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Sample records for mediolateral functional dichotomy

  1. Dichotomy of functional organization in the mouse auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Sharba; Shamma, Shihab A.; Kanold, Patrick O.

    2010-01-01

    The sensory areas of the cerebral cortex possess multiple topographic representations of sensory dimensions. Gradient of frequency selectivity (tonotopy) is the dominant organizational feature in the primary auditory cortex, while other feature-based organizations are less well established. We probed the topographic organization of the mouse auditory cortex at the single cell level using in vivo two-photon Ca2+ imaging. Tonotopy was present on a large scale but was fractured on a fine scale. Intensity tuning, important in level-invariant representation, was observed in individual cells but was not topographically organized. The presence or near-absence of putative sub-threshold responses revealed a dichotomy in topographic organization. Inclusion of sub-threshold responses revealed a topographic clustering of neurons with similar response properties, while such clustering was absent in supra-threshold responses. This dichotomy indicates that groups of nearby neurons with locally shared inputs can perform independent parallel computations in ACX. PMID:20118924

  2. Estimates for the Green's function and parameters of exponential dichotomy of a hyperbolic operator semigroup and linear relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskakov, A. G.

    2015-08-01

    By applying Lyapunov's equation, the method of similar operators, and the methods of harmonic analysis, we obtain estimates for the parameters of exponential dichotomy and for the Green's function constructed for a hyperbolic operator semigroup and a hyperbolic linear relation. Estimates are obtained using quantities which are determined by the resolvent of the infinitesimal operator of the operator semigroup and of the linear relation. Bibliography: 51 titles.

  3. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE Electrophysiological evidence of mediolateral functional

    E-print Network

    West, Mark O.

    in the rat accumbens during cocaine self-administration: tonic firing patterns Anthony T. Fabbricatore, Udi E neurons that demonstrate changes in tonic firing rate during cocaine self and rostral pole shell). Recordings were obtained after acquisition of stable cocaine self-administration (0

  4. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE Electrophysiological evidence of mediolateral functional

    E-print Network

    West, Mark O.

    in the rat nucleus accumbens during cocaine self-administration II: phasic firing patterns Anthony T, drug abuse, neurophysiology, reward, ventral striatum Abstract In the cocaine self-administering rat sessions were typically conducted on days 13­17 of cocaine self-administration (0.77 mg / kg per 0.2- m

  5. Evidence for two distinct stellar initial mass functions: probing for clues to the dichotomy

    SciTech Connect

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Colucci, Janet E.; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; Pessev, Peter M.

    2014-12-01

    We present new measurements of the velocity dispersions of 11 Local Group globular clusters using spatially integrated spectra, to expand our sample of clusters with precise integrated-light velocity dispersions to 29, over 4 different host galaxies. This sample allows us to further our investigation of the stellar mass function among clusters, with a particular emphasis on a search for the driver of the apparent bimodal nature of the inferred stellar initial mass function (IMF). We confirm our previous result that clusters fall into two classes. If, as we argue, this behavior reflects a variation in the stellar IMF, the cause of that variation is not clear. The variations do not correlate with formation epoch as quantified by age, metallicity quantified by [Fe/H], host galaxy, or internal structure as quantified by velocity dispersion, physical size, relaxation time, or luminosity. The stellar mass-to-light ratios, Y{sub *}, of the high and low Y{sub *} cluster populations are well-matched to those found in recent studies of early and late type galaxies, respectively.

  6. Mechanistic and structural insight into the functional dichotomy between interleukin-2 and interleukin-15

    PubMed Central

    Ring, Aaron M.; Lin, Jian-Xin; Feng, Dan; Mitra, Suman; Rickert, Mathias; Bowman, Gregory R.; Pande, Vijay S.; Li, Peng; Moraga, Ignacio; Spolski, Rosanne; Özkan, Engin; Leonard, Warren J.; Garcia, K. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin-15 (IL-15) and IL-2 possess distinct immunological functions despite both signaling through IL-2R? and the common cytokine receptor ?-chain, ?c, We find that in the IL-15—IL-15R?—IL-2R?—?c quaternary complex structure, IL-15 heterodimerizes IL-2R? and ?c identically to the IL-2—IL-2R?—IL-2R?—?c complex, despite differing receptor-binding chemistries. IL-15R? dramatically increases the affinity of IL-15 for IL-2R?, and this allostery is required for IL-15 trans-signaling versus IL-2 cis-signaling. Consistent with the identical IL-2R?—?c dimer geometry, IL-2 and IL-15 exhibited similar signaling properties in lymphocytes, with any differences resulting from disparate receptor affinities. Thus, IL-15 and IL-2 induce similar signals, and the cytokine-specificity of IL-2R? versus IL-15R? determines cellular responsiveness. These results provide important new insights for specific development of IL-15-versus IL-2-based immunotherapeutics. PMID:23104097

  7. Hip proprioceptive feedback influences the control of mediolateral stability during human walking.

    PubMed

    Roden-Reynolds, Devin C; Walker, Megan H; Wasserman, Camille R; Dean, Jesse C

    2015-10-01

    Active control of the mediolateral location of the feet is an important component of a stable bipedal walking pattern, although the roles of sensory feedback in this process are unclear. In the present experiments, we tested whether hip abductor proprioception influenced the control of mediolateral gait motion. Participants performed a series of quiet standing and treadmill walking trials. In some trials, 80-Hz vibration was applied intermittently over the right gluteus medius (GM) to evoke artificial proprioceptive feedback. During walking, the GM was vibrated during either right leg stance (to elicit a perception that the pelvis was closer mediolaterally to the stance foot) or swing (to elicit a perception that the swing leg was more adducted). Vibration during quiet standing evoked leftward sway in most participants (13 of 16), as expected from its predicted perceptual effects. Across the 13 participants sensitive to vibration, stance phase vibration caused the contralateral leg to be placed significantly closer to the midline (by ?2 mm) at the end of the ongoing step. In contrast, swing phase vibration caused the vibrated leg to be placed significantly farther mediolaterally from the midline (by ?2 mm), whereas the pelvis was held closer to the stance foot (by ?1 mm). The estimated mediolateral margin of stability was thus decreased by stance phase vibration but increased by swing phase vibration. Although the observed effects of vibration were small, they were consistent with humans monitoring hip proprioceptive feedback while walking to maintain stable mediolateral gait motion. PMID:26289467

  8. The Angular Momentum Dichotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teklu, Adelheid; Remus, Rhea-Silvia; Dolag, Klaus; Burkert, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    In the context of the formation of spiral galaxies the evolution and distribution of the angular momentum of dark matter halos have been discussed for more than 20 years, especially the idea that the specific angular momentum of the halo can be estimated from the specific angular momentum of its disk (e.g. Fall & Efstathiou (1980), Fall (1983) and Mo et al. (1998)). We use a new set of hydrodynamic cosmological simulations called Magneticum Pathfinder which allow us to split the galaxies into spheroidal and disk galaxies via the circularity parameter ?, as commonly used (e.g. Scannapieco et al. (2008)). Here, we focus on the dimensionless spin parameter ? = J |E|1/2 / (G M5/2) (Peebles 1969, 1971), which is a measure of the rotation of the total halo and can be fitted by a lognormal distribution, e.g. Mo et al. (1998). The spin parameter allows one to compare the relative angular momentum of halos across different masses and different times. Fig. 1 reveals a dichotomy in the distribution of ? at all redshifts when the galaxies are split into spheroids (dashed) and disk galaxies (dash-dotted). The disk galaxies preferentially live in halos with slightly larger spin parameter compared to spheroidal galaxies. Thus, we see that the ? of the whole halo reflects the morphology of its central galaxy. For more details and a larger study of the angular momentum properties of disk and spheroidal galaxies, see Teklu et al. (in prep.).

  9. The reliability and validity of assessing medio-lateral patellar position: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Smith, Toby O; Davies, Leigh; Donell, Simon T

    2009-08-01

    Medio-lateral patellar position is regarded as a sign of patellofemoral pain syndrome and patellar instability. Its assessment is important in accurately performing patellofemoral therapeutic taping techniques. The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the literature to determine the reliability and validity of evaluating medio-lateral patellar position. An electronic database search was performed accessing AMED, British Nursing Index, CINAHL, the Cochrane database, EMBASE, Ovid Medline, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), PubMed and Zetoc to July 2008. Conference proceedings and grey literature were also scrutinised for future publications. All human subject, clinical trials, assessing the inter- or intra-tester reliability, or the criterion validity, were included. A CASP tool was employed to evaluate methodological quality. Nine papers including 237 patients (306 knees) were reviewed. The findings of this review suggest that the intra-tester reliability of assessing medio-lateral patellar position is good, but that inter-tester reliability is variable. The criterion validity of this test is at worse moderate. These are based on a limited evidence-base. Further study is recommended to compare the McConnell (1986) [McConnell J. The management of chondromalacia patellae: a long term solution. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 1986;32(4):215-23] and Herrington (2002) [Herrington LC. The inter-tester reliability of a clinical measurement used to determine the medial/lateral orientation of the patella. Manual Therapy 2002;7(3):163-7] methods of assessing medio-lateral patellar position in patients with well-defined patellofemoral disorders. PMID:18824392

  10. Mediolateral angular momentum changes in persons with amputation during perturbed walking.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Riley C; Beltran, Eduardo J; Dingwell, Jonathan B; Wilken, Jason M

    2015-03-01

    Over 50% of individuals with lower limb amputation fall at least once each year. These individuals also exhibit reduced ability to effectively respond to challenges to frontal plane stability. The range of whole body angular momentum has been correlated with stability and fall risk. This study determined how lateral walking surface perturbations affected the regulation of whole body and individual leg angular momentum in able-bodied controls and individuals with unilateral transtibial amputation. Participants walked at fixed speed in a Computer Assisted Rehabilitation Environment with no perturbations and continuous, pseudo-random, mediolateral platform oscillations. Both the ranges and variability of angular momentum for both the whole body and both legs were significantly greater (p<0.001) during platform oscillations. There were no significant differences between groups in whole body angular momentum range or variability during unperturbed walking. The range of frontal plane angular momentum was significantly greater for those with amputation than for controls for all segments (p<0.05). For the whole body and intact leg, angular momentum ranges were greater for patients with amputation. However, for the prosthetic leg, angular momentum ranges were less for patients than controls. Patients with amputation were significantly more affected by the perturbations. Though patients with amputation were able to maintain similar patterns of whole body angular momentum during unperturbed walking, they were more highly destabilized by the walking surface perturbations. Individuals with transtibial amputation appear to predominantly use altered motion of the intact limb to maintain mediolateral stability. PMID:25797789

  11. Finding corresponding regions of interest in mediolateral oblique and craniocaudal mammographic views

    SciTech Connect

    Engeland, Saskia van; Timp, Sheila; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2006-09-15

    In this paper we present a method to link potentially suspicious mass regions detected by a Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) scheme in mediolateral oblique (MLO) and craniocaudal (CC) mammographic views of the breast. For all possible combinations of mass candidate regions, a number of features are determined. These features include the difference in the radial distance from the candidate regions to the nipple, the gray scale correlation between both regions, and the mass likelihood of the regions determined by the single view CAD scheme. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) is used to discriminate between correct and incorrect links. The method was tested on a set of 412 cancer cases. In each case a malignant mass, architectural distortion, or asymmetry was annotated. In 92% of these cases the candidate mass detections by CAD included the cancer regions in both views. It was found that in 82% of the cases a correct link between the true positive regions in both views could be established by our method. Possible applications of the method may be found in multiple view analysis to improve CAD results, and for the presentation of CAD results to the radiologist on a mammography workstation.

  12. Algebraic dichotomies with an application to the stability of Riemann solutions of conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiao-Biao

    Recently, there has been some interest on the stability of waves where the functions involved grow or decay at an algebraic rate |. In this paper we define the so-called algebraic dichotomy that may aid in treating such problems. We discuss the basic properties of the algebraic dichotomy, methods of detecting it, and calculating the power of the weight function. We present several examples: (1) The Bessel equation. (2) The n-degree Fisher type equation. (3) Hyperbolic conservation laws in similarity coordinates. (4) A system of conservation laws with a Dafermos type viscous regularization. We show that the linearized system generates an analytic semigroup in the space of algebraic decay functions. This example motivates our work on algebraic dichotomies.

  13. Effect of Running Speed and Leg Prostheses on Mediolateral Foot Placement and Its Variability

    PubMed Central

    Arellano, Christopher J.; McDermott, William J.; Kram, Rodger; Grabowski, Alena M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of speed and leg prostheses on mediolateral (ML) foot placement and its variability in sprinters with and without transtibial amputations. We hypothesized that ML foot placement variability would: 1. increase with running speed up to maximum speed and 2. be symmetrical between the legs of non-amputee sprinters but asymmetrically greater for the affected leg of sprinters with a unilateral transtibial amputation. We measured the midline of the body (kinematic data) and center of pressure (kinetic data) in the ML direction while 12 non-amputee sprinters and 7 Paralympic sprinters with transtibial amputations (6 unilateral, 1 bilateral) ran across a range of speeds up to maximum speed on a high-speed force measuring treadmill. We quantified ML foot placement relative to the body’s midline and its variability. We interpret our results with respect to a hypothesized relation between ML foot placement variability and lateral balance. We infer that greater ML foot placement variability indicates greater challenges with maintaining lateral balance. In non-amputee sprinters, ML foot placement variability for each leg increased substantially and symmetrically across speed. In sprinters with a unilateral amputation, ML foot placement variability for the affected and unaffected leg also increased substantially, but was asymmetric across speeds. In general, ML foot placement variability for sprinters with a unilateral amputation was within the range observed in non-amputee sprinters. For the sprinter with bilateral amputations, both affected legs exhibited the greatest increase in ML foot placement variability with speed. Overall, we find that maintaining lateral balance becomes increasingly challenging at faster speeds up to maximum speed but was equally challenging for sprinters with and without a unilateral transtibial amputation. Finally, when compared to all other sprinters in our subject pool, maintaining lateral balance appears to be the most challenging for the Paralympic sprinter with bilateral transtibial amputations. PMID:25590634

  14. Lower-limb amputee recovery response to an imposed error in mediolateral foot placement.

    PubMed

    Segal, Ava D; Klute, Glenn K

    2014-09-22

    Despite walking with a wider step width, amputees remain 20% more likely to fall than non-amputees. Since mediolateral (ML) balance is critical for ambulation and contingent on ML foot placement, we used a ML disturbance to perturb walking balance and explore the influence of prosthetic foot stiffness on balance recovery. Ten transtibial amputees were fit with two commonly prescribed prosthetic feet with differing stiffness characteristics; 12 non-amputees also participated. A perturbation device that released an air burst just before heel strike imposed a repeatable medial or lateral disturbance in foot placement. After a medial disturbance, the first recovery step width was narrowed (p<0.0001) for the prosthetic limb (-103%), the sound limb (-51%) and non-amputees (-41%) and more than twice as variable. The ML inclination angle remained reduced (-109%) for the prosthetic limb, while the sound limb and non-amputees approached undisturbed levels (p<0.0004). Amputees required five steps to return to undisturbed step width after a prosthetic medial disturbance versus two steps for the sound limb and for non-amputees. After a lateral disturbance, the first recovery step was widened for the prosthetic limb (+82%), sound limb (+75%), and wider than non-amputees (+51%; p<0.0001), with all participants requiring three steps to return to undisturbed step width. Amputees also exhibited a similar upper torso response compared to the non-amputees for both disturbances. Prosthetic feet with different stiffness properties did not have a significant effect. In conclusion, amputee balance was particularly challenged by medial disturbances to the prosthetic limb implying a need for improved interventions that address these balance deficits. PMID:25145315

  15. Failures of the Silver Dichotomy in the Generalised Baire Space

    E-print Network

    Failures of the Silver Dichotomy in the Generalised Baire Space Sy-David Friedman, Vadim Kulikov that falsify Silver's dichotomy for Borel equivalence relations on the generalised Baire space under that the classical result, known as the Silver dichotomy, fails in the generalised setting in the following two ways

  16. Reconceptualizing the Native/Nonnative Speaker Dichotomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faez, Farahnaz

    2011-01-01

    This study reconceptualizes the native/nonnative dichotomy and provides a powerful lens to examine linguistic identities. In a study of 25 linguistically diverse teacher candidates in Canada, the respondents' native and nonnative self-ascription and self-assessed level of proficiency was juxtaposed with the judgment of their instructors. This…

  17. The End of a Chemical Dichotomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Organic v inorganic dichotomy in chemistry has begun to disappear while a new formal research discipline, bioinorganic chemistry, is emerging. The field has been developed with the realization that a third of all proteins and bioenzymes contain an inorganic element such as a metal critical to their chemical nature. (Author/RE)

  18. Minimum Cost Homomorphism Dichotomy for Oriented Cycles

    E-print Network

    Gutin, Gregory

    , a mapping f : V (G)V (H) is a homomorphism of G to H if uv is an arc (edge) implies that f(u)f(v) is an arc undirected graphs (with possible loops): If H is a reflexive proper inter- val graph or a proper interval, Hell, Karimi and Rafiey [5] obtained a dichotomy clas- sification for all reflexive digraphs

  19. Axial elongation in mouse embryos involves mediolateral cell intercalation behavior in the paraxial mesoderm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, WeiWei; Burdsal, Carol; Periasamy, Ammasi; Sutherland, Ann E.

    2006-02-01

    The cell mechanical and signaling pathways involved in gastrulation have been studied extensively in invertebrates and amphibians, such as Xenopus, and more recently in non-mammalian vertebrates such as zebrafish and chick. However, because culturing mouse embryos extra-utero is very difficult, this fundamental process has been least characterized in the mouse. As the primary mammalian model for genetics, biochemistry, and the study of human disease and birth defects, it is important to investigate how gastrulation proceeds in murine embryos. We have developed a method of using 4D multiphoton excitation microscopy and extra-utero culture to visualize and characterize the morphogenetic movements in mouse embryos dissected at 8.5 days of gestation. Cells are labeled by expression of an X chromosome-linked enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgene. This method has provided a unique approach, where, for the first time, patterns of cell behavior in the notochord and surrounding paraxial mesoderm can be visualized and traced quantitatively. Our observations of mouse embryos reveal both distinct differences as well as striking similarities in patterned cell motility relative to other vertebrate models such as Xenopus, where axial extension is driven primarily by mediolateral oriented cell behaviors in the notochord and paraxial somitic mesoderm. Unlike Xenopus, the width of the mouse notochord remains the same between 4-somite stage and 8-somite stage embryos. This implies the mouse notochord plays a lesser role in driving axial extension compared to Xenopus, although intercalation may occur where the anterior region of the node becomes notochordal plate. In contrast, the width of mouse paraxial mesoderm narrows significantly during this period and cells within the paraxial mesoderm are both elongated and aligned perpendicular to the midline. In addition, these cells are observed to intercalate, consistent with a role for paraxial mesoderm in driving convergence and extension. These cell behaviors are similar to those characterized in the axial mesoderm of frog embryos during convergence and extension[1], and suggests that tissues may play different roles in axial elongation between the frog and the mouse.

  20. The Relationship Between Fracture Sets and the South-Polar Terrain Dichotomy on Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patthoff, D. A.; Kattenhorn, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    Young fractured ice in the south-polar terrain (SPT) of Enceladus is separated from older regions of the moon by a narrow (9-50 km) band of deformation that defines a morphological dichotomy. The dichotomy is 100s of meters higher than the SPT and is divided into segments, some of which appear to be parallel fold-like structures and others that are dominated by numerous fractures. Overall, the trend of the dichotomy is semi-parallel to lines of latitude and has a shape that is roughly rectangular with the longer sides made of segments of the fold-like features. The parallel trend of some of the folds with the present day tiger stripes may be attributed to contraction to either side of the dilational tiger stripes. However, how the dichotomy has evolved, especially the older parts, and how the segments relate to the older fractures within the SPT remains unexplored. Our previous work has revealed an age sequence of fracture sets with similar properties to the tiger stripes. These fractures appear to have been rotated (clockwise, CW) about the south pole relative their original locations, which we attribute to long-term nonsynchronous rotation of a decoupled ice shell. The older sets include prominent fractures that are longer and wider than other fractures in each set and stand out as potentially ancient versions of the named tiger stripes. We have identified 7 potential paleo-tiger stripes that have a range of ages and orientations. The youngest of the paleo-tiger stripes are rotated ~28° CW relative to the orientation of the present day tiger stripes, the next oldest are rotated an additional ~47° CW, and the oldest another ~78° CW. If these paleo-tiger stripes were similar in form and function to the contemporary tiger stripes, localizing crustal spreading in the past, they should also have influenced the SPT dichotomy analogously to the present day tiger stripes. Accordingly, if the tiger stripes are responsible for fold belt-like features in the SPT dichotomy, the paleo-tiger stripes may have contributed to the creation of older fold belts in the dichotomy. These older fold belts should share similar ages and orientations to the fracture sets with which they are associated and may also have been modified as the ice shell rotated across a tidally-locked stress state. Our mapping shows that the youngest of the paleo-tiger stripes share a similar orientation to the fold belts of the dichotomy between longitudes of ~290° and 330° and near 90°. Additional correlations of the fold belts to older fracture sets likely exist. Other sections of the dichotomy are dominated by fractures instead of folds. The fractured terrains are centered near longitudes of 0° and 220° and spread out ~±25° longitude. The fractures are not randomly oriented but instead appear to have systematic sets, some of which correlate to the orientations of the paleo-tiger stripes. In order to establish a correlation with the paleo-tiger stripes we: 1) identify what specific structures comprise the dichotomy, 2) determine if different parts of the boundary have different ages by examining crosscutting relationships, 3) determine if sections of the dichotomy are genetically related to the fracture sets in the SPT, and 4) explore how the fracture sets interact with and influence the dichotomy.

  1. A role for PHANTASTICA in medio-lateral regulation of adaxial domain development in tomato and tobacco leaves

    PubMed Central

    Zoulias, Nicholas; Koenig, Daniel; Hamidi, Ashley; McCormick, Sheila; Kim, Minsung

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Diverse leaf forms in nature can be categorized into two groups: simple and compound. A simple leaf has a single blade unit, whilst a compound leaf is dissected into leaflets. For both simple and compound leaves, a MYB domain transcription factor PHANTASTICA (PHAN) plays an important role in establishing the adaxial domain in the leaf. Absence of PHAN in arabidopsis and antirrhinum leaves supresses blade development, and in tomato suppresses leaflet development. However, in the rachis and petiole regions of tomato leaves where PHAN and the adaxial domain coexist, it has been unclear why leaf blade and leaflets are not formed. We hypothesized that PHAN regulates the medio-lateral extent of the adaxial domain, thereby determining compound leaf architecture. Methods To test this hypothesis, we generated and analysed transgenic tomato plants expressing tomato PHAN (SlPHAN) under the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in both sense and antisense orientations, and tobacco plants that over-express tomato SlPHAN. Key Results Modulations in SlPHAN resulted in a variety of leaf morphologies such as simple, ternate and compound in either a peltate or non-peltate arrangement. Measurements of the extent of the adaxial domain along the wild-type tomato leaf axis showed that the adaxial domain is narrowed in the rachis and petiole in comparison with regions where laminar tissue arises. In antiSlPHAN transgenic leaves, no blade or leaflet was formed where the adaxial domain was medio-laterally narrowed, and KNOX gene expression was correlatively upregulated. CaMV35S::SlPHAN expression led to widening of the adaxial domain and ectopic blade outgrowth in the rachis of tomato and in the petiole of tobacco. Taken together, these results suggest that SlPHAN plays a role in medio-lateral extension of the adaxial domain and contributes to final leaf morphology in tomato. Conclusions This study provides a novel insight into leaf architecture in tomato and highlights how changes in the expression domain of a master regulator gene such as SlPHAN can be translated into diverse final leaf morphologies. PMID:22184618

  2. A Dichotomy Theorem for Polynomial Irenee Briquel and Pascal Koiran

    E-print Network

    Koiran, Pascal

    A Dichotomy Theorem for Polynomial Evaluation Ir´en´ee Briquel and Pascal Koiran LIP , ´Ecole Normale Sup´erieure de Lyon, Universit´e de Lyon {irenee.briquel,pascal.koiran}@ens-lyon.fr Abstract. A dichotomy theorem for counting problems due to Creignou and Hermann states that or any finite set

  3. The Biological Implausibility of the Nature-Nurture Dichotomy and What It Means for the Study of Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewkowicz, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Since the time of the Greeks, philosophers and scientists have wondered about the origins of structure and function. Plato proposed that the origins of structure and function lie in the organism's nature whereas Aristotle proposed that they lie in its nurture. This nature-nurture dichotomy and the emphasis on the origins question has had a…

  4. Theory and practice: beyond the dichotomy.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, P D; Longmate, M A

    1993-10-01

    Equipping students with the means to bring theoretical understanding to bear on the implementation of practical nursing skills has been an enduring problem for nurse educators. The problem is partly born out of a clinical culture in which the 'merely theoretical' tends to be dismissed. The aim of this paper is to show ways of thinking about theory and practice which actually avoid fruitless dichotomy. Theoretical reflection and practical action are in reality richly interconnected (Heidegger 1962). In the case of the expert practitioner (Benner 1984) theory and practice may be impossible to distinguish. New thinking on this problem is particularly urgent in the light of the Project 2000 initiative. It is hard to see how this new approach to nurse education can be entirely successful if students are allowed to get into the way of contrasting the reality of practice with the 'merely theoretical'. PMID:8232139

  5. CAN PLANETARY INSTABILITY EXPLAIN THE KEPLER DICHOTOMY?

    SciTech Connect

    Johansen, Anders; Davies, Melvyn B.; Church, Ross P.; Holmelin, Viktor

    2012-10-10

    The planet candidates discovered by the Kepler mission provide a rich sample to constrain the architectures and relative inclinations of planetary systems within approximately 0.5 AU of their host stars. We use the triple-transit systems from the Kepler 16 months data as templates for physical triple-planet systems and perform synthetic transit observations, varying the internal inclination variation of the orbits. We find that all the Kepler triple-transit and double-transit systems can be produced from the triple-planet templates, given a low mutual inclination of around 5 Degree-Sign . Our analysis shows that the Kepler data contain a population of planets larger than four Earth radii in single-transit systems that cannot arise from the triple-planet templates. We explore the hypothesis that high-mass counterparts of the triple-transit systems underwent dynamical instability to produce a population of massive double-planet systems of moderately high mutual inclination. We perform N-body simulations of mass-boosted triple-planet systems and observe how the systems heat up and lose planets by planet-planet collisions, and less frequently by ejections or collisions with the star, yielding transits in agreement with the large planets in the Kepler single-transit systems. The resulting population of massive double-planet systems nevertheless cannot explain the additional excess of low-mass planets among the observed single-transit systems and the lack of gas-giant planets in double-transit and triple-transit systems. Planetary instability of systems of triple gas-giant planets can be behind part of the dichotomy between systems hosting one or more small planets and those hosting a single giant planet. The main part of the dichotomy, however, is more likely to have arisen already during planet formation when the formation, migration, or scattering of a massive planet, triggered above a threshold metallicity, suppressed the formation of other planets in sub-AU orbits.

  6. Constraints on Early Mars Evolution and Dichotomy Origin from Relaxation Modeling of Dichotomy Boundary in the Ismenius Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guest, A.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2004-01-01

    The Martian dichotomy is a global feature separating the northern and southern hemispheres. The 3.5 - 4 Gyr old feature is manifested by a topographic difference of 2-6 km and crustal thickness difference of approx. 15 - 30 km between the two hemispheres. In the Ismenius region, sections of the boundary are characterized by a single scarp with a slope of approx. 20 deg. - 23 deg. and are believed to be among the most well preserved parts of the dichotomy boundary. The origin of the dichotomy is unknown. Endogenic hypotheses do not predict the steep slopes (scarps) of the dichotomy boundary. Exogenic models for forming the northern lowlands by impact cratering, associate the scarps along the dichotomy boundary with craters' rims, but are not globally consistent with the topography and gravity. In order to better understand the origin of the Martian dichotomy, it is necessary to know if the steep scarps along the boundary represent the original shape of the dichotomy. Smrekar et al. presented evidence showing that the boundary scarp in Ismenius is a fault along which the highland crust was down faulted. We test whether the relaxation process could produce faulting along the dichotomy boundary and examine the crustal and mantle conditions that would allow for faulting to occur within 1 Gyr and preserve the long wavelength topography over another 3 Gyr. We approach the problem by a combination of numerical and semi-analytical modeling. We test different viscosity profiles and crustal thicknesses by comparing our modeled magnitude, location and timing of plastic strain and displacements to detailed geologic observations in the Ismenius region.

  7. Dawn: Testing Paradigms by Exploring Dichotomies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C. T.; Schmidt, B. E.; Wise, J.; Ristvey, J.; Raymond, C. A.

    2010-12-01

    NASA’s Dawn mission represents a series of “firsts” for major NASA missions. Dawn is the first major NASA science mission to use ion propulsion engines, allowing Dawn to be the first mission to orbit one target and then leave its gravity well to explore a second destination. Dawn is the first science mission to the main asteroid belt, reaching protoplanet Vesta in summer 2011, and will be the first mission to reach a “dwarf planet” when it arrives at Ceres in 2015. By targeting both Vesta and Ceres, Dawn explores two intriguing dichotomies in the solar system, that of the dry rocky planets and the wet icy bodies (Fire and Ice) and the dichotomy between planets and asteroids. Is there a clear dividing line here? Vesta, the second most massive asteroid, is a protoplanet: a round, mostly intact asteroid that bears more resemblance to a planet than to smaller asteroids. Vesta is also the likely parent body of the HED meteorites that richly populate Earth’s meteorite collections. It is possible to hold a piece of Vesta in your hands. From the HED meteorites, scientists have learned the Vesta is one of few differentiated asteroids. And from its spectrum, rich in basaltic minerals, it is known to be much like a mini-version of Earth’s Moon and Mercury. Vesta’s surface once was home to floods of lava not unlike those found still today on the Earth. Vesta is very similar to a terrestrial planet. Ceres is the giant of the asteroid belt with a hydrostatic shape that earns it a dwarf planet classification. Like its larger cousins, Ceres’ round shape suggests that the body may be differentiated, but due to its low density, Ceres’ interior is more like an icy moon of Jupiter. Beneath a relatively thin clay veneer probably lies an ice-rich mantle and rocky core, and even possibly a liquid ocean. With such enticing questions posed for Vesta and Ceres, Dawn will enable scientists and the public alike to explore how planets were born, how fire and ice have shaped the solar system, and have a chance to push the boundaries of our own classification system. Dawn’s set of instrumentation, with cameras, a visible and infrared spectrometer, a gamma ray and neutron detector and radio science, will produce a wealth of information about two previously unexplored, diverse and yet somehow familiar worlds. Communication of the lessons learned by Dawn from the scientists to the public has and will occur over a range of interfaces, including a series of online activities such as Find a Meteorite, Clickworkers and a simulation of an ion engine. Other activities include Dawn “Science of the Day” archives, fun family activities and games as well as classroom materials and outreach events. Since the two bodies are the brightest sources in the main belt, an integral part of Dawn’s journey has been the integration of amateur and “backyard” astronomers. All these activities allow us to share the science with the public. Dawn arrives at Vesta in the middle of the Year of the Solar System in July 2011 and will depart for Ceres as the YSS ends.

  8. Geology of the Eastern Margin of Tempe Terra with Implications for Mars Dichotomy Modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, L.; Ehlmann, B. L.

    2014-07-01

    Here we report Fe/Mg phyllosilicate detections at the eastern margin of Tempe Terra, exposed as a result of dichotomy erosional processes. These studies will shed light on the geology of Tempe Terra and the modification processes near dichotomy.

  9. Topographic Change of the Dichotomy Boundary Suggested by Crustal Inversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, G. A.

    2004-01-01

    Linear negative gravity anomalies in Acidalia Planitia along the eastern edge of Tempe Terra and along the northern edge of Arabia Terra have been noted in Mars Global Surveyor gravity fields. Once proposed to represent buried fluvial channels, it is now believed that these gravity troughs mainly arise from partial compensation of the hemispheric dichotomy topographic scarp. A recent inversion for crustal structure finds that mantle compensation of the scarp is offset from the present-day topographic expression of the dichotomy boundary. The offset suggests that erosion or other forms of mass wasting occurred after lithosphere thickened and no longer accomodated topographic change through viscous relaxation.

  10. The aging-disease false dichotomy: understanding senescence as pathology Journal Name: Frontiers in Genetics

    E-print Network

    Gems, David

    The aging-disease false dichotomy: understanding senescence as pathology David Gems Journal Name.frontiersin.org Citation: Gems D(2015) The aging-disease false dichotomy: understanding senescence as pathology. Front-disease false dichotomy: understanding1 senescence as pathology2 3 David Gems4 5 Institute of Healthy Ageing

  11. Asymmetric leaves1 mediates leaf patterning and stem cell function in Arabidopsis 

    E-print Network

    Byrne, Mary E; Barley, Ross; Curtis, Mark; Arroyo, Juana Maria; Dunham, Maitreya; Hudson, Andrew; Martienssen, Robert A

    2000-12-21

    Meristem function in plants requires both the maintenance of stem cells and the specification of founder cells from which lateral organs arise. Lateral organs are patterned along proximodistal, dorsoventral and mediolateral ...

  12. Direct Instruction vs. Arts Integration: A False Dichotomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aprill, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author takes on what he considers to be the false dichotomy between direct instruction and arts integration. He contends that at a time when national issues of sustainability and conservation of energy and resources become ever more urgent, it is time that those committed to quality arts education stop squandering time, money,…

  13. Martian dichotomy formation by partial melting coupled to early

    E-print Network

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    thickness (26 km) · of course, some assuption in the G-T analysis... 5Wednesday, April 13, 2011 #12;ModelMartian dichotomy formation by partial melting coupled to early Tharsis migration April 13, 2011 at Dept. of Geophysics, Charles Univ. in Prague 1Wednesday, April 13, 2011 #12;Mars · radius 3400 km

  14. The Dichotomy of Conjunctive Queries on Probabilistic Nilesh Dalvi

    E-print Network

    Suciu, Dan

    The Dichotomy of Conjunctive Queries on Probabilistic Structures Nilesh Dalvi University@cs.washington.edu ABSTRACT We show that for every conjunctive query, the complexity of evalu- ating it on a probabilistic database is either PTIME or #P-complete, and we give an algorithm for deciding whether a given conjunctive

  15. Learnability of Solutions to Conjunctive Queries: The Full Dichotomy

    E-print Network

    Valeriote, Matt

    Learnability of Solutions to Conjunctive Queries: The Full Dichotomy Hubie Chen1 and Matthew of an unknown conjunctive query evaluated on the structure. A progression of results aimed to classify-learnability results (see for example [2, 3, 11, 22, 13, 21, 10]). Conjunctive queries are formulas which

  16. Parameterized Complexity Dichotomy for Steiner Multicut (Full Version)

    E-print Network

    Waldmann, Uwe

    Parameterized Complexity Dichotomy for Steiner Multicut (Full Version) Karl Bringmann Danny [Marx and Razgon, Bousquet et al., STOC 2011]. The question whether this result generalizes to Steiner and the graph is a tree plus one node. This means that the mentioned results of Marx and Razgon, and Bousquet et

  17. False Dichotomy? "Western" and "Confucian" Concepts of Scholarship and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Janette; Louie, Kam

    2007-01-01

    Discourses of "internationalisation" of the curriculum of Western universities often describe the philosophies and paradigms of "Western" and "Eastern" scholarship in binary terms, such as "deep/surface", "adversarial/harmonious", and "independent/dependent". In practice, such dichotomies can be misleading. They do not take account of the…

  18. The Biological Implausibility of the Nature-Nurture Dichotomy & What It Means for the Study of Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Lewkowicz, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Since the time of the Greeks, philosophers and scientists have wondered about the origins of structure and function. Plato proposed that the origins of structure and function lie in the organism's nature whereas Aristotle proposed that they lie in its nurture. This nature/nurture dichotomy and the emphasis on the origins question has had a powerful effect on our thinking about development right into modern times. Despite this, empirical findings from various branches of developmental science have made a compelling case that the nature/nurture dichotomy is biologically implausible and, thus, that a search for developmental origins must be replaced by research into developmental processes. This change in focus recognizes that development is an immensely complex, dynamic, embedded, interdependent, and probabilistic process and, therefore, renders simplistic questions such as whether a particular behavioral capacity is innate or acquired scientifically uninteresting. PMID:21709807

  19. Dichotomy in the definition of prescriptive information suggests both prescribed data and prescribed algorithms: biosemiotics applications in genomic systems.

    PubMed

    D'Onofrio, David J; Abel, David L; Johnson, Donald E

    2012-01-01

    The fields of molecular biology and computer science have cooperated over recent years to create a synergy between the cybernetic and biosemiotic relationship found in cellular genomics to that of information and language found in computational systems. Biological information frequently manifests its "meaning" through instruction or actual production of formal bio-function. Such information is called prescriptive information (PI). PI programs organize and execute a prescribed set of choices. Closer examination of this term in cellular systems has led to a dichotomy in its definition suggesting both prescribed data and prescribed algorithms are constituents of PI. This paper looks at this dichotomy as expressed in both the genetic code and in the central dogma of protein synthesis. An example of a genetic algorithm is modeled after the ribosome, and an examination of the protein synthesis process is used to differentiate PI data from PI algorithms. PMID:22413926

  20. Mega-impact formation of the Mars hemispheric dichotomy.

    PubMed

    Marinova, Margarita M; Aharonson, Oded; Asphaug, Erik

    2008-06-26

    The Mars hemispheric dichotomy is expressed as a dramatic difference in elevation, crustal thickness and crater density between the southern highlands and northern lowlands (which cover approximately 42% of the surface). Despite the prominence of the dichotomy, its origin has remained enigmatic and models for its formation largely untested. Endogenic degree-1 convection models with north-south asymmetry are incomplete in that they are restricted to simulating only mantle dynamics and they neglect crustal evolution, whereas exogenic multiple impact events are statistically unlikely to concentrate in one hemisphere. A single mega-impact of the requisite size has not previously been modelled. However, it has been hypothesized that such an event could obliterate the evidence of its occurrence by completely covering the surface with melt or catastrophically disrupting the planet. Here we present a set of single-impact initial conditions by which a large impactor can produce features consistent with the observed dichotomy's crustal structure and persistence. Using three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, large variations are predicted in post-impact states depending on impact energy, velocity and, importantly, impact angle, with trends more pronounced or unseen in commonly studied smaller impacts. For impact energies of approximately (3-6) x 10(29) J, at low impact velocities (6-10 km s(-1)) and oblique impact angles (30-60 degrees ), the resulting crustal removal boundary is similar in size and ellipticity to the observed characteristics of the lowlands basin. Under these conditions, the melt distribution is largely contained within the area of impact and thus does not erase the evidence of the impact's occurrence. The antiquity of the dichotomy is consistent with the contemporaneous presence of impactors of diameter 1,600-2,700 km in Mars-crossing orbits, and the impact angle is consistent with the expected distribution. PMID:18580945

  1. Beyond the dichotomy: six religious views of homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dawne

    2014-01-01

    Using published theological and scholarly evidence, this article disrupts the stereotypical "born gay"/"sinful choice" dichotomy widely assumed to characterize religious views of homosexuality in the United States. It argues that we need to keep moral questions separate from questions about the fixity or fluidity of sexual orientation. Rather than two, American Christian and Jewish views of homosexuality can been seen on a range from the "God Hates Fags" view through "Love the Sinner, Hate the Sin," "We Don't Talk About That," "They Can't Help It," "God's Good Gift," and a queer-theological view of the "Godly Calling." PMID:24871867

  2. The Henize sample of S stars; 1, The technetium dichotomy

    E-print Network

    Van Eck, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper is the first one in a series investigating the properties of the S stars belonging to the Henize sample (205 S stars with deltatechnetium. Only one `transition' case (Hen 140 = HD 120179, a star where only weak lines of technetium are detectable) is found in our sample. A resolution greater than R =30 000 is clearly required in order to derive unambiguous conclusions concerning the presence or absence of technetium. The Tc/no Tc dichotomy will be correlated with radial veloci...

  3. The Henize sample of S stars. I. The technetium dichotomy

    E-print Network

    S. Van Eck; A. Jorissen

    1999-03-16

    This paper is the first one in a series investigating the properties of the S stars belonging to the Henize sample (205 S stars with deltatechnetium. Only one `transition' case (Hen 140 = HD 120179, a star where only weak lines of technetium are detectable) is found in our sample. A resolution greater than R =30 000 is clearly required in order to derive unambiguous conclusions concerning the presence or absence of technetium. The Tc/no Tc dichotomy will be correlated with radial velocity and photometric data in a forthcoming paper.

  4. The geophysical signal of the martian global dichotomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Roger J.

    1992-01-01

    A first-order tectonic question for Mars is the origin and nature of the global dichotomy (GD) separating approximately the northern and southern hemispheres of the planet. It is appropriate to focus on hypotheses for the origin of the GD as well as on geophysical models of related internal structure that are constrained by present-day observations. There are basic planetary scale observations that relate to the GD: (1) the dichotomy boundary separates two fundamentally different elevations on the planet, as the terrain to the north is lower by an average of about 3 km; (2) the boundary separates terrain of regionally distinct crater ages, heavily cratered (older) in the south and sparsely cratered (younger) in the north; (3) the amount of ancient crust apparently removed from north of the dichotomy boundary cannot be accounted for by simple surface erosion and deposition in the south, and the constraint becomes particularly severe if isostatic adjustment is presumed to have accompanied this process. This last point leads to the supposition that some type of interior process must have been responsible for the creation of the GD. An obvious way to create the observed elevation difference between the two hemispheres is with a thinner crust in the north, although a denser cust would also work. Hypotheses for producing a thinner northern crust include preferential sub-crustal erosion, a giant impact, and simply invoking the crustal thickness difference as a primordial feature of the planet. If the GD represents a fundamental change in the crustal thickness of Mars, then there should be geophysical evidence of this. The center-of-figure to center-of-mass offset of the planet may be related to the GD, but the Tharsis topography must certainly also contribute. If the Tharsis and GD effects can be separated, then a crustal thickness model can be tested, though the results will not be unique. The gravity field provides another geophysical constraint on GD models. A simple change in thickness of an isostatically compensated crust should show a characteristic gravity signal across the dichotomy boundary. There is a gravity anomaly that is clearly associated with the boundary in regions where the gravity signal is not cluttered by contributions from other features such as Tharsis and Elysium. The gravity signal has a complex spatial relationship with the boundary, and efforts are presently underway to model this anomaly.

  5. The HMA-LMA Dichotomy Revisited: an Electron Microscopical Survey of 56 Sponge Species

    E-print Network

    Pawlik, Joseph

    The HMA-LMA Dichotomy Revisited: an Electron Microscopical Survey of 56 Sponge Species VOLKER. The dichotomy between high microbial abun- dance (HMA) and low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges has been long recognized. In the present study, 56 sponge species from three geographic regions (greater Ca- ribbean

  6. Knowledge of Being v. Practice of Becoming in Higher Education: Overcoming the Dichotomy in the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    This essay suggests ways to overcome what I take to be a widespread problem of a dichotomy between the knowledge of being and the practice of becoming and an emphasis on the former at the expense of the latter within contemporary Humanities at the university. First, I trace the genealogy of this dichotomy and its effects on contemporary…

  7. The Borealis basin and the origin of the martian crustal dichotomy.

    PubMed

    Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C; Zuber, Maria T; Banerdt, W Bruce

    2008-06-26

    The most prominent feature on the surface of Mars is the near-hemispheric dichotomy between the southern highlands and northern lowlands. The root of this dichotomy is a change in crustal thickness along an apparently irregular boundary, which can be traced around the planet, except where it is presumably buried beneath the Tharsis volcanic rise. The isostatic compensation of these distinct provinces and the ancient population of impact craters buried beneath the young lowlands surface suggest that the dichotomy is one of the most ancient features on the planet. However, the origin of this dichotomy has remained uncertain, with little evidence to distinguish between the suggested causes: a giant impact or mantle convection/overturn. Here we use the gravity and topography of Mars to constrain the location of the dichotomy boundary beneath Tharsis, taking advantage of the different modes of compensation for Tharsis and the dichotomy to separate their effects. We find that the dichotomy boundary along its entire path around the planet is accurately fitted by an ellipse measuring approximately 10,600 by 8,500 km, centred at 67 degrees N, 208 degrees E. We suggest that the elliptical nature of the crustal dichotomy is most simply explained by a giant impact, representing the largest such structure thus far identified in the Solar System. PMID:18580944

  8. Tharsis as a consequence of Mars' dichotomy and layered mantle Mark J. Wenzel,1

    E-print Network

    Manga, Michael

    of the martian mantle [Elkins-Tanton et al., 2003; Kiefer, 2003]. While models of the mass distribution of MarsTharsis as a consequence of Mars' dichotomy and layered mantle Mark J. Wenzel,1 Michael Manga,1 of the crustal dichotomy and a layered mantle on the thermal evolution of Mars. We show that in combination

  9. The prokaryote-eukaryote dichotomy: meanings and mythology.

    PubMed

    Sapp, Jan

    2005-06-01

    Drawing on documents both published and archival, this paper explains how the prokaryote-eukaryote dichotomy of the 1960s was constructed, the purposes it served, and what it implied in terms of classification and phylogeny. In doing so, I first show how the concept was attributed to Edouard Chatton and the context in which he introduced the terms. Following, I examine the context in which the terms were reintroduced into biology in 1962 by Roger Stanier and C. B. van Niel. I study the discourse over the subsequent decade to understand how the organizational dichotomy took on the form of a natural classification as the kingdom Monera or superkingdom Procaryotae. Stanier and van Niel admitted that, in regard to constructing a natural classification of bacteria, structural characteristics were no more useful than physiological properties. They repeatedly denied that bacterial phylogenetics was possible. I thus examine the great historical irony that the "prokaryote," in both its organizational and phylogenetic senses, was defined (negatively) on the basis of structure. Finally, we see how phylogenetic research based on 16S rRNA led by Carl Woese and his collaborators confronted the prokaryote concept while moving microbiology to the center of evolutionary biology. PMID:15944457

  10. Hydrophobic–hydrophilic dichotomy of the butterfly proboscis

    PubMed Central

    Lehnert, Matthew S.; Monaenkova, Daria; Andrukh, Taras; Beard, Charles E.; Adler, Peter H.; Kornev, Konstantin G.

    2013-01-01

    Mouthparts of fluid-feeding insects have unique material properties with no human-engineered analogue: the feeding devices acquire sticky and viscous liquids while remaining clean. We discovered that the external surface of the butterfly proboscis has a sharp boundary separating a hydrophilic drinking region and a hydrophobic non-drinking region. The structural arrangement of the proboscis provides the basis for the wetting dichotomy. Theoretical and experimental analyses show that fluid uptake is associated with enlargement of hydrophilic cuticular structures, the legulae, which link the two halves of the proboscis together. We also show that an elliptical proboscis produces a higher external meniscus than does a cylindrical proboscis of the same circumference. Fluid uptake is additionally facilitated in sap-feeding butterflies that have a proboscis with enlarged chemosensory structures forming a brush near the tip. This structural modification of the proboscis enables sap feeders to exploit films of liquid more efficiently. Structural changes along the proboscis, including increased legular width and presence of a brush-like tip, occur in a wide range of species, suggesting that a wetting dichotomy is widespread in the Lepidoptera. PMID:23760299

  11. The Prokaryote-Eukaryote Dichotomy: Meanings and Mythology

    PubMed Central

    Sapp, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Drawing on documents both published and archival, this paper explains how the prokaryote-eukaryote dichotomy of the 1960s was constructed, the purposes it served, and what it implied in terms of classification and phylogeny. In doing so, I first show how the concept was attributed to Edouard Chatton and the context in which he introduced the terms. Following, I examine the context in which the terms were reintroduced into biology in 1962 by Roger Stanier and C. B. van Niel. I study the discourse over the subsequent decade to understand how the organizational dichotomy took on the form of a natural classification as the kingdom Monera or superkingdom Procaryotae. Stanier and van Niel admitted that, in regard to constructing a natural classification of bacteria, structural characteristics were no more useful than physiological properties. They repeatedly denied that bacterial phylogenetics was possible. I thus examine the great historical irony that the “prokaryote,” in both its organizational and phylogenetic senses, was defined (negatively) on the basis of structure. Finally, we see how phylogenetic research based on 16S rRNA led by Carl Woese and his collaborators confronted the prokaryote concept while moving microbiology to the center of evolutionary biology. PMID:15944457

  12. Proceedings of Student-Faculty Research Day, CSIS, Pace University, May 2nd Biometric Authentication System using the Dichotomy Model

    E-print Network

    Tappert, Charles

    of the use of a dichotomy model in biometric authentication systems. The dichotomy model allows a measure. The increasing use of biometric authentication systems has been most recently seen in corporate and public or no. The work will focus on the biometric authentication of an individual using the dichotomy model

  13. Workshop on Hemispheres Apart: The Origin and Modification of the Martian Crustal Dichotomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the Workshop on Hemispheres Apart: The Origin and Modification of the Martian Crustal Dichotomy, September 30-October 1, 2004, Houston, Texas.

  14. Magnetometer Data Tests Models for the Origin of the Martian Crustal Dichotomy; Dichotomy Models Constrain Timing of Martian Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmore, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements recently supplied by the MGS Magnetometer/Electron Reflectometer (MAG/ER) on MGS can be applied to test theories of the origin of the martian crustal dichotomy. Strong (+/- 1500 nT) magnetic anomalies are observed in the Martian crust. The observations can be summarized as follows: 1) strong crustal magnetic sources are generally confined to the southern highlands, although weaker (approx. 40 nT) anomalies were observed during close periapsis; 2) strong magnetic anomalies are absent in the vicinity of Hellas and Argyre; 3) the anomalies in the region 0 deg to 90 deg S, 120 deg to 240 deg west have a linear geometry, strike generally east west for 1000s km, and show several reversals. This latter point has led to the suggestion that some form of lateral plate tectonics may have been operative in the southern highlands of Mars. These observations have led previous workers to hypothesize that the magnetic anomalies were present prior to and were destroyed by the formation of Hellas and Argyre. As such large impacts are confined to the era of heavy bombardment, this places the time of formation of large magnetic anomalies prior to approx. 3.9 Ga. One obvious extension of this is that the northern lowlands lack significant anomalies because they were erased by impacts and/or the northern lowlands represent crust completely reheated above the Curie temperature. Preliminary observations of the distributions of the large crustal magnetic anomalies show that many of them extend continuously over the highland lowland boundary. This occurs particularly north of the boundary between 30 deg W and 270 deg W, corresponding to northern Arabia, but also occurs in southern Elysium (approx. 10 deg S, 200 deg) and the SW portion of Tharsis (approx. 15 deg S, 140 deg). This suggests that, in these areas, Noachian crust containing the greater than 3.9 Ga magnetic signature, lies beneath the northern highlands. This geometry can be used to test models for the formation of the martian crustal dichotomy. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. THE ACS FORNAX CLUSTER SURVEY. IV. DEPROJECTION OF THE SURFACE BRIGHTNESS PROFILES OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN THE VIRGO AND FORNAX CLUSTERS: INVESTIGATING THE 'CORE/POWER-LAW DICHOTOMY'

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, Lisa; Ferrarese, Laura; Cote, Patrick; Blakeslee, John P.; Chen, Chin-Wei; Jordan, Andres; Infante, Leopoldo; Peng, Eric; Mei, Simona; Tonry, John L.; West, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Although early observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) pointed to a sharp dichotomy among early-type galaxies in terms of the logarithmic slope {gamma}' of their central surface brightness profiles, several studies in the past few years have called this finding into question. In particular, recent imaging surveys of 143 early-type galaxies belonging to the Virgo and Fornax Clusters using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on board HST have not found a dichotomy in {gamma}', but instead a systematic progression from central luminosity deficit to excess relative to the inward extrapolation of the best-fitting global Sersic model. Given that earlier studies also found that the dichotomy persisted when analyzing the deprojected density profile slopes, we investigate the distribution of the three-dimensional luminosity density profiles of the ACS Virgo and Fornax Cluster Survey galaxies. Having fitted the surface brightness profiles with modified Sersic models, we then deproject the galaxies using an Abel integral and measure the inner slopes {gamma}{sub 3D} of the resulting luminosity density profiles at various fractions of the effective radius R{sub e} . We find no evidence of a dichotomy, but rather, a continuous variation in the central luminosity profiles as a function of galaxy magnitude. We introduce a parameter, {Delta}{sub 3D}, that measures the central deviation of the deprojected luminosity profiles from the global Sersic fit, showing that this parameter varies smoothly and systematically along the luminosity function.

  16. Constraints on Thermal Evolution of Mars from Relaxation Models of Crustal and Topographic Dichotomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guest, A.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2005-01-01

    The early thermal evolution of Mars is largely unconstrained. Models such as degree one convection [1,2,3], plate tectonics [4], and a transition to stagnant lid [5] have been proposed to explain formation of the dichotomy, the Tharsis rise, crustal production, and dynamo evolution. Here we model both the early deformation of the dichotomy and the long-term preservation as a means of examining the plausibility of a range of early thermal evolution models. Constraints include the preservation of crustal thickness and topographic differences between the northern and southern hemispheres and the geologic history of the dichotomy [6]). Our previous modeling indicates that the lower crust must have been weak enough to allow for relaxation early on, but the Martian interior had to cool fast enough to preserve the crustal difference and the associated topographic difference (5 km) over approx. 3-3.5 Gyr [7].

  17. Relaxation of the Martian Crustal Dichotomy Boundary in the Ismenius Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guest, A.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2004-01-01

    The origin of the Martian crustal dichotomy remains a puzzle that when solved can provide an insight to the geological and geophysical evolution of Mars. In this study we model crustal relaxation in order to better constrain the original topographic shape, rheology, and temperature of the Martian crust. Our approach is to model the detailed geologic history of the Ismenius region of Mars, including slope, strain, and timing of faulting [1]. This region may contain the best preserved section of the dichotomy boundary as it is relatively unaffected by large impacts and erosion. So far the only study Martian crustal relaxation [2] suggests that the original topographic shape of the dichotomy is preserved. However, in this area strain from faulting implies at least some relaxation [1].

  18. Geologic Evolution of the Martian Dichotomy and Plains Magnetization in the Ismenius Area of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smrekar, S. E.; McGill, G. E.; Raymond, C. A.; Dimitriou, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    The global dichotomy divides the northern lowlands from the southern highlands, except where interrupted by relatively young volcanic provinces and impact basins. An elevation change of 2-4 km is typical across the dichotomy, and more than 6 km locally, over distances of several 100s km to as much as 1300 km [1,2]. A variety of exogenic and endogenic formation models have been proposed. Distinguishing between these models would help constrain the overall thermal evolution of the planet, possibly timing of core formation, and the associated mantle heat flux over time. A first step is to determine whether or not gravitational relaxation plays a role in modifying the boundary. Nimmo and Stevenson [3] examined 10 profiles across the dichotomy and used models of gravitational relaxation to conclude the relaxation has not occurred. In this study we begin by considering the geologic history in detail as inputs for modeling [4].

  19. Iapetus: unique surface properties and a global color dichotomy from Cassini imaging.

    PubMed

    Denk, Tilmann; Neukum, Gerhard; Roatsch, Thomas; Porco, Carolyn C; Burns, Joseph A; Galuba, Götz G; Schmedemann, Nico; Helfenstein, Paul; Thomas, Peter C; Wagner, Roland J; West, Robert A

    2010-01-22

    Since 2004, Saturn's moon Iapetus has been observed repeatedly with the Imaging Science Subsystem of the Cassini spacecraft. The images show numerous impact craters down to the resolution limit of approximately 10 meters per pixel. Small, bright craters within the dark hemisphere indicate a dark blanket thickness on the order of meters or less. Dark, equator-facing and bright, poleward-facing crater walls suggest temperature-driven water-ice sublimation as the process responsible for local albedo patterns. Imaging data also reveal a global color dichotomy, wherein both dark and bright materials on the leading side have a substantially redder color than the respective trailing-side materials. This global pattern indicates an exogenic origin for the redder leading-side parts and suggests that the global color dichotomy initiated the thermal formation of the global albedo dichotomy. PMID:20007863

  20. Constraints on the Evolution of the Dichotomy Boundary at 50-90E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smrekar, S. E.; Raymond, C. A.; Dimitriou, A.; McGill, G. E.

    2003-01-01

    The global dichotomy is a fundamental feature of Mars. It marks the boundary between the highly cratered, older southern highlands, and the northern plains. Recent analysis of buried craters in the northern lowlands confirms the long held suspicion that they are comparable in age to the southern highlands, but with surficial deposits of younger material. A variety of exogenic and endogenic models have been proposed for the origin of the dichotomy, including multiple impacts, plate tectonics, and degree one convection produced by core formation, a plume under the lowlands, or a plume under the highlands. New gravity and topography data from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mission favor endogenic processes. In this study we examine MGS topography, gravity and magnetic field data to constrain the tectonic history the dichotomy in the region 30-60N and 50-90E, which encompasses portions of the Ismenius Lacus quadrangle. The dichotomy formed very early the history of Mars and has undergone extensive modification by impact cratering, erosion, and faulting. This history must be carefully interpreted in order to reconstruct the original nature of the dichotomy boundary and ultimately discriminate between models of origin. In the study area boundary-parallel faults are well preserved, and may be the result of gravitational relaxation. The geologic history has been examined in detail, including estimates of volumes of material eroded. Further, it is one of the few regions where there is a correlation between the free air gravity, magnetic anomalies, and the geology. This allows to constrain subsurface faulting beneath the lowlands fill material. In addition to being an excellent location to unravel the complex history of the dichotomy, this area preserves the transition from a highly magnetized highlands crust to an unmagnetized or slightly magnetized lowlands crust.

  1. Continuous Time Random Walk and Migration-Proliferation Dichotomy of Brain Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iomin, A.

    2015-10-01

    A theory of fractional kinetics of glial cancer cells is presented. A role of the migration-proliferation dichotomy in the fractional cancer cell dynamics in the outer-invasive zone is discussed and explained in the framework of a continuous time random walk. The main suggested model is based on a construction of a 3D comb model, where the migration-proliferation dichotomy becomes naturally apparent and the outer-invasive zone of glioma cancer is considered as a fractal composite with a fractal dimension Dfr < 3.

  2. Radiowaves and Tectonic Dichotomy: Two Sides of One Coin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G.

    The first theorem of the wave planetology states that "Celestial bodies are di- chotomic"[1]. This notion is best demonstrated by modulation of the high frequency orbiting in the Solar system (SS) by the low frequency orbiting the SS in Galaxy. Or- biting frequencies of all bodies in the SS -from 1/8 hours for Phobos to 1/248 years for Pluto - are high comparative to the SS orbiting in Galaxy -about 1/200 000 000 years. Modulation of a high frequency by a low frequency brings about side frequencies at both sides of a high frequency. Earlier we considered only one side of the modula- tion stressing that the lower side frequency in any celestial body can achieve only the fundamental wave and produce related to it inevitable tectonic dichotomy [2]. Now we consider the higher side frequencies and find that they are in the limits of the ra- dio frequencies. Dividing all possible orbiting frequencies of bodies in the SS by the SS orbiting frequency in Galaxy one comes to a range of side frequencies from mi- crowaves to kilometer waves. This finding is rather important as it is well known that all bodies of the SS emit often enigmatic radiowaves. Figuratively, the SS is wrapped by a cloud of crossing radiowaves of various frequencies. Some calculations below show modulation of tectonic granula sizes of some celestial bodies. A granula size is a half of a wavelength which is tied to an orbiting frequency. A scale is the Earth's orbiting period 1 year and the granula size pR/4. The tectonic granula sizes of bodies are proportional to their orbital periods (Theorem 3 [1[). The modulating frequency is 1/200 000 000 years. Jupiter (12 y : 200 000 000 y) pR= (12 : 200 000 000) 3.14°u 71400 km=13.4 m tectonic granula or 26.8 m wavelength. Varying orbital periods and bodies'radia one comes to the following wavelengths. Jupiter-26.8 m, Saturn-56.4 m, Uranus-67 m, Neptune-124 m, Pluto-10.9 m, Sun-1.46 m, Triton-11.4 m (for the cir- cumsolar frequency), 1.84 mm (circumneptunian fr.), Amalthea-4.88 cm (circumsolar fr.), 0.0028 mm (circumjovian fr.), the Moon-5.46 cm (circumsolar fr.), 0.46 cm (cir- cumterrestrial fr.) [3]. This range of frequencies (infrared-kilometer waves) is typical for the SS. Within it surely there are waves of other modulations, harmonics, reso- nances. Extra heat emissions of Amalthea, Io, Triton could be related to microwave and infrared emissions (oscillations). References. [1] Kochemasov G.G.(1999) Geophys. Res. Abstr., v.1, #3.700; [2]Kochemasov G.G. (2000) 32nd Vernadsky-Brown microsymp. on comparative planetology, Abstr.,Moscow, 88-89; [3]Kochemasov G.G. (2001) 34th Vernadsky-Brown microsymp. Topics in comparative planetology, Ab- str., Moscow,(CD-ROM).

  3. Growth of the hemispheric dichotomy and the cessation of plate tectonics on Mars

    E-print Network

    Nimmo, Francis

    Growth of the hemispheric dichotomy and the cessation of plate tectonics on Mars A. Lenardic 2004. [1] Although Mars is currently not tectonically active, it may have experienced plate tectonics for the Earth predict that it should operate in the plate tectonic regime now but that it may have experienced

  4. Are You a Native Speaker of English? Moving beyond a Simplistic Dichotomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faez, Farahnaz

    2011-01-01

    Despite considerable discussion and controversy over the native/nonnative distinction, there is no satisfactory definition of the terms. In addition, the literature tends to reduce the complexity of the distinction to an overly simplistic and problematic dichotomy. Using a qualitative case study approach, this research article examines the…

  5. Impact megadomes and the origin of the martian crustal dichotomy C.C. Reese

    E-print Network

    Impact megadomes and the origin of the martian crustal dichotomy C.C. Reese , C.P. Orth, V Impact processes a b s t r a c t We show that a sufficiently energetic impact can generate a melt volume depleted mantle. Depending on impact energy and initial crustal thickness, a basin may be retained

  6. Irish Math. Soc. Bulletin 67 (2011), 6773 67 The Two-Child Paradox: Dichotomy and Ambiguity

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    2011-01-01

    , that the sex of each child is independent of that of the other, that each day of the week is equally probableIrish Math. Soc. Bulletin 67 (2011), 67­73 67 The Two-Child Paradox: Dichotomy and Ambiguity PETER LYNCH Abstract. Given that one of the children in a two-child fam- ily is a boy, what are the chances

  7. Dichotomy, Dialectic and Dialogic: How Do Sociology Terms Assist Career Development Theory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Edgar A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Three concepts from sociology--dichotomy and two extensions, dialectic and dialogic--are considered here as social-psychological tools for career practitioners who analyse and investigate career patterns, career motivations and career pathways, whether at career start or at further points of transition. These terms have macro-social applications…

  8. Minority Parents as Researchers: Beyond a Dichotomy in Parent Involvement in Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ippolito, John

    2010-01-01

    This article documents the work of parent-driven research teams in two school boards in the Greater Toronto Area. Motivated by a desire to move beyond a school-centred/family-centred dichotomy, this parent-lead project explores a middle space for collective learning among multiple stakeholders in publicly-funded schooling. Drawing on participatory…

  9. "Learning" and "Acquisition" -- How Real Is the Dichotomy: Some Neurophysical Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lueers, Nancy M.

    The dichotomy of language acquisition versus language learning is critically examined by comparing the concepts presented in Krashen's Monitor Model and Stevick's Levertov Machine to information from the field of neurophysiology regarding the brain's processes. It is proposed that support exists for the theory that two very different processes…

  10. Dysfunctional Dichotomies? Deflating Bipolar Constructions of Curriculum and Pedagogy through Case Studies from Music and History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Tim; Chapman, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Recent public discussions of curriculum and pedagogy that have accompanied the English National Curriculum review have been structured around clichéd dichotomies that generate more heat than light and that, as Robin Alexander has argued, reduce complex educational debates to oppositional and incompatible slogans. This paper begins by exploring the…

  11. The great dichotomy of the Solar System: Small terrestrial embryos and massive giant planet cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morbidelli, A.; Lambrechts, M.; Jacobson, S.; Bitsch, B.

    2015-09-01

    The basic structure of the Solar System is set by the presence of low-mass terrestrial planets in its inner part and giant planets in its outer part. This is the result of the formation of a system of multiple embryos with approximately the mass of Mars in the inner disk and of a few multi-Earth-mass cores in the outer disk, within the lifetime of the gaseous component of the protoplanetary disk. What was the origin of this dichotomy in the mass distribution of embryos/cores? We show in this paper that the classic processes of runaway and oligarchic growth from a disk of planetesimals cannot explain this dichotomy, even if the original surface density of solids increased at the snowline. Instead, the accretion of drifting pebbles by embryos and cores can explain the dichotomy, provided that some assumptions hold true. We propose that the mass-flow of pebbles is two-times lower and the characteristic size of the pebbles is approximately ten times smaller within the snowline than beyond the snowline (respectively at heliocentric distance r rice , where rice is the snowline heliocentric distance), due to ice sublimation and the splitting of icy pebbles into a collection of chondrule-size silicate grains. In this case, objects of original sub-lunar mass would grow at drastically different rates in the two regions of the disk. Within the snowline these bodies would reach approximately the mass of Mars while beyond the snowline they would grow to ? 20 Earth masses. The results may change quantitatively with changes to the assumed parameters, but the establishment of a clear dichotomy in the mass distribution of protoplanets appears robust provided that there is enough turbulence in the disk to prevent the sedimentation of the silicate grains into a very thin layer.

  12. Maximum Power Point Tracking with Dichotomy and Gradient Method for Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, W.; Quan, S. H.; Xie, C. J.; Tang, X. F.; Wang, L. L.; Huang, L.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a direct-current/direct-current (DC/DC) converter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is developed to down-convert the high voltage DC output from a thermoelectric generator to the lower voltage required to charge batteries. To improve the tracking accuracy and speed of the converter, a novel MPPT control scheme characterized by an aggregated dichotomy and gradient (ADG) method is proposed. In the first stage, the dichotomy algorithm is used as a fast search method to find the approximate region of the maximum power point. The gradient method is then applied for rapid and accurate tracking of the maximum power point. To validate the proposed MPPT method, a test bench composed of an automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator was constructed for harvesting the automotive exhaust heat energy. Steady-state and transient tracking experiments under five different load conditions were carried out using a DC/DC converter with the proposed ADG and with three traditional methods. The experimental results show that the ADG method can track the maximum power within 140 ms with a 1.1% error rate when the engine operates at 3300 rpm@71 NM, which is superior to the performance of the single dichotomy method, the single gradient method and the perturbation and observation method from the viewpoint of improved tracking accuracy and speed.

  13. Origin of the Martian global dichotomy by crustal thinning in the late Noachian or early Hesperian

    SciTech Connect

    McGill, G.E.; Dimitriou, A.M. )

    1990-08-10

    The marked dichotomy in topography, surface age, and crustal thickness between the northern lowland and southern upland Mars has been explained as due to an initially inhomogeneous crust, a single mega-impact event, several overlapping large basin impacts, and first-order convective overturn of the martian mantle. All of the published hypotheses propose that the dichotomy was formed early in martian history; before the end of the primordial heavy bombardment. A primordial origin is inherent in the initial crustal inhomogeneity hypothesis, and required for both impact hypotheses. Endogenic hypotheses are not so constrained. Geological data indicate episodes of fracturing and faulting in the late Noachian and the early Hesperian. This fracturing and faulting occurred primarily within the northern lowland and along the boundary between lowland and highland. Igneous activity also peaked in the late Noachian and early Hesperian. These data suggest a tectonic event near the Noachian/Hesperian boundary characterized by enhanced heat loss and extensive fracturing, including formation of the faults that define much of the highland/lowland boundary. The authors argue that the major result of this tectonic event was formation of the dichotomy by thinning of the crust above a large convection cell or plume.

  14. The great dichotomy of the Solar System: small terrestrial embryos and massive giant planet cores

    E-print Network

    Morbidelli, A; Jacobson, S; Bitsch, B

    2015-01-01

    The basic structure of the solar system is set by the presence of low-mass terrestrial planets in its inner part and giant planets in its outer part. This is the result of the formation of a system of multiple embryos with approximately the mass of Mars in the inner disk and of a few multi-Earth-mass cores in the outer disk, within the lifetime of the gaseous component of the protoplanetary disk. What was the origin of this dichotomy in the mass distribution of embryos/cores? We show in this paper that the classic processes of runaway and oligarchic growth from a disk of planetesimals cannot explain this dichotomy, even if the original surface density of solids increased at the snowline. Instead, the accretion of drifting pebbles by embryos and cores can explain the dichotomy, provided that some assumptions hold true. We propose that the mass-flow of pebbles is two-times lower and the characteristic size of the pebbles is approximately ten times smaller within the snowline than beyond the snowline (respective...

  15. Familiarity for Associations? A Test of the Domain Dichotomy Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Iain M.; Mackenzie, Graham; Donaldson, David I.

    2010-01-01

    Episodic recognition memory is mediated by functionally separable retrieval processes, notably familiarity (a general sense of prior exposure) and recollection (the retrieval of contextual details), whose relative engagement depends partly on the nature of the information being retrieved. Currently, the specific contribution of familiarity to…

  16. Neither metaphysical dichotomy nor pure identity: clarifying the emergentist creed.

    PubMed

    Sartenaer, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    Emergentism is often misleadingly described as a monolithic "third way" between radical monism and pluralism. In the particular case of biology, for example, emergentism is perceived as a middle course between mechanicism and vitalism. In the present paper I propose to show that the conceptual landscape between monism and pluralism is more complex than this classical picture suggests. On the basis of two successive analyses-distinguishing three forms of tension between monism and pluralism and a distinction between derivational and functional reduction-I define three different versions of emergentism that can be considered as consistent middle courses between monism and pluralism (respectively theoretical, explanatory and causal emergence). I then emphasise the advantage of this taxonomy of the concepts of emergence by applying the results of my analysis to the historical controversy that pertains to the relationship between life and matter. PMID:23701955

  17. Dichotomy of Genetic Abnormalities in PEComas With Therapeutic Implications.

    PubMed

    Agaram, Narasimhan P; Sung, Yun-Shao; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Chun-Liang; Chen, Hsiao-Wei; Singer, Samuel; Dickson, Mark A; Berger, Michael F; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2015-06-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms (PEComa) are a family of rare mesenchymal tumors with hybrid myo-melanocytic differentiation. Although most PEComas harbor loss-of-function TSC1/TSC2 mutations, a small subset were reported to carry TFE3 gene rearrangements. As no comprehensive genomic study has addressed the molecular classification of PEComa, we sought to investigate by multiple methodologies the incidence and spectrum of genetic abnormalities and their potential genotype-phenotype correlations in a large group of 38 PEComas. The tumors were located in soft tissue (11 cases) and visceral sites (27) including uterus, kidney, liver, lung, and urinary bladder. Combined RNA sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis identified 9 (23%) TFE3 gene-rearranged tumors, with 3 cases showing an SFPQ/PSF-TFE3 fusion and 1 case showing a novel DVL2-TFE3 gene fusion. The TFE3-positive lesions showed a distinctive nested/alveolar morphology and were equally distributed between soft tissue and visceral sites. In addition, novel RAD51B gene rearrangements were identified in 3 (8%) uterine PEComas, which showed a complex fusion pattern and were fused to RRAGB/OPHN1 genes in 2 cases. Other nonrecurrent gene fusions, HTR4-ST3GAL1 and RASSF1-PDZRN3, were identified in 2 cases. Targeted exome sequencing using the IMPACT assay was used to address whether the presence of gene fusions is mutually exclusive from TSC gene abnormalities. TSC2 mutations were identified in 80% of the TFE3 fusion-negative cases tested. Coexistent TP53 mutations were identified in 63% of the TSC2-mutated PEComas. Our results showed that TFE3-rearranged PEComas lacked coexisting TSC2 mutations, indicating alternative pathways of tumorigenesis. In summary, this comprehensive genetic analysis significantly expands our understanding of molecular alterations in PEComas and brings forth the genetic heterogeneity of these tumors. PMID:25651471

  18. "A temporary oversimplification": Mayr, Simpson, Dobzhansky, and the origins of the typology/population dichotomy (part 1 of 2).

    PubMed

    Witteveen, Joeri

    2015-12-01

    The dichotomy between 'typological thinking' and 'population thinking' features in a range of debates in contemporary and historical biology. The origins of this dichotomy are often traced to Ernst Mayr, who is said to have coined it in the 1950s as a rhetorical device that could be used to shield the Modern Synthesis from attacks by the opponents of population biology. In this two-part essay I argue that the origins of the typology/population dichotomy are considerably more complicated and more interesting than is commonly thought. In this first part, I will argue that Mayr's dichotomy was based on two distinct type/population contrasts that had been articulated much earlier by George Gaylord Simpson and Theodosius Dobzhansky. Their distinctions made eminent sense in their own, isolated contexts. In the second part, I will show how Mayr conflated these type/population distinctions and blended in some of his own, unrelated concerns with 'types' of a rather different sort. Although Mayr told his early critics that he was merely making "a temporary oversimplification," he ended up burdening the history and philosophy of biology with a troubled dichotomy. PMID:26471927

  19. Subsurface Structure of the Ismenius Area and Implications for Evolution of the Martian Dichotomy and Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smrekar, S. E.; Raymond, C. A.; McGill, G. E.

    2004-01-01

    The Martian dichotomy divides the smooth, northern lowlands from the rougher southern highlands. The northern lowlands are largely free of magnetic anomalies, while the majority of the significant magnetic anomalies are located in the southern highlands. An elevation change of 2-4 km is typical across the dichotomy, and is up to 6 km locally. We examine a part of the dichotomy that is likely to preserve the early history of the dichotomy as it is relatively unaffected by major impacts and erosion. This study contains three parts: 1) the geologic history, which is summarized below and detailed in McGill et al., 2) the study of the gravity and magnetic field to better constrain the subsurface structure and history of the magnetic field (this abstract), and 3) modeling of the relaxation of this area. Our overall goal is to place constraints on formation models of the dichotomy by constraining lithospheric properties. Initial results for the analysis of the geology, gravity, and magnetic field studies are synthesized in Smrekar et al..

  20. Anterior/Posterior Competitive Deactivation/Activation Dichotomy in the Human Hippocampus as Revealed by a 3D Navigation Task

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Isabel Catarina; Ferreira, Carlos; Marques, João; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Anterior/posterior long axis specialization is thought to underlie the organization of the hippocampus. However it remains unclear whether antagonistic mechanisms differentially modulate processing of spatial information within the hippocampus. We used fMRI and a virtual reality 3D paradigm to study encoding and retrieval of spatial memory during active visuospatial navigation, requiring positional encoding and retrieval of object landmarks during the path. Both encoding and retrieval elicited BOLD activation of the posterior most portion of hippocampus, while concurrent deactivations (recently shown to reflect decreases in neural responses) were found in the most anterior regions. Encoding elicited stronger activity in the posterior right than the left hippocampus. The former structure also showed significantly stronger activity for allocentric vs. egocentric processing during retrieval. The anterior vs. posterior pattern mimics, from a functional point, although at much distinct temporal scales, the previous anatomical findings in London taxi drivers, whereby posterior enlargement was found at the cost of an anterior decrease, and the mirror symmetric findings observed in blind people, in whom the right anterior hippocampus was found to be larger, at the cost of a smaller posterior hippocampus, as compared with sighted people. In sum, we found a functional dichotomy whereby the anterior/posterior hippocampus shows antagonistic processing patterns for spatial encoding and retrieval of 3D spatial information. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting such a dynamical pattern in a functional study, which suggests that differential modulation of neural responses within the human hippocampus reflects distinct roles in spatial memory processing. PMID:24475088

  1. Anterior/posterior competitive deactivation/activation dichotomy in the human hippocampus as revealed by a 3D navigation task.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Isabel Catarina; Ferreira, Carlos; Marques, João; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Anterior/posterior long axis specialization is thought to underlie the organization of the hippocampus. However it remains unclear whether antagonistic mechanisms differentially modulate processing of spatial information within the hippocampus. We used fMRI and a virtual reality 3D paradigm to study encoding and retrieval of spatial memory during active visuospatial navigation, requiring positional encoding and retrieval of object landmarks during the path. Both encoding and retrieval elicited BOLD activation of the posterior most portion of hippocampus, while concurrent deactivations (recently shown to reflect decreases in neural responses) were found in the most anterior regions. Encoding elicited stronger activity in the posterior right than the left hippocampus. The former structure also showed significantly stronger activity for allocentric vs. egocentric processing during retrieval. The anterior vs. posterior pattern mimics, from a functional point, although at much distinct temporal scales, the previous anatomical findings in London taxi drivers, whereby posterior enlargement was found at the cost of an anterior decrease, and the mirror symmetric findings observed in blind people, in whom the right anterior hippocampus was found to be larger, at the cost of a smaller posterior hippocampus, as compared with sighted people. In sum, we found a functional dichotomy whereby the anterior/posterior hippocampus shows antagonistic processing patterns for spatial encoding and retrieval of 3D spatial information. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting such a dynamical pattern in a functional study, which suggests that differential modulation of neural responses within the human hippocampus reflects distinct roles in spatial memory processing. PMID:24475088

  2. Regional Studies of Highland-Lowland Age Differences Across the Mars Crustal Dichotomy Boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H. V.; DeSoto, G. E.; Lazrus, R. M.

    2005-01-01

    Regional differences in crater retention ages (CRAs) across the Mars dichotomy boundary are compared to the global highland-lowland age difference previously determined from visible and buried impact basins based on MOLA-derived Quasi-Circular Depressions (QCDs). Here Western Arabia (WA) is compared with Ismenius Lacus (IL). We find the buried lowlands in the two regions have total CRAs essentially identical to the global average. Even more intriguing, the WA cratered terrain appears to have a CRA like that of the adjacent buried lowlands,

  3. The HMA-LMA dichotomy revisited: an electron microscopical survey of 56 sponge species.

    PubMed

    Gloeckner, Volker; Wehrl, Markus; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Gernert, Christine; Schupp, Peter; Pawlik, Joseph R; Lindquist, Niels L; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Wörheide, Gert; Hentschel, Ute

    2014-08-01

    The dichotomy between high microbial abundance (HMA) and low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges has been long recognized. In the present study, 56 sponge species from three geographic regions (greater Caribbean, Mediterranean, Red Sea) were investigated by transmission electron microscopy for the presence of microorganisms in the mesohyl matrix. Additionally, bacterial enumeration by DAPI-counting was performed on a subset of samples. Of the 56 species investigated, 28 were identified as belonging to the HMA and 28 to the LMA category. The sponge orders Agelasida and Verongida consisted exclusively of HMA species, and the Poecilosclerida were composed only of LMA sponges. Other taxa contained both types of microbial associations (e.g., marine Haplosclerida, Homoscleromorpha, Dictyoceratida), and a clear phylogenetic pattern could not be identified. For a few sponge species, an intermediate microbial load was determined, and the microscopy data did not suffice to reliably determine HMA or LMA status. To experimentally determine the HMA or LMA status of a sponge species, we therefore recommend a combination of transmission electron microscopy and 16S rRNA gene sequence data. This study significantly expands previous reports on microbial abundances in sponge tissues and contributes to a better understanding of the HMA-LMA dichotomy in sponge-microbe symbioses. PMID:25216505

  4. Star formation history of the Milky Way halo traced by the Oosterhoff dichotomy among globular clusters

    E-print Network

    Jang, Sohee

    2015-01-01

    In our recent investigation of the Oosterhoff dichotomy in the multiple population paradigm (Jang et al. 2014), we have suggested that the RR Lyrae variables in the Oosterhoff groups I, II, and III globular clusters (GCs) are produced mostly by the first, second, and third generation stars (G1, G2, and G3), respectively. Here we show, for the first time, that the observed dichotomies in the inner and outer halo GCs can be naturally reproduced when these models are extended to all metallicity regimes, while maintaining reasonable agreements in the horizontal-branch type versus [Fe/H] correlations. In order to achieve this, however, specific star formation histories are required for the inner and outer halos. In the inner halo GCs, the star formation commenced and ceased earlier with relatively short formation timescale between the subpopulations (~0.5 Gyr), while in the outer halo, the formation of G1 was delayed by ~0.8 Gyr with more extended timescale between G1 and G2 (~1.4 Gyr). This is consistent with the...

  5. Star Formation History of the Milky Way Halo Traced by the Oosterhoff Dichotomy Among Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Sohee; Lee, Young-Wook

    2015-06-01

    In our recent investigation of the Oosterhoff dichotomy in the multiple population paradigm, we have suggested that the RR Lyrae variables in the globular clusters (GCs) of Oosterhoff groups I, II, and III are produced mostly by first, second, and third generation stars (G1, G2, and G3), respectively. Here we show, for the first time, that the observed dichotomies in the inner and outer halo GCs can be naturally reproduced when these models are extended to all metallicity regimes, while maintaining reasonable agreements in the horizontal-branch type versus [Fe/H] correlations. In order to achieve this, however, specific star formation histories are required for the inner and outer halos. In the inner halo GCs, the star formation commenced and ceased earlier with a relatively short formation timescale between the subpopulations (?0.5 Gyr), while in the outer halo, the formation of G1 was delayed by ?0.8 Gyr with a more extended timescale between G1 and G2 (?1.4 Gyr). This is consistent with the dual origin of the Milky Way halo. Despite the difference in detail, our models show that the Oosterhoff period groups observed in both outer and inner halo GCs are all manifestations of the “population-shift” effect within the instability strip, for which the origin can be traced back to the two or three discrete episodes of star formation in GCs.

  6. Channel slope reversal near the Martian dichotomy boundary: Testing tectonic hypotheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefort, Alexandra; Burr, Devon M.; Nimmo, Francis; Jacobsen, Robert E.

    2015-07-01

    Faults along the Martian dichotomy boundary are evidence of tectonic activity, which by analogy with terrestrial tectonism may cause changes in or even reversal of fluvial longitudinal profiles. In the eastern hemisphere between 30° E and 150° E, this tectonic activity has been hypothesized to result from lower crustal flow or from lithospheric flexure, for which loading (e.g., by material deposition) of the northern lowlands is a possible cause (Watters, 2003a; Nimmo, 2005). The topographic (slope) changes resulting from these two different mechanisms are distinct and can provide a means for distinguishing between them, although other processes may complicate interpretations of reversed longitudinal profiles. Two fan-shaped networks of inverted channels are located near 150° E in the Aeolis Dorsa region just north of the dichotomy boundary. Their original flow directions, inferred from planform morphology, suggest flow to the northeast in contrast to their current longitudinal profiles sloping down to the southwest. This contrast indicates slope reversal. We investigate the lower crustal flow and flexure mechanisms for slope reversal by testing three different hypotheses: 1) lower crustal flow, 2) flexure caused by material erosion from the highlands and deposition in the lowlands, and 3) flexure caused by highland erosion and deposition in the lowlands plus deposition of the Medusae Fossae Formation in the lowlands. We test these three hypotheses by comparing the inferred magnitudes of the slope reversals with predicted slope changes from geophysical models for these processes. Taking the possibility of non-tectonic (i.e., collapse) processes into account, our results suggest that, among these three models, the slope reversal is most consistent with the predicted tectonic response to erosion and deposition of highland material in conjunction with deposition of the Medusae Fossae Formation. Contrary to previous findings, our results do not support the mechanism of lateral crustal flow, although they do not rule it out because lower crustal flow and erosion may both have been operating, but on different time scales. The result of this hypothesis-testing provides insight into the evolution of the dichotomy boundary and Martian crust in this location.

  7. How Can We Overcome the Dichotomy That Western Culture Has Created between the Concepts of Independence and Dependence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Zehavit

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article, inspired by the works of Martin Buber, is to propose an alternative to the inherent dichotomy of Western culture. It may allow Western culture to transcend its fixed nature towards new directions and to suggest challenging solutions for reshaping the questions--what is the role of man in the world, and what is the…

  8. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 24 JANUARY 2010 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO746 Origin of the GanymedeCallisto dichotomy by

    E-print Network

    Barr, Amy C.

    impact basins were formed12,13 . It has recently been proposed that the LHB was triggered by dynamical­Callisto dichotomy by impacts during the late heavy bombardment Amy C. Barr* and Robin M. Canup Jupiter's large moons evolved surface1 and a large rock/metal core2 , whereas Callisto's surface shows no sign of resurfacing3

  9. Indigenous Knowledge and Education from the Quechua Community to School: Beyond the Formal/Non-Formal Dichotomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumida Huaman, Elizabeth; Valdiviezo, Laura Alicia

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we propose to approach Indigenous education beyond the formal/non-formal dichotomy. We argue that there is a critical need to conscientiously include Indigenous knowledge in education processes from the school to the community; particularly, when formal systems exclude Indigenous cultures and languages. Based on ethnographic…

  10. Components of Candidate Images: Statistical Analysis of the Issue-Persona Dichotomy in the Presidential Campaign of 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacker, Kenneth L.; Zakahi, Walter R.; Giles, Maury J.; McQuitty, Shaun

    2000-01-01

    Describes the results of a study intended to test a specific hypothesis and a research question related to the theoretical development of the candidate image construct in political communication. Tests the long-standing assumption that there is a dichotomy between candidate issue positions and candidate persona impressions ("images"). Finds no…

  11. Classical-Quantum Arbitrarily Varying Wiretap Channel - A Capacity Formula with Ahlswede Dichotomy - Resources

    E-print Network

    Holger Boche; Minglai Cai; Christian Deppe

    2013-07-30

    We establish Ahlswede Dichotomy for arbitrarily varying classical-quantum wiretap channels. This means that either the deterministic secrecy capacity of an arbitrarily varying classical-quantum wiretap channel is zero or it equals its randomness assisted secrecy capacity. We analyze the secrecy capacity of arbitrarily varying classical-quantum wiretap channels when the sender and the receiver use various resources. It turns out that having randomness, common randomness, and correlation as resources are very helpful for achieving a positive deterministic secrecy capacity of arbitrarily varying classical-quantum wiretap channels. We prove the phenomenon ?super-activation? for arbitrarily varying classical-quantum wiretap channels, i.e., if we use two arbitrarily varying classical-quantum wiretap channels, both with zero deterministic secrecy capacity together,they allow perfect secure transmission.

  12. Large impact basins and the mega-impact origin for the crustal dichotomy on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert; Schultz, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    The hypothesis that the crustal dichotomy on Mars is due to a single giant (mega) impact early in Martian history is tested by determining the number of 'missing' basins, the difference between the observed number of large impact basins on Mars and the number expected from a 1/D-squared distribution. If the Borealis Basin was the largest member of a 1/D-squared impact population, a large number of 'missing' basins is expected which is too large to be hidden by the younger surface units. If Chryse is the largest member of a 1/D-squared impact population, the more modest number of 'missing' basins could be confined to areas of Mars that have been resurfaced or reworked by subsequent geologic processes.

  13. An artificial Kepler dichotomy? Implications for the coplanarity of planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovaird, Timothy; Lineweaver, Charles H.

    2015-08-01

    Simulations best reproduce a sample of transiting Kepler systems when a high degree of coplanarity between the planets is assumed, with one exception. The number of systems with a single transiting planet is underestimated by a factor of 2 to 3. This has led to the invocation of a separate stellar population, where the efficiency of planet formation is reduced or the mutual inclinations between planets are increased, favouring the production of single-transiting systems around these stars. We show that this assumed Kepler dichotomy of stars may not be necessary to address the excess of single-transiting systems, when the implicit assumptions about the coplanarity of planetary systems within the model are challenged.

  14. The Crustal Dichotomy Boundary West of Tempe Terra: Speculation on Where it Lies Beneath Alba Patera Based on Mola Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H.; Roark, J.; Sakimoto, S.; McGovern, P.

    1999-01-01

    MOLA gridded data based on profiles collected during the Aerobraking Hiatus and Science Phasing Operations suggest the crustal dichotomy boundary west of Tempe continues beneath Alba volcanics, at least to 105 W at about 50 N. A broad shelf-like region in the Alba units is continuous with a similar region of Tempe in which Hesperian volcanics overlie Noachian cratered terrain. Perspective views show significant changes in the sloping character of the flanks of Alba east and west of 105W, with much more continuous steep topography to the west. We suggest that Alba sits astride the ancient crustal dichotomy boundary, not adjacent to it, and that its eastern half lies on old cratered terrain. If true, this would significantly affect the estimate of Alba volcanics volumes, and might also explain some of the observed asymmetries in the structure and the distribution of faults associated with this immense feature.

  15. The false dichotomy of quality and quantity in the discourse around assessment in competency-based education.

    PubMed

    Ten Cate, Olle

    2015-08-01

    Competency-based medical education stresses the attainment of competencies rather than the completion of fixed time in rotations. This sometimes leads to the interpretation that quantitative features of a program are of less importance, such as procedures practiced and weeks or months spent in clinical practice. An educational philosophy like "We don't require numbers of procedures completed but focus on competencies" suggests a dichotomy of either competency-based or time and procedures based education. The author argues that this dichotomy is not useful, and may even compromise education, as long as valid assessment of all relevant competencies is not possible or feasible. Requiring quantities of experiences of learners is not in contrast with competency-based education. PMID:24908558

  16. arXiv:1504.04424v1[math.CO]17Apr2015 DENSITY DICHOTOMY IN RANDOM WORDS

    E-print Network

    Cooper, Joshua N.

    arXiv:1504.04424v1[math.CO]17Apr2015 DENSITY DICHOTOMY IN RANDOM WORDS JOSHUA COOPER & DANNY@email.sc.edu Abstract. Word W is said to encounter word V provided there is a homomorphism mapping letters to nonempty words so that (V ) is a substring of W . For example, taking such that (h) = c and (u) = ien, we see

  17. Origin of the great dichotomy of the Solar System: small terrestrial embryos and massive giant planet cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morbidelli, Alessandro; Lambrechts, Michiel; Bitsch, Bertram; Jacobson, Seth

    2015-08-01

    The basic structure of the solar system is set by the presence of low-mass terrestrial planets in its inner part and giant planets in its outer part. This is the result of the formation of a system of multiple Mars-mass embryos in the inner disk and of a few multi-Earth-mass cores in the outer part, within the lifetime of the gaseous component of the protoplanetary disk. What was the origin of this dichotomy in the mass distribution of embryos/cores? We show in this paper that the classic processes of runaway and oligarchic growth from a disk of planetesimals can not explain this dichotomy, even if the original surface density of solids increased at the snowline. Instead, the accretion of drifting pebbles by embryos/cores can explain the dichotomy, provided that some assumptions hold true. We propose that the mass flow of pebbles is two-times lower and the characteristic size of the pebbles is ten times smaller within the snowline than beyond the snowline (respectively at r < r_ice and r > r_ice, where r_ice is the snowline heliocentric distance), due to ice sublimation and the splitting of icy pebbles into a collection of chondrule-size silicate grains. In this case, objects of original sub-lunar mass would grow at drastically different rates in the two regions of the disk. Within the snowline these bodies would reach approximately the mass of Mars while beyond the snowline they would grow to 20 Earth masses. The results may change quantitatively with the assumed parameters, but the establishment of a clear dichotomy in the mass distribution of protoplanets appears robust.

  18. EXAMINING THE RADIO-LOUD/RADIO-QUIET DICHOTOMY WITH NEW CHANDRA AND VLA OBSERVATIONS OF 13 UGC GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kharb, P.; Axon, D. J.; Robinson, A.; Capetti, A.; Balmaverde, B.; Chiaberge, M.; Macchetto, D.; Grandi, P.; Giovannini, G.; Montez, R.

    2012-04-15

    We present the results from new {approx}15 ks Chandra-ACIS and 4.9 GHz Very Large Array (VLA) observations of 13 galaxies hosting low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This completes the multiwavelength study of a sample of 51 nearby early-type galaxies described in Capetti and Balmaverde and Balmaverde and Capetti. The aim of the three previous papers was to explore the connection between the host galaxies and AGN activity in a radio-selected sample. We detect nuclear X-ray emission in eight sources and radio emission in all but one (viz., UGC 6985). The new VLA observations improve the spatial resolution by a factor of 10: the presence of nuclear radio sources in 12 of the 13 galaxies confirms their AGN nature. As previously indicated, the behavior of the X-ray and radio emission in these sources depends strongly on the form of their optical surface brightness profiles derived from Hubble Space Telescope imaging, i.e., on their classification as 'core', 'power-law', or 'intermediate' galaxies. With more than twice the number of 'power-law' and 'intermediate' galaxies compared to previous work, we confirm with a much higher statistical significance that these galaxies lie well above the radio-X-ray correlation established in Fanaroff-Riley type I radio galaxies and the low-luminosity 'core' galaxies. This result highlights the fact that the 'radio-loud/radio-quiet' dichotomy is a function of the host galaxy's optical surface brightness profile. We present radio-optical-X-ray spectral indices for all 51 sample galaxies. Survival statistics point to significant differences in the radio-to-optical and radio-to-X-ray spectral indices between the 'core' and 'power-law galaxies (Gehan's Generalized Wilcoxon test probability p for the two classes being statistically similar is <10{sup -5}), but not in the optical-to-X-ray spectral indices (p = 0.25). Therefore, the primary difference between the 'core' and 'power-law' galaxies is in their ability to launch powerful radio outflows. This result is consistent with the hypothesis of different formation processes and evolution histories in 'core' and 'power-law' galaxies: major mergers are likely to have created 'core' galaxies, while minor mergers were instrumental in the creation of 'power-law' galaxies.

  19. High-performance modeling acoustic and elastic waves using the parallel Dichotomy Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Fatyanov, Alexey G.; Terekhov, Andrew V.

    2011-03-01

    A high-performance parallel algorithm is proposed for modeling the propagation of acoustic and elastic waves in inhomogeneous media. An initial boundary-value problem is replaced by a series of boundary-value problems for a constant elliptic operator and different right-hand sides via the integral Laguerre transform. It is proposed to solve difference equations by the conjugate gradient method for acoustic equations and by the GMRES(k) method for modeling elastic waves. A preconditioning operator was the Laplace operator that is inverted using the variable separation method. The novelty of the proposed algorithm is using the Dichotomy Algorithm , which was designed for solving a series of tridiagonal systems of linear equations, in the context of the preconditioning operator inversion. Via considering analytical solutions, it is shown that modeling wave processes for long instants of time requires high-resolution meshes. The proposed parallel fine-mesh algorithm enabled to solve real application seismic problems in acceptable time and with high accuracy. By solving model problems, it is demonstrated that the considered parallel algorithm possesses high performance and efficiency over a wide range of the number of processors (from 2 to 8192).

  20. High-performance modeling acoustic and elastic waves using the Parallel Dichotomy Algorithm

    E-print Network

    Alexey G. Fatyanov; Andrew V. Terekhov

    2010-08-08

    A high-performance parallel algorithm is proposed for modeling the propagation of acoustic and elastic waves in inhomogeneous media. An initial boundary-value problem is replaced by a series of boundary-value problems for a constant elliptic operator and different right-hand sides via the integral Laguerre transform. It is proposed to solve difference equations by the conjugate gradient method for acoustic equations and by the GMRES$(k)$ method for modeling elastic waves. A preconditioning operator was the Laplace operator that is inverted using the variable separation method. The novelty of the proposed algorithm is using the Dichotomy Algorithm (Terekhov, 2010), which was designed for solving a series of tridiagonal systems of linear equations, in the context of the preconditioning operator inversion. Via considering analytical solutions, it is shown that modeling wave processes for long instants of time requires high-resolution meshes. The proposed parallel fine-mesh algorithm enabled to solve real application seismic problems in acceptable time and with high accuracy. By solving model problems, it is demonstrated that the considered parallel algorithm possesses high performance and efficiency over a wide range of the number of processors (from 2 to 8192).

  1. EMBRYO IMPACTS AND GAS GIANT MERGERS. I. DICHOTOMY OF JUPITER AND SATURN's CORE MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shulin; Agnor, C.B.; Lin, D. N. C.

    2010-09-10

    Interior to the gaseous envelopes of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, there are high-density cores with masses larger than 10 Earth masses. According to the conventional sequential accretion hypothesis, such massive cores are needed for the onset of efficient accretion of their gaseous envelopes. However, Jupiter's gaseous envelope is more massive and its core may be less massive than those of Saturn. In order to account for this structural diversity and the super-solar metallicity in the envelope of Jupiter and Saturn, we investigate the possibility that they may have either merged with other gas giants or consumed several Earth-mass protoplanetary embryos during or after the rapid accretion of their envelope. In general, impinging sub-Earth-mass planetesimals disintegrate in gas giants' envelopes, deposit heavy elements well outside the cores, and locally suppress the convection. Consequently, their fragments sediment to promote the growth of cores. Through a series of numerical simulations, we show that it is possible for colliding super-Earth-mass embryos to reach the cores of gas giants. Direct parabolic collisions also lead to the coalescence of gas giants and merging of their cores. In these cases, the energy released from the impact leads to vigorous convective motion throughout the envelope and the erosion of the cores. This dichotomy contributes to the observed dispersion in the internal structure and atmospheric composition between Jupiter and Saturn and other gas giant planets and elsewhere.

  2. Dichotomy of decorin activity on the insulin-like growth factor-I system.

    PubMed

    Morrione, Andrea; Neill, Thomas; Iozzo, Renato V

    2013-05-01

    The stromal-specific proteoglycan decorin has emerged in recent years as a critical regulator of tumor initiation and progression. Decorin regulates the biology of various types of cancer by modulating the activity of several receptor tyrosine kinases coordinating growth, survival, migration, and angiogenesis. Decorin binds to surface receptors for epidermal growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor with high affinity, and negatively regulates their activity and signaling via robust internalization and eventual degradation. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I system plays a critical role in the regulation of cell growth both in vivo and in vitro. The IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) is also essential for cellular transformation, owing to its ability to enhance cell proliferation and protect cancer cells from apoptosis. Recent data have pointed to a role of decorin in regulating the IGF-I system in both nontransformed and transformed cells. Significantly, there is a surprising dichotomy in the mechanism of decorin action on IGF-IR signaling, which differs considerably between physiological and pathological cellular models. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on decorin regulation of the IGF-I system in normal and transformed cells, and discuss possible decorin-based therapeutic approaches to target IGF-IR-driven tumors. PMID:23351020

  3. The influence of AGN nuclear parameters on the FRI/FRII dichotomy

    E-print Network

    M. Wold; M. Lacy; L. Armus

    2007-05-14

    We have investigated the influence of nuclear parameters such as black hole (BH) mass and photoionizing luminosity on the FRI/FRII transition in a sample of nearby (z<0.2) 3CR radio galaxies. The sample was observed with medium-resolution, optical spectroscopy and contains some galaxies with unpublished velocity dispersion measurements and emission-line fluxes. Measured velocity dispersions are 130-340 km/s with a mean of 216 km/s. Converting to BH mass, we find that the BH mass distribution is identical for FRIs and FRIIs, with a mean of approximately 2.5x10^8 Msun. We convert [OII] and [OIII] emission-line luminosities to photoionizing luminosity under the assumption that the gas is ionized by the nuclear UV continuum. Most of the galaxies with FRI morphology and/or low-excitation emission-line spectra have progressively lower BH masses at lower photoionizing (and jet) luminosities. This agrees with the Ledlow-Owen relation which states that the radio luminosity at the FRI/FRII transition depends on the optical luminosity of the host, L_radio ~ L_optical^1.8, because both L_radio and L_optical relate to AGN nuclear parameters. When recasting the Ledlow-Owen relation into BH mass versus photoionizing and jet luminosity, we find that the recasted relation describes the sample quite well. The FRI/FRII transition occurs at approximately an order of magnitude lower luminosity relative to the Eddington luminosity than the soft-to-hard transition in X-ray binaries. This difference is consistent with the Ledlow-Owen relation, which predicts a weak BH mass dependence in the transition luminosity. We conclude that the FRI/FRII dichotomy is caused by a combination of external and nuclear factors, with the latter dominating.

  4. Novel Insights on Hantavirus Evolution: The Dichotomy in Evolutionary Pressures Acting on Different Hantavirus Segments

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, Sathish; Upadhyay, Mohita; Ramamurthy, Mageshbabu; Vadivel, Kumaran; Sagadevan, Kalaiselvan; Nandagopal, Balaji; Vivekanandan, Perumal; Sridharan, Gopalan

    2015-01-01

    Background Hantaviruses are important emerging zoonotic pathogens. The current understanding of hantavirus evolution is complicated by the lack of consensus on co-divergence of hantaviruses with their animal hosts. In addition, hantaviruses have long-term associations with their reservoir hosts. Analyzing the relative abundance of dinucleotides may shed new light on hantavirus evolution. We studied the relative abundance of dinucleotides and the evolutionary pressures shaping different hantavirus segments. Methods A total of 118 sequences were analyzed; this includes 51 sequences of the S segment, 43 sequences of the M segment and 23 sequences of the L segment. The relative abundance of dinucleotides, effective codon number (ENC), codon usage biases were analyzed. Standard methods were used to investigate the relative roles of mutational pressure and translational selection on the three hantavirus segments. Results All three segments of hantaviruses are CpG depleted. Mutational pressure is the predominant evolutionary force leading to CpG depletion among hantaviruses. Interestingly, the S segment of hantaviruses is GpU depleted and in contrast to CpG depletion, the depletion of GpU dinucleotides from the S segment is driven by translational selection. Our findings also suggest that mutational pressure is the primary evolutionary pressure acting on the S and the M segments of hantaviruses. While translational selection plays a key role in shaping the evolution of the L segment. Our findings highlight how different evolutionary pressures may contribute disproportionally to the evolution of the three hantavirus segments. These findings provide new insights on the current understanding of hantavirus evolution. Conclusions There is a dichotomy among evolutionary pressures shaping a) the relative abundance of different dinucleotides in hantavirus genomes b) the evolution of the three hantavirus segments. PMID:26193652

  5. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activates guanine nucleotide exchange factor GIV/Girdin to orchestrate migration-proliferation dichotomy.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Deepali; Lopez-Sanchez, Inmaculada; To, Andrew; Lo, I-Chung; Aznar, Nicolas; Leyme, Anthony; Gupta, Vijay; Niesman, Ingrid; Maddox, Adam L; Garcia-Marcos, Mikel; Farquhar, Marilyn G; Ghosh, Pradipta

    2015-09-01

    Signals propagated by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) can drive cell migration and proliferation, two cellular processes that do not occur simultaneously--a phenomenon called "migration-proliferation dichotomy." We previously showed that epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling is skewed to favor migration over proliferation via noncanonical transactivation of G?i proteins by the guanine exchange factor (GEF) GIV. However, what turns on GIV-GEF downstream of growth factor RTKs remained unknown. Here we reveal the molecular mechanism by which phosphorylation of GIV by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) triggers GIV's ability to bind and activate G?i in response to growth factors and modulate downstream signals to establish a dichotomy between migration and proliferation. We show that CDK5 binds and phosphorylates GIV at Ser1674 near its GEF motif. When Ser1674 is phosphorylated, GIV activates G?i and enhances promigratory Akt signals. Phosphorylated GIV also binds G?s and enhances endosomal maturation, which shortens the transit time of EGFR through early endosomes, thereby limiting mitogenic MAPK signals. Consequently, this phosphoevent triggers cells to preferentially migrate during wound healing and transmigration of cancer cells. When Ser1674 cannot be phosphorylated, GIV cannot bind either G?i or G?s, Akt signaling is suppressed, mitogenic signals are enhanced due to delayed transit time of EGFR through early endosomes, and cells preferentially proliferate. These results illuminate how GIV-GEF is turned on upon receptor activation, adds GIV to the repertoire of CDK5 substrates, and defines a mechanism by which this unusual CDK orchestrates migration-proliferation dichotomy during cancer invasion, wound healing, and development. PMID:26286990

  6. DISCLOSING THE RADIO LOUDNESS DISTRIBUTION DICHOTOMY IN QUASARS: AN UNBIASED MONTE CARLO APPROACH APPLIED TO THE SDSS-FIRST QUASAR SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Balokovic, M.; Smolcic, V.; Ivezic, Z.; Zamorani, G.; Schinnerer, E.; Kelly, B. C.

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the dichotomy in the radio loudness distribution of quasars by modeling their radio emission and various selection effects using a Monte Carlo approach. The existence of two physically distinct quasar populations, the radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, is controversial and over the last decade a bimodal distribution of radio loudness of quasars has been both affirmed and disputed. We model the quasar radio luminosity distribution with simple unimodal and bimodal distribution functions. The resulting simulated samples are compared to a fiducial sample of 8300 quasars drawn from the SDSS DR7 Quasar Catalog and combined with radio observations from the FIRST survey. Our results indicate that the SDSS-FIRST sample is best described by a radio loudness distribution which consists of two components, with (12 {+-} 1)% of sources in the radio-loud component. On the other hand, the evidence for a local minimum in the loudness distribution (bimodality) is not strong and we find that previous claims for its existence were probably affected by the incompleteness of the FIRST survey close to its faint limit. We also investigate the redshift and luminosity dependence of the radio loudness distribution and find tentative evidence that at high redshift radio-loud quasars were rarer, on average louder, and exhibited a smaller range in radio loudness. In agreement with other recent work, we conclude that the SDSS-FIRST sample strongly suggests that the radio loudness distribution of quasars is not a universal function, and that more complex models than presented here are needed to fully explain available observations.

  7. Three-dimensional simulations of the southern polar giant impact hypothesis for the origin of the Martian dichotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, Giovanni; Tackley, Paul J.; Gerya, Taras V.; May, Dave A.; Zhu, Guizhi

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate via numerical simulations that the impact of a ~lunar-sized body with Mars is capable of creating a hemispherical magma ocean that upon cooling and solidification resulted in the formation of the southern highlands and thus the Martian dichotomy. The giant impact may have contributed a significant amount of iron to the Martian core and generated a deep thermal anomaly that led to the onset and development of the volcanism in the southern highlands. Our model predicts several mantle plumes converging to the South Pole from the equatorial regions as well as new plumes forming in the equatorial region and also an absence of significant large-scale volcanism in the northern lowlands. The core heat flux evolution obtained from our numerical models is consistent with the decline of the magnetic field. We argue that such a scenario is more consistent with a range of observations than a northern giant impact (excavating the Borealis basin) for the formation of the Martian dichotomy.

  8. Water in the Lunar Interior and the Apparent KREEP-Mare Dichotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Nekvasil, H.

    2010-12-01

    Recent SIMS analysis of lunar apatite has shown that hydroxyl is structurally bound within lunar apatite from a number of different lunar lithologic types (McCubbin et al., 2010a, 2010b; Boyce et al., 2010; Greenwood et al., 2010). These studies along with previous SIMS analyses of lunar fire fountain glasses (Saal et al., 2008) confirm that there is at least some water in the lunar interior, with abundance estimates in magmatic source regions ranging from 64 ppb to 5 ppm water (McCubbin et al., 2010a). Surprisingly, apatite from rocks with KREEP-rich incompatible trace element signatures are depleted in hydroxyl in comparison to apatite from typical mare basalts. This result is counter-intuitive to the lunar magma ocean model, which predicts that incompatible constituents (e.g., water) would have been concentrated in the last dregs of liquid referred to as “urKREEP”. The mare basalts, which formed by partial melting of earlier LMO cumulates, are typically depleted in these incompatible constituents. Complicating the issue further, chlorine, another incompatible magmatic volatile element in apatite, follows the predicted trend with apatite from KREEP-rich rocks containing significant chlorine concentrations in comparison to apatite from mare basalts (McCubbin et al., 2009). The preceding results imply one of two scenarios 1) Water did not behave incompatibly during LMO crystallization and was preferentially stored within the LMO cumulate minerals 2) A secondary process such as degassing has perturbed the initial volatile contents of the urKREEP liquid or of the secondary magmas that have KREEP-rich incompatible trace element signatures. In regards to the first scenario, the mineral melt partition coefficients for water would need to have exceeded unity at the very low water concentrations of the LMO liquid. This scenario is consistent with the behavior of chlorine, as chlorine is not typically stored in nominally anhydrous phases like pyroxene or olivine, likely due to its large ionic radius. However, there is no empirical or experimental evidence to support the elevated D values for water. Regarding the second scenario, if significant degassing of the urKREEP liquid or KREEP-rich secondary magmas occurred, water would have certainly been lost preferentially to the other volatile constituents in apatite (fluorine and chlorine); however chlorine isotopes analyzed in lunar apatites are highly fractionated (Sharp et al., 2010), indicating degassing of chlorine in the absence of water. Therefore, this scenario only works if degassing on the Moon was a multi-stage and complex process where water and chlorine degassing are decoupled, which is not typically the case for terrestrial systems (Aiuppa et al., 2009, Webster and De Vivo, 2002; Webster et al., 1999). Solving this apparent KREEP-mare dichotomy regarding magmatic volatiles in the lunar interior is the next important step in figuring out the importance, relevance, and implications of water in the lunar interior. Moreover, it will lend insight into the roles of the other magmatic volatiles during the thermal and magmatic evolution of the Moon.

  9. Individuality beyond the Dichotomy of "Small Self and Big Self" in Contemporary Chinese Education: Lessons from Hu Shi and Liang Shuming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Huajun

    2013-01-01

    This article identifies the problem that an instrumentalist mode of thinking dominates China's contemporary education practice and suggests that the dichotomy between the "small self and big self," a notion that has been present throughout modern Chinese history, exacerbates this instrumentalism. It parallels the loss of…

  10. The cool component and the dichotomy, lateral expansion, and axial rotation of solar X-ray jets

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.; Robe, Dominic

    2013-06-01

    We present results from a study of 54 polar X-ray jets that were observed in coronal X-ray movies from the X-ray Telescope on Hinode and had simultaneous coverage in movies of the cooler transition region (T ? 10{sup 5} K) taken in the He II 304 Å band of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on Solar Dynamics Observatory. These dual observations verify the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of polar X-ray jets previously found primarily from XRT movies alone. In accord with models of blowout jets and standard jets, the AIA 304 Å movies show a cool (T ? 10{sup 5} K) component in nearly all blowout X-ray jets and in a small minority of standard X-ray jets, obvious lateral expansion in blowout X-ray jets but none in standard X-ray jets, and obvious axial rotation in both blowout X-ray jets and standard X-ray jets. In our sample, the number of turns of axial rotation in the cool-component standard X-ray jets is typical of that in the blowout X-ray jets, suggesting that the closed bipolar magnetic field in the jet base has substantial twist not only in all blowout X-ray jets but also in many standard X-ray jets. We point out that our results for the dichotomy, lateral expansion, and axial rotation of X-ray jets add credence to published speculation that type-II spicules are miniature analogs of X-ray jets, are generated by granule-size emerging bipoles, and thereby carry enough energy to power the corona and solar wind.

  11. Toward Understanding the Fanaroff-Riley Dichotomy in Radio Source Morphology and Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, Stefi A.; Zirbel, Esther L.; O'Dea, Christopher P.

    1995-09-01

    In Paper I we presented the results of a study of the interrelationships between host galaxy magnitude, optical line luminosity, and radio luminosity in a large sample of Fanaroff-Riley classes 1 and 2 (FR 1 and FR 2) radio galaxies. We report several important differences between the FR 1 and FR 2 radio galaxies. At the same host galaxy magnitude or radio luminosity, the FR 2's produce substantially more optical line emission (by roughly an order of magnitude or more) than do FR 1's. Similarly, FR 2 sources produce orders of magnitude more line luminosity than do radio-quiet galaxies of the same optical magnitude, while FR 1 sources and radio-quiet galaxies of the same optical magnitude produce similar line luminosities. Combining these results with previous results from the literature, we conclude that while the emission-line gas in the FR 2's is indeed photoionized by a nuclear UV continuum source from the AGN, the emission-line gas in the FR 1's may be energized predominantly by processes associated with the host galaxy itself. The apparent lack of a strong UV continuum source from the central engine in FR 1 sources can be understood in two different ways. In the first scenario, FR l's are much more efficient at covering jet bulk kinetic energy into radio luminosity than FR 2's, such that an FR 1 has a much lower bolometric AGN luminosity (hence nuclear UV continuum source) than does an FR 2 of the same radio luminosity. We discuss the pros and cons of this model and conclude that the efficiency differences needed between FR 2 and FR 1 radio galaxies are quite large and may lead to difficulties with the interpretation since it would suggest that FR 2 radio source deposit very large amounts of kinetic energy into the ISM Intracluster Medium. However, this interpretation remains viable. Alternatively, it may be that the AGNs in FR 1 sources simply produce far less radiant UV energy than do those in FR 2 sources. That is, FR 1 sources may funnel a higher fraction of the total energy output from the AGNs into jet kinetic energy versus radiant energy than do FR 2 sources. If this interpretation is correct, then this suggests that there is a fundamental difference in the central engine and/or in the immediate "accretion region" around the engine in FR 1 and FR 2 radio galaxies. We note also the absence of FR 1 sources with nuclear broad line regions and suggest that the absence of the BLR is tied to the absence of the "isotropic" nuclear UV continuum source in FR 1 sources. We put forth the possibility that the FR 1/FR 2 dichotomy (i.e., the observed differences in the properties of low- and high-power radio sources) is due to qualitative differences in the structural properties of the central engines in these two types of sources. Following early work by Rees et al. (1982), we suggest the possibility that FR 1 sources are produced when the central engine is fed at a lower accretion rate, leading to the creation of a source in which the ratio of radiant to jet bulk kinetic energy is low, while FR 2 sources are produced when the central engine is fed at a higher accretion rate, causing the central engine to deposit a higher fraction of its energy in radiant energy. We further suggest the possibility that associated differences in the spin properties of the central black hole between FR 1 (lower spin) and FR 2 (higher spin) sources may be responsible for the different collimation properties and Mach numbers of the jets produced by these two types of radio-loud galaxies. This scenario, although currently clearly speculative, is nicely consistent with our current picture of the triggering, feeding, environments, and evolution of powerful radio galaxies. This model allows for evolution of these properties with time for example, the mass accretion rate and BH spin may decline with time causing an FR 2 radio source or quasar to evolve into a FR 1 radio source.

  12. Understanding the Dorsal and Ventral Systems of the Human Cerebral Cortex: Beyond Dichotomies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borst, Gregoire; Thompson, William L.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, characterizations of the macrolevel functional organization of the human cerebral cortex have focused on the left and right cerebral hemispheres. However, the idea of left brain versus right brain functions has been shown to be an oversimplification. We argue here that a top-bottom divide, rather than a left-right divide, is a more…

  13. EVERY BCG WITH A STRONG RADIO AGN HAS AN X-RAY COOL CORE: IS THE COOL CORE-NONCOOL CORE DICHOTOMY TOO SIMPLE?

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, M.

    2009-10-20

    The radio active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback in X-ray cool cores has been proposed as a crucial ingredient in the evolution of baryonic structures. However, it has long been known that strong radio AGNs also exist in 'noncool core' clusters, which brings up the question whether an X-ray cool core is always required for the radio feedback. In this work, we present a systematic analysis of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and strong radio AGNs in 152 groups and clusters from the Chandra archive. All 69 BCGs with radio AGN more luminous than 2 x 10{sup 23} W Hz{sup -1} at 1.4 GHz are found to have X-ray cool cores. BCG cool cores can be divided into two classes: the large cool core (LCC) class and the corona class. Small coronae, easily overlooked at z > 0.1, can trigger strong heating episodes in groups and clusters, long before LCCs are formed. Strong radio outbursts triggered by coronae may destroy embryonic LCCs and thus provide another mechanism to prevent the formation of LCCs. However, it is unclear whether coronae are decoupled from the radio feedback cycles as they have to be largely immune to strong radio outbursts. Our sample study also shows the absence of groups with a luminous cool core while hosting a strong radio AGN, which is not observed in clusters. This points to a greater impact of radio heating on low-mass systems than clusters. Few L {sub 1.4GHz} > 10{sup 24} W Hz{sup -1} radio AGNs (approx16%) host an L {sub 0.5-10keV} > 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} X-ray AGN, while above these thresholds, all X-ray AGNs in BCGs are also radio AGNs. As examples of the corona class, we also present detailed analyses of a BCG corona associated with a strong radio AGN (ESO 137-006 in A3627) and one of the faintest coronae known (NGC 4709 in the Centaurus cluster). Our results suggest that the traditional cool core/noncool core dichotomy is too simple. A better alternative is the cool core distribution function, with the enclosed X-ray luminosity or gas mass.

  14. The Dichotomy of Tumor Exosomes (TEX) in Cancer Immunity: Is It All in the ConTEXt?

    PubMed Central

    Kunigelis, Katherine E.; Graner, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes are virus-sized nanoparticles (30–130 nm) formed intracellularly as intravesicular bodies/intralumenal vesicles within maturing endosomes (“multivesicular bodies”, MVBs). If MVBs fuse with the cell’s plasma membrane, the interior vesicles may be released extracellularly, and are termed “exosomes”. The protein cargo of exosomes consists of cytosolic, membrane, and extracellular proteins, along with membrane-derived lipids, and an extraordinary variety of nucleic acids. As such, exosomes reflect the status and identity of the parent cell, and are considered as tiny cellular surrogates. Because of this closely entwined relationship between exosome content and the source/status of the parental cell, conceivably exosomes could be used as vaccines against various pathologies, as they contain antigens associated with a given disease, e.g., cancer. Tumor-derived exosomes (TEX) have been shown to be potent anticancer vaccines in animal models, driving antigen-specific T and B cell responses, but much recent literature concerning TEX strongly places the vesicles as powerfully immunosuppressive. This dichotomy suggests that the context in which the immune system encounters TEX is critical in determining immune stimulation versus immunosuppression. Here, we review literature on both sides of this immune coin, and suggest that it may be time to revisit the concept of TEX as anticancer vaccines in clinical settings. PMID:26694473

  15. Disorders of Thought Are Severe Mood Disorders: the Selective Attention Defect in Mania Challenges the Kraepelinian Dichotomy—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Raymond Lake, C.

    2008-01-01

    Kraepelin said severe mental illness was due to 2 diseases subsequently characterized as disorders of thought vs disorders of mood, ie, the Kraepelinian dichotomy. Schizophrenia, traditionally considered the disorder of thought, has been defined by the presence of hallucinations, delusions, catatonia, and disorganization. Tangentiality, derailment, loose associations, and thought blocking are typically considered pathognomonic of schizophrenia. By contrast, the mood disorders have been characterized only as disorders of the emotions, though both depression and mania, when severe, are now recognized to include the same psychotic features traditionally considered diagnostic of schizophrenia. This article addresses disordered thinking in mania in order to clarify the relationship between schizophrenia and psychotic mood disorders. Normally, the brain's selective attention mechanism filters and prioritizes incoming stimuli by excluding from consciousness extraneous, low-priority stimuli and grading the importance of more relevant data. Because this “filter/prioritizer” becomes defective in mania, tangential stimuli are processed without appropriate prioritization. Observed as distractibility, this symptom is an index of the breakdown in selective attention and the severity of mania, accounting for the signs and symptoms of psychotic thinking. The zone of rarity between schizophrenia and psychotic mood disorders is blurred because severe disorders of mood are also disorders of thought. This relationship calls into question the tenet that schizophrenia is a disease separate from psychotic mood disorders. Patients whose case histories are discussed herein gave their written informed consent to participate in this institutional human subjects committee–approved protocol. PMID:17515440

  16. The Dichotomy of Tumor Exosomes (TEX) in Cancer Immunity: Is It All in the ConTEXt?

    PubMed

    Kunigelis, Katherine E; Graner, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes are virus-sized nanoparticles (30-130 nm) formed intracellularly as intravesicular bodies/intralumenal vesicles within maturing endosomes ("multivesicular bodies", MVBs). If MVBs fuse with the cell's plasma membrane, the interior vesicles may be released extracellularly, and are termed "exosomes". The protein cargo of exosomes consists of cytosolic, membrane, and extracellular proteins, along with membrane-derived lipids, and an extraordinary variety of nucleic acids. As such, exosomes reflect the status and identity of the parent cell, and are considered as tiny cellular surrogates. Because of this closely entwined relationship between exosome content and the source/status of the parental cell, conceivably exosomes could be used as vaccines against various pathologies, as they contain antigens associated with a given disease, e.g., cancer. Tumor-derived exosomes (TEX) have been shown to be potent anticancer vaccines in animal models, driving antigen-specific T and B cell responses, but much recent literature concerning TEX strongly places the vesicles as powerfully immunosuppressive. This dichotomy suggests that the context in which the immune system encounters TEX is critical in determining immune stimulation versus immunosuppression. Here, we review literature on both sides of this immune coin, and suggest that it may be time to revisit the concept of TEX as anticancer vaccines in clinical settings. PMID:26694473

  17. Three-dimensional Relativistic MHD Simulations of Active Galactic Nuclei Jets: Magnetic Kink Instability and Fanaroff-Riley Dichotomy

    E-print Network

    Tchekhovskoy, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei jets are thought to form in the immediate vicinity of the event horizons of supermassive black holes. Therefore, jets could be excellent probes of general relativity. However, in practice, using jets to infer near-black hole physics is not straightforward since the cause of their most basic morphological features is not understood. For instance, there is no agreement on the cause of the well-known Fanaroff-Riley (FR) morphological dichotomy of jets, with FRI jets being shorter and wiggly and FRII jets being longer and more stable. Here, we carry out 3D relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of relativistic jets propagating through the ambient medium. Because in flat density cores of galaxies ($n \\propto r^{-\\alpha}$ with $\\alpha < 2$) the mass per unit distance ahead of the jets increases with distance, the jets slow down and collimate into smaller opening angles. This makes the jets more vulnerable to the 3D magnetic kink ("corkscrew") instability, which develops faster ...

  18. Dichotomy in the Epigenetic Mark Lysine Acetylation is Critical for the Proliferation of Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Ravi; Philizaire, Marc; Mujtaba, Shiraz

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of lysine acetylation serve as a major epigenetic mark, which regulates cellular response to inflammation, DNA damage and hormonal changes. Microarray assays reveal changes in gene expression, but cannot predict regulation of a protein function by epigenetic modifications. The present study employs computational tools to inclusively analyze microarray data to understand the potential role of acetylation during development of androgen-independent PCa. The data revealed that the androgen receptor interacts with 333 proteins, out of which at least 92 proteins were acetylated. Notably, the number of cellular proteins undergoing acetylation in the androgen-dependent PCa was more as compared to the androgen-independent PCa. Specifically, the 32 lysine-acetylated proteins in the cellular models of androgen-dependent PCa were mainly involved in regulating stability as well as pre- and post-processing of mRNA. Collectively, the data demonstrate that protein lysine acetylation plays a crucial role during the transition of androgen-dependent to -independent PCa, which importantly, could also serve as a functional axis to unravel new therapeutic targets. PMID:26295410

  19. 3C 57 as an atypical radio-loud quasar: implications for the radio-loud/radio-quiet dichotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulentic, J. W.; Martínez-Carballo, M. A.; Marziani, P.; del Olmo, A.; Stirpe, G. M.; Zamfir, S.; Plauchu-Frayn, I.

    2015-06-01

    Lobe-dominated radio-loud (LD RL) quasars occupy a restricted domain in the 4D Eigenvector 1 (4DE1) parameter space which implies restricted geometry/physics/kinematics for this subclass compared to the radio-quiet (RQ) majority of quasars. We discuss how this restricted domain for the LD RL parent population supports the notion for a RQ-RL dichotomy among type 1 sources. 3C 57 is an atypical RL quasar that shows both uncertain radio morphology and falls in a region of 4DE1 space where RL quasars are rare. We present new radio flux and optical spectroscopic measures designed to verify its atypical optical/UV spectroscopic behaviour and clarify its radio structure. The former data confirms that 3C 57 falls off the 4DE1 quasar `main sequence' with both extreme optical Fe II emission (R_{Fe II} ˜ 1) and a large C IV ?1549 profile blueshift (˜-1500 km s-1). These parameter values are typical of extreme Population A sources which are almost always RQ. New radio measures show no evidence for flux change over a 50+ year time-scale consistent with compact steep-spectrum (or young LD) over core-dominated morphology. In the 4DE1 context where LD RL are usually low L/LEdd quasars, we suggest that 3C 57 is an evolved RL quasar (i.e. large blackhole mass) undergoing a major accretion event leading to a rejuvenation reflected by strong Fe II emission, perhaps indicating significant heavy metal enrichment, high bolometric luminosity for a low-redshift source and resultant unusually high Eddington ratio giving rise to the atypical C IV ?1549.

  20. Volume-limited SDSS/First quasars and the radio dichotomy

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastian Jester; R.G. Kron

    2004-03-12

    Much evidence has been presented in favor of and against the existence of two distinct populations of quasars, radio-loud and radio-quiet. The SDSS differs from earlier optically selected quasar surveys in the large number of quasars and the targeting of FIRST radio source counterparts as quasar candidates. This allows a qualitatively different approach of constructing a series of samples at different redshifts which are volume-limited with respect to both radio and optical luminosity. This technique avoids any biases from the strong evolution of quasar counts with redshift and potential redshift-dependent selection effects. We find that optical and radio luminosities of quasars detected in both SDSS and FIRST are not well correlated within each redshift shell, although the fraction of radio detections among optically selected quasars remains roughly constant at 10% for z {le} 3.2. The distribution in the luminosity-luminosity plane does not appear to be strongly bimodal. The optical luminosity function is marginally flatter at higher radio luminosities.

  1. Neuroanatomical dichotomy of sexual behaviors in rodents: a special emphasis on brain serotonin.

    PubMed

    Angoa-Pérez, Mariana; Kuhn, Donald M

    2015-09-01

    Much of the social behavior in which rodents engage is related to reproduction, such as maintaining a breeding territory, seeking mates, mating, and caring for their young. Rodents belong to the internally fertilizing species that require sexual behavior for reproduction. The dyadic, heterosexual patterns of most mammalian species are sexually dimorphic, but they also share mutual components in both sexes: sexual attraction is reciprocal, sexual initiative is assumed, appetitive behavior is engaged in, and mating involves consummatory and postconsummatory phases in females as well as in males. Serotonin, a phylogenetically ancient molecule, is the most widely distributed neurotransmitter in the brain and its signaling pathways are essential for numerous functions including sexual behavior. Since the late 1960s, brain serotonergic neurotransmission has been considered to exert an inhibitory influence on the neural mechanisms mediating sexual behavior. This contention was based mainly on the observations that a decrease in central serotonergic activity facilitated the elicitation of sexual behavior, whereas an increase in central serotonergic activity attenuated it. However, the discovery of over 14 types of serotonin receptors has added numerous layers of complexity to the study of serotonin and sexual behavior. Evidence shows that, upon activation, certain receptor subtypes facilitate, whereas some others suppress, sexual behavior, as well as sexual arousal and motivation. Furthermore, the role of these receptors has been shown to be different in the male and female sexes. The use of serotonergic pharmacological interventions, mouse strains with genetic polymorphisms causing alterations in the levels of brain serotonin, and animal models with genetic manipulations of various serotonin effectors has helped delineate the fundamental role of this neurotransmitter in the regulation of sexual behavior. This review aims to examine the basics of the components of female and male sexual behavior and the participation of the serotonin system in the modulation of these behaviors, with emphasis on rodents. PMID:26110223

  2. Relationships of Balance, Gait Performance, and Functional Outcome in Chronic Stroke Patients: A Comparison of Left and Right Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Priscila Garcia; Lopes, José Augusto Fernandes; Brito, Christina Moran; Alfieri, Fábio Marcon; Rizzo Battistella, Linamara

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. This study compared the balance by center of pressure (COP) and its relationship with gait parameters and functional independence in left (LH) and right (RH) chronic stroke patients. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, twenty-one hemiparetic stroke patients were assessed for Functional Independence Measure (FIM), balance with a force platform, and gait in the Motion Analysis Laboratory. Results. The amplitudes of the COP in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions were similar in both groups. The anteroposterior direction was greater than the mediolateral direction. Only the temporal parameters showed any statistically significant differences. The LH showed a significant correlation between stride length, step length, and gait velocity with COP velocity sway for the healthy and paretic lower limbs. In both groups, the area of COP was significantly correlated with stride length. Motor FIM was significantly correlated with the COP in the LH group. Conclusion. There was no difference in the performance of balance, gait, and functional independence between groups. The correlation of the COP sway area with stride length in both groups can serve as a guideline in the rehabilitation of these patients where training the static balance may reflect the improvement of the stride length. PMID:26583129

  3. Relative Ages of the Highlands, Lowlands, and Transition Zone Along a Portion of the Mars Crustal Dichotomy from Densities of Visible and Buried Impact Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSoto, G. E.; Frey, H. V.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the fundamental age relationships of the different parts of the Mars Crustal Dichotomy is essential to fully understanding the events that shaped the early history and formation of the surface of Mars. A dominant question is what are the true relative ages of the Northern Lowlands and the Southern Highlands? Using MOLA data from the Mars Global Surveyor and Viking visual images, a dataset of both buried and visible crater diameters was created over a nine million sq km study area of a section of the dichotomy boundary stretching from Arabia Terra to Utopia Planitia. Cumulative frequency plots on a log-log scale were used to determine the relative ages for the Highlands, the Lowlands, and the Transition Zone, separately for the visible, the buried and the combined total (visible+ buried) populations. We find the overall Highland crater population in this area is slightly older than the Lowlands, consistent with previous global studies, but the Lowlands and Transition Zone are also very old and formed at roughly the same time. It appears that the formation of the Lowlands in this region formed contemporaneously with a large-scale resurfacing event in the Highlands, perhaps caused by the process responsible for the Lowland formation.

  4. Photometric properties of Titan's surface from Cassini VIMS: Relevance to titan's hemispherical albedo dichotomy and surface stability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, R.M.; Brown, R.H.; Hapke, B.W.; Smythe, W.D.; Kamp, L.; Boryta, M.D.; Leader, F.; Baines, K.H.; Bellucci, G.; Bibring, J.-P.; Buratti, B.J.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Clark, R.N.; Combes, M.; Coradini, A.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Drossart, P.; Formisano, V.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Matson, D.L.; McCord, T.B.; Mennella, V.; Nicholson, P.D.; Sicardy, B.; Sotin, C.

    2006-01-01

    The Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) instrument on the Cassini Saturn Orbiter returned spectral imaging data as the spacecraft undertook six close encounters with Titan beginning 7 July, 2004. Three of these flybys each produced overlapping coverage of two distinct regions of Titan's surface. Twenty-four points were selected on approximately opposite hemispheres to serve as photometric controls. Six points were selected in each of four reflectance classes. On one hemisphere each control point was observed at three distinct phase angles. From the derived phase coefficients, preliminary normal reflectances were derived for each reflectance class. The normal reflectance of Titan's surface units at 2.0178 ??m ranged from 0.079 to 0.185 for the most absorbing to the most reflective units assuming no contribution from absorbing haze. When a modest haze contribution of ??=0.1 is considered these numbers increase to 0.089-0.215. We find that the lowest three reflectance classes have comparable normal reflectance on either hemisphere. However, for the highest brightness class the normal reflectance is higher on the hemisphere encompassing longitude 14-65?? compared to the same high brightness class for the hemisphere encompassing 122-156?? longitude. We conclude that an albedo dichotomy observed in continental sized units on Titan is due not only to one unit having more areal coverage of reflective material than the other but the material on the brighter unit is intrinsically more reflective than the most reflective material on the other unit. This suggests that surface renewal processes are more widespread on Titan's more reflective units than on its less reflective units. We note that one of our photometric control points has increased in reflectance by 12% relative to the surrounding terrain from July of 2004 to April and May of 2005. Possible causes of this effect include atmospheric processes such as ground fog or orographic clouds; the suggestion of active volcanism cannot be ruled out. Several interesting circular features which resembled impact craters were identified on Titan's surface at the time of the initial Titan flyby in July of 2004. We traced photometric profiles through two of these candidate craters and attempted to fit these profiles to the photometric properties expected from model depressions. We find that the best-fit attempt to model these features as craters requires that they be unrealistically deep, approximately 70 km deep. We conclude that despite their appearance, these circular features are not craters, however, the possibility that they are palimpsests cannot be ruled out. We used two methods to test for the presence of vast expanses of liquids on Titan's surface that had been suggested to resemble oceans. Specular reflection of sunlight would be indicative of widespread liquids on the surface; we found no evidence of this. A large liquid body should also show uniformity in photometric profile; we found the profiles to be highly variable. The lack of specular reflection and the high photometric variability in the profiles across candidate oceans is inconsistent with the presence of vast expanses of flat-lying liquids on Titan's surface. While liquid accumulation may be present as small, sub-pixel-sized bodies, or in areas of the surface which still remain to be observed by VIMS, the presence of large ocean-sized accumulations of liquids can be ruled out. The Cassini orbital tour offers the opportunity for VIMS to image the same parts of Titan's surface repeatedly at many different illumination and observation geometries. This creates the possibility of understanding the properties of Titan's atmosphere and haze by iteratively adapting models to create a best fit to the surface reflectance properties. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 421, 15691582 (2012) doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.20414.x On the fundamental dichotomy in the local radio-AGN population

    E-print Network

    Best, Philip

    2012-01-01

    data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with the NRAO (National Radio Astronomy Observatory) VLA. Best1 and T. M. Heckman2 1SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill On the fundamental dichotomy in the local radio-AGN population: accretion, evolution and host galaxy properties P. N

  6. Functional organization of the hippocampal longitudinal axis.

    PubMed

    Strange, Bryan A; Witter, Menno P; Lein, Ed S; Moser, Edvard I

    2014-10-01

    The precise functional role of the hippocampus remains a topic of much debate. The dominant view is that the dorsal (or posterior) hippocampus is implicated in memory and spatial navigation and the ventral (or anterior) hippocampus mediates anxiety-related behaviours. However, this 'dichotomy view' may need revision. Gene expression studies demonstrate multiple functional domains along the hippocampal long axis, which often exhibit sharply demarcated borders. By contrast, anatomical studies and electrophysiological recordings in rodents suggest that the long axis is organized along a gradient. Together, these observations suggest a model in which functional long-axis gradients are superimposed on discrete functional domains. This model provides a potential framework to explain and test the multiple functions ascribed to the hippocampus. PMID:25234264

  7. Holographic Reduction, Interpolation and Hardness We prove a complexity dichotomy theorem for a class of counting problems expressible by

    E-print Network

    Cai, Jin-Yi

    Holographic Reduction, Interpolation and Hardness Jin-Yi Cai Pinyan Lu Mingji Xia Abstract We prove, y) E we assign an Or function on two bits. We will also call such a function F a "signature". Then is a vertex cover iff (x,y)E F((x), (y)) = 1, and the total number of vertex covers is (x,y)E F((x), (y

  8. Stable symbionts across the HMA-LMA dichotomy: low seasonal and interannual variation in sponge-associated bacteria from taxonomically diverse hosts.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Patrick M; Coma, Rafel; López-Sendino, Paula; Serrano, Eduard; Ribes, Marta

    2015-10-01

    Marine sponges host bacterial communities with important ecological and economic roles in nature and society, yet these benefits depend largely on the stability of host-symbiont interactions and their susceptibility to changing environmental conditions. Here, we investigated the temporal stability of complex host-microbe symbioses in a temperate, seasonal environment over three years, targeting sponges across a range of symbiont density (high and low microbial abundance, HMA and LMA) and host taxonomy (six orders). Symbiont profiling by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that bacterial communities in all sponges exhibited a high degree of host specificity, low seasonal dynamics and low interannual variability: results that represent an emerging trend in the field of sponge microbiology and contrast sharply with the seasonal dynamics of free-living bacterioplankton. Further, HMA sponges hosted more diverse, even and similar symbiont communities than LMA sponges and these differences in community structure extended to core members of the microbiome. Together, these findings show clear distinctions in symbiont structure between HMA and LMA sponges while resolving notable similarities in their stability over seasonal and inter-annual scales, thus providing insight into the ecological consequences of the HMA-LMA dichotomy and the temporal stability of complex host-microbe symbioses. PMID:26405300

  9. Dichotomy of short and long thymic stromal lymphopoietin isoforms in inflammatory disorders of the bowel and skin

    PubMed Central

    Fornasa, Giulia; Tsilingiri, Katerina; Caprioli, Flavio; Botti, Fiorenzo; Mapelli, Marina; Meller, Stephan; Kislat, Andreas; Homey, Bernhard; Di Sabatino, Antonio; Sonzogni, Angelica; Viale, Giuseppe; Diaferia, Giuseppe; Gori, Alessandro; Longhi, Renato; Penna, Giuseppe; Rescigno, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a cytokine with pleiotropic functions in the immune system. It has been associated with allergic reactions in the skin and lungs but also homeostatic tolerogenic responses in the thymus and gut. Objective In human subjects TSLP is present in 2 isoforms, short and long. Here we wanted to investigate the differential expression of the TSLP isoforms and discern their biological implications under homeostatic or inflammatory conditions. Methods We evaluated the expression of TSLPs in tissues from healthy subjects, patients with ulcerative colitis, patients with celiac disease, and patients with atopic dermatitis and on epithelial cells and keratinocytes under steady-state conditions or after stimulation. We then tested the immune activity of TSLP isoforms both in vitro and in vivo. Results We showed that TSLP isoforms are responsible for 2 opposite immune functions. The short isoform is expressed under steady-state conditions and exerts anti-inflammatory activities by affecting the capacity of PBMCs and dendritic cells to produce inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, the short isoform TSLP ameliorates experimental colitis in mice and prevents endotoxin shock. The long isoform of TSLP is proinflammatory and is only expressed during inflammation. The isoforms are differentially regulated by pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella species and adhesive-invasive Escherichia coli. Conclusions We have solved the dilemma of TSLP being both homeostatic and inflammatory. The TSLP isoform ratio is altered during several inflammatory disorders, with strong implications in disease treatment and prevention. Indeed, targeting of the long isoform of TSLP at the C-terminal portion, which is common to both isoforms, might lead to unwanted side effects caused by neutralization of the homeostatic short isoform. PMID:26014813

  10. A Genetic Dichotomy between Pure Sclerosing Epithelioid Fibrosarcoma (SEF) and Hybrid SEF/Low Grade Fibromyxoid Sarcoma: A Pathologic and Molecular Study of 18 cases

    PubMed Central

    Prieto-Granada, Carlos; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Hsiao-Wei; Sung, Yun-Shao; Agaram, Narasimhan P; Jungbluth, Achim; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2014-01-01

    Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is a rare soft tissue tumor exhibiting considerable morphologic overlap with low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS). Moreover, both SEF and LGFMS show MUC4 expression by immunohistochemistry. While the majority of LGFMS cases are characterized by a FUS-CREB3L1 fusion, both FUS-CREB3L2 and EWSR1-CREB3L1 fusions were recently demonstrated in a small number of LGFMS and SEF/LGFMS hybrid tumors. In contrast, recent studies pointed out that SEF harbor frequent EWSR1 rearrangements, with only a minority of cases showing FUS-CREB3L2 fusions. In an effort to further characterize the molecular characteristics of pure SEF and hybrid SEF/LGFMS lesions, we undertook a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical and genetic analysis of a series of 10 SEF and 8 hybrid SEF/LGFMS tumors. The mortality rate was similar between the two groups, 44% within the pure SEF group and 37% in the hybrid SEF/LGFMS with a mean overall follow-up of 66 months. All but one pure SEF and all hybrid SEF/LGFMS tested cases showed MUC4 immunoreactivity. The majority (90%) of pure SEF cases showed EWSR1 gene rearrangements by FISH with only one case exhibiting FUS rearrangement. Of the 9 EWSR1 positive cases, 6 cases harbored CREB3L1 break-apart, two had CREB3L2 rearrangement (a previously unreported finding) and one lacked evidence of CREB3L1/2 abnormalities. In contrast, all hybrid SEF/LGFMS tumors exhibited FUS and CREB3L2 rearrangements. These results further demarcate a relative cytogenetic dichotomy between pure SEF, often characterized by EWSR1 rearrangements, and hybrid SEF/LGFMS, harboring FUS-CREB3L2 fusion; the latter group recapitulating the genotype of LGFMS. PMID:25231134

  11. Hot versus cold: The dichotomy in spherical accretion of cooling flows onto supermassive black holes in elliptical galaxies, galaxy groups, and clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Fulai; Mathews, William G.

    2014-01-10

    Feedback heating from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has been commonly invoked to suppress cooling flows predicted in hot gas in elliptical galaxies, galaxy groups, and clusters. Previous studies have focused on if and how AGN feedback heats the gas but have little paid attention to its triggering mechanism. Using spherically symmetric simulations, we investigate how large-scale cooling flows are accreted by central supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in eight well-observed systems and find an interesting dichotomy. In massive clusters, the gas develops a central cooling catastrophe within about the cooling time (typically ?100-300 Myr), resulting in cold-mode accretion onto SMBHs. However, in our four simulated systems on group and galaxy scales at a low metallicity Z = 0.3 Z {sub ?}, the gas quickly settles into a long-term state that has a cuspy central temperature profile extending to several tens to about 100 pc. At the more realistic solar metallicity, two groups (with R {sub e} ? 4 kpc) still host the long-term, hot-mode accretion. Both accretion modes naturally appear in our idealized calculations where only cooling, gas inflow, and compressional heating are considered. The long-term, hot-mode accretion is maintained by the quickly established closeness between the timescales of these processes, preferably in systems with low gas densities, low gas metallicities, and importantly, compact central galaxies, which result in strong gravitational acceleration and compressional heating at the intermediate radii. Our calculations predict that central cuspy temperature profiles appear more often in smaller systems than galaxy clusters, which instead often host significant cold gas and star formation.

  12. A genetic dichotomy between pure sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) and hybrid SEF/low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: a pathologic and molecular study of 18 cases.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Granada, Carlos; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Hsiao-Wei; Sung, Yun-Shao; Agaram, Narasimhan P; Jungbluth, Achim A; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2015-01-01

    Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is a rare soft tissue tumor exhibiting considerable morphologic overlap with low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS). Moreover, both SEF and LGFMS show MUC4 expression by immunohistochemistry. While the majority of LGFMS cases are characterized by a FUS-CREB3L1 fusion, both FUS-CREB3L2 and EWSR1-CREB3L1 fusions were recently demonstrated in a small number of LGFMS and SEF/LGFMS hybrid tumors. In contrast, recent studies pointed out that SEF harbor frequent EWSR1 rearrangements, with only a minority of cases showing FUS-CREB3L2 fusions. In an effort to further characterize the molecular characteristics of pure SEF and hybrid SEF/LGFMS lesions, we undertook a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical and genetic analysis of a series of 10 SEF and 8 hybrid SEF/LGFMS tumors. The mortality rate was similar between the two groups, 44% within the pure SEF group and 37% in the hybrid SEF/LGFMS with a mean overall follow-up of 66 months. All but one pure SEF and all hybrid SEF/LGFMS-tested cases showed MUC4 immunoreactivity. The majority (90%) of pure SEF cases showed EWSR1 gene rearrangements by fluorescence in situ hybridization with only one case exhibiting FUS rearrangement. Of the nine EWSR1 positive cases, six cases harbored CREB3L1 break-apart, two had CREB3L2 rearrangement (a previously unreported finding) and one lacked evidence of CREB3L1/2 abnormalities. In contrast, all hybrid SEF/LGFMS tumors exhibited FUS and CREB3L2 rearrangements. These results further demarcate a relative cytogenetic dichotomy between pure SEF, often characterized by EWSR1 rearrangements, and hybrid SEF/LGFMS, harboring FUS-CREB3L2 fusion; the latter group recapitulating the genotype of LGFMS. PMID:25231134

  13. Dichotomies of collectivism and individualism in bioethics: Selective abortion debates and issues of self-determination in Japan and 'the West'.

    PubMed

    Kato, Masae; Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2011-08-01

    This article examines the dichotomies of collectivism and individualism in the debates on the selective abortion of disabled fetuses, which have occurred over the last four decades in Japan. Disagreements in debates on abortion in Japan have often revolved around the concept of self-determination (jiko-kettei). These debates usually focus on whether this 'foreign' concept is appropriate in a Japanese context, as the dominant Japanese discourse stereotypes the Japanese as making decisions in a harmonious manner. Both in public debates and in academic writing on abortion, the idea that the West is devoid of harmonious collectivism is often presented in an uncritical manner. In this article, we argue that the notion of 'self-determination' is borrowed from 'reverse Orientalist' and Occidentalist discourses that portray Westerners as individualistic or ego-centric and the Japanese as collectivist. The concept of 'self-determination' was remolded and projected onto Japanese public and academic debates on abortion. The relevance of this concept lies in the ways in which dichotomous views of 'Japan as harmonious' versus 'the West as individualistic' influence guidelines concerning prenatal testing and its daily practice. By critically analyzing the narratives of policy-makers and academic studies on self-determination and prenatal testing, this study traces these polarizing views back to the processes of national identity formation. These processes underlie political debates and academic work associated with the search for 'Japanese-ness'. This article further demonstrates that policy-makers' criticism of self-determination in prenatal testing derives from gender bias, which is also related to issues of Japanese identity. This article is based on both archival and field research materials collected between 1997 and 2008. We also refer to interviews with medical doctors, policy-makers, journalists, counselors, nurses, participants in various social movements and individuals undergoing prenatal testing, taken from a total of 180 interviews. PMID:21803467

  14. THE ROLE OF CORE MASS IN CONTROLLING EVAPORATION: THE KEPLER RADIUS DISTRIBUTION AND THE KEPLER-36 DENSITY DICHOTOMY

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Eric D.; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2013-10-10

    We use models of coupled thermal evolution and photo-evaporative mass loss to understand the formation and evolution of the Kepler-36 system. We show that the large contrast in mean planetary density observed by Carter et al. can be explained as a natural consequence of photo-evaporation from planets that formed with similar initial compositions. However, rather than being due to differences in XUV irradiation between the planets, we find that this contrast is due to the difference in the masses of the planets' rock/iron cores and the impact that this has on mass-loss evolution. We explore in detail how our coupled models depend on irradiation, mass, age, composition, and the efficiency of mass loss. Based on fits to large numbers of coupled evolution and mass-loss runs, we provide analytic fits to understand threshold XUV fluxes for significant atmospheric loss, as a function of core mass and mass-loss efficiency. Finally we discuss these results in the context of recent studies of the radius distribution of Kepler candidates. Using our parameter study, we make testable predictions for the frequency of sub-Neptune-sized planets. We show that 1.8-4.0 R{sub ?} planets should become significantly less common on orbits within 10 days and discuss the possibility of a narrow 'occurrence valley' in the radius-flux distribution. Moreover, we describe how photo-evaporation provides a natural explanation for the recent observations of Ciardi et al. that inner planets are preferentially smaller within the systems.

  15. Jargonial-Obfuscation(J-O) DISambiguation Elimination via Siegel-Baez Cognition Category-Semantics(C-S) in Siegel FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS (Son of TRIZ)/(F=C) Tabular List-Format Dichotomy Truth-Table Matrix Analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Carl Ludwig; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    NOT "philosophy" per se but raising serious salient Arnol'd [Huygens and Barrow, Newton and Hooke(96)] questions begged is Rota empiricism Husserl VS. Frege maths-objects Dichotomy controversy: Hill-Haddock[Husserl or Frege?(00)]as manifestly-demonstrated by Hintikka[B.U.]-Critchey[Derrida Deconstruction Ethics(78)] deconstruction; Altshuler TRIZ; Siegel F=C/C-S; Siegel-Baez(UCR) Cognition C-S = "Category-theory ``+'' Cognitive-Semantics[Wierzbica-Langacker-Lakoff-Nunez[Where Maths Comes From(00)]-Fauconnier-Turner[Blending(98)]-Coulson[Semantic-Leaps (00)

  16. The Land Use and Land Cover Dichotomy: A Comparison of Two Land Classification Systems in Support of Urban Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAllister, William K.

    2003-01-01

    One is likely to read the terms 'land use' and 'land cover' in the same sentence, yet these concepts have different origins and different applications. Land cover is typically analyzed by earth scientists working with remotely sensed images. Land use is typically studied by urban planners who must prescribe solutions that could prevent future problems. This apparent dichotomy has led to different classification systems for land-based data. The works of earth scientists and urban planning practitioners are beginning to come together in the field of spatial analysis and in their common use of new spatial analysis technology. In this context, the technology can stimulate a common 'language' that allows a broader sharing of ideas. The increasing amount of land use and land cover change challenges the various efforts to classify in ways that are efficient, effective, and agreeable to all groups of users. If land cover and land uses can be identified by remote methods using aerial photography and satellites, then these ways are more efficient than field surveys of the same area. New technology, such as high-resolution satellite sensors, and new methods, such as more refined algorithms for image interpretation, are providing refined data to better identify the actual cover and apparent use of land, thus effectiveness is improved. However, the closer together and the more vertical the land uses are, the more difficult the task of identification is, and the greater is the need to supplement remotely sensed data with field study (in situ). Thus, a number of land classification methods were developed in order to organize the greatly expanding volume of data on land characteristics in ways useful to different groups. This paper distinguishes two land based classification systems, one developed primarily for remotely sensed data, and the other, a more comprehensive system requiring in situ collection methods. The intent is to look at how the two systems developed and how they can work together so that land based information can be shared among different users and compared over time.

  17. Non-cell-autonomous rescue of anaphase-promoting complex function revealed by mosaic analysis of HOBBIT, an Arabidopsis CDC27 homolog

    PubMed Central

    Serralbo, Olivier; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Heidstra, Renze; Scheres, Ben

    2006-01-01

    The Arabidopsis HOBBIT (HBT) gene encodes a homolog of the CDC27 anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome subunit and is essential for postembryonic development. We induced loss-of-function clones by Cre/lox-mediated recombination of a single complementing HBT transgene in a background homozygous for the strong mutant allele hbt2311. Defects in cell division and cell expansion are the primary consequences of ubiquitous postembryonic HBT excision. In roots, both cell division and cell expansion are rapidly affected. In contrast, in leaf primordia, cell division and cell expansion halt after a lag phase, which results in different severities of defects in the proximodistal and mediolateral axes. Surprisingly, small clones reveal non-cell-autonomous rescue of hbt mutant cells, indicating a previously unrecognized compensation mechanism for reduced activity of an anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome component critical for cell cycle progression. PMID:16938844

  18. Evidence of stratabound liquefaction in the formation of fractured topographic margins, cone chains and pit catenas along the Martian Dichotomy Boundary and in Isidis Planitia, Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, C.; Balme, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    On the low-lying plains along much of the Martian Dichotomy Boundary (MDB) and in the Isidis impact basin, cones and curving chains of cones, referred to as thumbprint terrain (TPT), are common. In the same settings, pit chains (catenas) occur in orthogonal to curving and conchoidal fracture sets between mesa-like crustal blocks, generally at or near topographic margins. Many of the fractures consist of linked pits rather than simple propagated cracks. These assemblages are often associated with the more disaggregated populations of blocks comprising chaos terrain. We show that the local planimetric arrangement of the cone chains, fractures and pit catenas is strikingly similar in both shape and scale, including lateral separation, length, longitudinal slope and radius of curvature. The summits of cones tend to be closely accordant along individual cone chains. Neighbouring cone chains tend to be mutually accordant on low gradient basin surfaces but generally stepped en echelon closer to the fractured basin margins. Similarly, the crustal blocks (including very isolated block sets) are often mutually stepped, and fractures between these en echelon blocks tend to be very close to horizontal. Hence, many cone chains, fractures and pit catenas in fractures share the property of being arranged along strike. They diverge morphologically by the cone chains being positive forms separated by narrow gulfs but the pit catenas being negative forms separated by planar blocks. All of these characteristics point to the possibility that the arcuate cone chains and the arcuate pit catenas have a common origin. In particular, we hypothesise that the cone chains characteristic of TPT along the MDB and in Isidis are filled, indurated and then exhumed pit catenas revealed by the stripping-away of intervening blocks [cf. 1]. Many other surfaces on Mars are pervaded by pits and pit catenas, with evidence of former water flow through the catenas suggesting that ground-ice thaw played a role in at least one mode of catena formation [2]. As well as presenting the morphological evidence for a genetic association between TPT and pit catenas, we present corroborative evidence that fluvial channel networks on Mars have in places increased in complexity through the linking of pits arranged in linear to arcuate arrays, culminating in a pseudo-branching channel network. Such systems do not occur at topographic margins and did not disintegrate into stepped crustal blocks. However, the scale of these channels and the volumes of liquid intermittently impounded in craters along these channel systems indicate that pit chains are associated with significant excess groundwater production leading to channelized flow, including catastrophic discharges when crater-impounded lakes along-flow were breached. Are the MDB and Isidis cone chains exhumed pit catenas and are the pits the surface expression of more deep-seated conduits? Do pit catenas indicate excess pore-water production, sufficient to link individual pits and dissect crustal blocks? Together, do these assemblages reflect the degradation of the MDB and Isidis margins and the subsequent stripping of adjacent low-lying plains? The crucial observations presented in this research (cone chains lying between crustal blocks, together with the morphometric similarities) are consistent with the interpretation of the cones and catenas having a common origin. Consequently, we hypothesise that the translated, back-rotated, tilted and capsized disposition of en echelon blocks is very reminiscent of the morphology produced during lateral spreading [3] associated with stratabound liquefaction below a low-gradient, rigid, insensitive surface. Significantly, such liquefaction events cause extensive, arcuate ground fractures along with the discharge of sediment-laden groundwater from the liquefiable substratum to the surface through pipes and conical boils confined within inter-block fractures. These conduits and their injectite are frequently indurated by secondary mineralisation, often making them more competent and le

  19. Effects of virtual reality programs on balance in functional ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Jong; Heo, Myoung

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to identify the impact that recent virtual reality training programs used in a variety of fields have had on the ankle's static and dynamic senses of balance among subjects with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] This study randomly divided research subjects into two groups, a strengthening exercise group (Group I) and a balance exercise group (Group II), with each group consisting of 10 people. A virtual reality program was performed three times a week for four weeks. Exercises from the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus program were applied to each group for twenty minutes along with ten minutes of warming up and wrap-up exercises. [Results] Group II showed a significant decrease of post-intervention static and dynamic balance overall in the anterior-posterior, and mediolateral directions, compared with the pre-intervention test results. In comparison of post-intervention static and dynamic balance between Group I and Group II, a significant decrease was observed overall. [Conclusion] Virtual reality programs improved the static balance and dynamic balance of subjects with functional ankle instability. Virtual reality programs can be used more safely and efficiently if they are implemented under appropriate monitoring by a physiotherapist. PMID:26644652

  20. Effects of virtual reality programs on balance in functional ankle instability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Jong; Heo, Myoung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to identify the impact that recent virtual reality training programs used in a variety of fields have had on the ankle’s static and dynamic senses of balance among subjects with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] This study randomly divided research subjects into two groups, a strengthening exercise group (Group I) and a balance exercise group (Group II), with each group consisting of 10 people. A virtual reality program was performed three times a week for four weeks. Exercises from the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus program were applied to each group for twenty minutes along with ten minutes of warming up and wrap-up exercises. [Results] Group II showed a significant decrease of post-intervention static and dynamic balance overall in the anterior-posterior, and mediolateral directions, compared with the pre-intervention test results. In comparison of post-intervention static and dynamic balance between Group I and Group II, a significant decrease was observed overall. [Conclusion] Virtual reality programs improved the static balance and dynamic balance of subjects with functional ankle instability. Virtual reality programs can be used more safely and efficiently if they are implemented under appropriate monitoring by a physiotherapist. PMID:26644652

  1. Relationship between static postural control and the level of functional abilities in children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Pavão, Sílvia L.; Nunes, Gabriela S.; Santos, Adriana N.; Rocha, Nelci A. C. F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postural control deficits can impair functional performance in children with cerebral palsy (CP) in daily living activities. Objective: To verify the relationship between standing static postural control and the functional ability level in children with CP. Method: The postural control of 10 children with CP (gross motor function levels I and II) was evaluated during static standing on a force platform for 30 seconds. The analyzed variables were the anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) displacement of the center of pressure (CoP) and the area and velocity of the CoP oscillation. The functional abilities were evaluated using the mean Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) scores, which evaluated self-care, mobility and social function in the domains of functional abilities and caregiver assistance. Results: Spearman's correlation test found a relationship between postural control and functional abilities. The results showed a strong negative correlation between the variables of ML displacement of CoP, the area and velocity of the CoP oscillation and the PEDI scores in the self-care and caregiver assistance domains. Additionally, a moderate negative correlation was found between the area of the CoP oscillation and the mobility scores in the caregiver assistance domain. We used a significance level of 5% (p <0.05). Conclusions: We observed that children with cerebral palsy with high CoP oscillation values had lower caregiver assistance scores for activities of daily living (ADL) and consequently higher levels of caregiver dependence. These results demonstrate the repercussions of impairments to the body structure and function in terms of the activity levels of children with CP such that postural control impairments in these children lead to higher requirements for caregiver assistance. PMID:25054383

  2. Physics Proofs of Four Millennium-Problems(MP) via CATEGORY-SEMANTICS(C-S)/F=C Aristotle SQUARE-of-OPPOSITION(SoO) DEduction-LOGIC DichotomY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, L.; Siegel, E.

    2010-03-01

    Siegel-Baez C-S/F=C tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics SoO jargonial-obfuscation elimination query WHAT? yields four ``pure''-maths MP ``Feet of Clay!!!'' proofs:(1)Siegel [AMS Natl.Mtg.(2002)-Abs.#:973-03-126:(@CCNY;1964!!!)<<<(1994; Wiles)]Fermat's: Last-Theorem = Least-Action Principle; (2) P=/=NP TRIVIAL simple Euclid geometry/dimensions: NO computer anything;``Feet of Clay!!!''; (3)Birch-Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture; (4)Riemann-hypotheses via combination of: Siegel [AMS Natl.Mtg. (2002)-Abs.#:973-60-124 digits logarithmic-law simple algebraic- inversion to ONLY BEQS with ONLY zero-digit BEC, AND Rayleigh [(1870);graph-theory ``short-CUT method''[Doyle- Snell,Random- Walks & Electric-Networks,MAA(1981)]-``Anderson'' [PRL(1958)] critical-strip 1/2 complex-plane localization!!! SoO DichotomY (``v'') IdentitY: numbers(Euler v Bernoulli) = (Sets v Multisets) = Quantum-Statistics(F.-D. v B.-E.) = Power- Spectra(1/f^(0) v 1/f^(1.000...) = Conic-Sections(Ellipse v (Parabola) v Hyperbola) = Extent(Locality v Globality); Siegel [MRS Fractals Symp.(1989)](so MIScalled)``complexity'' as UTTER- SIMPLICITY (!!!) v COMPLICATEDNESS MEASURE(S) definition.

  3. Physics Proofs of Four Millennium-Problems(MP) via CATEGORY-SEMANTICS(C-S)/F=C Aristotle SQUARE-of-OPPOSITION(SoO) DEduction-LOGIC DichotomY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, London; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    Siegel-Baez Cognitive-Category-Semantics"(C-C-S) tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics SoO jargonial-obfuscation elimination query WHAT? yields four "pure"-maths MP "Feet of Clay!!!" proofs: (1) Siegel [AMS Natl.Mtg.(02)-Abs.973-03-126: (CCNY;64)(94;Wiles)] Fermat's: Last-Thm. = Least-Action Ppl.; (2) P=/=NP TRIVIAL simple Euclid geometry/dimensions: NO computer anything"Feet of Clay!!!"; (3) Birch-Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture; (4) Riemann-hypotheses via COMBO.: Siegel[AMS Natl.Mtg.(02)-Abs.973-60-124] digits log-law inversion to ONLY BEQS with ONLY zero-digit BEC, AND Rayleigh[1870;graph-thy."short-CUT method"[Doyle-Snell, Random-Walks & Electric-Nets,MAA(81)]-"Anderson"[(58)] critical-strip C-localization!!! SoO DichotomY ("V") IdentitY: #s:(Euler v Bernoulli) = (Sets v Multisets) = Quantum-Statistics(FD v BE) = Power-Spectra(1/f(0) v 1/f(1)) = Conic-Sections(Ellipse v Hyperbola) = Extent(Locality v Globality);Siegel[(89)] (so MIScalled) "complexity" as UTTER-SIMPLICITY(!!!) v COMPLICATEDNESS MEASURE(S) definition.

  4. Functioning Hardware Functional Specifications

    E-print Network

    Cores. ASPLOS 2010. #12;Bacon et al.'s Liquid Metal Fig. 2. Block level diagram of DES and Lime code, Liquid Metal, ECOOP 2008. #12;What are we doing about it? #12;Functional Programs to FPGAs #12;Functional

  5. Morphological and functional changes in the vertebral column with increasing aquatic adaptation in crocodylomorphs

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Julia L.; Pierce, Stephanie E.; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S.; Turner, Alan H.; Hutchinson, John R.

    2015-01-01

    The lineage leading to modern Crocodylia has undergone dramatic evolutionary changes in morphology, ecology and locomotion over the past 200+?Myr. These functional innovations may be explained in part by morphological changes in the axial skeleton, which is an integral part of the vertebrate locomotor system. Our objective was to estimate changes in osteological range of motion (RoM) and intervertebral joint stiffness of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae with increasing aquatic adaptation in crocodylomorphs. Using three-dimensional virtual models and morphometrics, we compared the modern crocodile Crocodylus to five extinct crocodylomorphs: Terrestrisuchus, Protosuchus, Pelagosaurus, Steneosaurus and Metriorhynchus, which span the spectrum from terrestrial to fully aquatic. In Crocodylus, we also experimentally measured changes in trunk flexibility with sequential removal of osteoderms and soft tissues. Our results for the more aquatic species matched our predictions fairly well, but those for the more terrestrial early crocodylomorphs did not. A likely explanation for this lack of correspondence is the influence of other axial structures, particularly the rigid series of dorsal osteoderms in early crocodylomorphs. The most important structures for determining RoM and stiffness of the trunk in Crocodylus were different in dorsoventral versus mediolateral bending, suggesting that changes in osteoderm and rib morphology over crocodylomorph evolution would have affected movements in some directions more than others. PMID:26716001

  6. Morphological and functional changes in the vertebral column with increasing aquatic adaptation in crocodylomorphs.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Julia L; Pierce, Stephanie E; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S; Turner, Alan H; Hutchinson, John R

    2015-11-01

    The lineage leading to modern Crocodylia has undergone dramatic evolutionary changes in morphology, ecology and locomotion over the past 200+?Myr. These functional innovations may be explained in part by morphological changes in the axial skeleton, which is an integral part of the vertebrate locomotor system. Our objective was to estimate changes in osteological range of motion (RoM) and intervertebral joint stiffness of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae with increasing aquatic adaptation in crocodylomorphs. Using three-dimensional virtual models and morphometrics, we compared the modern crocodile Crocodylus to five extinct crocodylomorphs: Terrestrisuchus, Protosuchus, Pelagosaurus, Steneosaurus and Metriorhynchus, which span the spectrum from terrestrial to fully aquatic. In Crocodylus, we also experimentally measured changes in trunk flexibility with sequential removal of osteoderms and soft tissues. Our results for the more aquatic species matched our predictions fairly well, but those for the more terrestrial early crocodylomorphs did not. A likely explanation for this lack of correspondence is the influence of other axial structures, particularly the rigid series of dorsal osteoderms in early crocodylomorphs. The most important structures for determining RoM and stiffness of the trunk in Crocodylus were different in dorsoventral versus mediolateral bending, suggesting that changes in osteoderm and rib morphology over crocodylomorph evolution would have affected movements in some directions more than others. PMID:26716001

  7. Morphology and behaviour: functional links in development and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Bertossa, Rinaldo C.

    2011-01-01

    Development and evolution of animal behaviour and morphology are frequently addressed independently, as reflected in the dichotomy of disciplines dedicated to their study distinguishing object of study (morphology versus behaviour) and perspective (ultimate versus proximate). Although traits are known to develop and evolve semi-independently, they are matched together in development and evolution to produce a unique functional phenotype. Here I highlight similarities shared by both traits, such as the decisive role played by the environment for their ontogeny. Considering the widespread developmental and functional entanglement between both traits, many cases of adaptive evolution are better understood when proximate and ultimate explanations are integrated. A field integrating these perspectives is evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), which studies the developmental basis of phenotypic diversity. Ultimate aspects in evo-devo studies—which have mostly focused on morphological traits—could become more apparent when behaviour, ‘the integrator of form and function’, is integrated into the same framework of analysis. Integrating a trait such as behaviour at a different level in the biological hierarchy will help to better understand not only how behavioural diversity is produced, but also how levels are connected to produce functional phenotypes and how these evolve. A possible framework to accommodate and compare form and function at different levels of the biological hierarchy is outlined. At the end, some methodological issues are discussed. PMID:21690124

  8. Vascular smooth muscle phenotypic diversity and function

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The control of force production in vascular smooth muscle is critical to the normal regulation of blood flow and pressure, and altered regulation is common to diseases such as hypertension, heart failure, and ischemia. A great deal has been learned about imbalances in vasoconstrictor and vasodilator signals, e.g., angiotensin, endothelin, norepinephrine, and nitric oxide, that regulate vascular tone in normal and disease contexts. In contrast there has been limited study of how the phenotypic state of the vascular smooth muscle cell may influence the contractile response to these signaling pathways dependent upon the developmental, tissue-specific (vascular bed) or disease context. Smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle lineages are traditionally classified into fast or slow sublineages based on rates of contraction and relaxation, recognizing that this simple dichotomy vastly underrepresents muscle phenotypic diversity. A great deal has been learned about developmental specification of the striated muscle sublineages and their phenotypic interconversions in the mature animal under the control of mechanical load, neural input, and hormones. In contrast there has been relatively limited study of smooth muscle contractile phenotypic diversity. This is surprising given the number of diseases in which smooth muscle contractile dysfunction plays a key role. This review focuses on smooth muscle contractile phenotypic diversity in the vascular system, how it is generated, and how it may determine vascular function in developmental and disease contexts. PMID:20736412

  9. Cellular Dichotomy Between Anchorage-Independent Growth Responses to bFGF and TA Reflects Molecular Switch in Commitment to Carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, Katrina M.; Tan, Ruimin; Opresko, Lee K.; Quesenberry, Ryan D.; Bandyopadhyay, Somnath; Chrisler, William B.; Weber, Thomas J.

    2009-11-01

    We have investigated gene expression patterns underlying reversible and irreversible anchorage-independent growth (AIG) phenotypes to identify more sensitive markers of cell transformation for studies directed at interrogating carcinogenesis responses. In JB6 mouse epidermal cells, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induces an unusually efficient and reversible AIG response, relative to 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced AIG which is irreversible. The reversible and irreversible AIG phenotypes are characterized by largely non-overlapping global gene expression profiles. However, a subset of differentially expressed genes were identified as common to reversible and irreversible AIG phenotypes, including genes regulated in a reciprocal fashion. Hepatic leukemia factor (HLF) and D-site albumin promoter-binding protein (DBP) were increased in both bFGF and TPA soft agar colonies and selected for functional validation. Ectopic expression of human HLF and DBP in JB6 cells resulted in a marked increase in TPA- and bFGF-regulated AIG responses. HLF and DBP expression were increased in soft agar colonies arising from JB6 cells exposed to gamma radiation and in a human basal cell carcinoma tumor tissue, relative to paired non-tumor tissue. Subsequent biological network analysis suggests that many of the differentially expressed genes that are common to bFGF- and TPA-dependent AIG are regulated by c-Myc, SP-1 and HNF-4 transcription factors. Collectively, we have identified a potential molecular switch that mediates the transition from reversible to irreversible AIG.

  10. Molecular insights into NF2/Merlin tumor suppressor function

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jonathan; Giancotti, Filippo G.

    2014-01-01

    The FERM domain protein Merlin, encoded by the NF2 tumor suppressor gene, regulates cell proliferation in response to adhesive signaling. The growth inhibitory function of Merlin is induced by intercellular adhesion and inactivated by joint integrin/receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. Merlin contributes to the formation of cell junctions in polarized tissues, activates anti-mitogenic signaling at tight-junctions, and inhibits oncogenic gene expression. Thus, inactivation of Merlin causes uncontrolled mitogenic signaling and tumorigenesis. Merlin's predominant tumor suppressive functions are attributable to its control of oncogenic gene expression through regulation of Hippo signaling. Notably, Merlin translocates to the nucleus where it directly inhibits the CRL4DCAF1 E3 ubiquitin ligase, thereby suppressing inhibition of the Lats kinases. A dichotomy in NF2 function has emerged whereby Merlin acts at the cell cortex to organize cell junctions and propagate anti-mitogenic signaling, whereas it inhibits oncogenic gene expression through the inhibition of CRL4DCAF1 and activation of Hippo signaling. The biochemical events underlying Merlin's normal function and tumor suppressive activity will be discussed in this Review, with emphasis on recent discoveries that have greatly influenced our understanding of Merlin biology. PMID:24726726

  11. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the rat cerebellum during electrical stimulation of the fore- and hindpaw at 7 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeters, Ronald; Verhoye, Marleen; Vos, Bart; De Schutter, Erik; Van der Linden, Anne-Marie

    1999-05-01

    Blood oxygenation level dependent contrast (BOLD) functional MRI responses at 7T were observed in the cerebellum of alpha- chloralose anesthetized rats in response to innocuous electrical stimulation of a forepaw or hindpaw. The responses were imaged in both coronal and sagittal slices which allowed for a clear delineation and localization of the observed activations. We demonstrate the validity of our fMRI protocol by imaging the responses in somatosensory cortex to the same stimuli and by showing a high level of reproducibility of the cerebellar responses. Widespread bilateral activations were found with mainly a patchy and medio-lateral band organization, more pronounced ipsilaterally. There was no overlap between the cerebellar activations caused by forepaw or hindpaw stimulation. Most remarkable was the overall horizontal organization of these responses: for both stimulation paradigms the patches and bands of activation were roughly positioned in either a cranial or caudal plane running antero-posteriorly through the whole cerebellum. This is the first fMRI study in the cerebellum of the rat. We relate our findings to the known projection patterns found with other techniques and to human fMRI studies. The horizontal organization found wasn't observed before in other studies using other techniques.

  12. Using Low Levels of Stochastic Vestibular Stimulation to Improve Balance Function

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Rahul; Kofman, Igor; Jeevarajan, Jerome; De Dios, Yiri; Cohen, Helen S.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.

    2015-01-01

    Low-level stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) has been associated with improved postural responses in the medio-lateral (ML) direction, but its effect in improving balance function in both the ML and anterior-posterior (AP) directions has not been studied. In this series of studies, the efficacy of applying low amplitude SVS in 0–30 Hz range between the mastoids in the ML direction on improving cross-planar balance function was investigated. Forty-five (45) subjects stood on a compliant surface with their eyes closed and were instructed to maintain a stable upright stance. Measures of stability of the head, trunk, and whole body were quantified in ML, AP and combined APML directions. Results show that binaural bipolar SVS given in the ML direction significantly improved balance performance with the peak of optimal stimulus amplitude predominantly in the range of 100–500 ?A for all the three directions, exhibiting stochastic resonance (SR) phenomenon. Objective perceptual and body motion thresholds as estimates of internal noise while subjects sat on a chair with their eyes closed and were given 1 Hz bipolar binaural sinusoidal electrical stimuli were also measured. In general, there was no significant difference between estimates of perceptual and body motion thresholds. The average optimal SVS amplitude that improved balance performance (peak SVS amplitude normalized to perceptual threshold) was estimated to be 46% in ML, 53% in AP, and 50% in APML directions. A miniature patch-type SVS device may be useful to improve balance function in people with disabilities due to aging, Parkinson’s disease or in astronauts returning from long-duration space flight. PMID:26295807

  13. Molybdenum Nucleosynthetic Dichotomy Revealed in Primitive Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauphas, N.; Marty, B.; Reisberg, L.

    2002-04-01

    The collapse of the presolar cloud gave rise to a global homogenization of material available to form the Sun and planets. In the resulting, presumably homogeneous solar system, the nuclides are present in proportions referred to as their cosmic abundances. Here we report molybdenum isotopic compositions of bulk samples and leachate fractions of the primitive meteorites Orgueil and Allende. Two complementary nucleosynthetic components are revealed in Orgueil. One (Mo-m) is enriched in s-process nuclides and may be hosted in presolar grains while the other (Mo-w) is probably distributed in various phases and is depleted in s-process nuclides. The most likely carrier of Mo-m is silicon carbide, although we cannot exclude graphite or an unidentified presolar phase. Excesses in Mo-w are also detected in the bulk sample and all leachate fractions of Allende. These results illustrate that the apparent cosmic abundance pattern of the nuclides, in fact, reflects a mixture of various nucleosynthetic components that survived planetary-scale homogenization in the protosolar nebula.

  14. Returners and explorers dichotomy in human mobility.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Luca; Simini, Filippo; Rinzivillo, Salvatore; Pedreschi, Dino; Giannotti, Fosca; Barabási, Albert-László

    2015-01-01

    The availability of massive digital traces of human whereabouts has offered a series of novel insights on the quantitative patterns characterizing human mobility. In particular, numerous recent studies have lead to an unexpected consensus: the considerable variability in the characteristic travelled distance of individuals coexists with a high degree of predictability of their future locations. Here we shed light on this surprising coexistence by systematically investigating the impact of recurrent mobility on the characteristic distance travelled by individuals. Using both mobile phone and GPS data, we discover the existence of two distinct classes of individuals: returners and explorers. As existing models of human mobility cannot explain the existence of these two classes, we develop more realistic models able to capture the empirical findings. Finally, we show that returners and explorers play a distinct quantifiable role in spreading phenomena and that a correlation exists between their mobility patterns and social interactions. PMID:26349016

  15. Zeno's Dichotomy: Undermining The Modern Response

    E-print Network

    Groarke, Leo

    's Paper," contained in Wesley Salmon (editor), Zeno 1s Paradoxes (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1970). "Paul Benacerraf, "Tasks, Super-Tasks, and the Modern Eleatics," contained in Salmon (editor), Zeno's Paradoxes. "See Hilary Putnam, "The Thesis... of infinite sequences of acts adopted by philosophers like Grünbaum, Vlastos, Putnam, 1 7 and Boolos and Jeffrey.1' If the position I argue for is correct however, then all of these philosophers--and philosophers (like C. D. Broad1* and Philip Jones) 2...

  16. Returners and explorers dichotomy in human mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Luca; Simini, Filippo; Rinzivillo, Salvatore; Pedreschi, Dino; Giannotti, Fosca; Barabási, Albert-László

    2015-09-01

    The availability of massive digital traces of human whereabouts has offered a series of novel insights on the quantitative patterns characterizing human mobility. In particular, numerous recent studies have lead to an unexpected consensus: the considerable variability in the characteristic travelled distance of individuals coexists with a high degree of predictability of their future locations. Here we shed light on this surprising coexistence by systematically investigating the impact of recurrent mobility on the characteristic distance travelled by individuals. Using both mobile phone and GPS data, we discover the existence of two distinct classes of individuals: returners and explorers. As existing models of human mobility cannot explain the existence of these two classes, we develop more realistic models able to capture the empirical findings. Finally, we show that returners and explorers play a distinct quantifiable role in spreading phenomena and that a correlation exists between their mobility patterns and social interactions.

  17. Returners and explorers dichotomy in human mobility

    PubMed Central

    Pappalardo, Luca; Simini, Filippo; Rinzivillo, Salvatore; Pedreschi, Dino; Giannotti, Fosca; Barabási, Albert-László

    2015-01-01

    The availability of massive digital traces of human whereabouts has offered a series of novel insights on the quantitative patterns characterizing human mobility. In particular, numerous recent studies have lead to an unexpected consensus: the considerable variability in the characteristic travelled distance of individuals coexists with a high degree of predictability of their future locations. Here we shed light on this surprising coexistence by systematically investigating the impact of recurrent mobility on the characteristic distance travelled by individuals. Using both mobile phone and GPS data, we discover the existence of two distinct classes of individuals: returners and explorers. As existing models of human mobility cannot explain the existence of these two classes, we develop more realistic models able to capture the empirical findings. Finally, we show that returners and explorers play a distinct quantifiable role in spreading phenomena and that a correlation exists between their mobility patterns and social interactions. PMID:26349016

  18. Functional aspects of metatarsal head shape in humans, apes, and Old World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Peter J; Almécija, Sergio; Patel, Biren A; Orr, Caley M; Tocheri, Matthew W; Jungers, William L

    2015-09-01

    Modern human metatarsal heads are typically described as "dorsally domed," mediolaterally wide, and dorsally flat. Despite the apparent functional importance of these features in forefoot stability during bipedalism, the distinctiveness of this morphology has not been quantitatively evaluated within a broad comparative framework. In order to use these features to reconstruct fossil hominin locomotor behaviors with any confidence, their connection to human bipedalism should be validated through a comparative analysis of other primates with different locomotor behaviors and foot postures, including species with biomechanical demands potentially similar to those of bipedalism (e.g., terrestrial digitigrady). This study explores shape variation in the distal metatarsus among humans and other extant catarrhines using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics (3 DGM). Shape differences among species in metatarsal head morphology are well captured by the first two principal components of Procrustes shape coordinates, and these two components summarize most of the variance related to "dorsal doming" and "dorsal expansion." Multivariate statistical tests reveal significant differences among clades in overall shape, and humans are reliably distinguishable from other species by aspects of shape related to a greater degree of dorsal doming. Within quadrupeds, terrestrial species also trend toward more domed metatarsal heads, but not to the extent seen in humans. Certain aspects of distal metatarsus shape are likely related to habitual dorsiflexion of the metatarsophalangeal joints, but the total morphological pattern seen in humans is distinct. These comparative results indicate that this geometric morphometric approach is useful to characterize the complexity of metatarsal head morphology and will help clarify its relationship with function in fossil primates, including early hominins. PMID:26276534

  19. Functional Centering Michael Strube & Udo Hahn

    E-print Network

    ~ (1974a). He distinguishes between two cru- cial dichotomies, viz. given information vs. new infor- mation (constituting the information structure of ut- terances) on the one hand, and theme vs. rheme of these terms: "[...] while given means what you were talking about (or what I was talking about before), theme

  20. Steady-state probability density function of the phase error for a DPLL with an integrate-and-dump device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M.; Mileant, A.

    1986-01-01

    The steady-state behavior of a particular type of digital phase-locked loop (DPLL) with an integrate-and-dump circuit following the phase detector is characterized in terms of the probability density function (pdf) of the phase error in the loop. Although the loop is entirely digital from an implementation standpoint, it operates at two extremely different sampling rates. In particular, the combination of a phase detector and an integrate-and-dump circuit operates at a very high rate whereas the loop update rate is very slow by comparison. Because of this dichotomy, the loop can be analyzed by hybrid analog/digital (s/z domain) techniques. The loop is modeled in such a general fashion that previous analyses of the Real-Time Combiner (RTC), Subcarrier Demodulator Assembly (SDA), and Symbol Synchronization Assembly (SSA) fall out as special cases.

  1. Organization of functional postural responses following perturbations in multiple directions in elderly fallers standing quietly.

    PubMed

    Matja?i?, Zlatko; Sok, David; Jakovljevi?, Miroljub; Cikajlo, Imre

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the study was to assess functional postural responses by analyzing the center-of-pressure trajectories resulting from perturbations delivered in multiple directions to elderly fallers. Ten elderly individuals were standing quietly on two force platforms while an apparatus delivered controlled perturbations at the level of pelvis in eight directions: 'forward (FW)' and 'backward (BW)' [anterioposterior plane (AP)], 'left (LT)' and 'right (RT)' [mediolateral plane (ML)] and four combinations of these principal directions: forward-left (FL), forward-right (FR), backward-left (BL) and backward-right (BR). Perturbations were repeated randomly four times in each direction. Peak amplitude responses (PAR AP and PAR ML) and times to reach peak amplitude responses (TPAR-AP and TPAR-ML) were extracted for each perturbation direction from acquired center-of-pressure data. One-way analysis of variance was used to test differences between directionally-similar perturbation directions. Balance abilities were assessed by means of Berg Balance Scale. Average Berg Balance Scale for the group resulted in 33.9±5.8 points, which means that the participants were at greater risk of fall. The comparison of the group averaged PARAP and TPAR-AP in all 'forward' directions (FW, FL, FR) as well in all 'backward' directions (BW, BL, BR) have not shown statistically significant differences. The comparison of the group averaged PARML and TPAR-ML in all 'left' directions (LT, FL, BL) as well in all 'right' directions (RT, FR, BR) have not shown statistically significant differences. These results suggest that a principle of decoupled control may to a large extent be preserved also in elderly with clearly diminished balancing abilities, which implies that the accuracy in the assessment of perturbation direction may be well preserved also in very old age. PMID:23011109

  2. Lower-limb amputee ankle and hip kinetic response to an imposed error in mediolateral foot placement.

    PubMed

    Segal, Ava D; Shofer, Jane B; Klute, Glenn K

    2015-11-26

    Maintaining balance while walking is challenging for lower limb amputees. The effect of prosthetic foot stiffness on recovery kinetics from an error in foot placement may inform prescription practice and lead to new interventions designed to improve balance. Ten unilateral transtibial amputees were fit with two prosthetic feet with different stiffness properties in random order. After a 3-week acclimation period, they returned to the lab for testing before switching feet. Twelve non-amputees also participated in a single data collection. While walking on an instrumented treadmill, we imposed a repeatable, unexpected medial or lateral disturbance in foot placement by releasing a burst of air at the ankle just before heel strike. Three-dimensional motion capture, ground reaction force and center of pressure (COP) data were collected for two steps prior, the disturbed step and three steps after the disturbance. During undisturbed walking, coronal ankle impulse was lower by 42% for amputees wearing a stiff compared to a compliant foot (p=0.017); however, across steps, both prosthetic recovery patterns were similar compared to the sound limb and non-amputees. Peak coronal hip moment was 15-20% lower for both foot types during undisturbed walking (p<0.001), with less change in response to the medial disturbance (p<0.001) compared to the sound limb and non-amputees. Amputee prosthetic COP excursion was unaffected by the disturbance (2.4% change) compared to the sound limb (59% change; p<0.001) and non-amputees (55% change; p<0.001). These findings imply that a prosthetic foot-ankle system able to contribute to ankle kinetics may improve walking balance among amputees. PMID:26475221

  3. Dark-Adaptation Functions in Molecularly Confirmed Achromatopsia and the Implications for Assessment in Retinal Therapy Trials

    PubMed Central

    Aboshiha, Jonathan; Luong, Vy; Cowing, Jill; Dubis, Adam M.; Bainbridge, James W.; Ali, Robin R.; Webster, Andrew R.; Moore, Anthony T.; Fitzke, Frederick W.; Michaelides, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the dark-adaptation (DA) functions in subjects with molecularly proven achromatopsia (ACHM) using refined testing conditions with a view to guiding assessment in forthcoming gene therapy trials. Methods. The DA functions of nine subjects with ACHM were measured and compared with those of normal observers. The size and retinal location of the stimuli used to measure DA sensitivities were varied in four distinct testing condition sets, and the effect of altering these parameters assessed. Results. In three of the four testing condition sets, achromats had significantly higher mean final thresholds than normal observers, whereas in the fourth condition set they did not. A larger, more central stimulus revealed the greatest difference between the final DA thresholds of achromat and normal subjects, and also demonstrated the slowest rate of recovery among the achromat group. Conclusions. In this, the largest study of DA functions in molecularly proven ACHM to date, we have identified optimal testing conditions that accentuate the relative difference between achromats and normal observers. These findings can help optimize DA testing in future trials, as well as help resolve the dichotomy in the literature regarding the normality or otherwise of DA functions in ACHM. Furthermore, the shorter testing time and less intense adaptation light used in these experiments may prove advantageous for more readily and reliably probing scotopic function in retinal disease, and be particularly valuable in the frequent post therapeutic assessments required in the context of the marked photophobia in ACHM. PMID:25168900

  4. The Middle Miocene Ape Pierolapithecus catalaunicus Exhibits Extant Great Ape-Like Morphometric Affinities on Its Patella: Inferences on Knee Function and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Pina, Marta; Almécija, Sergio; Alba, David M.; O'Neill, Matthew C.; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    The mosaic nature of the Miocene ape postcranium hinders the reconstruction of the positional behavior and locomotion of these taxa based on isolated elements only. The fossil great ape Pierolapithecus catalaunicus (IPS 21350 skeleton; 11.9 Ma) exhibits a relatively wide and shallow thorax with moderate hand length and phalangeal curvature, dorsally-oriented metacarpophalangeal joints, and loss of ulnocarpal articulation. This evidence reveals enhanced orthograde postures without modern ape-like below-branch suspensory adaptations. Therefore, it has been proposed that natural selection enhanced vertical climbing (and not suspension per se) in Pierolapithecus catalaunicus. Although limb long bones are not available for this species, its patella (IPS 21350.37) can potentially provide insights into its knee function and thus on the complexity of its total morphological pattern. Here we provide a detailed description and morphometric analyses of IPS 21350.37, which are based on four external dimensions intended to capture the overall patellar shape. Our results reveal that the patella of Pierolapithecus is similar to that of extant great apes: proximodistally short, mediolaterally broad and anteroposteriorly thin. Previous biomechanical studies of the anthropoid knee based on the same measurements proposed that the modern great ape patella reflects a mobile knee joint while the long, narrow and thick patella of platyrrhine and especially cercopithecoid monkeys would increase the quadriceps moment arm in knee extension during walking, galloping, climbing and leaping. The patella of Pierolapithecus differs not only from that of monkeys and hylobatids, but also from that of basal hominoids (e.g., Proconsul and Nacholapithecus), which display slightly thinner patellae than extant great apes (the previously-inferred plesiomorphic hominoid condition). If patellar shape in Pierolapithecus is related to modern great ape-like knee function, our results suggest that increased knee mobility might have originally evolved in relation to enhanced climbing capabilities in great apes (such as specialized vertical climbing). PMID:24637777

  5. Turning Semicircular Canal Function on Its Head: Dinosaurs and a Novel Vestibular Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Georgi, Justin A.; Sipla, Justin S.; Forster, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations have correlated vestibular function to locomotion in vertebrates by scaling semicircular duct radius of curvature to body mass. However, this method fails to discriminate bipedal from quadrupedal non-avian dinosaurs. Because they exhibit a broad range of relative head sizes, we use dinosaurs to test the hypothesis that semicircular ducts scale more closely with head size. Comparing the area enclosed by each semicircular canal to estimated body mass and to two different measures of head size, skull length and estimated head mass, reveals significant patterns that corroborate a connection between physical parameters of the head and semicircular canal morphology. Head mass more strongly correlates with anterior semicircular canal size than does body mass and statistically separates bipedal from quadrupedal taxa, with bipeds exhibiting relatively larger canals. This morphologic dichotomy likely reflects adaptations of the vestibular system to stability demands associated with terrestrial locomotion on two, versus four, feet. This new method has implications for reinterpreting previous studies and informing future studies on the connection between locomotion type and vestibular function. PMID:23516495

  6. Pedotransfer Functions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Often, there is a need to estimate parameters governing retention and transport of water and chemicals in soils from other, readily available data. Equations expressing relationships between soil properties were proposed to be called pedotransfer functions. This entry provides the overview of the st...

  7. Determine Optimal Stimulus Amplitude for Using Vestibular Stochastic Stimulation to Improve Balance Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, R.; Kofman, I.; DeDios, Y. E.; Jeevarajan, J.; Stepanyan, V.; Nair, M.; Congdon, S.; Fregia, M.; Cohen, H.; Bloomberg, J.J.; Mulavara, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Sensorimotor changes such as postural and gait instabilities can affect the functional performance of astronauts when they transition across different gravity environments. We are developing a method, based on stochastic resonance (SR), to enhance information transfer by applying non-zero levels of external noise on the vestibular system (vestibular stochastic resonance, VSR). Our previous work has shown the advantageous effects of VSR in a balance task of standing on an unstable surface [1]. This technique to improve detection of vestibular signals uses a stimulus delivery system that provides imperceptibly low levels of white noise-based binaural bipolar electrical stimulation of the vestibular system. The goal of this project is to determine optimal levels of stimulation for SR applications by using a defined vestibular threshold of motion detection. A series of experiments were carried out to determine a robust paradigm to identify a vestibular threshold that can then be used to recommend optimal stimulation levels for sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training applications customized to each crewmember. The amplitude of stimulation to be used in the VSR application has varied across studies in the literature such as 60% of nociceptive stimulus thresholds [2]. We compared subjects' perceptual threshold with that obtained from two measures of body sway. Each test session was 463s long and consisted of several 15s long sinusoidal stimuli, at different current amplitudes (0-2 mA), interspersed with 20-20.5s periods of no stimulation. Subjects sat on a chair with their eyes closed and had to report their perception of motion through a joystick. A force plate underneath the chair recorded medio-lateral shear forces and roll moments. Comparison of threshold of motion detection obtained from joystick data versus body sway suggests that perceptual thresholds were significantly lower. In the balance task, subjects stood on an unstable surface and had to maintain balance, and the stimulation was administered from 20-400% of subjects' vestibular threshold. Optimal stimulation amplitude was determined at which the balance performance was best compared to control (no stimulation). Preliminary results show that, in general, using stimulation amplitudes at 40-60% of perceptual motion threshold significantly improved the balance performance. We hypothesize that VSR stimulation will act synergistically with SA training to improve adaptability by increasing utilization of vestibular information and therefore will help us to optimize and personalize a SA countermeasure prescription. This combination may help to significantly reduce the number of days required to recover functional performance to preflight levels after long-duration spaceflight.

  8. The neutron star and black hole initial mass function

    SciTech Connect

    Timmes, F.X.; Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1996-02-01

    Using recently calculated models for massive stellar evolution and supernovae coupled to a model for Galactic chemical evolution, neutron star and black hole birth functions (number of neutron stars and black holes as a function of their mass) are determined for the Milky Way galaxy. For these stars that explode as Type II supernovae, the models give birth functions that are bimodal with peaks at 1.27 and 1.76 {ital M}{sub {circle_dot}} and average masses within those peaks of 1.28 and 1.73 {ital M}{sub {circle_dot}}. For these stars that explode as Type Ib there is a narrower spread of remnant masses, the average being 1.32 {ital M}{sub {circle_dot}}, and less evidence for bimodality. These values will be increased, especially in the more massive Type II supernovae, if significant accretion continues during the initial launching of the shock, and the number of heavier neutron stars could be depleted by black hole formation. The principal reason for the dichotomy in remnant masses for Type II is the difference in the presupernova structure of stars above and below 19 {ital M}{sub {circle_dot}}, the mass separating stars that burn carbon convectively from those that produce less carbon and burn radiatively. The Type Ib{close_quote}s and the lower mass group of the Type II{close_quote}s compare favorably with measured neutron star masses, and in particular to the Thorsett {ital et} {ital al}. (1993) determination of the average neutron star mass in 17 systems; 1.35{plus_minus}0.27 {ital M}{sub {circle_dot}}. Variations in the exponent of a Salpeter initial mass function are shown not to affect the locations of the two peaks in the distribution function, but do affect their relative amplitudes. Sources of uncertainty, in particular placement of the mass cut and sensitivity to the explosion energy, are discussed, and estimates of the total number of neutron stars and black holes in the Galaxy are given. (Abstract Truncated)

  9. Comprehensive functional annotation of 18 missense mutations found in suspected hemochromatosis type 4 patients.

    PubMed

    Callebaut, Isabelle; Joubrel, Rozenn; Pissard, Serge; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Gérolami, Victoria; Ged, Cécile; Cadet, Estelle; Cartault, François; Ka, Chandran; Gourlaouen, Isabelle; Gourhant, Lénaick; Oudin, Claire; Goossens, Michel; Grandchamp, Bernard; De Verneuil, Hubert; Rochette, Jacques; Férec, Claude; Le Gac, Gérald

    2014-09-01

    Hemochromatosis type 4 is a rare form of primary iron overload transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait caused by mutations in the gene encoding the iron transport protein ferroportin 1 (SLC40A1). SLC40A1 mutations fall into two functional categories (loss- versus gain-of-function) underlying two distinct clinical entities (hemochromatosis type 4A versus type 4B). However, the vast majority of SLC40A1 mutations are rare missense variations, with only a few showing strong evidence of causality. The present study reports the results of an integrated approach collecting genetic and phenotypic data from 44 suspected hemochromatosis type 4 patients, with comprehensive structural and functional annotations. Causality was demonstrated for 10 missense variants, showing a clear dichotomy between the two hemochromatosis type 4 subtypes. Two subgroups of loss-of-function mutations were distinguished: one impairing cell-surface expression and one altering only iron egress. Additionally, a new gain-of-function mutation was identified, and the degradation of ferroportin on hepcidin binding was shown to probably depend on the integrity of a large extracellular loop outside of the hepcidin-binding domain. Eight further missense variations, on the other hand, were shown to have no discernible effects at either protein or RNA level; these were found in apparently isolated patients and were associated with a less severe phenotype. The present findings illustrate the importance of combining in silico and biochemical approaches to fully distinguish pathogenic SLC40A1 mutations from benign variants. This has profound implications for patient management. PMID:24714983

  10. Executive Functions

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Adele

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) make possible mentally playing with ideas; taking the time to think before acting; meeting novel, unanticipated challenges; resisting temptations; and staying focused. Core EFs are inhibition [response inhibition (self-control—resisting temptations and resisting acting impulsively) and interference control (selective attention and cognitive inhibition)], working memory, and cognitive flexibility (including creatively thinking “outside the box,” seeing anything from different perspectives, and quickly and flexibly adapting to changed circumstances). The developmental progression and representative measures of each are discussed. Controversies are addressed (e.g., the relation between EFs and fluid intelligence, self-regulation, executive attention, and effortful control, and the relation between working memory and inhibition and attention). The importance of social, emotional, and physical health for cognitive health is discussed because stress, lack of sleep, loneliness, or lack of exercise each impair EFs. That EFs are trainable and can be improved with practice is addressed, including diverse methods tried thus far. PMID:23020641

  11. Riemann-Hypothesis Millennium-Problem(MP) Physics Proof via CATEGORY-SEMANTICS(C-S)/F=C Aristotle SQUARE-of-OPPOSITION(SoO) DEduction-LOGIC DichotomY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baez, J.; Lapidaryus, M.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    Riemann-hypothesis physics-proof combines: Siegel-Antonoff-Smith[AMS Joint Mtg.(2002)-Abs.973-03-126] digits on-average statistics HIll[Am. J. Math 123, 3, 887(1996)] logarithm-function's (1,0)-fixed-point base=units=scale-invariance proven Newcomb[Am. J. Math. 4, 39(1881)]-Weyl[Goett. Nachr.(1914); Math. Ann. 7, 313(1916)]-Benford[Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 78, 4, 51(1938)]-law [Kac, Math. of Stat.-Reasoning(1955); Raimi, Sci. Am. 221, 109(1969)] algebraic-inversion to ONLY Bose-Einstein quantum-statistics(BEQS) with digit d = 0 gapFUL Bose-Einstein Condensation(BEC) insight that digits are quanta are bosons were always digits, via Siegel-Baez category-semantics tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics in Plato-Aristotle classic "square-of-opposition" : FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS/Category-Semantics, with Goodkind Bose-Einstein condensation(BEC) ABOVE ground-state with/and Rayleigh(cut-limit of "short-cut method";1870)-Polya(1922)-"Anderson"(1958) localization [Doyle and Snell, Random-Walks and Electrical-Networks, MAA(1981)-p.99-100!!!].

  12. Riemann-Hypothesis Millennium-Problem(MP) Physics Proof via CATEGORY-SEMANTICS(C-S)/F =C Aristotle SQUARE-of-OPPOSITION(SoO) DEduction-LOGIC DichotomY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baez, Joao-Joan; Lapidaryus, Michelle; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2013-03-01

    Riemann-hypothesis physics-proof combines: Siegel-Antono®-Smith[AMS Joint Mtg.(2002)- Abs.973-03-126] digits on-average statistics HIll[Am. J. Math 123, 3, 887(1996)] logarithm-function's (1,0)- xed-point base =units =scale-invariance proven Newcomb [Am. J. Math. 4, 39(1881)]-Weyl[Goett. Nachr.(1914); Math. Ann.7, 313(1916)]-Benford[Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 78, 4, 51(1938)]-law [Kac,Math. of Stat.-Reasoning(1955); Raimi, Sci. Am. 221, 109(1969)] algebraic-inversion to ONLY Bose-Einstein quantum-statistics(BEQS) with digit d = 0 gapFUL Bose-Einstein Condensation(BEC) insight that digits are quanta are bosons because bosons are and always were quanta are and always were digits, via Siegel-Baez category-semantics tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics in Plato-Aristotle classic ''square-of-opposition'' : FUZZYICS =CATEGORYICS/Category-Semantics, with Goodkind Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC) ABOVE ground-state with/and Rayleigh(cut-limit of ''short-cut method''1870)-Polya(1922)-''Anderson''(1958) localization [Doyle and Snell,Random-Walks and Electrical-Networks, MAA(1981)-p.99-100!!!] in Brillouin[Wave-Propagation in Periodic-Structures(1946) Dover(1922)]-Hubbard-Beeby[J.Phys.C(1967)] Siegel[J.Nonxline-Sol.40,453(1980)] generalized-disorder collective-boson negative-dispersion mode-softening universality-principle(G...P) first use of the ``square-of-opposition'' in physics since Plato and Aristote!!!

  13. Perceiving Function and Perception of Function

    E-print Network

    Majumder, Aditi

    visually guided tasks Patient example: these systems work more closely together 11 #12;Indirect perceptionPerceiving Function and Category 1 #12;Perception of Function Determining function along with perception. Evolutionary utility of vision - perceiving function Can I eat this object? Can this object

  14. Network functional compression

    E-print Network

    Feizi, Soheil (Feizi-Khankandi)

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, we consider different aspects of the functional compression problem. In functional compression, the computation of a function (or, some functions) of sources is desired at the receiver(s). The rate region ...

  15. Functional Training Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siff, Mel C.

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that though functional training is vital in all sporting preparation, it is only one aspect of the overall process. The paper defines functional training; discusses facets of functionality, functionality and balancing drills, and functional training and periodization; and concludes that functionality is best defined in terms of the outcome…

  16. The dichotomy of Seyfert 2 galaxies: intrinsic differences and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulouridis, E.

    2014-10-01

    We present a study of the local environment (?200 h-1 kpc) of 31 hidden broad line region (HBLR) and 43 non-HBLR Seyfert 2 (Sy2) galaxies in the nearby universe (z ? 0.04). To compare our findings, we constructed two control samples that match the redshift and the morphological type distribution of the HBLR and non-HBLR samples. We used the NASA Extragalactic Database (NED) to find all neighboring galaxies within a projected radius of 200 h-1 kpc around each galaxy, and a radial velocity difference ?u ? 500 km s-1. Using the digitized Schmidt survey plates (DSS) and/or the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), when available, we confirmed that our sample of Seyfert companions is complete. We find that, within a projected radius of at least 150 h-1 kpc around each Seyfert, the fraction of non-HBLR Sy2 galaxies with a close companion is significantly higher than that of their control sample, at the 96% confidence level. Interestingly, the difference is due to the high frequency of mergers in the non-HBLR sample, seven versus only one in the control sample, while they also present a high number of hosts with signs of peculiar morphology. In sharp contrast, the HBLR sample is consistent with its control sample. Furthermore, the number of the HBLR host galaxies that present peculiar morphology, which probably implies some level of interactions or merging in the past, is the lowest in all four galaxy samples. Given that the HBLR Sy2 galaxies are essentially Seyfert 1 (Sy1) with their broad line region (BLR) hidden because of the obscuring torus, while the non-HBLR Sy2 galaxies probably also include true Sy2s that lack the BLR as well as heavily obscured objects that prevent even the indirect detection of the BLR, our results are discussed within the context of an evolutionary sequence of activity triggered by close galaxy interactions and merging. We argue that the non-HBLR Sy2 galaxies may represent different stages of this sequence, possibly the beginning and the end of the nuclear activity.

  17. Content vs. Learning: An Old Dichotomy in Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergtrom, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    The principles of course redesign that were applied to a gateway Cell Biology course at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee are applicable to courses large and small, and to institutions of any size. The challenge was to design a content-rich science course that kept pace with present and future content and at the same time use principles of…

  18. Chemistry Education: Ten Dichotomies We Live By Vicente Talanquer*

    E-print Network

    Talanquer, Vicente A.

    reasons, chemistry is a science built upon a wide variety of dichotomic concepts, such as acid/base properties and behaviors: strong acids versus weak bases; strong reducers versus weak oxidizers.2 We also- ations based on either the confrontation between these opposites or by highlighting their complementary

  19. The dichotomy of pathogens and allergens in vaccination approaches

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Fiona J.; Lopata, Andreas L.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional prophylactic vaccination to prevent illness is the primary objective of many research activities worldwide. The golden age of vaccination began with an approach called variolation in ancient China and the evolution of vaccines still continues today with modern developments such as the production of GardasilTM against HPV and cervical cancer. The historical aspect of how different forms of vaccination have changed the face of medicine and communities is important as it dictates our future approaches on both a local and global scale. From the eradication of smallpox to the use of an experimental vaccine to save a species, this review will explore these successes in infectious disease vaccination and also discuss a few significant failures which have hampered our efforts to eradicate certain diseases. The second part of the review will explore designing a prophylactic vaccine for the growing global health concern that is allergy. Allergies are an emerging global health burden. Of particular concern is the rise of food allergies in developed countries where 1 in 10 children is currently affected. The formation of an allergic response results from the recognition of a foreign component by our immune system that is usually encountered on a regular basis. This may be a dust-mite or a prawn but this inappropriate immune response can result in a life-time of food avoidance and lifestyle restrictions. These foreign components are very similar to antigens derived from infectious pathogens. The question arises: should the allergy community be focussing on protective measures rather than ongoing therapeutic interventions to deal with these chronic inflammatory conditions? We will explore the difficulties and benefits of prophylactic vaccination against various allergens by means of genetic technology that will dictate how vaccination against allergens could be utilized in the near future. PMID:25076945

  20. The aging-disease false dichotomy: understanding senescence as pathology

    PubMed Central

    Gems, David

    2015-01-01

    From a biological perspective aging (senescence) appears to be a form of complex disease syndrome, though this is not the traditional view. This essay aims to foster a realistic understanding of aging by scrutinizing ideas old and new. The conceptual division between aging-related diseases and an underlying, non-pathological aging process underpins various erroneous traditional ideas about aging. Among biogerontologists, another likely error involves the aspiration to treat the entire aging process, which recent advances suggest is somewhat utopian. It also risks neglecting a more modest but realizable goal: to develop preventative treatments that partially protect against aging. PMID:26136770

  1. Reconciling the IC Test and Security Dichotomy O. Sinanoglu

    E-print Network

    Makris, Yiorgos

    ]). Consequently, the cost per chip of such SOCs has reduced. On the other hand, support for multiple capabilities and mixed technologies has increased the cost of ownership of advanced foundries. For instance, the cost of Integrated Circuit (IC) design flow has introduced security vulnerabilities. If a design is fab- ricated

  2. The Rural Education Dichotomy: Disadvantaged Systems and School Strengths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Randy J.

    The educational advantages conferred by rurality and smallness have their greatest impact at the school and classroom level, but this same rurality creates district or system-level problems that have often been solved by consolidation. Consolidation efforts have been waning because they are politically unpopular, good economic times allow states…

  3. Educating Moral Emotions or Moral Selves: A False Dichotomy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2010-01-01

    In the post-Kohlbergian era of moral education, a "moral gap" has been identified between moral cognition and moral action. Contemporary moral psychologists lock horns over how this gap might be bridged. The two main contenders for such bridge-building are moral emotions and moral selves. I explore these two options from an Aristotelian…

  4. Localising News: Translation and the "Global-National" Dichotomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orengo, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Due to the peculiar nature of news texts, the adoption of a theory of "localisation" rather than conventional translation theories accounts more easily for both the commercial nature and the global scale of news distribution. News texts are global products which are distributed through a localisation process involving not only reception by locales…

  5. Parents Studying Medicine – the dichotomy of studying with a family

    PubMed Central

    Iden, Kirstin; Nürnberger, Frank; Sader, Robert; Dittrich, Winand

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In this article the personal study and life situation of parents who are also medical students at the Medical School of the Goethe University Frankfurt am Main is discussed. There is a special focus on the topics “studying with children” and “family-friendly university”, which have been present in discussions about university development and in the daily life of academics, especially during the last decade. The workgroup “Individual Student Services” at the medical faculty at the Goethe University tries to meet the necessities of the individual study courses and to support the study success with a new counselling and student service concept. Methods: The experience of parents studying medicine was recorded in semi-structured interviews (Date: April 2010), which were held as part of the sponsored pilot project on part-time medical studies (“Pilot Project Part-time Medical Studies”). Additionally, study results from the Medical School of the Goethe University Frankfurt am Main were integrated as well as a literature analysis. Results: It was found that the teaching demands and support services, which have been suggested and needed for years now, have been partially implemented and are without sufficient support at the faculty level to date. Thus the current situation of medical students with children is still difficult and seems a big challenge for everyone involved. Solution: As part of the “Individual Student Services” a new pilot project on part-time medical studies was established in November 2009. Only the use of new, unconventional and innovative ideas allows universities to adequately support the changing and heterogeneous student population and support them to successfully completing their medical studies. PMID:22558026

  6. Dialectics Instead of Dichotomy: Perspectives on the Twin Ambitions Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the mobilizing work of a disability organization, at the local chapter level. I have spent about a year following the work of a chapter, mainly through contacts, conversations and interviews with the persons who are active on its board. The analysis of the chapter's work takes as its starting point two traditions that…

  7. Isotope Analysis Reveals Foraging Area Dichotomy for Atlantic Leatherback Turtles

    PubMed Central

    Angulo, Elena; Das, Krishna; Girondot, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Background The leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) has undergone a dramatic decline over the last 25 years, and this is believed to be primarily the result of mortality associated with fisheries bycatch followed by egg and nesting female harvest. Atlantic leatherback turtles undertake long migrations across ocean basins from subtropical and tropical nesting beaches to productive frontal areas. Migration between two nesting seasons can last 2 or 3 years, a time period termed the remigration interval (RI). Recent satellite transmitter data revealed that Atlantic leatherbacks follow two major dispersion patterns after nesting season, through the North Gulf Stream area or more eastward across the North Equatorial Current. However, information on the whole RI is lacking, precluding the accurate identification of feeding areas where conservation measures may need to be applied. Methodology/Principal Findings Using stable isotopes as dietary tracers we determined the characteristics of feeding grounds of leatherback females nesting in French Guiana. During migration, 3-year RI females differed from 2-year RI females in their isotope values, implying differences in their choice of feeding habitats (offshore vs. more coastal) and foraging latitude (North Atlantic vs. West African coasts, respectively). Egg-yolk and blood isotope values are correlated in nesting females, indicating that egg analysis is a useful tool for assessing isotope values in these turtles, including adults when not available. Conclusions/Significance Our results complement previous data on turtle movements during the first year following the nesting season, integrating the diet consumed during the year before nesting. We suggest that the French Guiana leatherback population segregates into two distinct isotopic groupings, and highlight the urgent need to determine the feeding habitats of the turtle in the Atlantic in order to protect this species from incidental take by commercial fisheries. Our results also emphasize the use of eggs, a less-invasive sampling material than blood, to assess isotopic data and feeding habits for adult female leatherbacks. PMID:18365003

  8. Tolerance to Alliance: Deconstructing Dichotomies to Advocate for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that teachers in the twenty-first century need to incorporate queer theory into their teaching practice and their discussions about individual differences in order to advocate for those students most likely to be bullied in schools. It provides a brief background on queer theory, gives an introduction to central ideas of the…

  9. Kalela, Beni, Asafo, Ingoma and the rural-urban dichotomy.

    PubMed

    Argyle, J

    1991-01-01

    The author provides a critical examination of the arguments and support for conclusions in "copperbelt writings" about the urban Kalela dance and the relationship to urban and rural differences. There is a critical discussion of relationships between the dance forms: the kalela, asafo, beni, and ingoma. The origins of the dance are traced to the rural Beni in the writings of Mitchel, however Ranger's treatise on the Beni in east Africa indicates a locally quite distinct tradition associated with Swahili dance associations in towns. The author finds strong parallels between the Beni and Swahili dance associations and derivation from the Akan asafo companies. It is suggested that both east and west African dances reflected a European impact and the fundamental values of African people as well as a form of entertainment. It was a public display of progress and skill. The spread of the Swahili Beni between the 2 World Wars was complex and varied, but the form conformed well to rural villages which traditionally competed against each other. The Mitchel assertion that the costumes which imitated the uniforms of colonial civil and military hierarchy allowed vicarious participation in social relationships which they were excluded from is refuted. It is suggested by the author and Ranger that African dancers were asserting as traditional their individual and collective status and prestige in their own society and the costumes were the new fashion. The change to modern dress is though by Mitchell to reflect similarly a fictitious upward mobility and urban influence, and is considered to be unsubstantiated by the lower class population assuming the behavior. The author views the behavior as directed to unskilled, uneducated migrant workers groups which included them and provided a strong link to their rural homes and children. In dispute is also the Mitchell interpretation of lyrics to the songs which the author finds reflect rural themes and influences as well. It is recognized that there were new urban references. The Kalela dance is considered by the author to be an example of the encapsulation of rural migrants within an urban environment. This view is reflected in Mayer's Townsmen and Tribemen and the writings of H.J. Thomas on the ingoma dance groups of Durban, which also reflected lyrics pertained to rural life. The songs are a traditional, spontaneous, unsolicited testimony to rural life. PMID:12285291

  10. GRAPH HYPERSURFACES AND A DICHOTOMY IN THE GROTHENDIECK RING

    E-print Network

    . These observations are certainly not surprising for the ex- pert reader, but are somewhat hidden in the literature reading of the literature. According to Theorem 0.6 in [6], graph hypersurfaces generate S-1K that it is useful to lay them out in a short and self-contained note, with clearly stated formulas and transparent

  11. Avian energetics: The passerine/non-passerine dichotomy.

    PubMed

    McNab, Brian K

    2016-01-01

    Whether passerines collectively have a higher mean mass-independent basal rate of metabolism than the mean of other birds has been controversial. The conclusion that no difference exists was based on phylogenetic analyses. Higher basal rates, however, have been repeatedly seen in passerines and demonstrated by ANCOVA analyses. Several studies indicated that the mean mass-independent basal rate of passerines is >30% higher than the collective mean of other birds. Yet, at least three non-passerine orders of 25 have mean mass-independent basal rates equal to that of passerines. They are Anseriformes, Charadriiformes, and Procellariiformes, all characterized by an active lifestyle, including migratory and pelagic habits. In contrast, sedentary ducks endemic to islands have low basal rates. The high basal rates in temperate passerines correlate with migratory habits and life in cool to cold environments, the absence of these factors being partly responsible for the lower basal rates in most tropical passerines. The principal difference in energetics among non-passerines, between passerines and most non-passerines, and among passerines reflects the frequency of habits associated with high or low mass-independent energy expenditures, the habits correlating with body composition. The mean mass-independent basal rate in tropical passerines is slightly lower than in temperate passerines which implies that the collective mean in passerines would be somewhat lower if tropical passerines were included in proportion to their diversity. However, their inclusion will not eliminate the difference presently seen between passerines and other birds because the difference between tropical and temperate passerines is less than that between passerines and other birds. PMID:26456419

  12. The flexibility–complementarity dichotomy in receptor–ligand interactions

    E-print Network

    Sun, Hongmei; Hunter, Christopher A.; Llamas, Eva Marina

    2014-12-15

    for formation of the 48 complexes between the 8 porphyrins and the 6 ether ligands (L9 and L10) were measured using UV/Vis absorption titrations and ?uores- cence titrations both in toluene and in TCE (see Experimental section for details). All titration data ?t... (Kref) were measured by 1H NMR titrations using the compounds shown in Fig. 9. In all cases, the data ?t well to a Chem. Sci., 2015, 6, 1444–1453 | 1447 Table 1 Association constants (K/M?1) for the formation of 1 : 1 complexes in toluene at 298 K (with...

  13. John Dewey's pragmatist alternative to the belief-acceptance dichotomy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Matthew J

    2015-10-01

    Defenders of value-free science appeal to cognitive attitudes as part of a wedge strategy, to mark a distinction between science proper and the uses of science for decision-making, policy, etc. Distinctions between attitudes like belief and acceptance have played an important role in defending the value-free ideal. In this paper, I will explore John Dewey's pragmatist philosophy of science as an alternative to the philosophical framework the wedge strategy rests on. Dewey does draw significant and useful distinctions between different sorts of cognitive attitudes taken by inquirers, but none can be used to support the wedge strategy. PMID:26386531

  14. Dichotomy, Consubstantiality, Technical Writing, Literary Theory: The Double Orthodox Curse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neel, Jasper

    1992-01-01

    Articulates two different conceptions of writing that come from ancient Greece (classical and sophistic) and uses them as a field in which to compare two writing scenes involving reader response and software documentation. Explores whether these scenes are the same, similar, or absolutely different and whether they imply similar, different, or…

  15. A Magnetic Perspective on the Martian Crustal Dichotomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.; Reme, H.

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has completed two Mars years in nearly circular polar orbit at a nominal altitude of 400 km. The Mars crust is at least an order of magnitude more intensely magnetized than that of the Earth, and intriguing in both its global distribution and geometric properties. Measurements of the vector magnetic field have been used to map the magnetic field of crustal origin to high accuracy. This most recent map is assembled from > 2 full years of MGS night-side observations, and uses along-track filtering to greatly reduce noise due to external field variations. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  16. The Multilingual/Bilingual Dichotomy: An Exploration of Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Amy S.

    2009-01-01

    Bilingualism (Sanz, 2000), motivation (Pintrich, 1989), and language aptitude (Grigorenko, Sternberg, and Ehrman, 2000) are crucial individual differences that contribute to successful adult language learning. Since Gardner's (1985) seminal work on motivation, many studies have shown that motivation is dynamic and that it affects language…

  17. Paradigms, Perspectives and Dichotomies amongst Teacher Educators in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katyal, Kokila Roy; Fai, Pang Ming

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that the concepts, beliefs and understandings of local and non-local teacher educators in a Hong Kong university are grounded in their own cultural cognition and antecedents. It presents the viewpoint that contemporary notions of good practice were compromised when applied to a context that is strongly influenced by the tenets of…

  18. DYNAMICAL ZETA FUNCTIONS AND CORRELATION FUNCTIONS FOR

    E-print Network

    ­valued power series associated to an induced version g of the map f . One result is that when the fixed point. 1 #12; 1. Introduction. Weighted dynamical zeta functions as invariant objects associatedDYNAMICAL ZETA FUNCTIONS AND CORRELATION FUNCTIONS FOR NON­UNIFORMLY HYPERBOLIC TRANSFORMATIONS

  19. Childhood Functional GI Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Buy IFFGD Merchandise Contact Us Donate Childhood Functional GI Disorders A functional disorder refers to a disorder ... regurgitation, heartburn, or food refusal. Examples of functional GI disorders in kids and teens include: Infant regurgitation ...

  20. Optimal Stimulus Amplitude for Vestibular Stochastic Stimulation to Improve Sensorimotor Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, R.; Kofman, I.; DeDios, Y. E.; Jeevarajan, J.; Stepanyan, V.; Nair, M.; Congdon, S.; Fregia, M.; Cohen, H.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Sensorimotor changes such as postural and gait instabilities can affect the functional performance of astronauts when they transition across different gravity environments. We are developing a method, based on stochastic resonance (SR), to enhance information transfer by applying non-zero levels of external noise on the vestibular system (vestibular stochastic resonance, VSR). Our previous work has shown the advantageous effects of VSR in a balance task of standing on an unstable surface. This technique to improve detection of vestibular signals uses a stimulus delivery system that is wearable or portable and provides imperceptibly low levels of white noise-based binaural bipolar electrical stimulation of the vestibular system. The goal of this project is to determine optimal levels of stimulation for SR applications by using a defined vestibular threshold of motion detection. A series of experiments were carried out to determine a robust paradigm to identify a vestibular threshold that can then be used to recommend optimal stimulation levels for SR training applications customized to each crewmember. Customizing stimulus intensity can maximize treatment effects. The amplitude of stimulation to be used in the VSR application has varied across studies in the literature such as 60% of nociceptive stimulus thresholds. We compared subjects' perceptual threshold with that obtained from two measures of body sway. Each test session was 463s long and consisted of several 15s sinusoidal stimuli, at different current amplitudes (0-2 mA), interspersed with 20-20.5s periods of no stimulation. Subjects sat on a chair with their eyes closed and had to report their perception of motion through a joystick. A force plate underneath the chair recorded medio-lateral shear forces and roll moments. First we determined the percent time during stimulation periods for which perception of motion (activity above a pre-defined threshold) was reported using the joystick, and body sway (two standard deviation of the noise level in the baseline measurement) was detected by the sensors. The percentage time at each stimulation level for motion detection was normalized with respect to the largest value and a logistic regression curve fit was applied to these data. The threshold was defined at the 50% probability of motion detection. Comparison of threshold of motion detection obtained from joystick data versus body sway suggests that perceptual thresholds were significantly lower, and were not impacted by system noise. Further, in order to determine optimal stimulation amplitude to improve balance, two sets of experiments were carried out. In the first set of experiments, all subjects received the same level of stimuli and the intensity of optimal performance was projected back on subjects' vestibular threshold curve. In the second set of experiments, on different subjects, stimulation was administered from 20-400% of subjects' vestibular threshold obtained from joystick data. Preliminary results of our study show that, in general, using stimulation amplitudes at 40-60% of perceptual motion threshold improved balance performance significantly compared to control (no stimulation). The amplitude of vestibular stimulation that improved balance function was predominantly in the range of +/- 100 to +/- 400 micro A. We hypothesize that VSR stimulation will act synergistically with sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training to improve adaptability by increasing utilization of vestibular information and therefore will help us to optimize and personalize a SA countermeasure prescription. This combination will help to significantly reduce the number of days required to recover functional performance to preflight levels after long-duration spaceflight.

  1. Acquired platelet function defect

    MedlinePLUS

    Acquired qualitative platelet disorders; Acquired disorders of platelet function ... Platelet disorders can affect the number of platelets, how well they function, or both. A platelet disorder affects ...

  2. Psychological stress and neuroendocrine function in humans: the last two decades of research.

    PubMed

    Biondi, M; Picardi, A

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews experimental contributions published in the last two decades and exploring the effect of emotional stress on neuroendocrine function in healthy humans. Laboratory studies allow standardization of the stressor and better control for known confounding factors. Commonly used stressors are mental arithmetics, speech tasks, the Stroop test, videogame playing, films or videotapes and interviews. Little is known about the generalizability of laboratory results, with some studies suggesting great caution in extrapolating data to real-life stress conditions. Another strategy is studying the psychoendocrine reaction to real-life stressors, such as bereavement or anticipated loss, academic examinations, everyday work and parachute jumping. The effects of different stressors on neuroendocrine axes are reviewed, as well as the influence of gender, age, personality, coping style, social support, biological and nonbiological interventions. The subjective perception of the situation is probably a main determinant of the psychoendocrine response pattern. In fact, marked variability in individual responses to a variety of stressors has frequently been observed. Evidently, the 'objective' characteristics of a given event are not the only determinants of reaction to the event itself. According to a constructivistic perspective, every given stressor has a strictly personal and idiosyncratic meaning and loses its 'objective' characteristics. Of course, biological factors may also play a part. In any case, it is mandatory to overcome a rigid dichotomy between psychological and biological processes. Dualistic conceptions which imply a determination of the physical by the psychological or vice versa should give place to a systemic conception, which implies mutual, circular interactions. PMID:10224513

  3. The development of vestibular system and related functions in mammals: impact of gravity

    PubMed Central

    Jamon, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This chapter reviews the knowledge about the adaptation to Earth gravity during the development of mammals. The impact of early exposure to altered gravity is evaluated at the level of the functions related to the vestibular system, including postural control, homeostatic regulation, and spatial memory. The hypothesis of critical periods in the adaptation to gravity is discussed. Demonstrating a critical period requires removing the gravity stimulus during delimited time windows, what is impossible to do on Earth surface. The surgical destruction of the vestibular apparatus, and the use of mice strains with defective graviceptors have provided useful information on the consequences of missing gravity perception, and the possible compensatory mechanisms, but transitory suppression of the stimulus can only be operated during spatial flight. The rare studies on rat pups housed on board of space shuttle significantly contributed to this problem, but the use of hypergravity environment, produced by means of chronic centrifugation, is the only available tool when repeated experiments must be carried out on Earth. Even though hypergravity is sometimes considered as a mirror situation to microgravity, the two situations cannot be confused because a gravitational force is still present. The theoretical considerations that validate the paradigm of hypergravity to evaluate critical periods are discussed. The question of adaption of graviceptor is questioned from an evolutionary point of view. It is possible that graviception is hardwired, because life on Earth has evolved under the constant pressure of gravity. The rapid acquisition of motor programming by precocial mammals in minutes after birth is consistent with this hypothesis, but the slow development of motor skills in altricial species and the plasticity of vestibular perception in adults suggest that gravity experience is required for the tuning of graviceptors. The possible reasons for this dichotomy are discussed. PMID:24570658

  4. The development of vestibular system and related functions in mammals: impact of gravity.

    PubMed

    Jamon, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the knowledge about the adaptation to Earth gravity during the development of mammals. The impact of early exposure to altered gravity is evaluated at the level of the functions related to the vestibular system, including postural control, homeostatic regulation, and spatial memory. The hypothesis of critical periods in the adaptation to gravity is discussed. Demonstrating a critical period requires removing the gravity stimulus during delimited time windows, what is impossible to do on Earth surface. The surgical destruction of the vestibular apparatus, and the use of mice strains with defective graviceptors have provided useful information on the consequences of missing gravity perception, and the possible compensatory mechanisms, but transitory suppression of the stimulus can only be operated during spatial flight. The rare studies on rat pups housed on board of space shuttle significantly contributed to this problem, but the use of hypergravity environment, produced by means of chronic centrifugation, is the only available tool when repeated experiments must be carried out on Earth. Even though hypergravity is sometimes considered as a mirror situation to microgravity, the two situations cannot be confused because a gravitational force is still present. The theoretical considerations that validate the paradigm of hypergravity to evaluate critical periods are discussed. The question of adaption of graviceptor is questioned from an evolutionary point of view. It is possible that graviception is hardwired, because life on Earth has evolved under the constant pressure of gravity. The rapid acquisition of motor programming by precocial mammals in minutes after birth is consistent with this hypothesis, but the slow development of motor skills in altricial species and the plasticity of vestibular perception in adults suggest that gravity experience is required for the tuning of graviceptors. The possible reasons for this dichotomy are discussed. PMID:24570658

  5. Functional Power Series

    E-print Network

    Henrik Stenlund

    2012-04-24

    This work introduces a new functional series for expanding an analytic function in terms of an arbitrary analytic function. It is generally applicable and straightforward to use. It is also suitable for approximating the behavior of a function with a few terms. A new expression is presented for the composite function's n'th derivative. The inverse-composite method is handled in this work also.

  6. Sampling functions for geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giacaglia, G. E. O.; Lunquist, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    A set of spherical sampling functions is defined such that they are related to spherical-harmonic functions in the same way that the sampling functions of information theory are related to sine and cosine functions. An orderly distribution of (N + 1) squared sampling points on a sphere is given, for which the (N + 1) squared spherical sampling functions span the same linear manifold as do the spherical-harmonic functions through degree N. The transformations between the spherical sampling functions and the spherical-harmonic functions are given by recurrence relations. The spherical sampling functions of two arguments are extended to three arguments and to nonspherical reference surfaces. Typical applications of this formalism to geophysical topics are sketched.

  7. Functionalized boron nitride nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Sainsbury, Toby; Ikuno, Takashi; Zettl, Alexander K

    2014-04-22

    A plasma treatment has been used to modify the surface of BNNTs. In one example, the surface of the BNNT has been modified using ammonia plasma to include amine functional groups. Amine functionalization allows BNNTs to be soluble in chloroform, which had not been possible previously. Further functionalization of amine-functionalized BNNTs with thiol-terminated organic molecules has also been demonstrated. Gold nanoparticles have been self-assembled at the surface of both amine- and thiol-functionalized boron nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) in solution. This approach constitutes a basis for the preparation of highly functionalized BNNTs and for their utilization as nanoscale templates for assembly and integration with other nanoscale materials.

  8. An essay on Bion's beta function.

    PubMed

    Oliner, Marion M

    2013-02-01

    Among the major theorists studying the effect of the external world on the individual, none had a more ambiguous relationship to the psychic manifestations of the environment than Wilfred Bion. On the one hand his theory of the mind contained a new concept, beta elements, to depict the intrusion of the material world into the mental sphere, while on the other he radically opposed the use of sensory perception as a source for clinical insight. The author examines this dichotomy as an outgrowth of her interest in the place of external reality in psychoanalytic theory. As a result, this essay is an attempt to clarify the source for Bion's theorizing, in order to be more specific about the applicability of his concepts and his precepts. PMID:23421664

  9. THE ACS FORNAX CLUSTER SURVEY. VIII. THE LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN VIRGO AND FORNAX EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AND ITS USE AS A DISTANCE INDICATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Villegas, Daniela; Kissler-Patig, Markus; Jordan, Andres; Infante, Leopoldo; Peng, Eric W.; Blakeslee, John P.; Cote, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Mei, Simona; Tonry, John L.; West, Michael J.

    2010-07-10

    We use a highly homogeneous set of data from 132 early-type galaxies in the Virgo and Fornax clusters in order to study the properties of the globular cluster luminosity function (GCLF). The globular cluster system of each galaxy was studied using a maximum likelihood approach to model the intrinsic GCLF after accounting for contamination and completeness effects. The results presented here update our Virgo measurements and confirm our previous results showing a tight correlation between the dispersion of the GCLF and the absolute magnitude of the parent galaxy. Regarding the use of the GCLF as a standard candle, we have found that the relative distance modulus between the Virgo and Fornax clusters is systematically lower than the one derived by other distance estimators, and in particular, it is 0.22 mag lower than the value derived from surface brightness fluctuation measurements performed on the same data. From numerical simulations aimed at reproducing the observed dispersion of the value of the turnover magnitude in each galaxy cluster we estimate an intrinsic dispersion on this parameter of 0.21 mag and 0.15 mag for Virgo and Fornax, respectively. All in all, our study shows that the GCLF properties vary systematically with galaxy mass showing no evidence for a dichotomy between giant and dwarf early-type galaxies. These properties may be influenced by the cluster environment as suggested by cosmological simulations.

  10. Extraocular muscle function testing

    MedlinePLUS

    Extraocular muscle function testing examines the function of the eye muscles. A health care provider observes the movement of ... evaluate weakness or other problem in the extraocular muscles. These problems may result in double vision or ...

  11. Pain and Hand Function.

    PubMed

    Howland, Nicholas; Lopez, Mariela; Zhang, Andrew Y

    2016-02-01

    Pain is a unique somatosensory perception that can dramatically affect our ability to function. It is also a necessary perception, without which we would do irreparable damage to ourselves. In this article, the authors assess the impact of pain on function of the hand. Pain can be categorized into acute pain, chronic pain, and neuropathic pain. Hand function and objective measurements of hand function are analyzed as well as the impact of different types of pain on each of these areas. PMID:26611383

  12. Functional Task Test (FTT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian T.; Rescheke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott; Lawrence, Emily; Koffman, Igor; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Spiering, Barry A.; Feeback, Daniel L.; Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M.C.; Arzeno, Natalia; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ryder, Jeffrey; Garcia, Yamil; Guilliams, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Functional Task Test (FTT), an interdisciplinary testing regimen that has been developed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The objectives of the project are: (1) to develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for the Constellation Program, (2) determine the ability to perform these tasks after space flight, (3) Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements and (4) Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures.

  13. Generating Functions Introduction

    E-print Network

    Gould, Ron

    CHAPTER 10 Ordinary Generating Functions Introduction We'll begin this chapter by introducing the notion of ordinary generating functions and discussing the basic techniques for manipulating them must master these basic ideas before reading further. In Section 2, we apply generating functions

  14. Functioning Mathematically: 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, David

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the first part of the closing address given by the author to the 2007 Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) Easter conference at Loughborough. In his closing address, the author focuses on functioning mathematically as opposed to functional mathematics. His view of functional mathematics is that the focus is on someone…

  15. Two Functions of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Carol Fleisher

    1977-01-01

    Author advocates the view that meaning is necessarily dependent upon the communicative function of language and examines the objections, particularly those of Noam Chomsky, to this view. Argues that while Chomsky disagrees with the idea that communication is the essential function of language, he implicitly agrees that it has a function.…

  16. Human Functional Brain Imaging

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Human Functional Brain Imaging 1990­2009 September 2011 Portfolio Review Summary Brain Imaging #12 three-fold: · to identify the key landmarks and influences on the human functional brain imaging Trust's impact on this landscape · to consider the future direction of human functional brain imaging

  17. Human Functional Brain Imaging

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Human Functional Brain Imaging 1990­2009 September 2011 Portfolio Review #12;2 | Portfolio Review: Human Functional Brain ImagingThe Wellcome Trust is a charity registered in England and Wales, no's role in supporting human functional brain imaging and have informed `our' speculations for the future

  18. Pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders continue to be a prevalent set of conditions faced by the healthcare team and have a significant emotional and economic impact. In this review, the authors highlight some of the common functional disorders seen in pediatric patients (functional dyspepsia, irrita...

  19. Cross-functional systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Many companies, including Xerox and Texas Instruments, are using cross functional systems to deal with the increasingly complex and competitive business environment. However, few firms within the aerospace industry appear to be aware of the significant benefits that cross functional systems can provide. Those benefits are examined and a flexible methodology is discussed that companies can use to identify and develop cross functional systems that will help improve organizational performance. In addition, some of the managerial issues are addressed that cross functional systems may raise and specific examples are used to explore networking's contributions to cross functional systems.

  20. Nonparametric Transfer Function Models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun M; Chen, Rong; Yao, Qiwei

    2010-07-01

    In this paper a class of nonparametric transfer function models is proposed to model nonlinear relationships between 'input' and 'output' time series. The transfer function is smooth with unknown functional forms, and the noise is assumed to be a stationary autoregressive-moving average (ARMA) process. The nonparametric transfer function is estimated jointly with the ARMA parameters. By modeling the correlation in the noise, the transfer function can be estimated more efficiently. The parsimonious ARMA structure improves the estimation efficiency in finite samples. The asymptotic properties of the estimators are investigated. The finite-sample properties are illustrated through simulations and one empirical example. PMID:20628584

  1. Photon wave function

    E-print Network

    Iwo Bialynicki-Birula

    2005-08-26

    Photon wave function is a controversial concept. Controversies stem from the fact that photon wave functions can not have all the properties of the Schroedinger wave functions of nonrelativistic wave mechanics. Insistence on those properties that, owing to peculiarities of photon dynamics, cannot be rendered, led some physicists to the extreme opinion that the photon wave function does not exist. I reject such a fundamentalist point of view in favor of a more pragmatic approach. In my view, the photon wave function exists as long as it can be precisely defined and made useful.

  2. On genetic map functions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Hongyu; Speed, T.P.

    1996-04-01

    Various genetic map functions have been proposed to infer the unobservable genetic distance between two loci from the observable recombination fraction between them. Some map functions were found to fit data better than others. When there are more than three markers, multilocus recombination probabilities cannot be uniquely determined by the defining property of map functions, and different methods have been proposed to permit the use of map functions to analyze multilocus data. If for a given map function, there is a probability model for recombination that can give rise to it, then joint recombination probabilities can be deduced from this model. This provides another way to use map functions in multilocus analysis. In this paper we show that stationary renewal processes give rise to most of the map functions in the literature. Furthermore, we show that the interevent distributions of these renewal processes can all be approximated quite well by gamma distributions. 43 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Ageing and physiological functions.

    PubMed Central

    Young, A

    1997-01-01

    In youth, most physiological functions have generous spare capacity. Even in health, however, increasing age is characterized by progressive erosion of these 'safety margins'. Examples include the decline of bone mass (towards a threshold for likelihood of fracture), of glomerular filtration rate (towards a threshold for susceptibility to clinical renal failure), of renal tubular function (towards a threshold for clinically important susceptibility to dehydration), of hepatic function (towards a threshold for accumulation following conventional 'young adult' doses of common medications), or of lower limb explosive power (towards thresholds for impaired functional mobility). Increasing age is also characterized by a rising prevalence of chronic pathologies, complicating attempts to determine the rate or the mechanism of the age-related decline in a physiological function. Nevertheless, it is clear that in many organs the loss of function is largely attributable to the loss of functioning cells, even in the absence of overt disease. This apparently fundamental aspect of ageing remains poorly understood. PMID:9460068

  4. Functional electrical stimulation: restoration of respiratory function.

    PubMed

    Onders, Raymond P

    2012-01-01

    Tetraplegia can lead to chronic respiratory failure. The need for tracheostomy mechanical ventilation significantly increases the cost of care, decreases the quality of life of the patient, and decreases life expectancy in spinal cord injury (SCI) because of pneumonias. Phrenic nerve stimulation was initially developed in the 1960s and diaphragm pacing was developed in the 1990s; both have the ability to remove a patient from positive pressure ventilation and allow them to breathe with their own diaphragm, decreasing posterior lung lobe atelectasis and pneumonia risk. This chapter summarizes the current surgical techniques, ventilator weaning options, and long-term results of functional electrical stimulation in restoring respiratory function. PMID:23098719

  5. Balance Function Disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Researchers at the Balance Function Laboratory and Clinic at the Minneapolis (MN) Neuroscience Institute on the Abbot Northwestern Hospital Campus are using a rotational chair (technically a "sinusoidal harmonic acceleration system") originally developed by NASA to investigate vestibular (inner ear) function in weightlessness to diagnose and treat patients with balance function disorders. Manufactured by ICS Medical Corporation, Schaumberg, IL, the chair system turns a patient and monitors his or her responses to rotational stimulation.

  6. Memory in functional psychosis.

    PubMed Central

    Cutting, J

    1979-01-01

    Acute schizophrenic, chronic schizophrenic, and depressive patients (20 of each) were compared with normal subjects and six groups of patients with organic brain disease. They were given tests of verbal learning (left hemisphere type function) and pattern recognition memory (right hemisphere type function). All functional psychotics showed impaired memory. Acute schizophrenics were, however, only impaired on the verbal task, suggesting left hemisphere dysfunction, while chronic schizophrenics and depressives were impaired on both tasks, suggesting bilateral dysfunction. PMID:501367

  7. Functionalization of layered titanates.

    PubMed

    Ide, Yusuke; Sadakane, Masahiro; Sano, Tsuneji; Ogawa, Makoto

    2014-03-01

    This review article describes the synthesis, modification, and function of lepidocrocite-type layered titanate (A(x)Ti(2-y)M(y)O4, A: A, interlayer cation; M, metal or vacancy). Due to the compositional variation, which affects cation exchange, semiconducting and swelling properties, lepidocrocite-type layered titanates have attracted increasing attention in solid-state materials chemistry. The immobilization of functional units has been done to improve the properties as well as to impart additional functions. Here, we highlight recent developments of hybrid materials derived from the intercalation of inorganic and organic cations, organic functional groups, and nanoparticles into lepidocrocite-type layered titanates. PMID:24745207

  8. Renormalization group functional equations

    SciTech Connect

    Curtright, Thomas L.; Zachos, Cosmas K.

    2011-03-15

    Functional conjugation methods are used to analyze the global structure of various renormalization group trajectories and to gain insight into the interplay between continuous and discrete rescaling. With minimal assumptions, the methods produce continuous flows from step-scaling {sigma} functions and lead to exact functional relations for the local flow {beta} functions, whose solutions may have novel, exotic features, including multiple branches. As a result, fixed points of {sigma} are sometimes not true fixed points under continuous changes in scale and zeroes of {beta} do not necessarily signal fixed points of the flow but instead may only indicate turning points of the trajectories.

  9. FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS Mouse ENCODE

    E-print Network

    Petrov, Dmitri

    FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS Mouse ENCODE The authors outline the focus of the encyclopaedia of mouse DNA elements (Mouse ENCODE), which is already underway. The project will functionally annotate the mouse genome using the same experimental pipelines that were established for human ENCODE. Mouse ENCODE aims to add

  10. HARMONIC FUNCTIONS TSOGTGEREL GANTUMUR

    E-print Network

    Tsogtgerel, Gantumur

    properties of harmonic functions, by using relatively elementary methods. Contents 1. Introduction 1 2. Green 7. Green's function approach 9 8. Poisson's formula 12 9. Converse to the mean value property 15 10 law of interaction between point charges was discovered experimentally by Charles Augustin de Coulomb

  11. FLAVONOIDS IN CELL FUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chapters of the new book, Flavonoids in Cell Function, were introduced, and main points pertaining to the diverse biological activities of flavonoids were highlighted. The functions of flavonoids in microbe/plant interactions were discussed, followed by reviews of the use of genetic engineering...

  12. Immune function in PTSD.

    PubMed

    Altemus, Margaret; Dhabhar, Firdaus S; Yang, Ruirong

    2006-07-01

    Disturbed regulation of both the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathoadrenomedullary system in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggests that immune function, which is modulated by these systems, may also be dysregulated. Two dermatologic, in vivo measures of immune function, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and skin barrier function recovery, were examined in female subjects with PTSD and compared to measures in healthy female comparison subjects. In addition, at the time of DTH test placement, circulating numbers of lymphocyte subtypes were assessed. In separate studies, the effects of acute psychological stress on DTH and skin barrier function recovery were examined in healthy volunteer subjects. Both DTH and barrier function recovery were enhanced in women with PTSD. These findings contrast with the effects of acute stress in healthy control subjects, which was associated with suppression of DTH responses and skin barrier function recovery. There was no difference between subjects with PTSD and healthy control subjects in proportions of circulating lymphocyte subsets or in expression of the lymphocyte markers CD62, CD25, and CD45RO/CD45RA. These results suggest that cell-mediated immune function is enhanced in individuals with PTSD, a condition that imposes chronic physiologic and mental stress on sufferers. These findings contrast with suppression of DTH and skin barrier function recovery in healthy volunteers in response to acute psychological stress. PMID:16891569

  13. Modeling Protein Domain Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton "Buck"; Hull, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This simple but effective laboratory exercise helps students understand the concept of protein domain function. They use foam beads, Styrofoam craft balls, and pipe cleaners to explore how domains within protein active sites interact to form a functional protein. The activity allows students to gain content mastery and an understanding of the…

  14. FUNCTIONAL FOODS: AN OVERVIEW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functional Foods: Any food, modified food or food ingredient that provides structural, functional or health benefits, thus promoting optimal health, longevity and quality of life, "Food products that provide specific health benefits beyond the traditional nutrients they contain". It is expected th...

  15. Cancer and Cognitive Functioning

    E-print Network

    Brent, Roger

    Outcome in Cancer Focus on Survival time Time to disease progress Remission Cure Side effectsCancer and Cognitive Functioning Myron Goldberg, PhD, ABPP-CN Clinical Neuropsychologist Department of Rehabilitation Medicine University of Washington Medical Center #12;Cognitive Functioning after Cancer Location

  16. Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning David Tilman,1,2 Forest Isbell,1,3 and Jane M. Cowles1 1 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved Keywords biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, stability, and restoration of biodiversity should be a high global priority. 471 Annu.Rev.Ecol.Evol.Syst.2014

  17. 1. Introduction about Function

    E-print Network

    Forbus, Kenneth D.

    an account of reasoning about function, based on ideas from qualitative physics and motivated by teaching. For instance, the condenser in a steam propulsion plant serves both to reject waste heat to the environment with reference to two tasks: Education and Training: We want an account of functional representations

  18. Functional Morphology Markus Forsberg

    E-print Network

    Svenningsson, Josef

    the fundamentals of FM. The tutorial assumes that you have downloaded the source code FM LAT 1.0.tgz. To benefit Haskell: · Type system (TypeLat.hs). · Paradigms as functions (RulesLat.hs). · The dictionary with interface functions that denote entries in a dictionary (BuildLat.hs, DictLat.hs). · An optional composite

  19. Functional performance of pyrovalves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.

    1996-01-01

    Following several flight and ground test failures of spacecraft systems using single-shot, 'normally closed' pyrotechnically actuated valves (pyrovalves), a Government/Industry cooperative program was initiated to assess the functional performance of five qualified designs. The goal of the program was to provide information on functional performance of pyrovalves to allow users the opportunity to improve procurement requirements. Specific objectives included the demonstration of performance test methods, the seating; these gases/particles entered the fluid path of measurement of 'blowby' (the passage of gases from the pyrotechnic energy source around the activating piston into the valve's fluid path), and the quantification of functional margins for each design. Experiments were conducted at NASA's Langley Research Center on several units for each of the five valve designs. The test methods used for this program measured the forces and energies required to actuate the valves, as well as the energies and the pressures (where possible) delivered by the pyrotechnic sources. Functional performance ranged widely among the designs. Blowby cannot be prevented by o-ring seals; metal-to-metal seals were effective. Functional margin was determined by dividing the energy delivered by the pyrotechnic sources in excess to that required to accomplish the function by the energy required for that function. Two of the five designs had inadequate functional margins with the pyrotechnic cartridges evaluated.

  20. Functional foods innovations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit (DFFRU), ERRC, ARS, USDA, is to improve human health and well being by developing functional food and consumer products that utilize milk and fruit and vegetable processing residues of specialty crops. Major research approaches involve: biotec...

  1. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voos, Avery; Pelphrey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with its excellent spatial resolution and ability to visualize networks of neuroanatomical structures involved in complex information processing, has become the dominant technique for the study of brain function and its development. The accessibility of in-vivo pediatric brain-imaging techniques…

  2. Biodiversity, Functioning, and

    E-print Network

    Cardinale, Bradley J.

    Biodiversity, Ecosystem Functioning, and Human Wellbeing An Ecological and Economic Perspective E D;CHAPTER 2 Consequences of species loss for ecosystem functioning: meta-analyses of data from biodiversity-analyses of biodiversity studies published in 2006 The study of patterns in the distribution and abundance of species

  3. Function Photonic Crystals

    E-print Network

    Xiang-Yao Wu; Bai-Jun Zhang; Jing-Hai Yang; Xiao-Jing Liu; Nuo Ba; Yi-Heng Wu; Qing-Cai Wang; Guang-Huai Wang

    2012-12-01

    In the paper, we present a new kind of function photonic crystals, which refractive index is a function of space position. Unlike conventional PCs, which structure grow from two materials, A and B, with different dielectric constants $\\epsilon_{A}$ and $\\epsilon_{B}$. By Fermat principle, we give the motion equations of light in one-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional function photonic crystals. For one-dimensional function photonic crystals, we study the dispersion relation, band gap structure and transmissivity, and compare them with conventional photonic crystals. By choosing various refractive index distribution function $n(z)$, we can obtain more width or more narrow band gap structure than conventional photonic crystals.

  4. Plant functional genomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtorf, Hauke; Guitton, Marie-Christine; Reski, Ralf

    2002-04-01

    Functional genome analysis of plants has entered the high-throughput stage. The complete genome information from key species such as Arabidopsis thaliana and rice is now available and will further boost the application of a range of new technologies to functional plant gene analysis. To broadly assign functions to unknown genes, different fast and multiparallel approaches are currently used and developed. These new technologies are based on known methods but are adapted and improved to accommodate for comprehensive, large-scale gene analysis, i.e. such techniques are novel in the sense that their design allows researchers to analyse many genes at the same time and at an unprecedented pace. Such methods allow analysis of the different constituents of the cell that help to deduce gene function, namely the transcripts, proteins and metabolites. Similarly the phenotypic variations of entire mutant collections can now be analysed in a much faster and more efficient way than before. The different methodologies have developed to form their own fields within the functional genomics technological platform and are termed transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and phenomics. Gene function, however, cannot solely be inferred by using only one such approach. Rather, it is only by bringing together all the information collected by different functional genomic tools that one will be able to unequivocally assign functions to unknown plant genes. This review focuses on current technical developments and their impact on the field of plant functional genomics. The lower plant Physcomitrella is introduced as a new model system for gene function analysis, owing to its high rate of homologous recombination.

  5. Time Functions as Utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguzzi, E.

    2010-09-01

    Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K + relation (Seifert’s relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg’s and Levin’s theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K + (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin’s theorem and smoothing techniques.

  6. Time functions as utilities

    E-print Network

    E. Minguzzi

    2009-09-04

    Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K^+ relation (Seifert's relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg's and Levin's theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K^+ (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin's theorem and smoothing techniques.

  7. Functional Task Test: Data Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita

    2014-01-01

    After space flight there are changes in multiple physiological systems including: Cardiovascular function; Sensorimotor function; and Muscle function. How do changes in these physiological system impact astronaut functional performance?

  8. Functional Performance of Pyrovalves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.

    1996-01-01

    Following several flight and ground test failures of spacecraft systems using single-shot, 'normally closed' pyrotechnically actuated valves (pyrovalves), a government/industry cooperative program was initiated to assess the functional performance of five qualified designs. The goal of the program was to improve performance-based requirements for the procurement of pyrovalves. Specific objectives included the demonstration of performance test methods, the measurement of 'blowby' (the passage of gases from the pyrotechnic energy source around the activating piston into the valve's fluid path), and the quantification of functional margins for each design. Experiments were conducted in-house at NASA on several units each of the five valve designs. The test methods used for this program measured the forces and energies required to actuate the valves, as well as the energies and the pressures (where possible) delivered by the pyrotechnic sources. Functional performance ranged widely among the designs. Blowby cannot be prevented by o-ring seals; metal-to-metal seals were effective. Functional margin was determined by dividing the energy delivered by the pyrotechnic sources in excess to that required to accomplish the function by the energy required for that function. All but two designs had adequate functional margins with the pyrotechnic cartridges evaluated.

  9. The Enzyme Function Initiative†

    PubMed Central

    Gerlt, John A.; Allen, Karen N.; Almo, Steven C.; Armstrong, Richard N.; Babbitt, Patricia C.; Cronan, John E.; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Imker, Heidi J.; Jacobson, Matthew P.; Minor, Wladek; Poulter, C. Dale; Raushel, Frank M.; Sali, Andrej; Shoichet, Brian K.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2011-01-01

    The Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI) was recently established to address the challenge of assigning reliable functions to enzymes discovered in bacterial genome projects; in this Current Topic we review the structure and operations of the EFI. The EFI includes the Superfamily/Genome, Protein, Structure, Computation, and Data/Dissemination Cores that provide the infrastructure for reliably predicting the in vitro functions of unknown enzymes. The initial targets for functional assignment are selected from five functionally diverse superfamilies (amidohydrolase, enolase, glutathione transferase, haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase, and isoprenoid synthase), with five superfamily-specific Bridging Projects experimentally testing the predicted in vitro enzymatic activities. The EFI also includes the Microbiology Core that evaluates the in vivo context of in vitro enzymatic functions and confirms the functional predictions of the EFI. The deliverables of the EFI to the scientific community include: 1) development of a large-scale, multidisciplinary sequence/structure-based strategy for functional assignment of unknown enzymes discovered in genome projects (target selection, protein production, structure determination, computation, experimental enzymology, microbiology, and structure-based annotation); 2) dissemination of the strategy to the community via publications, collaborations, workshops, and symposia; 3) computational and bioinformatic tools for using the strategy; 4) provision of experimental protocols and/or reagents for enzyme production and characterization; and 5) dissemination of data via the EFI’s website, enzymefunction.org. The realization of multidisciplinary strategies for functional assignment will begin to define the full metabolic diversity that exists in nature and will impact basic biochemical and evolutionary understanding, as well as a wide range of applications of central importance to industrial, medicinal and pharmaceutical efforts. PMID:21999478

  10. Functionalized expanded porphyrins

    DOEpatents

    Sessler, Jonathan L; Pantos, Patricia J

    2013-11-12

    Disclosed are functionalized expanded porphyrins that can be used as spectrometric sensors for high-valent actinide cations. The disclosed functionalized expanded porphyrins have the advantage over unfunctionalized systems in that they can be immobilized via covalent attachment to a solid support comprising an inorganic or organic polymer or other common substrates. Substrates comprising the disclosed functionalized expanded porphyrins are also disclosed. Further, disclosed are methods of making the disclosed compounds (immobilized and free), methods of using them as sensors to detect high valent actinides, devices that comprise the disclosed compounds, and kits.

  11. Longitudinal Functional Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, So Young; Staicu, Ana-Maria

    2015-01-01

    We consider dependent functional data that are correlated because of a longitudinal-based design: each subject is observed at repeated times and at each time a functional observation (curve) is recorded. We propose a novel parsimonious modeling framework for repeatedly observed functional observations that allows to extract low dimensional features. The proposed methodology accounts for the longitudinal design, is designed to study the dynamic behavior of the underlying process, allows prediction of full future trajectory, and is computationally fast. Theoretical properties of this framework are studied and numerical investigations confirm excellent behavior in finite samples. The proposed method is motivated by and applied to a diffusion tensor imaging study of multiple sclerosis.

  12. A universal functional object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    A scheme is presented for realizing any function, combinational or sequential, in a single universal function scheme, termed the universal function object UF. This scheme is addressed to the problem of the proliferation of the number of parts (cards, chips) necessary for conventional implementation in an LSI technology of a computer system. The UF implementation will use about ten times more circuits than a conventional implementation regardless of the size of the design. The UF approach also includes general-purpose spares for failing circuits. The procedure could be used both at manufacture to increase yields, as well as to achieve automatic repair.

  13. Synthesis of ?-Functionalized Trichloromethylcarbinols.

    PubMed

    Ram, Ram N; Soni, Vineet Kumar

    2015-09-01

    A new series of ?-functionalized trichloromethylcarbinols have been synthesized from corresponding ?-halomethyl ketones, esters, and amides in 48-78% overall yields. Reactivity of nitrates obtained in the first step was dependent on the electron-withdrawing nature of the functional groups, and increases with increasing electron deficiency. Synthetic applications of such trichloromethylcarbinols for the preparation of chloromethyl-?-diketones, trichloromethylated dihydrofurans, and enol acetates of ?-functionalized acid chlorides have been demonstrated. The reaction of these compounds in the Jocic-Reeve reaction was also demonstrated. PMID:26263239

  14. Nuclear function of Alus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Huang, Sui

    2014-01-01

    Alus are transposable elements belonging to the short interspersed element family. They occupy over 10% of human genome and have been spreading through genomes over the past 65 million years. In the past, they were considered junk DNA with little function that took up genome volumes. Today, Alus and other transposable elements emerge to be key players in cellular function, including genomic activities, gene expression regulations, and evolution. Here we summarize the current understanding of Alu function in genome and gene expression regulation in human cell nuclei. PMID:24637839

  15. Functional Group Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Walter T., Jr.; Patterson, John M.

    1984-01-01

    Literature on analytical methods related to the functional groups of 17 chemical compounds is reviewed. These compounds include acids, acid azides, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, amino acids, aromatic hydrocarbons, carbodiimides, carbohydrates, ethers, nitro compounds, nitrosamines, organometallic compounds, peroxides, phenols, silicon compounds,…

  16. Functionally Graded Media

    E-print Network

    Cedric M. Campos; Marcelo Epstein; Manuel de Leon

    2007-11-16

    The notions of uniformity and homogeneity of elastic materials are reviewed in terms of Lie groupoids and frame bundles. This framework is also extended to consider the case Functionally Graded Media, which allows us to obtain some homogeneity conditions.

  17. Wightman Functions in QCD

    E-print Network

    M. H. Friedman; Y. N. Srivastava; A. Widom

    1992-09-01

    The constraint imposed by Gauss' law is used to show that the matrix elements of n-point Wightman Functions of gluon field and quark current operators at different space time points vanish when taken between physical states.

  18. Automating abstraction functions

    E-print Network

    Rayside, Derek F

    2010-01-01

    Data abstraction has been the dominant structuring paradigm for programs for decades. The essence of a data abstraction is the abstraction function, which relates the concrete program representation to its abstract meaning. ...

  19. Functional Protein Microarray Technology

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shaohui; Xie, Zhi; Qian, Jiang; Blackshaw, Seth; Zhu, Heng

    2010-01-01

    Functional protein microarrays are emerging as a promising new tool for large-scale and high-throughput studies. In this article, we will review their applications in basic proteomics research, where various types of assays have been developed to probe binding activities to other biomolecules, such as proteins, DNA, RNA, small molecules, and glycans. We will also report recent progress of using functional protein microarrays in profiling protein posttranslational modifications, including phosphorylation, ubiquitylation, acetylation, and nitrosylation. Finally, we will discuss potential of functional protein microarrays in biomarker identification and clinical diagnostics. We strongly believe that functional protein microarrays will soon become an indispensible and invaluable tool in proteomics research and systems biology. PMID:20872749

  20. Congenital platelet function defects

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 2. Nichols WL. Von Willebrand disease and hemorrhagic abnormalities of platelet and vascular function. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap ...

  1. Pulmonary function tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... measured to estimate the lung volume. To measure diffusion capacity , you breathe a harmless gas, called a ... on your report after pulmonary function tests include: Diffusion capacity to carbon monoxide (DLCO) Expiratory reserve volume ( ...

  2. Functional Metal Phosphonates 

    E-print Network

    Perry, Houston Phillipp

    2012-02-14

    phosphonate clusters to create materials which may have interesting magnetic properties. By controlling the way these clusters pack in the solids, their magnetic properties may be able to be augmented. The final method used to impart functionality to metal...

  3. Center for Functional Nanomaterials

    ScienceCinema

    BNL

    2009-09-01

    Staff from Brookhaven's new Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) describe how this advanced facility will focus on the development and understanding of nanoscale materials. The CFN provides state-of-the-art capabilities for the fabrication and study of nanoscale materials, with an emphasis on atomic-level tailoring to achieve desired properties and functions. The overarching scientific theme of the CFN is the development and understanding of nanoscale materials that address the Nation's challenges in energy security.

  4. High field functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Di Salle, F; Esposito, F; Elefante, A; Scarabino, T; Volpicelli, A; Cirillo, S; Elefante, R; Seifritz, E

    2003-11-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become the most widely used approach for studying brain functions in humans. The rapid and widespread diffusion of fMRI has been favoured by the properties this technique presents, and particularly by its sensitivity in analysing brain functional phenomena and by the lack of biological invasiveness, resulting in an unprecedented and unparalleled flexibility of use. These properties of fMRI brought the functional examination of the brain within the reach of the whole neuroscience community and have appreciably stimulated the research on the functional processes of the living brain. Among the main features of fMRI, its spatial and temporal resolution represents clear advantages compared with the other methods of functional neuroimaging. In fact, the high spatial resolution of fMRI permits to produce more precise and better localised information, and its temporal resolution provides the potential of a better understanding of neural dynamics at the level of single functional areas and of the neural constituents of functional patterns. A fundamental possibility of improving spatial and temporal resolution without excessively degrading signal-to-noise ratio consists in the use of high magnetic field intensity fMRI units. Besides, high field units make the use of more demanding fMRI paradigms, like single trial event related studies, much more compatible with the need of a solid statistical evaluation. This has notably promoted the diffusion of high field MRI units for human studies throughout the world, with very high field MRI units, up to 8 T, working in a few research centres, and a larger number of MRI units with field intensity ranging between 3 and 5 T. PMID:14680904

  5. Arithmetical Functions : Infinite Products

    E-print Network

    Garimella Rama Murthy

    2012-11-26

    In this technical report, certain interesting classification of arithmetical functions is proposed. The notion of additively decomposable and multiplicatively decomposable arithmetical functions is proposed. The concepts of arithmetical polynomials and arithmetical power series are introduced. Using these concepts, an interesting Theorem relating arithmetical power series and infinite products has been proved. Also arithmetical polynomials are related to probabilistic number theory. Furthermore some results related to the Waring problem are discussed.

  6. Imaging basal ganglia function

    PubMed Central

    BROOKS, DAVID J.

    2000-01-01

    In this review, the value of functional imaging for providing insight into the role of the basal ganglia in motor control is reviewed. Brain activation findings in normal subjects and Parkinson's disease patients are examined and evidence supporting the existence for functionally independent distributed basal ganglia-frontal loops is presented. It is argued that the basal ganglia probably act to focus and filter cortical output, optimising the running of motor programs. PMID:10923986

  7. Center for Functional Nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    BNL

    2008-08-12

    Staff from Brookhaven's new Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) describe how this advanced facility will focus on the development and understanding of nanoscale materials. The CFN provides state-of-the-art capabilities for the fabrication and study of nanoscale materials, with an emphasis on atomic-level tailoring to achieve desired properties and functions. The overarching scientific theme of the CFN is the development and understanding of nanoscale materials that address the Nation's challenges in energy security.

  8. Hypertrapezoidal fuzzy membership functions 

    E-print Network

    Painter, John H.; Kelly, W. E. III

    1996-09-08

    or an intermediary set used for multilevel rulebases. The accuracy of the approximation depends on the number of fuzzy sets defined on each input, and the particular connectives used. 1279 Authorized licensed use limited to: Texas A M University. Downloaded... the hypertrapezoidal membership function as a utilitarian scheme for defining multidimensional membership function. 1 0 X 1280 Authorized licensed use limited to: Texas A M University. Downloaded on February 16,2010 at 15:03:24 EST from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions...

  9. Structure function monitor

    DOEpatents

    McGraw, John T. (Placitas, NM); Zimmer, Peter C. (Albuquerque, NM); Ackermann, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-01-24

    Methods and apparatus for a structure function monitor provide for generation of parameters characterizing a refractive medium. In an embodiment, a structure function monitor acquires images of a pupil plane and an image plane and, from these images, retrieves the phase over an aperture, unwraps the retrieved phase, and analyzes the unwrapped retrieved phase. In an embodiment, analysis yields atmospheric parameters measured at spatial scales from zero to the diameter of a telescope used to collect light from a source.

  10. Long-term functional health status and exercise test variables for patients with pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum: A Congenital Heart Surgeons Society study

    PubMed Central

    Karamlou, Tara; Poynter, Jeffrey A.; Walters, Henry L.; Rhodes, Jonathan; Bondarenko, Igor; Pasquali, Sara K.; Fuller, Stephanie M.; Lambert, Linda M.; Blackstone, Eugene H.; Jacobs, Marshall L.; Duncan, Kim; Caldarone, Christopher A.; Williams, William G.; McCrindle, Brian W.

    2013-01-01

    Background A bias favoring biventricular (BV) repair exists regarding choice of repair pathway for patients with pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum (PAIVS). We sought to determine the implications of moving borderline candidates down a BV route in terms of late functional health status (FHS) and exercise capacity (EC). Methods Between 1987 and 1997, 448 neonates with PAIVS were enrolled in a multi-institutional study. Late EC and FHS were assessed following repair (mean 14 years) using standardized exercise testing and 3 validated FHS instruments. Relationships between FHS, EC, morphology, and 3 end states (ie, BV, univentricular [UV], or 1.5-ventricle repair [1.5V]) were evaluated. Results One hundred two of 271 end state survivors participated (63 BV, 25 UV, and 14 1.5V). Participants had lower FHS scores in domains of physical functioning (P < .001) compared with age- and sex-matched normal controls, but scored significantly higher in nearly all psychosocial domains. EC was higher in 1.5V-repair patients (P = .02), whereas discrete FHS measures were higher in BV-repair patients. Peak oxygen consumption was low across all groups, and was positively correlated with larger initial tricuspid valve z-score (P < .001), with an enhanced effect within the BV-repair group. Conclusions Late patient-perceived physical FHS and measured EC are reduced, regardless of PAIVS repair pathway, with an important dichotomy whereby patients with PAIVS believe they are doing well despite important physical impediments. For those with smaller initial tricuspid valve z-score, achievement of survival with BV repair may be at a cost of late deficits in exercise capacity, emphasizing that better outcomes may be achieved for borderline patients with a 1.5V- or UV-repair strategy. PMID:23374986

  11. Functional relations for various multiple zeta-functions

    E-print Network

    Tsumura, Hirofumi

    certain functional relations among Witten zeta-functions associated with semisimple Lie algebras (see [18#12;Functional relations for various multiple zeta-functions (Kohji Matsumoto) Graduate School Metropolitan University 1. INTRODUCTION The Euler-Zagier multiple zeta-function of depth $r$ is defined

  12. Space race functional responses.

    PubMed

    Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran

    2015-02-22

    We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey. The resulting functional response models have a simple structure and include functions describing how the emigration of prey and predators depend on interspecific densities. As such, they provide a link between dispersal behaviours and community dynamics. The derived functional response is general but is here modelled in accordance with empirically documented emigration responses. We find that the prey emigration response to predators has stabilizing effects similar to that of the DeAngelis-Beddington functional response, and that the predator emigration response to prey has destabilizing effects similar to that of the Holling type II response. A stability criterion describing the net effect of the two emigration responses on a Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system is presented. The winner of the space race (i.e. whether predators or prey are favoured) is determined by the relationship between the slopes of the species' emigration responses. It is predicted that predators win the space race in poor habitats, where predator and prey densities are low, and that prey are more successful in richer habitats. PMID:25589602

  13. The function of dreaming.

    PubMed

    Staunton, H

    2001-01-01

    Theories on the function of REM sleep and dreaming, with which it has a contingent relationship, remain diverse. They include facilitation of memory storage, reverse learning, anatomical and functional brain maturation, catecholamine restoration, psychoanalytical (wish fulfilment or otherwise). It is possible that one function is grafted onto another as the personality develops. Given a close relationship between REM sleep and dreaming, and given that the neonate spends 18 hours asleep per day, of which 12 hours are spent in REM sleep, it is logical to look in the neonate for a primary function of dreaming. The two constants in the dreaming process are: 1) the dreamer is always present as first person observer; 2) there is always a topographical setting. Based on the foregoing, it is proposed that a major function of REM sleep is the development and maintenance of a sense of personal identity, through creating a 'being there' environment at regular intervals during prolonged periods of absence from a waking state in topographical surrounds. The infant cannot forget who he/she is. Thus, he/she develops a clear sense of his/her own identity, or the 'I'ness of me', and a sense of his/her separateness from the topographical world. At the same time, by largely forgetting the dreams, he/she is not burdened by the need for an elaborate method of storage of the vicarious and bizarre experiences. PMID:11783720

  14. The tensor distribution function.

    PubMed

    Leow, A D; Zhu, S; Zhan, L; McMahon, K; de Zubicaray, G I; Meredith, M; Wright, M J; Toga, A W; Thompson, P M

    2009-01-01

    Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful tool that can be employed to study white matter microstructure by examining the 3D displacement profile of water molecules in brain tissue. By applying diffusion-sensitized gradients along a minimum of six directions, second-order tensors (represented by three-by-three positive definite matrices) can be computed to model dominant diffusion processes. However, conventional DTI is not sufficient to resolve more complicated white matter configurations, e.g., crossing fiber tracts. Recently, a number of high-angular resolution schemes with more than six gradient directions have been employed to address this issue. In this article, we introduce the tensor distribution function (TDF), a probability function defined on the space of symmetric positive definite matrices. Using the calculus of variations, we solve the TDF that optimally describes the observed data. Here, fiber crossing is modeled as an ensemble of Gaussian diffusion processes with weights specified by the TDF. Once this optimal TDF is determined, the orientation distribution function (ODF) can easily be computed by analytic integration of the resulting displacement probability function. Moreover, a tensor orientation distribution function (TOD) may also be derived from the TDF, allowing for the estimation of principal fiber directions and their corresponding eigenvalues. PMID:19097208

  15. Functional imaging and endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-Guo; Liu, Hai-Feng

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of endoscopy for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases and the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases has brought great changes. The mere observation of anatomy with the imaging mode using modern endoscopy has played a significant role in this regard. However, increasing numbers of endoscopies have exposed additional deficiencies and defects such as anatomically similar diseases. Endoscopy can be used to examine lesions that are difficult to identify and diagnose. Early disease detection requires that substantive changes in biological function should be observed, but in the absence of marked morphological changes, endoscopic detection and diagnosis are difficult. Disease detection requires not only anatomic but also functional imaging to achieve a comprehensive interpretation and understanding. Therefore, we must ask if endoscopic examination can be integrated with both anatomic imaging and functional imaging. In recent years, as molecular biology and medical imaging technology have further developed, more functional imaging methods have emerged. This paper is a review of the literature related to endoscopic optical imaging methods in the hopes of initiating integration of functional imaging and anatomical imaging to yield a new and more effective type of endoscopy. PMID:22090783

  16. Functional peptides by design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretsinger, Juliana K.

    Proteins are nature's machines, built to function in many different ways. The ability to form so many functional molecules from the same few building blocks relies on the ability of these molecules to fold into specific structures. In this work, functional peptides are designed based on the information that has been gathered from nature concerning the relationships between sequence and structure. Chemists are not limited to naturally occurring amino acids, but may use any synthetically accessible residue imaginable. Herein, three novel amino acids are synthesized for facile incorporation into peptide sequences. These residues are designed to play a role in peptide folding through the formation of buried salt-bridges. They are small basic residues with varying hydrophobicity, and their ability to specify novel folds when incorporated into GCN4-p1 is demonstrated. Design is used to link intramolecular folding of another peptide to its function. MAX1 is designed to fold into a beta-hairpin structure upon the addition of distinct environmental stimuli. Once folded, this peptide self-assembles into a hydrogel material. Many applications can be envisioned for this hydrogel material, including its use as a tissue engineering scaffold. Cytocompatibility and antimicrobial activity studies demonstrate the ability of this hydrogel to support the selective proliferation of mammalian cells over certain bacterial strains. Thus, function has been successfully designed into a peptide.

  17. Sperm function test

    PubMed Central

    Talwar, Pankaj; Hayatnagarkar, Suryakant

    2015-01-01

    With absolute normal semen analysis parameters it may not be necessary to shift to specialized tests early but in cases with borderline parameters or with history of fertilization failure in past it becomes necessary to do a battery of tests to evaluate different parameters of spermatozoa. Various sperm function tests are proposed and endorsed by different researchers in addition to the routine evaluation of fertility. These tests detect function of a certain part of spermatozoon and give insight on the events in fertilization of the oocyte. The sperms need to get nutrition from the seminal plasma in the form of fructose and citrate (this can be assessed by fructose qualitative and quantitative estimation, citrate estimation). They should be protected from the bad effects of pus cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) (leukocyte detection test, ROS estimation). Their number should be in sufficient in terms of (count), structure normal to be able to fertilize eggs (semen morphology). Sperms should have intact and functioning membrane to survive harsh environment of vagina and uterine fluids (vitality and hypo-osmotic swelling test), should have good mitochondrial function to be able to provide energy (mitochondrial activity index test). They should also have satisfactory acrosome function to be able to burrow a hole in zona pellucida (acrosome intactness test, zona penetration test). Finally, they should have properly packed DNA in the nucleus to be able to transfer the male genes (nuclear chromatic decondensation test) to the oocyte during fertilization. PMID:26157295

  18. Sperm function test.

    PubMed

    Talwar, Pankaj; Hayatnagarkar, Suryakant

    2015-01-01

    With absolute normal semen analysis parameters it may not be necessary to shift to specialized tests early but in cases with borderline parameters or with history of fertilization failure in past it becomes necessary to do a battery of tests to evaluate different parameters of spermatozoa. Various sperm function tests are proposed and endorsed by different researchers in addition to the routine evaluation of fertility. These tests detect function of a certain part of spermatozoon and give insight on the events in fertilization of the oocyte. The sperms need to get nutrition from the seminal plasma in the form of fructose and citrate (this can be assessed by fructose qualitative and quantitative estimation, citrate estimation). They should be protected from the bad effects of pus cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) (leukocyte detection test, ROS estimation). Their number should be in sufficient in terms of (count), structure normal to be able to fertilize eggs (semen morphology). Sperms should have intact and functioning membrane to survive harsh environment of vagina and uterine fluids (vitality and hypo-osmotic swelling test), should have good mitochondrial function to be able to provide energy (mitochondrial activity index test). They should also have satisfactory acrosome function to be able to burrow a hole in zona pellucida (acrosome intactness test, zona penetration test). Finally, they should have properly packed DNA in the nucleus to be able to transfer the male genes (nuclear chromatic decondensation test) to the oocyte during fertilization. PMID:26157295

  19. Algal functional annotation tool

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, D.; Casero, D.; Cokus, S. J.; Merchant, S. S.; Pellegrini, M.

    2012-07-01

    The Algal Functional Annotation Tool is a web-based comprehensive analysis suite integrating annotation data from several pathway, ontology, and protein family databases. The current version provides annotation for the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in the future will include additional genomes. The site allows users to interpret large gene lists by identifying associated functional terms, and their enrichment. Additionally, expression data for several experimental conditions were compiled and analyzed to provide an expression-based enrichment search. A tool to search for functionally-related genes based on gene expression across these conditions is also provided. Other features include dynamic visualization of genes on KEGG pathway maps and batch gene identifier conversion.

  20. Functional Vision Disorder.

    PubMed

    Egan, Robert A; LaFrance, W Curt

    2015-10-01

    Functional vision disorder (FVD) is a common problem seen in many neurologic and ophthalmologic practitioners' offices and may occur in isolation or in the presence of medical illness. This disorder presents with visual or oculomotor symptoms and manifests as vision loss in one or both eyes, visual field loss, double vision, oscillopsia, anisocoria, blepharospasm, or ptosis. Manual perimetry is the most effective method for determining functional visual loss, and the presence of a central scotoma in a functional visual field signifies that a neuropathophysiologic process is almost certainly present. The exact neuropathophysiologic mechanism of this disorder is unknown; however, information can be drawn from the small studies of FVD samples and studies examining neuropsychiatric factors in other conversion disorder semiologies. Psychological and psychiatric interventions can be useful in treating these patients. PMID:26444401

  1. Tendon functional extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Screen, Hazel R C; Berk, David E; Kadler, Karl E; Ramirez, Francesco; Young, Marian F

    2015-06-01

    This article is one of a series, summarizing views expressed at the Orthopaedic Research Society New Frontiers in Tendon Research Conference. This particular article reviews the three workshops held under the "Functional Extracellular Matrix" stream. The workshops focused on the roles of the tendon extracellular matrix, such as performing the mechanical functions of tendon, creating the local cell environment, and providing cellular cues. Tendon is a complex network of matrix and cells, and its biological functions are influenced by widely varying extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as age, nutrition, exercise levels, and biomechanics. Consequently, tendon adapts dynamically during development, aging, and injury. The workshop discussions identified research directions associated with understanding cell-matrix interactions to be of prime importance for developing novel strategies to target tendon healing or repair. PMID:25640030

  2. Pain and functional imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Ingvar, M

    1999-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging has fundamentally changed our knowledge about the cerebral representation of pain. For the first time it has been possible to delineate the functional anatomy of different aspects of pain in the medial and lateral pain systems in the brain. The rapid developments in imaging methods over the past years have led to a consensus in the description of the central pain responses between different studies and also to a definition of a central pain matrix with specialized subfunctions in man. In the near future we will see studies where a systems perspective allows for a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms in the higher-order frontal and parietal cortices. Also, pending the development of experimental paradigms, the functional anatomy of the emotional aspects of pain will become better known. PMID:10466155

  3. Functional cardiac tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Liau, Brian; Zhang, Donghui; Bursac, Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Heart attack remains the leading cause of death in both men and women worldwide. Stem cell-based therapies, including the use of engineered cardiac tissues, have the potential to treat the massive cell loss and pathological remodeling resulting from heart attack. Specifically, embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells are a promising source for generation of therapeutically relevant numbers of functional cardiomyocytes and engineering of cardiac tissues in vitro. This review will describe methodologies for successful differentiation of pluripotent stem cells towards the cardiovascular cell lineages as they pertain to the field of cardiac tissue engineering. The emphasis will be placed on comparing the functional maturation in engineered cardiac tissues and developing heart and on methods to quantify cardiac electrical and mechanical function at different spatial scales. PMID:22397609

  4. Adaptive multiconfigurational wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Evangelista, Francesco A.

    2014-03-28

    A method is suggested to build simple multiconfigurational wave functions specified uniquely by an energy cutoff ?. These are constructed from a model space containing determinants with energy relative to that of the most stable determinant no greater than ?. The resulting ?-CI wave function is adaptive, being able to represent both single-reference and multireference electronic states. We also consider a more compact wave function parameterization (?+SD-CI), which is based on a small ?-CI reference and adds a selection of all the singly and doubly excited determinants generated from it. We report two heuristic algorithms to build ?-CI wave functions. The first is based on an approximate prescreening of the full configuration interaction space, while the second performs a breadth-first search coupled with pruning. The ?-CI and ?+SD-CI approaches are used to compute the dissociation curve of N{sub 2} and the potential energy curves for the first three singlet states of C{sub 2}. Special attention is paid to the issue of energy discontinuities caused by changes in the size of the ?-CI wave function along the potential energy curve. This problem is shown to be solvable by smoothing the matrix elements of the Hamiltonian. Our last example, involving the Cu{sub 2}O{sub 2}{sup 2+} core, illustrates an alternative use of the ?-CI method: as a tool to both estimate the multireference character of a wave function and to create a compact model space to be used in subsequent high-level multireference coupled cluster computations.

  5. Peroxisome Biogenesis and Function

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Navneet; Reumann, Sigrun; Hu, Jianping

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisomes are small and single membrane-delimited organelles that execute numerous metabolic reactions and have pivotal roles in plant growth and development. In recent years, forward and reverse genetic studies along with biochemical and cell biological analyses in Arabidopsis have enabled researchers to identify many peroxisome proteins and elucidate their functions. This review focuses on the advances in our understanding of peroxisome biogenesis and metabolism, and further explores the contribution of large-scale analysis, such as in sillco predictions and proteomics, in augmenting our knowledge of peroxisome function In Arabidopsis. PMID:22303249

  6. Functional components in peanuts.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Maria Leonora D L; Resurreccion, A V A

    2008-09-01

    Peanut is one of the most widely used legumes due to its nutrition and taste. The fact that is has been recognized recently as a functional food, its evaluation for its role in a heart-healthy diet has received tremendous attention. Functional compounds have been isolated, identified, quantified, and even enhanced to maximize the amount for adequate health benefits. The peanut industry's byproducts such as peanut hulls and shells, skins, and even leaves and roots have also been identified as possible sources of bioactive compounds. New uses for these underutilized renewable sources can create new market opportunities and increase the value of agricultural residues. PMID:18756396

  7. Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, Bishun N. (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Method and system for functionalizing a collection of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A selected precursor gas (e.g., H2, or F2, or CnHm) is irradiated to provide a cold plasma of selected target particles, such as atomic H or F, in a first chamber. The target particles are directed toward an array of CNTs located in a second chamber while suppressing transport of ultraviolet radiation to the second chamber. A CNT array is functionalized with the target particles, at or below room temperature, to a point of saturation, in an exposure time interval no longer than about 30 sec.

  8. Functionalization of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, Bishun N. (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Method and system for functionalizing a collection of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A selected precursor gas (e.g., H.sub.2 or F.sub.2 or C.sub.nH.sub.m) is irradiated to provide a cold plasma of selected target particles, such as atomic H or F, in a first chamber. The target particles are directed toward an array of CNTs located in a second chamber while suppressing transport of ultraviolet radiation to the second chamber. A CNT array is functionalized with the target particles, at or below room temperature, to a point of saturation, in an exposure time interval no longer than about 30 sec.

  9. Algal functional annotation tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-07-12

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Progress in genome sequencing is proceeding at an exponential pace, and several new algal genomes are becoming available every year. One of the challenges facing the community is the association of protein sequences encoded in the genomes with biological function. While most genome assembly projects generate annotations for predicted protein sequences, they are usually limited and integrate functional terms from a limited number of databases. Another challenge is the use of annotations tomore »interpret large lists of 'interesting' genes generated by genome-scale datasets. Previously, these gene lists had to be analyzed across several independent biological databases, often on a gene-by-gene basis. In contrast, several annotation databases, such as DAVID, integrate data from multiple functional databases and reveal underlying biological themes of large gene lists. While several such databases have been constructed for animals, none is currently available for the study of algae. Due to renewed interest in algae as potential sources of biofuels and the emergence of multiple algal genome sequences, a significant need has arisen for such a database to process the growing compendiums of algal genomic data. DESCRIPTION: The Algal Functional Annotation Tool is a web-based comprehensive analysis suite integrating annotation data from several pathway, ontology, and protein family databases. The current version provides annotation for the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in the future will include additional genomes. The site allows users to interpret large gene lists by identifying associated functional terms, and their enrichment. Additionally, expression data for several experimental conditions were compiled and analyzed to provide an expression-based enrichment search. A tool to search for functionally-related genes based on gene expression across these conditions is also provided. Other features include dynamic visualization of genes on KEGG pathway maps and batch gene identifier conversion. CONCLUSIONS: The Algal Functional Annotation Tool aims to provide an integrated data-mining environment for algal genomics by combining data from multiple annotation databases into a centralized tool. This site is designed to expedite the process of functional annotation and the interpretation of gene lists, such as those derived from high-throughput RNA-seq experiments. The tool is publicly available at http://pathways.mcdb.ucla.edu.« less

  10. Algal functional annotation tool

    SciTech Connect

    2012-07-12

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Progress in genome sequencing is proceeding at an exponential pace, and several new algal genomes are becoming available every year. One of the challenges facing the community is the association of protein sequences encoded in the genomes with biological function. While most genome assembly projects generate annotations for predicted protein sequences, they are usually limited and integrate functional terms from a limited number of databases. Another challenge is the use of annotations to interpret large lists of 'interesting' genes generated by genome-scale datasets. Previously, these gene lists had to be analyzed across several independent biological databases, often on a gene-by-gene basis. In contrast, several annotation databases, such as DAVID, integrate data from multiple functional databases and reveal underlying biological themes of large gene lists. While several such databases have been constructed for animals, none is currently available for the study of algae. Due to renewed interest in algae as potential sources of biofuels and the emergence of multiple algal genome sequences, a significant need has arisen for such a database to process the growing compendiums of algal genomic data. DESCRIPTION: The Algal Functional Annotation Tool is a web-based comprehensive analysis suite integrating annotation data from several pathway, ontology, and protein family databases. The current version provides annotation for the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in the future will include additional genomes. The site allows users to interpret large gene lists by identifying associated functional terms, and their enrichment. Additionally, expression data for several experimental conditions were compiled and analyzed to provide an expression-based enrichment search. A tool to search for functionally-related genes based on gene expression across these conditions is also provided. Other features include dynamic visualization of genes on KEGG pathway maps and batch gene identifier conversion. CONCLUSIONS: The Algal Functional Annotation Tool aims to provide an integrated data-mining environment for algal genomics by combining data from multiple annotation databases into a centralized tool. This site is designed to expedite the process of functional annotation and the interpretation of gene lists, such as those derived from high-throughput RNA-seq experiments. The tool is publicly available at http://pathways.mcdb.ucla.edu.

  11. GADRAS Detector Response Function.

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Harding, Lee; Thoreson, Gregory G; Horne, Steven M.

    2014-11-01

    The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) applies a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the output of gamma-ray and neutron detectors when they are exposed to radiation sources. The DRF is fundamental to the ability to perform forward calculations (i.e., computation of the response of a detector to a known source), as well as the ability to analyze spectra to deduce the types and quantities of radioactive material to which the detectors are exposed. This document describes how gamma-ray spectra are computed and the significance of response function parameters that define characteristics of particular detectors.

  12. Structure and composition of the Trinil femora: functional and taxonomic implications.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Christopher B; Puymerail, Laurent; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Sipla, Justin; Ciochon, Russell L

    2015-03-01

    The original hominin femur (Femur I) and calotte discovered at Trinil, Java by Eugene Dubois in 1891/1892 played a key role in the early history of human paleontology by purportedly demonstrating the contemporaneity of archaic cranial form with modern human erect (bipedal) posture. On this basis, both specimens were subsequently assigned to Pithecanthropus erectus, later transferred to Homo erectus. However, chronological and phylogenetic links between the two have been questioned from the beginning. Four additional hominin partial femora (Femora II-V) from Trinil were subsequently described but have played a relatively minor part in evolutionary scenarios. Here we present the results of a new analysis of structural and density characteristics of the Trinil femora obtained using computed tomography. Trinil Femur I shows none of the characteristics typical of early Homo femora from elsewhere in Asia or Africa, including a relatively long neck, increased mediolateral bending rigidity of the mid-proximal shaft, or a low position of minimum mediolateral breath on the shaft. In contrast, Femora II-V all demonstrate features that are more consistent with this pattern. In addition, material density distributions within the specimens imply more recent and less complete fossilization of Femur I than Femora II-V. Thus, it is very likely that Trinil Femur I derives from a much more recent time period than the calotte, while the less famous and less complete Femora II-V may represent H. erectus at Trinil. The morphological variation within the Trinil femora can be attributed to broader changes in pelvic morphology occurring within the Homo lineage between the Early and late Middle Pleistocene. PMID:25681015

  13. COPPER AND BRAIN FUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing evidence shows that brain development and function are impaired when the brain is deprived of copper either through dietary copper deficiency or through genetic defects in copper transport. A number of copper-dependent enzymes whose activities are lowered by copper deprivation form the ba...

  14. Logarithmic-function generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caron, P. R.

    1975-01-01

    Solid-state logarithmic-function generator is compact and provides improved accuracy. Generator includes a stable multivibrator feeding into RC circuit. Resulting exponentially decaying voltage is compared with input signal. Generator output is proportional to time required for exponential voltage to decay from preset reference level to level of input signal.

  15. Platelet Function Tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be ... Platelet Function Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ...

  16. Astrophysical thermonuclear functions

    E-print Network

    William J. Anderson; Hans J. Haubold; Arak Mathai Mathai

    1993-08-23

    Stars are gravitationally stabilized fusion reactors changing their chemical composition while transforming light atomic nuclei into heavy ones. The atomic nuclei are supposed to be in thermal equilibrium with the ambient plasma. The majority of reactions among nuclei leading to a nuclear transformation are inhibited by the necessity for the charged participants to tunnel through their mutual Coulomb barrier. As theoretical knowledge and experimental verification of nuclear cross sections increases it becomes possible to refine analytic representations for nuclear reaction rates. Over the years various approaches have been made to derive closed-form representations of thermonuclear reaction rates (Critchfield 1972, Haubold and John 1978, Haubold, Mathai and Anderson 1987). They show that the reaction rate contains the astrophysical cross section factor and its derivatives which has to be determined experimentally, and an integral part of the thermonuclear reaction rate independent from experimental results which can be treated by closed-form representation techniques in terms of generalized hypergeometric functions. In this paper mathematical/statistical techniques for deriving closed-form representations of thermonuclear functions will be summarized and numerical results for them will be given. The separation of thermonuclear functions from thermonuclear reaction rates is our preferred result. The purpose of the paper is also to compare numerical results for approximate and closed-form representations of thermonuclear functions. This paper completes the work of Haubold, Mathai, and Anderson (1987).

  17. Functional Communication Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durand, V. Mark; Moskowitz, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Thirty years ago, the first experimental demonstration was published showing that educators could improve significant challenging behavior in children with disabilities by replacing these behaviors with forms of communication that served the same purpose, a procedure called functional communication training (FCT). Since the publication of that…

  18. Process for functionalizing alkanes

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, R.G.; Janowicz, A.H.; Periana, R.A.

    1988-05-24

    Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons comprises: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons of the formula: R[sub 1]H wherein H represents a hydrogen atom; and R[sub 1] represents a saturated hydrocarbon radical, with a metal complex of the formula: CpRh[P(R[sub 2])[sub 3

  19. Functional Extended Redundancy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun; Suk, Hye Won; Lee, Jang-Han; Moskowitz, D. S.; Lim, Jooseop

    2012-01-01

    We propose a functional version of extended redundancy analysis that examines directional relationships among several sets of multivariate variables. As in extended redundancy analysis, the proposed method posits that a weighed composite of each set of exogenous variables influences a set of endogenous variables. It further considers endogenous…

  20. Dietary Bioactive Functional Foods

    E-print Network

    Powers, Robert

    systems of bioactive food components and additives. Dr. Zhang has a particular interestDietary Bioactive Agents and Functional Foods IMPACTING THE WORLD THREE TIMES A DAY DEPARTMENT OF FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Learn more at foodsci.unl.edu Contact Us 1901 N. 21 ST, PO Box 886205 Food

  1. Empirical microeconomics action functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Tanputraman, Winson

    2015-06-01

    A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is modeled by an action functional-and the focus of this paper is to empirically determine the action functionals for different commodities. The correlation functions of the model are defined using a Feynman path integral. The model is calibrated using the unequal time correlation of the market commodity prices as well as their cubic and quartic moments using a perturbation expansion. The consistency of the perturbation expansion is verified by a numerical evaluation of the path integral. Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are studied and their market behavior is described by the model to an accuracy of over 90% using only six parameters. The paper empirically establishes the existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (2013).

  2. Balance functions revisited

    E-print Network

    A. Bialas

    2011-02-11

    The idea of glue clusters, i.e. short-range correlations in the quark-gluon plasma close to freeze-out, is used to estimate the width of balance functions in momentum space. A good agreement is found with the recent measurements of STAR collaboration for central $Au-Au$ collisions.

  3. Iridescence: a functional perspective

    PubMed Central

    Doucet, Stéphanie M.; Meadows, Melissa G.

    2009-01-01

    In animals, iridescence is generated by the interaction of light with biological tissues that are nanostructured to produce thin films or diffraction gratings. Uniquely among animal visual signals, the study of iridescent coloration contributes to biological and physical sciences by enhancing our understanding of the evolution of communication strategies, and by providing insights into physical optics and inspiring biomimetic technologies useful to humans. Iridescent colours are found in a broad diversity of animal taxa ranging from diminutive marine copepods to terrestrial insects and birds. Iridescent coloration has received a surge of research interest of late, and studies have focused on both characterizing the nanostructures responsible for producing iridescence and identifying the behavioural functions of iridescent colours. In this paper, we begin with a brief description of colour production mechanisms in animals and provide a general overview of the taxonomic distribution of iridescent colours. We then highlight unique properties of iridescent signals and review the proposed functions of iridescent coloration, focusing, in particular, on the ways in which iridescent colours allow animals to communicate with conspecifics and avoid predators. We conclude with a brief overview of non-communicative functions of iridescence in animals. Despite the vast amount of recent work on animal iridescence, our review reveals that many proposed functions of iridescent coloration remain virtually unexplored, and this area is clearly ripe for future research. PMID:19336344

  4. Conjugate flow action functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Venturi, Daniele

    2013-11-15

    We present a new general framework to construct an action functional for a non-potential field theory. The key idea relies on representing the governing equations relative to a diffeomorphic flow of curvilinear coordinates which is assumed to be functionally dependent on the solution field. Such flow, which will be called the conjugate flow, evolves in space and time similarly to a physical fluid flow of classical mechanics and it can be selected in order to symmetrize the Gâteaux derivative of the field equations with respect to suitable local bilinear forms. This is equivalent to requiring that the governing equations of the field theory can be derived from a principle of stationary action on a Lie group manifold. By using a general operator framework, we obtain the determining equations of such manifold and the corresponding conjugate flow action functional. In particular, we study scalar and vector field theories governed by second-order nonlinear partial differential equations. The identification of transformation groups leaving the conjugate flow action functional invariant could lead to the discovery of new conservation laws in fluid dynamics and other disciplines.

  5. HRD Function in Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on the human resource development (HRD) function in organizations. In "Comparing Quality Profiles of Training Organizations--A Multi-Level Approach" (Martin Mulder), analysis of over 1,300 training projects indicates that variation in quality is almost entirely explained by the projects, not the…

  6. THE PROTOSTELLAR MASS FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, Christopher F.; Offner, Stella S. R. E-mail: soffner@cfa.harvard.ed

    2010-06-10

    The protostellar mass function (PMF) is the present-day mass function of the protostars in a region of star formation. It is determined by the initial mass function weighted by the accretion time. The PMF thus depends on the accretion history of protostars and in principle provides a powerful tool for observationally distinguishing different protostellar accretion models. We consider three basic models here: the isothermal sphere model, the turbulent core model, and an approximate representation of the competitive accretion model. We also consider modified versions of these accretion models, in which the accretion rate tapers off linearly in time. Finally, we allow for an overall acceleration in the rate of star formation. At present, it is not possible to directly determine the PMF since protostellar masses are not currently measurable. We carry out an approximate comparison of predicted PMFs with observation by using the theory to infer the conditions in the ambient medium in several star-forming regions. Tapered and accelerating models generally agree better with observed star formation times than models without tapering or acceleration, but uncertainties in the accretion models and in the observations do not allow one to rule out any of the proposed models at present. The PMF is essential for the calculation of the protostellar luminosity function, however, and this enables stronger conclusions to be drawn.

  7. Laboratory Density Functionals

    E-print Network

    B. G. Giraud

    2007-07-26

    We compare several definitions of the density of a self-bound system, such as a nucleus, in relation with its center-of-mass zero-point motion. A trivial deconvolution relates the internal density to the density defined in the laboratory frame. This result is useful for the practical definition of density functionals.

  8. The Relationships between Weight Functions, Geometric Functions,and Compliance Functions in Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Rong

    2007-02-06

    Linear elastic fracture mechanics is widely used in industry because it established simple and explicit relationships between the permissible loading conditions and the critical crack size that is allowed in a structure. Stress intensity factors are the above-mentioned functional expressions that relate load with crack size through geometric functions or weight functions. Compliance functions are to determine the crack/flaw size in a structure when optical inspection is inconvenient. As a result, geometric functions, weight functions and compliance functions have been intensively studied to determine the stress intensity factor expressions for different geometries. However, the relations between these functions have received less attention. This work is therefore to investigate the intrinsic relationships between these functions. Theoretical derivation was carried out and the results were verified on single-edge cracked plate under tension and bending. It is found out that the geometric function is essentially the non-dimensional weight function at the loading point. The compliance function is composed of two parts: a varying part due to crack extension and a constant part from the intact structure if no crack exists. The derivative of the compliance function at any location is the product of the geometric function and the weight function at the evaluation point. Inversely, the compliance function can be acquired by the integration of the product of the geometric function and the weight function with respect to the crack size. The integral constant is just the unchanging compliance from the intact structure. Consequently, a special application of the relations is to obtain the compliance functions along a crack once the geometric function and weight functions are known. Any of the three special functions can be derived once the other two functions are known. These relations may greatly simplify the numerical process in obtaining either geometric functions, weight functions or compliance functions for new test geometries.

  9. Dirac Delta Function 1 Definition

    E-print Network

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    Dirac Delta Function 1 Definition Dirac's delta function is defined by the following property (t of the delta function is the following relation dtf(t)(t) = f(0) (5) for any function f(t). This is easy to see to dtf(t)(t - t0) = f(t0). (6) Mathematically, the delta function is not a function, because it is too

  10. Pulmonary function in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. B.; Elliott, A. R.; Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.

    1997-01-01

    The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, and so it is of interest to know how its function is altered in the weightlessness of space. Studies on National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Spacelabs during the last 4 years have provided the first comprehensive data on the extensive changes in pulmonary function that occur in sustained microgravity. Measurements of pulmonary function were made on astronauts during space shuttle flights lasting 9 and 14 days and were compared with extensive ground-based measurements before and after the flights. Compared with preflight measurements, cardiac output increased by 18% during space flight, and stroke volume increased by 46%. Paradoxically, the increase in stroke volume occurred in the face of reductions in central venous pressure and circulating blood volume. Diffusing capacity increased by 28%, and the increase in the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane was unexpectedly large based on findings in normal gravity. The change in the alveolar membrane may reflect the effects of uniform filling of the pulmonary capillary bed. Distributions of blood flow and ventilation throughout the lung were more uniform in space, but some unevenness remained, indicating the importance of nongravitational factors. A surprising finding was that airway closing volume was approximately the same in microgravity and in normal gravity, emphasizing the importance of mechanical properties of the airways in determining whether they close. Residual volume was unexpectedly reduced by 18% in microgravity, possibly because of uniform alveolar expansion. The findings indicate that pulmonary function is greatly altered in microgravity, but none of the changes observed so far will apparently limit long-term space flight. In addition, the data help to clarify how gravity affects pulmonary function in the normal gravity environment on Earth.

  11. Pulmonary function of herdsmen.

    PubMed Central

    VanderJagt, Dorothy J.; Mcclung, Keith D.; Kassam, Hussein A.; Harkins, Michelle S.; Glew, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the pulmonary function deficit documented previously in Fulani children is also present in adult Fulani herdsmen in northern Nigeria. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The subjects for this study consisted of adult Fulani men from the hamlet of Magama Gumau and adult non-Fulani men from the city of Jos. Age, height, weight, mid-arm circumference (MAC), triceps skin-fold thickness, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the FVC maneuver (FEF25-75%), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) were measured. Body mass index (BMI) and FEV1/FVC were calculated for all subjects. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify correlations between pulmonary function parameters and anthropometric variables. RESULTS: The 44 Fulani subjects and 28 urban subjects were well-matched for age and height. The Fulani men weighed significantly less than the urban men (58.5+/-9.4 versus 67.4+/-11.3 kg, p <0.001) and consequently had significantly lower BMI, MAC, and triceps skin-fold thickness. The only significant difference in pulmonary function parameters between the two groups was in FEV1/FVC (0.93+/-0.1 versus 0.85+/-0.1, p <0.001). Small but significant correlations were found between pulmonary function parameters and anthropometric variables for both study populations. CONCLUSIONS: The pulmonary function deficits documented previously in Fulani children and adolescents were not present in adult Fulani men. However, the observed elevation in FEV1/FVC in the rural Fulani men as compared to their urban counterparts, which is often seen in restrictive pulmonary patterns, deserves further study. PMID:15101676

  12. Stiffness control of balance during quiet standing and dual task in older adults: the MOBILIZE Boston Study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Gu; Lipsitz, Lewis A

    2010-12-01

    Distractions affect postural control, but this mechanism is not well understood. Diversion of resources during cognitive stress may lead to decreased motor drive and postural muscle tone. This may appear as decreased postural stiffness and increased postural sway amplitude. We hypothesized that dual tasking leads to decreased stiffness and increased sway amplitude. Postural sway (center of pressure; COP) data were used from 724 participants aged 77.9 ± 5.3 yr, a representative sample of community-dwelling older adults, the MOBILIZE Boston Study cohort. Subjects stood barefoot with eyes open for 30 s per trial on a force plate. Five trials were performed each with and without a serial subtractions-by-3 task. Sway data were fit to a damped oscillator inverted pendulum model. Amplitudes (COP and center of mass), mechanical stiffness, and damping of the sway behavior were determined. Sway amplitudes and damping increased with the dual task (P < 0.001); stiffness decreased only mediolaterally (P < 0.001). Those with difficulty doing the dual task exhibited larger sway and less damping mediolaterally (P ? 0.001) and an increased stiffness with dual task anteroposteriorly (interaction P = 0.004). Dual task could still independently explain increases in sway (P < 0.001) after accounting for stiffness changes. Thus the hypothesis was supported only in mediolateral sway. The simple model helped to explain the dual task related increase of sway only mediolaterally. It also elucidated the differential influence of cognitive function on the mechanics of anteroposterior and mediolateral sway behaviors. Dual task may divert the resources necessary for mediolateral postural control, thus leading to falls. PMID:20844110

  13. OPERATOR-VALUED BERGMAN INNER FUNCTIONS AS TRANSFER FUNCTIONS

    E-print Network

    Olofsson, Anders

    OPERATOR-VALUED BERGMAN INNER FUNCTIONS AS TRANSFER FUNCTIONS- mula the operator-valued Bergman inner functions for a class of vector-v* *alued standard weighted Bergman spaces in the unit disc. These operator-valued Bergman inner functions act

  14. Functional Performance Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenisen, Michael C.; Hayes, Judith C.; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Moore, Alan D.

    1999-01-01

    The Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was established to address specific issues associated with optimizing the ability of crews to complete mission tasks deemed essential to entry, landing, and egress for spaceflights lasting up to 16 days. The main objectives of this functional performance evaluation were to investigate the physiological effects of long-duration spaceflight on skeletal muscle strength and endurance, as well as aerobic capacity and orthostatic function. Long-duration exposure to a microgravity environment may produce physiological alterations that affect crew ability to complete critical tasks such as extravehicular activity (EVA), intravehicular activity (IVA), and nominal or emergency egress. Ultimately, this information will be used to develop and verify countermeasures. The answers to three specific functional performance questions were sought: (1) What are the performance decrements resulting from missions of varying durations? (2) What are the physical requirements for successful entry, landing, and emergency egress from the Shuttle? and (3) What combination of preflight fitness training and in-flight countermeasures will minimize in-flight muscle performance decrements? To answer these questions, the Exercise Countermeasures Project looked at physiological changes associated with muscle degradation as well as orthostatic intolerance. A means of ensuring motor coordination was necessary to maintain proficiency in piloting skills, EVA, and IVA tasks. In addition, it was necessary to maintain musculoskeletal strength and function to meet the rigors associated with moderate altitude bailout and with nominal or emergency egress from the landed Orbiter. Eight investigations, referred to as Detailed Supplementary Objectives (DSOs) 475, 476, 477, 606, 608, 617, 618, and 624, were conducted to study muscle degradation and the effects of exercise on exercise capacity and orthostatic function (Table 3-1). This chapter is divided into three parts. Part 1 describes specific findings from studies of muscle strength, endurance, fiber size, and volume. Part 2 describes results from studies of how in-flight exercise affects postflight exercise capacity and orthostatic function. Part 3 focuses on the development of new noninvasive methods for assessing body composition in astronauts and how those methods can be used to correlate measures of exercise performance and changes in body composition.

  15. Parkin structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Seirafi, Marjan; Kozlov, Guennadi; Gehring, Kalle

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the parkin or PINK1 genes are the leading cause of the autosomal recessive form of Parkinson’s disease. The gene products, the E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin and the serine/threonine kinase PINK1, are neuroprotective proteins, which act together in a mitochondrial quality control pathway. Here, we review the structure of parkin and mechanisms of its autoinhibition and function as a ubiquitin ligase. We present a model for the recruitment and activation of parkin as a key regulatory step in the clearance of depolarized or damaged mitochondria by autophagy (mitophagy). We conclude with a brief overview of other functions of parkin and considerations for drug discovery in the mitochondrial quality control pathway. PMID:25712550

  16. Roughness and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, T. R.

    2014-01-01

    A function map is used to locate applications of roughness in separation-velocity space. The importance of roughness in contact mechanics is demonstrated and versions of the plasticity index are introduced and compared. Case studies of roughness and function are presented from tribology and the life sciences. Tribological examples are taken from the automotive industry and include the manufacture of vehicle bodies, and drive train tribology, particularly cylinder liner, cam and gearbox friction and wear. From the life sciences, problems of prosthetic fixation and tribology are shown to depend on roughness. The interaction of haptics and surface finish is described and illustrated. A number of other areas of application are listed. Finally the likely future importance of structured surfaces is discussed.

  17. Process for functionalizing alkanes

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, R.G.; Janowicz, A.H.; Periana-Pillai, R.A.

    1984-06-12

    Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons selectively in the terminal position comprises: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons with a metal complex CpRhPMe/sub 3/H/sub 2/ in the presence of ultraviolet radiation at -60/sup 0/ to -17/sup 0/C to form a hydridoalkyl complex CpRhPMe/sub 3/RH; (b) reacting said hydridoalkyl complex with a haloform CHX/sub 3/ at -60/sup 0/ to -17/sup 0/C to form the corresponding haloalkyl complex of step (a) CpRhPMe/sub 3/RX; and (c) reacting said haloalkyl complex with halogen -60 to 25/sup 0/C to form a functional haloalkyl compound.

  18. Functions of Intact Carotenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton, George

    The traditional view that carotenoids are a class of plant pigments does not do justice to their versatility. This versatility will become clear from the overview of the biological roles of carotenoids, in animals and microorganisms as well as in plants, that is given in this Chapter. It has become customary and convenient to differentiate biological effects of carotenoids into functions, actions and associations [1]. `Functions' have been defined as effects or properties that are essential for the normal well-being of the organism. Biological responses that follow the administration of carotenoids in the diet or as supplements are considered as `actions'. When an effect is seen but a causal relationship to the carotenoid has not been demonstrated, this is described as an `association'. The line between these is often not clear, however.

  19. Learning Valuation Functions

    E-print Network

    Balcan, Maria Florina; Iwata, Satoru; Wang, Lei

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the approximate learnability of valuations commonly used throughout economics and game theory for the quantitative encoding of agent preferences. We provide upper and lower bounds regarding the learnability of important subclasses of valuation functions that express no-complementarities. Our main results concern their approximate learnability in the distributional learning (PAC-style) setting. We provide nearly tight lower and upper bounds of $\\tilde{\\Theta}(n^{1/2})$ on the approximation factor for learning XOS and subadditive valuations, both widely studied superclasses of submodular valuations. Interestingly, we show that the $\\tilde{\\Omega}(n^{1/2})$ lower bound can be circumvented for XOS functions of polynomial complexity; we provide an algorithm for learning the class of XOS valuations with a representation of polynomial size achieving an $O(n^{\\eps})$ approximation factor in time $O(n^{1/\\eps})$ for any $\\eps > 0$. This highlights the importance of considering the complexity of ...

  20. Sleep and emotional functions.

    PubMed

    Perogamvros, Lampros; Schwartz, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we review studies investigating the role of sleep in emotional functions. In particular, evidence has recently accumulated to show that brain regions involved in the processing of emotional and reward-related information are activated during sleep. We suggest that such activation of emotional and reward systems during sleep underlies the reprocessing and consolidation of memories with a high affective and motivational relevance for the organism. We also propose that these mechanisms occurring during sleep promote adapted cognitive and emotional responses in the waking state, including overnight performance improvement, creativity, and sexual functions. Activation across emotional-limbic circuits during sleep also appears to promote emotional maturation and the emergence of consciousness in the developing brain. PMID:24385222

  1. Functional Biomimetic Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Paul M.

    N-substituted glycine oligomers, or 'peptoids,' are a class of sequence--specific foldamers composed of tertiary amide linkages, engendering proteolytic stability and enhanced cellular permeability. Peptoids are notable for their facile synthesis, sequence diversity, and ability to fold into distinct secondary structures. In an effort to establish new functional peptoid architectures, we utilize the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne [3+2] cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction to generate peptidomimetic assemblies bearing bioactive ligands that specifically target and modulate Androgen Receptor (AR) activity, a major therapeutic target for prostate cancer. Additionally, we explore chemical ligation protocols to generate semi-synthetic hybrid biomacromolecules capable of exhibiting novel structures and functions not accessible to fully biosynthesized proteins.

  2. Pseudoproteases: mechanisms and function.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Simone L; Fischer, Katja

    2015-05-15

    Catalytically inactive enzymes (also known as pseudoproteases, protease homologues or paralogues, non-peptidase homologues, non-enzymes and pseudoenzymes) have traditionally been hypothesized to act as regulators of their active homologues. However, those that have been characterized demonstrate that inactive enzymes have an extensive and expanding role in biological processes, including regulation, inhibition and immune modulation. With the emergence of each new genome, more inactive enzymes are being identified, and their abundance and potential as therapeutic targets has been realized. In the light of the growing interest in this emerging field the present review focuses on the classification, structure, function and mechanism of inactive enzymes. Examples of how inactivity is defined, how this is reflected in the structure, functions of inactive enzymes in biological processes and their mode of action are discussed. PMID:25940733

  3. Functional magnetic microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Landel, Robert F. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Functional magnetic particles are formed by dissolving a mucopolysaccharide such as chitosan in acidified aqueous solution containing a mixture of ferrous chloride and ferric chloride. As the pH of the solution is raised magnetite is formed in situ in the solution by raising the pH. The dissolved chitosan is a polyelectrolyte and forms micelles surrounding the granules at pH of 8-9. The chitosan precipitates on the granules to form microspheres containing the magnetic granules. On addition of the microspheres to waste aqueous streams containing dissolved ions, the hydroxyl and amine functionality of the chitosan forms chelates binding heavy metal cations such as lead, copper, and mercury and the chelates in turn bind anions such as nitrate, fluoride, phosphate and borate.

  4. Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, Bishun N. (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for functionalizing a collection of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A selected precursor gas (e.g., H2 or F2 or CnHm) is irradiated to provide a cold plasma of selected target species particles, such as atomic H or F, in a first chamber. The target species particles are d irected toward an array of CNTs located in a second chamber while suppressing transport of ultraviolet radiation to the second chamber. A CNT array is functionalized with the target species particles, at or below room temperature, to a point of saturation, in an exposure time interval no longer than about 30 sec. *Discrimination against non-target species is provided by (i) use of a target species having a lifetime that is much greater than a lifetime of a non-target species and/or (2) use of an applied magnetic field to discriminate between charged particle trajectories for target species and for non-target species.

  5. Parkin structure and function.

    PubMed

    Seirafi, Marjan; Kozlov, Guennadi; Gehring, Kalle

    2015-06-01

    Mutations in the parkin or PINK1 genes are the leading cause of the autosomal recessive form of Parkinson's disease. The gene products, the E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin and the serine/threonine kinase PINK1, are neuroprotective proteins, which act together in a mitochondrial quality control pathway. Here, we review the structure of parkin and mechanisms of its autoinhibition and function as a ubiquitin ligase. We present a model for the recruitment and activation of parkin as a key regulatory step in the clearance of depolarized or damaged mitochondria by autophagy (mitophagy). We conclude with a brief overview of other functions of parkin and considerations for drug discovery in the mitochondrial quality control pathway. PMID:25712550

  6. Pancreatic exocrine function testing

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, J.S.

    1981-11-01

    It is important to understand which pancreatic function tests are available and how to interpret them when evaluating patients with malabsorption. Available direct tests are the secretin stimulation test, the Lundh test meal, and measurement of serum or fecal enzymes. Indirect tests assess pancreatic exocrine function by measuring the effect of pancreatic secretion on various nutrients. These include triglycerides labeled with carbon 14, cobalamin labeled with cobalt 57 and cobalt 58, and para-aminobenzoic acid bound to a dipeptide. Of all these tests the secretin stimulation test is the most accurate and reliable if done by experienced personnel. However, the indirect tests are simpler to do and appear to be comparable to the secretin test at detecting pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. These indirect tests are becoming clinically available and clinicians should familiarize themselves with the strengths and weaknesses of each.

  7. Generating functionals for Green's functions in gauge field theories

    SciTech Connect

    Bordag, M.; Kaschlun, L.; Matveev, V.A.; Robaschik, D.

    1987-09-01

    The structure of the generating functional of the one-particle-irreducible Green's functions in gauge field theories is investigated. Both axial as well as covariant gauge conditions are considered. For both cases, the general structure of the functionals is obtained, and a functional expansion with respect to nonlocal operators is given. The appearance of gauge-dependent operators in the case of the covariant gauge follows in a natural manner from the structure of the corresponding functional.

  8. Executive Functioning in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Orellana, Gricel; Slachevsky, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The executive function (EF) is a set of abilities, which allows us to invoke voluntary control of our behavioral responses. These functions enable human beings to develop and carry out plans, make up analogies, obey social rules, solve problems, adapt to unexpected circumstances, do many tasks simultaneously, and locate episodes in time and place. EF includes divided attention and sustained attention, working memory (WM), set-shifting, flexibility, planning, and the regulation of goal directed behavior and can be defined as a brain function underlying the human faculty to act or think not only in reaction to external events but also in relation with internal goals and states. EF is mostly associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). Besides EF, PFC is involved in self-regulation of behavior, i.e., the ability to regulate behavior according to internal goals and constraints, particularly in less structured situations. Self-regulation of behavior is subtended by ventral medial/orbital PFC. Impairment of EF is one of the most commonly observed deficits in schizophrenia through the various disease stages. Impairment in tasks measuring conceptualization, planning, cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency, ability to solve complex problems, and WM occur in schizophrenia. Disorders detected by executive tests are consistent with evidence from functional neuroimaging, which have shown PFC dysfunction in patients while performing these kinds of tasks. Schizophrenics also exhibit deficit in odor identifying, decision-making, and self-regulation of behavior suggesting dysfunction of the orbital PFC. However, impairment in executive tests is explained by dysfunction of prefronto-striato-thalamic, prefronto-parietal, and prefronto-temporal neural networks mainly. Disorders in EFs may be considered central facts with respect to schizophrenia and it has been suggested that negative symptoms may be explained by that executive dysfunction. PMID:23805107

  9. Perspectives of “Functional Failure”

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The present dialogue piece briefly examines six perspectives of functional failure (individual-level, societal-level, life spheres impacted, number of severe consequences, attribution of consequences to drug misuse, and socio-environmental generalizability) as they might apply to seven degrees of drug misuse (constant, dependence, heavy, binging, controlled use, “dry,” sober). Variation in judgments of failure is posited across the perspectives and across degrees of drug misuse. PMID:23186439

  10. Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webber, Stephen E.

    2003-01-01

    These project will explore the functionalization of carbon nanotubes via the formation of molecular complexes with perylene diimide based systems. It is anticipated that these complexes would be soluble in organic solvent and enable the homogenous dispersion of carbon nanotubes in polymer films. Molecular complexes will be prepared and characterized using standard spectroscopic and thermal analytical techniques. Polymer films will be prepared with these complexes and their properties (electrical and thermal conductivity, mechanical properties, stability) evaluated.

  11. One Enzyme, Two Functions

    PubMed Central

    Altenhöfer, Sebastian; Witte, Ines; Teiber, John F.; Wilgenbus, Petra; Pautz, Andrea; Li, Huige; Daiber, Andreas; Witan, Heidrun; Clement, Albrecht M.; Förstermann, Ulrich; Horke, Sven

    2010-01-01

    The human enzyme paraoxonase-2 (PON2) has two functions, an enzymatic lactonase activity and the reduction of intracellular oxidative stress. As a lactonase, it dominantly hydrolyzes bacterial signaling molecule 3OC12 and may contribute to the defense against pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa. By its anti-oxidative effect, PON2 reduces cellular oxidative damage and influences redox signaling, which promotes cell survival. This may be appreciated but also deleterious given that high PON2 levels reduce atherosclerosis but may stabilize tumor cells. Here we addressed the unknown mechanisms and linkage of PON2 enzymatic and anti-oxidative function. We demonstrate that PON2 indirectly but specifically reduced superoxide release from the inner mitochondrial membrane, irrespective whether resulting from complex I or complex III of the electron transport chain. PON2 left O2?? dismutase activities and cytochrome c expression unaltered, and it did not oxidize O2?? but rather prevented its formation, which implies that PON2 acts by modulating quinones. To analyze linkage to hydrolytic activity, we introduced several point mutations and show that residues His114 and His133 are essential for PON2 activity. Further, we mapped its glycosylation sites and provide evidence that glycosylation, but not a native polymorphism Ser/Cys311, was critical to its activity. Importantly, none of these mutations altered the anti-oxidative/anti-apoptotic function of PON2, demonstrating unrelated activities of the same protein. Collectively, our study provides detailed mechanistic insight into the functions of PON2, which is important for its role in innate immunity, atherosclerosis, and cancer. PMID:20530481

  12. Lutein and Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Erdman, John W.; Smith, Joshua W.; Kuchan, Matthew J.; Mohn, Emily S.; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Rubakhin, Stanislav S.; Wang, Lin; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Neuringer, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Lutein is one of the most prevalent carotenoids in nature and in the human diet. Together with zeaxanthin, it is highly concentrated as macular pigment in the foveal retina of primates, attenuating blue light exposure, providing protection from photo-oxidation and enhancing visual performance. Recently, interest in lutein has expanded beyond the retina to its possible contributions to brain development and function. Only primates accumulate lutein within the brain, but little is known about its distribution or physiological role. Our team has begun to utilize the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) model to study the uptake and bio-localization of lutein in the brain. Our overall goal has been to assess the association of lutein localization with brain function. In this review, we will first cover the evolution of the non-human primate model for lutein and brain studies, discuss prior association studies of lutein with retina and brain function, and review approaches that can be used to localize brain lutein. We also describe our approach to the biosynthesis of 13C-lutein, which will allow investigation of lutein flux, localization, metabolism and pharmacokinetics. Lastly, we describe potential future research opportunities. PMID:26566524

  13. Lymphocyte Functions in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Risin, Diane; Sundaresan, A.; Cooper, D.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of immunity impairment in space it is important to analyze the direct effects of space-related conditions on different lymphocytes functions. Since 1992, we are investigating the effect of modeled and true microgravity (MG) on numerous lymphocyte functions. We had shown that modeled (MMG) and true microgravity inhibit lymphocyte locomotion through type I collagen. Modeled microgravity also suppresses polyclonal and antigen-specific lymphocyte activation. Polyclonal activation of lymphocytes prior to exposure to MMG abrogates the MG-induced inhibition of lymphocyte locomotion. The relationship between activation deficits and the loss of locomotion in MG was investigated using PKC activation by phorbol ester (PMA) and calcium ionophore (ionomycin). Direct activation of PKC by PMA substantially restored the MMG-inhibited lymphocyte locomotion and PHA-induced lymphocyte activation lonomycin by itself did not restore either locomotion or activation of the lymphocytes, indicating that these changes are not related to the impairment in the calcium flux in MMG. Treatment of lymphocytes with PMA before exposure to MMG prevented the loss of locomotion. It was observed that DNA synthesis is not necessary for restoration of locomotion since mitomicin C treated and untreated cells recovered their locomotion to the same level after PKC activation. Our recent data indicate that microgravity may selectively effect the expression of novel Ca2+ independent isoforms of PKC, in particularly PKC sigma and delta. This provides a new insight in understanding of the mechanisms of MG-sensitive cellular functions.

  14. Functions of Multivector Variables

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, James M.; Iqbal, Azhar; Gunn, Lachlan J.; Abbott, Derek

    2015-01-01

    As is well known, the common elementary functions defined over the real numbers can be generalized to act not only over the complex number field but also over the skew (non-commuting) field of the quaternions. In this paper, we detail a number of elementary functions extended to act over the skew field of Clifford multivectors, in both two and three dimensions. Complex numbers, quaternions and Cartesian vectors can be described by the various components within a Clifford multivector and from our results we are able to demonstrate new inter-relationships between these algebraic systems. One key relationship that we discover is that a complex number raised to a vector power produces a quaternion thus combining these systems within a single equation. We also find a single formula that produces the square root, amplitude and inverse of a multivector over one, two and three dimensions. Finally, comparing the functions over different dimension we observe that C?(?3) provides a particularly versatile algebraic framework. PMID:25774689

  15. Functionalized Amorphous Aluminosilicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesgar, Milad

    Alkali treated aluminosilicate (geopolymer) was functionalized by surfactant to increase the hydrophobicity for making Pickering emulsion for the first part of this work. In the first part of this study, alkali treated metakaolin was functionalized with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide ((C16H33)N(CH 3)3Br, CTAB). The electrostatic interaction between this quaternary ammonium and the surface of the aluminosilicate which has negative charge has taken place. The particles then were used to prepare Pickering emulsion. The resulting stable dispersions, obtained very fast at very simple conditions with low ratio of aluminosilicate to liquid phase. In the second part, the interaction between geopolymer and glycerol was studied to see the covalent grafting of the geopolymer for making geopolymer composite. The composite material would be the basis material to be used as support catalyst, thin coating reagent and flame retardant material and so on, Variety of techniques, Thermogravimetric (TGA), Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), FTIR, Solid state NMR, Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), BET surface area, Elemental analysis (CHN), TEM, SEM and Optical microscopy were used to characterize the functionalized geopolymer.

  16. Development of Functional Foods

    PubMed Central

    MITSUOKA, Tomotari

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in intestinal microbiota research are the background for the appearance of functional foods. Lactic fermentation products are included in the functional foods and classified into 3 groups based on their mechanisms of action: probiotics, prebiotics and biogenics. Probiotics are viable microorganisms, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, that beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal bacterial balance. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients, such as oligosaccharides and dietary fiber, that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth or activities of beneficial intestinal bacteria in the colon and thus improve the health of the hosts. Biogenics are biologically active peptides, including immunopotentiators (biological response modifier: BRM), plant flavonoids, etc. They act directly or indirectly through modulation of intestinal microbiota on the health of the hosts. Thus, functional foods enhance bioregulation such as stresses, appetite and absorption; biodefence, such as immunity and suppression of allergies; prevent diseases, including diarrhea, constipation, cancer, cholesterolemia and diabetes; and suppress aging through immunostimulation as well as suppression of mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, oxidation processes, intestinal putrefaction, and cholesterolemia. PMID:25032085

  17. Carbasugars: Synthesis and Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki

    It is well recognized that glycosidase inhibitors are not only tools to elucidate the mechanism of a living system manipulated by glycoconjugates but also potential clinical drugs and insecticides by inducing the failure of glycoconjugates to perform their function. In this chapter, the syntheses and functions of natural glycosidase inhibitors (cyclophelitol , allosamidine , and trehazoilin ), which possess highly oxygenated and functionalized cyclohexanes or cyclopentanes in their structures and are defined as carbasugars , and the structure and activity relationships (SAR) of their derivatives are described. Also, recently much attention has been focused on neuraminidase inhibitors as anti-influenza drugs since relenza , which was derived from sialic acid, and also, tamiflu , which is the artificial carbasugar designed as a transition state analogue in the hydrolysis pathway of substrates by neuraminidase, were launched in the market. Herein, the medicinal chemistry efforts to discover tamiflu and some efficient syntheses applicable to process chemistry are described. Finally, useful synthetic methodologies for carbasugar formation from sugars are also introduced in this chapter.

  18. Functional ingredients from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Buono, Silvia; Langellotti, Antonio Luca; Martello, Anna; Rinna, Francesca; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2014-08-01

    A wide variety of natural sources are under investigation to evaluate their possible use for new functional ingredient formulation. Some records attested the traditional and ancient use of wild harvested microalgae as human food but their cultivation for different purposes started about 40 years ago. The most popular species are Arthrospira (traditional name, Spirulina), Chlorella spp., Dunaliella spp. and Haematococcus spp. Microalgae provide a bewildering array of opportunities to develop healthier food products using innovative approaches and a number of different strategies. Compared to other natural sources of bioactive ingredients, microalgae have many advantages such as their huge biodiversity, the possibility to grow in arid land and with limited fresh water consumption and the flexibility of their metabolism, which could be adapted to produce specific molecules. All these factors led to very sustainable production making microalgae eligible as one of the most promising foods for the future, particularly as source of proteins, lipids and phytochemicals. In this work, a revision of the knowledge about the use of microalgae as food and as a source of functional ingredients has been performed. The most interesting results in the field are presented and commented upon, focusing on the different species of microalgae and the activity of the nutritionally relevant compounds. A summary of the health effects obtained together with pros and cons in the adoption of this natural source as functional food ingredients is also proposed. PMID:24957182

  19. A Primer on Functional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoman, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    This article presents principles and basic steps for practitioners to complete a functional analysis of client behavior. The emphasis is on application of functional analysis to adult mental health clients. The article includes a detailed flow chart containing all major functional diagnoses and behavioral interventions, with functional assessment…

  20. Functional Foods for Women's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeman, Alice K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…

  1. Muscle and prosthesis contributions to amputee walking mechanics: A modeling study

    E-print Network

    Muscle and prosthesis contributions to amputee walking mechanics: A modeling study Anne K the functional use of the ankle muscles, which are critical during walking to provide body support, forward propulsion, leg-swing initiation and mediolateral balance. Thus, either muscles must compensate

  2. Bioinspired, functional nanoscale materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, In-Kook

    Functional nanomaterials in nature exhibit many unique functions and optical and mechanical properties. Examples of this include the dry adhesion of a gecko's foot, the reduced drag on a shark's skin, the high strength and toughness of nacre, and the superhydrophobic self-cleaning of a lotus leaf. This dissertation is devoted to creating unique and enhanced properties by mimicking such functional materials. We have developed a novel self-pumping membrane, which does not require an applied voltage. The self-pumping membrane harvests chemical energy from a surrounding fluid and uses it for accelerated mass transport across the membrane. A device such as this has promising applications in implantable or remotely operating autonomous devices and membrane-based purification systems. Reproducible and highly active surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates were developed using a bottom-up self-assembly technology. With their high sensitivity and good reproducibility, the developed nanostructures (gold nanoparticle and nanohole arrays) as SERS substrates are very promising for applications such as ultra-sensitive detectors for chemicals and reproducible sensors for chemical and biological molecules. Binary colloidal crystals were created using a simple, fast, and scalable spin-coating technology. Although further investigation of the procedure is needed to improve the ordering of particles in the individual layers, the developed assembly technology has a promising outlook in applications such as optical integrated circuits and high-speed optical computing. Inorganic-organic nanocomposites were realized by assembling synthesized gibbsite nanoplatelets using the electrophoretic deposition and infiltration of a monomer followed by polymerization. Via surface modifications of gibbsite nanoplatelets, nanocomposites were further reinforced with covalent linkages between the inorganic platelets and organic matrix.

  3. Regulators of nucleolar functions.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Verdun, Danièle; Roussel, Pascal

    2003-01-01

    The nucleolus is the ribosome factory and also a multifunctional domain that plays an important role in nuclear organization and function. Interestingly, ribosome biogenesis appears directly related to cell growth and proliferation. The nucleolus corresponds to a very dynamic nuclear domain resulting from an equilibrium between the level of ribosomal RNA synthesis and the efficiency of ribosomal RNA processing. Ribosome biogenesis is regulated throughout interphase and stops during mitosis. The mitotic silencing of transcription, the distribution of the processing machinery, as well as the link between transcription and processing were found to be dependent on cyclin-dependent kinase(s). PMID:14593725

  4. Generalized Functions and Infinitesimals

    E-print Network

    JF. Colombeau

    2006-10-08

    It has been widely believed for half a century that there will never exist a nonlinear theory of generalized functions, in any mathematical context. The aim of this text is to show the converse is the case and invite the reader to participate in the debate and to examine the consequences at an unexpectedly elementary level. The paradox appears as another instance of the historical controversy on the existence of infinitesimals in mathematics, which provides a connection with nonstandard analysis. This text is the written version of a talk at the meeting of Nonstandard Analysis, Pisa, june 2006.

  5. Ramanujan's mock theta functions.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Michael; Ono, Ken; Rolen, Larry

    2013-04-01

    In his famous deathbed letter, Ramanujan introduced the notion of a mock theta function, and he offered some alleged examples. Recent work by Zwegers [Zwegers S (2001) Contemp Math 291:268-277 and Zwegers S (2002) PhD thesis (Univ of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands)] has elucidated the theory encompassing these examples. They are holomorphic parts of special harmonic weak Maass forms. Despite this understanding, little attention has been given to Ramanujan's original definition. Here, we prove that Ramanujan's examples do indeed satisfy his original definition. PMID:23536292

  6. Dual-functional semithiobambusurils.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mandeep; Solel, Ephrath; Keinan, Ehud; Reany, Ofer

    2015-01-01

    Semithiobambusurils, which represent a new family of macrocyclic host molecules, have been prepared by a convenient, scalable synthesis. These new cavitands are double functional: they strongly bind a broad variety of anions in their interiors and metal ions at their sulfur-edged portals. The solid-state structure of semithiobambus[4]uril with HgCl2 demonstrates the ability of these compounds to form linear chains of coordination polymers with thiophillic metal ions. The crystal structure of semithiobambus[6]uril with tetraphenylphosphonium bromide exhibits the unique anion-binding properties of the host cavity and the characteristics of the binding site. PMID:25417852

  7. Modern vestibular function testing.

    PubMed Central

    Baloh, R W; Furman, J M

    1989-01-01

    Current tests of vestibular function concentrate on the horizontal semicircular canal-ocular reflex because it is the easiest reflex to stimulate (calorically and rotationally) and record (using electro-oculography). Tests of the other vestibulo-ocular reflexes (vertical semicircular canal and otolith) and of the vestibulospinal reflexes have yet to be shown useful in the clinical setting. Digital video recording of eye movements and vestibular-evoked responses are promising new technologies that may affect clinical testing in the near future. PMID:2660408

  8. The LISA Response Function

    E-print Network

    Neil J. Cornish; Louis J. Rubbo

    2003-01-13

    The orbital motion of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) introduces modulations into the observed gravitational wave signal. These modulations can be used to determine the location and orientation of a gravitational wave source. The complete LISA response to an arbitary gravitational wave is derived using a coordinate free approach in the transverse-traceless gauge. The general response function reduces to that found by Cutler (PRD 57, 7089 1998) for low frequency, monochromatic plane waves. Estimates of the noise in the detector are found to be complicated by the time variation of the interferometer arm lengths.

  9. [Metabolic functions and sport].

    PubMed

    Riviere, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Current epidemiological studies emphasize the increased of metabolic diseases of the adults, such as obesity, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndromes. Even more worrying is the rising prevalence of obesity in children. It is due more to sedentariness, caused more by inactivity (television, video, games, etc.) than by overeating. Many studies have shown that regular physical activities benefit various bodily functions including metabolism. After dealing with the major benefits of physical exercise on some adult metabolic disorders, we focus on the prime role played by physical activity in combating the public health problem of childhood obesity. PMID:15651421

  10. The Broadening Functions Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rucinski, Slavek M.

    2012-04-01

    Essential assumptions and features of the Broadening Function (BF) technique are presented. A distinction between BF determination and the BF concept and utilization is made. The BF's can be determined in various ways. The approach based on linear deconvolution involving stellar templates, as used during the DDO program (1999 - 2008) is described, but the LSD technique would also give excellent results. The BF concept to prove and/or verify photometric light-curve solutions has so far been very limited to only a few W UMa-type binaries, with AW UMa giving particularly unexpected results.

  11. Phosphoinositide function in cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Brill, Julie A; Wong, Raymond; Wilde, Andrew

    2011-11-22

    In systems as diverse as yeast, slime mold and animal cells, the levels and distribution of phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs) must be strictly regulated for successful cell cleavage. The precise mechanism by which PIPs function in this process remains unknown. Recent experiments are beginning to shed light on the cellular pathways in which PIPs make key contributions during cytokinesis. In particular, PIPs promote proper actin cytoskeletal organization and direct membrane trafficking in dividing cells. Future research will uncover temporal and spatial regulation of the different PIPs, thus elucidating their role in cytoskeletal and membrane events that drive cell cleavage. PMID:22115464

  12. Improving cognitive function.

    PubMed

    2015-12-16

    Essential facts Age-related decline in mental ability varies from person to person. Individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have subtle but detectable problems with memory, but are able to function normally in everyday life. MCI affects between 5% and 20% of the UK population aged over 65 - or between half a million and two million people - according to research commissioned by Age UK. Although MCI increases the risk of dementia, with one in six people going on to develop it, many people remain stable and others improve, especially if it is caused by a treatable condition. PMID:26669382

  13. Applying the functional abnormality ontology pattern to anatomical functions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several biomedical ontologies cover the domain of biological functions, including molecular and cellular functions. However, there is currently no publicly available ontology of anatomical functions. Consequently, no explicit relation between anatomical structures and their functions is expressed in the anatomy ontologies that are available for various species. Such an explicit relation between anatomical structures and their functions would be useful both for defining the classes of the anatomy and the phenotype ontologies accurately. Results We provide an ontological analysis of functions and functional abnormalities. From this analysis, we derive an approach to the automatic extraction of anatomical functions from existing ontologies which uses a combination of natural language processing, graph-based analysis of the ontologies and formal inferences. Additionally, we introduce a new relation to link material objects to processes that realize the function of these objects. This relation is introduced to avoid a needless duplication of processes already covered by the Gene Ontology in a new ontology of anatomical functions. Conclusions Ontological considerations on the nature of functional abnormalities and their representation in current phenotype ontologies show that we can extract a skeleton for an ontology of anatomical functions by using a combination of process, phenotype and anatomy ontologies automatically. We identify several limitations of the current ontologies that still need to be addressed to ensure a consistent and complete representation of anatomical functions and their abnormalities. Availability The source code and results of our analysis are available at http://bioonto.de. PMID:20618982

  14. Platelet function defects.

    PubMed

    Simon, D; Kunicki, T; Nugent, D

    2008-11-01

    Inherited defects of platelet function are a heterogeneous group of disorders that can result in bleeding symptoms ranging from mild bruising to severe mucocutaneous haemorrhage. These defects may be classified according to their effect on the various steps of platelet microthrombi formation including initiation, extension and cohesion, or based on their particular structural or functional deficiency. Platelet membrane receptor deficiencies result in the rare, but well-characterized syndromes of defective clot initiation, such as Bernard-Soulier Syndrome. Platelet storage pool defects are the most common disorders affecting the extension phase of clot formation. Glanzmann thrombasthenia, with absent or dysfunctional alpha IIb beta 3 receptor is the prototypical defect of the cohesion/aggregation phase of microthrombi formation. Many of these disorders share common treatments although some therapies will have greater efficacy for one patient than another and should be individualized so as to provide optimal control of symptoms. Currently much effort is being put into methods to more rapidly and accurately diagnose patients with platelet disorders and to initiate appropriate therapy and prevent life threatening bleeding. PMID:19141164

  15. Mast Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Elaine Zayas Marcelino; Jamur, Maria Célia

    2014-01-01

    Since first described by Paul Ehrlich in 1878, mast cells have been mostly viewed as effectors of allergy. It has been only in the past two decades that mast cells have gained recognition for their involvement in other physiological and pathological processes. Mast cells have a widespread distribution and are found predominantly at the interface between the host and the external environment. Mast cell maturation, phenotype and function are a direct consequence of the local microenvironment and have a marked influence on their ability to specifically recognize and respond to various stimuli through the release of an array of biologically active mediators. These features enable mast cells to act as both first responders in harmful situations as well as to respond to changes in their environment by communicating with a variety of other cells implicated in physiological and immunological responses. Therefore, the critical role of mast cells in both innate and adaptive immunity, including immune tolerance, has gained increased prominence. Conversely, mast cell dysfunction has pointed to these cells as the main offenders in several chronic allergic/inflammatory disorders, cancer and autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes the current knowledge of mast cell function in both normal and pathological conditions with regards to their regulation, phenotype and role. PMID:25062998

  16. Process for functionalizing alkanes

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Robert G. (Kensington, CA); Janowicz, Andrew H. (Wilmington, DE); Periana-Pillai, Roy A. (Berkeley, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons selectively in the terminal position comprising: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons of the formula: RH where: H represents a hydrogen atom, and R represents a saturated hydrocarbon radical, with a metal complex of the formula: CpRhPMe.sub.3 H.sub.2 where: Cp represents a pentamethylated cyclopentadienyl radical, Rh represents a rhodium atom, P represents a phosphorous atom, Me represents a methyl group, H represents a hydrogen atom, in the presence of ultraviolet radiation at a temperature maintained at about -60.degree. to -17.degree. C. to form a hydridoalkyl complex of the formula: CpRhPMe.sub.3 RH (b) reacting said hydridoalkyl complex with a haloform of the formula: CHX.sub.3 where: X represents a bromine, iodine or chlorine atom, at a temperature in the range of about -60.degree. to -17.degree. C. to form the corresponding haloalkyl complex of step (a) having the formula: CpRhPMe.sub.3 RX; and, (c) reacting said haloalkyl complex formed in (b) with halogen (X.sub.2) at a temperature in the range of about -60.degree. to 25.degree. C. (i.e. ambient) to form a functional haloalkyl compound.

  17. Process for functionalizing alkanes

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Robert G. (Kensington, CA); Janowicz, Andrew H. (Wilmington, DE); Periana, Roy A. (Berkeley, CA)

    1988-01-01

    Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons comprising: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons of the formula: R.sub.1 H wherein H represents a hydrogen atom; and R.sub.1 represents a saturated hydrocarbon radical, with a metal complex of the formula: CpRh[P(R.sub.2).sub.3 ]H.sub.2 wherein Cp represents a cyclopentadienyl or alkylcyclopentadienyl radical; Rh represents a rhodium atom; P represents a phosphorus atom; R.sub.2 represents a hydrocarbon radical; H represents a hydrogen atom, in the presence of ultraviolet radiation to form a hydridoalkyl complex of the formula: CpRh[P(R.sub.2).sub.3 ](R.sub.1)H (b) reacting said hydridoalkyl complex with an organic halogenating agent such as a tetrahalomethane or a haloform of the formulas: CX'X''X'''X'''' or CHX'X''X''' wherein X', X'', X'", X"" represent halogens selected from bromine, iodine or chlorine atom, at a temperature in the range of about -60.degree. to -17.degree. C. to form the corresponding haloalkyl complex of step (a) having the formula: CpRhPMe.sub.3 RX; and, (c) reacting said haloalkyl complex formed in (b) with halogen (X.sub.2) at a temperature in the range of about -60.degree. to 25.degree. C. (i.e., ambient) to form a functional haloalkyl compound.

  18. Varicocele and testicular function

    PubMed Central

    Pastuszak, Alexander W; Wang, Run

    2015-01-01

    Testicular varicocele, a dilation of the veins of the pampiniform plexus thought to increase testicular temperature via venous congestion, is commonly associated with male infertility. Significant study has clarified the negative impact of varicocele on semen parameters and more recent work has shed light on its detrimental effects on the molecular and ultrastructural features of sperm and the testicular microenvironment, as well as more clearly defined the positive impacts of treatment on couples’ fertility. The relationship between varicocele and testicular endocrine function, while known for some time based on histologic evaluation, has become more apparent in the clinical setting with a growing link between varicocele and hypogonadism. Finally, in the pediatric setting, while future study will clarify the impact of varicocele on fertility and testicular function, recent work supports a parallel effect of varicocele in adolescents and adults, suggesting a re-evaluation of current treatment approaches in light of the progressive nature of the condition and potential increased risk of future disease. PMID:25926610

  19. Varicocele and testicular function.

    PubMed

    Pastuszak, Alexander W; Wang, Run

    2015-01-01

    Testicular varicocele, a dilation of the veins of the pampiniform plexus thought to increase testicular temperature via venous congestion, is commonly associated with male infertility. Significant study has clarified the negative impact of varicocele on semen parameters and more recent work has shed light on its detrimental effects on the molecular and ultrastructural features of sperm and the testicular microenvironment, as well as more clearly defined the positive impacts of treatment on couples' fertility. The relationship between varicocele and testicular endocrine function, while known for some time based on histologic evaluation, has become more apparent in the clinical setting with a growing link between varicocele and hypogonadism. Finally, in the pediatric setting, while future study will clarify the impact of varicocele on fertility and testicular function, recent work supports a parallel effect of varicocele in adolescents and adults, suggesting a re-evaluation of current treatment approaches in light of the progressive nature of the condition and potential increased risk of future disease. PMID:25926610

  20. C Ring Shadowing Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flandes, J. Alberto; Spilker, L.

    2010-10-01

    The accurate description of the thermal behavior of the main rings of Saturn relies on the different energy sources accounted in models (e.g. direct and reflected solar energy, thermal contribution from Saturn and the inter-particle energy exchange), but the observed temperature strongly depends on the observation geometry (e.g. solar elevation, B', spacecraft elevation, B, phase ? and local hour angles, ?). The observation geometry defines what fraction of the particles that compose the rings is illuminated and what fraction is under shadows in our field of view, which yields to apparent colder or warmer particles. This variation can be described with the so-called shadowing function. In order to study the C ring temperature behavior we use ray tracing, which can accurately and virtually reproduce a good number of optical effects with a high degree of realism, to simulate a layer of irregularly-shaped rough particles that mimics the optically thin C ring -?=0.08-. A virtual observer is set to simulate the spacecraft motion to account for the different elevations wrt the ring plane as well as local hour angle positions. For these different geometries we analyze the shadow behavior on the simulated ring particles surfaces and obtain sets of numerical shadowing functions that account variations in B', B, ? and ?.

  1. Verbal Functions in Psychopathy.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Brites, José; Ladera, Valentina; Perea, Victoria; García, Ricardo

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the verbal functions and language skills of male psychopathic individuals (in prison and outside) with non-psychopaths. The purpose was therefore to analyze phonological processing, reading and writing skills, the meaning of words and images, and the understanding of sentences. Ninety individuals with an average age of 38.19 (SD = 7.67) voluntarily participated in this study. The data were collected in different settings: prisons, a private charitable organization, and private clinics and health centers. All participants completed the Psychopathy Checklist Revised and the Psycholinguistic Assessment of Language Processing in Aphasia, to assess psychopathy traits and language skills, respectively. Participants were allocated into four different groups: incarcerated psychopathic offenders (n = 13), non-incarcerated psychopathic non-offenders living in the community (n = 13), incarcerated non-psychopathic offenders (n = 25), and non-psychopathic non-offenders living in the community (n = 39). The results showed that the verbal functions and language skills between psychopaths and non-psychopaths are very similar, showing a common profile. The data presented indicate the need for more specific work opportunities for both groups within the correctional setting, with the use of appropriate language and individualized programs as necessary. PMID:25090993

  2. Predicting protein functions from PPI networks using functional aggregation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jingyu; Chi, Xiaoxiao

    2012-11-01

    Predicting protein functions computationally from massive protein-protein interaction (PPI) data generated by high-throughput technology is one of the challenges and fundamental problems in the post-genomic era. Although there have been many approaches developed for computationally predicting protein functions, the mutual correlations among proteins in terms of protein functions have not been thoroughly investigated and incorporated into existing prediction methods, especially in voting based prediction methods. In this paper, we propose an innovative method to predict protein functions from PPI data by aggregating the functional correlations among relevant proteins using the Choquet-Integral in fuzzy theory. This functional aggregation measures the real impact of each relevant protein function on the final prediction results, and reduces the impact of repeated functional information on the prediction. Accordingly, a new protein similarity and a new iterative prediction algorithm are proposed in this paper. The experimental evaluations on real PPI datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. PMID:22732317

  3. Yeast Functional Analysis Report Functional analysis of the Saccharomyces

    E-print Network

    Alexandraki, Despina

    Yeast Functional Analysis Report Functional analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae YFR021w/YGR223 mitochondria-related functions for all three ORFs. Two-hybrid screens of a yeast genomic library identified. Under most conditions examined, the effects of the single- and double-ORF deletions indicated that YFR

  4. Computer Experiments for Function Approximations

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, A; Izmailov, I; Rizzo, S; Wynter, S; Alexandrov, O; Tong, C

    2007-10-15

    This research project falls in the domain of response surface methodology, which seeks cost-effective ways to accurately fit an approximate function to experimental data. Modeling and computer simulation are essential tools in modern science and engineering. A computer simulation can be viewed as a function that receives input from a given parameter space and produces an output. Running the simulation repeatedly amounts to an equivalent number of function evaluations, and for complex models, such function evaluations can be very time-consuming. It is then of paramount importance to intelligently choose a relatively small set of sample points in the parameter space at which to evaluate the given function, and then use this information to construct a surrogate function that is close to the original function and takes little time to evaluate. This study was divided into two parts. The first part consisted of comparing four sampling methods and two function approximation methods in terms of efficiency and accuracy for simple test functions. The sampling methods used were Monte Carlo, Quasi-Random LP{sub {tau}}, Maximin Latin Hypercubes, and Orthogonal-Array-Based Latin Hypercubes. The function approximation methods utilized were Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) and Support Vector Machines (SVM). The second part of the study concerned adaptive sampling methods with a focus on creating useful sets of sample points specifically for monotonic functions, functions with a single minimum and functions with a bounded first derivative.

  5. Evolution of catalytic function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, G. F.

    1993-01-01

    An RNA-based evolution system was constructed in the laboratory and used to develop RNA enzymes with novel catalytic function. By controlling the nature of the catalytic task that the molecules must perform in order to survive, it is possible to direct the evolving population toward the expression of some desired catalytic behavior. More recently, this system has been coupled to an in vitro translation procedure, raising the possibility of evolving protein enzymes in the laboratory to produce novel proteins with desired catalytic properties. The aim of this line of research is to reduce darwinian evolution, the fundamental process of biology, to a laboratory procedure that can be made to operate in the service of organic synthesis.

  6. Spin structure functions

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-ping Chen, Alexandre Deur, Sebastian Kuhn, Zein-eddine Meziani

    2011-06-01

    Spin-dependent observables have been a powerful tool to probe the internal structure of the nucleon and to understand the dynamics of the strong interaction. Experiments involving spin degrees of freedom have often brought out surprises and puzzles. The so-called "spin crisis" in the 1980s revealed the limitation of naive quark-parton models and led to intensive worldwide efforts, both experimental and theoretical, to understand the nucleon spin structure. With high intensity and high polarization of both the electron beam and targets, Jefferson Lab has the world's highest polarized luminosity and the best figure-of-merit for precision spin structure measurements. It has made a strong impact in this subfield of research. This chapter will highlight Jefferson Lab's unique contributions in the measurements of valence quark spin distributions, in the moments of spin structure functions at low to intermediate Q2, and in the transverse spin structure.

  7. Fusion excitation function revisited

    E-print Network

    Ph. Eudes; Z. Basrak; F. Sébille; V. de la Mota; G. Royer; M. Zori?

    2012-09-28

    We report on a comprehensive systematics of fusion-evaporation and/or fusion-fission cross sections for a very large variety of systems over an energy range 4-155 A.MeV. Scaled by the reaction cross sections, fusion cross sections do not show a universal behavior valid for all systems although a high degree of correlation is present when data are ordered by the system mass asymmetry.For the rather light and close to mass-symmetric systems the main characteristics of the complete and incomplete fusion excitation functions can be precisely determined. Despite an evident lack of data above 15A.MeV for all heavy systems the available data suggests that geometrical effects could explain the persistence of incomplete fusion at incident energies as high as 155A.MeV.

  8. Nanopatterns with biological functions.

    PubMed

    Blättler, Thomas; Huwiler, Christoph; Ochsner, Mirjam; Städler, Brigitte; Solak, Harun; Vörös, Janos; Grandin, H Michelle

    2006-08-01

    Both curiosity and a desire for efficiency have advanced our ability to manipulate materials with great precision on the micrometer and, more recently, on the nanometer scale. Certainly, the semiconductor and integrated circuit industry has put the pressure on scientist and engineers to develop better and faster nanofabrication techniques. Furthermore, our curiosity as to how life works, and how it can be improved from a medical perspective, stands to gain a great deal from advances in nanotechnology. Novel nanofabrication techniques are opening up the possibilities for mimicking the inherently nano-world of the cell, i.e., the nanotopographies of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the nanochemistry presented on both the cell membrane and the ECM. In addition, biosensing applications that rely on fabrication of high-density, precision arrays, e.g., DNA or gene chips and protein arrays, will gain significantly in efficiency and, thus, in usefulness once it becomes possible to fabricate heterogeneous nanoarrays. Clearly, continued advances in nanotechnology are desired and required for advances in biotechnology. In this review, we describe the leading techniques for generating nanopatterns with biological function including parallel techniques such as extreme ultraviolet interference lithography (EUV-IL), soft-lithographic techniques (e.g., replica molding (RM) and microcontact printing (muCP)), nanoimprint lithography (NIL), nanosphere lithography (NSL) (e.g., colloid lithography or colloidal block-copolymer micelle lithography) and the nanostencil technique, in addition to direct-writing techniques including e-beam lithography (EBL), focused ion-beam lithography (FIBL) and dip-pen nanolithography (DPN). Details on how the patterns are generated, how biological function is imparted to the nanopatterns, and examples of how these surfaces can and are being used for biological applications will be presented. This review further illustrates the rapid pace by which advances are being made in the field of nanobiotechnology, owing to an increasing number of research endeavors, for an ever increasing number of applications. PMID:17037832

  9. Questions ouvertes/questions fermees: une dichotomie qui appelle une analyse critique (Open Questions/Closed Questions: A Dichotomy that Calls for a Critical Analysis).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinter, Shirley; Bried, Charles

    1998-01-01

    Among the strategies used by the adult to engage the child in a linguistic interaction, those involving questioning occupy a central position. One of the parameters usually taken into account to differentiate the type of questions directed to the child is the opposition between closed (i.e., yes/no) and open-ended questions. The relevance of that…

  10. Visual Perception versus Visual Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Laurence M.

    1984-01-01

    Disfunctions are drawn between visual perception and visual function, and four optometrists respond with further analysis of the visual perception-visual function controversy and its implications for children with learning problems. (CL)

  11. Cranial functional (psychogenic) movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Kaski, Diego; Bronstein, Adolfo M; Edwards, Mark J; Stone, Jon

    2015-12-01

    Functional (psychogenic) neurological symptoms are frequently encountered in neurological practice. Cranial movement disorders-affecting the eyes, face, jaw, tongue, or palate-are an under-recognised feature of patients with functional symptoms. They can present in isolation or in the context of other functional symptoms; in particular, for functional eye movements, positive clinical signs such as convergence spasms can be triggered by the clinical examination. Although the specialty of functional neurological disorders has expanded, appreciation of cranial functional movement disorders is still insufficient. Identification of the positive features of cranial functional movement disorders such as convergence and unilateral platysmal spasm might lend diagnostic weight to a suspected functional neurological disorder. Understanding of the differential diagnosis, which is broad and includes many organic causes (eg, stroke), is essential to make an early and accurate diagnosis to prevent complications and initiate appropriate management. Increased understanding of these disorders is also crucial to drive clinical trials and studies of individually tailored therapies. PMID:26581970

  12. Physical one-way functions

    E-print Network

    Pappu, Ravikanth Srinivasa

    2001-01-01

    Modern cryptography relies on algorithmic one-way functions - numerical functions which are easy to compute but very difficult to invert. This dissertation introduces physical one-way firnctions and physical one-way hash ...

  13. Adaptive functional magnetic resonance imaging

    E-print Network

    Yoo, Seung-Schik, 1970-

    2000-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) detects the signal associated with neuronal activation, and has been widely used to map brain functions. Locations of neuronal activation are localized and distributed throughout the brain, however, ...

  14. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pain, including recurrent abdominal pain, functional dyspepsia, and irritable bowel syndrome. Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) was originally defined ... or constipation alternating with diarrhea) is the classic irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Causes The trigger for functional abdominal ...

  15. Cosmetic and Functional Nasal Deformities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nasal complaints. Nasal deformity can be categorized as “cosmetic” or “functional.” Cosmetic deformity of the nose results in a less ... taste , nose bleeds and/or recurrent sinusitis . A cosmetic or functional nasal deformity may occur secondary to ...

  16. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... functional pain. Your doctor will also follow your child to see if any changes take place which would suggest a different problem. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children NASPGHAN • PO Box 6 • Flourtown, PA 19031 • 215-233-0808 • ...

  17. Real time correlation functions and the functional renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlowski, Jan M.; Strodthoff, Nils

    2015-11-01

    We put forward a functional renormalization group approach for the direct computation of real time correlation functions, also applicable at finite temperature and density. We construct a general class of regulators that preserve the space-time symmetries, and allows the computation of correlation functions at complex frequencies. This includes both imaginary time and real time, and allows in particular the use of the plethora of imaginary time results for the computation of real time correlation functions. We also discuss real time computation on the Keldysh contour with general spatial momentum regulators. Both setups give access to the general momentum and frequency dependence of correlation functions.

  18. Second-order truncated functional expansions of energy density functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joubert, Daniel

    2001-11-01

    Parr and Liu [Chem. Phys. Lett., 276, 164 (1997)], showed that the electron-electron repulsion functional Vee[?] can be expressed in terms of its first and second functional derivatives under certain assumptions. Starting from this expansion it is shown that with the same assumptions, the density-functional exchange energy Ex[?], correlation energy Ec[?], and the kinetic contribution to the correlation energy Tc[?], can each be expressed in terms of their first and second functional derivatives only. It is pointed out that some expansions of density functionals proposed in the literature are not compatible with the expressions derived.

  19. Disgust: Evolved Function and Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tybur, Joshua M.; Lieberman, Debra; Kurzban, Robert; DeScioli, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Interest in and research on disgust has surged over the past few decades. The field, however, still lacks a coherent theoretical framework for understanding the evolved function or functions of disgust. Here we present such a framework, emphasizing 2 levels of analysis: that of evolved function and that of information processing. Although there is…

  20. Functions of the Renal Nerves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koepke, John P.; DiBona, Gerald F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses renal neuroanatomy, renal vasculature, renal tubules, renin secretion, renorenal reflexes, and hypertension as related to renal nerve functions. Indicates that high intensitites of renal nerve stimulation have produced alterations in several renal functions. (A chart with various stimulations and resultant renal functions and 10-item,…

  1. Representing Periodic Functions by Fourier

    E-print Network

    Vickers, James

    Representing Periodic Functions by Fourier Series 23.2 Introduction In this Section we show how, then the Fourier series expansion takes the form: f(t) = a0 2 + n=1 (an cos nt + bn sin nt) Our main purpose here Fourier coefficients of a function of period 2 calculate Fourier coefficients of a function of general

  2. Family Functioning in Pediatric Trichotillomania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Phoebe S.; Franklin, Martin E.; Keuthen, Nancy J.; Flessner, Christopher A.; Woods, Douglas W.; Piacentini, John A.; Stein, Dan J.; Loew, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about how pediatric trichotillomania (TTM), a clinically significant and functionally impairing disorder, is impacted by, and impacts, family functioning. We explored dimensions of family functioning and parental attitudes in a sample of children and adolescents who participated in an Internet-based survey and satisfied…

  3. Functional organic nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohlmeyer, Ryan R.

    pi-Conjugated polymers have a wide range of applications such as photovoltaics, light-emitting diodes, and sensors. To gain a better understanding of these systems, monodisperse oligomers can be used as a more simplistic model to generate predictive structural and physical properties of corresponding polymers. A divergent/convergent synthetic approach to synthesis of monodisperse pi-conjugated oligomers has been developed. These well-defined, thiophene-containing molecular building blocks have been successfully coupled to a ferrocene hinge, which has been found to be highly efficient in the transport of gold atoms using a gold scanning tunneling microscopy tip. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) represent a rare class of materials, which exhibit a number of outstanding properties in a single material system, such as high aspect ratio, small diameter, light weight, high mechanical strength, high electrical and thermal conductivities, and near-IR optical and optoelectronic properties. Aerogels are highly porous, low-density materials comprised of a solid, three-dimensional (3D) nanoscale network fully accessible to ions and molecules. By combining the extraordinary properties of CNTs with those of aerogels, a new class of materials becomes accessible with unique multifunctional material properties. CNT aerogels that are mechanically stable and stiff, highly porous, and exhibit excellent electrical conductivity and large specific surface area have been developed. CNTs are recognized as the ultimate carbon fibers for high-performance, multifunctional materials, where an addition of only a small amount of CNTs, if engineered appropriately, could lead to simultaneously enhanced mechanical strength and electrical conductivity. For the first time, using core-shell multi-walled CNTs as a filler to increase the dielectric constant and reduce the dielectric loss of nanotube-polymer composites has been demonstrated. While most efforts in the field of CNT-polymer composites have been focused on passive material properties such as mechanical, electrical, and thermal, there is growing interest in harnessing active material functions such as actuation, sensing, and power generation in designed CNT-polymer materials. The synergy between CNTs and the polymer matrix has been judiciously exploited to create highly desirable active material functions in smart material systems. By incorporating CNTs in a Nafion matrix, multi-shape memory healable composites capable of reversible remote, local, and chemical programming have been developed.

  4. Phycobilisome structure and function.

    PubMed

    Zilinskas, B A; Greenwald, L S

    1986-01-01

    Phycobilisomes are aggregates of light-harvesting proteins attached to the stroma side of the thylakoid membranes of the cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) and red algae. The water-soluble phycobiliproteins, of which there are three major groups, tetrapyrrole chromophores covalently bound to apoprotein. Several additional protiens are found within the phycobilisome and serve to link the phycobiliproteins to each other in an ordered fashion and also to attach the phycobilisome to the thylakoid membrane. Excitation energy absorbed by phycoerythrin is transferred through phycocyanin to allophycocyanin with an efficiency approximating 100%. This pathway of excitation energy transfer, directly confirmed by time-resolved spectroscopic measurements, has been incorporated into models describing the ultrastructure of the phycobilisome. The model for the most typical type of phycobilisome describes an allophycocyanin-containing core composed of three cylinders arranged so that their longitudinal axes are parallel and their ends form a triangle. Attached to this core are six rod structures which contain phycocyanin proximal to the core and phycoerythrin distal to the core. The axes of these rods are perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the core. This arrangement ensures a very efficient transfer of energy. The association of phycoerythrin and phycocyanin within the rods and the attachment of the rods to the core and the core to the thylakoid require the presence of several 'linker' polypeptides. It is recently possible to assemble functionally and structurally intact phycobilisomes in vitro from separated components as well as to reassociate phycobilisomes with stripped thylakoids. Understanding of the biosynthesis and in vivo assembly of phycobilisomes will be greatly aided by the current advances in molecular genetics, as exemplified by recent identification of several genes encoding phycobilisome components.Combined ultrastructural, biochemical and biophysical approaches to the study of cyanobacterial and red algal cells and isolated phycobilisome-thylakoid fractions are leading to a clearer understanding of the phycobilisome-thylakoid structural interactions, energy transfer to the reaction centers and regulation of excitation energy distribution. However, compared to our current knowledge concerning the structural and functional organization of the isolated phycobilisome, this research area is relatively unexplored. PMID:24435274

  5. Trigonometric functions of nonlinear quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Wester, D.W.

    1994-08-01

    Trigonometric functions of nonlinear quantities are introduced. Functions of the form {line_integral}(x{sup a}), {line_integral}(x{sup y}), and {line_integral}{sup n}(x{sup a}) are reported, where {line_integral} is a trigonometric function such as cos, sin, tan, cot, sec, or csc; x is a variable; a is a constant; y is a variable; and n is a constant. Sums, products and quotients of these functions are defined. Trigonometric functions of nonlinear quantities involving constants to variable powers also are mentioned. Possible applications to quantum mechanics, gravity, and a final theory of matter are discussed.

  6. Ribonucleoprotein multimers and their functions

    PubMed Central

    Bleichert, Franziska; Baserga, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    Ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) play key roles in many cellular processes and often function as RNP enzymes. Similar to proteins, some of these RNPs exist and function as multimers, either momomeric or heteromeric. While in some cases the mechanistic function of multimerization is well understood, the functional consequences of multimerization of other RNPs remain enigmatic. In this review we will discuss the function and organization of small RNPs that exist as stable multimers, including RNPs catalyzing RNA chemical modifications, telomerase RNP, and RNPs involved in pre-mRNA splicing. PMID:20572804

  7. Properties of resonance wave functions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    More, R. M.; Gerjuoy, E.

    1973-01-01

    Construction and study of resonance wave functions corresponding to poles of the Green's function for several illustrative models of theoretical interest. Resonance wave functions obtained from the Siegert and Kapur-Peierls definitions of the resonance energies are compared. The comparison especially clarifies the meaning of the normalization constant of the resonance wave functions. It is shown that the wave functions may be considered renormalized in a sense analogous to that of quantum field theory. However, this renormalization is entirely automatic, and the theory has neither ad hoc procedures nor infinite quantities.

  8. Function Point Analysis Depot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, R.; Martinez, El; Szafran, J.; Dalton, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Function Point Analysis (FPA) Depot is a web application originally designed by one of the NE-C3 branch's engineers, Jamie Szafran, and created specifically for the Software Development team of the Launch Control Systems (LCS) project. The application consists of evaluating the work of each developer to be able to get a real estimate of the hours that is going to be assigned to a specific task of development. The Architect Team had made design change requests for the depot to change the schema of the application's information; that information, changed in the database, needed to be changed in the graphical user interface (GUI) (written in Ruby on Rails (RoR and the web service/server side in Java to match the database changes. These changes were made by two interns from NE-C, Ricardo Muniz from NE-C3, who made all the schema changes for the GUI in RoR and Edwin Martinez, from NE-C2, who made all the changes in the Java side.

  9. Functional modular contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shum, Angela J.; Cowan, Melissa; Lähdesmäki, Ilkka; Lingley, Andrew; Otis, Brian; Parviz, Babak A.

    2009-08-01

    Tear fluid offers a potential route for non-invasive sensing of physiological parameters. Utilization of this potential depends on the ability to manufacture sensors that can be placed on the surface of the eye. A contact lens makes a natural platform for such sensors, but contact lens polymers present a challenge for sensor fabrication. This paper describes a microfabrication process for constructing sensors that can be integrated into the structure of a functional contact lens in the future. To demonstrate the capabilities of the process, an amperometric glucose sensor was fabricated on a polymer substrate. The sensor consists of platinum working and counter electrodes, as well as a region of indium-tin oxide (ITO) for glucose oxidase immobilization. An external silver-silver chloride electrode was used as the reference electrode during the characterization experiments. Sensor operation was validated by hydrogen peroxide measurements in the 10- 20 ?M range and glucose measurements in the 0.125-20 mM range.

  10. The Function of ?-Synuclein

    PubMed Central

    Bendor, Jacob; Logan, Todd; Edwards, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Human genetics has indicated a causal role for the protein ?-synuclein in the pathogenesis of familial Parkinson’s disease (PD), and the aggregation of synuclein in essentially all patients with PD suggests a central role for this protein in the sporadic disorder. Indeed, the accumulation of misfolded ?-synuclein now defines multiple forms of neural degeneration. Like many of the proteins that accumulate in other neurodegenerative disorders, however, the normal function of synuclein remains poorly understood. ?-Synuclein localizes specifically to the nerve terminal and inhibits neurotransmitter release when over-expressed, but the knockout has a modest effect on synaptic transmission, suggesting alternative presynaptic roles. Natively unstructured, synuclein adopts a helical conformation on membrane binding and recent work suggests a role in membrane remodeling. In neural degeneration, synuclein misfolds and aggregates as a ?-sheet. Multiple observations now suggest propagation of the misfolded protein as a prion, providing a mechanism for the spread of degeneration through the neuraxis. However, the factors that trigger the original misfolding remain unknown. PMID:24050397

  11. Functionally graded boron carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.; Kise, C.D.; Hoover, R.C.; Scarborough, W.K.

    1998-12-31

    Lightweight body armor is important for the protection of US soldiers in the field. Here, fabrication techniques were developed for producing graded porosity B{sub 4}C, and for producing aluminum-B{sub 4}C and epoxy-B{sub 4}C functionally graded materials. The key fabrication aspect was obtaining the graded porosity B{sub 4}C. The feasibility of producing graded porosity B{sub 4}C using a grading of carbon densification aid produced from a gradient of furfuryl alcohol carbon precursor was demonstrated. This approach is quite promising, but it was not optimized in the present investigation. Graded porosity B{sub 4}C materials were produced by a layering approach using different size distributions of B{sub 4}C powders in the green state, and then densifying the layered assembly by hot pressing at 1,900 C. The hardness of uninfiltrated graded B{sub 4}C, aluminum infiltrated B{sub 4}C, and epoxy infiltrated B{sub 4}C was observed to be similar.

  12. Maleimide Functionalized Siloxane Resins

    SciTech Connect

    Loy, D.A.; Shaltout, R.M.

    1999-04-01

    Polyorganosiloxanes are a commercially important class of compounds. They exhibit many important properties, including very low glass transition temperatures, making them useful over a wide temperature range. In practice, the polysiloxane polymer is often mixed with a filler material to help improve its mechanical properties. An alternative method for increasing polymer mechanical strength is through the incorporation of certain substituents on the polymer backbone. Hard substituents such as carbonates and imides generally result in improved mechanical properties of polysiloxanes. In this paper, we present the preparation of novel polysiloxane resins modified with hard maleimide substituents. Protected ethoxysilyl-substituted propyl-maleimides were prepared. The maleimide substituent was protected with a furanyl group and the monomer polymerized under aqueous acidic conditions. At elevated temperatures (>120 C), the polymer undergoes retro Diels-Alder reaction with release of foran (Equation 1). The deprotected polymer can then be selectively crosslinked by a forward Diels-Alder reaction (in the presence of a co-reactant having two or more dime functionalities).

  13. Synergetics of brain function.

    PubMed

    Haken, Hermann

    2006-05-01

    Several brain functions such as movement coordination and visual perception are analysed in terms of synergetics, an interdisciplinary field of research dealing with spontaneous pattern formation. Accordingly, the brain is conceived as a self-organizing system operating close to instabilities where its activities are governed by collective variables, the order parameters, that enslave the individual parts, i.e., the neurons. In this approach, emphasis is laid on qualitative changes of behavioral and neuronal activities. These concepts are substantiated by detailed experimental and theoretical studies of the coordination of finger movements by direct observation of their changes and MEG measurements. In its main part, this paper deals with visual pattern recognition. Using general properties of order parameters, at the phenomenological level bistability, hysteresis and oscillations of visual perception can be modelled. Then, at the microscopic level, a network of pulse-coupled neurons is treated, where the dynamics of the dendritic currents as well as the axonic pulses (spikes) are taken into account. Both pulse-synchronization as well as pattern recognition are treated. In the high pulse frequency limit the attractor network of the synergetic computer is recovered. In the next step, the concept of quasi-attractors is mathematically formulated where due to saturation of attention attractors are closed. Depending on incoming signals, the visual system thus wanders from quasi-attractor to quasi-attractor. The paper includes an interpretation of consciousness in terms of order parameters as well as a discussion on linearity versus nonlinearity, the binding problem, and the psychological "present". PMID:16527368

  14. Spectral function from Reduced Density Matrix Functional Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniello, Pina; di Sabatino, Stefano; Berger, Jan A.; Reining, Lucia

    2015-03-01

    In this work we focus on the calculation of the spectral function, which determines, for example, photoemission spectra, from reduced density matrix functional theory. Starting from its definition in terms of the one-body Green's function we derive an expression for the spectral function that depends on the natural occupation numbers and on an effective energy which accounts for all the charged excitations. This effective energy depends on the two-body as well as higher-order density matrices. Various approximations to this expression are explored by using the exactly solvable Hubbard chains.

  15. Basic Hypergeometric Functions as Limits of Elliptic Hypergeometric Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Bult, Fokko J.; Rains, Eric M.

    2009-06-01

    We describe a uniform way of obtaining basic hypergeometric functions as limits of the elliptic beta integral. This description gives rise to the construction of a polytope with a different basic hypergeometric function attached to each face of this polytope. We can subsequently obtain various relations, such as transformations and three-term relations, of these functions by considering geometrical properties of this polytope. The most general functions we describe in this way are sums of two very-well-poised 10?9's and their Nassrallah-Rahman type integral representation.

  16. Two-point correlation function for Dirichlet L-functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomolny, E.; Keating, J. P.

    2013-03-01

    The two-point correlation function for the zeros of Dirichlet L-functions at a height E on the critical line is calculated heuristically using a generalization of the Hardy-Littlewood conjecture for pairs of primes in arithmetic progression. The result matches the conjectured random-matrix form in the limit as E ? ? and, importantly, includes finite-E corrections. These finite-E corrections differ from those in the case of the Riemann zeta-function, obtained in Bogomolny and Keating (1996 Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 1472), by certain finite products of primes which divide the modulus of the primitive character used to construct the L-function in question.

  17. Transfer Function Identification Using Orthogonal Fourier Transform Modeling Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2013-01-01

    A method for transfer function identification, including both model structure determination and parameter estimation, was developed and demonstrated. The approach uses orthogonal modeling functions generated from frequency domain data obtained by Fourier transformation of time series data. The method was applied to simulation data to identify continuous-time transfer function models and unsteady aerodynamic models. Model fit error, estimated model parameters, and the associated uncertainties were used to show the effectiveness of the method for identifying accurate transfer function models from noisy data.

  18. Cell functional enviromics: Unravelling the function of environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background While functional genomics, focused on gene functions and gene-gene interactions, has become a very active field of research in molecular biology, equivalent methodologies embracing the environment and gene-environment interactions are relatively less developed. Understanding the function of environmental factors is, however, of paramount importance given the complex, interactive nature of environmental and genetic factors across multiple time scales. Results Here, we propose a systems biology framework, where the function of environmental factors is set at its core. We set forth a "reverse" functional analysis approach, whereby cellular functions are reconstructed from the analysis of dynamic envirome data. Our results show these data sets can be mapped to less than 20 core cellular functions in a typical mammalian cell culture, while explaining over 90% of flux data variance. A functional enviromics map can be created, which provides a template for manipulating the environmental factors to induce a desired phenotypic trait. Conclusion Our results support the feasibility of cellular function reconstruction guided by the analysis and manipulation of dynamic envirome data. PMID:21645360

  19. Functional recovery following stroke: Capturing changes in upper extremity function

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Augmenting changes in recovery is core to the rehabilitation process following a stroke. Hence, it is essential that outcome measures are able to detect change as it occurs; a property known as responsiveness. This paper critically reviewed the responsiveness of functional outcome measures following stroke, specifically examining tools that captured upper extremity functional recovery. Methods A systematic search of the literature was undertaken to identify articles providing responsiveness data for three types of change (observed, detectable, important). Results Data from 68 articles for 14 upper extremity functional outcome measures were retrieved. Larger percent changes were required to be considered important when obtained through anchor-based methods (eg. based on patient opinion or comparative measure) compared to distribution methods (eg. statistical estimates). Larger percent changes were required to surpass the measurement error for patient-perceived functional measures (eg. Motor Activity Log) compared to lab-based performance measures (eg. Action Research Arm Test). The majority of rehabilitation interventions have similarly sized effects on patient-perceived upper extremity function versus lab-based upper extremity function. Conclusions The magnitude of important change or change that surpasses measurement error can vary substantially depending on the method of calculation. Rehabilitation treatments can affect patient perceptions of functional change as effectively as lab-based functional measures; however higher sample sizes may be required to account for the larger measurement error associated with patient-perceived functional measures. PMID:23077144

  20. DEPTH FUNCTIONS AND RELATED FUNCTIONS Depth, Outlyingness, Quantile, and Rank

    E-print Network

    Serfling, Robert

    Outlyingness Functions: Finding "Outliers" in Rd "Outliers" have been under discussion for centuries: Francis Bacon, 1620 ... Daniel Bernoulli, 1777 ... Benjamin Pierce, 1852 ... Barnett and Lewis, 1995

  1. Zebrafish Thrombocytes: Functions and Origins

    PubMed Central

    Khandekar, Gauri; Kim, Seongcheol; Jagadeeswaran, Pudur

    2012-01-01

    Platelets play an important role in mammalian hemostasis. Thrombocytes of early vertebrates are functionally equivalent to mammalian platelets. A substantial amount of research has been done to study platelet function in humans as well as in animal models. However, to date only limited functional genomic studies of platelets have been performed but are low throughput and are not cost-effective. Keeping this in mind we introduced zebrafish, a vertebrate genetic model to study platelet function. We characterized zebrafish thrombocytes and established functional assays study not only their hemostatic function but to also their production. We identified a few genes which play a role in their function and production. Since we introduced the zebrafish model for the study of hemostasis and thrombosis, other groups have adapted this model to study genes that are associated with thrombocyte function and a few novel genes have also been identified. Furthermore, transgenic zebrafish with GFP-tagged thrombocytes have been developed which helped to study the production of thrombocytes and their precursors as well as their functional roles not only in hemostasis but also hematopoiesis. This paper integrates the information available on zebrafish thrombocyte function and its formation. PMID:22778746

  2. Functional Annotation of Hierarchical Modularity

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Kanchana; Wang, Kuangyu; Samatova, Nagiza F.

    2012-01-01

    In biological networks of molecular interactions in a cell, network motifs that are biologically relevant are also functionally coherent, or form functional modules. These functionally coherent modules combine in a hierarchical manner into larger, less cohesive subsystems, thus revealing one of the essential design principles of system-level cellular organization and function–hierarchical modularity. Arguably, hierarchical modularity has not been explicitly taken into consideration by most, if not all, functional annotation systems. As a result, the existing methods would often fail to assign a statistically significant functional coherence score to biologically relevant molecular machines. We developed a methodology for hierarchical functional annotation. Given the hierarchical taxonomy of functional concepts (e.g., Gene Ontology) and the association of individual genes or proteins with these concepts (e.g., GO terms), our method will assign a Hierarchical Modularity Score (HMS) to each node in the hierarchy of functional modules; the HMS score and its value measure functional coherence of each module in the hierarchy. While existing methods annotate each module with a set of “enriched” functional terms in a bag of genes, our complementary method provides the hierarchical functional annotation of the modules and their hierarchically organized components. A hierarchical organization of functional modules often comes as a bi-product of cluster analysis of gene expression data or protein interaction data. Otherwise, our method will automatically build such a hierarchy by directly incorporating the functional taxonomy information into the hierarchy search process and by allowing multi-functional genes to be part of more than one component in the hierarchy. In addition, its underlying HMS scoring metric ensures that functional specificity of the terms across different levels of the hierarchical taxonomy is properly treated. We have evaluated our method using Saccharomyces cerevisiae data from KEGG and MIPS databases and several other computationally derived and curated datasets. The code and additional supplemental files can be obtained from http://code.google.com/p/functional-annotation-of-hierarchical-modularity/ (Accessed 2012 March 13). PMID:22496762

  3. Disorders of Sinus Function.

    PubMed

    Mandel; Jordan; Karagueuzian

    1999-08-01

    Sinus node dysfunction is a common entity with significant clinical implications. Establishing a diagnosis may, on occasion, tax the skills of the clinician. Many causes have been cited, but no single factor appears to be established. Immunologic abnormalities may play a part in the etiologic process. Clinical invasive electrophysiology studies may be used to establish a diagnosis. In general, medical therapy must be integrated. Controversy exists regarding the best method of permanent pacing. Treatment may need to be individualized to the type of arrhythmia noted. Long-term prognosis is a large factor in choice of therapy, related to the underlying disease. Prevention of atrial fibrillation may occur with dual-chamber pacing; however, anticoagulation appears essential in this patient subgroup. The 5-year mortality rate in these patients is high and does not appear to be significantly improved with artificial pacing. Mortality is prominently influenced by the coexistence of cardiovascular and valvular heart disease. Patients who die do not differ substantially from survivors with regard to type of sinus dysfunction, occurrence of tachyarrhythmia, or distal conduction abnormalities. The survival rate in patients with sick sinus syndrome and congestive heart failure is significantly lower, and the incidence of embolic events remains high in patients with permanent pacing and the sick sinus syndrome. Thus, it has been proposed that all patients exhibiting the bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome be fully anticoagulated. The incidence of atrial fibrillation is significantly lower in patients with atrial demand pacing (22.3% versus 3.9%) than in patients with ventricular pacing and is accompanied by a decreased incidence of systemic embolization (13% versus 1.6%). Reports comparing survival with use of dual-chamber pacing versus ventricular pacing are encouraging in patients with congestive heart failure. At present, the natural history of the disease is unknown; furthermore, clinical risk factors for the development of symptoms have not been defined, and no electrophysiologic measure of sinus node function has been demonstrated to have reliable predictive value. Therefore, common practice has been to withhold pacemaker therapy in the asymptomatic patient. PMID:11096482

  4. Interpolating function and Stokes phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Masazumi; Jatkar, Dileep P.

    2015-11-01

    When we have two expansions of physical quantity around two different points in parameter space, we can usually construct a family of functions, which interpolates the both expansions. In this paper we study analytic structures of such interpolating functions and discuss their physical implications. We propose that the analytic structures of the interpolating functions provide information on analytic property and Stokes phenomena of the physical quantity, which we approximate by the interpolating functions. We explicitly check our proposal for partition functions of zero-dimensional ?4 theory and Sine-Gordon model. In the zero dimensional Sine-Gordon model, we compare our result with a recent result from resurgence analysis. We also comment on construction of interpolating function in Borel plane.

  5. Methods of making functionalized nanorods

    DOEpatents

    Gur, Ilan (San Francisco, CA); Milliron, Delia (Berkeley, CA); Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Liu, Haitao (Berkeley, CA)

    2012-01-10

    A process for forming functionalized nanorods. The process includes providing a substrate, modifying the substrate by depositing a self-assembled monolayer of a bi-functional molecule on the substrate, wherein the monolayer is chosen such that one side of the bi-functional molecule binds to the substrate surface and the other side shows an independent affinity for binding to a nanocrystal surface, so as to form a modified substrate. The process further includes contacting the modified substrate with a solution containing nanocrystal colloids, forming a bound monolayer of nanocrystals on the substrate surface, depositing a polymer layer over the monolayer of nanocrystals to partially cover the monolayer of nanocrystals, so as to leave a layer of exposed nanocrystals, functionalizing the exposed nanocrystals, to form functionalized nanocrystals, and then releasing the functionalized nanocrystals from the substrate.

  6. Benzaldehyde-functionalized Polymer Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guorong; Fang, Huafeng; Cheng, Chong; Lu, Peng; Zhang, Ke; Walker, Amy V.; Taylor, John-Stephen A.; Wooley, Karen L.

    2009-01-01

    Polymer vesicles with diameters of ca. 100-600 nm and bearing benzaldehyde functionalities within the vesicular walls were constructed through self assembly of an amphiphilic block copolymer PEO45-b-PVBA26 in water. The reactivity of the benzaldehyde functionalities was verified by crosslinking the polymersomes, and also by a one-pot crosslinking and functionalization approach to further render the vesicles fluorescent, each via reductive amination. In vitro studies found these labelled nanostructures to undergo cell association. PMID:19309173

  7. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve.

  8. Matchings, matroids and submodular functions

    E-print Network

    Harvey, Nicholas James Alexander

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on three fundamental problems in combinatorial optimization: non-bipartite matching, matroid intersection, and submodular function minimization. We develop simple, efficient, randomized algorithms for ...

  9. Kolmogorov Complexity and Solovay Functions

    E-print Network

    Bienvenu, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Solovay proved that there exists a computable upper bound f of the prefix-free Kolmogorov complexity function K such that f (x) = K(x) for infinitely many x. In this paper, we consider the class of computable functions f such that K(x) <= f (x)+O(1) for all x and f (x) <= K(x) + O(1) for infinitely many x, which we call Solovay functions. We show that Solovay functions present interesting connections with randomness notions such as Martin-L\\"of randomness and K-triviality.

  10. Random wave functions and percolation

    E-print Network

    E. Bogomolny; C. Schmit

    2007-08-31

    Recently it was conjectured that nodal domains of random wave functions are adequately described by critical percolation theory. In this paper we strengthen this conjecture in two respects. First, we show that, though wave function correlations decay slowly, a careful use of Harris' criterion confirms that these correlations are unessential and nodal domains of random wave functions belong to the same universality class as non critical percolation. Second, we argue that level domains of random wave functions are described by the non-critical percolation model.

  11. Acid zeta function and ajoint acid zeta function

    E-print Network

    Jining Gao

    2010-03-16

    In this paper we set up the theory of acid zeta function and ajoint acid zeta function, based on the theory, we point out a reason to doubt the truth of the Riemann hypothesis and also as a consequence, we give out some new RH equivalences.

  12. Behaviors and Corresponding Functions Addressed via Functional Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Horovitz, Max; Worley, Julie A.; Shoemaker, Mary E.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    One-hundred seventy-three studies that employed functional assessment were evaluated with respect to types of challenging behaviors studied and the functions identified that maintained those behaviors. For most studies, two to three behaviors were targeted. Of the 38 different challenging behaviors identified, self-injurious behavior (SIB) and…

  13. Adiabatic corrections to density functional theory energies and wave functions.

    PubMed

    Mohallem, José R; Coura, Thiago de O; Diniz, Leonardo G; de Castro, Gustavo; Assafrão, Denise; Heine, Thomas

    2008-09-25

    The adiabatic finite-nuclear-mass-correction (FNMC) to the electronic energies and wave functions of atoms and molecules is formulated for density-functional theory and implemented in the deMon code. The approach is tested for a series of local and gradient corrected density functionals, using MP2 results and diagonal-Born-Oppenheimer corrections from the literature for comparison. In the evaluation of absolute energy corrections of nonorganic molecules the LDA PZ81 functional works surprisingly better than the others. For organic molecules the GGA BLYP functional has the best performance. FNMC with GGA functionals, mainly BLYP, show a good performance in the evaluation of relative corrections, except for nonorganic molecules containing H atoms. The PW86 functional stands out with the best evaluation of the barrier of linearity of H2O and the isotopic dipole moment of HDO. In general, DFT functionals display an accuracy superior than the common belief and because the corrections are based on a change of the electronic kinetic energy they are here ranked in a new appropriate way. The approach is applied to obtain the adiabatic correction for full atomization of alcanes C(n)H(2n+2), n = 4-10. The barrier of 1 mHartree is approached for adiabatic corrections, justifying its insertion into DFT. PMID:18537228

  14. Differential Item Functioning Analysis Using Rasch Item Information Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Mapuranga, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis is a statistical technique used for ensuring the equity and fairness of educational assessments. This study formulates a new DIF analysis method using the information similarity index (ISI). ISI compares item information functions when data fits the Rasch model. Through simulations and an international…

  15. Speech and Language Functions that Require a Functioning Broca's Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Cameron; Kleinman, Jonathan T.; Newhart, Melissa; Gingis, Leila; Pawlak, Mikolaj; Hillis, Argye E.

    2008-01-01

    A number of previous studies have indicated that Broca's area has an important role in understanding and producing syntactically complex sentences and other language functions. If Broca's area is critical for these functions, then either infarction of Broca's area or temporary hypoperfusion within this region should cause impairment of these…

  16. An Expected Response Function Approach to Graphical Differential Item Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrams, David J.; McLeod, Lori D.

    2000-01-01

    Presents an approach to graphical differential item functioning (DIF) based on a sampling-theory approach to expected response functions. Applied the approach to a set of pretest items and compared results to traditional Mantel Haenszel DIF statistics. Discusses implications of the method as a complement to the approach of P. Pashley (1992). (SLD)

  17. Technical Rebuilding of Movement Function Using Functional Electrical Stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gföhler, Margit

    To rebuild lost movement functions, neuroprostheses based on functional electrical stimulation (FES) artificially activate skeletal muscles in corresponding sequences, using both residual body functions and artificial signals for control. Besides the functional gain, FES training also brings physiological and psychological benefits for spinal cord-injured subjects. In this chapter, current stimulation technology and the main components of FES-based neuroprostheses including enhanced control systems are presented. Technology and application of FES cycling and rowing, both approaches that enable spinal cord-injured subjects to participate in mainstream activities and improve their health and fitness by exercising like able-bodied subjects, are discussed in detail, and an overview of neuroprostheses that aim at restoring movement functions for daily life as walking or grasping is given.

  18. Convergence of Nonparametric Functional Regression Estimates with Functional Responses

    E-print Network

    Lian, Heng

    2011-01-01

    We consider nonparametric functional regression when both predictors and responses are functions. More specifically, we let $(X_1,Y_1),...,(X_n,Y_n)$ be random elements in $\\mathcal{F}\\times\\mathcal{H}$ where $\\mathcal{F}$ is a semi-metric space and $\\mathcal{H}$ is a separable Hilbert space. Based on a recently introduced notion of weak dependence for functional data, we showed the almost sure convergence rates of both the Nadaraya-Watson estimator and the nearest neighbor estimator, in a unified manner. Several factors, including functional nature of the responses, the assumptions on the functional variables using the Orlicz norm and the desired generality on weakly dependent data, make the theoretical investigations more challenging and interesting.

  19. A dynamic intracellular distribution of Vangl2 accompanies cell polarization during zebrafish gastrulation.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Isabelle; S Sepich, Diane; Jessen, Jason R; Chandrasekhar, Anand; Solnica-Krezel, Lilianna

    2015-07-15

    During vertebrate gastrulation, convergence and extension movements elongate embryonic tissues anteroposteriorly and narrow them mediolaterally. Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling is essential for mediolateral cell elongation underlying these movements, but how this polarity arises is poorly understood. We analyzed the elongation, orientation and migration behaviors of lateral mesodermal cells undergoing convergence and extension movements in wild-type zebrafish embryos and mutants for the Wnt/PCP core component Vangl2 (Trilobite). We demonstrate that Vangl2 function is required at the time when cells transition to a highly elongated and mediolaterally aligned body. vangl2 mutant cells fail to undergo this transition and to migrate along a straight path with high net speed towards the dorsal midline. Instead, vangl2 mutant cells exhibit an anterior/animal pole bias in cell body alignment and movement direction, suggesting that PCP signaling promotes effective dorsal migration in part by suppressing anterior/animalward cell polarity and movement. Endogenous Vangl2 protein accumulates at the plasma membrane of mesenchymal converging cells at the time its function is required for mediolaterally polarized cell behavior. Heterochronic cell transplantations demonstrated that Vangl2 cell membrane accumulation is stage dependent and regulated by both intrinsic factors and an extracellular signal, which is distinct from PCP signaling or other gastrulation regulators, including BMP and Nodals. Moreover, mosaic expression of fusion proteins revealed enrichment of Vangl2 at the anterior cell edges of highly mediolaterally elongated cells. These results demonstrate that the dynamic Vangl2 intracellular distribution is coordinated with and necessary for the changes in convergence and extension cell behaviors during gastrulation. PMID:26062934

  20. Microencapsulation and functional bioactive foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food, the essential unit of human nutrition has been both wholesome and safe through human history ensuring the continuity of the human race. Functionalized foods are the rediscovery of the need to provide all nutrients through foods without adulteration. The functional components of foods include...

  1. Thyroid Function in Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study investigated the thyroid function of 181 patients (mean age 14 years) with Down's syndrome and found more thyroid dysfunctions than in the general population. Periodic thyroid hormone function tests are recommended for Down's syndrome individuals, especially as they get older. (Author/DB)

  2. Space station functional relationships analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tullis, Thomas S.; Bied, Barbra R.

    1988-01-01

    A systems engineering process is developed to assist Space Station designers to understand the underlying operational system of the facility so that it can be physically arranged and configured to support crew productivity. The study analyzes the operational system proposed for the Space Station in terms of mission functions, crew activities, and functional relationships in order to develop a quantitative model for evaluation of interior layouts, configuration, and traffic analysis for any Station configuration. Development of the model involved identification of crew functions, required support equipment, criteria of assessing functional relationships, and tools for analyzing functional relationship matrices, as well as analyses of crew transition frequency, sequential dependencies, support equipment requirements, potential for noise interference, need for privacy, and overall compatability of functions. The model can be used for analyzing crew functions for the Initial Operating Capability of the Station and for detecting relationships among these functions. Note: This process (FRA) was used during Phase B design studies to test optional layouts of the Space Station habitat module. The process is now being automated as a computer model for use in layout testing of the Space Station laboratory modules during Phase C.

  3. Functions in Biological Kind Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombrozo, Tania; Rehder, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Biological traits that serve functions, such as a zebra's coloration (for camouflage) or a kangaroo's tail (for balance), seem to have a special role in conceptual representations for biological kinds. In five experiments, we investigate whether and why functional features are privileged in biological kind classification. Experiment 1…

  4. Continuous Problem of Function Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakody, Gaya; Zazkis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    We examine different definitions presented in textbooks and other mathematical sources for "continuity of a function at a point" and "continuous function" in the context of introductory level Calculus. We then identify problematic issues related to definitions of continuity and discontinuity: inconsistency and absence of…

  5. An Interactive Functional Programming Tutor

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Utrecht University P.O. Box 80.089 3508 TB Utrecht The Netherlands #12;An Interactive Functional this tutor, students receive feedback about whether or not they are on the right track, can ask for a hint Terms Languages, Human Factors, Measurement Keywords Functional programming, Haskell, tutoring 1

  6. Lossy Trapdoor Functions & Their Applications

    E-print Network

    Bogdanov, Andrej

    Lossy Trapdoor Functions & Their Applications Chen, Fei 2012.12.07 #12;Reading Peikert, C. andWaters on DDH Applications One-way functions Hard-core bits & pseudorandom number generators Collision resistant Discussion For a definition, no single item should imply another. Hard to invert #12;All-but-one TDFs Goal

  7. Medical Spanish: A Functional Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, James M.

    A functional approach to language teaching begins with knowing how students intend to use the foreign language for specific purposes and in specific situations. Instructors of medical Spanish can begin by determining the specific language functions that their students must be able to express when communicating with Hispanic patients, by means of a…

  8. DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS IN PHYSICS: FUNDAMENTALS

    E-print Network

    O'Connell, Robert F.

    functions 150 4. Distribution functions in terms of creation and annihilation operators 152 * Permanent of phase space in quantum mechanics problematic. Because a particle cannot simultaneously have a well and a momentum p, i.e. one cannot define a true phase space probability distribution for a quantum mechanical

  9. Density Functionals of Chemical Bonding

    PubMed Central

    Putz, Mihai V.

    2008-01-01

    The behavior of electrons in general many-electronic systems throughout the density functionals of energy is reviewed. The basic physico-chemical concepts of density functional theory are employed to highlight the energy role in chemical structure while its extended influence in electronic localization function helps in chemical bonding understanding. In this context the energy functionals accompanied by electronic localization functions may provide a comprehensive description of the global-local levels electronic structures in general and of chemical bonds in special. Becke-Edgecombe and author’s Markovian electronic localization functions are discussed at atomic, molecular and solid state levels. Then, the analytical survey of the main workable kinetic, exchange, and correlation density functionals within local and gradient density approximations is undertaken. The hierarchy of various energy functionals is formulated by employing both the parabolic and statistical correlation degree of them with the electronegativity and chemical hardness indices by means of quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) analysis for basic atomic and molecular systems. PMID:19325846

  10. Pharmacologic Effects on Mitochondrial Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Bruce H.

    2010-01-01

    The vast majority of energy necessary for cellular function is produced in mitochondria. Free-radical production and apoptosis are other critical mitochondrial functions. The complex structure, electrochemical properties of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM), and genetic control from both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nDNA) are…

  11. Classification of current scoring functions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Renxiao

    2015-03-23

    Scoring functions are a class of computational methods widely applied in structure-based drug design for evaluating protein-ligand interactions. Dozens of scoring functions have been published since the early 1990s. In literature, scoring functions are typically classified as force-field-based, empirical, and knowledge-based. This classification scheme has been quoted for more than a decade and is still repeatedly quoted by some recent publications. Unfortunately, it does not reflect the recent progress in this field. Besides, the naming convention used for describing different types of scoring functions has been somewhat jumbled in literature, which could be confusing for newcomers to this field. Here, we express our viewpoint on an up-to-date classification scheme and appropriate naming convention for current scoring functions. We propose that they can be classified into physics-based methods, empirical scoring functions, knowledge-based potentials, and descriptor-based scoring functions. We also outline the major difference and connections between different categories of scoring functions. PMID:25647463

  12. Fourier Series and Elliptic Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2003-01-01

    Non-linear second-order differential equations whose solutions are the elliptic functions "sn"("t, k"), "cn"("t, k") and "dn"("t, k") are investigated. Using "Mathematica", high precision numerical solutions are generated. From these data, Fourier coefficients are determined yielding approximate formulas for these non-elementary functions that are…

  13. Multi-functional composite structures

    SciTech Connect

    Mulligan, Anthony C.; Halloran, John; Popovich, Dragan; Rigali, Mark J.; Sutaria, Manish P.; Vaidyanathan, K. Ranji; Fulcher, Michael L.; Knittel, Kenneth L.

    2004-10-19

    Fibrous monolith processing techniques to fabricate multifunctional structures capable of performing more than one discrete function such as structures capable of bearing structural loads and mechanical stresses in service and also capable of performing at least one additional non-structural function.

  14. Multi-functional composite structures

    DOEpatents

    Mulligan, Anthony C.; Halloran, John; Popovich, Dragan; Rigali, Mark J.; Sutaria, Manish P.; Vaidyanathan, K. Ranji; Fulcher, Michael L.; Knittel, Kenneth L.

    2010-04-27

    Fibrous monolith processing techniques to fabricate multifunctional structures capable of performing more than one discrete function such as structures capable of bearing structural loads and mechanical stresses in service and also capable of performing at least one additional non-structural function.

  15. Empirical Specification of Utility Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellenbergh, Gideon J.

    Decision theory can be applied to four types of decision situations in education and psychology: (1) selection; (2) placement; (3) classification; and (4) mastery. For the application of the theory, a utility function must be specified. Usually the utility function is chosen on a priori grounds. In this paper methods for the empirical assessment…

  16. Nonsocial Functions of Hypothalamic Oxytocin

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hai-Peng; Wang, Liwei; Han, Liqun; Wang, Stephani C.

    2013-01-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide composed of nine amino acids. The functions of OXT cover a variety of social and nonsocial activity/behaviors. Therapeutic effects of OXT on aberrant social behaviors are attracting more attention, such as social memory, attachment, sexual behavior, maternal behavior, aggression, pair bonding, and trust. The nonsocial behaviors/functions of brain OXT have also received renewed attention, which covers brain development, reproduction, sex, endocrine, immune regulation, learning and memory, pain perception, energy balance, and almost all the functions of peripheral organ systems. Coordinating with brain OXT, locally produced OXT also involves the central and peripheral actions of OXT. Disorders in OXT secretion and functions can cause a series of aberrant social behaviors, such as depression, autism, and schizophrenia as well as disturbance of nonsocial behaviors/functions, such as anorexia, obesity, lactation failure, osteoporosis, diabetes, and carcinogenesis. As more and more OXT functions are identified, it is essential to provide a general view of OXT functions in order to explore the therapeutic potentials of OXT. In this review, we will focus on roles of hypothalamic OXT on central and peripheral nonsocial functions. PMID:24967304

  17. Functional Lateralization of the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Raymond S.

    1984-01-01

    Research concerning lateralization of human brain functions is examined in light of the recent publication of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. Following a review of research methodologies and functions ascribed to the hemispheres of the brain, differences are portrayed as complementary and coexisting modes of cognitive processing.…

  18. Density Functional Approach Francesco Sottile

    E-print Network

    Botti, Silvana

    Density Functional Approach Francesco Sottile Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau - France European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF) 22 October 2010 #12;Density Functional Theory 1. Any observable of a quantum system can be obtained from the density of the system alone. = O[n] Hohenberg, P. and W. Kohn

  19. Functionalizing Designer DNA Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekaran, Arun Richard

    Three-dimensional crystals have been self-assembled from a DNA tensegrity triangle via sticky end interaction. The tensegrity triangle is a rigid DNA motif containing three double helical edges connected pair-wise by three four-arm junctions. The symmetric triangle contains 3 unique strands combined in a 3:3:1 ratio: 3 crossover, 3 helical and 1 central. The length of the sticky end reported previously was two nucleotides (nt) (GA:TC) and the motif with 2-helical turns of DNA per edge diffracted to 4.9 A at beam line NSLS-X25 and to 4 A at beam line ID19 at APS. The purpose of these self-assembled DNA crystals is that they can be used as a framework for hosting external guests for use in crystallographic structure solving or the periodic positioning of molecules for nanoelectronics. This thesis describes strategies to improve the resolution and to incorporate guests into the 3D lattice. The first chapter describes the effect of varying sticky end lengths and the influence of 5'-phosphate addition on crystal formation and resolution. X-ray diffraction data from beam line NSLS-X25 revealed that the crystal resolution for 1-nt (G:C) sticky end was 3.4 A. Motifs with every possible combination of 1-nt and 2-nt sticky-ended phosphorylated strands were crystallized and X-ray data were collected. The position of the 5'-phosphate on either the crossover (strand 1), helical (strand 2), or central strand (3) had an impact on the resolution of the self-assembled crystals with the 1-nt 1P-2-3 system diffracting to 2.62 A at APS and 3.1 A at NSLS-X25. The second chapter describes the sequence-specific recognition of DNA motifs with triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs). This study examined the feasibility of using TFOs to bind to specific locations within a 3-turn DNA tensegrity triangle motif. The TFO 5'-TTCTTTCTTCTCT was used to target the tensegrity motif containing an appropriately embedded oligopurine.oligopyrimidine binding site. As triplex formation involving cytidine nucleotides is usually pH dependent (pH < 6) four different TFOs were examined: TFO-1 was unmodified while TFOs 2-4 contained additional stabilizing analogues capable of extending triplex formation to pH 7. In addition, each of the TFOs contained a Cy5 dye at the 5'-end of the oligonucleotide to aid in characterization of TFO binding - crystals were obtained with all four variations of TFOs. Formation of DNA triplex in the motif was characterized by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), UV melting studies and FRET. Crystals containing TFO-1 (unmodified) and TFO-2 (with 2'-amino ethoxy modification) were isolated and flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen for X-ray data collection at beam line NSLS-X25. X-ray data was also collected for crystals of the 3-turn triangle without any TFO bound to it. Difference maps were done between the crystals with TFO against the one without to identify any additional electron density corresponding to the third strand in the triplex binding region. The data from the crystal containing TFO-2 was used to further analyze if the additional density can match the expected position of the TFO on the triangle motif. Since the additional density did not correspond to the entire binding region, 2Fo-Fc, 3Fo-2Fc and 4Fo-3Fc maps were done to check for missing pieces of the electron density. From the resulting 2Fo-Fc map, the asymmetric unit from the 3-turn triangle (31-bp duplex model based on previous structure 3UBI) was inserted into the density as a reference. However, the electron density corresponding to the TFO was still not continuous throughout the 13-nt triplex binding region and allowed only a partial fit of the TFO. The third nucleotide in positions 1, 3, 4, 6, 7 were fit into the density in the major groove of the underlying duplex with proper triplex configuration. The third chapter describes the triplex approach to position a functional group (the UV cross-linking agent psoralen) within a pre-formed DNA motif. Triplex formation and psoralen cross-linking of the motif were analyzed by native and denaturing gel electropho

  20. Additive noise, Weibull functions and the approximation of psychometric functions.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, U

    2002-09-01

    The Weibull function is frequently chosen to define psychometric functions. Tyler and Chen (Vis. Res. 40 (2000) 3121) criticised the high-threshold postulate implied by the Weibull function and argued that this function implies the assumption of multiplicative noise. It will be shown in this paper that in fact the Weibull function is compatible with the assumption of additive noise, and that the Weibull function may be generalised to the case of detection not being high threshold. The derivations rest, however, on a representation of sensory activity lacking a satisfying degree of generality. Therefore, a more general representation of sensory activity in terms of stochastic processes will be suggested, with detection being defined as a level-crossing process, containing the original representation as a special case. Two classes of stochastic processes will be considered: one where the noise is assumed to be additive, stationary Gaussian, and another resulting from cascaded Poisson processes, representing a form of multiplicative noise. While Weibull functions turn out to approximate well psychometric functions generated by both types of stochastic processes, it also becomes obvious that there is no simple interpretation of the parameters of the fitted Weibull functions. Moreover, corresponding to Tyler and Chen's discussion of the role of multiplicative noise particular sources of this type of noise will be considered and shown to be compatible with the Weibull. It is indicated how multiplicative noise may be defined in general; however, it will be argued that in the light of certain empirical data the role of this type of noise may be negligible in most detection tasks. PMID:12350425

  1. Functional composition and decomposition for signal processing

    E-print Network

    Demirtas, Sefa

    2014-01-01

    Functional composition, the application of one function to the results of another function, has a long history in the mathematics community, particularly in the context of polynomials and rational functions. This thesis ...

  2. Hierarchical Automatic Function Definition in Genetic Programming

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Hierarchical Automatic Function Definition in Genetic Programming John R. Koza Computer Science. This paper describes two extensions to genetic programming, called "automatic" function definition and "hierarchical automatic" function definition, wherein functions that might be useful in solving a problem

  3. On the Interpolation of Smooth Functions via Radial Basis Functions 

    E-print Network

    Hamm, Keaton P

    2015-06-26

    behavior of the interpolants in terms of a given parameter associated with the RBF is considered; in these instances the original bandlimited function can be recovered in L2 and uniformly by a limiting process. Additionally, multivariate interpolation...

  4. Cognitive Control and Attentional Functions

    PubMed Central

    Mackie, Melissa-Ann; Van Dam, Nicholas T.; Fan, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control is essential to flexible, goal-directed behavior under uncertainty, yet its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Because attentional functions are known to allocate mental resources and prioritize the information to be processed by the brain, we propose that the attentional functions of alerting, orienting, and executive control and the interactions among them contribute to cognitive control in the service of uncertainty reduction. To test this hypothesis, we examined the relationship between cognitive control and attentional functions. We used the Majority Function Task (MFT) to manipulate uncertainty in order to evoke cognitive control along with the Revised Attention Network Test (ANT-R) to measure the efficiency and the interactions of attentional functions. A backwards, stepwise regression model revealed that performance on the MFT could be significantly predicted by attentional functions and their interactions as measured by the ANT-R. These results provide preliminary support for our theory that the attentional functions may be involved in the implementation of cognitive control as required to reduce uncertainty, though further investigation is needed. PMID:23792472

  5. Hybrid functionals applied to perovskites.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Cesare

    2014-06-25

    After being used for years in the chemistry community to describe molecular properties, hybrid functionals have been increasingly and successfully employed for a wide range of solid state problems which are not accurately accessible by standard density functional theory. In particular, the upsurge of interest in transition metal perovskite-based compounds, motivated by their technological relevance and functional ductility, has incentivized the use of hybrid functionals for realistic applications, as hybrid functionals appear to be capable of capturing the complex correlated physics of this class of oxide material, characterized by a subtle coupling between several competing interactions (lattice, orbital, spin). Here we present a map of recent applications of hybrid functionals to perovskites, aiming to cover an ample spectra of cases, including the 'classical' 3d compounds (manganites, titanates, nickelates, ferrites, etc.), less conventional examples from the the 4d (technetiates) and 5d (iridates) series, and the (non-transition metal) sp perovskite BaBiO3. We focus our attention on the technical aspects of the hybrid functional formalism, such as the role of the mixing and (for range-separated hybrids) screening parameters, and on an extended array of physical phenomena: pressure- and doping-induced insulator-to-metal and structural phase transitions, multiferroism, surface and interface effects, charge ordering and localization effects, and spin-orbit coupling. PMID:24871431

  6. Model-based Utility Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibbard, Bill

    2012-05-01

    Orseau and Ring, as well as Dewey, have recently described problems, including self-delusion, with the behavior of agents using various definitions of utility functions. An agent's utility function is defined in terms of the agent's history of interactions with its environment. This paper argues, via two examples, that the behavior problems can be avoided by formulating the utility function in two steps: 1) inferring a model of the environment from interactions, and 2) computing utility as a function of the environment model. Basing a utility function on a model that the agent must learn implies that the utility function must initially be expressed in terms of specifications to be matched to structures in the learned model. These specifications constitute prior assumptions about the environment so this approach will not work with arbitrary environments. But the approach should work for agents designed by humans to act in the physical world. The paper also addresses the issue of self-modifying agents and shows that if provided with the possibility to modify their utility functions agents will not choose to do so, under some usual assumptions.

  7. Density Functional Theory for Superconductors: new functionals and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, Antonio; Gross, E. K. U.

    2015-03-01

    Density functional theory for superconductors (SCDFT) is a fully parameter-free approach that allows for accurate predictions of the critical temperature and other properties of superconductors. We report on the most recent extensions of this theoretical framework, in particular the development of new functionals to: incorporate in a correct fashion Migdal's theorem; compute the excitation spectrum; include spin-fluctuation mediated pairing Applications and predictions are shown for a set of materials including conventional and unconventional superconductors.

  8. Functional training: muscle structure, function, and performance in older women.

    PubMed

    Cress, M E; Conley, K E; Balding, S L; Hansen-Smith, F; Konczak, J

    1996-07-01

    Response to physical training at the cellular and whole muscle level has been established in older adults. However, the underlying molecular mechanism responsible for change has not been described nor have the relationships between change in muscle structure and functional performance been established. The purpose of this research study is to evaluate the changes of muscle ultrastructure, muscle strength, and whole body functional performance as a result of a functionally directed exercise program (stair climbing). Women (65-83 years old) selected either the control (no exercise; N = 6) or exercise (N = 7) group. The 1-year functionally based exercise program was both aerobic (75% heart rate reserve) and resistive (weighted stair climbing). Muscle ultrastructure, determined by quantitative morphometry of the vastus lateralis tissue, and maximal step-height achieved by each subject were related to isokinetic strength and muscle morphology. Changes in myofibrillar area accounted for 48% of the variance in muscle strength changes. Change in muscle contractile protein was the underlying basis for change in thigh strength which, in turn, was the basis for functional performance. These data provide evidence that, in older women, a mild functionally based training program results in improved muscle structure and performance of the lower body. PMID:8807535

  9. Functional programming framework for GRworkbench

    E-print Network

    Andrew J. Moylan; Susan M. Scott; Antony C. Searle

    2007-10-16

    The software tool GRworkbench is an ongoing project in visual, numerical General Relativity at The Australian National University. Recently, the numerical differential geometric engine of GRworkbench has been rewritten using functional programming techniques. By allowing functions to be directly represented as program variables in C++ code, the functional framework enables the mathematical formalism of Differential Geometry to be more closely reflected in GRworkbench . The powerful technique of `automatic differentiation' has replaced numerical differentiation of the metric components, resulting in more accurate derivatives and an order-of-magnitude performance increase for operations relying on differentiation.

  10. Computational Models for Neuromuscular Function

    PubMed Central

    Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.; Hoffmann, Heiko; Kurse, Manish U.; Kutch, Jason J.; Theodorou, Evangelos A.

    2011-01-01

    Computational models of the neuromuscular system hold the potential to allow us to reach a deeper understanding of neuromuscular function and clinical rehabilitation by complementing experimentation. By serving as a means to distill and explore specific hypotheses, computational models emerge from prior experimental data and motivate future experimental work. Here we review computational tools used to understand neuromuscular function including musculoskeletal modeling, machine learning, control theory, and statistical model analysis. We conclude that these tools, when used in combination, have the potential to further our understanding of neuromuscular function by serving as a rigorous means to test scientific hypotheses in ways that complement and leverage experimental data. PMID:21687779

  11. Functions of neuronal network motifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunguang

    2008-09-01

    It was recently found that neuronal (and many other) networks contain some significantly recurring wiring patterns, termed “network motifs,” which are believed to be basic building blocks of these networks and to perform important functional roles in them. We study the functions of neuronal network motifs by computational modeling. We use both the firing-rate and integrate-and-fire models to model the neuronal network motifs. Several interesting functions and dynamics are found in the neuronal network motifs, such as the acceleration and delay of response and long- and short-term memory.

  12. Functional observer and state feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.Y.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper, we show the relation between state space approach and transfer function approach for functional observer and state feedback design. Two approaches can be transformed into each other, based on this result. More importantly, we find that the state space approach introduces some severe, unnecessary restrictions in solving the problem. The restrictions are, however, reduced to be a trivial condition in transfer function approach. It is believed that the result presented in this paper will be useful in developing both approaches, and motivate some new results for solving the problem.

  13. Robust Hurricane Surge Response Functions 

    E-print Network

    Udoh, Ikpoto 1980-

    2012-11-30

    meteorological and climate change characteristics). Surge Response Functions (SRFs) are physics-based equations developed using scaling laws to adequately scale surge response in dimensionless space; they serve as surrogates to high resolution numerical models...

  14. Bacterial Exopolysaccharides: Functionality and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Green, Ezekiel; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2012-01-01

    Diverse structural, functional and valuable polysaccharides are synthesized by bacteria of all taxa and secreted into the external environment. These polysaccharides are referred to as exopolysaccharides and they may either be homopolymeric or heteropolymeric in composition and of diverse high molecular weights (10 to 1000 kDa). The material properties of exopolysaccharides have revolutionized the industrial and medical sectors due to their retinue of functional applications and prospects. These applications have been extensive in areas such as pharmacological, nutraceutical, functional food, cosmeceutical, herbicides and insecticides among others, while prospects includes uses as anticoagulant, antithrombotic, immunomodulation, anticancer and as bioflocculants. Due to the extensive applications of bacterial exopolysaccharides, this overview provides basic information on their physiologic and morphologic functions as well as their applications and prospects in the medical and industrial sectors. PMID:23203046

  15. Hox Targets and Cellular Functions

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Herrero, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Hox genes are a group of genes that specify structures along the anteroposterior axis in bilaterians. Although in many cases they do so by modifying a homologous structure with a different (or no) Hox input, there are also examples of Hox genes constructing new organs with no homology in other regions of the body. Hox genes determine structures though the regulation of targets implementing cellular functions and by coordinating cell behavior. The genetic organization to construct or modify a certain organ involves both a genetic cascade through intermediate transcription factors and a direct regulation of targets carrying out cellular functions. In this review I discuss new data from genome-wide techniques, as well as previous genetic and developmental information, to describe some examples of Hox regulation of different cell functions. I also discuss the organization of genetic cascades leading to the development of new organs, mainly using Drosophila melanogaster as the model to analyze Hox function. PMID:24490109

  16. Making the Tent Function Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprows, David J.

    2010-01-01

    This note can be used to illustrate to the student such concepts as periodicity in the complex plane. The basic construction makes use of the Tent function which requires only that the student have some working knowledge of binary arithmetic.

  17. Neural computation of arithmetic functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siu, Kai-Yeung; Bruck, Jehoshua

    1990-01-01

    An area of application of neural networks is considered. A neuron is modeled as a linear threshold gate, and the network architecture considered is the layered feedforward network. It is shown how common arithmetic functions such as multiplication and sorting can be efficiently computed in a shallow neural network. Some known results are improved by showing that the product of two n-bit numbers and sorting of n n-bit numbers can be computed by a polynomial-size neural network using only four and five unit delays, respectively. Moreover, the weights of each threshold element in the neural networks require O(log n)-bit (instead of n-bit) accuracy. These results can be extended to more complicated functions such as multiple products, division, rational functions, and approximation of analytic functions.

  18. The Functions of Program Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickman, Leonard

    1987-01-01

    Ten functions of program theory are reviewed: contributing to social science knowledge; assisting policymakers, discriminating between theory failure and program failure, identifying the problem and target group, providing program implementation description, uncovering unintended effects, specifying intervening variables, improving formative use…

  19. FUNCTIONAL USAGE DEFINITIONS RESEARCH (OR)

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    FUNCTIONAL USAGE DEFINITIONS ORGANIZED RESEARCH (OR) Space devoted to all research sponsorships under an internal application of departmental funds. Sponsored research training includes activities involving the training of individuals in research techniques when such activities share the same

  20. Synthesizing Iterators from Abstraction Functions

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Daniel

    A technique for synthesizing iterators from declarative abstraction functions written in a relational logic specification language is described. The logic includes a transitive closure operator that makes it convenient for ...

  1. Functional brain mapping of psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Honey, G; Fletcher, P; Bullmore, E

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the impact that the novel functional neuroimaging techniques may have upon psychiatric illness. Functional neuroimaging has rapidly developed as a powerful tool in cognitive neuroscience and, in recent years, has seen widespread application in psychiatry. Although such studies have produced evidence for abnormal patterns of brain response in association with some pathological conditions, the core pathophysiologies remain unresolved. Although imaging techniques provide an unprecedented opportunity for investigation of physiological function of the living human brain, there are fundamental questions and assumptions which remain to be addressed. In this review we examine these conceptual issues under three broad sections: (1) characterising the clinical population of interest, (2) defining appropriate levels of description of normal brain function, and (3) relating these models to pathophysiological conditions. Parallel advances in each of these questions will be required before imaging techniques can impact on clinical decisions in psychiatry. PMID:11909899

  2. Functional Remediation for Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Arán, Anabel; Torrent, Carla; Solé, Brisa; Bonnín, C. Mar; Rosa, Adriane R; Sánchez-Moreno, José; Vieta, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    Neurocognitive impairment constitutes a core feature of bipolar illness. The main domains affected are verbal memory, attention, and executive functions. Deficits in these areas as well as difficulties to get functional remission seem to be increased associated with illness progression. Several studies have found a strong relationship between neurocognitive impairment and low functioning in bipolar disorder, as previously reported in other illnesses such as schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation strategies, adapted from work conducted with traumatic brain injury patients and applied to patients with schizophrenia, also need to be adapted to individuals with bipolar disorders. Early intervention using functional remediation, involves neurocognitive techniques and training, but also psychoeducation on cognition-related issues and problem-solving within an ecological framework. PMID:21687565

  3. Functional neuroimaging in mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Philip K; Matsumoto, Kazunori

    2004-01-01

    Recent advances in functional neuroimaging allow us to map neural activity in the living human brain with precise spatial and temporal resolution and provide an unprecedented opportunity to examine the neurocognitive components of mental disorders. In this article we aim to summarize the main functional neuroimaging findings in the major psychiatric disorders and the different methodological approaches that have been used to study them. We will discuss studies of the resting state and of activation during the performance of cognitive tasks, and studies focused on specific psychiatric symptoms. We will also review work on functional connectivity, discuss future directions in the field and consider how functional neuroimaging may contribute to clinical practice. PMID:16633442

  4. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Vardharajula, Sandhya; Ali, Sk Z; Tiwari, Pooja M; Ero?lu, Erdal; Vig, Komal; Dennis, Vida A; Singh, Shree R

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity. PMID:23091380

  5. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Vardharajula, Sandhya; Ali, Sk Z; Tiwari, Pooja M; Ero?lu, Erdal; Vig, Komal; Dennis, Vida A; Singh, Shree R

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity. PMID:23091380

  6. Functional Compression Through Graph Coloring

    E-print Network

    Doshi, Vishal

    Motivated by applications to sensor networks and privacy preserving databases, we consider the problem of functional compression. The objective is to separately compress possibly correlated discrete sources such that an ...

  7. Systems security and functional readiness

    SciTech Connect

    Bruckner, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    In Protective Programming Planning, it is important that every facility or installation be configured to support the basic functions and mission of the using organization. This paper addresses the process of identifying the key functional operations of our facilities in Europe and providing the security necessary to keep them operating in natural and man-made threat environments. Functional Readiness is important since many of our existing facilities in Europe were not constructed to meet the demands of today's requirements. There are increased requirements for real-time systems with classified terminals and stringent access control, tempest and other electronic protection devices. One must prioritize the operations of these systems so that essential functions are provided even when the facilities are affected by overt or covert hostile activities.

  8. Sociable Sequences and Diminishing Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprows, David

    1989-01-01

    A FORTRAN program is provided for use with computer projects for a course in number theory. Uses diminishing functions and the speed of the computer to quickly determine possible solutions to problems. (MVL)

  9. The Functions of Multiple Representations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Shaaron

    1999-01-01

    Discusses multiple representations and multimedia learning environments; describes a functional taxonomy of MERs (multiple external representations); and considers how MERs are used to support cognitive processes in learning and problem solving with computers. (Contains 41 references.) (Author/LRW)

  10. Diastolic Function in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Sándor J

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure has reached epidemic proportions, and diastolic heart failure or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) constitutes about 50% of all heart failure admissions. Long-term prognosis of both reduced ejection fraction heart failure and HFpEF are similarly dismal. No pharmacologic agent has been developed that actually treats or repairs the physiologic deficit(s) responsible for HFpEF. Because the physiology of diastole is both subtle and counterintuitive, its role in heart failure has received insufficient attention. In this review, the focus is on the physiology of diastole in heart failure, the dominant physiologic laws that govern the process in all hearts, how all hearts work as a suction pump, and, therefore, the elucidation and characterization of what actually is meant by “diastolic function”. The intent is for the reader to understand what diastolic function actually is, what it is not, and how to measure it. Proper measurement of diastolic function requires one to go beyond the usual E/A, E/E?, etc. phenomenological metrics and employ more rigorous causality (mathematical modeling) based parameters of diastolic function. The method simultaneously provides new physiologic insight into the meaning of in vivo “equilibrium volume” of the left ventricle (LV), longitudinal versus transverse volume accommodation of the chamber, diastatic “ringing” of the mitral annulus, and the mechanism of L-wave generation, as well as availability of a load-independent index of diastolic function (LIIDF). One important consequence of understanding what diastolic function is, is the recognition that all that current therapies can do is basically alter the load, rather than actually “repair” the functional components (chamber stiffness, chamber relaxation). If beneficial (biological/structural/metabolic) remodeling due to therapy does manifest ultimately as improved diastolic function, it is due to resumption of normal physiology (as in alleviation of ischemia) or activation of compensatory pathways already devised by evolution. In summary, meaningful quantitative characterization of diastolic function in any clinical setting, including heart failure, requires metrics based on physiologic mechanisms that quantify the suction pump attribute of the heart. This requires advancing beyond phenomenological global indexes such as E/A, E/E?, Vp, etc. and employing causality (mathematical modeling) based parameters of diastolic function easily obtained via the parametrized diastolic function (PDF) formalism. PMID:25922587

  11. Functional Techniques for Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomlinson, John R.

    1997-01-01

    This dissertation develops a new general method of solving Prony's problem. Two special cases of this new method have been developed previously. They are the Matrix Pencil and the Osculatory Interpolation. The dissertation shows that they are instances of a more general solution type which allows a wide ranging class of linear functional to be used in the solution of the problem. This class provides a continuum of functionals which provide new methods that can be used to solve Prony's problem.

  12. Mass Function Predictions Beyond ?CDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Suman; Heitmann, Katrin; White, Martin; Luki?, Zarija; Wagner, Christian; Habib, Salman

    2011-05-01

    The statistics of dark matter halos is an essential component of precision cosmology. The mass distribution of halos, as specified by the halo mass function, is a key input for several cosmological probes. The sizes of N-body simulations are now such that, for the most part, results need no longer be statistics-limited, but are still subject to various systematic uncertainties. Discrepancies in the results of simulation campaigns for the halo mass function remain in excess of statistical uncertainties and of roughly the same size as the error limits set by near-future observations; we investigate and discuss some of the reasons for these differences. Quantifying error sources and compensating for them as appropriate, we carry out a high-statistics study of dark matter halos from 67 N-body simulations to investigate the mass function and its evolution for a reference ?CDM cosmology and for a set of wCDM cosmologies. For the reference ?CDM cosmology (close to WMAP5), we quantify the breaking of universality in the form of the mass function as a function of redshift, finding an evolution of as much as 10% away from the universal form between redshifts z = 0 and z = 2. For cosmologies very close to this reference we provide a fitting formula to our results for the (evolving) ?CDM mass function over a mass range of 6 × 1011-3 × 1015 M sun to an estimated accuracy of about 2%. The set of wCDM cosmologies is taken from the Coyote Universe simulation suite. The mass functions from this suite (which includes a ?CDM cosmology and others with w ~= -1) are described by the fitting formula for the reference ?CDM case at an accuracy level of 10%, but with clear systematic deviations. We argue that, as a consequence, fitting formulae based on a universal form for the mass function may have limited utility in high-precision cosmological applications.

  13. Kernel Functions for Graph Classification

    E-print Network

    Smalter, Aaron Matthew

    2008-01-01

    chemical structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.2 Graph representations of chemicals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.3 A Database of three labeled graphs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.1 Example graphs and frequent subgraphs... function that maps a chemical space to a property space in the form of P = ^k(D) (3.1) where D is a chemical structure, P is a property, and the function ^k is an estimated mapping from a chemical space to a property space. Difierent QSPR methodologies can...

  14. Mapping proteoglycan functions with glycosidases.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Mauricio; Cortes, Leslie K; Schwartz, Nancy B

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic and extrinsic factors that contribute to stem and neuronal precursor cell maintenance and/or differentiation remain poorly understood. Proteoglycans, major residents of the stem cell microenvironment, modulate key signaling cues and are of particular importance. We have taken a loss-of-function approach, by developing a library of bacterial lyases and sulfatases to specifically remodel the ECM and test the functional role of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in cell self-renewal, maintenance, and differentiation. PMID:25325971

  15. Euler integration over definable functions

    PubMed Central

    Baryshnikov, Yuliy; Ghrist, Robert

    2010-01-01

    We extend the theory of Euler integration from the class of constructible functions to that of “tame” R-valued functions (definable with respect to an o-minimal structure). The corresponding integral operator has some unusual defects (it is not a linear operator); however, it has a compelling Morse-theoretic interpretation. In addition, it is an advantageous setting in which to integrate in applications to diffused and noisy data in sensor networks. PMID:20445085

  16. Automatic computation of transfer functions

    DOEpatents

    Atcitty, Stanley; Watson, Luke Dale

    2015-04-14

    Technologies pertaining to the automatic computation of transfer functions for a physical system are described herein. The physical system is one of an electrical system, a mechanical system, an electromechanical system, an electrochemical system, or an electromagnetic system. A netlist in the form of a matrix comprises data that is indicative of elements in the physical system, values for the elements in the physical system, and structure of the physical system. Transfer functions for the physical system are computed based upon the netlist.

  17. Radionuclide evaluation of renal function.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A

    1991-01-01

    Radionuclide renal scintigraphy offers a rapid, noninvasive method of determining individual kidney function and evaluating suspected urinary tract disorders. The initial portion of this review describes the advantages and limitations of the currently available renal radiopharmaceuticals and discusses techniques for quantitating renal functions. The latter part of the review addresses the role of radionuclide scintigraphy in the evaluation of the renal transplant, possible obstruction, reflux, renovascular hypertension, trauma, and infection. PMID:1645974

  18. Functionalized magnetic nanoparticle analyte sensor

    DOEpatents

    Yantasee, Wassana; Warner, Maryin G; Warner, Cynthia L; Addleman, Raymond S; Fryxell, Glen E; Timchalk, Charles; Toloczko, Mychailo B

    2014-03-25

    A method and system for simply and efficiently determining quantities of a preselected material in a particular solution by the placement of at least one superparamagnetic nanoparticle having a specified functionalized organic material connected thereto into a particular sample solution, wherein preselected analytes attach to the functionalized organic groups, these superparamagnetic nanoparticles are then collected at a collection site and analyzed for the presence of a particular analyte.

  19. Precision linear ramp function generator

    DOEpatents

    Jatko, W.B.; McNeilly, D.R.; Thacker, L.H.

    1984-08-01

    A ramp function generator is provided which produces a precise linear ramp function which is repeatable and highly stable. A derivative feedback loop is used to stabilize the output of an integrator in the forward loop and control the ramp rate. The ramp may be started from a selected baseline voltage level and the desired ramp rate is selected by applying an appropriate constant voltage to the input of the integrator.

  20. Wave function as geometric entity

    E-print Network

    B. I. Lev

    2011-02-10

    A new approach to the geometrization of the electron theory is proposed. The particle wave function is represented by a geometric entity, i.e., Clifford number, with the translation rules possessing the structure of Dirac equation for any manifold. A solution of this equation is obtained in terms of geometric treatment. Interference of electrons whose wave functions are represented by geometric entities is considered. New experiments concerning the geometric nature of electrons are proposed.

  1. Selective functionalization of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strano, Michael S. (Inventor); Usrey, Monica (Inventor); Barone, Paul (Inventor); Dyke, Christopher A. (Inventor); Tour, James M. (Inventor); Kittrell, W. Carter (Inventor); Hauge, Robert H. (Inventor); Smalley, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward methods of selectively functionalizing carbon nanotubes of a specific type or range of types, based on their electronic properties, using diazonium chemistry. The present invention is also directed toward methods of separating carbon nanotubes into populations of specific types or range(s) of types via selective functionalization and electrophoresis, and also to the novel compositions generated by such separations.

  2. MMPs and ADAMTSs: functional studies.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Carl R

    2006-01-01

    Members of the MMP (matrix metalloproteinase) and ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type I motifs) families of enzymes are capable of cleaving a diverse array of cellular, extracellular and extracellular matrix substrates, including collagens and procollagens, proteoglycans, cytokines and cytokine ligands, chemokines, elastin and von Willebrand factor, thereby modulating tissue structure and function during both health and disease. Physiologically relevant roles attributable to various members of these metalloproteinase families have been discerned from functional studies correlating in vitro substrate processing events with catabolic cleavages occurring in vivo/in situ, and the consequences thereof. Mechanisms regulating the post-translational activities of MMPs and ADAMTSs can clearly also have an influential impact on cell metabolism and tissue structure/function, and a number of functional studies have addressed the contributions of ancillary (non-catalytic) domains and endogenous inhibitors in this regard. Further revelations and affirmations of proteinase function, in an in vivo context, have emanated with the characterization of genetically manipulated animals misexpressing specific MMPs or ADAMTSs (or their substrates). An increased understanding thereby attained for the physiological functions of MMPs and ADAMTSs, and the means by which their activities are controlled, may lead to the realization of rational therapeutic strategies to counteract pathologies associated with aberrant proteolysis of homeostatic tissue macromolecules. PMID:16146752

  3. Dynamic Forms. Part 1: Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, George; Smith, G. Allan

    1993-01-01

    The formalism of dynamic forms is developed as a means for organizing and systematizing the design control systems. The formalism allows the designer to easily compute derivatives to various orders of large composite functions that occur in flight-control design. Such functions involve many function-of-a-function calls that may be nested to many levels. The component functions may be multiaxis, nonlinear, and they may include rotation transformations. A dynamic form is defined as a variable together with its time derivatives up to some fixed but arbitrary order. The variable may be a scalar, a vector, a matrix, a direction cosine matrix, Euler angles, or Euler parameters. Algorithms for standard elementary functions and operations of scalar dynamic forms are developed first. Then vector and matrix operations and transformations between parameterization of rotations are developed in the next level in the hierarchy. Commonly occurring algorithms in control-system design, including inversion of pure feedback systems, are developed in the third level. A large-angle, three-axis attitude servo and other examples are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed formalism. All algorithms were implemented in FORTRAN code. Practical experience shows that the proposed formalism may significantly improve the productivity of the design and coding process.

  4. Boolean networks with veto functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebadi, Haleh; Klemm, Konstantin

    2014-08-01

    Boolean networks are discrete dynamical systems for modeling regulation and signaling in living cells. We investigate a particular class of Boolean functions with inhibiting inputs exerting a veto (forced zero) on the output. We give analytical expressions for the sensitivity of these functions and provide evidence for their role in natural systems. In an intracellular signal transduction network [Helikar et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 1913 (2008), 10.1073/pnas.0705088105], the functions with veto are over-represented by a factor exceeding the over-representation of threshold functions and canalyzing functions in the same system. In Boolean networks for control of the yeast cell cycle [Li et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 4781 (2004), 10.1073/pnas.0305937101; Davidich et al., PLoS ONE 3, e1672 (2008), 10.1371/journal.pone.0001672], no or minimal changes to the wiring diagrams are necessary to formulate their dynamics in terms of the veto functions introduced here.

  5. Models of functional neuroimaging data

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Klaas Enno; Mattout, Jeremie; David, Olivier; Friston, Karl J.

    2009-01-01

    Inferences about brain function, using functional neuroimaging data, require models of how the data were caused. A variety of models are used in practice that range from conceptual models of functional anatomy to nonlinear mathematical models of hemodynamic responses (e.g. as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI) and neuronal responses. In this review, we discuss the most important models used to analyse functional imaging data and demonstrate how they are interrelated. Initially, we briefly review the anatomical foundations of current theories of brain function on which all mathematical models rest. We then introduce some basic statistical models (e.g. the general linear model) used for making classical (i.e. frequentist) and Bayesian inferences about where neuronal responses are expressed. The more challenging question, how these responses are caused, is addressed by models that incorporate biophysical constraints (e.g. forward models from the neural to the hemodynamic level) and/or consider causal interactions between several regions, i.e. models of effective connectivity. Some of the most refined models to date are neuronal mass models of electroencephalographic (EEG) responses. These models enable mechanistic inferences about how evoked responses are caused, at the level of neuronal subpopulations and the coupling among them. PMID:20526410

  6. From Dichotomy to Divergence: Number/Gender Marking on Hebrew Nouns and Adjectives across School Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravid, Dorit; Schiff, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the development of plural adjective agreement in Hebrew, focusing on the consolidation of Hebrew number/gender morphology in children and adolescents across the school years in comparison with adults. A total of 240 Hebrew-speaking participants in seven consecutive grade levels (kindergarten to sixth grade) plus a group of…

  7. Questioning the dichotomy between vegetative state and minimally conscious state: a review of the statistical evidence.

    PubMed

    Liberati, Giulia; Hünefeldt, Thomas; Olivetti Belardinelli, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Given the enormous consequences that the diagnosis of vegetative state (VS) vs. minimally conscious state (MCS) may have for the treatment of patients with disorders of consciousness, it is particularly important to empirically legitimate the distinction between these two discrete levels of consciousness. Therefore, the aim of this contribution is to review all the articles reporting statistical evidence concerning the performance of patients in VS vs. patients in MCS, on behavioral or neurophysiological measures. Twenty-three articles matched these inclusion criteria, and comprised behavioral, electroencephalographic (EEG), positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures. The analysis of these articles yielded 47 different statistical findings. More than half of these findings (n = 24) did not reveal any statistically significant difference between VS and MCS. Overall, there was no combination of variables that allowed reliably discriminating between VS and MCS. This pattern of results casts doubt on the empirical validity of the distinction between VS and MCS. PMID:25404905

  8. Mars Human Science Exploration and Resource Utilization: The Dichotomy Boundary Deuteronilus Mensae Exploration Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.; Dickson, J.; Milliken, R.; Scott, D.; Johnson, B.; Marchant, D.; Levy, J.; Kinch, K.; Hvidberg, C.; Forget, F.; Boucher, D.; Mikucki, J.; Fastook, J.; Klaus, K.

    2015-10-01

    Deuteronilus Mensae EZ combines: 1) Fundamental MEPAG scientific objectives; 2) Samples from the Noachian, Hesperian and Amazonian); 3) ISRU access to abundant water ice mapped by SHARAD; 4) Civil Engineering to reduce reliance on Earth supplies.

  9. Gender Neutralities, Dichotomies and Hidden Inequalities: Analysis of Vocational Teachers' Reflections on Gender in the Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappalainen, Sirpa; Lahelma, Elina; Pehkonen, Leila; Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses how Finnish vocational teachers make sense of the meanings of gender in their work. The context of the study consists of the two most gender segregated environments of vocational education: the female-dominated Sector of Health and Social Services and the male-dominated Sector of Technology and Transport. Our analysis draws…

  10. Deconstructing and Transgressing the Theory-Practice Dichotomy in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Hillevi Lenz

    2007-01-01

    This article theorizes and exemplifies reconceptualized teaching practices, both in early childhood education (ECE) and in a couple of programs within the new Swedish Teacher Education (since 2001). These programs are tightly knit to the last 12 years of reconceptualized early childhood education practices in and around Stockholm, built on…

  11. A convenient dichotomy: critical eyes on the limits to biological knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Catherine

    2011-06-01

    In The Secret Identity of a Biology Textbook: straight and naturally sexed, Jesse Bazzul and Heather Sykes conduct a case study of a biology textbook as an oppressive instructional material. Using queer theory they explore how the text of the biology textbook produces "truths" about sex, gender, and sexuality. Their analysis is complemented by the Forum papers by Jay Lemke and Francis Broadway who broaden the analysis examining the way that what counts as knowledge in science is a political decision while also encouraging authors, including Bazzul and Sykes, to also look critically at their own theoretical lenses. In this paper I pull together their ideas while exploring cultural contexts for a more nuanced representation of biological knowledge and the politics of what it means to know science.

  12. Reconstructing Multicultural Education through Personal Story: Transcending the Essentialist/Relativist Dichotomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Like so many other concepts in education, multiculturalism is a term that has lost its potency because of miseducative examples that serve to maintain Whiteness as the cultural norm. At first it offered great promise, but now as a "social science" quite often one is just exchanging one type of essentialism for another. The "packet" approach that…

  13. MAGNETARS VERSUS HIGH MAGNETIC FIELD PULSARS: A THEORETICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE APPARENT DICHOTOMY

    SciTech Connect

    Pons, Jose A.; Perna, Rosalba

    2011-11-10

    Highly magnetized neutron stars (NSs) are characterized by a bewildering range of astrophysical manifestations. Here, building on our simulations of the evolution of magnetic stresses in the NS crust and its ensuing fractures, we explore in detail, for the middle-aged and old NSs, the dependence of starquake frequency and energetics on the relative strength of the poloidal (B{sub p}) and toroidal (B{sub tor}) components. We find that, for B{sub p} {approx}> 10{sup 14} G, since a strong crustal toroidal field B{sub tor} {approx} B{sub p} is quickly formed on a Hall timescale, the initial toroidal field needs to be B{sub tor} >> B{sub p} to have a clear influence on the outbursting behavior. For initial fields B{sub p} {approx}< 10{sup 14} G, it is very unlikely that a middle-aged (t {approx} 10{sup 5} years) NS shows any bursting activity. This study allows us to solve the apparent puzzle of how NSs with similar dipolar magnetic fields can behave in a remarkably different way: an outbursting 'magnetar' with a high X-ray luminosity, or a quiet, low-luminosity, 'high-B' radio pulsar. As an example, we consider the specific cases of the magnetar 1E 2259+586 and the radio pulsar PSR J1814-1744, which at present have a similar dipolar field {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} G. We determine for each object an initial magnetic field configuration that reproduces the observed timing parameters at their current age. The same two configurations also account for the differences in quiescent X-ray luminosity and for the 'magnetar/outbursting' behavior of 1E 2259+586 but not of PSR J1814-1744. We further use the theoretically predicted surface temperature distribution to compute the light curve for these objects. In the case of 1E 2259+586, for which data are available, our predicted temperature distribution gives rise to a pulse profile whose double-peaked nature and modulation level are consistent with the observations.

  14. Dichotomy in mode propagation of coseismic ionospheric disturbance: Observations from 11 April 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catherine, J. K.; Vijayan, M. S. M.; Syeda Rabiya, U. B.; Shimna, K.; Gahalaut, Vineet K.; Ramesh, D. S.

    2015-05-01

    The ionosphere response to the great intraplate Indian Ocean earthquake of 11 April 2012 (Mw 8.6) and its largest aftershock (Mw 8.2) is analyzed using GPS-aided total electron content (TEC) measurements. Data from the dense GPS networks, SuGAr (Sumatran GPS Array) and the permanent Andaman-Nicobar array, formed the near-field observations at distances 250-1200 km from the epicenter. Stations such as IISC, DGAR, and few others provided measurements over 2000 km from the epicenter. The coseismic ionospheric disturbances (CIDs) with a propagation velocity of 930-1262 m/s, equals the speeds of the shock acoustic waves, arrive within 10-18 min after the earthquake occurrence. The observed phenomenon of CID splitting into two modes, north and south of the epicenter, is akin to the well-documented effects of anisotropy on wave propagation. Closer to the epicenter, to its south, the propagation velocity of CID is ~1 km/s, and farther southeast of the network the velocity reduces to 500-600 m/s. In contrast, toward Andaman in the north, the CID propagation velocity increases to 2-3.5 km/s. The zenith angle of the line of sight between the GPS receiver and satellite appears to influence the amplitude of the TEC fluctuations. The anomalous azimuthal variation of the Rayleigh wave radiation pattern best explains the observed N-S asymmetry of CID.

  15. From Rigid Dichotomy to Measured Contingency. Hong Kong Preservice Teachers' Discursive Construction of Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trent, John

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study into the discursive construction of teacher identities amongst six preservice English language teachers in Hong Kong. While teacher identity construction has been conceptualized as an evolving process of becoming a teacher, some preservice teachers regard their professional identities as rigid, resulting…

  16. Mars Crustal Dichotomy: Large Lowland Impact Basins may have Formed in Pre-Thinned Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H. V.

    2008-01-01

    Crater retention ages of large impact basins on Mars suggest most formed in a relatively short time, perhaps in less than 200 million years. Large basins in the lowlands have thinner central regions than similar size basins in the highlands. Large lowland impact basins, which we previously suggested might explain the low topography and thin crust of the northern part of Mars, may have formed in crust already thinned by yet earlier processes.

  17. Teaching Comparative Law in the 21st Century: Beyond the Civil/Common Law Dichotomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Michael P.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that the inexorable shift to transnational and global legal practice demands a comparable shift in methods of teaching comparative law to move it beyond its current American common law/European civil law myopia. Proposes an introductory course, Law in Comparative Cultures, which exposes students to a panoply of international legal systems.…

  18. Brain size, life history, and metabolism at the marsupial/placental dichotomy

    PubMed Central

    Weisbecker, Vera; Goswami, Anjali

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of mammalian brain size is directly linked with the evolution of the brain's unique structure and performance. Both maternal life history investment traits and basal metabolic rate (BMR) correlate with relative brain size, but current hypotheses regarding the details of these relationships are based largely on placental mammals. Using encephalization quotients, partial correlation analyses, and bivariate regressions relating brain size to maternal investment times and BMR, we provide a direct quantitative comparison of brain size evolution in marsupials and placentals, whose reproduction and metabolism differ extensively. Our results show that the misconception that marsupials are systematically smaller-brained than placentals is driven by the inclusion of one large-brained placental clade, Primates. Marsupial and placental brain size partial correlations differ in that marsupials lack a partial correlation of BMR with brain size. This contradicts hypotheses stating that the maintenance of relatively larger brains requires higher BMRs. We suggest that a positive BMR–brain size correlation is a placental trait related to the intimate physiological contact between mother and offspring during gestation. Marsupials instead achieve brain sizes comparable to placentals through extended lactation. Comparison with avian brain evolution suggests that placental brain size should be constrained due to placentals’ relative precociality, as has been hypothesized for precocial bird hatchlings. We propose that placentals circumvent this constraint because of their focus on gestation, as opposed to the marsupial emphasis on lactation. Marsupials represent a less constrained condition, demonstrating that hypotheses regarding placental brain size evolution cannot be generalized to all mammals. PMID:20823252

  19. Hydroxynonenal-Generated Crosslinking Fluorophore Accumulation in Alzheimer Disease Reveals a Dichotomy of Protein Turnover

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiongwei; Castellani, Rudy J.; Moreira, Paula I.; Aliev, Gjumrakch; Shenk, Justin C.; Siedlak, Sandra L.; Harris, Peggy L.R.; Fujioka, Hisashi; Sayre, Lawrence M.; Szweda, Pamela A.; Szweda, Luke I.; Smith, Mark A.; Perry, George

    2012-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation generates reactive aldehydes, most notably hydroxynonenal (HNE), which covalently bind amino acid residue side chains leading to protein inactivation and insolubility. Specific adducts of lipid peroxidation have been demonstrated in intimate association with the pathological lesions of Alzheimer disease (AD), suggesting that oxidative stress is a major component of AD pathogenesis. Some HNE-protein products result in protein crosslinking through a fluorescent compound similar to lipofuscin, linking lipid peroxidation and the lipofuscin accumulation that commonly occurs in post-mitotic cells such as neurons. In this study, brain tissue from AD and control patients was examined by immunocytochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy for evidence of HNE-crosslinking modifications of the type that should accumulate in the lipofuscin pathway. Strong labeling of granulovacuolar degeneration (GVD) and Hirano bodies was noted but lipofuscin did not contain this specific HNE-fluorophore. These findings directly implicate lipid crosslinking peroxidation products as accumulating not in the lesions or the lipofuscin pathways, but instead in a distinct pathway, GVD, that accumulates cytosolic proteins. PMID:22137893

  20. The dichotomy of memantine treatment for ischemic stroke: dose-dependent protective and detrimental effects

    PubMed Central

    Trotman, Melissa; Vermehren, Philipp; Gibson, Claire L; Fern, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Excitotoxicity is a major contributor to cell death during the acute phase of ischemic stroke but aggressive pharmacological targeting of excitotoxicity has failed clinically. Here we investigated whether pretreatment with low doses of memantine, within the range currently used and well tolerated for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, produce a protective effect in stroke. A coculture preparation exposed to modeled ischemia showed cell death associated with rapid glutamate rises and cytotoxic Ca2+ influx. Cell death was significantly enhanced in the presence of high memantine concentrations. However, low memantine concentrations significantly protected neurons and glia via excitotoxic cascade interruption. Mice were systemically administered a range of memantine doses (0.02, 0.2, 2, 10, and 20?mg/kg/day) starting 24?hours before 60?minutes reversible focal cerebral ischemia and continuing for a 48-hour recovery period. Low dose (0.2?mg/kg/day) memantine treatment significantly reduced lesion volume (by 30% to 50%) and improved behavioral outcomes in stroke lesions that had been separated into either small/striatal or large/striatocortical infarcts. However, higher doses of memantine (20?mg/kg/day) significantly increased injury. These results show that clinically established low doses of memantine should be considered for patients ‘at risk' of stroke, while higher doses are contraindicated. PMID:25407270