domain) techniques. The loop is modeled in such a general fashion that previous analyses of the Real-Time Combiner (RTC), Subcarrier Demodulator Assembly (SDA), and Symbol Synchronization Assembly (SSA) fall out as special cases.

Simon, M.; Mileant, A.

1986-01-01

158

Brain functional connectivity density and individual fluid reasoning capacity in healthy young adults.  

PubMed

Functional connectivity density (FCD) is a newly developed data-driven method to measure the number of functional connections of each voxel, possibly providing new insight into the neural correlates of fluid reasoning. Here, we recruited 211 healthy young adults (91 men and 120 women) to investigate associations between the global FCD and fluid reasoning capacity as measured by the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices scores were correlated negatively with the global FCD in multiple brain regions of the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal cortices in male participants. No significant correlation was found in female participants. Our findings confirmed the association between fluid reasoning and functional connectivity of multiple cognitive-related brain regions. The positive correlation with the functional connectivity strength and the negative correlation between fluid reasoning and FCD suggest that individuals with superior fluid reasoning capacity may possess a small number of strong functional connections. The sex dichotomy of this association indicates that the fluid reasoning capacity of men and women may have different neural substrates. PMID:25426825

Lang, Xu; Liu, Hao; Qin, Wen; Zhang, Yunting; Xuan, Yun; Yu, Chunshui

2015-01-01

159

Does extending the dual-task functional exercises workout improve postural balance in individuals with ID?  

PubMed

Maintaining postural balance, overcoming visual and motor coordination disorders and experiencing problems with low general fitness - typical of intellectually disabled individuals - adversely affect the performance quality of their activities of daily living (ADLs). Physical fitness and postural balance can be improved by taking part in special intervention programs. Our study was designed to test whether extending the dual-task intervention program (combining ADLs with balance exercises on unstable surfaces) from 12 to 24 weeks additionally improved postural balance in individuals with intellectual disability (ID). We also attempted to assess whether the effects of the above intervention program were still noticeable after 8 weeks of holidays, in which participants did not take any rehabilitation exercises. A total of 34 adolescents, aged 14-16 years (15.06±0.9), with moderate ID took part in our study. The experimental group (E) consisted of 17 individuals, who continued the intervention program originated 3 months earlier, and the control group (C) comprised the same number of participants. Postural balance was assessed on a stabilometric platform Alfa. Having extended the workout period by another 12 weeks, we noticed that the path length of the center of pressure (COP) covered by participants on tests with their eyes open and closed significantly shortened. After a lapse of 8 weeks from the completion of the program, the experimental group revealed a statistically significant decrease in the velocity along the medio-lateral (M/L) and anterior-posterior (A/P) axes. The remaining variables stayed at the same level and the control group did not demonstrate any statistically significant changes. Dual-task exercises, in which enhancing functional tasks of daily living is combined with a parallel stimulation of balance reactions, may improve static balance in persons with ID. PMID:25553534

Mikolajczyk, Edyta; Jankowicz-Szymanska, Agnieszka

2015-03-01

160

Inverse Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using Mathcad, Maple, Mathmatica, or MatLab, learner should be able to review concepts of inverse functions, and to use those concepts, together with functions defined by integrals, to develop inverse trigonometric functions.

Smith, David; Moore, Lawrence

2001-01-25

161

Approximating Functions with Exponential Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The possibility of approximating a function with a linear combination of exponential functions of the form e[superscript x], e[superscript 2x], ... is considered as a parallel development to the notion of Taylor polynomials which approximate a function with a linear combination of power function terms. The sinusoidal functions sin "x" and cos "x"…

Gordon, Sheldon P.

2005-01-01

162

Social Dichotomy Versus Gender Dichotomy: A Case Report of Gender Identity Disorder  

PubMed Central

Gender identity disorder is one of the most controversial diagnoses of DSM-IV and almost incomparable in the complexity of its social, ethical and political considerations to any other diagnosis. We present a case of 30 year-old male who presented with complaints of suggestive of depressive disorder with a recent suicidal attempt. Careful history taking reveals underlying conflicts with prominent gender dysphoria and social complexities. The patient is managed primarily by pharmacotherapy and harm reduction model. Our case reflects a unique coping strategy against the present sociocultural values and ambiguity of law in this part of the world. PMID:23162201

Kumar, Kuldip; Gupta, Manushree

2012-01-01

163

Improving balance function using vestibular stochastic resonance: optimizing stimulus characteristics.  

PubMed

Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a non-linear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. Stochastic resonance using imperceptible stochastic vestibular electrical stimulation, when applied to normal young and elderly subjects, has been shown to significantly improve ocular stabilization reflexes in response to whole-body tilt; improved balance performance during postural disturbances and optimize covariance between the weak input periodic signals introduced via venous blood pressure receptors and the heart rate responses. In our study, 15 subjects stood on a compliant surface with their eyes closed. They were given low-amplitude binaural bipolar stochastic electrical stimulation of the vestibular organs in two frequency ranges of 1-2 and 0-30 Hz over the amplitude range of 0 to ±700 ?A. Subjects were instructed to maintain an upright stance during 43-s trials, which consisted of baseline (zero amplitude) and stimulation (non-zero amplitude) periods. Measures of stability of the head and trunk using inertial motion unit sensors attached to these segments and the whole body using a force plate were measured and quantified in the mediolateral plane. Using a multivariate optimization criterion, our results show that the low levels of vestibular stimulation given to the vestibular organs improved balance performance in normal healthy subjects in the range of 5-26% consistent with the stochastic resonance phenomenon. In our study, 8 of 15 and 10 of 15 subjects were responsive for the 1-2- and 0-30-Hz stimulus signals, respectively. The improvement in balance performance did not differ significantly between the stimulations in the two frequency ranges. The amplitude of optimal stimulus for improving balance performance was predominantly in the range of ±100 to ±400 ?A. A device based on SR stimulation of the vestibular system might be useful as either a training modality to enhance adaptability or skill acquisition, or as a miniature patch-type stimulator that may be worn by people with disabilities due to aging or disease to improve posture and locomotion function. PMID:21442221

Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Fiedler, Matthew J; Kofman, Igor S; Wood, Scott J; Serrador, Jorge M; Peters, Brian; Cohen, Helen S; Reschke, Millard F; Bloomberg, Jacob J

2011-04-01

164

Multiple functions for CD28 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 during different phases of T cell responses: implications for arthritis and autoimmune diseases  

PubMed Central

Chronic T cell responses, as they occur in rheumatoid arthritis, are complex and are likely to involve many mechanisms. There is a growing body of evidence that, in concert with the T cell antigen receptor signal, CD28 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4; CD152) are the primary regulators of T cell responses. Whereas CD28 primarily activates T cell processes, CTLA-4 inhibits them. The mechanism for this dichotomy is not fully understood, especially as CD28 and CTLA-4 recruit similar signalling molecules. In addition, recent studies demonstrate that CD28 and CTLA-4 have multiple functions during T cell responses. In particular, CTLA-4 exerts independent distinct effects during different phases of T cell responses that could be exploited for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:15059264

Brunner-Weinzierl, Monika C; Hoff, Holger; Burmester, Gerd-R

2004-01-01

165

Function Flyer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A more advanced version of Slope Slider, this activity allows the manipulation of the constants and coefficients in any function thereby encouraging the user to explore the effects on the graph of the function by changing those numbers.

166

Integer Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page includes the encyclopedia entries for integer functions like rounding and congruence (e.g. floor, ceiling), GCD and LCM, Fibonaci and Lucas numbers, Euler and Bernoulli numbers, Stirling and Bell numbers, partitions and Tensorial functions.

167

Functional paraganglioma.  

PubMed

Paraganglioma are tumours arising from neural crest cells of the sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia. Functional paraganglioma presents with symptoms of catecholamine excess that includes hypertension, flushing, diaphoresis, etc. Non-functional paraganglioma are usually found incidentally during imaging studies. Early diagnoses of functional paraganglioma are important because their removal is often curative. We present the case of a young man who presented with hypertensive crisis and severe headache, who was later found to have functional paraganglioma. PMID:24557481

Balasubramanian, Gokulakrishnan; Nellaiappan, Vallikantha

2014-01-01

168

Inverse Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lang Moore and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, this is a module to review concepts of inverse functions, and to use those concepts, together with functions defined by integrals, to develop inverse trigonometric functions. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Moore, Lang

169

Functional Illiteracy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistics indicating that the problem of illiteracy is lessening mask a greater problem--that of functional illiteracy. Functional illiterates may have some reading and writing skills but are not able to apply them as functioning members of society. A 1975 study using the most sophisticated instrument that had ever been used to determine…

Hovey, Sheryl

170

Hypergeometric Functions for Function Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce and study analogues of hypergeometric functions in the setting of function fields over finite fields. We show analogues of the differential equations, integral representations, transformation formulae, and continued fractions and show how analogues of various special functions and orthogonal polynomials occur as their specializations. There are two analogues: one with characteristic zero domain and one with characteristic p

D. S. Thakur

1995-01-01

171

Club Function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore the definition of a function by playing an interactive game called "Club Function." The goal of the game is to be in the club! With students each assigned to be either a zebra or a rhinoceros, they group themselves according to the "rules" of the club function. After two minutes, students freeze in their groups, and if they are not correctly following the rules of the club function, then they are not allowed into the "club." Through this activity students come to understand that one x-coordinate can only have one corresponding y-coordinate while y-coordinates can have many x-coordinates that correspond to it.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

172

The evolutionary continuum of limb function from early theropods to birds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bipedal stance and gait of theropod dinosaurs evolved gradually along the lineage leading to birds and at some point(s), flight evolved. How and when did these changes occur? We review the evidence from neontology and palaeontology, including pectoral and pelvic limb functional morphology, fossil footprints/trackways and biomechanical models and simulations. We emphasise that many false dichotomies or categories have been applied to theropod form and function, and sometimes, these impede research progress. For example, dichotomisation of locomotor function into ‘non-avian’ and ‘avian’ modes is only a conceptual crutch; the evidence supports a continuous transition. Simplification of pelvic limb function into cursorial/non-cursorial morphologies or flexed/columnar poses has outlived its utility. For the pectoral limbs, even the classic predatory strike vs. flight wing-stroke distinction and separation of theropods into non-flying and flying—or terrestrial and arboreal—categories may be missing important subtleties. Distinguishing locomotor function between taxa, even with quantitative approaches, will always be fraught with ambiguity, making it difficult to find real differences if that ambiguity is properly acknowledged. There must be an ‘interpretive asymptote’ for reconstructing dinosaur limb function that available methods and evidence cannot overcome. We may be close to that limit, but how far can it be stretched with improved methods and evidence, if at all? The way forward is a combination of techniques that emphasises integration of neontological and palaeontological evidence and quantitative assessment of limb function cautiously applied with validated techniques and sensitivity analysis of unknown variables.

Hutchinson, John R.; Allen, Vivian

2009-04-01

173

Turning Semicircular Canal Function on Its Head: Dinosaurs and a Novel Vestibular Analysis  

PubMed Central

Previous investigations have correlated vestibular function to locomotion in vertebrates by scaling semicircular duct radius of curvature to body mass. However, this method fails to discriminate bipedal from quadrupedal non-avian dinosaurs. Because they exhibit a broad range of relative head sizes, we use dinosaurs to test the hypothesis that semicircular ducts scale more closely with head size. Comparing the area enclosed by each semicircular canal to estimated body mass and to two different measures of head size, skull length and estimated head mass, reveals significant patterns that corroborate a connection between physical parameters of the head and semicircular canal morphology. Head mass more strongly correlates with anterior semicircular canal size than does body mass and statistically separates bipedal from quadrupedal taxa, with bipeds exhibiting relatively larger canals. This morphologic dichotomy likely reflects adaptations of the vestibular system to stability demands associated with terrestrial locomotion on two, versus four, feet. This new method has implications for reinterpreting previous studies and informing future studies on the connection between locomotion type and vestibular function. PMID:23516495

Georgi, Justin A.; Sipla, Justin S.; Forster, Catherine A.

2013-01-01

174

Turning semicircular canal function on its head: dinosaurs and a novel vestibular analysis.  

PubMed

Previous investigations have correlated vestibular function to locomotion in vertebrates by scaling semicircular duct radius of curvature to body mass. However, this method fails to discriminate bipedal from quadrupedal non-avian dinosaurs. Because they exhibit a broad range of relative head sizes, we use dinosaurs to test the hypothesis that semicircular ducts scale more closely with head size. Comparing the area enclosed by each semicircular canal to estimated body mass and to two different measures of head size, skull length and estimated head mass, reveals significant patterns that corroborate a connection between physical parameters of the head and semicircular canal morphology. Head mass more strongly correlates with anterior semicircular canal size than does body mass and statistically separates bipedal from quadrupedal taxa, with bipeds exhibiting relatively larger canals. This morphologic dichotomy likely reflects adaptations of the vestibular system to stability demands associated with terrestrial locomotion on two, versus four, feet. This new method has implications for reinterpreting previous studies and informing future studies on the connection between locomotion type and vestibular function. PMID:23516495

Georgi, Justin A; Sipla, Justin S; Forster, Catherine A

2013-01-01

175

Function Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet allows learners to explore simple linear functions. Students determine the algebraic form of a linear equation by entering inputs into the machine and by looking for patterns in the outputs. The function rules available are: integers from -10 to 10 are either added to, subtracted from, or multiplied by the input x to yield the output y.

2011-01-01

176

Function Junction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity teaches students about function transformations using f(x)=x and f(x)=x^2. Step by step instructions show students how to use their graphing calculators to explore the functions. A worksheet is included to test understanding of the lesson.

2008-11-04

177

Sponge Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A good cryptographic hash function should behave like a random oracle: it should not have weaknesses that a random oracle does not have. Due to the existence of inner collisions, iterated hash functions can never satisfy this ideal. We propose a construction with a finite state called a sponge and show that a random sponge can only be distinguished from

Guido Bertoni; Joan Daemen; Michael Peeters; Gilles Van Assche

178

The Middle Miocene Ape Pierolapithecus catalaunicus Exhibits Extant Great Ape-Like Morphometric Affinities on Its Patella: Inferences on Knee Function and Evolution  

PubMed Central

The mosaic nature of the Miocene ape postcranium hinders the reconstruction of the positional behavior and locomotion of these taxa based on isolated elements only. The fossil great ape Pierolapithecus catalaunicus (IPS 21350 skeleton; 11.9 Ma) exhibits a relatively wide and shallow thorax with moderate hand length and phalangeal curvature, dorsally-oriented metacarpophalangeal joints, and loss of ulnocarpal articulation. This evidence reveals enhanced orthograde postures without modern ape-like below-branch suspensory adaptations. Therefore, it has been proposed that natural selection enhanced vertical climbing (and not suspension per se) in Pierolapithecus catalaunicus. Although limb long bones are not available for this species, its patella (IPS 21350.37) can potentially provide insights into its knee function and thus on the complexity of its total morphological pattern. Here we provide a detailed description and morphometric analyses of IPS 21350.37, which are based on four external dimensions intended to capture the overall patellar shape. Our results reveal that the patella of Pierolapithecus is similar to that of extant great apes: proximodistally short, mediolaterally broad and anteroposteriorly thin. Previous biomechanical studies of the anthropoid knee based on the same measurements proposed that the modern great ape patella reflects a mobile knee joint while the long, narrow and thick patella of platyrrhine and especially cercopithecoid monkeys would increase the quadriceps moment arm in knee extension during walking, galloping, climbing and leaping. The patella of Pierolapithecus differs not only from that of monkeys and hylobatids, but also from that of basal hominoids (e.g., Proconsul and Nacholapithecus), which display slightly thinner patellae than extant great apes (the previously-inferred plesiomorphic hominoid condition). If patellar shape in Pierolapithecus is related to modern great ape-like knee function, our results suggest that increased knee mobility might have originally evolved in relation to enhanced climbing capabilities in great apes (such as specialized vertical climbing). PMID:24637777

Pina, Marta; Almécija, Sergio; Alba, David M.; O'Neill, Matthew C.; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

2014-01-01

179

Effect of Transcranial Direct-Current Stimulation Combined with Treadmill Training on Balance and Functional Performance in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Cerebral palsy refers to permanent, mutable motor development disorders stemming from a primary brain lesion, causing secondary musculoskeletal problems and limitations in activities of daily living. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of gait training combined with transcranial direct-current stimulation over the primary motor cortex on balance and functional performance in children with cerebral palsy. Methods A double-blind randomized controlled study was carried out with 24 children aged five to 12 years with cerebral palsy randomly allocated to two intervention groups (blocks of six and stratified based on GMFCS level (levels I-II or level III).The experimental group (12 children) was submitted to treadmill training and anodal stimulation of the primary motor cortex. The control group (12 children) was submitted to treadmill training and placebo transcranial direct-current stimulation. Training was performed in five weekly sessions for 2 weeks. Evaluations consisted of stabilometric analysis as well as the administration of the Pediatric Balance Scale and Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory one week before the intervention, one week after the completion of the intervention and one month after the completion of the intervention. All patients and two examiners were blinded to the allocation of the children to the different groups. Results The experimental group exhibited better results in comparison to the control group with regard to anteroposterior sway (eyes open and closed; p<0.05), mediolateral sway (eyes closed; p<0.05) and the Pediatric Balance Scale both one week and one month after the completion of the protocol. Conclusion Gait training on a treadmill combined with anodal stimulation of the primary motor cortex led to improvements in static balance and functional performance in children with cerebral palsy. Trial Registration Ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/RBR-9B5DH7 PMID:25171216

Duarte, Natália de Almeida Carvalho; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Galli, Manuela; Fregni, Felipe; Oliveira, Cláudia Santos

2014-01-01

180

Functional quantization  

E-print Network

Data is rarely obtained for its own sake; oftentimes, it is a function of the data that we care about. Traditional data compression and quantization techniques, designed to recreate or approximate the data itself, gloss ...

Misra, Vinith

2008-01-01

181

Transfer functions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vulnerability of electronic equipment to carbon fibers is studied. The effectiveness of interfaces, such as filters, doors, window screens, and cabinets, which affect the concentration, exposure, or deposition of carbon fibers on both (internal and external) sides of the interface is examined. The transfer function of multilayer aluminum mesh, wet and dry, polyurethane foam, and window screen are determined as a function of air velocity. FIlters installed in typical traffic control boxes and air conditioners are also considered.

Taback, I.

1979-01-01

182

Carcinoma origin dictates differential skewing of monocyte function  

PubMed Central

Macrophages are versatile cells, which phenotype is profoundly influenced by their environment. Pro-inflammatory classically activated or M1 macrophages, and anti-inflammatory alternatively-activated or M2 macrophages represent two extremes of a continuum of functional states. Consequently, macrophages that are present in tumors can exert tumor-promoting and tumor-suppressing activity, depending on the tumor milieu. In this study we investigated how human monocytes—the precursors of macrophages—are influenced by carcinoma cells of different origin. We demonstrate that monocytes, stimulated with breast cancer supernatant, showed increased expression of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-8 and chemokines CCL17 and CCL22, which are associated with an alternatively-activated phenotype. By contrast, monocytes that were cultured in supernatants of colon cancer cells produced more pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-12 and TNF?) and reactive oxygen species. Secretome analysis revealed differential secretion of proteins by colon and breast cancer cell lines, of which the proteoglycan versican was exclusively secreted by colon carcinoma cell lines. Reducing active versican by blocking with monoclonal antibodies or shRNA diminished pro-inflammatory cytokine production by monocytes. Thus, colon carcinoma cells polarize monocytes toward a more classically-activated anti-tumorigenic phenotype, whereas breast carcinomas predispose monocytes toward an alternatively activated phenotype. Interestingly, presence of macrophages in breast or colon carcinomas correlates with poor or good prognosis in patients, respectively. The observed discrepancy in macrophage activation by either colon or breast carcinoma cells may therefore explain the dichotomy between patient prognosis and macrophage presence in these different tumors. Designing new therapies, directing development of monocytes toward M1 activated tumor macrophages in cancer patients, may have great clinical benefits. PMID:23162747

Bögels, Marijn; Braster, Rens; Nijland, Philip G.; Gül, Nuray; van de Luijtgaarden, Wendy; Fijneman, Remond J.A.; Meijer, Gerrit A.; Jimenez, Connie R.; Beelen, Robert H.J.; van Egmond, Marjolein

2012-01-01

183

Determine Optimal Stimulus Amplitude for Using Vestibular Stochastic Stimulation to Improve Balance Function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensorimotor changes such as postural and gait instabilities can affect the functional performance of astronauts when they transition across different gravity environments. We are developing a method, based on stochastic resonance (SR), to enhance information transfer by applying non-zero levels of external noise on the vestibular system (vestibular stochastic resonance, VSR). Our previous work has shown the advantageous effects of VSR in a balance task of standing on an unstable surface [1]. This technique to improve detection of vestibular signals uses a stimulus delivery system that provides imperceptibly low levels of white noise-based binaural bipolar electrical stimulation of the vestibular system. The goal of this project is to determine optimal levels of stimulation for SR applications by using a defined vestibular threshold of motion detection. A series of experiments were carried out to determine a robust paradigm to identify a vestibular threshold that can then be used to recommend optimal stimulation levels for sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training applications customized to each crewmember. The amplitude of stimulation to be used in the VSR application has varied across studies in the literature such as 60% of nociceptive stimulus thresholds [2]. We compared subjects' perceptual threshold with that obtained from two measures of body sway. Each test session was 463s long and consisted of several 15s long sinusoidal stimuli, at different current amplitudes (0-2 mA), interspersed with 20-20.5s periods of no stimulation. Subjects sat on a chair with their eyes closed and had to report their perception of motion through a joystick. A force plate underneath the chair recorded medio-lateral shear forces and roll moments. Comparison of threshold of motion detection obtained from joystick data versus body sway suggests that perceptual thresholds were significantly lower. In the balance task, subjects stood on an unstable surface and had to maintain balance, and the stimulation was administered from 20-400% of subjects' vestibular threshold. Optimal stimulation amplitude was determined at which the balance performance was best compared to control (no stimulation). Preliminary results show that, in general, using stimulation amplitudes at 40-60% of perceptual motion threshold significantly improved the balance performance. We hypothesize that VSR stimulation will act synergistically with SA training to improve adaptability by increasing utilization of vestibular information and therefore will help us to optimize and personalize a SA countermeasure prescription. This combination may help to significantly reduce the number of days required to recover functional performance to preflight levels after long-duration spaceflight.

Goel, R.; Kofman, I.; DeDios, Y. E.; Jeevarajan, J.; Stepanyan, V.; Nair, M.; Congdon, S.; Fregia, M.; Cohen, H.; Bloomberg, J.J.; Mulavara, A.P.

2015-01-01

184

Comprehensive functional annotation of 18 missense mutations found in suspected hemochromatosis type 4 patients.  

PubMed

Hemochromatosis type 4 is a rare form of primary iron overload transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait caused by mutations in the gene encoding the iron transport protein ferroportin 1 (SLC40A1). SLC40A1 mutations fall into two functional categories (loss- versus gain-of-function) underlying two distinct clinical entities (hemochromatosis type 4A versus type 4B). However, the vast majority of SLC40A1 mutations are rare missense variations, with only a few showing strong evidence of causality. The present study reports the results of an integrated approach collecting genetic and phenotypic data from 44 suspected hemochromatosis type 4 patients, with comprehensive structural and functional annotations. Causality was demonstrated for 10 missense variants, showing a clear dichotomy between the two hemochromatosis type 4 subtypes. Two subgroups of loss-of-function mutations were distinguished: one impairing cell-surface expression and one altering only iron egress. Additionally, a new gain-of-function mutation was identified, and the degradation of ferroportin on hepcidin binding was shown to probably depend on the integrity of a large extracellular loop outside of the hepcidin-binding domain. Eight further missense variations, on the other hand, were shown to have no discernible effects at either protein or RNA level; these were found in apparently isolated patients and were associated with a less severe phenotype. The present findings illustrate the importance of combining in silico and biochemical approaches to fully distinguish pathogenic SLC40A1 mutations from benign variants. This has profound implications for patient management. PMID:24714983

Callebaut, Isabelle; Joubrel, Rozenn; Pissard, Serge; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Gérolami, Victoria; Ged, Cécile; Cadet, Estelle; Cartault, François; Ka, Chandran; Gourlaouen, Isabelle; Gourhant, Lénaick; Oudin, Claire; Goossens, Michel; Grandchamp, Bernard; De Verneuil, Hubert; Rochette, Jacques; Férec, Claude; Le Gac, Gérald

2014-09-01

185

Inverse Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students use log tapes and base-two slide rules as references to graph exponential functions and log functions in base-10 and base-2. Students discover that exponential and log functions are inverse, reflecting across the y = x axis as mirror images. This is activity E2 in the "Far Out Math" educator's guide. Lessons in the guide include activities in which students measure, compare quantities as orders of magnitude, become familiar with scientific notation, and develop an understanding of exponents and logarithms using examples from NASA's GLAST mission. These are skills needed to understand the very large and very small quantities characteristic of astronomical observations. Note: In 2008, the GLAST mission was renamed Fermi, for the physicist Enrico Fermi.

186

Functions and Models: New Functions from Old Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Match the graph of a transformation of a function with its equation representation;Determine the domain of a combination of functions from the domains of the original functions;Express a given function as the nontrivial composition of two or more elementary functions;Graph a given function by applying appropriate transformations to elementary functions

Michael Freeze

187

GeoChip-based insights into the microbial functional gene repertoire of marine sponges (high microbial abundance, low microbial abundance) and seawater.  

PubMed

The GeoChip 4.2 gene array was employed to interrogate the microbial functional gene repertoire of sponges and seawater collected from the Red Sea and the Mediterranean. Complementary amplicon sequencing confirmed the microbial community composition characteristic of high microbial abundance (HMA) and low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges. By use of GeoChip, altogether 20,273 probes encoding for 627 functional genes and representing 16 gene categories were identified. Minimum curvilinear embedding analyses revealed a clear separation between the samples. The HMA/LMA dichotomy was stronger than any possible geographic pattern, which is shown here for the first time on the level of functional genes. However, upon inspection of individual genes, very few specific differences were discernible. Differences were related to microbial ammonia oxidation, ammonification, and archaeal autotrophic carbon fixation (higher gene abundance in sponges over seawater) as well as denitrification and radiation-stress-related genes (lower gene abundance in sponges over seawater). Except for few documented specific differences the functional gene repertoire between the different sources appeared largely similar. This study expands previous reports in that functional gene convergence is not only reported between HMA and LMA sponges but also between sponges and seawater. PMID:25318900

Bayer, Kristina; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Brümmer, Franz; Cannistraci, Carlo V; Ravasi, Timothy; Hentschel, Ute

2014-12-01

188

Riemann-Hypothesis Millennium-Problem(MP) Physics Proof via CATEGORY-SEMANTICS(C-S)/F=C Aristotle SQUARE-of-OPPOSITION(SoO) DEduction-LOGIC DichotomY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riemann-hypothesis physics-proof combines: Siegel-Antonoff-Smith[AMS Joint Mtg.(2002)-Abs.973-03-126] digits on-average statistics HIll[Am. J. Math 123, 3, 887(1996)] logarithm-function's (1,0)-fixed-point base=units=scale-invariance proven Newcomb[Am. J. Math. 4, 39(1881)]-Weyl[Goett. Nachr.(1914); Math. Ann. 7, 313(1916)]-Benford[Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 78, 4, 51(1938)]-law [Kac, Math. of Stat.-Reasoning(1955); Raimi, Sci. Am. 221, 109(1969)] algebraic-inversion to ONLY Bose-Einstein quantum-statistics(BEQS) with digit d = 0 gapFUL Bose-Einstein Condensation(BEC) insight that digits are quanta are bosons were always digits, via Siegel-Baez category-semantics tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics in Plato-Aristotle classic "square-of-opposition" : FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS/Category-Semantics, with Goodkind Bose-Einstein condensation(BEC) ABOVE ground-state with/and Rayleigh(cut-limit of "short-cut method";1870)-Polya(1922)-"Anderson"(1958) localization [Doyle and Snell, Random-Walks and Electrical-Networks, MAA(1981)-p.99-100!!!].

Baez, J.; Lapidaryus, M.; Carl-Ludwig Siegel, Edward

2011-03-01

189

Graphic functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews 12 studies relating to graphic functions published from 1915-1917 which indicate (a) Each school should establish norms of achievement in handwriting and construct its own scale for the same (b) Relationship of legibility and form in handwriting is determined by letter-formation, spacing, uniformity of alignment, quality of line and uniformity of slant (c) Deterioration of forms in adult writing

June E. Downey

1918-01-01

190

Riemann-Hypothesis Millennium-Problem(MP) Physics Proof via CATEGORY-SEMANTICS(C-S)/F=C Aristotle SQUARE-of-OPPOSITION(SoO) DEduction-LOGIC DichotomY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riemann-hypothesis physics-proof combines: Siegel-Antono-Smith[AMS Joint Mtg.(2002)- Abs.973-03-126] digits on-average statistics HIll[Am. J. Math 123, 3, 887(1996)] logarithm-function's (1,0)- xed-point base=units=scale-invariance proven Newcomb [Am. J. Math. 4, 39(1881)]-Weyl[Goett. Nachr.(1914); Math. Ann.7, 313(1916)]-Benford[Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 78, 4, 51(1938)]-law [Kac,Math. of Stat.-Reasoning(1955); Raimi, Sci. Am. 221, 109(1969)] algebraic-inversion to ONLY Bose-Einstein quantum-statistics(BEQS) with digit d = 0 gapFUL Bose-Einstein Condensation(BEC) insight that digits are quanta are bosons because bosons are and always were quanta are and always were digits, via Siegel-Baez category-semantics tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics in Plato-Aristotle classic "square-of-opposition" : FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS/Category-Semantics, with Goodkind Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC) ABOVE ground-state with/and Rayleigh(cut-limit of "short-cut method";1870)-Polya(1922)-"Anderson"(1958) localization [Doyle and Snell,Random-Walks and Electrical-Networks, MAA(1981)-p.99-100!!!] in Brillouin[Wave-Propagation in Periodic-Structures(1946) Dover(1922)]-Hubbard-Beeby[J.Phys.C(1967)] Siegel[J.Nonxline-Sol.40,453(1980)] generalized-disorder collective-boson negative-dispersion mode-softening universality-principle(GP) first use of the ``square-of-opposition'' in physics since Plato and Aristote!!!

Baez, Joao-Joan; Lapidaryus, Michelle; Carl-Ludwig Siegel, Edward

2013-03-01

191

Brain Structure & Function Structure Function  

E-print Network

, perception of stimuli (e.g. touch, pain, temperature) Temporal lobe Hearing, speech, memory Choroid plexus Learning and memory, spatial orientation Hypothalamus 4Fs (feeding, fleeing, fighting, making love) Lateral (oblongata) Maintaining vital body functions (e.g. breathing, heart beat) Olfactory bulb Sense olfactory

Hull, Elaine

192

Function flyer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers of all algebra levels will find this applet useful when helping students understand and visualize the relationship between an equation and its graph. Assigning the applet with exploration questions to small groups of students would be an excellent introduction to how the applet works and good preparation for more in-depth exploration of issues related to whatever types of functions the class is studying.

Shodor Education Foundation

2004-01-01

193

Functional dyspepsia  

PubMed Central

Dyspepsia is a common term used for a heterogeneous group of abdominal symptoms. Functional dyspepsia (FD) is the focus of this review. The 2006 Rome III criteria defined FD and its subgroups, postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) and epigastric pain syndrome (EPS). FD is a very common condition with a high prevalence throughout the world, adversely affecting the quality of life of patients. The pathophysiology of FD has been under investigation during the past two decades. Multiple mechanisms such as abnormal gastric emptying, visceral hypersensitivity, impaired gastric accommodation, and central nervous system factors are likely involved. Several tests are available for the assessment of various physiologic functions possibly involved in the pathogenesis of FD, and some of these could be used in clinical practice, helping to understand the abnormalities underlining patients’ complaints. Currently, the possibilities of pharmacological therapy for FD are still limited, however, experience of using prokinetics, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), and several alternative techniques has been accumulated. The different combinations of alterations in physiologic gastrointestinal and central nervous system functions result in the very heterogeneous nature of FD so combined approaches to these patients could be beneficial in challenging cases. PMID:21180597

Brun, Rita; Kuo, Braden

2010-01-01

194

Wetland Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource explains a number of critical functions performed by wetlands. Students will discover that wetlands moderate impacts from flooding, control erosion, purify water, and provide habitat for fish and wildlife. They also provide a unique natural environment for people to enjoy outdoor recreation activities. It is part of a module that aims to help students get to know the complexities of wetlands, discover wildlife, enjoy the experience of being outdoors, and learn how necessary wetlands are to the health of our environment. Although it is about wetlands in New England for educators and their middle school students, it suggests ways to study wetland characteristics, why wetlands are important, and how students and teachers can help protect a local wetland in any part of the country. An associated set of activities is also available.

195

Analysis of morphological and functional maturation of neoislets generated in vitro from pancreatic ductal cells and their suitability for islet banking and transplantation.  

PubMed

The pancreatic ductal stem cells are known to differentiate into islets of Langerhans; however, their yield is limited and the islet population is not defined. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to improvise a methodology for obtaining large numbers of islets in vitro and to characterize their morphological and functional status for islet cell banking and transplantation. Pancreatic ductal epithelial cell cultures were set in serum-free medium. Monolayers of epithelial cells in culture gave rise to islet-like clusters within 3-4 weeks. The identity of neoislets was confirmed by dithizone staining and analysis of the gene expression for endocrine markers by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The islet population obtained was analysed by image analysis and insulin secretion in response to secretagogues. The cellular extracts from neoislets were immunoreactive to anti-insulin antibody and expressed insulin, glucagon, GLUT-2, PDX-1 and Reg-1 genes. The islets generated within 3-4 weeks exhibited a mixed population of large- and small-sized islets with clear cut dichotomy in the pattern of their insulin secretion in response to L-arginine and glucose. These neoislets maintained their structural and functional integrity on cryopreservation and transplantation indicating their suitability for islet cell banking. Thus, the present study describes an improved method for obtaining a constant supply of large numbers of islets from pancreatic ductal stem cell cultures. The newly generated islets undergo functional maturation indicating their suitability for transplantation. PMID:15225135

Katdare, M R; Bhonde, R R; Parab, P B

2004-07-01

196

Isotope Analysis Reveals Foraging Area Dichotomy for Atlantic Leatherback Turtles  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) has undergone a dramatic decline over the last 25 years, and this is believed to be primarily the result of mortality associated with fisheries bycatch followed by egg and nesting female harvest. Atlantic leatherback turtles undertake long migrations across ocean basins from subtropical and tropical nesting beaches to productive frontal areas. Migration between two nesting

Stéphane Caut; Elodie Guirlet; Elena Angulo; Krishna Das; Marc Girondot; Michael Somers

2008-01-01

197

Dichotomy, Consubstantiality, Technical Writing, Literary Theory: The Double Orthodox Curse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articulates two different conceptions of writing that come from ancient Greece (classical and sophistic) and uses them as a field in which to compare two writing scenes involving reader response and software documentation. Explores whether these scenes are the same, similar, or absolutely different and whether they imply similar, different, or…

Neel, Jasper

1992-01-01

198

Kalela, Beni, Asafo, Ingoma and the rural-urban dichotomy.  

PubMed

The author provides a critical examination of the arguments and support for conclusions in "copperbelt writings" about the urban Kalela dance and the relationship to urban and rural differences. There is a critical discussion of relationships between the dance forms: the kalela, asafo, beni, and ingoma. The origins of the dance are traced to the rural Beni in the writings of Mitchel, however Ranger's treatise on the Beni in east Africa indicates a locally quite distinct tradition associated with Swahili dance associations in towns. The author finds strong parallels between the Beni and Swahili dance associations and derivation from the Akan asafo companies. It is suggested that both east and west African dances reflected a European impact and the fundamental values of African people as well as a form of entertainment. It was a public display of progress and skill. The spread of the Swahili Beni between the 2 World Wars was complex and varied, but the form conformed well to rural villages which traditionally competed against each other. The Mitchel assertion that the costumes which imitated the uniforms of colonial civil and military hierarchy allowed vicarious participation in social relationships which they were excluded from is refuted. It is suggested by the author and Ranger that African dancers were asserting as traditional their individual and collective status and prestige in their own society and the costumes were the new fashion. The change to modern dress is though by Mitchell to reflect similarly a fictitious upward mobility and urban influence, and is considered to be unsubstantiated by the lower class population assuming the behavior. The author views the behavior as directed to unskilled, uneducated migrant workers groups which included them and provided a strong link to their rural homes and children. In dispute is also the Mitchell interpretation of lyrics to the songs which the author finds reflect rural themes and influences as well. It is recognized that there were new urban references. The Kalela dance is considered by the author to be an example of the encapsulation of rural migrants within an urban environment. This view is reflected in Mayer's Townsmen and Tribemen and the writings of H.J. Thomas on the ingoma dance groups of Durban, which also reflected lyrics pertained to rural life. The songs are a traditional, spontaneous, unsolicited testimony to rural life. PMID:12285291

Argyle, J

1991-01-01

199

Paradigms, Perspectives and Dichotomies amongst Teacher Educators in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that the concepts, beliefs and understandings of local and non-local teacher educators in a Hong Kong university are grounded in their own cultural cognition and antecedents. It presents the viewpoint that contemporary notions of good practice were compromised when applied to a context that is strongly influenced by the tenets of…

Katyal, Kokila Roy; Fai, Pang Ming

2010-01-01

200

"Kind of a Funny Dichotomy": A Conversation with Robert Cormier.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents transcript of an interview with Robert Cormier, winner of the Margaret A. Edwards Award for authors of books for young adults. Various aspects of Cormier's works are discussed, including realism; characterization; the darker themes that he uses and their origins; the influence of Catholicism; and censorship. (LRW)

Sutton, Roger

1991-01-01

201

Dialectics Instead of Dichotomy: Perspectives on the Twin Ambitions Movement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the mobilizing work of a disability organization, at the local chapter level. I have spent about a year following the work of a chapter, mainly through contacts, conversations and interviews with the persons who are active on its board. The analysis of the chapter's work takes as its starting point two traditions that…

Eriksson, Lisbeth

2013-01-01

202

Beyond Remedial Dichotomies: Are "Underprepared" College Students a Marginalized Majority?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article questions the dichotomous labeling and conceptualization of remedial and nonremedial students, particularly the added distinctions emphasized between four-year and two-year colleges, and it calls for a focus on the common challenges among all underprepared college students. The content of this article has attempted to broaden the…

Deil-Amen, Regina

2011-01-01

203

The dichotomy of pathogens and allergens in vaccination approaches.  

PubMed

Traditional prophylactic vaccination to prevent illness is the primary objective of many research activities worldwide. The golden age of vaccination began with an approach called variolation in ancient China and the evolution of vaccines still continues today with modern developments such as the production of Gardasil(TM) against HPV and cervical cancer. The historical aspect of how different forms of vaccination have changed the face of medicine and communities is important as it dictates our future approaches on both a local and global scale. From the eradication of smallpox to the use of an experimental vaccine to save a species, this review will explore these successes in infectious disease vaccination and also discuss a few significant failures which have hampered our efforts to eradicate certain diseases. The second part of the review will explore designing a prophylactic vaccine for the growing global health concern that is allergy. Allergies are an emerging global health burden. Of particular concern is the rise of food allergies in developed countries where 1 in 10 children is currently affected. The formation of an allergic response results from the recognition of a foreign component by our immune system that is usually encountered on a regular basis. This may be a dust-mite or a prawn but this inappropriate immune response can result in a life-time of food avoidance and lifestyle restrictions. These foreign components are very similar to antigens derived from infectious pathogens. The question arises: should the allergy community be focussing on protective measures rather than ongoing therapeutic interventions to deal with these chronic inflammatory conditions? We will explore the difficulties and benefits of prophylactic vaccination against various allergens by means of genetic technology that will dictate how vaccination against allergens could be utilized in the near future. PMID:25076945

Baird, Fiona J; Lopata, Andreas L

2014-01-01

204

Content vs. Learning: An Old Dichotomy in Science Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principles of course redesign that were applied to a gateway Cell Biology course at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee are applicable to courses large and small, and to institutions of any size. The challenge was to design a content-rich science course that kept pace with present and future content and at the same time use principles of…

Bergtrom, Gerald

2011-01-01

205

The Multilingual/Bilingual Dichotomy: An Exploration of Individual Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bilingualism (Sanz, 2000), motivation (Pintrich, 1989), and language aptitude (Grigorenko, Sternberg, and Ehrman, 2000) are crucial individual differences that contribute to successful adult language learning. Since Gardner's (1985) seminal work on motivation, many studies have shown that motivation is dynamic and that it affects language…

Thompson, Amy S.

2009-01-01

206

A false dichotomy? Mental illness and lone-actor terrorism.  

PubMed

We test whether significant differences in mental illness exist in a matched sample of lone- and group-based terrorists. We then test whether there are distinct behavioral differences between lone-actor terrorists with and without mental illness. We then stratify our sample across a range of diagnoses and again test whether significant differences exist. We conduct a series of bivariate, multivariate, and multinomial statistical tests using a unique dataset of 119 lone-actor terrorists and a matched sample of group-based terrorists. The odds of a lone-actor terrorist having a mental illness is 13.49 times higher than the odds of a group actor having a mental illness. Lone actors who were mentally ill were 18.07 times more likely to have a spouse or partner who was involved in a wider movement than those without a history of mental illness. Those with a mental illness were more likely to have a proximate upcoming life change, more likely to have been a recent victim of prejudice, and experienced proximate and chronic stress. The results identify behaviors and traits that security agencies can utilize to monitor and prevent lone-actor terrorism events. The correlated behaviors provide an image of how risk can crystalize within the individual offender and that our understanding of lone-actor terrorism should be multivariate in nature. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25133916

Corner, Emily; Gill, Paul

2015-02-01

207

The dichotomy of pathogens and allergens in vaccination approaches  

PubMed Central

Traditional prophylactic vaccination to prevent illness is the primary objective of many research activities worldwide. The golden age of vaccination began with an approach called variolation in ancient China and the evolution of vaccines still continues today with modern developments such as the production of GardasilTM against HPV and cervical cancer. The historical aspect of how different forms of vaccination have changed the face of medicine and communities is important as it dictates our future approaches on both a local and global scale. From the eradication of smallpox to the use of an experimental vaccine to save a species, this review will explore these successes in infectious disease vaccination and also discuss a few significant failures which have hampered our efforts to eradicate certain diseases. The second part of the review will explore designing a prophylactic vaccine for the growing global health concern that is allergy. Allergies are an emerging global health burden. Of particular concern is the rise of food allergies in developed countries where 1 in 10 children is currently affected. The formation of an allergic response results from the recognition of a foreign component by our immune system that is usually encountered on a regular basis. This may be a dust-mite or a prawn but this inappropriate immune response can result in a life-time of food avoidance and lifestyle restrictions. These foreign components are very similar to antigens derived from infectious pathogens. The question arises: should the allergy community be focussing on protective measures rather than ongoing therapeutic interventions to deal with these chronic inflammatory conditions? We will explore the difficulties and benefits of prophylactic vaccination against various allergens by means of genetic technology that will dictate how vaccination against allergens could be utilized in the near future. PMID:25076945

Baird, Fiona J.; Lopata, Andreas L.

2014-01-01

208

Martian dichotomy formation by partial melting coupled to early  

E-print Network

13, 2011 #12;Endogenic origin?? Sleep 1994 early episode of plate tectonics on Mars 14Wednesday at Dept. of Geophysics, Charles Univ. in Prague 1Wednesday, April 13, 2011 #12;Mars · radius 3400 km that of the Earth) 2Wednesday, April 13, 2011 #12;Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission 1996­2006 · Mars Orbiter Camera

Cerveny, Vlastislav

209

Functional amyloid  

PubMed Central

Evidence is growing at an increasing-pace that amyloid fibers are not just the result of aberrant protein folding associated with neurodegenerative diseases, but are widespread in nature for beneficial reasons. Amyloid is an attractive building material because its robust design and simple repetitive structure make for very durable and metabolically cheap material. But this requires that the production of amyloid be put under firm control. This appears to involve the use of four to five chaperones that are expressed under the control of the same promoter as the amyloid proteins. Significant progress has been made in deciphering this process in E. coli's csg operon, also found in Salmonella. Recently, we have discovered a new and unrelated operon (fap) responsible for amyloid production in Pseudomonas, which also confers biofilm-forming properties to E. coli. Intriguingly, this operon shares a number of features with csg, namely two homologous proteins (one of which, FapC, has been shown to be directly involved in amyloid build-up) and a small number of auxiliary proteins. However, FapC seems to be less economically structured than its E. coli counterpart, with a smaller number of repeats and very large and variable linker regions. Furthermore, the putative chaperones are not homologous to their csg counterparts and have intriguing homologies to proteins with other functions. These findings suggest that controlled amyloid production has arisen on many independent occasions due to the usefulness of the product and offers the potential for intriguing insights into how nature disarms and reconstructs a potentially very dangerous weapon. PMID:20935497

2010-01-01

210

Assessing Function and Functional Outcome in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The diagnosis of schizophrenia can only be made in the presence of a loss of functioning in domains such as employment, independent\\u000a living, and social functioning. Accurately measuring functioning is central to research on the course of the disorder, treatment\\u000a and rehabilitation outcomes, and biosocial factors in schizophrenia. Assessments of functional disability have described three\\u000a dimensions of functioning: functional capacity,

Elizabeth Bromley; John S. Brekke

211

Risk functionals Dual properties  

E-print Network

Outline Risk functionals Dual properties A collection of risk functionals Risk and information Multiperiod models Acceptability functionals, risk capital functionals and risk deviation functionals: Primal and risk #12;Outline Risk functionals Dual properties A collection of risk functionals Risk and information

Pflug, Georg

212

The effects of disruption in attention on driving performance patterns: analysis of jerk-cost function and vehicle control data.  

PubMed

This study analyzes the effects of attention disruption factors, such as sending text messages (STM) and performing searching navigation (SN) on driving performance patterns while actively driving, centering on motion signals. To this end, it analyzes not only data on control of the vehicle including the Anterior-Posterior Coefficient of Variation (APCV), Medial-Lateral Coefficient of Variation (MLCV), and Deviation of Vehicle Speed but also motion data such as the Jerk-Cost function (JC). A total of 55 drivers including 28 males (age: 24.1 ± 1.5, driving experience: 1.8 years ± 1.7 years) and 27 females (age: 23.8 ± 2.6, driving experience: 1.5 ± 1.0) participated in this study. All subjects were instructed to drive at a constant speed (90 km/h) for 2 min while keeping a distance of 30 m from the front car also running at a speed of 90 km/h. They were requested to drive for the first 1 min and then drive only (Driving Only) or conduct tasks while driving for the subsequent 1 min (Driving + STM or Driving + SN). The information on APCV, MLCV, and deviation of speed were delivered by a driving simulator. Furthermore, the motion signal was measured using 4 high-speed infrared cameras and based on the measurement results, JCs in a total of 6 parts including left shoulder (L.shoulder), left elbow (L.elbow), left hand (L.hand), right knee (R.knee), right ankle (R.ankle), and right toe (R.toe) were calculated. Differences among the results of 3 conditions of experiment, Driving Only, Driving + STM, and Driving + SN, were compared and analyzed in terms of APCV, MLCV, Deviation of Vehicle Speed, and JC. APCV and Deviation of Vehicle Speed increased in Driving + SN, rather than in Driving Only. MLCV increased in Driving + STM and Driving + SN, rather than in Driving Only. In the case of most JCs except that of L.hand, the values increased in Driving + SN, compared to Driving Only. This study indicated that JC could be a reliable parameter for the evaluation of driving performance patterns. In addition, it was discovered that additional tasks under driving, such as STM and SN, impaired smoothness or proficiency in driving motion, thereby increasing anterior-posterior and medio-lateral variability and deviation of speed. PMID:23217629

Choi, Jin-Seung; Kim, Han-Soo; Kang, Dong-Won; Choi, Mi-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Hong, Sang-Pyo; Yu, Na-Rae; Lim, Dae-Woon; Min, Byung-Chan; Tack, Gye-Rae; Chung, Soon-Cheol

2013-07-01

213

On hypergeometric functions and function spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of hypergeometric functions in function spaces and to prove some new results for these functions. The first part of this paper proves results such as monotone, convexity and concavity properties of sums of products of hypergeometric functions. The second part of our results deals with the space A of all

R. Balasubramanian; S. Ponnusamy; M. Vuorinen

2002-01-01

214

EVANS FUNCTIONS, JOST FUNCTIONS, AND FREDHOLM DETERMINANTS  

E-print Network

EVANS FUNCTIONS, JOST FUNCTIONS, AND FREDHOLM DETERMINANTS FRITZ GESZTESY, YURI LATUSHKIN of the Evans function in terms of newly introduced generalized matrix­valued Jost solutions for general first­order matrix­valued di#erential equations on the real line, and a proof of the fact that the Evans function

215

Design and Evaluation of a New Type of Knee Orthosis to Align the Mediolateral Angle of the Knee Joint with Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Background. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease which influences the performance of the knee joint. Moreover, the force and moments applied on the joint increase in contrast to normal subjects. Various types of knee orthoses have been designed to solve the mentioned problems. However, there are other problems in terms of distal migration during walking and the alignment of the orthosis which cannot be changed following the use of brace. Therefore, the main aim of the research was to design an orthosis to solve the aforementioned problems. Method. A new type of knee orthosis was designed with a modular structure. Two patients with knee OA participated in this research project. The force applied on the foot, moment transmitted through the knee joint, and spatiotemporal gait parameters were measured by use of a motion analysis system. Results. The results of the research showed that the adduction moment applied on the knee joint decreased while subjects walked with the new knee orthosis (P-value < 0.05). Conclusion. The new design of the knee brace can be used as an effective treatment to decrease the loads applied on the knee joint and to improve the alignment whilst walking. PMID:22577565

Esrafilian, Amir; Karimi, Mohammad Taghi; Eshraghi, Arezoo

2012-01-01

216

Reduction of frontal-plane hip joint reaction force via medio-lateral foot center of pressure manipulation: A pilot study.  

PubMed

Footwear-generated biomechanical manipulation of lower-limb joints has been shown to influence lower-limb biomechanics. Numerous studies report the influence of such interventions on the knee, however little is known about the influence of these interventions on the hip. The present study analyzed kinetic and kinematic changes about the hip of 12 healthy young males who underwent biomechanical manipulation utilizing the APOS biomechanical device (APOS-Medical and Sports Technologies Ltd., Herzliya, Israel) allowing controlled foot center of pressure manipulation. Subjects underwent gait testing in four para-sagittal device configurations: Medial, lateral, neutral, and regular shoes. In the medial configuration, subjects demonstrated no change in step width (i.e., distance between right and left foot center of pressure), however inter-malleolar distance significantly increased. Likewise with the medial setting, greater hip abduction was recorded, while hip adduction moment and joint reaction force decreased significantly. We speculate that subjects adopt a modified gait pattern aimed to maintain constant base of support. As a result, hip abductor muscle moment arm increases and adduction moment and joint reaction force decreases. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study to show this relationship. These results contribute to the understanding of lower-limb biomechanics and warrant further investigation. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:261-269, 2015. PMID:25256253

Solomonow-Avnon, Deborah; Wolf, Alon; Herman, Amir; Rozen, Nimrod; Haim, Amir

2015-02-01

217

Exploring Functional Mellin Transforms  

E-print Network

We define functional Mellin transforms within a scheme for functional integration proposed in [1]. Functional Mellin transforms can be used to define functional traces, logarithms, and determinants. The associated functional integrals are useful tools for probing function spaces in general and $C^\\ast$-algebras in particular. Several interesting aspects are explored.

J. LaChapelle

2015-01-08

218

Ocular-Motor Function and Information Processing: Implications for the Reading Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the dichotomy between continually moving eyes and the lack of blurred visual experience. A discontinuous model of visual perception is proposed, with the discontinuities being phase and temporally related to saccadic eye movements. It is further proposed that deviant duration and angular velocity characteristics of saccades in…

Leisman, Gerald; Schwartz, Joddy

219

The development of vestibular system and related functions in mammals: impact of gravity.  

PubMed

This chapter reviews the knowledge about the adaptation to Earth gravity during the development of mammals. The impact of early exposure to altered gravity is evaluated at the level of the functions related to the vestibular system, including postural control, homeostatic regulation, and spatial memory. The hypothesis of critical periods in the adaptation to gravity is discussed. Demonstrating a critical period requires removing the gravity stimulus during delimited time windows, what is impossible to do on Earth surface. The surgical destruction of the vestibular apparatus, and the use of mice strains with defective graviceptors have provided useful information on the consequences of missing gravity perception, and the possible compensatory mechanisms, but transitory suppression of the stimulus can only be operated during spatial flight. The rare studies on rat pups housed on board of space shuttle significantly contributed to this problem, but the use of hypergravity environment, produced by means of chronic centrifugation, is the only available tool when repeated experiments must be carried out on Earth. Even though hypergravity is sometimes considered as a mirror situation to microgravity, the two situations cannot be confused because a gravitational force is still present. The theoretical considerations that validate the paradigm of hypergravity to evaluate critical periods are discussed. The question of adaption of graviceptor is questioned from an evolutionary point of view. It is possible that graviception is hardwired, because life on Earth has evolved under the constant pressure of gravity. The rapid acquisition of motor programming by precocial mammals in minutes after birth is consistent with this hypothesis, but the slow development of motor skills in altricial species and the plasticity of vestibular perception in adults suggest that gravity experience is required for the tuning of graviceptors. The possible reasons for this dichotomy are discussed. PMID:24570658

Jamon, Marc

2014-01-01

220

Optimal Stimulus Amplitude for Vestibular Stochastic Stimulation to Improve Sensorimotor Function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensorimotor changes such as postural and gait instabilities can affect the functional performance of astronauts when they transition across different gravity environments. We are developing a method, based on stochastic resonance (SR), to enhance information transfer by applying non-zero levels of external noise on the vestibular system (vestibular stochastic resonance, VSR). Our previous work has shown the advantageous effects of VSR in a balance task of standing on an unstable surface. This technique to improve detection of vestibular signals uses a stimulus delivery system that is wearable or portable and provides imperceptibly low levels of white noise-based binaural bipolar electrical stimulation of the vestibular system. The goal of this project is to determine optimal levels of stimulation for SR applications by using a defined vestibular threshold of motion detection. A series of experiments were carried out to determine a robust paradigm to identify a vestibular threshold that can then be used to recommend optimal stimulation levels for SR training applications customized to each crewmember. Customizing stimulus intensity can maximize treatment effects. The amplitude of stimulation to be used in the VSR application has varied across studies in the literature such as 60% of nociceptive stimulus thresholds. We compared subjects' perceptual threshold with that obtained from two measures of body sway. Each test session was 463s long and consisted of several 15s sinusoidal stimuli, at different current amplitudes (0-2 mA), interspersed with 20-20.5s periods of no stimulation. Subjects sat on a chair with their eyes closed and had to report their perception of motion through a joystick. A force plate underneath the chair recorded medio-lateral shear forces and roll moments. First we determined the percent time during stimulation periods for which perception of motion (activity above a pre-defined threshold) was reported using the joystick, and body sway (two standard deviation of the noise level in the baseline measurement) was detected by the sensors. The percentage time at each stimulation level for motion detection was normalized with respect to the largest value and a logistic regression curve fit was applied to these data. The threshold was defined at the 50% probability of motion detection. Comparison of threshold of motion detection obtained from joystick data versus body sway suggests that perceptual thresholds were significantly lower, and were not impacted by system noise. Further, in order to determine optimal stimulation amplitude to improve balance, two sets of experiments were carried out. In the first set of experiments, all subjects received the same level of stimuli and the intensity of optimal performance was projected back on subjects' vestibular threshold curve. In the second set of experiments, on different subjects, stimulation was administered from 20-400% of subjects' vestibular threshold obtained from joystick data. Preliminary results of our study show that, in general, using stimulation amplitudes at 40-60% of perceptual motion threshold improved balance performance significantly compared to control (no stimulation). The amplitude of vestibular stimulation that improved balance function was predominantly in the range of +/- 100 to +/- 400 micro A. We hypothesize that VSR stimulation will act synergistically with sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training to improve adaptability by increasing utilization of vestibular information and therefore will help us to optimize and personalize a SA countermeasure prescription. This combination will help to significantly reduce the number of days required to recover functional performance to preflight levels after long-duration spaceflight.

Goel, R.; Kofman, I.; DeDios, Y. E.; Jeevarajan, J.; Stepanyan, V.; Nair, M.; Congdon, S.; Fregia, M.; Cohen, H.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.

2014-01-01

221

Functional Mellin Transforms  

E-print Network

Functional integrals are defined in terms of locally compact topological groups and their associated Banach-valued Haar integrals. This approach generalizes the functional integral scheme of Cartier and DeWitt-Morette. The definition allows a construction of functional Mellin transforms. In turn, the functional Mellin transforms can be used to define functional traces, logarithms, and determinants. The associated functional integrals are useful tools for probing function spaces in general and $C^\\ast$-algebras in particular. Several interesting aspects are explored.

J. LaChapelle

2015-01-07

222

Functional Notations and Terminology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This mathematics tutorial gives users an introduction to functions, functional notation and terminology. The site explains how a function is defined, and the correct way to read and write functional notation. Resources for addition, subtraction and multiplication of functions are also provided on this site. The âÂÂExamples of Functionsâ section is very useful for understanding the applications of functional theory learned in the previous sections.

Bogomolny, Alexander

2007-06-29

223

Higher Selberg Zeta Functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper [KW2] we introduced a new type of Selberg zeta function for establishing a certain identity among the non-trivial zeroes of the Selberg zeta function and of the Riemann zeta function. We shall call this zeta function a higher Selberg zeta function. The purpose of this paper is to study the analytic properties of the higher Selberg zeta function z?(s), especially to obtain the functional equation. We also describe the gamma factor of z?(s) in terms of the triple sine function explicitly and, further, determine the complete higher Selberg zeta function with having a discussion of a certain generalized zeta regularization.

Kurokawa, Nobushige; Wakayama, Masato

224

On Algebraic Functions  

E-print Network

In this note we consider functions with Moebius-periodic rational coefficients. These functions under some conditions take algebraic values and can be recovered by theta functions and the Dedekind eta function. Special cases are the elliptic singular moduli, the Rogers-Ramanujan continued fraction, Eisenstein series and functions associated with Jacobi symbol coefficients.

Nikos Bagis

2014-03-27

225

Higher Selberg Zeta Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper [KW2] we introduced a new type of Selberg zeta function for establishing a certain identity among the non-trivial zeroes of the Selberg zeta function and of the Riemann zeta function. We shall call this zeta function a higher Selberg zeta function. The purpose of this paper is to study the analytic properties of the higher Selberg zeta

Nobushige Kurokawa; Masato Wakayama

2004-01-01

226

THE ACS FORNAX CLUSTER SURVEY. VIII. THE LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN VIRGO AND FORNAX EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AND ITS USE AS A DISTANCE INDICATOR  

SciTech Connect

We use a highly homogeneous set of data from 132 early-type galaxies in the Virgo and Fornax clusters in order to study the properties of the globular cluster luminosity function (GCLF). The globular cluster system of each galaxy was studied using a maximum likelihood approach to model the intrinsic GCLF after accounting for contamination and completeness effects. The results presented here update our Virgo measurements and confirm our previous results showing a tight correlation between the dispersion of the GCLF and the absolute magnitude of the parent galaxy. Regarding the use of the GCLF as a standard candle, we have found that the relative distance modulus between the Virgo and Fornax clusters is systematically lower than the one derived by other distance estimators, and in particular, it is 0.22 mag lower than the value derived from surface brightness fluctuation measurements performed on the same data. From numerical simulations aimed at reproducing the observed dispersion of the value of the turnover magnitude in each galaxy cluster we estimate an intrinsic dispersion on this parameter of 0.21 mag and 0.15 mag for Virgo and Fornax, respectively. All in all, our study shows that the GCLF properties vary systematically with galaxy mass showing no evidence for a dichotomy between giant and dwarf early-type galaxies. These properties may be influenced by the cluster environment as suggested by cosmological simulations.

Villegas, Daniela; Kissler-Patig, Markus [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Jordan, Andres; Infante, Leopoldo [Departmento de AstronomIa y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Peng, Eric W. [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Blakeslee, John P.; Cote, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Mei, Simona [University of Paris Denis Diderot, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Tonry, John L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); West, Michael J. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago (Chile)

2010-07-10

227

Peas, Please: A Case Report and Neuroscientific Review of Dissociative Amnesia and Fugue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissociative amnesia that encompasses one's entire life and identity is a rare disorder, as is dissociative fugue. In evaluating such cases, a dichotomy is often invoked between functional and organic etiologies. However, this dichotomy suffers from both conceptual and ethical flaws. Conceptually, putative brain-based, organic etiologies for many dissociative disorders—including dissociative amnesia—exist. Ethically, such dichotomies may result in dismissive care

Kai MacDonald; Tina MacDonald

2009-01-01

228

Symmetric Density Functionals  

E-print Network

Variations in distinct restricted spaces of wave functions generate distinct density functionals. In particular, angular momentum projected Slater determinants define a new density functional, compatible simultaneously with angular momentum quantum number and mean field descriptions.

B. G. Giraud

2005-07-25

229

Childhood Functional GI Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Merchandise Take Action Contact Us Donate Childhood Functional GI Disorders A functional disorder refers to a disorder ... regurgitation, heartburn, or food refusal. Examples of functional GI disorders in kids and teens include: Infant regurgitation ...

230

Wave-function functionals for the density  

SciTech Connect

We extend the idea of the constrained-search variational method for the construction of wave-function functionals {psi}[{chi}] of functions {chi}. The search is constrained to those functions {chi} such that {psi}[{chi}] reproduces the density {rho}(r) while simultaneously leading to an upper bound to the energy. The functionals are thereby normalized and automatically satisfy the electron-nucleus coalescence condition. The functionals {psi}[{chi}] are also constructed to satisfy the electron-electron coalescence condition. The method is applied to the ground state of the helium atom to construct functionals {psi}[{chi}] that reproduce the density as given by the Kinoshita correlated wave function. The expectation of single-particle operators W={Sigma}{sub i}r{sub i}{sup n}, n=-2,-1,1,2, W={Sigma}{sub i}{delta}(r{sub i}) are exact, as must be the case. The expectations of the kinetic energy operator W=-(1/2){Sigma}{sub i}{nabla}{sub i}{sup 2}, the two-particle operators W={Sigma}{sub n}u{sup n}, n=-2,-1,1,2, where u=|r{sub i}-r{sub j}|, and the energy are accurate. We note that the construction of such functionals {psi}[{chi}] is an application of the Levy-Lieb constrained-search definition of density functional theory. It is thereby possible to rigorously determine which functional {psi}[{chi}] is closer to the true wave function.

Slamet, Marlina; Pan Xiaoyin; Sahni, Viraht [Sacred Heart University, Fairfield, Connecticut 06825 (United States); Faculty of Science, Ningbo University, 315211 Ningbo (China); Brooklyn College and The Graduate School of the City University of New York, New York, New York 10016 (United States)

2011-11-15

231

Spectral functions from the functional renormalization group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a viable method to obtain real-time quantities such as spectral functions or transport coefficients at finite temperature and density within a non-perturbative functional renormalization group approach. Our method is based on a thermodynamically consistent truncation of the flow equations for 2-point functions with analytically continued frequency components in the originally Euclidean external momenta. We demonstrate its feasibility by calculating the mesonic spectral functions in the quark-meson model at different temperatures and quark chemical potentials, in particular around the critical endpoint in the phase diagram of the model.

Tripolt, Ralf-Arno; Strodthoff, Nils; von Smekal, Lorenz; Wambach, Jochen

2014-11-01

232

Functional microorganisms for functional food quality.  

PubMed

Functional microorganisms and health benefits represent a binomial with great potential for fermented functional foods. The health benefits of fermented functional foods are expressed either directly through the interactions of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as the result of the ingestion of microbial metabolites synthesized during fermentation (biogenic effect). Since the importance of high viability for probiotic effect, two major options are currently pursued for improving it--to enhance bacterial stress response and to use alternative products for incorporating probiotics (e.g., ice cream, cheeses, cereals, fruit juices, vegetables, and soy beans). Further, it seems that quorum sensing signal molecules released by probiotics may interact with human epithelial cells from intestine thus modulating several physiological functions. Under optimal processing conditions, functional microorganisms contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. Overproduction of free amino acids and vitamins are two classical examples. Besides, bioactive compounds (e.g., peptides, ?-amino butyric acid, and conjugated linoleic acid) may be released during food processing above the physiological threshold and they may exert various in vivo health benefits. Functional microorganisms are even more used in novel strategies for decreasing phenomenon of food intolerance (e.g., gluten intolerance) and allergy. By a critical approach, this review will aim at showing the potential of functional microorganisms for the quality of functional foods. PMID:20830633

Gobbetti, M; Cagno, R Di; De Angelis, M

2010-09-01

233

Introduction to Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to functions as rules and independent and dependent variables. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities that motivate the idea of a function as a machine as well as proper terminology when discussing functions. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession to the introduction of functions.

2011-01-19

234

Rational Hypergeometric Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multivariate hypergeometric functions associated with toric varieties were introduced by Gel'fand, Kapranov and Zelevinsky. Singularities of such functions are discriminants, that is, divisors projectively dual to torus orbit closures. We show that most of these potential denominators never appear in rational hypergeometric functions. We conjecture that the denominator of any rational hypergeometric function is a product of resultants, that is,

Eduardo Cattani; Alicia Dickenstein; Bernd Sturmfels

1999-01-01

235

Lesson: 18 Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Beginning with linear functions, this lesson looks at functions of real world data defined by tables and graphs before moving into functions defined by equations. Function notation is introduced at the end of teh lesson and various examples are provided to get students familiar with the new notation.

2011-01-01

236

Functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rome diagnostic criteria for the functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain are used widely in research and practice. A committee consensus approach, including criticism from multinational expert reviewers, was used to revise the diagnostic criteria and update diagnosis and treatment recommendations, based on research results. The terminology was clarified and the diagnostic criteria and management recommendations were revised.

W G Thompson; G F Longstreth; D A Drossman; K W Heaton; E J Irvine; S A Müller-Lissner

1999-01-01

237

Hidden Function Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hidden Function model evaluates a function f(x) with parameters. It is designed to teach function concepts by allowing a teacher to define a function, hide that function in a repackaged jar file, and asking students to find the hidden function. Students vary the independent variable and observe the resulting function value. If the unknown function includes arbitrary parameters (e.g., f(x)=a*x-3) the parameters appear as additional input fields. The Hidden Function model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_math_HiddenFunction.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. EJS is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is available in the OSP Collection.

Christian, Wolfgang

2012-07-12

238

Green's function on lattices  

E-print Network

A method to calculate exact Green's functions on lattices in various dimensions is presented. Expressions in terms of generalized hypergeometric functions in one or more variables are obtained for various examples by relating the resolvent to a contour integral, evaluated using residues. Different ways of arranging the series leads to different combinations of hypergeometric functions providing identities involving generalized hypergeometric functions. The method is shown to be useful for computing Green's functions with next-nearest neighbor hopping as well.

Koushik Ray

2014-09-27

239

Functional Power Series  

E-print Network

This work introduces a new functional series for expanding an analytic function in terms of an arbitrary analytic function. It is generally applicable and straightforward to use. It is also suitable for approximating the behavior of a function with a few terms. A new expression is presented for the composite function's n'th derivative. The inverse-composite method is handled in this work also.

Henrik Stenlund

2012-04-24

240

Special Functions Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

EJS Special Functions Model shows how to access special functions in the OSP numerics package. The simulation displays a graph of the special function over the given range as well as the value of the selected function at a single point. The following special functions can be displayed: Legendre polynomials Pn(x) associated Legendre functions Pnm(x) Laguerre polynomials Ln(x) associated Laguerre polynomials Lnm(x) Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind Tn(x) Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind Un(x) Bessel functions Jn(x) A description of the EJS special functions along with links to more information about the functions are provided.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-12-16

241

Sampling functions for geophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of spherical sampling functions is defined such that they are related to spherical-harmonic functions in the same way that the sampling functions of information theory are related to sine and cosine functions. An orderly distribution of (N + 1) squared sampling points on a sphere is given, for which the (N + 1) squared spherical sampling functions span the same linear manifold as do the spherical-harmonic functions through degree N. The transformations between the spherical sampling functions and the spherical-harmonic functions are given by recurrence relations. The spherical sampling functions of two arguments are extended to three arguments and to nonspherical reference surfaces. Typical applications of this formalism to geophysical topics are sketched.

Giacaglia, G. E. O.; Lunquist, C. A.

1972-01-01

242

Functionalized boron nitride nanotubes  

DOEpatents

A plasma treatment has been used to modify the surface of BNNTs. In one example, the surface of the BNNT has been modified using ammonia plasma to include amine functional groups. Amine functionalization allows BNNTs to be soluble in chloroform, which had not been possible previously. Further functionalization of amine-functionalized BNNTs with thiol-terminated organic molecules has also been demonstrated. Gold nanoparticles have been self-assembled at the surface of both amine- and thiol-functionalized boron nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) in solution. This approach constitutes a basis for the preparation of highly functionalized BNNTs and for their utilization as nanoscale templates for assembly and integration with other nanoscale materials.

Sainsbury, Toby; Ikuno, Takashi; Zettl, Alexander K

2014-04-22

243

Linear Function Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students plug values into a function to see what the output is for that function. Then based on that information, they have to guess the coefficient and constant for a linear function. This activity allows students to explore linear functions and what input values are useful to figuring out the linear function performed by the function machine. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

244

Restoring functioning in bipolar disorder: functional remediation.  

PubMed

Over the past several years, many evidence-based interventions have proven to be effective as adjunctive therapies in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Only a few, however, have addressed the issue of functional recovery in bipolar euthymic patients, which is difficult to achieve after an affective episode. The functional remediation program has been designed at the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona with the main aim of treating functional impairment in bipolar disorder. The program consists of 21 weekly group sessions and is based on a neuro-cognitive-behavioral approach. Throughout the sessions, euthymic patients are trained in the use of neurocognitive skills to be applied during their daily routines. Modeling techniques, role playing, self-instructions, verbal instructions, positive reinforcement, and metacognitive cues are some of the techniques that are used in the program. The present report aims at explaining this new intervention to improve functional outcomes in euthymic bipolar patients. PMID:25377603

Bonnin, Caterina M; Torrent, Carla; Vieta, Eduard; Martínez-Arán, Anabel

2014-01-01

245

Functional neuroimaging correlates of functional amnesia.  

PubMed

Especially in the field of memory encoding and retrieval, the results of functional neuroimaging have provided new insights in anatomico-functional interactions. In particular this holds true for the role of the prefrontal cortex in mnestic information processing, for the contribution and participation of the two hemispheres in various processes of information transmission, and for views on disturbed information processing after organically obvious and so-called psychogenic forms of memory impairments. This report particularly stresses the insights obtained by functional neuroimaging for probably environmentally triggered deficiencies in memory processing and discusses possible subtle neuroanatomical correlates of functional amnesias. It is especially emphasised that stress conditions and depressive states may modify the release of steroids (glucocorticoids) and transmitter agonists at the brain level with the consequence of selective memory disturbances which may manifest as a "mnestic block syndrome". PMID:10659087

Markowitsch, H J

1999-01-01

246

Definition of a Random Variable Distribution Functions Properties of Distribution Functions Random Variables and Distribution Functions  

E-print Network

Definition of a Random Variable Distribution Functions Properties of Distribution Functions Topic 7 Random Variables and Distribution Functions Distribution Functions 1 / 11 #12;Definition of a Random Variable Distribution Functions Properties of Distribution Functions Outline Definition of a Random

Watkins, Joseph C.

247

Evans Functions, Jost Functions, and Fredholm Determinants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principal results of this paper consist of an intrinsic definition of the Evans function in terms of newly introduced generalized matrix-valued Jost solutions for general first-order matrix-valued differential equations on the real line, and a proof of the fact that the Evans function, a finite-dimensional determinant by construction, coincides with a modified Fredholm determinant associated with a Birman-Schwinger-type integral operator up to an explicitly computable nonvanishing factor.

Gesztesy, Fritz; Latushkin, Yuri; Makarov, Konstantin A.

2007-12-01

248

Functional Inlining Course Report  

E-print Network

are dedicated to the standardization processing, including subprocesses of swapping and splitting. In functional of work, such as: body duplication, parameter passing simulation, return statement simulation, conflicted variable renaming, original callsite removal and the duplicated function body replacement. In source

Toronto, University of

249

Linear Function Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity allows the user to explore simple linear functions. This Java applet requires a Java-capable browser. If you don't see the applet Java may not be functional in your browser or on your machine.

The Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.

2007-12-12

250

Frequent Disruption of Chromodomain Helicase DNA-Binding Protein 8 (CHD8) and Functionally Associated Chromatin Regulators in Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Abnormal expression and function of chromatin regulators results in the altered chromatin structure seen in cancer. The chromatin regulator CTCF, its cofactor CHD8, and antagonistic paralogue BORIS have wide-ranging effects on gene regulation. Their concurrent expression and regulation was examined in benign, localized, and metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) arrays with extended follow-up using an automated quantitative imaging system, VECTRA. Epithelial staining was quantified and compared against a range of clinicopathologic variables. CHD8 expression was decreased in HGPIN, localized, and metastatic PCa compared to benign (P < .001). CHD8 promoter hypermethylation, assessed by Quantitative Pyrosequencing, occurred in over 45% of primary cancers in this population as well as the TGCA database. Treatment of cell lines with the demethylating agent 5-Aza-2?-deoxycytidine reinduced expression. An interesting dichotomy for CHD8 was observed within primary cancers, with higher nuclear protein expression associated with adverse clinical outcomes including extracapsular extension (P = .007), presence of metastases (P = .025) and worse PSA-recurrence free survival (P = .048). CHD8 outperformed Gleason score and predicted biochemical failure within intermediate grade prostate cancers. The BORIS/CTCF expression ratio increased in localized (P = .03) and metastatic PCa (P = .006) and was associated with higher Gleason score (P = .02), increased tumor volume (P = .02) and positive margins (P = .04). Per cell heterogeneity of expression revealed all protein expression to be more heterogeneous in cancerous tissue (both P < .001), especially high grade (P < .01). In the first detailed analysis in cancer, a marked loss of CHD8 expression and increased BORIS/CTCF ratio indicate frequent disruption of CTCF and its effector genes in PCa. PMID:25499215

Damaschke, Nathan A.; Yang, Bing; Blute, Michael L.; Lin, Chee Paul; Huang, Wei; Jarrard, David F.

2014-01-01

251

Frequent disruption of chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 8 (CHD8) and functionally associated chromatin regulators in prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Abnormal expression and function of chromatin regulators results in the altered chromatin structure seen in cancer. The chromatin regulator CTCF, its cofactor CHD8, and antagonistic paralogue BORIS have wide-ranging effects on gene regulation. Their concurrent expression and regulation was examined in benign, localized, and metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) arrays with extended follow-up using an automated quantitative imaging system, VECTRA. Epithelial staining was quantified and compared against a range of clinicopathologic variables. CHD8 expression was decreased in HGPIN, localized, and metastatic PCa compared to benign (P < .001). CHD8 promoter hypermethylation, assessed by Quantitative Pyrosequencing, occurred in over 45% of primary cancers in this population as well as the TGCA database. Treatment of cell lines with the demethylating agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine reinduced expression. An interesting dichotomy for CHD8 was observed within primary cancers, with higher nuclear protein expression associated with adverse clinical outcomes including extracapsular extension (P = .007), presence of metastases (P = .025) and worse PSA-recurrence free survival (P = .048). CHD8 outperformed Gleason score and predicted biochemical failure within intermediate grade prostate cancers. The BORIS/CTCF expression ratio increased in localized (P = .03) and metastatic PCa (P = .006) and was associated with higher Gleason score (P = .02), increased tumor volume (P = .02) and positive margins (P = .04). Per cell heterogeneity of expression revealed all protein expression to be more heterogeneous in cancerous tissue (both P < .001), especially high grade (P < .01). In the first detailed analysis in cancer, a marked loss of CHD8 expression and increased BORIS/CTCF ratio indicate frequent disruption of CTCF and its effector genes in PCa. PMID:25499215

Damaschke, Nathan A; Yang, Bing; Blute, Michael L; Lin, Chee Paul; Huang, Wei; Jarrard, David F

2014-12-01

252

Functional Task Test (FTT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the Functional Task Test (FTT), an interdisciplinary testing regimen that has been developed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The objectives of the project are: (1) to develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for the Constellation Program, (2) determine the ability to perform these tasks after space flight, (3) Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements and (4) Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures.

Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian T.; Rescheke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott; Lawrence, Emily; Koffman, Igor; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Spiering, Barry A.; Feeback, Daniel L.; Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M.C.; Arzeno, Natalia; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ryder, Jeffrey; Garcia, Yamil; Guilliams, Mark E.

2009-01-01

253

Generating Functions Introduction  

E-print Network

CHAPTER 10 Ordinary Generating Functions Introduction We'll begin this chapter by introducing the notion of ordinary generating functions and discussing the basic techniques for manipulating them must master these basic ideas before reading further. In Section 2, we apply generating functions

Gould, Ron

254

Cuspidal hypergeometric functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove the Plancherel formula for hypergeometric functions associated to a root system in the situation when the root multiplicities are negative (but close to 0). As a result we obtain a classification of the hypergeometric functions that are square integrable, and we find a closed formula for their square norm as a function of the root multiplicities.

Eric M. Opdam

1998-01-01

255

Spatialized Transfer Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-dimensional transfer functions are an efcient way to visualize features in scalar volume data produced by CT or MRI scanners. However, the optimal transfer function is difcult to nd in general. We present an automatic yet powerful method for the automatic setup of multi-dimensional transfer functions by adding spatial information to the histogram of a volume. Using this information we

Stefan Röttger; Michael Bauer; Marc Stamminger

2005-01-01

256

Two Functions of Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Author advocates the view that meaning is necessarily dependent upon the communicative function of language and examines the objections, particularly those of Noam Chomsky, to this view. Argues that while Chomsky disagrees with the idea that communication is the essential function of language, he implicitly agrees that it has a function.…

Feldman, Carol Fleisher

1977-01-01

257

Differentially Transcendental Functions  

E-print Network

The aim of this paper is to exhibit a method for proving that certain analytic functions are not solutions of algebraic differential equations. The method is based on model-theoretic properties of differential fields and properties of certain known transcendental differential functions, as of $\\Gamma(x)$. Furthermore, it also determines differential transcendency of solution of some functional equations.

Zarko Mijajlovic; Branko Malesevic

2004-12-17

258

Piecing Together Piecewise Functions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity to teach piecewise functions using wax paper and rectangular grids. Helps students understand the idea of different pieces by literally "piecing" together a new type of mathematical function. Also describes a followup activity and explains how piecewise functions can be graphed using graphing calculators. (NB)

King, Sybrina L.

1997-01-01

259

An Exceptional Exponential Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We show that there is a link between a standard calculus problem of finding the best view of a painting and special tangent lines to the graphs of exponential functions. Surprisingly, the exponential function with the "best view" is not the one with the base "e." A similar link is established for families of functions obtained by composing…

Curgus, Branko

2006-01-01

260

Pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Functional gastrointestinal disorders continue to be a prevalent set of conditions faced by the healthcare team and have a significant emotional and economic impact. In this review, the authors highlight some of the common functional disorders seen in pediatric patients (functional dyspepsia, irrita...

261

Lesson 30: Exponential Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Beginning with a formal definition of an exponential function, the lesson then compares the graphs of increasing and decreasing exponential functions. A comparison between exponential and power functions follows, which leads to methods for determining the h value in the power function h(x) = kx^p and the value of the base b in the exponential function f(x) = ab^x. A procedure for solving exponential equations is presented before a population application problem is solved. The lesson concludes with a discussion about using graphs to find approximate solutions to exponential equations.

2011-01-01

262

On genetic map functions  

SciTech Connect

Various genetic map functions have been proposed to infer the unobservable genetic distance between two loci from the observable recombination fraction between them. Some map functions were found to fit data better than others. When there are more than three markers, multilocus recombination probabilities cannot be uniquely determined by the defining property of map functions, and different methods have been proposed to permit the use of map functions to analyze multilocus data. If for a given map function, there is a probability model for recombination that can give rise to it, then joint recombination probabilities can be deduced from this model. This provides another way to use map functions in multilocus analysis. In this paper we show that stationary renewal processes give rise to most of the map functions in the literature. Furthermore, we show that the interevent distributions of these renewal processes can all be approximated quite well by gamma distributions. 43 refs., 4 figs.

Zhao, Hongyu [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Speed, T.P. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1996-04-01

263

Thermodynamic functions as correlation-function integrals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Expressions of some thermodynamic functions as correlation-function integrals, such as the Ornstein-Zernike integral, the Kirkwood-Buff integrals, and the integral formulas for virial coefficients, are recalled. It is noted, as has been remarked before, that the choice of molecular centers from which intermolecular distances are measured is arbitrary and that different choices lead to different forms of the correlation functions but that the integrals must be independent of those choices. This is illustrated with the second virial coefficients of hard spheres in one, two, and three dimensions, with that of gaseous propane in three dimensions, and with computer simulations of the pair correlations in water and in a dilute aqueous solution of propane.

Koga, K.; Widom, B.

2013-03-01

264

Functional Explanation and the Function of Explanation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teleological explanations (TEs) account for the existence or properties of an entity in terms of a function: we have hearts because they pump blood, and telephones for communication. While many teleological explanations seem appropriate, others are clearly not warranted--for example, that rain exists for plants to grow. Five experiments explore…

Lombrozo, Tania; Carey, Susan

2006-01-01

265

Long-term functional health status and exercise test variables for patients with pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum: A Congenital Heart Surgeons Society study  

PubMed Central

Background A bias favoring biventricular (BV) repair exists regarding choice of repair pathway for patients with pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum (PAIVS). We sought to determine the implications of moving borderline candidates down a BV route in terms of late functional health status (FHS) and exercise capacity (EC). Methods Between 1987 and 1997, 448 neonates with PAIVS were enrolled in a multi-institutional study. Late EC and FHS were assessed following repair (mean 14 years) using standardized exercise testing and 3 validated FHS instruments. Relationships between FHS, EC, morphology, and 3 end states (ie, BV, univentricular [UV], or 1.5-ventricle repair [1.5V]) were evaluated. Results One hundred two of 271 end state survivors participated (63 BV, 25 UV, and 14 1.5V). Participants had lower FHS scores in domains of physical functioning (P < .001) compared with age- and sex-matched normal controls, but scored significantly higher in nearly all psychosocial domains. EC was higher in 1.5V-repair patients (P = .02), whereas discrete FHS measures were higher in BV-repair patients. Peak oxygen consumption was low across all groups, and was positively correlated with larger initial tricuspid valve z-score (P < .001), with an enhanced effect within the BV-repair group. Conclusions Late patient-perceived physical FHS and measured EC are reduced, regardless of PAIVS repair pathway, with an important dichotomy whereby patients with PAIVS believe they are doing well despite important physical impediments. For those with smaller initial tricuspid valve z-score, achievement of survival with BV repair may be at a cost of late deficits in exercise capacity, emphasizing that better outcomes may be achieved for borderline patients with a 1.5V- or UV-repair strategy. PMID:23374986

Karamlou, Tara; Poynter, Jeffrey A.; Walters, Henry L.; Rhodes, Jonathan; Bondarenko, Igor; Pasquali, Sara K.; Fuller, Stephanie M.; Lambert, Linda M.; Blackstone, Eugene H.; Jacobs, Marshall L.; Duncan, Kim; Caldarone, Christopher A.; Williams, William G.; McCrindle, Brian W.

2013-01-01

266

Pediatric Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders  

PubMed Central

Functional gastrointestinal disorders continue to be a prevalent set of conditions faced by the healthcare team and have a significant emotional and economic impact. In this review, the authors highlight some of the common functional disorders seen in pediatric patients (functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, functional abdominal pain) as well as one of the more intriguing (cyclic vomiting). The most recent Pediatric Rome Working Group has modified the definitions of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Current studies have used these categorizations to understand better the epidemiology, etiology, and treatment options for these disorders. As more data are available, children and their families will be offered a better understanding of the conditions and more effective treatments to overcome them. The importance of making an accurate diagnosis of a functional gastrointestinal disorder cannot be overemphasized. PMID:18595859

McOmber, Mark A.; Shulman, Robert J.

2010-01-01

267

Function photonic crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a new kind of function photonic crystals (PCs), whose refractive index is a function of space position. Conventional PCs structure grows from two materials, A and B, with different dielectric constants ?A and ?B. Based on Fermat principle, we give the motion equations of light in one-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional function photonic crystals. For one-dimensional function photonic crystals, we give the dispersion relation, band gap structure and transmissivity, and compare them with conventional photonic crystals, and we find the following: (1) For the vertical and non-vertical incidence light of function photonic crystals, there are band gap structures, and for only the vertical incidence light, the conventional PCs have band gap structures. (2) By choosing various refractive index distribution functions n( z), we can obtain more wider or more narrower band gap structure than conventional photonic crystals.

Wu, Xiang-Yao; Zhang, Bai-Jun; Yang, Jing-Hai; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Ba, Nuo; Wu, Yi-Heng; Wang, Qing-Cai

2011-07-01

268

Balance Function Disorders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers at the Balance Function Laboratory and Clinic at the Minneapolis (MN) Neuroscience Institute on the Abbot Northwestern Hospital Campus are using a rotational chair (technically a "sinusoidal harmonic acceleration system") originally developed by NASA to investigate vestibular (inner ear) function in weightlessness to diagnose and treat patients with balance function disorders. Manufactured by ICS Medical Corporation, Schaumberg, IL, the chair system turns a patient and monitors his or her responses to rotational stimulation.

1991-01-01

269

Determining Functions Using Regression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit from Illuminations focuses on collecting data and using technology to find functions to describe the data collected. Students will learn to use a calculator to find the curve of best fit for a set of data and demonstrate an understanding of how modifying parameters changes the graphs of functions by writing equations for those functions. The unit includes two lessons intended for grades 9-12, and should require 4 class periods to complete.

2011-01-17

270

Function Visualizer Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Function Visualizer Model displays the graph of a function f(x) with arbitrary parameters.  The function can contain polynomial, trigonometric, and exponential expressions as well a parameters. Parameters are connected to sliders that can be adjusted to observe the effect of varying parameter values. This applet was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_math_FunctionVisualizer.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. EJS is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is available in the OSP Collection.

Christian, Wolfgang; Franciscouembre

2009-06-27

271

The Function Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by Utah State University, this virtual manipulative is designed to teach the concept of a function. It does so by (1) allowing users to perform a function on various numbers; (2) presenting users with the correlating outputs based on the inputs; (3) encouraging users to generate hypotheses as to the function being applied to the inputs; and (4) allowing users to apply those hypotheses to determine whether they correctly determined the function in use. This is a great "hands on" virtual resource for middle and high school teachers, as well as teachers of developmental math courses in community and technical colleges.

2008-02-19

272

CONMIN- CONSTRAINED FUNCTION MINIMIZATION  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In many mathematical problems, it is necessary to determine the minimum and maximum of a function of several variables, limited by various linear and nonlinear inequality constraints. It is seldom possible, in practical applications, to solve these problems directly. In most cases, an iterative method must be used to numerically obtain a solution. The CONMIN program was developed to numerically perform the minimization of a multi-variable function subject to a set of inequality constraints. The function need not be a simple analytical equation; it may be any function which can be numerically evaluated. The basic analytic technique used by CONMIN is to minimize the function until one or more of the constraints become active. The minimization process then continues by following the constraint boundaries in a direction such that the value of the function continues to decrease. When a point is reached where no further decrease in the function can be obtained, the process is terminated. Function maximization may be achieved by minimizing the negative of the function. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 43K (octal) of 60 bit words. The CONMIN program was originally developed in 1973 and last updated in 1978.

Vanderplaats, G. N.

1994-01-01

273

Digital Lighting Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a notion of lighting function is introduced as an axiomatized formalization of the face membership rules suggested by Kovalevsky. These functions are defined in the context of the framework for digital topology previously developed by the authors. This enlarged framework provides the (, )-connectedness (, {6,18, 26}) defined on 3 within the graph-based approach to digital topology.

Rafael Ayala; Eladio Domínguez; Angel R. Francés; Antonio Quintero

1997-01-01

274

Protein folds and functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The recent rapid increase in the number of available three-dimensional protein structures has further highlighted the necessity to understand the relationship between biological function and structure. Using structural classification schemes such as SCOP, CATH and DALI, it is now possible to explore global relationships between protein fold and function, something which was previously impractical.Results: Using a relational database of

Andrew CR Martin; Christine A Orengo; E Gail Hutchinson; Susan Jones; Maria Karmirantzou; Roman A Laskowski; John BO Mitchell; Chiara Taroni; Janet M Thornton

1998-01-01

275

CRYPTOGRAPHIC HASH FUNCTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hash functions were introduced in cryptology in the late seventies as a tool to protect the authenticity of information. Soon it became clear that they were a very useful building block to solve other security problems in telecommunication and computer networks. This paper sketches the history of the concept, discusses the applications of hash functions, and presents the approaches which

Bart Preneel

276

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with its excellent spatial resolution and ability to visualize networks of neuroanatomical structures involved in complex information processing, has become the dominant technique for the study of brain function and its development. The accessibility of in-vivo pediatric brain-imaging techniques…

Voos, Avery; Pelphrey, Kevin

2013-01-01

277

Functional Components in Peanuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanut is one of the most widely used legumes due to its nutrition and taste. The fact that is has been recognized recently as a functional food, its evaluation for its role in a heart-healthy diet has received tremendous attention. Functional compounds have been isolated, identified, quantified, and even enhanced to maximize the amount for adequate health benefits. The peanut

Maria Leonora D. L. Francisco; A. V. A. Resurreccion

2008-01-01

278

Complex Transcendental Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lang Moore for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purpose of this module is to provide an introduction to the elementary complex transcendental functions -- the exponential, sine, and cosine functions. This is one resource within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Moore, Lang

279

Human Functional Brain Imaging  

E-print Network

Human Functional Brain Imaging 1990­2009 September 2011 Portfolio Review Summary Brain Imaging #12 Dale ­ one of our first Trustees. Understanding the brain remains one of our key strategic aims today three-fold: · to identify the key landmarks and influences on the human functional brain imaging

Rambaut, Andrew

280

Continuity of Piecewise Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in calculus need to be proficient in working with functions in a variety of ways: graphical, numerical, analytic, or verbal, and to understand connections among these representations. This demo provides a set of visualizations designed to help students better understand what it means for a piecewise function to be continuous at a particular domain value.

Roberts, Lila F.; Hill, David R.

2004-08-14

281

The exponential hash function  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an efficient open address hash function called exponential hashing is developed. The motivation for this hash function resulted from our ongoing efforts to apply dynamical systems theory to the study of hashing; however, the analysis conducted in this paper is primarily based on traditional number theory. Proofs of optimal table parameter choices are provided for a number

Bradley J. Smith; Gregory L. Heileman; Chaouki T. Abdallah

1997-01-01

282

Functional Generalized Additive Models.  

PubMed

We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

2014-01-01

283

Unate Truth Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contains some applications of an elementary study of unate truth functions. One application is a method of deciding when a truth function is linearly separated, i. e., is expressible as a linear polynomial inequality in its arguments (letting 1 represent truth and 0 represent falsity). Other applications are to contact nets and to rectifier nets. Much of the

Robert McNaughton

1961-01-01

284

Linear Functions Matching Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to help students connect various representations (verbal, tabular, graphical) of linear functions. The activity is designed to be completed in groups of 2. This would be an appropriate review activity towards the end of the unit on graphing linear functions.

2011-01-01

285

Functional performance of pyrovalves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following several flight and ground test failures of spacecraft systems using single-shot, 'normally closed' pyrotechnically actuated valves (pyrovalves), a Government/Industry cooperative program was initiated to assess the functional performance of five qualified designs. The goal of the program was to provide information on functional performance of pyrovalves to allow users the opportunity to improve procurement requirements. Specific objectives included the demonstration of performance test methods, the seating; these gases/particles entered the fluid path of measurement of 'blowby' (the passage of gases from the pyrotechnic energy source around the activating piston into the valve's fluid path), and the quantification of functional margins for each design. Experiments were conducted at NASA's Langley Research Center on several units for each of the five valve designs. The test methods used for this program measured the forces and energies required to actuate the valves, as well as the energies and the pressures (where possible) delivered by the pyrotechnic sources. Functional performance ranged widely among the designs. Blowby cannot be prevented by o-ring seals; metal-to-metal seals were effective. Functional margin was determined by dividing the energy delivered by the pyrotechnic sources in excess to that required to accomplish the function by the energy required for that function. Two of the five designs had inadequate functional margins with the pyrotechnic cartridges evaluated.

Bement, Laurence J.

1996-01-01

286

Functional Accounts of Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we outline the history, elements, and variations of functional accounts of emotions. Summarising diverse theories and observations, we propose that functional accounts of emotions: (1) address why humans have emotions; (2) de® ne emotions as solutions to problems and opportunities related to physical and social survival; (3) treat emotions as systems of interrelated components; and (4) focus

James J. Gross

1999-01-01

287

The Function of Introns  

PubMed Central

The intron–exon architecture of many eukaryotic genes raises the intriguing question of whether this unique organization serves any function, or is it simply a result of the spread of functionless introns in eukaryotic genomes. In this review, we show that introns in contemporary species fulfill a broad spectrum of functions, and are involved in virtually every step of mRNA processing. We propose that this great diversity of intronic functions supports the notion that introns were indeed selfish elements in early eukaryotes, but then independently gained numerous functions in different eukaryotic lineages. We suggest a novel criterion of evolutionary conservation, dubbed intron positional conservation, which can identify functional introns. PMID:22518112

Chorev, Michal; Carmel, Liran

2012-01-01

288

Time functions as utilities  

E-print Network

Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K^+ relation (Seifert's relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg's and Levin's theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K^+ (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin's theorem and smoothing techniques.

E. Minguzzi

2009-09-04

289

Time Functions as Utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K + relation (Seifert’s relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg’s and Levin’s theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K + (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin’s theorem and smoothing techniques.

Minguzzi, E.

2010-09-01

290

Assessment of splenic function  

PubMed Central

Hyposplenic patients are at risk of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI), which carries mortality of up to 70%. Therefore, preventive measures are warranted. However, patients with diminished splenic function are difficult to identify. In this review we discuss immunological, haematological and scintigraphic parameters that can be used to measure splenic function. IgM memory B cells are a potential parameter for assessing splenic function; however, more studies are necessary for its validation. Detection of Howell–Jolly bodies does not reflect splenic function accurately, whereas determining the percentage of pitted erythrocytes is a well-evaluated method and seems a good first-line investigation for assessing splenic function. When assessing spleen function, 99mTc-labelled, heat-altered, autologous erythrocyte scintigraphy with multimodality single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-CT technology is the best approach, as all facets of splenic function are evaluated. In conclusion, although scintigraphic methods are most reliable, they are not suitable for screening large populations. We therefore recommend using the percentage of pitted erythrocytes, albeit suboptimal, as a first-line investigation and subsequently confirming abnormal readings by means of scintigraphy. More studies evaluating the value of potentially new markers are needed. PMID:20853172

Lammers, A. J. J.; Bennink, R. J.; ten Berge, I. J. M.; Speelman, P.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.

2010-01-01

291

Functional Performance of Pyrovalves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following several flight and ground test failures of spacecraft systems using single-shot, 'normally closed' pyrotechnically actuated valves (pyrovalves), a government/industry cooperative program was initiated to assess the functional performance of five qualified designs. The goal of the program was to improve performance-based requirements for the procurement of pyrovalves. Specific objectives included the demonstration of performance test methods, the measurement of 'blowby' (the passage of gases from the pyrotechnic energy source around the activating piston into the valve's fluid path), and the quantification of functional margins for each design. Experiments were conducted in-house at NASA on several units each of the five valve designs. The test methods used for this program measured the forces and energies required to actuate the valves, as well as the energies and the pressures (where possible) delivered by the pyrotechnic sources. Functional performance ranged widely among the designs. Blowby cannot be prevented by o-ring seals; metal-to-metal seals were effective. Functional margin was determined by dividing the energy delivered by the pyrotechnic sources in excess to that required to accomplish the function by the energy required for that function. All but two designs had adequate functional margins with the pyrotechnic cartridges evaluated.

Bement, Laurence J.

1996-01-01

292

Approximation by hinge functions  

SciTech Connect

Breiman has defined {open_quotes}hinge functions{close_quotes} for use as basis functions in least squares approximations to data. A hinge function is the max (or min) function of two linear functions. In this paper, the author assumes the existence of smooth function f(x) and a set of samples of the form (x, f(x)) drawn from a probability distribution {rho}(x). The author hopes to find the best fitting hinge function h(x) in the least squares sense. There are two problems with this plan. First, Breiman has suggested an algorithm to perform this fit. The author shows that this algorithm is not robust and also shows how to create examples on which the algorithm diverges. Second, if the author tries to use the data to minimize the fit in the usual discrete least squares sense, the functional that must be minimized is continuous in the variables, but has a derivative which jumps at the data. This paper takes a different approach. This approach is an example of a method that the author has developed called {open_quotes}Monte Carlo Regression{close_quotes}. (A paper on the general theory is in preparation.) The author shall show that since the function f is continuous, the analytic form of the least squares equation is continuously differentiable. A local minimum is solved for by using Newton`s method, where the entries of the Hessian are estimated directly from the data by Monte Carlo. The algorithm has the desirable properties that it is quadratically convergent from any starting guess sufficiently close to a solution and that each iteration requires only a linear system solve.

Faber, V.

1997-05-01

293

Disentangling different functional roles of evoked K-complex components: Mapping the sleeping brain while quenching sensory processing.  

PubMed

During non-REM sleep the largest EEG response evoked by sensory stimulation is the K-complex (eKC), composed of an initial positive bump (P200) followed by a bistable cortical response: a giant negative deflection (N550) and a large positive one (P900), respectively reflecting down states and up states of < 1 Hz oscillations.Sensory-modality-independent topology of N550 and P900, with maximal detection rate on fronto-central areas, has been consistently reported, suggesting that sensory inputs arise to the cortex avoiding specific primary sensory areas. However, these studies neglected latencies of all KC components as a function of electrode sites.Our aim is to identify, component by component, which topological/dynamical properties of eKCs depend on stimulus modality and which are mainly related to local cortical properties. We measured temporal and morphological features of acoustic, tactile and visual eKCs to disentangle specific sensory excitatory activities from aspecific responses due to local proneness to bistability, measured by means of the N550 descending steepness (synchronization in falling into down state).While confirming the sensory-modality independence of N550 and P900 topology with maximal detection rate in fronto-central areas, four main original results emerge from this study: (i) the topology of P200 latency depends on the sensory modality with earliest waves in the stimulation-related primary sensory areas; (ii) P200 rapidly travels as a cortical excitation; (iii) P200-like excitations when KCs are not evoked are detected over the scalp with significantly smaller amplitudes in fronto-central areas, compared to eKC P200s; and (iv) N550 latency mirrors its mean local steepness which is a function of topological proneness to bistability.From these results we can describe the emergence N550/P900 complex as the interplay between a waxing P200 cortical travel and higher fronto-central proneness to bistability.In conclusion, eKCs exhibit a physiological dichotomy: P200 acts as a traveling cortical excitation whose function is to induce the bistable cortical response (N550/P900), which in turn is crucial for maintaining sleep and unconsciousness. PMID:24513527

Laurino, Marco; Menicucci, Danilo; Piarulli, Andrea; Mastorci, Francesca; Bedini, Remo; Allegrini, Paolo; Gemignani, Angelo

2014-02-01

294

Functional (nonulcer) dyspepsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Functional (nonulcer) dyspepsia refers to upper abdominal pain or discomfort with or without symptoms of early satiety, nausea, or vomiting with no definable\\u000a organic cause. The current Rome II criteria help to diagnose functional dyspepsia and avoid misdiagnosis of gastroesophageal\\u000a reflux disease and irritable bowel syndrome as functional dyspepsia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Assessment of gastric emptying with scintigraphy or

Kashyap V. Panganamamula; Robert S. Fisher; Henry P. Parkman

2002-01-01

295

Functionalized expanded porphyrins  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are functionalized expanded porphyrins that can be used as spectrometric sensors for high-valent actinide cations. The disclosed functionalized expanded porphyrins have the advantage over unfunctionalized systems in that they can be immobilized via covalent attachment to a solid support comprising an inorganic or organic polymer or other common substrates. Substrates comprising the disclosed functionalized expanded porphyrins are also disclosed. Further, disclosed are methods of making the disclosed compounds (immobilized and free), methods of using them as sensors to detect high valent actinides, devices that comprise the disclosed compounds, and kits.

Sessler, Jonathan L; Pantos, Patricia J

2013-11-12

296

Congenital platelet function defects  

MedlinePLUS

... reduced platelet function, even though there are normal platelet counts. Most of the time, people with these disorders ... to diagnose this condition: Bleeding time Complete blood count (CBC) ... Platelet aggregation test Prothrombin time (PT) You may need ...

297

Ethernet Network Functionality Testing.  

E-print Network

?? Ethernet functionality testing as a generic term used for checking connectivity,throughput and capability to transfer packets over the network. Especially in the packet-switchenvironment, Ethernet… (more)

Mirza, Aamir Mehmood

2009-01-01

298

Polynomials, Rational Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A page reserved for the analytic study of polynomial functions studied in calculus classes. History, applications and related fields and subfields; textbooks, reference works, and tutorials; software and tables; selected topics; other web sites with this focus.

Rusin, Dave

299

STP Ising Partition Function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The STP IsingPartitionFunction program is a Monte Carlo calculation of the partition function Z of the two-dimensional Ising model in equilibrium with a heat bath at temperature T. The default is a lattice of linear dimension L=32 (for a total of N=L^2 spins). STP IsingPartitionFunction is part of a suite of Open Source Physics programs that model aspects of Statistical and Thermal Physics (STP). The program is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the stp_IsingPartitionFunction.jar file will run the program if Java is installed on your computer. Additional programs can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, STP, or Statistical and Thermal Physics.

Gould, Harvey; Tobochnik, Jan; Christian, Wolfgang; Cox, Anne

2009-02-17

300

Bioprinting: Functional droplet networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tissue-mimicking printed networks of droplets separated by lipid bilayers that can be functionalized with membrane proteins are able to spontaneously fold and transmit electrical currents along predefined paths.

Durmus, Naside Gozde; Tasoglu, Savas; Demirci, Utkan

2013-06-01

301

Platelet Function Tests  

MedlinePLUS

... services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to ... Platelet Function Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ...

302

Pretzelosity distribution function  

E-print Network

The 'pretzelosity' distribution is discussed. Theoretical properties, model results, and perspectives to access experimental information on this leading twist, transverse momentum dependent parton distribution function are reviewed. Its relation to helicity and transversity distributions is highlighted.

H. Avakian; A. V. Efremov; P. Schweitzer; F. Yuan

2008-08-28

303

Automating abstraction functions  

E-print Network

Data abstraction has been the dominant structuring paradigm for programs for decades. The essence of a data abstraction is the abstraction function, which relates the concrete program representation to its abstract meaning. ...

Rayside, Derek F

2010-01-01

304

Renal Structure & Function Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity includes three sequential classroom activities for pairs of students using worksheets. This includes removeable stickers sequencing kinesthetic activity, diagram coloring and table matching to correlate nephron and cell-level anatomical features with physiological function.

Ms. Terry Thompson (Wor-Wic Community College Math/Science)

2007-07-31

305

Functional Group Interconversions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some functional group interconversions that can be carried out on a small scale. The reactions are examples of transformations found in A-level, ONC and HNC courses for British chemistry students. (Author/GS)

Yeadon, A.

1974-01-01

306

Polarized Antenna Splitting Functions  

SciTech Connect

We consider parton showers based on radiation from QCD dipoles or 'antennae'. These showers are built from 2 {yields} 3 parton splitting processes. The question then arises of what functions replace the Altarelli-Parisi splitting functions in this approach. We give a detailed answer to this question, applicable to antenna showers in which partons carry definite helicity, and to both initial- and final-state emissions.

Larkoski, Andrew J.; Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC

2009-10-17

307

Structure function monitor  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatus for a structure function monitor provide for generation of parameters characterizing a refractive medium. In an embodiment, a structure function monitor acquires images of a pupil plane and an image plane and, from these images, retrieves the phase over an aperture, unwraps the retrieved phase, and analyzes the unwrapped retrieved phase. In an embodiment, analysis yields atmospheric parameters measured at spatial scales from zero to the diameter of a telescope used to collect light from a source.

McGraw, John T. (Placitas, NM); Zimmer, Peter C. (Albuquerque, NM); Ackermann, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-01-24

308

Cuspidal hypergeometric functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove the Plancherel formula for hypergeometric functions associated to a\\u000aroot system in the situation when the root multiplicities are negative (but\\u000aclose to 0). As a result we obtain a classification of the hypergeometric\\u000afunctions that are square integrable, and we find a closed formula for their\\u000asquare norm as a function of the root multiplicities.

Eric M. Opdam

1998-01-01

309

Tool Demonstration: Functional Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic idea behind FM is simple, instead of working with untyped reg-ular expressions, which is the state of the art of morphology in computational linguistics, we use finite functions over hereditarily finite algebraic data types. These data types and functions constitute the language-dependent part of the morphology. The language-independent part consists of an untyped dictionary format which is used

Markus Forsberg; Aarne Ranta

2005-01-01

310

Functional neuroimaging in psychiatry.  

PubMed Central

Functional neuroimaging is one of the most powerful means available for investigating the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. In this review, we shall focus on the different ways that it can be employed to this end, describing the major findings in the field in the context of different methodological approaches. We will also discuss practical issues that are particular to studying psychiatric disorders and the potential contribution of functional neuroimaging to future psychiatric research. PMID:10466156

Fu, C H; McGuire, P K

1999-01-01

311

Center for Functional Nanomaterials  

ScienceCinema

Staff from Brookhaven's new Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) describe how this advanced facility will focus on the development and understanding of nanoscale materials. The CFN provides state-of-the-art capabilities for the fabrication and study of nanoscale materials, with an emphasis on atomic-level tailoring to achieve desired properties and functions. The overarching scientific theme of the CFN is the development and understanding of nanoscale materials that address the Nation's challenges in energy security.

BNL

2009-09-01

312

Functional Abdominal Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is a frequent complaint seen in the pediatric primary care setting. Current diagnostic criteria\\u000a for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are defi ned in the Rome III criteria, which outline a positive symptom\\u000a profi le for diagnosis. In addition, clinicians should be aware of specifi c “red fl ag ” rule-out symptoms that may suggest\\u000a organic disease

Lisa Scharff; Laura E. Simons

313

Functional Abdominal Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is a relatively less common functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder defined by\\u000a the presence of constant or frequently recurring abdominal pain that is not associated with eating, change in bowel habits,\\u000a or menstrual periods (Drossman Gastroenterology 130:1377–1390, 2006), which points to a more centrally targeted (spinal and supraspinal) basis for the symptoms. However, FAPS is frequently

Madhusudan Grover; Douglas A. Drossman

2010-01-01

314

Functional Molecular Ecological Networks  

PubMed Central

Biodiversity and its responses to environmental changes are central issues in ecology and for society. Almost all microbial biodiversity research focuses on “species” richness and abundance but not on their interactions. Although a network approach is powerful in describing ecological interactions among species, defining the network structure in a microbial community is a great challenge. Also, although the stimulating effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2) on plant growth and primary productivity are well established, its influences on belowground microbial communities, especially microbial interactions, are poorly understood. Here, a random matrix theory (RMT)-based conceptual framework for identifying functional molecular ecological networks was developed with the high-throughput functional gene array hybridization data of soil microbial communities in a long-term grassland FACE (free air, CO2 enrichment) experiment. Our results indicate that RMT is powerful in identifying functional molecular ecological networks in microbial communities. Both functional molecular ecological networks under eCO2 and ambient CO2 (aCO2) possessed the general characteristics of complex systems such as scale free, small world, modular, and hierarchical. However, the topological structures of the functional molecular ecological networks are distinctly different between eCO2 and aCO2, at the levels of the entire communities, individual functional gene categories/groups, and functional genes/sequences, suggesting that eCO2 dramatically altered the network interactions among different microbial functional genes/populations. Such a shift in network structure is also significantly correlated with soil geochemical variables. In short, elucidating network interactions in microbial communities and their responses to environmental changes is fundamentally important for research in microbial ecology, systems microbiology, and global change. PMID:20941329

Zhou, Jizhong; Deng, Ye; Luo, Feng; He, Zhili; Tu, Qichao; Zhi, Xiaoyang

2010-01-01

315

Wave Function Plotter Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ejs Wave Function Plotter model displays a one-dimensional wave function u(x,t) depicting a disturbance at position x and time t. The disturbance can be mass density, pressure, or electric field depending on the physical context. The default wave function is sinusoidal but any other analytic function can be entered in the text box. The number of sampling points can also be changed. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. Ejs Wave Function Plotter model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_osc_chains_WaveFunctionPlotter.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models for Newtonian mechanics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-07-05

316

Completeness of Decoherence Functionals  

E-print Network

The basic ingredients of the `consistent histories' approach to a generalized quantum theory are `histories'and decoherence functionals. The main aim of this program is to find and to study the behaviour of consistent sets associated with a particular decoherence functional $d$. In its recent formulation by Isham it is natural to identify the space $\\UP$ of propositions about histories with an orthoalgebra or lattice. When $\\UP$ is given by the lattice of projectors $\\PV$ in some Hilbert space $\\V$, consistent sets correspond to certain partitions of the unit operator in $\\V$ into mutually orthogonal projectors $\\{\\a_1,\\a_2,\\ldots\\}$, such that the function $d(\\a,\\a)$ is a probability distribution on the boolean algebra generated by $\\{\\a_1,\\a_2,\\ldots\\}$. Using the classification theorem for decoherence functionals, proven previously, we show that in the case where $\\V$ is some separable Hilbert space there exists for each partition of the unit operator into a set of mutually orthogonal projectors, and for any probability distribution $p(\\a)$ on the corresponding boolean algebra, decoherence functionals $d$ with respect to which this set is consistent and which are such that for the probability functions $d(\\a,\\a)=p(\\a)$ holds.

S. Schreckenberg

1995-02-21

317

New subclasses of bi-univalent functions involving polylogarithm functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, we introduce two new subclasses of the function class ? of bi-univalent functions involving polylogarithm functions defined in the open unit disc U = :{z:z?C,|z|<1}. The estimates on the coefficients the rest of this text. |a2| and |a3| for functions in these new subclasses of the function class ? are obtained in our investigation.

Siregar, Saibah; Darus, Maslina

2014-06-01

318

CAVEOLINS AND LUNG FUNCTION  

PubMed Central

The primary function of the mammalian lung is to facilitate diffusion of oxygen to venous blood and to ventilate carbon dioxide produced by catabolic reactions within cells. However, it is also responsible for a variety of other important functions, including host defense and production of vasoactive agents to regulate not only systemic blood pressure, but also water, electrolyte and acid-base balance. Caveolin-1 is highly expressed in the majority of cell types in the lung, including epithelial, endothelial, smooth muscle, connective tissue cells, and alveolar macrophages. Deletion of caveolin-1 in these cells results in major functional aberrations, suggesting that caveolin-1 may be crucial to lung homeostasis and development. Furthermore, generation of mutant mice that under-express caveolin-1 results in severe functional distortion with phenotypes covering practically the entire spectrum of known lung diseases, including pulmonary hypertension, fibrosis, increased endothelial permeability, and immune defects. In this Chapter, we outline the current state of knowledge regarding caveolin-1-dependent regulation of pulmonary cell functions and discuss recent research findings on the role of caveolin-1 in various pulmonary disease states, including obstructive and fibrotic pulmonary vascular and inflammatory diseases. PMID:22411320

Maniatis, Nikolaos A.; Chernaya, Olga; Shinin, Vasily; Minshall, Richard D.

2012-01-01

319

The tensor distribution function.  

PubMed

Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful tool that can be employed to study white matter microstructure by examining the 3D displacement profile of water molecules in brain tissue. By applying diffusion-sensitized gradients along a minimum of six directions, second-order tensors (represented by three-by-three positive definite matrices) can be computed to model dominant diffusion processes. However, conventional DTI is not sufficient to resolve more complicated white matter configurations, e.g., crossing fiber tracts. Recently, a number of high-angular resolution schemes with more than six gradient directions have been employed to address this issue. In this article, we introduce the tensor distribution function (TDF), a probability function defined on the space of symmetric positive definite matrices. Using the calculus of variations, we solve the TDF that optimally describes the observed data. Here, fiber crossing is modeled as an ensemble of Gaussian diffusion processes with weights specified by the TDF. Once this optimal TDF is determined, the orientation distribution function (ODF) can easily be computed by analytic integration of the resulting displacement probability function. Moreover, a tensor orientation distribution function (TOD) may also be derived from the TDF, allowing for the estimation of principal fiber directions and their corresponding eigenvalues. PMID:19097208

Leow, A D; Zhu, S; Zhan, L; McMahon, K; de Zubicaray, G I; Meredith, M; Wright, M J; Toga, A W; Thompson, P M

2009-01-01

320

Human fetal thyroid function.  

PubMed

The early steps of thyroid development that lead to its function in the human fetus and subsequently the further maturation that allows the human fetus to secrete thyroxine (T4) in a significant amount are reviewed here. We underline the importance of the transfer of T4 from the pregnant woman to her fetus, which contributes at all stages of the pregnancy to fetal thyroid function and development. In the first trimester of pregnancy, the temporal and structural correlation of thyroid hormone synthesis with folliculogenesis supported the concept that structural and functional maturations are closely related. Human thyroid terminal differentiation follows a precisely timed gene expression program. The crucial role of the sodium/iodine symporter for the onset of thyroid function in the human fetus is shown. Fetal T4 is detected by the eleventh week of gestation and progressively increases throughout. The pattern of thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels in the course of pregnancy is given from fetal blood sampling data, and the mechanisms governing this maturation in the human fetus are discussed. Finally an example of primary human fetal thyroid dysfunction, such as in Down syndrome, is given. The understanding of the physiology of the human fetal thyroid function is the basis for fetal medicine in the field of thyroidology. PMID:25231441

Polak, Michel

2014-01-01

321

On immediate function  

PubMed Central

Behavior is a property of living organisms, not of inanimate matter. The problems of physical science are to understand how a phenomenon works; biological science adds the questions of what a phenomenon does and how something that does such things came to be. Exclusive dedication to cause–effect explanations ignores how behavior helps creatures cope with their internal and external environments. Laws of causation describe the precursors to behavior; laws of function describe the effects of behavior. The numerous instances of learning reflect the many ways that selective pressure for altering behavior on the basis of experience has been manifested. Little basis exists for assuming that the various forms of learning reflect either common functions or common processes. Instead, it seems that evolutionary processes have resulted in domain-specific learning. The rules of learning must be understood in terms of the function that the particular manifestation of learning serves for the organism. Evolutionary theory provides the framework for understanding function as well as relations between function and causal mechanisms. PMID:16812660

Zeiler, Michael D.

1992-01-01

322

Difference and Functional Equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A short article designed to provide an introduction to functional equations, those in which a function is sought which is to satisfy certain relations among its values at all points. For example, we may look for functions satisfying f(x*y)=f(x)+f(y) and enquire whether the logarithm function f(x)=log(x) is the only solution. (It's not.) In some cases the nature of the answer is different when we insist that the functional equation hold for all real x, or all complex x, or only those in certain domains, for example. A special case involves difference equations, that is, equations comparing f(x) - f(x-1), for example, with some expression involving x and f(x). In some ways these are discrete analogues of differential equations; thus we face similar questions of existence and uniqueness of solutions, global behaviour, and computational stability. History; applications and related fields and subfields; textbooks, reference works, and tutorials; software and tables; other web sites with this focus.

Rusin, David J., 1957-

2007-12-17

323

Functional imaging and endoscopy  

PubMed Central

The emergence of endoscopy for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases and the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases has brought great changes. The mere observation of anatomy with the imaging mode using modern endoscopy has played a significant role in this regard. However, increasing numbers of endoscopies have exposed additional deficiencies and defects such as anatomically similar diseases. Endoscopy can be used to examine lesions that are difficult to identify and diagnose. Early disease detection requires that substantive changes in biological function should be observed, but in the absence of marked morphological changes, endoscopic detection and diagnosis are difficult. Disease detection requires not only anatomic but also functional imaging to achieve a comprehensive interpretation and understanding. Therefore, we must ask if endoscopic examination can be integrated with both anatomic imaging and functional imaging. In recent years, as molecular biology and medical imaging technology have further developed, more functional imaging methods have emerged. This paper is a review of the literature related to endoscopic optical imaging methods in the hopes of initiating integration of functional imaging and anatomical imaging to yield a new and more effective type of endoscopy. PMID:22090783

Zhang, Jian-Guo; Liu, Hai-Feng

2011-01-01

324

Functional imaging and endoscopy.  

PubMed

The emergence of endoscopy for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases and the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases has brought great changes. The mere observation of anatomy with the imaging mode using modern endoscopy has played a significant role in this regard. However, increasing numbers of endoscopies have exposed additional deficiencies and defects such as anatomically similar diseases. Endoscopy can be used to examine lesions that are difficult to identify and diagnose. Early disease detection requires that substantive changes in biological function should be observed, but in the absence of marked morphological changes, endoscopic detection and diagnosis are difficult. Disease detection requires not only anatomic but also functional imaging to achieve a comprehensive interpretation and understanding. Therefore, we must ask if endoscopic examination can be integrated with both anatomic imaging and functional imaging. In recent years, as molecular biology and medical imaging technology have further developed, more functional imaging methods have emerged. This paper is a review of the literature related to endoscopic optical imaging methods in the hopes of initiating integration of functional imaging and anatomical imaging to yield a new and more effective type of endoscopy. PMID:22090783

Zhang, Jian-Guo; Liu, Hai-Feng

2011-10-14

325

Space race functional responses.  

PubMed

We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey. The resulting functional response models have a simple structure and include functions describing how the emigration of prey and predators depend on interspecific densities. As such, they provide a link between dispersal behaviours and community dynamics. The derived functional response is general but is here modelled in accordance with empirically documented emigration responses. We find that the prey emigration response to predators has stabilizing effects similar to that of the DeAngelis-Beddington functional response, and that the predator emigration response to prey has destabilizing effects similar to that of the Holling type II response. A stability criterion describing the net effect of the two emigration responses on a Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system is presented. The winner of the space race (i.e. whether predators or prey are favoured) is determined by the relationship between the slopes of the species' emigration responses. It is predicted that predators win the space race in poor habitats, where predator and prey densities are low, and that prey are more successful in richer habitats. PMID:25589602

Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran

2015-02-22

326

Protein Functionalized Nanodiamond Arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various nanoscale elements are currently being explored for bio-applications, such as in bio-images, bio-detection, and bio-sensors. Among them, nanodiamonds possess remarkable features such as low bio-cytotoxicity, good optical property in fluorescent and Raman spectra, and good photostability for bio-applications. In this work, we devise techniques to position functionalized nanodiamonds on self-assembled monolayer (SAMs) arrays adsorbed on silicon and ITO substrates surface using electron beam lithography techniques. The nanodiamond arrays were functionalized with lysozyme to target a certain biomolecule or protein specifically. The optical properties of the nanodiamond-protein complex arrays were characterized by a high throughput confocal microscope. The synthesized nanodiamond-lysozyme complex arrays were found to still retain their functionality in interacting with E. coli.

Liu, Y. L.; Sun, K. W.

2010-06-01

327

Algal functional annotation tool  

SciTech Connect

The Algal Functional Annotation Tool is a web-based comprehensive analysis suite integrating annotation data from several pathway, ontology, and protein family databases. The current version provides annotation for the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in the future will include additional genomes. The site allows users to interpret large gene lists by identifying associated functional terms, and their enrichment. Additionally, expression data for several experimental conditions were compiled and analyzed to provide an expression-based enrichment search. A tool to search for functionally-related genes based on gene expression across these conditions is also provided. Other features include dynamic visualization of genes on KEGG pathway maps and batch gene identifier conversion.

Lopez, D. [UCLA; Casero, D. [UCLA; Cokus, S. J. [UCLA; Merchant, S. S. [UCLA; Pellegrini, M. [UCLA

2012-07-01

328

Functional Convergence Spasm  

PubMed Central

Convergence spasm (CS) means intermittent episodes of convergence, miosis and accommodation with disconjugate gaze mimicking abducens palsy. The organic causes range from metabolic to host of neurological and ophthalmic diseases that we describe. It was first described as a presentation of psychogenic disorders by von Graefe as early as in 1856. Nonetheless, patients exhibiting this sign are often subjected to plethora of unnecessary, sophisticated and invasive diagnostic procedures. Such functional cases were treated with either cycloplegic/placebo eye drop or amytal abreaction. Though epidemiological studies suggest that conversion disorder is equally prevalent in industrialized nations and developing countries, a few cases of functional CS are reported from West including Asia, that to, decade(s) before and none from India, to the best of our knowledge. We illustrate a case of functional CS with photograph after consent from patient and its successful treatment. PMID:25035565

Ghosh, Abhishek; Padhy, Susanta K.; Gupta, Gourav; Goyal, Manoj K.

2014-01-01

329

Functional convergence spasm.  

PubMed

Convergence spasm (CS) means intermittent episodes of convergence, miosis and accommodation with disconjugate gaze mimicking abducens palsy. The organic causes range from metabolic to host of neurological and ophthalmic diseases that we describe. It was first described as a presentation of psychogenic disorders by von Graefe as early as in 1856. Nonetheless, patients exhibiting this sign are often subjected to plethora of unnecessary, sophisticated and invasive diagnostic procedures. Such functional cases were treated with either cycloplegic/placebo eye drop or amytal abreaction. Though epidemiological studies suggest that conversion disorder is equally prevalent in industrialized nations and developing countries, a few cases of functional CS are reported from West including Asia, that to, decade(s) before and none from India, to the best of our knowledge. We illustrate a case of functional CS with photograph after consent from patient and its successful treatment. PMID:25035565

Ghosh, Abhishek; Padhy, Susanta K; Gupta, Gourav; Goyal, Manoj K

2014-07-01

330

Pain and functional imaging.  

PubMed Central

Functional neuroimaging has fundamentally changed our knowledge about the cerebral representation of pain. For the first time it has been possible to delineate the functional anatomy of different aspects of pain in the medial and lateral pain systems in the brain. The rapid developments in imaging methods over the past years have led to a consensus in the description of the central pain responses between different studies and also to a definition of a central pain matrix with specialized subfunctions in man. In the near future we will see studies where a systems perspective allows for a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms in the higher-order frontal and parietal cortices. Also, pending the development of experimental paradigms, the functional anatomy of the emotional aspects of pain will become better known. PMID:10466155

Ingvar, M

1999-01-01

331

Fun with Type Functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tony Hoare has always been a leader in writing down and proving properties of programs. To prove properties of programs automatically, the most widely used technology today is the ubiquitous type checker. Alas, static type systems inevitably exclude some good programs and allow some bad ones. Thus motivated, we describe some fun we have been having with Haskell, by making the type system more expressive without losing the benefits of automatic proof and compact expression. Specifically, we offer a programmer's tour of so-calledtype families, a recent extension to Haskell that allows functions on types to be expressed as straightforwardly as functions on values. This facility makes it easier for programmers to effectively extend the compiler by writing functional programs that execute during type checking. Source code for all the examples is available at http://research.microsoft.com/simonpj/papers/assoc-types/fun-with-type-funs.zip.

Kiselyov, Oleg; Jones, Simon Peyton; Shan, Chung-Chieh

332

A REMARKABLE FUNCTIONAL IDENTITY FOR RIEMANN'S ZETA FUNCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this short paper we present a simple method for deriving a remarkable functional identity for Riemann's Zeta Function. The connections between some functional equations obtained implicitly by Leonhard Euler in his work \\

Andrea Ossicini

333

Adaptive multiconfigurational wave functions  

SciTech Connect

A method is suggested to build simple multiconfigurational wave functions specified uniquely by an energy cutoff ?. These are constructed from a model space containing determinants with energy relative to that of the most stable determinant no greater than ?. The resulting ?-CI wave function is adaptive, being able to represent both single-reference and multireference electronic states. We also consider a more compact wave function parameterization (?+SD-CI), which is based on a small ?-CI reference and adds a selection of all the singly and doubly excited determinants generated from it. We report two heuristic algorithms to build ?-CI wave functions. The first is based on an approximate prescreening of the full configuration interaction space, while the second performs a breadth-first search coupled with pruning. The ?-CI and ?+SD-CI approaches are used to compute the dissociation curve of N{sub 2} and the potential energy curves for the first three singlet states of C{sub 2}. Special attention is paid to the issue of energy discontinuities caused by changes in the size of the ?-CI wave function along the potential energy curve. This problem is shown to be solvable by smoothing the matrix elements of the Hamiltonian. Our last example, involving the Cu{sub 2}O{sub 2}{sup 2+} core, illustrates an alternative use of the ?-CI method: as a tool to both estimate the multireference character of a wave function and to create a compact model space to be used in subsequent high-level multireference coupled cluster computations.

Evangelista, Francesco A., E-mail: francesco.evangelista@emory.edu [Department of Chemistry and Cherry L. Emerson Center for Scientific Computation, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

2014-03-28

334

Pharmacological effects on sexual function.  

PubMed

Many drugs may have effects on sexual function. Sexual function is complex and psychological and relationship issues are likely to have greater impacts on sexual function in women than drugs. Although it is important to understand the effects of drugs on sexual function, physicians should use caution in "medicalization" of sexual function in women [106]. PMID:17116504

Carey, J Chris

2006-12-01

335

Remarks on Shintani's Zeta Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a zeta function attached to a represen- tation of a group. We show that the multi-dimensional zeta function due to Shintani (Sh1), which is a generalization of the multiple Hurwitz zeta function, can be obtained in this framework. We also construct a gamma function from the zeta function attached to a representation via zeta regularization. We study then

Masato Wakayama

2005-01-01

336

Orbifolded Partition Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have discussed the partition function of 3-dimensional N = 2 supersymmetric gauge theories on the orbifold {S}3/Zn. A gauge theory on the orbifold has degenerate vacua specified by holonomies, and the partition function is expressed as the sum of all the contributions. In the sum the relative phase factors are important, which had not been considered seriously in the literature. We have determined the phase factors for a specific gauge theory that is dual to a non-gauge theory. We have also proposed the general formula to fix the phase factors.

Imamura, Yosuke; Yokoyama, Daisuke

337

Ascorbate and phagocyte function.  

PubMed Central

Scorbutic guinea pig neutrophils (PMN) were found to produce H2O2 and kill Staphylococcus aureus as well as control PMN, suggesting that ascorbate does not contribute significantly to phagocyte H2O2 production or bacterial killing. Total and reduced ascorbate contents of human PMN was observed to fall upon phagocytosis, whereas dehydroascorbate increased to a lesser extent. These observations are consistent with the view that ascorbate constitutes a functional part of the PMN's redox-active components and may thus function to protect cell constituents from denaturation by the oxidants produced during phagocytosis. PMID:1150324

Stankova, L; Gerhardt, N B; Nagel, L; Bigley, R H

1975-01-01

338

Heart Rate and Function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to discover and learn about heart rate and the function of the heart. The students will investigate whether their hearts beat slower/faster at different times; develop an understanding of why their hearts beat slower/faster at different times; use data to develop an explanation of why their hearts beat slower/faster at different times; be aware of the effect of exercise on respiration; and be able to describe the major function of the heart.

Mr. Mike Peterson (Frazer Public School)

1999-07-01

339

Linear functions and slope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online workshop session, teachers gather to explore linear relationship as expressed in patterns, tables, equations, and graphs. Video segments, interactive practice, problem sets, and discussion questions guide participants as they consider such concepts as slope and function in a learning experience designed for teachers. They explore the role of slope in graphs of linear relationships and investigate how rates are related to slopes and equations. This is one session from Patterns, Functions, and Algebra, a free online course developed for elementary and middle school teachers.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2008-03-06

340

GADRAS Detector Response Function.  

SciTech Connect

The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) applies a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the output of gamma-ray and neutron detectors when they are exposed to radiation sources. The DRF is fundamental to the ability to perform forward calculations (i.e., computation of the response of a detector to a known source), as well as the ability to analyze spectra to deduce the types and quantities of radioactive material to which the detectors are exposed. This document describes how gamma-ray spectra are computed and the significance of response function parameters that define characteristics of particular detectors.

Mitchell, Dean J.; Harding, Lee; Thoreson, Gregory G; Horne, Steven M.

2014-11-01

341

Peroxisome Biogenesis and Function  

PubMed Central

Peroxisomes are small and single membrane-delimited organelles that execute numerous metabolic reactions and have pivotal roles in plant growth and development. In recent years, forward and reverse genetic studies along with biochemical and cell biological analyses in Arabidopsis have enabled researchers to identify many peroxisome proteins and elucidate their functions. This review focuses on the advances in our understanding of peroxisome biogenesis and metabolism, and further explores the contribution of large-scale analysis, such as in sillco predictions and proteomics, in augmenting our knowledge of peroxisome function In Arabidopsis. PMID:22303249

Kaur, Navneet; Reumann, Sigrun; Hu, Jianping

2009-01-01

342

8.F Function Rules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A function machine takes an input, and based on some rule produces an output. The tables below show some input-output pairs for different functions. Fo...

343

Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and system for functionalizing a collection of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A selected precursor gas (e.g., H2, or F2, or CnHm) is irradiated to provide a cold plasma of selected target particles, such as atomic H or F, in a first chamber. The target particles are directed toward an array of CNTs located in a second chamber while suppressing transport of ultraviolet radiation to the second chamber. A CNT array is functionalized with the target particles, at or below room temperature, to a point of saturation, in an exposure time interval no longer than about 30 sec.

Khare, Bishun N. (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

2007-01-01

344

Mollusc Form and Function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Zoo Lab web page features information regarding mollusc form and function. Links are provided to images of snail radula, Veliger larvae, Glochidium larva, squid dissection mount, male squid dissection, freshwater clam dissection mount, freshwater mussel dissection, and a clam model. Each image is labeled and accompanied by a caption describing the function of major structures. The page was developed as a student study guide for practical exams and also provides an outline of the material presented in the lecture portion of the course. It can also provide a "virtual laboratory" experience for those who do not have access to these materials as well as a source of basic zoological information.

Gillis, Rick; Haro, Roger J.; Zoo Lab, University O.

345

Functionalization of carbon nanotubes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and system for functionalizing a collection of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A selected precursor gas (e.g., H.sub.2 or F.sub.2 or C.sub.nH.sub.m) is irradiated to provide a cold plasma of selected target particles, such as atomic H or F, in a first chamber. The target particles are directed toward an array of CNTs located in a second chamber while suppressing transport of ultraviolet radiation to the second chamber. A CNT array is functionalized with the target particles, at or below room temperature, to a point of saturation, in an exposure time interval no longer than about 30 sec.

Khare, Bishun N. (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

2007-01-01

346

Minkowski functionals in cosmology  

E-print Network

Minkowski functionals provide a novel tool to characterize the large-scale galaxy distribution in the Universe. Here we give a brief tutorial on the basic features of these morphological measures and indicate their practical application for simulation data and galaxy redshift catalogues as examples.

Schmalzing, J; Buchert, T

1995-01-01

347

Minkowski Functionals in Cosmology  

E-print Network

Minkowski functionals provide a novel tool to characterize the large-scale galaxy distribution in the Universe. Here we give a brief tutorial on the basic features of these morphological measures and indicate their practical application for simulation data and galaxy redshift catalogues as examples.

J. Schmalzing; M. Kerscher; T. Buchert

1995-08-31

348

Parton distribution functions (definition)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central to much phenomenology of high-energy scattering with hadron beams or targets is the concept of a parton density in quantum chromodynamics (QCD). This article explains the definition of parton densities (also called parton distribution functions). It includes the use of the \\Mmacr S renormalization prescription, which provides the most commonly used scheme for measured parton densities.

Collins, John

2012-07-01

349

Iridescence: a functional perspective  

PubMed Central

In animals, iridescence is generated by the interaction of light with biological tissues that are nanostructured to produce thin films or diffraction gratings. Uniquely among animal visual signals, the study of iridescent coloration contributes to biological and physical sciences by enhancing our understanding of the evolution of communication strategies, and by providing insights into physical optics and inspiring biomimetic technologies useful to humans. Iridescent colours are found in a broad diversity of animal taxa ranging from diminutive marine copepods to terrestrial insects and birds. Iridescent coloration has received a surge of research interest of late, and studies have focused on both characterizing the nanostructures responsible for producing iridescence and identifying the behavioural functions of iridescent colours. In this paper, we begin with a brief description of colour production mechanisms in animals and provide a general overview of the taxonomic distribution of iridescent colours. We then highlight unique properties of iridescent signals and review the proposed functions of iridescent coloration, focusing, in particular, on the ways in which iridescent colours allow animals to communicate with conspecifics and avoid predators. We conclude with a brief overview of non-communicative functions of iridescence in animals. Despite the vast amount of recent work on animal iridescence, our review reveals that many proposed functions of iridescent coloration remain virtually unexplored, and this area is clearly ripe for future research. PMID:19336344

Doucet, Stéphanie M.; Meadows, Melissa G.

2009-01-01

350

Hypergeometric functions, their \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the hypergeometric function approach to Feynman diagrams. Special con- sideration is given to the construction of the Laurent expansion. As an illustration, we describe a collection of physically important one-loop vertex diagrams for which this ap- proach is useful. 1. Introduction. Recent interest in the mathematical structure of Feynman diagrams has been inspired by the persistently increasing accuracy

M. Yu; S. Wardc

351

Inequalities for hypergeometric functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although inequalities involving hypergeometric functions are a potentially useful tool in many investigations, fe~v, if any, studies 'of such inequalities seem to exist in the literature. (See, for example, the summaries contained in ~1], [2], and [3].) One of the principal factors which has undoubtedly hindered such a development has been the anticipation that the mathematical discussion of these inequalities

Thomas Erber

1959-01-01

352

Choreographing Patterns and Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors begin with a description of an algebraic dance--the translation of composite linear growing patterns into choreographed movement--which was the last component of a research-based instructional unit that focused on fostering an understanding of linear functional rules through geometric growing patterns and…

Hawes, Zachary; Moss, Joan; Finch, Heather; Katz, Jacques

2012-01-01

353

Jost functions for quarkonium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the interaction in quarkonium by means of the potential V(r)=-?/r+ ?r+Vo. Within the framework of the Fuda generalization of the van Leeuwen-Reiner approach, the off-shell Jost functions and the off-shell and half-off-shell T-matrices are derived.

Pikh, S. S.; Lis, O. M.

1986-05-01

354

Jost functions for quarkonium  

SciTech Connect

The authors examine the interaction in quarkonium by means of the potential V(r) = -..cap alpha..r + ..beta..r + V/sub o/. Within the framework of the Fuda generalization of the van Leeuwen-Reiner approach, the off-shell Jost functions and the off-shell and half-off-shell T-matrices are derived

Pikh, S.S.; Lis, O.M.

1986-11-01

355

The Function Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the function game, or input-output game, and its benefits. One person is the computer and thinks of a rule. Classmates give input values and the computer gives the corresponding output. The object is to guess the rule. Benefits include the use of mental mathematics, problem solving, communication opportunities, and fostering key ideas,…

Rubenstein, Rheta N.

1996-01-01

356

Functions Defined by Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lawrence Moore and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purpose of this module is to carry out an exploration of functions defined by data; to learn about data entry and plotting operations. This is one lesson in a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Moore, Lawrence C.

357

Functional abdominal pain  

PubMed Central

Functional abdominal pain or functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is an uncommon functional gut disorder characterised by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain attributed to the gut but poorly related to gut function. It is associated with abnormal illness behaviour and patients show psychological morbidity that is often minimised or denied in an attempt to discover an organic cause for symptoms. Thus the conventional biomedical approach to the management of such patients is unhelpful and a person's symptom experience is more usefully investigated using a biopsychosocial evaluation, which necessarily entails a multidisciplinary system of healthcare provision. Currently the pathophysiology of the disorder is poorly understood but is most likely to involve a dysfunction of central pain mechanisms either in terms of attentional bias, for example, hypervigilance or a failure of central pain modulation/inhibition. Although modern neurophysiological investigation of patients is promising and may provide important insights into the pathophysiology of FAPS, current clinical management relies on an effective physician-patient relationship in which limits on clinical investigation are set and achievable treatment goals tailored to the patient's needs are pursued. PMID:15998821

Matthews, P; Aziz, Q

2005-01-01

358

A Functional Housing Market  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

High school teacher Susan Boone asks students to complete mathematical problems on housing prices using the Internet at the Functional Housing Market lesson site. Detailed instructions are provided, and a collection of real estate links from Houston, TX and beyond gives students a sense of real estate information on the Web.

359

Generalized Density Functional Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Positionally dependent(See for example W.A. Curtin and N.W. Ashcroft, Phys. Rev. A 32), 2909 (1985). R.D. Groot and J.P. van de Eerden, Phys. Rev A 36, 4356 (1987). R. Leidl and H. Wagner, J. Chem. Phys. 98, 4142 (1993). and positionally independent(See for example A.R. Denton and N.W. Ashcroft, Phys. Rev. B 39), 4701 (1989) weighted density approximations of classical density functional theories are each shown to represent limits of a more general approach. The resulting flexibility is used to improve on the results obtained so far for inhomogeneous systems, the hard-sphere crystal being given as an example. The inherent physical limitations of such mappings are shown to arise from the resulting weight functions which remain proportional to the second order direct correlation function. The physical arguments apply also to electronic density functional theory(Supported by the National Science Foundation). http://www.msc.cornell.edu/ akhein/physics.html

Khein, A.; Ashcroft, N. W.

1997-03-01

360

Introduction to Green's Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The tutorial introducing students to Green’s functions was first developed by Professor John Berger of the Colorado School of Mines. That tutorial has been expanded and updated by Professor Ernian Pan and Sandra Djurkovic of the Civil Engineering and the Mathematics Departments of the University of Akron. The zip file contains an html file.

Pan, Ernian

2003-02-07

361

HRD Function in Organizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers from a symposium on the human resource development (HRD) function in organizations. In "Comparing Quality Profiles of Training Organizations--A Multi-Level Approach" (Martin Mulder), analysis of over 1,300 training projects indicates that variation in quality is almost entirely explained by the projects, not the…

1998

362

Objectification and Semiotic Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this paper is to study students' difficulties when they have to ascribe the same meaning to different representations of the same mathematical object. We address two theoretical tools that are at the core of Radford's cultural semiotic and Godino's onto-semiotic approaches: objectification and the semiotic function. The analysis…

Santi, George

2011-01-01

363

Laboratory Density Functionals  

E-print Network

We compare several definitions of the density of a self-bound system, such as a nucleus, in relation with its center-of-mass zero-point motion. A trivial deconvolution relates the internal density to the density defined in the laboratory frame. This result is useful for the practical definition of density functionals.

B. G. Giraud

2007-07-26

364

Cardiac function monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An IBM-PC controlled system has been developed to evaluate the cardiac function in the catheterization room. The system uses a multielectrode impedancimetric catheter to compute the instantaneous left intraventricular heart volume, through specially developed algorithms and calibration procedures, and a catheter tip micromanometer to measure the instantaneous left intraventricular pressure. With these two variables, and after a preload maneuver, the

J. C. Spinelli; M. C. Herrera

1988-01-01

365

Process for functionalizing alkanes  

DOEpatents

Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons comprises: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons of the formula: R[sub 1]H wherein H represents a hydrogen atom; and R[sub 1] represents a saturated hydrocarbon radical, with a metal complex of the formula: CpRh[P(R[sub 2])[sub 3

Bergman, R.G.; Janowicz, A.H.; Periana, R.A.

1988-05-24

366

COPPER AND BRAIN FUNCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing evidence shows that brain development and function are impaired when the brain is deprived of copper either through dietary copper deficiency or through genetic defects in copper transport. A number of copper-dependent enzymes whose activities are lowered by copper deprivation form the ba...

367

Balance functions revisited  

E-print Network

The idea of glue clusters, i.e. short-range correlations in the quark-gluon plasma close to freeze-out, is used to estimate the width of balance functions in momentum space. A good agreement is found with the recent measurements of STAR collaboration for central $Au-Au$ collisions.

A. Bialas

2011-02-11

368

Helping. CAP Job Function.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Job Function Booklet (Helping) is one of the 14 components (see note) of the Career Alert Planning (CAP) program, a set of individualized materials designed to help participants find out about themselves and about the kind of work for which they are suited. In this program, participants become acquainted with occupations that are…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

369

Advising. CAP Job Function.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Job Function Book (Advising) is one of the 14 components (see note) of the Career Alert Planning (CAP) program, a set of individualized materials designed to help participants find out about themselves and about the kind of work for which they are suited. In this program, participants become acquainted with occupations that are representative…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

370

Arranging. CAP Job Function.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Job Function Booklet (Arranging) is one of the 14 components (see note) of the Career Alert Planning (CAP) program, a set of individualized materials designed to help participants find out about themselves and about the kind of work for which they are suited. In this program, participants become acquainted with occupations that are…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

371

Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first attempt at defining criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. The decision-making process was as for adults and consisted of arriving at consensus, based on clinical experience. This paper is intended to be a quick reference. The classification system selected differs from the one used in the adult population in that it

A Rasquin-Weber; P E Hyman; S Cucchiara; D R Fleisher; J S Hyams; P J Milla; A Staiano

1999-01-01

372

q-analytic functions, fractals and generalized analytic functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a new class of complex functions of complex argument which we call q-analytic functions. These functions satisfy q-Cauchy-Riemann equations and have real and imaginary parts as q-harmonic functions. We show that q-analytic functions are not the analytic functions. However some of these complex functions fall in the class of generalized analytic functions. As a main example we study the complex q-binomial functions and their integral representation as a solution of the D-bar problem. In terms of these functions the complex q-analytic fractal, satisfying the self-similar q-difference equation is derived. A new type of quantum states as q-analytic coherent states and corresponding q-analytic Fock-Bargmann representation are constructed. As an application, we solve quantum q-oscillator problem in this representation, and show that the wave functions of quantum states are given by complex q-binomials.

Pashaev, Oktay K.; Nalci, Sengul

2014-01-01

373

Engineering living functional materials.  

PubMed

Natural materials, such as bone, integrate living cells composed of organic molecules together with inorganic components. This enables combinations of functionalities, such as mechanical strength and the ability to regenerate and remodel, which are not present in existing synthetic materials. Taking a cue from nature, we propose that engineered 'living functional materials' and 'living materials synthesis platforms' that incorporate both living systems and inorganic components could transform the performance and the manufacturing of materials. As a proof-of-concept, we recently demonstrated that synthetic gene circuits in Escherichia coli enabled biofilms to be both a functional material in its own right and a materials-synthesis platform. To demonstrate the former, we engineered E. coli biofilms into a chemical-inducer-responsive electrical switch. To demonstrate the latter, we engineered E. coli biofilms to dynamically organize biotic-abiotic materials across multiple length scales, template gold nanorods, gold nanowires, and metal/semiconductor heterostructures, and synthesize semiconductor nanoparticles (Chen, A. Y. et al. (2014) Synthesis and patterning of tunable multiscale materials with engineered cells. Nat. Mater. 13, 515-523.). Thus, tools from synthetic biology, such as those for artificial gene regulation, can be used to engineer the spatiotemporal characteristics of living systems and to interface living systems with inorganic materials. Such hybrids can possess novel properties enabled by living cells while retaining desirable functionalities of inorganic systems. These systems, as living functional materials and as living materials foundries, would provide a radically different paradigm of materials performance and synthesis-materials possessing multifunctional, self-healing, adaptable, and evolvable properties that are created and organized in a distributed, bottom-up, autonomously assembled, and environmentally sustainable manner. PMID:25592034

Chen, Allen Y; Zhong, Chao; Lu, Timothy K

2015-01-16

374

The Relationships between Weight Functions, Geometric Functions,and Compliance Functions in Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics  

SciTech Connect

Linear elastic fracture mechanics is widely used in industry because it established simple and explicit relationships between the permissible loading conditions and the critical crack size that is allowed in a structure. Stress intensity factors are the above-mentioned functional expressions that relate load with crack size through geometric functions or weight functions. Compliance functions are to determine the crack/flaw size in a structure when optical inspection is inconvenient. As a result, geometric functions, weight functions and compliance functions have been intensively studied to determine the stress intensity factor expressions for different geometries. However, the relations between these functions have received less attention. This work is therefore to investigate the intrinsic relationships between these functions. Theoretical derivation was carried out and the results were verified on single-edge cracked plate under tension and bending. It is found out that the geometric function is essentially the non-dimensional weight function at the loading point. The compliance function is composed of two parts: a varying part due to crack extension and a constant part from the intact structure if no crack exists. The derivative of the compliance function at any location is the product of the geometric function and the weight function at the evaluation point. Inversely, the compliance function can be acquired by the integration of the product of the geometric function and the weight function with respect to the crack size. The integral constant is just the unchanging compliance from the intact structure. Consequently, a special application of the relations is to obtain the compliance functions along a crack once the geometric function and weight functions are known. Any of the three special functions can be derived once the other two functions are known. These relations may greatly simplify the numerical process in obtaining either geometric functions, weight functions or compliance functions for new test geometries.

Yuan, Rong

2007-02-06

375

Dirac Delta Function 1 Definition  

E-print Network

Dirac Delta Function 1 Definition Dirac's delta function is defined by the following property (t of the delta function is the following relation dtf(t)(t) = f(0) (5) for any function f(t). This is easy to see to dtf(t)(t - t0) = f(t0). (6) Mathematically, the delta function is not a function, because it is too

Murayama, Hitoshi

376

Neurocognitive Functioning in Severe Depression.  

E-print Network

??Research has suggested that major depressive disorder can negatively impact neurocognitive functioning. Depression has been implicated in affecting many cognitive domains, including executive function, attention,… (more)

[No author

2006-01-01

377

Functional correlates of the lateral and medial entorhinal cortex: objects, path integration and local–global reference frames  

PubMed Central

The hippocampus receives its major cortical input from the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) and the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC). It is commonly believed that the MEC provides spatial input to the hippocampus, whereas the LEC provides non-spatial input. We review new data which suggest that this simple dichotomy between ‘where’ versus ‘what’ needs revision. We propose a refinement of this model, which is more complex than the simple spatial–non-spatial dichotomy. MEC is proposed to be involved in path integration computations based on a global frame of reference, primarily using internally generated, self-motion cues and external input about environmental boundaries and scenes; it provides the hippocampus with a coordinate system that underlies the spatial context of an experience. LEC is proposed to process information about individual items and locations based on a local frame of reference, primarily using external sensory input; it provides the hippocampus with information about the content of an experience. PMID:24366146

Knierim, James J.; Neunuebel, Joshua P.; Deshmukh, Sachin S.

2014-01-01

378

Functional correlates of the lateral and medial entorhinal cortex: objects, path integration and local-global reference frames.  

PubMed

The hippocampus receives its major cortical input from the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) and the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC). It is commonly believed that the MEC provides spatial input to the hippocampus, whereas the LEC provides non-spatial input. We review new data which suggest that this simple dichotomy between 'where' versus 'what' needs revision. We propose a refinement of this model, which is more complex than the simple spatial-non-spatial dichotomy. MEC is proposed to be involved in path integration computations based on a global frame of reference, primarily using internally generated, self-motion cues and external input about environmental boundaries and scenes; it provides the hippocampus with a coordinate system that underlies the spatial context of an experience. LEC is proposed to process information about individual items and locations based on a local frame of reference, primarily using external sensory input; it provides the hippocampus with information about the content of an experience. PMID:24366146

Knierim, James J; Neunuebel, Joshua P; Deshmukh, Sachin S

2014-02-01

379

Functional Brain Imaging  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The objective of this analysis is to review a spectrum of functional brain imaging technologies to identify whether there are any imaging modalities that are more effective than others for various brain pathology conditions. This evidence-based analysis reviews magnetoencephalography (MEG), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), positron emission tomography (PET), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the diagnosis or surgical management of the following conditions: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), brain tumours, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis (MS), and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive, degenerative, neurologic condition characterized by cognitive impairment and memory loss. The Canadian Study on Health and Aging estimated that there will be 97,000 incident cases (about 60,000 women) of dementia (including AD) in Canada in 2006. In Ontario, there will be an estimated 950 new cases and 580 deaths due to brain cancer in 2006. Treatments for brain tumours include surgery and radiation therapy. However, one of the limitations of radiation therapy is that it damages tissue though necrosis and scarring. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may not distinguish between radiation effects and resistant tissue, creating a potential role for functional brain imaging. Epilepsy is a chronic disorder that provokes repetitive seizures. In Ontario, the rate of epilepsy is estimated to be 5 cases per 1,000 people. Most people with epilepsy are effectively managed with drug therapy; but about 50% do not respond to drug therapy. Surgical resection of the seizure foci may be considered in these patients, and functional brain imaging may play a role in localizing the seizure foci. Multiple sclerosis is a progressive, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The cause of MS is unknown; however, it is thought to be due to a combination of etiologies, including genetic and environmental components. The prevalence of MS in Canada is 240 cases per 100,000 people. Parkinson’s disease is the most prevalent movement disorder; it affects an estimated 100,000 Canadians. Currently, the standard for measuring disease progression is through the use of scales, which are subjective measures of disease progression. Functional brain imaging may provide an objective measure of disease progression, differentiation between parkinsonian syndromes, and response to therapy. The Technology Being Reviewed Functional Brain Imaging Functional brain imaging technologies measure blood flow and metabolism. The results of these tests are often used in conjunction with structural imaging (e.g., MRI or CT). Positron emission tomography and MRS identify abnormalities in brain tissues. The former measures abnormalities through uptake of radiotracers in the brain, while the latter measures chemical shifts in metabolite ratios to identify abnormalities. The potential role of functional MRI (fMRI) is to identify the areas of the brain responsible for language, sensory and motor function (sensorimotor cortex), rather than identifying abnormalities in tissues. Magnetoencephalography measures magnetic fields of the electric currents in the brain, identifying aberrant activity. Magnetoencephalography may have the potential to localize seizure foci and to identify the sensorimotor cortex, visual cortex and auditory cortex. In terms of regulatory status, MEG and PET are licensed by Health Canada. Both MRS and fMRI use a MRI platform; thus, they do not have a separate licence from Health Canada. The radiotracers used in PET scanning are not licensed by Health Canada for general use but can be used through a Clinical Trials Application. Review Strategy The literature published up to September 2006 was searched in the following databases: MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CENTRAL, and International Network of Agencies for H

2006-01-01

380

Harmonic univalent functions associated with Wright's generalized hypergeometric functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to study certain harmonic univalent mappings involving the Wright's generalized hypergeometric functions. We investigate the usual characteristics associated with such harmonic mappings and also mention their validity conditions. As consequences of our main results, we deduce several results involving the generalized Mittag–Leffler function, the Bessel–Maitland function and the generalized hypergeometric function.

R. K. Raina; P. Sharma

2011-01-01

381

Density Functions for Navigation Function Based Savvas G. Loizou  

E-print Network

1 Density Functions for Navigation Function Based Systems Savvas G. Loizou Ali Jadbabaie GRASP,jadbabai}@grasp.upenn.edu Abstract In this paper, we present a scheme for constructing density functions for systems that are almost the existence of density functions for such systems, such results are only existential and the construction

Loizou, Savvas G.

382

THE EVANS FUNCTION AND THE WEYL-TITCHMARSH FUNCTION  

E-print Network

THE EVANS FUNCTION AND THE WEYL-TITCHMARSH FUNCTION YURI LATUSHKIN AND ALIM SUKHTAYEV Abstract. We describe relations between the Evans function, a modern tool in the study of stability of traveling waves for Hamiltonian ordinary differential equations, and the Evans function, a Wronskian-type determinant designed

Latushkin, Yuri

383

Pancreatic Exocrine Function Testing  

PubMed Central

It is important to understand which pancreatic function tests are available and how to interpret them when evaluating patients with malabsorption. Available direct tests are the secretin stimulation test, the Lundh test meal, and measurement of serum or fecal enzymes. Indirect tests assess pancreatic exocrine function by measuring the effect of pancreatic secretion on various nutrients. These include triglycerides labeled with carbon 14, cobalamin labeled with cobalt 57 and cobalt 58, and para-aminobenzoic acid bound to a dipeptide. Of all these tests the secretin stimulation test is the most accurate and reliable if done by experienced personnel. However, the indirect tests are simpler to do and appear to be comparable to the secretin test at detecting pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. These indirect tests are becoming clinically available and clinicians should familiarize themselves with the strengths and weaknesses of each. PMID:6176075

Goff, John S.

1981-01-01

384

Microlens Mass Functions  

E-print Network

A non-parametric statistical model is constructed to directly relate The distribution of observed microlens timescales to that of the mass Function of the population from which the lenses are drawn, corrected For observational selection based on timescales and event amplifications. Explicit distributions are derived for microlensing impact parameters and maximum amplifications; both are shown to be statistically independent of all other parameters in the problem, including lens mass. The model is used to demonstrate that the narrow range of microlens timescales observed toward the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is probably not consistent with lensing by a widely distributed spheroidal population of large velocity dispersion, as expected of a dark halo; but is consistent with lensing within a rotating thick disk. Poor numerical conditioning on the statistical connection between lens masses and event timescales, and small number statistics, severely limit the mass function information obtainable from current microlensing surveys toward the LMC.

William D. Heacox

2005-10-10

385

[Functional venous explorations].  

PubMed

The methods for exploring venous function globally are presented first. These methods include venous pressure and plethysmography for which the methods using a garrot are separated from those using air volumetry which give reliable physiological and reproducible results. The Nachev method, the thermometry, the thermography and isotope clearances are also reviewed since they have been important in the development of exploration of venous function. The methods giving morphological or segmentary data are then presented in historical order: phlebography (completed by tomodensitography and nuclear magnetic resonance), then ultrasonography with Doppler, echography and duplex and colour techniques. Finally promising methods for the future including oxygen partial pressures, laser-Doppler, capillaroscopy and venous endoscopy are discussed. For each method, there is a description of the technique, a presentation of the measured parameters and their reliability, the signification of the measurement and its clinical use. Finally, each method is discussed in the context of concrete clinical situations with a schema for management of diagnosis. PMID:8177873

Mollard, J M

1994-02-10

386

Process for functionalizing alkanes  

DOEpatents

Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons selectively in the terminal position comprises: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons with a metal complex CpRhPMe/sub 3/H/sub 2/ in the presence of ultraviolet radiation at -60/sup 0/ to -17/sup 0/C to form a hydridoalkyl complex CpRhPMe/sub 3/RH; (b) reacting said hydridoalkyl complex with a haloform CHX/sub 3/ at -60/sup 0/ to -17/sup 0/C to form the corresponding haloalkyl complex of step (a) CpRhPMe/sub 3/RX; and (c) reacting said haloalkyl complex with halogen -60 to 25/sup 0/C to form a functional haloalkyl compound.

Bergman, R.G.; Janowicz, A.H.; Periana-Pillai, R.A.

1984-06-12

387

Functional Biomimetic Architectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

N-substituted glycine oligomers, or 'peptoids,' are a class of sequence--specific foldamers composed of tertiary amide linkages, engendering proteolytic stability and enhanced cellular permeability. Peptoids are notable for their facile synthesis, sequence diversity, and ability to fold into distinct secondary structures. In an effort to establish new functional peptoid architectures, we utilize the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne [3+2] cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction to generate peptidomimetic assemblies bearing bioactive ligands that specifically target and modulate Androgen Receptor (AR) activity, a major therapeutic target for prostate cancer. Additionally, we explore chemical ligation protocols to generate semi-synthetic hybrid biomacromolecules capable of exhibiting novel structures and functions not accessible to fully biosynthesized proteins.

Levine, Paul M.

388

Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and system for functionalizing a collection of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A selected precursor gas (e.g., H2 or F2 or CnHm) is irradiated to provide a cold plasma of selected target species particles, such as atomic H or F, in a first chamber. The target species particles are d irected toward an array of CNTs located in a second chamber while suppressing transport of ultraviolet radiation to the second chamber. A CNT array is functionalized with the target species particles, at or below room temperature, to a point of saturation, in an exposure time interval no longer than about 30 sec. *Discrimination against non-target species is provided by (i) use of a target species having a lifetime that is much greater than a lifetime of a non-target species and/or (2) use of an applied magnetic field to discriminate between charged particle trajectories for target species and for non-target species.

Khare, Bishun N. (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

2009-01-01

389

Local hybrid functionals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel approach for constructing hybrid functionals by using a local mix of regular density functional theory (DFT) exchange and exact Hartree-Fock (HF) exchange. This local hybrid approach is computationally feasible for a wide range of molecules. In this work, the local mix of HF and DFT exchange is driven by the ratio of ?W=|??|2/8?, the Weizsäcker kinetic energy density, with ?, the exact kinetic energy density. This particular choice of local mix yields 100% of exact exchange in one-electron regions. Dissociation energy curves, binding energies, and equilibrium geometries for two-center, three-electron symmetric radical cations can be modeled accurately using this scheme. We also report encouraging results for reaction energy barriers, and somewhat disappointing atomization energies for the small G2 set.

Jaramillo, Juanita; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Ernzerhof, Matthias

2003-01-01

390

Executive functions in synesthesia.  

PubMed

In grapheme-color synesthesia, a number or letter can evoke two different and possibly conflicting (real and synesthetic) color sensations at the same time. In this study, we investigate the relationship between synesthesia and executive control functions. First, no general skill differences were obtained between synesthetes and non-synesthetes in classic executive control paradigms. Furthermore, classic executive control effects did not interact with synesthetic behavioral effects. Third, we found support for our hypothesis that inhibition of a synesthetic color takes effort and time. Finally, individual differences analyses showed no relationship between the two skills; performance on a 'normal' Stroop task does not predict performance on a synesthetic Stroop task. Across four studies, the current results consistently show no clear relationship between executive control functions and synesthetic behavioral effects. This raises the question of which mechanisms are at play in synesthetic 'management' during the presence of two conflicting (real and synesthetic) sensations. PMID:23313937

Rouw, Romke; van Driel, Joram; Knip, Koen; Richard Ridderinkhof, K

2013-03-01

391

Carbon functionalities in amber.  

PubMed

High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the carbon nuclei in powdered amber, obtained by using the techniques of magic angle spinning and cross polarization, provide detailed information about the types of carbon functionalities. The entire spectrum of Baltic amber (succinite) is identical for several samples. Baltic amber shows minor differences from Sicilian amber and drastic differences from Burmese, Romanian, and Bohemian ambers. PMID:17739982

Lambert, J B; Frye, J S

1982-07-01

392

Executive Functioning in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

The executive function (EF) is a set of abilities, which allows us to invoke voluntary control of our behavioral responses. These functions enable human beings to develop and carry out plans, make up analogies, obey social rules, solve problems, adapt to unexpected circumstances, do many tasks simultaneously, and locate episodes in time and place. EF includes divided attention and sustained attention, working memory (WM), set-shifting, flexibility, planning, and the regulation of goal directed behavior and can be defined as a brain function underlying the human faculty to act or think not only in reaction to external events but also in relation with internal goals and states. EF is mostly associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). Besides EF, PFC is involved in self-regulation of behavior, i.e., the ability to regulate behavior according to internal goals and constraints, particularly in less structured situations. Self-regulation of behavior is subtended by ventral medial/orbital PFC. Impairment of EF is one of the most commonly observed deficits in schizophrenia through the various disease stages. Impairment in tasks measuring conceptualization, planning, cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency, ability to solve complex problems, and WM occur in schizophrenia. Disorders detected by executive tests are consistent with evidence from functional neuroimaging, which have shown PFC dysfunction in patients while performing these kinds of tasks. Schizophrenics also exhibit deficit in odor identifying, decision-making, and self-regulation of behavior suggesting dysfunction of the orbital PFC. However, impairment in executive tests is explained by dysfunction of prefronto-striato-thalamic, prefronto-parietal, and prefronto-temporal neural networks mainly. Disorders in EFs may be considered central facts with respect to schizophrenia and it has been suggested that negative symptoms may be explained by that executive dysfunction. PMID:23805107

Orellana, Gricel; Slachevsky, Andrea

2013-01-01

393

Treatment of functional dyspepsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Because there is currently no universally effective treatment for functional dyspepsia, a stepwise approach is useful. The\\u000a initial steps should include 1) making a firm clinical diagnosis and providing the patient with appropriate information and\\u000a reassurance; 2) ascertaining the reason for referral\\/consultation, as this determines what the patient will regard as a satisfactory\\u000a outcome; 3) informing the patient that

Christine Feinle-Bisset; Jane M. Andrews

2003-01-01

394

Infant Pulmonary Function Testing  

PubMed Central

Infant pulmonary function testing has evolved from a research technique into a diagnostic tool. As such, new current procedural terminology (CPT) codes have been created and are available for use as of January 1, 2010. The technology now available has a range of applications. Through a series of vignettes, this article illustrates the methodology of the tests, some of their applications, and how to code and bill for the procedures. PMID:21540218

Davis, Stephanie D.

2011-01-01

395

Deformable and Functional Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This article summarizes most of the material on deformable and functional models that the author covered in an invited plenary\\u000a lecture presented at the 2009 VIPIMAGE Conference. Following the organization of the presentation, the first part of the article\\u000a reviews deformable models, particularly, active contours and surfaces, topologically-adaptive active contours and surfaces,\\u000a and deformable organisms, focusing on their applications in

Demetri Terzopoulos

396

Insomnia and daytime functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from the present review challenge the assumption that daytime functioning deficits are associated with insomnia. Objectively-measured daytime sleepiness is not elevated in people with insomnia, and most cognitive\\/psychomotor tasks do not indicate deficits in people with insomnia. In contrast, a number of studies have found that people with insomnia self-report daytime symptoms such as elevated fatigue, mood disturbance and

Brant W. Riedel; Kenneth L. Lichstein

2000-01-01

397

Heart Function and Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this module, developed as part of Cornell's Learning Initiative in Medicine and Bioengineering (CLIMB), students will learn the basic process of heart development, along with the anatomy and function of the heart. Students will also learn about embryonic development and be introduced to observational tools used by biomedical researchers. This module includes a teacher's guide with learning objectives outlined, classroom activities, and supporting image files. CLIMB is part of the NSF GK-12 program.

Bioengineering, Climb: C.

398

Generating functionals for Green's functions in gauge field theories  

SciTech Connect

The structure of the generating functional of the one-particle-irreducible Green's functions in gauge field theories is investigated. Both axial as well as covariant gauge conditions are considered. For both cases, the general structure of the functionals is obtained, and a functional expansion with respect to nonlocal operators is given. The appearance of gauge-dependent operators in the case of the covariant gauge follows in a natural manner from the structure of the corresponding functional.

Bordag, M.; Kaschlun, L.; Matveev, V.A.; Robaschik, D.

1987-09-01

399

Functional metagenomics of methylotrophs.  

PubMed

It is widely recognized that most microbes in the biosphere remain uncultured and unknown. In the recent few years, whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing of environmental DNA (metagenomics) has revolutionized the field of environmental microbiology by allowing one to tap into the genomic content of microbial communities in specific ecological niches, deducing information on their biochemical potentials. However, ascribing specific functions to specific organisms remains very difficult in most cases, due to low sequence coverage and the lack of sequence assembly that result from metagenomics of complex microbial communities. Therefore, methods that link specific biogeochemical processes to specific members of such complex natural communities are urgently needed. We have developed and implemented a functional metagenomics approach that allows such a connection via substrate-specific stable isotope labeling, followed by WGS sequencing of the labeled DNA to describe bacterial populations involved in metabolism of single-carbon compounds in a freshwater lake. We also developed a pipeline for community transcript analysis based on ultrashort read high-throughput sequencing of messenger RNA, matching these to a specific scaffold. The methodologies described in this chapter can be applied in a wide variety of ecosystems for targeting methylotrophs as well as other functional guilds of microbes. PMID:21419916

Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G; Beck, David A C; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

2011-01-01

400

Functionalized Amorphous Aluminosilicates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alkali treated aluminosilicate (geopolymer) was functionalized by surfactant to increase the hydrophobicity for making Pickering emulsion for the first part of this work. In the first part of this study, alkali treated metakaolin was functionalized with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide ((C16H33)N(CH 3)3Br, CTAB). The electrostatic interaction between this quaternary ammonium and the surface of the aluminosilicate which has negative charge has taken place. The particles then were used to prepare Pickering emulsion. The resulting stable dispersions, obtained very fast at very simple conditions with low ratio of aluminosilicate to liquid phase. In the second part, the interaction between geopolymer and glycerol was studied to see the covalent grafting of the geopolymer for making geopolymer composite. The composite material would be the basis material to be used as support catalyst, thin coating reagent and flame retardant material and so on, Variety of techniques, Thermogravimetric (TGA), Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), FTIR, Solid state NMR, Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), BET surface area, Elemental analysis (CHN), TEM, SEM and Optical microscopy were used to characterize the functionalized geopolymer.

Mesgar, Milad

401

Surface Functionalized Nanocoax Biosensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have adapted the nanocoax array architecture for high sensitivity, all-electronic chemical and biological sensing. We previously demonstrated ppb concentration level detection sensitivity to volatile organic compounds in dry air using the nanocoax array with nanoporous coax annuli [1]. Here, we report progress toward modifying/functionalizing the coax metal surfaces to enable specific binding of target molecules (e.g. proteins, toxins, pathogenic organisms), followed by electronic interrogation via capacitance/impedance spectroscopy. As a proxy for target molecules, and in order to confirm the ability to selectively functionalize desired surfaces in our nanopillar / nanocoax geometry, we have selectively attached strepavidin-functionalized core-shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dots to gold nanopillars. Next steps will include substituting antibodies for the quantum dots, and measuring the capacitance and impedance response to the introduction of protein (PSA , CA-125, etc.) in serum. Ref. [1]: H.Z. Zhao, B. Rizal, G. McMahon, H. Wang, P. Dhakal, T. Kirkpatrick, Z.F. Ren, T.C. Chiles, D. Cai and M.J. Naughton (submitted).

Rizal, Binod; Archibald, Michelle; McMahon, Gregory; Erdman, Natasha; Shepard, Stephen; Burns, Michael J.; Chiles, Thomas C.; Naughton, Michael J.

2012-02-01

402

Functional ("psychogenic") amnesia.  

PubMed

Patients who present with severely impaired memory functioning without a discernable neurological cause typically have experienced one or more severely stressful life events. These patients, who are described as having "psychogenic" or "dissociative" amnesia, typically differ from patients with the neurologic amnestic syndrome in that memory for their personal life histories is much more severely affected than is their ability to learn and retain new information; that is, they have isolated retrograde amnesia. Recent cognitive and brain imaging research has begun to reveal some of the cerebral mechanisms underlying functional amnesia, but this disorder remains best conceptualized as a relatively rare form of illness-simulating behavior rather than a disease. Neuropsychological assessment is often useful in revealing the circumscribed nature of the patient's performance deficits, the spared functions that can be brought to bear in rehabilitation, and the emotional disorders requiring psychiatric treatment. Controlled treatment trials are nonexistent, but case reports suggest that supportive psychotherapy, systematic relaxation training, hypnosis, and sedative/anxiolytic medications are useful in facilitating recovery. These treatments are often combined with a psychoeducational approach that essentially reteaches the patient his or her life story. PMID:16791779

Brandt, Jason; Van Gorp, Wilfred G

2006-07-01

403

Correcting correlation function measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Correlation functions measured as a function of ?? ,?? have emerged as a powerful tool to study the dynamics of particle production in nuclear collisions at high energy. They are however subject, like any other observables, to instrumental effects which must be properly accounted for to extract meaningful physics results. We compare the merits of several techniques used towards measurement of these correlation functions in nuclear collisions. We discuss and distinguish the effects of finite acceptance, and detection efficiency that may vary with collision parameters such as the position of the event in the detector and the instantaneous luminosity of the beam. We focus in particular on instrumental effects which break the factorization of the particle pair detection efficiency, and describe a technique to recover the robustness of correlation observables. We finally introduce a multidimensional weight method to correct for efficiencies that vary simultaneously with particle pseudo rapidity, azimuthal angle, transverse momentum, and the collision vertex position. The method can be generalized to account for any number of "event variables" that may break the factorability of the pair efficiency.

Ravan, Shantam; Pujahari, Prabhat; Prasad, Sidharth; Pruneau, Claude A.

2014-02-01

404

Carbasugars: Synthesis and Functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well recognized that glycosidase inhibitors are not only tools to elucidate the mechanism of a living system manipulated by glycoconjugates but also potential clinical drugs and insecticides by inducing the failure of glycoconjugates to perform their function. In this chapter, the syntheses and functions of natural glycosidase inhibitors (cyclophelitol , allosamidine , and trehazoilin ), which possess highly oxygenated and functionalized cyclohexanes or cyclopentanes in their structures and are defined as carbasugars , and the structure and activity relationships (SAR) of their derivatives are described. Also, recently much attention has been focused on neuraminidase inhibitors as anti-influenza drugs since relenza , which was derived from sialic acid, and also, tamiflu , which is the artificial carbasugar designed as a transition state analogue in the hydrolysis pathway of substrates by neuraminidase, were launched in the market. Herein, the medicinal chemistry efforts to discover tamiflu and some efficient syntheses applicable to process chemistry are described. Finally, useful synthetic methodologies for carbasugar formation from sugars are also introduced in this chapter.

Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki

405

[Visuospatial functions and prematurity].  

PubMed

Visuospatial functions are very important in learning process and development of abstract thought during childhood. Several studies show that preterm and low birth weight infants obtain lower scores in test that assess cognitive functions, specially in the first year of life. These differences are attenuated over time, but a developmental delay that affects working memory and visuospatial process still persists. It is unclear what factors are involved in development of these functions, and pre- or perinatal factors may interfere with the proper conduct of the same, but have been described anatomical and physiological differences between the preterm and term brain that could explain somewhere in these alterations. The different selective vulnerability to hypoxia between immature brain in which preoligodendrocytes and subplate neurons predominate, and mature brain, determine differences in the pattern of injury from hypoxia with greater involvement of the periventricular white matter in preterm children. This lesional pattern leaves to a dysfunction in attentional and visuospatial process, due to the increased vulnerability of the regions involved in the dorsal pathway of visual processing. PMID:25342055

Miranda-Herrero, M C; Pascual-Pascual, S I; Barredo-Valderrama, E; Vazquez-Lopez, M; de Castro-De Castro, P

2014-11-01

406

Development of Functional Foods  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in intestinal microbiota research are the background for the appearance of functional foods. Lactic fermentation products are included in the functional foods and classified into 3 groups based on their mechanisms of action: probiotics, prebiotics and biogenics. Probiotics are viable microorganisms, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, that beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal bacterial balance. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients, such as oligosaccharides and dietary fiber, that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth or activities of beneficial intestinal bacteria in the colon and thus improve the health of the hosts. Biogenics are biologically active peptides, including immunopotentiators (biological response modifier: BRM), plant flavonoids, etc. They act directly or indirectly through modulation of intestinal microbiota on the health of the hosts. Thus, functional foods enhance bioregulation such as stresses, appetite and absorption; biodefence, such as immunity and suppression of allergies; prevent diseases, including diarrhea, constipation, cancer, cholesterolemia and diabetes; and suppress aging through immunostimulation as well as suppression of mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, oxidation processes, intestinal putrefaction, and cholesterolemia. PMID:25032085

MITSUOKA, Tomotari

2014-01-01

407

Mitochondria and Endothelial Function  

PubMed Central

In contrast to their role in other cell types with higher energy demands, mitochondria in endothelial cells primarily function in signaling cellular responses to environmental cues. This article provides an overview of key aspects of mitochondrial biology in endothelial cells, including subcellular location, biogenesis, dynamics, autophagy, ROS production and signaling, calcium homeostasis, regulated cell death, and heme biosynthesis. In each section, we introduce key concepts and then review studies showing the importance of that mechanism to endothelial control of vasomotor tone, angiogenesis, and inflammatory activation. We particularly highlight the small number of clinical and translational studies that have investigated each mechanism in human subjects. Finally, we review interventions that target different aspects of mitochondrial function and their effects on endothelial function. The ultimate goal of such research is the identification of new approaches for therapy. The reviewed studies make it clear that mitochondria are important in endothelial physiology and pathophysiology. A great deal of work will be needed, however, before mitochondria-directed therapies are available for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23580773

Kluge, Matthew A.; Fetterman, Jessica L.; Vita, Joseph A.

2013-01-01

408

Lymphocyte Functions in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To understand the mechanism of immunity impairment in space it is important to analyze the direct effects of space-related conditions on different lymphocytes functions. Since 1992, we are investigating the effect of modeled and true microgravity (MG) on numerous lymphocyte functions. We had shown that modeled (MMG) and true microgravity inhibit lymphocyte locomotion through type I collagen. Modeled microgravity also suppresses polyclonal and antigen-specific lymphocyte activation. Polyclonal activation of lymphocytes prior to exposure to MMG abrogates the MG-induced inhibition of lymphocyte locomotion. The relationship between activation deficits and the loss of locomotion in MG was investigated using PKC activation by phorbol ester (PMA) and calcium ionophore (ionomycin). Direct activation of PKC by PMA substantially restored the MMG-inhibited lymphocyte locomotion and PHA-induced lymphocyte activation lonomycin by itself did not restore either locomotion or activation of the lymphocytes, indicating that these changes are not related to the impairment in the calcium flux in MMG. Treatment of lymphocytes with PMA before exposure to MMG prevented the loss of locomotion. It was observed that DNA synthesis is not necessary for restoration of locomotion since mitomicin C treated and untreated cells recovered their locomotion to the same level after PKC activation. Our recent data indicate that microgravity may selectively effect the expression of novel Ca2+ independent isoforms of PKC, in particularly PKC sigma and delta. This provides a new insight in understanding of the mechanisms of MG-sensitive cellular functions.

Pellis, Neal R.; Risin, Diane; Sundaresan, A.; Cooper, D.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

409

Vitamin D & endothelial function  

PubMed Central

There is increasing interest in the extra-skeletal roles of vitamin D for health and well-being. Poor vitamin D status has been associated with obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and mental health. Endothelial dysfunction may underscore insulin resistance and hence predispose to both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this review was to gain an appreciation of the recent causative evidence linking vitamin D and endothelial function. The PubMed database was searched from 2009 to date. Key words used were vitamin D, supplementation, systemic inflammation, endothelium, endothelial dysfunction and humans. Selected articles were restricted to the English language and to randomized control trials (RCTs) of vitamin D supplementation with direct measures of endothelial function. Final inclusion was based on a quality rating ? 3, based on the Jadad score. Ten RCTs met these criteria and were summarized for their outcomes. Only two studies showed an improvement in flow mediated dilatation with vitamin D. Three other studies reported decreases in C-reactive protein, platelet activation inhibitor-1, tissue plasminogen activator or B type natriuretic peptide. Recent evidence from good quality RCTs did not support a beneficial effect of vitamin D on vascular reactivity. Future intervention studies may need to target a higher vitamin D status and longer duration to determine whether the vitamin has a regulatory role in endothelial function. PMID:25488441

Alyami, A.; Soares, M.J.; Sherriff, J.L.; Mamo, J.C.

2014-01-01

410

Functional ingredients from microalgae.  

PubMed

A wide variety of natural sources are under investigation to evaluate their possible use for new functional ingredient formulation. Some records attested the traditional and ancient use of wild harvested microalgae as human food but their cultivation for different purposes started about 40 years ago. The most popular species are Arthrospira (traditional name, Spirulina), Chlorella spp., Dunaliella spp. and Haematococcus spp. Microalgae provide a bewildering array of opportunities to develop healthier food products using innovative approaches and a number of different strategies. Compared to other natural sources of bioactive ingredients, microalgae have many advantages such as their huge biodiversity, the possibility to grow in arid land and with limited fresh water consumption and the flexibility of their metabolism, which could be adapted to produce specific molecules. All these factors led to very sustainable production making microalgae eligible as one of the most promising foods for the future, particularly as source of proteins, lipids and phytochemicals. In this work, a revision of the knowledge about the use of microalgae as food and as a source of functional ingredients has been performed. The most interesting results in the field are presented and commented upon, focusing on the different species of microalgae and the activity of the nutritionally relevant compounds. A summary of the health effects obtained together with pros and cons in the adoption of this natural source as functional food ingredients is also proposed. PMID:24957182

Buono, Silvia; Langellotti, Antonio Luca; Martello, Anna; Rinna, Francesca; Fogliano, Vincenzo

2014-08-01

411

Galaxy Cosmological Mass Function  

E-print Network

We study the galaxy cosmological mass function (GCMF) in a semi-empirical relativistic approach using observational data provided by galaxy redshift surveys. Starting from the theory of Ribeiro & Stoeger (2003, arXiv:astro-ph/0304094) between the mass-to-light ratio, the selection function obtained from the luminosity function (LF) data and the luminosity density, the average luminosity $L$ and the average galactic mass $\\mathcal{M}_g$ are computed in terms of the redshift. $\\mathcal{M}_g$ is also alternatively estimated by a method that uses the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF). Comparison of these two forms of deriving the average galactic mass allows us to infer a possible bias introduced by the selection criteria of the survey. We used the FORS Deep Field galaxy survey sample of 5558 galaxies in the redshift range $0.5 Schechter parameters in the B-band, as well as this sample's stellar mass-to-light ratio and its GSMF data. Assuming ${\\mathcal{M}_{g_0}} \\approx 10^{11} \\mathcal{M}_\\odot$ as the local value of the average galactic mass, the LF approach results in $L_{B} \\propto (1+z)^{(2.40 \\pm 0.03)}$ and $\\mathcal{M}_g \\propto (1+z)^{(1.1\\pm0.2)}$. However, using the GSMF results produces $\\mathcal{M}_g \\propto (1+z)^{(-0.58 \\pm 0.22)}$. We chose the latter result as it is less biased. We then obtained the theoretical quantities of interest, such as the differential number counts, to calculate the GCMF, which can be fitted by a Schechter function. The derived GCMF follows theoretical predictions in which the less massive objects form first, being followed later by more massive ones. In the range $0.5 < z < 2.0$ the GCMF has a strong variation that can be interpreted as a higher rate of galaxy mergers or as a strong evolution in the star formation history of these galaxies.

Amanda R. Lopes; Alvaro Iribarrem; Marcelo B. Ribeiro; William R. Stoeger

2014-12-03

412

Galaxy cosmological mass function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: This paper studies the galaxy cosmological mass function (GCMF) in a semi-empirical relativistic approach that uses observational data provided by recent galaxy redshift surveys. Methods: Starting from a previously presented relation between the mass-to-light ratio, the selection function obtained from the luminosity function (LF) data and the luminosity density, the average luminosity L, and the average galactic mass ?g were computed in terms of the redshift. ?g was also alternatively estimated by means of a method that uses the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF). Comparison of these two forms of deriving the average galactic mass allowed us to infer a possible bias introduced by the selection criteria of the survey. We used the FORS Deep Field galaxy survey sample of 5558 galaxies in the redshift range 0.5 function, but whose fitted parameter values are different from the values found in the literature for the GSMF. Conclusions: This GCMF behavior follows the theoretical predictions from the cold dark matter models in which the less massive objects form first, followed later by more massive ones. In the range 0.5

Lopes, Amanda R.; Iribarrem, Alvaro; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.; Stoeger, William R.

2014-12-01

413

On quasi-hypergeometric functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define quasi-hypergeometric functions of regular singular type and show that they are characterized by certain fractional differential equations on the one hand and by certain difference-differential equations on the other. Two examples of quasi-hypergeometric functions are given, namely quasi-algebraic functions and partition functions appearing in fractional exclusion statistics.

Kazuhiko Aomoto; Kazumoto Iguchi

1999-01-01

414

Functional Foods for Women's Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…

Lindeman, Alice K.

2002-01-01

415

The domain of differentiable functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We construct a domain for differentiable real valued functions of a real variable. The classical C1 functions, equipped with its C1 norm, is embedded into the set of maximal elements of this domain, which is a countably based bounded complete continuous domain. The construction can be generalized to Ck functions and to real valued functions of several variables.

Abbas Edalat

2001-01-01

416

Emotion, Social Function, and Psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The studies of emotion function and emotional disorders complement one another. In this article, the authors outline relations between the social functions of emotion and four psychological disorders. The authors first present a social-functional account of emotion and argue that emotions help coordinate social interactions through their informative, evocative, and incentive functions. They then review evidence concerning the emotional and

Dacher Keltner; Ann M. Kring

1998-01-01

417

Nonconvex functions and variational inequalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study some properties of a class of nonconvex functions, called semipreinvex functions, which includes the classes of preinvex functions and arc-connected convex functions. It is shown that the minimum of an arcwise directionally differentiable semi-invex functions on a semi-invex set can be characterized by a class of variational inequalities, known as variational-like inequalities. We use the

M. A. Noor

1995-01-01

418

NEUROFEEDBACK USING FUNCTIONAL SPECTROSCOPY.  

PubMed

Neurofeedback based on real-time measurement of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal has potential for treatment of neurological disorders and behavioral enhancement. Commonly employed methods are based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sequences that sacrifice speed and accuracy for whole-brain coverage, which is unnecessary in most applications. We present multi-voxel functional spectroscopy (MVFS): a system for computing the BOLD signal from multiple volumes of interest (VOI) in real-time that improves speed and accuracy of neurofeedback. MVFS consists of a functional spectroscopy (FS) pulse sequence, a BOLD reconstruction component, a neural activation estimator, and a stimulus system. The FS pulse sequence is a single-voxel, magnetic resonance spectroscopy sequence without water suppression that has been extended to allow acquisition of a different VOI at each repetition and real-time subject head motion compensation. The BOLD reconstruction component determines the T2* decay rate, which is directly related to BOLD signal strength. The neural activation estimator discounts nuisance signals and scales the activation relative to the amount of ROI noise. Finally, the neurofeedback system presents neural activation-dependent stimuli to experimental subjects with an overall delay of less than 1s. Here we present the MVFS system, validation of certain components, examples of its usage in a practical application, and a direct comparison of FS and echo-planar imaging BOLD measurements. We conclude that in the context of realtime BOLD imaging, MVFS can provide superior accuracy and temporal resolution compared with standard fMRI methods. PMID:24999293

Hinds, Oliver; Wighton, Paul; Tisdall, M Dylan; Hess, Aaron; Breiter, Hans; van der Kouwe, André

2014-06-01

419

Cell Structure and Function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After this lesson, you will be able to describe some basic structural differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. You will then observe several different cell structures and learn the function of each of those organelles. Use the worksheet that was provided in class. Answer all questions in complete sentences! To start, we need to understand the differences between two distinct types of cells.Use the following link to describe at least three differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Comparison Pro v Eu Now that we know the difference between these two ...

Reed, P.

2008-10-25

420

Functional Dyspepsia Today  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a disorder presenting with symptoms such as postprandial fullness, early satiety or epigastric pain. Although there is a 10 to 30% reported prevalence worldwide, there is currently no clear explanation of the pathophysiology behind this condition. Motility disorders, visceral hypersensitivity, acid disorders, Helicobacter pylori infection or psychosocial factors have all been reported to play a part in the pathophysiology of FD. The diagnosis of FD is one of exclusion, based on the Rome III criteria. The main therapeutic modalities include lifestyle changes, eradicating Helicobacter pylori infection and treatment with either proton pump inhibitors, prokinetics or antidepressants. PMID:24023602

VOIOSU, Theodor Alexandru; GIURCAN, Roxana; VOIOSU, Andrei Mihai; VOIOSU, Mihail Radu

2013-01-01

421

Mitochondrial function in melanoma.  

PubMed

Melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer and its incidence is rapidly rising. Breakthroughs in the understanding of the basic biology of melanoma in the past decade have yielded several new treatments, and advances continue to be made on a variety of fronts. One such area involves the delineation of changes in mitochondria that occur during melanoma formation, and how these changes affect responses to therapy. In this review, we summarize recent developments on the multiple functions that mitochondria play in melanoma, and how these roles are currently being evaluated as new targets for clinical intervention. PMID:24997363

Theodosakis, Nicholas; Micevic, Goran; Kelly, Daniel P; Bosenberg, Marcus

2014-12-01

422

Wetlands Functions and Values  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning module on wetland functions and values is the newest addition to the EPA's Watershed Academy Website (first reviewed in the January 19, 2000 Scout Report for Science & Engineering). The module explores the ecological and societal benefits and values that wetlands provide, such as "fish and wildlife habitats, natural water quality improvement, flood storage, shoreline erosion protection, opportunities for recreation and aesthetic appreciation," and much more. First-time users will find helpful instructions at "How to navigate this module;" the hyperlinked instructional text is also accompanied by useful color images. For anyone interested in wetland ecology, there is much to be learned (or reviewed) here.

2001-01-01

423

Wetlands Functions and Values  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning module on wetland functions and values is the newest addition to the EPA's Watershed Academy Website. The module explores the ecological and societal benefits and values that wetlands provide, such as "fish and wildlife habitats, natural water quality improvement, flood storage, shoreline erosion protection, opportunities for recreation and aesthetic appreciation," and much more. First-time users will find helpful instructions at "How to navigate this module;" the hyperlinked instructional text is also accompanied by useful color images. For anyone interested in wetland ecology, there is much to be learned (or reviewed) here.

2007-07-30

424

Skulls : structure and function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Skulls have been designed for both form and function. Through the use of text and labeled photographs, this website explains how specific skull adaptations meet the needs of organisms. For instance, visitors will discover that some beaks of macaws are attached to their skull only through ligaments to limit the amount of force put on the skull when the birds crack open nuts. The site also presents a series of skull facts, questions, and answers provided by scientists. A unique feature allows visitors to rotate images of skulls 360 degrees, so they can view the different adaptations in form from all angles. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Sciences, California A.

2005-01-01

425

Bayes multiple decision functions.  

PubMed

This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously making many (M) binary decisions based on one realization of a random data matrix X. M is typically large and X will usually have M rows associated with each of the M decisions to make, but for each row the data may be low dimensional. Such problems arise in many practical areas such as the biological and medical sciences, where the available dataset is from microarrays or other high-throughput technology and with the goal being to decide which among of many genes are relevant with respect to some phenotype of interest; in the engineering and reliability sciences; in astronomy; in education; and in business. A Bayesian decision-theoretic approach to this problem is implemented with the overall loss function being a cost-weighted linear combination of Type I and Type II loss functions. The class of loss functions considered allows for use of the false discovery rate (FDR), false nondiscovery rate (FNR), and missed discovery rate (MDR) in assessing the quality of decision. Through this Bayesian paradigm, the Bayes multiple decision function (BMDF) is derived and an efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal Bayes action is described. In contrast to many works in the literature where the rows of the matrix X are assumed to be stochastically independent, we allow a dependent data structure with the associations obtained through a class of frailty-induced Archimedean copulas. In particular, non-Gaussian dependent data structure, which is typical with failure-time data, can be entertained. The numerical implementation of the determination of the Bayes optimal action is facilitated through sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The theory developed could also be extended to the problem of multiple hypotheses testing, multiple classification and prediction, and high-dimensional variable selection. The proposed procedure is illustrated for the simple versus simple hypotheses setting and for the composite hypotheses setting through simulation studies. The procedure is also applied to a subset of a microarray data set from a colon cancer study. PMID:25414762

Wu, Wensong; Peña, Edsel A

2013-01-01

426

Dual-functional semithiobambusurils.  

PubMed

Semithiobambusurils, which represent a new family of macrocyclic host molecules, have been prepared by a convenient, scalable synthesis. These new cavitands are double functional: they strongly bind a broad variety of anions in their interiors and metal ions at their sulfur-edged portals. The solid-state structure of semithiobambus[4]uril with HgCl2 demonstrates the ability of these compounds to form linear chains of coordination polymers with thiophillic metal ions. The crystal structure of semithiobambus[6]uril with tetraphenylphosphonium bromide exhibits the unique anion-binding properties of the host cavity and the characteristics of the binding site. PMID:25417852

Singh, Mandeep; Solel, Ephrath; Keinan, Ehud; Reany, Ofer

2015-01-01

427

Bivariate lognormal density function  

E-print Network

. H. Matis and. Dr. C. K. Chui. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER Page I INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Current Status of' the Theory 1. 2 Aims of' the investigation 1. 3 Possible Applications 1 3 3 II THE PARA|%TER ESTIMATION 2. 1 Problem Description 2. 2... The Estimates RELATED PROBLHMS 3. 1 Missing Data Problem 5 1. 4 1. 6 16 3, 1. 1 Method. of Mm~ imum Likelihood 3. 1, 2 Smith-Hocking Procedure 17 19 IV 3. 2 The Hs. zard. Function MONTE CARLO STUDY 4. 1 The Simulation Problem 4. 2 The Simulation...

Schreyer, Glenn William

2012-06-07

428

Fragmentation Functions at Babar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inclusive hadron production cross section in e+e- annihilation shed light on fundamental questions of hadronization and fragmentation processes. We present measurements of inclusive spectra of charged pions, kaons, and protons (antiprotons) produced in e+e- collisions at the center-of-mass energy of 10.54 GeV, and tests of QCD predictions and hadronization models. We also report the results on the measurement of the azimuthal modulation induced by the Collins effect in inclusive production of charged pion pairs e+e- ? ??X, where the two pions are produced in opposite hemispheres. These data allows the determination of the polarized Collins fragmentation functions.

Garzia, Isabella

2014-01-01

429

ADAM function in embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

Cleavage of proteins inserted into the plasma membrane (shedding) is an essential process controlling many biological functions including cell signaling, cell adhesion and migration as well as proliferation and differentiation. ADAM surface metalloproteases have been shown to play an essential role in these processes. Gene inactivation during embryonic development have provided evidence of the central role of ADAM proteins in nematodes, flies, frogs, birds and mammals. The relative contribution of four subfamilies of ADAM proteins to developmental processes is the focus of this review. PMID:18935966

Alfandari, Dominique; McCusker, Catherine; Cousin, Hélène

2009-01-01

430

Modern vestibular function testing.  

PubMed Central

Current tests of vestibular function concentrate on the horizontal semicircular canal-ocular reflex because it is the easiest reflex to stimulate (calorically and rotationally) and record (using electro-oculography). Tests of the other vestibulo-ocular reflexes (vertical semicircular canal and otolith) and of the vestibulospinal reflexes have yet to be shown useful in the clinical setting. Digital video recording of eye movements and vestibular-evoked responses are promising new technologies that may affect clinical testing in the near future. PMID:2660408

Baloh, R W; Furman, J M

1989-01-01

431

Fluoride Plus Functionalized ?-TCP  

PubMed Central

With more than 50 years of clinical success, fluoride serves as the gold standard agent for preventing tooth decay. In particular, the action of fluoride facilitates saliva-driven remineralization of demineralized enamel and alters solubility beneficially. Still, tooth decay remains problematic, and one way to address it may be through the development of new mineralizing agents. Laboratory and clinical studies have demonstrated that the combination of fluoride and functionalized ?-tricalcium phosphate (fTCP) produces stronger, more acid-resistant mineral relative to fluoride, native ?-TCP, or fTCP alone. In contrast to other calcium-based approaches that seem to rely on high levels of calcium and phosphate to drive remineralization, fTCP is a low-dose system designed to fit within existing topical fluoride preparations. The functionalization of ?-TCP with organic and/or inorganic molecules provides a barrier that prevents premature fluoride-calcium interactions and aids in mineralization when applied via common preparations and procedures. While additional clinical studies are warranted, supplementing with fTCP to enhance fluoride-based nucleation activity, with subsequent remineralization driven by dietary and salivary calcium and phosphate, appears to be a promising approach. PMID:22899679

Karlinsey, R.L.; Pfarrer, A.M.

2012-01-01

432

The function of spermine.  

PubMed

Polyamines play important roles in cell physiology including effects on the structure of cellular macromolecules, gene expression, protein function, nucleic acid and protein synthesis, regulation of ion channels, and providing protection from oxidative damage. Vertebrates contain two polyamines, spermidine and spermine, as well as their precursor, the diamine putrescine. Although spermidine has an essential and unique role as the precursor of hypusine a post-translational modification of the elongation factor eIF5A, which is necessary for this protein to function in protein synthesis, no unique role for spermine has been identified unequivocally. The existence of a discrete spermine synthase enzyme that converts spermidine to spermine suggest that spermine must be needed and this is confirmed by studies with Gy mice and human patients with Snyder-Robinson syndrome in which spermine synthase is absent or greatly reduced. In both cases, this leads to a severe phenotype with multiple effects among which are intellectual disability, other neurological changes, hypotonia, and reduced growth of muscle and bone. This review describes these alterations and focuses on the roles of spermine which may contribute to these phenotypes including reducing damage due to reactive oxygen species, protection from stress, permitting correct current flow through inwardly rectifying K(+) channels, controlling activity of brain glutamate receptors involved in learning and memory, and affecting growth responses. Additional possibilities include acting as storage reservoir for maintaining appropriate levels of free spermidine and a possible non-catalytic role for spermine synthase protein. PMID:24395705

Pegg, Anthony E

2014-01-01

433

Functional connectivity density mapping.  

PubMed

Brain networks with energy-efficient hubs might support the high cognitive performance of humans and a better understanding of their organization is likely of relevance for studying not only brain development and plasticity but also neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the distribution of hubs in the human brain is largely unknown due to the high computational demands of comprehensive analytical methods. Here we propose a 10(3) times faster method to map the distribution of the local functional connectivity density (lFCD) in the human brain. The robustness of this method was tested in 979 subjects from a large repository of MRI time series collected in resting conditions. Consistently across research sites, a region located in the posterior cingulate/ventral precuneus (BA 23/31) was the area with the highest lFCD, which suggest that this is the most prominent functional hub in the brain. In addition, regions located in the inferior parietal cortex (BA 18) and cuneus (BA 18) had high lFCD. The variability of this pattern across subjects was <36% and within subjects was 12%. The power scaling of the lFCD was consistent across research centers, suggesting that that brain networks have a "scale-free" organization. PMID:20457896

Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D

2010-05-25

434

Mast Cell Function  

PubMed Central

Since first described by Paul Ehrlich in 1878, mast cells have been mostly viewed as effectors of allergy. It has been only in the past two decades that mast cells have gained recognition for their involvement in other physiological and pathological processes. Mast cells have a widespread distribution and are found predominantly at the interface between the host and the external environment. Mast cell maturation, phenotype and function are a direct consequence of the local microenvironment and have a marked influence on their ability to specifically recognize and respond to various stimuli through the release of an array of biologically active mediators. These features enable mast cells to act as both first responders in harmful situations as well as to respond to changes in their environment by communicating with a variety of other cells implicated in physiological and immunological responses. Therefore, the critical role of mast cells in both innate and adaptive immunity, including immune tolerance, has gained increased prominence. Conversely, mast cell dysfunction has pointed to these cells as the main offenders in several chronic allergic/inflammatory disorders, cancer and autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes the current knowledge of mast cell function in both normal and pathological conditions with regards to their regulation, phenotype and role. PMID:25062998

da Silva, Elaine Zayas Marcelino; Jamur, Maria Célia

2014-01-01

435

Dry bean protein functionality.  

PubMed

Dry beans are an important source of proteins, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and certain minerals and vitamins in the human food supply. Among dry beans, Phaseolus beans are cultivated and consumed in the greatest quantity on a worldwide basis. Typically, most dry beans contain 15 to 25% protein on a dry weight basis (dwb). Water-soluble albumins and salt-soluble globulins, respectively, account for up to 10 to 30% and 45 to 70% of the total proteins (dwb). Dry bean albumins are typically composed of several different proteins, including lectins and enzyme inhibitors. A single 7S globulin dominates dry bean salt soluble fraction (globulins) and may account for up to 50 to 55% of the total proteins in the dry beans (dwb). Most dry bean proteins are deficient in sulfur amino acids, methionine, and cysteine, and therefore are of lower nutritional quality when compared with the animal proteins. Despite this limitation, dry beans make a significant contribution to the human dietary protein intake. In bean-based foods, dry bean proteins also serve additional functions that may include surface activity, hydration, and hydration-related properties, structure, and certain organoleptic properties. This article is intended to provide an overview of dry bean protein functionality with emphases on nutritional quality and hydration-related properties. PMID:12135167

Sathe, S K

2002-01-01

436

Process for functionalizing alkanes  

DOEpatents

Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons comprising: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons of the formula: R.sub.1 H wherein H represents a hydrogen atom; and R.sub.1 represents a saturated hydrocarbon radical, with a metal complex of the formula: CpRh[P(R.sub.2).sub.3 ]H.sub.2 wherein Cp represents a cyclopentadienyl or alkylcyclopentadienyl radical; Rh represents a rhodium atom; P represents a phosphorus atom; R.sub.2 represents a hydrocarbon radical; H represents a hydrogen atom, in the presence of ultraviolet radiation to form a hydridoalkyl complex of the formula: CpRh[P(R.sub.2).sub.3 ](R.sub.1)H (b) reacting said hydridoalkyl complex with an organic halogenating agent such as a tetrahalomethane or a haloform of the formulas: CX'X''X'''X'''' or CHX'X''X''' wherein X', X'', X'", X"" represent halogens selected from bromine, iodine or chlorine atom, at a temperature in the range of about -60.degree. to -17.degree. C. to form the corresponding haloalkyl complex of step (a) having the formula: CpRhPMe.sub.3 RX; and, (c) reacting said haloalkyl complex formed in (b) with halogen (X.sub.2) at a temperature in the range of about -60.degree. to 25.degree. C. (i.e., ambient) to form a functional haloalkyl compound.

Bergman, Robert G. (Kensington, CA); Janowicz, Andrew H. (Wilmington, DE); Periana, Roy A. (Berkeley, CA)

1988-01-01

437

Process for functionalizing alkanes  

DOEpatents

Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons selectively in the terminal position comprising: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons of the formula: RH where: H represents a hydrogen atom, and R represents a saturated hydrocarbon radical, with a metal complex of the formula: CpRhPMe.sub.3 H.sub.2 where: Cp represents a pentamethylated cyclopentadienyl radical, Rh represents a rhodium atom, P represents a phosphorous atom, Me represents a methyl group, H represents a hydrogen atom, in the presence of ultraviolet radiation at a temperature maintained at about -60.degree. to -17.degree. C. to form a hydridoalkyl complex of the formula: CpRhPMe.sub.3 RH (b) reacting said hydridoalkyl complex with a haloform of the formula: CHX.sub.3 where: X represents a bromine, iodine or chlorine atom, at a temperature in the range of about -60.degree. to -17.degree. C. to form the corresponding haloalkyl complex of step (a) having the formula: CpRhPMe.sub.3 RX; and, (c) reacting said haloalkyl complex formed in (b) with halogen (X.sub.2) at a temperature in the range of about -60.degree. to 25.degree. C. (i.e. ambient) to form a functional haloalkyl compound.

Bergman, Robert G. (Kensington, CA); Janowicz, Andrew H. (Wilmington, DE); Periana-Pillai, Roy A. (Berkeley, CA)

1985-01-01

438

Indirect photobiomodulation in functional networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a non-damaged modulation of laser irradiation or monochromatic light (LI) on a biosystem function. It depends on whether the function is in its function-specific homeostasis (FSH), a negative feedback response for the function to be performed perfectly. Many redundant pathways (RPs) maintain the same cellular function. The full activation of any of RPs can maintain a normal function in its FSH, but partial activation of all the RPs can only maintain a dysfunctional function far from its FSH. A PBM may self-adaptively modulate the activation of a partially activated RP of a normal function until it is fully activated and the normal function is then upgraded. This PBM is called indirect PBM (iPBM). The iPBM on cells such as tumor cells, myoblast cells and fibroblasts and other biosystems and their applications would be reviewed in this paper.

Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Zhu, Wei-Wei; Yang, Xiang-Bo

2012-12-01

439

Generalized -deformed correlation functions as spectral functions of hyperbolic geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the role of vertex operator algebra and 2d amplitudes from the point of view of the representation theory of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras, MacMahon and Ruelle functions. By definition p-dimensional MacMahon function, with , is the generating function of p-dimensional partitions of integers. These functions can be represented as amplitudes of a two-dimensional c = 1 CFT, and, as such, they can be generalized to . With some abuse of language we call the latter amplitudes generalized MacMahon functions. In this paper we show that generalized p-dimensional MacMahon functions can be rewritten in terms of Ruelle spectral functions, whose spectrum is encoded in the Patterson-Selberg function of three-dimensional hyperbolic geometry.

Bonora, L.; Bytsenko, A. A.; Guimarães, M. E. X.

2014-08-01

440

Exponential generating functions for the associated Bessel functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Similar to the associated Legendre functions, the differential equation for the associated Bessel functions Bl,m(x) is introduced so that its form remains invariant under the transformation l ? -l - 1. A Rodrigues formula for the associated Bessel functions as squared integrable solutions in both regions l < 0 and l >= 0 is presented. The functions with the same m but with different positive and negative values of l are not independent of each other, while the functions with the same l + m (l - m) but with different values of l and m are independent of each other. So, all the functions Bl,m(x) may be taken into account as the union of the increasing (decreasing) infinite sequences with respect to l. It is shown that two new different types of exponential generating functions are attributed to the associated Bessel functions corresponding to these rearranged sequences.

Fakhri, H.; Mojaveri, B.; Gomshi Nobary, M. A.

2008-09-01

441

Functional topography: Multidimensional scaling and functional connectivity in the  

E-print Network

1 Functional topography: Multidimensional scaling and functional connectivity in the brain. Friston connectivity, Multidimensional scaling, Schizophrenia, PET, Singular Value Decomposition, Eigenimages, Spatial into an anatomical space, for example using statistical parametric mapping to identify activation foci

Gabrieli, John

442

Generalizing about Genre: New Conceptions of an Old Concept  

E-print Network

Our field has become riddled with dichotomies that threaten to undermine our holistic understanding of writing. Form and content (and the related form and function, text and context), product and process, individual and ...

Devitt, Amy J.

1993-01-01

443

Hermitian indefinite functions and Pontryagin spaces of entire functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We establish and investigate a connection between hermitian indefinite continuous functions with finitely many negative squares defined on a finite interval and so-called de Branges spaces of entire functions. This enables us to relate to any hermitian indefinite continuous function on the real axis a certain chain of 2×2-matrix valued entire functions, which are in the positive definite case tightly

Michael Kaltenbäck; MICHAEL KALTENB

1999-01-01

444

Basic Hypergeometric Functions as Limits of Elliptic Hypergeometric Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a uniform way of obtaining basic hypergeometric functions as limits of the elliptic beta integral. This description gives rise to the construction of a polytope with a different basic hypergeometric function attached to each face of this polytope. We can subsequently obtain various relations, such as transformations and three-term relations, of these functions by considering geometrical properties of

Fokko van de Bult; Eric M. RAINS

2009-01-01

445

Fitting fragility functions 1 Fitting Fragility Functions to  

E-print Network

Fitting fragility functions 1 Fitting Fragility Functions to Structural Analysis Data Using Maximum Likelihood Estimation 1. Introduction This appendix describes a statistical procedure for fitting fragility Incremental Dynamic Analysis). In such a case, the most popular current method for fragility function fitting

Baker, Jack W.

446

A Function or Not a Function? That Is the Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea of what it means to understand mathematics has changed throughout history. Throughout, the function concept has remained a central theme. A conceptual understanding of function includes connections among multiple representations: (1) graphical; (2) verbal; (3) numerical; and (4) analytical. The idea of a function as a rule that describes…

Hartter, Beverly J.

2009-01-01

447

Does the Global Assessment of Functioning Assess Functioning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) is the most commonly used measure of adaptive functioning/impairment in mental health settings. Proposes that GAF scores may be influenced by factors other than functional impairment. Results reveal that GAF scores were strongly influenced by other factors, like symptom severity. Suggests that better…

Bacon, Steven F.; Collins, Michael J.; Plake, Edmund V.

2002-01-01

448

Towards a pluralistic concept of function function statements in biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The meaning of function statements is not clear. Several authors have come up with different explications. By interviewing biologists I tried to get a picture of how they think about ‘function’. Two explications of “Feature X of organism S has function F” came to the fore: (1) “X contributes to F and F contributes to survival\\/reproduction of S” and (2)

Rob Pranger

1990-01-01

449

Sulcus vocalis: functional aspects.  

PubMed

The vocal function of 126 patients with sulcus vocalis was evaluated with the use of a test battery of multidimensional evaluation items. Of the 126 patients, 31 had a unilateral sulcus and 95, bilateral lesions. The results were as follows. 1) The majority of the patients had a mild degree of hoarseness with a breathy quality. 2) An incomplete glottic closure, a small vibratory amplitude, and a small mucosal wave were frequently observed in the stroboscopic examination. 3) The maximum phonation time, fundamental frequency range, and sound pressure level range of phonation were decreased, whereas the airflow during phonation was increased. 4) The pitch perturbation quotient, amplitude perturbation quotient, and normalized noise energy were increased. 5) Abnormal test results were more frequent and more marked for bilateral lesions than for unilateral lesions. PMID:2396804

Hirano, M; Yoshida, T; Tanaka, S; Hibi, S

1990-09-01

450

Fusion excitation function revisited  

E-print Network

We report on a comprehensive systematics of fusion-evaporation and/or fusion-fission cross sections for a very large variety of systems over an energy range 4-155 A.MeV. Scaled by the reaction cross sections, fusion cross sections do not show a universal behavior valid for all systems although a high degree of correlation is present when data are ordered by the system mass asymmetry.For the rather light and close to mass-symmetric systems the main characteristics of the complete and incomplete fusion excitation functions can be precisely determined. Despite an evident lack of data above 15A.MeV for all heavy systems the available data suggests that geometrical effects could explain the persistence of incomplete fusion at incident energies as high as 155A.MeV.

Ph. Eudes; Z. Basrak; F. Sébille; V. de la Mota; G. Royer; M. Zori?

2012-09-28

451

A new callose function  

PubMed Central

Callose in polypodiaceous ferns performs multiple roles during stomatal development and function. This highly dynamic (1?3)-?-D-glucan, in cooperation with the cytoskeleton, is involved in: (a) stomatal pore formation, (b) deposition of local GC wall thickenings and (c) the mechanism of stomatal pore opening and closure. This behavior of callose, among others, probably relies on the particular mechanical properties as well as on the ability to form and degrade rapidly, to create a scaffold or to serve as a matrix for deposition of other cell wall materials and to produce fibrillar deposits in the periclinal GC walls, radially arranged around the stomatal pore. The local callose deposition in closing stomata is an immediate response of the external periclinal GC walls experiencing strong mechanical forces induced by the neighboring cells. The radial callose fibrils transiently co-exist with radial cellulose microfibrils and, like the latter, seem to be oriented via cortical MTs. PMID:21045558

Apostolakos, Panagiotis

2010-01-01

452

Human hormone function emulator.  

PubMed

This paper describes the addition of simulated hormone action to the author's modular, open-systems, computerized human nervous system function emulator. For this project he revived his 32-year old design for a pulse-integrating artificial neuron with controlled voltage droop and reset, to serve as the principal linear computational element. This neuron sums bursts of quantized presynaptic impulses to produce a simulated altered cell membrane voltage. When coupled with a variable-threshold Schmitt trigger, voltage changes can initiate a mock action potential signal. These altered neural membrane voltages and action potential signals are utilized in the nervous system emulator to qualitatively emulate the level of simulated hormone activity, to react to changes in the electrochemical environment, and to signal initiation of high level behavioral responses in the artificial intelligence system. PMID:16817660

Frenger, Paul

2006-01-01

453

Actin Structure and Function  

PubMed Central

Actin is the most abundant protein in most eukaryotic cells. It is highly conserved and participates in more protein-protein interactions than any known protein. These properties, along with its ability to transition between monomeric (G-actin) and filamentous (F-actin) states under the control of nucleotide hydrolysis, ions, and a large number of actin-binding proteins, make actin a critical player in many cellular functions, ranging from cell motility and the maintenance of cell shape and polarity to the regulation of transcription. Moreover, the interaction of filamentous actin with myosin forms the basis of muscle contraction. Owing to its central role in the cell, the actin cytoskeleton is also disrupted or taken over by numerous pathogens. Here we review structures of G- and F-actin and discuss some of the interactions that control the polymerization and disassembly of actin. PMID:21314430

Dominguez, Roberto; Holmes, Kenneth C.

2011-01-01

454

Functionalization of ?-synuclein fibrils  

PubMed Central

Summary The propensity of peptides and proteins to form self-assembled structures has very promising applications in the development of novel nanomaterials. Under certain conditions, amyloid protein ?-synuclein forms well-ordered structures – fibrils, which have proven to be valuable building blocks for bionanotechnological approaches. Herein we demonstrate the functionalization of fibrils formed by a mutant ?-synuclein that contains an additional cysteine residue. The fibrils have been biotinylated via thiol groups and subsequently joined with neutravidin-conjugated gold nanoparticles. Atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the expected structure – nanoladders. The ability of fibrils (and of the additional components) to assemble into such complex structures offers new opportunities for fabricating novel hybrid materials or devices.

?asait?, Vida; Bukauskas, Virginijus; Šetkus, Ar?nas; Staniulis, Juozas; Meškys, Rolandas

2015-01-01

455

Obesity and Reproductive Function  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Obesity is associated with multiple adverse reproductive outcomes, but the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Public health scientists studying obesity and its effects on health outcomes have referred to obesity as a “complex system”, defined as a system of heterogeneous parts interacting in nonlinear ways to influence the behavior of the parts as a whole1,22. By this definition, human reproduction is also a complex system which may explain some of the difficulty in identifying the mechanisms linking obesity and adverse reproductive function. Despite the difficulties, research on obesity and reproduction is important as there is an epidemic of obesity among reproductive age women with associated consequences for future generations. In this review we discuss the adverse reproductive outcomes associated with obesity and data from translational studies of the mechanisms involved. We conclude with a brief discussion of public health policy as it relates to the treatment of infertility in obese women. PMID:23182555

Jungheim, Emily S.; Travieso, Jennifer L.; Carson, Kenneth R.; Moley, Kelle H.

2012-01-01

456

Exercise and functional foods  

PubMed Central

Appropriate nutrition is an essential prerequisite for effective improvement of athletic performance, conditioning, recovery from fatigue after exercise, and avoidance of injury. Nutritional supplements containing carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals have been widely used in various sporting fields to provide a boost to the recommended daily allowance. In addition, several natural food components have been found to show physiological effects, and some of them are considered to be useful for promoting exercise performance or for prevention of injury. However, these foods should only be used when there is clear scientific evidence and with understanding of the physiological changes caused by exercise. This article describes various "functional foods" that have been reported to be effective for improving exercise performance or health promotion, along with the relevant physiological changes that occur during exercise. PMID:16749944

Aoi, Wataru; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

2006-01-01

457

Graphical Representation of Thermodynamic Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a teaching method using graphs for explaining phase changes and the effect of pressure and the relationships between temperature, entropy, enthalpy, energy, Gibbs function, Helmholtz function and volume. (GS)

Wood, A.

1975-01-01

458

FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS Program of Study  

E-print Network

FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS Program of Study Research Areas Students Applying Correspondence Graduate Genomics. Students receive training in the biological, physical and computational sciences through of primary institutional affiliation. The Functional Genomics program is administered through the Graduate

Thomas, Andrew

459

Physical one-way functions  

E-print Network

Modern cryptography relies on algorithmic one-way functions - numerical functions which are easy to compu