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1

Arousal and reward: a dichotomy in orexin function  

E-print Network

function, such that orexin neurons in the lateral hypotha- lamus regulate reward processing for both food associated with rewards such as food or drugs, and that exogenous stimulation of LH orexin neurons reinstates, arousal and reward [12­15]. Intraventricular administration of orexin A mildly sti- mulates food intake

Aston-Jones, Gary

2

The dappled nature of causes of psychiatric illness: replacing the organic-functional/hardware-software dichotomy with empirically based pluralism  

PubMed Central

Our tendency to see the world of psychiatric illness in dichotomous and opposing terms has three major sources: the philosophy of Descartes, the state of neuropathology in late nineteenth century Europe (when disorders were divided into those with and without demonstrable pathology and labeled, respectively, organic and functional), and the influential concept of computer functionalism wherein the computer is viewed as a model for the human mind–brain system (brain = hardware, mind = software). These mutually re-enforcing dichotomies, which have had a pernicious influence on our field, make a clear prediction about how ‘difference-makers’ (aka causal risk factors) for psychiatric disorders should be distributed in nature. In particular, are psychiatric disorders like our laptops, which when they dysfunction, can be cleanly divided into those with software versus hardware problems? I propose 11 categories of difference-makers for psychiatric illness from molecular genetics through culture and review their distribution in schizophrenia, major depression and alcohol dependence. In no case do these distributions resemble that predicted by the organic–functional/hardware–software dichotomy. Instead, the causes of psychiatric illness are dappled, distributed widely across multiple categories. We should abandon Cartesian and computer-functionalism-based dichotomies as scientifically inadequate and an impediment to our ability to integrate the diverse information about psychiatric illness our research has produced. Empirically based pluralism provides a rigorous but dappled view of the etiology of psychiatric illness. Critically, it is based not on how we wish the world to be but how the difference-makers for psychiatric illness are in fact distributed. PMID:22230881

Kendler, KS

2012-01-01

3

The functional role of the inferior parietal lobe in the dorsal and ventral stream dichotomy  

PubMed Central

Current models of the visual pathways have difficulty incorporating the human inferior parietal lobe (IPL) into dorsal or ventral streams. Some recent proposals have attempted to integrate aspects of IPL function that were not hitherto dealt with well, such as differences between the left and right hemisphere and the role of the right IPL in responding to salient environmental events. However, we argue that these models also fail to capture adequately some important findings regarding the functions of the IPL. Here we critically appraise existing proposals regarding the functional architecture of the visual system, with special emphasis on the role of this region, particularly in the right hemisphere. We review evidence that shows the right IPL plays an important role in two different, but broadly complementary, aspects of attention: maintaining attentive control on current task goals as well as responding to salient new information or alerting stimuli in the environment. In our view, findings from functional imaging, electrophysiological and lesion studies are all consistent with the view that this region is part of a system that allows flexible reconfiguration of behaviour between these two alternative modes of operation. Damage to the right IPL leads to deficits in both maintaining attention and also responding to salient events, impairments that contribute to hemineglect, the classical syndrome that follows lesions of this region. PMID:19138694

Singh-Curry, Victoria; Husain, Masud

2009-01-01

4

Age Effects on Mediolateral Balance Control  

PubMed Central

Background Age-related balance impairments, particularly in mediolateral direction (ML) may cause falls. Sufficiently sensitive and reliable ML balance tests are, however, lacking. This study is aimed to determine (1) the effect of age on and (2) the reliability of ML balance performance using Center of Mass (CoM) tracking. Methods Balance performance of 19 young (26±3 years) and 19 older (72±5 years) adults on ML-CoM tracking tasks was compared. Subjects tracked predictable and unpredictable target displacements at increasing frequencies with their CoM by shifting their weight sideward. Phase-shift (response delay) and gain (amplitude difference) between the CoM and target in the frequency domain were used to quantify performance. Thirteen older and all young adults were reassessed to determine reliability of balance performance measures. In addition, all older adults performed a series of clinical balance tests and conventional posturography was done in a sub-sample. Results Phase-shift and gain dropped below pre-determined thresholds (?90 degrees and 0.5) at lower frequencies in the older adults and were even lower below these frequencies than in young adults. Performance measures showed good to excellent reliability in both groups. All clinical scores were close to the maximum and no age effect was found using posturography. ML balance performance measures exhibited small but systematic between-session differences indicative of learning. Conclusions The ability to accurately perform ML-CoM tracking deteriorates with age. ML-CoM tracking tasks form a reliable tool to assess ML balance in young and older adults and are more sensitive to age-related impairment than posturography and clinical tests. PMID:25350846

Cofré Lizama, L. Eduardo; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Faber, Gert H.; Reeves, Peter N.; Verschueren, Sabine M.; van Dieën, Jaap H.

2014-01-01

5

Contributions of muscles to mediolateral ground reaction force over a range of walking speeds  

PubMed Central

Impaired control of mediolateral body motion during walking is an important health concern. Developing treatments to improve mediolateral control is challenging, partly because the mechanisms by which muscles modulate mediolateral ground reaction force (and thereby modulate mediolateral acceleration of the body mass center) during unimpaired walking are poorly understood. To investigate this, we examined mediolateral ground reaction forces in eight unimpaired subjects walking at four speeds and determined the contributions of muscles, gravity, and velocity-related forces to the mediolateral ground reaction force by analyzing muscle-driven simulations of these subjects. During early stance (0-6% gait cycle), peak ground reaction force on the leading foot was directed laterally and increased significantly (p < 0.05) with walking speed. During early single support (14-30% gait cycle), peak ground reaction force on the stance foot was directed medially and increased significantly (p < 0.01) with speed. Muscles accounted for more than 92% of the mediolateral ground reaction force over all walking speeds, whereas gravity and velocity-related forces made relatively small contributions. Muscles coordinate mediolateral acceleration via an interplay between the medial ground reaction force contributed by the abductors and the lateral ground reaction forces contributed by the knee extensors, plantarflexors, and adductors. Our findings show how muscles that contribute to forward progression and body-weight support also modulate mediolateral acceleration of the body mass center while weight is transferred from one leg to another during double support. PMID:22884038

John, Chand T.; Seth, Ajay; Schwartz, Michael H.; Delp, Scott L.

2012-01-01

6

Hemispheres Apart: The Crustal Dichotomy on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hemispheric dichotomy is a fundamental feature of Mars, ex- pressed by a physiographic and geologic divide between the heavily cratered southern highlands and the relatively smooth plains of the northern lowlands. The origin of the dichotomy, which may have set the course for most of the subsequent geologic evolution of Mars, remains unclear. Internally driven models for the dichotomy

Thomas R. Watters; Patrick J. McGovern; Rossman P. Irwin III

2007-01-01

7

Contributions of muscles to mediolateral ground reaction force over a range of walking speeds  

E-print Network

- lateral motion has been reported in children with cerebral palsy (Hsue et al., 2009), individuals (Chockalingam et al., 2008). For elderly individuals, failure to control mediolateral motion can cause

Delp, Scott

8

Antagonistic Gene Activities Determine the Formation of Pattern Elements along the Mediolateral Axis of the Arabidopsis Fruit  

PubMed Central

The Arabidopsis fruit mainly consists of a mature ovary that shows three well defined territories that are pattern elements along the mediolateral axis: the replum, located at the medial plane of the flower, and the valve and the valve margin, both of lateral nature. JAG/FIL activity, which includes the combined functions of JAGGED (JAG), FILAMENTOUS FLOWER (FIL), and YABBY3 (YAB3), contributes to the formation of the two lateral pattern elements, whereas the cooperating genes BREVIPEDICELLUS (BP) and REPLUMLESS (RPL) promote replum development. A recent model to explain pattern formation along the mediolateral axis hypothesizes that JAG/FIL activity and BP/RPL function as antagonistic lateral and medial factors, respectively, which tend to repress each other. In this work, we demonstrate the existence of mutual exclusion mechanisms between both kinds of factors, and how this determines the formation and size of the three territories. Medial factors autonomously constrain lateral factors so that they only express outside the replum, and lateral factors negatively regulate the medially expressed BP gene in a non-autonomous fashion to ensure correct replum development. We also have found that ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1), previously shown to repress BP both in leaves and ovaries, collaborates with JAG/FIL activity, preventing its repression by BP and showing synergistic interactions with JAG/FIL activity genes. Therefore AS gene function (the function of the interacting genes AS1 and AS2) has been incorporated in the model as a new lateral factor. Our model of antagonistic factors provides explanation for mutant fruit phenotypes in Arabidopsis and also may help to understand natural variation of fruit shape in Brassicaceae and other species, since subtle changes in gene expression may cause conspicuous changes in the size of the different tissue types. PMID:23133401

González-Reig, Santiago; Ripoll, Juan José; Vera, Antonio; Yanofsky, Martin F.; Martínez-Laborda, Antonio

2012-01-01

9

Relationship between foot placement and mediolateral ground reaction forces during running.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationship between foot placement relative to midline and mediolateral ground reaction forces during running. Data from 40 runners seen over a period of 2 years in a running injury clinic were analysed. A linear regression analysis revealed no significant relationship between foot placement and peak mediolateral values. Significance was found between foot placement and impulse, indicating that as the foot became more crossed over the lateral contribution to the total impulse increased (and vice versa). However, only 15% of the total variance in this model was accounted for. Despite these weak findings, subjects in the extreme range of foot placement (both wide-base and cross-over) appeared to exhibit stronger influences on mediolateral impulses. Therefore in the second phase of this study a symptom-free runner was tested while running with a 5-cm cross-over and wide-base gait, along with a neutral gait pattern. In the cross-over gait the contribution of the lateral impulse to the total impulse was 97%. Similar findings were noted with the medial contribution in the wide-based gait. Finally, the cross-over gait resembled the mediolateral force pattern observed during a 45-degree cut to the right (but exhibited lesser magnitudes), while the wide-base gait was similar to a cut to the left. PMID:23916130

McClay, I S; Cavanagh, P R

1994-03-01

10

The influence of mediolateral deformity, tibial torsion, and foot position on femorotibial load  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of mediolateral deformity, tibial torsion, and different centers of foot support was studied with a three-dimensional computer model that incorporates the significant muscles of the lower extremities needed for quasi-static walking. This theoretical method avoids the variability in gait pattern from the pain and discomfort associated with deformity in patients. The study illustrates the possible importance of the

U. Lindgren; A. Seireg

1989-01-01

11

The Synoptic Image: Fusing the Worldview Dichotomy  

E-print Network

The Synoptic Image: Fusing the Worldview Dichotomy R. BRIAN TRACZ Boston College Everyone has an understanding of beauty in the world, and this understanding of the world as beautiful flavors how everyone

Finzi, Adrien

12

Evolutionary Semigroups and Dichotomy of Linear Skew-Product Flows on Locally Compact Spaces with Banach Fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study evolutionary semigroups generated by a strongly continuous semi-cocycle over a locally compact metric space acting on Banach fibers. This setting simultaneously covers evolutionary semigroups arising from non-autonomous abstract Cauchy problems and C0-semigroups, and linear skew-product flows. The spectral mapping theorem for these semigroups is proved. The hyperbolicity of the semigroup is related to the exponential dichotomy of the corresponding linear skew-product flow. To this end a Banach algebra of weighted composition operators is studied. The results are applied in the study of: "roughness" of the dichotomy, dichotomy and solutions of nonhomogeneous equations, Green's function for a linear skew-product flow, "pointwise" dichotomy versus "global" dichotomy, and evolutionary semigroups along trajectories of the flow.

Latushkin, Y.; Montgomery-Smith, S.; Randolph, T.

13

Reconceptualizing the Native/Nonnative Speaker Dichotomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reconceptualizes the native/nonnative dichotomy and provides a powerful lens to examine linguistic identities. In a study of 25 linguistically diverse teacher candidates in Canada, the respondents' native and nonnative self-ascription and self-assessed level of proficiency was juxtaposed with the judgment of their instructors. This…

Faez, Farahnaz

2011-01-01

14

Challenging the Traditional/Communicative Dichotomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary aim of this paper is to explore a common dichotomy that characterizes debate about what has come to be termed "appropriate methodology". It is that between "traditional" and "communicative" approaches to language teaching, a distinction that persists despite arguments by some that the term "communicative" should be superseded or even…

Beaumont, Mike; Chang, Kyung-Suk

2011-01-01

15

Cutting a mediolateral episiotomy at the correct angle: evaluation of a new device, the Episcissors-60  

PubMed Central

Background Anal incontinence is nine times more prevalent in women than in men due to obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASI). OASI is linked to midline episiotomies and mediolateral episiotomies with post-delivery angles of <30 and >60 degrees. Studies show that doctors and midwives are unable to correctly “eyeball” the safe angle required due to perineal stretching by the fetal head at crowning. A new scissor instrument (Episcissors-60) was devised to allow cutting a mediolateral episiotomy at a fixed angle of 60 degrees from the perineal midline. Methods Scissors with a marker guide limb pointing towards the anus were devised, ensuring an angle of 60 degrees between the scissor blades and the guide limb. This device was initially tested in models. Post-delivery angles were recorded on transparencies and analyzed by an author blinded to clinical details. Accoucheurs were asked to rate the ease of use on a 5-point scale. Results Of the 17 women, 14 delivered with ventouse, two with forceps, and one with sequential ventouse–forceps. Indications for instrumental delivery were suboptimal cardiotocogram and/or prolonged second stage of labor. Mean birth weight was 3.41 (2.92–4.12) kg. A mean post-delivery angle of 42.4±7 (range 30–60, median 43) degrees (95% confidence interval 38.8–46) was achieved with the Episcissors-60 instrument. Eighty-eight percent of clinicians agreed or strongly agreed that the scissors were easy to use. Conclusion The Episcissors-60 delivered a consistent post-delivery angle of 43 degrees. They could replace “eyeballing” when performing mediolateral episiotomies and form part of a preventative strategy to reduce OASI. PMID:24570598

Freeman, R M; Hollands, H J; Barron, L F; Kapoor, D S

2014-01-01

16

Interest of active posturography to detect age-related and early Parkinson's disease-related impairments in mediolateral postural control.  

PubMed

Patients with Parkinson's disease display impairments of postural control most particularly in active, challenging conditions. The objective of the present study was to analyze early signs of disease-related and also age-related impairments in mediolateral body extension and postural control. Fifty-five participants (18 Hoehn and Yahr stage 2 patients in the off-drug condition, 18 healthy elderly control subjects, and 19 young adults) were included in the study. The participants performed a quiet stance task and two active tasks that analyzed the performance in mediolateral body motion: a limit of stability and a rhythmic weight shift task. As expected, the patients displayed significantly lower and slower body displacement (head, neck, lower back, center of pressure) than elderly control subjects when performing the two body excursion tasks. However, the behavioral variability in both tasks was similar between the groups. Under these active conditions, the patients showed significantly lower contribution of the hip postural control mechanisms compared with the elderly control subjects. Overall, the patients seemed to lower their performance in order to prevent a mediolateral postural instability. However, these patients, at an early stage of their disease, were not unstable in quiet stance. Complementarily, elderly control subjects displayed slower body performance than young adults, which therefore showed an additional age-related impairment in mediolateral postural control. Overall, the study illustrated markers of age-related and Parkinson's disease impairments in mediolateral postural control that may constrain everyday activities in elderly adults and even more in patients with Parkinson's disease. PMID:25143549

Bonnet, Cédrick T; Delval, Arnaud; Defebvre, Luc

2014-11-15

17

A dichotomy theorem for Borel reducibilities Luca Motto Ros  

E-print Network

A dichotomy theorem for Borel reducibilities Luca Motto Ros Department of Mathematics Polythecnic of Turin luca.mottoros@polito.it Amsterdam, August 13th 2007 Luca Motto Ros A dichotomy theorem for Borel if the problem of verifying membership in A can be reduced to the problem of verifying membership in B. Luca

Ros, Luca Motto

18

Early Stage of Walking: Development of Control in Mediolateral and Anteroposterior Directions  

PubMed Central

The authors examined the changes in bipedal gait of toddlers in the anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) directions, as a set, at the onset of independent gait and 1 month after onset. Two groups with distinctly different dynamic resources were studied: 8 toddlers with typical development (TD) and 8 toddlers with Down syndrome (DS). Three-dimensional kinematic data were collected, and gait parameters, such as walking speed, stride length, and stride frequency, as well as the ratio of exchange between potential energy and kinetic energy of the center of mass (COM), were calculated. Displacement of the COM in the AP and ML directions were also analyzed. For some gait variables, toddlers with DS seemed to show more mature values at walking onset than their peers with TD. Those group differences reversed and increased by Visit 2. When the authors considered the motion of the COM of the system, it became clear that the qualitative differences between those groups were characterized primarily by constraints in the ML direction. The authors propose that establishment of coupling between AP and ML oscillations is a key component for the emergence of independent bipedal walking for both populations. PMID:16709562

Kubo, Masayoshi; Ulrich, Beverly D.

2007-01-01

19

Mediolateral foot placement ability during ambulation in individuals with chronic post-stroke hemiplegia.  

PubMed

Mediolateral (ML) foot placement is an effective way to redirect the lateral trajectory of the body center of mass (BCoM) during ambulation, but has only been partly characterized in the chronic post-stroke population despite their increased risk for falling [1]. During able-bodied gait, the locomotor system coordinates lower limb swing phase kinematics such that an appropriate ML foot placement occurs upon foot contact. Muscle weakness and abnormal motor patterns may impair foot placement ability post-stroke. The purpose of this study was to characterize ML foot placement ability during post-stroke ambulation by quantifying ML foot placement accuracy and precision, for the both sound and affected feet. Age matched able-bodied individuals were recruited for comparison. All participants were instructed to target step widths ranging from 0 to 45% leg length, as marked on the laboratory floor. Results of this study confirmed that ML foot placement accuracy and precision were significantly lower for the post-stroke group as compared to the control group (p=0.0). However, ML foot placement accuracy and precision were not significantly different between the affected and sound limbs in the post-stroke group. The lowest accuracy for post-stroke subjects was observed at both extreme step width targets (0 and 45%). Future work should explore potential mechanisms underlying these findings such as abnormal motor coordination, lower limb muscle strength, and abnormal swing phase movement patterns. PMID:24582515

Zissimopoulos, Angelika; Stine, Rebecca; Fatone, Stefania; Gard, Steven

2014-04-01

20

Influence of fear of falling on anticipatory postural control of medio-lateral stability during rapid leg flexion  

Microsoft Academic Search

During leg flexion from erect posture, postural stability is organized in advance during “anticipatory postural adjustments”\\u000a (APA). During these APA, inertial forces are generated that propel the centre of gravity (CoG) laterally towards stance leg\\u000a side. This study examined how fear of falling (FoF) may influence this anticipatory postural control of medio-lateral (ML)\\u000a stability. Ten young healthy participants performed a

E. Yiou; T. Deroche; T. Woodman

2011-01-01

21

An Apparatus to Quantify Anteroposterior and Mediolateral Shear Reduction in Shoe Insoles  

PubMed Central

Background Many of the physiological changes that lead to diabetic foot ulceration, such as muscle atrophy and skin hardening, are manifested at the foot–ground interface via pressure and shear points. Novel shear-reducing insoles have been developed, but their magnitude of shear stiffness has not yet been compared with regular insoles. The aim of this study was to develop an apparatus that would apply shear force and displacement to an insole’s forefoot region, reliably measure deformation, and calculate insole shear stiffness. Methods An apparatus consisting of suspended weights was designed to test the forefoot region of insoles. Three separate regions representing the hallux; the first and second metatarsals; and the third, fourth, and fifth metatarsals were sheared at 20 mm/min for displacements from 0.1 to 1.0 mm in both the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions for two types of insoles (regular and shear reducing). Results Shear reduction was found to be significant for the intervention insoles under all testing conditions. The ratio of a regular insole’s effective stiffness and the experimental insole’s effective stiffness across forefoot position versus shear direction, gait instance versus shear direction, and forefoot position versus gait instance was 270% ± 79%, 270% ± 96%, and 270% ± 86%, respectively. The apparatus was reliable with an average measured coefficient of variation of 0.034 and 0.069 for the regular and shear-reducing insole, respectively. Conclusions An apparatus consisting of suspended weights resting atop three locations of interest sheared across an insole was demonstrated to be capable of measuring the insole shear stiffness accurately, thus quantifying shear-reducing effects of a new type of insole. PMID:23567000

Belmont, Barry; Wang, Yancheng; Ammanath, Peethambaran; Wrobel, James S.; Shih, Albert

2013-01-01

22

CAN PLANETARY INSTABILITY EXPLAIN THE KEPLER DICHOTOMY?  

SciTech Connect

The planet candidates discovered by the Kepler mission provide a rich sample to constrain the architectures and relative inclinations of planetary systems within approximately 0.5 AU of their host stars. We use the triple-transit systems from the Kepler 16 months data as templates for physical triple-planet systems and perform synthetic transit observations, varying the internal inclination variation of the orbits. We find that all the Kepler triple-transit and double-transit systems can be produced from the triple-planet templates, given a low mutual inclination of around 5 Degree-Sign . Our analysis shows that the Kepler data contain a population of planets larger than four Earth radii in single-transit systems that cannot arise from the triple-planet templates. We explore the hypothesis that high-mass counterparts of the triple-transit systems underwent dynamical instability to produce a population of massive double-planet systems of moderately high mutual inclination. We perform N-body simulations of mass-boosted triple-planet systems and observe how the systems heat up and lose planets by planet-planet collisions, and less frequently by ejections or collisions with the star, yielding transits in agreement with the large planets in the Kepler single-transit systems. The resulting population of massive double-planet systems nevertheless cannot explain the additional excess of low-mass planets among the observed single-transit systems and the lack of gas-giant planets in double-transit and triple-transit systems. Planetary instability of systems of triple gas-giant planets can be behind part of the dichotomy between systems hosting one or more small planets and those hosting a single giant planet. The main part of the dichotomy, however, is more likely to have arisen already during planet formation when the formation, migration, or scattering of a massive planet, triggered above a threshold metallicity, suppressed the formation of other planets in sub-AU orbits.

Johansen, Anders; Davies, Melvyn B.; Church, Ross P.; Holmelin, Viktor [Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Box 43, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

2012-10-10

23

Separating Old and Young: The South Polar Dichotomy on Enceladus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On Enceladus, a narrow band of deformation separates the young south polar terrain from the older regions to the north. This study characterizes the dichotomy and determines its relationship to the present-day and paleo tiger stripes.

Patthoff, D. A.; Kattenhorn, S. A.

2011-03-01

24

Constraints on Early Mars Evolution and Dichotomy Origin from Relaxation Modeling of Dichotomy Boundary in the Ismenius Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Martian dichotomy is a global feature separating the northern and southern hemispheres. The 3.5 - 4 Gyr old feature is manifested by a topographic difference of 2-6 km and crustal thickness difference of approx. 15 - 30 km between the two hemispheres. In the Ismenius region, sections of the boundary are characterized by a single scarp with a slope of approx. 20 deg. - 23 deg. and are believed to be among the most well preserved parts of the dichotomy boundary. The origin of the dichotomy is unknown. Endogenic hypotheses do not predict the steep slopes (scarps) of the dichotomy boundary. Exogenic models for forming the northern lowlands by impact cratering, associate the scarps along the dichotomy boundary with craters' rims, but are not globally consistent with the topography and gravity. In order to better understand the origin of the Martian dichotomy, it is necessary to know if the steep scarps along the boundary represent the original shape of the dichotomy. Smrekar et al. presented evidence showing that the boundary scarp in Ismenius is a fault along which the highland crust was down faulted. We test whether the relaxation process could produce faulting along the dichotomy boundary and examine the crustal and mantle conditions that would allow for faulting to occur within 1 Gyr and preserve the long wavelength topography over another 3 Gyr. We approach the problem by a combination of numerical and semi-analytical modeling. We test different viscosity profiles and crustal thicknesses by comparing our modeled magnitude, location and timing of plastic strain and displacements to detailed geologic observations in the Ismenius region.

Guest, A.; Smrekar, S. E.

2004-01-01

25

Axial elongation in mouse embryos involves mediolateral cell intercalation behavior in the paraxial mesoderm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cell mechanical and signaling pathways involved in gastrulation have been studied extensively in invertebrates and amphibians, such as Xenopus, and more recently in non-mammalian vertebrates such as zebrafish and chick. However, because culturing mouse embryos extra-utero is very difficult, this fundamental process has been least characterized in the mouse. As the primary mammalian model for genetics, biochemistry, and the study of human disease and birth defects, it is important to investigate how gastrulation proceeds in murine embryos. We have developed a method of using 4D multiphoton excitation microscopy and extra-utero culture to visualize and characterize the morphogenetic movements in mouse embryos dissected at 8.5 days of gestation. Cells are labeled by expression of an X chromosome-linked enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgene. This method has provided a unique approach, where, for the first time, patterns of cell behavior in the notochord and surrounding paraxial mesoderm can be visualized and traced quantitatively. Our observations of mouse embryos reveal both distinct differences as well as striking similarities in patterned cell motility relative to other vertebrate models such as Xenopus, where axial extension is driven primarily by mediolateral oriented cell behaviors in the notochord and paraxial somitic mesoderm. Unlike Xenopus, the width of the mouse notochord remains the same between 4-somite stage and 8-somite stage embryos. This implies the mouse notochord plays a lesser role in driving axial extension compared to Xenopus, although intercalation may occur where the anterior region of the node becomes notochordal plate. In contrast, the width of mouse paraxial mesoderm narrows significantly during this period and cells within the paraxial mesoderm are both elongated and aligned perpendicular to the midline. In addition, these cells are observed to intercalate, consistent with a role for paraxial mesoderm in driving convergence and extension. These cell behaviors are similar to those characterized in the axial mesoderm of frog embryos during convergence and extension[1], and suggests that tissues may play different roles in axial elongation between the frog and the mouse.

Yen, WeiWei; Burdsal, Carol; Periasamy, Ammasi; Sutherland, Ann E.

2006-02-01

26

Controlled multiplanar distraction of the mandible. Part III: Laboratory studies of sagittal (anteroposterior) and horizontal (mediolateral) movements.  

PubMed

Distraction osteogenesis has proven to be an effective technique for the correction of mandibular deficiencies. However, problems have been encountered in achieving a final, idealized form of the mandible when using distraction devices capable of moving the bone segments in only one dimension (uniplanar). Specifically, occlusal irregularities and deficiencies in lower facial contour have been seen following uniplanar distraction. To address these problems, a distraction device capable of independent movements in three planes (multiplanar) was developed. Previously reported studies in a canine model have demonstrated that this device can successfully distract the mandible along both the sagittal axis (anteroposterior or z-axis) and the vertical axis (superoinferior or y-axis). This study examines the ability of the multiplanar device to distract along the sagittal and horizontal axes (mediolateral or x-axis). A total of 12 dogs were included in the study. All animals underwent unilateral or bilateral mandibular distraction using an external multiplanar device. After a latency period of 5 days, primary distraction along the anteroposterior axis at a rate of 1 mm/day for 10 days (10 mm total) was performed. During the following 10 days, along with an additional 11 mm to 20 mm of anteroposterior axis distraction, concomitant secondary distraction was performed along the horizontal (mediolateral) axis at a rate of 5 degrees/day (50 degrees total). Cephalometric radiographs were obtained preoperatively and at the conclusion of both anteroposterior and combined anteroposterior-mediolateral distraction. Computed tomography (CT) scans were obtained preoperatively and at the end of consolidation (28 days), after which all animals were sacrificed and the dry skulls examined. In all animals, distraction along the mediolateral or x-axis was found to change the anteroposterior projection of the mandible. Varus angulation of the device with respect to the midline of the mandible caused compression of the distracted segments and reduced the anteroposterior thrust of the mandible. In contrast, valgus positioning of the device, with respect to the midline of the mandible, created the opposite effect, increasing the distracted length in the anteroposterior direction. The bone (mandibular) segments being distracted assumed the orientation of the device only for valgus positioning of the device (producing a decrease in the bigonial distance). Conversely, there was no effect from the mediolateral angulation on the distracted segments during varus positioning of the device. A possible explanation for this finding may be a greater resistance to an increase in the bigonial distance (varus positioning of the device) posed by obstruction of lateral movement of the condyle. This stands in contrast to a decrease in the bigonial distance observed following valgus positioning of the device. These findings confirm the clinical impression that distraction along the anteroposterior or sagittal axis remains the critical or keystone therapeutic maneuver in distraction of the mandible. Mediolateral or horizontal axis distraction is best used only as a supplementary movement; in essence, it only affects the anteroposterior dimension with little impact on clinically relevant changes to the bigonial distance. PMID:11314135

Hollier, L H; Rowe, N M; Mackool, R J; Williams, J K; Kim, J H; Longaker, M T; Grayson, B H; McCarthy, J G

2000-03-01

27

Placing erection in context: The reflexogenic-psychogenic dichotomy reconsidered  

Microsoft Academic Search

Penile erections are usually classified as arising from “reflexogenic” or “psychogenic” causes. In practice this dichotomy has translated, somewhat circularly, to a distinction between spinal vs. supraspinal mediation, pelvic vs. hypogastric neural mediation, and perineal somesthetic stimulation vs. stimulation of receptors innervated by the cranial nerves. Evidence for differential regulation of erection in different contexts is reviewed. Research ascribing a

Benjamin D. Sachs

1995-01-01

28

Will the Kraepelinian Dichotomy Survive DSM-V?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kraepelin proposed dementia praecox and manic-depressive illness as the two major psychotic disorders. This paradigm is still prevalent, but observations of overlapping boundaries between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia challenge this dichotomy. However, the concept of schizophrenia has been radically altered from the original Kraepelinian proposal. We defend the two psychoses positions, but suggest two flaws in the heuristic application: (1)

Bernard A Fischer; William T Carpenter

2009-01-01

29

The Biological Implausibility of the Nature-Nurture Dichotomy & What It Means for the Study of Infancy  

PubMed Central

Since the time of the Greeks, philosophers and scientists have wondered about the origins of structure and function. Plato proposed that the origins of structure and function lie in the organism's nature whereas Aristotle proposed that they lie in its nurture. This nature/nurture dichotomy and the emphasis on the origins question has had a powerful effect on our thinking about development right into modern times. Despite this, empirical findings from various branches of developmental science have made a compelling case that the nature/nurture dichotomy is biologically implausible and, thus, that a search for developmental origins must be replaced by research into developmental processes. This change in focus recognizes that development is an immensely complex, dynamic, embedded, interdependent, and probabilistic process and, therefore, renders simplistic questions such as whether a particular behavioral capacity is innate or acquired scientifically uninteresting. PMID:21709807

Lewkowicz, David J.

2011-01-01

30

Dichotomy in the definition of prescriptive information suggests both prescribed data and prescribed algorithms: biosemiotics applications in genomic systems  

PubMed Central

The fields of molecular biology and computer science have cooperated over recent years to create a synergy between the cybernetic and biosemiotic relationship found in cellular genomics to that of information and language found in computational systems. Biological information frequently manifests its "meaning" through instruction or actual production of formal bio-function. Such information is called Prescriptive Information (PI). PI programs organize and execute a prescribed set of choices. Closer examination of this term in cellular systems has led to a dichotomy in its definition suggesting both prescribed data and prescribed algorithms are constituents of PI. This paper looks at this dichotomy as expressed in both the genetic code and in the central dogma of protein synthesis. An example of a genetic algorithm is modeled after the ribosome, and an examination of the protein synthesis process is used to differentiate PI data from PI algorithms. PMID:22413926

2012-01-01

31

Breaking the dichotomy of reactivity vs. chemoselectivity in catalytic S(N)1 reactions of alcohols.  

PubMed

The inability to decouple Lewis acid catalysis from undesirable Brønsted acid catalysed side reactions when water or other protic functional groups are necessarily present has forced chemists to choose between powerful but harsh catalysts or poor but mild ones, a dichotomy that restricts the substrate scope of dehydrative transformations such as the direct SN1 reaction of alcohols. A systematic survey of Lewis and Brønsted acids reveals that the strong non-hydrolyzable Lewis acid B(C6F5)3 leads to highly chemoselective alcohol substitution in the presence of acid-sensitive alkenes, protecting groups and other functional groups without the typical compromise in reaction rates, substrate scope and catalyst loading. PMID:24987941

Hellal, Malik; Falk, Florian C; Wolf, Eléna; Dryzhakov, Marian; Moran, Joseph

2014-08-21

32

On the dichotomy in the Earth-Moon system restricted three-body problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply the numerical technique of Poincare surface of section to investigate the dichotomy present in the Earth-Moon system, considering the framework of planar, circular, restricted three-body problem. A study on the transition of quasi-periodic orbits (oscillatory type dichotomy) present at the Jacobi constant C=2.85 shows that the dichotomy discussed here exist not at a particular value of the mass ratio and the Jacobi constant. It is observed that as C increases, the range of mass ratio at which the dichotomy pertains increases, even though the mass ratio at which the transition of orbits takes place decreases.

Safiya Beevi, A.; Sharma, R. K.

2012-10-01

33

DICHOTOMY OF SOLAR CORONAL JETS: STANDARD JETS AND BLOWOUT JETS  

SciTech Connect

By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/X-Ray Telescope coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop H{alpha} macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major coronal mass ejections. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 A snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T {approx} 10{sup 4} - 10{sup 5} K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

Moore, Ronald L.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A., E-mail: ron.moore@nasa.go [Space Science Office, VP62, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

2010-09-01

34

Dichotomy of Solar Coronal Jets: Standard Jets and Blowout Jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/XRT coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop H alpha macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major CMEs. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 Angstrom snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 5) K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

Moore, R. L.; Cirtain, J. W.; Sterling, A. C.; Falconer, D. A.

2010-01-01

35

A stellar population synthesis approach to the Oosterhoff dichotomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use colour-magnitude diagram synthesis together with theoretical relations from non-linear pulsation models to approach the long-standing problem of the Oosterhoff dichotomy related to the distribution of the mean periods of fundamental RR Lyrae variables in globular clusters. By adopting the chemical composition determined from spectroscopic observations and a criterion to account for the hysteresis mechanism, we tuned age and mass loss to simultaneously reproduce the morphology of both the turn-off and the horizontal branch of a sample of 17 globular clusters of the Milky Way and of nearby dwarf galaxies in the crucial metallicity range (-1.9 < [Fe/H] < -1.4) where the Oostheroff transition is apparent. We find that the Oosterhoff dichotomy among Galactic globular clusters is naturally reproduced by models. The analysis of the relative impact of the various involved parameters indicates that the main responsibles of the dichotomy are the peculiar distribution of clusters in the age-metallicity plane and the hysteresis. In particular, there is a clear connection between the two main branches of the age-metallicity relation for Galactic globular clusters and the Oosterhoff groups. The properties of clusters' RR Lyrae belonging to other Oostheroff groups (OoInt and OoIII) are instead not well reproduced. While for OoIII clusters a larger helium abundance for a fraction of the cluster's stars can reconcile the model prediction with observations, some other parameter affecting both the horizontal branch morphology and the RR Lyrae periods is required to reproduce the behaviour of OoInt clusters.

Sollima, A.; Cassisi, S.; Fiorentino, G.; Gratton, R. G.

2014-10-01

36

Beyond the dichotomy: six religious views of homosexuality.  

PubMed

Using published theological and scholarly evidence, this article disrupts the stereotypical "born gay"/"sinful choice" dichotomy widely assumed to characterize religious views of homosexuality in the United States. It argues that we need to keep moral questions separate from questions about the fixity or fluidity of sexual orientation. Rather than two, American Christian and Jewish views of homosexuality can been seen on a range from the "God Hates Fags" view through "Love the Sinner, Hate the Sin," "We Don't Talk About That," "They Can't Help It," "God's Good Gift," and a queer-theological view of the "Godly Calling." PMID:24871867

Moon, Dawne

2014-09-01

37

The Prokaryote-Eukaryote Dichotomy: Meanings and Mythology  

PubMed Central

Drawing on documents both published and archival, this paper explains how the prokaryote-eukaryote dichotomy of the 1960s was constructed, the purposes it served, and what it implied in terms of classification and phylogeny. In doing so, I first show how the concept was attributed to Edouard Chatton and the context in which he introduced the terms. Following, I examine the context in which the terms were reintroduced into biology in 1962 by Roger Stanier and C. B. van Niel. I study the discourse over the subsequent decade to understand how the organizational dichotomy took on the form of a natural classification as the kingdom Monera or superkingdom Procaryotae. Stanier and van Niel admitted that, in regard to constructing a natural classification of bacteria, structural characteristics were no more useful than physiological properties. They repeatedly denied that bacterial phylogenetics was possible. I thus examine the great historical irony that the “prokaryote,” in both its organizational and phylogenetic senses, was defined (negatively) on the basis of structure. Finally, we see how phylogenetic research based on 16S rRNA led by Carl Woese and his collaborators confronted the prokaryote concept while moving microbiology to the center of evolutionary biology. PMID:15944457

Sapp, Jan

2005-01-01

38

Models of Sensory Deprivation: The Nature\\/Nurture Dichotomy and Spatial Representation in the Blind  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that models of sensory deprivation often depend on a nativist versus empiricist dichotomy which has little basis in empirical fact. Fallacies about the nature of abilities and learning and about the interaction between sense modalities which follow from the dichotomy are examined in relation to explanations of spatial development in the blind. It is suggested that interactions

Susanna Millar

1988-01-01

39

Growth of the hemispheric dichotomy and the cessation of plate tectonics on Mars  

E-print Network

Department of Earth Science, Rice University, Houston, Texas, USA F. Nimmo1 Department of Geological Sciences dichotomy, mantle convection, thermal evolution, rheology Citation: Lenardic, A., F. Nimmo, and L. Moresi of the dichotomy yield a mean crustal thickness of 55 ± 20 km [Nimmo, 2002]. Similar studies by Turcotte et al

Nimmo, Francis

40

Knowledge of Being v. Practice of Becoming in Higher Education: Overcoming the Dichotomy in the Humanities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay suggests ways to overcome what I take to be a widespread problem of a dichotomy between the knowledge of being and the practice of becoming and an emphasis on the former at the expense of the latter within contemporary Humanities at the university. First, I trace the genealogy of this dichotomy and its effects on contemporary…

Marquez, Ivan

2006-01-01

41

Transcending The Virgin\\/Whore Dichotomy: Telling Mina's Story in Bram Stoker's Dracula  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay explores an alternative perspective on the virgin\\/whore dichotomy, a frame often used in feminist criticism of popular media. Past use of the dichotomy emphasizes how women are classified according to men's needs and experiences, a useful approach for examining the manifestation of patriarchal ideology. However, our approach asks instead how representations of sexuality might be decoded if women's

Leah M. Wyman; George N. Dionisopoulos

2000-01-01

42

Beyond the intrinsic-extrinsic dichotomy: Self-determination in motivation and learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have typically portrayed intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as dichotomous. Although this dichotomy has explanatory utility, we present a differentiated view of extrinsic motivation, arguing that the relative autonomy of one's motivated actions is more useful for characterizing the motivational basis of learning than is the undifferentiated intrinsic-extrinsic dichotomy. Our concept of autonomous extrinsic motivation is based on a developmental

C. Scott Rigby; Edward L. Deci; Brian C. Patrick; Richard M. Ryan

1992-01-01

43

‘No Personal Motive?’ Volunteers, Biodiversity, and the False Dichotomies of Participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of participation usually assume a dichotomy between ‘instrumental’ and ‘transformative’ approaches. However, this study of voluntary biological monitoring experiences and outcomes finds that they cannot be fitted into such a dichotomy. They can enhance the information base for environmental management; change participants through education about scientific practice and ecological change; lead to changes in life direction or group organisation;

Anna Lawrence

2006-01-01

44

The Albedo Dichotomy of Iapetus Measured at UV Wavelengths  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dramatic hemispheric dichotomy in albedo displayed by Saturn's moon Iapetus has intrigued astronomers for centuries. Here we report on far-ultraviolet observations of Iapetus' bright and dark terrains from Cassini. We compare the reflectance spectra of Iapetus's dark terrain, Hyperion and Phoebe and find that both Phoebe and Hyperion are richer in water ice than Iapetus' dark terrain. Spectra of the lowest latitudes of the dark terrain display the diagnostic water ice absorption feature; water ice amounts increase within the dark material away from the apex (at 90 deg W longitude, the center of the dark leading hemisphere), consistent with thermal segregation of water ice. The water ice in the darkest, warmest low latitude regions is not expected to be stable and may be a sign of ongoing or recent emplacement of the dark material from an exogenic source.

Hendrix, Amanda R.; Hansen, Candice J.

2007-01-01

45

Cassini VIMS Preliminary Exploration of Titan's Surface Hemispheric Albedo Dichotomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present preliminary evidence that suggests a hemispheric albedo dichotomy on Titan, the largest planetary satellite in the Solar System. We have also studied the photometric properties of several dark circular features on Titan's surface to test if they might be of impact origin. The evidence is derived from photometric analysis of selected surface regions taken at different Titanian longitudes and solar phase angles using images from the Cassini Saturn Orbiter Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). The VIMS instrument is able to image Titan's surface at spectral windows (e.g. 2.02 microns) in its atmosphere where methane, the principal atmospheric absorber is transparent. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

Nelson, R. M.; Brown, R. H.; Hapke, B. W.; Smythe, W. D.; Kamp, L.; Boryta, M.; Baines, K. H.; Bellucci, G.; Bibring, J.-P.; Buratti, B. J.

2005-01-01

46

Overcoming the dichotomy of quantity and quality in antibody responses.  

PubMed

Germinal centers (GCs) are specialized environments in which B cells mutate their BCR to identify new Abs with high affinity to a challenging Ag. B cells are selected in an evolutionary process of multiple rounds of mutation and selection. In the past decade, mechanisms of B cell migration, division, mutation, selection, and final differentiation have been extensively studied. Thereby, modulations of these mechanisms either optimize the quality, in terms of affinity, or the quantity of generated Abs, but never both, leading to an unclear effect on the overall efficiency of the Ab response. In this article, we predict with mathematical models that an affinity-dependent number of GC B cell divisions overcomes the dichotomy of quality and quantity, and has to be considered as a good target for immune interventions, in particular, in the elderly population with poor GC responses. PMID:25355924

Meyer-Hermann, Michael

2014-12-01

47

Tharsis as a consequence of Mars' dichotomy and layered mantle Mark J. Wenzel,1  

E-print Network

Tharsis as a consequence of Mars' dichotomy and layered mantle Mark J. Wenzel,1 Michael Manga,1 Surface Planets: Volcanism (8450); 8147 Tectonophysics: Planetary interiors (5430, 5724). Citation: Wenzel

Jellinek, Mark

48

Dichotomy of X-Ray Jets in Solar Coronal Holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been found that there are two different types of X-ray jets observed in the Sun's polar coronal holes: standard jets and blowout jets. A proposed model of this dichotomy is that a standard jet is produced by a burst of reconnection of the ambient magnetic field with the opposite-polarity leg of the base arcade. In contrast, it appears that a blowout jet is produced when the interior of the arcade has so much pent-up free magnetic energy in the form of shear and twist in the interior field that the external reconnection unleashes the interior field to erupt open. In this project, X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes taken by Hinode were searched for X-ray jets. Co-temporal movies taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatory in 304 Å emission from He II, showing solar plasma at temperatures around 80,000 K, were examined for whether the identified blowout jets carry much more He II plasma than the identified standard jets. It was found that though some jets identified as standard from the X-ray movies could be seen in the He II 304 Å movies, the blowout jets carried much more 80,000 K plasma than did most standard jets. This finding supports the proposed model for the morphology and development of the two types of jets.

Robe, D. M.; Moore, R. L.; Falconer, D. A.

2012-12-01

49

A coordination chemistry dichotomy for icosahedral carborane-based ligands.  

PubMed

Although the majority of ligands in modern chemistry take advantage of carbon-based substituent effects to tune the sterics and electronics of coordinating moieties, we describe here how icosahedral carboranes-boron-rich clusters-can influence metal-ligand interactions. Using a series of phosphine-thioether chelating ligands featuring meta- or ortho-carboranes grafted on the sulfur atom, we were able to tune the lability of the platinum-sulfur interaction of platinum(II)-thioether complexes. Experimental observations, supported by computational work, show that icosahedral carboranes can act either as strong electron-withdrawing ligands or electron-donating moieties (similar to aryl- or alkyl-based groups, respectively), depending on which atom of the carborane cage is attached to the thioether moiety. These and similar results with carborane-selenol derivatives suggest that, in contrast to carbon-based ligands, icosahedral carboranes exhibit a significant dichotomy in their coordination chemistry, and can be used as a versatile class of electronically tunable building blocks for various ligand platforms. PMID:21778977

Spokoyny, Alexander M; Machan, Charles W; Clingerman, Daniel J; Rosen, Mari S; Wiester, Michael J; Kennedy, Robert D; Stern, Charlotte L; Sarjeant, Amy A; Mirkin, Chad A

2011-08-01

50

Reliability of Mandibular Canines as Indicators for Sexual Dichotomy  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Amongst the various calcified structures in the human body, teeth have gained lot of popularity in estimating the sex of an individual as they are highly resistant to destruction and decomposition. Using permanent mandibular canines many researchers have predicted a high level of accuracy in identifying the sex correctly. The purpose of our study was to gauge the effectiveness of mandibular canines in discerning sex. Materials & Methods: Fifty dental casts each of males and females were utilized for the study. Mesio-distal dimension and inter-canine distance of mandibular right and left canine was recorded using digital vernier caliper and mandibular canine index was calculated. Results: The mean value of mesio-distal dimensions of right and left mandibular canine was slightly greater in males compared to females. The mandibular canine index was equal in both sexes. Inter-canine distance was marginally higher in males compared to females. Despite of higher values in males none of the parameters were statistically significant. Conclusion: The results herein bolster contemporary studies that mesio-distal dimensions of mandibular canines and mandibular canine index do not reflect sexual dimorphism and that its application should be discontinued in sex prediction among Indian populations. How to cite this article: Hosmani J V, Nayak R S, Kotrashetti V S, Pradeep S, Babji D. Reliability of Mandibular Canines as Indicators for Sexual Dichotomy. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):1-7. PMID:24155571

Hosmani, Jagadish V; Nayak, Ramakant S; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S; S, Pradeep; Babji, Deepa

2013-01-01

51

Magnetometer Data Tests Models for the Origin of the Martian Crustal Dichotomy; Dichotomy Models Constrain Timing of Martian Magnetic Field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements recently supplied by the MGS Magnetometer/Electron Reflectometer (MAG/ER) on MGS can be applied to test theories of the origin of the martian crustal dichotomy. Strong (+/- 1500 nT) magnetic anomalies are observed in the Martian crust. The observations can be summarized as follows: 1) strong crustal magnetic sources are generally confined to the southern highlands, although weaker (approx. 40 nT) anomalies were observed during close periapsis; 2) strong magnetic anomalies are absent in the vicinity of Hellas and Argyre; 3) the anomalies in the region 0 deg to 90 deg S, 120 deg to 240 deg west have a linear geometry, strike generally east west for 1000s km, and show several reversals. This latter point has led to the suggestion that some form of lateral plate tectonics may have been operative in the southern highlands of Mars. These observations have led previous workers to hypothesize that the magnetic anomalies were present prior to and were destroyed by the formation of Hellas and Argyre. As such large impacts are confined to the era of heavy bombardment, this places the time of formation of large magnetic anomalies prior to approx. 3.9 Ga. One obvious extension of this is that the northern lowlands lack significant anomalies because they were erased by impacts and/or the northern lowlands represent crust completely reheated above the Curie temperature. Preliminary observations of the distributions of the large crustal magnetic anomalies show that many of them extend continuously over the highland lowland boundary. This occurs particularly north of the boundary between 30 deg W and 270 deg W, corresponding to northern Arabia, but also occurs in southern Elysium (approx. 10 deg S, 200 deg) and the SW portion of Tharsis (approx. 15 deg S, 140 deg). This suggests that, in these areas, Noachian crust containing the greater than 3.9 Ga magnetic signature, lies beneath the northern highlands. This geometry can be used to test models for the formation of the martian crustal dichotomy. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Gilmore, M. S.

1999-01-01

52

Altered biomechanical strategies and medio-lateral control of the knee represent incomplete recovery of individuals with injury during single leg hop.  

PubMed

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury can result in failure to return to pre-injury activity levels and future osteoarthritis predisposition. Single leg hop is used in late rehabilitation to evaluate recovery and inform treatment but biomechanical understanding of this activity is insufficient. This study investigated single leg hop for distance aiming to evaluate if ACL patients had recovered: (1) landing strategies and (2) medio-lateral knee control. We hypothesized that patients with reconstructive surgery (ACLR) would have more similar landing strategies and knee control to healthy controls than patients treated conservatively (ACLD). 16 ACLD and 23 ACLR subjects were compared to 20 healthy controls (CONT). Kinematic and ground reaction force data were collected while subjects hopped their maximum distance. The main output parameters were hop distance, peak knee flexor angles and extensor moments and Fluency (a measure introduced to represent medio-lateral knee control). Statistical differences between ACL and control groups were analyzed using a general linear model univariate analysis, with COM velocity prior to landing as covariate. Hop distance was the smallest for ACLD and largest for CONT (p<0.001; ACLD 57.1±14.1; ACLR 75.1±17.8; CONT 77.7±14.07% height). ACLR used a similar kinematic strategy to CONT, but had a reduced peak knee extensor moment (p<0.001; ACLD 0.32±0.14; ACLR 0.31±0.16; CONT 0.42±0.13 BW.height). Fluency was reduced in both ACLD and ACLR (p=0.006; ACLD 0.13±0.34; ACLR 0.14±0.34; CONT 0.17±0.41s). Clinical practice uses hopping distance to evaluate ACL patients' recovery. This study demonstrated that aspects such as movement strategies and knee control need to be evaluated. PMID:24342500

Roos, Paulien E; Button, Kate; Sparkes, Valerie; van Deursen, Robert W M

2014-02-01

53

Development of Cellular Immunity in the Human Fetus: Dichotomy of Proliferative and Cytotoxic Responses of Lymphoid Cells to Phytohemagglutinin  

PubMed Central

The reactivity of cells in vitro was investigated with specimens from various lymphoid organs of seven human fetuses. Thymocytes responded to stimulation by phytohemagglutinin with significant increases in synthesis of DNA, but failed to produce destruction of xenogeneic target cells. In cells from bone marrow, precisely the converse pattern of reactivity to the mitogen was detected. Lymphocytes from spleen and peripheral blood demonstrated both phytohemagglutinin-dependent functions, while hepatic cells did not respond to phytohemagglutinin. Based on the striking dichotomy of phytohemagglutinin-dependent responses in fetal thymocytes and bone-marrow lymphoid cells, we conclude that phytohemagglutinin-dependent cytotoxicity and DNA synthesis are functions of different populations of lymphoid cells during human embryonic development. Images PMID:4504355

Stites, Daniel P.; Carr, Martin C.; Fudenberg, H. Hugh

1972-01-01

54

THE ACS FORNAX CLUSTER SURVEY. IV. DEPROJECTION OF THE SURFACE BRIGHTNESS PROFILES OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN THE VIRGO AND FORNAX CLUSTERS: INVESTIGATING THE 'CORE/POWER-LAW DICHOTOMY'  

SciTech Connect

Although early observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) pointed to a sharp dichotomy among early-type galaxies in terms of the logarithmic slope {gamma}' of their central surface brightness profiles, several studies in the past few years have called this finding into question. In particular, recent imaging surveys of 143 early-type galaxies belonging to the Virgo and Fornax Clusters using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on board HST have not found a dichotomy in {gamma}', but instead a systematic progression from central luminosity deficit to excess relative to the inward extrapolation of the best-fitting global Sersic model. Given that earlier studies also found that the dichotomy persisted when analyzing the deprojected density profile slopes, we investigate the distribution of the three-dimensional luminosity density profiles of the ACS Virgo and Fornax Cluster Survey galaxies. Having fitted the surface brightness profiles with modified Sersic models, we then deproject the galaxies using an Abel integral and measure the inner slopes {gamma}{sub 3D} of the resulting luminosity density profiles at various fractions of the effective radius R{sub e} . We find no evidence of a dichotomy, but rather, a continuous variation in the central luminosity profiles as a function of galaxy magnitude. We introduce a parameter, {Delta}{sub 3D}, that measures the central deviation of the deprojected luminosity profiles from the global Sersic fit, showing that this parameter varies smoothly and systematically along the luminosity function.

Glass, Lisa [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Ferrarese, Laura; Cote, Patrick; Blakeslee, John P.; Chen, Chin-Wei [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Jordan, Andres; Infante, Leopoldo [Departamento de AstronomIa y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul 7820436, Santiago (Chile); Peng, Eric [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Mei, Simona [Bureau des Galaxies, Etoiles, Physique, Instrumentation (GEPI), University of Paris Denis Diderot, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Tonry, John L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); West, Michael J. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile)

2011-01-01

55

The ACS Fornax Cluster Survey. IV. Deprojection of the Surface Brightness Profiles of Early-type Galaxies in the Virgo and Fornax Clusters: Investigating the "Core/Power-law Dichotomy"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although early observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) pointed to a sharp dichotomy among early-type galaxies in terms of the logarithmic slope ?' of their central surface brightness profiles, several studies in the past few years have called this finding into question. In particular, recent imaging surveys of 143 early-type galaxies belonging to the Virgo and Fornax Clusters using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on board HST have not found a dichotomy in ?', but instead a systematic progression from central luminosity deficit to excess relative to the inward extrapolation of the best-fitting global Sérsic model. Given that earlier studies also found that the dichotomy persisted when analyzing the deprojected density profile slopes, we investigate the distribution of the three-dimensional luminosity density profiles of the ACS Virgo and Fornax Cluster Survey galaxies. Having fitted the surface brightness profiles with modified Sérsic models, we then deproject the galaxies using an Abel integral and measure the inner slopes ?3D of the resulting luminosity density profiles at various fractions of the effective radius Re . We find no evidence of a dichotomy, but rather, a continuous variation in the central luminosity profiles as a function of galaxy magnitude. We introduce a parameter, ?3D, that measures the central deviation of the deprojected luminosity profiles from the global Sérsic fit, showing that this parameter varies smoothly and systematically along the luminosity function.

Glass, Lisa; Ferrarese, Laura; Côté, Patrick; Jordán, Andrés; Peng, Eric; Blakeslee, John P.; Chen, Chin-Wei; Infante, Leopoldo; Mei, Simona; Tonry, John L.; West, Michael J.

2011-01-01

56

Constraints on Thermal Evolution of Mars from Relaxation Models of Crustal and Topographic Dichotomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The early thermal evolution of Mars is largely unconstrained. Models such as degree one convection [1,2,3], plate tectonics [4], and a transition to stagnant lid [5] have been proposed to explain formation of the dichotomy, the Tharsis rise, crustal production, and dynamo evolution. Here we model both the early deformation of the dichotomy and the long-term preservation as a means of examining the plausibility of a range of early thermal evolution models. Constraints include the preservation of crustal thickness and topographic differences between the northern and southern hemispheres and the geologic history of the dichotomy [6]). Our previous modeling indicates that the lower crust must have been weak enough to allow for relaxation early on, but the Martian interior had to cool fast enough to preserve the crustal difference and the associated topographic difference (5 km) over approx. 3-3.5 Gyr [7].

Guest, A.; Smrekar, S. E.

2005-01-01

57

Relaxation of the Martian Crustal Dichotomy Boundary in the Ismenius Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The origin of the Martian crustal dichotomy remains a puzzle that when solved can provide an insight to the geological and geophysical evolution of Mars. In this study we model crustal relaxation in order to better constrain the original topographic shape, rheology, and temperature of the Martian crust. Our approach is to model the detailed geologic history of the Ismenius region of Mars, including slope, strain, and timing of faulting [1]. This region may contain the best preserved section of the dichotomy boundary as it is relatively unaffected by large impacts and erosion. So far the only study Martian crustal relaxation [2] suggests that the original topographic shape of the dichotomy is preserved. However, in this area strain from faulting implies at least some relaxation [1].

Guest, A.; Smrekar, S. E.

2004-01-01

58

Geologic Evolution of the Martian Dichotomy and Plains Magnetization in the Ismenius Area of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global dichotomy divides the northern lowlands from the southern highlands, except where interrupted by relatively young volcanic provinces and impact basins. An elevation change of 2-4 km is typical across the dichotomy, and more than 6 km locally, over distances of several 100s km to as much as 1300 km [1,2]. A variety of exogenic and endogenic formation models have been proposed. Distinguishing between these models would help constrain the overall thermal evolution of the planet, possibly timing of core formation, and the associated mantle heat flux over time. A first step is to determine whether or not gravitational relaxation plays a role in modifying the boundary. Nimmo and Stevenson [3] examined 10 profiles across the dichotomy and used models of gravitational relaxation to conclude the relaxation has not occurred. In this study we begin by considering the geologic history in detail as inputs for modeling [4].

Smrekar, S. E.; McGill, G. E.; Raymond, C. A.; Dimitriou, A. M.

2004-01-01

59

Constraints on the Evolution of the Dichotomy Boundary at 50-90E  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global dichotomy is a fundamental feature of Mars. It marks the boundary between the highly cratered, older southern highlands, and the northern plains. Recent analysis of buried craters in the northern lowlands confirms the long held suspicion that they are comparable in age to the southern highlands, but with surficial deposits of younger material. A variety of exogenic and endogenic models have been proposed for the origin of the dichotomy, including multiple impacts, plate tectonics, and degree one convection produced by core formation, a plume under the lowlands, or a plume under the highlands. New gravity and topography data from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mission favor endogenic processes. In this study we examine MGS topography, gravity and magnetic field data to constrain the tectonic history the dichotomy in the region 30-60N and 50-90E, which encompasses portions of the Ismenius Lacus quadrangle. The dichotomy formed very early the history of Mars and has undergone extensive modification by impact cratering, erosion, and faulting. This history must be carefully interpreted in order to reconstruct the original nature of the dichotomy boundary and ultimately discriminate between models of origin. In the study area boundary-parallel faults are well preserved, and may be the result of gravitational relaxation. The geologic history has been examined in detail, including estimates of volumes of material eroded. Further, it is one of the few regions where there is a correlation between the free air gravity, magnetic anomalies, and the geology. This allows to constrain subsurface faulting beneath the lowlands fill material. In addition to being an excellent location to unravel the complex history of the dichotomy, this area preserves the transition from a highly magnetized highlands crust to an unmagnetized or slightly magnetized lowlands crust.

Smrekar, S. E.; Raymond, C. A.; Dimitriou, A.; McGill, G. E.

2003-01-01

60

Lakes, delta and volcanism at the Martian dichotomy. The case of Nepenthes Mensae.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Martian dichotomy. The case of Nepenthes Mensae. M.A. de Pablo (1,2) and A. Pacifici (2) (1) Área de Geología. ESCET. Universidad Rey Juan Carlos. Móstoles, Madrid. Spain. (miguelangel.depablo@urjc.es), (2) International Research School of Planetary Sciences. Universitá d'Annunzio. Viale Pindaro, 42. Pescara, Italy. Martian dichotomy is marked by an important topographic step and a clear lineal orientation, especially at the western hemisphere. Nepenthes Mensae occur in one of these regions where these characteristics are clearly visible. Origin, tectonics and hydrological implications of the dichotomy were widely discussed by several authors. However, observation of HRSC, THEMIS Visible and MOC narrow angle images of Martian dichotomy on Nepenthes Mensae has revealed the existence of an interesting site (centred at 121.43E, 2.16N) where tectonic, volcanic, sedimentary and fluvial features are related and could be indicative of the complex geologic history of the Martian dichotomy, almost in this region. This site is characterized by an important topographic scarp between highlands and lowlands marked by a lineal orientation SE-NW. A small elongated volcanic edifice and some linear narrow reliefs, that we interpret as dikes highlighted by erosive processes, show same orientation. This volcano, 8 kilometers long, 4 kilometers wide and about 500 meters high, lies in a depression bordering the dichotomy. Partially covering the volcanic edifice there are sedimentary materials forming delta features. They represent the termination of one of channels coming from Martian highlands. The most recent delta seems to be a Gilbert-type (about 3.5 kilometers extended and 350 meters thick). However, our coarse estimations of volume of materials of this delta show that other previous important fluvial events should happen in order to erode its channel. The existence of two different overlapping delta funs in this place could be indicative of these previous episodes. Finally, although gullies are not visible on MOC narrow angle images of this area, some water courses are excavated at the Gilbert-type delta, and its possible sedimentary deposits are located near the elongated volcano, marking the most recent fluvial event at this area. Northward of this region, other depressions are characterized by possible shore- lnes. Different levels of water are marked by several strandlines. HRSC-derived DTM agrees with the shorelines hypothesis. Radiance maps created from THEMIS infrared night images show the higher temperature of materials outcropping on the floor of this basin and other depressions bordering the dichotomy. These maps allow us to interpret different origins for those materials, including cemented deposits and lavas. All this features shows the complex interactions among water, tectonics and volcanism in this area of the Martian dichotomy at Nepenthes Mensae.

de Pablo, M. A.; Pacifici, A.

61

Proceedings of Student-Faculty Research Day, CSIS, Pace University, May 2nd Biometric Authentication System using the Dichotomy Model  

E-print Network

will focus on the less common behavioral biometrics of mouse movements, stylometry, and keystroke patternsC3.1 Proceedings of Student-Faculty Research Day, CSIS, Pace University, May 2nd , 2008 Biometric of the use of a dichotomy model in biometric authentication systems. The dichotomy model allows a measure

Tappert, Charles

62

Models of Sensory Deprivation: The Nature/nurture Dichotomy and Spatial Representation in the Blind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the fallacies about the nature of abilities and learning and about the interaction between sense modalities which follow from the dichotomy in relation to explanations of spatial development in the blind. Suggests that interactions between cognitive and perceptual factors need to be considered to explain more adequately effects of sensory…

Millar, Susanna

1988-01-01

63

Martian crustal dichotomy and Tharsis formation by partial melting coupled to early plume migration  

E-print Network

dichotomy ($4.1 Ga [e.g., Nimmo and Tanaka, 2005]) remains a subject of an extensive debate in planetary, 1984; Andrews-Hanna et al., 2008; Marinova et al., 2008; Nimmo et al., 2008; Reese et al., 2010 al., 2001; Solomon et al., 2005; Nimmo and Tanaka, 2005]. A mantle plume origin remains the most

Zhong, Shijie

64

Dichotomy, Dialectic and Dialogic: How Do Sociology Terms Assist Career Development Theory?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three concepts from sociology--dichotomy and two extensions, dialectic and dialogic--are considered here as social-psychological tools for career practitioners who analyse and investigate career patterns, career motivations and career pathways, whether at career start or at further points of transition. These terms have macro-social applications…

Burns, Edgar A. M.

2012-01-01

65

False Dichotomies: Truth, Reason, and Morality in Nietzsche, Foucault, and the Contemporary Social Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atrocities punctuate the daily news in our times, intensified since 9\\/11 in New York to Bombay (Mumbai) 2008 as this abstract is written. While such atrocities arise from sentiments of grievance, they are fed, continued, and justified by false dichotomies that are proclaimed by world leaders and commentators in the press and academia, especially the true believers among them, believers

Paul R. BRASS

2008-01-01

66

Paper&Pencil Skills in the 21st Century, a Dichotomy? Hartwig Meissner  

E-print Network

development, better to say a non-development: We teach paper & pencil skills in primary schools almost like we and for business purposes everybody uses a calculator. Why do we waste so much time of our children to teach them things which later on they will not need? We see an emotional dichotomy. Despite the research results

Spagnolo, Filippo

67

Beyond the market versus planning dichotomy: Understanding privatisation and its reverse in US cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

City service delivery requires planners and city managers to move beyond the public–private dichotomy and explore the benefits of interaction between markets and planning. Using International City County Management survey data on US local governments from 1992, 1997 and 2002, we find a shift where reverse contracting (re-internalisation) now exceeds the level of new contracting out (privatisation). We model how

Amir Hefetz; Mildred Warner

2007-01-01

68

Minority Parents as Researchers: Beyond a Dichotomy in Parent Involvement in Schooling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article documents the work of parent-driven research teams in two school boards in the Greater Toronto Area. Motivated by a desire to move beyond a school-centred/family-centred dichotomy, this parent-lead project explores a middle space for collective learning among multiple stakeholders in publicly-funded schooling. Drawing on participatory…

Ippolito, John

2010-01-01

69

A NOVEL METHOD TO QUANTIFY HISTOCHEMICAL CHANGES THROUGHOUT THE MEDIOLATERAL AXIS OF THE SUBSTANTIA GELATINOSA AFTER SPARED NERVE INJURY: CHARACTERIZATION WITH TRPV1 AND SUBSTANCE P  

PubMed Central

Nerve injury dramatically increases or decreases protein expression in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Whether the spatial distribution of these changes is restricted to the central innervation territories of injured nerves or could spread to adjacent territories in the dorsal horn is not understood. To address this question, we developed a simple computer software-assisted method to precisely distinguish and efficiently quantify immunohistochemical staining patterns across the mediolateral axis of the dorsal horn 2 wk after transection of either the tibial and common peroneal nerves (thus sparing the sural branch, spared nerve injury, SNI), the tibial nerve, or the common peroneal and sural nerves. Using thiamine monophosphatase (TMP) histochemistry, we determined that central terminals of the tibial, common peroneal, sural, and posterior cutaneous nerves occupy the medial 35%, medial-central 20%, central-lateral 20%, and lateral 25% of the substantia gelatinosa, respectively. We then used these calculations to show that SNI reduced the expression of SP and TRPV1 immunoreactivity within the tibial and peroneal innervation territories in the L4 dorsal horn, without changing expression in the uninjured, sural sector. We conclude that SNI-induced loss of SP and TRPV1 in central terminals of dorsal horn is restricted to injured fibers. Our new method enables direct comparison of injured and uninjured terminals in the dorsal horn so as to better understand their relative contributions to mechanisms of chronic pain. PMID:20350706

Corder, G.; Siegel, A.; Intondi, A.B.; Zhang, X.; Zadina, J.E.; Taylor, B.K.

2010-01-01

70

Double-bundle medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendon autograft and mediolateral patellar tunnel fixation: a meta-analysis of outcomes and complications.  

PubMed

Medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction is used to treat patellar instability and recurrent patellar dislocation. Anatomical studies have found the MPFL to be a double-bundle structure. We carried out a meta-analysis of studies reporting outcomes of patellofemoral reconstruction using hamstring tendon autograft in a double-bundle configuration and patellar fixation via mediolateral patellar tunnels. A literature search was undertaken with no language restriction in various databases from their year of inception to July 2012. The primary outcome examined was the post-operative Kujala score. We identified 320 MPFL reconstructions in nine relevant articles. The combined mean post-operative Kujala score was 92.02 (standard error (se) 1.4, p = 0.001) using a fixed effects model and 89.45 (se 37.9, p = 0.02) using random effect modelling. The reported rate of complications with MPFL reconstruction was 12.5% (40 of 320) with stiffness of the knee being the most common. High-quality evidence in assessing double-bundle MPFL reconstruction is lacking. The current literature consists of a mixture of prospective and retrospective case series. High-quality randomised trials evaluating this procedure are still awaited. PMID:23814240

Singhal, R; Rogers, S; Charalambous, C P

2013-07-01

71

ragged seedling2 Encodes an ARGONAUTE7-like protein required for mediolateral expansion, but not dorsiventrality, of maize leaves.  

PubMed

Leaves arise from the flank of the shoot apical meristem and are asymmetrical along the adaxial/abaxial plane from inception. Mutations perturbing dorsiventral cell fate acquisition in a variety of species can result in unifacial (radially symmetrical) leaves lacking adaxial/abaxial polarity. However, mutations in maize (Zea mays) ragged seedling2 (rgd2) condition cylindrical leaves that maintain dorsiventral polarity. Positional cloning reveals that rgd2 encodes an ARGONAUTE7 (AGO7)-like protein required to produce ta-siARF, a trans-acting small interfering RNA that targets abaxially located auxin response factor3a (arf3a) transcripts for degradation. Previous studies implicated ta-siARF in dorsiventral patterning of monocot leaves. Here, we show that arf3a transcripts hyperaccumulate but remain abaxialized in rgd2 mutant apices, revealing that ta-siARF function is not required for arf3a polarization. RGD2 also regulates miR390 accumulation and localization in maize shoot apices. Similar to the abaxialized maize mutant leafbladeless1 (lbl1), rgd2 mutants exhibit ectopic accumulation of the abaxial identity factor miR166 in adaxial domains. Thus, hyperaccumulation of arf3a and ectopic accumulation of miR166 are insufficient to condition abaxialized leaf phenotypes in maize. Finally, transcripts of a maize ago1 paralog overaccumulate in lbl1 but not in rgd2 mutants, suggesting that upregulation of ago1 combined with ectopic accumulation of miR166 contribute to abaxialized leaf formation in lbl1. We present a revised model for the role of small RNAs in dorsiventral patterning of maize leaves. PMID:20453116

Douglas, Ryan N; Wiley, Dan; Sarkar, Ananda; Springer, Nathan; Timmermans, Marja C P; Scanlon, Michael J

2010-05-01

72

Constraints on the formation of the Martian crustal dichotomy from remnant crustal magnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Martian crustal dichotomy characterizing the topographic difference between the northern and southern hemispheres is one of the most important features on Mars. However, the formation mechanism for the dichotomy remains controversial with two competing proposals: exogenic (e.g., a giant impact) and endogenic (e.g., degree-1 mantle convection) mechanisms. Another important observation is the Martian crustal remnant magnetism, which shows a much stronger field in the southern hemisphere than in the northern hemisphere and also magnetic lineations. In this study, we examine how exogenic and endogenic mechanisms for the crustal dichotomy are constrained by the crustal remnant magnetism. Assuming that the dichotomy is caused by a giant impact in the northern hemisphere, we estimate that the average thickness of ejecta in the southern hemisphere is 20-25 km. While such a giant impact may cause crustal demagnetization in the northern hemisphere, we suggest that the impact could also demagnetize the southern hemisphere via ejecta thermal blanketing, impact demagnetization, and heat transfer from the hot layer of ejecta, thus posing a challenge for the giant impact model. We explore how the pattern of magnetic lineations relates to endogenic theories of dichotomy formation, specifically crustal production via degree-1 mantle convection. We observe that the pattern of lineations roughly corresponds to concentric circles about a single pole, and determine the pole for the concentric circles at 76.5° E and 84.5° S, which nearly overlaps with the centroid of the thickened crust in the southern hemisphere. We suggest that the crustal magnetization pattern, magnetic lineations, and crustal dichotomy (i.e., thickened crust in the highlands) can be explained by a simple endogenic process; one-plume convection causes melting and crustal production above the plume in the southern hemisphere, and strong crustal magnetization and magnetic lineations are formed in the southern hemisphere as crustal production fronts spread radially out from the plume center and as the newly created crust cools in the presence of a dynamo with polarity reversals.

Citron, Robert I.; Zhong, Shijie

2012-12-01

73

Hemispheres Apart: The Origin and Modification of The Martian Crustal Dichotomy. (Report for September 30-October 1, 2004).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the Workshop on Hemispheres Apart: The Origin and Modification of the Martian Crustal Dichotomy, September 30--October 1, 2004, Houston, Texas. Administration and publications supp...

H. V. Frey, J. W. Head, A. Lenardic, G. E. McGill, G. Nimmo

2004-01-01

74

The sense of smell, its signalling pathways, and the dichotomy of cilia and microvilli in olfactory sensory cells  

PubMed Central

Smell is often regarded as an ancillary perception in primates, who seem so dominated by their sense of vision. In this paper, we will portray some aspects of the significance of olfaction to human life and speculate on what evolutionary factors contribute to keeping it alive. We then outline the functional architecture of olfactory sensory neurons and their signal transduction pathways, which are the primary detectors that render olfactory perception possible. Throughout the phylogenetic tree, olfactory neurons, at their apical tip, are either decorated with cilia or with microvilli. The significance of this dichotomy is unknown. It is generally assumed that mammalian olfactory neurons are of the ciliary type only. The existance of so-called olfactory microvillar cells in mammals, however, is well documented, but their nature remains unclear and their function orphaned. This paper discusses the possibility, that in the main olfactory epithelium of mammals ciliated and microvillar sensory cells exist concurrently. We review evidence related to this hypothesis and ask, what function olfactory microvillar cells might have and what signalling mechanisms they use. PMID:17634105

2007-01-01

75

Familiarity for Associations? A Test of the Domain Dichotomy Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Episodic recognition memory is mediated by functionally separable retrieval processes, notably familiarity (a general sense of prior exposure) and recollection (the retrieval of contextual details), whose relative engagement depends partly on the nature of the information being retrieved. Currently, the specific contribution of familiarity to…

Harlow, Iain M.; Mackenzie, Graham; Donaldson, David I.

2010-01-01

76

On-line Learning of Dichotomies Racah Institute of Physics  

E-print Network

rule, the learning curve of the perceptron algorithm can decrease as fast as P;1, if the sched- ule, since each example is presented only once. The learning curve, or generalization error as a function output noise, we propose a new on-line algorithm for a perceptron yielding a learning curve that can

Seung, Sebastian

77

Developmental modularity and the marsupial-placental dichotomy.  

PubMed

The contrasting evolutionary histories of marsupial and placental mammals have often been attributed to their different reproductive strategies. The speciose placentals develop mainly in utero and have radiated into diverse niches, whereas marsupials are born in a highly altricial state with immediate functional requirements and are limited in taxonomic, ecological, and morphological diversity. These differences have been tied to heterochrony, and it has been hypothesized that coordinated shifts in developmental timing occur among functionally- or developmentally related structures, such as forelimbs in marsupials. We use new ossification sequence data for 11 marsupial and 14 placental species to assess the integration of first ossification timing among skeletal elements. Although cranial elements fail to demonstrate significant coordination, marsupials and placentals differ markedly in postcranial integration. Marsupials display independent anterior and posterior developmental modules, whereas placentals show significant integration of the entire appendicular skeleton. This developmental integration of the placental postcranium is consistent with a recent study of phenotypic modularity in limbs of placental mammals, showing a potential correspondence between integration of developmental timing and of shape. The observed differences in postcranial integration between marsupials and placentals may reflect the disparate evolutionary histories of these two mammalian clades. PMID:19205003

Goswami, A; Weisbecker, V; Sánchez-Villagra, M R

2009-05-15

78

Neither metaphysical dichotomy nor pure identity: clarifying the emergentist creed.  

PubMed

Emergentism is often misleadingly described as a monolithic "third way" between radical monism and pluralism. In the particular case of biology, for example, emergentism is perceived as a middle course between mechanicism and vitalism. In the present paper I propose to show that the conceptual landscape between monism and pluralism is more complex than this classical picture suggests. On the basis of two successive analyses-distinguishing three forms of tension between monism and pluralism and a distinction between derivational and functional reduction-I define three different versions of emergentism that can be considered as consistent middle courses between monism and pluralism (respectively theoretical, explanatory and causal emergence). I then emphasise the advantage of this taxonomy of the concepts of emergence by applying the results of my analysis to the historical controversy that pertains to the relationship between life and matter. PMID:23701955

Sartenaer, Olivier

2013-09-01

79

The formation of Valles Marineris: 2. Stress focusing along the buried dichotomy boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although Valles Marineris is widely regarded as an extensional tectonic feature, the source of stress responsible for its formation remains unknown. This study argues that the tensile stresses that triggered Valles Marineris tectonism are a result of its location south of and subparallel to the buried crustal dichotomy boundary beneath Tharsis. The emplacement of the Tharsis volcanic load straddling the pre-existing topographic step of the crustal dichotomy boundary would have resulted in an abrupt change in the thickness of the load, causing differential subsidence and extension across the boundary. Thin-shell flexural models predict a narrow belt of focused tensile stresses south of the buried dichotomy boundary, coinciding with the location of present-day Valles Marineris. The interaction of these boundary-generated stresses with the competing stress fields associated with Tharsis loading can explain the formation of Noctis Labyrinthus in the west, and the deflection of the Valles Marineris troughs away from the buried boundary toward the east. Finite element models demonstrate that the magnitudes and vertical variations of stress at Valles Marineris are sensitive to the timing of loading and flexure in Tharsis. The incremental loading and flexure expected for a large volcanic rise results in the maximum tensile stress at Valles Marineris occurring at depth, with tensile stresses through the majority of the lithospheric column. Dikes forming within this tensile stress belt would propagate through the full vertical extent of the lithosphere due to the stress release associated with the dilation of the dikes, playing a crucial role in the formation of the Valles Marineris troughs.

Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C.

2012-04-01

80

Subsurface Structure of the Ismenius Area and Implications for Evolution of the Martian Dichotomy and Magnetic Field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Martian dichotomy divides the smooth, northern lowlands from the rougher southern highlands. The northern lowlands are largely free of magnetic anomalies, while the majority of the significant magnetic anomalies are located in the southern highlands. An elevation change of 2-4 km is typical across the dichotomy, and is up to 6 km locally. We examine a part of the dichotomy that is likely to preserve the early history of the dichotomy as it is relatively unaffected by major impacts and erosion. This study contains three parts: 1) the geologic history, which is summarized below and detailed in McGill et al., 2) the study of the gravity and magnetic field to better constrain the subsurface structure and history of the magnetic field (this abstract), and 3) modeling of the relaxation of this area. Our overall goal is to place constraints on formation models of the dichotomy by constraining lithospheric properties. Initial results for the analysis of the geology, gravity, and magnetic field studies are synthesized in Smrekar et al..

Smrekar, S. E.; Raymond, C. A.; McGill, G. E.

2004-01-01

81

The HMA-LMA dichotomy revisited: an electron microscopical survey of 56 sponge species.  

PubMed

The dichotomy between high microbial abundance (HMA) and low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges has been long recognized. In the present study, 56 sponge species from three geographic regions (greater Caribbean, Mediterranean, Red Sea) were investigated by transmission electron microscopy for the presence of microorganisms in the mesohyl matrix. Additionally, bacterial enumeration by DAPI-counting was performed on a subset of samples. Of the 56 species investigated, 28 were identified as belonging to the HMA and 28 to the LMA category. The sponge orders Agelasida and Verongida consisted exclusively of HMA species, and the Poecilosclerida were composed only of LMA sponges. Other taxa contained both types of microbial associations (e.g., marine Haplosclerida, Homoscleromorpha, Dictyoceratida), and a clear phylogenetic pattern could not be identified. For a few sponge species, an intermediate microbial load was determined, and the microscopy data did not suffice to reliably determine HMA or LMA status. To experimentally determine the HMA or LMA status of a sponge species, we therefore recommend a combination of transmission electron microscopy and 16S rRNA gene sequence data. This study significantly expands previous reports on microbial abundances in sponge tissues and contributes to a better understanding of the HMA-LMA dichotomy in sponge-microbe symbioses. PMID:25216505

Gloeckner, Volker; Wehrl, Markus; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Gernert, Christine; Schupp, Peter; Pawlik, Joseph R; Lindquist, Niels L; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Wörheide, Gert; Hentschel, Ute

2014-08-01

82

Origin of the martian dichotomy and Tharsis from a giant impact causing massive Gregor J. Golabek a,b,  

E-print Network

that the formation of Tharsis likely is di- rectly linked to the crustal dichotomy and its origin (Nimmo and Tanaka formation (Nimmo and Tanaka, 2005; Solomon et al., 2005; Frey, 2006; Werner, 2009; Carr and Head, 2010, 1988; Andrews-Hanna et al., 2008; Marinova et al., 2008; Nimmo et al., 2008) assumes that the northern

Tackley, Paul J.

83

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 24 JANUARY 2010 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO746 Origin of the GanymedeCallisto dichotomy by  

E-print Network

­Callisto dichotomy by impacts during the late heavy bombardment Amy C. Barr* and Robin M. Canup Jupiter's large moons of the Earth as used in dynamical models that recreate the present-day architecture of the outer solar system to Jupiter, experiences twice as many impacts as Callisto with higher characteristic impact velocities (vi

Barr, Amy C.

84

Revisiting J.C. Wylie's Dichotomy of Strategy: The Effects of Sequential and Cumulative Patterns of Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

J.C. Wylie presented his dichotomy of sequential and cumulative operational patterns in a context of effect through control, not victory or peace, as the objective of war. The author refines concepts of control presented by Rosinski, Eccles, Schelling and Corbett and presents its three facets (taking, denying, exercising) to develop a model of control as manipulation of the opponent's operational

Lukas Milevski

2012-01-01

85

Alien encounters and the alien\\/human dichotomy in Stanley Kubrick's 2001, a space odyssey and Andrei Tarkovsky's Solaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alien encounter has long been a defining and popular subject of science fiction cinema. However, Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) and Andrei Tarkovsky's Solaris (1972) are interrogative, complex, and distinct artistic accomplishments that stand apart from and above the conventional science fiction film. 2001 and Solaris not only represent but complicate the alien\\/human dichotomy; in the end,

Keith Cavedo

2010-01-01

86

Structure of the Dichotomy Boundary at 50-90E Revealed by Geologic Mapping and Gravity and Magnetic Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the 50-90E section of the dichotomy, the gravity and magnetic fields correlate with a buried fault. These data will be used to infer fault slip and thickness of the magnetic layer. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Smrekar, S. E.; Raymond, C. A.; McGill, G. E.

2002-01-01

87

Long-wavelength stagnant lid convection with hemispheric variation in lithospheric thickness: Link between Martian crustal dichotomy and Tharsis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic link between the early evolution of Tharsis and the crustal dichotomy on Mars was recently proposed by Zhong (2009). We address in detail the fundamental aspects of the proposed model using 3-D spherical shell modeling of convection. We investigate the conditions under which a spherical harmonic degree 1 flow is produced in the mantle of Mars in layered

Ond?ej Šrámek; Shijie Zhong

2010-01-01

88

Hight-performance modeling acoustic and elastic waves using the Parallel Dichotomy Algorithm  

E-print Network

A high-performance parallel algorithm is proposed for modeling the propagation of acoustic and elastic waves in inhomogeneous media. An initial boundary-value problem is replaced by a series of boundary-value problems for a constant elliptic operator and different right-hand sides via the integral Laguerre transform. It is proposed to solve difference equations by the conjugate gradient method for acoustic equations and by the GMRES$(k)$ method for modeling elastic waves. A preconditioning operator was the Laplace operator that is inverted using the variable separation method. The novelty of the proposed algorithm is using the Dichotomy Algorithm (Terekhov, 2010), which was designed for solving a series of tridiagonal systems of linear equations, in the context of the preconditioning operator inversion. Via considering analytical solutions, it is shown that modeling wave processes for long instants of time requires high-resolution meshes. The proposed parallel fine-mesh algorithm enabled to solve real applica...

Fatyanov, Alexey G

2010-01-01

89

Application of the Parallel Dichotomy Algorithm for solving Toeplitz tridiagonal systems of linear equations with one right-hand side  

E-print Network

Basing on a modification of the "Dichotomy Algorithm" (Terekhov, 2010), we propose a parallel procedure for solving tridiagonal systems of equations with Toeplitz matrices. Taking the structure of the Toeplitz matrices, we may substantially reduce the number of the "preliminary calculations" of the Dichotomy Algorithm, which makes it possible to effectively solve a series as well as a single system of equations. On the example of solving of elliptic equations by the Separation Variable Method, we show that the computation accuracy is comparable with the sequential version of the Thomas method, and the dependence of the speedup on the number of processors is almost linear. The proposed modification is aimed at parallel realization of a broad class of numerical methods including the inversion of Toeplitz and quasi-Toeplitz tridiagonal matrices.

Terekhov, Andrew V

2010-01-01

90

The Crustal Dichotomy Boundary West of Tempe Terra: Speculation on Where it Lies Beneath Alba Patera Based on Mola Topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MOLA gridded data based on profiles collected during the Aerobraking Hiatus and Science Phasing Operations suggest the crustal dichotomy boundary west of Tempe continues beneath Alba volcanics, at least to 105 W at about 50 N. A broad shelf-like region in the Alba units is continuous with a similar region of Tempe in which Hesperian volcanics overlie Noachian cratered terrain. Perspective views show significant changes in the sloping character of the flanks of Alba east and west of 105W, with much more continuous steep topography to the west. We suggest that Alba sits astride the ancient crustal dichotomy boundary, not adjacent to it, and that its eastern half lies on old cratered terrain. If true, this would significantly affect the estimate of Alba volcanics volumes, and might also explain some of the observed asymmetries in the structure and the distribution of faults associated with this immense feature.

Frey, H.; Roark, J.; Sakimoto, S.; McGovern, P.

1999-01-01

91

Momentum-Space Dichotomy in the Metal-Insulator Transition in doped EuO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EuO possesses a wide variety of remarkable properties, most which can be accessed only upon carrier doping. In addition to its large ferromagnetic moment (S = 7/2), doped EuO exhibits a metal-insulator transition with a change in resistivity of over 10^13 and highly spin polarized carriers. Furthermore, the ferromagnetic Curie temperature can be enhanced from 69 K in undoped EuO to over 200 K in carrier doped EuO. We present angle-resolved photoemission studies of Eu1-xGdxO thin films which elucidate the electronic structure and mechanism of the metal-insulator transition. Our ARPES studies verify that the exchange coupling between the Eu 4f moments and the delocalized Eu 5d states pushes the bottom of the majority-spin conduction band through EF below TC. We also reveal a surprising dichotomy between the delocalized carriers at the Brillouin zone boundary below TC, and localized carriers around the zone center above TC which are responsible for the respective low-temperature ferromagnetic metallic and high-temperature paramagnetic semiconducting behaviors observed in transport measurements.

Shai, Daniel; Melville, Alexander; Harter, John; Monkman, Eric; Shen, Dawei; Schlom, Darrell; Shen, Kyle

2011-03-01

92

High-performance modeling acoustic and elastic waves using the Parallel Dichotomy Algorithm  

E-print Network

A high-performance parallel algorithm is proposed for modeling the propagation of acoustic and elastic waves in inhomogeneous media. An initial boundary-value problem is replaced by a series of boundary-value problems for a constant elliptic operator and different right-hand sides via the integral Laguerre transform. It is proposed to solve difference equations by the conjugate gradient method for acoustic equations and by the GMRES$(k)$ method for modeling elastic waves. A preconditioning operator was the Laplace operator that is inverted using the variable separation method. The novelty of the proposed algorithm is using the Dichotomy Algorithm (Terekhov, 2010), which was designed for solving a series of tridiagonal systems of linear equations, in the context of the preconditioning operator inversion. Via considering analytical solutions, it is shown that modeling wave processes for long instants of time requires high-resolution meshes. The proposed parallel fine-mesh algorithm enabled to solve real application seismic problems in acceptable time and with high accuracy. By solving model problems, it is demonstrated that the considered parallel algorithm possesses high performance and efficiency over a wide range of the number of processors (from 2 to 8192).

Alexey G. Fatyanov; Andrew V. Terekhov

2010-05-04

93

Universal tectonic dichotomy of small celestial bodies expressed in their common convexo-concave shapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wave planetology [1, 2, 3 & others] declares in its first theorem that all celestial bodies are dichotomous. This is a result of a warping action of the fundamental wave (wave 1 long 2?R where R is a body radius) that appears in any body due to its movement in non-round (elliptical, parabolic) keplerian orbits with periodically changing accelerations. Having a standing character and four crossing directions in rotating bodies (but all bodies rotate!) these waves inevitably press in one hemisphere and bulge out the opposite one tending to impose on a body convexo-concave shape. This shape is leveled out in larger bodies due to enhanced gravity but is clearly observed in smaller ones with diminished gravity. Still, in the larger bodies as, for an example, in Earth the tectonic dichotomy is expressed as an opposition of the subsided western Pacific hemisphere and the uplifted eastern continental hemisphere. At Mars even sharper dichotomy is in the north-south direction. Small bodies (normally less than 400-500 km across) notwithstanding their type (asteroids, comets, satellites), size and composition (stones, metals, ices) are flattened and bended by the fundamental wave. That is why all asteroids in the main asteroid belt have an oblong shape what was established rather long ago but never was properly explained. Now a number of small satellites is observed by Cassini spacecraft in the saturnian system that makes together with jovian and martian small satellites a representative group for comparisons. In the figures below are shown asteroids, satellites and a comet arranged in a row of increasing sizes. They all are flattened except the largest in the row Enceladus (505 km) and bended tending to acquire a convexo-concave shape. Asteroids: Itokawa (0.5 km long), Eros (33 km, PIA03111). Satellites: Calypso (22 km, PIA07633), Atlas (32 km, PIA08233), Prometheus (102 km, PIA08192), Hyperion (350 km, PIA06645), Enceladus (505 km, PIA08258, comet-like behaviour). Comet: Borrelli (core 8 km long). Various body types, sizes, compositions, but there is the same style of deformation because of a warping action of the fundamental wave long 2?R. There is a tendency to extend and break the convex hemisphere with production of deep cracks ("saddles") and to squeeze (contract) an antipodean one expelling internal material (a scheme of this process is in the drawing -the upper right corner). In extreme cases a body can break down with production of binaries and satellites of small bodies what is not rare in cosmos. A satellite Calypso and an asteroid Eros have near sizes but different compositions (ice and stone) and occur in different zones of the solar system. But they are deformed similarly. A bending action leaves morphological traces on body surfaces. In this respect the 102 km long satellite Prometheus is very exemplary as it shows diverging ridges with closer spaced ends at the concave hemisphere (up in the image) and wider spaced ends at the convex one. This pattern witnesses an opposition of contracted and extended hemispheres. In volatile rich bodies - comets this process is marked by squeezing material under contraction from the concave hemisphere (dust-gaseous tale) and more quite degassing of cracked convex hemisphere (Borrelli). This dichotomy shows also icy satellite Enceladus. Its southern pole region under contraction (the tiger stripes structure) expels vapor-ice mixture; its northern pole region in contrast is quite but has many craters - traces of the past degassing. In this respect the tiny icy satellite could be treated as a large comet core still spitting material into space; this material is not wasted vainly but is needed to mighty Saturn for making one of its outer rings (E-ring). The largest irregular satellite in the solar system - Hyperion has various appearances in many acquired images. It is not so oblong as smaller bodies but its convexo-concave shape is very pronounced. Its polygonal outlines also can be seen betraying a tendency to acquire a tetrahedron shape. The simplest Plato's figur

Kochemasov, G. G.

2008-09-01

94

Disclosing the Radio Loudness Distribution Dichotomy in Quasars: An Unbiased Monte Carlo Approach Applied to the SDSS-FIRST Quasar Sample  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the dichotomy in the radio loudness distribution of quasars by modeling their radio emission and various selection effects using a Monte Carlo approach. The existence of two physically distinct quasar populations, the radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, is controversial and over the last decade a bimodal distribution of radio loudness of quasars has been both affirmed and disputed. We model the quasar radio luminosity distribution with simple unimodal and bimodal distribution functions. The resulting simulated samples are compared to a fiducial sample of 8300 quasars drawn from the SDSS DR7 Quasar Catalog and combined with radio observations from the FIRST survey. Our results indicate that the SDSS-FIRST sample is best described by a radio loudness distribution which consists of two components, with (12 ± 1)% of sources in the radio-loud component. On the other hand, the evidence for a local minimum in the loudness distribution (bimodality) is not strong and we find that previous claims for its existence were probably affected by the incompleteness of the FIRST survey close to its faint limit. We also investigate the redshift and luminosity dependence of the radio loudness distribution and find tentative evidence that at high redshift radio-loud quasars were rarer, on average louder, and exhibited a smaller range in radio loudness. In agreement with other recent work, we conclude that the SDSS-FIRST sample strongly suggests that the radio loudness distribution of quasars is not a universal function, and that more complex models than presented here are needed to fully explain available observations.

Balokovi?, M.; Smol?i?, V.; Ivezi?, Ž.; Zamorani, G.; Schinnerer, E.; Kelly, B. C.

2012-11-01

95

DISCLOSING THE RADIO LOUDNESS DISTRIBUTION DICHOTOMY IN QUASARS: AN UNBIASED MONTE CARLO APPROACH APPLIED TO THE SDSS-FIRST QUASAR SAMPLE  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the dichotomy in the radio loudness distribution of quasars by modeling their radio emission and various selection effects using a Monte Carlo approach. The existence of two physically distinct quasar populations, the radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, is controversial and over the last decade a bimodal distribution of radio loudness of quasars has been both affirmed and disputed. We model the quasar radio luminosity distribution with simple unimodal and bimodal distribution functions. The resulting simulated samples are compared to a fiducial sample of 8300 quasars drawn from the SDSS DR7 Quasar Catalog and combined with radio observations from the FIRST survey. Our results indicate that the SDSS-FIRST sample is best described by a radio loudness distribution which consists of two components, with (12 {+-} 1)% of sources in the radio-loud component. On the other hand, the evidence for a local minimum in the loudness distribution (bimodality) is not strong and we find that previous claims for its existence were probably affected by the incompleteness of the FIRST survey close to its faint limit. We also investigate the redshift and luminosity dependence of the radio loudness distribution and find tentative evidence that at high redshift radio-loud quasars were rarer, on average louder, and exhibited a smaller range in radio loudness. In agreement with other recent work, we conclude that the SDSS-FIRST sample strongly suggests that the radio loudness distribution of quasars is not a universal function, and that more complex models than presented here are needed to fully explain available observations.

Balokovic, M. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Smolcic, V. [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie, Auf dem Hugel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ivezic, Z. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Zamorani, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Schinnerer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kelly, B. C. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

2012-11-01

96

Is there an association between postural balance and pulmonary function in adults with asthma?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Asthma may cause systemic repercussions due to its severity and the effects of treatment. Our objective was to compare posture, balance, functional capacity, and quality of life (QOL) according to the severity of disease, as assessed by pulmonary function levels. METHOD: This cross-sectional study evaluated fifty individuals with asthma. We compared two groups of adult individuals who were divided according to the median of the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) as follows: group A ?=? FEV1>74% predicted; group B ?=? FEV1<74% predicted. All patients underwent the following tests: spirometry, whole-body plethysmography, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco), respiratory muscle strength, posture assessment, stabilometry, six-minute walking distance (6MWD), and QOL. RESULTS: All pulmonary function variables exhibited statistically significant differences between the two groups, except for the DLco. The maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), and 6MWD were lower in group B. The maximal mediolateral velocity and the mediolateral displacement were significantly different, while the postural changes and QOL were similar between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: In adult individuals with asthma, the pulmonary function is associated with balance control in the mediolateral direction but does not influence the postural changes or QOL. PMID:24270954

de Almeida, Vivian Pinto; Guimaraes, Fernando Silva; Moco, Vanessa Joaquim Ribeiro; de Sa Ferreira, Arthur; de Menezes, Sara Lucia Silveira; Lopes, Agnaldo Jose

2013-01-01

97

The radio-loud/radio-quiet dichotomy: news from the 2dF QSO Redshift Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a detailed analysis of a sample of radio-detected quasars, obtained by matching together objects from the FIRST survey and the 2dF Quasar Redshift Survey (2dF). The data set consists of 113 sources, spanning a redshift range 0.35 <~z<~ 2.2, with optical magnitudes 18.25 <=bJ<= 20.85 and radio fluxes S1.4GHz>= 1 mJy. These objects exhibit properties such as redshift and colour distribution in full agreement with those derived for the whole quasar population, suggesting that the mechanism(s) controlling the birth and lifetime of quasars are independent of their level of radio emission. The long-debated question of the radio-loud/radio quiet (RL/RQ) dichotomy is then investigated for the combined FIRST-2dF and FIRST-LBQS (Large Bright Quasar Survey) samples, as they present similar selection criteria. We find the fraction of radio detections to increase with magnitude from <~3 per cent at the faintest levels up to ~20 per cent for the brightest sources. The classical RL/RQ dichotomy, in which the distribution of radio-to-optical ratios and/or radio luminosities shows a lack of sources, is ruled out by our analysis. We also find no tight relationship between optical and radio luminosities for sources in the sample considered, a result that tends to exclude the mass of the quasar black hole as the physical quantity determining the level of radio emission.

Cirasuolo, M.; Magliocchetti, M.; Celotti, A.; Danese, L.

2003-05-01

98

Toward Understanding the Fanaroff-Riley Dichotomy in Radio Source Morphology and Power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Paper I we presented the results of a study of the interrelationships between host galaxy magnitude, optical line luminosity, and radio luminosity in a large sample of Fanaroff-Riley classes 1 and 2 (FR 1 and FR 2) radio galaxies. We report several important differences between the FR 1 and FR 2 radio galaxies. At the same host galaxy magnitude or radio luminosity, the FR 2's produce substantially more optical line emission (by roughly an order of magnitude or more) than do FR 1's. Similarly, FR 2 sources produce orders of magnitude more line luminosity than do radio-quiet galaxies of the same optical magnitude, while FR 1 sources and radio-quiet galaxies of the same optical magnitude produce similar line luminosities. Combining these results with previous results from the literature, we conclude that while the emission-line gas in the FR 2's is indeed photoionized by a nuclear UV continuum source from the AGN, the emission-line gas in the FR 1's may be energized predominantly by processes associated with the host galaxy itself. The apparent lack of a strong UV continuum source from the central engine in FR 1 sources can be understood in two different ways. In the first scenario, FR l's are much more efficient at covering jet bulk kinetic energy into radio luminosity than FR 2's, such that an FR 1 has a much lower bolometric AGN luminosity (hence nuclear UV continuum source) than does an FR 2 of the same radio luminosity. We discuss the pros and cons of this model and conclude that the efficiency differences needed between FR 2 and FR 1 radio galaxies are quite large and may lead to difficulties with the interpretation since it would suggest that FR 2 radio source deposit very large amounts of kinetic energy into the ISM Intracluster Medium. However, this interpretation remains viable. Alternatively, it may be that the AGNs in FR 1 sources simply produce far less radiant UV energy than do those in FR 2 sources. That is, FR 1 sources may funnel a higher fraction of the total energy output from the AGNs into jet kinetic energy versus radiant energy than do FR 2 sources. If this interpretation is correct, then this suggests that there is a fundamental difference in the central engine and/or in the immediate "accretion region" around the engine in FR 1 and FR 2 radio galaxies. We note also the absence of FR 1 sources with nuclear broad line regions and suggest that the absence of the BLR is tied to the absence of the "isotropic" nuclear UV continuum source in FR 1 sources. We put forth the possibility that the FR 1/FR 2 dichotomy (i.e., the observed differences in the properties of low- and high-power radio sources) is due to qualitative differences in the structural properties of the central engines in these two types of sources. Following early work by Rees et al. (1982), we suggest the possibility that FR 1 sources are produced when the central engine is fed at a lower accretion rate, leading to the creation of a source in which the ratio of radiant to jet bulk kinetic energy is low, while FR 2 sources are produced when the central engine is fed at a higher accretion rate, causing the central engine to deposit a higher fraction of its energy in radiant energy. We further suggest the possibility that associated differences in the spin properties of the central black hole between FR 1 (lower spin) and FR 2 (higher spin) sources may be responsible for the different collimation properties and Mach numbers of the jets produced by these two types of radio-loud galaxies. This scenario, although currently clearly speculative, is nicely consistent with our current picture of the triggering, feeding, environments, and evolution of powerful radio galaxies. This model allows for evolution of these properties with time for example, the mass accretion rate and BH spin may decline with time causing an FR 2 radio source or quasar to evolve into a FR 1 radio source.

Baum, Stefi A.; Zirbel, Esther L.; O'Dea, Christopher P.

1995-09-01

99

Understanding the Dorsal and Ventral Systems of the Human Cerebral Cortex: Beyond Dichotomies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditionally, characterizations of the macrolevel functional organization of the human cerebral cortex have focused on the left and right cerebral hemispheres. However, the idea of left brain versus right brain functions has been shown to be an oversimplification. We argue here that a top-bottom divide, rather than a left-right divide, is a more…

Borst, Gregoire; Thompson, William L.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.

2011-01-01

100

Towards self-consistent modelling of the Martian dichotomy: The influence of one-ridge convection on crustal thickness distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to find a possible explanation for the origin of the Martian crustal dichotomy, a number of recent papers have examined the effect of layered viscosity on the evolution of a degree-1 mantle convection, e.g. [1] and [2]. It was found that a mid-mantle viscosity jump in the Martian mantle, combined with highly temperature- and depth-dependent viscosity, are effective in developing a degree-1 convection within 200-300 Million years of core formation. Such a layered viscosity profile could be justified by Martian mineralogy, where both olivine to spinel and garnet/pyroxene to majorite transitions occur below a mantle depth of 1000 km. All of these high-pressure mineral phases show higher strength than their corresponding upper mantle phases and thus a higher viscosity might be expected. However, the actual effect of a degree-1 convective planform on the crustal thickness distribution has not yet been demonstrated. Also, the general shape of the dichotomy, which is not symmetrically hemispherical, has not yet been fully investigated. In this study we therefore discuss, how the evolution of low-degree mantle convection inside the planet Mars is reflected on its surface in terms of crustal thickness distribution. This will allow us to draw some conclusions towards a possible theory of how the dichotomy was formed in early Martian history. This study involves full planet-scale modelling of the crustal patterns produced by 3D-spherical models of Martian mantle convection. All results are computed using the finite-volume multigrid code StagYY [3]. By using tracer particles to track composition, a self-consistent treatment modelling melting and chemical differentiation has been added to models of thermal convection. This allows us to obtain model maps of the crustal thickness distribution as it evolves with time on the whole planetary surface due to underlying convection patterns. To obtain rapid reduction of convective degree, a strongly depth- and temperature-dependent rheology has been applied with additional viscosity jumps at each mineralogical phase transition. The most striking feature of the results is the fact that the obtained convective planform does not satisfy the expectation of a spherically symmetrical one-plume convection (l=1). It is rather like what we would call ‘one-ridge convection' where the upwelling is a ridge-shaped feature covering a variable angle around the CMB. A closer look at this feature reveals that it consist of two plumes at each end, interlinked by a sheet-like upwelling region of lower intensity. From this point of view, it represents a stable transition state between l=1 and l=2 convection. Most melt in our model runs is generated above the major ridge-shaped upwelling region and thus crustal thickness distribution to a first order reflects the large-scale upwelling pattern in the mantle. Additional melting occurs where small-scale convection is active underneath the rigid lid. Due to this effect, the hemisphere of downwelling is covered by crust, too, but it is remarkably thinner than above major upwellings. Although mean crustal thickness is slightly overestimated in all of our models, the relative distribution of crustal thickness seems to be quite Mars-like. We find that, although absolute values of crustal thickness are above values inverted for Mars, the relative crust distribution of our best-fit model shows intriguing similarity to that obtained from a MOLA crustal thickness model [4]. Although many questions still remain, the obtained results demonstrate that it is indeed possible to form a crustal dichotomy as a consequence of very low degree (l=1 to l=2) mantle convection very early in the planet's history and, furthermore, that some of the observed patterns show intriguing first order similarities to the general non-spherical shape of the Martian dichotomy. In all of our models, the region of thick crust came to be located over the region of mantle upwelling, whereas crustal thinning above upwellings seemed to be a rather minor effect. The region of upwelling itself prove

Keller, T.; Tackley, P. J.

2009-04-01

101

'Looking beyond the male-female dichotomy' - sibling composition and child immunization in India, 1992-2006.  

PubMed

This study examines trends in gender differentials in child immunization beyond the conventional male-female dichotomy, by considering older surviving sibling composition between 1992 and 2006 in India. The present study adopts the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for appraising full immunization among children utilising three rounds of the National Family Health Survey. Twelve combinations of sex composition of surviving older siblings were constructed. Bivariate differentials and pooled multilevel logistic regression analysis were conducted to assess the trends and patterns of child immunization with respect to various categories of older surviving sibling composition. Although child immunization increased between 1992 and 2006, majority of all eligible children did not receive the recommended immunization. Further, full immunization significantly varies by twelve categories of siblings composition during 1992-2006. The probability of full immunization among male children who did not have any older surviving sibling was 60% in 2005-06, while it was just 26% among female children who had 1+ older surviving sister and brother. This study emphasizes the need to integrate sibling issues in child immunization as a prioritized component in the ongoing Universal Immunization Programme, which could be an effective step towards ensuring full immunization coverage among Indian children. PMID:24607676

Singh, Prashant Kumar; Parasuraman, Sulabha

2014-04-01

102

Reactivity in nucleophilic vinylic substitution (S(N)V):S(N)V? versus S(N)V? mechanistic dichotomy.  

PubMed

The intrinsic electronic factors that determine reactivity in prototypical identity nucleophilic vinylic substitution reactions, X(-) + ViX ? XVi + X(-) (Vi = vinyl), have been studied by performing quantum chemical calculations (OPBE/6-311++G(d,p)). Of the two limiting reaction types envisaged--the S(N)V? and S(N)V? mechanisms--the former is preferred for most combinations of nucleophiles and substrates, except for the combination of unactivated substrates and poor nucleophiles, as seen for the much studied reactions Cl(-) + CH2CHCl and Br(-) + CH2CHBr. It was found that periodic trends for S(N)V? are essentially the same as those previously reported for nucleophilic aromatic substitution, S(N)Ar, while intrinsic S(N)V? nucleophilicity parallels aliphatic S(N)2. It is therefore concluded that S(N)V reactivity in general can be understood in terms of this mechanistic dichotomy. Furthermore, a few representative reactions were analyzed applying two complementary schemes for energy decomposition analysis. PMID:23915397

Fernández, Israel; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias; Uggerud, Einar

2013-09-01

103

Dichotomy in the NRT gene families of dicots and grass species.  

PubMed

A large proportion of the nitrate (NO(3)(-)) acquired by plants from soil is actively transported via members of the NRT families of NO(3)(-) transporters. In Arabidopsis, the NRT1 family has eight functionally characterised members and predominantly comprises low-affinity transporters; the NRT2 family contains seven members which appear to be high-affinity transporters; and there are two NRT3 (NAR2) family members which are known to participate in high-affinity transport. A modified reciprocal best hit (RBH) approach was used to identify putative orthologues of the Arabidopsis NRT genes in the four fully sequenced grass genomes (maize, rice, sorghum, Brachypodium). We also included the poplar genome in our analysis to establish whether differences between Arabidopsis and the grasses may be generally applicable to monocots and dicots. Our analysis reveals fundamental differences between Arabidopsis and the grass species in the gene number and family structure of all three families of NRT transporters. All grass species possessed additional NRT1.1 orthologues and appear to lack NRT1.6/NRT1.7 orthologues. There is significant separation in the NRT2 phylogenetic tree between NRT2 genes from dicots and grass species. This indicates that determination of function of NRT2 genes in grass species will not be possible in cereals based simply on sequence homology to functionally characterised Arabidopsis NRT2 genes and that proper functional analysis will be required. Arabidopsis has a unique NRT3.2 gene which may be a fusion of the NRT3.1 and NRT3.2 genes present in all other species examined here. This work provides a framework for future analysis of NO(3)(-) transporters and NO(3)(-) transport in grass crop species. PMID:21151904

Plett, Darren; Toubia, John; Garnett, Trevor; Tester, Mark; Kaiser, Brent N; Baumann, Ute

2010-01-01

104

Dichotomy in the NRT Gene Families of Dicots and Grass Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large proportion of the nitrate (NO3?) acquired by plants from soil is actively transported via members of the NRT families of NO3? transporters. In Arabidopsis, the NRT1 family has eight functionally characterised members and predominantly comprises low-affinity transporters; the NRT2 family contains seven members which appear to be high-affinity transporters; and there are two NRT3 (NAR2) family members which

Darren Plett; John Toubia; Trevor Garnett; Mark Tester; Brent N. Kaiser; Ute Baumann; Christian Schönbach

2010-01-01

105

Dichotomy in the NRT Gene Families of Dicots and Grass Species  

PubMed Central

A large proportion of the nitrate (NO3?) acquired by plants from soil is actively transported via members of the NRT families of NO3? transporters. In Arabidopsis, the NRT1 family has eight functionally characterised members and predominantly comprises low-affinity transporters; the NRT2 family contains seven members which appear to be high-affinity transporters; and there are two NRT3 (NAR2) family members which are known to participate in high-affinity transport. A modified reciprocal best hit (RBH) approach was used to identify putative orthologues of the Arabidopsis NRT genes in the four fully sequenced grass genomes (maize, rice, sorghum, Brachypodium). We also included the poplar genome in our analysis to establish whether differences between Arabidopsis and the grasses may be generally applicable to monocots and dicots. Our analysis reveals fundamental differences between Arabidopsis and the grass species in the gene number and family structure of all three families of NRT transporters. All grass species possessed additional NRT1.1 orthologues and appear to lack NRT1.6/NRT1.7 orthologues. There is significant separation in the NRT2 phylogenetic tree between NRT2 genes from dicots and grass species. This indicates that determination of function of NRT2 genes in grass species will not be possible in cereals based simply on sequence homology to functionally characterised Arabidopsis NRT2 genes and that proper functional analysis will be required. Arabidopsis has a unique NRT3.2 gene which may be a fusion of the NRT3.1 and NRT3.2 genes present in all other species examined here. This work provides a framework for future analysis of NO3? transporters and NO3? transport in grass crop species. PMID:21151904

Plett, Darren; Toubia, John; Garnett, Trevor; Tester, Mark; Kaiser, Brent N.; Baumann, Ute

2010-01-01

106

SERPINE1: A Molecular Switch in the Proliferation-Migration Dichotomy in Wound-"Activated" Keratinocytes  

PubMed Central

Significance: A highly interactive serine protease/plasmin/matrix metalloproteinase axis regulates stromal remodeling in the wound microenvironment. Current findings highlight the importance of stringent controls on protease expression and their topographic activities in cell proliferation, migration, and tissue homeostasis. Targeting elements in this cascading network may lead to novel therapeutic approaches for fibrotic diseases and chronic wounds. Recent Advances: Matrix-active proteases and their inhibitors orchestrate wound site tissue remodeling, cell migration, and proliferation. Indeed, the serine proteases urokinase plasminogen activator and tissue-type plasminogen activator (uPA/tPA) and their major phsyiological inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1; serine protease inhibitor clade E member 1 [SERPINE1]), are upregulated in several cell types during injury repair. Coordinate expression of proteolytic enzymes and their inhibitors in the wound bed provides a mechanism for fine control of focal proteolysis to facilitate matrix restructuring and cell motility in complex environments. Critical Issues: Cosmetic and tissue functional consequences of wound repair anomalies affect the quality of life of millions of patients in the United States alone. The development of novel therapeutics to manage individuals most affected by healing anomalies will likely derive from the identification of critical, translationally accessible, control elements in the wound site microenvironment. Future Directions: Activation of the PAI-1 gene early after wounding, its prominence in the repair transcriptome and varied functions suggest a key role in the global cutaneous injury response program. Targeting PAI-1 gene expression and/or PAI-1 function with molecular genetic constructs, neutralizing antibodies or small molecule inhibitors may provide a novel, therapeutically relevant approach, to manage the pathophysiology of wound healing disorders associated with deficient or excessive PAI-1 levels. PMID:24669362

Simone, Tessa M.; Higgins, Craig E.; Czekay, Ralf-Peter; Law, Brian K.; Higgins, Stephen P.; Archambeault, Jaclyn; Kutz, Stacie M.; Higgins, Paul J.

2014-01-01

107

Towards self-consistent modelling of the Martian dichotomy: Coupled models of simultaneous core and crust formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most striking surface features on Mars is the crustal dichotomy. The crustal dichotomy, a large difference in elevation and crustal thickness between the southern highlands and the northern lowlands, is the oldest geological feature on Mars. It was formed more than 4.1 Ga ago [Solomon et al., 2005; Nimmo and Tanaka, 2005; Frey, 2006] owing to either exogenic [e.g. Nimmo et al., 2008; Andrews-Hanna et al., 2008] or endogenic processes [e.g. Zhong and Zuber, 2001; Roberts and Zhong, 2006; Keller and Tackley, 2009]. Based on the geochemical analysis of SNC meteorites it was suggested that a primordial crust with up to 45 km thickness can be formed already during the Martian core formation [Norman, 1999]. The final accretion stage of terrestrial planets is based on stochastically distributed impacts [e.g. Chambers, 2004; Rubie et al., 2007]. Therefore we suggest that the sinking of iron diapirs, delivered by late pre-differentiated impactors, might have induced shear heating-related temperature anomalies in the mantle, which fostered the formation of early Martian crust. In this study, we examine parameter sets that will likely cause an onset of hemispherical low-degree mantle convection directly after, and coupled to, an already asymmetrical core formation. To test this hypothesis we use a numerical model, where we self-consistently couple the formation of the Martian iron core to the onset of mantle convection and crust formation. We perform 2D spherical simulations using the code I2ELVIS applying the newly developed "spherical-Cartesian" methodology [Gerya and Yuen, 2007]. It combines finite differences on a fully staggered rectangular Eulerian grid and Lagrangian marker-in-cell technique for solving momentum, continuity and temperature equations as well as Poisson equation for gravity potential in a self-gravitating planetary body. In this model, the planet is surrounded by a low viscosity, massless fluid ("sticky air") to simulate a free surface [Schmeling et al., 2008]. Previous studies showed that the convection patterns in the Martian mantle are highly dependent on its effective viscosity structure [e.g. Harder and Christensen, 1996; Keller and Tackley, 2009]. Therefore we apply a temperature, stress- and phase-dependent viscoplastic rheology inside a Mars-sized planet and include radioactive-, shear- and adiabatic heating. As initial condition we employ randomly distributed diapirs with 75 km radius inside the accreting planet, which represent the iron delivered by predifferentiated impactors. Additionally, we explore the effect of a giant impactor core on the planetary evolution. To self-consistently simulate the mineralogical phase changes expected inside a Mars-sized body, we employ the thermodynamical PerpleX database [Connolly, 2005]. First results indicate that both the presence of one large impactor core and viscosity layering due to phase-dependent rheology might induce low-degree convection already during core formation. Furthermore, the amplitude of shear heating anomalies generally well exceeds the solidus of primitive mantle material. Therefore the formation of a considerable amount of melt is to be expected. Since preliminary studies indicate that most heat is released at mid-mantle depth, some of the generated melt will segregate to the surface to form basaltic crust, whereas negatively buoyant melt from deeper sources will sink to the CMB. The depth of neutral buoyancy will be determined by the difference in compressibility of melt relative to solid silicates. Both the hemispherical asymmetry induced by a giant impactor as well as the low-degree pattern of convection caused by phase-dependent viscosity may therefore contribute to an early evolution of a dichotomous crustal thickness distribution.

Keller, T.; Golabek, G.; Gerya, T. V.; Connolly, J.

2009-04-01

108

Towards self-consistent modelling of the Martian dichotomy: The influence of one-ridge convection on crustal thickness distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction In order to find a possible explanation for the origin of the Martian crustal dichotomy, a number of recent papers have examined the effect of layered viscosity on the evolution of a degree-1 mantle convection, e.g. [1] and [2]. It was found that a mid-mantle viscosity jump in the Martian mantle, combined with highly temperature- and depth-dependent viscosity, are effective in developing a degree-1 convection within 200-300 Million years of core formation. Such a layered viscosity profile could be justified by Martian mineralogy, where both olivine to spinel and garnet/pyroxene to majorite transitions occur below a mantle depth of 1000 km. All of these high-pressure mineral phases show higher strength than their corresponding upper mantle phases and thus a higher viscosity might be expected [3]. However, the actual effect of a degree-1 convective planform on the crustal thickness distribution has not yet been demonstrated. So far, it has not been obvious whether a thinner crust, due to sublithospheric erosion and crustal thinning, or a thicker crust, due to enhanced crustal production, would form above the hemisphere of mantle upwelling. Also, the general shape of the dichotomy, which is not symmetrically hemispherical, has not yet been fully investigated. In this study we therefore discuss, how the evolution of low-degree mantle convection inside the planet Mars is reflected on its surface in terms of crustal thickness distribution. This will allow us to draw some conclusions towards a possible theory of how the dichotomy was formed in early Martian history. Method This study involves full planet-scale modelling of the crustal patterns produced by 3D-spherical models of Martian mantle convection. All results are computed using the finitevolume multigrid code StagYY [4]. By using tracer particles to track composition, a self-consistent treatment modelling melting and chemical differentiation has been added to models of thermal convection. This allows us to obtain model maps of the crustal thickness distribution as it evolves with time on the whole planetary surface due to underlying convection patterns. To obtain rapid reduction of convective degree, a strongly depth- and temperature-dependent rheology has been applied with additional viscosity jumps at each mineralogical phase transition. See Fig. 1 for a typical viscosity profile used in this study. Results and Discussion Due to very expensive computation (3.5 Million gridpoints, 50 Million tracer particles), the parameter range for this study has to be rather narrow. The results of the model runs display a number of consitent features appearing over the examined range of Rayleigh numbers (3.107 to 7.107) and initial temperatures (1500 K to 1600 K). The most striking of the results is not only the fact, that convection rapidly (<200 Myr) evolves into a pattern of very low degree but also that the obtained convective planform, does not satisfy the expectation of a spherically symmetrical one-plume convection (l=1). It is rather like what we would call oneridge convection (see Fig. 2) where the upwelling is a ridgeshaped feature covering a variable angle around the CMB. A closer look at this feature reveals that it consist of two plumes at each end, interlinked by a sheet-like upwelling region of lower intensity. From this point of view, it represents a stable transition state between l=1 and l=2 convection. Most melt in our model runs is generated above the major ridge-shaped upwelling region and thus crustal thickness distribution to a first order reflects the large-scale upwelling pattern in the mantle. Additional melting occurs where small-scale convection is active underneath the rigid lid. Due to this effect, the hemisphere of downwelling is covered by crust, too, but it is remarkably thinner than above major upwellings (Fig. 2). Although mean crustal thickness is slightly overestimated in all of our models, the relative distribution of crustal thickness seems to be quite Marslike. To analyze crustal structure of some of our model runs, we plot his

Keller, T.; Tackley, P. J.

2008-09-01

109

SYNTHESIS Integration of molecular functions at the ecosystemic level: breakthroughs and future goals of  

E-print Network

ecological concepts and hypotheses. By removing previous dichotomies between ecophysiology, population and limitations. Novel avenues for improving the use of these approaches to test theory-driven ecological powerful approaches to discover completely novel ecological functions and to link organismal capabilities

Saleska, Scott

110

Madonna: Like a Dichotomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in communication classes find it useful to study Madonna because she is a fascinating and prolific cultural figure whose merit and intentions are matters of great controversy. As the quintessential music-video star, she is also perhaps the medium's most significant auteur. In the areas of women's roles, motherhood, sexuality, race and…

Burns, Gary; Kizer, Elizabeth

111

Rethinking Research Dichotomies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses family research in terms of insider/outsider perspectives, objectivity/subjectivity, and quantitative/qualitative methods. Suggests that conceptualizing research abstractions as points on a continuum results in better understanding of families and family processes. (SK)

Christensen, Donna Hendrickson; Dahl, Carla M.

1997-01-01

112

Emotional processing serves a highly adaptive function in the mammalian brain (Lang & Davis, 2006; LeDoux,  

E-print Network

Emotional processing serves a highly adaptive function in the mammalian brain (Lang & Davis, 2006 in possible temporary disruption of cognitive goals (Dolcos & McCarthy, 2006). However, at other times it may, Dolcos and McCarthy (2006) demon- strated a striking dichotomy in activation patterns between dorsal

113

Photometric properties of Titan's surface from Cassini VIMS: Relevance to titan's hemispherical albedo dichotomy and surface stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) instrument on the Cassini Saturn Orbiter returned spectral imaging data as the spacecraft undertook six close encounters with Titan beginning 7 July, 2004. Three of these flybys each produced overlapping coverage of two distinct regions of Titan's surface. Twenty-four points were selected on approximately opposite hemispheres to serve as photometric controls. Six points were selected in each of four reflectance classes. On one hemisphere each control point was observed at three distinct phase angles. From the derived phase coefficients, preliminary normal reflectances were derived for each reflectance class. The normal reflectance of Titan's surface units at 2.0178 ?m ranged from 0.079 to 0.185 for the most absorbing to the most reflective units assuming no contribution from absorbing haze. When a modest haze contribution of ?=0.1 is considered these numbers increase to 0.089-0.215. We find that the lowest three reflectance classes have comparable normal reflectance on either hemisphere. However, for the highest brightness class the normal reflectance is higher on the hemisphere encompassing longitude 14-65° compared to the same high brightness class for the hemisphere encompassing 122-156° longitude. We conclude that an albedo dichotomy observed in continental sized units on Titan is due not only to one unit having more areal coverage of reflective material than the other but the material on the brighter unit is intrinsically more reflective than the most reflective material on the other unit. This suggests that surface renewal processes are more widespread on Titan's more reflective units than on its less reflective units. We note that one of our photometric control points has increased in reflectance by 12% relative to the surrounding terrain from July of 2004 to April and May of 2005. Possible causes of this effect include atmospheric processes such as ground fog or orographic clouds; the suggestion of active volcanism cannot be ruled out. Several interesting circular features which resembled impact craters were identified on Titan's surface at the time of the initial Titan flyby in July of 2004. We traced photometric profiles through two of these candidate craters and attempted to fit these profiles to the photometric properties expected from model depressions. We find that the best-fit attempt to model these features as craters requires that they be unrealistically deep, approximately 70 km deep. We conclude that despite their appearance, these circular features are not craters, however, the possibility that they are palimpsests cannot be ruled out. We used two methods to test for the presence of vast expanses of liquids on Titan's surface that had been suggested to resemble oceans. Specular reflection of sunlight would be indicative of widespread liquids on the surface; we found no evidence of this. A large liquid body should also show uniformity in photometric profile; we found the profiles to be highly variable. The lack of specular reflection and the high photometric variability in the profiles across candidate oceans is inconsistent with the presence of vast expanses of flat-lying liquids on Titan's surface. While liquid accumulation may be present as small, sub-pixel-sized bodies, or in areas of the surface which still remain to be observed by VIMS, the presence of large ocean-sized accumulations of liquids can be ruled out. The Cassini orbital tour offers the opportunity for VIMS to image the same parts of Titan's surface repeatedly at many different illumination and observation geometries. This creates the possibility of understanding the properties of Titan's atmosphere and haze by iteratively adapting models to create a best fit to the surface reflectance properties.

Nelson, R. M.; Brown, R. H.; Hapke, B. W.; Smythe, W. D.; Kamp, L.; Boryta, M. D.; Leader, F.; Baines, K. H.; Bellucci, G.; Bibring, J.-P.; Buratti, B. J.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Clark, R. N.; Combes, M.; Coradini, A.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Drossart, P.; Formisano, V.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Matson, D. L.; McCord, T. B.; Mennella, V.; Nicholson, P. D.; Sicardy, B.; Sotin, C.

2006-12-01

114

A potential role of reward and punishment in the facilitation of the emotion-cognition dichotomy in the Iowa Gambling Task  

PubMed Central

The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is based on the assumption that a decision maker is equally motivated to seek reward and avoid punishment, and that decision making is governed solely by the intertemporal attribute (i.e., preference for an option that produces an immediate outcome instead of one that yields a delayed outcome is believed to reflect risky decision making and is considered a deficit). It was assumed in the present study that the emotion- and cognition-based processing dichotomy manifests in the IGT as reward and punishment frequency and the intertemporal attribute. It was further proposed that the delineation of emotion- and cognition-based processing is contingent upon reward and punishment as manifested in the frame of the task (variant type) and task motivation (instruction type). The effects of IGT variant type (reward vs. punishment) and instruction type (task motivation induced by instruction types: reward, punishment, reward and punishment, or no hint) on the intertemporal and frequency attributes of IGT decision-making were analyzed. Decision making in the reward variant was equally governed by both attributes, and significantly affected by instruction type, while decision making in the punishment variant was differentially affected by the two attributes and not significantly impacted by instruction type. These results suggest that reward and punishment manifested via task frame as well as the task motivation may facilitate the differentiation of emotion- and cognition-based processing in the IGT. PMID:24381567

Singh, Varsha

2013-01-01

115

A Revelation: Quantum-Statistics and Classical-Statistics are Analytic-Geometry Conic-Sections and Numbers\\/Functions: Euler, Riemann, Bernoulli Generating-Functions: Conics to Numbers\\/Functions Deep Subtle Connections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum-statistics Dichotomy: Fermi-Dirac(FDQS) Versus Bose-Einstein(BEQS), respectively with contact-repulsion\\/non-condensation(FDCR) versus attraction\\/ condensationBEC are manifestly-demonstrated by Taylor-expansion ONLY of their denominator exponential, identified BOTH as Descartes analytic-geometry conic-sections, FDQS as Elllipse (homotopy to rectangle FDQS distribution-function), VIA Maxwell-Boltzmann classical-statistics(MBCS ) to Parabola MORPHISM, VS. BEQS to Hyperbola, Archimedes' HYPERBOLICITY INEVITABILITY, and as well generating-functions[Abramowitz-Stegun, Handbook Math.-Functions--p. 804!!!], respectively of Euler-numbers\\/functions, (via Riemann

R. Descartes; G.-C. Rota; L. Euler; J. D. Bernoulli; Edward Carl-Ludwig Siegel

2011-01-01

116

Dichotomy of hot electron relaxation and delocalized polarons for optimal energy transfer in a model organic donor-acceptor interface  

E-print Network

Charge separation at donor-acceptor interfaces is a complex process that can be strongly limited by the combined action of phonon-induced relaxation and Coulomb potential binding for an electron/hole pair. We propose a fully quantum microscopic approach to this problem, and show that molecular vibrations modulate the trapping probability in a non-monotonous fashion as a function of injection energy, due to polaron formation. This mechanism should control sensitively the efficiency of energy transfer in photovoltaic organic molecules, and bridge the gap between several current conflicting theories.

Bera, Soumya; Fratini, Simone; Ciuchi, Sergio; Florens, Serge

2014-01-01

117

A genetic dichotomy between pure sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) and hybrid SEF/low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: A pathologic and molecular study of 18 cases.  

PubMed

Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is a rare soft tissue tumor exhibiting considerable morphologic overlap with low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS). Moreover, both SEF and LGFMS show MUC4 expression by immunohistochemistry. While the majority of LGFMS cases are characterized by a FUS-CREB3L1 fusion, both FUS-CREB3L2 and EWSR1-CREB3L1 fusions were recently demonstrated in a small number of LGFMS and SEF/LGFMS hybrid tumors. In contrast, recent studies pointed out that SEF harbor frequent EWSR1 rearrangements, with only a minority of cases showing FUS-CREB3L2 fusions. In an effort to further characterize the molecular characteristics of pure SEF and hybrid SEF/LGFMS lesions, we undertook a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical and genetic analysis of a series of 10 SEF and 8 hybrid SEF/LGFMS tumors. The mortality rate was similar between the two groups, 44% within the pure SEF group and 37% in the hybrid SEF/LGFMS with a mean overall follow-up of 66 months. All but one pure SEF and all hybrid SEF/LGFMS-tested cases showed MUC4 immunoreactivity. The majority (90%) of pure SEF cases showed EWSR1 gene rearrangements by fluorescence in situ hybridization with only one case exhibiting FUS rearrangement. Of the nine EWSR1 positive cases, six cases harbored CREB3L1 break-apart, two had CREB3L2 rearrangement (a previously unreported finding) and one lacked evidence of CREB3L1/2 abnormalities. In contrast, all hybrid SEF/LGFMS tumors exhibited FUS and CREB3L2 rearrangements. These results further demarcate a relative cytogenetic dichotomy between pure SEF, often characterized by EWSR1 rearrangements, and hybrid SEF/LGFMS, harboring FUS-CREB3L2 fusion; the latter group recapitulating the genotype of LGFMS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25231134

Prieto-Granada, Carlos; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Hsiao-Wei; Sung, Yun-Shao; Agaram, Narasimhan P; Jungbluth, Achim A; Antonescu, Cristina R

2015-01-01

118

Hot versus Cold: the Dichotomy in Spherical Accretion of Cooling Flows onto Supermassive Black Holes in Elliptical Galaxies, Galaxy Groups, and Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feedback heating from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has been commonly invoked to suppress cooling flows predicted in hot gas in elliptical galaxies, galaxy groups, and clusters. Previous studies have focused on if and how AGN feedback heats the gas but have little paid attention to its triggering mechanism. Using spherically symmetric simulations, we investigate how large-scale cooling flows are accreted by central supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in eight well-observed systems and find an interesting dichotomy. In massive clusters, the gas develops a central cooling catastrophe within about the cooling time (typically ~100-300 Myr), resulting in cold-mode accretion onto SMBHs. However, in our four simulated systems on group and galaxy scales at a low metallicity Z = 0.3 Z ?, the gas quickly settles into a long-term state that has a cuspy central temperature profile extending to several tens to about 100 pc. At the more realistic solar metallicity, two groups (with R e ~ 4 kpc) still host the long-term, hot-mode accretion. Both accretion modes naturally appear in our idealized calculations where only cooling, gas inflow, and compressional heating are considered. The long-term, hot-mode accretion is maintained by the quickly established closeness between the timescales of these processes, preferably in systems with low gas densities, low gas metallicities, and importantly, compact central galaxies, which result in strong gravitational acceleration and compressional heating at the intermediate radii. Our calculations predict that central cuspy temperature profiles appear more often in smaller systems than galaxy clusters, which instead often host significant cold gas and star formation.

Guo, Fulai; Mathews, William G.

2014-01-01

119

THE ROLE OF CORE MASS IN CONTROLLING EVAPORATION: THE KEPLER RADIUS DISTRIBUTION AND THE KEPLER-36 DENSITY DICHOTOMY  

SciTech Connect

We use models of coupled thermal evolution and photo-evaporative mass loss to understand the formation and evolution of the Kepler-36 system. We show that the large contrast in mean planetary density observed by Carter et al. can be explained as a natural consequence of photo-evaporation from planets that formed with similar initial compositions. However, rather than being due to differences in XUV irradiation between the planets, we find that this contrast is due to the difference in the masses of the planets' rock/iron cores and the impact that this has on mass-loss evolution. We explore in detail how our coupled models depend on irradiation, mass, age, composition, and the efficiency of mass loss. Based on fits to large numbers of coupled evolution and mass-loss runs, we provide analytic fits to understand threshold XUV fluxes for significant atmospheric loss, as a function of core mass and mass-loss efficiency. Finally we discuss these results in the context of recent studies of the radius distribution of Kepler candidates. Using our parameter study, we make testable predictions for the frequency of sub-Neptune-sized planets. We show that 1.8-4.0 R{sub ?} planets should become significantly less common on orbits within 10 days and discuss the possibility of a narrow 'occurrence valley' in the radius-flux distribution. Moreover, we describe how photo-evaporation provides a natural explanation for the recent observations of Ciardi et al. that inner planets are preferentially smaller within the systems.

Lopez, Eric D.; Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

2013-10-10

120

Jargonial-Obfuscation(J-O) DISambiguation Elimination via Siegel-Baez Cognition Category-Semantics(C-S) in Siegel FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS (Son of TRIZ)/(F=C) Tabular List-Format Dichotomy Truth-Table Matrix Analytics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NOT "philosophy" per se but raising serious salient Arnol'd [Huygens and Barrow, Newton and Hooke(96)] questions begged is Rota empiricism Husserl VS. Frege maths-objects Dichotomy controversy: Hill-Haddock[Husserl or Frege?(00)]as manifestly-demonstrated by Hintikka[B.U.]-Critchey[Derrida Deconstruction Ethics(78)] deconstruction; Altshuler TRIZ; Siegel F=C/C-S; Siegel-Baez(UCR) Cognition C-S = "Category-theory "+" Cognitive-Semantics[Wierzbica-Langacker-Lakoff-Nunez[Where Maths Comes From(00)]-Fauconnier-Turner[Blending(98)]-Coulson[Semantic-Leaps (00)

Siegel, Carl Ludwig; Carl-Ludwig Siegel, Edward

2011-03-01

121

Empowerment and assessment: a dichotomy?  

PubMed

Institutions of higher education are sites where the rhetoric of learning increasingly collides with the diverse needs of both learners and educators. Demands on tertiary institutions from the workplace, students themselves and the increasing demand for skilled graduates in the face of diminishing resources strongly suggest that intelligent and creative approaches to learning play a pivotal role in the success of higher education. Throughout tertiary education the subject of assessment is central to the complex processes involved in student learning. Therefore, it is important that nursing academics and practitioners involved in assessing student learning develop insight and awareness of the theories and philosophies that underpin different assessment strategies. This will inform teaching and learning practice to the benefit of all stakeholders. This paper examines issues of assessment in higher education; it will locate and deconstruct some principles underpinning traditional and innovative methods associated with assessment and suggest that creative approaches that embrace adult learning principles will empower students and ultimately facilitate more effective learning. PMID:15245858

Massey, Debbie; Osborne, Debora

2004-07-01

122

Evidence of stratabound liquefaction in the formation of fractured topographic margins, cone chains and pit catenas along the Martian Dichotomy Boundary and in Isidis Planitia, Mars.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the low-lying plains along much of the Martian Dichotomy Boundary (MDB) and in the Isidis impact basin, cones and curving chains of cones, referred to as thumbprint terrain (TPT), are common. In the same settings, pit chains (catenas) occur in orthogonal to curving and conchoidal fracture sets between mesa-like crustal blocks, generally at or near topographic margins. Many of the fractures consist of linked pits rather than simple propagated cracks. These assemblages are often associated with the more disaggregated populations of blocks comprising chaos terrain. We show that the local planimetric arrangement of the cone chains, fractures and pit catenas is strikingly similar in both shape and scale, including lateral separation, length, longitudinal slope and radius of curvature. The summits of cones tend to be closely accordant along individual cone chains. Neighbouring cone chains tend to be mutually accordant on low gradient basin surfaces but generally stepped en echelon closer to the fractured basin margins. Similarly, the crustal blocks (including very isolated block sets) are often mutually stepped, and fractures between these en echelon blocks tend to be very close to horizontal. Hence, many cone chains, fractures and pit catenas in fractures share the property of being arranged along strike. They diverge morphologically by the cone chains being positive forms separated by narrow gulfs but the pit catenas being negative forms separated by planar blocks. All of these characteristics point to the possibility that the arcuate cone chains and the arcuate pit catenas have a common origin. In particular, we hypothesise that the cone chains characteristic of TPT along the MDB and in Isidis are filled, indurated and then exhumed pit catenas revealed by the stripping-away of intervening blocks [cf. 1]. Many other surfaces on Mars are pervaded by pits and pit catenas, with evidence of former water flow through the catenas suggesting that ground-ice thaw played a role in at least one mode of catena formation [2]. As well as presenting the morphological evidence for a genetic association between TPT and pit catenas, we present corroborative evidence that fluvial channel networks on Mars have in places increased in complexity through the linking of pits arranged in linear to arcuate arrays, culminating in a pseudo-branching channel network. Such systems do not occur at topographic margins and did not disintegrate into stepped crustal blocks. However, the scale of these channels and the volumes of liquid intermittently impounded in craters along these channel systems indicate that pit chains are associated with significant excess groundwater production leading to channelized flow, including catastrophic discharges when crater-impounded lakes along-flow were breached. Are the MDB and Isidis cone chains exhumed pit catenas and are the pits the surface expression of more deep-seated conduits? Do pit catenas indicate excess pore-water production, sufficient to link individual pits and dissect crustal blocks? Together, do these assemblages reflect the degradation of the MDB and Isidis margins and the subsequent stripping of adjacent low-lying plains? The crucial observations presented in this research (cone chains lying between crustal blocks, together with the morphometric similarities) are consistent with the interpretation of the cones and catenas having a common origin. Consequently, we hypothesise that the translated, back-rotated, tilted and capsized disposition of en echelon blocks is very reminiscent of the morphology produced during lateral spreading [3] associated with stratabound liquefaction below a low-gradient, rigid, insensitive surface. Significantly, such liquefaction events cause extensive, arcuate ground fractures along with the discharge of sediment-laden groundwater from the liquefiable substratum to the surface through pipes and conical boils confined within inter-block fractures. These conduits and their injectite are frequently indurated by secondary mineralisation, often making them more competent and le

Gallagher, C.; Balme, M. R.

2012-04-01

123

Gradistic vs. Cladistic Views in the Classification of Chondrites: The (L,H) Dichotomy and the Missing L/LL Precursors (NIPR Statistics VI.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chondritic parent body evolutionary trends were projected -- on the basis of the NIPR Antarctic dataset (Yanai et al, 1995) -- in multicomponent functions (i.e. Fe-C-H2O race) of chondrite types for all groups. We looked for the possible precursors of L/LL chondrites.

Lukács, B.; Holba, A.; Bérczi, Sz.

1999-03-01

124

Gauge-Invariant Energy Functional in Relativistic Schroedinger Theory  

E-print Network

The non-invariant energy functional of the preceding paper is improved in order to obtain its gauge-invariant form by strictly taking into account the non-Abelian character of Relativistic Schroedinger Theory (RST). As an application of the results, the dichotomy of positronium with respect to singlet and triplet states is discussed (ortho- and para-positronium). The degeneracy of the ortho- and para-states occurs in RST if (i) the magnetic interactions are neglected (as in the conventional theory) and (ii) the anisotropy of the electric interaction potential is disregarded. In view of such a very crude approximation procedure, the non-relativistic positronium spectrum in RST agrees amazingly well with the conventional predictions.

M. Mattes; M. Sorg

2009-08-29

125

Melt - Fluid Dichotomy vs. a Regime Involving Liquids Supercritical With Respect to the Endpoint of the Solidus and Geochemical Consequences for Subduction Zones (or: the end of the ''Melting the Slab'' - Myth)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At crustal pressures, phase relations in natural rock-H2O systems involve low density aqueous fluids (supercritical with respect to the endpoint of the H2O melt-gas phase) and/or high density hydrous melts. The wide miscibility gap between these two liquid phases leads to a dichotomy of mobile phases with quite distinct element solubilites and geochemical signatures. As pressure increases, the fluid-melt miscibility gap closes at ever lower temperatures, until the crest of the miscibility gap intersects the ''wet'' solidus at it's endpoint, leaving a single liquid, that has chemical and physical properties continuously evolving with temperature, and which is supercritical with respect to the endpoint of the solidus. These facts are well known and the principal necessary phase diagrams have been completed at latest with Ricci (1951). The question is then, at what conditions would the endpoint of the solidus be relevant for natural rock compositions. We have determined this endpoint by two different methods. In a potassium-enriched MORB, a greywacke, and a metapelite (Schmidt et al, 2004, EPSL) a discontinuous melting reaction where phengite disappears in favor of a quenchable hydrous melt exists to 5 GPa. Continuous dissolution of phengite in all three compositions is observed at 6 GPa, a quenchable K-bearing phase was then not formed. Secondly, in a K-free MORB, we measured the composition of the liquid phase from a diamond trap including H2O-contents (Kessel et al, 2005, EPSL), again observing classical melting at 5 GPa but a continuously evolving liquid composition at 6 GPa. The subsolidus assemblage consisted always of cpx+gar+coes±ky(+phengite in K2O bearing bulks), the main differences being omphacitic instead of jadeitic cpx and grossular enriched garnets in MORBs, and of course phase abundances. At 3-5 GPa, melting reactions and initial granitic melt compositions are similar in clastic metasediments and K-bearing MORB, a quartz poor greywacke would have the highest melt productivity. Locating the endpoint of the solidus between 5 and 6 GPa, 900-1000 °C indicates, that (i) at higher pressures, the dichotomy of fluid vs. melt ceases to exist in the oceanic crust, and (ii) that relatively small amounts of CaO, MgO and FeO (in the metapelite) shifts the solidus' endpoint to quite high pressures, i.e. from 1.0 and 1.5 GPa in the SiO2- and albite-H2O systems, respectively. The consequences of the solidus' endpoint were investigated by measuring trace element partitioning between cpx-gar-liquid, the latter either an aqueous fluid, hydrous melt, or supercritical liquid. Hydrous melts and supercritical liquids (the latter down to at least 200 °C below the hypothetical extension of the solidus) are almost undistinguishable in their trace element pattern, in particular, both have bulk Dsolid/liquidTh > Dsolid/liquidu, the mobility of Th and Be is even increased in the supercritical liquid (Kessel et al, 2005, Nature). Thus, recycling rates of these elements are not indicative of melting, and in the fast and steep circum-pacific subduction zones, they most likely testify for production of a mobile phase from the subducting crust in the supercritical liquid regime (beyond the endpoint of the solidus).

Schmidt, M. W.; Kessel, R.

2005-12-01

126

Directed functional connectivity matures with motor learning in a cortical pattern generator  

PubMed Central

Sequential motor skills may be encoded by feedforward networks that consist of groups of neurons that fire in sequence (Abeles 1991; Long et al. 2010). However, there has been no evidence of an anatomic map of activation sequence in motor control circuits, which would be potentially detectable as directed functional connectivity of coactive neuron groups. The proposed pattern generator for birdsong, the HVC (Long and Fee 2008; Vu et al. 1994), contains axons that are preferentially oriented in the rostrocaudal axis (Nottebohm et al. 1982; Stauffer et al. 2012). We used four-tetrode recordings to assess the activity of ensembles of single neurons along the rostrocaudal HVC axis in anesthetized zebra finches. We found an axial, polarized neural network in which sequential activity is directionally organized along the rostrocaudal axis in adult males, who produce a stereotyped song. Principal neurons fired in rostrocaudal order and with interneurons that were rostral to them, suggesting that groups of excitatory neurons fire at the leading edge of travelling waves of inhibition. Consistent with the synchronization of neurons by caudally travelling waves of inhibition, the activity of interneurons was more coherent in the orthogonal mediolateral axis than in the rostrocaudal axis. If directed functional connectivity within the HVC is important for stereotyped, learned song, then it may be lacking in juveniles, which sing a highly variable song. Indeed, we found little evidence for network directionality in juveniles. These data indicate that a functionally directed network within the HVC matures during sensorimotor learning and may underlie vocal patterning. PMID:23175804

Day, Nancy F.; Terleski, Kyle L.; Nykamp, Duane Q.

2013-01-01

127

Beyond dichotomy: Drawing distinctions and embracing differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recognition of gender as a constituent element of social structure poses a profound challenge to received wisdom and practice in sociology. We review selected aspects of the new scholarship and its fundamental critique of objectivism and dualistic models. Counterchallenges are acknowledged: from institutional and collegial resistance, on the one hand, to an enhanced awareness of the dilemmas posed by

Beth B. Hess

1990-01-01

128

ODL and Traditional Universities: Dichotomy or Convergence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the evolution of open distance learning (ODL) in the United Kingdom, particularly in relation to traditional universities and to recent developments in telematics. Argues that a major test of the new technologies in distance education will be their capacity to support real academic communities, allowing the university to maintain the best…

Curran, Chris

1997-01-01

129

Parallel dichotomy algorithm for solving tridiagonal SLAEs  

E-print Network

A parallel algorithm for solving a series of matrix equations with a constant tridiagonal matrix and different right-hand sides is proposed and studied. The process of solving the problem is represented in two steps. The first preliminary step is fixing some rows of the inverse matrix of SLAEs. The second step consists in calculating solutions for all right-hand sides. For reducing the communication interactions, based on the formulated and proved main parallel sweep theorem, we propose an original algorithm for calculating share components of the solution vector. Theoretical estimates validating the efficiency of the approach for both the common- and distributed-memory supercomputers are obtained. Direct and iterative methods of solving a 2D Poisson equation, which include procedures of tridiagonal matrix inversion, are realized using the mpi technology. Results of computational experiments on a multicomputer demonstrate a high efficiency and scalability of the parallel sweep algorithm.

Terekhov, Andrew

2009-01-01

130

Parallel dichotomy algorithm for solving tridiagonal SLAEs  

E-print Network

A parallel algorithm for solving a series of matrix equations with a constant tridiagonal matrix and different right-hand sides is proposed and studied. The process of solving the problem is represented in two steps. The first preliminary step is fixing some rows of the inverse matrix of SLAEs. The second step consists in calculating solutions for all right-hand sides. For reducing the communication interactions, based on the formulated and proved main parallel sweep theorem, we propose an original algorithm for calculating share components of the solution vector. Theoretical estimates validating the efficiency of the approach for both the common- and distributed-memory supercomputers are obtained. Direct and iterative methods of solving a 2D Poisson equation, which include procedures of tridiagonal matrix inversion, are realized using the mpi technology. Results of computational experiments on a multicomputer demonstrate a high efficiency and scalability of the parallel sweep algorithm.

Andrew Terekhov

2009-01-19

131

The Dichotomy for Conservative Constraint Satisfaction Problems  

E-print Network

: Is the formula satisfiable? Examples: Various forms of SAT, (Di)graph reachability, Equations over relations on A (so called conservative CSPs) Bulatov (3) Applicability of "Gaussian elimination like) Applicability of "Gaussian elimination like" methods (4) Applicability of local consistency methods Proofs don

Barto, Libor

132

Dichotomies in Teaching, Application, and Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors propose a move from the old control model of teaching, managing, and leading based on stability and power to a new enterprise model based on speed and constant self-innovation. They hope to promote the practice of a rapid incremental innovation strategy that produces practitioners and educators dedicated to continuous…

Heames, Joyce T.; Service, Robert W.

2003-01-01

133

Tutoring and Teaching: Continuum, Dichotomy, or Dialectic?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A writing center serves freshmen and sophomores at Casper Community College in Casper, Wyoming and upper level classes at University of Wyoming/Casper College. The arrangement raises questions about the effectiveness of peer tutoring. Tutors were labeled "writing assistants" and those who came to the center for help were called "writers" or…

Raines, Helon H.

134

The cultural dichotomy of colonial people.  

PubMed

We have presented a justification for the application of some of the principles of individual psychic development to the understanding of societal development. The interplay between the various systems of organization provides a circular and reciprocal interaction between the individual and the broader organizational levels of which he is a part. We have noted how individuals contribute to the characteristics of these organizational levels, as they contribute to his own. An illustration of this interplay has been provided by describing the impact of a societal condition such as colonialism on the colonized individual, as well as its force in shaping the character of the collectivity. Its effect on individual parameters of self-definition and self-esteem has been noted, and its possible relevance to psychotherapeutic processes pointed out. PMID:7085391

Bird, H R

1982-04-01

135

Climate change: Dichotomy of drought and deluge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Freshwater deficits and heavy rainfall have been projected to intensify in a warming climate. An analysis of hydrological data suggests that past changes in wet and dry extremes were more complex than a simple amplification of existing patterns.

Allan, Richard P.

2014-10-01

136

Dawn: Testing Paradigms by Exploring Dichotomies  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's Dawn mission represents a series of ``firsts'' for major NASA missions. Dawn is the first major NASA science mission to use ion propulsion engines, allowing Dawn to be the first mission to orbit one target and then leave its gravity well to explore a second destination. Dawn is the first science mission to the main asteroid belt, reaching protoplanet

C. T. Russell; B. E. Schmidt; J. Wise; J. Ristvey; C. A. Raymond

2010-01-01

137

Hypergeometric Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page includes the encyclopedia entries for hypergeometric functions including Hermit, parabolic cylinder and Laguerre functions, Chebyshev and Fibonacci functions, Legendre functions, Gegenbauer and Jacobi functions, confluent hypergeometric functions, hypergeometric functions, Meijer G functions, hypergeometric functions of several variables and angular momentum functions.

138

Relationship between static postural control and the level of functional abilities in children with cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

Background: Postural control deficits can impair functional performance in children with cerebral palsy (CP) in daily living activities. Objective: To verify the relationship between standing static postural control and the functional ability level in children with CP. Method: The postural control of 10 children with CP (gross motor function levels I and II) was evaluated during static standing on a force platform for 30 seconds. The analyzed variables were the anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) displacement of the center of pressure (CoP) and the area and velocity of the CoP oscillation. The functional abilities were evaluated using the mean Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) scores, which evaluated self-care, mobility and social function in the domains of functional abilities and caregiver assistance. Results: Spearman's correlation test found a relationship between postural control and functional abilities. The results showed a strong negative correlation between the variables of ML displacement of CoP, the area and velocity of the CoP oscillation and the PEDI scores in the self-care and caregiver assistance domains. Additionally, a moderate negative correlation was found between the area of the CoP oscillation and the mobility scores in the caregiver assistance domain. We used a significance level of 5% (p <0.05). Conclusions: We observed that children with cerebral palsy with high CoP oscillation values had lower caregiver assistance scores for activities of daily living (ADL) and consequently higher levels of caregiver dependence. These results demonstrate the repercussions of impairments to the body structure and function in terms of the activity levels of children with CP such that postural control impairments in these children lead to higher requirements for caregiver assistance. PMID:25054383

Pavao, Silvia L.; Nunes, Gabriela S.; Santos, Adriana N.; Rocha, Nelci A. C. F.

2014-01-01

139

Vascular smooth muscle phenotypic diversity and function  

PubMed Central

The control of force production in vascular smooth muscle is critical to the normal regulation of blood flow and pressure, and altered regulation is common to diseases such as hypertension, heart failure, and ischemia. A great deal has been learned about imbalances in vasoconstrictor and vasodilator signals, e.g., angiotensin, endothelin, norepinephrine, and nitric oxide, that regulate vascular tone in normal and disease contexts. In contrast there has been limited study of how the phenotypic state of the vascular smooth muscle cell may influence the contractile response to these signaling pathways dependent upon the developmental, tissue-specific (vascular bed) or disease context. Smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle lineages are traditionally classified into fast or slow sublineages based on rates of contraction and relaxation, recognizing that this simple dichotomy vastly underrepresents muscle phenotypic diversity. A great deal has been learned about developmental specification of the striated muscle sublineages and their phenotypic interconversions in the mature animal under the control of mechanical load, neural input, and hormones. In contrast there has been relatively limited study of smooth muscle contractile phenotypic diversity. This is surprising given the number of diseases in which smooth muscle contractile dysfunction plays a key role. This review focuses on smooth muscle contractile phenotypic diversity in the vascular system, how it is generated, and how it may determine vascular function in developmental and disease contexts. PMID:20736412

2010-01-01

140

3D localization of clustered microcalcifications using cranio-caudal and medio-lateral oblique views  

E-print Network

of Multimedia Design, National Formosa University, Yun-Lin, Taiwan 632, ROC f Computer Center, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan 407, ROC g Suao Veterans Hospital, Yilan County, Taiwan 270, ROC h implements a virtual reality modeling language viewer (VRMLV) to view the exact location of the lesion

Chang, Chein-I

141

Amplitude effects of medio-lateral mechanical and visual perturbations on gait.  

PubMed

Falls during walking are a major contributor to accidental deaths and injuries that can result in debilitating hospitalization costs, lost productivity, and diminished quality of life. To reduce these losses, we must develop a more profound understanding of the characteristic responses to perturbations similar to those encountered in daily life. This study addresses this issue by building on our earlier studies that examined mechanical and visual perturbations in the same environment by applying the same continuous pseudo-random perturbations at multiple (3 mechanical, 5 visual) amplitudes. Walking variability during mechanical perturbations increased significantly with amplitude for all subjects and differences as measured by variabilities of step width, COM position, and COM velocity. These parameters were the only ones sensitive to the presence of visual perturbations, but none of them changed significantly with perturbation amplitude. Additionally, visual perturbation effects were far less consistent across participants, with several who were essentially unaffected by visual perturbations at any level. The homogeneity of the mechanical perturbation effects demonstrates that human responses to mechanical perturbations are similar because they are driven by kinetics that require similar corrections that must be made in order to maintain balance. Conversely, responses to visual perturbations are driven by the perceived need to make corrections and this perception is not accurate enough to produce amplitude-related corrections, even for a single participant, nor is this perception consistent across individuals. This latter finding is likely to be relevant to future visual perturbation studies and the diagnosis and rehabilitation of gait and balance disorders. PMID:22648147

Terry, Kevin; Sinitski, Emily H; Dingwell, Jonathan B; Wilken, Jason M

2012-07-26

142

Lateral wedges alter mediolateral load distributions at the knee joint in obese individuals.  

PubMed

Obesity is the primary risk factor for knee osteoarthritis (OA). Greater external knee adduction moments, surrogate measures for medial compartment loading, are present in Obese individuals and may predispose them to knee OA. Laterally wedged insoles decrease the magnitude of the external adduction moment in Obese individuals but it is unknown how they alter the center of pressure on the tibial plateau. A gait analysis was performed on 14 Obese (avg. 29.3 years; BMI range: 30.3-51.6?kg/m(2) ) and 14 lean women (avg. 26.1 years; BMI range: 20.9-24.6?kg/m(2) ) with and without a full-length, wedged insole. Computed joint angles, joint moments, and knee extensor strength values were input into a musculoskeletal model to estimate center of pressure of the contact force on the tibial plateau. Statistical significance was assessed using a two-way ANOVA to compare the main effects of group and insole condition (??=?0.05). The insole resulted in a significant (p?

Russell, Elizabeth M; Miller, Ross H; Umberger, Brian R; Hamill, Joseph

2013-05-01

143

Elliptic Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page includes the encyclopedia entries for elliptic functions including Jacobi theta functions, Siegel theta functions, Neville theta functions, Weierstrass functions and inverses, Weierstrass utility functions, Jacobi functions and inverses, modular functions and inverses, arithmetic geometric mean and elliptic exponential and logarithmic functions.

144

Twelve weeks of BodyBalance® training improved balance and functional task performance in middle-aged and older adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of BodyBalance® training on balance, functional task performance, fear of falling, and health-related quality of life in adults aged over 55 years. Participants and methods A total of 28 healthy, active adults aged 66±5 years completed the randomized controlled trial. Balance, functional task performance, fear of falling, and self-reported quality of life were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Participants either undertook two sessions of BodyBalance per week for 12 weeks (n=15) or continued with their normal activities (n=13). Results Significant group-by-time interactions were found for the timed up and go (P=0.038), 30-second chair stand (P=0.037), and mediolateral center-of-pressure range in narrow stance with eyes closed (P=0.017). There were no significant effects on fear of falling or self-reported quality of life. Conclusion Twelve weeks of BodyBalance training is effective at improving certain balance and functional based tasks in healthy older adults.

Nicholson, Vaughan P; McKean, Mark R; Burkett, Brendan J

2014-01-01

145

Molecular insights into NF2/Merlin tumor suppressor function.  

PubMed

The FERM domain protein Merlin, encoded by the NF2 tumor suppressor gene, regulates cell proliferation in response to adhesive signaling. The growth inhibitory function of Merlin is induced by intercellular adhesion and inactivated by joint integrin/receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. Merlin contributes to the formation of cell junctions in polarized tissues, activates anti-mitogenic signaling at tight-junctions, and inhibits oncogenic gene expression. Thus, inactivation of Merlin causes uncontrolled mitogenic signaling and tumorigenesis. Merlin's predominant tumor suppressive functions are attributable to its control of oncogenic gene expression through regulation of Hippo signaling. Notably, Merlin translocates to the nucleus where it directly inhibits the CRL4(DCAF1) E3 ubiquitin ligase, thereby suppressing inhibition of the Lats kinases. A dichotomy in NF2 function has emerged whereby Merlin acts at the cell cortex to organize cell junctions and propagate anti-mitogenic signaling, whereas it inhibits oncogenic gene expression through the inhibition of CRL4(DCAF1) and activation of Hippo signaling. The biochemical events underlying Merlin's normal function and tumor suppressive activity will be discussed in this Review, with emphasis on recent discoveries that have greatly influenced our understanding of Merlin biology. PMID:24726726

Cooper, Jonathan; Giancotti, Filippo G

2014-08-19

146

Double-leg stance and dynamic balance in individuals with functional ankle instability.  

PubMed

To investigate whether double-leg stance could reveal balance deficits in subjects with functional ankle instability (FAI) and whether such an assessment of static balance would be correlated with measures of dynamic instability, 16 individuals with FAI and 16 healthy controls participated in this study. Static postural control was tested using double-leg stance (either with the eyes open (EO) or closed (EC)) on a dual-plate force platform. Dynamic balance was evaluated using the Multiple Hop Test (MHT) and a weight-shifting task. FAI subjects were significantly less stable in the anteroposterior direction during double-leg stance (as assessed by velocity of centre of pressure, VCP), both for the EO and EC condition. In the mediolateral direction the VCP values were also higher in FAI, but significance was only found for the EC condition (p=.02). FAI subjects made significantly more balance errors compared to healthy controls (p<.001) on both the affected and less affected leg during MHT. There were no significant differences between FAI and healthy subjects during the weight-shifting task. No relationship was found between double-leg stance and MHT measures (all correlations (rs) less than .30). This study suggests that static postural control during double-leg stance is impaired in FAI subjects. Although dynamic balance during MHT is also affected, no significant relationship was found between static and dynamic measurements, which indicate that they are most probably related to different aspects of postural control. PMID:23810093

Groters, S; Groen, B E; van Cingel, R; Duysens, J

2013-09-01

147

Elementary Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page includes the encyclopedia entries for power functions (square root and power), exponential functions, trigonometric functions (e.g. sin, cos), inverse trigonometric functions (e.g. arcSin, arcCos), hyperbolic functions (e.g. sinh, cosh), inverse hyperbolic functions (e.g. arcSinh, arcCosh), product logarightms, roots, maximum and minimum and cardinal functions.

148

Identifying Real Dichotomies Underlying the False Dichotomy: Twenty-First Century Mediation in an Eclectic Regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some people (lawyers, scholars, judges, dispute resolvers, policymakers) are more concerned about fidelity to procedural protocols while others are more concerned with the substantive rules governing disputes and substantive outcomes. Those in the dispute resolution community preferring facilitation tend to be proceduralists. For them, the observance of proper procedure is a high goal, perhaps the dominant goal. They reason, often

Jeffrey W. Stempel

2000-01-01

149

Social dichotomy versus gender dichotomy: a case report of gender identity disorder.  

PubMed

Gender identity disorder is one of the most controversial diagnoses of DSM-IV and almost incomparable in the complexity of its social, ethical and political considerations to any other diagnosis. We present a case of 30 year-old male who presented with complaints of suggestive of depressive disorder with a recent suicidal attempt. Careful history taking reveals underlying conflicts with prominent gender dysphoria and social complexities. The patient is managed primarily by pharmacotherapy and harm reduction model. Our case reflects a unique coping strategy against the present sociocultural values and ambiguity of law in this part of the world. PMID:23162201

Kumar, Kuldip; Gupta, Manushree

2012-04-01

150

Inverse Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using Mathcad, Maple, Mathmatica, or MatLab, learner should be able to review concepts of inverse functions, and to use those concepts, together with functions defined by integrals, to develop inverse trigonometric functions.

Smith, David; Moore, Lawrence

2001-01-25

151

CAN LABORATORY-BASED BIOMECHANICAL TEST RESULTS REFLECT THE PERCEIVED COMFORT DURING OVERGROUND RUNNING?  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: In the past decades, many biomechanical tests were conducted to measure the protective functions of running shoes. Heel cushioning and rearfoot movement (medio-lateral control) are the two functions that have drawn most attention. It was believed that shoes with better heel cushioning or medio-lateral control would increase the perceived comfort of subjects. Although some studies showed the relationship between

Pui-lam Wong; Echo Y. L. Cheng; Youlian Hong

152

Mass Functions Density Functions Random Variables and Distribution Functions  

E-print Network

Mass Functions Density Functions Topic 7 Random Variables and Distribution Functions Mass Functions and Density Functions 1 / 9 #12;Mass Functions Density Functions Outline Mass Functions Density Functions 2 / 9 #12;Mass Functions Density Functions Mass Functions The (probability) mass function of a discrete

Watkins, Joseph C.

153

Integer Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page includes the encyclopedia entries for integer functions like rounding and congruence (e.g. floor, ceiling), GCD and LCM, Fibonaci and Lucas numbers, Euler and Bernoulli numbers, Stirling and Bell numbers, partitions and Tensorial functions.

154

Function Matching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a graphing tool/activity for students to deepen their understanding of polynomial functions and their corresponding graphs. This tool is to be used in conjunction with a full lesson on graphing polynomial functions; it can be used either before an in depth lesson to prompt students to make inferences and connections between the coefficients in polynomial functions and their corresponding graphs, or as a practice tool after a lesson in graphing the polynomial functions.

Nctm

2012-08-02

155

Inverse Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lang Moore and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, this is a module to review concepts of inverse functions, and to use those concepts, together with functions defined by integrals, to develop inverse trigonometric functions. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Moore, Lang; Smith, David

2010-05-05

156

Function or not a Function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After completing this activity, students will understand the definition of a function and use it to identify whether or not an input-output pairing represents a function. Step by step instructions guide students in using their graphing calculators to determine if a graph represents a function by using a moving vertical line. A worksheet and teacher notes aid in teaching this lesson.

2011-11-28

157

The buccinator during mastication: a functional and anatomical evaluation in minipigs  

PubMed Central

Objective The buccinator muscle forms the lateral wall of the oral cavity. It is presumed to aid mastication by maintaining bolus position. Such a function would involve thickening the cheek, possibly compressing the alveolar bone and contributing to malocclusions. However, neither buccinator deformation nor its effect on pressure has been demonstrated. Our objective was to evaluate buccinator EMG during feeding, its changes in length and thickness, and the pressure exerted on its alveolar attachment, using miniature pigs as an animal model. Methods EMG of the buccinator and other oral muscles was recorded with fine-wire electrodes. Anteroposterior length and mediolateral thickness of the buccinator were evaluated with implanted sonomicrometry crystals, and pressure was measured by flat transducers placed beneath the mandibular origin of the buccinator. Recordings were made during feeding and muscle stimulation. Tissues were collected postmortem for histology. Results During mastication, buccinator EMG showed regular peaks that preceded those of the jaw closers. Pattern differences clearly distinguished working and balancing sides. The buccinator shortened and thickened when it contracted. Positive pressures were observed at the mandibular attachment of the buccinator, increasing when the muscle was active. Histological evaluation showed a complex interweaving of fibers closely associated with salivary tissue. Conclusions Buccinator contraction does thicken the cheek, and during mastication this activity takes place just as the closing stroke begins. In addition to controlling the bolus, there may be an effect on salivation. Despite the fact that the muscle pulls on its attachment, the local mechanical environment at the alveolar bone is one of positive pressure. PMID:20621287

Dutra, Eliane H.; Caria, Paulo H. F.; Rafferty, Katherine L.; Herring, Susan W.

2010-01-01

158

Instrumented Functional Reach Test Differentiates Individuals at High Risk for Parkinson's Disease from Controls  

PubMed Central

The functional reach (FR) test as a complex measure of balance including limits of stability has been proven to differentiate between patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and controls (CO). Recently, it has been shown that the instrumentation of the FR (iFR) with a wearable sensor may increase this diagnostic accuracy. This cross-sectional study aimed at investigating whether the iFR has the potential to differentiate individuals with high risk for PD (HRPD) from CO, as the delineation of such individuals would allow for, e.g., early neuromodulation. Thirteen PD patients, 13 CO, and 31 HRPD were investigated. HRPD was defined by presence of an enlarged area of hyperechogenicity in the mesencephalon on transcranial sonography and either one motor sign or two risk and prodromal markers of PD. All participants were asked to reach with their right arm forward as far as possible and hold this position for 10?s. During this period, sway parameters were assessed with an accelerometer (Dynaport, McRoberts) worn at the lower back. Extracted parameters that differed significantly between PD patients and CO in our cohort [FR distance (shorter in PD), anterior–posterior and mediolateral acceleration (both lower in PD)] as well as JERK, which has been shown to differentiate HRPD from CO and PD in a previous study, were included in a model, which was then used to differentiate HRPD from CO. The model yielded an area under the curve of 0.77, with a specificity of 85%, and a sensitivity of 74%. These results suggest that the iFR can contribute to an assessment panel focusing on the definition of HRPD individuals. PMID:25386137

Hasmann, Sandra E.; Berg, Daniela; Hobert, Markus A.; Weiss, David; Lindemann, Ulrich; Streffer, Johannes; Liepelt-Scarfone, Inga; Maetzler, Walter

2014-01-01

159

Function Flyer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online tool, students input a function where the constants, coefficients, and exponents can be adjusted by slider bars. This tool allows students to explore graphs of functions and how adjusting the numbers in the function affect the graph. Using tabs at the top of the page you can also access supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Shodor

2012-03-28

160

Function Junction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity teaches students about function transformations using f(x)=x and f(x)=x^2. Step by step instructions show students how to use their graphing calculators to explore the functions. A worksheet is included to test understanding of the lesson.

2008-11-04

161

Function Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet allows learners to explore simple linear functions. Students determine the algebraic form of a linear equation by entering inputs into the machine and by looking for patterns in the outputs. The function rules available are: integers from -10 to 10 are either added to, subtracted from, or multiplied by the input x to yield the output y.

2011-01-01

162

Functions Grapher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Discussing functions can be a tricky endeavor, but having a handy interactive way to talk about functions can relieve a great deal of stress. As part of the Mathematical Sciences Digital Library, this Functions Grapher application is designed to let users enter one or two functions. After doing so, users can trace along either one with coordinates shown dynamically changing at all times. The application was created by Professor Barbara Kaskosz of the University of Rhode Island, and it can be used by students in algebra, pre-calculus, or calculus courses. Of course, educators may wish to use it in their classrooms for illustrative purposes and they can also pass along to students who might find the very idea of functions and their operation a bit puzzling.

Kaskosz, Barbara

163

Function Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java activity for the interactive white board (free access with registration) provides learners an opportunity to explore number functions and to predict outcomes. Teachers set the desired function from the drop-down list (double it, halve it, add 1, subtract 1, add 10, or subtract 10) and choose the start number from 1-20. Students are asked to predict the outcome before asking the machine to go. There is an option to hide the function so the teacher can ask students to work out what operation is being used to get from the starting number to the number generated.

2012-07-19

164

Rhinoplasty (Functional)  

MedlinePLUS

... types of anesthesia depending on patient and physician preference, including local, intravenous sedation (i.e. “twilight”) or ... nose depending on the procedure and the surgeon’s preference. Risks Studies have shown that most functional rhinoplasties ...

165

Linear Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this tutorial, "Linear functions of the form f(x) = ax + b and the properties of their graphs are explored interactively using an applet." The applet allows students to manipulate variables to discover the changes in intercepts and slope of the graphed line. There are six questions for students to answer, exploring the applet and observing changes. The questions' answers are included on this site. Additionally, a tutorial for graphing linear functions by hand is included.

Shodor

2012-03-29

166

Q-angle undervalued? The relationship between Q-angle and medio-lateral position of the patella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. For an accurate quadriceps angle measurement, the patella must be centralised in the femoral trochlear groove, numerous authors have described lateral displacement of the patella in patellofemoral pain patients, this leads to the intriguing possibility that the Q-angle might be undervalued within patellofemoral pain patients who have laterally displaced patella.Method. 109 asymptomatic subjects (51 male, 58 female) were assessed.

Lee Herrington; Chris Nester

2004-01-01

167

The evolutionary continuum of limb function from early theropods to birds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bipedal stance and gait of theropod dinosaurs evolved gradually along the lineage leading to birds and at some point(s), flight evolved. How and when did these changes occur? We review the evidence from neontology and palaeontology, including pectoral and pelvic limb functional morphology, fossil footprints/trackways and biomechanical models and simulations. We emphasise that many false dichotomies or categories have been applied to theropod form and function, and sometimes, these impede research progress. For example, dichotomisation of locomotor function into ‘non-avian’ and ‘avian’ modes is only a conceptual crutch; the evidence supports a continuous transition. Simplification of pelvic limb function into cursorial/non-cursorial morphologies or flexed/columnar poses has outlived its utility. For the pectoral limbs, even the classic predatory strike vs. flight wing-stroke distinction and separation of theropods into non-flying and flying—or terrestrial and arboreal—categories may be missing important subtleties. Distinguishing locomotor function between taxa, even with quantitative approaches, will always be fraught with ambiguity, making it difficult to find real differences if that ambiguity is properly acknowledged. There must be an ‘interpretive asymptote’ for reconstructing dinosaur limb function that available methods and evidence cannot overcome. We may be close to that limit, but how far can it be stretched with improved methods and evidence, if at all? The way forward is a combination of techniques that emphasises integration of neontological and palaeontological evidence and quantitative assessment of limb function cautiously applied with validated techniques and sensitivity analysis of unknown variables.

Hutchinson, John R.; Allen, Vivian

2009-04-01

168

The evolutionary continuum of limb function from early theropods to birds.  

PubMed

The bipedal stance and gait of theropod dinosaurs evolved gradually along the lineage leading to birds and at some point(s), flight evolved. How and when did these changes occur? We review the evidence from neontology and paleontology, including pectoral and pelvic limb functional morphology, fossil footprints/trackways and biomechanical models and simulations. We emphasise that many false dichotomies or categories have been applied to theropod form and function, and sometimes, these impede research progress. For example, dichotomisation of locomotor function into 'non-avian' and 'avian' modes is only a conceptual crutch; the evidence supports a continuous transition. Simplification of pelvic limb function into cursorial/non-cursorial morphologies or flexed/columnar poses has outlived its utility. For the pectoral limbs, even the classic predatory strike vs. flight wing-stroke distinction and separation of theropods into non-flying and flying--or terrestrial and arboreal--categories may be missing important subtleties. Distinguishing locomotor function between taxa, even with quantitative approaches, will always be fraught with ambiguity, making it difficult to find real differences if that ambiguity is properly acknowledged. There must be an 'interpretive asymptote' for reconstructing dinosaur limb function that available methods and evidence cannot overcome. We may be close to that limit, but how far can it be stretched with improved methods and evidence, if at all? The way forward is a combination of techniques that emphasises integration of neontological and paleontological evidence and quantitative assessment of limb function cautiously applied with validated techniques and sensitivity analysis of unknown variables. PMID:19107456

Hutchinson, John R; Allen, Vivian

2009-04-01

169

Inverse Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students use log tapes and base-two slide rules as references to graph exponential functions and log functions in base-10 and base-2. Students discover that exponential and log functions are inverse, reflecting across the y = x axis as mirror images. This is activity E2 in the "Far Out Math" educator's guide. Lessons in the guide include activities in which students measure, compare quantities as orders of magnitude, become familiar with scientific notation, and develop an understanding of exponents and logarithms using examples from NASA's GLAST mission. These are skills needed to understand the very large and very small quantities characteristic of astronomical observations. Note: In 2008, the GLAST mission was renamed Fermi, for the physicist Enrico Fermi.

170

Functions and Models: New Functions from Old Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Match the graph of a transformation of a function with its equation representation;Determine the domain of a combination of functions from the domains of the original functions;Express a given function as the nontrivial composition of two or more elementary functions;Graph a given function by applying appropriate transformations to elementary functions

Freeze, Michael

2003-01-22

171

Function Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two-dimensional (x,y) functions: linear (slope-intercept, point-slope, and general forms), polynomial (definition, roots, graphs), and exponential (definition, exponential growth, radioactive decay, money matters - simple, compound, and continuous interest, effective annual rate, ordinary annuity, and loans). From the Mathematics area of Zona Land: Education in Physics and Mathematics.

Zobel, Edward A.

2008-09-19

172

Functional hyposplenism  

PubMed Central

Abstract Functional hyposplenism is a condition accompanying many diseases such as sickle cell disease, celiac disease, alcoholic liver disease, hepatic cirrhosis, lymphomas and autoimmune disorders. It is characterised mostly by defective immune responses against infectious agents, especially encapsulated organisms, since the spleen is thought to play an important role in the production and maturation of B-memory lymphocytes and other substances like opsonins, both of which are considered crucial elements of the immune system for fighting infections. It is also associated with thrombocytosis, which might lead to thromboembolic events. Functional hyposplenism is diagnosed by the presence of Howell-Jolly bodies and pitted erythrocytes in the peripheral blood smear, and by nuclear imaging modalities such as spleen scintigraphy with the use of Technetium-99m and/or spleen scintigraphy with the use of heat-damaged Technetium-99m labeled erythrocytes. Severe infections accompanying functional hyposplenism can lead to the overwhelming post infection syndrome, which can often be fatal. Identifying patients with functional hyposplenism is important because simple measures such as vaccination against common infective microorganisms (e.g. Streptococcus pneumonia, Neisseria meningitides and Haemophilous influenzae) and antibiotic therapy when needed are considered beneficial in diminishing the frequency and gravity of the infections accompanying the syndrome. PMID:25125944

Kirkineska, L; Perifanis, V; Vasiliadis, T

2014-01-01

173

Functional heartburn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Functional heartburn (FH) is a common disorder that accounts for 30% to 50% of the patients with nonerosive reflux disease.\\u000a FH is composed from a heterogeneous group of patients. They primarily include the hypersensitive and the nonacid sensitive\\u000a esophagus. The mechanisms responsible for pain, clinical characteristics, and the optimal therapeutic approach of FH remain\\u000a to be fully elucidated. Symptom

Ram Dickman; Ronnie Fass

2005-01-01

174

The dual functions of the extreme N-terminus of TDP-43 in regulating its biological activity and inclusion formation  

PubMed Central

TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is the principal component of ubiquitinated inclusions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the most common pathological subtype of frontotemporal dementia—frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43-positive inclusions (FTLD-TDP). To date, the C-terminus of TDP-43, which is aggregation-prone and contains almost all ALS-associated mutations, has garnered much attention while the functions of the N-terminus of TDP-43 remain largely unknown. To bridge this gap in our knowledge, we utilized novel cell culture and computer-assisted models to evaluate which region(s) of TDP-43 regulate its folding, self-interaction, biological activity and aggregation. We determined that the extreme N-terminus of TDP-43, specifically the first 10 residues, regulates folding of TDP-43 monomers necessary for proper homodimerization and TDP-43-regulated splicing. Despite such beneficial functions, we discovered an interesting dichotomy: full-length TDP-43 aggregation, which is believed to be a pathogenic process, also requires the extreme N-terminus of TDP-43. As such, we provide new insight into the structural basis for TDP-43 function and aggregation, and we suggest that stabilization of TDP-43 homodimers, the physiologically active form of TDP-43, may be a promising therapeutic strategy for ALS and FTLD-TDP. PMID:23575225

Zhang, Yong-Jie; Caulfield, Thomas; Xu, Ya-Fei; Gendron, Tania F.; Hubbard, Jaime; Stetler, Caroline; Sasaguri, Hiroki; Whitelaw, Ena C.; Cai, Shuyi; Lee, Wing Cheung; Petrucelli, Leonard

2013-01-01

175

Comprehensive functional annotation of 18 missense mutations found in suspected hemochromatosis type 4 patients.  

PubMed

Hemochromatosis type 4 is a rare form of primary iron overload transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait caused by mutations in the gene encoding the iron transport protein ferroportin 1 (SLC40A1). SLC40A1 mutations fall into two functional categories (loss- versus gain-of-function) underlying two distinct clinical entities (hemochromatosis type 4A versus type 4B). However, the vast majority of SLC40A1 mutations are rare missense variations, with only a few showing strong evidence of causality. The present study reports the results of an integrated approach collecting genetic and phenotypic data from 44 suspected hemochromatosis type 4 patients, with comprehensive structural and functional annotations. Causality was demonstrated for 10 missense variants, showing a clear dichotomy between the two hemochromatosis type 4 subtypes. Two subgroups of loss-of-function mutations were distinguished: one impairing cell-surface expression and one altering only iron egress. Additionally, a new gain-of-function mutation was identified, and the degradation of ferroportin on hepcidin binding was shown to probably depend on the integrity of a large extracellular loop outside of the hepcidin-binding domain. Eight further missense variations, on the other hand, were shown to have no discernible effects at either protein or RNA level; these were found in apparently isolated patients and were associated with a less severe phenotype. The present findings illustrate the importance of combining in silico and biochemical approaches to fully distinguish pathogenic SLC40A1 mutations from benign variants. This has profound implications for patient management. PMID:24714983

Callebaut, Isabelle; Joubrel, Rozenn; Pissard, Serge; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Gérolami, Victoria; Ged, Cécile; Cadet, Estelle; Cartault, François; Ka, Chandran; Gourlaouen, Isabelle; Gourhant, Lénaick; Oudin, Claire; Goossens, Michel; Grandchamp, Bernard; De Verneuil, Hubert; Rochette, Jacques; Férec, Claude; Le Gac, Gérald

2014-09-01

176

The complexity of approximating complex-valued Ising and Tutte partition functions with applications to quantum simulation  

E-print Network

We study the complexity of approximating the Ising and Tutte partition functions with complex parameters. Our results are motivated by the study of the quantum complexity classes BQP and IQP. Recent results show how to encode quantum computations as partition functions. These results rely on interesting and deep results about quantum computation in order to obtain hardness results about the difficulty of (classically) evaluating the partition functions. The main motivation for this paper is to go the other way around. Partition functions are combinatorial in nature and classifying the difficulty of approximating these partition functions does not require a detailed understanding of quantum computation. Using combinatorial arguments, we give the first full classification of the complexity of multiplicatively approximating the norm of the partition function for complex edge interactions. We also give the first classification of the complexity of additively approximating the argument of the partition function. Using our classifications, we then revisit the connections to quantum computation, drawing conclusions that are different from (and incomparable to) the results in the quantum complexity literature. We show that strong simulation of IQP within any constant factor is #P-hard, even for the restricted class of circuits studied by Bremner et al. We also show that computing the sign of the Tutte polynomial is #P-hard at a certain point related to the simulation of BQP. Finally, motivated by further BQP-hardness results, we study the problem of approximating the norm of the Ising partition function in the presence of external fields. We give a complete dichotomy for the case where the parameters are roots of unity. Previous results were known just for a few such points, and we strengthen them from BQP-hardness to #P-hardness.

Leslie Ann Goldberg; Heng Guo

2014-09-19

177

The maize duplicate genes narrow sheath1 and narrow sheath2 encode a conserved homeobox gene function in a lateral domain of shoot apical meristems.  

PubMed

The narrow sheath (ns) phenotype of maize is a duplicate factor trait conferred by mutations at the unlinked loci ns1 and ns2. Recessive mutations at each locus together confer the phenotypic deletion of a lateral compartment in maize leaves and leaf homologs. Previous analyses revealed that the mediolateral axis of maize leaves is comprised of at least two distinct compartments, and suggest a model whereby NS function is required to recruit leaf founder cells from a lateral compartment of maize meristems. Genomic clones of two maize homeodomain-encoding genes were isolated by homology to the WUSCHEL-related gene PRESSED FLOWER (PRS). PRS is required for lateral sepal development in Arabidopsis, although no leaf phenotype is reported. Co-segregation of the ns phenotype with multiple mutant alleles of two maize PRS homologs confirms their allelism to ns1 and ns2. Analyses of NS protein accumulation verify that the ns-R mutations are null alleles. ns transcripts are detected in two lateral foci within maize meristems, and in the margins of lateral organ primordia. Whereas ns1 and ns2 transcripts accumulate to equivalent levels in shoot meristems of vegetative seedlings, ns2 transcripts predominate in female inflorescences. Previously undiscovered phenotypes in the pressed flower mutant support a model whereby the morphology of eudicot leaves and monocot grass leaves has evolved via the differential elaboration of upper versus lower leaf zones. A model implicating an evolutionarily conserved NS/PRS function during recruitment of organ founder cells from a lateral domain of plant meristems is discussed. PMID:15169755

Nardmann, Judith; Ji, Jiabing; Werr, Wolfgang; Scanlon, Michael J

2004-06-01

178

Dialectics Instead of Dichotomy: Perspectives on the Twin Ambitions Movement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the mobilizing work of a disability organization, at the local chapter level. I have spent about a year following the work of a chapter, mainly through contacts, conversations and interviews with the persons who are active on its board. The analysis of the chapter's work takes as its starting point two traditions that…

Eriksson, Lisbeth

2013-01-01

179

Camouflage and BIFF: a dichotomy of desired target signatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of a Battlefield Identification Friend/Foe-System (BIFF) is to make targets identifiable to the friend, the objective of camouflage is to make targets less conspicuous to the enemy. In the IR-spectral range these conflicting requirements can be met simultaneously to some extent by using material with variable radiance levels. The presentation addresses: (1) the different requirements posed by camouflage and BIFF, (2) the method of controllable energy radiation, (3) the approach to the solution of the camouflage and BIFF conflict, and (4) the limitation of the approach.

Heuel, Melnolf A.

1995-06-01

180

The dichotomy of relative humidity on indoor air quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry and irritated mucous membranes of the eyes and airways are common symptoms reported in office-like environments. Earlier studies suggested that indoor pollutants were responsible. We have re-evaluated, by review of the literature, how low relative humidity (RH) may influence the immediately perceived indoor air quality (IAQ), including odour, and cause irritation symptoms (i.e. longer-term perceived IAQ). “Relative humidity” were

Peder Wolkoff; Søren K. Kjærgaard

2007-01-01

181

Martian dichotomy formation by partial melting coupled to early  

E-print Network

Nimmo et al. 2008 axisymmetric hydrocode modeling 12Wednesday, April 13, 2011 #12;Objections to giant energies (Nimmo vs Marinova) · misfit between impact location (Nimmo vs Andrews-Hanna) 13Wednesday, April

Cerveny, Vlastislav

182

Educating Moral Emotions or Moral Selves: A False Dichotomy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the post-Kohlbergian era of moral education, a "moral gap" has been identified between moral cognition and moral action. Contemporary moral psychologists lock horns over how this gap might be bridged. The two main contenders for such bridge-building are moral emotions and moral selves. I explore these two options from an Aristotelian…

Kristjansson, Kristjan

2010-01-01

183

The dichotomy of pathogens and allergens in vaccination approaches  

PubMed Central

Traditional prophylactic vaccination to prevent illness is the primary objective of many research activities worldwide. The golden age of vaccination began with an approach called variolation in ancient China and the evolution of vaccines still continues today with modern developments such as the production of GardasilTM against HPV and cervical cancer. The historical aspect of how different forms of vaccination have changed the face of medicine and communities is important as it dictates our future approaches on both a local and global scale. From the eradication of smallpox to the use of an experimental vaccine to save a species, this review will explore these successes in infectious disease vaccination and also discuss a few significant failures which have hampered our efforts to eradicate certain diseases. The second part of the review will explore designing a prophylactic vaccine for the growing global health concern that is allergy. Allergies are an emerging global health burden. Of particular concern is the rise of food allergies in developed countries where 1 in 10 children is currently affected. The formation of an allergic response results from the recognition of a foreign component by our immune system that is usually encountered on a regular basis. This may be a dust-mite or a prawn but this inappropriate immune response can result in a life-time of food avoidance and lifestyle restrictions. These foreign components are very similar to antigens derived from infectious pathogens. The question arises: should the allergy community be focussing on protective measures rather than ongoing therapeutic interventions to deal with these chronic inflammatory conditions? We will explore the difficulties and benefits of prophylactic vaccination against various allergens by means of genetic technology that will dictate how vaccination against allergens could be utilized in the near future. PMID:25076945

Baird, Fiona J.; Lopata, Andreas L.

2014-01-01

184

Kalela, Beni, Asafo, Ingoma and the rural-urban dichotomy.  

PubMed

The author provides a critical examination of the arguments and support for conclusions in "copperbelt writings" about the urban Kalela dance and the relationship to urban and rural differences. There is a critical discussion of relationships between the dance forms: the kalela, asafo, beni, and ingoma. The origins of the dance are traced to the rural Beni in the writings of Mitchel, however Ranger's treatise on the Beni in east Africa indicates a locally quite distinct tradition associated with Swahili dance associations in towns. The author finds strong parallels between the Beni and Swahili dance associations and derivation from the Akan asafo companies. It is suggested that both east and west African dances reflected a European impact and the fundamental values of African people as well as a form of entertainment. It was a public display of progress and skill. The spread of the Swahili Beni between the 2 World Wars was complex and varied, but the form conformed well to rural villages which traditionally competed against each other. The Mitchel assertion that the costumes which imitated the uniforms of colonial civil and military hierarchy allowed vicarious participation in social relationships which they were excluded from is refuted. It is suggested by the author and Ranger that African dancers were asserting as traditional their individual and collective status and prestige in their own society and the costumes were the new fashion. The change to modern dress is though by Mitchell to reflect similarly a fictitious upward mobility and urban influence, and is considered to be unsubstantiated by the lower class population assuming the behavior. The author views the behavior as directed to unskilled, uneducated migrant workers groups which included them and provided a strong link to their rural homes and children. In dispute is also the Mitchell interpretation of lyrics to the songs which the author finds reflect rural themes and influences as well. It is recognized that there were new urban references. The Kalela dance is considered by the author to be an example of the encapsulation of rural migrants within an urban environment. This view is reflected in Mayer's Townsmen and Tribemen and the writings of H.J. Thomas on the ingoma dance groups of Durban, which also reflected lyrics pertained to rural life. The songs are a traditional, spontaneous, unsolicited testimony to rural life. PMID:12285291

Argyle, J

1991-01-01

185

Women and the Dichotomy of Literacy: Public/Private Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By viewing women's literacy within the context of America from the Colonial period until the present, it is clear that men have traditionally shaped and controlled who shall be literate and what shall be viewed as literate, both within and outside the educational system. Women's writing from the Colonial period is virtually non-existent, and…

McGann, Patrick

186

The dichotomy of Seyfert 2 galaxies: intrinsic differences and evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of the local environment (?200 h-1 kpc) of 31 hidden broad line region (HBLR) and 43 non-HBLR Seyfert 2 (Sy2) galaxies in the nearby universe (z ? 0.04). To compare our findings, we constructed two control samples that match the redshift and the morphological type distribution of the HBLR and non-HBLR samples. We used the NASA Extragalactic Database (NED) to find all neighboring galaxies within a projected radius of 200 h-1 kpc around each galaxy, and a radial velocity difference ?u ? 500 km s-1. Using the digitized Schmidt survey plates (DSS) and/or the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), when available, we confirmed that our sample of Seyfert companions is complete. We find that, within a projected radius of at least 150 h-1 kpc around each Seyfert, the fraction of non-HBLR Sy2 galaxies with a close companion is significantly higher than that of their control sample, at the 96% confidence level. Interestingly, the difference is due to the high frequency of mergers in the non-HBLR sample, seven versus only one in the control sample, while they also present a high number of hosts with signs of peculiar morphology. In sharp contrast, the HBLR sample is consistent with its control sample. Furthermore, the number of the HBLR host galaxies that present peculiar morphology, which probably implies some level of interactions or merging in the past, is the lowest in all four galaxy samples. Given that the HBLR Sy2 galaxies are essentially Seyfert 1 (Sy1) with their broad line region (BLR) hidden because of the obscuring torus, while the non-HBLR Sy2 galaxies probably also include true Sy2s that lack the BLR as well as heavily obscured objects that prevent even the indirect detection of the BLR, our results are discussed within the context of an evolutionary sequence of activity triggered by close galaxy interactions and merging. We argue that the non-HBLR Sy2 galaxies may represent different stages of this sequence, possibly the beginning and the end of the nuclear activity.

Koulouridis, E.

2014-10-01

187

Isotope Analysis Reveals Foraging Area Dichotomy for Atlantic Leatherback Turtles  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) has undergone a dramatic decline over the last 25 years, and this is believed to be primarily the result of mortality associated with fisheries bycatch followed by egg and nesting female harvest. Atlantic leatherback turtles undertake long migrations across ocean basins from subtropical and tropical nesting beaches to productive frontal areas. Migration between two nesting

Stéphane Caut; Elodie Guirlet; Elena Angulo; Krishna Das; Marc Girondot; Michael Somers

2008-01-01

188

Wednesday, March 14, 2007 MARS TECTONICS AND CRUSTAL DICHOTOMY  

E-print Network

. * Murray J. B. van Wyk de Vries B. Troll V. R. Flank Terrace Architecture of Martian Shield Volcanoes montes volcano chain and its associated country rocks around the Pavonis Mons. 9:45 a.m. Byrne P. K

Rathbun, Julie A.

189

A Magnetic Perspective on the Martian Crustal Dichotomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has completed two Mars years in nearly circular polar orbit at a nominal altitude of 400 km. The Mars crust is at least an order of magnitude more intensely magnetized than that of the Earth, and intriguing in both its global distribution and geometric properties. Measurements of the vector magnetic field have been used to map the magnetic field of crustal origin to high accuracy. This most recent map is assembled from > 2 full years of MGS night-side observations, and uses along-track filtering to greatly reduce noise due to external field variations. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.; Reme, H.

2004-01-01

190

TOWARDS A DICHOTOMY OF THE ENERGY SECTOR IN FINLAND?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarises the results from four studies on the potential of renewable energy sources (RES) and one study on the economic feasibility of distributed renewable energy production, in Finland. A major part of Finnish rural areas could be self-sufficient in energy production. The theoretical energy content consists of logging residues, straw, reed canary grass (potential on fallowed grounds) and

Pekka Peura; Timo Hyttinen

191

Particle-wave duality: a dichotomy between symmetry and asymmetry  

E-print Network

Symmetry plays a central role in many areas of modern physics. Here we show that it also underpins the dual particle and wave nature of quantum systems. We begin by noting that a classical point particle breaks translational symmetry whereas a wave with uniform amplitude does not. This provides a basis for associating particle nature with asymmetry and wave nature with symmetry. We derive expressions for the maximum amount of classical information we can have about the symmetry and asymmetry of a quantum system with respect to an arbitrary group. We find that the sum of the information about the symmetry (wave nature) and the asymmetry (particle nature) is bounded by log(D) where D is the dimension of the Hilbert space. The combination of multiple systems is shown to exhibit greater symmetry and thus more wavelike character. In particular, a class of entangled systems is shown to be capable of exhibiting wave-like symmetry as a whole while exhibiting particle-like asymmetry internally. We also show that superdense coding can be viewed as being essentially an interference phenomenon involving wave-like symmetry with respect to the group of Pauli operators.

Joan A. Vaccaro

2011-04-30

192

Localising News: Translation and the "Global-National" Dichotomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to the peculiar nature of news texts, the adoption of a theory of "localisation" rather than conventional translation theories accounts more easily for both the commercial nature and the global scale of news distribution. News texts are global products which are distributed through a localisation process involving not only reception by locales…

Orengo, Alberto

2005-01-01

193

Isotope Analysis Reveals Foraging Area Dichotomy for Atlantic Leatherback Turtles  

PubMed Central

Background The leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) has undergone a dramatic decline over the last 25 years, and this is believed to be primarily the result of mortality associated with fisheries bycatch followed by egg and nesting female harvest. Atlantic leatherback turtles undertake long migrations across ocean basins from subtropical and tropical nesting beaches to productive frontal areas. Migration between two nesting seasons can last 2 or 3 years, a time period termed the remigration interval (RI). Recent satellite transmitter data revealed that Atlantic leatherbacks follow two major dispersion patterns after nesting season, through the North Gulf Stream area or more eastward across the North Equatorial Current. However, information on the whole RI is lacking, precluding the accurate identification of feeding areas where conservation measures may need to be applied. Methodology/Principal Findings Using stable isotopes as dietary tracers we determined the characteristics of feeding grounds of leatherback females nesting in French Guiana. During migration, 3-year RI females differed from 2-year RI females in their isotope values, implying differences in their choice of feeding habitats (offshore vs. more coastal) and foraging latitude (North Atlantic vs. West African coasts, respectively). Egg-yolk and blood isotope values are correlated in nesting females, indicating that egg analysis is a useful tool for assessing isotope values in these turtles, including adults when not available. Conclusions/Significance Our results complement previous data on turtle movements during the first year following the nesting season, integrating the diet consumed during the year before nesting. We suggest that the French Guiana leatherback population segregates into two distinct isotopic groupings, and highlight the urgent need to determine the feeding habitats of the turtle in the Atlantic in order to protect this species from incidental take by commercial fisheries. Our results also emphasize the use of eggs, a less-invasive sampling material than blood, to assess isotopic data and feeding habits for adult female leatherbacks. PMID:18365003

Angulo, Elena; Das, Krishna; Girondot, Marc

2008-01-01

194

Isotope Analysis Reveals Foraging Area Dichotomy for Atlantic Leatherback Turtles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) has undergone a dramatic decline over the last 25 years, and this is believed to be primarily the result of mortality associated with fisheries bycatch followed by egg and nesting female harvest. Atlantic leatherback turtles undertake long migrations across ocean basins from subtropical and tropical nesting beaches to productive frontal areas. Migration between two

Stéphane Caut; Elodie Guirlet; Elena Angulo; Krishna Das; Marc Girondot

2008-01-01

195

A Dichotomy Theorem for the General Minimum Cost Homomorphism Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the constraint satisfaction problem ($CSP$), the aim is to find an\\u000aassignment of values to a set of variables subject to specified constraints. In\\u000athe minimum cost homomorphism problem ($MinHom$), one is additionally given\\u000aweights $c_{va}$ for every variable $v$ and value $a$, and the aim is to find\\u000aan assignment $f$ to the variables that minimizes $\\\\sum_{v} c_{vf(v)}$.

Rustem S. Takhanov

2010-01-01

196

A Dichotomy Theorem for General Minimum Cost Homomorphism Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the constraint satisfaction problem ($CSP$), the aim is to find an assignment of values to a set of variables subject to specified constraints. In the minimum cost homomorphism problem ($MinHom$), one is additionally given weights $c_{va}$ for every variable $v$ and value $a$, and the aim is to find an assignment $f$ to the variables that minimizes $\\\\sum_{v} c_{vf(v)}$.

Rustem Takhanov

2007-01-01

197

Parents Studying Medicine - the dichotomy of studying with a family  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In this article the personal study and life situation of parents who are also medical students at the Medical School of the Goethe University Frankfurt am Main is discussed. There is a special focus on the topics “studying with children” and “family-friendly university”, which have been present in discussions about university development and in the daily life of academics, especially during the last decade. The workgroup “Individual Student Services” at the medical faculty at the Goethe University tries to meet the necessities of the individual study courses and to support the study success with a new counselling and student service concept. Methods: The experience of parents studying medicine was recorded in semi-structured interviews (Date: April 2010), which were held as part of the sponsored pilot project on part-time medical studies (“Pilot Project Part-time Medical Studies”). Additionally, study results from the Medical School of the Goethe University Frankfurt am Main were integrated as well as a literature analysis. Results: It was found that the teaching demands and support services, which have been suggested and needed for years now, have been partially implemented and are without sufficient support at the faculty level to date. Thus the current situation of medical students with children is still difficult and seems a big challenge for everyone involved. Solution: As part of the “Individual Student Services” a new pilot project on part-time medical studies was established in November 2009. Only the use of new, unconventional and innovative ideas allows universities to adequately support the changing and heterogeneous student population and support them to successfully completing their medical studies. PMID:22558026

Iden, Kirstin; Nurnberger, Frank; Sader, Robert; Dittrich, Winand

2012-01-01

198

Executive Functions  

PubMed Central

Executive functions (EFs) make possible mentally playing with ideas; taking the time to think before acting; meeting novel, unanticipated challenges; resisting temptations; and staying focused. Core EFs are inhibition [response inhibition (self-control—resisting temptations and resisting acting impulsively) and interference control (selective attention and cognitive inhibition)], working memory, and cognitive flexibility (including creatively thinking “outside the box,” seeing anything from different perspectives, and quickly and flexibly adapting to changed circumstances). The developmental progression and representative measures of each are discussed. Controversies are addressed (e.g., the relation between EFs and fluid intelligence, self-regulation, executive attention, and effortful control, and the relation between working memory and inhibition and attention). The importance of social, emotional, and physical health for cognitive health is discussed because stress, lack of sleep, loneliness, or lack of exercise each impair EFs. That EFs are trainable and can be improved with practice is addressed, including diverse methods tried thus far. PMID:23020641

Diamond, Adele

2014-01-01

199

Wetland Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource explains a number of critical functions performed by wetlands. Students will discover that wetlands moderate impacts from flooding, control erosion, purify water, and provide habitat for fish and wildlife. They also provide a unique natural environment for people to enjoy outdoor recreation activities. It is part of a module that aims to help students get to know the complexities of wetlands, discover wildlife, enjoy the experience of being outdoors, and learn how necessary wetlands are to the health of our environment. Although it is about wetlands in New England for educators and their middle school students, it suggests ways to study wetland characteristics, why wetlands are important, and how students and teachers can help protect a local wetland in any part of the country. An associated set of activities is also available.

200

Pregnancy and Liver Function  

MedlinePLUS

... Liver Function Liver Fast Facts: Pregnancy and Liver Function | Pregnancy and Liver Function How does pregnancy affect the liver? Pregnancy has ... liver. There are no significant changes in liver function during pregnancy, but some markers of liver function ...

201

Functions and Models: Inverse Functions and Logarithms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Determine whether a given function is one-to-one from its graph;Find the formula for the inverse of a given function;Translate between logarithmic and exponential expressions;Solve equations involving exponential and logarithmic functions

Freeze, Michael

2003-01-22

202

Assessing Function and Functional Outcome in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The diagnosis of schizophrenia can only be made in the presence of a loss of functioning in domains such as employment, independent\\u000a living, and social functioning. Accurately measuring functioning is central to research on the course of the disorder, treatment\\u000a and rehabilitation outcomes, and biosocial factors in schizophrenia. Assessments of functional disability have described three\\u000a dimensions of functioning: functional capacity,

Elizabeth Bromley; John S. Brekke

203

Single-trial classification of parallel pre-attentive and serial attentive processes using functional magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed Central

Theories of perception have proposed a basic distinction between parallel pre-attentive and serial attentive modes of processing. However, chronometric measures are often ambiguous in separating parallel and serial processes. We have used the activity of attention-related regions of the human brain, measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging, to separate parallel from serial processes at the single-trial level in a visual quantification task. In this task, some have suggested the deployment of two qualitatively different processes, a fast parallel 'subitizing' for sets of one, two or three objects and a slow serial counting for larger sets. Our results indicate that attention-related regions of the posterior parietal and frontal cortices show a sudden increase in activity only from numerosity four onwards, confirming the parallel-serial dichotomy of subitizing and counting. Moreover, using the presence or absence of attentional shifts, as inferred from the activation of posterior parietal regions, we successfully predict whether, on a given trial, subjects deployed a serial exploration of the display or a parallel apprehension. Beyond the subitizing/counting debate, this approach may prove useful to probe the attentional demands of other cognitive tasks. PMID:12816636

Piazza, Manuela; Giacomini, Eric; Le Bihan, Denis; Dehaene, Stanislas

2003-01-01

204

Affine Stanley symmetric functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define a new family of symmetric functions which are affine analogues of Stanley symmetric functions. We establish basic properties of these functions including symmetry, dominance and conjugation. We conjecture certain positivity properties in terms of a subfamily of symmetric functions called affine Schur functions. As applications, we show how affine Stanley symmetric functions generalise the (dual of the) $k$-Schur

Thomas Lam

2005-01-01

205

Functional Microorganisms for Functional Food Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional microorganisms and health benefits represent a binomial with great potential for fermented functional foods. The health benefits of fermented functional foods are expressed either directly through the interactions of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as the result of the ingestion of microbial metabolites synthesized during fermentation (biogenic effect). Since the importance of high viability

M. Gobbetti; R. Di Cagno; M. De Angelis

2010-01-01

206

Functional Notations and Terminology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This mathematics tutorial gives users an introduction to functions, functional notation and terminology. The site explains how a function is defined, and the correct way to read and write functional notation. Resources for addition, subtraction and multiplication of functions are also provided on this site. The âÂÂExamples of Functionsâ section is very useful for understanding the applications of functional theory learned in the previous sections.

Bogomolny, Alexander

2007-06-29

207

Symmetric Density Functionals  

E-print Network

Variations in distinct restricted spaces of wave functions generate distinct density functionals. In particular, angular momentum projected Slater determinants define a new density functional, compatible simultaneously with angular momentum quantum number and mean field descriptions.

B. G. Giraud

2005-07-13

208

Test-retest reliability [corrected] of center of pressure measures of postural stability during quiet standing in a group with musculoskeletal disorders consisting of low back pain, anterior cruciate ligament injury and functional ankle instability.  

PubMed

Reliability is a population-specific property, but to the authors' knowledge there has been no study to determine the test-retest reliability of the postural stability measures such as center of pressure (COP) measures in the population of patients with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), while their clinical applications have been presented in literature. So, 33 patients with low back pain (LBP), anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and functional ankle instability (FAI) randomly completed postural measurements with three levels of difficulty (rigid surface-eyes open, rigid surface-eyes closed, and foam surface-eyes closed) in two sessions. COP data were used to calculate standard deviation of amplitude, standard deviation of velocity, phase plane portrait, mean total velocity and area (95% confidence ellipse). Relative reliability of these measures was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and absolute reliability using standard error of measurement (SEM) and coefficient of variation (CV). Also, minimal metrically detectable change (MMDC) was calculated to quantify intervention effects. Among different COP parameters, mean total velocity in all conditions of postural difficulty showed high to very high reliability, with ICC range of 0.74-0.91, SEM range of 0.09-0.40cm/s, CV range of 5.31-8.29% and MMDC range of 0.19-0.79cm/s. Phase plane portrait in anteroposterior-mediolateral (AP-ML) and ML direction were other best parameters with respect to the level of reliability. Mean total velocity and phase plane portrait parameters are suggested as good candidates to use for quantification and assessment of balance performance and identifying those with MSDs. PMID:19167891

Salavati, Mahyar; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Mazaheri, Masood; Negahban, Hossein; Ebrahimi, Ismaeil; Talebian, Saeed; Jafari, Amir Homayoun; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali; Sohani, Soheil Mansour; Parnianpour, Mohamad

2009-04-01

209

The development of vestibular system and related functions in mammals: impact of gravity  

PubMed Central

This chapter reviews the knowledge about the adaptation to Earth gravity during the development of mammals. The impact of early exposure to altered gravity is evaluated at the level of the functions related to the vestibular system, including postural control, homeostatic regulation, and spatial memory. The hypothesis of critical periods in the adaptation to gravity is discussed. Demonstrating a critical period requires removing the gravity stimulus during delimited time windows, what is impossible to do on Earth surface. The surgical destruction of the vestibular apparatus, and the use of mice strains with defective graviceptors have provided useful information on the consequences of missing gravity perception, and the possible compensatory mechanisms, but transitory suppression of the stimulus can only be operated during spatial flight. The rare studies on rat pups housed on board of space shuttle significantly contributed to this problem, but the use of hypergravity environment, produced by means of chronic centrifugation, is the only available tool when repeated experiments must be carried out on Earth. Even though hypergravity is sometimes considered as a mirror situation to microgravity, the two situations cannot be confused because a gravitational force is still present. The theoretical considerations that validate the paradigm of hypergravity to evaluate critical periods are discussed. The question of adaption of graviceptor is questioned from an evolutionary point of view. It is possible that graviception is hardwired, because life on Earth has evolved under the constant pressure of gravity. The rapid acquisition of motor programming by precocial mammals in minutes after birth is consistent with this hypothesis, but the slow development of motor skills in altricial species and the plasticity of vestibular perception in adults suggest that gravity experience is required for the tuning of graviceptors. The possible reasons for this dichotomy are discussed. PMID:24570658

Jamon, Marc

2013-01-01

210

The development of vestibular system and related functions in mammals: impact of gravity.  

PubMed

This chapter reviews the knowledge about the adaptation to Earth gravity during the development of mammals. The impact of early exposure to altered gravity is evaluated at the level of the functions related to the vestibular system, including postural control, homeostatic regulation, and spatial memory. The hypothesis of critical periods in the adaptation to gravity is discussed. Demonstrating a critical period requires removing the gravity stimulus during delimited time windows, what is impossible to do on Earth surface. The surgical destruction of the vestibular apparatus, and the use of mice strains with defective graviceptors have provided useful information on the consequences of missing gravity perception, and the possible compensatory mechanisms, but transitory suppression of the stimulus can only be operated during spatial flight. The rare studies on rat pups housed on board of space shuttle significantly contributed to this problem, but the use of hypergravity environment, produced by means of chronic centrifugation, is the only available tool when repeated experiments must be carried out on Earth. Even though hypergravity is sometimes considered as a mirror situation to microgravity, the two situations cannot be confused because a gravitational force is still present. The theoretical considerations that validate the paradigm of hypergravity to evaluate critical periods are discussed. The question of adaption of graviceptor is questioned from an evolutionary point of view. It is possible that graviception is hardwired, because life on Earth has evolved under the constant pressure of gravity. The rapid acquisition of motor programming by precocial mammals in minutes after birth is consistent with this hypothesis, but the slow development of motor skills in altricial species and the plasticity of vestibular perception in adults suggest that gravity experience is required for the tuning of graviceptors. The possible reasons for this dichotomy are discussed. PMID:24570658

Jamon, Marc

2014-01-01

211

Are Subitizing and Counting Implemented as Separate or Functionally Overlapping Processes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enumeration of small groups of four or fewer objects is very fast and accurate (often called “subitizing”), but gets slower and more error prone for more than four items (“counting”). Many theories have been proposed to account for this dichotomy, most suggesting that “subitizing” and “counting” are two qualitatively different and separable processes. Others, in contrast, have proposed that the

Manuela Piazza; Andrea Mechelli; Brian Butterworth; Cathy J. Price

2002-01-01

212

Wave-function functionals for the density  

SciTech Connect

We extend the idea of the constrained-search variational method for the construction of wave-function functionals {psi}[{chi}] of functions {chi}. The search is constrained to those functions {chi} such that {psi}[{chi}] reproduces the density {rho}(r) while simultaneously leading to an upper bound to the energy. The functionals are thereby normalized and automatically satisfy the electron-nucleus coalescence condition. The functionals {psi}[{chi}] are also constructed to satisfy the electron-electron coalescence condition. The method is applied to the ground state of the helium atom to construct functionals {psi}[{chi}] that reproduce the density as given by the Kinoshita correlated wave function. The expectation of single-particle operators W={Sigma}{sub i}r{sub i}{sup n}, n=-2,-1,1,2, W={Sigma}{sub i}{delta}(r{sub i}) are exact, as must be the case. The expectations of the kinetic energy operator W=-(1/2){Sigma}{sub i}{nabla}{sub i}{sup 2}, the two-particle operators W={Sigma}{sub n}u{sup n}, n=-2,-1,1,2, where u=|r{sub i}-r{sub j}|, and the energy are accurate. We note that the construction of such functionals {psi}[{chi}] is an application of the Levy-Lieb constrained-search definition of density functional theory. It is thereby possible to rigorously determine which functional {psi}[{chi}] is closer to the true wave function.

Slamet, Marlina; Pan Xiaoyin; Sahni, Viraht [Sacred Heart University, Fairfield, Connecticut 06825 (United States); Faculty of Science, Ningbo University, 315211 Ningbo (China); Brooklyn College and The Graduate School of the City University of New York, New York, New York 10016 (United States)

2011-11-15

213

Functional microorganisms for functional food quality.  

PubMed

Functional microorganisms and health benefits represent a binomial with great potential for fermented functional foods. The health benefits of fermented functional foods are expressed either directly through the interactions of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as the result of the ingestion of microbial metabolites synthesized during fermentation (biogenic effect). Since the importance of high viability for probiotic effect, two major options are currently pursued for improving it--to enhance bacterial stress response and to use alternative products for incorporating probiotics (e.g., ice cream, cheeses, cereals, fruit juices, vegetables, and soy beans). Further, it seems that quorum sensing signal molecules released by probiotics may interact with human epithelial cells from intestine thus modulating several physiological functions. Under optimal processing conditions, functional microorganisms contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. Overproduction of free amino acids and vitamins are two classical examples. Besides, bioactive compounds (e.g., peptides, ?-amino butyric acid, and conjugated linoleic acid) may be released during food processing above the physiological threshold and they may exert various in vivo health benefits. Functional microorganisms are even more used in novel strategies for decreasing phenomenon of food intolerance (e.g., gluten intolerance) and allergy. By a critical approach, this review will aim at showing the potential of functional microorganisms for the quality of functional foods. PMID:20830633

Gobbetti, M; Cagno, R Di; De Angelis, M

2010-09-01

214

More Complicated Functions: Introduction to Linear Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to the idea of functions composed of two operations, with specific attention to linear functions and their representations as rules and data tables. The lesson also introduces the concepts surrounding independent and dependent variables. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to multi-step linear functions as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to other lessons designed as follow-up to multi-step functions.

2010-01-01

215

Feature Function Learning for Value Function Approximation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To represent and learn a value function, one needs a set of features that facilitates the processby describing sets of states that share intrinsic properties. We visit existing approachesto automatic feature construction for value function approximation, and note importantstrengths and weakness of each. We offer an alternative approach that addresses some ofthese known weaknesses. Finally, we observe that searching for

Paul E. Utgoff

1996-01-01

216

What Is Functionalism?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A defense of functionalism in linguistics, and more specifically the competition model of linguistic performance, examines six misconceptions about the functionalist approach. Functionalism is defined as the belief that the forms of natural languages are created, governed, constrained, acquired, and used for communicative functions. Functionalism

Bates, Elizabeth; MacWhinney, Brian

217

Lesson: 18 Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Beginning with linear functions, this lesson looks at functions of real world data defined by tables and graphs before moving into functions defined by equations. Function notation is introduced at the end of teh lesson and various examples are provided to get students familiar with the new notation.

2011-01-01

218

Optimizing Hardware Function Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a methodology and an automated system for function evaluation unit generation. Our system selects the best function evaluation hardware for a given function, accuracy requirements, technology mapping, and optimization metrics, such as area, throughput, and latency. Function evaluation fðxÞ typically consists of range reduction and the actual evaluation on a small convenient interval such as ½0 ;? =

Dong-u Lee; Altaf Abdul Gaffar; Oskar Mencer; Wayne Luk

2005-01-01

219

Insights into the distribution and functions of the eukaryotic GPI-like anchored genes among Mycobacterium from a comparative genomic perspective.  

PubMed

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins range from small peptides to larger antigens and fulfill a variety of cellular functions in eukaryotes. We speculated there should be such molecules in intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacterium due to their complex interplay with the host. However, no prior publications have touched this topic. To explore the existence and distribution of GPI-like molecules among Mycobacterium, we exhaustively analyzed all publicly available Mycobacterium genomes and found that the GPI-like signal sequences are prevalent among Mycobacterium, and a significant dichotomy between nonpathogenic Mycobacterium (exemplified by Mycobacterium smegmatis) and pathogenic Mycobacterium (exemplified by Mycobacterium tuberculosis), through genome-wide GPI-SOM analysis. Some well-documented anti-tuberculosis drug targets are predicted to have GPI-like anchored signals, such as KasA and atpE. Interestingly, Pro-Glu (PE) and Pro-Pro-Glu (PPE) proteins predicted to have GPI-anchoring sequence are unique to pathogenic Mycobacterium. These results can be further explored for better control measures against tuberculosis. PMID:23272800

Deng, Wanyan; Zeng, Jie; Xiang, Xiaohong; Xie, Jianping

2012-01-01

220

THE ACS FORNAX CLUSTER SURVEY. VIII. THE LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN VIRGO AND FORNAX EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AND ITS USE AS A DISTANCE INDICATOR  

SciTech Connect

We use a highly homogeneous set of data from 132 early-type galaxies in the Virgo and Fornax clusters in order to study the properties of the globular cluster luminosity function (GCLF). The globular cluster system of each galaxy was studied using a maximum likelihood approach to model the intrinsic GCLF after accounting for contamination and completeness effects. The results presented here update our Virgo measurements and confirm our previous results showing a tight correlation between the dispersion of the GCLF and the absolute magnitude of the parent galaxy. Regarding the use of the GCLF as a standard candle, we have found that the relative distance modulus between the Virgo and Fornax clusters is systematically lower than the one derived by other distance estimators, and in particular, it is 0.22 mag lower than the value derived from surface brightness fluctuation measurements performed on the same data. From numerical simulations aimed at reproducing the observed dispersion of the value of the turnover magnitude in each galaxy cluster we estimate an intrinsic dispersion on this parameter of 0.21 mag and 0.15 mag for Virgo and Fornax, respectively. All in all, our study shows that the GCLF properties vary systematically with galaxy mass showing no evidence for a dichotomy between giant and dwarf early-type galaxies. These properties may be influenced by the cluster environment as suggested by cosmological simulations.

Villegas, Daniela; Kissler-Patig, Markus [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Jordan, Andres; Infante, Leopoldo [Departmento de AstronomIa y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Peng, Eric W. [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Blakeslee, John P.; Cote, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Mei, Simona [University of Paris Denis Diderot, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Tonry, John L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); West, Michael J. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago (Chile)

2010-07-10

221

Special Functions Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

EJS Special Functions Model shows how to access special functions in the OSP numerics package. The simulation displays a graph of the special function over the given range as well as the value of the selected function at a single point. The following special functions can be displayed: Legendre polynomials Pn(x) associated Legendre functions Pnm(x) Laguerre polynomials Ln(x) associated Laguerre polynomials Lnm(x) Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind Tn(x) Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind Un(x) Bessel functions Jn(x) A description of the EJS special functions along with links to more information about the functions are provided.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-12-16

222

Functionalized nanoparticles Surface Functionalization of Single Superparamagnetic  

E-print Network

monitoring (QCM-D). These MR contrast agents can be functionalized with any biotinylated ligand at controlled ligand surface density, rendering them a versatile research tool. 1. Introduction The good

223

Linear Function Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students plug values into a function to see what the output is for that function. Then based on that information, they have to guess the coefficient and constant for a linear function. This activity allows students to explore linear functions and what input values are useful to figuring out the linear function performed by the function machine. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

224

Muscle function loss  

MedlinePLUS

Muscle function loss is when a muscle doesn't work or move normally. The medical term for complete loss ... Diseases of the muscles that cause muscle-function loss include: ... Drug-induced myopathy (statins, steroids) Muscular dystrophy ...

225

Liver function tests  

MedlinePLUS

... the liver is working. This is called liver function. Tests include: Albumin Alpha-1 antitrypsin ALP ALT ... M, Bowne WB, Bluth MH. Evaluation of liver function. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical ...

226

Kidney function tests  

MedlinePLUS

Kidney function tests are common lab tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working. Such tests include: ... 2011:chap 8. Oh MS. Evaluation of renal function, water, electrolytes and acid-base balance. In: McPherson ...

227

Positive Linear Function Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students investigate linear functions with positive slopes by trying to guess the slope and intercept from inputs and outputs. Positive Linear Function Machine is one of the Interactivate assessment explorers.

228

Autonomy, Function, and Representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Autonomyis modeled,in terms of the property of certain far-from-equilibrium open systems to contribute toward maintaining themselves in their far-from-equilibrium conditions. Such contributions in self-maintenant systems, in turn, constitute the emergence,of normative function. The intrinsic thermodynamic,asymmetry,between equilibrium and far-from-equilibrium processes yields the intrinsic normative asymmetry between function and dysfunction. Standard etiological models of function render function as causally epiphenomenal, while

Mark H. Bickhard

229

Photosynthetic Functions of Chlorophylls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorophylls (Chls) are the signature pigments of photosynthetic organisms and have several distinct functions, including\\u000a photochemical activity and antenna function. Chls carry out reversible photochemical oxidations and reductions, which determine\\u000a the basic mechanism of functioning of the photosynthetic reaction center (RC). The light-harvesting function of chlorophylls\\u000a is based on their ability to absorb light over a wide spectral region. The

Alexander N. Melkozernov; Robert E. Blankenship

230

Phylogenetic molecular function annotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now easier to discover thousands of protein sequences in a new microbial genome than it is to biochemically characterize the specific activity of a single protein of unknown function. The molecular functions of protein sequences have typically been predicted using homology-based computational methods, which rely on the principle that homologous proteins share a similar function. However, some protein families include groups of proteins with different molecular functions. A phylogenetic approach for predicting molecular function (sometimes called "phylogenomics") is an effective means to predict protein molecular function. These methods incorporate functional evidence from all members of a family that have functional characterizations using the evolutionary history of the protein family to make robust predictions for the uncharacterized proteins. However, they are often difficult to apply on a genome-wide scale because of the time-consuming step of reconstructing the phylogenies of each protein to be annotated. Our automated approach for function annotation using phylogeny, the SIFTER (Statistical Inference of Function Through Evolutionary Relationships) methodology, uses a statistical graphical model to compute the probabilities of molecular functions for unannotated proteins. Our benchmark tests showed that SIFTER provides accurate functional predictions on various protein families, outperforming other available methods.

Engelhardt, Barbara E.; Jordan, Michael I.; Repo, Susanna T.; Brenner, Steven E.

2009-07-01

231

Human Functional Brain Imaging  

E-print Network

Human Functional Brain Imaging 1990­2009 September 2011 Portfolio Review #12;2 | Portfolio Review: Human Functional Brain ImagingThe Wellcome Trust is a charity registered in England and Wales, no's role in supporting human functional brain imaging and have informed `our' speculations for the future

Rambaut, Andrew

232

An Exceptional Exponential Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We show that there is a link between a standard calculus problem of finding the best view of a painting and special tangent lines to the graphs of exponential functions. Surprisingly, the exponential function with the "best view" is not the one with the base "e." A similar link is established for families of functions obtained by composing…

Curgus, Branko

2006-01-01

233

Constructive Function Approximation1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of automatically constructing features for use in a learned evaluation function is visited. Issues of feature overlap, independence, and coverage are addressed. Three algorithms are applied to two tasks, measuring the error in the approximated function as learning proceeds. The issues are discussed in the context of their apparent effects on the function approximation pro cess.

Paul E. Utgoff; Doina Precup

234

Graphs and Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to plotting points and graphing functions in the Cartesian coordinate system. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities that transition from functions as rules to the graphs of those functions. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession to an introduction to graphing.

Shodor

2012-03-29

235

Cross-functional systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many companies, including Xerox and Texas Instruments, are using cross functional systems to deal with the increasingly complex and competitive business environment. However, few firms within the aerospace industry appear to be aware of the significant benefits that cross functional systems can provide. Those benefits are examined and a flexible methodology is discussed that companies can use to identify and develop cross functional systems that will help improve organizational performance. In addition, some of the managerial issues are addressed that cross functional systems may raise and specific examples are used to explore networking's contributions to cross functional systems.

Lee, Mark

1991-01-01

236

Lesson 30: Exponential Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Beginning with a formal definition of an exponential function, the lesson then compares the graphs of increasing and decreasing exponential functions. A comparison between exponential and power functions follows, which leads to methods for determining the h value in the power function h(x) = kx^p and the value of the base b in the exponential function f(x) = ab^x. A procedure for solving exponential equations is presented before a population application problem is solved. The lesson concludes with a discussion about using graphs to find approximate solutions to exponential equations.

2011-01-01

237

Photon wave function  

E-print Network

Photon wave function is a controversial concept. Controversies stem from the fact that photon wave functions can not have all the properties of the Schroedinger wave functions of nonrelativistic wave mechanics. Insistence on those properties that, owing to peculiarities of photon dynamics, cannot be rendered, led some physicists to the extreme opinion that the photon wave function does not exist. I reject such a fundamentalist point of view in favor of a more pragmatic approach. In my view, the photon wave function exists as long as it can be precisely defined and made useful.

Iwo Bialynicki-Birula

2005-08-26

238

Thermodynamic functions as correlation-function integrals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Expressions of some thermodynamic functions as correlation-function integrals, such as the Ornstein-Zernike integral, the Kirkwood-Buff integrals, and the integral formulas for virial coefficients, are recalled. It is noted, as has been remarked before, that the choice of molecular centers from which intermolecular distances are measured is arbitrary and that different choices lead to different forms of the correlation functions but that the integrals must be independent of those choices. This is illustrated with the second virial coefficients of hard spheres in one, two, and three dimensions, with that of gaseous propane in three dimensions, and with computer simulations of the pair correlations in water and in a dilute aqueous solution of propane.

Koga, K.; Widom, B.

2013-03-01

239

Functional Visual Loss  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Neurologists frequently evaluate patients complaining of vision loss, especially when the patient has been examined by an ophthalmologist who has found no ocular disease. A significant proportion of patients presenting to the neurologist with visual complaints will have non-organic or functional visual loss. While there are examination techniques which can aid in the detection and diagnosis of functional visual loss, the frequency with which functional visual loss occurs concomitantly with organic disease warrants substantial caution on the part of the clinician. Furthermore, purely functional visual loss is never a diagnosis of exclusion, and must be supported by positive findings on examination that demonstrate normal visual function. The relationship of true psychological disease and functional visual loss is unclear and most patients respond well to simple reassurance. PMID:20638000

Bruce, Beau B; Newman, Nancy J

2010-01-01

240

Intrinsic-Density Functionals  

E-print Network

The Hohenberg-Kohn theorem and Kohn-Sham procedure are extended to functionals of the localized intrinsic density of a self-bound system such as a nucleus. After defining the intrinsic-density functional, we modify the usual Kohn-Sham procedure slightly to evaluate the mean-field approximation to the functional, and carefully describe the construction of the leading corrections for a system of fermions in one dimension with a spin-degeneracy equal to the number of particles N. Despite the fact that the corrections are complicated and nonlocal, we are able to construct a local Skyrme-like intrinsic-density functional that, while different from the exact functional, shares with it a minimum value equal to the exact ground-state energy at the exact ground-state intrinsic density, to next-to-leading order in 1/N. We briefly discuss implications for real Skyrme functionals.

J. Engel

2006-10-10

241

Impaired Sexual Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of impaired sexual function in adults with Parkinson’s disease (PD) is greater than in the general population.\\u000a Studies have examined different aspects of sexual function among adults with PD and their partners. Comparison groups have\\u000a included healthy adults matched for age and gender, as well as age-matched controls with chronic, non-neurological disease\\u000a with motor impairment. Impaired sexual function

Cheryl Waters; Janice Smolowitz

242

Determining Functions Using Regression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit from Illuminations focuses on collecting data and using technology to find functions to describe the data collected. Students will learn to use a calculator to find the curve of best fit for a set of data and demonstrate an understanding of how modifying parameters changes the graphs of functions by writing equations for those functions. The unit includes two lessons intended for grades 9-12, and should require 4 class periods to complete.

2011-01-17

243

Balance Function Disorders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers at the Balance Function Laboratory and Clinic at the Minneapolis (MN) Neuroscience Institute on the Abbot Northwestern Hospital Campus are using a rotational chair (technically a "sinusoidal harmonic acceleration system") originally developed by NASA to investigate vestibular (inner ear) function in weightlessness to diagnose and treat patients with balance function disorders. Manufactured by ICS Medical Corporation, Schaumberg, IL, the chair system turns a patient and monitors his or her responses to rotational stimulation.

1991-01-01

244

Quadratic Functions: Workshop 4  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lesson 1 of two lessons requires students to explore quadratic functions by examining the family of functions described by y = a (x - h)squared+ k. In Lesson 2 students explore quadratic functions by using a motion detector known as a Calculator Based Ranger (CBR) to examine the heights of the different bounces of a ball. Students will represent each bounce with a quadratic function of the form y = a (x - h)squared + k. Background information, resources, references and videos of the lessons are included. Students work in teams of four.

Annenberg Media, Insights into Algebra, Teaching for Learning

2009-12-23

245

Function Visualizer Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Function Visualizer Model displays the graph of a function f(x) with arbitrary parameters.  The function can contain polynomial, trigonometric, and exponential expressions as well a parameters. Parameters are connected to sliders that can be adjusted to observe the effect of varying parameter values. This applet was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_math_FunctionVisualizer.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. EJS is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is available in the OSP Collection.

Christian, Wolfgang; Franciscouembre

2009-06-27

246

Health and functional efficiency.  

PubMed

This essay argues that what is central to Christopher Boorse's biostatistical theory of disease as statistically subnormal part function (BST) are comparisons of the "functional efficiency" of parts and processes and that statistical considerations serve only to pick out a healthy level of functional efficiency. On this interpretation, the distinction between health and pathology is less important than comparisons of functional efficiency, which are entirely independent of statistical considerations. The clarifications or revisions of the BST that this essay offers are friendly amendments that render moot some of the most prominent criticisms of Boorse's account. PMID:25336732

Hausman, Daniel M

2014-12-01

247

Polarization justified Fukui functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New Fukui functions have been derived within the conceptual density functional theory by the analysis of the polarization effect of a system in static electric field. Resulting Fukui functions accurately reproduce the global softness and electronic dipolar polarizability; they meet the condition ?[f(r)/r]dr=-(??/?Z)N and lead to very reasonable values of the global hardness for atoms for the group of 29 main group elements. Computational clarity makes the new Fukui functions a promising tool in studies of molecular reactivity.

Komorowski, Ludwik; Lipi?ski, Józef; Szarek, Pawe?

2009-09-01

248

Fractal functions and interpolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let a data set {(xi,yi) ?I×R;i=0,1,?,N} be given, whereI=[x0,xN]?R. We introduce iterated function systems whose attractorsG are graphs of continuous functionsf:I?R, which interpolate the data according tof(xi)=yi fori e {0,1,?,N}. Results are presented on the existence, coding theory, functional equations and moment theory for such fractal interpolation functions. Applications to the approximation of naturally wiggly functions, which may show some

Michael F. Barnsley

1986-01-01

249

Can sequence determine function?  

PubMed Central

The functional annotation of proteins identified in genome sequencing projects is based on similarities to homologs in the databases. As a result of the possible strategies for divergent evolution, homologous enzymes frequently do not catalyze the same reaction, and we conclude that assignment of function from sequence information alone should be viewed with some skepticism. PMID:11178260

Gerlt, John A; Babbitt, Patricia C

2000-01-01

250

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with its excellent spatial resolution and ability to visualize networks of neuroanatomical structures involved in complex information processing, has become the dominant technique for the study of brain function and its development. The accessibility of in-vivo pediatric brain-imaging techniques…

Voos, Avery; Pelphrey, Kevin

2013-01-01

251

Continuity of Piecewise Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in calculus need to be proficient in working with functions in a variety of ways: graphical, numerical, analytic, or verbal, and to understand connections among these representations. This demo provides a set of visualizations designed to help students better understand what it means for a piecewise function to be continuous at a particular domain value.

Roberts, Lila F.; Hill, David R.

2004-08-14

252

Functions of Living Things  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students' ideas about the functions carried out by plants and animals for maintaining life. The task specifically seeks to find out if students recognize that plants and animals share several common life functions, even though they are seemingly very different organisms.

Eberle, Francis; Farrin, Lynn; Keeley, Page

2005-01-01

253

Human Functional Brain Imaging  

E-print Network

Human Functional Brain Imaging 1990­2009 September 2011 Portfolio Review Summary Brain Imaging #12 Dale ­ one of our first Trustees. Understanding the brain remains one of our key strategic aims today three-fold: · to identify the key landmarks and influences on the human functional brain imaging

Rambaut, Andrew

254

Complex Transcendental Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lang Moore for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purpose of this module is to provide an introduction to the elementary complex transcendental functions -- the exponential, sine, and cosine functions. This is one resource within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Moore, Lang

2010-05-14

255

Pulmonary Function Tests  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary function tests are valuable investigations in the management of patients with suspected or previously diagnosed respiratory disease. They aid diagnosis, help monitor response to treatment and can guide decisions regarding further treatment and intervention. The interpretation of pulmonary functions tests requires knowledge of respiratory physiology. In this review we describe investigations routinely used and discuss their clinical implications. PMID:22347750

Ranu, Harpreet; Wilde, Michael; Madden, Brendan

2011-01-01

256

Software quality function deployment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Any product development involves projecting its potential success in achieving its functional and commercial goals. Better quality designs that match customer needs and preferences and integrate other lifecycle issues early in the software development process are more likely to be competitive. Thus, there is significant concern in industry about quality product design, which is addressed by quality function deployment (QFD).

X. F. Liu

2000-01-01

257

Brain Hemispheric Functioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four articles consider brain hemisphere functioning of gifted students as it relates to gifted programs; alternation of education methodologies; spatial ability as an element of intellectual gifted functioning; and the interaction between hemisphere specialization, imagery, creative imagination, and sex differentiation. (SB)

Roeper Review, 1981

1981-01-01

258

Linear Functions Matching Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to help students connect various representations (verbal, tabular, graphical) of linear functions. The activity is designed to be completed in groups of 2. This would be an appropriate review activity towards the end of the unit on graphing linear functions.

2011-01-01

259

Differential Objective Function.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Item response theory (IRT) has been used extensively to study differential item functioning (dif) and to identify potentially biased items. The use of IRT for diagnostic purposes is less prevalent and has received comparatively less attention. This study addressed differential objective function (dof) to identify potentially biased content units.…

Kino, Mary M.; And Others

260

Function Photonic Crystals  

E-print Network

In the paper, we present a new kind of function photonic crystals, which refractive index is a function of space position. Unlike conventional PCs, which structure grow from two materials, A and B, with different dielectric constants $\\epsilon_{A}$ and $\\epsilon_{B}$. By Fermat principle, we give the motion equations of light in one-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional function photonic crystals. For one-dimensional function photonic crystals, we study the dispersion relation, band gap structure and transmissivity, and compare them with conventional photonic crystals. By choosing various refractive index distribution function $n(z)$, we can obtain more width or more narrow band gap structure than conventional photonic crystals.

Xiang-Yao Wu; Bai-Jun Zhang; Jing-Hai Yang; Xiao-Jing Liu; Nuo Ba; Yi-Heng Wu; Qing-Cai Wang; Guang-Huai Wang

2010-10-30

261

Complex Function Plot Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Complex Function Plot program displays a user-defined complex function of position and time using representations that map phase into color. The default complex function is a time-dependent complex Gaussian and the representation can be changed by selecting a radio button. Additional parameters can be specified using the Display | Switch GUI menu item. Complex Function Plot is an Open Source Physics program written for the teaching of mathematical methods in the sciences. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the math_complex_function_plot.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Other mathematical methods programs are also available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Math.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-05-14

262

Functionalization of graphene nanoribbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene nanoribbon (GNR) is a recently discovered carbon allotrope, which can be described as a stripe of graphene. Pseudo-one-dimensionality exerts additional confinement on the electrons resulting in the formation of a band gap relevant for electronic devices. Due to distinct physical and chemical properties it is a promising material for several applications. To expand the range of potential applications and to improve processability, chemical functionalization of GNRs is required. This review aims to provide a concise and systematic coverage of recent work in chemical functionalization of GNRs. We will focus on longitudinal carbon nanotube unzipping, functionalization with aryl diazonium salts, non-covalent functionalization, bottom-up synthesis and one pot carbon nanotube unzipping with in situ edge functionalization.

Genorio, Bostjan; Znidarsic, Andrej

2014-03-01

263

Time functions as utilities  

E-print Network

Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K^+ relation (Seifert's relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg's and Levin's theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K^+ (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin's theorem and smoothing techniques.

E. Minguzzi

2009-09-04

264

Plant functional genomics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functional genome analysis of plants has entered the high-throughput stage. The complete genome information from key species such as Arabidopsis thaliana and rice is now available and will further boost the application of a range of new technologies to functional plant gene analysis. To broadly assign functions to unknown genes, different fast and multiparallel approaches are currently used and developed. These new technologies are based on known methods but are adapted and improved to accommodate for comprehensive, large-scale gene analysis, i.e. such techniques are novel in the sense that their design allows researchers to analyse many genes at the same time and at an unprecedented pace. Such methods allow analysis of the different constituents of the cell that help to deduce gene function, namely the transcripts, proteins and metabolites. Similarly the phenotypic variations of entire mutant collections can now be analysed in a much faster and more efficient way than before. The different methodologies have developed to form their own fields within the functional genomics technological platform and are termed transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and phenomics. Gene function, however, cannot solely be inferred by using only one such approach. Rather, it is only by bringing together all the information collected by different functional genomic tools that one will be able to unequivocally assign functions to unknown plant genes. This review focuses on current technical developments and their impact on the field of plant functional genomics. The lower plant Physcomitrella is introduced as a new model system for gene function analysis, owing to its high rate of homologous recombination.

Holtorf, Hauke; Guitton, Marie-Christine; Reski, Ralf

2002-04-01

265

Penalized Functional Regression.  

PubMed

We develop fast fitting methods for generalized functional linear models. The functional predictor is projected onto a large number of smooth eigenvectors and the coefficient function is estimated using penalized spline regression; confidence intervals based on the mixed model framework are obtained. Our method can be applied to many functional data designs including functions measured with and without error, sparsely or densely sampled. The methods also extend to the case of multiple functional predictors or functional predictors with a natural multilevel structure. The approach can be implemented using standard mixed effects software and is computationally fast. The methodology is motivated by a study of white-matter demyelination via diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The aim of this study is to analyze differences between various cerebral white-matter tract property measurements of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and controls. While the statistical developments proposed here were motivated by the DTI study, the methodology is designed and presented in generality and is applicable to many other areas of scientific research. An online appendix provides R implementations of all simulations. PMID:22368438

Goldsmith, Jeff; Bobb, Jennifer; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Caffo, Brian; Reich, Daniel

2011-12-01

266

Kidney function decline and physical function in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Cross-sectional analyses of kidney function and physical function have identified profound quality of life impairments in people with advanced kidney dysfunc- tion. No data are currently available, however, on how kidney function decline may be associated with physical function. Methods. We undertook a study of kidney function de- cline and physical function in 2544 women participating in the Nurses'

Julie Lin; Gary C. Curhan

267

The Enzyme Function Initiative†  

PubMed Central

The Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI) was recently established to address the challenge of assigning reliable functions to enzymes discovered in bacterial genome projects; in this Current Topic we review the structure and operations of the EFI. The EFI includes the Superfamily/Genome, Protein, Structure, Computation, and Data/Dissemination Cores that provide the infrastructure for reliably predicting the in vitro functions of unknown enzymes. The initial targets for functional assignment are selected from five functionally diverse superfamilies (amidohydrolase, enolase, glutathione transferase, haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase, and isoprenoid synthase), with five superfamily-specific Bridging Projects experimentally testing the predicted in vitro enzymatic activities. The EFI also includes the Microbiology Core that evaluates the in vivo context of in vitro enzymatic functions and confirms the functional predictions of the EFI. The deliverables of the EFI to the scientific community include: 1) development of a large-scale, multidisciplinary sequence/structure-based strategy for functional assignment of unknown enzymes discovered in genome projects (target selection, protein production, structure determination, computation, experimental enzymology, microbiology, and structure-based annotation); 2) dissemination of the strategy to the community via publications, collaborations, workshops, and symposia; 3) computational and bioinformatic tools for using the strategy; 4) provision of experimental protocols and/or reagents for enzyme production and characterization; and 5) dissemination of data via the EFI’s website, enzymefunction.org. The realization of multidisciplinary strategies for functional assignment will begin to define the full metabolic diversity that exists in nature and will impact basic biochemical and evolutionary understanding, as well as a wide range of applications of central importance to industrial, medicinal and pharmaceutical efforts. PMID:21999478

Gerlt, John A.; Allen, Karen N.; Almo, Steven C.; Armstrong, Richard N.; Babbitt, Patricia C.; Cronan, John E.; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Imker, Heidi J.; Jacobson, Matthew P.; Minor, Wladek; Poulter, C. Dale; Raushel, Frank M.; Sali, Andrej; Shoichet, Brian K.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

2011-01-01

268

Modeling dihadron fragmentation functions  

E-print Network

We present a model for dihadron fragmentation functions, describing the fragmentation of a quark into two unpolarized hadrons. We tune the parameters of our model to the output of the PYTHIA event generator for two-hadron semi-inclusive production in deep inelastic scattering at HERMES. Once the parameters of the model are fixed, we make predictions for other unknown fragmentation functions and for a single-spin asymmetry in the azimuthal distribution of pi+ pi- pairs in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized target at HERMES and COMPASS. Such asymmetry could be used to measure the quark transversity distribution function.

Alessandro Bacchetta; Marco Radici

2006-08-03

269

Functional Task Test: Data Review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After space flight there are changes in multiple physiological systems including: Cardiovascular function; Sensorimotor function; and Muscle function. How do changes in these physiological system impact astronaut functional performance?

Cromwell, Ronita

2014-01-01

270

Functionally Graded Media  

E-print Network

The notions of uniformity and homogeneity of elastic materials are reviewed in terms of Lie groupoids and frame bundles. This framework is also extended to consider the case Functionally Graded Media, which allows us to obtain some homogeneity conditions.

Campos, Cedric M; de Leon, Manuel

2007-01-01

271

Generating functions for borders  

E-print Network

We give the generating function for the index of integer lattice points, relative to a finite order ideal. The index is an important concept in the theory of border bases, an alternative to Gr\\"obner bases.

Snellman, Jan

2007-01-01

272

Congenital platelet function defects  

MedlinePLUS

Platelet storage pool disorder; Glanzmann's thrombasthenia; Bernard-Soulier syndrome; Platelet function defects - congenital ... This disorder may also cause severe bleeding. Platelet storage pool disorder (also called platelet secretion disorder) is ...

273

Functionally Graded Media  

E-print Network

The notions of uniformity and homogeneity of elastic materials are reviewed in terms of Lie groupoids and frame bundles. This framework is also extended to consider the case Functionally Graded Media, which allows us to obtain some homogeneity conditions.

Cedric M. Campos; Marcelo Epstein; Manuel de Leon

2007-11-16

274

STP Ising Partition Function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The STP IsingPartitionFunction program is a Monte Carlo calculation of the partition function Z of the two-dimensional Ising model in equilibrium with a heat bath at temperature T. The default is a lattice of linear dimension L=32 (for a total of N=L^2 spins). STP IsingPartitionFunction is part of a suite of Open Source Physics programs that model aspects of Statistical and Thermal Physics (STP). The program is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the stp_IsingPartitionFunction.jar file will run the program if Java is installed on your computer. Additional programs can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, STP, or Statistical and Thermal Physics.

Gould, Harvey; Tobochnik, Jan; Christian, Wolfgang; Cox, Anne

2009-02-17

275

Functional cardiac MR imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undersampled projection reconstruction acquisitions are investigated for use in functional cardiac MR imaging. 256×256 resolution is obtainable using only 64 projections, with acceptable artifact level. Reduced FOV techniques decrease artifact. Variable angular sampling using projection reconstruction is investigated.

Peters, Dana C.; Epstein, Frederick H.; McVeigh, Elliot R.

2000-10-01

276

Pulmonary function tests  

MedlinePLUS

... measured to estimate the lung volume. To measure diffusion capacity , you breathe a harmless gas, called a ... on your report after pulmonary function tests include: Diffusion capacity to carbon monoxide (DLCO) Expiratory reserve volume ( ...

277

Perceptions of sexual harassment as a function of sex of rater and incident form and consequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in perceptions of two “severity dichotomies” present in the Equal\\u000a Employment Opportunity Commission Guidelines on sexual harassment. Alale and female undergraduates (N = 198), from a predominately white midwestern university, were given one of four statements based on these guidelines, varying\\u000a “form” (physical\\/verbal) and “consequence” (economic injury\\/hostile environment) of the behavior.

Paula M. Popovich; DeeAnn N. Gehlauf; Jeffrey A. Jolton; Jill M. Somers; Rhonda M. Godinho

1992-01-01

278

Elliptic Functions and Transcendence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcendental numbers form a fascinating subject: so little is known about the nature of analytic constants that more research\\u000a is needed in this area. Even when one is interested only in numbers like ? and ? that are related to the classical exponential function, it turns out that elliptic functions are required (so far, this should\\u000a not last forever!) to

Michel Waldschmidt; M. Curie

279

Center for Functional Nanomaterials  

SciTech Connect

Staff from Brookhaven's new Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) describe how this advanced facility will focus on the development and understanding of nanoscale materials. The CFN provides state-of-the-art capabilities for the fabrication and study of nanoscale materials, with an emphasis on atomic-level tailoring to achieve desired properties and functions. The overarching scientific theme of the CFN is the development and understanding of nanoscale materials that address the Nation's challenges in energy security.

BNL

2008-08-12

280

Basics of Endocrine Function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This flash video presentation provides an introduction to the basics of the endocrine system. It defines the criteria for determining if a chemical is a hormone and compares the action of hormones with other signalling chemicals and with the way the nervous system functions. The last part of the presentation gives a preview of a flowchart homework activity that can be used by students as a way to learn the function of specific hormones.

Dr. Daniel Brouse (Human Anatomy and Physiology Society)

2008-08-09

281

Polarized Antenna Splitting Functions  

SciTech Connect

We consider parton showers based on radiation from QCD dipoles or 'antennae'. These showers are built from 2 {yields} 3 parton splitting processes. The question then arises of what functions replace the Altarelli-Parisi splitting functions in this approach. We give a detailed answer to this question, applicable to antenna showers in which partons carry definite helicity, and to both initial- and final-state emissions.

Larkoski, Andrew J.; Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC

2009-10-17

282

Functional neuroimaging in psychiatry.  

PubMed Central

Functional neuroimaging is one of the most powerful means available for investigating the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. In this review, we shall focus on the different ways that it can be employed to this end, describing the major findings in the field in the context of different methodological approaches. We will also discuss practical issues that are particular to studying psychiatric disorders and the potential contribution of functional neuroimaging to future psychiatric research. PMID:10466156

Fu, C H; McGuire, P K

1999-01-01

283

Functional Molecular Ecological Networks  

PubMed Central

Biodiversity and its responses to environmental changes are central issues in ecology and for society. Almost all microbial biodiversity research focuses on “species” richness and abundance but not on their interactions. Although a network approach is powerful in describing ecological interactions among species, defining the network structure in a microbial community is a great challenge. Also, although the stimulating effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2) on plant growth and primary productivity are well established, its influences on belowground microbial communities, especially microbial interactions, are poorly understood. Here, a random matrix theory (RMT)-based conceptual framework for identifying functional molecular ecological networks was developed with the high-throughput functional gene array hybridization data of soil microbial communities in a long-term grassland FACE (free air, CO2 enrichment) experiment. Our results indicate that RMT is powerful in identifying functional molecular ecological networks in microbial communities. Both functional molecular ecological networks under eCO2 and ambient CO2 (aCO2) possessed the general characteristics of complex systems such as scale free, small world, modular, and hierarchical. However, the topological structures of the functional molecular ecological networks are distinctly different between eCO2 and aCO2, at the levels of the entire communities, individual functional gene categories/groups, and functional genes/sequences, suggesting that eCO2 dramatically altered the network interactions among different microbial functional genes/populations. Such a shift in network structure is also significantly correlated with soil geochemical variables. In short, elucidating network interactions in microbial communities and their responses to environmental changes is fundamentally important for research in microbial ecology, systems microbiology, and global change. PMID:20941329

Zhou, Jizhong; Deng, Ye; Luo, Feng; He, Zhili; Tu, Qichao; Zhi, Xiaoyang

2010-01-01

284

Functional Metal Phosphonates  

E-print Network

OF PHILOSOPHY December 2011 Major Subject: Chemistry 2 2 2 Functional Metal Phosphonates Copyright 2011 Houston Phillipp Perry 3 3 3 FUNCTIONAL METAL PHOSPHONATES A Dissertation... Bhuvanesh, Dr. John Hogg, and Dr. Simon Teat. I couldn?t have done it without them. vii vii vi i vii NOMENCLATURE BET Brunauer-Emmett-Teller bpyBPAE 2,2?-bipyridyl-5,5?-(bis)phosphonate tetraethyl ester DMSO Dimethylsulfoxide Me...

Perry, Houston Phillipp

2012-02-14

285

Astrophysical thermonuclear functions  

E-print Network

As theoretical knowledge and experimental verification of nuclear cross sections increases it becomes possible to refine analytic representations for nuclear reaction rates. In this paper mathematical/statistical techniques for deriving closed-form representations of thermonuclear functions are summarized and numerical results for them are given.The purpose of the paper is also to compare numerical results for approximate and closed-form representations of thermonuclear functions.

W. J. Anderson; H. J. Haubold; A. M. Mathai

1994-02-08

286

Treatment of functional dyspepsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Functional dyspepsia is a common chronic condition. It can have a major impact on quality of life and remains a large burden\\u000a on healthcare resources. Its underlying mechanisms are not fully understood and therapies are mainly empirical. In this review,\\u000a we summarize the best evidence on available therapeutic interventions in functional dyspepsia. Helicobacter pylori eradication, for those infected, is

Silvia Delgado-Aros; Filippo Cremonini; Nicholas J. Talley

2004-01-01

287

Relative Value Function Approximation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A form of temporal difference learning is presented that learns the relative utility of states,instead of the absolute utility. This formulation backs up decisions instead of values, makingit possible to learn a simpler function for defining a decision-making policy. A nonlinearrelative value function can be learned without increasing the dimensionality of the inputs.Contents1 Introduction 12 Approximating Absolute Utility 13 Approximating

Doina Precup; Paul E. Utgoff

1997-01-01

288

Center for Functional Nanomaterials  

ScienceCinema

Staff from Brookhaven's new Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) describe how this advanced facility will focus on the development and understanding of nanoscale materials. The CFN provides state-of-the-art capabilities for the fabrication and study of nanoscale materials, with an emphasis on atomic-level tailoring to achieve desired properties and functions. The overarching scientific theme of the CFN is the development and understanding of nanoscale materials that address the Nation's challenges in energy security.

BNL

2009-09-01

289

Functional Abdominal Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is a frequent complaint seen in the pediatric primary care setting. Current diagnostic criteria\\u000a for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are defi ned in the Rome III criteria, which outline a positive symptom\\u000a profi le for diagnosis. In addition, clinicians should be aware of specifi c “red fl ag ” rule-out symptoms that may suggest\\u000a organic disease

Lisa Scharff; Laura E. Simons

290

Structure function monitor  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatus for a structure function monitor provide for generation of parameters characterizing a refractive medium. In an embodiment, a structure function monitor acquires images of a pupil plane and an image plane and, from these images, retrieves the phase over an aperture, unwraps the retrieved phase, and analyzes the unwrapped retrieved phase. In an embodiment, analysis yields atmospheric parameters measured at spatial scales from zero to the diameter of a telescope used to collect light from a source.

McGraw, John T. (Placitas, NM); Zimmer, Peter C. (Albuquerque, NM); Ackermann, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-01-24

291

Confinement from correlation functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the Polyakov loop potential in Yang-Mills theory from the fully dressed primitively divergent correlation functions only. This is done in a variety of functional approaches ranging from functional renormalization group equations over Dyson-Schwinger equations to two-particle irreducible functionals. We present a confinement criterion that links the infrared behavior of propagators and vertices to the Polyakov loop expectation value. The present work extends the works of [J. Braun , Phys. Lett. B 684, 262 (2010)PYLBAJ0370-2693; F. Marhauser and J. M. Pawlowski, arXiv:0812.1144; J. Braun , Eur. Phys. J. C 70, 689 (2010)EPCFFB1434-6044] to general functional methods and sharpens the confinement criterion presented there. The computations are based on the thermal correlation functions in the Landau gauge calculated in [L. Fister and J. M. Pawlowski, arXiv:1112.5440; L. Fister and J. M. Pawlowski, arXiv:1112.5429; L. Fister, Ph.D. thesis, Heidelberg University, 2012].

Fister, Leonard; Pawlowski, Jan M.

2013-08-01

292

Completeness of Decoherence Functionals  

E-print Network

The basic ingredients of the `consistent histories' approach to a generalized quantum theory are `histories'and decoherence functionals. The main aim of this program is to find and to study the behaviour of consistent sets associated with a particular decoherence functional $d$. In its recent formulation by Isham it is natural to identify the space $\\UP$ of propositions about histories with an orthoalgebra or lattice. When $\\UP$ is given by the lattice of projectors $\\PV$ in some Hilbert space $\\V$, consistent sets correspond to certain partitions of the unit operator in $\\V$ into mutually orthogonal projectors $\\{\\a_1,\\a_2,\\ldots\\}$, such that the function $d(\\a,\\a)$ is a probability distribution on the boolean algebra generated by $\\{\\a_1,\\a_2,\\ldots\\}$. Using the classification theorem for decoherence functionals, proven previously, we show that in the case where $\\V$ is some separable Hilbert space there exists for each partition of the unit operator into a set of mutually orthogonal projectors, and for any probability distribution $p(\\a)$ on the corresponding boolean algebra, decoherence functionals $d$ with respect to which this set is consistent and which are such that for the probability functions $d(\\a,\\a)=p(\\a)$ holds.

S. Schreckenberg

1995-02-21

293

Functionalization of carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon nanotubes have unique properties that make them attractive for different engineering applications. However, because of their chemical inertness, carbon nanotubes have to be functionalized in order to acquire additional physico-chemical properties. Large multiwalled carbon nanotubes are different from fullerenes and singlewalled nanotubes because the stresses in their walls are almost relaxed while most chemical methods for fullerene functionalization exploit this effect of stressed bonds. The objective of this work is to develop new methods for functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes. This work is dedicated to study two functionalization methods. The first deals with physico-chemical functionalization by filling the nanotube interior with colloidal suspensions. Irreversible adsorption of functional nanoparticles on the nanotube wall leads to the nanotube functionalization. The second method is purely chemical functionalization, which uses the reaction of cyclopropanation to break pi-bonds in the benzene rings of the nanotubes with formation of new ?-bonds with deprotonated malonate. This so-called Bingel reaction has been used in fullerene chemistry and in this work was applied for the first time to functionalize multiwalled carbon nanotubes. While capillary filling of carbon nanotubes was known long ago, the research community was skeptical about possibility of engulfing nanoparticles into nanotubes by capillary forces. We developed and implemented capillary method to fill nanotubes with different nanoparticles. Using this method, magnetic carbon nanotubes were produced for the first time. Synthesized nanotubes have very high magnetic moment and allow to manipulate them by magnetic field. These magnetic nanotubes have been successfully used in fabrication of carbon nanotube-tipped pipettes for biological probes. The Bingel reaction was studied on three sets of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with diameters: 20nm, 100nm, and 300nm. To estimate the degree of Bingel functionalization, the chemical tagging of gold nanoparticles to the malonated nanotubes was used. Gold was attached using the sulfur-gold bridges formed after the reaction of transesterification of malonated tubes with 2(methylthio)ethanol. We found that the critical size for Bingel reaction to occur along the whole nanotube wall is less than 200 nm. Larger nanotubes could be also Bingel modified, but their chemical activity is mostly observed at the nanotube ends.

Korneva, Guzeliya

294

Difference and Functional Equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A short article designed to provide an introduction to functional equations, those in which a function is sought which is to satisfy certain relations among its values at all points. For example, we may look for functions satisfying f(x*y)=f(x)+f(y) and enquire whether the logarithm function f(x)=log(x) is the only solution. (It's not.) In some cases the nature of the answer is different when we insist that the functional equation hold for all real x, or all complex x, or only those in certain domains, for example. A special case involves difference equations, that is, equations comparing f(x) - f(x-1), for example, with some expression involving x and f(x). In some ways these are discrete analogues of differential equations; thus we face similar questions of existence and uniqueness of solutions, global behaviour, and computational stability. History; applications and related fields and subfields; textbooks, reference works, and tutorials; software and tables; other web sites with this focus.

Rusin, David J., 1957-

2007-12-17

295

CAVEOLINS AND LUNG FUNCTION  

PubMed Central

The primary function of the mammalian lung is to facilitate diffusion of oxygen to venous blood and to ventilate carbon dioxide produced by catabolic reactions within cells. However, it is also responsible for a variety of other important functions, including host defense and production of vasoactive agents to regulate not only systemic blood pressure, but also water, electrolyte and acid-base balance. Caveolin-1 is highly expressed in the majority of cell types in the lung, including epithelial, endothelial, smooth muscle, connective tissue cells, and alveolar macrophages. Deletion of caveolin-1 in these cells results in major functional aberrations, suggesting that caveolin-1 may be crucial to lung homeostasis and development. Furthermore, generation of mutant mice that under-express caveolin-1 results in severe functional distortion with phenotypes covering practically the entire spectrum of known lung diseases, including pulmonary hypertension, fibrosis, increased endothelial permeability, and immune defects. In this Chapter, we outline the current state of knowledge regarding caveolin-1-dependent regulation of pulmonary cell functions and discuss recent research findings on the role of caveolin-1 in various pulmonary disease states, including obstructive and fibrotic pulmonary vascular and inflammatory diseases. PMID:22411320

Maniatis, Nikolaos A.; Chernaya, Olga; Shinin, Vasily; Minshall, Richard D.

2012-01-01

296

?-Systems for Correlation Functions  

E-print Network

We consider the strong coupling limit of 4-point functions of heavy operators in N=4 SYM dual to strings with no spin in AdS. We restrict our discussion for operators inserted on a line. The string computation factorizes into a state-dependent sphere part and a universal AdS contribution which depends only on the dimensions of the operators and the cross ratios. We use the integrability of the AdS string equations to compute the AdS part for operators of arbitrary conformal dimensions. The solution takes the form of TBA-like integral equations with the minimal AdS string-action computed by a corresponding free-energy-like functional. These TBA-like equations stem from a peculiar system of functional equations which we call a \\chi-system. In principle one could use the same method to solve for the AdS contribution in the N-point function. An interesting feature of the solution is that it encodes multiple string configurations corresponding to different classical saddle-points. The discrete data that parameterizes these solutions enters through the analog of the chemical-potentials in the TBA-like equations. Finally, for operators dual to strings spinning in the same equator in S^5 (i.e. BPS operators of the same type) the sphere part is simple to compute. In this case (which is generically neither extremal nor protected) we can construct the complete, strong-coupling 4-point function.

J. Caetano; J. Toledo

2012-08-22

297

Functional neuro-ophthalmology.  

PubMed

Patients with physical signs and symptoms for which no adequate organic cause can be found may receive any one of a large range of diagnostic labels, including functional illness, functional overlay, hysteria, hysterical overlay, conversion reaction, psychophysiological reaction, somatization reaction, hypochondriasis, invalid reaction, neurasthenia, psychogenic reaction, psychosomatic illness, malingering, and Münchausen syndrome. In this chapter, we describe both common and uncommon "functional" ocular symptoms and signs, including visual loss in one or both eyes, constricted visual fields and other field defects, various types of ocular motor dysfunction, including disorders of ocular motility and alignment, disorders of pupillary size and reactivity, and abnormalities of eyelid position and function. We also discuss and illustrate the methods by which the nonorganic nature of these manifestations can be determined. In many cases simple techniques performed in the clinic are sufficient to establish a diagnosis of nonorganic ocular disease, whereas in other cases ancillary studies such as electrophysiological testing may be necessary. The chapter also describes the appropriate approach that the physician should take when dealing with a patient who has proven functional ocular signs and symptoms. PMID:21601078

Miller, Neil R

2011-01-01

298

Functional cardiac tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

Heart attack remains the leading cause of death in both men and women worldwide. Stem cell-based therapies, including the use of engineered cardiac tissues, have the potential to treat the massive cell loss and pathological remodeling resulting from heart attack. Specifically, embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells are a promising source for generation of therapeutically relevant numbers of functional cardiomyocytes and engineering of cardiac tissues in vitro. This review will describe methodologies for successful differentiation of pluripotent stem cells towards the cardiovascular cell lineages as they pertain to the field of cardiac tissue engineering. The emphasis will be placed on comparing the functional maturation in engineered cardiac tissues and developing heart and on methods to quantify cardiac electrical and mechanical function at different spatial scales. PMID:22397609

Liau, Brian; Zhang, Donghui; Bursac, Nenad

2013-01-01

299

Photon structure function revisited  

E-print Network

The flux of papers from electron positron colliders containing data on the photon structure function ended naturally around 2005. It is thus timely to review the theoretical basis and confront the predictions with a summary of the experimental results. The discussion will focus on the increase of the structure function with x (for x away from the boundaries) and its rise with log Q**2, both characteristics beeing dramatically different from hadronic structure functions. Comparing the data with a specific QCD prediction a new determination of the QCD coupling coupling constant is presented. The agreement of the experimental observations with the theoretical calculations of the real and virtual photon structure is a striking success of QCD.

Ch. Berger

2014-04-14

300

Algal functional annotation tool  

SciTech Connect

The Algal Functional Annotation Tool is a web-based comprehensive analysis suite integrating annotation data from several pathway, ontology, and protein family databases. The current version provides annotation for the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in the future will include additional genomes. The site allows users to interpret large gene lists by identifying associated functional terms, and their enrichment. Additionally, expression data for several experimental conditions were compiled and analyzed to provide an expression-based enrichment search. A tool to search for functionally-related genes based on gene expression across these conditions is also provided. Other features include dynamic visualization of genes on KEGG pathway maps and batch gene identifier conversion.

Lopez, D. [UCLA; Casero, D. [UCLA; Cokus, S. J. [UCLA; Merchant, S. S. [UCLA; Pellegrini, M. [UCLA

2012-07-01

301

Functional biomimetic optical devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diversity of biological sensing and biocatalysis is astounding. A considerable effort has been directed at not only understanding the mechanism of these biological processes, but also how this activity can be maintained or duplicated in an artificial environment. We will present work on the formation of functional optical devices that convert biological responses into optical signals through changes in diffraction efficiency and reflection angle. By incorporating biomolecules into monomer systems that can be cured using a two-photon polymerization mechanism, greater spatial resolution and increased biological viability can be achieved. The polymer can be nanopatterned using ultrafast nonlinear holography to create a functional BioMEMS device. Additionally, we will discuss the characterization of the biomolecules and the processing of the gratings that incorporate these functional proteins. This approach is a first step towards the development of a hybrid organic-inorganic composite device.

Naik, Rajesh R.; Brott, Lawrence L.; Kirkpatrick, Sean M.; Stone, Morley O.

2001-11-01

302

Generalized Wigner functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase space distributions have found use in a wide variety of physical contexts, where they are generally introduced either to gain intuition about the problem at hand or to reduce its computational cost. A particular distribution that has been particularly useful both in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and in paraxial optics is the Wigner distribution function. In optics, the aligner function may be constructed for paraxial, stationary, partially coherent optical fields by seeking a phase space distribution that assigns weight to rays which is bilinear in the field and which satisfies for paraxial propagation: (a) conservation along rays in free space propagation and (b) integration over all rays through a point yields the spectral density at that point. In order to construct a similar formalism for nonparaxial optical fields, a family of angle-impact Wigner functions was recently defined by seeking distributions which satisfy (a) and (b) for nonparaxial propagation. The first part of this thesis considers extensions of the angle-impact Wigner function formalism. Two techniques are proposed to compute nonlocal, second-order coherence properties of the field, such as the cross-spectral density. Additionally, techniques are described for propagating angle-impact Wigner functions past interfaces between homogeneous, isotropic transparent media. The second part of this thesis describes techniques for constructing several new phase space distributions. All constructions involve enforcing (a) conservation of the distribution along intuitive trajectories and (b) integration over all trajectories arriving at a "point" (which may include space and time) yields a local quantity of interest at that point. Generalizations of the Wigner function are constructed for a stationary field in an anisotropic medium, a pulse propagating in a one dimensional dispersive medium, and relativistic quantum mechanics.

Petruccelli, Jonathan C.

303

Disentangling different functional roles of evoked K-complex components: Mapping the sleeping brain while quenching sensory processing.  

PubMed

During non-REM sleep the largest EEG response evoked by sensory stimulation is the K-complex (eKC), composed of an initial positive bump (P200) followed by a bistable cortical response: a giant negative deflection (N550) and a large positive one (P900), respectively reflecting down states and up states of < 1 Hz oscillations.Sensory-modality-independent topology of N550 and P900, with maximal detection rate on fronto-central areas, has been consistently reported, suggesting that sensory inputs arise to the cortex avoiding specific primary sensory areas. However, these studies neglected latencies of all KC components as a function of electrode sites.Our aim is to identify, component by component, which topological/dynamical properties of eKCs depend on stimulus modality and which are mainly related to local cortical properties. We measured temporal and morphological features of acoustic, tactile and visual eKCs to disentangle specific sensory excitatory activities from aspecific responses due to local proneness to bistability, measured by means of the N550 descending steepness (synchronization in falling into down state).While confirming the sensory-modality independence of N550 and P900 topology with maximal detection rate in fronto-central areas, four main original results emerge from this study: (i) the topology of P200 latency depends on the sensory modality with earliest waves in the stimulation-related primary sensory areas; (ii) P200 rapidly travels as a cortical excitation; (iii) P200-like excitations when KCs are not evoked are detected over the scalp with significantly smaller amplitudes in fronto-central areas, compared to eKC P200s; and (iv) N550 latency mirrors its mean local steepness which is a function of topological proneness to bistability.From these results we can describe the emergence N550/P900 complex as the interplay between a waxing P200 cortical travel and higher fronto-central proneness to bistability.In conclusion, eKCs exhibit a physiological dichotomy: P200 acts as a traveling cortical excitation whose function is to induce the bistable cortical response (N550/P900), which in turn is crucial for maintaining sleep and unconsciousness. PMID:24513527

Laurino, Marco; Menicucci, Danilo; Piarulli, Andrea; Mastorci, Francesca; Bedini, Remo; Allegrini, Paolo; Gemignani, Angelo

2014-02-01

304

Mollusc Form and Function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Zoo Lab web page features information regarding mollusc form and function. Links are provided to images of snail radula, Veliger larvae, Glochidium larva, squid dissection mount, male squid dissection, freshwater clam dissection mount, freshwater mussel dissection, and a clam model. Each image is labeled and accompanied by a caption describing the function of major structures. The page was developed as a student study guide for practical exams and also provides an outline of the material presented in the lecture portion of the course. It can also provide a "virtual laboratory" experience for those who do not have access to these materials as well as a source of basic zoological information.

Gillis, Rick; Haro, Roger J.; Zoo Lab, University O.

305

Prime Counting Function Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Prime Counting Function model uses the trial division algorithm to compute the number of primes less than or equal to the number n. Although the trial division algorithm is inefficient, we use it to perform a lengthy calculation while a standard EJS simulation thread accumulates and plots data from the parallel computation. Users can vary the number of independent threads and observe the computational time. The Prime Counting Function Model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the model's jar file will run the simulation if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang

2013-10-11

306

Comparisons of power transfer functions and flow transfer functions  

SciTech Connect

Transfer functions may be used to calculate component feedbacks or temperature increments by convolution of the transfer function with the appropriate fractional change in system-quantity. Power-change transfer functions have been reported. The corresponding flow transfer functions for this case, and comparison with the power transfer functions, are reported here. Results of feedback simulation of ramped flow transients using flow transfer functions are also described.

Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

1987-11-15

307

Smoothing by spline functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last years, spline functions have found widespread application, mainly for the purpose of interpolation []. However, there may be a demand to replace strict interpolation by some kind of smoothing. Usually, such a situation occurs if the values of the ordinates are given only approximately, for example if they stem from experimental data. In the case in which,

Christian H. Reinsch

1967-01-01

308

Conjugate flow action functionals  

SciTech Connect

We present a new general framework to construct an action functional for a non-potential field theory. The key idea relies on representing the governing equations relative to a diffeomorphic flow of curvilinear coordinates which is assumed to be functionally dependent on the solution field. Such flow, which will be called the conjugate flow, evolves in space and time similarly to a physical fluid flow of classical mechanics and it can be selected in order to symmetrize the Gâteaux derivative of the field equations with respect to suitable local bilinear forms. This is equivalent to requiring that the governing equations of the field theory can be derived from a principle of stationary action on a Lie group manifold. By using a general operator framework, we obtain the determining equations of such manifold and the corresponding conjugate flow action functional. In particular, we study scalar and vector field theories governed by second-order nonlinear partial differential equations. The identification of transformation groups leaving the conjugate flow action functional invariant could lead to the discovery of new conservation laws in fluid dynamics and other disciplines.

Venturi, Daniele, E-mail: daniele-venturi@brown.edu [Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)] [Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)

2013-11-15

309

Functional neurological symptoms.  

PubMed

Functional neurological symptoms refer to neurological symptoms that are not explained by disease. They may also be called psychogenic, non-organic, somatoform, dissociative or conversion symptoms. The most common functional neurological symptoms are non-epileptic attacks and functional weakness. These are common in neurology and general medical practice, especially in emergency situations, where they can be mistaken for epilepsy or stroke. Many studies have shown that these symptoms often persist, are associated with distress and disability and, in the right hands, have a low rate of misdiagnosis. Physicians are often uncertain how to approach patients with these problems. Are patients making up the symptoms? How can the diagnosis be made confidently? What is the best way to explain the diagnosis to the patient? Does treatment ever help? This review takes readers through these questions with practical tips for avoiding common pitfalls, both in diagnosis and management. There is no good evidence that these symptoms are any more 'made up' than irritable bowel symptoms or chronic pain. The diagnosis should usually be made by a neurologist on the basis of positive signs of inconsistency such as Hoover's sign or the typical features of a non-epileptic attack. A 'functional' model of the symptoms is useful both in thinking about the problem and when explaining the symptoms to the patient. There are many useful steps in management that do not require a detailed understanding of aetiology in an individual patient. PMID:21365066

Stone, J

2011-03-01

310

Oscillating functions and Modelling  

E-print Network

are arbitary constants. These are functions with frequency b/2, period 2 b and amplitude a. The peak values second or Hz which has units of 1/time. Exercises Figure 12(a) shows on the same axes the graphs of y

Vickers, James

311

STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASSIGNMENT  

E-print Network

Section IV STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASSIGNMENT #12;#12;19 SECONDARY STRUCTURE ASSIGNMENT Claus A notice regular macro elements in the 3D structure of practically all known structures: helices and strands (see Chapter 2). These structures were coined protein secondary structure by Linderstrøm

Bourne, Philip E.

312

Objectification and Semiotic Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this paper is to study students' difficulties when they have to ascribe the same meaning to different representations of the same mathematical object. We address two theoretical tools that are at the core of Radford's cultural semiotic and Godino's onto-semiotic approaches: objectification and the semiotic function. The analysis…

Santi, George

2011-01-01

313

Some operator monotone functions  

E-print Network

We prove that the functions t -> (t^q-1)(t^p-1)^{-1} are operator monotone in the positive half-axis for 0 < p < q < 1, and we calculate the two associated canonical representation formulae. The result is used to find new monotone metrics (quantum Fisher information) on the state space of quantum systems.

Frank Hansen

2008-03-17

314

Functions Defined by Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lawrence Moore and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purpose of this module is to carry out an exploration of functions defined by data; to learn about data entry and plotting operations. This is one lesson in a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Moore, Lawrence C.; Smith, David

2010-05-04

315

Balance functions reexamined  

SciTech Connect

The idea of glue clusters, i.e., short-range correlations in the quark-gluon plasma close to freeze-out, is used to estimate the width of balance functions in momentum space. A good agreement is found with the recent measurements of the STAR Collaboration for central Au-Au collisions.

Bialas, A. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, Krakow (Poland) and M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

2011-02-15

316

MODELING FUNCTIONAL LANDSCAPE CONNECTIVITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant challenge for conservation science is to understand the needs of wide-ranging species during the design of nature reserves. Although numerous GIS methods exist to analyze patch composition and structure, few methods readily allow a user to incorporate species behavior and scaling. Here I describe a general approach that allows functional properties of organisms and processes to be modeled

David M. Theobald

317

Lyapunov functions nonlinear spaces  

E-print Network

bottleneck: energy is rarely quadratic 4 · Energy of the pendulum is non quadratic (in any coordinates if the diameter is finite. = tanh 1 4 (A) dH(Ax, Ay) dH(x, y), 1 Tsitsiklis Lyapunov function is a conic

Hafstein, Sigurður Freyr

318

Relativistic Wigner functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Original definition of the Wigner function can be extended in a natural manner to relativistic domain in the framework of quantum field theory. Three such generalizations are described. They cover the cases of the Dirac particles, the photon, and the full electromagnetic field.

Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo

2014-09-01

319

Process for functionalizing alkanes  

DOEpatents

Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons comprises: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons of the formula: R[sub 1]H wherein H represents a hydrogen atom; and R[sub 1] represents a saturated hydrocarbon radical, with a metal complex of the formula: CpRh[P(R[sub 2])[sub 3

Bergman, R.G.; Janowicz, A.H.; Periana, R.A.

1988-05-24

320

Iridescence: a functional perspective  

PubMed Central

In animals, iridescence is generated by the interaction of light with biological tissues that are nanostructured to produce thin films or diffraction gratings. Uniquely among animal visual signals, the study of iridescent coloration contributes to biological and physical sciences by enhancing our understanding of the evolution of communication strategies, and by providing insights into physical optics and inspiring biomimetic technologies useful to humans. Iridescent colours are found in a broad diversity of animal taxa ranging from diminutive marine copepods to terrestrial insects and birds. Iridescent coloration has received a surge of research interest of late, and studies have focused on both characterizing the nanostructures responsible for producing iridescence and identifying the behavioural functions of iridescent colours. In this paper, we begin with a brief description of colour production mechanisms in animals and provide a general overview of the taxonomic distribution of iridescent colours. We then highlight unique properties of iridescent signals and review the proposed functions of iridescent coloration, focusing, in particular, on the ways in which iridescent colours allow animals to communicate with conspecifics and avoid predators. We conclude with a brief overview of non-communicative functions of iridescence in animals. Despite the vast amount of recent work on animal iridescence, our review reveals that many proposed functions of iridescent coloration remain virtually unexplored, and this area is clearly ripe for future research. PMID:19336344

Doucet, Stephanie M.; Meadows, Melissa G.

2009-01-01

321

Functional consequences of hemispherectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Using the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) (WHO, 2001), impairments, activities and social participation are reported in 12 children (mean age at surgery 5.9 years) who were inves- tigated before and three times over a 2-year period after hemispherectomy. Impairments were assessed (i) in terms of seizure frequency (Engel classification) and seizure severity (HASS) and (ii)

R. van Empelen; A. Jennekens-Schinkel; E. Buskens; P. J. M. Helders; O. van Nieuwenhuizen

2004-01-01

322

Movement with Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"These three investigations use movement to reinforce the concepts of linear functions and systems of equations. Multiple representations are used throughout, along with tools such as motion detectors and remote-controlled cars. Students explore how position, speed, and varying motion are reflected in graphs, tables, and algebraic equations." from NCTM Illuminations.

Mathematics, Illuminations N.

2009-12-04

323

Functional Extended Redundancy Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We propose a functional version of extended redundancy analysis that examines directional relationships among several sets of multivariate variables. As in extended redundancy analysis, the proposed method posits that a weighed composite of each set of exogenous variables influences a set of endogenous variables. It further considers endogenous…

Hwang, Heungsun; Suk, Hye Won; Lee, Jang-Han; Moskowitz, D. S.; Lim, Jooseop

2012-01-01

324

Molecular Cell Nonproteolytic Functions  

E-print Network

RING domain proteins contain substrate-binding modules and function directly as E3s (e.g., IAPs, MDM2 that contain a homology to E6AP C-terminus (HECT) domain and those that contain a really inter- esting new gene

Bedwell, David M.

325

Thyroid Function Tests  

MedlinePLUS

... T4 TSH Thyroid 2 Thyroid Tests Why do health care providers perform thyroid tests? Health care providers perform thyroid tests to assess how well ... at www.endocrine.niddk.nih.gov. What blood tests do health care providers use to check a person’s thyroid function? ...

326

A Functional Housing Market  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

High school teacher Susan Boone asks students to complete mathematical problems on housing prices using the Internet at the Functional Housing Market lesson site. Detailed instructions are provided, and a collection of real estate links from Houston, TX and beyond gives students a sense of real estate information on the Web.

327

Split Brain Functioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizing recent research, this article defines the functions performed by the left and right sides of the human brain. Attention is given to the right side, or the nondominant side, of the brain and its potential in terms of perception of the environment, music, art, geometry, and the aesthetics. (JC)

Cassel, Russell N.

1978-01-01

328

Laboratory Density Functionals  

E-print Network

We compare several definitions of the density of a self-bound system, such as a nucleus, in relation with its center-of-mass zero-point motion. A trivial deconvolution relates the internal density to the density defined in the laboratory frame. This result is useful for the practical definition of density functionals.

B. G. Giraud

2007-07-26

329

Aging and Immune Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well recognized that zinc is an essential trace element, influencing growth and affecting the development and integrity of the immune system. Research has begun to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying the action of zinc on the immune function. It is clear that this trace element has a broad impact on key immunity mediators, such as enzymes, thymic peptides

David E. Harrison; CNRS UMR; Hôpital Necker

1975-01-01

330

Zinc and immune function  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well recognized that zinc is an essential trace element, influencing growth and affecting the development and integrity of the immune system. Research has begun to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying the action of zinc on the immune function. It is clear that this trace element has a broad impact on key immunity mediators, such as enzymes, thymic peptides

M Dardenne

2002-01-01

331

Two Variable Function Pump  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Enter two complex numbers (z and c) as ordered pairs of real numbers, then click a button to iterate step by step. The iterates are graphed in the x-y plane and printed out in table form. This is an introduction to the idea of prisoners/escapees in iterated functions and the calculation of fractal Julia sets.

332

Pulmonary function in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, and so it is of interest to know how its function is altered in the weightlessness of space. Studies on National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Spacelabs during the last 4 years have provided the first comprehensive data on the extensive changes in pulmonary function that occur in sustained microgravity. Measurements of pulmonary function were made on astronauts during space shuttle flights lasting 9 and 14 days and were compared with extensive ground-based measurements before and after the flights. Compared with preflight measurements, cardiac output increased by 18% during space flight, and stroke volume increased by 46%. Paradoxically, the increase in stroke volume occurred in the face of reductions in central venous pressure and circulating blood volume. Diffusing capacity increased by 28%, and the increase in the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane was unexpectedly large based on findings in normal gravity. The change in the alveolar membrane may reflect the effects of uniform filling of the pulmonary capillary bed. Distributions of blood flow and ventilation throughout the lung were more uniform in space, but some unevenness remained, indicating the importance of nongravitational factors. A surprising finding was that airway closing volume was approximately the same in microgravity and in normal gravity, emphasizing the importance of mechanical properties of the airways in determining whether they close. Residual volume was unexpectedly reduced by 18% in microgravity, possibly because of uniform alveolar expansion. The findings indicate that pulmonary function is greatly altered in microgravity, but none of the changes observed so far will apparently limit long-term space flight. In addition, the data help to clarify how gravity affects pulmonary function in the normal gravity environment on Earth.

West, J. B.; Elliott, A. R.; Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.

1997-01-01

333

Functional relations for the density-functional exchange and correlation functionals connecting functionals at three densities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that the density-functional-theory exchange and correlation functionals satisfy 0=?Ehx[?N]+2Ec?[?N]-?Ehx[?N-1?]-2Ec?[?N-1?]+2?d3r'[?N-10(r)-?N-1?(r)]v0([?N];r)+?d3r'[?N-10(r)-?N-1?(r)]r·?v0([?N];r)+?d3r'?N(r)r·?vc?([?N];r)-?d3r'?N-1?(r)r·?vc?([?N-1?];r)-?d3r'f?(r)r·?vhxc?([?N];r)-2?d3r'f?(r)vhxc?([?N];r). In the derivation of this equation the adiabatic connection formulation is used, where the ground-state density of an N-electron system ?N is kept constant independent of the electron-electron coupling strength ?. Here Ehx[?] is the Hartree plus exchange energy, Ec?[?] is the correlation energy, vhxc?[?] is the Hartree plus exchange-correlation potential, vc[?] is the correlation potential, and v0[?]is the Kohn-Sham potential. The charge densities ?N and ?N-1? are the N- and (N-1)-electron ground-state densities of the same Hamiltonian at electron-electron coupling strength ?. f?(r)=?N(r)-?N-1?(r) is the Fukui function. This equation can be useful in testing the internal self-consistency of approximations to the exchange and correlation functionals. As an example the identity is tested on the analytical Hooke's atom charge density for some frequently used approximate functionals.

Joubert, Daniel P.

2012-03-01

334

Pulmonary Function Testing in Children  

MedlinePLUS

... is spirometry? Spirometry is the most common lung function test done. It measures how much air is ... a number like you get when you Pulmonary Function Testing in Children Pulmonary function tests (PFT’s) measure ...

335

Radial Basis Function Neural Network method of determining functional relationships for Quality Function Deployment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality function deployment (QFD) is a systematic approach that captures customer requirements and translates them, through house of quality (HOQ), into engineering characteristics of product. As the functional relationships between customer requirements and engineering characteristics in QFD are uncertain, unclear and fuzzy, radial basis function (RBF) to determine the functional relationships for QFD is presented, and a QFD functional relationships

Li Xin; Huang Lu-cheng

2009-01-01

336

The Relationships between Weight Functions, Geometric Functions,and Compliance Functions in Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics  

SciTech Connect

Linear elastic fracture mechanics is widely used in industry because it established simple and explicit relationships between the permissible loading conditions and the critical crack size that is allowed in a structure. Stress intensity factors are the above-mentioned functional expressions that relate load with crack size through geometric functions or weight functions. Compliance functions are to determine the crack/flaw size in a structure when optical inspection is inconvenient. As a result, geometric functions, weight functions and compliance functions have been intensively studied to determine the stress intensity factor expressions for different geometries. However, the relations between these functions have received less attention. This work is therefore to investigate the intrinsic relationships between these functions. Theoretical derivation was carried out and the results were verified on single-edge cracked plate under tension and bending. It is found out that the geometric function is essentially the non-dimensional weight function at the loading point. The compliance function is composed of two parts: a varying part due to crack extension and a constant part from the intact structure if no crack exists. The derivative of the compliance function at any location is the product of the geometric function and the weight function at the evaluation point. Inversely, the compliance function can be acquired by the integration of the product of the geometric function and the weight function with respect to the crack size. The integral constant is just the unchanging compliance from the intact structure. Consequently, a special application of the relations is to obtain the compliance functions along a crack once the geometric function and weight functions are known. Any of the three special functions can be derived once the other two functions are known. These relations may greatly simplify the numerical process in obtaining either geometric functions, weight functions or compliance functions for new test geometries.

Yuan, Rong

2007-02-06

337

Ceruloplasmin metabolism and function.  

PubMed

Ceruloplasmin is a serum ferroxidase that contains greater than 95% of the copper found in plasma. This protein is a member of the multicopper oxidase family, an evolutionarily conserved group of proteins that utilize copper to couple substrate oxidation with the four-electron reduction of oxygen to water. Despite the need for copper in ceruloplasmin function, this protein plays no essential role in the transport or metabolism of this metal. Aceruloplasminemia is a neurodegenerative disease resulting from inherited loss-of-function mutations in the ceruloplasmin gene. Characterization of this disorder revealed a critical physiological role for ceruloplasmin in determining the rate of iron efflux from cells with mobilizable iron stores and has provided new insights into human iron metabolism and nutrition. PMID:12055353

Hellman, Nathan E; Gitlin, Jonathan D

2002-01-01

338

Macrophage function in atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Cation channels of the Transient Receptor Potential Canonical (TRPC) group, which belong to the larger TRP superfamily of channel proteins, are critical players in cardiovascular disease. Recent studies underscored a role of TRPC3 in macrophage survival and efferocytosis, two critical events in atherosclerosis lesion development. Also, other members of the TRP channel superfamily are found expressed in monocytes/macrophages, where they participate in processes that might be of significance to atherogenesis. These observations set a framework for future studies aimed at defining the ultimate functions not only of TRPC3, but probably other TRP channels, in macrophage biology. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide a timely revision of existing evidence on the role of members of the TRP channel superfamily, in particular TRPCs, in macrophages and discuss it in the context of the macrophage’s function in atherogenesis. PMID:22909953

Tano, Jean-Yves K.; Lee, Robert H.; Vazquez, Guillermo

2012-01-01

339

Hypoprolactinemia and ovarian function.  

PubMed

Thirty-two patients with ovarian hyperstimulation were randomized to receive bromocriptine or placebo from cycle day 5 onward. Bromocriptine decreased serum and follicular fluid prolactin (PRL), accelerated ovarian follicle growth, increased serum and follicular fluid estradiol, lowered luteal phase progesterone, and shortened the luteal phase length of the cycle. The maximal luteal phase estradiol and progesterone concentrations correlated with each other in the placebo group, but not in the bromocriptine group. These findings indicate that hypoprolactinemia interferes with ovarian function. The unchanged concentrations of gonadotropic hormones and pattern of luteinizing hormone pulsation during bromocriptine suggest direct ovarian effects of hypoprolactinemia. Because PRL suppression enhanced follicular responses and inhibited corpus luteum formation and function, the follicular and corpus luteum actions of PRL may be different. PMID:3342895

Kauppila, A; Martikainen, H; Puistola, U; Reinilä, M; Rönnberg, L

1988-03-01

340

Process for functionalizing alkanes  

DOEpatents

Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons selectively in the terminal position comprises: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons with a metal complex CpRhPMe/sub 3/H/sub 2/ in the presence of ultraviolet radiation at -60/sup 0/ to -17/sup 0/C to form a hydridoalkyl complex CpRhPMe/sub 3/RH; (b) reacting said hydridoalkyl complex with a haloform CHX/sub 3/ at -60/sup 0/ to -17/sup 0/C to form the corresponding haloalkyl complex of step (a) CpRhPMe/sub 3/RX; and (c) reacting said haloalkyl complex with halogen -60 to 25/sup 0/C to form a functional haloalkyl compound.

Bergman, R.G.; Janowicz, A.H.; Periana-Pillai, R.A.

1984-06-12

341

Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and system for functionalizing a collection of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A selected precursor gas (e.g., H2 or F2 or CnHm) is irradiated to provide a cold plasma of selected target species particles, such as atomic H or F, in a first chamber. The target species particles are d irected toward an array of CNTs located in a second chamber while suppressing transport of ultraviolet radiation to the second chamber. A CNT array is functionalized with the target species particles, at or below room temperature, to a point of saturation, in an exposure time interval no longer than about 30 sec. *Discrimination against non-target species is provided by (i) use of a target species having a lifetime that is much greater than a lifetime of a non-target species and/or (2) use of an applied magnetic field to discriminate between charged particle trajectories for target species and for non-target species.

Khare, Bishun N. (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

2009-01-01

342

Nuclear Parton Distribution Functions  

E-print Network

We study nuclear effects of charged current deep inelastic neutrino-iron scattering in the framework of a chi^2 analysis of parton distribution functions (PDFs). We extract a set of iron PDFs which are used to compute x_Bj-dependent and Q^2-dependent nuclear correction factors for iron structure functions which are required in global analyses of free nucleon PDFs. We compare our results with nuclear correction factors from neutrino-nucleus scattering models and correction factors for charged-lepton--iron scattering. We find that, except for very high x_Bj, our correction factors differ in both shape and magnitude from the correction factors of the models and charged-lepton scattering.

I. Schienbein; J. Y. Yu; C. Keppel; J. G. Morfin; F. Olness; J. F. Owens

2008-12-17

343

Functional genomics of trypanosomatids.  

PubMed

The decoding of the Tritryp reference genomes nearly 7 years ago provided a first peek into the biology of pathogenic trypanosomatids and a blueprint that has paved the way for genome-wide studies. Although 60-70% of the predicted protein coding genes in Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania major remain unannotated, the functional genomics landscape is rapidly changing. Facilitated by the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies, improved structural and functional annotation and genes and their products are emerging. Information is also growing for the interactions between cellular components as transcriptomes, regulatory networks and metabolomes are characterized, ushering in a new era of systems biology. Simultaneously, the launch of comparative sequencing of multiple strains of kinetoplastids will finally lead to the investigation of a vast, yet to be explored, evolutionary and pathogenomic space. PMID:22132795

Choi, J; El-Sayed, N M

2012-01-01

344

Executive functions in synesthesia.  

PubMed

In grapheme-color synesthesia, a number or letter can evoke two different and possibly conflicting (real and synesthetic) color sensations at the same time. In this study, we investigate the relationship between synesthesia and executive control functions. First, no general skill differences were obtained between synesthetes and non-synesthetes in classic executive control paradigms. Furthermore, classic executive control effects did not interact with synesthetic behavioral effects. Third, we found support for our hypothesis that inhibition of a synesthetic color takes effort and time. Finally, individual differences analyses showed no relationship between the two skills; performance on a 'normal' Stroop task does not predict performance on a synesthetic Stroop task. Across four studies, the current results consistently show no clear relationship between executive control functions and synesthetic behavioral effects. This raises the question of which mechanisms are at play in synesthetic 'management' during the presence of two conflicting (real and synesthetic) sensations. PMID:23313937

Rouw, Romke; van Driel, Joram; Knip, Koen; Richard Ridderinkhof, K

2013-03-01

345

Density Functional Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of density functional theory (DFT) to the study of the structure and reactivity of some molecules with unpaired electrons (radicals) performed by our group is presented. The results describe the application of LSD, gradient corrected and hybrid DFT methods to several small molecules. On average the results are as good as highly-correlated post-Hartree-Fock methods, but still some problems remain to be solved

Ventura, Oscar N.; Kieninger, Martina; Irving, Kenneth

346

Vitamins in Mitochondrial Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamins are essential in metabolic reactions in the body as catalysts in enzymatic reactions or as coenzymes carrying chemical\\u000a groups between enzymes. Many vitamins function in enzyme complexes participating in mitochondrial respiration and energy production\\u000a or they are required for synthesis of mitochondrial respiratory chain components. Biosynthesis of the component of mitochondrial\\u000a respiratory chain, coenzyme Q, is dependent on vitamins

Jarmila Kucharská

347

Executive Functioning in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

The executive function (EF) is a set of abilities, which allows us to invoke voluntary control of our behavioral responses. These functions enable human beings to develop and carry out plans, make up analogies, obey social rules, solve problems, adapt to unexpected circumstances, do many tasks simultaneously, and locate episodes in time and place. EF includes divided attention and sustained attention, working memory (WM), set-shifting, flexibility, planning, and the regulation of goal directed behavior and can be defined as a brain function underlying the human faculty to act or think not only in reaction to external events but also in relation with internal goals and states. EF is mostly associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). Besides EF, PFC is involved in self-regulation of behavior, i.e., the ability to regulate behavior according to internal goals and constraints, particularly in less structured situations. Self-regulation of behavior is subtended by ventral medial/orbital PFC. Impairment of EF is one of the most commonly observed deficits in schizophrenia through the various disease stages. Impairment in tasks measuring conceptualization, planning, cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency, ability to solve complex problems, and WM occur in schizophrenia. Disorders detected by executive tests are consistent with evidence from functional neuroimaging, which have shown PFC dysfunction in patients while performing these kinds of tasks. Schizophrenics also exhibit deficit in odor identifying, decision-making, and self-regulation of behavior suggesting dysfunction of the orbital PFC. However, impairment in executive tests is explained by dysfunction of prefronto-striato-thalamic, prefronto-parietal, and prefronto-temporal neural networks mainly. Disorders in EFs may be considered central facts with respect to schizophrenia and it has been suggested that negative symptoms may be explained by that executive dysfunction. PMID:23805107

Orellana, Gricel; Slachevsky, Andrea

2013-01-01

348

Lower gastrointestinal functions.  

PubMed

The human colon serves to absorb water and electrolytes, store intraluminal contents until elimination is socially convenient, and salvage nutrients by bacterial metabolism of carbohydrates that have not been absorbed in the small intestine. The anorectum is responsible for fecal continence and defecation. This article is a broad perspective of the current status and a personal perspective of future challenges in understanding lower gastrointestinal functions in health and disease in humans. PMID:18402647

Bharucha, A E

2008-05-01

349

Infant Pulmonary Function Testing  

PubMed Central

Infant pulmonary function testing has evolved from a research technique into a diagnostic tool. As such, new current procedural terminology (CPT) codes have been created and are available for use as of January 1, 2010. The technology now available has a range of applications. Through a series of vignettes, this article illustrates the methodology of the tests, some of their applications, and how to code and bill for the procedures. PMID:21540218

Davis, Stephanie D.

2011-01-01

350

Functionalized calix[4]pyrroles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis and properties of a number of functionalized calix(4)pyrroles are described. To date, two generalized preparative approaches have been pursued. The first involves modifying the basic pyrrole-plus-ketone synthesis of calix(4)pyrrole by using modified precursors or by co-condensing more than one ketone with pyrrole. The second approach relies on the reaction of a pre-formed calix(4)pyrrole with an electrophile. In both

Jonathan L. Sessler; Karolina Jursikova; Hidekazu Miyaji; John W. Genge; Nicolai A. Tvermoes; William E. Allen; James A. Shiver; Philip A. Gale; Vladimir Krd

1998-01-01

351

Treatment of functional dyspepsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common reason a patient presents with upper gastrointestinal symptoms for medical care. Although\\u000a treatment of FD remains expensive, the agents are rarely used in a systematic manner; the majority of treatments are empirical\\u000a and the results short lived once therapy is ceased. This is partly due to the lack of consistent pathophysiologic markers\\u000a in

Smita L. S. Halder; Nicholas J. Talley

2005-01-01

352

Functional Derivatives of Polyisobutene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The methods of synthesis of isobutene polymers with end groups of different types are examined. It is shown that advances in the synthesis of these compounds are associated with the progress in the field of the regulation of the cationic polymerisation and copolymerisation of isobutene and the degradation of isobutene polymers and copolymers. Examples of the employment of functional derivatives of isobutene polymers in various branches of technology are presented. The bibliography includes 102 references.

Sangalov, Yu A.; Yasman, Yu B.

1985-07-01

353

Wave Function Ontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

I argue that the wave function ontology for quantum mechanics is an undesirable ontology. This ontology holds that the fundamental space in which entities evolve is not three-dimensional, but instead 3N-dimensional, where N is the number of particles standardly thought to exist in three-dimensional space. I show that the state of three-dimensional objects does not supervene on the state of

Bradley Monton

2002-01-01

354

Insomnia and daytime functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from the present review challenge the assumption that daytime functioning deficits are associated with insomnia. Objectively-measured daytime sleepiness is not elevated in people with insomnia, and most cognitive\\/psychomotor tasks do not indicate deficits in people with insomnia. In contrast, a number of studies have found that people with insomnia self-report daytime symptoms such as elevated fatigue, mood disturbance and

Brant W. Riedel; Kenneth L. Lichstein

2000-01-01

355

ADHD and family functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of what is known about attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and family functioning has been derived from studies\\u000a that used children with ADHD as the starting point for their investigations. Such research has consistently reported that\\u000a parent- child interactions are often characterized by a high degree of negativity and conflict. Also commonly found in such\\u000a families are the use of less

Arthur D. Anastopoulos; Jennifer L. Sommer; Nicole K. Schatz

2009-01-01

356

Functional nanoparticles in cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present an overview of our recent studies regarding the interactions of functional nanoparticles with the human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cellular uptake, cytotoxicity and laser hyperthermia of cells loaded with gold nanoparticles are discussed. Particles with different shape, size and charge are compared and evaluated to conclude at the most appropriate types for specific biomedical applications (i.e. drug delivery, laser hyperthermia).

Bartczak, Dorota; Muskens, Otto L.; Nitti, Simone; Sanchez-Elsner, Tilman; Millar, Timothy M.; Kanaras, Antonios G.

2012-03-01

357

Perspectives of "Functional Failure"  

PubMed Central

The present dialogue piece briefly examines six perspectives of functional failure (individual-level, societal-level, life spheres impacted, number of severe consequences, attribution of consequences to drug misuse, and socio-environmental generalizability) as they might apply to seven degrees of drug misuse (constant, dependence, heavy, binging, controlled use, “dry,” sober). Variation in judgments of failure is posited across the perspectives and across degrees of drug misuse. PMID:23186439

Sussman, Steve

2014-01-01

358

Density Functions for Navigation Function Based Savvas G. Loizou  

E-print Network

1 Density Functions for Navigation Function Based Systems Savvas G. Loizou Ali Jadbabaie GRASP,jadbabai}@grasp.upenn.edu Abstract In this paper, we present a scheme for constructing density functions for systems that are almost the existence of density functions for such systems, such results are only existential and the construction

Loizou, Savvas G.

359

Relating the Implementation Techniques of Functional and Functional Logic Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional logic languages are declarative programming languages that integratethe programming paradigms of functional and logic languages within a single framework.They are extensions of functional languages with principles derived from logicprogramming. Narrowing, the evaluation mechanism of functional logic languages,can be defined as a generalization of reduction, the evaluation mechanism of purelyfunctional languages. The unidirectional pattern matching, which is used for parameter...

Rita Loogen; RWTH Aachen

1993-01-01

360

Functionalized Amorphous Aluminosilicates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alkali treated aluminosilicate (geopolymer) was functionalized by surfactant to increase the hydrophobicity for making Pickering emulsion for the first part of this work. In the first part of this study, alkali treated metakaolin was functionalized with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide ((C16H33)N(CH 3)3Br, CTAB). The electrostatic interaction between this quaternary ammonium and the surface of the aluminosilicate which has negative charge has taken place. The particles then were used to prepare Pickering emulsion. The resulting stable dispersions, obtained very fast at very simple conditions with low ratio of aluminosilicate to liquid phase. In the second part, the interaction between geopolymer and glycerol was studied to see the covalent grafting of the geopolymer for making geopolymer composite. The composite material would be the basis material to be used as support catalyst, thin coating reagent and flame retardant material and so on, Variety of techniques, Thermogravimetric (TGA), Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), FTIR, Solid state NMR, Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), BET surface area, Elemental analysis (CHN), TEM, SEM and Optical microscopy were used to characterize the functionalized geopolymer.

Mesgar, Milad

361

A Generalized Wall Function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The asymptotic solutions, described by Tennekes and Lumley (1972), for surface flows in a channel, pipe or boundary layer at large Reynolds numbers are revisited. These solutions can be extended to more complex flows such as the flows with various pressure gradients, zero wall stress and rough surfaces, etc. In computational fluid dynamics (CFD), these solutions can be used as the boundary conditions to bridge the near-wall region of turbulent flows so that there is no need to have the fine grids near the wall unless the near-wall flow structures are required to resolve. These solutions are referred to as the wall functions. Furthermore, a generalized and unified law of the wall which is valid for whole surface layer (including viscous sublayer, buffer layer and inertial sublayer) is analytically constructed. The generalized law of the wall shows that the effect of both adverse and favorable pressure gradients on the surface flow is very significant. Such as unified wall function will be useful not only in deriving analytic expressions for surface flow properties but also bringing a great convenience for CFD methods to place accurate boundary conditions at any location away from the wall. The extended wall functions introduced in this paper can be used for complex flows with acceleration, deceleration, separation, recirculation and rough surfaces.

Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Povinelli, Louis A.; Liu, Nan-Suey; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Lumley, J. L.

1999-01-01

362

Functional ("psychogenic") amnesia.  

PubMed

Patients who present with severely impaired memory functioning without a discernable neurological cause typically have experienced one or more severely stressful life events. These patients, who are described as having "psychogenic" or "dissociative" amnesia, typically differ from patients with the neurologic amnestic syndrome in that memory for their personal life histories is much more severely affected than is their ability to learn and retain new information; that is, they have isolated retrograde amnesia. Recent cognitive and brain imaging research has begun to reveal some of the cerebral mechanisms underlying functional amnesia, but this disorder remains best conceptualized as a relatively rare form of illness-simulating behavior rather than a disease. Neuropsychological assessment is often useful in revealing the circumscribed nature of the patient's performance deficits, the spared functions that can be brought to bear in rehabilitation, and the emotional disorders requiring psychiatric treatment. Controlled treatment trials are nonexistent, but case reports suggest that supportive psychotherapy, systematic relaxation training, hypnosis, and sedative/anxiolytic medications are useful in facilitating recovery. These treatments are often combined with a psychoeducational approach that essentially reteaches the patient his or her life story. PMID:16791779

Brandt, Jason; Van Gorp, Wilfred G

2006-07-01

363

Pediatric Arm Function Test  

PubMed Central

Objective Although there are several validated upper-extremity measures in young children with cerebral palsy (CP), none primarily assess capacity to carry out actions and tasks with the more-affected arm. To address this need, we developed the Pediatric Arm Function Test (PAFT), which involves behavioral observation of how children use their more-affected arm during structured play in the laboratory or clinic. This paper evaluates the reliability and validity of the PAFT Functional Ability scale. Design In Study 1, 20 children between 2–8 years with a wide range of upper-extremity hemiparesis due to CP completed the PAFT on two occasions separated by three weeks. In Study 2, 41 children between 2–6 years with similar characteristics completed the PAFT and received a grade reflecting severity of more-affected arm motor impairment. Results In Study 1, the PAFT test-retest reliability correlation coefficient was 0.74. In Study 2, convergent validity was supported by a strong, inverse correlation (r = ?0.6, p < .001) between PAFT scores and grade of impairment. Conclusions The PAFT Functional Ability scale is a reliable and valid measure of more-affected arm motor capacity in children with CP between 2–6 years. It can be employed to measure upper-extremity neurorehabilitation outcome. PMID:23103486

Uswatte, Gitendra; Taub, Edward; Griffin, Angi; Rowe, Jan; Vogtle, Laura; Barman, Joydip

2012-01-01

364

Recursive Green's function registration.  

PubMed

Non-parametric image registration is still among the most challenging problems in both computer vision and medical imaging. Here, one tries to minimize a joint functional that is comprised of a similarity measure and a regularizer in order to obtain a reasonable displacement field that transforms one image to the other. A common way to solve this problem is to formulate a necessary condition for an optimizer, which in turn leads to a system of partial differential equations (PDEs). In general, the most time consuming part of the registration task is to find a numerical solution for such a system. In this paper, we present a generalized and efficient numerical scheme for solving such PDEs simply by applying 1-dimensional recursive filtering to the right hand side of the system based on the Green's function of the differential operator that corresponds to the chosen regularizer. So in the end we come up with a general linear algorithm. We present the associated Green's function for the diffusive and curvature regularizers and show how one may efficiently implement the whole process by using recursive filter approximation. Finally, we demonstrate the capability of the proposed method on realistic examples. PMID:20879358

Beuthien, Björn; Kamen, Ali; Fischer, Bernd

2010-01-01

365

[Visuospatial functions and prematurity].  

PubMed

Visuospatial functions are very important in learning process and development of abstract thought during childhood. Several studies show that preterm and low birth weight infants obtain lower scores in test that assess cognitive functions, specially in the first year of life. These differences are attenuated over time, but a developmental delay that affects working memory and visuospatial process still persists. It is unclear what factors are involved in development of these functions, and pre- or perinatal factors may interfere with the proper conduct of the same, but have been described anatomical and physiological differences between the preterm and term brain that could explain somewhere in these alterations. The different selective vulnerability to hypoxia between immature brain in which preoligodendrocytes and subplate neurons predominate, and mature brain, determine differences in the pattern of injury from hypoxia with greater involvement of the periventricular white matter in preterm children. This lesional pattern leaves to a dysfunction in attentional and visuospatial process, due to the increased vulnerability of the regions involved in the dorsal pathway of visual processing. PMID:25342055

Miranda-Herrero, M C; Pascual-Pascual, S I; Barredo-Valderrama, E; Vazquez-Lopez, M; de Castro-De Castro, P

2014-11-01

366

Mitochondria and Endothelial Function  

PubMed Central

In contrast to their role in other cell types with higher energy demands, mitochondria in endothelial cells primarily function in signaling cellular responses to environmental cues. This article provides an overview of key aspects of mitochondrial biology in endothelial cells, including subcellular location, biogenesis, dynamics, autophagy, ROS production and signaling, calcium homeostasis, regulated cell death, and heme biosynthesis. In each section, we introduce key concepts and then review studies showing the importance of that mechanism to endothelial control of vasomotor tone, angiogenesis, and inflammatory activation. We particularly highlight the small number of clinical and translational studies that have investigated each mechanism in human subjects. Finally, we review interventions that target different aspects of mitochondrial function and their effects on endothelial function. The ultimate goal of such research is the identification of new approaches for therapy. The reviewed studies make it clear that mitochondria are important in endothelial physiology and pathophysiology. A great deal of work will be needed, however, before mitochondria-directed therapies are available for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23580773

Kluge, Matthew A.; Fetterman, Jessica L.; Vita, Joseph A.

2013-01-01

367

Correcting Correlation Function Measurements  

E-print Network

Correlation functions measured as a function of $\\Delta \\eta, \\Delta \\phi$ have emerged as a powerful tool to study the dynamics of particle production in nuclear collisions at high energy. They are however subject, like any other observables, to instrumental effects which must be properly accounted for to extract meaningful physics results. We compare the merits of several techniques used towards measurement of these correlation functions in nuclear collisions. We discuss and distinguish the effects of finite acceptance, and detection efficiency that may vary with collision parameters such as the position of the event in the detector and the instantaneous luminosity of the beam. We focus in particular on instrumental effects which break the factorization of the particle pair detection efficiency, and describe a technique to recover the robustness of correlation observables. We finally introduce a multi-dimensional weight method to correct for efficiencies that vary simultaneously with particle pseudo rapidity, azimuthal angle, transverse momentum, and the collision vertex position. The method can be generalized to account for any number of "event variables" that may break the factorability of the pair efficiency.

Shantam Ravan; Prabhat Pujahari; Sidharth Prasad; Claude A. Pruneau

2013-11-15

368

Development of functional foods.  

PubMed

Recent advances in intestinal microbiota research are the background for the appearance of functional foods. Lactic fermentation products are included in the functional foods and classified into 3 groups based on their mechanisms of action: probiotics, prebiotics and biogenics. Probiotics are viable microorganisms, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, that beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal bacterial balance. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients, such as oligosaccharides and dietary fiber, that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth or activities of beneficial intestinal bacteria in the colon and thus improve the health of the hosts. Biogenics are biologically active peptides, including immunopotentiators (biological response modifier: BRM), plant flavonoids, etc. They act directly or indirectly through modulation of intestinal microbiota on the health of the hosts. Thus, functional foods enhance bioregulation such as stresses, appetite and absorption; biodefence, such as immunity and suppression of allergies; prevent diseases, including diarrhea, constipation, cancer, cholesterolemia and diabetes; and suppress aging through immunostimulation as well as suppression of mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, oxidation processes, intestinal putrefaction, and cholesterolemia. PMID:25032085

Mitsuoka, Tomotari

2014-01-01

369

Lymphocyte Functions in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To understand the mechanism of immunity impairment in space it is important to analyze the direct effects of space-related conditions on different lymphocytes functions. Since 1992, we are investigating the effect of modeled and true microgravity (MG) on numerous lymphocyte functions. We had shown that modeled (MMG) and true microgravity inhibit lymphocyte locomotion through type I collagen. Modeled microgravity also suppresses polyclonal and antigen-specific lymphocyte activation. Polyclonal activation of lymphocytes prior to exposure to MMG abrogates the MG-induced inhibition of lymphocyte locomotion. The relationship between activation deficits and the loss of locomotion in MG was investigated using PKC activation by phorbol ester (PMA) and calcium ionophore (ionomycin). Direct activation of PKC by PMA substantially restored the MMG-inhibited lymphocyte locomotion and PHA-induced lymphocyte activation lonomycin by itself did not restore either locomotion or activation of the lymphocytes, indicating that these changes are not related to the impairment in the calcium flux in MMG. Treatment of lymphocytes with PMA before exposure to MMG prevented the loss of locomotion. It was observed that DNA synthesis is not necessary for restoration of locomotion since mitomicin C treated and untreated cells recovered their locomotion to the same level after PKC activation. Our recent data indicate that microgravity may selectively effect the expression of novel Ca2+ independent isoforms of PKC, in particularly PKC sigma and delta. This provides a new insight in understanding of the mechanisms of MG-sensitive cellular functions.

Pellis, Neal R.; Risin, Diane; Sundaresan, A.; Cooper, D.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

370

[Chewing and cognitive function].  

PubMed

Chewing does not only crush food to aid swallowing and digestion; it also helps to relieve stress and regulate cognitive functions, including alertness and executive function. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving. In addition, it has been shown in the elderly that a decrease in the number of residual teeth is related to dementia onset. These findings suggest a link between chewing and maintaining memory and attention. Recently, many studies regarding the effects of chewing on memory and attention were conducted using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). When a working memory task was used, the middle frontal gyrus in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed greater activation in addition to producing higher alertness after chewing. Furthermore, using an attentional network test, reaction time shortened, and the anterior cingulate cortex and left frontal gyrus were both activated for the executive network. From these results, it is suggested that chewing elevates alertness, consequently leading to improvements in cognitive performance. In this review, we introduce findings concerning the effects of chewing on cognitive performance, and discuss the neuronal mechanisms underlying these effects. PMID:24371128

Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru

2014-01-01

371

Functional ingredients from microalgae.  

PubMed

A wide variety of natural sources are under investigation to evaluate their possible use for new functional ingredient formulation. Some records attested the traditional and ancient use of wild harvested microalgae as human food but their cultivation for different purposes started about 40 years ago. The most popular species are Arthrospira (traditional name, Spirulina), Chlorella spp., Dunaliella spp. and Haematococcus spp. Microalgae provide a bewildering array of opportunities to develop healthier food products using innovative approaches and a number of different strategies. Compared to other natural sources of bioactive ingredients, microalgae have many advantages such as their huge biodiversity, the possibility to grow in arid land and with limited fresh water consumption and the flexibility of their metabolism, which could be adapted to produce specific molecules. All these factors led to very sustainable production making microalgae eligible as one of the most promising foods for the future, particularly as source of proteins, lipids and phytochemicals. In this work, a revision of the knowledge about the use of microalgae as food and as a source of functional ingredients has been performed. The most interesting results in the field are presented and commented upon, focusing on the different species of microalgae and the activity of the nutritionally relevant compounds. A summary of the health effects obtained together with pros and cons in the adoption of this natural source as functional food ingredients is also proposed. PMID:24957182

Buono, Silvia; Langellotti, Antonio Luca; Martello, Anna; Rinna, Francesca; Fogliano, Vincenzo

2014-08-01

372

Galaxy cosmological mass function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: This paper studies the galaxy cosmological mass function (GCMF) in a semi-empirical relativistic approach that uses observational data provided by recent galaxy redshift surveys. Methods: Starting from a previously presented relation between the mass-to-light ratio, the selection function obtained from the luminosity function (LF) data and the luminosity density, the average luminosity L, and the average galactic mass ?g were computed in terms of the redshift. ?g was also alternatively estimated by means of a method that uses the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF). Comparison of these two forms of deriving the average galactic mass allowed us to infer a possible bias introduced by the selection criteria of the survey. We used the FORS Deep Field galaxy survey sample of 5558 galaxies in the redshift range 0.5 function, but whose fitted parameter values are different from the values found in the literature for the GSMF. Conclusions: This GCMF behavior follows the theoretical predictions from the cold dark matter models in which the less massive objects form first, followed later by more massive ones. In the range 0.5

Lopes, Amanda R.; Iribarrem, Alvaro; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.; Stoeger, William R.

2014-12-01

373

[Functional pathophysiology of consciousness].  

PubMed

Consciousness (Latin conscientia "moral conscience"), according to the English philosopher John Locke (1632-1704) [103], is the awareness of all that occurs in the mind of a person, whereas the American philosopher John Searle (2000) defined it as "inner qualitative, subjective states and processes of awareness". In modern science it is defined as a continuous state of full awareness of the Self and one's relationship to the external and internal environment, describing the degree of wakefulness in which an organism recognizes stimuli. This widely discussed biological term for complex neuronal processes that allow an individuum to recognize itself and its environment and to act accordingly, has been and still is the subject of much research in philosophy and natural/neuroscience. Its definition is often used for awareness and recognition, too. While the Egyptians in the papyrus Edwin Smith already recognized the brain as the seat of consciousness, René Descartes (1644 [36]) believed its special structure should be "a small gland in the middle", but the anatomical structures and physiological processes involved in consciousness were elucidated only in the middle of the 20th century. Neuronal substrates include several functional networks that are hierarchically organized and cooperate functionally. The lowest level is the mesencephalic formatio reticularis and its projections to the thalamus that were identified als ascending reticular system (ARAS) by the classical experiments of Moruzzi and Magoun, whereas later analyses of patients with impaired consciousness provided further insights. The mesencephalic ARAS as motor of the function of higher structures projects 1. via the reticular thalamus diffusely to the cortex, 2. via hypothalamus to the basal forebrain and limbic system, and 3. to the medial raphe of the brainstem and locus coeruleus and their diffuse cortical projections. The reticular system is stimulated directly and indirectly via numerous collaterals from important somatic and sensory pathways and acts as a control system of neuronal activities of the cerebral cortex. The principal function of the ARAS is to focus our alertness on specific stimuli or internal processes, which run via complex neuronal cell groups and numerous neurotransmitters that influence various aspects of consciousness and wakefulness. Stimulation of the ARAS produces an arousal reaction as the electric correlate of consciousness; its destruction causes coma and related states. The highest level are cortical (prefrontal and association) networks for recognition, motor activity, longterm memory and attention, the left hemisphere being considered as the dominant one. Different levels of consciousness are distinguished: 1. hyperalertness, 2. alertness (normal state of wakefulness), 3. somnolence or lethargy, 4. obtundation with tendency to fall asleep, 5. stupor, 6. coma and its subtypes, like akinetic mutism, apallic syndrome or persistent vegative state, locked-in syndrome, delirium, and catatonia. They are caused by damages in various functional levels of the brain, by psychogenic factors or experimentally, and are accompanied by characteristic neurological and psychiatric disorders. The relevant morphological lesions can be detected by electrophysiological and imaging studies. The bases of functional anatomy and pathophysiology of consciousness, its cognitive aspects and its major disorders, their causes and functional substrates with reference to sleep and both spontaneous and iatrogenic disorders of consciousness are critically summarized. PMID:19573504

Jellinger, Kurt A

2009-01-01

374

A Primer on Functional Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents principles and basic steps for practitioners to complete a functional analysis of client behavior. The emphasis is on application of functional analysis to adult mental health clients. The article includes a detailed flow chart containing all major functional diagnoses and behavioral interventions, with functional assessment…

Yoman, Jerome

2008-01-01

375

CONSTRUCTING GENERALIZED MEAN FUNCTIONS USING ...  

E-print Network

The generalized mean function (1.1) has many applications in optimization. Ben- .... Fenchel's approach, our analysis in this paper depends only on the function value, its .... In what follows, we generalize the results in Theorem 2.2 for the function ?w(x). ..... The functions satisfying a differential inequality such as (2.7) are.

2005-06-27

376

Function Sharing in Mechanical Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Function sharing in mechanical design is the si- multaneous implementation of several functions with a single structural element. If automo- biles were designed without function sharing they would be relatively large, expensive and unre- liable. But because elements like the sheet- metal body implement many functions (electrical ground, structural support, aerodynamic faring, weather protection, and aesthetics among others) automobiles perform

Karl T. Ulrich; Warren P. Seering

1988-01-01

377

Functional Foods for Women's Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…

Lindeman, Alice K.

2002-01-01

378

Defining functional dyspepsia.  

PubMed

Dyspepsia and functional dyspepsia represent a highly significant public health issue. A good definition of dyspepsia is key for helping us to better approach symptoms, decision making, and therapy indications.During the last few years many attempts were made at establishing a definition of dyspepsia. Results were little successful on most occasions, and clear discrepancies arose on whether symptoms should be associated with digestion, which types of symptoms were to be included, which anatomic location should symptoms have, etc.The Rome III Committee defined dyspepsia as "a symptom or set of symptoms that most physicians consider to originate from the gastroduodenal area", including the following: postprandial heaviness, early satiety, and epigastric pain or burning. Two new entities were defined: a) food-induced dyspeptic symptoms (postprandial distress syndrome); and b) epigastric pain (epigastric pain syndrome). These and other definitions have shown both strengths and weaknesses. At times they have been much too complex, at times much too simple; furthermore, they have commonly erred on the side of being inaccurate and impractical. On the other hand, some (the most recent ones) are difficult to translate into the Spanish language. In a meeting of gastroenterologists with a special interest in digestive functional disorders, the various aspects of dyspepsia definition were discussed and put to the vote, and the following conclusions were arrived at: dyspepsia is defined as a set of symptoms, either related or unrelated to food ingestion, localized on the upper half of the abdomen. They include: a) epigastric discomfort (as a category of severity) or pain; b) postprandial heaviness; and c) early satiety. Associated complaints include: nausea, belching, bloating, and epigastric burn (heartburn). All these must be scored according to severity and frequency. Furthermore, psychological factors may be involved in the origin of functional dyspepsia. On the other hand, it has proven very difficult to establish a clear correlation between symptoms and pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:22217348

Mearin, Fermín; Calleja, José Luis

2011-12-01

379

Functionalization of Buckled Graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Buckled graphene produced by the halogen based etching of 6H-SiC provides a new route for the functionalization of the graphene surface. This surface provides an important new stepping off point in the development of molecular electronics and sensors. While the graphene surface is relatively inert, the fluorinated defect sites inherent in the buckled graphene surface yield an excellent location for chemical reactions such as nucleophilic substitution. This thesis shows the utility of the fluorinated defect sites through the well characterized diazonium reaction. Buckled graphene films were prepared on silicon carbide substrates using inductively coupled plasma and reactive ion etching, and annealed at 1000° C to coalesce the BG. The films were reacted with benzene, nitrobenzene, acetonitrile, or a nitrophenyl diazonium salt solution. The diazonium salt was chosen due to its known reaction with graphene produced by other methods. Consequently, reaction of the diazonium with buckled graphene would provide a basis for comparing the reactivity of the surface with these other forums of graphene. The interactions of buckled graphene with the other species were investigated as they represent either constituent parts of the diazonium salt or the solvent. The reacted surfaces were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which reveals changes in the surface chemical state due to the functionalization of the buckled graphene by each species. Each reaction yielded significant pi-pi bonding, while the diazonium salt reaction produced additional covalently bonded phenyl groups on the buckled graphene surface. The covalent reaction site was shown to be the surface fluorinated defect site. This observation illustrates the utility of the buckled graphene surface in the functionalization of graphene. Moreover, it provides additional confirmation of the nature of the buckled graphene surface.

Nelson, Timothy C.

380

Functional properties of vinegar.  

PubMed

A variety of natural vinegar products are found in civilizations around the world. A review of research on these fermented products indicates numerous reports of health benefits derived by consumption of vinegar components. Therapeutic effects of vinegar arising from consuming the inherent bioactive components including acetic acid, gallic acid, catechin, ephicatechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid cause antioxidative, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antitumor, antiobesity, antihypertensive, and cholesterol-lowering responses. The aims of this article are to discuss vinegar history, production, varieties, acetic acid bacteria, and functional properties of vinegars. PMID:24811350

Budak, Nilgün H; Aykin, Elif; Seydim, Atif C; Greene, Annel K; Guzel-Seydim, Zeynep B

2014-05-01

381

Skulls : structure and function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Skulls have been designed for both form and function. Through the use of text and labeled photographs, this website explains how specific skull adaptations meet the needs of organisms. For instance, visitors will discover that some beaks of macaws are attached to their skull only through ligaments to limit the amount of force put on the skull when the birds crack open nuts. The site also presents a series of skull facts, questions, and answers provided by scientists. A unique feature allows visitors to rotate images of skulls 360 degrees, so they can view the different adaptations in form from all angles. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Sciences, California A.

2005-01-01

382

Bivariate lognormal density function  

E-print Network

. H. Matis and. Dr. C. K. Chui. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER Page I INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Current Status of' the Theory 1. 2 Aims of' the investigation 1. 3 Possible Applications 1 3 3 II THE PARA|%TER ESTIMATION 2. 1 Problem Description 2. 2... The Estimates RELATED PROBLHMS 3. 1 Missing Data Problem 5 1. 4 1. 6 16 3, 1. 1 Method. of Mm~ imum Likelihood 3. 1, 2 Smith-Hocking Procedure 17 19 IV 3. 2 The Hs. zard. Function MONTE CARLO STUDY 4. 1 The Simulation Problem 4. 2 The Simulation...

Schreyer, Glenn William

2012-06-07

383

ADAM function in embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

Cleavage of proteins inserted into the plasma membrane (shedding) is an essential process controlling many biological functions including cell signaling, cell adhesion and migration as well as proliferation and differentiation. ADAM surface metalloproteases have been shown to play an essential role in these processes. Gene inactivation during embryonic development have provided evidence of the central role of ADAM proteins in nematodes, flies, frogs, birds and mammals. The relative contribution of four subfamilies of ADAM proteins to developmental processes is the focus of this review. PMID:18935966

Alfandari, Dominique; McCusker, Catherine; Cousin, Helene

2009-01-01

384

Cell Structure and Function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After this lesson, you will be able to describe some basic structural differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. You will then observe several different cell structures and learn the function of each of those organelles. Use the worksheet that was provided in class. Answer all questions in complete sentences! To start, we need to understand the differences between two distinct types of cells.Use the following link to describe at least three differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Comparison Pro v Eu Now that we know the difference between these two ...

Reed, P.

2008-10-25

385

The LISA Response Function  

E-print Network

The orbital motion of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) introduces modulations into the observed gravitational wave signal. These modulations can be used to determine the location and orientation of a gravitational wave source. The complete LISA response to an arbitary gravitational wave is derived using a coordinate free approach in the transverse-traceless gauge. The general response function reduces to that found by Cutler (PRD 57, 7089 1998) for low frequency, monochromatic plane waves. Estimates of the noise in the detector are found to be complicated by the time variation of the interferometer arm lengths.

Neil J. Cornish; Louis J. Rubbo

2002-09-03

386

Cholesterol oxidase: physiological functions  

PubMed Central

An important aspect of catalysis by cholesterol oxidase (3?-hydroxysteroid oxidase) is the nature of its association with the lipid bilayer that contains the sterol substrate. Efficient catalytic turnover is affected by the association of the protein with the membrane as well as the solubility of the substrate in the lipid bilayer. In this review, the binding of cholesterol oxidase to the lipid bilayer, its turnover of substrates presented in different physical environments, and how these conditions affect substrate specificity are discussed. The physiological functions of the enzyme in bacterial metabolism, pathogenesis, and macrolide biosynthesis are reviewed in this context. PMID:19843168

Kreit, Joseph; Sampson, Nicole S.

2009-01-01

387

Bayes multiple decision functions  

PubMed Central

This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously making many (M) binary decisions based on one realization of a random data matrix X. M is typically large and X will usually have M rows associated with each of the M decisions to make, but for each row the data may be low dimensional. Such problems arise in many practical areas such as the biological and medical sciences, where the available dataset is from microarrays or other high-throughput technology and with the goal being to decide which among of many genes are relevant with respect to some phenotype of interest; in the engineering and reliability sciences; in astronomy; in education; and in business. A Bayesian decision-theoretic approach to this problem is implemented with the overall loss function being a cost-weighted linear combination of Type I and Type II loss functions. The class of loss functions considered allows for use of the false discovery rate (FDR), false nondiscovery rate (FNR), and missed discovery rate (MDR) in assessing the quality of decision. Through this Bayesian paradigm, the Bayes multiple decision function (BMDF) is derived and an efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal Bayes action is described. In contrast to many works in the literature where the rows of the matrix X are assumed to be stochastically independent, we allow a dependent data structure with the associations obtained through a class of frailty-induced Archimedean copulas. In particular, non-Gaussian dependent data structure, which is typical with failure-time data, can be entertained. The numerical implementation of the determination of the Bayes optimal action is facilitated through sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The theory developed could also be extended to the problem of multiple hypotheses testing, multiple classification and prediction, and high-dimensional variable selection. The proposed procedure is illustrated for the simple versus simple hypotheses setting and for the composite hypotheses setting through simulation studies. The procedure is also applied to a subset of a microarray data set from a colon cancer study.

Wu, Wensong; Peña, Edsel A.

2014-01-01

388

The Broadening Functions Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Essential assumptions and features of the Broadening Function (BF) technique are presented. A distinction between BF determination and the BF concept and utilization is made. The BF's can be determined in various ways. The approach based on linear deconvolution involving stellar templates, as used during the DDO program (1999 - 2008) is described, but the LSD technique would also give excellent results. The BF concept to prove and/or verify photometric light-curve solutions has so far been very limited to only a few W UMa-type binaries, with AW UMa giving particularly unexpected results.

Rucinski, Slavek M.

2012-04-01

389

Wetlands Functions and Values  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning module on wetland functions and values is the newest addition to the EPA's Watershed Academy Website. The module explores the ecological and societal benefits and values that wetlands provide, such as "fish and wildlife habitats, natural water quality improvement, flood storage, shoreline erosion protection, opportunities for recreation and aesthetic appreciation," and much more. First-time users will find helpful instructions at "How to navigate this module;" the hyperlinked instructional text is also accompanied by useful color images. For anyone interested in wetland ecology, there is much to be learned (or reviewed) here.

2007-07-30

390

Wetlands Functions and Values  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning module on wetland functions and values is the newest addition to the EPA's Watershed Academy Website (first reviewed in the January 19, 2000 Scout Report for Science & Engineering). The module explores the ecological and societal benefits and values that wetlands provide, such as "fish and wildlife habitats, natural water quality improvement, flood storage, shoreline erosion protection, opportunities for recreation and aesthetic appreciation," and much more. First-time users will find helpful instructions at "How to navigate this module;" the hyperlinked instructional text is also accompanied by useful color images. For anyone interested in wetland ecology, there is much to be learned (or reviewed) here.

2001-01-01

391

The Wigner Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As already indicated, the quasi-probability measure in phase space is the WF, [ f(x, p) = frac{1}{2pi}int dypsi^{ast}(x - frac{hbar}{2}y)e^{-iyp}psi(x + frac{hbar}{2}y). hskip{100pc}(4) ] It is obviously normalized, ? dpdxf(x, p) = 1, for normalized input wavefunctions. In the classical limit, ? ? 0, it would reduce to the probability density in coordinate space, x, usually highly localized, multiplied by ?-functions in momentum: in phase space, the classical limit is "spiky" and certain! ...

Curtright, Thomas L.; Fairlie, David B.; Zachos, Cosmas K.

2014-11-01

392

Functionalism and Sensations  

E-print Network

, it was incapa­ ble of distinguishing distinct simultaneous mental states and the type identity conditions it placed on mental states were both too fine-grained and too coarse-grained. Functionalism as a general approach to the philosophy of mind survived... existence might be able to behave as we do, but it is hard to see how it could care what happens to it. A philosophy which cannot capture the subjective, phenomenal side of mentality should point beyond itself to a more adequate theory. I will argue...

Brown, Mark

1983-12-01

393

Fukui function and response function for nonlocal and fractional systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present extensions to our previous work on Fukui functions and linear-response functions [W. Yang, A. J. Cohen, F. D. Proft, and P. Geerlings, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 144110 (2012)]. Viewed as energy derivatives with respect to the number of electrons and the external potential, all second-order derivatives (the linear-response function, the Fukui function, and the chemical hardness) are extended to fractional systems, and all third-order derivatives (the second-order response function, the Fukui response function, the dual descriptor, and the hyperhardness) for integer systems are also obtained. These analytical derivatives are verified by finite difference numerical derivatives. In the context of the exact linearity condition and the constancy condition, these analytical derivatives enrich greatly the information of the exact conditions on the energy functional through establishing real-space dependency. The introduction of an external nonlocal potential defines the nonlocal Fukui function and the nonlocal linear-response function. The nonlocal linear-response function so defined also provides the precise meaning for the time-dependent linear-response density-functional theory calculations with generalized Kohn-Sham functionals. These extensions will be useful to conceptual density-functional theory and density functional development.

Peng, Degao; Yang, Weitao

2013-05-01

394

Fukui function and response function for nonlocal and fractional systems.  

PubMed

We present extensions to our previous work on Fukui functions and linear-response functions [W. Yang, A. J. Cohen, F. D. Proft, and P. Geerlings, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 144110 (2012)]. Viewed as energy derivatives with respect to the number of electrons and the external potential, all second-order derivatives (the linear-response function, the Fukui function, and the chemical hardness) are extended to fractional systems, and all third-order derivatives (the second-order response function, the Fukui response function, the dual descriptor, and the hyperhardness) for integer systems are also obtained. These analytical derivatives are verified by finite difference numerical derivatives. In the context of the exact linearity condition and the constancy condition, these analytical derivatives enrich greatly the information of the exact conditions on the energy functional through establishing real-space dependency. The introduction of an external nonlocal potential defines the nonlocal Fukui function and the nonlocal linear-response function. The nonlocal linear-response function so defined also provides the precise meaning for the time-dependent linear-response density-functional theory calculations with generalized Kohn-Sham functionals. These extensions will be useful to conceptual density-functional theory and density functional development. PMID:23676030

Peng, Degao; Yang, Weitao

2013-05-14

395

Wave function of the Universe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantum state of a spatially closed universe can be described by a wave function which is a functional on the geometries of compact three-manifolds and on the values of the matter fields on these manifolds. The wave function obeys the Wheeler-DeWitt second-order functional differential equation. We put forward a proposal for the wave function of the ''ground state'' or

J. B. Hartle; S. W. Hawking

1983-01-01

396

Adaptive Hotelling Discriminant Functions  

PubMed Central

Any observer performing a detection task on an image produces a single number that represents the observer's confidence that a signal (e.g., a tumor) is present. A linear observer produces this test statistic using a linear template or a linear discriminant. The optimal linear discriminant is well-known to be the Hotelling observer and uses both first- and second-order statistics of the image data. There are many situations where it is advantageous to consider discriminant functions that adapt themselves to some characteristics of the data. In these situations, the linear template is itself a function of the data and, thus, the observer is nonlinear. In this paper, we present an example adaptive Hotelling discriminant and compare the performance of this observer to that of the Hotelling observer and the Bayesian ideal observer. The task is to detect a signal that is imbedded in one of a finite number of possible random backgrounds. Each random background is Gaussian but has different covariance properties. The observer uses the image data to determine which background type is present and then uses the template appropriate for that background. We show that the performance of this particular observer falls between that of Hotelling and ideal observers. PMID:21274423

Breme, Arthur; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Clarkson, Eric; Barrett, Harrison H.

2010-01-01

397

Mast Cell Function  

PubMed Central

Since first described by Paul Ehrlich in 1878, mast cells have been mostly viewed as effectors of allergy. It has been only in the past two decades that mast cells have gained recognition for their involvement in other physiological and pathological processes. Mast cells have a widespread distribution and are found predominantly at the interface between the host and the external environment. Mast cell maturation, phenotype and function are a direct consequence of the local microenvironment and have a marked influence on their ability to specifically recognize and respond to various stimuli through the release of an array of biologically active mediators. These features enable mast cells to act as both first responders in harmful situations as well as to respond to changes in their environment by communicating with a variety of other cells implicated in physiological and immunological responses. Therefore, the critical role of mast cells in both innate and adaptive immunity, including immune tolerance, has gained increased prominence. Conversely, mast cell dysfunction has pointed to these cells as the main offenders in several chronic allergic/inflammatory disorders, cancer and autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes the current knowledge of mast cell function in both normal and pathological conditions with regards to their regulation, phenotype and role. PMID:25062998

da Silva, Elaine Zayas Marcelino; Jamur, Maria Célia

2014-01-01

398

Uncollapsing the wave function  

E-print Network

The space quantization induced by a Stern-Gerlach experiment is normally explained by invoking the ``collapse of the wave function.'' This is a rather mysterious idea; it would be better to explain the Stern-Gerlach results without using it. We re-analyze the Stern-Gerlach experiment using path integrals. We find if we model explicitly the finite width of the beam, coherent interference within the beam itself provides the space quantization -- without need to invoke the collapse. If we insist on employing only wave functions with the space and spin parts kept forcibly disentangled, we recreate the need to invoke the collapse. The collapse-free approach makes more specific predictions about the shape and position of the scattered beams; if the interaction region has finite length, these may be testable. Pending experimental disambiguation, the chief arguments in favor of the collapse-free approach are that it is simpler and less mysterious, has no adjustable parameters, and requires the invocation of no new forces.

John Ashmead

2003-01-07

399

[Dehydroepiandrosterone and brain functioning].  

PubMed

The adrenal glands synthesize dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate form (DHEAS) more intensively than they do other steroid hormones. Researchers are interested in these hormones for several reasons. Firstly, for some years they have been trying to find the reason for DHEA and DHEAS to be synthesized and present in the organism in such high concentrations. Secondly, their attention have been attracted by age-dependent regression of DHEA, which is strictly determined. Thirdly, despite longstanding efforts of scientists, the physiological role and spectrum of the biological activity of DHEA is still unclear. Evidence of that DHEA and DHEAS can be synthesized in situ in the brain tissue, received in rat experiments, urged researchers to clarify the role of these neurosteroids in the CNS. The presented review covers ways of neurosteroid synthesis, possible mechanisms of the regulation of these processes, and their dynamics under the condition of stress. The authors analyze experimental and clinical observations undertaken with a goal to clarify a possible role of DHEA in the manifestation of various brain functions. Special attention is payed to ambiguous results of modern studies, dedicated to replacement therapy of various disorders of CNS functioning (Alzheimer's disease, depression, age-specific memory impairment, sleep disturbance etc.) with DHEAS. PMID:16149434

Goncharov, N P; Katsiia, G V; Nizhnik, A N

2005-01-01

400

Process for functionalizing alkanes  

DOEpatents

Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons selectively in the terminal position comprising: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons of the formula: RH where: H represents a hydrogen atom, and R represents a saturated hydrocarbon radical, with a metal complex of the formula: CpRhPMe.sub.3 H.sub.2 where: Cp represents a pentamethylated cyclopentadienyl radical, Rh represents a rhodium atom, P represents a phosphorous atom, Me represents a methyl group, H represents a hydrogen atom, in the presence of ultraviolet radiation at a temperature maintained at about -60.degree. to -17.degree. C. to form a hydridoalkyl complex of the formula: CpRhPMe.sub.3 RH (b) reacting said hydridoalkyl complex with a haloform of the formula: CHX.sub.3 where: X represents a bromine, iodine or chlorine atom, at a temperature in the range of about -60.degree. to -17.degree. C. to form the corresponding haloalkyl complex of step (a) having the formula: CpRhPMe.sub.3 RX; and, (c) reacting said haloalkyl complex formed in (b) with halogen (X.sub.2) at a temperature in the range of about -60.degree. to 25.degree. C. (i.e. ambient) to form a functional haloalkyl compound.

Bergman, Robert G. (Kensington, CA); Janowicz, Andrew H. (Wilmington, DE); Periana-Pillai, Roy A. (Berkeley, CA)

1985-01-01

401

Functional esophageal disorders.  

PubMed

Functional esophageal disorders represent processes accompanied by typical esophageal symptoms (heartburn, chest pain, dysphagia, globus) that are not explained by structural disorders, histopathology-based motor disturbances, or gastroesophageal reflux disease. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the preferred diagnosis when reflux esophagitis or excessive esophageal acid exposure is present or when symptoms are closely related to acid reflux events or respond to antireflux therapy. A singular, well-defined pathogenetic mechanism is unavailable for any of these disorders; combinations of sensory and motor abnormalities involving both central and peripheral neural dysfunction have been invoked for some. Treatments remain empirical, although the efficacy of several interventions has been established in the case of functional chest pain. Management approaches that modulate central symptom perception or amplification often are required once local provoking factors (eg, noxious esophageal stimuli) have been eliminated. Future research directions include further determination of fundamental mechanisms responsible for symptoms, development of novel management strategies, and definition of the most cost-effective diagnostic and treatment approaches. PMID:16678559

Galmiche, Jean Paul; Clouse, Ray E; Bálint, András; Cook, Ian J; Kahrilas, Peter J; Paterson, William G; Smout, Andre J P M

2006-04-01

402

Fluoride Plus Functionalized ?-TCP  

PubMed Central

With more than 50 years of clinical success, fluoride serves as the gold standard agent for preventing tooth decay. In particular, the action of fluoride facilitates saliva-driven remineralization of demineralized enamel and alters solubility beneficially. Still, tooth decay remains problematic, and one way to address it may be through the development of new mineralizing agents. Laboratory and clinical studies have demonstrated that the combination of fluoride and functionalized ?-tricalcium phosphate (fTCP) produces stronger, more acid-resistant mineral relative to fluoride, native ?-TCP, or fTCP alone. In contrast to other calcium-based approaches that seem to rely on high levels of calcium and phosphate to drive remineralization, fTCP is a low-dose system designed to fit within existing topical fluoride preparations. The functionalization of ?-TCP with organic and/or inorganic molecules provides a barrier that prevents premature fluoride-calcium interactions and aids in mineralization when applied via common preparations and procedures. While additional clinical studies are warranted, supplementing with fTCP to enhance fluoride-based nucleation activity, with subsequent remineralization driven by dietary and salivary calcium and phosphate, appears to be a promising approach. PMID:22899679

Karlinsey, R.L.; Pfarrer, A.M.

2012-01-01

403

Process for functionalizing alkanes  

DOEpatents

Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons comprising: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons of the formula: R.sub.1 H wherein H represents a hydrogen atom; and R.sub.1 represents a saturated hydrocarbon radical, with a metal complex of the formula: CpRh[P(R.sub.2).sub.3 ]H.sub.2 wherein Cp represents a cyclopentadienyl or alkylcyclopentadienyl radical; Rh represents a rhodium atom; P represents a phosphorus atom; R.sub.2 represents a hydrocarbon radical; H represents a hydrogen atom, in the presence of ultraviolet radiation to form a hydridoalkyl complex of the formula: CpRh[P(R.sub.2).sub.3 ](R.sub.1)H (b) reacting said hydridoalkyl complex with an organic halogenating agent such as a tetrahalomethane or a haloform of the formulas: CX'X''X'''X'''' or CHX'X''X''' wherein X', X'', X'", X"" represent halogens selected from bromine, iodine or chlorine atom, at a temperature in the range of about -60.degree. to -17.degree. C. to form the corresponding haloalkyl complex of step (a) having the formula: CpRhPMe.sub.3 RX; and, (c) reacting said haloalkyl complex formed in (b) with halogen (X.sub.2) at a temperature in the range of about -60.degree. to 25.degree. C. (i.e., ambient) to form a functional haloalkyl compound.

Bergman, Robert G. (Kensington, CA); Janowicz, Andrew H. (Wilmington, DE); Periana, Roy A. (Berkeley, CA)

1988-01-01

404

Amusia and musical functioning.  

PubMed

Music, as language, is a universal and specific trait to humans; it is a complex ability with characteristics that are unique compared to other cognitive abilities. Nevertheless, several issues are still open to debate, such as, for example, whether music is a faculty that is independent from the rest of the cognitive system, and whether musical skills are mediated by a single mechanism or by a combination of processes that are independent from one another. Moreover, the anatomical correlations of music have yet to be clarified. The goal of this review is to illustrate the current condition of the neuropsychology of music and to describe different approaches to the study of the musical functions. Hereby, we will describe the neuropsychological findings, suggesting that music is a special function carried out by different and dedicated processes that are probably subserved by different anatomical regions of the brain. Moreover, we will review the evidence obtained by working with brain-damaged patients suffering from music agnosia, a selective impairment in music recognition. PMID:19295213

Alossa, Nicoletta; Castelli, Lorys

2009-01-01

405

Generalized -deformed correlation functions as spectral functions of hyperbolic geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the role of vertex operator algebra and 2d amplitudes from the point of view of the representation theory of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras, MacMahon and Ruelle functions. By definition p-dimensional MacMahon function, with , is the generating function of p-dimensional partitions of integers. These functions can be represented as amplitudes of a two-dimensional c = 1 CFT, and, as such, they can be generalized to . With some abuse of language we call the latter amplitudes generalized MacMahon functions. In this paper we show that generalized p-dimensional MacMahon functions can be rewritten in terms of Ruelle spectral functions, whose spectrum is encoded in the Patterson-Selberg function of three-dimensional hyperbolic geometry.

Bonora, L.; Bytsenko, A. A.; Guimarães, M. E. X.

2014-08-01

406

Functional Relationships Between Risky and Riskless Multiattribute Utility Functions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Expected utility theory and conjoint measurement theory form two major classes of models and assessment procedures to construct multi-attribute utility functions. In conjoint measurement theory a value function v is constructed which preserves preferences...

D. Von Winterfeldt

1979-01-01

407

Functional Specialization of Ribosomes?  

PubMed Central

Ribosomes are highly conserved macromolecular machines responsible for protein synthesis in all living organisms. Work published in the past year shows that changes to the ribosome core can affect the mechanism of translation initiation that is favored in the cell, potentially leading to specific changes in the relative efficiencies with which different proteins are made. Here I examine recent data from expression and proteomic studies suggesting that cells make slightly different ribosomes under different growth conditions and discuss genetic evidence that such differences are functional. In particular, I will argue that eukaryotic cells likely produce ribosomes that lack one or more ‘core’ ribosomal proteins (RPs) under some conditions, and that ‘core’ RPs contribute differentially to translation of distinct subpopulations of mRNAs. PMID:21242088

Gilbert, Wendy V.

2011-01-01

408

Fusion excitation function revisited  

E-print Network

We report on a comprehensive systematics of fusion-evaporation and/or fusion-fission cross sections for a very large variety of systems over an energy range 4-155 A.MeV. Scaled by the reaction cross sections, fusion cross sections do not show a universal behavior valid for all systems although a high degree of correlation is present when data are ordered by the system mass asymmetry.For the rather light and close to mass-symmetric systems the main characteristics of the complete and incomplete fusion excitation functions can be precisely determined. Despite an evident lack of data above 15A.MeV for all heavy systems the available data suggests that geometrical effects could explain the persistence of incomplete fusion at incident energies as high as 155A.MeV.

Ph. Eudes; Z. Basrak; F. Sébille; V. de la Mota; G. Royer; M. Zori?

2012-09-07

409

Multi-functional windows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The requirements for modern aircraft are driving the need for conformal windows for future sensor systems. However, limitations on optical systems and the physical properties of optically transparent materials currently limit the geometry of existing windows and window assemblies to faceted assemblies of flat windows held in weight bearing frames. Novel material systems will have to be developed which combine different materials (e.g. ductile metals with transparent ceramics) into structures that combine transparency with structural integrity. Surmet's demonstrated ability to produce novel transparent ceramic/metal structures will allow us to produce such structures in the types of conformal shapes required for future aircraft applications. Furthermore, the ability to incorporate transparencies into such structures also holds out the promise of creating multi-functional windows which provide a broad range of capabilities that might include RF antennas and de-icing in addition to transparency. Recent results in this area will be presented.

Nag, Nagendra; Goldman, Lee M.; Balasubramanian, Sreeram; Sastri, Suri

2013-06-01

410

Commentary: freedom and function.  

PubMed

While the question of whether our actions are determined or are the result of free will is a deep one in philosophy, it does not need to be answered for forensic psychiatrists to give evidence in court. As Stephen Morse has pointed out, the absence of free will is not named as an excusing condition. The insanity defense, for instance, requires proof of functional impairment, to which psychiatrists can usefully testify. Of the approaches available to determinism, my own preference is that of Herbert Hart: until we know that determinism is true, we will continue to prefer a system that requires persons to have made proper choices to act as they did before we hold them responsible. This seems to resemble Dr. Felthous' preferred option, that mentally responsible choices are choices made in the presence of a relatively natural ability to have decided otherwise. PMID:18354119

Buchanan, Alec

2008-01-01

411

Linear Functions and Slope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This session on linear function and slope contains five parts, multiple problems and videos, and interactive activities geared to help students recognize and understand linear relationships, explore slope and dependent and independent variables in graphs of linear relationships, and develop an understanding of rates and how they are related to slopes and equations. Throughout the session, students use spreadsheets to complete the work, and are encouraged to think about the ways technology can aid in teaching and understanding. The solutions for all problems are given, and many allow students to have a hint or tip as they solve. There is even a homework assignment with four problems for students after they have finished all five parts of the session.

2008-03-06

412

Thermodynamic Function of Life  

E-print Network

Darwinian Theory depicts life as being overwhelmingly consumed by a fight for survival in a hostile environment. However, from a thermodynamic perspective, life is a dynamic, out of equilibrium process, stabilizing and coevolving in concert with its abiotic environment. The living component of the biosphere of greatest mass, the plants and cyanobacteria, are involved in the transpiration of vast amounts of water. Transpiration is part of the global water cycle, and it is this cycle that distinguishes Earth from its life barren neighboring planets, Venus and Mars. The water cycle, including the absorption of sunlight in the biosphere, is by far the greatest entropy producing process occurring on Earth. Life, from this perspective, can therefore be viewed as performing an important thermodynamic function; acting as a dynamic catalyst by aiding process such as the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents to produce entropy. The role of animals in this view is that of unwitting but dedicated servants ...

Michaelian, K

2009-01-01

413

Emotional function in dementia patients.  

PubMed

Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, which can be considered as hyperreactivity of the emotional functioning of dementia, can be alleviated or aggravated by the behavioural and psychological symptoms of the caregiver. Comfortable stimulations of emotional function through sensory stimulations are effective methods for alleviating behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Although cognitive function deteriorates with age, emotional function is often retained even in advanced years. Thus, it is recommended that care in patients with dementia be focused mainly on the stimulation of emotional function (e.g. sympathy and empathy, which are human traits), rather than relying solely on the stimulation of cognitive function. PMID:25250479

Fujii, Masahiko; Butler, James P; Sasaki, Hidetada

2014-09-01

414

Technical Rebuilding of Movement Function Using Functional Electrical Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a To rebuild lost movement functions, neuroprostheses based on functional electrical stimulation (FES) artificially activate\\u000a skeletal muscles in corresponding sequences, using both residual body functions and artificial signals for control. Besides\\u000a the functional gain, FES training also brings physiological and psychological benefits for spinal cord-injured subjects. In\\u000a this chapter, current stimulation technology and the main components of FES-based neuroprostheses including enhanced

Margit Gföhler

415

INDIVIDUAL EQUIPMENT DESIGN AND ERGONOMICS Functional Analysis and Function Hierarchization  

Microsoft Academic Search

New individual equipment design begins with analysis of the need in order to determine equipment's relationships with its outerspace (including the user himself), transform these relationships into functions, determine their nature (service, strain, etc... ). The characterization of the technical functions must be performed in agreement with physiological functions concerned by the equipment. This leads to need in hierarchization, i.e.

S. ETffiNNE; G. MAGNAUD; P. GIRY

416

A Function or Not a Function? That Is the Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea of what it means to understand mathematics has changed throughout history. Throughout, the function concept has remained a central theme. A conceptual understanding of function includes connections among multiple representations: (1) graphical; (2) verbal; (3) numerical; and (4) analytical. The idea of a function as a rule that describes…

Hartter, Beverly J.

2009-01-01

417

Relationship Between Anxiety and Gastric Sensorimotor Function in Functional Dyspepsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the relationship between anxiety and gastric sensorimotor function in patients with (hypersensitive) functional dyspepsia (FD). Comorbidity between FD and anxiety disorders is high. In FD, epigastric pain is associated with gastric hypersensitivity and neuroticism, a personality trait related to anxiety. Experimentally induced anxiety in healthy volunteers is associated with changes in sensorimotor function of the proximal stomach.

LUKAS VAN OUDENHOVE; JORIS VANDENBERGHE; BRECHT GEERAERTS; R ITA VOS; PHILIPPE PERSOONS; KOEN DEMYTTENAERE; BENJAMIN FISCHLER; JAN TACK

2007-01-01

418

Random dilutions, generating functions, and the void probability distribution function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generating function for counts in randomly placed cells is derived using the characteristic functional. The distribution of voids in a randomly diluted subset of a given point distribution is shown to contain information about all the other count probabilities. Thus random dilutions may be used to derive the entire distribution function from the void distribution. A generalization of the

Ravi K. Sheth

1996-01-01

419

Computer Experiments for Function Approximations  

SciTech Connect

This research project falls in the domain of response surface methodology, which seeks cost-effective ways to accurately fit an approximate function to experimental data. Modeling and computer simulation are essential tools in modern science and engineering. A computer simulation can be viewed as a function that receives input from a given parameter space and produces an output. Running the simulation repeatedly amounts to an equivalent number of function evaluations, and for complex models, such function evaluations can be very time-consuming. It is then of paramount importance to intelligently choose a relatively small set of sample points in the parameter space at which to evaluate the given function, and then use this information to construct a surrogate function that is close to the original function and takes little time to evaluate. This study was divided into two parts. The first part consisted of comparing four sampling methods and two function approximation methods in terms of efficiency and accuracy for simple test functions. The sampling methods used were Monte Carlo, Quasi-Random LP{sub {tau}}, Maximin Latin Hypercubes, and Orthogonal-Array-Based Latin Hypercubes. The function approximation methods utilized were Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) and Support Vector Machines (SVM). The second part of the study concerned adaptive sampling methods with a focus on creating useful sets of sample points specifically for monotonic functions, functions with a single minimum and functions with a bounded first derivative.

Chang, A; Izmailov, I; Rizzo, S; Wynter, S; Alexandrov, O; Tong, C

2007-10-15

420

From data to function: functional modeling of poultry genomics data.  

PubMed

One of the challenges of functional genomics is to create a better understanding of the biological system being studied so that the data produced are leveraged to provide gains for agriculture, human health, and the environment. Functional modeling enables researchers to make sense of these data as it reframes a long list of genes or gene products (mRNA, ncRNA, and proteins) by grouping based upon function, be it individual molecular functions or interactions between these molecules or broader biological processes, including metabolic and signaling pathways. However, poultry researchers have been hampered by a lack of functional annotation data, tools, and training to use these data and tools. Moreover, this lack is becoming more critical as new sequencing technologies enable us to generate data not only for an increasingly diverse range of species but also individual genomes and populations of individuals. We discuss the impact of these new sequencing technologies on poultry research, with a specific focus on what functional modeling resources are available for poultry researchers. We also describe key strategies for researchers who wish to functionally model their own data, providing background information about functional modeling approaches, the data and tools to support these approaches, and the strengths and limitations of each. Specifically, we describe methods for functional analysis using Gene Ontology (GO) functional summaries, functional enrichment analysis, and pathways and network modeling. As annotation efforts begin to provide the fundamental data that underpin poultry functional modeling (such as improved gene identification, standardized gene nomenclature, temporal and spatial expression data and gene product function), tool developers are incorporating these data into new and existing tools that are used for functional modeling, and cyberinfrastructure is being developed to provide the necessary extendibility and scalability for storing and analyzing these data. This process will support the efforts of poultry researchers to make sense of their functional genomics data sets, and we provide here a starting point for researchers who wish to take advantage of these tools. PMID:23960137

McCarthy, F M; Lyons, E

2013-09-01

421

FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS Program of Study  

E-print Network

FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS Program of Study Research Areas Students Applying Correspondence Graduate Genomics. Students receive training in the biological, physical and computational sciences through of primary institutional affiliation. The Functional Genomics program is administered through the Graduate

Thomas, Andrew

422

Adaptive functional magnetic resonance imaging  

E-print Network

Functional MRI (fMRI) detects the signal associated with neuronal activation, and has been widely used to map brain functions. Locations of neuronal activation are localized and distributed throughout the brain, however, ...

Yoo, Seung-Schik, 1970-

2000-01-01

423

Perspectives of matrix convex functions  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we generalize the main results of [Effros EG, (2009) Proc Natl Acad. Sci USA 106:1006–1008]. Namely, we provide the necessary and sufficient conditions for jointly convexity of perspective functions and generalized perspective functions.

Ebadian, Ali; Nikoufar, Ismail; Eshaghi Gordji, Madjid

2011-01-01

424

Families of Functions and Curves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demo provides a toolbox of aids for teaching students about families of functions. The toolbox includes collections of animations that illustrate how functions change when certain parameters are varied.

Roberts, Lila F.; Hill, David R.

2003-08-29

425

Lesson 22: Functions as Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson focuses on finding appropriate non linear functions to model real world phenomena. Various cases are examined before the absolute value function and equations and inequalities are introduced.

2011-01-01

426

Whittaker functions on metaplectic groups  

E-print Network

The theory of Whittaker functions is of crucial importance in the classical study of automorphic forms on adele groups. Motivated by the appearance of Whittaker functions for covers of reductive groups in the theory of ...

McNamara, Peter James

2010-01-01

427

Physical one-way functions  

E-print Network

Modern cryptography relies on algorithmic one-way functions - numerical functions which are easy to compute but very difficult to invert. This dissertation introduces physical one-way firnctions and physical one-way hash ...

Pappu, Ravikanth Srinivasa

2001-01-01

428

Universality of composite functions of periodic zeta functions  

SciTech Connect

In the paper, we prove the universality, in the sense of Voronin, for some classes of composite functions F({zeta}(s;a)), where the function {zeta}(s;a) is defined by a Dirichlet series with periodic multiplicative coefficients. We also study the universality of functions of the form F({zeta}(s;a{sub 1}),...,{zeta}(s;a{sub r})). For example, it follows from general theorems that every linear combination of derivatives of the function {zeta}(s;a) and every linear combination of the functions {zeta}(s;a{sub 1}),...,{zeta}(s;a{sub r}) are universal. Bibliography: 18 titles.

Laurincikas, Antanas P [Vilnius University, Vilnius (Lithuania)] [Vilnius University, Vilnius (Lithuania)

2012-11-30

429

Periodic functions with variable period  

E-print Network

The examples of rhythmical signals with variable period are considered. The definition of periodic function with the variable period is given as a model of such signals. The examples of such functions are given and their variable periods are written in the explicit form. The system of trigonometric functions with the variable period is considered and its orthogonality is proved. The generalized system of trigonometric functions with the variable period is also suggested; some conditions of its existence are considered.

M. V Pryjmak

2010-06-08

430

Van der Waals density functional: an appropriate exchange functional  

E-print Network

In this paper, an exchange functional which is compatible with the non-local Rutgers-Chalmers correlation functional (vdW-DF) is presented. This functional, when employed with vdW-DF, demonstrates remarkable improvements on intermolecular separation distances while further improving the accuracy of vdW-DF interaction energies. The key to the success of this three parameter functional is its reduction of short range exchange repulsion through matching to the gradient exchange approximation in the slowly varying/high density limit while recovering the large reduced gradient, s, limit set in the revised PBE exchange functional. This augmented exchange functional could be a solution to long-standing issues of vdW-DF lending to further applicability of density functional theory to the study of relatively large, dispersion bound (van der Waals) complexes.

Cooper, Valentino R

2009-01-01

431

Van der Waals density functional: an appropriate exchange functional  

E-print Network

In this paper, an exchange functional which is compatible with the non-local Rutgers-Chalmers correlation functional (vdW-DF) is presented. This functional, when employed with vdW-DF, demonstrates remarkable improvements on intermolecular separation distances while further improving the accuracy of vdW-DF interaction energies. The key to the success of this three parameter functional is its reduction of short range exchange repulsion through matching to the gradient exchange approximation in the slowly varying/high density limit while recovering the large reduced gradient, s, limit set in the revised PBE exchange functional. This augmented exchange functional could be a solution to long-standing issues of vdW-DF lending to further applicability of density functional theory to the study of relatively large, dispersion bound (van der Waals) complexes.

Valentino R. Cooper

2009-10-07

432

Van der Waals density functional: an appropriate exchange functional  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, an exchange functional which is compatible with the non-local Rutgers-Chalmers correlation functional (vdW-DF) is presented. This functional, when employed with vdW-DF, demonstrates remarkable improvements on intermolecular separation distances while further improving the accuracy of vdW-DF interaction energies. The key to the success of this three parameter functional is its reduction of short range exchange repulsion through matching to the gradient exchange approximation in the slowly varying/high density limit while recovering the large reduced gradient, s, limit set in the revised PBE exchange functional. This augmented exchange functional could be a solution to long-standing issues of vdW-DF lending to further applicability of density functional theory to the study of relatively large, dispersion bound (van der Waals) complexes.

Cooper, Valentino R [ORNL

2010-01-01

433

Psychopathology, cognitive function, and social functioning of patients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES. To explore the relationship between cognitive functions, social functioning, and psychopathology in schizophrenia. METHODS. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, according to the ICD-10 criteria, were enrolled from the Department of Psychiatry of 2 postgraduate hospitals in Kolkata, India. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia, Schizophrenia Research Foundation India-Social Functioning Index, and a cognitive test battery were administered. RESULTS. Regarding the 100 patients recruited into the study, 4 subtests (self-care, occupational role, social role, and family role) of the social functioning were found to be significantly correlated with cognitive functions. Cognitive function battery performance scores were more inversely correlated with negative symptoms than with positive symptoms. CONCLUSION. Positive and negative symptoms along with verbal fluency were able to predict social functioning. PMID:23807631

Santosh, S; Dutta Roy, D; Kundu, P S

2013-06-01

434

How to construct random functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A constructive theory of randomness for functions, based on computational complexity, is developed, and a pseudorandom function generator is presented. This generator is a deterministic polynomial-time algorithm that transforms pairs (g, r), where g is any one-way function and r is a random k-bit string, to polynomial-time computable functionsf,: { 1, . . . , 2') + { 1, .

Oded Goldreich; Shafi Goldwasser; Silvio Micali

1986-01-01

435

Functions and Vertical Line Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to the vertical line test for functions as well as practice plotting points and drawing simple functions. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to the vertical line test and functions as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson.

2010-01-01

436

Trace Elements and Immune Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Trace elements are essential nutrients that are required in minute quantities to support the optimal function of an organism.\\u000a This chapter reviews the role of four trace elements, including copper, iron, selenium, and zinc in immune function. Each\\u000a of these trace elements has a function in both the innate and acquired immune system.

James P. McClung; Daniel G. Peterson

437

Static equilibrium and vestibular function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible relations between vestibular function and body sway were investigated (a) by measuring body sway and by other observations on a male subject showing complete loss of vestibular function and (b) by observation of vestibular function, Bárány chair tests, and body sway in 45 subjects with intact labyrinth. While the biologically defective subject showed marked body sway on the first

J. E. Birren

1945-01-01

438

REMARKS ON MINIMAL ROUND FUNCTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the structure of minimal round functions on compact closed surfaces and three-dimensional manifolds. The minimal possible number of critical loops is determined and typical non-equisingular round function germs are interpreted in the spirit of isolated line singularities. We also discuss a version of Lusternik-Schnirelmann theory suitable for round functions.

GEORGI KHIMSHIASHVILI; DIRK SIERSMA

439

Differentiability of functions of matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given a function on diagonal matrices, there is a unique way to extend this to an invariant (by conjugation) function on symmetric matrices. We show that the extension preserves regularity -- that is, if the original function is k times differentiable so is the extension (likewise for analyticity and the class k+alpha).

Yury Grabovsky; Omar Hijab; Igor Rivin

2003-01-01

440

Functions of the Renal Nerves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses renal neuroanatomy, renal vasculature, renal tubules, renin secretion, renorenal reflexes, and hypertension as related to renal nerve functions. Indicates that high intensitites of renal nerve stimulation have produced alterations in several renal functions. (A chart with various stimulations and resultant renal functions and 10-item,…

Koepke, John P.; DiBona, Gerald F.

1985-01-01

441

Family Functioning in Pediatric Trichotillomania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about how pediatric trichotillomania (TTM), a clinically significant and functionally impairing disorder, is impacted by, and impacts, family functioning. We explored dimensions of family functioning and parental attitudes in a sample of children and adolescents who participated in an Internet-based survey and satisfied…

Moore, Phoebe S.; Franklin, Martin E.; Keuthen, Nancy J.; Flessner, Christopher A.; Woods, Douglas W.; Piacentini, John A.; Stein, Dan J.; Loew, Benjamin

2009-01-01

442

Function Generator / Arbitrary Waveform Generator  

E-print Network

of bench-top and system features makes this function generator a versatile solution for your testing MENU 1: OUT TERM 2: POWER ON 3: ERROR 4: TEST 5: COMMA 6: REVISION F: CALibration MENU* 1: SECURED or talk over a remote interface. Function generator is in remote mode (remote interface). Function

King, Roger

443

How To Construct Randolli Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. A constructive theory of randomness for functions, based on computational complexity, is developed, and a pseudorandom function generator is presented. This generator is a deterministic polynomial-time algorithm that transforms pairs (g, r), where g is any one-way function and r is a random k-bit string, to polynomial-time computable functionsf,: { 1, . . . , 2’) + { 1,

O. Goldreich; Shafi Goldwasser; Silvio Micali

1984-01-01

444

Overcoming Modern-Postmodern Dichotomies: Some Possible Benefits for the Counselling Profession  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rhetorical/discursive turn, in its multiple disciplinary masks, is here to stay. Even psychology is giving in to its charm. The Sophists can smile again, the agora is back, and the solipsistic self is in retreat. Dialogical, narrative, and cultural psychologies, as well as the counselling profession, triumph the return of the social, the…

Bekerman, Zvi; Tatar, Moshe

2005-01-01

445

Mars Crustal Dichotomy: Large Lowland Impact Basins may have Formed in Pre-Thinned Crust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crater retention ages of large impact basins on Mars suggest most formed in a relatively short time, perhaps in less than 200 million years. Large basins in the lowlands have thinner central regions than similar size basins in the highlands. Large lowland impact basins, which we previously suggested might explain the low topography and thin crust of the northern part of Mars, may have formed in crust already thinned by yet earlier processes.

Frey, H. V.

2008-01-01

446

Constraints on the formation of the Martian crustal dichotomy from remnant crustal magnetism  

E-print Network

I. Citron a , Shijie Zhong b, a Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA b Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA- Hanna et al., 2008), or an endogenic process such as plate tectonics (Sleep, 1994) or degree-1 mantle

Zhong, Shijie

447

How Can We Reconcile Mars Thermal History with the Crustal Dichotomy, Magnetic Field, and Tharsis Volcanism?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interior heat engine is the primary driving mechanism for planetary-scale tectonic and volcanic processes; hence it is important to understand whether our picture of Martian thermal evolution is consistent with these events.

S. D. King; H. L. Redmond

2006-01-01

448

Admittance estimates of mean crustal thickness and density at the Martian hemispheric dichotomy  

E-print Network

Francis Nimmo Department of Geological Sciences, University College London, London, UK Received 14 March, Mars Global Surveyor Citation: Nimmo, F., Admittance estimates of mean crustal thickness and density., 1999b]. Both Zuber et al. [2000] and Nimmo and Stevenson [2001] argue that the mean crustal thickness

Nimmo, Francis

449

The Evaluation of Psychopharmacological Enhancers Beyond a Normative “Natural”–“Artificial” Dichotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extra-therapeutic use of psychotropic drugs to improve cognition and to enhance mood has been the subject of controversial\\u000a discussion in bioethics, in medicine but also in public for many years. Concerns over a liberal dealing with pharmacological\\u000a enhancers are raised not only from a biomedical–pharmacological perspective, but particularly from an ethical one. Within\\u000a these ethical concerns, there is one

Jakov Gather

450

Beyond the market-institutions dichotomy: The institutionalism of Douglass C. North  

E-print Network

negatively in contrast to the market, as social regulations limiting economic agents scope for action society, Polanyi brings to light the historicity of the economic categories of the market. Polanyis fascination with informal norms and networks, and the focus of organizational economics on contracts

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

451

Beyond the Kraepelinian Dichotomy: Investigation into Neural Phenotypes of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder  

E-print Network

affective disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108,Disorder by Amy Marie Jimenez Doctor of Philosophy in Psychologydisorder in individuals who report hallucinatory experiences. British Journal of Clinical Psychology,

Jimenez, Amy Marie

2013-01-01

452

The Efficacy/Effeminacy Braid: Unpicking the Performance Studies/Theatre Studies Dichotomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that in the popular imagination, theatre is still linked integrally and stereotypically with homosexuality. Discusses various critical debates of the 1960s about the linguistic and conceptual divorce of theatre and theatricality from performance and performativity. Concludes that if Theatre Studies has an enemy at all, it is in its own…

Bottoms, Stephen J.

2003-01-01

453

Moving Beyond Strawmen and Artificial Dichotomies: Adaptive Management When an Endangered Species Uses an Invasive One  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evans et al. (Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 2008) have attempted to enmesh me in their dispute with the Florida Bureau of Invasive Plant Management about a specific\\u000a system, Kings Bay\\/Crystal River. In so doing, they repeatedly mischaracterize my positions in order to depict, incorrectly,\\u000a invasion biology as monolithic and me as a representative of one extreme of a false

Daniel Simberloff

2009-01-01

454

The martian hemispheric dichotomy may be due to a giant impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of the two approximately hemispherical, fundamentally different geological provinces into which Mars is divided, the more southerly province is heavily cratered, while the northern is lightly cratered and contains younger geological units. Lowlands occupy about one-third of Mars, and these are separated from the highlands by a distinct scarp or by a sloping transitional zone which is characterized by a variety of landforms that are unknown on other planets. It is presently proposed that the largest expanse of lowlands is substantially due to the formation of a large impact basin early in the planet's history, which has markedly influenced the character of the Martian surface.

Wilhelms, D. E.; Squyres, S. W.

1984-05-01

455

Questioning the dichotomy between vegetative state and minimally conscious state: a review of the statistical evidence  

PubMed Central

Given the enormous consequences that the diagnosis of vegetative state (VS) vs. minimally conscious state (MCS) may have for the treatment of patients with disorders of consciousness, it is particularly important to empirically legitimate the distinction between these two discrete levels of consciousness. Therefore, the aim of this contribution is to review all the articles reporting statistical evidence concerning the performance of patients in VS vs. patients in MCS, on behavioral or neurophysiological measures. Twenty-three articles matched these inclusion criteria, and comprised behavioral, electroencephalographic (EEG), positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures. The analysis of these articles yielded 47 different statistical findings. More than half of these findings (n = 24) did not reveal any statistically significant difference between VS and MCS. Overall, there was no combination of variables that allowed reliably discriminating between VS and MCS. This pattern of results casts doubt on the empirical validity of the distinction between VS and MCS.

Liberati, Giulia; Hunefeldt, Thomas; Olivetti Belardinelli, Marta

2014-01-01

456

Cancer complicating systemic lupus erythematosus - a dichotomy emerging from a nested case-control study  

PubMed Central

Objectives We determined whether any individual cancers are increased or decreased in a cohort of 595 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) followed for up to 32 years at the University College London Hospitals Lupus Clinic, looking for any associated clinical or serological factors and the prognosis after cancer diagnosis. Methods We undertook a careful retrospective review of the medical records and identified all individuals diagnosed with cancer. For controls, we selected three other patients in the cohort who had not developed cancer, carefully matched for age, sex, ethnicity and disease duration, to determine if any obvious differences emerged in a nested case-control design. Results Thirty-three patients developed cancer after being diagnosed with SLE. There was a statistically insignificant small increase in overall cancer risk, standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) 1.05 (95% CI 0.52–1.58) and increased SIRs for cervical, prostate, anal and pancreatic cancers and reduction in breast cancer SIRs. Haematological and musculoskel