Sample records for mediolateral functional dichotomy

  1. Neurocognitive Functioning in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: Clarifying Concepts of Diagnostic Dichotomy vs. Continuum

    PubMed Central

    Kuswanto, Carissa N.; Sum, Min Y.; Sim, Kang

    2013-01-01

    The Kraepelinian dichotomy posits that patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) present as two separate psychotic entities such that they differ in terms of clinical severity including neurocognitive functioning. Our study aimed to specifically compare and contrast the level of neurocognitive functioning between SCZ and BD patients and identify predictors of their poor neurocognitive functioning. We hypothesized that patients with SCZ had a similar level of neurocognitive impairment compared with BD. About 49 healthy controls (HC), 72 SCZ, and 42 BD patients who were matched for age, gender, and premorbid IQ were administered the Brief Assessment of Cognition battery (BAC). Severity of psychopathology and socio-occupational functioning were assessed for both patients groups. Both BD and SCZ groups demonstrated similar patterns of neurocognitive deficits across several domains (verbal memory, working memory, semantic fluency, processing speed) compared with HC subjects. However, no significant difference was found in neurocognitive functioning between BD and SCZ patients, suggesting that both patient groups suffer the same degree of neurocognitive impairment. Patients with lower level of psychosocial functioning [F(1,112)?=?2.661, p?=?0.009] and older age [F(1,112)?=??2.625, p?=?0.010], not diagnosis or doses of psychotropic medications, predicted poorer overall neurocognitive functioning as measured by the lower BAC composite score. Our findings of comparable neurocognitive impairments between SCZ and BD affirm our hypothesis and support less the Kraepelinian concept of dichotomy but more of a continuum of psychotic spectrum conditions. This should urge clinicians to investigate further the underlying neural basis of these neurocognitive deficits, and be attentive to the associated socio-demographic and clinical profile in order to recognize and optimize early the management of the widespread neurocognitive deficits in patients with SCZ and BD. PMID:24367337

  2. The dappled nature of causes of psychiatric illness: replacing the organic–functional/hardware–software dichotomy with empirically based pluralism

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, KS

    2012-01-01

    Our tendency to see the world of psychiatric illness in dichotomous and opposing terms has three major sources: the philosophy of Descartes, the state of neuropathology in late nineteenth century Europe (when disorders were divided into those with and without demonstrable pathology and labeled, respectively, organic and functional), and the influential concept of computer functionalism wherein the computer is viewed as a model for the human mind–brain system (brain = hardware, mind = software). These mutually re-enforcing dichotomies, which have had a pernicious influence on our field, make a clear prediction about how ‘difference-makers’ (aka causal risk factors) for psychiatric disorders should be distributed in nature. In particular, are psychiatric disorders like our laptops, which when they dysfunction, can be cleanly divided into those with software versus hardware problems? I propose 11 categories of difference-makers for psychiatric illness from molecular genetics through culture and review their distribution in schizophrenia, major depression and alcohol dependence. In no case do these distributions resemble that predicted by the organic–functional/hardware–software dichotomy. Instead, the causes of psychiatric illness are dappled, distributed widely across multiple categories. We should abandon Cartesian and computer-functionalism-based dichotomies as scientifically inadequate and an impediment to our ability to integrate the diverse information about psychiatric illness our research has produced. Empirically based pluralism provides a rigorous but dappled view of the etiology of psychiatric illness. Critically, it is based not on how we wish the world to be but how the difference-makers for psychiatric illness are in fact distributed. PMID:22230881

  3. Mediolateral balance and gait stability in older adults.

    PubMed

    Eduardo Cofré Lizama, L; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Rispens, Sietse M; Reeves, N Peter; Verschueren, Sabine M; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2015-06-01

    Early detection of balance impairment is crucial to identify individuals who may benefit from interventions aimed to prevent falls, which is a major problem in aging societies. Since mediolateral balance deteriorates with aging, we proposed a mediolateral balance assessment (MELBA) tool that uses a CoM-tracking task of predictable sinusoidal and unpredictable multisine targets. This method has shown to be reliable and sensitive to aging effect, however, it is not known whether it can predict performance on common daily-life tasks such as walking. This study aimed to determine whether MELBA is an ecologically valid tool by correlating its outputs with a measure of mediolateral gait stability known to be predictive of falls. Nineteen community-dwelling older adults (72±5 years) tracked predictable and unpredictable target displacements at increasing frequencies with their CoM by shifting their weight sideward. Response delay (phase-shift) and amplitude difference (gain) between the CoM and target in the frequency domain were used to quantify performance. To assess gait stability, the local divergence exponent was calculated using mediolateral accelerations with an inertial sensor when walking on a treadmill (LDETR) and in daily-life (LDEDL) for one week. Pearson product-moment correlation analyses were performed to determine correlations between performance on MELBA tasks and LDE. Results show that phase-shift bandwidth for the predictable target (range above -90°) was significantly correlated with LDETR whereas phase-shift bandwidth for the unpredictable target was significantly correlated with LDEDL. In conclusion MELBA is an ecologically valid tool for mediolateral balance assessment in community-dwelling older adults who exhibit subtle balance impairments. PMID:25953503

  4. Mechanistic and structural insight into the functional dichotomy between interleukin-2 and interleukin-15

    PubMed Central

    Ring, Aaron M.; Lin, Jian-Xin; Feng, Dan; Mitra, Suman; Rickert, Mathias; Bowman, Gregory R.; Pande, Vijay S.; Li, Peng; Moraga, Ignacio; Spolski, Rosanne; Özkan, Engin; Leonard, Warren J.; Garcia, K. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin-15 (IL-15) and IL-2 possess distinct immunological functions despite both signaling through IL-2R? and the common cytokine receptor ?-chain, ?c, We find that in the IL-15—IL-15R?—IL-2R?—?c quaternary complex structure, IL-15 heterodimerizes IL-2R? and ?c identically to the IL-2—IL-2R?—IL-2R?—?c complex, despite differing receptor-binding chemistries. IL-15R? dramatically increases the affinity of IL-15 for IL-2R?, and this allostery is required for IL-15 trans-signaling versus IL-2 cis-signaling. Consistent with the identical IL-2R?—?c dimer geometry, IL-2 and IL-15 exhibited similar signaling properties in lymphocytes, with any differences resulting from disparate receptor affinities. Thus, IL-15 and IL-2 induce similar signals, and the cytokine-specificity of IL-2R? versus IL-15R? determines cellular responsiveness. These results provide important new insights for specific development of IL-15-versus IL-2-based immunotherapeutics. PMID:23104097

  5. The Bimodal Galaxy Stellar Mass Function in the COSMOS Survey to z~1: A Steep Faint End and a New Galaxy Dichotomy

    E-print Network

    Drory, N; Leauthaud, A; Scoville, N; Capak, P; Ilbert, O; Kartaltepe, J S; Kneib, J P; McCracken, H J; Salvato, M; Sanders, D B; Thompson, D; Willott, C J

    2009-01-01

    We present a new analysis of stellar mass functions (MF) in the COSMOS field to fainter limits than has been previously probed to z~1. Neither the total nor the passive or star-forming MF can be well fit with a single Schechter function once one probes below 3e9 Msun. We observe a dip or plateau at masses ~1e10 Msun, and an upturn towards a steep faint-end slope of -1.7 at lower mass at any zblue/red dichotomy. The blue MF is by itself bimodal at z~1. This suggests a new dichotomy in galaxy formation that predates the appearance of the red sequence. We propose two interpretations for this bimodality. If the gas fraction increases towards lower mass, galaxies with M_baryon~1e10 Msun would shift to lower stellar masses, creating the observed dip. This would indicate a change in star formation efficiency, perhaps linked to supernovae feedback becoming much more efficient. Therefore, we investigate whether the dip is present in the baryonic (stars...

  6. THE BIMODAL GALAXY STELLAR MASS FUNCTION IN THE COSMOS SURVEY TO z approx 1: A STEEP FAINT END AND A NEW GALAXY DICHOTOMY

    SciTech Connect

    Drory, N. [Max-Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Bundy, K. [Astronomy Department, 601 Campbell Hall, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Leauthaud, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Scoville, N.; Capak, P.; Salvato, M. [California Institute of Technology, MC 105-24, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ilbert, O.; Kneib, J. P. [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (UMR 6110), CNRS-Universite de Provence, BP 8, 13376 Marseille Cedex 12 (France); Kartaltepe, J. S. [NOAO, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); McCracken, H. J. [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Sanders, D. B. [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Thompson, D. [LBT Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Willott, C. J., E-mail: drory@mpe.mpg.d [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2009-12-20

    We present a new analysis of stellar mass functions in the COSMOS field to fainter limits than has been previously probed at z <= 1. The increase in dynamic range reveals features in the shape of the stellar mass function that deviate from a single Schechter function. Neither the total nor the red (passive) or blue (star-forming) galaxy stellar mass functions can be well fitted with a single Schechter function once the mass completeness limit of the sample probes below approx3 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}. We observe a dip or plateau at masses approx10{sup 10} M{sub sun}, just below the traditional M*, and an upturn toward a steep faint-end slope of alpha approx -1.7 at lower mass at all redshifts <=1. This bimodal nature of the mass function is not solely a result of the blue/red dichotomy. Indeed, the blue mass function is by itself bimodal at z approx 1. This suggests a new dichotomy in galaxy formation that predates the appearance of the red sequence. We propose two interpretations for this bimodal distribution. If the gas fraction increases toward lower mass, galaxies with M{sub baryon} approx 10{sup 10} M{sub sun} would shift to lower stellar masses, creating the observed dip. This would indicate a change in star formation efficiency, perhaps linked to supernovae feedback becoming much more efficient below approx10{sup 10} M{sub sun}. Therefore, we investigate whether the dip is present in the baryonic (stars+gas) mass function. Alternatively, the dip could be created by an enhancement of the galaxy assembly rate at approx10{sup 11} M{sub sun}, a phenomenon that naturally arises if the baryon fraction peaks at M{sub halo} approx 10{sup 12} M{sub sun}. In this scenario, galaxies occupying the bump around M{sub *} would be identified with central galaxies and the second fainter component of the mass function having a steep faint-end slope with satellite galaxies. The low-mass end of the blue and total mass functions exhibit a steeper slope than has been detected in previous work that may increasingly approach the halo mass function value of -2. While the dip feature is apparent in the total mass function at all redshifts, it appears to shift from the blue to the red population, likely as a result of transforming high-mass blue galaxies into red ones. At the same time, we detect a drastic upturn in the number of low-mass red galaxies. Their increase with time seems to reflect a decrease in the number of blue systems and so we tentatively associate them with satellite dwarf (spheroidal) galaxies that have undergone quenching due to environmental processes.

  7. Medio-Lateral Postural Instability in Subjects with Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Kapoula, Zoi; Yang, Qing; Lê, Thanh-Thuan; Vernet, Marine; Berbey, Nolwenn; Orssaud, Christophe; Londero, Alain; Bonfils, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many patients show modulation of tinnitus by gaze, jaw or neck movements, reflecting abnormal sensorimotor integration, and interaction between various inputs. Postural control is based on multi-sensory integration (visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and oculomotor) and indeed there is now evidence that posture can also be influenced by sound. Perhaps tinnitus influences posture similarly to external sound. This study examines the quality of postural performance in quiet stance in patients with modulated tinnitus. Methods: Twenty-three patients with highly modulated tinnitus were selected in the ENT service. Twelve reported exclusively or predominately left tinnitus, eight right, and three bilateral. Eighteen control subjects were also tested. Subjects were asked to fixate a target at 40?cm for 51?s; posturography was performed with the platform (Technoconcept, 40 Hz) for both the eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Results: For both conditions, tinnitus subjects showed abnormally high lateral body sway (SDx). This was corroborated by fast Fourrier Transformation (FFTx) and wavelet analysis. For patients with left tinnitus only, medio-lateral sway increased significantly when looking away from the center. Conclusion: Similarly to external sound stimulation, tinnitus could influence lateral sway by activating attention shift, and perhaps vestibular responses. Poor integration of sensorimotor signals is another possibility. Such abnormalities would be accentuated in left tinnitus because of the importance of the right cerebral cortex in processing both auditory–tinnitus eye position and attention. PMID:21647364

  8. The Aleph-zero or zero dichotomy

    E-print Network

    Antonio Leon

    2009-11-23

    This paper proves the existence of a dichotomy which being formally derived from the topological successiveness of w-order leads to the same absurdity of Zeno's Dichotomy II. It also derives a contradictory result from the first Zeno's Dichotomy.

  9. The dappled nature of causes of psychiatric illness: replacing the organic–functional\\/hardware–software dichotomy with empirically based pluralism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K S Kendler

    2012-01-01

    Our tendency to see the world of psychiatric illness in dichotomous and opposing terms has three major sources: the philosophy of Descartes, the state of neuropathology in late nineteenth century Europe (when disorders were divided into those with and without demonstrable pathology and labeled, respectively, organic and functional), and the influential concept of computer functionalism wherein the computer is viewed

  10. The Angular Momentum Dichotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teklu, Adelheid; Remus, Rhea-Silvia; Dolag, Klaus; Burkert, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    In the context of the formation of spiral galaxies the evolution and distribution of the angular momentum of dark matter halos have been discussed for more than 20 years, especially the idea that the specific angular momentum of the halo can be estimated from the specific angular momentum of its disk (e.g. Fall & Efstathiou (1980), Fall (1983) and Mo et al. (1998)). We use a new set of hydrodynamic cosmological simulations called Magneticum Pathfinder which allow us to split the galaxies into spheroidal and disk galaxies via the circularity parameter ?, as commonly used (e.g. Scannapieco et al. (2008)). Here, we focus on the dimensionless spin parameter ? = J |E|1/2 / (G M5/2) (Peebles 1969, 1971), which is a measure of the rotation of the total halo and can be fitted by a lognormal distribution, e.g. Mo et al. (1998). The spin parameter allows one to compare the relative angular momentum of halos across different masses and different times. Fig. 1 reveals a dichotomy in the distribution of ? at all redshifts when the galaxies are split into spheroids (dashed) and disk galaxies (dash-dotted). The disk galaxies preferentially live in halos with slightly larger spin parameter compared to spheroidal galaxies. Thus, we see that the ? of the whole halo reflects the morphology of its central galaxy. For more details and a larger study of the angular momentum properties of disk and spheroidal galaxies, see Teklu et al. (in prep.).

  11. Medio-lateral balance adjustments preceding reflexive limb withdrawal are modified by postural demands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leah R Bent; Jim R Potvin; John D Brooke; William E McIlroy

    2001-01-01

    We have recently observed medio-lateral balance adjustments (BA) preceding reflexive stepping elicited by noxious stimulation. While task specific modulation is evident for BA prior to voluntary leg movement, it is unclear whether rapid BA reactions (prior to ‘reflexive’ stepping) represent a generic response to evoked limb withdrawal or can be modified to suit task-conditions. This study was designed to establish

  12. Hemispheres Apart: The Crustal Dichotomy on Mars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas R. Watters; Patrick J. McGovern; Rossman P. Irwin III

    2007-01-01

    The hemispheric dichotomy is a fundamental feature of Mars, ex- pressed by a physiographic and geologic divide between the heavily cratered southern highlands and the relatively smooth plains of the northern lowlands. The origin of the dichotomy, which may have set the course for most of the subsequent geologic evolution of Mars, remains unclear. Internally driven models for the dichotomy

  13. Light touch and medio-lateral postural stability during short distance gait.

    PubMed

    Kodesh, E; Falash, F; Sprecher, E; Dickstein, R

    2015-01-01

    While standing, light fingertip touch on an external stable object attenuates sway and improves balance in healthy adults as well as in individuals with poor postural control. The effect of light touch on balance during gait is, however, not well known. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to study the effects of light fingertip touch on balance during gait. We hypothesized that similar to its effect during stance light touch would increase postural stability. Forty healthy young adults were tested under four gait conditions: (1) eyes open (EO), (2) eyes closed (EC), (3) eyes closed while lightly touching a static object on the right side of the walking lane (ECLTS), (4) eyes closed while lightly touching a dynamic object, namely, a stick that was moved forwards by the subject with the right hand (ECLTD). The main outcome measure was medio-lateral step width variability, a well established indicator of gait balance in the medio-lateral plane. During the EC condition, light touch of an external static object (ECLTS) decreased medio-lateral variability (i.e., balance improved); however, this stabilizing effect was not observed with light touch on the stick. The availability of self positional and spatial cues when touching a static external reference, and their absence when touching a stick that is moved forwards by the subject as he walks, can explain the different effects of light touch in the ECLTS vs the ECLTD gait conditions. PMID:25450148

  14. A Complete Dichotomy Rises from the Capture of Vanishing Signatures

    E-print Network

    Cai, Jin-Yi; Williams, Tyson

    2012-01-01

    We prove a complexity dichotomy theorem for Holant problems over an arbitrary set of complex-valued symmetric constraint functions F on Boolean variables. This extends and unifies all previous dichotomies for Holant problems on symmetric constraint functions taking values in a field of characteristic zero. We define and characterize all symmetric vanishing signatures. They turned out to be essential to the complete classification of Holant problems. The dichotomy theorem has an explicit tractability criterion. The Holant problem defined by a set of constraint functions F is solvable in polynomial time if it satisfies this tractability criterion, and is #P-hard otherwise. The tractability criterion can be intuitively stated as follows: the set F is tractable if (1) every function in F has arity at most 2, or (2) F is transformable to an affine type, or (3) F is transformable to a product type, or (4) F is vanishing, combined with the right type of binary functions, or (5) F belongs to a special category of van...

  15. Mediolateral angular momentum changes in persons with amputation during perturbed walking.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Riley C; Beltran, Eduardo J; Dingwell, Jonathan B; Wilken, Jason M

    2015-03-01

    Over 50% of individuals with lower limb amputation fall at least once each year. These individuals also exhibit reduced ability to effectively respond to challenges to frontal plane stability. The range of whole body angular momentum has been correlated with stability and fall risk. This study determined how lateral walking surface perturbations affected the regulation of whole body and individual leg angular momentum in able-bodied controls and individuals with unilateral transtibial amputation. Participants walked at fixed speed in a Computer Assisted Rehabilitation Environment with no perturbations and continuous, pseudo-random, mediolateral platform oscillations. Both the ranges and variability of angular momentum for both the whole body and both legs were significantly greater (p<0.001) during platform oscillations. There were no significant differences between groups in whole body angular momentum range or variability during unperturbed walking. The range of frontal plane angular momentum was significantly greater for those with amputation than for controls for all segments (p<0.05). For the whole body and intact leg, angular momentum ranges were greater for patients with amputation. However, for the prosthetic leg, angular momentum ranges were less for patients than controls. Patients with amputation were significantly more affected by the perturbations. Though patients with amputation were able to maintain similar patterns of whole body angular momentum during unperturbed walking, they were more highly destabilized by the walking surface perturbations. Individuals with transtibial amputation appear to predominantly use altered motion of the intact limb to maintain mediolateral stability. PMID:25797789

  16. Centre of pressure or centre of mass feedback in mediolateral balance assessment.

    PubMed

    Cofré Lizama, L Eduardo; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Reeves, N Peter; Verschueren, Sabine M; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2015-02-01

    The mediolateral balance assessment method (MELBA) consists of tracking a sinusoidal or multisine target with the center of pressure as feedback (CoPfb). The aim of the CoP trajectory is to elicit weight-shifting, i.e. movement of the center of mass (CoM). However, it is not known whether CoPfb elicits consistent mediolateral displacements of the CoM, whether CoM feedback (CoMfb) is required to achieve this and whether CoPfb or CoMfb elicit different kinematic strategies. The aims of this study were to determine (1) the extent to which CoP imposes CoM displacements (CoMd) during CoPfb, (2) whether larger CoMd are elicited by CoMfb and (3) whether different kinematic strategies arise when using CoPfb or CoMfb. Nineteen young adults performed MELBA with CoPfb and CoMfb from which coherence, gain and phase-shift between CoP-CoM and leg-trunk kinematics were calculated. CoMd and CoPd and leg and trunk excursions were also calculated. Results show that for CoPfb tasks, CoP-CoM coherence was high, while the gain dropped with increasing frequency. The drop in gain was highly consistent between subjects. Reasonable trunk-leg coherence (?.6) was found over all frequencies and tasks. The leg-trunk angle gain increased with frequency in all tasks and was significantly higher in the CoMfb compared to the CoPfb. Significant interaction indicated that this difference increased with frequency. CoPfb in MELBA elicits consistent CoMd. However, different kinematics are employed in CoMfb with more trunk movement and an ankle-to-hip shift as frequency increases. Hence CoMfb may be preferable over CoPfb despite the larger measurement effort involved. PMID:25547025

  17. Algebraic dichotomies with an application to the stability of Riemann solutions of conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiao-Biao

    Recently, there has been some interest on the stability of waves where the functions involved grow or decay at an algebraic rate |. In this paper we define the so-called algebraic dichotomy that may aid in treating such problems. We discuss the basic properties of the algebraic dichotomy, methods of detecting it, and calculating the power of the weight function. We present several examples: (1) The Bessel equation. (2) The n-degree Fisher type equation. (3) Hyperbolic conservation laws in similarity coordinates. (4) A system of conservation laws with a Dafermos type viscous regularization. We show that the linearized system generates an analytic semigroup in the space of algebraic decay functions. This example motivates our work on algebraic dichotomies.

  18. Mediolateral foot placement ability during ambulation in individuals with chronic post-stroke hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Zissimopoulos, Angelika; Stine, Rebecca; Fatone, Stefania; Gard, Steven

    2014-04-01

    Mediolateral (ML) foot placement is an effective way to redirect the lateral trajectory of the body center of mass (BCoM) during ambulation, but has only been partly characterized in the chronic post-stroke population despite their increased risk for falling [1]. During able-bodied gait, the locomotor system coordinates lower limb swing phase kinematics such that an appropriate ML foot placement occurs upon foot contact. Muscle weakness and abnormal motor patterns may impair foot placement ability post-stroke. The purpose of this study was to characterize ML foot placement ability during post-stroke ambulation by quantifying ML foot placement accuracy and precision, for the both sound and affected feet. Age matched able-bodied individuals were recruited for comparison. All participants were instructed to target step widths ranging from 0 to 45% leg length, as marked on the laboratory floor. Results of this study confirmed that ML foot placement accuracy and precision were significantly lower for the post-stroke group as compared to the control group (p=0.0). However, ML foot placement accuracy and precision were not significantly different between the affected and sound limbs in the post-stroke group. The lowest accuracy for post-stroke subjects was observed at both extreme step width targets (0 and 45%). Future work should explore potential mechanisms underlying these findings such as abnormal motor coordination, lower limb muscle strength, and abnormal swing phase movement patterns. PMID:24582515

  19. Finding corresponding regions of interest in mediolateral oblique and craniocaudal mammographic views

    SciTech Connect

    Engeland, Saskia van; Timp, Sheila; Karssemeijer, Nico [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2006-09-15

    In this paper we present a method to link potentially suspicious mass regions detected by a Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) scheme in mediolateral oblique (MLO) and craniocaudal (CC) mammographic views of the breast. For all possible combinations of mass candidate regions, a number of features are determined. These features include the difference in the radial distance from the candidate regions to the nipple, the gray scale correlation between both regions, and the mass likelihood of the regions determined by the single view CAD scheme. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) is used to discriminate between correct and incorrect links. The method was tested on a set of 412 cancer cases. In each case a malignant mass, architectural distortion, or asymmetry was annotated. In 92% of these cases the candidate mass detections by CAD included the cancer regions in both views. It was found that in 82% of the cases a correct link between the true positive regions in both views could be established by our method. Possible applications of the method may be found in multiple view analysis to improve CAD results, and for the presentation of CAD results to the radiologist on a mammography workstation.

  20. Reconceptualizing the Native/Nonnative Speaker Dichotomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faez, Farahnaz

    2011-01-01

    This study reconceptualizes the native/nonnative dichotomy and provides a powerful lens to examine linguistic identities. In a study of 25 linguistically diverse teacher candidates in Canada, the respondents' native and nonnative self-ascription and self-assessed level of proficiency was juxtaposed with the judgment of their instructors. This…

  1. Effect of Running Speed and Leg Prostheses on Mediolateral Foot Placement and Its Variability

    PubMed Central

    Arellano, Christopher J.; McDermott, William J.; Kram, Rodger; Grabowski, Alena M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of speed and leg prostheses on mediolateral (ML) foot placement and its variability in sprinters with and without transtibial amputations. We hypothesized that ML foot placement variability would: 1. increase with running speed up to maximum speed and 2. be symmetrical between the legs of non-amputee sprinters but asymmetrically greater for the affected leg of sprinters with a unilateral transtibial amputation. We measured the midline of the body (kinematic data) and center of pressure (kinetic data) in the ML direction while 12 non-amputee sprinters and 7 Paralympic sprinters with transtibial amputations (6 unilateral, 1 bilateral) ran across a range of speeds up to maximum speed on a high-speed force measuring treadmill. We quantified ML foot placement relative to the body’s midline and its variability. We interpret our results with respect to a hypothesized relation between ML foot placement variability and lateral balance. We infer that greater ML foot placement variability indicates greater challenges with maintaining lateral balance. In non-amputee sprinters, ML foot placement variability for each leg increased substantially and symmetrically across speed. In sprinters with a unilateral amputation, ML foot placement variability for the affected and unaffected leg also increased substantially, but was asymmetric across speeds. In general, ML foot placement variability for sprinters with a unilateral amputation was within the range observed in non-amputee sprinters. For the sprinter with bilateral amputations, both affected legs exhibited the greatest increase in ML foot placement variability with speed. Overall, we find that maintaining lateral balance becomes increasingly challenging at faster speeds up to maximum speed but was equally challenging for sprinters with and without a unilateral transtibial amputation. Finally, when compared to all other sprinters in our subject pool, maintaining lateral balance appears to be the most challenging for the Paralympic sprinter with bilateral transtibial amputations. PMID:25590634

  2. The HMA-LMA Dichotomy Revisited: an Electron Microscopical Survey of 56 Sponge Species

    E-print Network

    Pawlik, Joseph

    abundances in sponge tissues and contributes to a better understanding of the HMA-LMA dichotomy in sponge-microbe sponges harbor a great diversity of symbiotic microorganisms from the three domains of life: Archaea-associ- ated microbes remain uncultivated and are thus functionally largely uncharacterized (Taylor et al

  3. Axial elongation in mouse embryos involves mediolateral cell intercalation behavior in the paraxial mesoderm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, WeiWei; Burdsal, Carol; Periasamy, Ammasi; Sutherland, Ann E.

    2006-02-01

    The cell mechanical and signaling pathways involved in gastrulation have been studied extensively in invertebrates and amphibians, such as Xenopus, and more recently in non-mammalian vertebrates such as zebrafish and chick. However, because culturing mouse embryos extra-utero is very difficult, this fundamental process has been least characterized in the mouse. As the primary mammalian model for genetics, biochemistry, and the study of human disease and birth defects, it is important to investigate how gastrulation proceeds in murine embryos. We have developed a method of using 4D multiphoton excitation microscopy and extra-utero culture to visualize and characterize the morphogenetic movements in mouse embryos dissected at 8.5 days of gestation. Cells are labeled by expression of an X chromosome-linked enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgene. This method has provided a unique approach, where, for the first time, patterns of cell behavior in the notochord and surrounding paraxial mesoderm can be visualized and traced quantitatively. Our observations of mouse embryos reveal both distinct differences as well as striking similarities in patterned cell motility relative to other vertebrate models such as Xenopus, where axial extension is driven primarily by mediolateral oriented cell behaviors in the notochord and paraxial somitic mesoderm. Unlike Xenopus, the width of the mouse notochord remains the same between 4-somite stage and 8-somite stage embryos. This implies the mouse notochord plays a lesser role in driving axial extension compared to Xenopus, although intercalation may occur where the anterior region of the node becomes notochordal plate. In contrast, the width of mouse paraxial mesoderm narrows significantly during this period and cells within the paraxial mesoderm are both elongated and aligned perpendicular to the midline. In addition, these cells are observed to intercalate, consistent with a role for paraxial mesoderm in driving convergence and extension. These cell behaviors are similar to those characterized in the axial mesoderm of frog embryos during convergence and extension[1], and suggests that tissues may play different roles in axial elongation between the frog and the mouse.

  4. The dichotomy of p53 regulation by noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Qipan; Becker, Lindsey; Ma, Xiaodong; Zhong, Xiaoming; Young, Ken; Ramos, Kenneth; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene is the most frequently mutated gene in cancer. Significant progress has been made to discern the importance of p53 in coordinating cellular responses to DNA damage, oncogene activation, and other stresses. Noncoding RNAs are RNA molecules functioning without being translated into proteins. In this work, we discuss the dichotomy of p53 regulation by noncoding RNAs with four unconventional questions. First, is overexpression of microRNAs responsible for p53 inactivation in the absence of p53 mutation? Second, are there somatic mutations in the noncoding regions of the p53 gene? Third, is there a germline mutant in the noncoding regions of the p53 gene that predisposes carriers to cancer? Fourth, can p53 activation mediated by a noncoding RNA mutation cause cancer? This work highlights the prominence of noncoding RNAs in p53 dysregulation and tumorigenesis. PMID:24706938

  5. Neither dichotomies nor dualisms; simply genesis.

    PubMed

    Loredo-Narciandi, José C; Sánchez-González, José C

    2012-09-01

    Our starting point is an article by Uchoa Angela Branco published in 2009 in Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Sciences (vol. 43, pp. 350-355) and titled "Why Dichotomies can be Misleading while Dualities Fit the Analysis of Complex Phenomena". She criticizes the dualist uses of the distinction between subject and object, or between subjectivist and objectivist perspectives. However we subscribe to the criticism, we argue that some kind of distinction between objectual and subjectual realities is neccesary. Our argument is grounded on the classic constructivist Psychology, especially that of James Mark Baldwin's genetic logic. We assess two theoretical perspectives -the systemic and the structuralist ones- that, in our view, are at risk of falling into objectivism because they tend to reduce subjectual activity to objectivistic or formalistic kinds of explanation. Based on a critical recovery of some ideas of the French philosopher Michel Serres, we propose that subjects and objects must be understood as interpenetrated realities in perpetual construction. PMID:22350852

  6. CAN PLANETARY INSTABILITY EXPLAIN THE KEPLER DICHOTOMY?

    SciTech Connect

    Johansen, Anders; Davies, Melvyn B.; Church, Ross P.; Holmelin, Viktor [Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Box 43, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2012-10-10

    The planet candidates discovered by the Kepler mission provide a rich sample to constrain the architectures and relative inclinations of planetary systems within approximately 0.5 AU of their host stars. We use the triple-transit systems from the Kepler 16 months data as templates for physical triple-planet systems and perform synthetic transit observations, varying the internal inclination variation of the orbits. We find that all the Kepler triple-transit and double-transit systems can be produced from the triple-planet templates, given a low mutual inclination of around 5 Degree-Sign . Our analysis shows that the Kepler data contain a population of planets larger than four Earth radii in single-transit systems that cannot arise from the triple-planet templates. We explore the hypothesis that high-mass counterparts of the triple-transit systems underwent dynamical instability to produce a population of massive double-planet systems of moderately high mutual inclination. We perform N-body simulations of mass-boosted triple-planet systems and observe how the systems heat up and lose planets by planet-planet collisions, and less frequently by ejections or collisions with the star, yielding transits in agreement with the large planets in the Kepler single-transit systems. The resulting population of massive double-planet systems nevertheless cannot explain the additional excess of low-mass planets among the observed single-transit systems and the lack of gas-giant planets in double-transit and triple-transit systems. Planetary instability of systems of triple gas-giant planets can be behind part of the dichotomy between systems hosting one or more small planets and those hosting a single giant planet. The main part of the dichotomy, however, is more likely to have arisen already during planet formation when the formation, migration, or scattering of a massive planet, triggered above a threshold metallicity, suppressed the formation of other planets in sub-AU orbits.

  7. Constraints on Early Mars Evolution and Dichotomy Origin from Relaxation Modeling of Dichotomy Boundary in the Ismenius Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guest, A.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2004-01-01

    The Martian dichotomy is a global feature separating the northern and southern hemispheres. The 3.5 - 4 Gyr old feature is manifested by a topographic difference of 2-6 km and crustal thickness difference of approx. 15 - 30 km between the two hemispheres. In the Ismenius region, sections of the boundary are characterized by a single scarp with a slope of approx. 20 deg. - 23 deg. and are believed to be among the most well preserved parts of the dichotomy boundary. The origin of the dichotomy is unknown. Endogenic hypotheses do not predict the steep slopes (scarps) of the dichotomy boundary. Exogenic models for forming the northern lowlands by impact cratering, associate the scarps along the dichotomy boundary with craters' rims, but are not globally consistent with the topography and gravity. In order to better understand the origin of the Martian dichotomy, it is necessary to know if the steep scarps along the boundary represent the original shape of the dichotomy. Smrekar et al. presented evidence showing that the boundary scarp in Ismenius is a fault along which the highland crust was down faulted. We test whether the relaxation process could produce faulting along the dichotomy boundary and examine the crustal and mantle conditions that would allow for faulting to occur within 1 Gyr and preserve the long wavelength topography over another 3 Gyr. We approach the problem by a combination of numerical and semi-analytical modeling. We test different viscosity profiles and crustal thicknesses by comparing our modeled magnitude, location and timing of plastic strain and displacements to detailed geologic observations in the Ismenius region.

  8. Dawn: Testing Paradigms by Exploring Dichotomies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C. T.; Schmidt, B. E.; Wise, J.; Ristvey, J.; Raymond, C. A.

    2010-12-01

    NASA’s Dawn mission represents a series of “firsts” for major NASA missions. Dawn is the first major NASA science mission to use ion propulsion engines, allowing Dawn to be the first mission to orbit one target and then leave its gravity well to explore a second destination. Dawn is the first science mission to the main asteroid belt, reaching protoplanet Vesta in summer 2011, and will be the first mission to reach a “dwarf planet” when it arrives at Ceres in 2015. By targeting both Vesta and Ceres, Dawn explores two intriguing dichotomies in the solar system, that of the dry rocky planets and the wet icy bodies (Fire and Ice) and the dichotomy between planets and asteroids. Is there a clear dividing line here? Vesta, the second most massive asteroid, is a protoplanet: a round, mostly intact asteroid that bears more resemblance to a planet than to smaller asteroids. Vesta is also the likely parent body of the HED meteorites that richly populate Earth’s meteorite collections. It is possible to hold a piece of Vesta in your hands. From the HED meteorites, scientists have learned the Vesta is one of few differentiated asteroids. And from its spectrum, rich in basaltic minerals, it is known to be much like a mini-version of Earth’s Moon and Mercury. Vesta’s surface once was home to floods of lava not unlike those found still today on the Earth. Vesta is very similar to a terrestrial planet. Ceres is the giant of the asteroid belt with a hydrostatic shape that earns it a dwarf planet classification. Like its larger cousins, Ceres’ round shape suggests that the body may be differentiated, but due to its low density, Ceres’ interior is more like an icy moon of Jupiter. Beneath a relatively thin clay veneer probably lies an ice-rich mantle and rocky core, and even possibly a liquid ocean. With such enticing questions posed for Vesta and Ceres, Dawn will enable scientists and the public alike to explore how planets were born, how fire and ice have shaped the solar system, and have a chance to push the boundaries of our own classification system. Dawn’s set of instrumentation, with cameras, a visible and infrared spectrometer, a gamma ray and neutron detector and radio science, will produce a wealth of information about two previously unexplored, diverse and yet somehow familiar worlds. Communication of the lessons learned by Dawn from the scientists to the public has and will occur over a range of interfaces, including a series of online activities such as Find a Meteorite, Clickworkers and a simulation of an ion engine. Other activities include Dawn “Science of the Day” archives, fun family activities and games as well as classroom materials and outreach events. Since the two bodies are the brightest sources in the main belt, an integral part of Dawn’s journey has been the integration of amateur and “backyard” astronomers. All these activities allow us to share the science with the public. Dawn arrives at Vesta in the middle of the Year of the Solar System in July 2011 and will depart for Ceres as the YSS ends.

  9. L1 interaction with ankyrin regulates mediolateral topography in the retinocollicular projection.

    PubMed

    Buhusi, Mona; Schlatter, Monika C; Demyanenko, Galina P; Thresher, Randy; Maness, Patricia F

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic modulation of adhesion provided by anchorage of axonal receptors with the cytoskeleton contributes to attractant or repellent responses that guide axons to topographic targets in the brain. The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 engages the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton through reversible linkage of its cytoplasmic domain to ankyrin. To investigate a role for L1 association with the cytoskeleton in topographic guidance of retinal axons to the superior colliculus, a novel mouse strain was generated by genetic knock-in that expresses an L1 point mutation (Tyr1229His) abolishing ankyrin binding. Axon tracing revealed a striking mistargeting of mutant ganglion cell axons from the ventral retina, which express high levels of ephrinB receptors, to abnormally lateral sites in the contralateral superior colliculus, where they formed multiple ectopic arborizations. These axons were compromised in extending interstitial branches in the medial direction, a normal response to the high medial to low lateral SC gradient of ephrinB1. Furthermore, ventral but not dorsal L1(Y1229H) retinal cells were impaired for ephrinB1-stimulated adhesion through beta1 integrins in culture. The retinocollicular phenotype of the L1(Tyr1229His) mutant provides the first evidence that L1 regulates topographic mapping of retinal axons through adhesion mediated by linkage to the actin cytoskeleton and functional interaction with the ephrinB/EphB targeting system. PMID:18171935

  10. Coordination of pelvis-HAT (head, arms and trunk) in anterior-posterior and medio-lateral directions during treadmill gait in preadolescents with/without Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Masayoshi; Ulrich, Beverly

    2006-06-01

    In human biped gait, movements in the frontal plane such as side-to-side rocking, are as essential as the alternating movement of the legs in the sagittal plane. In addition, the top-heavy structure of human body necessitates control of the trunk during walking. In this study, we evaluated the pelvis and HAT (head, arms and trunk) movements and their coordination during treadmill walking in the anterior-posterior and medio-lateral directions in children with typical development (TD) and those with Down syndrome (DS). Participants were 12 children with DS aged 8-10 years and 10 age-matched children with TD. They walked on a treadmill at 40%, 75% and 110% of their preferred overground walking speeds. Kinematic data were collected using a 3D-motion-capture system; movements of the mid-point of hip joints (OPELVIS) and the center of mass of HAT (COMHAT) were reduced. Children with DS showed larger and speed dependent amplitude responses compared to their TD peers. Coordination patterns for children with DS were less stable, especially in medio-lateral direction at slow speed. Differences in amplitude response may be the result of poorer trunk control in children with DS or, alternatively, part of a necessary and sufficient propulsion/stabilization mechanism for this population with reduced tone and muscle strength. Response differences observed between the anterior-posterior and medio-lateral directions for both groups may reflect relative differences in the involvement of active neuromuscular control. PMID:16039857

  11. Direct Instruction vs. Arts Integration: A False Dichotomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aprill, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author takes on what he considers to be the false dichotomy between direct instruction and arts integration. He contends that at a time when national issues of sustainability and conservation of energy and resources become ever more urgent, it is time that those committed to quality arts education stop squandering time, money,…

  12. Implications of an impact origin for the martian hemispheric dichotomy

    E-print Network

    Nimmo, Francis

    have been caused by one6 or sev- eral7 giant impacts, but quantitative tests of the impact hypothesis address the origin of the dicho- tomy. Geological tests of the giant-impact hypothesis have proved inconLETTERS Implications of an impact origin for the martian hemispheric dichotomy F. Nimmo1 , S. D

  13. The Dichotomy in Degree Correlation of Biological Networks

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Dapeng; Li, Chuanxing

    2011-01-01

    Most complex networks from different areas such as biology, sociology or technology, show a correlation on node degree where the possibility of a link between two nodes depends on their connectivity. It is widely believed that complex networks are either disassortative (links between hubs are systematically suppressed) or assortative (links between hubs are enhanced). In this paper, we analyze a variety of biological networks and find that they generally show a dichotomous degree correlation. We find that many properties of biological networks can be explained by this dichotomy in degree correlation, including the neighborhood connectivity, the sickle-shaped clustering coefficient distribution and the modularity structure. This dichotomy distinguishes biological networks from real disassortative networks or assortative networks such as the Internet and social networks. We suggest that the modular structure of networks accounts for the dichotomy in degree correlation and vice versa, shedding light on the source of modularity in biological networks. We further show that a robust and well connected network necessitates the dichotomy of degree correlation, suggestive of an evolutionary motivation for its existence. Finally, we suggest that a dichotomous degree correlation favors a centrally connected modular network, by which the integrity of network and specificity of modules might be reconciled. PMID:22164269

  14. Exponential Dichotomy for Asymptotically Hyperbolic Two-Dimensional Linear Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weishi Liu; Erik S. Van Vleck

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of determining the existence of exponential dichotomy for a class of linear nonautonomous ODEs. An\\u000a approach is explored that combines numerical techniques with rigorous perturbation theory. It is applicable to a given problem\\u000a within the class we consider. Numerical results illustrate the utility of the approach.

  15. Beyond Dichotomy: Toward a Theory of Divergence in Composition Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bawarshi, Anis S.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the dichotomy posited by David Bartholmae and Peter Elbow between institutional or contextual writing and personal writing; or more generally, between social constructivism and expressivism. Attempts to propose a means of mediation between the two positions that goes beyond previous attempts, particularly that of "externalism." (TB)

  16. False Dichotomy? "Western" and "Confucian" Concepts of Scholarship and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Janette; Louie, Kam

    2007-01-01

    Discourses of "internationalisation" of the curriculum of Western universities often describe the philosophies and paradigms of "Western" and "Eastern" scholarship in binary terms, such as "deep/surface", "adversarial/harmonious", and "independent/dependent". In practice, such dichotomies can be misleading. They do not take account of the…

  17. The Biological Implausibility of the Nature-Nurture Dichotomy & What It Means for the Study of Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Lewkowicz, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Since the time of the Greeks, philosophers and scientists have wondered about the origins of structure and function. Plato proposed that the origins of structure and function lie in the organism's nature whereas Aristotle proposed that they lie in its nurture. This nature/nurture dichotomy and the emphasis on the origins question has had a powerful effect on our thinking about development right into modern times. Despite this, empirical findings from various branches of developmental science have made a compelling case that the nature/nurture dichotomy is biologically implausible and, thus, that a search for developmental origins must be replaced by research into developmental processes. This change in focus recognizes that development is an immensely complex, dynamic, embedded, interdependent, and probabilistic process and, therefore, renders simplistic questions such as whether a particular behavioral capacity is innate or acquired scientifically uninteresting. PMID:21709807

  18. Dichotomy in the definition of prescriptive information suggests both prescribed data and prescribed algorithms: biosemiotics applications in genomic systems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The fields of molecular biology and computer science have cooperated over recent years to create a synergy between the cybernetic and biosemiotic relationship found in cellular genomics to that of information and language found in computational systems. Biological information frequently manifests its "meaning" through instruction or actual production of formal bio-function. Such information is called Prescriptive Information (PI). PI programs organize and execute a prescribed set of choices. Closer examination of this term in cellular systems has led to a dichotomy in its definition suggesting both prescribed data and prescribed algorithms are constituents of PI. This paper looks at this dichotomy as expressed in both the genetic code and in the central dogma of protein synthesis. An example of a genetic algorithm is modeled after the ribosome, and an examination of the protein synthesis process is used to differentiate PI data from PI algorithms. PMID:22413926

  19. Implications of an impact origin for the martian hemispheric dichotomy.

    PubMed

    Nimmo, F; Hart, S D; Korycansky, D G; Agnor, C B

    2008-06-26

    The observation that one hemisphere of Mars is lower and has a thinner crust than the other (the 'martian hemispheric dichotomy') has been a puzzle for 30 years. The dichotomy may have arisen as a result of internal mechanisms such as convection. Alternatively, it may have been caused by one or several giant impacts, but quantitative tests of the impact hypothesis have not been published. Here we use a high-resolution, two-dimensional, axially symmetric hydrocode to model vertical impacts over a range of parameters appropriate to early Mars. We propose that the impact model, in addition to excavating a crustal cavity of the correct size, explains two other observations. First, crustal disruption at the impact antipode is probably responsible for the observed antipodal decline in magnetic field strength. Second, the impact-generated melt forming the northern lowlands crust is predicted to derive from a deep, depleted mantle source. This prediction is consistent with characteristics of martian shergottite meteorites and suggests a dichotomy formation time approximately 100 Myr after martian accretion, comparable to that of the Moon-forming impact on Earth. PMID:18580946

  20. Breaking the dichotomy of reactivity vs. chemoselectivity in catalytic S(N)1 reactions of alcohols.

    PubMed

    Hellal, Malik; Falk, Florian C; Wolf, Eléna; Dryzhakov, Marian; Moran, Joseph

    2014-08-21

    The inability to decouple Lewis acid catalysis from undesirable Brønsted acid catalysed side reactions when water or other protic functional groups are necessarily present has forced chemists to choose between powerful but harsh catalysts or poor but mild ones, a dichotomy that restricts the substrate scope of dehydrative transformations such as the direct SN1 reaction of alcohols. A systematic survey of Lewis and Brønsted acids reveals that the strong non-hydrolyzable Lewis acid B(C6F5)3 leads to highly chemoselective alcohol substitution in the presence of acid-sensitive alkenes, protecting groups and other functional groups without the typical compromise in reaction rates, substrate scope and catalyst loading. PMID:24987941

  1. Dichotomy of Solar Coronal Jets: Standard Jets and Blowout Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. L.; Cirtain, J. W.; Sterling, A. C.; Falconer, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/XRT coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop H alpha macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major CMEs. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 Angstrom snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 5) K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

  2. Beyond the dichotomy: six religious views of homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dawne

    2014-01-01

    Using published theological and scholarly evidence, this article disrupts the stereotypical "born gay"/"sinful choice" dichotomy widely assumed to characterize religious views of homosexuality in the United States. It argues that we need to keep moral questions separate from questions about the fixity or fluidity of sexual orientation. Rather than two, American Christian and Jewish views of homosexuality can been seen on a range from the "God Hates Fags" view through "Love the Sinner, Hate the Sin," "We Don't Talk About That," "They Can't Help It," "God's Good Gift," and a queer-theological view of the "Godly Calling." PMID:24871867

  3. Dichotomy of some satellites of the outer Solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2011-10-01

    Recently acquired by the Cas as ini' CIR a temperature map (11 -16 microns radiation) of small satellite Mimas caused a perplexity among the Cassini scientists (an interpretation of PIA12867). They expected to have a regular temperature map characteristic of a homogeneous spherical body heated by Sun. Instead, the bizarre map with two sharply divided temperature fields was produced (Fig. 1). The temperature difference between two fields is about 15 Kelvin that is rather remarkable. The warm part has typical temperature near 92 Kelvin, the cold part -about 77 Kelvin. Obviously there are two icy substances with different conductivity of heat composing two planetary segments (hemispheres). But in this result there is nothing new for explorers insisting for many years that all celestial bodies are tectonically dichotomous [1, 2, 3]. However, this new beautiful confirmat ion of the wave planetology theorem 1 (" Celes tial bodies are dichotomous ") is not s uperfluous , as many s cientis ts , es pecially in the USA, are not acquainted with the wave p lanetology. The fundamental wave 1 long 2?R warping any body aris es in them becaus e they move in elliptica l keple rian orbits with periodically changing acceleration. Having in rotating bodies (but all bodies rotate!) a stationary character and four interfering directions (ortho- and diagonal) these waves inevitably produce uplifting (+), subsiding (-), and neutral (0) tectonic blocks (Fig. 7). The uplifts and subsidences are in an opposition (the best examples are the terrestrial Eastern (+) and Western ( -) segments-hemispheres and mart ian Northern (-) and Southern (+) ones) [3]. The small icy Mimas (396 km in diameter) is no exclusion (Fig. 1). Its dichotomy is well pronounced in two temperature fields obviously reflect ing slightly different in composition icy materials composing two segments. Presence of two kinds of surface materials is also revealed by spectrometry under combination of the UV, green and IR emissions (Fig. 4). Around Herschel Crater material is more bluish than more greenish elsewhere (artificial colors). Presence of dark streaks on walls o f some craters also indicates at another than pure ice substance. The deep Herschel Crater on the cooler segment is somewhat warmer than surrounding terrains (Fig. 1). Thus, one may suppose that the warmer segment exposes deeper layers and is uplifted (+), the cooler segment is subsided (-). Important confirmat ions of Mimas ' dichotomy are s imi lar geometric patterns observed on Iapetus (black & white) (Fig. 2) and on Titania (Fig. 3). Such pattern can be caught under specific viewing point s of dichotomous structure. Figures 5 and 6 show dichotomies of Rhea and Dione. Fig. 7 gives a geometrical s cheme of getting dichotomies by wave interference.

  4. Dichotomy and pseudogap signature in the Raman response of high- Tc cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzouz, M.; Hewitt, K. C.; Saadaoui, H.

    2010-05-01

    The signature of the pseudogap in the normal-state Raman response of high- Tc cuprates is examined within the rotating antiferromagnetism theory. The results for the B1g and B2g response functions, including spectral weight transfer and quasiparticle’s dichotomy, compare well with experiment. A pseudogap-induced peak in the B1g response is found to behave like the superconducting peak; the low-frequency B1g response behaves as ?a with ã3 in the clean limit, and a=1 in the dirty limit. Also, we find that the zero-frequency slopes for both B1g and B2g scale as the inverse (inverse squared) of the zero-frequency scattering rate in the clean limit (dirty limit).

  5. Pour un nouveau paradigme. La dichotomie conceptuelle entre espace et temps

    E-print Network

    1 Pour un nouveau paradigme. La dichotomie conceptuelle entre espace et temps est (devenue) un séparés d'espace et de temps. La théorie physique de la relativité promeut une association plus étroite entre temps et espace, mais elle ne change en rien cette dichotomie conceptuelle : elle relie les

  6. Knowledge of Being v. Practice of Becoming in Higher Education: Overcoming the Dichotomy in the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    This essay suggests ways to overcome what I take to be a widespread problem of a dichotomy between the knowledge of being and the practice of becoming and an emphasis on the former at the expense of the latter within contemporary Humanities at the university. First, I trace the genealogy of this dichotomy and its effects on contemporary…

  7. Migration and Proliferation Dichotomy in Tumor-Cell Invasion Sergei Fedotov1

    E-print Network

    Fedotov, Sergei

    Migration and Proliferation Dichotomy in Tumor-Cell Invasion Sergei Fedotov1 and Alexander Iomin2 1 a two-component reaction-transport model for the migration-proliferation dichotomy in the spreading and migration. The transport process is formulated in terms of the CTRW with an arbitrary waiting

  8. Transcending The Virgin\\/Whore Dichotomy: Telling Mina's Story in Bram Stoker's Dracula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leah M. Wyman; George N. Dionisopoulos

    2000-01-01

    This essay explores an alternative perspective on the virgin\\/whore dichotomy, a frame often used in feminist criticism of popular media. Past use of the dichotomy emphasizes how women are classified according to men's needs and experiences, a useful approach for examining the manifestation of patriarchal ideology. However, our approach asks instead how representations of sexuality might be decoded if women's

  9. Beyond the market-institutions dichotomy: The institutionalism of Douglass C. North

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Beyond the market-institutions dichotomy: The institutionalism of Douglass C. North in response as well as in sociology. Far from endorsing the dichotomy between market and non market dimensions of the market and therefore as explanatory principles of historical dynamics. Keywords: institutions

  10. Hydrophobic–hydrophilic dichotomy of the butterfly proboscis

    PubMed Central

    Lehnert, Matthew S.; Monaenkova, Daria; Andrukh, Taras; Beard, Charles E.; Adler, Peter H.; Kornev, Konstantin G.

    2013-01-01

    Mouthparts of fluid-feeding insects have unique material properties with no human-engineered analogue: the feeding devices acquire sticky and viscous liquids while remaining clean. We discovered that the external surface of the butterfly proboscis has a sharp boundary separating a hydrophilic drinking region and a hydrophobic non-drinking region. The structural arrangement of the proboscis provides the basis for the wetting dichotomy. Theoretical and experimental analyses show that fluid uptake is associated with enlargement of hydrophilic cuticular structures, the legulae, which link the two halves of the proboscis together. We also show that an elliptical proboscis produces a higher external meniscus than does a cylindrical proboscis of the same circumference. Fluid uptake is additionally facilitated in sap-feeding butterflies that have a proboscis with enlarged chemosensory structures forming a brush near the tip. This structural modification of the proboscis enables sap feeders to exploit films of liquid more efficiently. Structural changes along the proboscis, including increased legular width and presence of a brush-like tip, occur in a wide range of species, suggesting that a wetting dichotomy is widespread in the Lepidoptera. PMID:23760299

  11. The Prokaryote-Eukaryote Dichotomy: Meanings and Mythology

    PubMed Central

    Sapp, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Drawing on documents both published and archival, this paper explains how the prokaryote-eukaryote dichotomy of the 1960s was constructed, the purposes it served, and what it implied in terms of classification and phylogeny. In doing so, I first show how the concept was attributed to Edouard Chatton and the context in which he introduced the terms. Following, I examine the context in which the terms were reintroduced into biology in 1962 by Roger Stanier and C. B. van Niel. I study the discourse over the subsequent decade to understand how the organizational dichotomy took on the form of a natural classification as the kingdom Monera or superkingdom Procaryotae. Stanier and van Niel admitted that, in regard to constructing a natural classification of bacteria, structural characteristics were no more useful than physiological properties. They repeatedly denied that bacterial phylogenetics was possible. I thus examine the great historical irony that the “prokaryote,” in both its organizational and phylogenetic senses, was defined (negatively) on the basis of structure. Finally, we see how phylogenetic research based on 16S rRNA led by Carl Woese and his collaborators confronted the prokaryote concept while moving microbiology to the center of evolutionary biology. PMID:15944457

  12. Is there really a dichotomy in active galactic nucleus jet power?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broderick, J. W.; Fender, R. P.

    2011-10-01

    To gain new insights into the radio-loud/radio-quiet dichotomy reported for active galactic nuclei (AGN), we examine radio loudness as a function of Eddington ratio for a previously published sample of 199 AGN from five different populations. After initially considering radio loudnesses derived using total radio luminosities, we repeat the investigation using core radio luminosities only, applying a previously established mass correction for these core luminosities. In both cases, for Eddington ratios <1 per cent, Fanaroff-Riley type I and broad-line radio galaxies are on average more radio-loud than Seyfert and low-ionization nuclear emission-line region galaxies. However, the distribution of radio loudnesses for the mass-corrected, core-only sample is much narrower than that of the clearly bimodal total radio loudness distribution. The advantages and disadvantages of using core- or lobe-dominated radio luminosity as a measure of instantaneous jet power are discussed. We furthermore compare the core and total radio luminosities for the entire sample, as well as illustrating the importance of the mass term by comparing the AGN with a sample of black hole X-ray binaries. We conclude that if the mass-corrected core radio luminosity is a good measure of jet power, then black hole spin may have considerably less impact on jet power than previously reported, or that our sample does not include the extremes of spin. If the spread in jet power is small, then we suggest that characteristics of the ambient environment and/or the radio source age could be equally as important in producing a radio-loudyradio-quiet dichotomy seen in total radio luminosity.

  13. Dichotomy in the Dynamical Status of Massive Cores in Orion

    E-print Network

    velusamy, T; Li, D; Goldsmith, P F; Langer, William D

    2008-01-01

    To study the evolution of high mass cores, we have searched for evidence of collapse motions in a large sample of starless cores in the Orion molecular cloud. We used the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory telescope to obtain spectra of the optically thin (\\H13CO+) and optically thick (\\HCO+) high density tracer molecules in 27 cores with masses $>$ 1 \\Ms. The red- and blue-asymmetries seen in the line profiles of the optically thick line with respect to the optically thin line indicate that 2/3 of these cores are not static. We detect evidence for infall (inward motions) in 9 cores and outward motions for 10 cores, suggesting a dichotomy in the kinematic state of the non-static cores in this sample. Our results provide an important observational constraint on the fraction of collapsing (inward motions) versus non-collapsing (re-expanding) cores for comparison with model simulations.

  14. Dichotomy in the Dynamical Status of Massive Cores in Orion

    E-print Network

    T. velusamy; R. Peng; D. Li; P. F. Goldsmith; William D. Langer

    2008-10-14

    To study the evolution of high mass cores, we have searched for evidence of collapse motions in a large sample of starless cores in the Orion molecular cloud. We used the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory telescope to obtain spectra of the optically thin (\\H13CO+) and optically thick (\\HCO+) high density tracer molecules in 27 cores with masses $>$ 1 \\Ms. The red- and blue-asymmetries seen in the line profiles of the optically thick line with respect to the optically thin line indicate that 2/3 of these cores are not static. We detect evidence for infall (inward motions) in 9 cores and outward motions for 10 cores, suggesting a dichotomy in the kinematic state of the non-static cores in this sample. Our results provide an important observational constraint on the fraction of collapsing (inward motions) versus non-collapsing (re-expanding) cores for comparison with model simulations.

  15. Destabilizing homonormativity and the public\\/private dichotomy in North American lesbian domestic violence discourses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cindy Holmes

    2009-01-01

    Developing and circulating community-based educational materials and offering workshops are common feminist approaches to addressing violence in lesbian relationships. This article explores the racialized exclusions in the public\\/private dichotomy in community-based educational discourses about ‘lesbian domestic violence’. An examination of community-based educational materials and interviews with lesbian and queer feminist educators illustrates how the public\\/private dichotomy produces exclusions and makes

  16. Dichotomy of X-Ray Jets in Solar Coronal Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robe, D. M.; Moore, R. L.; Falconer, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    It has been found that there are two different types of X-ray jets observed in the Sun's polar coronal holes: standard jets and blowout jets. A proposed model of this dichotomy is that a standard jet is produced by a burst of reconnection of the ambient magnetic field with the opposite-polarity leg of the base arcade. In contrast, it appears that a blowout jet is produced when the interior of the arcade has so much pent-up free magnetic energy in the form of shear and twist in the interior field that the external reconnection unleashes the interior field to erupt open. In this project, X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes taken by Hinode were searched for X-ray jets. Co-temporal movies taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatory in 304 Å emission from He II, showing solar plasma at temperatures around 80,000 K, were examined for whether the identified blowout jets carry much more He II plasma than the identified standard jets. It was found that though some jets identified as standard from the X-ray movies could be seen in the He II 304 Å movies, the blowout jets carried much more 80,000 K plasma than did most standard jets. This finding supports the proposed model for the morphology and development of the two types of jets.

  17. Development of Cellular Immunity in the Human Fetus: Dichotomy of Proliferative and Cytotoxic Responses of Lymphoid Cells to Phytohemagglutinin

    PubMed Central

    Stites, Daniel P.; Carr, Martin C.; Fudenberg, H. Hugh

    1972-01-01

    The reactivity of cells in vitro was investigated with specimens from various lymphoid organs of seven human fetuses. Thymocytes responded to stimulation by phytohemagglutinin with significant increases in synthesis of DNA, but failed to produce destruction of xenogeneic target cells. In cells from bone marrow, precisely the converse pattern of reactivity to the mitogen was detected. Lymphocytes from spleen and peripheral blood demonstrated both phytohemagglutinin-dependent functions, while hepatic cells did not respond to phytohemagglutinin. Based on the striking dichotomy of phytohemagglutinin-dependent responses in fetal thymocytes and bone-marrow lymphoid cells, we conclude that phytohemagglutinin-dependent cytotoxicity and DNA synthesis are functions of different populations of lymphoid cells during human embryonic development. Images PMID:4504355

  18. Toward "harder" medical humanities: moving beyond the "two cultures" dichotomy.

    PubMed

    Polianski, Igor J; Fangerau, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    Using the current international debate surrounding the incorporation of medical humanities into medical curricula as a starting point, the authors address both the legitimacy and didactics of teaching medical humanities to medical students. They highlight the paradox of the increasing prevalence of medical humanities in medical curricula and the often critical reception humanities courses receive. The alleged lack of empirical evidence linking such courses with improved patient care cannot alone explain the criticism they engender. After a short overview of the debate surrounding medical humanities and their inclusion in outcomes-based education, the authors outline the medical humanities block, "The History, Theory, and Ethics of Medicine," which is part of the German medical curriculum. A model developed at Ulm University exemplifies the integrated inclusion of the heterogeneous aspects of medical culture into medical education. This model emphasizes a reflexive approach (i.e., understanding how the humanities are manifested in medicine) as an alternative to the currently dominant narrative approach (i.e., liberal arts, moral development, and/or mental retreat), which has gradually been limited to a quasi-"secular religion" for doctors. This model uses established concepts from science and cultural studies as the "instruments" for seminars and courses; paradigms, discourses, social systems, and cosmologies constitute the tools for teaching and learning about the historical, theoretical, and ethical dimensions of medicine. The authors argue that this approach both precludes the need to justify the medical humanities and overcomes the dichotomy that has heretofore existed between the two cultures of science and the humanities in medicine. PMID:22104059

  19. Geology of the Martian crustal dichotomy boundary: Age, modifications, and implications for modeling efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Rossman P.; Watters, Thomas R.

    2010-11-01

    The contrast in crustal thickness, surface age, elevation, and morphology between the southern cratered highlands and northern lowland plains of Mars is termed the crustal dichotomy. The oldest exposed sections of the crustal dichotomy boundary are ancient cratered slopes, which influenced post-Noachian fresh crater morphometry, Late Noachian valley network planform, and the degradation patterns of Middle to Late Noachian (˜3.92-3.7 Ga) impact craters. Noachian visible and topographically defined impact craters at the top of the cratered slope show no evidence of flexure-induced normal faulting. These observations and published geophysical data collectively require an Early to Pre-Noachian age for the crustal dichotomy, prior to the largest recognized impact basins. Late Noachian plateau deposits and more prolonged Tharsis volcanism appear to have buried parts of the old cratered slope, and fretted terrain developed in this transition zone during the Early Hesperian Epoch (˜3.7-3.6 Ga). Fretted/knobby terrains, lowland plains, and most visible structures (wrinkle ridges, fractures, and normal faults) postdate Noachian crater modification and are several hundred million years younger than the cratered slope of the crustal dichotomy, so they provide no valid basis or constraint for models of its formation. Long-wavelength topography in cratered terrain dates to Early to Pre-Noachian time and provides a useful model constraint. Geological and geophysical observations are thus reconciled around an early age and relatively rapid development of the Martian crustal dichotomy.

  20. Geologic Evolution of the Martian Dichotomy and Plains Magnetization in the Ismenius Area of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smrekar, S. E.; McGill, G. E.; Raymond, C. A.; Dimitriou, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    The global dichotomy divides the northern lowlands from the southern highlands, except where interrupted by relatively young volcanic provinces and impact basins. An elevation change of 2-4 km is typical across the dichotomy, and more than 6 km locally, over distances of several 100s km to as much as 1300 km [1,2]. A variety of exogenic and endogenic formation models have been proposed. Distinguishing between these models would help constrain the overall thermal evolution of the planet, possibly timing of core formation, and the associated mantle heat flux over time. A first step is to determine whether or not gravitational relaxation plays a role in modifying the boundary. Nimmo and Stevenson [3] examined 10 profiles across the dichotomy and used models of gravitational relaxation to conclude the relaxation has not occurred. In this study we begin by considering the geologic history in detail as inputs for modeling [4].

  1. Constraints on Thermal Evolution of Mars from Relaxation Models of Crustal and Topographic Dichotomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guest, A.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2005-01-01

    The early thermal evolution of Mars is largely unconstrained. Models such as degree one convection [1,2,3], plate tectonics [4], and a transition to stagnant lid [5] have been proposed to explain formation of the dichotomy, the Tharsis rise, crustal production, and dynamo evolution. Here we model both the early deformation of the dichotomy and the long-term preservation as a means of examining the plausibility of a range of early thermal evolution models. Constraints include the preservation of crustal thickness and topographic differences between the northern and southern hemispheres and the geologic history of the dichotomy [6]). Our previous modeling indicates that the lower crust must have been weak enough to allow for relaxation early on, but the Martian interior had to cool fast enough to preserve the crustal difference and the associated topographic difference (5 km) over approx. 3-3.5 Gyr [7].

  2. Sedimentary resurfacing and fretted terrain development along the crustal dichotomy boundary, Aeolis Mensae, Mars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rossman P. Irwin III; Thomas R. Watters; Alan D. Howard; James R. Zimbelman

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of the Martian crustal dichotomy boundary, which separates the southern cratered highlands from the northern lowland plains by 1–3 km of elevation, remains among the fundamental outstanding issues in Mars research. For a study area at Aeolis Mensae we show that fretted terrain formed exclusively in a >2 km thick, late Noachian (?3.7 Ga) sedimentary deposit that overlies

  3. Degree-1 mantle convection and the crustal dichotomy on Shijie Zhong *, Maria T. Zuber

    E-print Network

    Zuber, Maria

    Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA and younger, resurfaced and depressed northern hemisphere, a feature often termed the crustal dichotomy the underlying mantle) early in planetary history. The degree-1 convection causes preferential heating of one

  4. The Middle Way to Motivating Middle School Students by Avoiding False Dichotomies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehlbach, Hunter; Roeser, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses motivation systems theory and the complexity of motivation. Recommends that teachers reframe traditional dual dichotomies concerning intrinsic versus extrinsic orientations in motivation, intellectual challenge versus self-esteem development, or personal growth versus shared standards by blending the best assets from both to create…

  5. Dysfunctional Dichotomies? Deflating Bipolar Constructions of Curriculum and Pedagogy through Case Studies from Music and History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Tim; Chapman, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Recent public discussions of curriculum and pedagogy that have accompanied the English National Curriculum review have been structured around clichéd dichotomies that generate more heat than light and that, as Robin Alexander has argued, reduce complex educational debates to oppositional and incompatible slogans. This paper begins by exploring the…

  6. Sedimentary resurfacing and fretted terrain development along the crustal dichotomy boundary, Aeolis Mensae, Mars

    E-print Network

    Howard, Alan D.

    Sedimentary resurfacing and fretted terrain development along the crustal dichotomy boundary. For a study area at Aeolis Mensae we show that fretted terrain formed exclusively in a >2 km thick, late slope. In this equatorial study area, fretted terrain does not exhibit the debris aprons or lineated

  7. Minority Parents as Researchers: Beyond a Dichotomy in Parent Involvement in Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ippolito, John

    2010-01-01

    This article documents the work of parent-driven research teams in two school boards in the Greater Toronto Area. Motivated by a desire to move beyond a school-centred/family-centred dichotomy, this parent-lead project explores a middle space for collective learning among multiple stakeholders in publicly-funded schooling. Drawing on participatory…

  8. Growth of the hemispheric dichotomy and the cessation of plate tectonics on Mars

    E-print Network

    Nimmo, Francis

    Growth of the hemispheric dichotomy and the cessation of plate tectonics on Mars A. Lenardic 2004. [1] Although Mars is currently not tectonically active, it may have experienced plate tectonics for the Earth predict that it should operate in the plate tectonic regime now but that it may have experienced

  9. Asymmetric leaves1 mediates leaf patterning and stem cell function in Arabidopsis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary E. Byrne; Ross Barley; Mark Curtis; Juana Maria Arroyo; Maitreya Dunham; Andrew Hudson; Robert A. Martienssen

    2000-01-01

    Meristem function in plants requires both the maintenance of stem cells and the specification of founder cells from which lateral organs arise. Lateral organs are patterned along proximodistal, dorsoventral and mediolateral axes. Here we show that the Arabidopsis mutant asymmetric leaves1 (as1) disrupts this process. AS1 encodes a myb domain protein, closely related to PHANTASTICA in Antirrhinum and ROUGH SHEATH2

  10. The sense of smell, its signalling pathways, and the dichotomy of cilia and microvilli in olfactory sensory cells

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Smell is often regarded as an ancillary perception in primates, who seem so dominated by their sense of vision. In this paper, we will portray some aspects of the significance of olfaction to human life and speculate on what evolutionary factors contribute to keeping it alive. We then outline the functional architecture of olfactory sensory neurons and their signal transduction pathways, which are the primary detectors that render olfactory perception possible. Throughout the phylogenetic tree, olfactory neurons, at their apical tip, are either decorated with cilia or with microvilli. The significance of this dichotomy is unknown. It is generally assumed that mammalian olfactory neurons are of the ciliary type only. The existance of so-called olfactory microvillar cells in mammals, however, is well documented, but their nature remains unclear and their function orphaned. This paper discusses the possibility, that in the main olfactory epithelium of mammals ciliated and microvillar sensory cells exist concurrently. We review evidence related to this hypothesis and ask, what function olfactory microvillar cells might have and what signalling mechanisms they use. PMID:17903277

  11. Avalidated FISH trisomy index demonstrates the hyperdiploid and nonhyperdiploid dichotomy in MGUS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wee Joo Chng; Scott A. Van Wier; Gregory J. Ahmann; Jerry M. Winkler; Syed M. Jalal; Peter Leif Bergsagel; Marta Chesi; Mike C. Trendle; Martin M. Oken; Emily Blood; Kim Henderson; Rafael Santana-Davila; Robert A. Kyle; Morie A. Gertz; Martha Q. Lacy; Angela Dispenzieri; Philip R. Greipp; Rafael Fonseca

    2005-01-01

    Two major genetic categories of multiple myeloma (MM) exist. Hyperdiploid MM (48 to 74chromosomes,median53chromosomes) is associated with trisomies especially of chromosomes3,7,9,11,15,and19,whereas the nonhyperdiploid (<48 chromosomes or more than 74 chromosomes) MM is associ- ated with primary translocations such as t(11;14), t(4;14), and t(14;16). Whether this dichotomy exists in monoclonal gammopa- thy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is uncertain due to limitations

  12. The great dichotomy of the Solar System: small terrestrial embryos and massive giant planet cores

    E-print Network

    Morbidelli, A; Jacobson, S; Bitsch, B

    2015-01-01

    The basic structure of the solar system is set by the presence of low-mass terrestrial planets in its inner part and giant planets in its outer part. This is the result of the formation of a system of multiple embryos with approximately the mass of Mars in the inner disk and of a few multi-Earth-mass cores in the outer disk, within the lifetime of the gaseous component of the protoplanetary disk. What was the origin of this dichotomy in the mass distribution of embryos/cores? We show in this paper that the classic processes of runaway and oligarchic growth from a disk of planetesimals cannot explain this dichotomy, even if the original surface density of solids increased at the snowline. Instead, the accretion of drifting pebbles by embryos and cores can explain the dichotomy, provided that some assumptions hold true. We propose that the mass-flow of pebbles is two-times lower and the characteristic size of the pebbles is approximately ten times smaller within the snowline than beyond the snowline (respective...

  13. Reciprocal Activation of Transcription Factors Underlies the Dichotomy between Proliferation and Invasion of Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dhruv, Harshil D.; McDonough Winslow, Wendy S.; Armstrong, Brock; Tuncali, Serdar; Eschbacher, Jenny; Kislin, Kerri; Loftus, Joseph C.; Tran, Nhan L.; Berens, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Histology of malignant glioma depicts dense proliferative areas rich in angiogenesis as well as dissemination of neoplastic cells into adjacent brain tissue. Although the mechanisms that trigger transition from proliferative to invasive phenotypes are complex, the dichotomy of cell proliferation and migration, the “Go or Grow” hypothesis, argues for specific and coordinated regulation of these phenotypes. We investigated transcriptional elements that accompany the phenotypes of migration and proliferation, and consider the therapeutic significance of the “Go or Grow” hypothesis. Interrogation of matched core and rim regions from human glioblastoma biopsy specimens in situ (n?=?44) revealed higher proliferation (Ki67 labeling index) in cells residing at the core compared to the rim. Profiling activated transcription factors in a panel of migration-activated versus migration-restricted GBM cells portrayed strong NF-?B activity in the migratory cell population. In contrast, increased c-Myc activity was found in migration-restricted proliferative cells. Validation of transcriptional activity by NF-?B- or c-Myc-driven GFP or RFP, respectively, showed an increased NF-?B activity in the active migrating cells, whereas the proliferative, migration restricted cells displayed increased c-Myc activity. Immunohistochemistry on clinical specimens validated a robust phosphorylated c-Myc staining in tumor cells at the core, whereas increased phosphorylated NF-?B staining was detected in the invasive tumor cells at the rim. Functional genomics revealed that depletion of c-Myc expression by siRNA oligonucleotides reduced cell proliferation in vitro, but surprisingly, cell migration was enhanced significantly. Conversely, inhibition of NF-?B by pharmacological inhibitors, SN50 or BAY-11, decreased both cell migration in vitro and invasion ex vivo. Notably, inhibition of NF-?B was found to have no effect on the proliferation rate of glioma cells. These findings suggest that the reciprocal and coordinated suppression/activation of transcription factors, such as c-Myc and NF-?B may underlie the shift of glioma cells from a “growing-to-going” phenotype. PMID:23967279

  14. Ganymede and Callisto - Surface textural dichotomies and photometric analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buratti, Bonnie J.

    1991-01-01

    Complete solar phase curves of the Ganymede and Callisto leading and trailing hemispheres, which have been obtained by reducing Voyager imaging observations and combining them with ground-based telescopic data, are presently fit to scattering models in order to derive hemispherical values of the single scattering albedo, the single particle phase function (SPPF), the compaction state (CS) of the optically active portion of the regolith, and the mean slope angle of macroscopic features. While Callisto's leading side is composed of particles that are more strongly backscattering than the trailing side, no hemispheric differences are found in the CS, surface roughness, or SPPF.

  15. Subsurface Structure of the Ismenius Area and Implications for Evolution of the Martian Dichotomy and Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smrekar, S. E.; Raymond, C. A.; McGill, G. E.

    2004-01-01

    The Martian dichotomy divides the smooth, northern lowlands from the rougher southern highlands. The northern lowlands are largely free of magnetic anomalies, while the majority of the significant magnetic anomalies are located in the southern highlands. An elevation change of 2-4 km is typical across the dichotomy, and is up to 6 km locally. We examine a part of the dichotomy that is likely to preserve the early history of the dichotomy as it is relatively unaffected by major impacts and erosion. This study contains three parts: 1) the geologic history, which is summarized below and detailed in McGill et al., 2) the study of the gravity and magnetic field to better constrain the subsurface structure and history of the magnetic field (this abstract), and 3) modeling of the relaxation of this area. Our overall goal is to place constraints on formation models of the dichotomy by constraining lithospheric properties. Initial results for the analysis of the geology, gravity, and magnetic field studies are synthesized in Smrekar et al..

  16. Constraints on the radio-loud/radio-quiet dichotomy from the Fundamental Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garofalo, David; Kim, Matthew I.; Christian, Damian J.

    2014-08-01

    The Fundamental Plane for black hole activity constitutes a tight correlation between jet power, X-ray luminosity, and black hole mass. Under the assumption that a Blandford-Znajek-type mechanism, which relies on black hole spin, contributes non-negligibly to jet production, the sufficiently small scatter in the Fundamental Plane shows that black hole spin differences of |?a| ˜ 1 are not typical among the active galactic nuclei population. If - as it seems - radio-loud and radio-quiet objects are both faithful to the Fundamental Plane, models of black hole accretion in which the radio-loud/radio-quiet dichotomy is based on a spin dichotomy of a˜1/a˜0, respectively, are difficult to reconcile with the observations. We show how recent theoretical work based on differences in accretion flow orientation between retrograde and prograde, accommodates a small scatter in the Fundamental Plane for objects that do have non-negligible differences in black hole spin values. We also show that the dichotomy in spin between the most radio loud and the most radio quiet involves |?a| ? 0. And, finally, we show how the picture that produces compatibility with the Fundamental Plane, also allows one to interpret other otherwise puzzling observations of jets across the mass scale including (1) the recently observed inverse relation between radio and X-rays at higher Eddington ratios in both black hole X-ray binaries as well as active galactic nuclei and (2) the apparent contradiction between jet power and black hole spin observed in X-ray hard and transitory burst states in X-ray binaries.

  17. Star Formation History of the Milky Way Halo Traced by the Oosterhoff Dichotomy Among Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Sohee; Lee, Young-Wook

    2015-06-01

    In our recent investigation of the Oosterhoff dichotomy in the multiple population paradigm, we have suggested that the RR Lyrae variables in the globular clusters (GCs) of Oosterhoff groups I, II, and III are produced mostly by first, second, and third generation stars (G1, G2, and G3), respectively. Here we show, for the first time, that the observed dichotomies in the inner and outer halo GCs can be naturally reproduced when these models are extended to all metallicity regimes, while maintaining reasonable agreements in the horizontal-branch type versus [Fe/H] correlations. In order to achieve this, however, specific star formation histories are required for the inner and outer halos. In the inner halo GCs, the star formation commenced and ceased earlier with a relatively short formation timescale between the subpopulations (?0.5 Gyr), while in the outer halo, the formation of G1 was delayed by ?0.8 Gyr with a more extended timescale between G1 and G2 (?1.4 Gyr). This is consistent with the dual origin of the Milky Way halo. Despite the difference in detail, our models show that the Oosterhoff period groups observed in both outer and inner halo GCs are all manifestations of the “population-shift” effect within the instability strip, for which the origin can be traced back to the two or three discrete episodes of star formation in GCs.

  18. Lineated valley fill at the Martian dichotomy boundary: Nature and history of degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gasselt, S.; Hauber, E.; Neukum, G.

    2010-08-01

    The fretted terrain of the Martian dichotomy boundary is a key region for investigating landforms related to creep of ice and debris as it exhibits landforms comparable to morphologies of periglacial environments. Although features known as lobate debris aprons, lineated valley fills and concentric crater fills have been studied in great detail, basic questions concerned with the composition and the style of emplacement and degradation still remain unanswered. This study focuses on morphologies which are located in a near-circular depression located at the dichotomy escarpment in Deuteronilus Mensae. Analysis of high-resolution image data suggests an early formation of these features as the result of backward thermokarstic degradation of highland terrain. Geologically younger processes caused deposition and degradation of an ice-rich mantling deposit, which ultimately led to formation of creep morphologies that might have even been active in the geologically recent past. Intermixing of both degradational landform units form complex patterns that cannot be explained by a late stage (glacial) process alone. Morphological comparisons of lineated valley fill units with concentric crater fill landforms in Utopia Planitia strongly suggest comparable emplacement and degradation styles of these features. The sequential development consisting of an initial probably widespread thermokarstic degradation followed by later cyclic deposition of volatile material and continual thermokarstic degradation suggests that the development of parts of the Martian fretted terrain is directly related to climatic variations in the planet's history.

  19. The HMA-LMA dichotomy revisited: an electron microscopical survey of 56 sponge species.

    PubMed

    Gloeckner, Volker; Wehrl, Markus; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Gernert, Christine; Schupp, Peter; Pawlik, Joseph R; Lindquist, Niels L; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Wörheide, Gert; Hentschel, Ute

    2014-08-01

    The dichotomy between high microbial abundance (HMA) and low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges has been long recognized. In the present study, 56 sponge species from three geographic regions (greater Caribbean, Mediterranean, Red Sea) were investigated by transmission electron microscopy for the presence of microorganisms in the mesohyl matrix. Additionally, bacterial enumeration by DAPI-counting was performed on a subset of samples. Of the 56 species investigated, 28 were identified as belonging to the HMA and 28 to the LMA category. The sponge orders Agelasida and Verongida consisted exclusively of HMA species, and the Poecilosclerida were composed only of LMA sponges. Other taxa contained both types of microbial associations (e.g., marine Haplosclerida, Homoscleromorpha, Dictyoceratida), and a clear phylogenetic pattern could not be identified. For a few sponge species, an intermediate microbial load was determined, and the microscopy data did not suffice to reliably determine HMA or LMA status. To experimentally determine the HMA or LMA status of a sponge species, we therefore recommend a combination of transmission electron microscopy and 16S rRNA gene sequence data. This study significantly expands previous reports on microbial abundances in sponge tissues and contributes to a better understanding of the HMA-LMA dichotomy in sponge-microbe symbioses. PMID:25216505

  20. Impact Constraints on the Age and Origin of the Crustal Dichotomy on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H. V.

    2004-01-01

    MOLA data have revealed a large population of "Quasi-Circular Depressions" (QCDs) with little or no visible expression in image data. These likely buried impact basins have important implications for the age of the lowland crust, how that compares with original highland crust, and when and how the crustal dichotomy may have formed. The buried lowlands are of Early Noachian age, likely slightly younger than the buried highlands but older than the exposed (visible) highland surface. A depopulation of large visible basins at diameters 800 to 1300 km suggests some global scale event early in martian history, maybe related to the formation of the lowlands andor the development of Tharsis. A suggested early disappearance of the global magnetic field can be placed within a temporal sequence of formation of the very largest impact basins. The global field appears to have disappeared at about the time the lowlands formed. It seems likely the topographic crustal dichotomy was produced very early in martian history by processes which operated very quickly. This and the preservation of large relic impact basins in the north- em hemisphere, which themselves can account for the lowland topography, suggest that large impacts played the major role in the origin Mars fundamental crustal feature.

  1. Alien encounters and the alien\\/human dichotomy in Stanley Kubrick's 2001, a space odyssey and Andrei Tarkovsky's Solaris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Cavedo

    2010-01-01

    The alien encounter has long been a defining and popular subject of science fiction cinema. However, Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) and Andrei Tarkovsky's Solaris (1972) are interrogative, complex, and distinct artistic accomplishments that stand apart from and above the conventional science fiction film. 2001 and Solaris not only represent but complicate the alien\\/human dichotomy; in the end,

  2. The Double Quantum Dot Feline Cousin of Schrödinger's Cat An Experimental Test bed for a Discourse of Quantum Measurement Dichotomies

    E-print Network

    Bandyopadhyay, S

    1999-01-01

    Intriguing dichotomies in quantum measurement theory involving the role of the obersever, objective reality, collapse of wavefunctions and actualization of a measurement outcome are cast into a patholigical gedanken experiment involving a single electron in a double quantum dot system coupled via a weak link.

  3. The Double Quantum Dot Feline Cousin of Schroedinger's Cat: An Experimental Testbed for a Discourse of Quantum Measurement Dichotomies

    E-print Network

    Supriyo Bandyopadhyay

    1999-12-27

    Intriguing dichotomies in quantum measurement theory involving the role of the obersever, objective reality, collapse of wavefunctions and actualization of a measurement outcome are cast into a patholigical gedanken experiment involving a single electron in a double quantum dot system coupled via a weak link.

  4. Channel slope reversal near the Martian dichotomy boundary: Testing tectonic hypotheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefort, Alexandra; Burr, Devon M.; Nimmo, Francis; Jacobsen, Robert E.

    2015-07-01

    Faults along the Martian dichotomy boundary are evidence of tectonic activity, which by analogy with terrestrial tectonism may cause changes in or even reversal of fluvial longitudinal profiles. In the eastern hemisphere between 30° E and 150° E, this tectonic activity has been hypothesized to result from lower crustal flow or from lithospheric flexure, for which loading (e.g., by material deposition) of the northern lowlands is a possible cause (Watters, 2003a; Nimmo, 2005). The topographic (slope) changes resulting from these two different mechanisms are distinct and can provide a means for distinguishing between them, although other processes may complicate interpretations of reversed longitudinal profiles. Two fan-shaped networks of inverted channels are located near 150° E in the Aeolis Dorsa region just north of the dichotomy boundary. Their original flow directions, inferred from planform morphology, suggest flow to the northeast in contrast to their current longitudinal profiles sloping down to the southwest. This contrast indicates slope reversal. We investigate the lower crustal flow and flexure mechanisms for slope reversal by testing three different hypotheses: 1) lower crustal flow, 2) flexure caused by material erosion from the highlands and deposition in the lowlands, and 3) flexure caused by highland erosion and deposition in the lowlands plus deposition of the Medusae Fossae Formation in the lowlands. We test these three hypotheses by comparing the inferred magnitudes of the slope reversals with predicted slope changes from geophysical models for these processes. Taking the possibility of non-tectonic (i.e., collapse) processes into account, our results suggest that, among these three models, the slope reversal is most consistent with the predicted tectonic response to erosion and deposition of highland material in conjunction with deposition of the Medusae Fossae Formation. Contrary to previous findings, our results do not support the mechanism of lateral crustal flow, although they do not rule it out because lower crustal flow and erosion may both have been operating, but on different time scales. The result of this hypothesis-testing provides insight into the evolution of the dichotomy boundary and Martian crust in this location.

  5. Chaotic motion of Europa and Ganymede and the Ganymede-Callisto dichotomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tittemore, William C.

    1990-01-01

    Europa and Ganymede may have undergone an episode of chaotic motion before the establishment of the current Laplace resonance involving the three inner GAlilean satellites. During this episode, the orbital eccentricities of both satellites may have increased dramatically. As a result, the mechanical stresses due to tidal deformation of the satellites' icy lithospheres may have been large enough to result in extensive fracturing, and tidal heating may have melted water ice in the mantles of both satellites, triggering the geological activity that has modified their surfaces since the heavy cratering period. The tidal effects on Ganymede during this episode provide an explanation of the dichotomy between it and Callisto, which have similar bulk properties but very different geological histories.

  6. Large impact basins and the mega-impact origin for the crustal dichotomy on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, H.; Schultz, R. A.

    1988-03-01

    The hypothesis that the crustal dichotomy on Mars is due to a single giant (mega) impact early in Martian history is tested by determining the number of 'missing' basins, the difference between the observed number of large impact basins on Mars and the number expected from a 1/D-squared distribution. If the Borealis Basin was the largest member of a 1/D-squared impact population, a large number of 'missing' basins is expected which is too large to be hidden by the younger surface units. If Chryse is the largest member of a 1/D-squared impact population, the more modest number of 'missing' basins could be confined to areas of Mars that have been resurfaced or reworked by subsequent geologic processes.

  7. Large impact basins and the mega-impact origin for the crustal dichotomy on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert; Schultz, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    The hypothesis that the crustal dichotomy on Mars is due to a single giant (mega) impact early in Martian history is tested by determining the number of 'missing' basins, the difference between the observed number of large impact basins on Mars and the number expected from a 1/D-squared distribution. If the Borealis Basin was the largest member of a 1/D-squared impact population, a large number of 'missing' basins is expected which is too large to be hidden by the younger surface units. If Chryse is the largest member of a 1/D-squared impact population, the more modest number of 'missing' basins could be confined to areas of Mars that have been resurfaced or reworked by subsequent geologic processes.

  8. The Kraepelinian Dichotomy From the Perspective of Prenatal Infectious and Immunologic Insults.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alan S

    2015-07-01

    The "Kraepelinian dichotomy" between schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) has been a dominant force in our thinking on the classification of these mental disorders. Emerging evidence indicates that these 2 disorders overlap significantly with regard to epidemiology, clinical presentation, genetic susceptibility, structural neuroanatomy, and treatment. Prenatal infection and immunologic dysfunction appear to be risk factors for both SZ and BD; some of these gestational exposures are present in both disorders while others may be specific to 1 or the other of the 2 syndromes. In this paper, we shall review prior studies of prenatal infections and immunologic insults in schizophrenia and BD, including exposures which overlap and which differ between these disorders, discuss the potential utility of maternal infection as one strategy toward developing a more biologically meaningful diagnostic classification system, and propose new recommendations for future research aimed at dissecting these 2 disorders from one another at the etiologic level. PMID:25964504

  9. The Crustal Dichotomy Boundary West of Tempe Terra: Speculation on Where it Lies Beneath Alba Patera Based on Mola Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H.; Roark, J.; Sakimoto, S.; McGovern, P.

    1999-01-01

    MOLA gridded data based on profiles collected during the Aerobraking Hiatus and Science Phasing Operations suggest the crustal dichotomy boundary west of Tempe continues beneath Alba volcanics, at least to 105 W at about 50 N. A broad shelf-like region in the Alba units is continuous with a similar region of Tempe in which Hesperian volcanics overlie Noachian cratered terrain. Perspective views show significant changes in the sloping character of the flanks of Alba east and west of 105W, with much more continuous steep topography to the west. We suggest that Alba sits astride the ancient crustal dichotomy boundary, not adjacent to it, and that its eastern half lies on old cratered terrain. If true, this would significantly affect the estimate of Alba volcanics volumes, and might also explain some of the observed asymmetries in the structure and the distribution of faults associated with this immense feature.

  10. Photochemical and thermal spiropyran (SP)-merocyanine (MC) interconversion: a dichotomy in dependence on viscosity.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Jamie; Abdallah, Dalia; Piskorz, Konrad; Wojtyk, James T C; Dust, Julian M; Nunzi, Jean-Michel; Hoz, Shmaryahu; Buncel, Erwin

    2012-10-21

    The current study extends our work with spiropyran-merocyanines (SP-MC) as molecular photoswitches by delving into the effects of viscosity. This has led to the interesting finding of a dichotomy in viscosity dependence. Solutions of SP [6'-nitro-1,3,3-trimethylspiro(indolino-2,2'-benzopyran)] in a wide range of ethylene glycol-methanol (EG-MeOH) media (3.59 to 17.9 M in EG) were irradiated 90 s (365 nm). The absorbance at 90 s of MC (532 nm) formed photolytically varied with solvent. The least viscous medium yielded the highest concentration of MC and yields declined with increasing viscosity. Once irradiation ceased each system achieved thermal equilibrium. Molecular dynamics studies of typical thermal reactions governed by electronic and steric factors show that the transition state is achieved primarily after solvent reorganization has occurred to accommodate the new structure. It follows that in such thermal reactions viscosity may not cause any hindrance to the motion of atoms in molecules because solvent has already rearranged. In contrast, photochemical excitations occur at much higher rates (10(-15) s) than solvent reorganization, i.e. dielectric relaxation (10(-10) to 10(-12) s). The viscosity dependence of photochemical MC formation suggests that a major geometrical change is required for excited SP to be converted to MC. The dichotomy in dependence on viscosity is confirmed by the thermal equilibration of SP and MC. The equilibrium constant for the process increases three-fold (from 0.0535 to 0.158) as the EG content of the medium increases. However, the forward rate constant (SP ? MC) is almost invariant with EG content or viscosity. The process is viscosity independent. The increase in the equilibrium constant with EG concentration is a result of a decline in the reverse rate constant for MC cyclisation to SP. This is attributed to special stabilisation of the MC that increases with increasing EG concentration. The present study, to our knowledge, is the first to dissect viscosity from solvent stabilisation factors in SP-MC systems. Further, the study highlights the fundamental difference between photolytic and thermal processes, providing another avenue of control for these SP-MC photoswitches. PMID:22968657

  11. EXAMINING THE RADIO-LOUD/RADIO-QUIET DICHOTOMY WITH NEW CHANDRA AND VLA OBSERVATIONS OF 13 UGC GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kharb, P.; Axon, D. J.; Robinson, A. [Physics Department, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Capetti, A.; Balmaverde, B. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, Strada Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Chiaberge, M.; Macchetto, D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Grandi, P. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Bologna (Italy); Giovannini, G. [INAF, Istituto di Radioastronomia di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Montez, R., E-mail: kharb@cis.rit.edu [Center for Imaging Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    We present the results from new {approx}15 ks Chandra-ACIS and 4.9 GHz Very Large Array (VLA) observations of 13 galaxies hosting low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This completes the multiwavelength study of a sample of 51 nearby early-type galaxies described in Capetti and Balmaverde and Balmaverde and Capetti. The aim of the three previous papers was to explore the connection between the host galaxies and AGN activity in a radio-selected sample. We detect nuclear X-ray emission in eight sources and radio emission in all but one (viz., UGC 6985). The new VLA observations improve the spatial resolution by a factor of 10: the presence of nuclear radio sources in 12 of the 13 galaxies confirms their AGN nature. As previously indicated, the behavior of the X-ray and radio emission in these sources depends strongly on the form of their optical surface brightness profiles derived from Hubble Space Telescope imaging, i.e., on their classification as 'core', 'power-law', or 'intermediate' galaxies. With more than twice the number of 'power-law' and 'intermediate' galaxies compared to previous work, we confirm with a much higher statistical significance that these galaxies lie well above the radio-X-ray correlation established in Fanaroff-Riley type I radio galaxies and the low-luminosity 'core' galaxies. This result highlights the fact that the 'radio-loud/radio-quiet' dichotomy is a function of the host galaxy's optical surface brightness profile. We present radio-optical-X-ray spectral indices for all 51 sample galaxies. Survival statistics point to significant differences in the radio-to-optical and radio-to-X-ray spectral indices between the 'core' and 'power-law galaxies (Gehan's Generalized Wilcoxon test probability p for the two classes being statistically similar is <10{sup -5}), but not in the optical-to-X-ray spectral indices (p = 0.25). Therefore, the primary difference between the 'core' and 'power-law' galaxies is in their ability to launch powerful radio outflows. This result is consistent with the hypothesis of different formation processes and evolution histories in 'core' and 'power-law' galaxies: major mergers are likely to have created 'core' galaxies, while minor mergers were instrumental in the creation of 'power-law' galaxies.

  12. EMBRYO IMPACTS AND GAS GIANT MERGERS. I. DICHOTOMY OF JUPITER AND SATURN's CORE MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shulin [Department of Astronomy, Kavli Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing (China); Agnor, C.B. [Astronomy Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London (United Kingdom); Lin, D. N. C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz (United States)

    2010-09-10

    Interior to the gaseous envelopes of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, there are high-density cores with masses larger than 10 Earth masses. According to the conventional sequential accretion hypothesis, such massive cores are needed for the onset of efficient accretion of their gaseous envelopes. However, Jupiter's gaseous envelope is more massive and its core may be less massive than those of Saturn. In order to account for this structural diversity and the super-solar metallicity in the envelope of Jupiter and Saturn, we investigate the possibility that they may have either merged with other gas giants or consumed several Earth-mass protoplanetary embryos during or after the rapid accretion of their envelope. In general, impinging sub-Earth-mass planetesimals disintegrate in gas giants' envelopes, deposit heavy elements well outside the cores, and locally suppress the convection. Consequently, their fragments sediment to promote the growth of cores. Through a series of numerical simulations, we show that it is possible for colliding super-Earth-mass embryos to reach the cores of gas giants. Direct parabolic collisions also lead to the coalescence of gas giants and merging of their cores. In these cases, the energy released from the impact leads to vigorous convective motion throughout the envelope and the erosion of the cores. This dichotomy contributes to the observed dispersion in the internal structure and atmospheric composition between Jupiter and Saturn and other gas giant planets and elsewhere.

  13. High-performance modeling acoustic and elastic waves using the Parallel Dichotomy Algorithm

    E-print Network

    Alexey G. Fatyanov; Andrew V. Terekhov

    2010-08-08

    A high-performance parallel algorithm is proposed for modeling the propagation of acoustic and elastic waves in inhomogeneous media. An initial boundary-value problem is replaced by a series of boundary-value problems for a constant elliptic operator and different right-hand sides via the integral Laguerre transform. It is proposed to solve difference equations by the conjugate gradient method for acoustic equations and by the GMRES$(k)$ method for modeling elastic waves. A preconditioning operator was the Laplace operator that is inverted using the variable separation method. The novelty of the proposed algorithm is using the Dichotomy Algorithm (Terekhov, 2010), which was designed for solving a series of tridiagonal systems of linear equations, in the context of the preconditioning operator inversion. Via considering analytical solutions, it is shown that modeling wave processes for long instants of time requires high-resolution meshes. The proposed parallel fine-mesh algorithm enabled to solve real application seismic problems in acceptable time and with high accuracy. By solving model problems, it is demonstrated that the considered parallel algorithm possesses high performance and efficiency over a wide range of the number of processors (from 2 to 8192).

  14. High-performance modeling acoustic and elastic waves using the parallel Dichotomy Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Fatyanov, Alexey G., E-mail: fat@nmsf.sscc.r [Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Terekhov, Andrew V., E-mail: andrew.terekhov@mail.r [Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-01

    A high-performance parallel algorithm is proposed for modeling the propagation of acoustic and elastic waves in inhomogeneous media. An initial boundary-value problem is replaced by a series of boundary-value problems for a constant elliptic operator and different right-hand sides via the integral Laguerre transform. It is proposed to solve difference equations by the conjugate gradient method for acoustic equations and by the GMRES(k) method for modeling elastic waves. A preconditioning operator was the Laplace operator that is inverted using the variable separation method. The novelty of the proposed algorithm is using the Dichotomy Algorithm , which was designed for solving a series of tridiagonal systems of linear equations, in the context of the preconditioning operator inversion. Via considering analytical solutions, it is shown that modeling wave processes for long instants of time requires high-resolution meshes. The proposed parallel fine-mesh algorithm enabled to solve real application seismic problems in acceptable time and with high accuracy. By solving model problems, it is demonstrated that the considered parallel algorithm possesses high performance and efficiency over a wide range of the number of processors (from 2 to 8192).

  15. A validated FISH trisomy index demonstrates the hyperdiploid and nonhyperdiploid dichotomy in MGUS.

    PubMed

    Chng, Wee Joo; Van Wier, Scott A; Ahmann, Gregory J; Winkler, Jerry M; Jalal, Syed M; Bergsagel, Peter Leif; Chesi, Marta; Trendle, Mike C; Oken, Martin M; Blood, Emily; Henderson, Kim; Santana-Dávila, Rafael; Kyle, Robert A; Gertz, Morie A; Lacy, Martha Q; Dispenzieri, Angela; Greipp, Philip R; Fonseca, Rafael

    2005-09-15

    Two major genetic categories of multiple myeloma (MM) exist. Hyperdiploid MM (48 to 74 chromosomes, median 53 chromosomes) is associated with trisomies especially of chromosomes 3, 7, 9, 11, 15, and 19, whereas the nonhyperdiploid (< 48 chromosomes or more than 74 chromosomes) MM is associated with primary translocations such as t(11;14), t(4;14), and t(14;16). Whether this dichotomy exists in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is uncertain due to limitations of current methods in the study of ploidy. This is especially true in MGUS where the number of clonal plasma cells is small. In this study, we derived a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)-based trisomy index from pooled cytogenetic data (karyotype analysis) from 2 large cohorts of patients with MM with abnormal karyotype, and then validated it in 2 independent cohorts of patients who had known ploidy status either by karyotyping or DNA content measurement using flow cytometry. Using the criteria of 2 or more trisomies from a 3-chromosome combination, hyperdiploid myeloma can be detected with high specificity. Applying this index on 28 patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) or MGUS (11 SMM, 17 MGUS) who had normal karyotype, 11 cases of hyperdiploid SMM/MGUS were detected. This percentage (40%) is remarkably similar to the percentage of hyperdiploid MM reported in the literature, suggesting that hyperdiploid MM may originate early during disease evolution. PMID:15920009

  16. Novel Insights on Hantavirus Evolution: The Dichotomy in Evolutionary Pressures Acting on Different Hantavirus Segments

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, Sathish; Upadhyay, Mohita; Ramamurthy, Mageshbabu; Vadivel, Kumaran; Sagadevan, Kalaiselvan; Nandagopal, Balaji; Vivekanandan, Perumal; Sridharan, Gopalan

    2015-01-01

    Background Hantaviruses are important emerging zoonotic pathogens. The current understanding of hantavirus evolution is complicated by the lack of consensus on co-divergence of hantaviruses with their animal hosts. In addition, hantaviruses have long-term associations with their reservoir hosts. Analyzing the relative abundance of dinucleotides may shed new light on hantavirus evolution. We studied the relative abundance of dinucleotides and the evolutionary pressures shaping different hantavirus segments. Methods A total of 118 sequences were analyzed; this includes 51 sequences of the S segment, 43 sequences of the M segment and 23 sequences of the L segment. The relative abundance of dinucleotides, effective codon number (ENC), codon usage biases were analyzed. Standard methods were used to investigate the relative roles of mutational pressure and translational selection on the three hantavirus segments. Results All three segments of hantaviruses are CpG depleted. Mutational pressure is the predominant evolutionary force leading to CpG depletion among hantaviruses. Interestingly, the S segment of hantaviruses is GpU depleted and in contrast to CpG depletion, the depletion of GpU dinucleotides from the S segment is driven by translational selection. Our findings also suggest that mutational pressure is the primary evolutionary pressure acting on the S and the M segments of hantaviruses. While translational selection plays a key role in shaping the evolution of the L segment. Our findings highlight how different evolutionary pressures may contribute disproportionally to the evolution of the three hantavirus segments. These findings provide new insights on the current understanding of hantavirus evolution. Conclusions There is a dichotomy among evolutionary pressures shaping a) the relative abundance of different dinucleotides in hantavirus genomes b) the evolution of the three hantavirus segments. PMID:26193652

  17. STRIKING DICHOTOMY IN OUTCOME OF MYCN-AMPLIFIED NEUROBLASTOMA IN THE CONTEMPORARY ERA

    PubMed Central

    Kushner, Brian H.; Modak, Shakeel; Kramer, Kim; LaQuaglia, Michael P.; Yataghene, Karima; Basu, Ellen M.; Roberts, Stephen S.; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2014-01-01

    Background We exploited a large database to investigate the outcome of high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NB) in the contemporary era. Methods We studied all HR-NB patients <12 years old treated during induction at our hospital in 2000–2011, including 118 patients with MYCN-amplified(+) disease, and 127 patients >18 months old with MYCN-non-amplified(?) stage 4. Results Complete/very good partial response (CR/VGPR) to induction correlated with significantly superior event-free (EFS) (p<0.001) and overall survival (OS) (p<0.001) compared to partial response or less (?PR). MYCN(+) and MYCN(?) patients had similar rates of CR/VGPR to induction (p=0.366); MYCN(+) and MYCN(?) patients in CR/VGPR had similar EFS (p=0.346) and OS (p=0.542). In contrast, only MYCN(+) patients had progressive disease (PD) as response to induction (p<0.001), and early death from PD (<366 days post-diagnosis) was significantly more common (p<0.001) with MYCN(+) disease. Overall, among patients with ?PR, MYCN(+) patients had significantly inferior EFS (p<0.001) and OS (p<0.001) compared to MYCN(?) patients, which accounted for the significantly worse EFS (p=0.008) and OS (p=0.002) of the entire MYCN(+) cohort versus MYCN(?) cohort. Conclusions MYCN(?) HR-NB patients display a broad, continuous spectrum as regards response and outcome, whereas MYCN(+) patients have either an excellent response to induction associated with good long-term outcome, or early PD with poor outcome. This extreme dichotomy in the clinical course of MYCN(+) patients points to underlying biological differences with MYCN(+) NB, the elucidation of which may have far-reaching implications, including improved risk classification at diagnosis and identification of targets for treatment. PMID:24691684

  18. Three-dimensional simulations of the southern polar giant impact hypothesis for the origin of the Martian dichotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, Giovanni; Tackley, Paul J.; Gerya, Taras V.; May, Dave A.; Zhu, Guizhi

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate via numerical simulations that the impact of a ~lunar-sized body with Mars is capable of creating a hemispherical magma ocean that upon cooling and solidification resulted in the formation of the southern highlands and thus the Martian dichotomy. The giant impact may have contributed a significant amount of iron to the Martian core and generated a deep thermal anomaly that led to the onset and development of the volcanism in the southern highlands. Our model predicts several mantle plumes converging to the South Pole from the equatorial regions as well as new plumes forming in the equatorial region and also an absence of significant large-scale volcanism in the northern lowlands. The core heat flux evolution obtained from our numerical models is consistent with the decline of the magnetic field. We argue that such a scenario is more consistent with a range of observations than a northern giant impact (excavating the Borealis basin) for the formation of the Martian dichotomy.

  19. Water in the Lunar Interior and the Apparent KREEP-Mare Dichotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Nekvasil, H.

    2010-12-01

    Recent SIMS analysis of lunar apatite has shown that hydroxyl is structurally bound within lunar apatite from a number of different lunar lithologic types (McCubbin et al., 2010a, 2010b; Boyce et al., 2010; Greenwood et al., 2010). These studies along with previous SIMS analyses of lunar fire fountain glasses (Saal et al., 2008) confirm that there is at least some water in the lunar interior, with abundance estimates in magmatic source regions ranging from 64 ppb to 5 ppm water (McCubbin et al., 2010a). Surprisingly, apatite from rocks with KREEP-rich incompatible trace element signatures are depleted in hydroxyl in comparison to apatite from typical mare basalts. This result is counter-intuitive to the lunar magma ocean model, which predicts that incompatible constituents (e.g., water) would have been concentrated in the last dregs of liquid referred to as “urKREEP”. The mare basalts, which formed by partial melting of earlier LMO cumulates, are typically depleted in these incompatible constituents. Complicating the issue further, chlorine, another incompatible magmatic volatile element in apatite, follows the predicted trend with apatite from KREEP-rich rocks containing significant chlorine concentrations in comparison to apatite from mare basalts (McCubbin et al., 2009). The preceding results imply one of two scenarios 1) Water did not behave incompatibly during LMO crystallization and was preferentially stored within the LMO cumulate minerals 2) A secondary process such as degassing has perturbed the initial volatile contents of the urKREEP liquid or of the secondary magmas that have KREEP-rich incompatible trace element signatures. In regards to the first scenario, the mineral melt partition coefficients for water would need to have exceeded unity at the very low water concentrations of the LMO liquid. This scenario is consistent with the behavior of chlorine, as chlorine is not typically stored in nominally anhydrous phases like pyroxene or olivine, likely due to its large ionic radius. However, there is no empirical or experimental evidence to support the elevated D values for water. Regarding the second scenario, if significant degassing of the urKREEP liquid or KREEP-rich secondary magmas occurred, water would have certainly been lost preferentially to the other volatile constituents in apatite (fluorine and chlorine); however chlorine isotopes analyzed in lunar apatites are highly fractionated (Sharp et al., 2010), indicating degassing of chlorine in the absence of water. Therefore, this scenario only works if degassing on the Moon was a multi-stage and complex process where water and chlorine degassing are decoupled, which is not typically the case for terrestrial systems (Aiuppa et al., 2009, Webster and De Vivo, 2002; Webster et al., 1999). Solving this apparent KREEP-mare dichotomy regarding magmatic volatiles in the lunar interior is the next important step in figuring out the importance, relevance, and implications of water in the lunar interior. Moreover, it will lend insight into the roles of the other magmatic volatiles during the thermal and magmatic evolution of the Moon.

  20. Lineated valley fill and lobate debris apron stratigraphy in Nilosyrtis Mensae, Mars: Evidence for phases of glacial modification of the dichotomy boundary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph S. Levy; James W. Head; David R. Marchant

    2007-01-01

    The Nilosyrtis Mensae region is important among dichotomy boundary fretted terrain outcrops, as it provides evidence of overprinting of ancient landscapes by a suite of glacial features, providing a composite view of the variety of midlatitude glacial modification processes that can occur during recent Martian ice ages. On the basis of a series of criteria developed for the identification of

  1. The Rich Chemistry of Fulvalene Ylides. A Dichotomy in Phosphonium Salt\\/Ylide Hydrolysis and the Development of a New Synthesis of Azulenes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Declan G. Gilheany; Padraig G. Kelly; Catherine A. Mitchell; Brian J. Walker; John F. Malone; Joanne Blaney; Raymond Wilson

    1993-01-01

    A series of fulvalene ylides was synthesised. Only weak aromatic effects were found across the ylide bond. Their chemistry includes the first example of a dichotomy in phosphonium salt\\/ylide hydrolysis, interesting dynamic nmrs of the adducts with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate and a new synthesis of azulenes.

  2. Line-Strength Indices in Bright Spheroidals Evidence for a Stellar Population Dichotomy between Spheroidal and Elliptical Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Gorgas, J; Guzmán, R; Cardiel, N; González, J J

    1997-01-01

    We present new measurements of central line-strength indices (namely Mg2, , and Hbeta and gradients for a sample of 6 bright spheroidal galaxies (Sph's) in the Virgo cluster. Comparison with similar measurements for elliptical galaxies (E's), galactic globular clusters (GGC's), and stellar population models yield the following results: (1) In contrast with bright E's, bright Sph's are consistent with solar abundance [Mg/Fe] ratios; (2) Bright Sph's exhibit metallicities ranging from values typical for metal-rich GGC's to those for E's; (3) Although absolute mean ages are quite model dependent, we find evidence that the stellar populations of some (if not all) Sph's look significantly younger than GGC's; and (4) Mg2 gradients of bright Sph's are significantly shallower than those of E galaxies. We conclude that the dichotomy found in the structural properties of Sph and E galaxies is also observed in their stellar populations. A tentative interpretation in terms of differences in star formation histories is su...

  3. Line-Strength Indices in Bright Spheroidals: Evidence for a Stellar Population Dichotomy between Spheroidal and Elliptical Galaxies

    E-print Network

    J. Gorgas; S. Pedraz; R. Guzman; N. Cardiel; J. J. Gonzalez

    1997-03-05

    We present new measurements of central line-strength indices (namely Mg2, , and Hbeta and gradients for a sample of 6 bright spheroidal galaxies (Sph's) in the Virgo cluster. Comparison with similar measurements for elliptical galaxies (E's), galactic globular clusters (GGC's), and stellar population models yield the following results: (1) In contrast with bright E's, bright Sph's are consistent with solar abundance [Mg/Fe] ratios; (2) Bright Sph's exhibit metallicities ranging from values typical for metal-rich GGC's to those for E's; (3) Although absolute mean ages are quite model dependent, we find evidence that the stellar populations of some (if not all) Sph's look significantly younger than GGC's; and (4) Mg2 gradients of bright Sph's are significantly shallower than those of E galaxies. We conclude that the dichotomy found in the structural properties of Sph and E galaxies is also observed in their stellar populations. A tentative interpretation in terms of differences in star formation histories is suggested.

  4. The cool component and the dichotomy, lateral expansion, and axial rotation of solar X-ray jets

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A. [Heliophysics and Planetary Science Office, ZP13, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Robe, Dominic, E-mail: ron.moore@nasa.gov [Physics Department, Tennessee Tech University, Cookeville, TN 38505 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We present results from a study of 54 polar X-ray jets that were observed in coronal X-ray movies from the X-ray Telescope on Hinode and had simultaneous coverage in movies of the cooler transition region (T ? 10{sup 5} K) taken in the He II 304 Å band of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on Solar Dynamics Observatory. These dual observations verify the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of polar X-ray jets previously found primarily from XRT movies alone. In accord with models of blowout jets and standard jets, the AIA 304 Å movies show a cool (T ? 10{sup 5} K) component in nearly all blowout X-ray jets and in a small minority of standard X-ray jets, obvious lateral expansion in blowout X-ray jets but none in standard X-ray jets, and obvious axial rotation in both blowout X-ray jets and standard X-ray jets. In our sample, the number of turns of axial rotation in the cool-component standard X-ray jets is typical of that in the blowout X-ray jets, suggesting that the closed bipolar magnetic field in the jet base has substantial twist not only in all blowout X-ray jets but also in many standard X-ray jets. We point out that our results for the dichotomy, lateral expansion, and axial rotation of X-ray jets add credence to published speculation that type-II spicules are miniature analogs of X-ray jets, are generated by granule-size emerging bipoles, and thereby carry enough energy to power the corona and solar wind.

  5. On the Origin of the Dichotomy of Early-Type Galaxies: The Role of Dry Mergers and AGN Feedback

    E-print Network

    Xi Kang; Frank C. van den Bosch; Anna Pasquali

    2007-04-06

    Using a semi-analytical model for galaxy formation, combined with a large N-body simulation, we investigate the origin of the dichotomy among early-type galaxies. We find that boxy galaxies originate from mergers with a progenitor mass ratio $n galaxies and satellites. After correcting for the stellar mass dependence, the properties of the last major merger of early-type galaxies are independent of their halo mass. This provides theoretical support for the conjecture of Pasquali et al (2007) that the stellar mass of an early-type galaxy is the main parameter that governs its isophotal shape. We argue that the observed dichotomy of early-type galaxies has a natural explanation within hierarchical structure formation, and does not require AGN feedback. Rather, we argue that it owes to the fact that more massive systems (i) have more massive progenitors, (ii) assemble later, and (iii) have a larger fraction of early-type progenitors. Each of these three trends causes the cold gas mass fraction of the progenitors of more massive early-types to be lower, so that their last major merger was dryer. Finally, our model predicts that (i) less than 10 percent of all early-type galaxies form in major mergers that involve two early-type progenitors, (ii) more than 95 percent of all boxy early-type galaxies with $M_* galaxies, and (iii) about 70 percent of all low mass early-types do not form a supermassive black hole binary at their last major merger. The latter may help to explain why low mass early-types have central cusps, while their massive counterparts have cores.

  6. The Smoking Gun: Remanent Magnetic Anomalies on Mars and the Formation of the Crustal Dichotomy via Giant Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombard, A. J.; Johnson, C. L.

    2011-12-01

    The formation of large-scale crustal magnetic anomalies in the Southern Highlands of Mars is equivocal. Though some are indeed elongated primarily in the east-west direction, initial map projections exacerbated their linear nature, leading to the hypothesis that the anomalies are equivalent to magnetic stripes due to spreading of Earth's sea floor and hence to the proposal of plate tectonics on Mars. This interpretation, however, is inconsistent with Martian geology. For instance, a plate-tectonics model predicts the anomalies should be formed in thin, oceanic crust at low elevation, but instead they are found in the thick crust of the Highlands, not in the thin crust of the Northern Lowlands. Indeed, the formation of this Crustal Dichotomy is also equivocal, with models ranging from a giant impact (or multiple smaller impacts) near either the current north or south poles, to plate tectonics-like processes, to mantle convection, either eroding the crust in the northern hemisphere or thickening the crust in the south. Recently, the idea of a giant impact in the north has been resurrected, with the proposal that the Dichotomy results from the formation of an elliptical basin by a giant impact very early in Martian history. While it may be tempting to suggest that the current, generally demagnetized state of the Northern Lowlands may be related to this impact, this linkage makes implicit assumptions about the timing of dynamo shut-off on Mars, and it neglects other demagnetization mechanisms possibly operating in the Lowlands after such an impact (e.g., later hydrothermal processing). More direct magnetic evidence for the giant impact hypothesis would come if the remanent magnetism in Southern Highlands were relatable in a unique way to the putative impact. Here, we show that the positions of many of the dominant elongated magnetic anomalies on Mars are consistent with the first ring of a multi-ring basin. The best match comes from an ellipse ~2200 km wider than the inferred boundary of the basin. This distance is the square root of 2 minus 1 of the long axis, and root-2 spacing is characteristic of the inward dipping normal faults in multi-ring basins. The constant distance of our predicted ring, as opposed to variable spacing due to the elliptical nature of the basin, is also consistent with the idea that multi-ring basins form from stress release during inward collapse of the transient crater. Because of the size of the basin, the second ring would be found in the antipodal region, where its formation is dubious and where seismic focusing from the impact has been proposed to explain the generally absent magnetic anomalies in the south polar region. The observation that the elongated magnetic anomalies on Mars mark the first ring around a basin both provides an explanation for the formation of many of the anomalies, and supports the hypothesis that the Crustal Dichotomy of Mars is the product of a giant impact that formed an elliptical basin.

  7. Beyond the abstract—concrete dichotomy: Mode of acquisition, concreteness, imageability, familiarity, age of acquisition, context availability, and abstractness norms for a set of 417 Italian words

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pasquale A. Della Rosa; Eleonora Catricalà; Gabriella Vigliocco; Stefano F. Cappa

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the abstract-concrete dichotomy by introducing a new variable: the mode\\u000a of acquisition (MoA) of a concept. MoA refers to the way in which concepts are acquired: through experience, through language,\\u000a or through both. We asked 250 participants to rate 417 words on seven dimensions: age of acquisition, concreteness, familiarity,\\u000a context availability,

  8. DichotomY IdentitY: Euler-Bernoulli Numbers, Sets-Multisets, FD-BE Quantum-Statistics, 1 /f0 - 1 /f1 Power-Spectra, Ellipse-Hyperbola Conic-Sections, Local-Global Extent: ``Category-Semantics''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rota, G.-C.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    Seminal Apostol[Math.Mag.81,3,178(08);Am.Math.Month.115,9,795(08)]-Rota[Intro.Prob. Thy.(95)-p.50-55] DichotomY equivalence-class: set-theory: sets V multisets; closed V open; to Abromowitz-Stegun[Hdbk.Math.Fns.(64)]-ch.23,p.803!]: numbers/polynomials generating-functions: Euler V Bernoulli; to Siegel[Schrodinger Cent.Symp.(87); Symp.Fractals, MRS Fall Mtg.,(1989)-5-papers!] power-spectrum: 1/ f {0}-White V 1/ f {1}-Zipf/Pink (Archimedes) HYPERBOLICITY INEVITABILITY; to analytic-geometry Conic-Sections: Ellipse V (via Parabola) V Hyperbola; to Extent/Scale/Radius: Locality V Globality, Root-Causes/Ultimate-Origins: Dimensionality: odd-Z V (via fractal) V even-Z, to Symmetries/(Noether's-theorem connected)/Conservation-Laws Dichotomy: restored/conservation/convergence=0- V broken/non-conservation/divergence=/=0: with asymptotic-limit antipodes morphisms/ crossovers: Eureka!!!; "FUZZYICS"=''CATEGORYICS''!!! Connection to Kummer(1850) Bernoulli-numbers proof of FLT is via Siegel(CCNY;1964) < (1994)[AMS Joint Mtg. (2002)-Abs.973-60-124] short succinct physics proof: FLT = Least-Action Principle!!!

  9. EVERY BCG WITH A STRONG RADIO AGN HAS AN X-RAY COOL CORE: IS THE COOL CORE-NONCOOL CORE DICHOTOMY TOO SIMPLE?

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, M., E-mail: msun@virginia.ed [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)

    2009-10-20

    The radio active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback in X-ray cool cores has been proposed as a crucial ingredient in the evolution of baryonic structures. However, it has long been known that strong radio AGNs also exist in 'noncool core' clusters, which brings up the question whether an X-ray cool core is always required for the radio feedback. In this work, we present a systematic analysis of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and strong radio AGNs in 152 groups and clusters from the Chandra archive. All 69 BCGs with radio AGN more luminous than 2 x 10{sup 23} W Hz{sup -1} at 1.4 GHz are found to have X-ray cool cores. BCG cool cores can be divided into two classes: the large cool core (LCC) class and the corona class. Small coronae, easily overlooked at z > 0.1, can trigger strong heating episodes in groups and clusters, long before LCCs are formed. Strong radio outbursts triggered by coronae may destroy embryonic LCCs and thus provide another mechanism to prevent the formation of LCCs. However, it is unclear whether coronae are decoupled from the radio feedback cycles as they have to be largely immune to strong radio outbursts. Our sample study also shows the absence of groups with a luminous cool core while hosting a strong radio AGN, which is not observed in clusters. This points to a greater impact of radio heating on low-mass systems than clusters. Few L {sub 1.4GHz} > 10{sup 24} W Hz{sup -1} radio AGNs (approx16%) host an L {sub 0.5-10keV} > 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} X-ray AGN, while above these thresholds, all X-ray AGNs in BCGs are also radio AGNs. As examples of the corona class, we also present detailed analyses of a BCG corona associated with a strong radio AGN (ESO 137-006 in A3627) and one of the faintest coronae known (NGC 4709 in the Centaurus cluster). Our results suggest that the traditional cool core/noncool core dichotomy is too simple. A better alternative is the cool core distribution function, with the enclosed X-ray luminosity or gas mass.

  10. Reactivity in nucleophilic vinylic substitution (S(N)V):S(N)V? versus S(N)V? mechanistic dichotomy.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Israel; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias; Uggerud, Einar

    2013-09-01

    The intrinsic electronic factors that determine reactivity in prototypical identity nucleophilic vinylic substitution reactions, X(-) + ViX ? XVi + X(-) (Vi = vinyl), have been studied by performing quantum chemical calculations (OPBE/6-311++G(d,p)). Of the two limiting reaction types envisaged--the S(N)V? and S(N)V? mechanisms--the former is preferred for most combinations of nucleophiles and substrates, except for the combination of unactivated substrates and poor nucleophiles, as seen for the much studied reactions Cl(-) + CH2CHCl and Br(-) + CH2CHBr. It was found that periodic trends for S(N)V? are essentially the same as those previously reported for nucleophilic aromatic substitution, S(N)Ar, while intrinsic S(N)V? nucleophilicity parallels aliphatic S(N)2. It is therefore concluded that S(N)V reactivity in general can be understood in terms of this mechanistic dichotomy. Furthermore, a few representative reactions were analyzed applying two complementary schemes for energy decomposition analysis. PMID:23915397

  11. 'Looking beyond the male-female dichotomy' - sibling composition and child immunization in India, 1992-2006.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prashant Kumar; Parasuraman, Sulabha

    2014-04-01

    This study examines trends in gender differentials in child immunization beyond the conventional male-female dichotomy, by considering older surviving sibling composition between 1992 and 2006 in India. The present study adopts the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for appraising full immunization among children utilising three rounds of the National Family Health Survey. Twelve combinations of sex composition of surviving older siblings were constructed. Bivariate differentials and pooled multilevel logistic regression analysis were conducted to assess the trends and patterns of child immunization with respect to various categories of older surviving sibling composition. Although child immunization increased between 1992 and 2006, majority of all eligible children did not receive the recommended immunization. Further, full immunization significantly varies by twelve categories of siblings composition during 1992-2006. The probability of full immunization among male children who did not have any older surviving sibling was 60% in 2005-06, while it was just 26% among female children who had 1+ older surviving sister and brother. This study emphasizes the need to integrate sibling issues in child immunization as a prioritized component in the ongoing Universal Immunization Programme, which could be an effective step towards ensuring full immunization coverage among Indian children. PMID:24607676

  12. 3C 57 as an atypical radio-loud quasar: implications for the radio-loud/radio-quiet dichotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulentic, J. W.; Martínez-Carballo, M. A.; Marziani, P.; del Olmo, A.; Stirpe, G. M.; Zamfir, S.; Plauchu-Frayn, I.

    2015-06-01

    Lobe-dominated radio-loud (LD RL) quasars occupy a restricted domain in the 4D Eigenvector 1 (4DE1) parameter space which implies restricted geometry/physics/kinematics for this subclass compared to the radio-quiet (RQ) majority of quasars. We discuss how this restricted domain for the LD RL parent population supports the notion for a RQ-RL dichotomy among type 1 sources. 3C 57 is an atypical RL quasar that shows both uncertain radio morphology and falls in a region of 4DE1 space where RL quasars are rare. We present new radio flux and optical spectroscopic measures designed to verify its atypical optical/UV spectroscopic behaviour and clarify its radio structure. The former data confirms that 3C 57 falls off the 4DE1 quasar `main sequence' with both extreme optical Fe II emission (R_{Fe II} ˜ 1) and a large C IV ?1549 profile blueshift (˜-1500 km s-1). These parameter values are typical of extreme Population A sources which are almost always RQ. New radio measures show no evidence for flux change over a 50+ year time-scale consistent with compact steep-spectrum (or young LD) over core-dominated morphology. In the 4DE1 context where LD RL are usually low L/LEdd quasars, we suggest that 3C 57 is an evolved RL quasar (i.e. large blackhole mass) undergoing a major accretion event leading to a rejuvenation reflected by strong Fe II emission, perhaps indicating significant heavy metal enrichment, high bolometric luminosity for a low-redshift source and resultant unusually high Eddington ratio giving rise to the atypical C IV ?1549.

  13. New Insights on the QSO Radio-Loud/Radio-Quiet Dichotomy: SDSS Spectra in the Context of the 4D Eigenvector1 Parameter Space

    E-print Network

    Sebastian Zamfir; Jack W. Sulentic; Paola Marziani

    2008-04-04

    We search fora dichotomy/bimodality between Radio Loud (RL) and Radio Quiet (RQ) Type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). We examine several samples of SDSS QSOs with high S/N optical spectra and matching FIRST/NVSS radio observations. We use the radio data to identify the weakest RL sources with FRII structure to define a RL/RQ boundary which corresponds to log L$_{1.4GHz}$=31.6 ergs s$^{-1}$ Hz$^{-1}$. We measure properties of broad line H$\\beta$ and FeII emission to define the optical plane of a 4DE1 spectroscopic diagnostic space. The RL quasars occupy a much more restricted domain in this optical plane compared to the RQ sources, which a 2D Kolmogorov-Smirnov test finds to be highly significant. This tells us that the range of BLR kinematics and structure for RL sources is more restricted than for the RQ QSOs, which supports the notion of dichotomy. FRII and CD RL sources also show significant 4DE1 domain differences that likely reflect differences in line of sight orientation (inclined vs. face-on respectively) for these two classes. The possibility of a distinct Radio Intermediate (RI) population between RQ and RL source is disfavored because a 4DE1 diagnostic space comparison shows no difference between RI and RQ sources. We show that searches for dichotomy in radio vs. bolometric luminosity diagrams will yield ambiguous results mainly because in a reasonably complete sample the radio brightest RQ sources will be numerous enough to blur the gap between RQ and RL sources. Within resolution constraints of NVSS and FIRST we find no FRI sources among the broad line quasar population.

  14. Kraepelin's dichotomy is true: contrasting brain dysfunction at the extremes of human growth and maturation. Excitability, the fundamental property of nervous tissue, is affected.

    PubMed

    Saugstad, Letten F

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of Kraepelin's ubiquitous dichotomy varies with standard of living and pubertal age: when one rises, the other declines. The universal similar clinical picture--mortality risk, manic depressive psychosis, episodic dysfunction of brainstem control systems (sleep-wake cycle, food, mood control mechanism)--is caused by abridged pubertal pruning of excitatory synapses, which is treated with anti-epileptics, as opposed to convulsant neuroleptics in dementia praecox, where the clinical variation reflects varying degrees of excessive pruning and deficit in excitability. Localization of cortical breakdown of circuitry, silent spots and persistent dysfunction due to insufficient fill-in mechanisms, determine the clinical picture. This ranges from dementia praecox in late puberty and poor living standards, to cognitive dysfunction (mainly with higher standards of living) with earlier puberty. This variation is the most likely explanation why the acceptance of dementia praecox as a disease entity was complicated. Kraepelin's dichotomy, episodic dysfunction against a clinical deterioration, is at the extremes of brain maturation; the fundamental property of nervous tissue, excitability, is affected. To reduce the risk of psychotic episodes, omega-3 might also be given, as it normalizes excitation at all levels. The neo-Kraepelinian atheoretical quantitative scoring systems have eliminated disease entities and neglected endogeneity in psychiatry. We are back to a pre-Kraepelinian state, without his systematic observations. What is psychiatry without Kraepelin's dichotomy? Mood stability is a fundamental personality trait with a normal distribution; what is considered within or outside normal variation is arbitrary. Given the mood-stabilizing effect of anti-epileptics and omega-3, these will increasingly dominate psychiatric treatment. PMID:17886163

  15. A structure for quasars under the scope of polarization - I. The UV/optical polarization dichotomy of type-1 and type-2 AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, F.; Goosmann, R. W.

    2013-12-01

    We present ultraviolet/optical spectropolarimetric modelling of the phenomenologically based structure for quasars proposed by Elvis (2000). In this first paper of a series, we explore the continuum polarization emerging from radiatively accelerated and bent winds that were vertically launched from the accretion disc in an active galactic nucleus (AGN). We simulate the radiative transfer occurring in Thomson scattering and dust extinction media over a range of morphological parameters and optical depths of the wind. We demonstrate that the wind geometry proposed by Elvis with a phenomenologically derived bending angle of ? = 60° still underestimates the observed optical polarization percentage of type-1 and type-2 AGN and does not yet reproduce the expected dichotomy of the polarization position angle. To recover the observed polarization properties, a smaller bending angle and some amount of dust shielding in the equatorial region should be considered. A two-phase outflow is found to generate both the observed polarization dichotomy and acceptable levels of polarization degree if the wind has a bending angle ? = 45°, and the conical shells have a half-opening angle of 3° < ?? < 10°. The absorbing dust column at the wind base should be in the range 1 < ?dust ? 4 (? being integrated over 2000-8000 Å). Straightforward observational tests from spectropolarimetry and from determining the number density of different AGN types can be performed to further constrain the wind geometry.

  16. Relative Ages of the Highlands, Lowlands, and Transition Zone Along a Portion of the Mars Crustal Dichotomy from Densities of Visible and Buried Impact Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSoto, G. E.; Frey, H. V.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the fundamental age relationships of the different parts of the Mars Crustal Dichotomy is essential to fully understanding the events that shaped the early history and formation of the surface of Mars. A dominant question is what are the true relative ages of the Northern Lowlands and the Southern Highlands? Using MOLA data from the Mars Global Surveyor and Viking visual images, a dataset of both buried and visible crater diameters was created over a nine million sq km study area of a section of the dichotomy boundary stretching from Arabia Terra to Utopia Planitia. Cumulative frequency plots on a log-log scale were used to determine the relative ages for the Highlands, the Lowlands, and the Transition Zone, separately for the visible, the buried and the combined total (visible+ buried) populations. We find the overall Highland crater population in this area is slightly older than the Lowlands, consistent with previous global studies, but the Lowlands and Transition Zone are also very old and formed at roughly the same time. It appears that the formation of the Lowlands in this region formed contemporaneously with a large-scale resurfacing event in the Highlands, perhaps caused by the process responsible for the Lowland formation.

  17. Amazonian Mid-Latitude Regional Glaciation on Mars: Lineated Valley Fill, Lobate Debris Aprons and Plateau Deposits at the Dichotomy Boundary and Implications for Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.; Marchant, D. R.

    2005-12-01

    The dichotomy boundary on Mars represents a distinct geologic, topographic, morphologic and crustal thickness boundary that is characterized by a wide range of modificational processes. The Deuteronilus-Protonilus region represents the area where the boundary reaches its highest latitude. The fretted terrain, located in the vicinity of the dichotomy boundary at these mid-northern latitudes on Mars, displays two enigmatic terrain types: lobate debris aprons (LDA) and lineated valley fill (LVF). The prevailing hypotheses for their origin has been mass wasting from mesa margins and valley walls, with movement periodically assisted by groundwater seepage or atmospheric vapor diffusion into the debris aprons, causing ice-assisted creep. Creep from opposite valley walls and convergence in valley centers has been called on to explain the parallel, along-valley lineations, and little evidence has been found for down-valley movement. New higher-resolution THEMIS and MOC data, however, show compelling evidence for a more integrated picture of LVF formation, suggesting a significant role for regional glaciation. We find evidence for: 1) localized alcoves, sources of hundreds of narrow, lobate concentric-ridged debris flows; 2) bulbous-headed tributary valley systems, which contain converging LVF that feeds into larger valley systems; 3) rounded-sharp-paired intersections of the corners of tributary entrances into main valleys, with sharp corners pointing down-flow; 4) narrow arete-like linear plateau ridge remnants, commonly parallel to LVF; 5) horseshoe-shaped ridges up-valley of topographic obstacles, with deformed and folded upslope LVF; 6) convergence and merging of LVF in the down-valley directions; 7) deformation, distortion and folding of LVF in the vicinity of convergence; 8) distinctive lobe-shaped termini where LVF emerges into the northern lowlands. We interpret these LVF features to have formed as parts of integrated valley glacial systems extending hundreds of km, with accumulation zones on plateaus and in alcoves, converging debris-covered valley glaciers eroding and altering pre-existing valley systems, and ablation zones at distal margins; observed today are sublimation residues preserving morainal remnants of down-valley glacial flow. On the basis of our mapping of the nature and extent of these deposits along the dichotomy boundary, we interpret them to be due to topographically induced adiabatic upwelling of water-rich polar air, cooling and precipitation at the dichotomy boundary to foster snow and ice accumulation, and consequent glacial flow. We are currently considering two end-member options for conditions of origin: 1) emplacement at high obliquity when polar ice deposits are mobilized and transported equatorward, and/or 2) during periods of temporary, outflow channel induced flooding of the adjacent northern lowlands, freezing and sublimation of these deposits, and subsequent atmospheric transport to the dichotomy boundary.

  18. Density-dependent quiescence in glioma invasion: instability in a simple reaction-diffusion model for the migration/proliferation dichotomy.

    PubMed

    Pham, Kara; Chauviere, Arnaud; Hatzikirou, Haralambos; Li, Xiangrong; Byrne, Helen M; Cristini, Vittorio; Lowengrub, John

    2012-01-01

    Gliomas are very aggressive brain tumours, in which tumour cells gain the ability to penetrate the surrounding normal tissue. The invasion mechanisms of this type of tumour remain to be elucidated. Our work is motivated by the migration/proliferation dichotomy (go-or-grow) hypothesis, i.e. the antagonistic migratory and proliferating cellular behaviours in a cell population, which may play a central role in these tumours. In this paper, we formulate a simple go-or-grow model to investigate the dynamics of a population of glioma cells for which the switch from a migratory to a proliferating phenotype (and vice versa) depends on the local cell density. The model consists of two reaction-diffusion equations describing cell migration, proliferation and a phenotypic switch. We use a combination of numerical and analytical techniques to characterize the development of spatio-temporal instabilities and travelling wave solutions generated by our model. We demonstrate that the density-dependent go-or-grow mechanism can produce complex dynamics similar to those associated with tumour heterogeneity and invasion. PMID:22873675

  19. Density-dependent quiescence in glioma invasion: instability in a simple reaction–diffusion model for the migration/proliferation dichotomy

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Kara; Chauviere, Arnaud; Hatzikirou, Haralambos; Li, Xiangrong; Byrne, Helen M.; Cristini, Vittorio; Lowengrub, John

    2013-01-01

    Gliomas are very aggressive brain tumours, in which tumour cells gain the ability to penetrate the surrounding normal tissue. The invasion mechanisms of this type of tumour remain to be elucidated. Our work is motivated by the migration/proliferation dichotomy (go-or-grow) hypothesis, i.e. the antagonistic migratory and proliferating cellular behaviours in a cell population, which may play a central role in these tumours. In this paper, we formulate a simple go-or-grow model to investigate the dynamics of a population of glioma cells for which the switch from a migratory to a proliferating phenotype (and vice versa) depends on the local cell density. The model consists of two reaction–diffusion equations describing cell migration, proliferation and a phenotypic switch. We use a combination of numerical and analytical techniques to characterize the development of spatio-temporal instabilities and travelling wave solutions generated by our model. We demonstrate that the density-dependent go-or-grow mechanism can produce complex dynamics similar to those associated with tumour heterogeneity and invasion. PMID:22873675

  20. Hot versus cold: The dichotomy in spherical accretion of cooling flows onto supermassive black holes in elliptical galaxies, galaxy groups, and clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Fulai [ETH Zürich, Institute for Astronomy, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH- 8093, Zürich (Switzerland); Mathews, William G., E-mail: fulai.guo@phys.ethz.ch [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    Feedback heating from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has been commonly invoked to suppress cooling flows predicted in hot gas in elliptical galaxies, galaxy groups, and clusters. Previous studies have focused on if and how AGN feedback heats the gas but have little paid attention to its triggering mechanism. Using spherically symmetric simulations, we investigate how large-scale cooling flows are accreted by central supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in eight well-observed systems and find an interesting dichotomy. In massive clusters, the gas develops a central cooling catastrophe within about the cooling time (typically ?100-300 Myr), resulting in cold-mode accretion onto SMBHs. However, in our four simulated systems on group and galaxy scales at a low metallicity Z = 0.3 Z {sub ?}, the gas quickly settles into a long-term state that has a cuspy central temperature profile extending to several tens to about 100 pc. At the more realistic solar metallicity, two groups (with R {sub e} ? 4 kpc) still host the long-term, hot-mode accretion. Both accretion modes naturally appear in our idealized calculations where only cooling, gas inflow, and compressional heating are considered. The long-term, hot-mode accretion is maintained by the quickly established closeness between the timescales of these processes, preferably in systems with low gas densities, low gas metallicities, and importantly, compact central galaxies, which result in strong gravitational acceleration and compressional heating at the intermediate radii. Our calculations predict that central cuspy temperature profiles appear more often in smaller systems than galaxy clusters, which instead often host significant cold gas and star formation.

  1. Dichotomies of collectivism and individualism in bioethics: Selective abortion debates and issues of self-determination in Japan and 'the West'.

    PubMed

    Kato, Masae; Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2011-08-01

    This article examines the dichotomies of collectivism and individualism in the debates on the selective abortion of disabled fetuses, which have occurred over the last four decades in Japan. Disagreements in debates on abortion in Japan have often revolved around the concept of self-determination (jiko-kettei). These debates usually focus on whether this 'foreign' concept is appropriate in a Japanese context, as the dominant Japanese discourse stereotypes the Japanese as making decisions in a harmonious manner. Both in public debates and in academic writing on abortion, the idea that the West is devoid of harmonious collectivism is often presented in an uncritical manner. In this article, we argue that the notion of 'self-determination' is borrowed from 'reverse Orientalist' and Occidentalist discourses that portray Westerners as individualistic or ego-centric and the Japanese as collectivist. The concept of 'self-determination' was remolded and projected onto Japanese public and academic debates on abortion. The relevance of this concept lies in the ways in which dichotomous views of 'Japan as harmonious' versus 'the West as individualistic' influence guidelines concerning prenatal testing and its daily practice. By critically analyzing the narratives of policy-makers and academic studies on self-determination and prenatal testing, this study traces these polarizing views back to the processes of national identity formation. These processes underlie political debates and academic work associated with the search for 'Japanese-ness'. This article further demonstrates that policy-makers' criticism of self-determination in prenatal testing derives from gender bias, which is also related to issues of Japanese identity. This article is based on both archival and field research materials collected between 1997 and 2008. We also refer to interviews with medical doctors, policy-makers, journalists, counselors, nurses, participants in various social movements and individuals undergoing prenatal testing, taken from a total of 180 interviews. PMID:21803467

  2. Dichotomy in perceptual learning of interval timing: calibration of mean accuracy and precision differ in specificity and time course.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Hansem; Lee, Sang-Hun

    2013-01-01

    Our brain is inexorably confronted with a dynamic environment in which it has to fine-tune spatiotemporal representations of incoming sensory stimuli and commit to a decision accordingly. Among those representations needing constant calibration is interval timing, which plays a pivotal role in various cognitive and motor tasks. To investigate how perceived time interval is adjusted by experience, we conducted a human psychophysical experiment using an implicit interval-timing task in which observers responded to an invisible bar drifting at a constant speed. We tracked daily changes in distributions of response times for a range of physical time intervals over multiple days of training with two major types of timing performance, mean accuracy and precision. We found a decoupled dynamics of mean accuracy and precision in terms of their time course and specificity of perceptual learning. Mean accuracy showed feedback-driven instantaneous calibration evidenced by a partial transfer around the time interval trained with feedback, while timing precision exhibited a long-term slow improvement with no evident specificity. We found that a Bayesian observer model, in which a subjective time interval is determined jointly by a prior and likelihood function for timing, captures the dissociative temporal dynamics of the two types of timing measures simultaneously. Finally, the model suggested that the width of the prior, not the likelihoods, gradually shrinks over sessions, substantiating the important role of prior knowledge in perceptual learning of interval timing. PMID:23076112

  3. THE ROLE OF CORE MASS IN CONTROLLING EVAPORATION: THE KEPLER RADIUS DISTRIBUTION AND THE KEPLER-36 DENSITY DICHOTOMY

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Eric D.; Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-10-10

    We use models of coupled thermal evolution and photo-evaporative mass loss to understand the formation and evolution of the Kepler-36 system. We show that the large contrast in mean planetary density observed by Carter et al. can be explained as a natural consequence of photo-evaporation from planets that formed with similar initial compositions. However, rather than being due to differences in XUV irradiation between the planets, we find that this contrast is due to the difference in the masses of the planets' rock/iron cores and the impact that this has on mass-loss evolution. We explore in detail how our coupled models depend on irradiation, mass, age, composition, and the efficiency of mass loss. Based on fits to large numbers of coupled evolution and mass-loss runs, we provide analytic fits to understand threshold XUV fluxes for significant atmospheric loss, as a function of core mass and mass-loss efficiency. Finally we discuss these results in the context of recent studies of the radius distribution of Kepler candidates. Using our parameter study, we make testable predictions for the frequency of sub-Neptune-sized planets. We show that 1.8-4.0 R{sub ?} planets should become significantly less common on orbits within 10 days and discuss the possibility of a narrow 'occurrence valley' in the radius-flux distribution. Moreover, we describe how photo-evaporation provides a natural explanation for the recent observations of Ciardi et al. that inner planets are preferentially smaller within the systems.

  4. Radio-loud AGN in the XMM-LSS field. II. A dichotomy in environment and accretion mode?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasse, C.; Best, P. N.; Röttgering, H.; Le Borgne, D.

    2008-11-01

    In recent years, several authors have argued that low luminosity radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) have a different mode of accretion, triggered by different physical mechanisms, than “normal” optically- or X-ray-selected AGN. The latter have a radiatively efficient nucleus (sometimes called “Quasar-mode”), which according to the unified scheme may be obscured from direct view at optical wavelengths, whereas essentially all of the energetic output of the low-luminosity radio-loud AGN is in their radio jets (“Radio-mode”). In this paper, we independently study the internal and environmental properties of the optical hosts of the sample of ˜ 110 radio sources with redshifts 0.1 < z < 1.2 in the XMM-LSS Survey region. We do this by building a comoving-scale-dependent overdensity parameter, based on the photometric redshift probability functions, to constrain the small (~75 kpc) and large (~450 kpc) scale environments of radio sources independently from their stellar mass estimates. Our results support the picture in which the comoving evolution of radio sources in the redshift range ? 1 is caused by two distinct galaxy populations, whose radio source activity is triggered by two different mechanisms. The first population, which dominates at high stellar masses (M > 1010.5-10.8~M?) is that of massive elliptical galaxies, lying in galaxy groups or clusters, where the radio source is triggered by the cooling of the hot gas in their atmosphere. At these stellar masses, we find that the fraction of galaxies that host radio-loud AGN is essentially the same as that in the local Universe. The second population of radio sources have lower stellar masses, lie in large scale underdensities, and show excess mid-IR emission consistent with a hidden radiatively efficient active nucleus. The radio-loud fraction at these masses is increased relative to the local Universe. We argue that galaxy mergers and interactions may play an important role in triggering the AGN activity of this second population.

  5. Jargonial-Obfuscation(J-O) DISambiguation Elimination via Siegel-Baez Cognition Category-Semantics(C-S) in Siegel FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS (Son of TRIZ)/(F=C) Tabular List-Format Dichotomy Truth-Table Matrix Analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Carl Ludwig; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    NOT "philosophy" per se but raising serious salient Arnol'd [Huygens and Barrow, Newton and Hooke(96)] questions begged is Rota empiricism Husserl VS. Frege maths-objects Dichotomy controversy: Hill-Haddock[Husserl or Frege?(00)]as manifestly-demonstrated by Hintikka[B.U.]-Critchey[Derrida Deconstruction Ethics(78)] deconstruction; Altshuler TRIZ; Siegel F=C/C-S; Siegel-Baez(UCR) Cognition C-S = "Category-theory ``+'' Cognitive-Semantics[Wierzbica-Langacker-Lakoff-Nunez[Where Maths Comes From(00)]-Fauconnier-Turner[Blending(98)]-Coulson[Semantic-Leaps (00)

  6. Clinical evaluation of conversational speech fluency in the acute phase of acquired childhood aphasia: does a fluency/nonfluency dichotomy exist?

    PubMed

    van Dongen, H R; Paquier, P F; Creten, W L; van Borsel, J; Catsman-Berrevoets, C E

    2001-05-01

    Traditional neurologic tenets claim that the clinical picture of acquired childhood aphasia is nonfluent irrespective of lesion location. In the past 20 years, however, several case studies have shown that fluent aphasic patterns can be observed in children with acquired childhood aphasia. But the question remains open as to whether the pattern of their speech characteristics is similar to the one described in adult aphasics as studies addressing spontaneous speech fluency characteristics in larger series of children with acquired childhood aphasia are scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate whether an analysis of spontaneous speech fluency as has previously been performed in adult aphasics by other investigators would also yield two distinct groups of aphasic children and, if so, whether the distribution of the different speech characteristics in both groups would reflect the rank order found in adults, that is, whether nonfluent verbal output characteristics would predominate in one group and fluent features in the other. Audiotaped and videotaped recordings of 24 cooperative children with acute acquired childhood aphasia unselected for age, gender, etiology, and aphasia severity ratings were analyzed according to 10 different speech characteristics. A cluster analysis (two-means clustering) was performed to seek the existence of two distinct groups of aphasic children. Results were confirmed, and exact P values were computed with Mann-Whitney U-tests. A two-means clustering created two distinct classes. Mann-Whitney U-tests ranked the speech characteristics according to their discriminating power between clusters. Comparing this rank order with the one previously found in adults revealed a high correlation (Spearman's rank correlation: r = .915, P < .005), thus indicating that the clusters we found were highly similar to the adult clusters. Thus, the use of the speech variables proposed to evaluate adult aphasic spontaneous speech enabled us to demonstrate a fluent/nonfluent dichotomy in a childhood aphasic population as well. This study shows that the traditional views on the uniformity of the clinical picture of acquired childhood aphasia are obsolete. Our findings corroborate data issued from several case reports of fluent acquired childhood aphasia and from the few studies focusing on speech fluency in acquired childhood aphasia, which all point to the existence of an adultlike heterogeneity of childhood aphasic syndromes. Current clinical evidence no longer supports the hypotheses of equipotentiality and progressive lateralization but favors the notion that the anatomic substrate for language representation in the child is similar to that in adults, even in young subjects. PMID:11392519

  7. Directed functional connectivity matures with motor learning in a cortical pattern generator

    PubMed Central

    Day, Nancy F.; Terleski, Kyle L.; Nykamp, Duane Q.

    2013-01-01

    Sequential motor skills may be encoded by feedforward networks that consist of groups of neurons that fire in sequence (Abeles 1991; Long et al. 2010). However, there has been no evidence of an anatomic map of activation sequence in motor control circuits, which would be potentially detectable as directed functional connectivity of coactive neuron groups. The proposed pattern generator for birdsong, the HVC (Long and Fee 2008; Vu et al. 1994), contains axons that are preferentially oriented in the rostrocaudal axis (Nottebohm et al. 1982; Stauffer et al. 2012). We used four-tetrode recordings to assess the activity of ensembles of single neurons along the rostrocaudal HVC axis in anesthetized zebra finches. We found an axial, polarized neural network in which sequential activity is directionally organized along the rostrocaudal axis in adult males, who produce a stereotyped song. Principal neurons fired in rostrocaudal order and with interneurons that were rostral to them, suggesting that groups of excitatory neurons fire at the leading edge of travelling waves of inhibition. Consistent with the synchronization of neurons by caudally travelling waves of inhibition, the activity of interneurons was more coherent in the orthogonal mediolateral axis than in the rostrocaudal axis. If directed functional connectivity within the HVC is important for stereotyped, learned song, then it may be lacking in juveniles, which sing a highly variable song. Indeed, we found little evidence for network directionality in juveniles. These data indicate that a functionally directed network within the HVC matures during sensorimotor learning and may underlie vocal patterning. PMID:23175804

  8. Gauge-Invariant Energy Functional in Relativistic Schroedinger Theory

    E-print Network

    M. Mattes; M. Sorg

    2009-08-29

    The non-invariant energy functional of the preceding paper is improved in order to obtain its gauge-invariant form by strictly taking into account the non-Abelian character of Relativistic Schroedinger Theory (RST). As an application of the results, the dichotomy of positronium with respect to singlet and triplet states is discussed (ortho- and para-positronium). The degeneracy of the ortho- and para-states occurs in RST if (i) the magnetic interactions are neglected (as in the conventional theory) and (ii) the anisotropy of the electric interaction potential is disregarded. In view of such a very crude approximation procedure, the non-relativistic positronium spectrum in RST agrees amazingly well with the conventional predictions.

  9. Zebrin-immunopositive and -immunonegative stripe pairs represent functional units in the pigeon vestibulocerebellum.

    PubMed

    Graham, David J; Wylie, Douglas R

    2012-09-12

    The cerebellum is a site of complex sensorimotor integration and contains up to 80% of the neurons in the brain, yet comparatively little is known about the organization of sensorimotor systems within the cerebellum. It is known that afferent projections and Purkinje cell (PC) response properties are organized into sagittal "zones" in the cerebellum. Moreover, the isoenzyme aldolase C [also known as zebrin II (ZII)] is heterogeneously expressed in cerebellar PCs such that there are sagittal stripes of PCs with high expression (ZII+) interdigitated with stripes of little or no expression (ZII-). In the present study, we show how the ZII stripes in folium IXcd of the vestibulocerebellum in pigeons are related to response properties of PCs. IXcd consists of seven pairs of ZII+/- stripes denoted P1+/- (medial) to P7+/- (lateral). Electrophysiological studies have shown that vestibulocerebellar PCs respond to particular patterns of optic flow resulting from self-motion in three-dimensional space. In our study, we recorded optic flow preferences from PCs in IXcd, marked recording locations with injections of fluorescent tracer, and subsequently immunoreacted coronal sections for ZII. We found that the PCs within a ZII+/- stripe pair all responded best to the same pattern of optic flow. That is, a ZII+/- stripe pair forms a functional unit in the cerebellum. This is the first demonstration that the function of PCs is associated with ZII stripes across the mediolateral extent of an entire folium. PMID:22973000

  10. Relationship between static postural control and the level of functional abilities in children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Pavão, Sílvia L.; Nunes, Gabriela S.; Santos, Adriana N.; Rocha, Nelci A. C. F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postural control deficits can impair functional performance in children with cerebral palsy (CP) in daily living activities. Objective: To verify the relationship between standing static postural control and the functional ability level in children with CP. Method: The postural control of 10 children with CP (gross motor function levels I and II) was evaluated during static standing on a force platform for 30 seconds. The analyzed variables were the anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) displacement of the center of pressure (CoP) and the area and velocity of the CoP oscillation. The functional abilities were evaluated using the mean Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) scores, which evaluated self-care, mobility and social function in the domains of functional abilities and caregiver assistance. Results: Spearman's correlation test found a relationship between postural control and functional abilities. The results showed a strong negative correlation between the variables of ML displacement of CoP, the area and velocity of the CoP oscillation and the PEDI scores in the self-care and caregiver assistance domains. Additionally, a moderate negative correlation was found between the area of the CoP oscillation and the mobility scores in the caregiver assistance domain. We used a significance level of 5% (p <0.05). Conclusions: We observed that children with cerebral palsy with high CoP oscillation values had lower caregiver assistance scores for activities of daily living (ADL) and consequently higher levels of caregiver dependence. These results demonstrate the repercussions of impairments to the body structure and function in terms of the activity levels of children with CP such that postural control impairments in these children lead to higher requirements for caregiver assistance. PMID:25054383

  11. Physics Proofs of Four Millennium-Problems(MP) via CATEGORY-SEMANTICS(C-S)/F=C Aristotle SQUARE-of-OPPOSITION(SoO) DEduction-LOGIC DichotomY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, L.; Siegel, E.

    2010-03-01

    Siegel-Baez C-S/F=C tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics SoO jargonial-obfuscation elimination query WHAT? yields four ``pure''-maths MP ``Feet of Clay!!!'' proofs:(1)Siegel [AMS Natl.Mtg.(2002)-Abs.#:973-03-126:(@CCNY;1964!!!)<<<(1994; Wiles)]Fermat's: Last-Theorem = Least-Action Principle; (2) P=/=NP TRIVIAL simple Euclid geometry/dimensions: NO computer anything;``Feet of Clay!!!''; (3)Birch-Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture; (4)Riemann-hypotheses via combination of: Siegel [AMS Natl.Mtg. (2002)-Abs.#:973-60-124 digits logarithmic-law simple algebraic- inversion to ONLY BEQS with ONLY zero-digit BEC, AND Rayleigh [(1870);graph-theory ``short-CUT method''[Doyle- Snell,Random- Walks & Electric-Networks,MAA(1981)]-``Anderson'' [PRL(1958)] critical-strip 1/2 complex-plane localization!!! SoO DichotomY (``v'') IdentitY: numbers(Euler v Bernoulli) = (Sets v Multisets) = Quantum-Statistics(F.-D. v B.-E.) = Power- Spectra(1/f^(0) v 1/f^(1.000...) = Conic-Sections(Ellipse v (Parabola) v Hyperbola) = Extent(Locality v Globality); Siegel [MRS Fractals Symp.(1989)](so MIScalled)``complexity'' as UTTER- SIMPLICITY (!!!) v COMPLICATEDNESS MEASURE(S) definition.

  12. Hypergeometric Functions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page includes the encyclopedia entries for hypergeometric functions including Hermit, parabolic cylinder and Laguerre functions, Chebyshev and Fibonacci functions, Legendre functions, Gegenbauer and Jacobi functions, confluent hypergeometric functions, hypergeometric functions, Meijer G functions, hypergeometric functions of several variables and angular momentum functions.

  13. Cellular Dichotomy Between Anchorage-Independent Growth Responses to bFGF and TA Reflects Molecular Switch in Commitment to Carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, Katrina M.; Tan, Ruimin; Opresko, Lee K.; Quesenberry, Ryan D.; Bandyopadhyay, Somnath; Chrisler, William B.; Weber, Thomas J.

    2009-11-01

    We have investigated gene expression patterns underlying reversible and irreversible anchorage-independent growth (AIG) phenotypes to identify more sensitive markers of cell transformation for studies directed at interrogating carcinogenesis responses. In JB6 mouse epidermal cells, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induces an unusually efficient and reversible AIG response, relative to 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced AIG which is irreversible. The reversible and irreversible AIG phenotypes are characterized by largely non-overlapping global gene expression profiles. However, a subset of differentially expressed genes were identified as common to reversible and irreversible AIG phenotypes, including genes regulated in a reciprocal fashion. Hepatic leukemia factor (HLF) and D-site albumin promoter-binding protein (DBP) were increased in both bFGF and TPA soft agar colonies and selected for functional validation. Ectopic expression of human HLF and DBP in JB6 cells resulted in a marked increase in TPA- and bFGF-regulated AIG responses. HLF and DBP expression were increased in soft agar colonies arising from JB6 cells exposed to gamma radiation and in a human basal cell carcinoma tumor tissue, relative to paired non-tumor tissue. Subsequent biological network analysis suggests that many of the differentially expressed genes that are common to bFGF- and TPA-dependent AIG are regulated by c-Myc, SP-1 and HNF-4 transcription factors. Collectively, we have identified a potential molecular switch that mediates the transition from reversible to irreversible AIG.

  14. Elliptic Functions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page includes the encyclopedia entries for elliptic functions including Jacobi theta functions, Siegel theta functions, Neville theta functions, Weierstrass functions and inverses, Weierstrass utility functions, Jacobi functions and inverses, modular functions and inverses, arithmetic geometric mean and elliptic exponential and logarithmic functions.

  15. Elementary Functions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page includes the encyclopedia entries for power functions (square root and power), exponential functions, trigonometric functions (e.g. sin, cos), inverse trigonometric functions (e.g. arcSin, arcCos), hyperbolic functions (e.g. sinh, cosh), inverse hyperbolic functions (e.g. arcSinh, arcCosh), product logarightms, roots, maximum and minimum and cardinal functions.

  16. Pedagogy vs. Andragogy: A False Dichotomy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geraldine Holmes; Michele Abington-Cooper

    This article is not pointedly aimed at technology educa- tion, but it addresses an issue that is becoming increas- ingly germane to educators working with nontraditional students—a larger segment of the people we teach. CI

  17. Coarse-fine dichotomies in human stereopsis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurie M. Wilcox; Robert S. Allison

    2009-01-01

    There is a long history of research into depth percepts from very large disparities, beyond the fusion limit. Such diplopic stimuli have repeatedly been shown to provide reliable depth percepts. A number of researchers have pointed to differences between the processing of small and large disparities, arguing that they are subserved by distinct neural mechanisms. Other studies have pointed to

  18. Cytotoxic Ribonucleases: The Dichotomy of Coulombic Forces†

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, R. Jeremy; Chao, Tzu-Yuan; Lavis, Luke D.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2010-01-01

    Cells tightly regulate their contents. Still, nonspecific Coulombic interactions between cationic molecules and anionic membrane components can lead to adventitious endocytosis. Here, we characterize this process in a natural system. To do so, we create variants of human pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase 1) that differ in net molecular charge. By conjugating a small-molecule latent fluorophore to these variants and using flow cytometry, we are able to determine the kinetic mechanism for RNase 1 internalization into live human cells. We find that internalization increases with solution concentration and is not saturable. Internalization also increases with time to a steady-state level, which varies linearly with molecular charge. In contrast, the rate constant for internalization (t1/2 = 2 h) is independent of charge. We conclude that internalization involves an extracellular equilibrium complex between the cationic proteins and abundant anionic cell-surface molecules, followed by rate-limiting internalization. The enhanced internalization of more cationic variants of RNase 1 is, however, countered by their increased affinity for the cytosolic ribonuclease inhibitor protein, which is anionic. Thus, Coulombic forces mediate extracellular and intracellular equilibria in a dichotomous manner that both endangers cells and defends them from the potentially lethal enzymatic activity of ribonucleases. PMID:17705507

  19. Dawn: Testing Paradigms by Exploring Dichotomies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T. Russell; B. E. Schmidt; J. Wise; J. Ristvey; C. A. Raymond

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Dawn mission represents a series of ``firsts'' for major NASA missions. Dawn is the first major NASA science mission to use ion propulsion engines, allowing Dawn to be the first mission to orbit one target and then leave its gravity well to explore a second destination. Dawn is the first science mission to the main asteroid belt, reaching protoplanet

  20. Optimal isolation of functional Foxp3+ induced regulatory T cells using DEREG mice.

    PubMed

    Baru, Abdul Mannan; Untucht, Christopher; Ganesh, Venkateswaran; Hesse, Christina; Mayer, Christian T; Sparwasser, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Foxp3 reporter mice including DEREG (DEpletion of REGulatory T cells) mice have greatly helped in exploring the biology of Foxp3(+) Tregs. DEREG mice express a DTR-eGFP fusion protein under the control of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-encoded Foxp3 promoter, allowing the viable isolation and inducible depletion of Foxp3(+) Tregs. Adaptive Tregs differentiated in vitro to express Foxp3 (iTregs) are gaining high interest as potential therapeutics for inflammatory conditions such as autoimmunity, allergy and transplant rejection. However, selective isolation of Foxp3(+) iTregs with a stable phenotype still remains to be a problem, especially in the human setting. While screening for culture conditions to generate stable CD4(+)Foxp3(+) iTregs from DEREG mice, with maximum suppressive activity, we observed an unexpected dichotomy of eGFP and Foxp3 expression which is not seen in ex vivo isolated cells from DEREG mice. Further characterization of eGFP(+)Foxp3(-) cells revealed relatively lower CD25 expression and a lack of suppressive activity in vitro. Similarly, eGFP(-) cells isolated from the same cultures were not suppressive despite of a broad CD25 expression reflecting mere T cell activation. In contrast, eGFP(+)Foxp3(+) iTregs exhibited potent suppressive activity comparable to that of natural eGFP(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs, emphasizing the importance of isolating Foxp3 expressing iTregs. Interestingly, the use of plate-bound anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 or Flt3L-driven BMDC resulted in considerable resolution of the observed dichotomy. In summary, we defined culture conditions for efficient generation of eGFP(+)Foxp3(+) iTregs by use of DEREG mice. Isolation of functional Foxp3(+) iTregs using DEREG mice can also be achieved under sub-optimal conditions based on the magnitude of surface CD25 expression, in synergy with transgene encoded eGFP. Besides, the reported phenomenon may be of general interest for exploring Foxp3 gene regulation, given that Foxp3 and eGFP expression are driven from distinct Foxp3 loci and because this dichotomy preferentially occurs only under defined in vitro conditions. PMID:22957107

  1. Steady-state probability density function of the phase error for a DPLL with an integrate-and-dump device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M.; Mileant, A.

    1986-01-01

    The steady-state behavior of a particular type of digital phase-locked loop (DPLL) with an integrate-and-dump circuit following the phase detector is characterized in terms of the probability density function (pdf) of the phase error in the loop. Although the loop is entirely digital from an implementation standpoint, it operates at two extremely different sampling rates. In particular, the combination of a phase detector and an integrate-and-dump circuit operates at a very high rate whereas the loop update rate is very slow by comparison. Because of this dichotomy, the loop can be analyzed by hybrid analog/digital (s/z domain) techniques. The loop is modeled in such a general fashion that previous analyses of the Real-Time Combiner (RTC), Subcarrier Demodulator Assembly (SDA), and Symbol Synchronization Assembly (SSA) fall out as special cases.

  2. Inverse Functions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Smith

    Using Mathcad, Maple, Mathmatica, or MatLab, learner should be able to review concepts of inverse functions, and to use those concepts, together with functions defined by integrals, to develop inverse trigonometric functions.

  3. Functional signatures

    E-print Network

    Ivan, Ioana (Ioana Elisabeta)

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, we introduce the notion of functional signatures. In a functional signature scheme, in addition to a master signing key that can be used to sign any message, there are signing keys for a function f, which ...

  4. Approximating Functions with Exponential Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of approximating a function with a linear combination of exponential functions of the form e[superscript x], e[superscript 2x], ... is considered as a parallel development to the notion of Taylor polynomials which approximate a function with a linear combination of power function terms. The sinusoidal functions sin "x" and cos "x"…

  5. Instrumented Functional Reach Test Differentiates Individuals at High Risk for Parkinson’s Disease from Controls

    PubMed Central

    Hasmann, Sandra E.; Berg, Daniela; Hobert, Markus A.; Weiss, David; Lindemann, Ulrich; Streffer, Johannes; Liepelt-Scarfone, Inga; Maetzler, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The functional reach (FR) test as a complex measure of balance including limits of stability has been proven to differentiate between patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and controls (CO). Recently, it has been shown that the instrumentation of the FR (iFR) with a wearable sensor may increase this diagnostic accuracy. This cross-sectional study aimed at investigating whether the iFR has the potential to differentiate individuals with high risk for PD (HRPD) from CO, as the delineation of such individuals would allow for, e.g., early neuromodulation. Thirteen PD patients, 13 CO, and 31 HRPD were investigated. HRPD was defined by presence of an enlarged area of hyperechogenicity in the mesencephalon on transcranial sonography and either one motor sign or two risk and prodromal markers of PD. All participants were asked to reach with their right arm forward as far as possible and hold this position for 10?s. During this period, sway parameters were assessed with an accelerometer (Dynaport, McRoberts) worn at the lower back. Extracted parameters that differed significantly between PD patients and CO in our cohort [FR distance (shorter in PD), anterior–posterior and mediolateral acceleration (both lower in PD)] as well as JERK, which has been shown to differentiate HRPD from CO and PD in a previous study, were included in a model, which was then used to differentiate HRPD from CO. The model yielded an area under the curve of 0.77, with a specificity of 85%, and a sensitivity of 74%. These results suggest that the iFR can contribute to an assessment panel focusing on the definition of HRPD individuals. PMID:25386137

  6. Instrumented functional reach test differentiates individuals at high risk for Parkinson's disease from controls.

    PubMed

    Hasmann, Sandra E; Berg, Daniela; Hobert, Markus A; Weiss, David; Lindemann, Ulrich; Streffer, Johannes; Liepelt-Scarfone, Inga; Maetzler, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The functional reach (FR) test as a complex measure of balance including limits of stability has been proven to differentiate between patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and controls (CO). Recently, it has been shown that the instrumentation of the FR (iFR) with a wearable sensor may increase this diagnostic accuracy. This cross-sectional study aimed at investigating whether the iFR has the potential to differentiate individuals with high risk for PD (HRPD) from CO, as the delineation of such individuals would allow for, e.g., early neuromodulation. Thirteen PD patients, 13 CO, and 31 HRPD were investigated. HRPD was defined by presence of an enlarged area of hyperechogenicity in the mesencephalon on transcranial sonography and either one motor sign or two risk and prodromal markers of PD. All participants were asked to reach with their right arm forward as far as possible and hold this position for 10?s. During this period, sway parameters were assessed with an accelerometer (Dynaport, McRoberts) worn at the lower back. Extracted parameters that differed significantly between PD patients and CO in our cohort [FR distance (shorter in PD), anterior-posterior and mediolateral acceleration (both lower in PD)] as well as JERK, which has been shown to differentiate HRPD from CO and PD in a previous study, were included in a model, which was then used to differentiate HRPD from CO. The model yielded an area under the curve of 0.77, with a specificity of 85%, and a sensitivity of 74%. These results suggest that the iFR can contribute to an assessment panel focusing on the definition of HRPD individuals. PMID:25386137

  7. Mass Functions Density Functions Random Variables and Distribution Functions

    E-print Network

    Watkins, Joseph C.

    Mass Functions Density Functions Topic 7 Random Variables and Distribution Functions Mass Functions and Density Functions 1 / 9 #12;Mass Functions Density Functions Outline Mass Functions Density Functions 2 / 9 #12;Mass Functions Density Functions Mass Functions The (probability) mass function of a discrete

  8. Social dichotomy versus gender dichotomy: a case report of gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kuldip; Gupta, Manushree

    2012-04-01

    Gender identity disorder is one of the most controversial diagnoses of DSM-IV and almost incomparable in the complexity of its social, ethical and political considerations to any other diagnosis. We present a case of 30 year-old male who presented with complaints of suggestive of depressive disorder with a recent suicidal attempt. Careful history taking reveals underlying conflicts with prominent gender dysphoria and social complexities. The patient is managed primarily by pharmacotherapy and harm reduction model. Our case reflects a unique coping strategy against the present sociocultural values and ambiguity of law in this part of the world. PMID:23162201

  9. Stability Functions

    E-print Network

    Burns, Daniel

    In this article we discuss the role of stability functions in geometric invariant theory and apply stability function techniques to various types of asymptotic problems in the Kahler geometry of GIT quotients. We discuss ...

  10. Integer Functions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page includes the encyclopedia entries for integer functions like rounding and congruence (e.g. floor, ceiling), GCD and LCM, Fibonaci and Lucas numbers, Euler and Bernoulli numbers, Stirling and Bell numbers, partitions and Tensorial functions.

  11. Transfer Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Stephen Pollock

    2011-01-01

    In statistical time-series analysis, signal processing and control engineering, a transfer function is a mathematical relationship between a numerical input to a dynamic system and the resulting output. The theory of transfer functions describes how the input\\/output relationship is affected by the structure of the transfer function. The theory of the transfer functions of linear time-invariant (LTI) systems has been

  12. Inverse Functions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Moore, Lang

    Created by Lang Moore and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, this is a module to review concepts of inverse functions, and to use those concepts, together with functions defined by integrals, to develop inverse trigonometric functions. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

  13. Function Flyer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students input a function where the constants, coefficients, and exponents can be adjusted by slider bars. This activity allows students to explore graphs of functions and how adjusting the numbers in the function affect the graph. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

  14. Dark-Adaptation Functions in Molecularly Confirmed Achromatopsia and the Implications for Assessment in Retinal Therapy Trials

    PubMed Central

    Aboshiha, Jonathan; Luong, Vy; Cowing, Jill; Dubis, Adam M.; Bainbridge, James W.; Ali, Robin R.; Webster, Andrew R.; Moore, Anthony T.; Fitzke, Frederick W.; Michaelides, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the dark-adaptation (DA) functions in subjects with molecularly proven achromatopsia (ACHM) using refined testing conditions with a view to guiding assessment in forthcoming gene therapy trials. Methods. The DA functions of nine subjects with ACHM were measured and compared with those of normal observers. The size and retinal location of the stimuli used to measure DA sensitivities were varied in four distinct testing condition sets, and the effect of altering these parameters assessed. Results. In three of the four testing condition sets, achromats had significantly higher mean final thresholds than normal observers, whereas in the fourth condition set they did not. A larger, more central stimulus revealed the greatest difference between the final DA thresholds of achromat and normal subjects, and also demonstrated the slowest rate of recovery among the achromat group. Conclusions. In this, the largest study of DA functions in molecularly proven ACHM to date, we have identified optimal testing conditions that accentuate the relative difference between achromats and normal observers. These findings can help optimize DA testing in future trials, as well as help resolve the dichotomy in the literature regarding the normality or otherwise of DA functions in ACHM. Furthermore, the shorter testing time and less intense adaptation light used in these experiments may prove advantageous for more readily and reliably probing scotopic function in retinal disease, and be particularly valuable in the frequent post therapeutic assessments required in the context of the marked photophobia in ACHM. PMID:25168900

  15. Function Machine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    This Java applet allows learners to explore simple linear functions. Students determine the algebraic form of a linear equation by entering inputs into the machine and by looking for patterns in the outputs. The function rules available are: integers from -10 to 10 are either added to, subtracted from, or multiplied by the input x to yield the output y.

  16. Functions Grapher

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kaskosz, Barbara

    Discussing functions can be a tricky endeavor, but having a handy interactive way to talk about functions can relieve a great deal of stress. As part of the Mathematical Sciences Digital Library, this Functions Grapher application is designed to let users enter one or two functions. After doing so, users can trace along either one with coordinates shown dynamically changing at all times. The application was created by Professor Barbara Kaskosz of the University of Rhode Island, and it can be used by students in algebra, pre-calculus, or calculus courses. Of course, educators may wish to use it in their classrooms for illustrative purposes and they can also pass along to students who might find the very idea of functions and their operation a bit puzzling.

  17. MR-guided focused ultrasound technique in functional neurosurgery: targeting accuracy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to describe targeting accuracy in functional neurosurgery using incisionless transcranial magnetic resonance (MR)-guided focused ultrasound technology. Methods MR examinations were performed before and 2 days after the ultrasound functional neurosurgical treatment to visualize the targets on T2-weighted images and determine their coordinates. Thirty consecutive targets were reconstructed: 18 were in the central lateral nucleus of the medial thalamus (central lateral thalamotomies against neurogenic pain), 1 in the centrum medianum thalamic nucleus (centrum medianum thalamotomy against essential tremor), 10 on the pallido-thalamic tract (pallido-thalamic tractotomies against Parkinson's disease), and 1 on the cerebello-thalamic tract (cerebello-thalamic tractotomy against essential tremor). We describe a method for reconstruction of the lesion coordinates on post-treatment MR images, which were compared with the desired atlas target coordinates. We also calculated the accuracy of the intra-operative target placement, thus allowing to determine the global, planning, and device accuracies. We also estimated the target lesion volume. Results We found mean absolute global targeting accuracies of 0.44 mm for the medio-lateral dimension (standard deviation 0.35 mm), 0.38 mm for the antero-posterior dimension (standard deviation 0.33 mm), and 0.66 mm for the dorso-ventral dimension (standard deviation 0.37 mm). Out of the 90 measured coordinates, 83 (92.2%) were inside the millimeter domain. The mean three-dimensional (3D) global accuracy was 0.99 mm (standard deviation 0.39 mm). The mean target volumes, reconstructed from surface measurements on 3D T1 series, were 68.5 mm3 (standard deviation 39.7 mm3), and 68.9 mm3 (standard deviation 40 mm3) using an ellipsoidal approximation. Conclusion This study demonstrates a high accuracy of the MR-guided focused ultrasound technique. This high accuracy is due not only to the device qualities but also to the possibility for the operator to perform on-going real-time monitoring of the lesioning process. A precise method for determination of targeting accuracy is an essential component and basic requirement of the functional neurosurgical activity, allowing an on-going control of the performed therapeutic work indispensable for any target efficiency analysis and the maintenance of a low risk profile. PMID:24761224

  18. Functional quantization

    E-print Network

    Misra, Vinith

    2008-01-01

    Data is rarely obtained for its own sake; oftentimes, it is a function of the data that we care about. Traditional data compression and quantization techniques, designed to recreate or approximate the data itself, gloss ...

  19. Turning Semicircular Canal Function on Its Head: Dinosaurs and a Novel Vestibular Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Georgi, Justin A.; Sipla, Justin S.; Forster, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations have correlated vestibular function to locomotion in vertebrates by scaling semicircular duct radius of curvature to body mass. However, this method fails to discriminate bipedal from quadrupedal non-avian dinosaurs. Because they exhibit a broad range of relative head sizes, we use dinosaurs to test the hypothesis that semicircular ducts scale more closely with head size. Comparing the area enclosed by each semicircular canal to estimated body mass and to two different measures of head size, skull length and estimated head mass, reveals significant patterns that corroborate a connection between physical parameters of the head and semicircular canal morphology. Head mass more strongly correlates with anterior semicircular canal size than does body mass and statistically separates bipedal from quadrupedal taxa, with bipeds exhibiting relatively larger canals. This morphologic dichotomy likely reflects adaptations of the vestibular system to stability demands associated with terrestrial locomotion on two, versus four, feet. This new method has implications for reinterpreting previous studies and informing future studies on the connection between locomotion type and vestibular function. PMID:23516495

  20. Functional diarrhea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. G. Farthing; Cranmer Terrace

    2005-01-01

    Functional diarrhea occurs as part of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and as an isolated symptom as functional (painless)\\u000a diarrhea. Progress has been made in defining these disorders and in identifying new mechanisms involved in symptom production.\\u000a A strong link exists between intestinal infection and IBS, as is the role of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). The importance of\\u000a persistent subclinical inflammation is

  1. Determine Optimal Stimulus Amplitude for Using Vestibular Stochastic Stimulation to Improve Balance Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, R.; Kofman, I.; DeDios, Y. E.; Jeevarajan, J.; Stepanyan, V.; Nair, M.; Congdon, S.; Fregia, M.; Cohen, H.; Bloomberg, J.J.; Mulavara, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Sensorimotor changes such as postural and gait instabilities can affect the functional performance of astronauts when they transition across different gravity environments. We are developing a method, based on stochastic resonance (SR), to enhance information transfer by applying non-zero levels of external noise on the vestibular system (vestibular stochastic resonance, VSR). Our previous work has shown the advantageous effects of VSR in a balance task of standing on an unstable surface [1]. This technique to improve detection of vestibular signals uses a stimulus delivery system that provides imperceptibly low levels of white noise-based binaural bipolar electrical stimulation of the vestibular system. The goal of this project is to determine optimal levels of stimulation for SR applications by using a defined vestibular threshold of motion detection. A series of experiments were carried out to determine a robust paradigm to identify a vestibular threshold that can then be used to recommend optimal stimulation levels for sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training applications customized to each crewmember. The amplitude of stimulation to be used in the VSR application has varied across studies in the literature such as 60% of nociceptive stimulus thresholds [2]. We compared subjects' perceptual threshold with that obtained from two measures of body sway. Each test session was 463s long and consisted of several 15s long sinusoidal stimuli, at different current amplitudes (0-2 mA), interspersed with 20-20.5s periods of no stimulation. Subjects sat on a chair with their eyes closed and had to report their perception of motion through a joystick. A force plate underneath the chair recorded medio-lateral shear forces and roll moments. Comparison of threshold of motion detection obtained from joystick data versus body sway suggests that perceptual thresholds were significantly lower. In the balance task, subjects stood on an unstable surface and had to maintain balance, and the stimulation was administered from 20-400% of subjects' vestibular threshold. Optimal stimulation amplitude was determined at which the balance performance was best compared to control (no stimulation). Preliminary results show that, in general, using stimulation amplitudes at 40-60% of perceptual motion threshold significantly improved the balance performance. We hypothesize that VSR stimulation will act synergistically with SA training to improve adaptability by increasing utilization of vestibular information and therefore will help us to optimize and personalize a SA countermeasure prescription. This combination may help to significantly reduce the number of days required to recover functional performance to preflight levels after long-duration spaceflight.

  2. Structural and functional characteristics of commissural neurons in the superior colliculus of the hamster.

    PubMed

    Rhoades, R W; Mooney, R D; Szczepanik, A M; Klein, B G

    1986-11-01

    Intracellular recording and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) injection techniques were employed to delineate the structural and functional properties of superior collicular (SC) neurons in the hamster that were antidromically activated by electrical stimulation of the contralateral tectum. A total of 39 such cells were completely characterized, injected, and recovered. In ten of these, the axonal filling allowed us to reconstruct at least a portion of the terminal arborization in the SC contralateral to the labelled cell. Two of the recovered neurons were located in the stratum griseum superficiale (SGS), three were in the stratum opticum (SO), ten were in the stratum griseum intermediale (SGI), 11 were in the stratum album intermedium (SAI), 11 were in the stratum griseum profundum (SGP) and two were located in the stratum album profundum (SAP). The recovered cells were highly varied in both their morphological and their physiological characteristics. Somal areas ranged between 74 microns2 and 364 microns2, and the sample of recovered neurons included horizontal cells, narrow field vertical cells, and a variety of other multipolar neurons. Over one-third (38.5%) of the recovered cells were unresponsive, 2.6% were exclusively visual, 33.3% responded only to innocuous cutaneous stimuli, 10.2% were bimodal, 7.7% were specifically nociceptive, and 7.7% had complex (Rhoades, Mooney, and Jacquin: J. Neurosci. 3:1342-1354, '83) somatosensory receptive fields. We observed no clear-cut correlations between the structural and functional characteristics of these neurons. The conduction latencies of the commissural SC neurons ranged between 0.8 and 14.0 ms. The most rapidly conducting cells were located in the SGP and SAP. Conduction latency had a significant negative correlation with soma area. Labelled axons, in many cases, had at least one terminal arbor in a portion of the SC that was mirror symmetric with the location of the cell from which it originated. In several cases, however, commissural axons gave off a number of collaterals across the mediolateral extent of the tectum. commissural axonal terminations were visible only in the laminae ventral to the SO. Several commissural SC neurons also had extensive ipsilateral axon collaterals. Both the ipsilateral and commissural axon branches of these cells gave off en passant and terminal swellings. PMID:3793990

  3. Executive function.

    PubMed

    Talpos, John; Shoaib, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Components of human executive function, like rule generation and selection in response to stimuli (attention set-shifting) or overcoming a habit (reversal learning), can be reliably modelled in rodents. The rodent paradigms are based upon tasks that assess cognitive flexibility in clinical populations and have been effective in distinguishing the neurobiological substrates and the underlying neurotransmitter systems relevant to executive function. A review of the literature on the attentional set-shifting task highlights a prominent role for the medial region of the prefrontal cortex in the ability to adapt to a new rule (extradimensional shift) while the orbitofrontal cortex has been associated with the reversal learning component of the task. In other paradigms specifically developed to examine reversal learning in rodents, the orbitofrontal cortex also plays a prominent role. Modulation of dopamine, serotonin, and glutamatergic receptors can disrupt executive function, a feature commonly exploited to develop concepts underlying psychiatric disorders. While these paradigms do have excellent translational construct validity, they have been less effective as predictive preclinical models for cognitive enhancers, especially for cognition in health subjects. Accordingly, a more diverse battery of tasks may be necessary to model normal human executive function in the rodent for drug development. PMID:25977083

  4. The blood–brain barrier and immune function and dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William A. Banks; Michelle A. Erickson

    2010-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is the monocellular interface that divides the peripheral circulation from direct contact with the central nervous system (CNS). This interface consists of several parallel barriers that include most notably the capillary bed of the CNS and the choroid plexus. These barriers at one level create the dichotomy between the circulating factors of the immune system and

  5. GeoChip-based insights into the microbial functional gene repertoire of marine sponges (high microbial abundance, low microbial abundance) and seawater.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Kristina; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Brümmer, Franz; Cannistraci, Carlo V; Ravasi, Timothy; Hentschel, Ute

    2014-12-01

    The GeoChip 4.2 gene array was employed to interrogate the microbial functional gene repertoire of sponges and seawater collected from the Red Sea and the Mediterranean. Complementary amplicon sequencing confirmed the microbial community composition characteristic of high microbial abundance (HMA) and low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges. By use of GeoChip, altogether 20,273 probes encoding for 627 functional genes and representing 16 gene categories were identified. Minimum curvilinear embedding analyses revealed a clear separation between the samples. The HMA/LMA dichotomy was stronger than any possible geographic pattern, which is shown here for the first time on the level of functional genes. However, upon inspection of individual genes, very few specific differences were discernible. Differences were related to microbial ammonia oxidation, ammonification, and archaeal autotrophic carbon fixation (higher gene abundance in sponges over seawater) as well as denitrification and radiation-stress-related genes (lower gene abundance in sponges over seawater). Except for few documented specific differences the functional gene repertoire between the different sources appeared largely similar. This study expands previous reports in that functional gene convergence is not only reported between HMA and LMA sponges but also between sponges and seawater. PMID:25318900

  6. Function flyer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shodor Education Foundation

    2004-01-01

    Teachers of all algebra levels will find this applet useful when helping students understand and visualize the relationship between an equation and its graph. Assigning the applet with exploration questions to small groups of students would be an excellent introduction to how the applet works and good preparation for more in-depth exploration of issues related to whatever types of functions the class is studying.

  7. Blockade of Immunosuppressive Cytokines Restores NK Cell Antiviral Function in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Peppa, Dimitra; Micco, Lorenzo; Javaid, Alia; Kennedy, Patrick T. F.; Schurich, Anna; Dunn, Claire; Pallant, Celeste; Ellis, Gidon; Khanna, Pooja; Dusheiko, Geoffrey; Gilson, Richard J.; Maini, Mala K.

    2010-01-01

    NK cells are enriched in the liver, constituting around a third of intrahepatic lymphocytes. We have previously demonstrated that they upregulate the death ligand TRAIL in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB), allowing them to kill hepatocytes bearing TRAIL receptors. In this study we investigated whether, in addition to their pathogenic role, NK cells have antiviral potential in CHB. We characterised NK cell subsets and effector function in 64 patients with CHB compared to 31 healthy controls. We found that, in contrast to their upregulated TRAIL expression and maintenance of cytolytic function, NK cells had a markedly impaired capacity to produce IFN-? in CHB. This functional dichotomy of NK cells could be recapitulated in vitro by exposure to the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10, which was induced in patients with active CHB. IL-10 selectively suppressed NK cell IFN-? production without altering cytotoxicity or death ligand expression. Potent antiviral therapy reduced TRAIL-expressing CD56bright NK cells, consistent with the reduction in liver inflammation it induced; however, it was not able to normalise IL-10 levels or the capacity of NK cells to produce the antiviral cytokine IFN-?. Blockade of IL-10 +/? TGF-? restored the capacity of NK cells from both the periphery and liver of patients with CHB to produce IFN-?, thereby enhancing their non-cytolytic antiviral capacity. In conclusion, NK cells may be driven to a state of partial functional tolerance by the immunosuppressive cytokine environment in CHB. Their defective capacity to produce the antiviral cytokine IFN-? persists in patients on antiviral therapy but can be corrected in vitro by IL-10+/? TGF-? blockade. PMID:21187913

  8. Riemann-Hypothesis Millennium-Problem(MP) Physics Proof via CATEGORY-SEMANTICS(C-S)/F =C Aristotle SQUARE-of-OPPOSITION(SoO) DEduction-LOGIC DichotomY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baez, Joao-Joan; Lapidaryus, Michelle; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2013-03-01

    Riemann-hypothesis physics-proof combines: Siegel-Antono®-Smith[AMS Joint Mtg.(2002)- Abs.973-03-126] digits on-average statistics HIll[Am. J. Math 123, 3, 887(1996)] logarithm-function's (1,0)- xed-point base =units =scale-invariance proven Newcomb [Am. J. Math. 4, 39(1881)]-Weyl[Goett. Nachr.(1914); Math. Ann.7, 313(1916)]-Benford[Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 78, 4, 51(1938)]-law [Kac,Math. of Stat.-Reasoning(1955); Raimi, Sci. Am. 221, 109(1969)] algebraic-inversion to ONLY Bose-Einstein quantum-statistics(BEQS) with digit d = 0 gapFUL Bose-Einstein Condensation(BEC) insight that digits are quanta are bosons because bosons are and always were quanta are and always were digits, via Siegel-Baez category-semantics tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics in Plato-Aristotle classic ''square-of-opposition'' : FUZZYICS =CATEGORYICS/Category-Semantics, with Goodkind Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC) ABOVE ground-state with/and Rayleigh(cut-limit of ''short-cut method''1870)-Polya(1922)-''Anderson''(1958) localization [Doyle and Snell,Random-Walks and Electrical-Networks, MAA(1981)-p.99-100!!!] in Brillouin[Wave-Propagation in Periodic-Structures(1946) Dover(1922)]-Hubbard-Beeby[J.Phys.C(1967)] Siegel[J.Nonxline-Sol.40,453(1980)] generalized-disorder collective-boson negative-dispersion mode-softening universality-principle(G...P) first use of the ``square-of-opposition'' in physics since Plato and Aristote!!!

  9. Wetland Functions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource explains a number of critical functions performed by wetlands. Students will discover that wetlands moderate impacts from flooding, control erosion, purify water, and provide habitat for fish and wildlife. They also provide a unique natural environment for people to enjoy outdoor recreation activities. It is part of a module that aims to help students get to know the complexities of wetlands, discover wildlife, enjoy the experience of being outdoors, and learn how necessary wetlands are to the health of our environment. Although it is about wetlands in New England for educators and their middle school students, it suggests ways to study wetland characteristics, why wetlands are important, and how students and teachers can help protect a local wetland in any part of the country. An associated set of activities is also available.

  10. Executive Functions

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Adele

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) make possible mentally playing with ideas; taking the time to think before acting; meeting novel, unanticipated challenges; resisting temptations; and staying focused. Core EFs are inhibition [response inhibition (self-control—resisting temptations and resisting acting impulsively) and interference control (selective attention and cognitive inhibition)], working memory, and cognitive flexibility (including creatively thinking “outside the box,” seeing anything from different perspectives, and quickly and flexibly adapting to changed circumstances). The developmental progression and representative measures of each are discussed. Controversies are addressed (e.g., the relation between EFs and fluid intelligence, self-regulation, executive attention, and effortful control, and the relation between working memory and inhibition and attention). The importance of social, emotional, and physical health for cognitive health is discussed because stress, lack of sleep, loneliness, or lack of exercise each impair EFs. That EFs are trainable and can be improved with practice is addressed, including diverse methods tried thus far. PMID:23020641

  11. Statistical parametric network analysis of functional connectivity dynamics during a working memory task.

    PubMed

    Ginestet, Cedric E; Simmons, Andrew

    2011-03-15

    Network analysis has become a tool of choice for the study of functional and structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data. Little research, however, has investigated connectivity dynamics in relation to varying cognitive load. In fMRI, correlations among slow (<0.1 Hz) fluctuations of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal can be used to construct functional connectivity networks. Using an anatomical parcellation scheme, we produced undirected weighted graphs linking 90 regions of the brain representing major cortical gyri and subcortical nuclei, in a population of healthy adults (n=43). Topological changes in these networks were investigated under different conditions of a classical working memory task - the N-back paradigm. A mass-univariate approach was adopted to construct statistical parametric networks (SPNs) that reflect significant modifications in functional connectivity between N-back conditions. Our proposed method allowed the extraction of 'lost' and 'gained' functional networks, providing concise graphical summaries of whole-brain network topological changes. Robust estimates of functional networks are obtained by pooling information about edges and vertices over subjects. Graph thresholding is therefore here supplanted by inference. The analysis proceeds by firstly considering changes in weighted cost (i.e. mean between-region correlation) over the different N-back conditions and secondly comparing small-world topological measures integrated over network cost, thereby controlling for differences in mean correlation between conditions. The results are threefold: (i) functional networks in the four conditions were all found to satisfy the small-world property and cost-integrated global and local efficiency levels were approximately preserved across the different experimental conditions; (ii) weighted cost considerably decreased as working memory load increased; and (iii) subject-specific weighted costs significantly predicted behavioral performances on the N-back task (Wald F=13.39,df(1)=1,df(2)=83,p<0.001), and therefore conferred predictive validity to functional connectivity strength, as measured by weighted cost. The results were found to be highly sensitive to the frequency band used for the computation of the between-region correlations, with the relationship between weighted cost and behavioral performance being most salient at very low frequencies (0.01-0.03 Hz). These findings are discussed in relation to the integration/specialization functional dichotomy. The pruning of functional networks under increasing cognitive load may permit greater modular specialization, thereby enhancing performance. PMID:21095229

  12. Test-retest reliability [corrected] of center of pressure measures of postural stability during quiet standing in a group with musculoskeletal disorders consisting of low back pain, anterior cruciate ligament injury and functional ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Salavati, Mahyar; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Mazaheri, Masood; Negahban, Hossein; Ebrahimi, Ismaeil; Talebian, Saeed; Jafari, Amir Homayoun; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali; Sohani, Soheil Mansour; Parnianpour, Mohamad

    2009-04-01

    Reliability is a population-specific property, but to the authors' knowledge there has been no study to determine the test-retest reliability of the postural stability measures such as center of pressure (COP) measures in the population of patients with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), while their clinical applications have been presented in literature. So, 33 patients with low back pain (LBP), anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and functional ankle instability (FAI) randomly completed postural measurements with three levels of difficulty (rigid surface-eyes open, rigid surface-eyes closed, and foam surface-eyes closed) in two sessions. COP data were used to calculate standard deviation of amplitude, standard deviation of velocity, phase plane portrait, mean total velocity and area (95% confidence ellipse). Relative reliability of these measures was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and absolute reliability using standard error of measurement (SEM) and coefficient of variation (CV). Also, minimal metrically detectable change (MMDC) was calculated to quantify intervention effects. Among different COP parameters, mean total velocity in all conditions of postural difficulty showed high to very high reliability, with ICC range of 0.74-0.91, SEM range of 0.09-0.40cm/s, CV range of 5.31-8.29% and MMDC range of 0.19-0.79cm/s. Phase plane portrait in anteroposterior-mediolateral (AP-ML) and ML direction were other best parameters with respect to the level of reliability. Mean total velocity and phase plane portrait parameters are suggested as good candidates to use for quantification and assessment of balance performance and identifying those with MSDs. PMID:19167891

  13. Beyond Remedial Dichotomies: Are "Underprepared" College Students a Marginalized Majority?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deil-Amen, Regina

    2011-01-01

    This article questions the dichotomous labeling and conceptualization of remedial and nonremedial students, particularly the added distinctions emphasized between four-year and two-year colleges, and it calls for a focus on the common challenges among all underprepared college students. The content of this article has attempted to broaden the…

  14. The dichotomy of pathogens and allergens in vaccination approaches.

    PubMed

    Baird, Fiona J; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-01-01

    Traditional prophylactic vaccination to prevent illness is the primary objective of many research activities worldwide. The golden age of vaccination began with an approach called variolation in ancient China and the evolution of vaccines still continues today with modern developments such as the production of Gardasil(TM) against HPV and cervical cancer. The historical aspect of how different forms of vaccination have changed the face of medicine and communities is important as it dictates our future approaches on both a local and global scale. From the eradication of smallpox to the use of an experimental vaccine to save a species, this review will explore these successes in infectious disease vaccination and also discuss a few significant failures which have hampered our efforts to eradicate certain diseases. The second part of the review will explore designing a prophylactic vaccine for the growing global health concern that is allergy. Allergies are an emerging global health burden. Of particular concern is the rise of food allergies in developed countries where 1 in 10 children is currently affected. The formation of an allergic response results from the recognition of a foreign component by our immune system that is usually encountered on a regular basis. This may be a dust-mite or a prawn but this inappropriate immune response can result in a life-time of food avoidance and lifestyle restrictions. These foreign components are very similar to antigens derived from infectious pathogens. The question arises: should the allergy community be focussing on protective measures rather than ongoing therapeutic interventions to deal with these chronic inflammatory conditions? We will explore the difficulties and benefits of prophylactic vaccination against various allergens by means of genetic technology that will dictate how vaccination against allergens could be utilized in the near future. PMID:25076945

  15. The flexibility–complementarity dichotomy in receptor–ligand interactions

    E-print Network

    Sun, Hongmei; Hunter, Christopher A.; Llamas, Eva Marina

    2014-12-15

    | Chem. Sci., 2015, 6, 1444–1453Binding studies The association constants for formation of the 48 complexes between the 8 porphyrins and the 6 ether ligands (L9 and L10) were measured using UV/Vis absorption titrations and ?uores- cence titrations both... in toluene and in TCE (see Experimental section for details). All titration data ?t well to a 1 : 1 binding Fig. 4 Porphyrin receptors that can make H-bonds (P1a–P4a), and that cannot (P1b–P4b).This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015 Edge...

  16. A false dichotomy? Mental illness and lone-actor terrorism.

    PubMed

    Corner, Emily; Gill, Paul

    2015-02-01

    We test whether significant differences in mental illness exist in a matched sample of lone- and group-based terrorists. We then test whether there are distinct behavioral differences between lone-actor terrorists with and without mental illness. We then stratify our sample across a range of diagnoses and again test whether significant differences exist. We conduct a series of bivariate, multivariate, and multinomial statistical tests using a unique dataset of 119 lone-actor terrorists and a matched sample of group-based terrorists. The odds of a lone-actor terrorist having a mental illness is 13.49 times higher than the odds of a group actor having a mental illness. Lone actors who were mentally ill were 18.07 times more likely to have a spouse or partner who was involved in a wider movement than those without a history of mental illness. Those with a mental illness were more likely to have a proximate upcoming life change, more likely to have been a recent victim of prejudice, and experienced proximate and chronic stress. The results identify behaviors and traits that security agencies can utilize to monitor and prevent lone-actor terrorism events. The correlated behaviors provide an image of how risk can crystalize within the individual offender and that our understanding of lone-actor terrorism should be multivariate in nature. PMID:25133916

  17. The Demise of the Nature-Nurture Dichotomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M.

    1993-01-01

    Maintains that "Individual Development and Evolution: The Genesis of Novel Behavior" (Gilbert Gottlieb) is one of the most creative, integrative, and important works in the field of developmental comparative science. Gottlieb's work has provided scientific basis for the concept that developmental systems, and not genetic reductionism, is the only…

  18. Camouflage and BIFF: a dichotomy of desired target signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuel, Melnolf A.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of a Battlefield Identification Friend/Foe-System (BIFF) is to make targets identifiable to the friend, the objective of camouflage is to make targets less conspicuous to the enemy. In the IR-spectral range these conflicting requirements can be met simultaneously to some extent by using material with variable radiance levels. The presentation addresses: (1) the different requirements posed by camouflage and BIFF, (2) the method of controllable energy radiation, (3) the approach to the solution of the camouflage and BIFF conflict, and (4) the limitation of the approach.

  19. Camouflage and BIFF: a dichotomy of desired target signatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melnolf A. Heuel

    1995-01-01

    The objective of a Battlefield Identification Friend\\/Foe-System (BIFF) is to make targets identifiable to the friend, the objective of camouflage is to make targets less conspicuous to the enemy. In the IR-spectral range these conflicting requirements can be met simultaneously to some extent by using material with variable radiance levels. The presentation addresses: (1) the different requirements posed by camouflage

  20. Transcending the Mind-Body Dichotomy: Schizophrenia Reexamined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bemak, Fred; Epp, Lawrence R.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how the genetic aspects of schizophrenia must be described within the interactive context of psychosocial stress. Suggests that the mental health profession must consider the environmental and social components of this condition, including the clients' relationships, families, and communities. States that psychotherapeutic interventions…

  1. The aging-disease false dichotomy: understanding senescence as pathology

    PubMed Central

    Gems, David

    2015-01-01

    From a biological perspective aging (senescence) appears to be a form of complex disease syndrome, though this is not the traditional view. This essay aims to foster a realistic understanding of aging by scrutinizing ideas old and new. The conceptual division between aging-related diseases and an underlying, non-pathological aging process underpins various erroneous traditional ideas about aging. Among biogerontologists, another likely error involves the aspiration to treat the entire aging process, which recent advances suggest is somewhat utopian. It also risks neglecting a more modest but realizable goal: to develop preventative treatments that partially protect against aging. PMID:26136770

  2. Content vs. Learning: An Old Dichotomy in Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergtrom, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    The principles of course redesign that were applied to a gateway Cell Biology course at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee are applicable to courses large and small, and to institutions of any size. The challenge was to design a content-rich science course that kept pace with present and future content and at the same time use principles of…

  3. Community Mental Health Counseling: An Option for the CACREP Dichotomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcoxon, S. Allen

    1990-01-01

    Examines 1988 Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) Standards, emphasizing modifications for entry-level programs in Community and Mental Health Counseling. Describes alternative program of study designed to integrate existing accredited entry-level programs in Community and Mental Health Counseling.…

  4. Reconciling the IC Test and Security Dichotomy O. Sinanoglu

    E-print Network

    Makris, Yiorgos

    , for example, that accelerate the aging of a circuit, creating reliability problems. On the other hand, we show that are potentially untrustwrothy. This globalization of Integrated Circuit (IC) design flow has introduced security house, reverse engineering, malicious circuit modification, and Intellectual Property (IP) piracy

  5. Dichotomy, Consubstantiality, Technical Writing, Literary Theory: The Double Orthodox Curse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neel, Jasper

    1992-01-01

    Articulates two different conceptions of writing that come from ancient Greece (classical and sophistic) and uses them as a field in which to compare two writing scenes involving reader response and software documentation. Explores whether these scenes are the same, similar, or absolutely different and whether they imply similar, different, or…

  6. The Multilingual/Bilingual Dichotomy: An Exploration of Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Amy S.

    2009-01-01

    Bilingualism (Sanz, 2000), motivation (Pintrich, 1989), and language aptitude (Grigorenko, Sternberg, and Ehrman, 2000) are crucial individual differences that contribute to successful adult language learning. Since Gardner's (1985) seminal work on motivation, many studies have shown that motivation is dynamic and that it affects language…

  7. A Gendered Dichotomy in Written Reflections in Professional Development Portfolios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Beverly J.; Brown, Genevieve

    This paper reports on a study that analyzed 91 written reflections in the professional-development portfolios of 13 doctoral students in educational leadership. The purpose of the research was to determine dichotomous expressions of thoughts between eight males (56 reflections) and five females (35 reflections). The study took place in a regional…

  8. Hyper-bent Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amr M. Youssef; Guang Gong

    2001-01-01

    Bent functions have maximal minimum distance to the set of affine functions. In other words, they achieve the maximal minimum distance to all the coordinate functions of affine monomials. In this paper we introduce a new class of bent functions which we call hyper-bent func- tions. Functions within this class achieve the maximal minimum distance to all the coordinate functions

  9. Exploring Functional Mellin Transforms

    E-print Network

    J. LaChapelle

    2015-01-08

    We define functional Mellin transforms within a scheme for functional integration proposed in [1]. Functional Mellin transforms can be used to define functional traces, logarithms, and determinants. The associated functional integrals are useful tools for probing function spaces in general and $C^\\ast$-algebras in particular. Several interesting aspects are explored.

  10. Functional Mellin Transforms

    E-print Network

    J. LaChapelle

    2015-01-07

    Functional integrals are defined in terms of locally compact topological groups and their associated Banach-valued Haar integrals. This approach generalizes the functional integral scheme of Cartier and DeWitt-Morette. The definition allows a construction of functional Mellin transforms. In turn, the functional Mellin transforms can be used to define functional traces, logarithms, and determinants. The associated functional integrals are useful tools for probing function spaces in general and $C^\\ast$-algebras in particular. Several interesting aspects are explored.

  11. Reduction of frontal-plane hip joint reaction force via medio-lateral foot center of pressure manipulation: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Solomonow-Avnon, Deborah; Wolf, Alon; Herman, Amir; Rozen, Nimrod; Haim, Amir

    2015-02-01

    Footwear-generated biomechanical manipulation of lower-limb joints has been shown to influence lower-limb biomechanics. Numerous studies report the influence of such interventions on the knee, however little is known about the influence of these interventions on the hip. The present study analyzed kinetic and kinematic changes about the hip of 12 healthy young males who underwent biomechanical manipulation utilizing the APOS biomechanical device (APOS-Medical and Sports Technologies Ltd., Herzliya, Israel) allowing controlled foot center of pressure manipulation. Subjects underwent gait testing in four para-sagittal device configurations: Medial, lateral, neutral, and regular shoes. In the medial configuration, subjects demonstrated no change in step width (i.e., distance between right and left foot center of pressure), however inter-malleolar distance significantly increased. Likewise with the medial setting, greater hip abduction was recorded, while hip adduction moment and joint reaction force decreased significantly. We speculate that subjects adopt a modified gait pattern aimed to maintain constant base of support. As a result, hip abductor muscle moment arm increases and adduction moment and joint reaction force decreases. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study to show this relationship. These results contribute to the understanding of lower-limb biomechanics and warrant further investigation. PMID:25256253

  12. Coordination of pelvis-HAT (head, arms and trunk) in anterior–posterior and medio-lateral directions during treadmill gait in preadolescents with\\/without Down syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masayoshi Kubo; Beverly Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    In human biped gait, movements in the frontal plane such as side-to-side rocking, are as essential as the alternating movement of the legs in the sagittal plane. In addition, the top-heavy structure of human body necessitates control of the trunk during walking. In this study, we evaluated the pelvis and HAT (head, arms and trunk) movements and their coordination during

  13. Field Guide to Functions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robson, Robert O., 1954-

    This field guide contains a quick look at the functions commonly encountered in single variable calculus, with exercises for each topic: linear, polynomial, power, rational, exponential, logarithmic, trigonometric, and piecewise functions. Also algebraic operations on functions, function composition, and general types of functions.

  14. Semi-bent Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seongtaek Chee; Sangjin Lee; Kwangjo Kim

    1994-01-01

    Highly nonlinear balanced Boolean functions both satisfying the propagation criterion and having almost uniform correlation values with all linear functions are very important in the design of hash functions, stream and block ciphers. In particular, the output uncorrelated properties between two Boolean functions are required to design permutations. We present, so called, semi-bent functions which satisfy all of these properties.

  15. Finding nonnormal bent functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Canteaut; Magnus Daum; Hans Dobbertin; Gregor Leander

    2006-01-01

    The question if there exist nonnormal bent functions was an open question for several years. A Boolean function in n variables is called normal if there exists an affine subspace of dimension n\\/2 on which the function is constant. In this paper we give the first nonnormal bent function and even an example for a nonweakly normal bent function. These

  16. Functional Notations and Terminology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bogomolny, Alexander

    This mathematics tutorial gives users an introduction to functions, functional notation and terminology. The site explains how a function is defined, and the correct way to read and write functional notation. Resources for addition, subtraction and multiplication of functions are also provided on this site. The â??Examples of Functionsâ? section is very useful for understanding the applications of functional theory learned in the previous sections.

  17. On Homogeneous Bent Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Charnes; Martin Rötteler; Thomas Beth

    2001-01-01

    A new surprising connection between invariant theory and the theory of bent functions is established. This enables us to construct\\u000a Boolean function having a prescribed symmetry given by a group action. Besides the quadratic bent functions the only other\\u000a known homogeneous bent functions are the six variable degree three functions constructed in [14]. We show that these bent functions arise

  18. Partially-Bent Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude Carlet; A Rocquencourt

    1993-01-01

    We study a conjecture stated in [6] about the numbers of non-zeros of, respectively, the auto-correlation function and the Walsh transform of the function (-1)f(x), wheref(x) is any boolean function on {0, 1}n. The result that we obtain leads us to introduce the class of partially-bent functions. We study within these functions the propagation criterion. We characterize those partially-bent functions

  19. ?-function for analytic curves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. K. Kostov; I. Krichever; M. Mineev-Weinstein; P. B. Wiegmann; A. Zabrodin

    We review the concept of ?-function for simple analytic curves. The ?-function gives a formal solution to the 2D inverse potential problem and appears as the ?-function of the integrable hierarchy which describes conformal maps of simply- connected domains bounded by analytic curves to the unit disk. The ?-function also emerges in the context of topological gravity and enjoys an

  20. Results on Bent Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiang-dong Hou; Philippe Langevin

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we present three results on bent functions: a construction, a restriction, and a characterization. Starting with a single bent function, in a simple but very effective way, the construction produces a large number of new bent functions in the same number of variables. The restriction imposes new conditions on the directional derivatives of bent functions. Certain non-existence

  1. CD8 sup + T lymphocytes of patients with AIDS maintain normal broad cytolytic function despite the loss of human immunodeficiency virus-specific cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Pantaleo, G.; De Maria, A.; Koenig, S.; Butini, L.; Moss, B.; Lane, H.C.; Fauci, A.S. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA)); Baseler, M. (Program Resources, Incorporated, Frederick, MD (USA))

    1990-06-01

    In this study, the authors have investigated the potential mechanisms responsible for the loss of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific cytolytic activity in the advanced stages of HIV-1 infection. They have demonstrated that HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes are predominantly contained within the CD8{sup +}DR{sup +} subset. Furthermore, they have shown by a redirected killing assay that there is a dichotomy between HIV-1-specific cytolytic activity and broad cytolytic potential since the cytolytic machinery of CD8{sup +}DR{sup +} cells is still functioning even in patients with AIDS who have lost their HIV-1-specific cytolytic activity. In addition, by comparative analysis of these two types of cytolytic activity over time they have demonstrated a progressive loss of HIV-1-specific cytolytic activity in the advanced stages of the disease, whereas the cytolytic potential remained unchanged regardless of the clinical stage. On the basis of these results, they propose that the loss of HIV-1-specific cytolytic activity in HIV-1-infected individuals may result at least in part from a progressive decrease in the pool of HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes belonging to the CD8{sup +}DR{sup +} subset whose ability to expand has been impaired.

  2. Lazy Functional Algorithms for Exact Real Functionals

    E-print Network

    Simpson, Alex

    Science, University of Edinburgh, JCMB, King's Buildings, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ, Scotland !Alex for the algorithms make essential use of domain theory. 1 Introduction In exact real number computation, infinite functionals for defi­ nite integration, and for the maximum value attained by a continuous function #12; over

  3. Functional Power Series

    E-print Network

    Henrik Stenlund

    2012-04-24

    This work introduces a new functional series for expanding an analytic function in terms of an arbitrary analytic function. It is generally applicable and straightforward to use. It is also suitable for approximating the behavior of a function with a few terms. A new expression is presented for the composite function's n'th derivative. The inverse-composite method is handled in this work also.

  4. Partially-Bent Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude Carlet

    1992-01-01

    We study a conjecture stated in [6] about the numbers of non-zeros of, respectively, the auto-correlation function and the Walsh transform of the function (?1)\\u000a f(x), where f(x) is any boolean function on {0, 1}n. The result that we obtain leads us to introduce the class of partially-bent functions. We study within these functions the\\u000a propagation criterion. We characterize those

  5. An essay on Bion's beta function.

    PubMed

    Oliner, Marion M

    2013-02-01

    Among the major theorists studying the effect of the external world on the individual, none had a more ambiguous relationship to the psychic manifestations of the environment than Wilfred Bion. On the one hand his theory of the mind contained a new concept, beta elements, to depict the intrusion of the material world into the mental sphere, while on the other he radically opposed the use of sensory perception as a source for clinical insight. The author examines this dichotomy as an outgrowth of her interest in the place of external reality in psychoanalytic theory. As a result, this essay is an attempt to clarify the source for Bion's theorizing, in order to be more specific about the applicability of his concepts and his precepts. PMID:23421664

  6. Sampling functions for geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giacaglia, G. E. O.; Lunquist, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    A set of spherical sampling functions is defined such that they are related to spherical-harmonic functions in the same way that the sampling functions of information theory are related to sine and cosine functions. An orderly distribution of (N + 1) squared sampling points on a sphere is given, for which the (N + 1) squared spherical sampling functions span the same linear manifold as do the spherical-harmonic functions through degree N. The transformations between the spherical sampling functions and the spherical-harmonic functions are given by recurrence relations. The spherical sampling functions of two arguments are extended to three arguments and to nonspherical reference surfaces. Typical applications of this formalism to geophysical topics are sketched.

  7. Functionalized boron nitride nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Sainsbury, Toby; Ikuno, Takashi; Zettl, Alexander K

    2014-04-22

    A plasma treatment has been used to modify the surface of BNNTs. In one example, the surface of the BNNT has been modified using ammonia plasma to include amine functional groups. Amine functionalization allows BNNTs to be soluble in chloroform, which had not been possible previously. Further functionalization of amine-functionalized BNNTs with thiol-terminated organic molecules has also been demonstrated. Gold nanoparticles have been self-assembled at the surface of both amine- and thiol-functionalized boron nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) in solution. This approach constitutes a basis for the preparation of highly functionalized BNNTs and for their utilization as nanoscale templates for assembly and integration with other nanoscale materials.

  8. Restoring functioning in bipolar disorder: functional remediation.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, Caterina M; Torrent, Carla; Vieta, Eduard; Martínez-Arán, Anabel

    2014-01-01

    Over the past several years, many evidence-based interventions have proven to be effective as adjunctive therapies in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Only a few, however, have addressed the issue of functional recovery in bipolar euthymic patients, which is difficult to achieve after an affective episode. The functional remediation program has been designed at the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona with the main aim of treating functional impairment in bipolar disorder. The program consists of 21 weekly group sessions and is based on a neuro-cognitive-behavioral approach. Throughout the sessions, euthymic patients are trained in the use of neurocognitive skills to be applied during their daily routines. Modeling techniques, role playing, self-instructions, verbal instructions, positive reinforcement, and metacognitive cues are some of the techniques that are used in the program. The present report aims at explaining this new intervention to improve functional outcomes in euthymic bipolar patients. PMID:25377603

  9. Positive Linear Function Machine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Students investigate linear functions with positive slopes by trying to guess the slope and intercept from inputs and outputs. Positive Linear Function Machine is one of the Interactivate assessment explorers.

  10. Implicit function density computation

    E-print Network

    Kerry Michael Soileau

    2007-07-10

    If two random variables X and A are functionally related via f(X)=A for some strictly monotone continuously differentiable function f:R->R, the distribution of X may easily be computed from the distribution of A.

  11. Integrals of Bessel functions

    E-print Network

    Babusci, D; Germano, B; Martinelli, M R; Ricci, P E

    2011-01-01

    We use the operator method to evaluate a class of integrals involving Bessel or Bessel-type functions. The technique we propose is based on the formal reduction of these family of functions to Gaussians.

  12. Benefit and Distance Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert G. Chambers; Yangho Chung

    1996-01-01

    We explore the relationship between R. W. Shephard's input distance function (“Cost and Production Functions,” Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, 1953) and D. G. Luenberger's benefit function (J. Math. Econ.21(1992a), 461–481). We point out that the latter can be recognized in a production context as a directional input distance function which can exhaustively characterize technologies in both price and input space.

  13. Fuzzy membership function optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Endre

    2012-11-01

    Goodness of fuzzy control depends on several factors; one of them is shape of membership functions. Assignment of membership functions for clustered data is subjective in nature; however, it cannot be done arbitrarily. A membership function in general form defines only a structure; optimization of its parameters is desirable for good control. This paper gives a method for iterative parameter optimization of assigned membership functions.

  14. Normal Boolean functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascale Charpin

    2004-01-01

    Dobbertin (Construction of bent functions and balanced Boolean functions with high nonlinearity, in: Fast Software Encryption, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 1008, Springer, Berlin, 1994, pp. 61–74) introduced the normality of bent functions. His work strengthened the interest for the study of the restrictions of Boolean functions on k-dimensional flats providing the concept of k-normality. Using recent results on

  15. Chaos Based Hash Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Di Xiao; Xiaofeng Liao; Shaojiang Deng

    \\u000a This chapter focuses on the construction of chaos-based hash function. Hash function is a special kind of one-way function\\u000a which takes a variable-length input and returns a fixed-length value. As one of the cores of Cryptography, hashing is a basic\\u000a technique widely used in information security. Utilizing chaos to construct hash function is a promising direction which attracts\\u000a more and

  16. Photon wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipe, J. E.

    1995-09-01

    We argue that a photon wave function can be introduced if one is willing to redefine, in what we feel is a physically meaningful way, what one wishes to mean by such a wave function. The generation of a photon wave function by a spontaneously emitting atom is discussed.

  17. Continuations, functions and jumps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hayo Thielecke

    1999-01-01

    Practically all programming languages have some form of control structure or jumping. The more advanced forms of control structure tend to resemble function calls, so much so that they are usually not even described as jumps. Consider for example the library function exit in C. Its use is much like a function, in that it may be called with an

  18. Functions of one variable. Differentiation 1. Function notion, function graph, boundedness. Monotone, inverse functions, even,

    E-print Network

    Levant, Arie

    Functions of one variable. Differentiation 1. Function notion, function graph, boundedness and Maclourin formulas. (const) = 0; (x ) = x -1 ; ( x ) = 1 2 x ; 1 x = - 1 2 x ; (sin x) = cos x ; (cos x) = -sin x ; (tg x) = 1 2 cos x ; (ctg x) = - 1 2 sin x ; (arcsin x) = 1 1 2 - x ; (arccos x

  19. APPLICATIONS ELLIPTIC FUNCTIONS

    E-print Network

    North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

    APPLICATIONS OF ELLIPTIC FUNCTIONS IN CLASSICAL AND ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY Jamie Snape Collingwood from Serre (1991). i #12;Contents I Background 1 1 Elliptic Functions 2 1.1 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.2 Definition of an elliptic function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.3 Properties

  20. Functional Programming Olaf Chitil

    E-print Network

    Kent, University of

    Functional Programming Olaf Chitil University of Kent, United Kingdom Abstract Functional programming is a programming paradigm like object-oriented pro- gramming and logic programming. Functional programming comprises both a spe- cific programming style and a class of programming languages that encourage

  1. Functions of Library Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitecki, Andre

    This discussion of the nature of classification schemes and their functions focuses on the differing classification systems of North American and European-type libraries. The functions are bibliothecal, bibliographical, and cognitive. The bibliothecal function concerns the physical location of items within a library (e.g., the Dewey Decimal and…

  2. Piecing Together Piecewise Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Sybrina L.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity to teach piecewise functions using wax paper and rectangular grids. Helps students understand the idea of different pieces by literally "piecing" together a new type of mathematical function. Also describes a followup activity and explains how piecewise functions can be graphed using graphing calculators. (NB)

  3. Homogeneous bent functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chengxin Qu; Jennifer Seberry; Josef Pieprzyk

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses homogeneous bent functions. The space of homogeneous functionsof degree three in six boolean variables was exhaustively searched and thirtybent functions were found. These are found to occur in a single orbit under theaction of relabeling of the variables. The homogeneous bent functions identified exhibitinteresting combinatorial structures and are, to the best of our knowledge, thefirst examples of

  4. On Semibent Boolean Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude Carlet; Sihem Mesnager

    2012-01-01

    We show that any Boolean function, in even dimension, equal to the sum of a Boolean function $g$ which is constant on each element of a spread and of a Boolean function $h$ whose restrictions to these elements are all linear, is semibent if and only if $g$ and $h$ are both bent. We deduce a large number of infinite

  5. Phylogenetic molecular function annotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Barbara E.; Jordan, Michael I.; Repo, Susanna T.; Brenner, Steven E.

    2009-07-01

    It is now easier to discover thousands of protein sequences in a new microbial genome than it is to biochemically characterize the specific activity of a single protein of unknown function. The molecular functions of protein sequences have typically been predicted using homology-based computational methods, which rely on the principle that homologous proteins share a similar function. However, some protein families include groups of proteins with different molecular functions. A phylogenetic approach for predicting molecular function (sometimes called "phylogenomics") is an effective means to predict protein molecular function. These methods incorporate functional evidence from all members of a family that have functional characterizations using the evolutionary history of the protein family to make robust predictions for the uncharacterized proteins. However, they are often difficult to apply on a genome-wide scale because of the time-consuming step of reconstructing the phylogenies of each protein to be annotated. Our automated approach for function annotation using phylogeny, the SIFTER (Statistical Inference of Function Through Evolutionary Relationships) methodology, uses a statistical graphical model to compute the probabilities of molecular functions for unannotated proteins. Our benchmark tests showed that SIFTER provides accurate functional predictions on various protein families, outperforming other available methods.

  6. An Exceptional Exponential Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curgus, Branko

    2006-01-01

    We show that there is a link between a standard calculus problem of finding the best view of a painting and special tangent lines to the graphs of exponential functions. Surprisingly, the exponential function with the "best view" is not the one with the base "e." A similar link is established for families of functions obtained by composing…

  7. Functioning Mathematically: 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, David

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the first part of the closing address given by the author to the 2007 Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) Easter conference at Loughborough. In his closing address, the author focuses on functioning mathematically as opposed to functional mathematics. His view of functional mathematics is that the focus is on someone…

  8. Quantization of Whitney functions

    E-print Network

    Pflaum, M J; Tang, X

    2012-01-01

    We propose to study deformation quantizations of Whitney functions. To this end, we extend the notion of a deformation quantization to algebras of Whitney functions over a singular set, and show the existence of a deformation quantization of Whitney functions over a closed subset of a symplectic manifold. Under the assumption that the underlying symplectic manifold is analytic and the singular subset subanalytic, we determine that the Hochschild and cyclic homology of the deformed algebra of Whitney functions over the subanalytic subset coincide with the Whitney--de Rham cohomology. Finally, we note how an algebraic index theorem for Whitney functions can be derived.

  9. Nonparametric Transfer Function Models

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun M.; Chen, Rong; Yao, Qiwei

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a class of nonparametric transfer function models is proposed to model nonlinear relationships between ‘input’ and ‘output’ time series. The transfer function is smooth with unknown functional forms, and the noise is assumed to be a stationary autoregressive-moving average (ARMA) process. The nonparametric transfer function is estimated jointly with the ARMA parameters. By modeling the correlation in the noise, the transfer function can be estimated more efficiently. The parsimonious ARMA structure improves the estimation efficiency in finite samples. The asymptotic properties of the estimators are investigated. The finite-sample properties are illustrated through simulations and one empirical example. PMID:20628584

  10. Mixtures and Characteristic Functions*

    PubMed Central

    Klonecki, Witold

    1970-01-01

    Let g(u|c,y) = exp {y?ck(uk - 1)} with y > 0, ?k=0?ck = 1,|u| < 1, and c standing for {ck}, be a probability generating function of a nonnegative integer-valued random variable. Let S be a distribution function on (0, ?) non-degenerate at zero. The functions g and S determine another probability generating function, G(u|Sc) = ?0? gdS(y). One of the results obtained asserts that, if the sequence c is finite and the characteristic function of S is entire, then G determines uniquely both S and c. The assertion does not hold if these conditions are not satisfied. Another group of results refers to properties of characteristic functions. Let P(z) be a polynomial of degree m and f(z|y) = exp- {yP(z)}. The theorem of Marcinkiewicz asserts that with m > 2 the function f cannot be a characteristic function. It is shown that, if the characteristic function of S is entire, then F(z) = ?0? f(z|y)dS(y) can be characteristic function only if m ? 2. Again the assertion need not be true if the characteristic function of S is not entire. PMID:16591826

  11. Holographic Tunneling Wave Function

    E-print Network

    Gabriele, Conti; van der Woerd, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The Hartle-Hawking wave function in cosmology can be viewed as a decaying wave function with anti-de Sitter (AdS) boundary conditions. We show that the growing wave function in AdS familiar from Euclidean AdS/CFT is equivalent, semiclassically and up to surface terms, to the tunneling wave function in cosmology. The cosmological measure in the tunneling state is given by the partition function of certain relevant deformations of CFTs on a locally AdS boundary. We compute the partition function of finite constant mass deformations of the O(N) vector model on the round three sphere and show this qualitatively reproduces the behaviour of the tunneling wave function in Einstein gravity coupled to a positive cosmological constant and a massive scalar. We find the amplitudes of inhomogeneities are not damped in the holographic tunneling state.

  12. On genetic map functions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Hongyu [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Speed, T.P. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Various genetic map functions have been proposed to infer the unobservable genetic distance between two loci from the observable recombination fraction between them. Some map functions were found to fit data better than others. When there are more than three markers, multilocus recombination probabilities cannot be uniquely determined by the defining property of map functions, and different methods have been proposed to permit the use of map functions to analyze multilocus data. If for a given map function, there is a probability model for recombination that can give rise to it, then joint recombination probabilities can be deduced from this model. This provides another way to use map functions in multilocus analysis. In this paper we show that stationary renewal processes give rise to most of the map functions in the literature. Furthermore, we show that the interevent distributions of these renewal processes can all be approximated quite well by gamma distributions. 43 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Inverse structure functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Bruce R.; van de Water, Willem

    2005-03-01

    While the ordinary structure function in turbulence is concerned with the statistical moments of the velocity increment ?u measured over a distance r , the inverse structure function is related to the distance r where the turbulent velocity exits the interval ?u . We study inverse structure functions of wind-tunnel turbulence which covers a range of Reynolds numbers Re?=400-1100 . We test a recently proposed relation between the scaling exponents of the ordinary structure functions and those of the inverse structure functions [S. Roux and M. H. Jensen, Phys. Rev. E 69, 16309 (2004)]. The relatively large range of Reynolds numbers in our experiment also enables us to address the scaling with Reynolds number that is expected to highlight the intermediate dissipative range. While we firmly establish the (relative) scaling of inverse structure functions, our experimental results fail both predictions. Therefore, the question of the significance of inverse structure functions remains open.

  14. Holographic Tunneling Wave Function

    E-print Network

    Conti Gabriele; Thomas Hertog; Ellen van der Woerd

    2015-06-24

    The Hartle-Hawking wave function in cosmology can be viewed as a decaying wave function with anti-de Sitter (AdS) boundary conditions. We show that the growing wave function in AdS familiar from Euclidean AdS/CFT is equivalent, semiclassically and up to surface terms, to the tunneling wave function in cosmology. The cosmological measure in the tunneling state is given by the partition function of certain relevant deformations of CFTs on a locally AdS boundary. We compute the partition function of finite constant mass deformations of the O(N) vector model on the round three sphere and show this qualitatively reproduces the behaviour of the tunneling wave function in Einstein gravity coupled to a positive cosmological constant and a massive scalar. We find the amplitudes of inhomogeneities are not damped in the holographic tunneling state.

  15. Glycosaminoglycan functionalized nanoparticles exploit glycosaminoglycan functions.

    PubMed

    Vassie, James A; Whitelock, John M; Lord, Megan S

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles are being explored for a variety of applications including medical imaging, drug delivery, and biochemical detection. Surface functionalization of nanoparticles with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is an attractive strategy that is only starting to be investigated to improve their properties for biological and therapeutic applications. Herein, we describe a method to functionalize the surface of cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) with organosilane linkers, such as 3-(aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and 3-(mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTMS), and GAGs, such as unfractionated and low molecular weight heparin. Examples of how the activity of these heparin functionalized nanoparticles are governed by the pendant GAGs are detailed. The activity of heparin covalently attached to the nanoceria was found to be unchanged when compared to unfractionated heparin using the activated partial clotting time (APTT) assay. PMID:25325981

  16. Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rasquin-Weber, A; Hyman, P; Cucchiara, S; Fleisher, D; Hyams, J; Milla, P; Staiano, A

    1999-01-01

    This is the first attempt at defining criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. The decision-making process was as for adults and consisted of arriving at consensus, based on clinical experience. This paper is intended to be a quick reference. The classification system selected differs from the one used in the adult population in that it is organized according to main complaints instead of being organ-targeted. Because the child is still developing, some disorders such as toddler's diarrhea (or functional diarrhea) are linked to certain physiologic stages; others may result from behavioral responses to sphincter function acquisition such as fecal retention; others will only be recognizable after the child is cognitively mature enough to report the symptoms (e.g., dyspepsia). Infant regurgitation, rumination, and cyclic vomiting constitute the vomiting disorders. Abdominal pain disorders are classified as: functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional abdominal pain, abdominal migraine, and aerophagia. Disorders of defecation include: infant dyschezia, functional constipation, functional fecal retention, and functional non-retentive fecal soiling. Some disorders, such as IBS and dyspepsia and functional abdominal pain, are exact replications of the adult criteria because there are enough data to confirm that they represent specific and similar disorders in pediatrics. Other disorders not included in the pediatric classification, such as functional biliary disorders, do occur in children; however, existing data are insufficient to warrant including them at the present time. For these disorders, it is suggested that, for the time being, clinicians refer to the criteria established for the adult population.???Keywords: infant vomiting; cyclic vomiting syndrome; functional dyspepsia in children; irritable bowel syndrome in children; functional abdominal pain in children; functional diarrhea in children; functional constipation in children; Rome II PMID:10457047

  17. Frequent disruption of chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 8 (CHD8) and functionally associated chromatin regulators in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Damaschke, Nathan A; Yang, Bing; Blute, Michael L; Lin, Chee Paul; Huang, Wei; Jarrard, David F

    2014-12-01

    Abnormal expression and function of chromatin regulators results in the altered chromatin structure seen in cancer. The chromatin regulator CTCF, its cofactor CHD8, and antagonistic paralogue BORIS have wide-ranging effects on gene regulation. Their concurrent expression and regulation was examined in benign, localized, and metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) arrays with extended follow-up using an automated quantitative imaging system, VECTRA. Epithelial staining was quantified and compared against a range of clinicopathologic variables. CHD8 expression was decreased in HGPIN, localized, and metastatic PCa compared to benign (P < .001). CHD8 promoter hypermethylation, assessed by Quantitative Pyrosequencing, occurred in over 45% of primary cancers in this population as well as the TGCA database. Treatment of cell lines with the demethylating agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine reinduced expression. An interesting dichotomy for CHD8 was observed within primary cancers, with higher nuclear protein expression associated with adverse clinical outcomes including extracapsular extension (P = .007), presence of metastases (P = .025) and worse PSA-recurrence free survival (P = .048). CHD8 outperformed Gleason score and predicted biochemical failure within intermediate grade prostate cancers. The BORIS/CTCF expression ratio increased in localized (P = .03) and metastatic PCa (P = .006) and was associated with higher Gleason score (P = .02), increased tumor volume (P = .02) and positive margins (P = .04). Per cell heterogeneity of expression revealed all protein expression to be more heterogeneous in cancerous tissue (both P < .001), especially high grade (P < .01). In the first detailed analysis in cancer, a marked loss of CHD8 expression and increased BORIS/CTCF ratio indicate frequent disruption of CTCF and its effector genes in PCa. PMID:25499215

  18. Frequent Disruption of Chromodomain Helicase DNA-Binding Protein 8 (CHD8) and Functionally Associated Chromatin Regulators in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Damaschke, Nathan A.; Yang, Bing; Blute, Michael L.; Lin, Chee Paul; Huang, Wei; Jarrard, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal expression and function of chromatin regulators results in the altered chromatin structure seen in cancer. The chromatin regulator CTCF, its cofactor CHD8, and antagonistic paralogue BORIS have wide-ranging effects on gene regulation. Their concurrent expression and regulation was examined in benign, localized, and metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) arrays with extended follow-up using an automated quantitative imaging system, VECTRA. Epithelial staining was quantified and compared against a range of clinicopathologic variables. CHD8 expression was decreased in HGPIN, localized, and metastatic PCa compared to benign (P < .001). CHD8 promoter hypermethylation, assessed by Quantitative Pyrosequencing, occurred in over 45% of primary cancers in this population as well as the TGCA database. Treatment of cell lines with the demethylating agent 5-Aza-2?-deoxycytidine reinduced expression. An interesting dichotomy for CHD8 was observed within primary cancers, with higher nuclear protein expression associated with adverse clinical outcomes including extracapsular extension (P = .007), presence of metastases (P = .025) and worse PSA-recurrence free survival (P = .048). CHD8 outperformed Gleason score and predicted biochemical failure within intermediate grade prostate cancers. The BORIS/CTCF expression ratio increased in localized (P = .03) and metastatic PCa (P = .006) and was associated with higher Gleason score (P = .02), increased tumor volume (P = .02) and positive margins (P = .04). Per cell heterogeneity of expression revealed all protein expression to be more heterogeneous in cancerous tissue (both P < .001), especially high grade (P < .01). In the first detailed analysis in cancer, a marked loss of CHD8 expression and increased BORIS/CTCF ratio indicate frequent disruption of CTCF and its effector genes in PCa. PMID:25499215

  19. Functional Explanation and the Function of Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombrozo, Tania; Carey, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Teleological explanations (TEs) account for the existence or properties of an entity in terms of a function: we have hearts because they pump blood, and telephones for communication. While many teleological explanations seem appropriate, others are clearly not warranted--for example, that rain exists for plants to grow. Five experiments explore…

  20. Functional explanation and the function of explanation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tania Lombrozo; Susan Carey

    2006-01-01

    Teleological explanations (TEs) account for the existence or properties of an entity in terms of a function: we have hearts because they pump blood, and telephones for communication. While many teleological explanations seem appropriate, others are clearly not warranted—for example, that rain exists for plants to grow. Five experiments explore the theoretical commitments that underlie teleological explanations. With the analysis

  1. The Influence of Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion on Cognitive Function and Amyloid beta Metabolism in APP Overexpressing Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahito Yamada; Masafumi Ihara; Yoko Okamoto; Takakuni Maki; Kazuo Washida; Akihiro Kitamura; Yoshiki Hase; Hidefumi Ito; Keizo Takao; Tsuyoshi Miyakawa; Raj N. Kalaria; Hidekazu Tomimoto; Ryosuke Takahashi; Mark Mattson

    2011-01-01

    Background and PurposeCognitive impairment resulting from cerebrovascular insufficiency has been termed vascular cognitive impairment, and is generally accepted to be distinct from Alzheimer's disease resulting from a neurodegenerative process. However, it is clear that this simple dichotomy may need revision in light of the apparent occurrence of several shared features between Alzheimer's disease and vascular cognitive impairment. Nevertheless, it still

  2. Selectively localized Wannier functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Runzhi; Lazar, Emanuel A.; Park, Hyowon; Millis, Andrew J.; Marianetti, Chris A.

    2014-10-01

    Since the seminal work of Marzari and Vanderbilt, maximally localized Wannier functions have become widely used as a real-space representation of the electronic structure of periodic materials. In this paper we introduce selectively localized Wannier functions which extend the method of Marzari and Vanderbilt in two important ways. First, our method allows us to focus on localizing a subset of orbitals of interest. Second, our method allows us to fix centers of these orbitals, and ensure the preservation of the point-group symmetry. These characteristics are important when Wannier functions are used in methodologies that go beyond density functional theory by treating a local subspace of the Hamiltonian more effectively. Application of our method to GaAs, SrMnO3, and Co demonstrates that selectively localized Wannier functions can offer improvements over the maximally localized Wannier function technique.

  3. Intrinsic-density functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, CB3255, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3255 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    The Hohenberg-Kohn theorem and Kohn-Sham procedure are extended to functionals of the localized intrinsic density of a self-bound system such as a nucleus. After defining the intrinsic-density functional, we modify the usual Kohn-Sham procedure slightly to evaluate the mean-field approximation to the functional, and carefully describe the construction of the leading corrections for a system of fermions in one dimension with a spin-degeneracy equal to the number of particles N. Despite the fact that the corrections are complicated and nonlocal, we are able to construct a local Skyrme-like intrinsic-density functional that, while different from the exact functional, shares with it a minimum value equal to the exact ground-state energy at the exact ground-state intrinsic density, to next-to-leading order in 1/N. We briefly discuss implications for real Skyrme functionals.

  4. Diastolic function in hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Phillips; Joseph A. Diamond

    2001-01-01

    Diastolic dysfunction in patients with hypertension may present as asymptomatic findings on noninvasive testing, or as fulminant\\u000a pulmonary edema, despite normal left ventricular systolic function. Up to 40% of hypertensive patients presenting with clinical\\u000a signs of congestive heart failure have normal systolic left ventricular function. In this article we review the pathophysiologic\\u000a factors affecting diastolic function in individuals with diastolic

  5. Cubic bent functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiang-dong Hou

    1998-01-01

    For any Boolean function f on GF(2)m, we define a sequence of ranks ri(f), 1 ? i ? m, which are invariant under the action of the general linear group GL(m, 2). If f is a cubic bent function in 2k variables, we show that when r3(f)?k, f is either obtained from a cubic bent function in 2k ? 2

  6. Decomposing bent functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Canteaut; Pascale Charpin

    2003-01-01

    Abstract—In a recent paper [1], it is shown that the restrictions of bent functions to subspaces of codimension,and,are highly nonlinear. Here, we present an extensive study of the restrictions of bent functions to affine subspaces. We propose several methods which are mainly based on properties of the derivatives and of the dual of a given bent function. We solve an

  7. Graphing and Functions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Arnold

    2011-11-17

    Graphing points, lines, and writing equations from tables or graphs. Functions. Read carefully about plotting points at coolmath4kids. Coolmath Plotting Points Play the game twice or more if you aren't getting most of them right. A score of over 7000 would be good. Coordinate plane quadrants and ordered pairs. Read about Time/distance Time and distance graphs and then Time/speed. Time and speed graphs Read about and practice functions. Intro to functions Function crunchersDomain and range. Domain and Range Then vertical line test. Vertical Line Test ...

  8. Quadratic Functions: Workshop 4

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Annenberg Media, Insights into Algebra, Teaching for Learning

    2009-12-23

    Lesson 1 of two lessons requires students to explore quadratic functions by examining the family of functions described by y = a (x - h)squared+ k. In Lesson 2 students explore quadratic functions by using a motion detector known as a Calculator Based Ranger (CBR) to examine the heights of the different bounces of a ball. Students will represent each bounce with a quadratic function of the form y = a (x - h)squared + k. Background information, resources, references and videos of the lessons are included. Students work in teams of four.

  9. Fractal functions and interpolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael F. Barnsley

    1986-01-01

    Let a data set {(xi,yi) ?I×R;i=0,1,?,N} be given, whereI=[x0,xN]?R. We introduce iterated function systems whose attractorsG are graphs of continuous functionsf:I?R, which interpolate the data according tof(xi)=yi fori e {0,1,?,N}. Results are presented on the existence, coding theory, functional equations and moment theory for such fractal interpolation functions. Applications to the approximation of naturally wiggly functions, which may show some

  10. Renormalization group functional equations.

    SciTech Connect

    Curtright, T. L.; Zachos, C. K. (High Energy Physics); (Univ. of Miami)

    2011-03-16

    Functional conjugation methods are used to analyze the global structure of various renormalization group trajectories and to gain insight into the interplay between continuous and discrete rescaling. With minimal assumptions, the methods produce continuous flows from step-scaling {sigma} functions and lead to exact functional relations for the local flow {beta} functions, whose solutions may have novel, exotic features, including multiple branches. As a result, fixed points of {sigma} are sometimes not true fixed points under continuous changes in scale and zeroes of {beta} do not necessarily signal fixed points of the flow but instead may only indicate turning points of the trajectories.

  11. Renormalization group functional equations

    SciTech Connect

    Curtright, Thomas L. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida 33124-8046 (United States); Zachos, Cosmas K. [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439-4815 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Functional conjugation methods are used to analyze the global structure of various renormalization group trajectories and to gain insight into the interplay between continuous and discrete rescaling. With minimal assumptions, the methods produce continuous flows from step-scaling {sigma} functions and lead to exact functional relations for the local flow {beta} functions, whose solutions may have novel, exotic features, including multiple branches. As a result, fixed points of {sigma} are sometimes not true fixed points under continuous changes in scale and zeroes of {beta} do not necessarily signal fixed points of the flow but instead may only indicate turning points of the trajectories.

  12. ENTRY FUNCTIONS [ENTRY FUNCTIONS] Authors: Oliver Knill: 2003, Literature: no

    E-print Network

    Knill, Oliver

    logarithm] also called common logarithm is the logarithm to the base 10. Bessel function THe [Bessel function] is a special function. Bessel function of the first kind of order zero is defined as J0 = k=0

  13. Continuity of Piecewise Functions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberts, Lila F.

    2004-08-14

    Students in calculus need to be proficient in working with functions in a variety of ways: graphical, numerical, analytic, or verbal, and to understand connections among these representations. This demo provides a set of visualizations designed to help students better understand what it means for a piecewise function to be continuous at a particular domain value.

  14. High Functioning Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Vicki

    This paper reviews the characteristics and needs of students with high functioning autism. First, it lists 18 common characteristics of autism, then it stresses that autism is defined by the general pattern of characteristics. Next, it discusses how people with high functioning autism differ from those with autism. These differences include higher…

  15. FUNCTIONAL FOODS: AN OVERVIEW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functional Foods: Any food, modified food or food ingredient that provides structural, functional or health benefits, thus promoting optimal health, longevity and quality of life, "Food products that provide specific health benefits beyond the traditional nutrients they contain". It is expected th...

  16. Project Functions Robert Firth

    E-print Network

    Kundu, Sukhamay

    for a given Organization or Product and date range. Function: CreateOrganization Parameters: Name The name Parameters: Name The name of the Product to be created. Description A brief description of the Product record in Sales table. Function: CreateProductCategory Parameters: Name The name of the Category

  17. Functional Components in Peanuts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Leonora D. L. Francisco; A. V. A. Resurreccion

    2008-01-01

    Peanut is one of the most widely used legumes due to its nutrition and taste. The fact that is has been recognized recently as a functional food, its evaluation for its role in a heart-healthy diet has received tremendous attention. Functional compounds have been isolated, identified, quantified, and even enhanced to maximize the amount for adequate health benefits. The peanut

  18. Protein folds and functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew CR Martin; Christine A Orengo; E Gail Hutchinson; Susan Jones; Maria Karmirantzou; Roman A Laskowski; John BO Mitchell; Chiara Taroni; Janet M Thornton

    1998-01-01

    Background: The recent rapid increase in the number of available three-dimensional protein structures has further highlighted the necessity to understand the relationship between biological function and structure. Using structural classification schemes such as SCOP, CATH and DALI, it is now possible to explore global relationships between protein fold and function, something which was previously impractical.Results: Using a relational database of

  19. Generalized Wannier Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emil Prodan

    2007-01-01

    We consider single particle Schrodinger operators with a gap in the energy spectrum. We construct a countable set of exponentially decaying functions, which form a complete, orthonormal basis set for the states below the spectral gap. Each such function is localized near a closed surface. Estimates on the exponential decay rate and a discussion of the geometry of these surfaces

  20. Refactoring Functional Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Thompson

    2004-01-01

    Refactoring is the process of redesigning existing code without changing its functionality. Refactoring has recently come to promi- nence in the OO community. In this paper we explore the prospects for refactoring functional programs. Our paper centres on the case study of refactoring a 400 line Haskell program written by one of our students. The case study illustrates the type

  1. Functional foods innovations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit (DFFRU), ERRC, ARS, USDA, is to improve human health and well being by developing functional food and consumer products that utilize milk and fruit and vegetable processing residues of specialty crops. Major research approaches involve: biotec...

  2. Program Computes Thermodynamic Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, Bonnie J.; Gordon, Sanford

    1994-01-01

    PAC91 is latest in PAC (Properties and Coefficients) series. Two principal features are to provide means of (1) generating theoretical thermodynamic functions from molecular constants and (2) least-squares fitting of these functions to empirical equations. PAC91 written in FORTRAN 77 to be machine-independent.

  3. On plateaued functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuliang Zheng; Xian-mo Zhang

    2001-01-01

    The focus of this article is on nonlinear characteristics of cryptographic Boolean functions. First, we introduce the notion of plateaued functions that have many cryptographically desirable properties. Second, we establish a sequence of strengthened inequalities on some of the most important nonlinearity criteria, including nonlinearity, avalanche, and correlation immunity, and prove that critical cases of the inequalities coincide with characterizations

  4. The Gamow Functional

    E-print Network

    M. Castagnino; M. Gadella; R. Id Beta; R. Laura

    2002-09-26

    We present a formalism that represents pure states, mixtures and generalized states as functionals on an algebra containing the observables of the system. Along these states, there are other functionals that decay exponentially at all times and therefore can be used to describe resonance phenomena.

  5. Nuclear Density Functional Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Stoitsov, Mario [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of atomic nuclei is crucial for a complete nuclear theory, for nuclear astrophysics, for performing new experimental tasks, and for various other applications. Within a density functional theory, the total binding energy of the nucleus is given by a functional of the nuclear density matrices and their derivatives. The variation of the energy density functional with respect to particle and pairing densities leads to the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations. The "Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional" (UNEDF) SciDAC project, to develop and optimize the energy density functional for atomic nuclei using state-of-the-art computational infrastructure, is briefly described. The ultimate goal is to replace current phenomenological models of the nucleus with a well-founded microscopic theory with minimal uncertainties, capable of describing nuclear data and extrapolating to unknown regions.

  6. The Function of Introns

    PubMed Central

    Chorev, Michal; Carmel, Liran

    2012-01-01

    The intron–exon architecture of many eukaryotic genes raises the intriguing question of whether this unique organization serves any function, or is it simply a result of the spread of functionless introns in eukaryotic genomes. In this review, we show that introns in contemporary species fulfill a broad spectrum of functions, and are involved in virtually every step of mRNA processing. We propose that this great diversity of intronic functions supports the notion that introns were indeed selfish elements in early eukaryotes, but then independently gained numerous functions in different eukaryotic lineages. We suggest a novel criterion of evolutionary conservation, dubbed intron positional conservation, which can identify functional introns. PMID:22518112

  7. Impact of 'functional food'.

    PubMed

    Guesry, Pierre René

    2005-01-01

    'Functional Food' is not a new concept but it became more important recently due to the collapse of most social health system because 'Functional Foods' allow low cost prevention of numerous diseases. 'Functional Foods' are different from 'Neutraceuticals' which remain drug based with poor taste whereas 'Functional Foods' remain good food which could be consumed for years, but in addition have a disease prophylactic function. They are becoming particularly important for the prevention of food allergy in 'at risk' population, obesity, osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases and particularly high blood pressure and atherosclerosis, but also for cancer prevention. The newest trend is that governments and health authorities allow food manufacturers to make health prevention related claims on mass media. PMID:15702590

  8. Construction of Bent Functions via Niho Power Functions

    E-print Network

    Gaborit, Philippe

    Construction of Bent Functions via Niho Power Functions Hans Dobbertin1 , Gregor Leander1 , Anne- struction of bent functions. Boolean functions of the form f(x) = tr(1xd1 + 2xd2 ), 1, 2, x F2n is even, resp., that f is a bent function if 1 + 1 = 1 and 2 = 1. 1 Introduction Bent functions

  9. Generalized Bent Functions Philippe Langevin

    E-print Network

    Faccanoni, Gloria

    Generalized Bent Functions Philippe Langevin #12; #12; 3. GENERALIZED BENT FUNCTIONS 3 Abstract. In this paper, we compare the the binary bent functions and the generalized bent functions on the metric and degree points of view

  10. Functional Task Test: Data Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita

    2014-01-01

    After space flight there are changes in multiple physiological systems including: Cardiovascular function; Sensorimotor function; and Muscle function. How do changes in these physiological system impact astronaut functional performance?

  11. Functional Performance of Pyrovalves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.

    1996-01-01

    Following several flight and ground test failures of spacecraft systems using single-shot, 'normally closed' pyrotechnically actuated valves (pyrovalves), a government/industry cooperative program was initiated to assess the functional performance of five qualified designs. The goal of the program was to improve performance-based requirements for the procurement of pyrovalves. Specific objectives included the demonstration of performance test methods, the measurement of 'blowby' (the passage of gases from the pyrotechnic energy source around the activating piston into the valve's fluid path), and the quantification of functional margins for each design. Experiments were conducted in-house at NASA on several units each of the five valve designs. The test methods used for this program measured the forces and energies required to actuate the valves, as well as the energies and the pressures (where possible) delivered by the pyrotechnic sources. Functional performance ranged widely among the designs. Blowby cannot be prevented by o-ring seals; metal-to-metal seals were effective. Functional margin was determined by dividing the energy delivered by the pyrotechnic sources in excess to that required to accomplish the function by the energy required for that function. All but two designs had adequate functional margins with the pyrotechnic cartridges evaluated.

  12. Predicting functional regulatory polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Torkamani, Ali; Schork, Nicholas J.

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: Limited availability of data has hindered the development of algorithms that can identify functionally meaningful regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (rSNPs). Given the large number of common polymorphisms known to reside in the human genome, the identification of functional rSNPs via laboratory assays will be costly and time-consuming. Therefore appropriate bioinformatics strategies for predicting functional rSNPs are necessary. Recent data from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project has significantly expanded the amount of available functional information relevant to non-coding regions of the genome, and, importantly, led to the conclusion that many functional elements in the human genome are not conserved. Results: In this article we describe how ENCODE data can be leveraged to probabilistically determine the functional and phenotypic significance of non-coding SNPs (ncSNPs). The method achieves excellent sensitivity (?80%) and specificity (?99%) based on a set of known phenotypically relevant and non-functional SNPs. In addition, we show that our method is not overtrained through the use of cross-validation analyses. Availability: The software platforms used in our analyses are freely available (http://www.cs.waikato.ac.nz/ml/weka/). In addition, we provide the training dataset (Supplementary Table 3), and our predictions (Supplementary Table 6), in the Supplementary Material. Contact: nschork@scripps.edu. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:18562267

  13. The Enzyme Function Initiative.

    PubMed

    Gerlt, John A; Allen, Karen N; Almo, Steven C; Armstrong, Richard N; Babbitt, Patricia C; Cronan, John E; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Imker, Heidi J; Jacobson, Matthew P; Minor, Wladek; Poulter, C Dale; Raushel, Frank M; Sali, Andrej; Shoichet, Brian K; Sweedler, Jonathan V

    2011-11-22

    The Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI) was recently established to address the challenge of assigning reliable functions to enzymes discovered in bacterial genome projects; in this Current Topic, we review the structure and operations of the EFI. The EFI includes the Superfamily/Genome, Protein, Structure, Computation, and Data/Dissemination Cores that provide the infrastructure for reliably predicting the in vitro functions of unknown enzymes. The initial targets for functional assignment are selected from five functionally diverse superfamilies (amidohydrolase, enolase, glutathione transferase, haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase, and isoprenoid synthase), with five superfamily specific Bridging Projects experimentally testing the predicted in vitro enzymatic activities. The EFI also includes the Microbiology Core that evaluates the in vivo context of in vitro enzymatic functions and confirms the functional predictions of the EFI. The deliverables of the EFI to the scientific community include (1) development of a large-scale, multidisciplinary sequence/structure-based strategy for functional assignment of unknown enzymes discovered in genome projects (target selection, protein production, structure determination, computation, experimental enzymology, microbiology, and structure-based annotation), (2) dissemination of the strategy to the community via publications, collaborations, workshops, and symposia, (3) computational and bioinformatic tools for using the strategy, (4) provision of experimental protocols and/or reagents for enzyme production and characterization, and (5) dissemination of data via the EFI's Website, http://enzymefunction.org. The realization of multidisciplinary strategies for functional assignment will begin to define the full metabolic diversity that exists in nature and will impact basic biochemical and evolutionary understanding, as well as a wide range of applications of central importance to industrial, medicinal, and pharmaceutical efforts. PMID:21999478

  14. The photon wave function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthukrishnan, A.; Scully, M. O.; Zubairy, M. S.

    2005-08-01

    We review and sharpen the concept of a photon wave function based on the quantum theory of light. We argue that a point-like atom serves as the archetype for both the creation and detection of photons. Spontaneous emission from atoms provides a spatially localized source of photon states that serves as a natural wave packet basis for quantum states of light. Photodetection theory allows us to give operational meaning to the photon wave function which, for single photons, is analogous to the electric field in classical wave optics. Entanglement between photons, and the uniquely quantum phenomena that result from it, are exemplified by two-photon wave functions.

  15. Functionalized expanded porphyrins

    DOEpatents

    Sessler, Jonathan L; Pantos, Patricia J

    2013-11-12

    Disclosed are functionalized expanded porphyrins that can be used as spectrometric sensors for high-valent actinide cations. The disclosed functionalized expanded porphyrins have the advantage over unfunctionalized systems in that they can be immobilized via covalent attachment to a solid support comprising an inorganic or organic polymer or other common substrates. Substrates comprising the disclosed functionalized expanded porphyrins are also disclosed. Further, disclosed are methods of making the disclosed compounds (immobilized and free), methods of using them as sensors to detect high valent actinides, devices that comprise the disclosed compounds, and kits.

  16. Liver function tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... laboratory results. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ... liver function. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ...

  17. Renal Structure & Function Activities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Terry Thompson (Wor-Wic Community College Math/Science)

    2007-07-31

    This activity includes three sequential classroom activities for pairs of students using worksheets. This includes removeable stickers sequencing kinesthetic activity, diagram coloring and table matching to correlate nephron and cell-level anatomical features with physiological function.

  18. Pulmonary function tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... measured to estimate the lung volume. To measure diffusion capacity , you breathe a harmless gas, called a ... on your report after pulmonary function tests include: Diffusion capacity to carbon monoxide (DLCO) Expiratory reserve volume ( ...

  19. Display Functions in LISP

    E-print Network

    Binford, Thomas O.

    1970-03-01

    This note describes a system which compiles various forms of LISP lists and arrays into display commands for the DEC 340 display, and provides supporting functions for scaling, for moving elements in a display, for pot ...

  20. Polynomials, Rational Functions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rusin, Dave

    A page reserved for the analytic study of polynomial functions studied in calculus classes. History, applications and related fields and subfields; textbooks, reference works, and tutorials; software and tables; selected topics; other web sites with this focus.

  1. Thyroid function tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... common thyroid function tests are: Total, or free T4 (the main thyroid hormone in your blood) TSH ( ... pituitary gland that stimulates the thyroid to produce T4) T3 (also included sometimes) Other thyroid tests include: ...

  2. Childhood Functional GI Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Advocacy Activities, Legislative & Regulatory Research Leadership Code of Ethics Funding IFFGD Standards For Collaboration Industry Council GI ... aboutIncontinence.org | aboutKidsGI.org | giResearch.org | ... Copyright 1998-2015 International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, ...

  3. Functional Group Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Walter T., Jr.; Patterson, John M.

    1984-01-01

    Literature on analytical methods related to the functional groups of 17 chemical compounds is reviewed. These compounds include acids, acid azides, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, amino acids, aromatic hydrocarbons, carbodiimides, carbohydrates, ethers, nitro compounds, nitrosamines, organometallic compounds, peroxides, phenols, silicon compounds,…

  4. Functional Metal Phosphonates

    E-print Network

    Perry, Houston Phillipp

    2012-02-14

    phosphonate clusters to create materials which may have interesting magnetic properties. By controlling the way these clusters pack in the solids, their magnetic properties may be able to be augmented. The final method used to impart functionality to metal...

  5. Software Function Allocation Methodology 

    E-print Network

    O'Neal, Michael Ralph

    1988-01-01

    SOFTWARE FUNCTION ALLOCATION METHODOLOGY A Thesis MICHAEL RALPH O'NEAL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AEM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1988 Major Subject: Computer... Science SOFTWARE FUNCTION ALLOCATION METHODOLOGY A Thesis by MICHAEL RALPH O'NEAL Approved as to style and content by: Wi liam Livel (Chairman Sallie Sheppa d (Member) David Van Fleet (Member) Glen Williams (Head of Department) May 1988...

  6. Adaptive transfer functions

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, J.R. (Portland State Univ., OR (USA))

    1991-01-01

    This paper details the approach and methodology used to build adaptive transfer functions in a feed-forward Back-Propagation neural network, and provides insight into the structure dependent properties of using non-scaled analog inputs. The results of using adaptive transfer functions are shown to outperform conventional architectures in the implementation of a mechanical power transmission gearbox design expert system knowledge base. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Functional neuroimaging in psychiatry.

    PubMed Central

    Fu, C H; McGuire, P K

    1999-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging is one of the most powerful means available for investigating the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. In this review, we shall focus on the different ways that it can be employed to this end, describing the major findings in the field in the context of different methodological approaches. We will also discuss practical issues that are particular to studying psychiatric disorders and the potential contribution of functional neuroimaging to future psychiatric research. PMID:10466156

  8. Function, anticipation, representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickhard, Mark. H.

    2001-06-01

    Function emerges in certain kinds of far-from-equilibrium systems. One important kind of function is that of interactive anticipation, an adaptedness to temporal complexity. Interactive anticipation is the locus of the emergence of normative representational content, and, thus, of representation in general: interactive anticipation is the naturalistic core of the evolution of cognition. Higher forms of such anticipation are involved in the subsequent macro-evolutionary sequence of learning, emotions, and reflexive consciousness.

  9. A Function Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Dave

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a lesson he observed involving a function machine. This function machine was a box with a slot at the top of one side and a large cut-out hole at the bottom of the opposite side. A card with a number written on it (the input) was pushed into the slot and the teacher put their hand through the hole of the other…

  10. Structure function monitor

    DOEpatents

    McGraw, John T. (Placitas, NM); Zimmer, Peter C. (Albuquerque, NM); Ackermann, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-01-24

    Methods and apparatus for a structure function monitor provide for generation of parameters characterizing a refractive medium. In an embodiment, a structure function monitor acquires images of a pupil plane and an image plane and, from these images, retrieves the phase over an aperture, unwraps the retrieved phase, and analyzes the unwrapped retrieved phase. In an embodiment, analysis yields atmospheric parameters measured at spatial scales from zero to the diameter of a telescope used to collect light from a source.

  11. Monomial bent functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nils Gregor Leander

    2006-01-01

    In this correspondence, we focus on bent functions of the form F(2 n) rarr F(2) where x rarr Tr(alphaxd). The main contribution of this correspondence is, that we prove that for n=4r, r odd, the exponent d=(2r+1)2 allows the construction of bent functions. This open question has been posed by Canteaut based on computer experiments. As a consequence for each

  12. Basics of Endocrine Function

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Daniel Brouse (Human Anatomy and Physiology Society)

    2008-08-09

    This flash video presentation provides an introduction to the basics of the endocrine system. It defines the criteria for determining if a chemical is a hormone and compares the action of hormones with other signalling chemicals and with the way the nervous system functions. The last part of the presentation gives a preview of a flowchart homework activity that can be used by students as a way to learn the function of specific hormones.

  13. Imaging basal ganglia function

    PubMed Central

    BROOKS, DAVID J.

    2000-01-01

    In this review, the value of functional imaging for providing insight into the role of the basal ganglia in motor control is reviewed. Brain activation findings in normal subjects and Parkinson's disease patients are examined and evidence supporting the existence for functionally independent distributed basal ganglia-frontal loops is presented. It is argued that the basal ganglia probably act to focus and filter cortical output, optimising the running of motor programs. PMID:10923986

  14. Robin functions and energy functionals of multiply connected domains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. L. Duren; M. M. Schiffer

    1991-01-01

    The Robin function of a planar domain is a generalization of Green's function. It can be used to represent the solutions of mixed boundary-value problems for harmonic functions. Here it is combined with a variational method to solve certain extremal problems for the energy functional of a multiply connected domain. Some deeper prop- erties of the Robin function are then

  15. Relationships between Bent Functions and Complementary Plateaued Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuliang Zheng; Xian-mo Zhang

    1999-01-01

    . We introduce the concept of complementary plateaued functionsand examine relationships between these newly defined functionsand bent functions. Results obtained in this paper contribute to the furtherunderstanding of profound secrets of bent functions. Cryptographicapplications of these results are demonstrated by constructing highlynonlinear correlation immune functions that possess no non-zero linearstructures.Key Words:Plateaued Functions, Complementary Plateaued Functions, ...

  16. Structure and composition of the Trinil femora: functional and taxonomic implications.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Christopher B; Puymerail, Laurent; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Sipla, Justin; Ciochon, Russell L

    2015-03-01

    The original hominin femur (Femur I) and calotte discovered at Trinil, Java by Eugene Dubois in 1891/1892 played a key role in the early history of human paleontology by purportedly demonstrating the contemporaneity of archaic cranial form with modern human erect (bipedal) posture. On this basis, both specimens were subsequently assigned to Pithecanthropus erectus, later transferred to Homo erectus. However, chronological and phylogenetic links between the two have been questioned from the beginning. Four additional hominin partial femora (Femora II-V) from Trinil were subsequently described but have played a relatively minor part in evolutionary scenarios. Here we present the results of a new analysis of structural and density characteristics of the Trinil femora obtained using computed tomography. Trinil Femur I shows none of the characteristics typical of early Homo femora from elsewhere in Asia or Africa, including a relatively long neck, increased mediolateral bending rigidity of the mid-proximal shaft, or a low position of minimum mediolateral breath on the shaft. In contrast, Femora II-V all demonstrate features that are more consistent with this pattern. In addition, material density distributions within the specimens imply more recent and less complete fossilization of Femur I than Femora II-V. Thus, it is very likely that Trinil Femur I derives from a much more recent time period than the calotte, while the less famous and less complete Femora II-V may represent H. erectus at Trinil. The morphological variation within the Trinil femora can be attributed to broader changes in pelvic morphology occurring within the Homo lineage between the Early and late Middle Pleistocene. PMID:25681015

  17. Functional imaging and endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-Guo; Liu, Hai-Feng

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of endoscopy for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases and the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases has brought great changes. The mere observation of anatomy with the imaging mode using modern endoscopy has played a significant role in this regard. However, increasing numbers of endoscopies have exposed additional deficiencies and defects such as anatomically similar diseases. Endoscopy can be used to examine lesions that are difficult to identify and diagnose. Early disease detection requires that substantive changes in biological function should be observed, but in the absence of marked morphological changes, endoscopic detection and diagnosis are difficult. Disease detection requires not only anatomic but also functional imaging to achieve a comprehensive interpretation and understanding. Therefore, we must ask if endoscopic examination can be integrated with both anatomic imaging and functional imaging. In recent years, as molecular biology and medical imaging technology have further developed, more functional imaging methods have emerged. This paper is a review of the literature related to endoscopic optical imaging methods in the hopes of initiating integration of functional imaging and anatomical imaging to yield a new and more effective type of endoscopy. PMID:22090783

  18. Galaxy Cosmological Mass Function

    E-print Network

    Amanda R. Lopes; Alvaro Iribarrem; Marcelo B. Ribeiro; William R. Stoeger

    2014-12-03

    We study the galaxy cosmological mass function (GCMF) in a semi-empirical relativistic approach using observational data provided by galaxy redshift surveys. Starting from the theory of Ribeiro & Stoeger (2003, arXiv:astro-ph/0304094) between the mass-to-light ratio, the selection function obtained from the luminosity function (LF) data and the luminosity density, the average luminosity $L$ and the average galactic mass $\\mathcal{M}_g$ are computed in terms of the redshift. $\\mathcal{M}_g$ is also alternatively estimated by a method that uses the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF). Comparison of these two forms of deriving the average galactic mass allows us to infer a possible bias introduced by the selection criteria of the survey. We used the FORS Deep Field galaxy survey sample of 5558 galaxies in the redshift range $0.5 biased. We then obtained the theoretical quantities of interest, such as the differential number counts, to calculate the GCMF, which can be fitted by a Schechter function. The derived GCMF follows theoretical predictions in which the less massive objects form first, being followed later by more massive ones. In the range $0.5 < z < 2.0$ the GCMF has a strong variation that can be interpreted as a higher rate of galaxy mergers or as a strong evolution in the star formation history of these galaxies.

  19. Sperm function test

    PubMed Central

    Talwar, Pankaj; Hayatnagarkar, Suryakant

    2015-01-01

    With absolute normal semen analysis parameters it may not be necessary to shift to specialized tests early but in cases with borderline parameters or with history of fertilization failure in past it becomes necessary to do a battery of tests to evaluate different parameters of spermatozoa. Various sperm function tests are proposed and endorsed by different researchers in addition to the routine evaluation of fertility. These tests detect function of a certain part of spermatozoon and give insight on the events in fertilization of the oocyte. The sperms need to get nutrition from the seminal plasma in the form of fructose and citrate (this can be assessed by fructose qualitative and quantitative estimation, citrate estimation). They should be protected from the bad effects of pus cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) (leukocyte detection test, ROS estimation). Their number should be in sufficient in terms of (count), structure normal to be able to fertilize eggs (semen morphology). Sperms should have intact and functioning membrane to survive harsh environment of vagina and uterine fluids (vitality and hypo-osmotic swelling test), should have good mitochondrial function to be able to provide energy (mitochondrial activity index test). They should also have satisfactory acrosome function to be able to burrow a hole in zona pellucida (acrosome intactness test, zona penetration test). Finally, they should have properly packed DNA in the nucleus to be able to transfer the male genes (nuclear chromatic decondensation test) to the oocyte during fertilization.

  20. Sperm functional tests.

    PubMed

    Oehninger, Sergio; Franken, Daniel R; Ombelet, Willem

    2014-12-01

    Several semen parameters are used to discriminate the fertile male from the subfertile male. The most widely used parameters are sperm concentration, motility, progressive motility, and sperm morphology. Semen analysis is usually applied as described in the World Health Organization manual for semen analysis. In addition to a routine semen analysis, sperm functional tests have been described for many years, which in most cases are regarded as research tools and not part of the routine semen testing in an infertility clinic. In this review we report on the value of four sperm function tests: the sperm penetration assay, the sperm-zona pellucida binding tests, the acrosome reaction, and the hyaluronan binding assay. For each test we describe the current value, the indication for performing the test, how to interpret the results, and its therapeutic implications. Our data show that sperm functional assays are highly predictive of IVF outcome results and have the potential to assist in clinical decision making, especially to avoid the current long-standing treatment with IUI and to direct the patients to intracytoplasmic sperm injection without delay when sperm functional testing fails. We believe that advances in molecular biology techniques will allow us to develop simpler sperm function assays in the near future. This will undoubtedly help clinicians in optimizing male factor infertility diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25450304

  1. Sperm function test.

    PubMed

    Talwar, Pankaj; Hayatnagarkar, Suryakant

    2015-01-01

    With absolute normal semen analysis parameters it may not be necessary to shift to specialized tests early but in cases with borderline parameters or with history of fertilization failure in past it becomes necessary to do a battery of tests to evaluate different parameters of spermatozoa. Various sperm function tests are proposed and endorsed by different researchers in addition to the routine evaluation of fertility. These tests detect function of a certain part of spermatozoon and give insight on the events in fertilization of the oocyte. The sperms need to get nutrition from the seminal plasma in the form of fructose and citrate (this can be assessed by fructose qualitative and quantitative estimation, citrate estimation). They should be protected from the bad effects of pus cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) (leukocyte detection test, ROS estimation). Their number should be in sufficient in terms of (count), structure normal to be able to fertilize eggs (semen morphology). Sperms should have intact and functioning membrane to survive harsh environment of vagina and uterine fluids (vitality and hypo-osmotic swelling test), should have good mitochondrial function to be able to provide energy (mitochondrial activity index test). They should also have satisfactory acrosome function to be able to burrow a hole in zona pellucida (acrosome intactness test, zona penetration test). Finally, they should have properly packed DNA in the nucleus to be able to transfer the male genes (nuclear chromatic decondensation test) to the oocyte during fertilization. PMID:26157295

  2. Scaling function, spectral function, and nucleon momentum distribution in nuclei

    E-print Network

    Antonov, A. N.

    The link between the scaling function extracted from the analysis of (e,e') cross sections and the spectral function/momentum distribution in nuclei is revisited. Several descriptions of the spectral function based on the ...

  3. Hilbert Function and Complexity Lower Bounds for Symmetric Boolean Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Bernasconi; Lavinia Egidi

    1999-01-01

    This paper explores the application of certain algebraic geometry techniques involving Hilbert functions and Gröbner bases to the analysis of properties of Boolean functions. It gives some results and applications for symmetric functions.

  4. Constructions of Quantum Boolean Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang Jie; Wen Qiaoyan

    2010-01-01

    A construction of all kinds of quantum Boolean functions with one qubit is proposed. Base on these quantum Boolean functions, all kinds of local quantum Boolean functions (the natural generalization of linear classical Boolean functions) are given. Furthermore some infinite families of quantum Boolean functions with any qubits are obtained together.

  5. Normal Extensions of Bent Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude Carlet; Hans Dobbertin; Gregor Leander

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the notion of normal extension is introduced for bent functions, i.e., maximally nonlinear Boolean functions. We apply this concept to characterize when the direct sum of bent functions is normal, and we prove that the direct sum of a normal bent function and a nonnormal bent function is always nonnormal.

  6. Functional convergence spasm.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Abhishek; Padhy, Susanta K; Gupta, Gourav; Goyal, Manoj K

    2014-07-01

    Convergence spasm (CS) means intermittent episodes of convergence, miosis and accommodation with disconjugate gaze mimicking abducens palsy. The organic causes range from metabolic to host of neurological and ophthalmic diseases that we describe. It was first described as a presentation of psychogenic disorders by von Graefe as early as in 1856. Nonetheless, patients exhibiting this sign are often subjected to plethora of unnecessary, sophisticated and invasive diagnostic procedures. Such functional cases were treated with either cycloplegic/placebo eye drop or amytal abreaction. Though epidemiological studies suggest that conversion disorder is equally prevalent in industrialized nations and developing countries, a few cases of functional CS are reported from West including Asia, that to, decade(s) before and none from India, to the best of our knowledge. We illustrate a case of functional CS with photograph after consent from patient and its successful treatment. PMID:25035565

  7. Photon structure function revisited

    E-print Network

    Ch. Berger

    2014-12-22

    The flux of papers from electron positron colliders containing data on the photon structure function ended naturally around 2005. It is thus timely to review the theoretical basis and confront the predictions with a summary of the experimental results. The discussion will focus on the increase of the structure function with x (for x away from the boundaries) and its rise with log Q**2, both characteristics beeing dramatically different from hadronic structure functions. The agreement of the experimental observations with the theoretical calculations of the real and virtual photon structure is a striking success of QCD. It also allows a new determination of the QCD coupling constant which very well agrees with the value quoted in the literature.

  8. Non Abelian Bent Functions

    E-print Network

    Poinsot, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Perfect nonlinear functions from a finite group $G$ to another one $H$ are those functions $f: G \\rightarrow H$ such that for all nonzero $\\alpha \\in G$, the derivative $d_{\\alpha}f: x \\mapsto f(\\alpha x) f(x)^{-1}$ is balanced. In the case where both $G$ and $H$ are Abelian groups, $f: G \\rightarrow H$ is perfect nonlinear if and only if $f$ is bent i.e for all nonprincipal character $\\chi$ of $H$, the (discrete) Fourier transform of $\\chi \\circ f$ has a constant magnitude equals to $|G|$. In this paper, using the theory of linear representations, we exhibit similar bentness-like characterizations in the cases where $G$ and/or $H$ are (finite) non Abelian groups. Thus we extend the concept of bent functions to the framework of non Abelian groups.

  9. Adaptive multiconfigurational wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Evangelista, Francesco A., E-mail: francesco.evangelista@emory.edu [Department of Chemistry and Cherry L. Emerson Center for Scientific Computation, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

    2014-03-28

    A method is suggested to build simple multiconfigurational wave functions specified uniquely by an energy cutoff ?. These are constructed from a model space containing determinants with energy relative to that of the most stable determinant no greater than ?. The resulting ?-CI wave function is adaptive, being able to represent both single-reference and multireference electronic states. We also consider a more compact wave function parameterization (?+SD-CI), which is based on a small ?-CI reference and adds a selection of all the singly and doubly excited determinants generated from it. We report two heuristic algorithms to build ?-CI wave functions. The first is based on an approximate prescreening of the full configuration interaction space, while the second performs a breadth-first search coupled with pruning. The ?-CI and ?+SD-CI approaches are used to compute the dissociation curve of N{sub 2} and the potential energy curves for the first three singlet states of C{sub 2}. Special attention is paid to the issue of energy discontinuities caused by changes in the size of the ?-CI wave function along the potential energy curve. This problem is shown to be solvable by smoothing the matrix elements of the Hamiltonian. Our last example, involving the Cu{sub 2}O{sub 2}{sup 2+} core, illustrates an alternative use of the ?-CI method: as a tool to both estimate the multireference character of a wave function and to create a compact model space to be used in subsequent high-level multireference coupled cluster computations.

  10. Muscle and prosthesis contributions to amputee walking mechanics: A modeling study

    E-print Network

    Ben-Yakar, Adela

    Muscle and prosthesis contributions to amputee walking mechanics: A modeling study Anne K the functional use of the ankle muscles, which are critical during walking to provide body support, forward propulsion, leg-swing initiation and mediolateral balance. Thus, either muscles must compensate

  11. Hypertrapezoidal fuzzy membership functions 

    E-print Network

    Painter, John H.; Kelly, W. E. III

    1996-09-08

    the degrees of membership that a crisp value has in a fuzzy set. In practice, the nwnbership functions are also either trapezoidal or triangular as in Figure 1. For simple applications this scheme is adequate, easy to design, prototype and adjust. However...:03:24 EST from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. The complete tr~gonometric derivation of Si and Sj, with prototype points hi and h and a crisp hypertrapezoidal membership functions is straight- forward and is not shown here due to space constraints...

  12. On transcendental functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Thathabai Nowroji; M Muniasamy

    2001-01-01

    Functions like loge\\u000a x, e\\u000a x\\u000a , e\\u000a z\\u000a and loge\\u000a z are defined and studied systematically. It is observed thate\\u000a z is the only complex analytic extension of the real analytic functione\\u000a \\u000a x\\u000a . It is also observed that the power (analyticity) of ez is by choice and the beauty (its derivative is itself) of ez is unexpected.

  13. Selectively localized Wannier functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Runzhi; Lazar, Emanuel; Park, Hyowon; Millis, Andrew; Marianetti, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Since the seminal work of Marzari and Vanderbilt, maximally localized Wannier functions have become widely used as real-space representations of electronic structure in periodic systems. In this talk we discuss selectively localized Wannier functions (SLWF) which allow localization of a particular subset of orbitals of interest, and also enable the fixing of orbital centers and ensuring the preservation of point-group symmetries. Applications of our method to GaAs, SrMnO3, and Co demonstrate that SLWF can offer improvements over standard techniques, especially in beyond DFT methods.

  14. Generalized Boolean Bent Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurent Poinsot; Sami Harari

    2004-01-01

    \\u000a The notions of perfect nonlinearity and bent functions are closely dependent on the action of the group of translations over\\u000a \\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\\\mathbbFm2\\\\mathbb{F}^{m}_{2}. Extending the idea to more generalized groups of involutions without fixed points gives a larger framework to the previous\\u000a notions. In this paper we largely develop this concept to define G-perfect nonlinearity and G-bent functions, where G is an

  15. HARMONIC FUNCTIONS WITH POLYNOMIAL GROWTH

    E-print Network

    Minicozzi, William

    HARMONIC FUNCTIONS WITH POLYNOMIAL GROWTH TOBIAS 1 1. Harmonic functions with polynomial growth on cones 5 2. Tools to study the growth of harmonic functions on manifolds 13 3. Lower bound of the frequency

  16. CD8+ T lymphocytes of patients with AIDS maintain normal broad cytolytic function despite the loss of human immunodeficiency virus-specific cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Pantaleo, G; De Maria, A; Koenig, S; Butini, L; Moss, B; Baseler, M; Lane, H C; Fauci, A S

    1990-06-01

    In this study, we have investigated the potential mechanisms responsible for the loss of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific cytolytic activity in the advanced stages of HIV-1 infection. We have demonstrated that HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes are predominantly contained within the CD8+DR+ subset. Furthermore, we have shown by a redirected killing assay that there is a dichotomy between HIV-1-specific cytolytic activity and broad cytolytic potential since the cytolytic machinery of CD8+DR+ cells is still functioning even in patients with AIDS who have lost their HIV-1-specific cytolytic activity. In addition, by comparative analysis of these two types of cytolytic activity over time we have demonstrated a progressive loss of HIV-1-specific cytolytic activity in the advanced stages of the disease, whereas the cytolytic potential remained unchanged regardless of the clinical stage. As previously shown in patients with AIDS, even in asymptomatic HIV-1-seropositive patients, CD8+DR+ cells from the same patient, compared to CD8+DR- lymphocytes, showed a substantial reduction in their ability to proliferate in vitro in response to different stimuli, such as mitogens (phytohemagglutinin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) and monoclonal antibodies directed against CD3, CD2, and CD28 molecules, and displayed a defective clonogenic potential. Thus, on the basis of these results we propose that the loss of HIV-1-specific cytolytic activity in HIV-1-infected individuals may result at least in part from a progressive decrease in the pool of HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes belonging to the CD8+DR+ subset whose ability to expand has been impaired. PMID:2112749

  17. THE PROTOSTELLAR MASS FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, Christopher F. [Physics Department and Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Offner, Stella S. R., E-mail: cmckee@astro.berkeley.ed, E-mail: soffner@cfa.harvard.ed [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2010-06-10

    The protostellar mass function (PMF) is the present-day mass function of the protostars in a region of star formation. It is determined by the initial mass function weighted by the accretion time. The PMF thus depends on the accretion history of protostars and in principle provides a powerful tool for observationally distinguishing different protostellar accretion models. We consider three basic models here: the isothermal sphere model, the turbulent core model, and an approximate representation of the competitive accretion model. We also consider modified versions of these accretion models, in which the accretion rate tapers off linearly in time. Finally, we allow for an overall acceleration in the rate of star formation. At present, it is not possible to directly determine the PMF since protostellar masses are not currently measurable. We carry out an approximate comparison of predicted PMFs with observation by using the theory to infer the conditions in the ambient medium in several star-forming regions. Tapered and accelerating models generally agree better with observed star formation times than models without tapering or acceleration, but uncertainties in the accretion models and in the observations do not allow one to rule out any of the proposed models at present. The PMF is essential for the calculation of the protostellar luminosity function, however, and this enables stronger conclusions to be drawn.

  18. Two Variable Function Pump

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Enter two complex numbers (z and c) as ordered pairs of real numbers, then click a button to iterate step by step. The iterates are graphed in the x-y plane and printed out in table form. This is an introduction to the idea of prisoners/escapees in iterated functions and the calculation of fractal Julia sets.

  19. Functional Extended Redundancy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun; Suk, Hye Won; Lee, Jang-Han; Moskowitz, D. S.; Lim, Jooseop

    2012-01-01

    We propose a functional version of extended redundancy analysis that examines directional relationships among several sets of multivariate variables. As in extended redundancy analysis, the proposed method posits that a weighed composite of each set of exogenous variables influences a set of endogenous variables. It further considers endogenous…

  20. Hierarchical functional reasoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neal Snooke; Chris Price

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of hierarchies of function in reasoning about automotive electrical systems. Such hierarchies enable more powerful reasoning for applications such as diagnosis, failure mode and effects analysis, sneak circuit analysis and design verification, while also structuring the domain and thus reducing the complexity at any one level. The context of this discussion is the existing AutoSteve

  1. Gluing Nekrasov Partition Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jian; Tizzano, Luigi; Winding, Jacob; Zabzine, Maxim

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we summarise the localisation calculation of 5D super Yang-Mills on simply connected toric Sasaki-Einstein (SE) manifolds. We show how various aspects of the computation, including the equivariant index, the asymptotic behaviour and the factorisation property are governed by the combinatorial data of the toric geometry. We prove that the perturbative partition function on a simply connected SE manifold corresponding to an n-gon toric diagram factorises to n copies of perturbative part (zero instanton sector) of the Nekrasov partition function. This leads us to conjecture a prescription for the computation of the complete partition function, by gluing n copies of the full Nekrasov partition functions. This work is a generalisation of some earlier computation carried out on Y p, q manifolds, whose moment map cone has a quadrangle base and our result is valid for manifolds whose moment map cones have pentagon base, hexagon base, etc. The algorithm we used for dealing with general cones may also be of independent interest.

  2. Cognitive functioning and anxiety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael W. Eysenck; Colin MacLeod; Andrew Mathews

    1987-01-01

    Various possible differences in cognitive functioning between those high and low in trait anxiety are considered. Particular emphasis is paid to the hypothesis that individuals high in trait anxiety tend to approach threatening stimuli, whereas those low in trait anxiety tend to avoid such stimuli. The evidence indicates that there are such differences in the processing of threatening stimuli as

  3. Laboratory Density Functionals

    E-print Network

    B. G. Giraud

    2007-07-26

    We compare several definitions of the density of a self-bound system, such as a nucleus, in relation with its center-of-mass zero-point motion. A trivial deconvolution relates the internal density to the density defined in the laboratory frame. This result is useful for the practical definition of density functionals.

  4. Functions Defined by Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Moore, Lawrence C.

    Created by Lawrence Moore and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purpose of this module is to carry out an exploration of functions defined by data; to learn about data entry and plotting operations. This is one lesson in a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

  5. Balance functions revisited

    E-print Network

    A. Bialas

    2011-02-11

    The idea of glue clusters, i.e. short-range correlations in the quark-gluon plasma close to freeze-out, is used to estimate the width of balance functions in momentum space. A good agreement is found with the recent measurements of STAR collaboration for central $Au-Au$ collisions.

  6. Functions Defined by Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Moore, Lang

    Created by Lang Moore and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, this module focuses on the ability to carry out an exploration of functions defined by data; to learn about data entry and plotting operations. This is one of a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

  7. Empirical microeconomics action functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Tanputraman, Winson

    2015-06-01

    A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is modeled by an action functional-and the focus of this paper is to empirically determine the action functionals for different commodities. The correlation functions of the model are defined using a Feynman path integral. The model is calibrated using the unequal time correlation of the market commodity prices as well as their cubic and quartic moments using a perturbation expansion. The consistency of the perturbation expansion is verified by a numerical evaluation of the path integral. Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are studied and their market behavior is described by the model to an accuracy of over 90% using only six parameters. The paper empirically establishes the existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (2013).

  8. Advising. CAP Job Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This Job Function Book (Advising) is one of the 14 components (see note) of the Career Alert Planning (CAP) program, a set of individualized materials designed to help participants find out about themselves and about the kind of work for which they are suited. In this program, participants become acquainted with occupations that are representative…

  9. Balance functions reexamined

    SciTech Connect

    Bialas, A. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, Krakow (Poland) and M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2011-02-15

    The idea of glue clusters, i.e., short-range correlations in the quark-gluon plasma close to freeze-out, is used to estimate the width of balance functions in momentum space. A good agreement is found with the recent measurements of the STAR Collaboration for central Au-Au collisions.

  10. Coefficients of univalent functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter L. Duren

    1977-01-01

    analytic and univalent in the unit disk \\\\z\\\\ < 1. This is the class of all univalent functions normalized by the conditions \\/(O) = 0 and \\/'(O) = 1. We shall concentrate on coefficient problems for the class S and for related classes, with emphasis on recent results and open problems. Most of the methods we shall describe have wide

  11. Farmers Functional Literacy Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Social Welfare, New Delhi (India).

    The Farmers Training and Functional Literacy Programme, initiated by the government of India in 1968, was an effort to translate into practice the concept of linking education (not only vocational training) to development, particularly for increasing production. The project, a joint enterprise of three government ministries, provides participating…

  12. MODELING FUNCTIONAL LANDSCAPE CONNECTIVITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Theobald

    A significant challenge for conservation science is to understand the needs of wide-ranging species during the design of nature reserves. Although numerous GIS methods exist to analyze patch composition and structure, few methods readily allow a user to incorporate species behavior and scaling. Here I describe a general approach that allows functional properties of organisms and processes to be modeled

  13. Process for functionalizing alkanes

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, R.G.; Janowicz, A.H.; Periana, R.A.

    1988-05-24

    Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons comprises: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons of the formula: R[sub 1]H wherein H represents a hydrogen atom; and R[sub 1] represents a saturated hydrocarbon radical, with a metal complex of the formula: CpRh[P(R[sub 2])[sub 3

  14. Some operator monotone functions

    E-print Network

    Frank Hansen

    2008-10-14

    We prove that the functions t -> (t^q-1)(t^p-1)^{-1} are operator monotone in the positive half-axis for 0 < p < q < 1, and we calculate the two associated canonical representation formulae. The result is used to find new monotone metrics (quantum Fisher information) on the state space of quantum systems.

  15. Chromosome structure and function

    SciTech Connect

    Risley, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents topics in chromosome structure and function. Topics covered include: the structure of interphase chromatin; chromatin structure, gene expression and differentiation; organization of mitotic chromosomes; organization of meiotic chromosomes and synaptonimal complexes; the lampbrush chromsome of animal oocytes; dosage compensation in mammals: x chromosome inactivation; and polytene chromosomes.

  16. Unraveling STIM2 function.

    PubMed

    López, Esther; Salido, Ginés M; Rosado, Juan A; Berna-Erro, Alejandro

    2012-12-01

    The discovery of molecular players in capacitative calcium (Ca(2+)) entry, also referred to as store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE), supposed a great advance in the knowledge of cellular mechanisms of Ca(2+) entry, which are essential for a broad range of cellular functions. The identification of STIM1 and STIM2 proteins as the sensors of Ca(2+) stored in the endoplasmic reticulum unraveled the mechanism by which depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores is communicated to store-operated Ca(2+) channels located in the plasma membrane, triggering the activation of SOCE and intracellular Ca(2+)-dependent signaling cascades. Initial studies suggested a dominant function of STIM1 in SOCE and SOCE-dependent cellular functions compared to STIM2, especially those that participate in immune responses. Consequently, most of the subsequent studies focused on STIM1. However, during the last years, STIM2 has been demonstrated to play a more relevant and complex function than initially reported, being even important to sustain normal life in mice. These studies have led to reconsider the role of STIM2 in SOCE and its relevance in cellular physiology. This review is intended to summarize and provide an overview of the current data available about this exciting isoform, STIM2, and its actual position together with STIM1 in the mechanism of SOCE. PMID:22477146

  17. A Functional Housing Market

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    High school teacher Susan Boone asks students to complete mathematical problems on housing prices using the Internet at the Functional Housing Market lesson site. Detailed instructions are provided, and a collection of real estate links from Houston, TX and beyond gives students a sense of real estate information on the Web.

  18. The Relationships between Weight Functions, Geometric Functions,and Compliance Functions in Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Rong

    2007-02-06

    Linear elastic fracture mechanics is widely used in industry because it established simple and explicit relationships between the permissible loading conditions and the critical crack size that is allowed in a structure. Stress intensity factors are the above-mentioned functional expressions that relate load with crack size through geometric functions or weight functions. Compliance functions are to determine the crack/flaw size in a structure when optical inspection is inconvenient. As a result, geometric functions, weight functions and compliance functions have been intensively studied to determine the stress intensity factor expressions for different geometries. However, the relations between these functions have received less attention. This work is therefore to investigate the intrinsic relationships between these functions. Theoretical derivation was carried out and the results were verified on single-edge cracked plate under tension and bending. It is found out that the geometric function is essentially the non-dimensional weight function at the loading point. The compliance function is composed of two parts: a varying part due to crack extension and a constant part from the intact structure if no crack exists. The derivative of the compliance function at any location is the product of the geometric function and the weight function at the evaluation point. Inversely, the compliance function can be acquired by the integration of the product of the geometric function and the weight function with respect to the crack size. The integral constant is just the unchanging compliance from the intact structure. Consequently, a special application of the relations is to obtain the compliance functions along a crack once the geometric function and weight functions are known. Any of the three special functions can be derived once the other two functions are known. These relations may greatly simplify the numerical process in obtaining either geometric functions, weight functions or compliance functions for new test geometries.

  19. Dirac Delta Function 1 Definition

    E-print Network

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    Dirac Delta Function 1 Definition Dirac's delta function is defined by the following property (t of the delta function is the following relation dtf(t)(t) = f(0) (5) for any function f(t). This is easy to see to dtf(t)(t - t0) = f(t0). (6) Mathematically, the delta function is not a function, because it is too

  20. Marrying Form and Function: A Place for Grammar and Total Target Language in the Secondary Modern Foreign Languages Classroom. Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogg, Ivy

    This paper examines the possible role of grammar throughout Key Stages 3 and 4 in the modern language curriculum where communication is the central tenet. It also discusses how total or virtually total use of target language (German) in the classroom can help deal with the dichotomy of grammar versus communication and bring about an integrated…

  1. Engineering living functional materials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Allen Y; Zhong, Chao; Lu, Timothy K

    2015-01-16

    Natural materials, such as bone, integrate living cells composed of organic molecules together with inorganic components. This enables combinations of functionalities, such as mechanical strength and the ability to regenerate and remodel, which are not present in existing synthetic materials. Taking a cue from nature, we propose that engineered 'living functional materials' and 'living materials synthesis platforms' that incorporate both living systems and inorganic components could transform the performance and the manufacturing of materials. As a proof-of-concept, we recently demonstrated that synthetic gene circuits in Escherichia coli enabled biofilms to be both a functional material in its own right and a materials-synthesis platform. To demonstrate the former, we engineered E. coli biofilms into a chemical-inducer-responsive electrical switch. To demonstrate the latter, we engineered E. coli biofilms to dynamically organize biotic-abiotic materials across multiple length scales, template gold nanorods, gold nanowires, and metal/semiconductor heterostructures, and synthesize semiconductor nanoparticles (Chen, A. Y. et al. (2014) Synthesis and patterning of tunable multiscale materials with engineered cells. Nat. Mater. 13, 515-523.). Thus, tools from synthetic biology, such as those for artificial gene regulation, can be used to engineer the spatiotemporal characteristics of living systems and to interface living systems with inorganic materials. Such hybrids can possess novel properties enabled by living cells while retaining desirable functionalities of inorganic systems. These systems, as living functional materials and as living materials foundries, would provide a radically different paradigm of materials performance and synthesis-materials possessing multifunctional, self-healing, adaptable, and evolvable properties that are created and organized in a distributed, bottom-up, autonomously assembled, and environmentally sustainable manner. PMID:25592034

  2. Functional Brain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this analysis is to review a spectrum of functional brain imaging technologies to identify whether there are any imaging modalities that are more effective than others for various brain pathology conditions. This evidence-based analysis reviews magnetoencephalography (MEG), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), positron emission tomography (PET), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the diagnosis or surgical management of the following conditions: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), brain tumours, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis (MS), and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive, degenerative, neurologic condition characterized by cognitive impairment and memory loss. The Canadian Study on Health and Aging estimated that there will be 97,000 incident cases (about 60,000 women) of dementia (including AD) in Canada in 2006. In Ontario, there will be an estimated 950 new cases and 580 deaths due to brain cancer in 2006. Treatments for brain tumours include surgery and radiation therapy. However, one of the limitations of radiation therapy is that it damages tissue though necrosis and scarring. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may not distinguish between radiation effects and resistant tissue, creating a potential role for functional brain imaging. Epilepsy is a chronic disorder that provokes repetitive seizures. In Ontario, the rate of epilepsy is estimated to be 5 cases per 1,000 people. Most people with epilepsy are effectively managed with drug therapy; but about 50% do not respond to drug therapy. Surgical resection of the seizure foci may be considered in these patients, and functional brain imaging may play a role in localizing the seizure foci. Multiple sclerosis is a progressive, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The cause of MS is unknown; however, it is thought to be due to a combination of etiologies, including genetic and environmental components. The prevalence of MS in Canada is 240 cases per 100,000 people. Parkinson’s disease is the most prevalent movement disorder; it affects an estimated 100,000 Canadians. Currently, the standard for measuring disease progression is through the use of scales, which are subjective measures of disease progression. Functional brain imaging may provide an objective measure of disease progression, differentiation between parkinsonian syndromes, and response to therapy. The Technology Being Reviewed Functional Brain Imaging Functional brain imaging technologies measure blood flow and metabolism. The results of these tests are often used in conjunction with structural imaging (e.g., MRI or CT). Positron emission tomography and MRS identify abnormalities in brain tissues. The former measures abnormalities through uptake of radiotracers in the brain, while the latter measures chemical shifts in metabolite ratios to identify abnormalities. The potential role of functional MRI (fMRI) is to identify the areas of the brain responsible for language, sensory and motor function (sensorimotor cortex), rather than identifying abnormalities in tissues. Magnetoencephalography measures magnetic fields of the electric currents in the brain, identifying aberrant activity. Magnetoencephalography may have the potential to localize seizure foci and to identify the sensorimotor cortex, visual cortex and auditory cortex. In terms of regulatory status, MEG and PET are licensed by Health Canada. Both MRS and fMRI use a MRI platform; thus, they do not have a separate licence from Health Canada. The radiotracers used in PET scanning are not licensed by Health Canada for general use but can be used through a Clinical Trials Application. Review Strategy The literature published up to September 2006 was searched in the following databases: MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CENTRAL, and International Network of Agencies for H

  3. Log-supermodular functions, functional clones and counting CSPs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Log-supermodular functions, functional clones and counting CSPs Andrei A. Bulatov1 , Martin Dyer2 clones of functions on the Boolean domain, which are analogous to the familiar relational clones constituting Post's lattice. One of these clones is the collection of log-supermodular (lsm) functions, which

  4. Log-supermodular functions, functional clones and counting CSPs

    E-print Network

    Bulatov, Andrei A; Goldberg, Leslie Ann; Jerrum, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by a desire to understand the computational complexity of counting constraint satisfaction problems (counting CSPs), particularly the complexity of approximation, we study functional clones of functions on the Boolean domain, which are analogous to the familiar relational clones constituting Post's lattice. One of these clones is the collection of log-supermodular (lsm) functions, which turns out to play a significant role in classifying counting CSPs. In our study, we assume that non-negative unary functions (weights) are available. Given this, we prove that there are no functional clones lying strictly between the clone of lsm functions and the total clone (containing all functions). Thus, any counting CSP that contains a single non-lsm function is computationally as hard as any problem in #P. Furthermore, any non-trivial functional clone (in a sense that will be made precise below) contains the binary function "implies". As a consequence, all non-trivial counting CSPs (with non-negative unary wei...

  5. Nuclear functions of prefoldin

    PubMed Central

    Millán-Zambrano, Gonzalo; Chávez, Sebastián

    2014-01-01

    Prefoldin is a cochaperone, present in all eukaryotes, that cooperates with the chaperonin CCT. It is known mainly for its functional relevance in the cytoplasmic folding of actin and tubulin monomers during cytoskeleton assembly. However, both canonical and prefoldin-like subunits of this heterohexameric complex have also been found in the nucleus, and are functionally connected with nuclear processes in yeast and metazoa. Plant prefoldin has also been detected in the nucleus and physically associated with a gene regulator. In this review, we summarize the information available on the involvement of prefoldin in nuclear phenomena, place special emphasis on gene transcription, and discuss the possibility of a global coordination between gene regulation and cytoplasmic dynamics mediated by prefoldin. PMID:25008233

  6. Functional magnetic microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Landel, Robert F. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Functional magnetic particles are formed by dissolving a mucopolysaccharide such as chitosan in acidified aqueous solution containing a mixture of ferrous chloride and ferric chloride. As the pH of the solution is raised magnetite is formed in situ in the solution by raising the pH. The dissolved chitosan is a polyelectrolyte and forms micelles surrounding the granules at pH of 8-9. The chitosan precipitates on the granules to form microspheres containing the magnetic granules. On addition of the microspheres to waste aqueous streams containing dissolved ions, the hydroxyl and amine functionality of the chitosan forms chelates binding heavy metal cations such as lead, copper, and mercury and the chelates in turn bind anions such as nitrate, fluoride, phosphate and borate.

  7. Waxes for functional impressions.

    PubMed

    Kotsiomiti, E; McCabe, J F

    1996-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a wax suitable to serve as a functional impression material. Several binary mixtures of paraffin, beeswax and rosin were prepared. They were characterized by differential thermal analysis (DTA), and tested for plastic deformation, thermal expansion, detail reproduction and mechanical properties. It was found that the combinations of paraffin with rosin can function well as impression materials, as they combine a high value of plastic deformation at 37 degrees C with relatively low values at room temperature. Concentrations of rosin as small as 1% or 2% are adequate to produce this result. The flow of paraffin was significantly reduced by the addition of beeswax. A linear relationship was found between the 37 degrees C flow values of paraffin-beeswax mixtures and the proportions of the ingredients. PMID:8850062

  8. Parkin structure and function.

    PubMed

    Seirafi, Marjan; Kozlov, Guennadi; Gehring, Kalle

    2015-06-01

    Mutations in the parkin or PINK1 genes are the leading cause of the autosomal recessive form of Parkinson's disease. The gene products, the E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin and the serine/threonine kinase PINK1, are neuroprotective proteins, which act together in a mitochondrial quality control pathway. Here, we review the structure of parkin and mechanisms of its autoinhibition and function as a ubiquitin ligase. We present a model for the recruitment and activation of parkin as a key regulatory step in the clearance of depolarized or damaged mitochondria by autophagy (mitophagy). We conclude with a brief overview of other functions of parkin and considerations for drug discovery in the mitochondrial quality control pathway. PMID:25712550

  9. Functional Biomimetic Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Paul M.

    N-substituted glycine oligomers, or 'peptoids,' are a class of sequence--specific foldamers composed of tertiary amide linkages, engendering proteolytic stability and enhanced cellular permeability. Peptoids are notable for their facile synthesis, sequence diversity, and ability to fold into distinct secondary structures. In an effort to establish new functional peptoid architectures, we utilize the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne [3+2] cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction to generate peptidomimetic assemblies bearing bioactive ligands that specifically target and modulate Androgen Receptor (AR) activity, a major therapeutic target for prostate cancer. Additionally, we explore chemical ligation protocols to generate semi-synthetic hybrid biomacromolecules capable of exhibiting novel structures and functions not accessible to fully biosynthesized proteins.

  10. Process for functionalizing alkanes

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, R.G.; Janowicz, A.H.; Periana-Pillai, R.A.

    1984-06-12

    Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons selectively in the terminal position comprises: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons with a metal complex CpRhPMe/sub 3/H/sub 2/ in the presence of ultraviolet radiation at -60/sup 0/ to -17/sup 0/C to form a hydridoalkyl complex CpRhPMe/sub 3/RH; (b) reacting said hydridoalkyl complex with a haloform CHX/sub 3/ at -60/sup 0/ to -17/sup 0/C to form the corresponding haloalkyl complex of step (a) CpRhPMe/sub 3/RX; and (c) reacting said haloalkyl complex with halogen -60 to 25/sup 0/C to form a functional haloalkyl compound.

  11. Pathways mediating functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Baker, Stuart N; Zaaimi, Boubker; Fisher, Karen M; Edgley, Steve A; Soteropoulos, Demetris S

    2015-01-01

    Following damage to the motor system (e.g., after stroke or spinal cord injury), recovery of upper limb function exploits the multiple pathways which allow motor commands to be sent to the spinal cord. Corticospinal fibers originate from premotor as well as primary motor cortex. While some corticospinal fibers make direct monosynaptic connections to motoneurons, there are also many connections to interneurons which allow control of motoneurons indirectly. Such interneurons may be placed within the cervical enlargement, or more rostrally (propriospinal interneurons). In addition, connections from cortex to the reticular formation in the brainstem allow motor commands to be sent over the reticulospinal tract to these spinal centers. In this review, we consider the relative roles of these different routes for the control of hand function, both in healthy primates and after recovery from lesion. PMID:25890147

  12. Functional Models and Dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. O Ramsay; Giles Hooker; Spencer Graves

    This chapter brings us to the study of continuous time dynamics, where functional data analysis has, perhaps, its greatest\\u000a utility by providing direct access to relationships between derivatives that could otherwise be studied only indirectly. Although\\u000a dynamic systems are the subject of a large mathematical literature, they are relatively uncommon in statistics. We have therefore\\u000a devoted the first section of

  13. Fast rational function reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Khodadad; Michael B. Monagan

    2006-01-01

    Let F be a field and let f and g be polynomials in F(t) satisfying degf > degg. Recall that on input of f and g the extended Euclidean algorithm computes a sequence of polynomials (si,ti,ri) satisfying sif + tig = ri. Thus for i with gcd(ti,f) = 1, we obtain rational functions ri\\/ti2 F(t) satisfying ri\\/ti g (mod f).

  14. Infant Pulmonary Function Testing

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Stephanie D.

    2011-01-01

    Infant pulmonary function testing has evolved from a research technique into a diagnostic tool. As such, new current procedural terminology (CPT) codes have been created and are available for use as of January 1, 2010. The technology now available has a range of applications. Through a series of vignettes, this article illustrates the methodology of the tests, some of their applications, and how to code and bill for the procedures. PMID:21540218

  15. Heart Function and Development

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    CLIMB: Cornell's Learning Initiative in Medicine and Bioengineering

    In this module, developed as part of Cornell's Learning Initiative in Medicine and Bioengineering (CLIMB), students will learn the basic process of heart development, along with the anatomy and function of the heart. Students will also learn about embryonic development and be introduced to observational tools used by biomedical researchers. This module includes a teacher's guide with learning objectives outlined, classroom activities, and supporting image files. CLIMB is part of the NSF GK-12 program.

  16. Monocyte function in cirrhosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Holdstock; B Leslie; S Hill; A Tanner; R Wright

    1982-01-01

    Monocyte function has been studied in a total of 51 patients with biopsy-proven cirrhosis and 35 controls. There was significantly reduced monocyte spreading (p less than 0.05), chemotaxis (p less than 0.02), bacterial phagocytosis (p less than 0.05) and bacterial killing (p less than 0.02) in the cirrhotics compared to the controls. Monocytes from patients with cirrhosis produced significantly less

  17. Partly Occupied Wannier Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Thygesen; L. B. Hansen; K. W. Jacobsen

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a scheme for constructing partly occupied, maximally localized\\u000aWannier functions (WFs) for both molecular and periodic systems. Compared to\\u000athe traditional occupied WFs the partly occupied WFs posses improved symmetry\\u000aand localization properties achieved through a bonding-antibonding closing\\u000aprocedure. We demonstrate the equivalence between bonding-antibonding closure\\u000aand the minimization of the average spread of the WFs in the

  18. Functional photoacoustic microscopy 

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Hao

    2009-06-02

    with physiological changes in biological tissues, which gives optical techniques high sensitivity in functional imaging. As a result, optical imaging has the potential in detecting abnormality and physiological changes in tissues, for example cancer in early...-related metabolic processes, such as changes of total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO 2 ), 7,8 to image tumor angiogenesis. It can also be applied to detect melanin-related skin melanoma cancers. Furthermore, by employing exogenous...

  19. Non-functional Policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bert Robben; Bart Vanhaute; Wouter Joosen; Pierre Verbaeten

    1999-01-01

    It is well known that a meta-object protocol (MOP) is apowerful mechanism to control the behavior of an application and toimplement non-functional requirements such as fault-tolerance and distributedexecution. A key feature of these architectures is the strict separationbetween the application at the base-level and the non-functionalconcerns at the meta-level. This makes it possible to develop genericmeta-programs that can be reused

  20. Functionalism and Sensations

    E-print Network

    Brown, Mark

    cannot be essential to its operation. This negative insight of functional­ ism is its least controversial feature, although we will see reason to doubt it. On the positive side functionalists typically ex­ plicate the notion of an abstract causal role... programming. The special difficulty that functionalist theories face with the qualitative character of sensations can now be put plainly. The functionalist program is to define mental states relationally, but I will argue that some mental states appear...

  1. Cognitive function\\/dementia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lennart Hansson

    2000-01-01

    Several recent observations show that elevated blood pressure (BP) increases the risk of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) or reduced cognitive function. In a 15-year follow-up of a population-based cohort of elderly individuals that prior to developing AD such subjects had significantly higher systolic and diastolic BPs than those who remained mentally intact during follow-up(1).In a 20-year follow-up data on 999 men

  2. Nicotinamide and neurocognitive function.

    PubMed

    Rennie, George; Chen, Andrew C; Dhillon, Haryana; Vardy, Janette; Damian, Diona L

    2015-07-01

    Nicotinamide, or vitamin B3, is a precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) and is involved in a multitude of intra- and inter-cellular processes, which regulate some of the cell's metabolic, stress, and immune responses to physiological or pathological signals. As a precursor of NAD(+), which is a key coenzyme in the production of adenosine triphosphate or cellular energy, nicotinamide has been investigated for potential neuroprotective effects in cellular, animal, and human studies. Objectives We aimed to summarize the current evidence on the effect of dietary and supplemental nicotinamide on cognitive function. Methods A literature review was conducted on the effects of nicotinamide and its derivatives as a preventive and therapeutic agent for disorders of neurocognitive function. Specific conditions examined include age-related cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and ischaemic and traumatic brain injury. Results Data from animal and human interventional studies and epidemiological research suggests that nicotinamide may be beneficial in preserving and enhancing neurocognitive function. Discussion Nicotinamide is non-toxic, inexpensive and widely available, and interventional studies in humans, using supplemental doses of nicotinamide, are now warranted. PMID:24559077

  3. Evaluating the Evans function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malham, Simon; Niesen, Jitse

    2008-03-01

    We consider the numerical evaluation of the Evans function, a Wronskian-like determinant that arises in the study of the stability of travelling waves. Constructing the Evans function involves matching the solutions of a linear ordinary differential equation depending on the spectral parameter. The problem becomes stiff as the spectral parameter grows. Consequently, the Gauss-Legendre method has previously been used for such problems; however more recently, methods based on the Magnus expansion have been proposed. Here we extensively examine the stiff regime for a general scalar Schroedinger operator. We show that although the fourth-order Magnus method suffers from order reduction, a fortunate cancellation when computing the Evans matching function means that fourth-order convergence in the end result is preserved. The Gauss-Legendre method does not suffer from order reduction, but it does not experience the cancellation either, and thus it has the same order of convergence in the end result. Finally we discuss the relative merits of both methods as spectral tools.

  4. [Functional imaging and radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Lallemand, F; Lakosi, F; Hustinx, R; Withofs, N; Meunier, P; Tshibanda, L; Jodogne, S; Coucke, P; Martinive, P

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging plays a crucial role in the diagnosis, staging and therapeutic strategy of oncologic patients. The development of medical imaging over the last decade has allowed significant progresses in radiotherapy. Indeed, medical imaging is now considered the corner stone of radiotherapy. The main challenge for the radiation oncologist consists in the tumour identification with a view to irradiate the tumour at a curative dose while avoiding healthy tissues. To achieve these goals, the radiotherapist daily uses anatomical imaging such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Since several years now, the development of functional imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET) combined with CT or functional MRI has opened new perspectives in the management of oncologic diseases. Indeed, these imaging techniques offer new information on tumour metabolism that may be taken into account to plan the radiotherapy treatment. This article illustrates the different imaging techniques used in radiotherapy and the role of functional imaging for establishing new therapeutic strategies in radiation oncology. PMID:24822301

  5. Creating functional artificial proteins.

    PubMed

    Razeghifard, Reza; Wallace, Brett B; Pace, Ron J; Wydrzynski, Tom

    2007-02-01

    Much is now known about how protein folding occurs, through the sequence analysis of proteins of known folding geometry and the sequence/structural analysis of proteins and their mutants. This has allowed not only the modification of natural proteins but also the construction of de novo polypeptides with predictable folding patterns. Structure/function analysis of natural proteins is used to construct derived versions that retain a degree of biological activity. The constructed versions made of either natural or artificial sequences contain critical residues for activity such as receptor binding. In some cases, the functionality is introduced by incorporating binding sites for other elements, such as organic cofactors or transition metals, into the protein scaffold. While these modified proteins can mimic the function of natural proteins, they can also be constructed to have novel activities. Recently engineered photoactive proteins are good examples of such systems in which a light-induced electron transfer can be established in normally light-insensitive proteins. The present review covers some aspects of protein design that have been used to investigate protein receptor binding, cofactor binding and biological electron transfer. PMID:17305556

  6. Functional ingredients from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Buono, Silvia; Langellotti, Antonio Luca; Martello, Anna; Rinna, Francesca; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2014-08-01

    A wide variety of natural sources are under investigation to evaluate their possible use for new functional ingredient formulation. Some records attested the traditional and ancient use of wild harvested microalgae as human food but their cultivation for different purposes started about 40 years ago. The most popular species are Arthrospira (traditional name, Spirulina), Chlorella spp., Dunaliella spp. and Haematococcus spp. Microalgae provide a bewildering array of opportunities to develop healthier food products using innovative approaches and a number of different strategies. Compared to other natural sources of bioactive ingredients, microalgae have many advantages such as their huge biodiversity, the possibility to grow in arid land and with limited fresh water consumption and the flexibility of their metabolism, which could be adapted to produce specific molecules. All these factors led to very sustainable production making microalgae eligible as one of the most promising foods for the future, particularly as source of proteins, lipids and phytochemicals. In this work, a revision of the knowledge about the use of microalgae as food and as a source of functional ingredients has been performed. The most interesting results in the field are presented and commented upon, focusing on the different species of microalgae and the activity of the nutritionally relevant compounds. A summary of the health effects obtained together with pros and cons in the adoption of this natural source as functional food ingredients is also proposed. PMID:24957182

  7. Carbasugars: Synthesis and Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki

    It is well recognized that glycosidase inhibitors are not only tools to elucidate the mechanism of a living system manipulated by glycoconjugates but also potential clinical drugs and insecticides by inducing the failure of glycoconjugates to perform their function. In this chapter, the syntheses and functions of natural glycosidase inhibitors (cyclophelitol , allosamidine , and trehazoilin ), which possess highly oxygenated and functionalized cyclohexanes or cyclopentanes in their structures and are defined as carbasugars , and the structure and activity relationships (SAR) of their derivatives are described. Also, recently much attention has been focused on neuraminidase inhibitors as anti-influenza drugs since relenza , which was derived from sialic acid, and also, tamiflu , which is the artificial carbasugar designed as a transition state analogue in the hydrolysis pathway of substrates by neuraminidase, were launched in the market. Herein, the medicinal chemistry efforts to discover tamiflu and some efficient syntheses applicable to process chemistry are described. Finally, useful synthetic methodologies for carbasugar formation from sugars are also introduced in this chapter.

  8. Development of Functional Foods

    PubMed Central

    MITSUOKA, Tomotari

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in intestinal microbiota research are the background for the appearance of functional foods. Lactic fermentation products are included in the functional foods and classified into 3 groups based on their mechanisms of action: probiotics, prebiotics and biogenics. Probiotics are viable microorganisms, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, that beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal bacterial balance. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients, such as oligosaccharides and dietary fiber, that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth or activities of beneficial intestinal bacteria in the colon and thus improve the health of the hosts. Biogenics are biologically active peptides, including immunopotentiators (biological response modifier: BRM), plant flavonoids, etc. They act directly or indirectly through modulation of intestinal microbiota on the health of the hosts. Thus, functional foods enhance bioregulation such as stresses, appetite and absorption; biodefence, such as immunity and suppression of allergies; prevent diseases, including diarrhea, constipation, cancer, cholesterolemia and diabetes; and suppress aging through immunostimulation as well as suppression of mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, oxidation processes, intestinal putrefaction, and cholesterolemia. PMID:25032085

  9. Correcting correlation function measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravan, Shantam; Pujahari, Prabhat; Prasad, Sidharth; Pruneau, Claude A.

    2014-02-01

    Correlation functions measured as a function of ?? ,?? have emerged as a powerful tool to study the dynamics of particle production in nuclear collisions at high energy. They are however subject, like any other observables, to instrumental effects which must be properly accounted for to extract meaningful physics results. We compare the merits of several techniques used towards measurement of these correlation functions in nuclear collisions. We discuss and distinguish the effects of finite acceptance, and detection efficiency that may vary with collision parameters such as the position of the event in the detector and the instantaneous luminosity of the beam. We focus in particular on instrumental effects which break the factorization of the particle pair detection efficiency, and describe a technique to recover the robustness of correlation observables. We finally introduce a multidimensional weight method to correct for efficiencies that vary simultaneously with particle pseudo rapidity, azimuthal angle, transverse momentum, and the collision vertex position. The method can be generalized to account for any number of "event variables" that may break the factorability of the pair efficiency.

  10. Emotion, Social Function, and Psychopathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dacher Keltner; Ann M. Kring

    1998-01-01

    The studies of emotion function and emotional disorders complement one another. In this article, the authors outline relations between the social functions of emotion and four psychological disorders. The authors first present a social-functional account of emotion and argue that emotions help coordinate social interactions through their informative, evocative, and incentive functions. They then review evidence concerning the emotional and

  11. Error functions Nikolai G. Lehtinen

    E-print Network

    Lehtinen, Nikolai G.

    Error functions Nikolai G. Lehtinen April 23, 2010 1 Error function erf x and complementary er- ror function erfc x (Gauss) error function is erf x = 2 x 0 e-t2 dt (1) and has properties erf (-) = -1, erf (+) = 1 erf (-x) = -erf (x), erf (x ) = [erf (x)] where the asterisk denotes complex conjugation

  12. Functional Foods for Women's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeman, Alice K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…

  13. The SHAvite-3 Hash Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eli Biham; Orr Dunkelman; Ecole Normale Superieure; Departement d'Informatique

    In this document we present SHAvite-3, a secure and efficient hash function based on the HAIFA construction and the AES building blocks. SHAvite-3 uses a well understood set of primitives such as a Feistel block cipher which iterates a round function based on the AES round function. SHAvite-3's compression functions are secure against cryptanalysis, while the selected mode of iteration

  14. Propagation Characteristics of Boolean Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bart Preneel; Werner Van Leekwijck; Luc Van Linden; René Govaerts; Joos Vandewalle

    1990-01-01

    The relation between the Walsh-Hadamard transform and the autocorrelation function of Boolean functions is used to study propagation characteristics of these functions. The Strict Avalanche Criterion and the Perfect Nonlinearity Crite- rion are generalized in a Propagation Criterion of degree k. New properties and constructions for Boolean bent functions are given and also the extension of the deflnition to odd

  15. Galaxy cosmological mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Amanda R.; Iribarrem, Alvaro; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.; Stoeger, William R.

    2014-12-01

    Aims: This paper studies the galaxy cosmological mass function (GCMF) in a semi-empirical relativistic approach that uses observational data provided by recent galaxy redshift surveys. Methods: Starting from a previously presented relation between the mass-to-light ratio, the selection function obtained from the luminosity function (LF) data and the luminosity density, the average luminosity L, and the average galactic mass ?g were computed in terms of the redshift. ?g was also alternatively estimated by means of a method that uses the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF). Comparison of these two forms of deriving the average galactic mass allowed us to infer a possible bias introduced by the selection criteria of the survey. We used the FORS Deep Field galaxy survey sample of 5558 galaxies in the redshift range 0.5 function, but whose fitted parameter values are different from the values found in the literature for the GSMF. Conclusions: This GCMF behavior follows the theoretical predictions from the cold dark matter models in which the less massive objects form first, followed later by more massive ones. In the range 0.5

  16. [Functional pathophysiology of consciousness].

    PubMed

    Jellinger, Kurt A

    2009-01-01

    Consciousness (Latin conscientia "moral conscience"), according to the English philosopher John Locke (1632-1704) [103], is the awareness of all that occurs in the mind of a person, whereas the American philosopher John Searle (2000) defined it as "inner qualitative, subjective states and processes of awareness". In modern science it is defined as a continuous state of full awareness of the Self and one's relationship to the external and internal environment, describing the degree of wakefulness in which an organism recognizes stimuli. This widely discussed biological term for complex neuronal processes that allow an individuum to recognize itself and its environment and to act accordingly, has been and still is the subject of much research in philosophy and natural/neuroscience. Its definition is often used for awareness and recognition, too. While the Egyptians in the papyrus Edwin Smith already recognized the brain as the seat of consciousness, René Descartes (1644 [36]) believed its special structure should be "a small gland in the middle", but the anatomical structures and physiological processes involved in consciousness were elucidated only in the middle of the 20th century. Neuronal substrates include several functional networks that are hierarchically organized and cooperate functionally. The lowest level is the mesencephalic formatio reticularis and its projections to the thalamus that were identified als ascending reticular system (ARAS) by the classical experiments of Moruzzi and Magoun, whereas later analyses of patients with impaired consciousness provided further insights. The mesencephalic ARAS as motor of the function of higher structures projects 1. via the reticular thalamus diffusely to the cortex, 2. via hypothalamus to the basal forebrain and limbic system, and 3. to the medial raphe of the brainstem and locus coeruleus and their diffuse cortical projections. The reticular system is stimulated directly and indirectly via numerous collaterals from important somatic and sensory pathways and acts as a control system of neuronal activities of the cerebral cortex. The principal function of the ARAS is to focus our alertness on specific stimuli or internal processes, which run via complex neuronal cell groups and numerous neurotransmitters that influence various aspects of consciousness and wakefulness. Stimulation of the ARAS produces an arousal reaction as the electric correlate of consciousness; its destruction causes coma and related states. The highest level are cortical (prefrontal and association) networks for recognition, motor activity, longterm memory and attention, the left hemisphere being considered as the dominant one. Different levels of consciousness are distinguished: 1. hyperalertness, 2. alertness (normal state of wakefulness), 3. somnolence or lethargy, 4. obtundation with tendency to fall asleep, 5. stupor, 6. coma and its subtypes, like akinetic mutism, apallic syndrome or persistent vegative state, locked-in syndrome, delirium, and catatonia. They are caused by damages in various functional levels of the brain, by psychogenic factors or experimentally, and are accompanied by characteristic neurological and psychiatric disorders. The relevant morphological lesions can be detected by electrophysiological and imaging studies. The bases of functional anatomy and pathophysiology of consciousness, its cognitive aspects and its major disorders, their causes and functional substrates with reference to sleep and both spontaneous and iatrogenic disorders of consciousness are critically summarized. PMID:19573504

  17. Decomposition of multivariate function using the Heaviside step function.

    PubMed

    Chikayama, Eisuke

    2014-01-01

    Whereas the Dirac delta function introduced by P. A. M. Dirac in 1930 to develop his theory of quantum mechanics has been well studied, a not famous formula related to the delta function using the Heaviside step function in a single-variable form, also given by Dirac, has been poorly studied. Following Dirac's method, we demonstrate the decomposition of a multivariate function into a sum of integrals in which each integrand is composed of a derivative of the function and a direct product of Heaviside step functions. It is an extension of Dirac's single-variable form to that for multiple variables. PMID:26034693

  18. Bioinspired, functional nanoscale materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, In-Kook

    Functional nanomaterials in nature exhibit many unique functions and optical and mechanical properties. Examples of this include the dry adhesion of a gecko's foot, the reduced drag on a shark's skin, the high strength and toughness of nacre, and the superhydrophobic self-cleaning of a lotus leaf. This dissertation is devoted to creating unique and enhanced properties by mimicking such functional materials. We have developed a novel self-pumping membrane, which does not require an applied voltage. The self-pumping membrane harvests chemical energy from a surrounding fluid and uses it for accelerated mass transport across the membrane. A device such as this has promising applications in implantable or remotely operating autonomous devices and membrane-based purification systems. Reproducible and highly active surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates were developed using a bottom-up self-assembly technology. With their high sensitivity and good reproducibility, the developed nanostructures (gold nanoparticle and nanohole arrays) as SERS substrates are very promising for applications such as ultra-sensitive detectors for chemicals and reproducible sensors for chemical and biological molecules. Binary colloidal crystals were created using a simple, fast, and scalable spin-coating technology. Although further investigation of the procedure is needed to improve the ordering of particles in the individual layers, the developed assembly technology has a promising outlook in applications such as optical integrated circuits and high-speed optical computing. Inorganic-organic nanocomposites were realized by assembling synthesized gibbsite nanoplatelets using the electrophoretic deposition and infiltration of a monomer followed by polymerization. Via surface modifications of gibbsite nanoplatelets, nanocomposites were further reinforced with covalent linkages between the inorganic platelets and organic matrix.

  19. NEUROFEEDBACK USING FUNCTIONAL SPECTROSCOPY

    PubMed Central

    Hinds, Oliver; Wighton, Paul; Tisdall, M. Dylan; Hess, Aaron; Breiter, Hans; van der Kouwe, André

    2014-01-01

    Neurofeedback based on real-time measurement of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal has potential for treatment of neurological disorders and behavioral enhancement. Commonly employed methods are based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sequences that sacrifice speed and accuracy for whole-brain coverage, which is unnecessary in most applications. We present multi-voxel functional spectroscopy (MVFS): a system for computing the BOLD signal from multiple volumes of interest (VOI) in real-time that improves speed and accuracy of neurofeedback. MVFS consists of a functional spectroscopy (FS) pulse sequence, a BOLD reconstruction component, a neural activation estimator, and a stimulus system. The FS pulse sequence is a single-voxel, magnetic resonance spectroscopy sequence without water suppression that has been extended to allow acquisition of a different VOI at each repetition and real-time subject head motion compensation. The BOLD reconstruction component determines the T2* decay rate, which is directly related to BOLD signal strength. The neural activation estimator discounts nuisance signals and scales the activation relative to the amount of ROI noise. Finally, the neurofeedback system presents neural activation-dependent stimuli to experimental subjects with an overall delay of less than 1s. Here we present the MVFS system, validation of certain components, examples of its usage in a practical application, and a direct comparison of FS and echo-planar imaging BOLD measurements. We conclude that in the context of realtime BOLD imaging, MVFS can provide superior accuracy and temporal resolution compared with standard fMRI methods. PMID:24999293

  20. Probiotics as functional foods.

    PubMed

    Lin, David C

    2003-12-01

    Probiotic products have been widely used in Japan and Europe for years. Probiotics are now emerging as an important category of food supplement in the United States. Questions about the biologic nature, available products, claimed health benefits, and safety and regulation of probiotics are important for both consumers and nutrition professionals. Probiotics can be considered functional foods because they provide health benefits beyond the traditional nutrition function. With few exceptions, most probiotic products currently available contain lactic-acid-producing bacteria, which mainly belong to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. We reviewed the scientific papers published in major nutrition journals and abstracts available on the PubMed website regarding probiotics. Evidence suggests the following beneficial effects of probiotics: normalization of the intestinal microflora, ability to block the invasion of potential pathogens in the gut, prophylactic or therapeutic treatment for several types of diarrhea, relief of symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease, amelioration of lactose intolerance, prevention of colon cancer, modulation of immune function, inhibition of Helicobacter pylori, and possible enhancement of calcium absorption and reduction of blood cholesterol levels. Mechanisms for the above benefits have been proposed, but none has been proven. An adequate level of viable bacteria in a probiotic product and an appropriate daily dose are critical to achieve a health benefit. Because probiotics are not known to be pathogenic and their upper tolerable level is high, they could be promoted as a beneficial food supplement. Currently, no disease-prevention or therapeutic claim for probiotics is legally allowed. PMID:16215085

  1. Functional Hemodynamic Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Pinsky, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Functional hemodynamic monitoring is the assessment of the dynamic interactions of hemodynamic variables in response to a defined perturbation. Findings Fluid responsiveness can be predicted during positive pressure breathing by variations in venous return or left ventricular output using numerous surrogate markers, like arterial pulse pressure variation (PPV), left ventricular stroke volume variation (SVV), aortic velocity variation, inferior and superior vena cavae diameter changes and pulse oximeter pleth signal variability. Similarly, dynamic changes in cardiac output to a passive leg raising maneuver can be used in any patient and measured invasively or non-invasively. However, volume responsiveness, though important, reflects only part of the overall spectrum of functional physiological variables that can be measured to define physiologic state and monitor response to therapy. The ratio of PPV to SVV defines central arterial elastance and can be used to identify those hypotensive patients who will not increase their blood pressure in response to a fluid challenge despite increasing cardiac output. Dynamic tissue O2 saturation (StO2) responses to complete stop flow conditions as can be created by measuring hand StO2 and occluding flow with a blood pressure cuff, assesses cardiovascular sufficiency and micro-circulatory blood flow distribution. They can be used to identify those ventilator-dependent subjects who will failure a spontaneous berating trial or trauma patients in need of life saving interventions. Summary Functional hemodynamic monitoring approaches are increasing in numbers, conditions in which they are useful and resuscitation protocol applications. This is a rapidly evolving field whose pluripotential is just now being realized. PMID:24722057

  2. [Gap functions and diseases].

    PubMed

    Allagnat, Florent; Krattinger, Nathalie; Nicod, Pascal; Meda, Paolo; Haefliger, Jacques-Antoine

    2005-04-27

    Gap junctions are highly conserved structures that provide cells with a direct pathway for sharing ions, nutrients and other intracellular messengers, thus participating to the homeostasis of various tissues. Research on transgenic mice has revealed a major involvement of gap junctions proteins (connexins) in several cellular functions. At the same time, an increasing number of mutations of connexin genes has been linked to several hereditary diseases, including peripheral neuropathies, skin diseases, genetic deafness, cataracts and some forms of epilepsy. This review summarizes the state of knowledge about the implication of connexins in human pathologies. PMID:15942999

  3. [Metabolic functions and sport].

    PubMed

    Riviere, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Current epidemiological studies emphasize the increased of metabolic diseases of the adults, such as obesity, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndromes. Even more worrying is the rising prevalence of obesity in children. It is due more to sedentariness, caused more by inactivity (television, video, games, etc.) than by overeating. Many studies have shown that regular physical activities benefit various bodily functions including metabolism. After dealing with the major benefits of physical exercise on some adult metabolic disorders, we focus on the prime role played by physical activity in combating the public health problem of childhood obesity. PMID:15651421

  4. Lattice DIS Structure Functions

    E-print Network

    Stefano Capitani

    1996-07-05

    We present the computation, in lattice QCD, of the renormalization constants and mixing coefficients of operators that measure the first two moments of DIS Structure Functions. These calculations have been performed using the Sheikholeslami-Wohlert O(a) improved ``clover'' action, which is known to reduce the systematic error associated with the finiteness of the lattice spacing a. Due to the complexities of the computations, we have developed, using the computer languages Schoonschip and Form, general codes that are able to automatically carry out all the analytic lattice manipulations.

  5. Programming with functional memory

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, R. Jr.; Lew, A. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Functional memory (FM) uses memory mapped reprogrammable field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for fine-grained parallel processing. Multi-operand expressions are computed in combinational logic eliminating processor computation steps. FPGAs capture operands as memory is written, eliminating separate processor load-stores to pass operands. This paper describes how program expressions can be implemented in FM, including branch address computations. It concludes with a load store analysis comparing a conventional von Neumann processor with and without FM for a shortest path program. The load store count stays about the same but eliminating the computation steps result in a one-third step reduction overall with FM.

  6. Bayes multiple decision functions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wensong; Peña, Edsel A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously making many (M) binary decisions based on one realization of a random data matrix X. M is typically large and X will usually have M rows associated with each of the M decisions to make, but for each row the data may be low dimensional. Such problems arise in many practical areas such as the biological and medical sciences, where the available dataset is from microarrays or other high-throughput technology and with the goal being to decide which among of many genes are relevant with respect to some phenotype of interest; in the engineering and reliability sciences; in astronomy; in education; and in business. A Bayesian decision-theoretic approach to this problem is implemented with the overall loss function being a cost-weighted linear combination of Type I and Type II loss functions. The class of loss functions considered allows for use of the false discovery rate (FDR), false nondiscovery rate (FNR), and missed discovery rate (MDR) in assessing the quality of decision. Through this Bayesian paradigm, the Bayes multiple decision function (BMDF) is derived and an efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal Bayes action is described. In contrast to many works in the literature where the rows of the matrix X are assumed to be stochastically independent, we allow a dependent data structure with the associations obtained through a class of frailty-induced Archimedean copulas. In particular, non-Gaussian dependent data structure, which is typical with failure-time data, can be entertained. The numerical implementation of the determination of the Bayes optimal action is facilitated through sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The theory developed could also be extended to the problem of multiple hypotheses testing, multiple classification and prediction, and high-dimensional variable selection. The proposed procedure is illustrated for the simple versus simple hypotheses setting and for the composite hypotheses setting through simulation studies. The procedure is also applied to a subset of a microarray data set from a colon cancer study. PMID:25414762

  7. Skulls : structure and function

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    California Academy of Sciences

    2005-01-01

    Skulls have been designed for both form and function. Through the use of text and labeled photographs, this website explains how specific skull adaptations meet the needs of organisms. For instance, visitors will discover that some beaks of macaws are attached to their skull only through ligaments to limit the amount of force put on the skull when the birds crack open nuts. The site also presents a series of skull facts, questions, and answers provided by scientists. A unique feature allows visitors to rotate images of skulls 360 degrees, so they can view the different adaptations in form from all angles. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  8. The Broadening Functions Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rucinski, Slavek M.

    2012-04-01

    Essential assumptions and features of the Broadening Function (BF) technique are presented. A distinction between BF determination and the BF concept and utilization is made. The BF's can be determined in various ways. The approach based on linear deconvolution involving stellar templates, as used during the DDO program (1999 - 2008) is described, but the LSD technique would also give excellent results. The BF concept to prove and/or verify photometric light-curve solutions has so far been very limited to only a few W UMa-type binaries, with AW UMa giving particularly unexpected results.

  9. Mast Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Elaine Zayas Marcelino; Jamur, Maria Célia

    2014-01-01

    Since first described by Paul Ehrlich in 1878, mast cells have been mostly viewed as effectors of allergy. It has been only in the past two decades that mast cells have gained recognition for their involvement in other physiological and pathological processes. Mast cells have a widespread distribution and are found predominantly at the interface between the host and the external environment. Mast cell maturation, phenotype and function are a direct consequence of the local microenvironment and have a marked influence on their ability to specifically recognize and respond to various stimuli through the release of an array of biologically active mediators. These features enable mast cells to act as both first responders in harmful situations as well as to respond to changes in their environment by communicating with a variety of other cells implicated in physiological and immunological responses. Therefore, the critical role of mast cells in both innate and adaptive immunity, including immune tolerance, has gained increased prominence. Conversely, mast cell dysfunction has pointed to these cells as the main offenders in several chronic allergic/inflammatory disorders, cancer and autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes the current knowledge of mast cell function in both normal and pathological conditions with regards to their regulation, phenotype and role. PMID:25062998

  10. Sleep and immune function.

    PubMed

    Besedovsky, Luciana; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Sleep and the circadian system exert a strong regulatory influence on immune functions. Investigations of the normal sleep-wake cycle showed that immune parameters like numbers of undifferentiated naïve T cells and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines exhibit peaks during early nocturnal sleep whereas circulating numbers of immune cells with immediate effector functions, like cytotoxic natural killer cells, as well as anti-inflammatory cytokine activity peak during daytime wakefulness. Although it is difficult to entirely dissect the influence of sleep from that of the circadian rhythm, comparisons of the effects of nocturnal sleep with those of 24-h periods of wakefulness suggest that sleep facilitates the extravasation of T cells and their possible redistribution to lymph nodes. Moreover, such studies revealed a selectively enhancing influence of sleep on cytokines promoting the interaction between antigen presenting cells and T helper cells, like interleukin-12. Sleep on the night after experimental vaccinations against hepatitis A produced a strong and persistent increase in the number of antigen-specific Th cells and antibody titres. Together these findings indicate a specific role of sleep in the formation of immunological memory. This role appears to be associated in particular with the stage of slow wave sleep and the accompanying pro-inflammatory endocrine milieu that is hallmarked by high growth hormone and prolactin levels and low cortisol and catecholamine concentrations. PMID:22071480

  11. Fluoride Plus Functionalized ?-TCP

    PubMed Central

    Karlinsey, R.L.; Pfarrer, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    With more than 50 years of clinical success, fluoride serves as the gold standard agent for preventing tooth decay. In particular, the action of fluoride facilitates saliva-driven remineralization of demineralized enamel and alters solubility beneficially. Still, tooth decay remains problematic, and one way to address it may be through the development of new mineralizing agents. Laboratory and clinical studies have demonstrated that the combination of fluoride and functionalized ?-tricalcium phosphate (fTCP) produces stronger, more acid-resistant mineral relative to fluoride, native ?-TCP, or fTCP alone. In contrast to other calcium-based approaches that seem to rely on high levels of calcium and phosphate to drive remineralization, fTCP is a low-dose system designed to fit within existing topical fluoride preparations. The functionalization of ?-TCP with organic and/or inorganic molecules provides a barrier that prevents premature fluoride-calcium interactions and aids in mineralization when applied via common preparations and procedures. While additional clinical studies are warranted, supplementing with fTCP to enhance fluoride-based nucleation activity, with subsequent remineralization driven by dietary and salivary calcium and phosphate, appears to be a promising approach. PMID:22899679

  12. Varicocele and testicular function.

    PubMed

    Pastuszak, Alexander W; Wang, Run

    2015-01-01

    Testicular varicocele, a dilation of the veins of the pampiniform plexus thought to increase testicular temperature via venous congestion, is commonly associated with male infertility. Significant study has clarified the negative impact of varicocele on semen parameters and more recent work has shed light on its detrimental effects on the molecular and ultrastructural features of sperm and the testicular microenvironment, as well as more clearly defined the positive impacts of treatment on couples' fertility. The relationship between varicocele and testicular endocrine function, while known for some time based on histologic evaluation, has become more apparent in the clinical setting with a growing link between varicocele and hypogonadism. Finally, in the pediatric setting, while future study will clarify the impact of varicocele on fertility and testicular function, recent work supports a parallel effect of varicocele in adolescents and adults, suggesting a re-evaluation of current treatment approaches in light of the progressive nature of the condition and potential increased risk of future disease. PMID:25926610

  13. Sexual function after strokes.

    PubMed

    Boller, François; Agrawal, Kunal; Romano, Alissa

    2015-01-01

    Strokes are the second leading cause of death and the third leading cause of disability worldwide. Thanks in part to better and more available diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation, the vast majority of stroke patients tend to survive strokes, particularly in the industrialized world. Motor disability and cognitive changes such as aphasia and visuospatial disorders are most often considered among the major contributors to stroke burden. This chapter discusses disorders of sexual functions as another frequent sequel of strokes. Strokes generally induce hyposexuality, but in some instances they may be followed by hypersexuality. There is some evidence suggesting that lesions of either hemisphere affect sexual activities, but for different reasons: aphasia and depression after left-hemisphere lesions, a deficit in arousal and perhaps visuospatial disorders after right-hemisphere lesions. Psychologic, psychosocial, and physical factors, as well as medications, play an important role. A better understanding of the psychosocial and physiologic mechanisms underlying sexual functioning can provide insight into improving sexual activity and therefore quality of life in patients affected by strokes and other brain lesions. PMID:26003250

  14. Generalized -deformed correlation functions as spectral functions of hyperbolic geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonora, L.; Bytsenko, A. A.; Guimarães, M. E. X.

    2014-08-01

    We analyze the role of vertex operator algebra and 2d amplitudes from the point of view of the representation theory of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras, MacMahon and Ruelle functions. By definition p-dimensional MacMahon function, with , is the generating function of p-dimensional partitions of integers. These functions can be represented as amplitudes of a two-dimensional c = 1 CFT, and, as such, they can be generalized to . With some abuse of language we call the latter amplitudes generalized MacMahon functions. In this paper we show that generalized p-dimensional MacMahon functions can be rewritten in terms of Ruelle spectral functions, whose spectrum is encoded in the Patterson-Selberg function of three-dimensional hyperbolic geometry.

  15. Exponential generating functions for the associated Bessel functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhri, H.; Mojaveri, B.; Gomshi Nobary, M. A.

    2008-09-01

    Similar to the associated Legendre functions, the differential equation for the associated Bessel functions Bl,m(x) is introduced so that its form remains invariant under the transformation l ? -l - 1. A Rodrigues formula for the associated Bessel functions as squared integrable solutions in both regions l < 0 and l >= 0 is presented. The functions with the same m but with different positive and negative values of l are not independent of each other, while the functions with the same l + m (l - m) but with different values of l and m are independent of each other. So, all the functions Bl,m(x) may be taken into account as the union of the increasing (decreasing) infinite sequences with respect to l. It is shown that two new different types of exponential generating functions are attributed to the associated Bessel functions corresponding to these rearranged sequences.

  16. Reflection algebra and functional equations

    E-print Network

    W. Galleas; J. Lamers

    2014-07-14

    In this work we investigate the possibility of using the reflection algebra as a source of functional equations. More precisely, we obtain functional relations determining the partition function of the six-vertex model with domain-wall boundary conditions and one reflecting end. The model's partition function is expressed as a multiple-contour integral that allows the homogeneous limit to be obtained straightforwardly. Our functional equations are also shown to give rise to a consistent set of partial differential equations for the partition function.

  17. Technical Rebuilding of Movement Function Using Functional Electrical Stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margit Gföhler

    \\u000a To rebuild lost movement functions, neuroprostheses based on functional electrical stimulation (FES) artificially activate\\u000a skeletal muscles in corresponding sequences, using both residual body functions and artificial signals for control. Besides\\u000a the functional gain, FES training also brings physiological and psychological benefits for spinal cord-injured subjects. In\\u000a this chapter, current stimulation technology and the main components of FES-based neuroprostheses including enhanced

  18. Task partition for function tree according to innovative functional reasoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiming Tang; Xiaoping Liu

    2008-01-01

    Task partition is a critical problem of collaborative conceptual design. Aiming at the shortage that current task partition methods don't accord to innovative functional reasoning that is the kernel process and essence embodiment of conceptual design, a new task partition method for function tree according to innovative functional reasoning is proposed. To begin with, the concept of task module is

  19. Relationship Between Anxiety and Gastric Sensorimotor Function in Functional Dyspepsia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LUKAS VAN OUDENHOVE; JORIS VANDENBERGHE; BRECHT GEERAERTS; R ITA VOS; PHILIPPE PERSOONS; KOEN DEMYTTENAERE; BENJAMIN FISCHLER; JAN TACK

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between anxiety and gastric sensorimotor function in patients with (hypersensitive) functional dyspepsia (FD). Comorbidity between FD and anxiety disorders is high. In FD, epigastric pain is associated with gastric hypersensitivity and neuroticism, a personality trait related to anxiety. Experimentally induced anxiety in healthy volunteers is associated with changes in sensorimotor function of the proximal stomach.

  20. Spline Estimator for the Functional Linear Regression with Functional Response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luboÿs Prchal; Pascal Sarda

    2007-01-01

    The article is devoted to a regression setting where both, the response and the predictor, are random functions defined on some compact sets of R. We consider functional linear (auto)regression and we face the estimation of a bivariate functional parameter. Conditions for existence and uniqueness of the parameter are given and an estimator based on a B-splines expansion is proposed

  1. Construction of bent functions from near-bent functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregor Leander; Gary Mcguire

    2009-01-01

    We give a construction of bent functions in dimension 2m from near-bent functions in dimension 2m?1. In particular, we give the first ever examples of non-weakly-normal bent functions in dimensions 10 and 12, which demonstrates the significance of our construction.

  2. Obesity and Reproductive Function

    PubMed Central

    Jungheim, Emily S.; Travieso, Jennifer L.; Carson, Kenneth R.; Moley, Kelle H.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Obesity is associated with multiple adverse reproductive outcomes, but the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Public health scientists studying obesity and its effects on health outcomes have referred to obesity as a “complex system”, defined as a system of heterogeneous parts interacting in nonlinear ways to influence the behavior of the parts as a whole1,22. By this definition, human reproduction is also a complex system which may explain some of the difficulty in identifying the mechanisms linking obesity and adverse reproductive function. Despite the difficulties, research on obesity and reproduction is important as there is an epidemic of obesity among reproductive age women with associated consequences for future generations. In this review we discuss the adverse reproductive outcomes associated with obesity and data from translational studies of the mechanisms involved. We conclude with a brief discussion of public health policy as it relates to the treatment of infertility in obese women. PMID:23182555

  3. Fusion excitation function revisited

    E-print Network

    Ph. Eudes; Z. Basrak; F. Sébille; V. de la Mota; G. Royer; M. Zori?

    2012-09-28

    We report on a comprehensive systematics of fusion-evaporation and/or fusion-fission cross sections for a very large variety of systems over an energy range 4-155 A.MeV. Scaled by the reaction cross sections, fusion cross sections do not show a universal behavior valid for all systems although a high degree of correlation is present when data are ordered by the system mass asymmetry.For the rather light and close to mass-symmetric systems the main characteristics of the complete and incomplete fusion excitation functions can be precisely determined. Despite an evident lack of data above 15A.MeV for all heavy systems the available data suggests that geometrical effects could explain the persistence of incomplete fusion at incident energies as high as 155A.MeV.

  4. Actin Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Roberto; Holmes, Kenneth C.

    2011-01-01

    Actin is the most abundant protein in most eukaryotic cells. It is highly conserved and participates in more protein-protein interactions than any known protein. These properties, along with its ability to transition between monomeric (G-actin) and filamentous (F-actin) states under the control of nucleotide hydrolysis, ions, and a large number of actin-binding proteins, make actin a critical player in many cellular functions, ranging from cell motility and the maintenance of cell shape and polarity to the regulation of transcription. Moreover, the interaction of filamentous actin with myosin forms the basis of muscle contraction. Owing to its central role in the cell, the actin cytoskeleton is also disrupted or taken over by numerous pathogens. Here we review structures of G- and F-actin and discuss some of the interactions that control the polymerization and disassembly of actin. PMID:21314430

  5. Multi-functional windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Nagendra; Goldman, Lee M.; Balasubramanian, Sreeram; Sastri, Suri

    2013-06-01

    The requirements for modern aircraft are driving the need for conformal windows for future sensor systems. However, limitations on optical systems and the physical properties of optically transparent materials currently limit the geometry of existing windows and window assemblies to faceted assemblies of flat windows held in weight bearing frames. Novel material systems will have to be developed which combine different materials (e.g. ductile metals with transparent ceramics) into structures that combine transparency with structural integrity. Surmet's demonstrated ability to produce novel transparent ceramic/metal structures will allow us to produce such structures in the types of conformal shapes required for future aircraft applications. Furthermore, the ability to incorporate transparencies into such structures also holds out the promise of creating multi-functional windows which provide a broad range of capabilities that might include RF antennas and de-icing in addition to transparency. Recent results in this area will be presented.

  6. Evolution of catalytic function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, G. F.

    1993-01-01

    An RNA-based evolution system was constructed in the laboratory and used to develop RNA enzymes with novel catalytic function. By controlling the nature of the catalytic task that the molecules must perform in order to survive, it is possible to direct the evolving population toward the expression of some desired catalytic behavior. More recently, this system has been coupled to an in vitro translation procedure, raising the possibility of evolving protein enzymes in the laboratory to produce novel proteins with desired catalytic properties. The aim of this line of research is to reduce darwinian evolution, the fundamental process of biology, to a laboratory procedure that can be made to operate in the service of organic synthesis.

  7. Skin Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    Like other inflammatory dermatoses, the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) has been largely attributed to abnormalities in adaptive immunity. T helper (Th) cell types 1 and 2 cell dysregulation, IgE production, mast cell hyperactivity, and dendritic cell signaling are thought to account for the chronic, pruritic, and inflammatory dermatosis that characterizes AD. Not surprisingly, therapy has been directed toward ameliorating Th2-mediated inflammation and pruritus. Here, we review emerging evidence that inflammation in AD occurs downstream to inherited and acquired insults to the barrier. Therapy based upon this new view of pathogenesis should emphasize approaches that correct the primary abnormality in barrier function, which drives downstream inflammation and allows unrestricted antigen access. PMID:18606081

  8. Temperature and neuromuscular function.

    PubMed

    Racinais, S; Oksa, J

    2010-10-01

    This review focuses on the effects of different environmental temperatures on the neuromuscular system. During short duration exercise, performance improves from 2% to 5% with a 1 °C increase in muscle temperature. However, if central temperature increases (i.e., hyperthermia), this positive relation ceases and performance becomes impaired. Performance impairments in both cold and hot environment are related to a modification in neural drive due to protective adaptations, central and peripheral failures. This review highlights, to some extent, the different effects of hot and cold environments on the supraspinal, spinal and peripheral components of the neural drive involved in the up- and down-regulation of neuromuscular function and shows that temperature also affects the neural drive transmission to the muscle and the excitation-contraction coupling. PMID:21029186

  9. Adaptive functional magnetic resonance imaging

    E-print Network

    Yoo, Seung-Schik, 1970-

    2000-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) detects the signal associated with neuronal activation, and has been widely used to map brain functions. Locations of neuronal activation are localized and distributed throughout the brain, however, ...

  10. Families of Functions and Curves

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberts, Lila F.

    2003-08-29

    This demo provides a toolbox of aids for teaching students about families of functions. The toolbox includes collections of animations that illustrate how functions change when certain parameters are varied.

  11. Octal Bent Generalized Boolean Functions

    E-print Network

    Stanica, Pante

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we characterize (octal) bent generalized Boolean functions defined on $\\BBZ_2^n$ with values in $\\BBZ_8$. Moreover, we propose several constructions of such generalized bent functions for both $n$ even and $n$ odd.

  12. Octal Bent Generalized Boolean Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pante Stanica; Thor Martinsen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we characterize (octal) bent generalized Boolean functions defined on $\\\\BBZ_2^n$ with values in $\\\\BBZ_8$. Moreover, we propose several constructions of such generalized bent functions for both $n$ even and $n$ odd.

  13. Whittaker functions on metaplectic groups

    E-print Network

    McNamara, Peter James

    2010-01-01

    The theory of Whittaker functions is of crucial importance in the classical study of automorphic forms on adele groups. Motivated by the appearance of Whittaker functions for covers of reductive groups in the theory of ...

  14. Graphical Representation of Thermodynamic Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, A.

    1975-01-01

    Outlines a teaching method using graphs for explaining phase changes and the effect of pressure and the relationships between temperature, entropy, enthalpy, energy, Gibbs function, Helmholtz function and volume. (GS)

  15. FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS Program of Study

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Andrew

    FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS Program of Study Research Areas Students Applying Correspondence Graduate Genomics. Students receive training in the biological, physical and computational sciences through of primary institutional affiliation. The Functional Genomics program is administered through the Graduate

  16. [Functional histology of dermis].

    PubMed

    Prost-Squarcioni, C; Fraitag, S; Heller, M; Boehm, N

    2008-01-01

    The skin is composed of epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue that interconnect anatomically. The dermis is an integrated system of fibrous and amorphous connective tissue that accommodates nerve and vascular networks, epidermally derived appendages, fibroblasts, macrophages and mast cells. Elastic and collagen tissue are the main types of fibrous connective tissue. The elastic connective tissue is assembled in a continuous network including mature elastic fibers, immature elaunin fibers and oxytalan fibers. Mature elastic fibers and elaunin have microfibrillar and amorphous matrix components while oxytalan fibers only contain microfibrils. Several molecules have been identified as constituents of the elastic fibers. Among the most characterized of these molecules is elastin in amorphous matrix, fibrillins 1 and 2 and LTBP-2 (ligand of latent TGFbeta) in microfibrils and fibulins which interconnect elastin and fibrillins. Elastic fibers provides elasticity to the skin. Under electron microscope, collagen fibers appears as of bundles of periodically banded fibrils which are composed of collagens types I, III and V; type V collagen is believed to assist in regulating fibril diameter. They are associated with FACITs (fibril-associated collagen with interrupted triple helixes) collagens types XIV et XVI. Collagen fibers provide tensile strength to the skin. Non fibrous connective tissue molecules include finely filamentous glycoproteins, glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans of "the ground substance" (hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulphate, dermatan sulphate, versican, decorin). Fibroblasts, macrophages and mast cells are regular residents of the dermis. The main function of these cells are well known. Fibroblasts are responsible for the synthesis and the degradation of fibrous and non fibrous connective tissue matrix proteins. Macrophages are phagocytic; they process and present antigen to immunocompetent lymphoid cells. Mast cells are responsible for IgE mediated acute, subacute and chronic inflammation. All these cells have a long list of other functions, in particular they are involved in coagulation, wound healing and tissue remodeling. PMID:18442658

  17. Very badly approximable matrix functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Peller; S. R. Treil

    2005-01-01

    .  We study in this paper very badly approximable matrix functions on the unit circle\\u000a $$ \\\\mathbb{T}, $$ i.e., matrix functions ? such that the zero function is a superoptimal approximation of ?. The purpose of this paper is to\\u000a obtain a characterization of the continuous very badly approximable functions.\\u000a \\u000a Our characterization is more geometric than algebraic characterizations earlier obtained in

  18. HMF: Halo Mass Function calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Steven

    2014-12-01

    HMF calculates the Halo Mass Function (HMF) given any set of cosmological parameters and fitting function and serves as the backend for the web application HMFcalc. Written in Python, it allows for dynamic accurate calculation of the transfer function with CAMB (ascl:1102.026) and efficient and self-consistent parameter updates. HMF offers exploration of the effects of cosmological parameters, redshift and fitting function on the predicted HMF.

  19. Periodic functions with variable period

    E-print Network

    M. V Pryjmak

    2010-06-08

    The examples of rhythmical signals with variable period are considered. The definition of periodic function with the variable period is given as a model of such signals. The examples of such functions are given and their variable periods are written in the explicit form. The system of trigonometric functions with the variable period is considered and its orthogonality is proved. The generalized system of trigonometric functions with the variable period is also suggested; some conditions of its existence are considered.

  20. AVC Advantage: Hardware Functional Specifications

    E-print Network

    Singh, Jaswinder Pal

    the functionality of the AVC Advantage hardware, broken down into a number of subsystems. We have attemptedAVC Advantage: Hardware Functional Specifications J. Alex Halderman and Ariel J. Feldman {jhalderm of $82 for the lot [1], and we reverse engineered one of these machines to develop these functional

  1. ADAPTIVE WALL FUNCTIONS WITH APPLICATIONS

    E-print Network

    van der Weide, Edwin

    ADAPTIVE WALL FUNCTIONS WITH APPLICATIONS Gorazd Medic1 , Georgi Kalitzin1 , Gianluca Iaccarino1 wall function formulation for Spalart-Allmaras and k- model derived for the flow over a flat plate and ONERA M6 wing. The performance of the proposed adaptive wall functions is investigated in the presence

  2. On Computing Complex Navigation Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciano C. A. Pimenta; Alexandre R. Fonseca; Guilherme A. S. Pereira; Renato C. Mesquita; Elson J. Silva; Walmir M. Caminhas; Mario Fernando Montenegro Campos

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of efficiently computing robot navigation functions. Navigation functions are potential functions free of spurious local minima that present an exact solution to the robot motion planning and control problem. Although some methodologies were found in the literature, none of them are easy to implement and generalize for complex shaped workspaces and robots. We discuss some

  3. Applied Functional Analysis Lecture Notes

    E-print Network

    metric, some of applications of FA to IP and control not so widely found­ 1.2 Functional Analysis and spectral methods) 2 #12;2 Introduction to Functional Analysis 2.1 Goals of this Course In these lectures application examples from biology, electromagnetics and materials/mechanics. 2.2 Uses of Functional Analysis

  4. Gain function and hydrocarbon indicators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    De-hua Han; Michael Batzle

    1999-01-01

    Summary We have derived the gain function for porous rock based on the Gassmann's equation. We study property of the gain function for consolidated sandstone and poor consolidated sands from deep-water, Gulf of Mexico. We apply the gain function to derive pore fluid modulus as a hydrocarbon indicator from log data.

  5. ON QUATERNIONIC FUNCTIONS PIERRE DOLBEAULT

    E-print Network

    ON QUATERNIONIC FUNCTIONS PIERRE DOLBEAULT Abstract. Several sets of quaternionic functions are described and studied. Residue current of the right inverse of a quaternionic function is introduced in particular cases. 1. Introduction We will work with the definition of quaternions using pairs of complex

  6. Functions and Vertical Line Test

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    This lesson is designed to introduce students to the vertical line test for functions as well as practice plotting points and drawing simple functions. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to the vertical line test and functions as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson.

  7. Family Functioning in Pediatric Trichotillomania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Phoebe S.; Franklin, Martin E.; Keuthen, Nancy J.; Flessner, Christopher A.; Woods, Douglas W.; Piacentini, John A.; Stein, Dan J.; Loew, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about how pediatric trichotillomania (TTM), a clinically significant and functionally impairing disorder, is impacted by, and impacts, family functioning. We explored dimensions of family functioning and parental attitudes in a sample of children and adolescents who participated in an Internet-based survey and satisfied…

  8. Using Graphs To Introduce Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dyke, Frances

    2003-01-01

    Introduces the concept of function using graphs or pictorial representations of functions. Presents four activities for grade levels 8-14 that use the natural progression from qualitative graphs to quantitative graphs to tables to equations for introducing the theme of distance from an object as a function of time. (Author/NB)

  9. How to construct random functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oded Goldreich; Shafi Goldwasser; Silvio Micali

    1986-01-01

    A constructive theory of randomness for functions, based on computational complexity, is developed, and a pseudorandom function generator is presented. This generator is a deterministic polynomial-time algorithm that transforms pairs (g, r), where g is any one-way function and r is a random k-bit string, to polynomial-time computable functionsf,: { 1, . . . , 2') + { 1, .

  10. How To Construct Randolli Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Goldreich; Shafi Goldwasser; Silvio Micali

    1984-01-01

    Abstract. A constructive theory of randomness for functions, based on computational complexity, is developed, and a pseudorandom function generator is presented. This generator is a deterministic polynomial-time algorithm that transforms pairs (g, r), where g is any one-way function and r is a random k-bit string, to polynomial-time computable functionsf,: { 1, . . . , 2’) + { 1,

  11. Structural test with functional characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Nadeau-Dosti; Muhiuzzaman Mahmud; Jean-François Côté; F. Maamaril

    2005-01-01

    A novel structural test clocking architecture is proposed to reproduce characteristics of the functional mode of operation that are essential to a high-quality test. Bursts of functional mode clocks are controlled to provide accurate timing tests taking into account functional timing constraints such as multi-cycle paths and false paths. Any mix of asynchronous and synchronous clocks is supported. Long term

  12. Functional MRI today Peter Bandettini

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    Functional MRI today Peter Bandettini Section on Functional Imaging Methods, National Institute Abstract Most brain imaging researchers would agree with the assertion that functional MRI (fMRI) is progressing. Since fMRI began in 1991, the number of people, papers, and abstracts related to fMRI has been

  13. The Statistics of a Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.; Gordon, Florence S.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important applications of the definite integral in a modern calculus course is the mean value of a function. Thus, if a function "f" is defined on an interval ["a", "b"], then the mean, or average value, of "f" is given by [image omitted]. In this note, we will investigate the meaning of other statistics associated with a function…

  14. Gamow Functionals on Operator Algebras

    E-print Network

    M. Castagnino; M. Gadella; R. Id Betan; R. Laura

    2002-09-26

    We obtain the precise form of two Gamow functionals, representing the exponentially decaying part of a quantum resonance and its mirror image that grows exponentially, as a linear, positive and continuous functional on an algebra containing observables. These functionals do not admit normalization and, with an appropiate choice of the algebra, are time reversal of each other.

  15. Functional Similarity and Interpersonal Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neimeyer, Greg J.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    1981-01-01

    Students participated in dyadic disclosure exercises over a five-week period. Results indicated members of high functional similarity dyads evidenced greater attraction to one another than did members of low functional similarity dyads. "Friendship" pairs of male undergraduates displayed greater functional similarity than did "nominal" pairs from…

  16. Functional organic nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohlmeyer, Ryan R.

    pi-Conjugated polymers have a wide range of applications such as photovoltaics, light-emitting diodes, and sensors. To gain a better understanding of these systems, monodisperse oligomers can be used as a more simplistic model to generate predictive structural and physical properties of corresponding polymers. A divergent/convergent synthetic approach to synthesis of monodisperse pi-conjugated oligomers has been developed. These well-defined, thiophene-containing molecular building blocks have been successfully coupled to a ferrocene hinge, which has been found to be highly efficient in the transport of gold atoms using a gold scanning tunneling microscopy tip. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) represent a rare class of materials, which exhibit a number of outstanding properties in a single material system, such as high aspect ratio, small diameter, light weight, high mechanical strength, high electrical and thermal conductivities, and near-IR optical and optoelectronic properties. Aerogels are highly porous, low-density materials comprised of a solid, three-dimensional (3D) nanoscale network fully accessible to ions and molecules. By combining the extraordinary properties of CNTs with those of aerogels, a new class of materials becomes accessible with unique multifunctional material properties. CNT aerogels that are mechanically stable and stiff, highly porous, and exhibit excellent electrical conductivity and large specific surface area have been developed. CNTs are recognized as the ultimate carbon fibers for high-performance, multifunctional materials, where an addition of only a small amount of CNTs, if engineered appropriately, could lead to simultaneously enhanced mechanical strength and electrical conductivity. For the first time, using core-shell multi-walled CNTs as a filler to increase the dielectric constant and reduce the dielectric loss of nanotube-polymer composites has been demonstrated. While most efforts in the field of CNT-polymer composites have been focused on passive material properties such as mechanical, electrical, and thermal, there is growing interest in harnessing active material functions such as actuation, sensing, and power generation in designed CNT-polymer materials. The synergy between CNTs and the polymer matrix has been judiciously exploited to create highly desirable active material functions in smart material systems. By incorporating CNTs in a Nafion matrix, multi-shape memory healable composites capable of reversible remote, local, and chemical programming have been developed.

  17. Functional decline in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Feigin, A; Kieburtz, K; Bordwell, K; Como, P; Steinberg, K; Sotack, J; Zimmerman, C; Hickey, C; Orme, C; Shoulson, I

    1995-03-01

    We prospectively evaluated 129 patients with manifest Huntington's disease (HD) to determine the rate of illness progression and the clinical features that correlate with functional decline. A single examiner evaluated each patient using the HD Functional Capacity Scale. Standardized motor performance was also assessed in 94 of the patients (73%) using the HD Rating Scale. Total Functional Capacity declined at a rate of 0.63 +/- 0.75 U per year. As functional capacity worsened, chorea lessened, and dystonia intensified. There was no correlation between rate of functional decline and age at onset of HD, body weight, gender of affected parent, or history of neuroleptic use. PMID:7753064

  18. Fragmentation function measurements at Belle

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, Ralf [RIKEN (Japan); Vossen, Anselm [Indiana University (United States); Leitgab, Martin; Grosse-Perdekamp, Matthias; Giordano, Francesca [University of Illinois (United States); Ogawa, Akio [Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States)

    2011-12-14

    The precision measurement of fragmentation functions is an important requirement to study the spin structure of the nucleon. Unpolarized fragmentation functions at reasonably low scale and high fractional energy are necessary to complement the measurements mostly performed at LEP in order to obtain high enough precision for measurements at semi-inclusive DIS experiments and at RHIC. Those can be obtained from the abundant data collected with the Belle detector at the e{sup +}e{sup -} collider KEKB. In addition one can cleanly measure the transversely polarized fragmentation functions such as the Collins fragmentation function and the interference fragmentation functions. Both have been obtained with great precision at Belle.

  19. Robust, Adaptive Functional Regression in Functional Mixed Model Framework

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongxiao; Brown, Philip J.; Morris, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    Functional data are increasingly encountered in scientific studies, and their high dimensionality and complexity lead to many analytical challenges. Various methods for functional data analysis have been developed, including functional response regression methods that involve regression of a functional response on univariate/multivariate predictors with nonparametrically represented functional coefficients. In existing methods, however, the functional regression can be sensitive to outlying curves and outlying regions of curves, so is not robust. In this paper, we introduce a new Bayesian method, robust functional mixed models (R-FMM), for performing robust functional regression within the general functional mixed model framework, which includes multiple continuous or categorical predictors and random effect functions accommodating potential between-function correlation induced by the experimental design. The underlying model involves a hierarchical scale mixture model for the fixed effects, random effect and residual error functions. These modeling assumptions across curves result in robust nonparametric estimators of the fixed and random effect functions which down-weight outlying curves and regions of curves, and produce statistics that can be used to flag global and local outliers. These assumptions also lead to distributions across wavelet coefficients that have outstanding sparsity and adaptive shrinkage properties, with great flexibility for the data to determine the sparsity and the heaviness of the tails. Together with the down-weighting of outliers, these within-curve properties lead to fixed and random effect function estimates that appear in our simulations to be remarkably adaptive in their ability to remove spurious features yet retain true features of the functions. We have developed general code to implement this fully Bayesian method that is automatic, requiring the user to only provide the functional data and design matrices. It is efficient enough to handle large data sets, and yields posterior samples of all model parameters that can be used to perform desired Bayesian estimation and inference. Although we present details for a specific implementation of the R-FMM using specific distributional choices in the hierarchical model, 1D functions, and wavelet transforms, the method can be applied more generally using other heavy-tailed distributions, higher dimensional functions (e.g. images), and using other invertible transformations as alternatives to wavelets. PMID:22308015

  20. Maleimide Functionalized Siloxane Resins

    SciTech Connect

    Loy, D.A.; Shaltout, R.M.

    1999-04-01

    Polyorganosiloxanes are a commercially important class of compounds. They exhibit many important properties, including very low glass transition temperatures, making them useful over a wide temperature range. In practice, the polysiloxane polymer is often mixed with a filler material to help improve its mechanical properties. An alternative method for increasing polymer mechanical strength is through the incorporation of certain substituents on the polymer backbone. Hard substituents such as carbonates and imides generally result in improved mechanical properties of polysiloxanes. In this paper, we present the preparation of novel polysiloxane resins modified with hard maleimide substituents. Protected ethoxysilyl-substituted propyl-maleimides were prepared. The maleimide substituent was protected with a furanyl group and the monomer polymerized under aqueous acidic conditions. At elevated temperatures (>120 C), the polymer undergoes retro Diels-Alder reaction with release of foran (Equation 1). The deprotected polymer can then be selectively crosslinked by a forward Diels-Alder reaction (in the presence of a co-reactant having two or more dime functionalities).

  1. The Function of ?-Synuclein

    PubMed Central

    Bendor, Jacob; Logan, Todd; Edwards, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Human genetics has indicated a causal role for the protein ?-synuclein in the pathogenesis of familial Parkinson’s disease (PD), and the aggregation of synuclein in essentially all patients with PD suggests a central role for this protein in the sporadic disorder. Indeed, the accumulation of misfolded ?-synuclein now defines multiple forms of neural degeneration. Like many of the proteins that accumulate in other neurodegenerative disorders, however, the normal function of synuclein remains poorly understood. ?-Synuclein localizes specifically to the nerve terminal and inhibits neurotransmitter release when over-expressed, but the knockout has a modest effect on synaptic transmission, suggesting alternative presynaptic roles. Natively unstructured, synuclein adopts a helical conformation on membrane binding and recent work suggests a role in membrane remodeling. In neural degeneration, synuclein misfolds and aggregates as a ?-sheet. Multiple observations now suggest propagation of the misfolded protein as a prion, providing a mechanism for the spread of degeneration through the neuraxis. However, the factors that trigger the original misfolding remain unknown. PMID:24050397

  2. Yogurt and gut function.

    PubMed

    Adolfsson, Oskar; Meydani, Simin Nikbin; Russell, Robert M

    2004-08-01

    In recent years, numerous studies have been published on the health effects of yogurt and the bacterial cultures used in the production of yogurt. In the United States, these lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB) include Lactobacillus and Streptococcus species. The benefits of yogurt and LAB on gastrointestinal health have been investigated in animal models and, occasionally, in human subjects. Some studies using yogurt, individual LAB species, or both showed promising health benefits for certain gastrointestinal conditions, including lactose intolerance, constipation, diarrheal diseases, colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, Helicobacter pylori infection, and allergies. Patients with any of these conditions could possibly benefit from the consumption of yogurt. The benefits of yogurt consumption to gastrointestinal function are most likely due to effects mediated through the gut microflora, bowel transit, and enhancement of gastrointestinal innate and adaptive immune responses. Although substantial evidence currently exists to support a beneficial effect of yogurt consumption on gastrointestinal health, there is inconsistency in reported results, which may be due to differences in the strains of LAB used, in routes of administration, or in investigational procedures or to the lack of objective definition of "gut health." Further well-designed, controlled human studies of adequate duration are needed to confirm or extend these findings. PMID:15277142

  3. Cluster functional renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuther, Johannes; Thomale, Ronny

    2014-01-01

    Functional renormalization group (FRG) has become a diverse and powerful tool to derive effective low-energy scattering vertices of interacting many-body systems. Starting from a free expansion point of the action, the flow of the RG parameter ? allows us to trace the evolution of the effective one- and two-particle vertices towards low energies by taking into account the vertex corrections between all parquet channels in an unbiased fashion. In this work, we generalize the expansion point at which the diagrammatic resummation procedure is initiated from a free UV limit to a cluster product state. We formulate a cluster FRG scheme where the noninteracting building blocks (i.e., decoupled spin clusters) are treated exactly, and the intercluster couplings are addressed via RG. As a benchmark study, we apply our cluster FRG scheme to the spin-1/2 bilayer Heisenberg model (BHM) on a square lattice where the neighboring sites in the two layers form the individual two-site clusters. Comparing with existing numerical evidence for the BHM, we obtain reasonable findings for the spin susceptibility, the spin-triplet excitation energy, and quasiparticle weight even in coupling regimes close to antiferromagnetic order. The concept of cluster FRG promises applications to a large class of interacting electron systems.

  4. FFTF Plant transition function analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, D.P.; FFTF Working Group

    1995-09-01

    The document contains the functions, function definitions, function interfaces, function interface definitions, Input Computer Automated Manufacturing Definition (IDEFO) diagrams, and function hierarchy charts that describe what needs to be performed to deactivate FFTF.

  5. Scaling Function, Spectral Function and Nucleon Momentum Distribution in Nuclei

    E-print Network

    A. N. Antonov; M. V. Ivanov; J. A. Caballero; M. B. Barbaro; J. M. Udias; E. Moya de Guerra; T. W. Donnelly

    2011-04-01

    The link between the scaling function extracted from the analysis of (e,e') cross sections and the spectral function/momentum distribution in nuclei is revisited. Several descriptions of the spectral function based on the independent particle model are employed, together with the inclusion of nucleon correlations, and effects of the energy dependence arising from the width of the hole states are investigated. Although some of these approaches provide rough overall agreement with data, they are not found to be capable of reproducing one of the distinctive features of the experimental scaling function, namely its asymmetry. However, the addition of final-state interactions, incorporated in the present study using either relativistic mean field theory or via a complex optical potential, does lead to asymmetric scaling functions in accordance with data. The present analysis seems to indicate that final-state interactions constitute an essential ingredient and are required to provide a proper description of the experimental scaling function.

  6. Scaling function, spectral function, and nucleon momentum distribution in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Antonov, A. N. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Ivanov, M. V. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Caballero, J. A. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain); Barbaro, M. B. [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Torino and INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Udias, J. M.; Moya de Guerra, E. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Donnelly, T. W. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    The link between the scaling function extracted from the analysis of (e,e{sup '}) cross sections and the spectral function/momentum distribution in nuclei is revisited. Several descriptions of the spectral function based on the independent particle model are employed, together with the inclusion of nucleon correlations, and effects of the energy dependence arising from the width of the hole states are investigated. Although some of these approaches provide rough overall agreement with data, they are not found to be capable of reproducing one of the distinctive features of the experimental scaling function, namely its asymmetry. However, the addition of final-state interactions, incorporated in the present study using either relativistic mean-field theory or via a complex optical potential, does lead to asymmetric scaling functions in accordance with data. The present analysis seems to indicate that final-state interactions constitute an essential ingredient and are required to provide a proper description of the experimental scaling function.

  7. Construction of bent functions via Niho power functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Dobbertin; Gregor Leander; Anne Canteaut; Claude Carlet; Patrick Felke; Philippe Gaborit

    2006-01-01

    A Boolean function with an even number n = 2k of variables is called bent if it is maximally nonlinear. We present here a new con- struction of bent functions. Boolean functions of the form f(x) = tr( 1xd 1 + 2xd 2 ), 1, 2,x 2 F2n, are considered, where the expo- nents di (i = 1,2) are of

  8. Postictal language function.

    PubMed

    Privitera, Michael; Kim, Kwang Ki

    2010-10-01

    Language function in the postictal state can be successfully assessed and provides valuable information on seizure localization and spread. Several studies have shown that postictal paraphasic errors and ictal speech have value for seizure localization. The Cincinnati method is a simple, repeatable test that involves presenting a single test sentence on a card and asking the patient to read the sentence repeatedly until it is read correctly. It increases the yield of detecting paraphasic errors and ictal speech, and provides a quantitative measure of language recovery known as the postictal language delay, defined as the time from the end of the EEG ictal discharge until the test sentence is read correctly. This language testing method has been used for all patients admitted to the epilepsy monitoring unit at the Cincinnati Epilepsy Center for more than 20 years and has been shown to: (1) lateralize temporal lobe complex partial seizures; (2) identify when temporal lobe complex partial seizures spread to the dominant hemisphere; (3) identify patients with atypical language lateralization; (4) distinguish between temporal and frontal complex partial seizures; and (5) provide some insight into speech prosody changes in nondominant temporal lobe complex partial seizures. The method has some limitations because it requires vigilance of the patient and direct interaction by the technologist, and may be incomplete as a result of patient agitation, but has been successfully completed in more than 80% of patients admitted to the epilepsy monitoring unit. This highly cost-effective test provides important information on seizure localization and spread; is easily taught to technologists, nurses, and family members; and should be added to testing procedures in all epilepsy monitoring units. PMID:20696620

  9. Spectral function from Reduced Density Matrix Functional Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniello, Pina; di Sabatino, Stefano; Berger, Jan A.; Reining, Lucia

    2015-03-01

    In this work we focus on the calculation of the spectral function, which determines, for example, photoemission spectra, from reduced density matrix functional theory. Starting from its definition in terms of the one-body Green's function we derive an expression for the spectral function that depends on the natural occupation numbers and on an effective energy which accounts for all the charged excitations. This effective energy depends on the two-body as well as higher-order density matrices. Various approximations to this expression are explored by using the exactly solvable Hubbard chains.

  10. Phylogenetic constraints on ecosystem functioning.

    PubMed

    Gravel, Dominique; Bell, Thomas; Barbera, Claire; Combe, Marine; Pommier, Thomas; Mouquet, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    There is consensus that biodiversity losses will result in declining ecosystem functioning if species have different functional traits. Phylogenetic diversity has recently been suggested as a predictor of ecosystem functioning because it could approximate the functional complementarity among species. Here we describe an experiment that takes advantage of the rapid evolutionary response of bacteria to disentangle the role of phylogenetic and species diversity. We impose a strong selection regime on marine bacterial lineages and assemble the ancestral and evolved lines in microcosms of varying lineage and phylogenetic diversity. We find that the relationship between phylogenetic diversity and productivity is strong for the ancestral lineages but brakes down for the evolved lineages. Our results not only emphasize the potential of using phylogeny to evaluate ecosystem functioning, but also they warn against using phylogenetics as a proxy for functional diversity without good information on species evolutionary history. PMID:23047675

  11. Markers of renal function tests

    PubMed Central

    Gowda, Shivaraj; Desai, Prakash B.; Kulkarni, Shruthi S.; Hull, Vinayak V.; Math, Avinash A. K.; Vernekar, Sonal N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The markers of renal function test assess the normal functioning of kidneys. These markers may be radioactive and non radioactive. They indicate the glomerular filtration rate, concentrating and diluting capacity of kidneys (tubular function). If there is an increase or decrease in the valves of these markers it indicates dysfunction of kidney. Aim: The aim of this review is to compare and analyze the present and newer markers of renal function tests which help in diagnosis of clinical disorders. Material & Methods: An extensive literature survey was done aiming to compare and compile renal function tests makers required in diagnosis of diseases. Results: Creatinine, urea, uric acid and electrolytes are makers for routine analysis whereas several studies have confirmed and consolidated the usefulness of markers such as cystatin C and ?-Trace Protein. Conclusion: We conclude that further investigation is necessary to define these biomarkers in terms of usefulness in assessing renal function. PMID:22624135

  12. Permutation symmetry for theta functions

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, B.C.

    2011-01-21

    This paper does for combinations of theta functions most of what Carlson (2004) [1] did for Jacobian elliptic functions. In each case the starting point is the symmetric elliptic integral R{sub F} of the first kind. Its three arguments (formerly squared Jacobian elliptic functions but now squared combinations of theta functions) differ by constants. Symbols designating the constants can often be used to replace 12 equations by three with permutation symmetry (formerly in the letters c, d, n for the Jacobian case but now in the subscripts 2, 3, 4 for theta functions). Such equations include derivatives and differential equations, bisection and duplication relations, addition formulas (apparently new for theta functions), and an example of pseudoaddition formulas.

  13. Functionality Improvements to Overaero

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, Ken; Rizk, Yehia M.

    2000-01-01

    The functionality of the overset, static aeroelasticity, Navier-Stokes flow solver OVERAERO was increased by adding capability to the flow solver and enhancing code performance. Improvements were made to the fluids/structure interface, an MLP version of the parallel OVERAERO code was developed, and the OVERAERO-MPI code was ported to the Cray T3E. The OVERFLOW-MPI and OVERAERO-MPI codes were tested successfully on the IPG testbed and a means of reducing communication overhead within OVERFLOW-MPI was investigated. To solve an aeroelastic problem computationally, a structures grid surface definition and a fluids grid surface definition are required. Typically, the structures grid surface has a lower fidelity than the fluids grid surface. Thus, the methods developed to transfer data between the two grid systems are vital to the accuracy and efficiency of the aeroelasticity code. The fluids/structures interface developed for the OVERAERO code was improved to more accurately treat fluids surfaces that bridge between two different structural surfaces. For example, the method allowed the forward portion of a flap track fairing to deform with the wing and the aft end of the fairing to deform with the flap. A tightly-coupled version of the code based on OVERFLOW-MLP was developed to improve code performance on the SGI Origin 2000. This required a new parallelization strategy to couple the fluids and structures codes. The OVERAERO-MPI code was ported to the Cray T3E to extend the usability of the code. The port required extensive use of dynamic memory management techniques to fit large problems within the memory limitations of the T3E. The OVERFLOW-MPI and OVERAERO-MPI codes were tested on the IPG testbed being developed within NASA. For small problems with minimal data transfer between grids, there was little to no performance penalty spreading the computation across two machines. For very large problems, methods were developed to minimize intermachine communication via the grid partitioning scheme. By minimizing the intermachine communication requirements of the problem, it may still be beneficial to run a tightly-coupled flow solver across two machines within the IPG.

  14. Disorders of Sinus Function.

    PubMed

    Mandel; Jordan; Karagueuzian

    1999-08-01

    Sinus node dysfunction is a common entity with significant clinical implications. Establishing a diagnosis may, on occasion, tax the skills of the clinician. Many causes have been cited, but no single factor appears to be established. Immunologic abnormalities may play a part in the etiologic process. Clinical invasive electrophysiology studies may be used to establish a diagnosis. In general, medical therapy must be integrated. Controversy exists regarding the best method of permanent pacing. Treatment may need to be individualized to the type of arrhythmia noted. Long-term prognosis is a large factor in choice of therapy, related to the underlying disease. Prevention of atrial fibrillation may occur with dual-chamber pacing; however, anticoagulation appears essential in this patient subgroup. The 5-year mortality rate in these patients is high and does not appear to be significantly improved with artificial pacing. Mortality is prominently influenced by the coexistence of cardiovascular and valvular heart disease. Patients who die do not differ substantially from survivors with regard to type of sinus dysfunction, occurrence of tachyarrhythmia, or distal conduction abnormalities. The survival rate in patients with sick sinus syndrome and congestive heart failure is significantly lower, and the incidence of embolic events remains high in patients with permanent pacing and the sick sinus syndrome. Thus, it has been proposed that all patients exhibiting the bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome be fully anticoagulated. The incidence of atrial fibrillation is significantly lower in patients with atrial demand pacing (22.3% versus 3.9%) than in patients with ventricular pacing and is accompanied by a decreased incidence of systemic embolization (13% versus 1.6%). Reports comparing survival with use of dual-chamber pacing versus ventricular pacing are encouraging in patients with congestive heart failure. At present, the natural history of the disease is unknown; furthermore, clinical risk factors for the development of symptoms have not been defined, and no electrophysiologic measure of sinus node function has been demonstrated to have reliable predictive value. Therefore, common practice has been to withhold pacemaker therapy in the asymptomatic patient. PMID:11096482

  15. Benzaldehyde-functionalized Polymer Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guorong; Fang, Huafeng; Cheng, Chong; Lu, Peng; Zhang, Ke; Walker, Amy V.; Taylor, John-Stephen A.; Wooley, Karen L.

    2009-01-01

    Polymer vesicles with diameters of ca. 100-600 nm and bearing benzaldehyde functionalities within the vesicular walls were constructed through self assembly of an amphiphilic block copolymer PEO45-b-PVBA26 in water. The reactivity of the benzaldehyde functionalities was verified by crosslinking the polymersomes, and also by a one-pot crosslinking and functionalization approach to further render the vesicles fluorescent, each via reductive amination. In vitro studies found these labelled nanostructures to undergo cell association. PMID:19309173

  16. Coefficients of associated Legendre functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peasley, Q. D.

    1976-01-01

    The exact coefficients for the explicit forms of the associated Legendre functions Pm for integer values of m,n=0,1,2,...25 are presented in tabular form together with two cross-referenced listings of the zeroes for these functions rounded to five decimal places. The unfactored coefficients and the interger coefficients are presented in adjacent columns for each function. The greatest common factor and divisor have been removed and listed separately for the integer coefficients.

  17. Immune Function in Healthy Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JACQUELINE A. BARTLETT; STEVEN J. SCHLEIFER; MELISSA K. DEMETRIKOPOULOS; BEVERLY R. DELANEY; SAMUEL C. SHIFLETT; STEVEN E. KELLER

    1998-01-01

    In the present study, we examine immunological functioning in normal healthy African-American and Latino\\/Latina adolescents recruited from an inner-city high school and an inner-city clinic. A battery of tests was performed with enumerative and functional measures which encompassed both innate and adaptive immunity. We found immune differences related to age, gender, and race on both the enumerative and the functional

  18. Theory of generalized Bessel functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Dattoli; L. Giannessi; L. Mezi; A. Torre

    1990-01-01

    Summary  In this paper we discuss the theory of generalized Bessel functions which are of noticeable importance in the analysis of\\u000a scattering processes for which the dipole approximation cannot be used. We introduce these functions in their standard form\\u000a and their modified version. We state the relevant generating functions and Graf-type addition theorems. The usefulness of\\u000a the results to construct a

  19. SMASH - A Cryptographic Hash Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars R. Knudsen

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new hash function design, which is different from the popular designs of the MD4-family. Seen in the light of recent attacks on MD4, MD5, SHA-0, SHA-1, and on RIPEMD, there is a need to consider other hash function design strategies. The paper presents also a concrete hash function design named SMASH. One ver- sion has a

  20. Localized functionalization of single nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, J; Lee, J I; Ratto, T V; Letant, S E

    2005-09-12

    We demonstrate the localization of chemical functionality at the entrance of single nanopores for the first time by using the controlled growth of an oxide ring. Nanopores were fabricated by Focused Ion Beam machining on silicon platforms, locally derivatized by ion beam assisted oxide deposition, and further functionalized with DNA probes via silane chemistry. Ionic current recorded through single nanopores at various stages of the fabrication process demonstrated that the apertures can be locally functionalized with DNA probes. Future applications for this functional platform include the selective detection of biological organisms and molecules by ionic current blockade measurements.

  1. Commentary: functional MRI lie detection.

    PubMed

    Merikangas, James R

    2008-01-01

    Functional brain imaging with magnetic resonance is a useful research tool for showing regional metabolic changes with ongoing brain activity. Use of functional imaging to study the anatomy and function of various brain areas has recently been applied to the examination of the emotional life of patients including those with anxiety, panic, or depression. The application of this technology to the complex problem of lie detection is the subject of an article by Joseph R. Simpson, MD, PhD, in this issue of The Journal. The present article concludes that the use of functional imaging to discriminate truth from lies does not meet the Daubert criteria for courtroom testimony. PMID:19092067

  2. Functional Overlay: An Illegitimate Diagnosis?

    PubMed Central

    Bromberg, Walter

    1979-01-01

    Functional overlay is not a recognized psychiatric diagnosis. Evaluating functional overlay and differentiating between this concept and organic conditions is important in medicolegal areas in which financial values are placed on pain and disability. Functional overlay is not malingering: the former is based on preconscious or unconscious mechanisms, the latter is consciously induced. In considering psychologic reactions to pain and disability, a gradient of simulation, malingering, symptom exaggeration, overvaluation, functional overlay and hysteria is useful. The dynamics of overlay are a combination of anxiety from body-image distortion and depression from decreased efficiency of the body, as well as the resulting psychosocial disruption in a patient's life. PMID:516698

  3. Counselor Function in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maser, Arthur L.

    1971-01-01

    Results of the study indicate that stated disagreements in perceptions of counselor function appear to arise from the necessity of counselors performing duties outside the counseling paradigm. (Author)

  4. Matchings, matroids and submodular functions

    E-print Network

    Harvey, Nicholas James Alexander

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on three fundamental problems in combinatorial optimization: non-bipartite matching, matroid intersection, and submodular function minimization. We develop simple, efficient, randomized algorithms for ...

  5. Trace functions as Laplace transforms

    E-print Network

    Frank Hansen

    2005-08-02

    We study trace functions on the form $ t\\to\\tr f(A+tB) $ where $ f $ is a real function defined on the positive half-line, and $ A $ and $ B $ are matrices such that $ A $ is positive definite and $ B $ is positive semi-definite. If $ f $ is non-negative and operator monotone decreasing, then such a trace function can be written as the Laplace transform of a positive measure. The question is related to the Bessis-Moussa-Villani conjecture. Key words: Trace functions, BMV-conjecture.

  6. Considerations on New Functions in Number Theory

    E-print Network

    Florentin Smarandache

    2000-10-15

    In this paper a small survey is presented on eighteen new functions and four new sequences, such as: Inferior/Superior f-Part, Fractional f-Part, Complementary function with respect with another function, S-Multiplicative, Primitive Function, Double Factorial Function, S-Prime and S-Coprime Functions, Smallest Power Function.

  7. Speech and Language Functions that Require a Functioning Broca's Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Cameron; Kleinman, Jonathan T.; Newhart, Melissa; Gingis, Leila; Pawlak, Mikolaj; Hillis, Argye E.

    2008-01-01

    A number of previous studies have indicated that Broca's area has an important role in understanding and producing syntactically complex sentences and other language functions. If Broca's area is critical for these functions, then either infarction of Broca's area or temporary hypoperfusion within this region should cause impairment of these…

  8. 2D Toda ?-Functions as Combinatorial Generating Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guay-Paquet, Mathieu; Harnad, J.

    2015-06-01

    Two methods of constructing 2D Toda ?-functions that are generating functions for certain geometrical invariants of a combinatorial nature are related. The first involves generation of paths in the Cayley graph of the symmetric group S n by multiplication of the conjugacy class sums in the group algebra by elements of an abelian group of central elements. Extending the characteristic map to the tensor product leads to double expansions in terms of power sum symmetric functions, in which the coefficients count the number of such paths. Applying the same map to sums over the orthogonal idempotents leads to diagonal double Schur function expansions that are identified as ?-functions of hypergeometric type. The second method is the standard construction of ?-functions as vacuum-state matrix elements of products of vertex operators in a fermionic Fock space with elements of the abelian group of convolution symmetries. A homomorphism between these two group actions is derived and shown to be intertwined by the characteristic map composed with fermionization. Applications include Okounkov's generating function for double Hurwitz numbers, which count branched coverings of the Riemann sphere with specified ramification profiles at two branch points, and only simple branching at all the others, and various analogous combinatorial counting functions.

  9. The Relationship between Mathematical Induction, Proposition Functions, and Implication Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Lane

    2010-01-01

    In this study, I explored the relationship between mathematical induction ability and proposition and implication functions through a mixed methods approach. Students from three universities (N = 78) and 6 classrooms completed a written assessment testing their conceptual and procedural capabilities with induction and functions. In addition, I…

  10. ELASTOHYDRODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF FUNCTIONAL AND NON-FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functional fluids are those whose molecules comprise distinctly separated polar and non-polar segments. The presence of the polar segments allow these fluids to be used in lubrication processes that occur in boundary, hydrodynamic, and mixed film regimes. Non-functional fluids on the other hand, ar...

  11. HUMAN NUTRITION -FUNCTIONAL FOODS KNL030 Human Nutrition -Functional Foods

    E-print Network

    HUMAN NUTRITION - FUNCTIONAL FOODS KNL030 Human Nutrition - Functional Foods Poäng: 5.0 Betygskala grupparbeten. Litteratur: Garrow, J.S.; James, W.P.T.: Human nutrition and dietetics, 9th ed, Churchill Livingstone eller Whitney, E.S., Rolfes, S.R.: Understanding nutrition, 8th ed, 1999, West Publishing Company

  12. Relative Transfer Function Identification Using Convolutive Transfer Function Approximation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronen Talmon; Israel Cohen; Sharon Gannot

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a relative transfer function (RTF) identification method for speech sources in reverberant environments. The proposed method is based on the convolutive transfer function (CTF) approximation, which enables to represent a linear convolution in the time domain as a linear convolution in the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) domain. Unlike the restrictive and commonly used multiplicative transfer

  13. Behaviors and Corresponding Functions Addressed via Functional Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Horovitz, Max; Worley, Julie A.; Shoemaker, Mary E.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    One-hundred seventy-three studies that employed functional assessment were evaluated with respect to types of challenging behaviors studied and the functions identified that maintained those behaviors. For most studies, two to three behaviors were targeted. Of the 38 different challenging behaviors identified, self-injurious behavior (SIB) and…

  14. Functional electrical stimulation of walking: Function, exercise and rehabilitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Thrasher; M. R. Popovic

    2008-01-01

    For nearly half a century, functional electrical stimulation (FES) has been used to restore walking for people with paralysis and muscle weakness due to stroke and spinal cord injury. The first applications of the technology were intended to permanently replace lost neuromuscular function. Later, FES-assisted walking was found to have therapeutic benefits that include increased muscle strength, cardiovascular fitness and

  15. Monotonicity and Logarithmic Concavity of Two Functions Involving Exponential Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ai-Qi; Li, Guo-Fu; Guo, Bai-Ni; Qi, Feng

    2008-01-01

    The function 1 divided by "x"[superscript 2] minus "e"[superscript"-x"] divided by (1 minus "e"[superscript"-x"])[superscript 2] for "x" greater than 0 is proved to be strictly decreasing. As an application of this monotonicity, the logarithmic concavity of the function "t" divided by "e"[superscript "at"] minus "e"[superscript"(a-1)""t"] for "a"…

  16. Acid zeta function and ajoint acid zeta function

    E-print Network

    Jining Gao

    2010-03-16

    In this paper we set up the theory of acid zeta function and ajoint acid zeta function, based on the theory, we point out a reason to doubt the truth of the Riemann hypothesis and also as a consequence, we give out some new RH equivalences.

  17. 2D Toda ?-Functions as Combinatorial Generating Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guay-Paquet, Mathieu; Harnad, J.

    2015-05-01

    Two methods of constructing 2D Toda ?-functions that are generating functions for certain geometrical invariants of a combinatorial nature are related. The first involves generation of paths in the Cayley graph of the symmetric group S n by multiplication of the conjugacy class sums {C_? in {C}[S_n]} in the group algebra by elements of an abelian group of central elements. Extending the characteristic map to the tensor product {{C}[S_n] ? {C}[S_n]} leads to double expansions in terms of power sum symmetric functions, in which the coefficients count the number of such paths. Applying the same map to sums over the orthogonal idempotents leads to diagonal double Schur function expansions that are identified as ?-functions of hypergeometric type. The second method is the standard construction of ?-functions as vacuum-state matrix elements of products of vertex operators in a fermionic Fock space with elements of the abelian group of convolution symmetries. A homomorphism between these two group actions is derived and shown to be intertwined by the characteristic map composed with fermionization. Applications include Okounkov's generating function for double Hurwitz numbers, which count branched coverings of the Riemann sphere with specified ramification profiles at two branch points, and only simple branching at all the others, and various analogous combinatorial counting functions.

  18. Investigating Differentiability of Piecewise Functions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberts, Lila F.

    2004-10-04

    Students in calculus need to be proficient in working with functions in a variety of ways: graphical, numerical, analytic, or verbal, and to understand connections among these representations. This demo provides a set of visualizations designed to help students better understand what it means for a piecewise function to be differentiable at a particular domain value.

  19. Sucrose Synthase: Expanding Protein Function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose synthase (SUS: EC 2.4.1.13), a key enzyme in plant sucrose catabolism, is uniquely able to mobilize sucrose into multiple pathways involved in metabolic, structural, and storage functions. Our research indicates that the biological function of SUS may extend beyond its catalytic activity. Th...

  20. Parotid gland function after radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith Maria Roesink

    2005-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a common treatment for head and neck cancer patients. Unfortunately, it produces serious acute and long-term side effects to the oral cavity. One severe complication is the loss of salivary gland function, which can persists for many years. Saliva has multiple functions relating to speech, taste perception, mastication, and swallowing and bolus formation. Cleansing and dental and mucosal

  1. Mnemonic Theories of Hippocampal Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Olton; Cynthia G. Wible; Matthew L. Shapiro

    1986-01-01

    Although mnemonic interpretations of hippocampal function in people have been readily accepted for many years, similar interpretations of hippocampal function in animals have received a number of challenges. This article reviews two of these challenges, shows how they were resolved in favor of some kind of mnemonic interpretation, and then suggests ways in which these types of interpretations must change

  2. Functional Preprocessing for Multilayer Perceptrons

    E-print Network

    Rossi, Fabrice

    reduce the dimension of the data even when they have missing values. Preprocessed functions frequently be identified as discretized functions: this is the case for time series (in the time domain as well as in the frequency domain), spectrometric data, weather data (in which we can have both time

  3. Window Functions for CMB Experiments

    E-print Network

    Martin White; Mark Srednicki

    1994-02-15

    We discuss the applicability and derivation of window functions for cosmic microwave background experiments on large and intermediate angular scales. These window functions describe the response of the experiment to power in a particular mode of the fluctuation spectrum. We give general formulae, illustrated with specific examples, for the most common observing strategies.

  4. Functional Genomics Tools for Papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the genome of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sequenced, the study of gene function is becoming an increasing priority. Our research is to develop an RNA-induced gene silencing tool for the study of functional genomics in papaya. We employed agrobacterium leaf infiltration to induce PTGS in '-glucuro...

  5. Lipschitz functions on topometric spaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Itaï Ben Yaacov

    2010-01-01

    We study functions on topometric spaces which are both (metrically) Lipschitz and (topologically) continuous, using them in contexts where, in classical topology, ordinary continuous functions are used. (1) We define \\\\emph{normal} topometric spaces and characterise them by analogues of Urysohn's Lemma and Tietze's Extension Theorem. (2) We define \\\\emph{completely regular} topometric spaces and characterise them by the existence of a

  6. Functions in Biological Kind Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombrozo, Tania; Rehder, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Biological traits that serve functions, such as a zebra's coloration (for camouflage) or a kangaroo's tail (for balance), seem to have a special role in conceptual representations for biological kinds. In five experiments, we investigate whether and why functional features are privileged in biological kind classification. Experiment 1…

  7. Microencapsulation and functional bioactive foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food, the essential unit of human nutrition has been both wholesome and safe through human history ensuring the continuity of the human race. Functionalized foods are the rediscovery of the need to provide all nutrients through foods without adulteration. The functional components of foods include...

  8. Functional MRI of the kidney

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Grenier; F. Basseau; M. Ries; B. Tyndal; R. Jones; C. Moonen

    2003-01-01

    Functional MR imaging of the kidney has a great potential of development because the functional parameters, which can be approached noninvasively, are multiple: glomerular filtration, tubular concentration and transit, blood volume and perfusion, diffusion, and oxygenation. Until now, its limitations in clinical applications are due to the difficulties in obtaining reproducible and reliable information in this mobile organ and, sometimes,

  9. Wannier function for metallic hydrogen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wanda Andreoni

    1976-01-01

    In this paper we report a variational calculation of the Wannier function of metallic hydrogen, the first such calculation for any three-dimensional crystal. With relatively simple trial functions accuracies of 2% for energies and about 20% for electron densities were obtained.

  10. Fourier Series and Elliptic Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2003-01-01

    Non-linear second-order differential equations whose solutions are the elliptic functions "sn"("t, k"), "cn"("t, k") and "dn"("t, k") are investigated. Using "Mathematica", high precision numerical solutions are generated. From these data, Fourier coefficients are determined yielding approximate formulas for these non-elementary functions that are…

  11. Generalized Transforms and Special Functions

    E-print Network

    G. Dattoli; E. Sabia

    2010-10-08

    We study the properties of different type of transforms by means of operational methods and discuss the relevant interplay with many families of special functions. We consider in particular the binomial transform and its generalizations. A general method, based on the use of the Fourier transform technique, is proposed for the study of the properties of functions of operators.

  12. Partition density-functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Peter; Burke, Kieron; Cohen, Morrel H.; Wasserman, Adam [Departments of Physics and of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States) and Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Washington Road, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Partition density functional theory is a formally exact procedure for calculating molecular properties from Kohn-Sham calculations on isolated fragments, interacting via a global partition potential that is a functional of the fragment densities. An example is given and consequences discussed.

  13. Software For Computing Selected Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, David C.

    1992-01-01

    Technical memorandum presents collection of software packages in Ada implementing mathematical functions used in science and engineering. Provides programmer with function support in Pascal and FORTRAN, plus support for extended-precision arithmetic and complex arithmetic. Valuable for testing new computers, writing computer code, or developing new computer integrated circuits.

  14. Chebyshev representation for rational functions

    SciTech Connect

    Bogatyrev, Andrei B [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudnyi, Moscow Region, Russian Frderation (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-14

    An effective representation is obtained for rational functions all of whose critical points, apart from g-1, are simple and their corresponding critical values lie in a four-element set. Such functions are described using hyperelliptic curves of genus g{>=}1. The classical Zolotarev fraction arises in this framework for g=1. Bibliography: 8 titles.

  15. Exploring Linear Functions: Representational Relationships

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    This "series of explorations based on two linked representations of linear functions" allows students to manipulate the values of m and b in linear function f(x) = mx + b and get a visual understanding of the results. This particular site guides student through this exploration by asking them to perform five different manipulations and describe the changes that occur.

  16. Neuropsychological functioning following craniopharyngioma removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry N. Bawden; Sonia Salisbury; Gail Eskes; Rachel Morehouse

    2009-01-01

    The neuropsychological functioning of patients who had undergone surgical removal of craniopharyngiomas was compared to that of an endocrine control group composed of patients with nontumor hypopituitarism, an obese control group, and a normal control group. Neuropsychological assessments consisting of measures of intelligence, memory, attention, and executive functioning were carried out. The craniopharyngioma group had lower Performance IQ than did

  17. Functional Lateralization of the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Raymond S.

    1984-01-01

    Research concerning lateralization of human brain functions is examined in light of the recent publication of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. Following a review of research methodologies and functions ascribed to the hemispheres of the brain, differences are portrayed as complementary and coexisting modes of cognitive processing.…

  18. Patterning surfaces with functional polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhihong Nie; Eugenia Kumacheva

    2008-01-01

    The ability to pattern functional polymers at different length scales is important for research fields including cell biology, tissue engineering and medicinal science and the development of optics and electronics. The interest and capabilities of polymer patterning have originated from the abundance of functionalities of polymers and a wide range of applications of the patterns. This paper reviews recent advances

  19. MODULAR DECOMPOSITION OF BOOLEAN FUNCTIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2002-01-01

    Modular decomposition is a thoroughly investigated topic in many areas such as switching theory, reliability theory, game theory and graph theory. Most appli- cations can be formulated in the framework of Boolean functions. In this paper we give a uni_ed treatment of modular decomposition of Boolean functions based on the idea of generalized Shannon decomposition. Furthermore, we discuss some new

  20. Computational complexity of Boolean functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksei D Korshunov

    2012-01-01

    Boolean functions are among the fundamental objects of discrete mathematics, especially in those of its subdisciplines which fall under mathematical logic and mathematical cybernetics. The language of Boolean functions is convenient for describing the operation of many discrete systems such as contact networks, Boolean circuits, branching programs, and some others. An important parameter of discrete systems of this kind is