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1

Genetic evidence of a functional monocyte dichotomy.  

PubMed

Human peripheral blood monocytes are found as two distinct populations based upon differential expression of chemokine receptors, adhesion molecules, Fc receptors, and cytokines. cDNA microarray analysis now reveals additional differences between these subsets that suggest dramatically diverse functions. One monocyte subset (CD14++CD16-) appears to be closely paired with neutrophils, and may have as its primary function the removal and recycling of apoptotic neutrophils at sites of inflammation. The other monocyte subset (CD14+CD16+) expresses numerous genes encoding proteins with antimicrobial activity and thus may be more directly involved in peripheral host defense. The production of monocytes capable of efficiently removing dying neutrophils may be necessary to prevent host tissue damage and autoimmune response induction. Therefore, species like humans that produce relatively high levels of circulating neutrophils must also produce relatively high numbers of the recycling monocytes. Conversely, species such as mice and rats that maintain relatively lower levels of circulating neutrophils require fewer recycling monocytes. PMID:17587162

Mobley, James L; Leininger, Michael; Madore, Steven; Baginski, Theodore J; Renkiewicz, Richard

2007-06-21

2

Natural killer cell functional dichotomy: a feature of chronic viral hepatitis?  

PubMed Central

Natural killer (NK) cells are involved in innate immune responses to viral infections either via direct cytotoxicity which destroys virus-infected cells or production of immunoregulatory cytokines which modulate adaptive immunity and directly inhibit virus replication. These functions are mediated by different NK subpopulations, with cytotoxicity being generally performed by CD56dim NK cells, whereas CD56bright NK cells are mainly involved in cytokine secretion. NK functional defects are usually combined so that impaired degranulation is often associated with deficient cytokine production. Innate immunity is thought to be relevant in the control of hepatitis virus infections such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), and recent findings reproducibly indicate that NK cells in chronic viral hepatitis are characterized by a functional dichotomy, featuring a conserved or enhanced cytotoxicity and a reduced production of interferon (IFN)-? and tumor necrosis factor-?. In chronic HCV infection this appears to be caused by altered IFN-? signaling resulting from increased signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation, which polarizes NK cells toward cytotoxicity, and a concomitantly reduced IFN-? induced STAT4 phosphorylation yielding reduced IFN-? mRNA levels. These previously unappreciated findings are compatible on the one hand with the inability to clear HCV and HBV from the liver and on the other they may contribute to understand why these patients are often resistant to IFN-?-based therapies.

Mondelli, Mario U.; Oliviero, Barbara; Mele, Dalila; Mantovani, Stefania; Gazzabin, Chiara; Varchetta, Stefania

2012-01-01

3

The dappled nature of causes of psychiatric illness: replacing the organic-functional/hardware-software dichotomy with empirically based pluralism  

PubMed Central

Our tendency to see the world of psychiatric illness in dichotomous and opposing terms has three major sources: the philosophy of Descartes, the state of neuropathology in late nineteenth century Europe (when disorders were divided into those with and without demonstrable pathology and labeled, respectively, organic and functional), and the influential concept of computer functionalism wherein the computer is viewed as a model for the human mind–brain system (brain = hardware, mind = software). These mutually re-enforcing dichotomies, which have had a pernicious influence on our field, make a clear prediction about how ‘difference-makers’ (aka causal risk factors) for psychiatric disorders should be distributed in nature. In particular, are psychiatric disorders like our laptops, which when they dysfunction, can be cleanly divided into those with software versus hardware problems? I propose 11 categories of difference-makers for psychiatric illness from molecular genetics through culture and review their distribution in schizophrenia, major depression and alcohol dependence. In no case do these distributions resemble that predicted by the organic–functional/hardware–software dichotomy. Instead, the causes of psychiatric illness are dappled, distributed widely across multiple categories. We should abandon Cartesian and computer-functionalism-based dichotomies as scientifically inadequate and an impediment to our ability to integrate the diverse information about psychiatric illness our research has produced. Empirically based pluralism provides a rigorous but dappled view of the etiology of psychiatric illness. Critically, it is based not on how we wish the world to be but how the difference-makers for psychiatric illness are in fact distributed.

Kendler, KS

2012-01-01

4

Synaptic Mechanisms Underlying Functional Dichotomy between Intrinsic-Bursting and Regular-Spiking Neurons in Auditory Cortical Layer 5  

PubMed Central

Corticofugal projections from the primary auditory cortex (A1) have been shown to play a role in modulating subcortical processing. However, functional properties of the corticofugal neurons and their synaptic circuitry mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we performed in vivo whole-cell recordings from layer 5 (L5) pyramidal neurons in the rat A1 and found two distinct neuronal classes according to their functional properties. Intrinsic-bursting (IB) neurons, the L5 corticofugal neurons, exhibited early and rather unselective spike responses to a wide range of frequencies. The exceptionally broad spectral tuning of IB neurons was attributable to their broad excitatory inputs with long temporal durations and inhibitory inputs being more narrowly tuned than excitatory inputs. This uncommon pattern of excitatory–inhibitory interplay was attributed initially to a broad thalamocortical convergence onto IB neurons, which also receive temporally prolonged intracortical excitatory input as well as feedforward inhibitory input at least partially from more narrowly tuned fast-spiking inhibitory neurons. In contrast, regular-spiking neurons, which are mainly corticocortical, exhibited sharp frequency tuning similar to L4 pyramidal cells, underlying which are well-matched purely intracortical excitation and inhibition. The functional dichotomy among L5 pyramidal neurons suggests two distinct processing streams. The spectrally and temporally broad synaptic integration in IB neurons may ensure robust feedback signals to facilitate subcortical function and plasticity in a general manner.

Sun, Yujiao J.; Kim, Young-Joo; Ibrahim, Leena A.; Tao, Huizhong W.; Zhang, Li I.

2013-01-01

5

Functional dichotomy: glutathione and vitamin E in homeostasis relevant to primary open-angle glaucoma.  

PubMed

Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a complex chronic neurological disease that can result in blindness. The goal of understanding the aetiology of POAG is to be able to target effective treatment to individuals who will eventually go blind without it. Epidemiological studies of POAG have not specifically addressed the possibility that nutrition may play a role in the development of POAG. A handful of papers have considered that nutrition may have an impact on POAG patients. POAG is not believed to be a 'vitamin-deficiency disease'. The concept of 'vitamin-deficiency diseases' and the recommended daily allowances have not kept pace with the growing understanding of the cellular and molecular functions of vitamins and other micronutrients. The aetiology of POAG remains a mystery. Discoveries in cell physiology can be assimilated from the literature and applied to known homeostatic mechanisms of the eye. In this way the possible roles of nutritional components involved in the aetiology of POAG can be described. The mechanisms may be subject to many influences in ways that have yet to be defined. Two distinct changes in the trabecular meshwork can be identified: trabecular meshwork changes that cause intra-ocular pressure to increase and trabecular meshwork changes that are directly correlated to optic nerve atrophy. Compelling evidence suggests that collagen trabecular meshwork extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling is correlated to increased intraocular pressure in POAG. Elastin trabecular meshwork ECM remodelling is correlated to POAG optic nerve atrophy. There appear to be two different pathways of ECM remodelling and apoptosis induction in POAG. The pathway for collagen remodelling and apoptosis induction seems to be exogenously influenced by water-soluble antioxidants, for example, glutathione. The pathway for elastin remodelling and apoptosis induction seems to be influenced by endogenous lipid-soluble antioxidants, for example, vitamin E. Roles can be defined for antioxidants in the two different pathways of ECM remodelling and apoptosis induction. This suggests that antioxidants are important in maintaining cellular homeostasis relevant to the aetiology of POAG. PMID:15182385

Veach, John

2004-06-01

6

ALCAM regulates mediolateral retinotopic mapping in the superior colliculus.  

PubMed

ALCAM [activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (BEN/SC-1/DM-GRASP)] is a transmembrane recognition molecule of the Ig superfamily (IgSF) containing five Ig domains (two V-type, three C2-type). Although broadly expressed in the nervous and immune systems, few of its developmental functions have been elucidated. Because ALCAM has been suggested to interact with the IgSF adhesion molecule L1, a determinant of retinocollicular mapping, we hypothesized that ALCAM might direct topographic targeting to the superior colliculus (SC) by serving as a substrate within the SC for L1 on incoming retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons. ALCAM was expressed in the SC during RGC axon targeting and on RGC axons as they formed the optic nerve; however, it was downregulated distally on RGC axons as they entered the SC. Axon tracing with DiI revealed pronounced mistargeting of RGC axons from the temporal retina half of ALCAM null mice to abnormally lateral sites in the contralateral SC, in which these axons formed multiple ectopic termination zones. ALCAM null mutant axons were specifically compromised in medial orientation of interstitial branches, which is known to require the ankyrin binding function of L1. As a substrate, ALCAM-Fc protein promoted L1-dependent attachment of acutely dissociated retinal cells and an L1-expressing, ALCAM-negative cell line, consistent with an ALCAM-L1 heterophilic molecular interaction. Together, these results suggest a model in which ALCAM in the SC interacts with L1 on RGC axons to promote medial extension of RGC axon branches important for mediolateral axon targeting in the formation of retinocollicular maps. PMID:20016077

Buhusi, Mona; Demyanenko, Galina P; Jannie, Karry M; Dalal, Jasbir; Darnell, Eli P B; Weiner, Joshua A; Maness, Patricia F

2009-12-16

7

THE BIMODAL GALAXY STELLAR MASS FUNCTION IN THE COSMOS SURVEY TO z approx 1: A STEEP FAINT END AND A NEW GALAXY DICHOTOMY  

SciTech Connect

We present a new analysis of stellar mass functions in the COSMOS field to fainter limits than has been previously probed at z <= 1. The increase in dynamic range reveals features in the shape of the stellar mass function that deviate from a single Schechter function. Neither the total nor the red (passive) or blue (star-forming) galaxy stellar mass functions can be well fitted with a single Schechter function once the mass completeness limit of the sample probes below approx3 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}. We observe a dip or plateau at masses approx10{sup 10} M{sub sun}, just below the traditional M*, and an upturn toward a steep faint-end slope of alpha approx -1.7 at lower mass at all redshifts <=1. This bimodal nature of the mass function is not solely a result of the blue/red dichotomy. Indeed, the blue mass function is by itself bimodal at z approx 1. This suggests a new dichotomy in galaxy formation that predates the appearance of the red sequence. We propose two interpretations for this bimodal distribution. If the gas fraction increases toward lower mass, galaxies with M{sub baryon} approx 10{sup 10} M{sub sun} would shift to lower stellar masses, creating the observed dip. This would indicate a change in star formation efficiency, perhaps linked to supernovae feedback becoming much more efficient below approx10{sup 10} M{sub sun}. Therefore, we investigate whether the dip is present in the baryonic (stars+gas) mass function. Alternatively, the dip could be created by an enhancement of the galaxy assembly rate at approx10{sup 11} M{sub sun}, a phenomenon that naturally arises if the baryon fraction peaks at M{sub halo} approx 10{sup 12} M{sub sun}. In this scenario, galaxies occupying the bump around M{sub *} would be identified with central galaxies and the second fainter component of the mass function having a steep faint-end slope with satellite galaxies. The low-mass end of the blue and total mass functions exhibit a steeper slope than has been detected in previous work that may increasingly approach the halo mass function value of -2. While the dip feature is apparent in the total mass function at all redshifts, it appears to shift from the blue to the red population, likely as a result of transforming high-mass blue galaxies into red ones. At the same time, we detect a drastic upturn in the number of low-mass red galaxies. Their increase with time seems to reflect a decrease in the number of blue systems and so we tentatively associate them with satellite dwarf (spheroidal) galaxies that have undergone quenching due to environmental processes.

Drory, N. [Max-Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Bundy, K. [Astronomy Department, 601 Campbell Hall, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Leauthaud, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Scoville, N.; Capak, P.; Salvato, M. [California Institute of Technology, MC 105-24, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ilbert, O.; Kneib, J. P. [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (UMR 6110), CNRS-Universite de Provence, BP 8, 13376 Marseille Cedex 12 (France); Kartaltepe, J. S. [NOAO, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); McCracken, H. J. [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Sanders, D. B. [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Thompson, D. [LBT Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Willott, C. J., E-mail: drory@mpe.mpg.d [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

2009-12-20

8

N-Heterocyclic carbene dichotomy in Pd-catalyzed acylation of aryl chlorides via C-H bond functionalization.  

PubMed

The first Pd-catalyzed intramolecular acylation of aryl chlorides via C-H bond functionalization is presented. The method allows for the synthesis of a variety of elusive benzocyclobutenones with a wide range of functional groups and substitution patterns. We demonstrate that a change in the ligand backbone dictates the selectivity pattern. PMID:23030460

Flores-Gaspar, Areli; Gutiérrez-Bonet, Álvaro; Martin, Ruben

2012-10-03

9

Dichotomy in the Post-ischemic Metabolic and Functional Recovery Profiles of Isolated Blood versus Buffer-perfused Heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence that buffer- and blood-perfused hearts differ in their post-ischemic functional recoveries. The present study was designed to: (i) compare ischemia-induced contracture and post-ischemic functional recovery, and (ii) investigate whether the recovery profiles were related to either the release of purines and norepinephrine or high-energy phosphate content. Rat hearts (n=8\\/group) were perfused at 37°C with buffer (60 mmHg)

Manuel Galiñanes; Palmira Bernocchi; Vincenzo Argano; Anna Cargnoni; Roberto Ferrari; David J. Hearse

1996-01-01

10

Medio-Lateral Postural Instability in Subjects with Tinnitus  

PubMed Central

Background: Many patients show modulation of tinnitus by gaze, jaw or neck movements, reflecting abnormal sensorimotor integration, and interaction between various inputs. Postural control is based on multi-sensory integration (visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and oculomotor) and indeed there is now evidence that posture can also be influenced by sound. Perhaps tinnitus influences posture similarly to external sound. This study examines the quality of postural performance in quiet stance in patients with modulated tinnitus. Methods: Twenty-three patients with highly modulated tinnitus were selected in the ENT service. Twelve reported exclusively or predominately left tinnitus, eight right, and three bilateral. Eighteen control subjects were also tested. Subjects were asked to fixate a target at 40?cm for 51?s; posturography was performed with the platform (Technoconcept, 40 Hz) for both the eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Results: For both conditions, tinnitus subjects showed abnormally high lateral body sway (SDx). This was corroborated by fast Fourrier Transformation (FFTx) and wavelet analysis. For patients with left tinnitus only, medio-lateral sway increased significantly when looking away from the center. Conclusion: Similarly to external sound stimulation, tinnitus could influence lateral sway by activating attention shift, and perhaps vestibular responses. Poor integration of sensorimotor signals is another possibility. Such abnormalities would be accentuated in left tinnitus because of the importance of the right cerebral cortex in processing both auditory–tinnitus eye position and attention.

Kapoula, Zoi; Yang, Qing; Le, Thanh-Thuan; Vernet, Marine; Berbey, Nolwenn; Orssaud, Christophe; Londero, Alain; Bonfils, Pierre

2011-01-01

11

Hemispheres Apart: The Crustal Dichotomy on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hemispheric dichotomy is a fundamental feature of Mars, ex- pressed by a physiographic and geologic divide between the heavily cratered southern highlands and the relatively smooth plains of the northern lowlands. The origin of the dichotomy, which may have set the course for most of the subsequent geologic evolution of Mars, remains unclear. Internally driven models for the dichotomy

Thomas R. Watters; Patrick J. McGovern; Rossman P. Irwin III

2007-01-01

12

In vitro analysis of muscle activity illustrates mediolateral decoupling of hind and mid foot bone motion.  

PubMed

Activity of the extrinsic ankle-foot muscles is typically described for the whole foot. This study determines if this muscle activity is also confirmed for individual foot segments defined in multi-segment foot models used for clinical gait analysis. Analysis of the individual bone motion can identify functional complexes within the foot and evaluates the influence of an altered foot position on muscle activity. A custom designed and built gait simulator incorporating pneumatic actuators is used to control the muscle force of six muscle groups in cadaveric feet. Measurements were performed in three static postures in which individual muscle force was incrementally changed. The motion of four bone embedded LED-clusters was measured using a Krypton motion capture system and resulting motion of calcaneus, talus, navicular and cuboid was calculated. Results indicate that primary muscle activity at bone level corresponds with that described for the whole foot. Secondary activity is not always coherent for bones within one segment: decoupling of the movement of medial and lateral foot bones is documented. Furthermore, secondary muscle activity can alter according to foot position. The observed medio-lateral decoupling of the foot bones dictates the need to extend some of the multi-segment foot models currently used in clinical gait analysis. PMID:23159677

Burg, Josefien; Peeters, Koen; Natsakis, Tassos; Dereymaeker, Greta; Vander Sloten, Jos; Jonkers, Ilse

2012-11-16

13

Impaired mediolateral postural control at the ankle in healthy, middle-aged adults.  

PubMed

Elderly adults sway more than young adults. Based on the literature, the authors expected the mediolateral ankle postural control mechanism to be affected before age 60 years. Twelve healthy young adults (24.21 ± 2.50 years) and 12 middle-aged adults (51.13 ± 6.09 years) participated in the study. To challenge mediolateral stance, the conditions modified the mediolateral distance among the feet (narrow and standard distances), mandibular position (rest position, left and right laterality occlusion positions), and the occlusion with clenching (intercuspal occlusion, left and right maximal voluntary clenches). As we expected, middle-aged adults exhibited significantly reduced contribution of the ankle mechanism. It was so both in narrow and standard stances. A second objective was to show a greater contribution of the 2 mechanisms in narrow than in standard stances. The results confirmed our hypothesis. As we expected, mandibular conditions only had a significant effect on center of pressure sway. Unexpectedly, middle-aged adults did not increase their range of center of pressure sway in narrow stance. They may have overconstrained their center of pressure sway because of their ankle impairments. On the practical level, our results suggest that older adults should increase their stance width to relieve their hip and ankle control mechanisms and to stabilize their mediolateral posture. PMID:23781920

Bonnet, Cédrick T; Mercier, Marie; Szaffarczyk, Sébastien

2013-06-19

14

Reconceptualizing the Native\\/Nonnative Speaker Dichotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reconceptualizes the native\\/nonnative dichotomy and provides a powerful lens to examine linguistic identities. In a study of 25 linguistically diverse teacher candidates in Canada, the respondents' native and nonnative self-ascription and self-assessed level of proficiency was juxtaposed with the judgment of their instructors. This process revealed that the native\\/nonnative dichotomy falls short in capturing the multifaceted nature of

Farahnaz Faez

2011-01-01

15

Does mediolateral episiotomy decrease central defects of the anterior vaginal wall?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  This retrospective study investigates the effects of mediolateral episiotomy on the pelvic floor.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Premenopausal women suffering from urinary incontinence\\/genital prolapse who delivered only by vaginal route were enrolled\\u000a into the study. History of diabetes, morbid obesity (BMI > 40 kg\\/m2), vacuum\\/forceps extraction, perineal lacerations that warranted repair during labor and any pelvic surgery were the exclusion\\u000a criteria. Evaluation of the patients included pelvic

Cetin Cam; Mehmet Resit Asoglu; Selcuk Selcuk; Turan Aran; Niyazi Tug; Ates Karateke

16

Global Structure of the Martian Dichotomy: An Elliptical Impact Basin?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use gravity and topography to constrain the location of the martian crustal dichotomy boundary beneath Tharsis. The globally continuous dichotomy boundary is then found to be accurately matched by an ellipse, suggesting formation by a giant impact.

J. C. Andrews-Hanna; M. T. Zuber; W. B. Banerdt

2008-01-01

17

An Examination of Job Satisfaction Dichotomies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Much of the recent job satisfaction literature has involved dichotomies such as intrinsic-extrinsic, motivator-hygiene, or job content-job context. In an exploratory study, responses by a sample of health managers (n=504) to 15 job satisfaction items were...

L. R. James E. A. Hartman A. P. Jones M. W. Stebbins

1975-01-01

18

Challenging the Traditional/Communicative Dichotomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary aim of this paper is to explore a common dichotomy that characterizes debate about what has come to be termed "appropriate methodology". It is that between "traditional" and "communicative" approaches to language teaching, a distinction that persists despite arguments by some that the term "communicative" should be superseded or even…

Beaumont, Mike; Chang, Kyung-Suk

2011-01-01

19

On the dichotomy of Perron numbers and beta-conjugates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let ? > 1 be an algebraic number. A general definition of a beta-conjugate of ? is proposed with respect to the analytical function $${f_{\\\\beta}(z) =-1 + \\\\sum_{i \\\\geq 1} t_i z^i}$$ associated with the Rényi ?-expansion d\\u000a \\u000a ?\\u000a (1) = 0.t\\u000a 1\\u000a t\\u000a 2 . . . of unity. From Szeg?’s Theorem, we study the dichotomy problem for f

Jean-Louis Verger-Gaugry

2008-01-01

20

The Relationship Between Fracture Sets and the South-Polar Terrain Dichotomy on Enceladus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Young fractured ice in the south-polar terrain (SPT) of Enceladus is separated from older regions of the moon by a narrow (9-50 km) band of deformation that defines a morphological dichotomy. The dichotomy is 100s of meters higher than the SPT and is divided into segments, some of which appear to be parallel fold-like structures and others that are dominated by numerous fractures. Overall, the trend of the dichotomy is semi-parallel to lines of latitude and has a shape that is roughly rectangular with the longer sides made of segments of the fold-like features. The parallel trend of some of the folds with the present day tiger stripes may be attributed to contraction to either side of the dilational tiger stripes. However, how the dichotomy has evolved, especially the older parts, and how the segments relate to the older fractures within the SPT remains unexplored. Our previous work has revealed an age sequence of fracture sets with similar properties to the tiger stripes. These fractures appear to have been rotated (clockwise, CW) about the south pole relative their original locations, which we attribute to long-term nonsynchronous rotation of a decoupled ice shell. The older sets include prominent fractures that are longer and wider than other fractures in each set and stand out as potentially ancient versions of the named tiger stripes. We have identified 7 potential paleo-tiger stripes that have a range of ages and orientations. The youngest of the paleo-tiger stripes are rotated ~28° CW relative to the orientation of the present day tiger stripes, the next oldest are rotated an additional ~47° CW, and the oldest another ~78° CW. If these paleo-tiger stripes were similar in form and function to the contemporary tiger stripes, localizing crustal spreading in the past, they should also have influenced the SPT dichotomy analogously to the present day tiger stripes. Accordingly, if the tiger stripes are responsible for fold belt-like features in the SPT dichotomy, the paleo-tiger stripes may have contributed to the creation of older fold belts in the dichotomy. These older fold belts should share similar ages and orientations to the fracture sets with which they are associated and may also have been modified as the ice shell rotated across a tidally-locked stress state. Our mapping shows that the youngest of the paleo-tiger stripes share a similar orientation to the fold belts of the dichotomy between longitudes of ~290° and 330° and near 90°. Additional correlations of the fold belts to older fracture sets likely exist. Other sections of the dichotomy are dominated by fractures instead of folds. The fractured terrains are centered near longitudes of 0° and 220° and spread out ~±25° longitude. The fractures are not randomly oriented but instead appear to have systematic sets, some of which correlate to the orientations of the paleo-tiger stripes. In order to establish a correlation with the paleo-tiger stripes we: 1) identify what specific structures comprise the dichotomy, 2) determine if different parts of the boundary have different ages by examining crosscutting relationships, 3) determine if sections of the dichotomy are genetically related to the fracture sets in the SPT, and 4) explore how the fracture sets interact with and influence the dichotomy.

Patthoff, D. A.; Kattenhorn, S. A.

2010-12-01

21

The Effects of Age on Medio-lateral Stability during Normal and Narrow Base Walking  

PubMed Central

We examined age-related differences in frontal plane stability during performance of narrow base (NB) walking relative to usual gait. A cross-sectional analysis of participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) was performed on data from the BLSA Motion Analysis Laboratory. Participants were thirty-four adults aged 54 to 92 without history of falls. We measured step error rates during NB gait and spatial-temporal parameters, frontal plane stability, and gait variability during usual and NB gait. There was a non-significant age-associated linear increase in step error rate (P = 0.12) during NB gait. With increasing age, step width increased (P=0.002) and step length and stride velocity decreased (P<0.001), especially during NB gait. Age-associated increases in medio-lateral (M-L) center of mass (COM) peak velocity (P<0.001) and displacement (P=0.005) were also greater during NB compared to usual gait. With increasing age there was greater variability in stride velocity (P=0.001) and step length (P<0.001) under both conditions. Age-associated differences related to M-L COM stability suggest that the quantification of COM control during NB gait may improve identification of older persons at increased falls risk.

Schrager, Matthew A.; Kelly, Valerie E.; Price, Robert; Ferrucci, Luigi; Shumway-Cook, Anne

2008-01-01

22

Finding corresponding regions of interest in mediolateral oblique and craniocaudal mammographic views  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present a method to link potentially suspicious mass regions detected by a Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) scheme in mediolateral oblique (MLO) and craniocaudal (CC) mammographic views of the breast. For all possible combinations of mass candidate regions, a number of features are determined. These features include the difference in the radial distance from the candidate regions to the nipple, the gray scale correlation between both regions, and the mass likelihood of the regions determined by the single view CAD scheme. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) is used to discriminate between correct and incorrect links. The method was tested on a set of 412 cancer cases. In each case a malignant mass, architectural distortion, or asymmetry was annotated. In 92% of these cases the candidate mass detections by CAD included the cancer regions in both views. It was found that in 82% of the cases a correct link between the true positive regions in both views could be established by our method. Possible applications of the method may be found in multiple view analysis to improve CAD results, and for the presentation of CAD results to the radiologist on a mammography workstation.

Engeland, Saskia van; Timp, Sheila; Karssemeijer, Nico [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

2006-09-15

23

Mesodermal subdivision along the mediolateral axis in chicken controlled by different concentrations of BMP-4.  

PubMed

Molecular mechanisms by which the mesoderm is subdivided along the mediolateral axis in early chicken embryos have been studied. When the presomitic mesoderm (medial mesoderm) was transplanted into the lateral plate, the graft was transformed into lateral plate tissue, indicating that the primitive somite was not fully committed and that the lateral plate has a cue for mesodermal lateralization. Since the lateral plate expresses a high level of BMP-4 mRNA, a member of the TGF-beta family, we hypothesized that it is the molecule responsible for the lateralization of the somite. To test this, we transplanted COS cells producing BMP-4 into the presomitic region. Those cells locally prevented the presomitic cells from differentiating into somites, converting them instead into lateral plate mesoderm, which was revealed by expression of cytokeratin mRNA, a marker for the lateral plate. The effect was dependent on the level of effective BMP-4: with a high level of BMP-4, the somite was transformed completely to lateral plate; with a low level, the somite formed but was occupied by the lateral somitic component expressing cSim 1, a marker for the lateral somite. These results suggest that different thresholds of effective BMP-4 determine distinct subtypes of the mesoderm as a lateralizer during early development. PMID:9169844

Tonegawa, A; Funayama, N; Ueno, N; Takahashi, Y

1997-05-01

24

Hemispheric dichotomy in seismic structures of the Earth's inner core  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past several years, we have made effort to understand the lateral and depth extent of the inner core hemispheric dichotomy. In this presentation, we will review some peculiar characteristics of the inner core hemispheric differences that have been recently discovered. These major findings include: 1) along equatorial paths, the east-west hemispheric dichotomy in seismic velocity, with the velocity

W. Yu; L. Wen

2006-01-01

25

Dichotomies in Music Education--Real or Unreal?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this keynote, the author discusses dichotomies having to do with: (1) technology/digital proponents versus non-technology/analogue proponents; (2) a formal/formalist position versus an informal/informalist position; and (3) educator/teacher views versus artist/musician views. The author often wonders what the essence of these dichotomies are,…

Espeland, Magne

2010-01-01

26

The dichotomy of NMDA receptor signaling.  

PubMed

The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors plays a Jekyll and Hyde role in the mammalian central nervous system. In pathological scenarios such as ischemia, Ca2+ influx through the NMDA receptor is a key mediator of cell death. However, physiological levels of NMDA-receptor activity can promote neuronal survival and resistance to trauma and play important roles in synaptic plasticity and transmission. This dichotomy may explain the poor tolerance and efficacy of NMDA-receptor antagonists in clinical trials for excitotoxic trauma. There is a growing understanding of the signaling events that mediate the opposing effects of NMDA-receptor activity and the factors that determine whether an episode of NMDA-receptor activity will promote survival or death. This knowledge may lead to therapeutic strategies that enable the selective blockade of prodeath signaling cassettes while sparing physiological signaling to survival and plasticity. PMID:18000068

Papadia, Sofia; Hardingham, Giles E

2007-12-01

27

The Biological Implausibility of the Nature-Nurture Dichotomy and What It Means for the Study of Infancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the time of the Greeks, philosophers and scientists have wondered about the origins of structure and function. Plato proposed that the origins of structure and function lie in the organism's nature whereas Aristotle proposed that they lie in its nurture. This nature-nurture dichotomy and the emphasis on the origins question has had a…

Lewkowicz, David J.

2011-01-01

28

Axial elongation in mouse embryos involves mediolateral cell intercalation behavior in the paraxial mesoderm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cell mechanical and signaling pathways involved in gastrulation have been studied extensively in invertebrates and amphibians, such as Xenopus, and more recently in non-mammalian vertebrates such as zebrafish and chick. However, because culturing mouse embryos extra-utero is very difficult, this fundamental process has been least characterized in the mouse. As the primary mammalian model for genetics, biochemistry, and the study of human disease and birth defects, it is important to investigate how gastrulation proceeds in murine embryos. We have developed a method of using 4D multiphoton excitation microscopy and extra-utero culture to visualize and characterize the morphogenetic movements in mouse embryos dissected at 8.5 days of gestation. Cells are labeled by expression of an X chromosome-linked enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgene. This method has provided a unique approach, where, for the first time, patterns of cell behavior in the notochord and surrounding paraxial mesoderm can be visualized and traced quantitatively. Our observations of mouse embryos reveal both distinct differences as well as striking similarities in patterned cell motility relative to other vertebrate models such as Xenopus, where axial extension is driven primarily by mediolateral oriented cell behaviors in the notochord and paraxial somitic mesoderm. Unlike Xenopus, the width of the mouse notochord remains the same between 4-somite stage and 8-somite stage embryos. This implies the mouse notochord plays a lesser role in driving axial extension compared to Xenopus, although intercalation may occur where the anterior region of the node becomes notochordal plate. In contrast, the width of mouse paraxial mesoderm narrows significantly during this period and cells within the paraxial mesoderm are both elongated and aligned perpendicular to the midline. In addition, these cells are observed to intercalate, consistent with a role for paraxial mesoderm in driving convergence and extension. These cell behaviors are similar to those characterized in the axial mesoderm of frog embryos during convergence and extension[1], and suggests that tissues may play different roles in axial elongation between the frog and the mouse.

Yen, WeiWei; Burdsal, Carol; Periasamy, Ammasi; Sutherland, Ann E.

2006-03-01

29

Questioning the Living\\/Nonliving Dichotomy: Evidence From a Patient With an Unusual Semantic Dissociation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the authors describe a patient (J.P.) whose category-specific naming deficit eluded the classical dichotomies between living versus nonliving items or visual versus functional attributes. At age 22, he had herpes simplex encephalitis followed by a left temporal lobectomy. J.P. was tested on measures of visual perception, category naming, fluency, and name-picture matching. He showed a severe impairment

Simona Siri; Elizabeth A. Kensinger; Stefano F. Cappa; Kristin L. Hood; Suzanne Corkin

2003-01-01

30

Separating Old and Young: The South Polar Dichotomy on Enceladus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On Enceladus, a narrow band of deformation separates the young south polar terrain from the older regions to the north. This study characterizes the dichotomy and determines its relationship to the present-day and paleo tiger stripes.

Patthoff, D. A.; Kattenhorn, S. A.

2011-03-01

31

What Causes the FRI - FRII Dichotomy?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perhaps the strongest phenomenological clue to the physical origin of radio sources is the recognition that the majority of radio galaxies can be classified, according to where most of the radio luminosity is radiated, into two morphological types: FRIs - or edge darkened, and FRIIs - or edge brightened (Fanaroff & Riley 1974). The FRI - FRII dichotomy is key in understanding the processes that lead to the onset of nuclear activity, the formation of radio jets, the time-evolution of radio lobes and the interaction of the radio structure with the surrounding medium. Until now, however, it has proven impossible to discriminate between competing scenarios, due to the lack of a critical piece of information: the mass mh of the central black hole which is at the very core of the AGN paradigm. The recent discovery of a tight correlation between mh and the large scale velocity dispersion ? of the host galaxy (Ferrarese & Merritt 2000), has put us in the unique position of being able to address this deficiency. We propose to obtain long-slit spectra with the R-C spectrograph for a sample of 19 FRI and FRII sources, selected for having optical high-resolution HST images. The combination of the KPNO data, archival HST images, and radio data already in hand will lead to a complete suite of dynamical, morphological, and nuclear information.

Ferrarese, Laura; Celotti, Annalisa

2002-02-01

32

Projections of the mediolateral part of the lateral septum to the hypothalamus, revealed by Fos expression and axonal tracing in rats.  

PubMed

The lateral septum participates in a variety of functions involving the hypothalamus. The present study investigated the effect of an electrical stimulation of the mediolateral part of the lateral septum on the expression of Fos in the hypothalamic nuclei by using immunohistochemical methods in anaesthetised and free-moving rats. We analysed in another series of rats the direct projections of the lateral septum by axonal anterograde tracing with biotinylated dextran-amine. Tracing was used in combination with Fos labelling in a third series of animals. Stimulation induced an expression of Fos in neurones located in anteroventral and anterodorsal preoptic nuclei, medial preoptic area, anterior hypothalamic nucleus, subparaventricular zone, dorsomedial nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area and mammillary nucleus. The distribution of Fos-immunoreactive neurones conforms to the topographic organisation of direct projections from the lateral septum, as revealed by axonal tracing. These results suggest that the lateral septum activates definite hypothalamic structures by a direct link. Some structures displayed substantial Fos labelling whereas they received a slight, or no projection, from the lateral septum. This was particularly evident in the core of the ventromedial nucleus and in areas known to contain tubero-infundibular neurones. This observation suggests that the lateral septum may also exert an indirect control, via polysynaptic links, on hypothalamic structures including nuclei involved in neuroendocrine mechanisms. PMID:10068091

Varoqueaux, F; Poulain, P

1999-03-01

33

Beyond Dichotomy: Toward a Theory of Divergence in Composition Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the dichotomy posited by David Bartholmae and Peter Elbow between institutional or contextual writing and personal writing; or more generally, between social constructivism and expressivism. Attempts to propose a means of mediation between the two positions that goes beyond previous attempts, particularly that of "externalism." (TB)|

Bawarshi, Anis S.

1997-01-01

34

Phenotypic dichotomy in mitochondrial complex II genetic disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review presents our current knowledge on the genetic and phenotypic aspects of mitochondrial complex II gene defects. The mutations of the complex II subunits cause two strikingly different group of disorders, revealing a phenotypic dichotomy. Genetic disorders of the mitochondrial respiratory chain are often characterized by hypotonia, growth retardation, cardiomyopathy, myopathy, neuropathy, organ failure, and metabolic derangement. These disorders

Bora E. Baysal; Wendy S. Rubinstein; Peter E. Taschner

2001-01-01

35

Two Programs, Two Cultures: The Dichotomy of Science Teacher Preparation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper illustrates the rivalry and dichotomy between science and teacher education programs by describing and contrasting the nature of the two cultures. The two cultures are portrayed through a series of three contrasts: (1) "Weeding Out" vs. nurturing; (2) meritocratic vs. democratic; and (3) masculine vs. feminine. Two studies describing…

Duggan-Haas, Don

36

Direct Instruction vs. Arts Integration: A False Dichotomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author takes on what he considers to be the false dichotomy between direct instruction and arts integration. He contends that at a time when national issues of sustainability and conservation of energy and resources become ever more urgent, it is time that those committed to quality arts education stop squandering time,…

Aprill, Arnold

2010-01-01

37

Dichotomies in cancer research: some suggestions for a new synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuing high cancer incidence and mortality raise concern about the prevailing overall approach to the control of this disease. The purpose of this article is to elaborate on fundamental dichotomies between traditional and revisionist viewpoints and then to attempt a synthesis of these contrasting perspectives. Topics considered include the importance of controlling carcinogenesis in its earliest stages; consideration of epigenetic,

Michael B Sporn

2006-01-01

38

L1 interaction with ankyrin regulates mediolateral topography in the retinocollicular projection.  

PubMed

Dynamic modulation of adhesion provided by anchorage of axonal receptors with the cytoskeleton contributes to attractant or repellent responses that guide axons to topographic targets in the brain. The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 engages the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton through reversible linkage of its cytoplasmic domain to ankyrin. To investigate a role for L1 association with the cytoskeleton in topographic guidance of retinal axons to the superior colliculus, a novel mouse strain was generated by genetic knock-in that expresses an L1 point mutation (Tyr1229His) abolishing ankyrin binding. Axon tracing revealed a striking mistargeting of mutant ganglion cell axons from the ventral retina, which express high levels of ephrinB receptors, to abnormally lateral sites in the contralateral superior colliculus, where they formed multiple ectopic arborizations. These axons were compromised in extending interstitial branches in the medial direction, a normal response to the high medial to low lateral SC gradient of ephrinB1. Furthermore, ventral but not dorsal L1(Y1229H) retinal cells were impaired for ephrinB1-stimulated adhesion through beta1 integrins in culture. The retinocollicular phenotype of the L1(Tyr1229His) mutant provides the first evidence that L1 regulates topographic mapping of retinal axons through adhesion mediated by linkage to the actin cytoskeleton and functional interaction with the ephrinB/EphB targeting system. PMID:18171935

Buhusi, Mona; Schlatter, Monika C; Demyanenko, Galina P; Thresher, Randy; Maness, Patricia F

2008-01-01

39

Native American religion versus archaeological science: A pernicious dichotomy revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adversarial relations between science and religion have recurred throughout Western History. Archaeologists figure prominently\\u000a in a recent incarnation of this debate as members of a hegemonic scientific elite. Postmodern debates situate disagreements\\u000a in cosmological differences between innocent, traditional, native peoples and insensitive, career-mad, colonialist scientists.\\u000a This simplistic dichotomy patronizes both First Peoples and archaeologists, pitting two economically marginal groups in

K. Anne Pyburn

1999-01-01

40

Dissenting Discourse: Exploring Alternatives to the Whistleblowing\\/Silence Dichotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent times, whistleblowing has become one of the most popularly debated issues of business ethics. Popular discussion\\u000a has coincided with the institutionalisation of whistleblowing via legal and administrative practices, supported by the emergence\\u000a of academic research in the field. However, the public practice and knowledge that has subsequently developed appears to construct\\u000a a dichotomy of whistleblowing\\/silence; that is, an

Hayden Teo; Donella Caspersz

2011-01-01

41

Mega-impact formation of the Mars hemispheric dichotomy.  

PubMed

The Mars hemispheric dichotomy is expressed as a dramatic difference in elevation, crustal thickness and crater density between the southern highlands and northern lowlands (which cover approximately 42% of the surface). Despite the prominence of the dichotomy, its origin has remained enigmatic and models for its formation largely untested. Endogenic degree-1 convection models with north-south asymmetry are incomplete in that they are restricted to simulating only mantle dynamics and they neglect crustal evolution, whereas exogenic multiple impact events are statistically unlikely to concentrate in one hemisphere. A single mega-impact of the requisite size has not previously been modelled. However, it has been hypothesized that such an event could obliterate the evidence of its occurrence by completely covering the surface with melt or catastrophically disrupting the planet. Here we present a set of single-impact initial conditions by which a large impactor can produce features consistent with the observed dichotomy's crustal structure and persistence. Using three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, large variations are predicted in post-impact states depending on impact energy, velocity and, importantly, impact angle, with trends more pronounced or unseen in commonly studied smaller impacts. For impact energies of approximately (3-6) x 10(29) J, at low impact velocities (6-10 km s(-1)) and oblique impact angles (30-60 degrees ), the resulting crustal removal boundary is similar in size and ellipticity to the observed characteristics of the lowlands basin. Under these conditions, the melt distribution is largely contained within the area of impact and thus does not erase the evidence of the impact's occurrence. The antiquity of the dichotomy is consistent with the contemporaneous presence of impactors of diameter 1,600-2,700 km in Mars-crossing orbits, and the impact angle is consistent with the expected distribution. PMID:18580945

Marinova, Margarita M; Aharonson, Oded; Asphaug, Erik

2008-06-26

42

Tharsis: Consequence of Mars' Dichotomy and Layered Mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two largest and most striking features on Mars are the crustal dichotomy, the nearly hemispheric division in topography, gravity, crustal thickness, and age, and Tharsis, a volcanic center active from the Noachian to the present. Tharsis' long-term persistence of localized volcanism is, to the best of our knowledge, unique in the solar system. Explaining the timing of Tharsis volcanism, from initiation early in martian history to recent activity, has been an enduring challenge. Here we present an model of the martian mantle that can explain early and persistent volcanism at Tharsis by incorporating the effects of the crustal dichotomy and a compositionally layered mantle. As the crust is expected to be enriched in heat-producing elements, this dichotomy in thickness leads to a dichotomous heat flux boundary condition on the mantle, which affects the internal dynamics. The evidence for layering includes the ability of a layered mantle to simultaneously meet a chondritic bulk composition and the moment-of-inertia factor (Elkins-Tanton et al., in revision), which can not be done with a one-layered mantle. In addition, studies of the martian meteorites suggest that the martian mantle is heterogeneous, a constraint that can be met with layering. We perform analog laboratory experiments with corn syrup to simulate Mars' thermal evolution. We vary the presence of a partial insulating lid, to simulate the effect of the dichotomy, and layering in the convecting fluid. We show that in the case of a layered mantle and an insulating lid, a large swell, which acts to localize upwelling plumes under the lid, forms early and endures for the scaled equivalent of billions of years. Linda T. Elkins-Tanton, E. M. Parmentier, and P. C. Hess, "Magma ocean fractional crystallization and cumulate overturn in terrestrial planets: implications for Mars," in revision for Meteoritics and Planetary Science.

Wenzel, M. J.; Manga, M.; Jellinek, A. M.

2003-12-01

43

Implications of an impact origin for the martian hemispheric dichotomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observation that one hemisphere of Mars is lower and has a thinner crust than the other (the `martian hemispheric dichotomy') has been a puzzle for 30 years. The dichotomy may have arisen as a result of internal mechanisms such as convection. Alternatively, it may have been caused by one or several giant impacts, but quantitative tests of the impact hypothesis have not been published. Here we use a high-resolution, two-dimensional, axially symmetric hydrocode to model vertical impacts over a range of parameters appropriate to early Mars. We propose that the impact model, in addition to excavating a crustal cavity of the correct size, explains two other observations. First, crustal disruption at the impact antipode is probably responsible for the observed antipodal decline in magnetic field strength. Second, the impact-generated melt forming the northern lowlands crust is predicted to derive from a deep, depleted mantle source. This prediction is consistent with characteristics of martian shergottite meteorites and suggests a dichotomy formation time ~100Myr after martian accretion, comparable to that of the Moon-forming impact on Earth.

Nimmo, F.; Hart, S. D.; Korycansky, D. G.; Agnor, C. B.

2008-06-01

44

Implications of an impact origin for the martian hemispheric dichotomy.  

PubMed

The observation that one hemisphere of Mars is lower and has a thinner crust than the other (the 'martian hemispheric dichotomy') has been a puzzle for 30 years. The dichotomy may have arisen as a result of internal mechanisms such as convection. Alternatively, it may have been caused by one or several giant impacts, but quantitative tests of the impact hypothesis have not been published. Here we use a high-resolution, two-dimensional, axially symmetric hydrocode to model vertical impacts over a range of parameters appropriate to early Mars. We propose that the impact model, in addition to excavating a crustal cavity of the correct size, explains two other observations. First, crustal disruption at the impact antipode is probably responsible for the observed antipodal decline in magnetic field strength. Second, the impact-generated melt forming the northern lowlands crust is predicted to derive from a deep, depleted mantle source. This prediction is consistent with characteristics of martian shergottite meteorites and suggests a dichotomy formation time approximately 100 Myr after martian accretion, comparable to that of the Moon-forming impact on Earth. PMID:18580946

Nimmo, F; Hart, S D; Korycansky, D G; Agnor, C B

2008-06-26

45

Dichotomy in the definition of prescriptive information suggests both prescribed data and prescribed algorithms: biosemiotics applications in genomic systems.  

PubMed

The fields of molecular biology and computer science have cooperated over recent years to create a synergy between the cybernetic and biosemiotic relationship found in cellular genomics to that of information and language found in computational systems. Biological information frequently manifests its "meaning" through instruction or actual production of formal bio-function. Such information is called prescriptive information (PI). PI programs organize and execute a prescribed set of choices. Closer examination of this term in cellular systems has led to a dichotomy in its definition suggesting both prescribed data and prescribed algorithms are constituents of PI. This paper looks at this dichotomy as expressed in both the genetic code and in the central dogma of protein synthesis. An example of a genetic algorithm is modeled after the ribosome, and an examination of the protein synthesis process is used to differentiate PI data from PI algorithms. PMID:22413926

D'Onofrio, David J; Abel, David L; Johnson, Donald E

2012-03-14

46

Arousal and reward: a dichotomy in orexin function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The orexins (or hypocretins) are neuropeptide transmitters made exclusively in hypothalamic neurons that have extensive CNS projections. Previous studies reported that this system is most strongly associated with feeding, arousal and the maintenance of waking. We review here recent studies that reveal a novel and important role for the orexin\\/hypocretin neuronal sys- tem in reward processing and addiction. We propose

Glenda C. Harris; Gary Aston-Jones

2006-01-01

47

Medio-lateral stability of sit-to-walk performance in older individuals with and without fear of falling.  

PubMed

Most falls in older people are due to loss of balance during everyday locomotion, e.g., when initiating walking from sitting; sit-to-walk (STW). It has been considered that the broader stride width in walking that is seen in many people with fear of falling (FoF) does not increase stability, but could be predictive of future falls because of increased medio-lateral (ML) velocity of the body centre of mass (CoM). This study was aimed to examine step-, velocity- and stability-related parameters, focusing on ML stability, in STW performance of people with and without FoF. Ten subjects with FoF and 10 matched controls, aged > or = 70 years, were included. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected in a laboratory. Stability parameters were calculated from a formula implying that the vertical projection of the CoM extrapolated by adding its velocity times a factor radicall/g (height of inverted pendulum divided by gravity) should fall within the base of support (BoS). A related spatial margin of stability (SMoS), defined as the minimum distance from the extrapolated CoM (XCoM) to the boundaries of the BoS, was also calculated. In the phase 'seat-off-second-toe-off', the FoF group had significantly (p<0.05) shorter and broader steps, lower forward but similar ML CoM velocity, and broader CoM and XCoM widths. The FoF group therefore exhibited a disproportionately large sideways velocity compared to the controls. This indicates that STW may be a hazardous transfer for older people with FoF, which should be relevant in assessment and training aimed at preventing falls. PMID:20189390

Aberg, Anna Cristina; Frykberg, Gunilla Elmgren; Halvorsen, Kjartan

2010-02-26

48

On the dichotomy in the Earth-Moon system restricted three-body problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply the numerical technique of Poincare surface of section to investigate the dichotomy present in the Earth-Moon system, considering the framework of planar, circular, restricted three-body problem. A study on the transition of quasi-periodic orbits (oscillatory type dichotomy) present at the Jacobi constant C=2.85 shows that the dichotomy discussed here exist not at a particular value of the mass ratio and the Jacobi constant. It is observed that as C increases, the range of mass ratio at which the dichotomy pertains increases, even though the mass ratio at which the transition of orbits takes place decreases.

Safiya Beevi, A.; Sharma, R. K.

2012-10-01

49

Will the Kraepelinian dichotomy survive DSM-V?  

PubMed

Kraepelin proposed dementia praecox and manic-depressive illness as the two major psychotic disorders. This paradigm is still prevalent, but observations of overlapping boundaries between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia challenge this dichotomy. However, the concept of schizophrenia has been radically altered from the original Kraepelinian proposal. We defend the two psychoses positions, but suggest two flaws in the heuristic application: (1) overlapping features, such as psychotic symptoms, are not decisive in differential diagnosis; and (2) each disorder is a syndrome, not a disease entity. An alternative paradigm based on domains of pathology is more powerful for studies of etiology, pathophysiology, and therapeutic discovery. PMID:19295511

Fischer, Bernard A; Carpenter, William T

2009-03-18

50

Dichotomy of some satellites of the outer Solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently acquired by the Cas as ini' CIR a temperature map (11 -16 microns radiation) of small satellite Mimas caused a perplexity among the Cassini scientists (an interpretation of PIA12867). They expected to have a regular temperature map characteristic of a homogeneous spherical body heated by Sun. Instead, the bizarre map with two sharply divided temperature fields was produced (Fig. 1). The temperature difference between two fields is about 15 Kelvin that is rather remarkable. The warm part has typical temperature near 92 Kelvin, the cold part -about 77 Kelvin. Obviously there are two icy substances with different conductivity of heat composing two planetary segments (hemispheres). But in this result there is nothing new for explorers insisting for many years that all celestial bodies are tectonically dichotomous [1, 2, 3]. However, this new beautiful confirmat ion of the wave planetology theorem 1 (" Celes tial bodies are dichotomous ") is not s uperfluous , as many s cientis ts , es pecially in the USA, are not acquainted with the wave p lanetology. The fundamental wave 1 long 2?R warping any body aris es in them becaus e they move in elliptica l keple rian orbits with periodically changing acceleration. Having in rotating bodies (but all bodies rotate!) a stationary character and four interfering directions (ortho- and diagonal) these waves inevitably produce uplifting (+), subsiding (-), and neutral (0) tectonic blocks (Fig. 7). The uplifts and subsidences are in an opposition (the best examples are the terrestrial Eastern (+) and Western ( -) segments-hemispheres and mart ian Northern (-) and Southern (+) ones) [3]. The small icy Mimas (396 km in diameter) is no exclusion (Fig. 1). Its dichotomy is well pronounced in two temperature fields obviously reflect ing slightly different in composition icy materials composing two segments. Presence of two kinds of surface materials is also revealed by spectrometry under combination of the UV, green and IR emissions (Fig. 4). Around Herschel Crater material is more bluish than more greenish elsewhere (artificial colors). Presence of dark streaks on walls o f some craters also indicates at another than pure ice substance. The deep Herschel Crater on the cooler segment is somewhat warmer than surrounding terrains (Fig. 1). Thus, one may suppose that the warmer segment exposes deeper layers and is uplifted (+), the cooler segment is subsided (-). Important confirmat ions of Mimas ' dichotomy are s imi lar geometric patterns observed on Iapetus (black & white) (Fig. 2) and on Titania (Fig. 3). Such pattern can be caught under specific viewing point s of dichotomous structure. Figures 5 and 6 show dichotomies of Rhea and Dione. Fig. 7 gives a geometrical s cheme of getting dichotomies by wave interference.

Kochemasov, G. G.

2011-10-01

51

Will The Kraepelinian Dichotomy Survive DSM-V?  

PubMed Central

Kraepelin proposed dementia praecox and manic-depressive illness as the two major psychotic disorders. This paradigm is still prevalent, but observations of overlapping boundaries between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia challenge this dichotomy. However, the concept of schizophrenia has been radically altered from the original Kraepelinian proposal. We defend the two psychoses position, but suggest two flaws in the heuristic application: 1) overlapping features such as psychotic symptoms are not decisive in differential diagnosis; and 2) each disorder is a syndrome, not a disease entity. An alternative paradigm based on domains of pathology is more powerful for studies of etiology, pathophysiology, and therapeutic discovery.

Fischer, Bernard A.; Carpenter, William T.

2009-01-01

52

The Martian Dichotomy: Numerical Investigations of the Impact Hypothesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Martian dichotomy is a first order feature of Martian topography and crustal thickness distribution [1]. We examine the hypothesis that a single large impact may have caused the dichotomy [2,3], using the radially- axisymmetric hydrocode ZeusMP [4,5]. We use a variable-resolution Eulerian grid to resolve near-surface processes, and have incorporated a set of Lagrangian tracer particles to track the displacement of crustal material allowing for robust crater size determination. We have explored parameter space by varying both impact velocity and mass, and have derived a preliminary scaling law for the amount of crustal material removed. The pattern of energy deposition is also being studied to better understand the spatial distribution of melted and excavated material. [1]Zuber, M.T., Nature 412, 220-27, 2001. [2]Willhelms, D.E., S.W. Squyres, Nature 309, 138-40, 1984. [3]Marinova, M.M., O. Aharonson, E. Asphaug 2005, Eos Trans. AGU, 86(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract P42A-06 [4]Stone, J. and M. Norman 1992, Ap. J. Supp. vol. 80, 753-790. [5]Korycansky, D. G., Zahnle, K. J., and M.-M. Mac Low 2000. Icarus, vol. 146, 387-403

Hart, S.; Nimmo, F.; Korycansky, D.

2006-12-01

53

The Prokaryote-Eukaryote Dichotomy: Meanings and Mythology  

PubMed Central

Drawing on documents both published and archival, this paper explains how the prokaryote-eukaryote dichotomy of the 1960s was constructed, the purposes it served, and what it implied in terms of classification and phylogeny. In doing so, I first show how the concept was attributed to Edouard Chatton and the context in which he introduced the terms. Following, I examine the context in which the terms were reintroduced into biology in 1962 by Roger Stanier and C. B. van Niel. I study the discourse over the subsequent decade to understand how the organizational dichotomy took on the form of a natural classification as the kingdom Monera or superkingdom Procaryotae. Stanier and van Niel admitted that, in regard to constructing a natural classification of bacteria, structural characteristics were no more useful than physiological properties. They repeatedly denied that bacterial phylogenetics was possible. I thus examine the great historical irony that the “prokaryote,” in both its organizational and phylogenetic senses, was defined (negatively) on the basis of structure. Finally, we see how phylogenetic research based on 16S rRNA led by Carl Woese and his collaborators confronted the prokaryote concept while moving microbiology to the center of evolutionary biology.

Sapp, Jan

2005-01-01

54

Models of Sensory Deprivation: The Nature\\/Nurture Dichotomy and Spatial Representation in the Blind  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that models of sensory deprivation often depend on a nativist versus empiricist dichotomy which has little basis in empirical fact. Fallacies about the nature of abilities and learning and about the interaction between sense modalities which follow from the dichotomy are examined in relation to explanations of spatial development in the blind. It is suggested that interactions

Susanna Millar

1988-01-01

55

Beyond 'left' and 'Right': a Zean Perspective of latin american dichotomies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to challenge the dominance of the Cold War left\\/right dichotomy - of socialism\\/capitalism - in Latin American politics. The main argument is that people now interpret their political affinities from other ideological stands. This does not mean that the 'right' and 'left' dichotomy disap- pears, but that it is given different meaning, depending on

Andrés Rivarola Puntigliano

56

The Borealis basin and the origin of the martian crustal dichotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most prominent feature on the surface of Mars is the near-hemispheric dichotomy between the southern highlands and northern lowlands. The root of this dichotomy is a change in crustal thickness along an apparently irregular boundary, which can be traced around the planet, except where it is presumably buried beneath the Tharsis volcanic rise. The isostatic compensation of these distinct

Jeffrey C. Andrews-Hanna; Maria T. Zuber; W. Bruce Banerdt

2008-01-01

57

Sublimation's impact on temporal change of albedo dichotomy on Iapetus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iapetus, one of the saturnian moons, has an extreme albedo contrast between the leading and trailing hemispheres. The origin of this albedo dichotomy has led to several hypotheses, however it remains controversial. To clarify the origin of the dichotomy, the key approach is to investigate the detailed distribution of the dark material. Recent studies of impact craters and surface temperature from Cassini spacecraft data implied that sublimation of H 2O ice can occur on Iapetus' surface. This ice sublimation can change the albedo distribution on the moon with time. In this study, we evaluate the effect of ice sublimation and simulate the temporal change of surface albedo. We assume the dark material and the bright ice on the surface to be uniformly mixed with a certain volume fraction, and the initial albedo distribution to incorporate the dark material deposits on the surface. That is, the albedo at the apex is lowest and concentrically increases in a sinusoidal pattern. This situation simulates that dark materials existed around the Iapetus' orbit billions of years ago, and the synchronously rotating Iapetus swept the material and then deposited it on its surface. The evolution of the surface albedo during 4.0 Gyr is simulated by estimating the surface temperature from the insolation energy on Iapetus including the effect of Saturn's eccentricity and Iapetus' obliquity precession, and evaluating the sublimation rate of H 2O ice from the Iapetus' surface. As a result, we found that the distribution of the surface albedo changed dramatically after 4.0 Gyr of evolution. The sublimation has three important effects on the resultant surface albedo. First, the albedo in the leading hemisphere has significantly decreased to approach the minimum value. Second, the albedo distribution has been elongated along the equator. Third, the edge of the low albedo region has become clear. Considering the effect of ice sublimation, the current albedo distribution can be reconstructed from the sinusoidal albedo distribution, suggesting the apex-antapex cratering asymmetry as a candidate for the origin of the albedo dichotomy. From the model analysis, we obtained an important aspect that the depth of the turn-over layer where the darkening process proceeded for 4 Gyr should be an order of 10 cm, which is consistent with evaluation from the Cassini radar observations.

Kimura, Jun; Kawamura, Taichi; Morito, Hisataka; Morota, Tomokatsu; Honda, Chikatoshi; Kuramoto, Kiyoshi; Okada, Tatsuaki

2011-08-01

58

Is there really a dichotomy in active galactic nucleus jet power?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To gain new insights into the radio-loud/radio-quiet dichotomy reported for active galactic nuclei (AGN), we examine radio loudness as a function of Eddington ratio for a previously published sample of 199 AGN from five different populations. After initially considering radio loudnesses derived using total radio luminosities, we repeat the investigation using core radio luminosities only, applying a previously established mass correction for these core luminosities. In both cases, for Eddington ratios <1 per cent, Fanaroff-Riley type I and broad-line radio galaxies are on average more radio-loud than Seyfert and low-ionization nuclear emission-line region galaxies. However, the distribution of radio loudnesses for the mass-corrected, core-only sample is much narrower than that of the clearly bimodal total radio loudness distribution. The advantages and disadvantages of using core- or lobe-dominated radio luminosity as a measure of instantaneous jet power are discussed. We furthermore compare the core and total radio luminosities for the entire sample, as well as illustrating the importance of the mass term by comparing the AGN with a sample of black hole X-ray binaries. We conclude that if the mass-corrected core radio luminosity is a good measure of jet power, then black hole spin may have considerably less impact on jet power than previously reported, or that our sample does not include the extremes of spin. If the spread in jet power is small, then we suggest that characteristics of the ambient environment and/or the radio source age could be equally as important in producing a radio-loudyradio-quiet dichotomy seen in total radio luminosity.

Broderick, J. W.; Fender, R. P.

2011-10-01

59

Black Hole Masses and the FR I--FR II Dichotomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the FRI-FRII dichotomy is key in comprehending the processes connected to the radio jet activity. Our aim is to see if the central black hole mass plays a role in determining the FRI-FRII dichotomy. We present here the preliminary results of the first run of observations dealing with the determination of the black hole masses through the use of the MBH - ?c relation for 5 FRI and 3 FRII radio galaxies. It appears that the FRI-FRII dichotomy does not depend on the black hole mass; however, the statistics are still poor, and additional observations, covering a larger sample, are underway.

Marchesini, D.; Celotti, A.; Ferrarese, L.

60

Mechanism of dichotomy between CD8+ responses elicited by apoptotic and necrotic cells  

PubMed Central

Apoptotic cells are significantly more immunogenic than necrotic cells, even though both forms are identical in antigenic content. When a combination of apoptotic and necrotic cells are used to immunize, the phenotype conferred by apoptotic cells, i.e., high immunogenicity, is dominant. However, necrotic cells are not immunosuppressive or tolerogenic. Apoptotic and necrotic cells are taken up by antigen-presenting cells in an equivalent manner. The priming of naïve T cell response is also equivalent. However, the CD8+ T cells elicited by apoptotic cells expand, accumulate, and express effector function, while those primed by the necrotic cells do not. This dichotomy does not extend to CD4+ cells. Apoptotic and necrotic cells elicit equivalent CD4+ T cell priming, accumulation, and function. The deficit in CD8+ T cell function elicited by necrotic cells can be overcome to varying degrees by anti-CD40 antibody and ligands for TLR4 and TLR9; conversely, the immunogenicity of apoptotic cells can be abrogated by blocking anti-CD154 antibody. Our results indicate that immunization with apoptotic cells leads to engagement of CD40 on antigen-presenting cells; this is essential for their ability to elicit mature functional CD8+ cells. The necrotic cells fail to engage CD40, and this failure is the basis of their lack of immunogenicity. These differences have consequences for the understanding of mechanisms of cross-presentation and for efforts toward immunotherapy of cancers and autoimmune pathologies.

Buckwalter, Matthew R.; Srivastava, Pramod K.

2013-01-01

61

Hemispheric Dichotomy in Seismic Structures of the Earth's Inner Core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past several years, we have made effort to understand the lateral and depth extent of the inner core "east-west" hemispheric dichotomy. In this presentation, we will review some peculiar characteristics of the inner core hemispheric differences that have been recently discovered. These major findings include: 1) along equatorial paths, the east-west hemispheric dichotomy in seismic velocity, with the velocity in the eastern hemisphere (40°E - 180°E) being higher than that in the western hemisphere (180°W - 40°E) by about 1%, extends larger than 400 km of the inner core. Seismic velocity and attenuation structures in the eastern hemisphere appear to be complex: an anomalously small velocity gradient in the top 235 km of the inner core, a gradual velocity transition at depths of 235-375 km, and a PREM-like velocity gradient in the deeper portion of the inner core. The attenuation structure in the eastern hemisphere has an average Q value of 300 in the top 300 km and an average Q value of 600 in the deeper portion of the inner core. Seismic velocity and attenuation structures in the western hemisphere appear to be simple: a constant gradual velocity gradient and an average Q value of 600 in the top 400 km of the inner core; 2) magnitude of the inner core anisotropy is larger in the western hemisphere (about 3% - 4%) than in the eastern hemisphere (about 0.5%), but the presence of anisotropy appears to be shallower in the western hemisphere (about 0 - 100 km) than in the eastern hemisphere (about 200 km); 3) a correlation between high attenuation and high velocity is ubiquitously observed in the seismic data. Along equatorial paths, the eastern hemisphere has high attenuation (a Q value of 300) compared to the western hemisphere (a Q value of 600). The attenuation structure along polar paths in the western hemisphere has even higher attenuation (a Q value of about 200- 250) compared to that along equatorial paths. Such a polar-equatorial difference in attenuation corresponds to a polar-equatorial difference in velocity with the velocity along polar paths being higher than that along equatorial paths by 1.3% - 2.8%; 4) near the east-west border at 20°W - 40°E (beneath Africa), seismic anisotropic structures appear to be complex within the uppermost 80 km of the inner core: a laterally undulating isotropic layer increases from 0 km beneath eastern Africa to 50 km beneath central Africa and the velocity anisotropy in the deeper portion of the inner core varies from 1.6%-2.2%. The above modeling results suggest that the east-west hemispheric dichotomy and the polar-equatorial anisotropy can be explained by different alignment of the anisotropic hcp iron crystals, under the hypothesis that the axis of high velocity corresponds to that of high attenuation.

Yu, W.; Wen, L.

2009-05-01

62

Raven Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV), Investigating Potential Dichotomies Between Doctrine and Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this MBA Project is to investigate potential dichotomies between doctrine and practice in the employment of the Raven Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV). The Army's current Small UAV requirements are based upon the Future Combat System's Ope...

G. E. Jenkins J. W. Snodgrass

2005-01-01

63

A coordination chemistry dichotomy for icosahedral carborane-based ligands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the majority of ligands in modern chemistry take advantage of carbon-based substituent effects to tune the sterics and electronics of coordinating moieties, we describe here how icosahedral carboranes—boron-rich clusters—can influence metal-ligand interactions. Using a series of phosphine-thioether chelating ligands featuring meta- or ortho-carboranes grafted on the sulfur atom, we were able to tune the lability of the platinum-sulfur interaction of platinum(II)-thioether complexes. Experimental observations, supported by computational work, show that icosahedral carboranes can act either as strong electron-withdrawing ligands or electron-donating moieties (similar to aryl- or alkyl-based groups, respectively), depending on which atom of the carborane cage is attached to the thioether moiety. These and similar results with carborane-selenol derivatives suggest that, in contrast to carbon-based ligands, icosahedral carboranes exhibit a significant dichotomy in their coordination chemistry, and can be used as a versatile class of electronically tunable building blocks for various ligand platforms.

Spokoyny, Alexander M.; Machan, Charles W.; Clingerman, Daniel J.; Rosen, Mari S.; Wiester, Michael J.; Kennedy, Robert D.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Mirkin, Chad A.

2011-08-01

64

A coordination chemistry dichotomy for icosahedral carborane-based ligands.  

PubMed

Although the majority of ligands in modern chemistry take advantage of carbon-based substituent effects to tune the sterics and electronics of coordinating moieties, we describe here how icosahedral carboranes-boron-rich clusters-can influence metal-ligand interactions. Using a series of phosphine-thioether chelating ligands featuring meta- or ortho-carboranes grafted on the sulfur atom, we were able to tune the lability of the platinum-sulfur interaction of platinum(II)-thioether complexes. Experimental observations, supported by computational work, show that icosahedral carboranes can act either as strong electron-withdrawing ligands or electron-donating moieties (similar to aryl- or alkyl-based groups, respectively), depending on which atom of the carborane cage is attached to the thioether moiety. These and similar results with carborane-selenol derivatives suggest that, in contrast to carbon-based ligands, icosahedral carboranes exhibit a significant dichotomy in their coordination chemistry, and can be used as a versatile class of electronically tunable building blocks for various ligand platforms. PMID:21778977

Spokoyny, Alexander M; Machan, Charles W; Clingerman, Daniel J; Rosen, Mari S; Wiester, Michael J; Kennedy, Robert D; Stern, Charlotte L; Sarjeant, Amy A; Mirkin, Chad A

2011-07-22

65

The Elliptical-Spheroidal and Elliptical-Elliptical Galaxy Dichotomies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarizes Kormendy et al. (2009, ApJS, 182, 216). We confirm that spheroidal galaxies have fundamental plane correlations that are almost perpendicular to those for bulges and ellipticals. Spheroidals are not dwarf ellipticals. They are structurally similar to late-type galaxies. We suggest that they are defunct (“red and dead”) late-type galaxies transformed by a variety of gas removal processes. Minus spheroidals, ellipticals come in two varieties: giant, non-rotating, boxy galaxies with cuspy cores and smaller, rotating, disky galaxies that lack cores. We find a new feature of this “E-E dichotomy”: Coreless ellipticals have extra light at the center with respect to an inward extrapolation of the outer Sérsic profile. We suggest that extra light is made in starbursts that swamp core scouring in wet mergers. In general, only giant, core ellipticals contain X-ray gas halos. We suggest that they formed in mergers that were kept dry by X-ray gas heated by active galactic nuclei.

Kormendy, J.

2009-12-01

66

Dichotomy in Hedgehog Signaling between Human Healthy Vessel and Atherosclerotic Plaques  

PubMed Central

The major cause for plaque instability in atherosclerotic disease is neoangiogenic revascularization, but the factors controlling this process remain only partly understood. Hedgehog (HH) is a morphogen with important functions in revascularization, but its function in human healthy vessel biology as well as in atherosclerotic plaques has not been well investigated. Hence, we determined the status of HH pathway activity both in healthy vessels and atherosclerotic plaques. A series of 10 healthy organ donor–derived human vessels, 17 coronary atherosclerotic plaques and 24 atherosclerotic carotid plaques were investigated for HH pathway activity. We show that a healthy vessel is characterized by a high level of HH pathway activity but that atherosclerotic plaques are devoid of HH signaling despite the presence of HH ligand in these pathological structures. Thus, a dichotomy between healthy vessels and atherosclerotic plaques with respect to the activation status of the HH pathway exists, and it is tempting to suggest that downregulation of HH signaling contributes to long-term plaque stability.

Queiroz, Karla C S; Bijlsma, Maarten F; Tio, Rene A; Zeebregts, Clark J; Dunaeva, Marina; Ferreira, Carmen V; Fuhler, Gwenny M; Kuipers, Ernst J; Alves, Maria M; Rezaee, Farhad; Spek, C Arnold; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P

2012-01-01

67

Hemispheric dichotomy in seismic structures of the Earth's inner core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past several years, we have made effort to understand the lateral and depth extent of the inner core hemispheric dichotomy. In this presentation, we will review some peculiar characteristics of the inner core hemispheric differences that have been recently discovered. These major findings include: 1) along equatorial paths, the east-west hemispheric dichotomy in seismic velocity, with the velocity in the eastern hemisphere (40°E - 180°E longitude) being higher than that in the western hemisphere (180°W - 40°E) by about 1%, extends larger than 400 km of the inner core. Seismic velocity and attenuation structures in the eastern hemisphere appear to be complex: an anomalously small velocity gradient in the top 235 km of the inner core, a gradual velocity transition at depths of 235-375 km, and a PREM-like velocity gradient in the deeper portion of the inner core. The attenuation structure in the eastern hemisphere has an average Q value of 300 in the top 300 km and an average Q value of 600 in the deeper portion of the inner core. Seismic velocity and attenuation structures in the western hemisphere appear to be simple: a constant gradual velocity gradient and an average Q value of 600 in the top 400 km of the inner core; 2) magnitude of the inner core anisotropy is larger in the western hemisphere (about 3% - 4%) than in the eastern hemisphere (about 0.5%), but the presence of anisotropy appears to be shallower in the western hemisphere (about 0 - 100 km) than in the eastern hemisphere (about 200 km); 3) a correlation between high attenuation and high velocity is ubiquitously observed in the seismic data. Along equatorial paths, the eastern hemisphere has high attenuation (a Q value of 300) compared to the western hemisphere (a Q value of 600). The attenuation structure along polar paths in the western hemisphere has even higher attenuation (a Q value of about 200-250) compared to that along equatorial paths. Such a polar-equatorial difference in attenuation corresponds to a polar-equatorial difference in velocity with the velocity along polar paths being higher than that along equatorial paths by 1.3% - 2.8%; 4) near the east-west border at 20 ° W - 40 ° E longitude (beneath Africa), seismic anisotropic structures appear to be complex within the uppermost 80 km of the inner core: a laterally undulating isotropic layer increases from 0 km beneath eastern Africa to 50 km beneath central Africa and the velocity anisotropy in the deeper portion of the inner core varies from 1.6%-2.2%. The above modeling results suggest that the east-west hemisphericity and the polar-equatorial anisotropy can be explained by different alignments of the anisotropic hcp iron crystals, under the hypothesis that the axis of high velocity corresponds to that of high attenuation. We begin to systematically search for the waveform doublets for the PKIKP sampling the inner core to study temporal change of inner core properties.

Yu, W.; Wen, L.

2006-12-01

68

The magnetic dichotomy of the Galilean satellites Europa and Ganymede  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most surprising discoveries of the Galileo mission was the detection of a self-generated magnetic field in the vicinity of Ganymede. Up to that discovery, it was widely believed that Ganymede did not fully differentiate and had a central region composed of silicates and iron and an outer ice layer. The existence of the self-generated magnetic field together with the relatively small value of the moment-of-inertia factor, suggests that Ganymede is strongly differentiated into an iron core, a silicate mantle and an outer ice layer. Based on Galileo gravity field measurements, a similar interior structure has been proposed for Europa where an internal magnetic field is absent. It has been suggested that chemical convection due to the precipitation of iron or iron sulfide is the most likely mechanism to power a present-day dynamo on Ganymede. Chemical convection and dynamo action will start as soon as core temperatures fall below the liquidus temperature of the core alloy and operates as long as the core is cooling. Interestingly, although Ganymede is about 700 km larger in radius than Europa, the differences in size and mass of the silicate and iron part, respectively, are only small for both satellites. As a consequence, one would expect a similar thermal and magnetic field evolution in both cases. However, thermal evolution models indicate that it is even more likely for Europa to generate an internal field if the same set of parameter values for mantle rheology and radioactive heat source density is used as for Ganymede. We will discuss two scenarios that may help explain the puzzling magnetic dichotomy between both satellites: (1) a larger content of light elements in the core of Europa as compared to Ganymede and (2) tidal heating in the silicate mantle of Europa.

Breuer, D.; Spohn, T.

69

Planetary Scale Impacts and Consequences for the Mars Hemispheric Dichotomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary-scale impacts are events in which the resultant impact basin is a significant fraction of the planet's circumference. The curvature of the planet is expected to be important in the impact process, especially as it relates to the fate of downrange ejecta in off-axis events. Planetary-scale impacts are abundant in the Solar System, especially early in its evolution. A possible candidate planetary-scale impact basin is the Martian hemispheric dichotomy, expressed as a difference in surface elevation, crustal thickness, and surface age between the northern lowlands and the southern highlands. We investigate the characteristics of planetary-scale impacts, and in particular the effects of a mega impact on Mars. We use a 3 dimensional self-gravitational Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) model to simulate the impacts, implementing an olivine equation of state derived for the Tillotson formulation, and use this to establish the initial pressure and internal energy profile of the planet. The parameter space of impactor energy, impactor size, and impact velocity are explored for Mars hemispheric impacts. We find that for a given impact energy, head-on large but slow impacts produce more melt and cover more of the planet with melt than small, fast, and oblique events. Head-on impacts produce crustal blow-off and a melt pool at the antipode. Oblique impacts do not cover much of the planet with melt, but create sizable basins. Various degrees of crustal thickening are apparent around the crater over a length of ~1000 km; this crustal thickening could relax over geological time. Fast impacts eject material with escape velocity many times their own mass. In all cases, less than 10% of the impactor's mass is placed in orbit. For oblique events, a significant fraction of the angular momentum in the system is carried away by escaping material, limiting the efficiency of angular momentum transfer to the planet.

Marinova, M. M.; Aharonson, O.; Asphaug, E.

2007-12-01

70

Iapetus: unique surface properties and a global color dichotomy from Cassini imaging.  

PubMed

Since 2004, Saturn's moon Iapetus has been observed repeatedly with the Imaging Science Subsystem of the Cassini spacecraft. The images show numerous impact craters down to the resolution limit of approximately 10 meters per pixel. Small, bright craters within the dark hemisphere indicate a dark blanket thickness on the order of meters or less. Dark, equator-facing and bright, poleward-facing crater walls suggest temperature-driven water-ice sublimation as the process responsible for local albedo patterns. Imaging data also reveal a global color dichotomy, wherein both dark and bright materials on the leading side have a substantially redder color than the respective trailing-side materials. This global pattern indicates an exogenic origin for the redder leading-side parts and suggests that the global color dichotomy initiated the thermal formation of the global albedo dichotomy. PMID:20007863

Denk, Tilmann; Neukum, Gerhard; Roatsch, Thomas; Porco, Carolyn C; Burns, Joseph A; Galuba, Götz G; Schmedemann, Nico; Helfenstein, Paul; Thomas, Peter C; Wagner, Roland J; West, Robert A

2009-12-10

71

Double-bundle medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendon autograft and mediolateral patellar tunnel fixation: a meta-analysis of outcomes and complications.  

PubMed

Medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction is used to treat patellar instability and recurrent patellar dislocation. Anatomical studies have found the MPFL to be a double-bundle structure. We carried out a meta-analysis of studies reporting outcomes of patellofemoral reconstruction using hamstring tendon autograft in a double-bundle configuration and patellar fixation via mediolateral patellar tunnels. A literature search was undertaken with no language restriction in various databases from their year of inception to July 2012. The primary outcome examined was the post-operative Kujala score. We identified 320 MPFL reconstructions in nine relevant articles. The combined mean post-operative Kujala score was 92.02 (standard error (se) 1.4, p = 0.001) using a fixed effects model and 89.45 (se 37.9, p = 0.02) using random effect modelling. The reported rate of complications with MPFL reconstruction was 12.5% (40 of 320) with stiffness of the knee being the most common. High-quality evidence in assessing double-bundle MPFL reconstruction is lacking. The current literature consists of a mixture of prospective and retrospective case series. High-quality randomised trials evaluating this procedure are still awaited. PMID:23814240

Singhal, R; Rogers, S; Charalambous, C P

2013-07-01

72

Lakes, delta and volcanism at the Martian dichotomy. The case of Nepenthes Mensae.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Martian dichotomy. The case of Nepenthes Mensae. M.A. de Pablo (1,2) and A. Pacifici (2) (1) Área de Geología. ESCET. Universidad Rey Juan Carlos. Móstoles, Madrid. Spain. (miguelangel.depablo@urjc.es), (2) International Research School of Planetary Sciences. Universitá d'Annunzio. Viale Pindaro, 42. Pescara, Italy. Martian dichotomy is marked by an important topographic step and a clear lineal orientation, especially at the western hemisphere. Nepenthes Mensae occur in one of these regions where these characteristics are clearly visible. Origin, tectonics and hydrological implications of the dichotomy were widely discussed by several authors. However, observation of HRSC, THEMIS Visible and MOC narrow angle images of Martian dichotomy on Nepenthes Mensae has revealed the existence of an interesting site (centred at 121.43E, 2.16N) where tectonic, volcanic, sedimentary and fluvial features are related and could be indicative of the complex geologic history of the Martian dichotomy, almost in this region. This site is characterized by an important topographic scarp between highlands and lowlands marked by a lineal orientation SE-NW. A small elongated volcanic edifice and some linear narrow reliefs, that we interpret as dikes highlighted by erosive processes, show same orientation. This volcano, 8 kilometers long, 4 kilometers wide and about 500 meters high, lies in a depression bordering the dichotomy. Partially covering the volcanic edifice there are sedimentary materials forming delta features. They represent the termination of one of channels coming from Martian highlands. The most recent delta seems to be a Gilbert-type (about 3.5 kilometers extended and 350 meters thick). However, our coarse estimations of volume of materials of this delta show that other previous important fluvial events should happen in order to erode its channel. The existence of two different overlapping delta funs in this place could be indicative of these previous episodes. Finally, although gullies are not visible on MOC narrow angle images of this area, some water courses are excavated at the Gilbert-type delta, and its possible sedimentary deposits are located near the elongated volcano, marking the most recent fluvial event at this area. Northward of this region, other depressions are characterized by possible shore- lnes. Different levels of water are marked by several strandlines. HRSC-derived DTM agrees with the shorelines hypothesis. Radiance maps created from THEMIS infrared night images show the higher temperature of materials outcropping on the floor of this basin and other depressions bordering the dichotomy. These maps allow us to interpret different origins for those materials, including cemented deposits and lavas. All this features shows the complex interactions among water, tectonics and volcanism in this area of the Martian dichotomy at Nepenthes Mensae.

de Pablo, M. A.; Pacifici, A.

73

Are the dichotomies generalized versus focal epilepsies and idiopathic versus symptomatic epilepsies still valid in modern epileptology?  

PubMed

In this commentary we discuss the basic concept of an epileptogenicity level, which is variable in different brain regions and is a function of multiple factors including the basic epileptogenicity level, routine environmental or internal stimuli, and various triggering and causative factors. This concept blurs the distinction between focal versus generalized and between idiopathic versus symptomatic epilepsies. We suggest dropping the dichotomy idiopathic versus symptomatic and to instead simply list the different etiologic factors that increase the epileptogenicity level. On the other hand, even if there is a continuum between focal and generalized epilepsies, most epilepsies are either predominantly focal or predominantly generalized. It is useful to maintain this distinction (even if somewhat artificial) because focal epilepsies can be treated with epilepsy surgery, and all focal epilepsies tend to respond to the same type of anticonvulsants. Generalized epilepsies cannot be treated surgically and respond to different anticonvulsants depending on the semiologic type of seizures. PMID:19389146

Lüders, Hans O; Turnbull, John; Kaffashi, Farhad

2009-04-06

74

Towards self-consistent modelling of the Martian dichotomy: Coupled models of simultaneous core and crust formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most striking surface features on Mars is the crustal dichotomy. It is the oldest geological feature on Mars and was formed more than 4.1 Ga ago by either exogenic or endogenic processes (e.g. Keller and Tackley, 2009). In order to find an internal origin of the crustal dichotomy, located within a maximum of 400 Ma of planetary

Gregor Golabek; Tobias Keller; Taras Gerya; Guizhi Zhu; Paul Tackley

2010-01-01

75

The Magnetic Dichotomy of the Galilean Satellites Europa and Ganymede  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major discovery of the Galileo mission was the detection of Ganymede's self-generated magnetic field. The magnetic field also proves beyond doubt that Ganymede is fully differentiated into an iron-rich core, a silicate mantle, and an outer ice shell that most likely also contains an ocean. It is widely believed that Europa has a similar structure although the absence of a self-sustained magnetic field makes the case for a core in Europa less compelling. Since Callisto's moment-of-inertia factor suggests an undifferentiated satellite and since the absence of a magnetic of Io is best explained by tidal heating in the mantle blocking the heat flow from the core (Wienbruch and Spohn, 1995), Europa and Ganymede form a magnetic dichotomy in the Jovian system. We have used stagnant lid models of convection in the two icy satellites to calculate thermal history models with core cooling and have allowed for inner core growth through freezing. The models have stagnant lid convection or conduction in the outer ice shells (depending on material parameters), isothermal oceans, and, in the case of Ganymede, stagnant-lid convection in the ice shell underneath the ocean and above the rock mantle. For Europa the ocean interfaces with the rock mantle. We assume iron cores that start fully molten for both satellites, the radii of which were taken from Sohl et al. (2002). These models suggest that Europa has a few 100 km smaller core and thinner mantle and a substantially thinner ice shell. All but interior structure parameters equal, we find that core convection and hence dynamo action is more likely for Europa than for Ganymede. The reason are mainly the larger core and the thicker mantle. Accepting core convection in Ganymede, the question than poses itself of how to explain the absence of core convection in Europa. We find and will discuss the following possibilities: 1) Europa has no iron core. This is consistent with the observation but leaves the question why Ganymede should have fully differentiated while Europa did not. 2) A higher concentration of light elements in Europa's core. Taking Sulfur as a point in case, Europa may have more sulfur, in which case more cooling would be required to freeze the core, or may even be on the FeS rich side of the eutectic, in which case chemical convection could be less efficient in Europa. 3) Tidal heating. We find that a few times the present-day radiogenic heating rate would be required to possibly frustrate dynamo action. This much tidal heat is consistent with the models of Hussmann et al. (2002) Hussmann, H. et al., 2002. Icarus, 156, 143-151; Sohl, F. et al., 2002, Icarus, 157,104-119; Wienbruch, U. and T. Spohn, 1995, PSS, 43, 1045-1057

Breuer, D.; Hussmann, H.; Spohn, T.

2006-12-01

76

DEFENDING THE INDEFENSIBLE? CULTURE'S ROLE IN THE PRODUCTIVE\\/UNPRODUCTIVE DICHOTOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to reveal the justifications for different production boundaries historically. It finds that the boundaries were and are predicated on an untenable productive\\/unproductive dichotomy that was justified on select and shifting cultural norms. Furthermore, the production boundary informed other categories like labor, capital, income, and wealth. Hence, this article exposes the degree to which economic

David M. Brennan

2006-01-01

77

Crossing the great divide: critiquing the sacred secular dichotomy in accounting research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To introduce the three papers in the special section, an overflow from a recent special issue of the journal. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Provides a brief review of the papers. Findings – The three papers focus on a common concern: the sacred secular dichotomy that has been employed in studies of accounting in religious organisations. Originality\\/value – This introduction focuses

Ken McPhail; Tim Gorringe; Rob Gray

2005-01-01

78

Sedimentary resurfacing and fretted terrain development along the crustal dichotomy boundary, Aeolis Mensae, Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of the Martian crustal dichotomy boundary, which separates the southern cratered highlands from the northern lowland plains by 1–3 km of elevation, remains among the fundamental outstanding issues in Mars research. For a study area at Aeolis Mensae we show that fretted terrain formed exclusively in a >2 km thick, late Noachian (?3.7 Ga) sedimentary deposit that overlies

Rossman P. Irwin III; Thomas R. Watters; Alan D. Howard; James R. Zimbelman

2004-01-01

79

Dichotomy, Dialectic and Dialogic: How Do Sociology Terms Assist Career Development Theory?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three concepts from sociology--dichotomy and two extensions, dialectic and dialogic--are considered here as social-psychological tools for career practitioners who analyse and investigate career patterns, career motivations and career pathways, whether at career start or at further points of transition. These terms have macro-social applications…

Burns, Edgar A. M.

2012-01-01

80

Gender differences in television use: An exploration of the instrumental?expressive dichotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applied an interpersonal approach to understand gender differences in television use. Research shows that males are socialized to be instrumental in communication while females are socialized to be expressive, or focused on relationships. We expected this instrumental?expressive dichotomy to emerge in television use. In two studies we found limited support that males had an instrumental viewing style, with

Amy I. Nathanson; Elizabeth M. Perse; Douglas A. Ferguson

1997-01-01

81

Extreme(s) Makeover: Countering False Dichotomies of Literacy Education in the Australian Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper highlights some of the enduring dichotomies that prevail in Australia regarding the most effective way to teach literacy. These contrastive positions are often used by policymakers and the media to construct the view that teachers are failing to teach literacy well. In uncovering some of the polemical positions taken on literacy education, the authors argue that rather than

Julie Hamston; Janet Scull

82

Do Mega Impacts Leave Craters? Characterizing Mega Impacts and Their Relation to the Mars Hemispheric Dichotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We simulate planetary-scale impacts, and relate their attributes to the Mars hemispheric dichotomy. We find that slow, head-on impacts melt much of the surface, but faster and oblique impacts are less disruptive and preserve attributes of the event.

M. M. Marinova; O. Aharonson; E. Asphaug

2007-01-01

83

Reconciling Evidenced-Based Research Practice with Rehabilitation Philosophy, Ethics and Practice: From Dichotomy to Dialectic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent shift in the helping professions to the implementation of evidenced-based practice (EBP) presents challenges to the field of rehabilitation counseling, most notably in the areas of integrating rehabilitation philosophy, ethics, and the relationship between research and practice. A dichotomy between the history and the future of the…

Tarvydas, Vilia; Addy, Amanda; Fleming, Allison

2010-01-01

84

A classic debate revisited: The policy\\/administration dichotomy in tax polittcs  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the oldest debates in political science is over the separation of policymaking from administration. The primary purpose of this paper is to resurrect the distinction as both a guide to empirical theory describing the political process and as an element in the normative debate over how that political process should ideally work. I first discuss the classic dichotomy

John F. Witte

1993-01-01

85

The Structure of the Martian Crustal Dichotomy from Gravity and Topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent mapping expeditions from Mars Global Surveyor have shown distinct differences in the elevation between the northern and southern hemispheres of Mars. The northern hemisphere is a sparsely cratered plains region well below the Martian mean surface elevation. The current state of the northern plains implies a geologically younger surface that emerged after the heavy bombardment of the southern hemisphere. The southern hemisphere or southern highlands region is a heavily cratered surface between 1 and 4 km above the mean surface elevation. The region between the two vastly different hemispheres where a large change in elevation takes place is known as the crustal dichotomy. Theories for the origin of the crustal dichotomy include impacts, plate tectonics, and the previous existence of an ocean. The crustal dichotomy itself is evidence that the lithosphere on Mars is able to support substantial stresses from masses above and below the surface. Currently, there are two competing crustal models to explain the difference in elevation between the north and south hemispheres. Smith and Zuber suggest that the crustal thickness varies gradually from the northern plains to the southern highlands. This gradual difference may be the result of a large impact event in the northern hemisphere, northern crustal thinning by mantle convection, or plate tectonics. The competing model by Frey speculates that the crustal dichotomy is a region where the crustal thickness varies sharply, similar to the transition zone between passive continents and oceans on Earth. Changes in crustal properties such as composition and thickness can support a significant change in crustal thickness over a short distance. The topographically low northern plains have younger crustal features that reveal a region highly marked with gravity anomalies. The southern highlands have much older crustal features with the exception of some volcanoes and impact basins that produce relatively smooth gravity anomalies. The crustal dichotomy itself is a region lacking gravity anomalies, suggesting it has been a long-lived feature of Mars. An isostatic geoid (areoid) approximation can be used to evaluate the competing crustal thickness models. Our preliminary model has a sharp change in crustal thickness at the dichotomy with a thick crust (i.e., 80-100 km average crustal thickness). In addition, our model predicts a small density difference between the Martian crust and mantle (i.e., 100-300 kg/m3). A sensitivity analysis will be presented to address the robustness of the model.

Whitesell, K. E.; King, S. D.

2001-12-01

86

Systematic of psychiatric disorders between categorical and dimensional approaches: Kraepelin's dichotomy and beyond.  

PubMed

This paper describes basic principles of systematics for psychiatric disorders such as the categorical and dimensional approach. It summarises validity aspects of the traditional psychiatric nosology and syndromatology. The importance and limitations of the dichotomy of schizophrenia and affective disorders, first suggested by Kraepelin, is reviewed in the light of results from modern research in the field of classification, follow-up and neurobiological studies, especially neurochemical, neurogenetic and neuroimaging studies. Current developments towards DSM-V and ICD-11 are critically reflected. The conclusion is reached that there might be insufficient data to establish a new systematics of psychoses. Therefore it might be premature to leave the Kraepelinian dichotomy totally although it has to be modified in the light of new research. PMID:18516518

Möller, Hans-Jürgen

2008-06-01

87

Geologic evolution of the Martian dichotomy in the Ismenius area of Mars and implications for plains magnetization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of the Martian dichotomy, which divides highlands from lowlands, is unknown. We examine a section of the dichotomy (50–90E) defined by steep scarps and normal faults. Stratigraphy and age relationships preclude the formation of the 2.5 km high boundary via erosion. The abrupt disappearance of topographic knobs ?300–500 km to the northeast is interpreted as a buried fault.

S. E. Smrekar; G. E. McGill; C. A. Raymond; A. M. Dimitriou

2004-01-01

88

Two-electron atoms in superintense radiation fields: Dichotomy and stabilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high-frequency Floquet theory describing the interaction of a two-electron atom with a linearly polarized laser field is applied to the case when the characteristic parameter alpha0=E0omega-2 a.u. is large, corresponding to the dichotomy regime of the one-electron problem. We first revisit this case and extend the large-alpha0 energy-level formula obtained earlier to higher order in alpha-10. We then prove

M. Gavrila; J. Shertzer

1996-01-01

89

Challenging the Civic\\/Ethnic and West\\/East Dichotomies in the Study of Nationalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article challenges the widespread notion that civic nationalism is dominant in Western Europe and North America, whereas ethnic nationalism is dominant in Central and Eastern Europe. After laying out the civic-West\\/ethnic-East argument, it refines the civic\\/ethnic dichotomy and deduces the state policies that flow from ethnic, cultural, and civic conceptions of national identity. It then employs survey data from

STEPHEN SHULMAN

2002-01-01

90

Free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies and the Martian crustal dichotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies from a 50x50 field, derived from re-analysis of Viking Orbiter and Mariner 9 tracking data and using a 50x50 expansion of the current Mars topography and the GSFC degree 50 geoid as the equipotential reference surface, with the Martian crustal dichotomy are compared. The spherical harmonic topography used has zero mean elevation, and differs from

Herbert Frey; Bruce G. Bills; Walter S. Kiefer; R. Steven Nerem; James H. Roark; Maria T. Zuber

1993-01-01

91

The sense of smell, its signalling pathways, and the dichotomy of cilia and microvilli in olfactory sensory cells  

PubMed Central

Smell is often regarded as an ancillary perception in primates, who seem so dominated by their sense of vision. In this paper, we will portray some aspects of the significance of olfaction to human life and speculate on what evolutionary factors contribute to keeping it alive. We then outline the functional architecture of olfactory sensory neurons and their signal transduction pathways, which are the primary detectors that render olfactory perception possible. Throughout the phylogenetic tree, olfactory neurons, at their apical tip, are either decorated with cilia or with microvilli. The significance of this dichotomy is unknown. It is generally assumed that mammalian olfactory neurons are of the ciliary type only. The existance of so-called olfactory microvillar cells in mammals, however, is well documented, but their nature remains unclear and their function orphaned. This paper discusses the possibility, that in the main olfactory epithelium of mammals ciliated and microvillar sensory cells exist concurrently. We review evidence related to this hypothesis and ask, what function olfactory microvillar cells might have and what signalling mechanisms they use.

2007-01-01

92

Origin of the Martian global dichotomy by crustal thinning in the late Noachian or early Hesperian  

SciTech Connect

The marked dichotomy in topography, surface age, and crustal thickness between the northern lowland and southern upland Mars has been explained as due to an initially inhomogeneous crust, a single mega-impact event, several overlapping large basin impacts, and first-order convective overturn of the martian mantle. All of the published hypotheses propose that the dichotomy was formed early in martian history; before the end of the primordial heavy bombardment. A primordial origin is inherent in the initial crustal inhomogeneity hypothesis, and required for both impact hypotheses. Endogenic hypotheses are not so constrained. Geological data indicate episodes of fracturing and faulting in the late Noachian and the early Hesperian. This fracturing and faulting occurred primarily within the northern lowland and along the boundary between lowland and highland. Igneous activity also peaked in the late Noachian and early Hesperian. These data suggest a tectonic event near the Noachian/Hesperian boundary characterized by enhanced heat loss and extensive fracturing, including formation of the faults that define much of the highland/lowland boundary. The authors argue that the major result of this tectonic event was formation of the dichotomy by thinning of the crust above a large convection cell or plume.

McGill, G.E.; Dimitriou, A.M. (Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst (United States))

1990-08-10

93

Familiarity for Associations? A Test of the Domain Dichotomy Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Episodic recognition memory is mediated by functionally separable retrieval processes, notably familiarity (a general sense of prior exposure) and recollection (the retrieval of contextual details), whose relative engagement depends partly on the nature of the information being retrieved. Currently, the specific contribution of familiarity to…

Harlow, Iain M.; Mackenzie, Graham; Donaldson, David I.

2010-01-01

94

Developmental modularity and the marsupial-placental dichotomy.  

PubMed

The contrasting evolutionary histories of marsupial and placental mammals have often been attributed to their different reproductive strategies. The speciose placentals develop mainly in utero and have radiated into diverse niches, whereas marsupials are born in a highly altricial state with immediate functional requirements and are limited in taxonomic, ecological, and morphological diversity. These differences have been tied to heterochrony, and it has been hypothesized that coordinated shifts in developmental timing occur among functionally- or developmentally related structures, such as forelimbs in marsupials. We use new ossification sequence data for 11 marsupial and 14 placental species to assess the integration of first ossification timing among skeletal elements. Although cranial elements fail to demonstrate significant coordination, marsupials and placentals differ markedly in postcranial integration. Marsupials display independent anterior and posterior developmental modules, whereas placentals show significant integration of the entire appendicular skeleton. This developmental integration of the placental postcranium is consistent with a recent study of phenotypic modularity in limbs of placental mammals, showing a potential correspondence between integration of developmental timing and of shape. The observed differences in postcranial integration between marsupials and placentals may reflect the disparate evolutionary histories of these two mammalian clades. PMID:19205003

Goswami, A; Weisbecker, V; Sánchez-Villagra, M R

2009-05-15

95

Neither metaphysical dichotomy nor pure identity: clarifying the emergentist creed.  

PubMed

Emergentism is often misleadingly described as a monolithic "third way" between radical monism and pluralism. In the particular case of biology, for example, emergentism is perceived as a middle course between mechanicism and vitalism. In the present paper I propose to show that the conceptual landscape between monism and pluralism is more complex than this classical picture suggests. On the basis of two successive analyses-distinguishing three forms of tension between monism and pluralism and a distinction between derivational and functional reduction-I define three different versions of emergentism that can be considered as consistent middle courses between monism and pluralism (respectively theoretical, explanatory and causal emergence). I then emphasise the advantage of this taxonomy of the concepts of emergence by applying the results of my analysis to the historical controversy that pertains to the relationship between life and matter. PMID:23701955

Sartenaer, Olivier

2013-05-20

96

Hybrid rhinoplasty: beyond the dichotomy of rhinoplasty techniques.  

PubMed

Although rhinoplasty and the development of facial aesthetic criteria can be traced to several millennia, contemporary techniques have passed through a rapid evolutionary process in the past century (1) (2). Although understanding human anatomy and the consequences of surgical excision occupied the minds of the founders of rhinoplasty, the process moved towards preservation of supporting structures, and maintaining the physiological functions of the nose. Initially, this endonasal approach created its own series of problems due to excessive tissue removal. External rhinoplasty provided a new impetus for growth in this field, and since its inception, has swung the pendulum of reconstruction firmly into its own sphere of influence. However, as no rhinoplasty technique holds all the answers, hybrid rhinoplasty seeks to combine the best achievements of 20(th) century rhinoplasty, from all schools of thought, in order to provide a safe, sensible and planned approach to the most demanding operation for the facial plastic surgeon. PMID:23853410

Palma, P; Khodaei, I; Bertossi, D; Vasilenko, I; Alqahtani, A; Alaa Shawkat, S; Wills Villarraga, D

2013-06-01

97

Lineated valley fill at the Martian dichotomy boundary: Nature and history of degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fretted terrain of the Martian dichotomy boundary is a key region for investigating landforms related to creep of ice and debris as it exhibits landforms comparable to morphologies of periglacial environments. Although features known as lobate debris aprons, lineated valley fills and concentric crater fills have been studied in great detail, basic questions concerned with the composition and the style of emplacement and degradation still remain unanswered. This study focuses on morphologies which are located in a near-circular depression located at the dichotomy escarpment in Deuteronilus Mensae. Analysis of high-resolution image data suggests an early formation of these features as the result of backward thermokarstic degradation of highland terrain. Geologically younger processes caused deposition and degradation of an ice-rich mantling deposit, which ultimately led to formation of creep morphologies that might have even been active in the geologically recent past. Intermixing of both degradational landform units form complex patterns that cannot be explained by a late stage (glacial) process alone. Morphological comparisons of lineated valley fill units with concentric crater fill landforms in Utopia Planitia strongly suggest comparable emplacement and degradation styles of these features. The sequential development consisting of an initial probably widespread thermokarstic degradation followed by later cyclic deposition of volatile material and continual thermokarstic degradation suggests that the development of parts of the Martian fretted terrain is directly related to climatic variations in the planet's history.

van Gasselt, S.; Hauber, E.; Neukum, G.

2010-08-01

98

Fluid Dynamics of Local Martian Magma Oceans: Implications for Hemispherical Dichotomy and Tharsis Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both the hemispherical crustal dichotomy and Tharsis province were emplaced early in Martian history. Several hypotheses for formation of early Mars' large scale crustal structure have been proposed. One possibility is that planetary formation processes and initial thermal and compositional conditions play an important role. Large impacts occurring during late stage accretion can produce localized, intact melt regions, i.e. local magma oceans (LMOs). A LMO evolves to a uniform global layer, i.e. a global magma ocean, only if buoyant melt is rapidly extruded prior to any significant solidification. A simple fluid dynamical model suggests that if cooling and crystallization are fast compared to melt extrusion, the driving force for isostatic adjustment diminishes, melt region viscosity increases significantly, and formation of a globally symmetric, fully molten layer can be difficult. Instead, a localized, mantle upwelling develops in response to the buoyant, partially molten LMO. Formation of the hemispheric dichotomy is associated with isostatic adjustment of a relatively large, partially molten LMO. A subsequent, smaller LMO results in rapid development of much of the Tharsis rise. Continued melting at Tharsis throughout planetary evolution can be due to coupling of LMO evolution with internally and bottom heated mantle convection.

Reese, C.; Solomatov, S.

2006-12-01

99

On the dichotomy in auditory perception between temporal envelope and fine structure cues (L)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is important to know what cues the sensory system extracts from natural stimuli and how the brain uses them to form perception. To explore this issue, Smith, Delgutte, and Oxenham [Nature (London) 416, 87-90 (2002)] mixed one sound's temporal envelope with another sound's fine temporal structure to produce auditory chimaeras and found that ``the perceptual importance of the envelope increases with the number of frequency bands, while that of the fine structure diminishes.'' This study addressed two technical issues related to natural cochlear filtering and artificial filter ringing in the chimaerizing algorithm. In addition, this study found that the dichotomy in auditory perception revealed by auditory chimaeras is an epiphenomenon of the classic dichotomy between low- and high-frequency processing. Finally, this study found that the temporal envelope determines sound location as long as the interaural level difference cue is present. The present result reinforces the original hypothesis that the temporal envelope is critical for speech perception whereas temporal fine structure is critical for pitch perception, but does not support the assertion regarding the temporal envelope and fine structure as the acoustic basis for the ``what'' and ``where'' mechanisms.

Zeng, Fan-Gang; Nie, Kaibao; Liu, Sheng; Stickney, Ginger; del Rio, Elsa; Kong, Ying-Yee; Chen, Hongbin

2004-09-01

100

Amazonian MidLatitude Regional Glaciation on Mars: Lineated Valley Fill, Lobate Debris Aprons and Plateau Deposits at the Dichotomy Boundary and Implications for Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dichotomy boundary on Mars represents a distinct geologic, topographic, morphologic and crustal thickness boundary that is characterized by a wide range of modificational processes. The Deuteronilus-Protonilus region represents the area where the boundary reaches its highest latitude. The fretted terrain, located in the vicinity of the dichotomy boundary at these mid-northern latitudes on Mars, displays two enigmatic terrain types:

J. W. Head; D. R. Marchant

2005-01-01

101

Disorders of Thought Are Severe Mood Disorders: the Selective Attention Defect in Mania Challenges the Kraepelinian Dichotomy—A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kraepelin said severe mental illness was due to 2 diseases subsequently characterized as disorders of thought vs dis- orders of mood, ie, the Kraepelinian dichotomy. Schizo- phrenia, traditionally considered the disorder of thought, has been defined by the presence of hallucinations, delu- sions, catatonia, and disorganization. Tangentiality, de- railment, loose associations, and thought blocking are typically considered pathognomonic of schizophrenia.

C. Raymond Lake

2008-01-01

102

Insights into the Mechanistic Dichotomy of the Protein Farne-syltransferase Peptide Substrates CVIM and CVLS  

PubMed Central

Protein farnesyltransferase (FTase) catalyzes farnesylation of a variety of peptide substrates. 3H ?-secondary kinetic isotope effect measurements of two peptide substrates, CVIM and CVLS, are significantly different and have been proposed to reflect a rate-limiting SN2-like transition state with dissociative characteristics for CVIM, while, due to the absence of an isotope effect, CVLS was proposed to have a rate-limiting peptide conformational change. Potential of mean force QM/MM studies coupled with umbrella sampling techniques were performed to further probe this mechanistic dichotomy. We observe the experimentally proposed TS for CVIM, but find that CVLS has a symmetric SN2 TS, which is also consistent with the absence of a 3H ?-secondary kinetic isotope effect. These calculations demonstrate facile substrate- dependent alterations in the transition state structure catalyzed by FTase.

Yang, Yue; Wang, Bing; Ucisik, Melek N.; Cui, Guanglei; Fierke, Carol A.; Merz, Kenneth M.

2012-01-01

103

Asymmetric leaves1 mediates leaf patterning and stem cell function in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meristem function in plants requires both the maintenance of stem cells and the specification of founder cells from which lateral organs arise. Lateral organs are patterned along proximodistal, dorsoventral and mediolateral axes. Here we show that the Arabidopsis mutant asymmetric leaves1 (as1) disrupts this process. AS1 encodes a myb domain protein, closely related to PHANTASTICA in Antirrhinum and ROUGH SHEATH2

Mary E. Byrne; Ross Barley; Mark Curtis; Juana Maria Arroyo; Maitreya Dunham; Andrew Hudson; Robert A. Martienssen

2000-01-01

104

High-performance modeling acoustic and elastic waves using the parallel Dichotomy Algorithm  

SciTech Connect

A high-performance parallel algorithm is proposed for modeling the propagation of acoustic and elastic waves in inhomogeneous media. An initial boundary-value problem is replaced by a series of boundary-value problems for a constant elliptic operator and different right-hand sides via the integral Laguerre transform. It is proposed to solve difference equations by the conjugate gradient method for acoustic equations and by the GMRES(k) method for modeling elastic waves. A preconditioning operator was the Laplace operator that is inverted using the variable separation method. The novelty of the proposed algorithm is using the Dichotomy Algorithm , which was designed for solving a series of tridiagonal systems of linear equations, in the context of the preconditioning operator inversion. Via considering analytical solutions, it is shown that modeling wave processes for long instants of time requires high-resolution meshes. The proposed parallel fine-mesh algorithm enabled to solve real application seismic problems in acceptable time and with high accuracy. By solving model problems, it is demonstrated that the considered parallel algorithm possesses high performance and efficiency over a wide range of the number of processors (from 2 to 8192).

Fatyanov, Alexey G., E-mail: fat@nmsf.sscc.r [Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Terekhov, Andrew V., E-mail: andrew.terekhov@mail.r [Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2011-03-01

105

Embryo Impacts and Gas Giant Mergers. I. Dichotomy of Jupiter and Saturn's Core Mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interior to the gaseous envelopes of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, there are high-density cores with masses larger than 10 Earth masses. According to the conventional sequential accretion hypothesis, such massive cores are needed for the onset of efficient accretion of their gaseous envelopes. However, Jupiter's gaseous envelope is more massive and its core may be less massive than those of Saturn. In order to account for this structural diversity and the super-solar metallicity in the envelope of Jupiter and Saturn, we investigate the possibility that they may have either merged with other gas giants or consumed several Earth-mass protoplanetary embryos during or after the rapid accretion of their envelope. In general, impinging sub-Earth-mass planetesimals disintegrate in gas giants' envelopes, deposit heavy elements well outside the cores, and locally suppress the convection. Consequently, their fragments sediment to promote the growth of cores. Through a series of numerical simulations, we show that it is possible for colliding super-Earth-mass embryos to reach the cores of gas giants. Direct parabolic collisions also lead to the coalescence of gas giants and merging of their cores. In these cases, the energy released from the impact leads to vigorous convective motion throughout the envelope and the erosion of the cores. This dichotomy contributes to the observed dispersion in the internal structure and atmospheric composition between Jupiter and Saturn and other gas giant planets and elsewhere.

Li, Shu Lin; Agnor, C. B.; Lin, D. N. C.

2010-09-01

106

Massive Quiescent Cores in Orion: Dichotomy in the Dynamical Status of Cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the evolution of high mass cores we have searched for evidence of collapse motions in a large sample of starless cores in the Orion molecular cloud. We used the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory telescope to obtain spectra of the optically thin (H13CO+) and optically thick (HCO+) high density tracer molecules in 27 cores with masses > 1 MO. The red- and blue-asymmetries seen in the line profiles of the optically thick line with respect to the optically thin line indicate that 2/3 of these cores are not static and we interpret these as evidence for inward or outward motions in 19 cores. We present RATRAN radiative transfer models of these cores that support the interpretation of inward and outward motion consistent with the observed spectral asymmetries. Thus we detect infall (inward motions) in 9 cores and outward motions for 10 cores, suggesting a dichotomy in the kinematic state in this sample. This population of massive molecular cloud cores is in general likely to be dynamic, out-of-equilibrium structures, rather than quasi-hydro/magneto-static structures. Our results provide an important observational constraint on the fraction of collapsing (inward motions) versus non-collapsing (re-expanding) cores for comparison with model simulations. This work was performed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Research at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory is supported by NSF grant AST-0229008.

Velusamy, Thangasamy; Goldsmith, P. F.; Li, D.; Langer, W. D.; Pineda, J. L.; Peng, R.

2009-01-01

107

EXAMINING THE RADIO-LOUD/RADIO-QUIET DICHOTOMY WITH NEW CHANDRA AND VLA OBSERVATIONS OF 13 UGC GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We present the results from new {approx}15 ks Chandra-ACIS and 4.9 GHz Very Large Array (VLA) observations of 13 galaxies hosting low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This completes the multiwavelength study of a sample of 51 nearby early-type galaxies described in Capetti and Balmaverde and Balmaverde and Capetti. The aim of the three previous papers was to explore the connection between the host galaxies and AGN activity in a radio-selected sample. We detect nuclear X-ray emission in eight sources and radio emission in all but one (viz., UGC 6985). The new VLA observations improve the spatial resolution by a factor of 10: the presence of nuclear radio sources in 12 of the 13 galaxies confirms their AGN nature. As previously indicated, the behavior of the X-ray and radio emission in these sources depends strongly on the form of their optical surface brightness profiles derived from Hubble Space Telescope imaging, i.e., on their classification as 'core', 'power-law', or 'intermediate' galaxies. With more than twice the number of 'power-law' and 'intermediate' galaxies compared to previous work, we confirm with a much higher statistical significance that these galaxies lie well above the radio-X-ray correlation established in Fanaroff-Riley type I radio galaxies and the low-luminosity 'core' galaxies. This result highlights the fact that the 'radio-loud/radio-quiet' dichotomy is a function of the host galaxy's optical surface brightness profile. We present radio-optical-X-ray spectral indices for all 51 sample galaxies. Survival statistics point to significant differences in the radio-to-optical and radio-to-X-ray spectral indices between the 'core' and 'power-law galaxies (Gehan's Generalized Wilcoxon test probability p for the two classes being statistically similar is <10{sup -5}), but not in the optical-to-X-ray spectral indices (p = 0.25). Therefore, the primary difference between the 'core' and 'power-law' galaxies is in their ability to launch powerful radio outflows. This result is consistent with the hypothesis of different formation processes and evolution histories in 'core' and 'power-law' galaxies: major mergers are likely to have created 'core' galaxies, while minor mergers were instrumental in the creation of 'power-law' galaxies.

Kharb, P.; Axon, D. J.; Robinson, A. [Physics Department, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Capetti, A.; Balmaverde, B. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, Strada Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Chiaberge, M.; Macchetto, D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Grandi, P. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Bologna (Italy); Giovannini, G. [INAF, Istituto di Radioastronomia di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Montez, R., E-mail: kharb@cis.rit.edu [Center for Imaging Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

2012-04-15

108

Illumination of parainfluenza virus infection and transmission in living animals reveals a tissue-specific dichotomy.  

PubMed

The parainfluenza viruses (PIVs) are highly contagious respiratory paramyxoviruses and a leading cause of lower respiratory tract (LRT) disease. Since no vaccines or antivirals exist, non-pharmaceutical interventions are the only means of control for these pathogens. Here we used bioluminescence imaging to visualize the spatial and temporal progression of murine PIV1 (Sendai virus) infection in living mice after intranasal inoculation or exposure by contact. A non-attenuated luciferase reporter virus (rSeV-luc(M-F*)) that expressed high levels of luciferase yet was phenotypically similar to wild-type Sendai virus in vitro and in vivo was generated to allow visualization. After direct intranasal inoculation, we unexpectedly observed that the upper respiratory tract (URT) and trachea supported robust infection under conditions that result in little infection or pathology in the lungs including a low inoculum of virus, an attenuated virus, and strains of mice genetically resistant to lung infection. The high permissivity of the URT and trachea to infection resulted in 100% transmission to naïve contact recipients, even after low-dose (70 PFU) inoculation of genetically resistant BALB/c donor mice. The timing of transmission was consistent with the timing of high viral titers in the URT and trachea of donor animals but was independent of the levels of infection in the lungs of donors. The data therefore reveals a disconnect between transmissibility, which is associated with infection in the URT, and pathogenesis, which arises from infection in the lungs and the immune response. Natural infection after transmission was universally robust in the URT and trachea yet limited in the lungs, inducing protective immunity without weight loss even in genetically susceptible 129/SvJ mice. Overall, these results reveal a dichotomy between PIV infection in the URT and trachea versus the lungs and define a new model for studies of pathogenesis, development of live virus vaccines, and testing of antiviral therapies. PMID:21750677

Burke, Crystal W; Mason, John N; Surman, Sherri L; Jones, Bart G; Dalloneau, Emilie; Hurwitz, Julia L; Russell, Charles J

2011-07-07

109

Universal tectonic dichotomy of small celestial bodies expressed in their common convexo-concave shapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wave planetology [1, 2, 3 & others] declares in its first theorem that all celestial bodies are dichotomous. This is a result of a warping action of the fundamental wave (wave 1 long 2?R where R is a body radius) that appears in any body due to its movement in non-round (elliptical, parabolic) keplerian orbits with periodically changing accelerations. Having a standing character and four crossing directions in rotating bodies (but all bodies rotate!) these waves inevitably press in one hemisphere and bulge out the opposite one tending to impose on a body convexo-concave shape. This shape is leveled out in larger bodies due to enhanced gravity but is clearly observed in smaller ones with diminished gravity. Still, in the larger bodies as, for an example, in Earth the tectonic dichotomy is expressed as an opposition of the subsided western Pacific hemisphere and the uplifted eastern continental hemisphere. At Mars even sharper dichotomy is in the north-south direction. Small bodies (normally less than 400-500 km across) notwithstanding their type (asteroids, comets, satellites), size and composition (stones, metals, ices) are flattened and bended by the fundamental wave. That is why all asteroids in the main asteroid belt have an oblong shape what was established rather long ago but never was properly explained. Now a number of small satellites is observed by Cassini spacecraft in the saturnian system that makes together with jovian and martian small satellites a representative group for comparisons. In the figures below are shown asteroids, satellites and a comet arranged in a row of increasing sizes. They all are flattened except the largest in the row Enceladus (505 km) and bended tending to acquire a convexo-concave shape. Asteroids: Itokawa (0.5 km long), Eros (33 km, PIA03111). Satellites: Calypso (22 km, PIA07633), Atlas (32 km, PIA08233), Prometheus (102 km, PIA08192), Hyperion (350 km, PIA06645), Enceladus (505 km, PIA08258, comet-like behaviour). Comet: Borrelli (core 8 km long). Various body types, sizes, compositions, but there is the same style of deformation because of a warping action of the fundamental wave long 2?R. There is a tendency to extend and break the convex hemisphere with production of deep cracks ("saddles") and to squeeze (contract) an antipodean one expelling internal material (a scheme of this process is in the drawing -the upper right corner). In extreme cases a body can break down with production of binaries and satellites of small bodies what is not rare in cosmos. A satellite Calypso and an asteroid Eros have near sizes but different compositions (ice and stone) and occur in different zones of the solar system. But they are deformed similarly. A bending action leaves morphological traces on body surfaces. In this respect the 102 km long satellite Prometheus is very exemplary as it shows diverging ridges with closer spaced ends at the concave hemisphere (up in the image) and wider spaced ends at the convex one. This pattern witnesses an opposition of contracted and extended hemispheres. In volatile rich bodies - comets this process is marked by squeezing material under contraction from the concave hemisphere (dust-gaseous tale) and more quite degassing of cracked convex hemisphere (Borrelli). This dichotomy shows also icy satellite Enceladus. Its southern pole region under contraction (the tiger stripes structure) expels vapor-ice mixture; its northern pole region in contrast is quite but has many craters - traces of the past degassing. In this respect the tiny icy satellite could be treated as a large comet core still spitting material into space; this material is not wasted vainly but is needed to mighty Saturn for making one of its outer rings (E-ring). The largest irregular satellite in the solar system - Hyperion has various appearances in many acquired images. It is not so oblong as smaller bodies but its convexo-concave shape is very pronounced. Its polygonal outlines also can be seen betraying a tendency to acquire a tetrahedron shape. The simplest Plato's figur

Kochemasov, G. G.

2008-09-01

110

Stabilization of fluorescent silver clusters by RNA homopolymers and their DNA analogs: C,G vs A,T(U) Dichotomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that single-stranded RNA stabilizes fluorescent silver nanoclusters (Ag:RNAs) in aqueous solution, analogous to previously studied Ag:DNAs. To determine whether the different canonical nucleosides play similar roles in stabilizing fluorescent silver species in RNA and DNA hosts, we compare RNA homopolymers of rA,rC,rG and rU to their DNA counterparts, and observe the same base-dependent dichotomy: visible- to IR-emitting silver complexes are stabilized by C and G homopolymers, but not by A or T(U) homopolymers at neutral pH. Shifts in emission wavelengths between Ag:RNA and Ag:DNA analogs show that both base and sugar influence populations of fluorescent species. The data indicate a minimum binding-pocket size of roughly five C or G bases for fluorescent species. These findings open the scope of silver cluster fluorophores to the diversely structured and functional arena of RNA and have implications for rational designs of nucleic acid hosts. Supported by NSF CHE-0848375.

Schultz, Danielle; Gwinn, Elisabeth

2011-03-01

111

The effect of mode of delivery on postpartum sexual functioning in primiparous women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effect of mode of delivery on postpartum sexual functioning in primiparous\\u000a women. A total of 248 primiparous women were recruited into this study. One hundred fifty-six delivered spontaneously with\\u000a mediolateral episiotomy and 92 had elective cesarean section. Sexual function was evaluated by the Female Sexual Function\\u000a Index, a validated questionnaire separately

Basak Baksu; Inci Davas; Eser Agar; At?f Akyol; Ahmet Varolan

2007-01-01

112

DISCLOSING THE RADIO LOUDNESS DISTRIBUTION DICHOTOMY IN QUASARS: AN UNBIASED MONTE CARLO APPROACH APPLIED TO THE SDSS-FIRST QUASAR SAMPLE  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the dichotomy in the radio loudness distribution of quasars by modeling their radio emission and various selection effects using a Monte Carlo approach. The existence of two physically distinct quasar populations, the radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, is controversial and over the last decade a bimodal distribution of radio loudness of quasars has been both affirmed and disputed. We model the quasar radio luminosity distribution with simple unimodal and bimodal distribution functions. The resulting simulated samples are compared to a fiducial sample of 8300 quasars drawn from the SDSS DR7 Quasar Catalog and combined with radio observations from the FIRST survey. Our results indicate that the SDSS-FIRST sample is best described by a radio loudness distribution which consists of two components, with (12 {+-} 1)% of sources in the radio-loud component. On the other hand, the evidence for a local minimum in the loudness distribution (bimodality) is not strong and we find that previous claims for its existence were probably affected by the incompleteness of the FIRST survey close to its faint limit. We also investigate the redshift and luminosity dependence of the radio loudness distribution and find tentative evidence that at high redshift radio-loud quasars were rarer, on average louder, and exhibited a smaller range in radio loudness. In agreement with other recent work, we conclude that the SDSS-FIRST sample strongly suggests that the radio loudness distribution of quasars is not a universal function, and that more complex models than presented here are needed to fully explain available observations.

Balokovic, M. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Smolcic, V. [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie, Auf dem Hugel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ivezic, Z. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Zamorani, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Schinnerer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kelly, B. C. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

2012-11-01

113

Disclosing the Radio Loudness Distribution Dichotomy in Quasars: An Unbiased Monte Carlo Approach Applied to the SDSS-FIRST Quasar Sample  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the dichotomy in the radio loudness distribution of quasars by modeling their radio emission and various selection effects using a Monte Carlo approach. The existence of two physically distinct quasar populations, the radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, is controversial and over the last decade a bimodal distribution of radio loudness of quasars has been both affirmed and disputed. We model the quasar radio luminosity distribution with simple unimodal and bimodal distribution functions. The resulting simulated samples are compared to a fiducial sample of 8300 quasars drawn from the SDSS DR7 Quasar Catalog and combined with radio observations from the FIRST survey. Our results indicate that the SDSS-FIRST sample is best described by a radio loudness distribution which consists of two components, with (12 ± 1)% of sources in the radio-loud component. On the other hand, the evidence for a local minimum in the loudness distribution (bimodality) is not strong and we find that previous claims for its existence were probably affected by the incompleteness of the FIRST survey close to its faint limit. We also investigate the redshift and luminosity dependence of the radio loudness distribution and find tentative evidence that at high redshift radio-loud quasars were rarer, on average louder, and exhibited a smaller range in radio loudness. In agreement with other recent work, we conclude that the SDSS-FIRST sample strongly suggests that the radio loudness distribution of quasars is not a universal function, and that more complex models than presented here are needed to fully explain available observations.

Balokovi?, M.; Smol?i?, V.; Ivezi?, Ž.; Zamorani, G.; Schinnerer, E.; Kelly, B. C.

2012-11-01

114

Water in the Lunar Interior and the Apparent KREEP-Mare Dichotomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent SIMS analysis of lunar apatite has shown that hydroxyl is structurally bound within lunar apatite from a number of different lunar lithologic types (McCubbin et al., 2010a, 2010b; Boyce et al., 2010; Greenwood et al., 2010). These studies along with previous SIMS analyses of lunar fire fountain glasses (Saal et al., 2008) confirm that there is at least some water in the lunar interior, with abundance estimates in magmatic source regions ranging from 64 ppb to 5 ppm water (McCubbin et al., 2010a). Surprisingly, apatite from rocks with KREEP-rich incompatible trace element signatures are depleted in hydroxyl in comparison to apatite from typical mare basalts. This result is counter-intuitive to the lunar magma ocean model, which predicts that incompatible constituents (e.g., water) would have been concentrated in the last dregs of liquid referred to as “urKREEP”. The mare basalts, which formed by partial melting of earlier LMO cumulates, are typically depleted in these incompatible constituents. Complicating the issue further, chlorine, another incompatible magmatic volatile element in apatite, follows the predicted trend with apatite from KREEP-rich rocks containing significant chlorine concentrations in comparison to apatite from mare basalts (McCubbin et al., 2009). The preceding results imply one of two scenarios 1) Water did not behave incompatibly during LMO crystallization and was preferentially stored within the LMO cumulate minerals 2) A secondary process such as degassing has perturbed the initial volatile contents of the urKREEP liquid or of the secondary magmas that have KREEP-rich incompatible trace element signatures. In regards to the first scenario, the mineral melt partition coefficients for water would need to have exceeded unity at the very low water concentrations of the LMO liquid. This scenario is consistent with the behavior of chlorine, as chlorine is not typically stored in nominally anhydrous phases like pyroxene or olivine, likely due to its large ionic radius. However, there is no empirical or experimental evidence to support the elevated D values for water. Regarding the second scenario, if significant degassing of the urKREEP liquid or KREEP-rich secondary magmas occurred, water would have certainly been lost preferentially to the other volatile constituents in apatite (fluorine and chlorine); however chlorine isotopes analyzed in lunar apatites are highly fractionated (Sharp et al., 2010), indicating degassing of chlorine in the absence of water. Therefore, this scenario only works if degassing on the Moon was a multi-stage and complex process where water and chlorine degassing are decoupled, which is not typically the case for terrestrial systems (Aiuppa et al., 2009, Webster and De Vivo, 2002; Webster et al., 1999). Solving this apparent KREEP-mare dichotomy regarding magmatic volatiles in the lunar interior is the next important step in figuring out the importance, relevance, and implications of water in the lunar interior. Moreover, it will lend insight into the roles of the other magmatic volatiles during the thermal and magmatic evolution of the Moon.

McCubbin, F. M.; Nekvasil, H.

2010-12-01

115

Estimates of muscle function in human gait depend on how foot-ground contact is modelled.  

PubMed

Computational analyses of leg-muscle function in human locomotion commonly assume that contact between the foot and the ground occurs at discrete points on the sole of the foot. Kinematic constraints acting at these contact points restrict the motion of the foot and, therefore, alter model calculations of muscle function. The aim of this study was to evaluate how predictions of muscle function obtained from musculoskeletal models are influenced by the model used to simulate ground contact. Both single- and multiple-point contact models were evaluated. Muscle function during walking and running was determined by quantifying the contributions of individual muscles to the vertical, fore-aft and mediolateral components of the ground reaction force (GRF). The results showed that two factors--the number of foot-ground contact points assumed in the model and the type of kinematic constraint enforced at each point--affect the model predictions of muscle coordination. Whereas single- and multiple-point contact models produced similar predictions of muscle function in the sagittal plane, inconsistent results were obtained in the mediolateral direction. Kinematic constraints applied in the sagittal plane altered the model predictions of muscle contributions to the vertical and fore-aft GRFs, while constraints applied in the frontal plane altered the calculations of muscle contributions to the mediolateral GRF. The results illustrate the sensitivity of calculations of muscle coordination to the model used to simulate foot-ground contact. PMID:21614707

Dorn, Tim W; Lin, Yi-Chung; Pandy, Marcus G

2011-05-27

116

The Cool Component and the Dichotomy, Lateral Expansion, and Axial Rotation of Solar X-Ray Jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from a study of 54 polar X-ray jets that were observed in coronal X-ray movies from the X-ray Telescope on Hinode and had simultaneous coverage in movies of the cooler transition region (T ~ 105 K) taken in the He II 304 Å band of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on Solar Dynamics Observatory. These dual observations verify the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of polar X-ray jets previously found primarily from XRT movies alone. In accord with models of blowout jets and standard jets, the AIA 304 Å movies show a cool (T ~ 105 K) component in nearly all blowout X-ray jets and in a small minority of standard X-ray jets, obvious lateral expansion in blowout X-ray jets but none in standard X-ray jets, and obvious axial rotation in both blowout X-ray jets and standard X-ray jets. In our sample, the number of turns of axial rotation in the cool-component standard X-ray jets is typical of that in the blowout X-ray jets, suggesting that the closed bipolar magnetic field in the jet base has substantial twist not only in all blowout X-ray jets but also in many standard X-ray jets. We point out that our results for the dichotomy, lateral expansion, and axial rotation of X-ray jets add credence to published speculation that type-II spicules are miniature analogs of X-ray jets, are generated by granule-size emerging bipoles, and thereby carry enough energy to power the corona and solar wind.

Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.; Robe, Dominic

2013-06-01

117

Toward Understanding the Fanaroff-Riley Dichotomy in Radio Source Morphology and Power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Paper I we presented the results of a study of the interrelationships between host galaxy magnitude, optical line luminosity, and radio luminosity in a large sample of Fanaroff-Riley classes 1 and 2 (FR 1 and FR 2) radio galaxies. We report several important differences between the FR 1 and FR 2 radio galaxies. At the same host galaxy magnitude or radio luminosity, the FR 2's produce substantially more optical line emission (by roughly an order of magnitude or more) than do FR 1's. Similarly, FR 2 sources produce orders of magnitude more line luminosity than do radio-quiet galaxies of the same optical magnitude, while FR 1 sources and radio-quiet galaxies of the same optical magnitude produce similar line luminosities. Combining these results with previous results from the literature, we conclude that while the emission-line gas in the FR 2's is indeed photoionized by a nuclear UV continuum source from the AGN, the emission-line gas in the FR 1's may be energized predominantly by processes associated with the host galaxy itself. The apparent lack of a strong UV continuum source from the central engine in FR 1 sources can be understood in two different ways. In the first scenario, FR l's are much more efficient at covering jet bulk kinetic energy into radio luminosity than FR 2's, such that an FR 1 has a much lower bolometric AGN luminosity (hence nuclear UV continuum source) than does an FR 2 of the same radio luminosity. We discuss the pros and cons of this model and conclude that the efficiency differences needed between FR 2 and FR 1 radio galaxies are quite large and may lead to difficulties with the interpretation since it would suggest that FR 2 radio source deposit very large amounts of kinetic energy into the ISM Intracluster Medium. However, this interpretation remains viable. Alternatively, it may be that the AGNs in FR 1 sources simply produce far less radiant UV energy than do those in FR 2 sources. That is, FR 1 sources may funnel a higher fraction of the total energy output from the AGNs into jet kinetic energy versus radiant energy than do FR 2 sources. If this interpretation is correct, then this suggests that there is a fundamental difference in the central engine and/or in the immediate "accretion region" around the engine in FR 1 and FR 2 radio galaxies. We note also the absence of FR 1 sources with nuclear broad line regions and suggest that the absence of the BLR is tied to the absence of the "isotropic" nuclear UV continuum source in FR 1 sources. We put forth the possibility that the FR 1/FR 2 dichotomy (i.e., the observed differences in the properties of low- and high-power radio sources) is due to qualitative differences in the structural properties of the central engines in these two types of sources. Following early work by Rees et al. (1982), we suggest the possibility that FR 1 sources are produced when the central engine is fed at a lower accretion rate, leading to the creation of a source in which the ratio of radiant to jet bulk kinetic energy is low, while FR 2 sources are produced when the central engine is fed at a higher accretion rate, causing the central engine to deposit a higher fraction of its energy in radiant energy. We further suggest the possibility that associated differences in the spin properties of the central black hole between FR 1 (lower spin) and FR 2 (higher spin) sources may be responsible for the different collimation properties and Mach numbers of the jets produced by these two types of radio-loud galaxies. This scenario, although currently clearly speculative, is nicely consistent with our current picture of the triggering, feeding, environments, and evolution of powerful radio galaxies. This model allows for evolution of these properties with time for example, the mass accretion rate and BH spin may decline with time causing an FR 2 radio source or quasar to evolve into a FR 1 radio source.

Baum, Stefi A.; Zirbel, Esther L.; O'Dea, Christopher P.

1995-09-01

118

Is there an association between postural balance and pulmonary function in adults with asthma?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Asthma may cause systemic repercussions due to its severity and the effects of treatment. Our objective was to compare posture, balance, functional capacity, and quality of life (QOL) according to the severity of disease, as assessed by pulmonary function levels. METHOD: This cross-sectional study evaluated fifty individuals with asthma. We compared two groups of adult individuals who were divided according to the median of the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) as follows: group A ?=? FEV1>74% predicted; group B ?=? FEV1<74% predicted. All patients underwent the following tests: spirometry, whole-body plethysmography, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco), respiratory muscle strength, posture assessment, stabilometry, six-minute walking distance (6MWD), and QOL. RESULTS: All pulmonary function variables exhibited statistically significant differences between the two groups, except for the DLco. The maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), and 6MWD were lower in group B. The maximal mediolateral velocity and the mediolateral displacement were significantly different, while the postural changes and QOL were similar between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: In adult individuals with asthma, the pulmonary function is associated with balance control in the mediolateral direction but does not influence the postural changes or QOL.

de Almeida, Vivian Pinto; Guimaraes, Fernando Silva; Moco, Vanessa Joaquim Ribeiro; de Sa Ferreira, Arthur; de Menezes, Sara Lucia Silveira; Lopes, Agnaldo Jose

2013-01-01

119

Understanding the Dorsal and Ventral Systems of the Human Cerebral Cortex: Beyond Dichotomies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Traditionally, characterizations of the macrolevel functional organization of the human cerebral cortex have focused on the left and right cerebral hemispheres. However, the idea of left brain versus right brain functions has been shown to be an oversimplification. We argue here that a top-bottom divide, rather than a left-right divide, is a more…

Borst, Gregoire; Thompson, William L.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.

2011-01-01

120

The Smoking Gun: Remanent Magnetic Anomalies on Mars and the Formation of the Crustal Dichotomy via Giant Impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of large-scale crustal magnetic anomalies in the Southern Highlands of Mars is equivocal. Though some are indeed elongated primarily in the east-west direction, initial map projections exacerbated their linear nature, leading to the hypothesis that the anomalies are equivalent to magnetic stripes due to spreading of Earth's sea floor and hence to the proposal of plate tectonics on Mars. This interpretation, however, is inconsistent with Martian geology. For instance, a plate-tectonics model predicts the anomalies should be formed in thin, oceanic crust at low elevation, but instead they are found in the thick crust of the Highlands, not in the thin crust of the Northern Lowlands. Indeed, the formation of this Crustal Dichotomy is also equivocal, with models ranging from a giant impact (or multiple smaller impacts) near either the current north or south poles, to plate tectonics-like processes, to mantle convection, either eroding the crust in the northern hemisphere or thickening the crust in the south. Recently, the idea of a giant impact in the north has been resurrected, with the proposal that the Dichotomy results from the formation of an elliptical basin by a giant impact very early in Martian history. While it may be tempting to suggest that the current, generally demagnetized state of the Northern Lowlands may be related to this impact, this linkage makes implicit assumptions about the timing of dynamo shut-off on Mars, and it neglects other demagnetization mechanisms possibly operating in the Lowlands after such an impact (e.g., later hydrothermal processing). More direct magnetic evidence for the giant impact hypothesis would come if the remanent magnetism in Southern Highlands were relatable in a unique way to the putative impact. Here, we show that the positions of many of the dominant elongated magnetic anomalies on Mars are consistent with the first ring of a multi-ring basin. The best match comes from an ellipse ~2200 km wider than the inferred boundary of the basin. This distance is the square root of 2 minus 1 of the long axis, and root-2 spacing is characteristic of the inward dipping normal faults in multi-ring basins. The constant distance of our predicted ring, as opposed to variable spacing due to the elliptical nature of the basin, is also consistent with the idea that multi-ring basins form from stress release during inward collapse of the transient crater. Because of the size of the basin, the second ring would be found in the antipodal region, where its formation is dubious and where seismic focusing from the impact has been proposed to explain the generally absent magnetic anomalies in the south polar region. The observation that the elongated magnetic anomalies on Mars mark the first ring around a basin both provides an explanation for the formation of many of the anomalies, and supports the hypothesis that the Crustal Dichotomy of Mars is the product of a giant impact that formed an elliptical basin.

Dombard, A. J.; Johnson, C. L.

2011-12-01

121

Evidence of a type 1\\/type 2 dichotomy in the correlation between quasar optical polarization and host-galaxy\\/extended emission position angles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims:For Seyfert galaxies, the AGN unification model provides a simple and well-established explanation of the type 1\\/type 2 dichotomy through orientation-based effects. The generalization of this unification model to the higher luminosity AGNs that quasars are remains a key question. The recent detection of type 2 radio-quiet quasars seems to support such an extension. We propose a further test of

B. Borguet; D. Hutsemékers; G. Letawe; Y. Letawe; P. Magain

2008-01-01

122

The informative and persuasive functions of advertising: A moral appraisal — A comment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that the informative and persuasive dichotomy of advertising is an empty concept. All advertising messages perform only one function and that function is to persuade. It is pointed out that in a moral appraisal of an advertising message, a distinction between rational and irrational persuasion can be made. Rational persuasion is consistent with the autonomy of the

Hossein Emamalizadeh

1985-01-01

123

Every BCG with a Strong Radio Agn has an X-Ray Cool Core: Is the Cool Core-Noncool Core Dichotomy Too Simple?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radio active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback in X-ray cool cores has been proposed as a crucial ingredient in the evolution of baryonic structures. However, it has long been known that strong radio AGNs also exist in "noncool core" clusters, which brings up the question whether an X-ray cool core is always required for the radio feedback. In this work, we present a systematic analysis of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and strong radio AGNs in 152 groups and clusters from the Chandra archive. All 69 BCGs with radio AGN more luminous than 2 × 1023 W Hz-1 at 1.4 GHz are found to have X-ray cool cores. BCG cool cores can be divided into two classes: the large cool core (LCC) class and the corona class. Small coronae, easily overlooked at z > 0.1, can trigger strong heating episodes in groups and clusters, long before LCCs are formed. Strong radio outbursts triggered by coronae may destroy embryonic LCCs and thus provide another mechanism to prevent the formation of LCCs. However, it is unclear whether coronae are decoupled from the radio feedback cycles as they have to be largely immune to strong radio outbursts. Our sample study also shows the absence of groups with a luminous cool core while hosting a strong radio AGN, which is not observed in clusters. This points to a greater impact of radio heating on low-mass systems than clusters. Few L 1.4 GHz > 1024 W Hz-1 radio AGNs (~16%) host an L 0.5-10 keV > 1042 erg s-1 X-ray AGN, while above these thresholds, all X-ray AGNs in BCGs are also radio AGNs. As examples of the corona class, we also present detailed analyses of a BCG corona associated with a strong radio AGN (ESO 137-006 in A3627) and one of the faintest coronae known (NGC 4709 in the Centaurus cluster). Our results suggest that the traditional cool core/noncool core dichotomy is too simple. A better alternative is the cool core distribution function, with the enclosed X-ray luminosity or gas mass.

Sun, M.

2009-10-01

124

DichotomY IdentitY: Euler-Bernoulli Numbers, Sets-Multisets, FD-BE Quantum-Statistics, 1/f?0-1/f?1 Power-Spectra, Ellipse-Hyperbola Conic-Sections, Local-Global Extent: "Category-Semantics"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seminal Apostol[Math.Mag.81,3,178(08);Am.Math.Month.115,9,795(08)]-Rota[Intro.Prob. Thy.(95)-p.50-55] DichotomY equivalence-class: set-theory: sets V multisets; closed V open; to Abromowitz-Stegun[Hdbk.Math.Fns.(64)]-ch.23,p.803!]: numbers/polynomials generating-functions: Euler V Bernoulli; to Siegel[Schrodinger Cent.Symp.(87); Symp.Fractals, MRS Fall Mtg.,(1989)-5-papers!] power-spectrum: 1/f?0-White V 1/f?1-Zipf/Pink (Archimedes) HYPERBOLICITY INEVITABILITY; to analytic-geometry Conic-Sections: Ellipse V (via Parabola) V Hyperbola; to Extent/Scale/Radius: Locality V Globality, Root-Causes/Ultimate-Origins: Dimensionality: odd-Z V (via fractal) V even-Z, to Symmetries/(Noether's-theorem connected)/Conservation-Laws Dichotomy: restored/conservation/convergence=0- V broken/non-conservation/divergence=/=0: with asymptotic-limit antipodes morphisms/ crossovers: Eureka!!!; "FUZZYICS"="CATEGORYICS"!!! Connection to Kummer(1850) Bernoulli-numbers proof of FLT is via Siegel(CCNY;1964) < (1994)[AMS Joint Mtg. (2002)-Abs.973-60-124] short succinct physics proof: FLT = Least-Action Principle!!!

Rota, G.-C.; Carl-Ludwig Siegel, Edward

2011-03-01

125

Towards self-consistent modelling of the Martian dichotomy: Coupled models of simultaneous core and crust formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most striking surface features on Mars is the crustal dichotomy. It is the oldest geological features on Mars and was formed more than 4.1 Ga ago by either exogenic or endogenic processes (e.g. Keller and Tackley, 2009). In order to find an internal origin of the crustal dichotomy, located within a maximum of 400 Ma of planetary differentiation, the thermal state of the planet resulting from core formation needs to be considered. It was suggested that a primordial crust with up to 45 km thickness can be formed already during the Martian core formation (Norman, 1999). Therefore we suggest that the sinking of iron diapirs delivered by pre-differentiated impactors induced impact- and shear heating-related temperature anomalies in the mantle that fostered the formation of early Martian crust. In this study, we examine parameter sets that will likely cause an onset of hemispherical low-degree mantle convection directly after, and coupled to, an already hemispherical core formation. To test this hypothesis we use a numerical model to simulate the formation of the Martian iron core, while peridotite melting is enabled to track melting caused by shear and radioactive heating. We perform 2D simulations using the spherical-Cartesian code I2ELVIS (Gerya and Yuen, 2007). It combines finite differences on a fully staggered rectangular Eulerian grid with Lagrangian marker-in-cell technique. In our model setup, the planet is surrounded by a low viscosity, massless fluid (“sticky air”) to simulate a free surface. We apply a temperature- and stress-dependent viscoplastic rheology inside a Mars-sized planet. Radioactive and shear-heating as well as consumption of latent heat by silicate melting are taken into account. The depth of neutral buoyancy of silicate melt with respect to solid silicates is determined by the difference in compressibility of the liquid and solid phase. To self-consistently simulate the silicate phase changes expected inside a Mars-sized body, we use the thermodynamical database Perple_X (Connolly, 2005). As initial condition, we apply randomly distributed iron diapirs with 75 km radius inside the planet, representing the cores of stochastically distributed impactors. Additionally, we explore the effect of one giant impactor core on the planetary evolution. Results indicate that the presence of a large impactor core induces hemispherically asymmetrical core formation. Furthermore, the amplitude of shear heating anomalies often exceeds the solidus of primitive mantle material. The formation of a considerable amount of silicate melt is observed. Some of the generated melt segregates to the surface to form primordial crust, whereas negatively buoyant melt from deeper sources sinks to the CMB. The hemispherical asymmetry in temperature induced by a giant impactor works in favour of an onset of low-degree mantle convection after core formation. Such a hemispherical convection geometry might subsequently be sustained by phase-dependent viscosity (Keller and Tackley, 2009), and thus harbor an early evolution of a dichotomous crustal thickness distribution. REFERENCES Connolly, J.A.D. 2005. EPSL, 236. Gerya, T.V. & Yuen, D.A. 2007. PEPI, 163. Keller, T. & Tackley, P.J. 2009. Icarus, 202. Norman, M.D. 1999. Meteorit. Planet. Sci., 34.

Keller, T.; Golabek, G. J.; Gerya, T.; Connolly, J.

2009-12-01

126

Towards self-consistent modelling of the Martian dichotomy: Coupled models of simultaneous core and crust formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most striking surface features on Mars is the crustal dichotomy. It is the oldest geological feature on Mars and was formed more than 4.1 Ga ago by either exogenic or endogenic processes (e.g. Keller and Tackley, 2009). In order to find an internal origin of the crustal dichotomy, located within a maximum of 400 Ma of planetary differentiation, the thermal state of the planet resulting from core formation needs to be considered. Additionally, it was suggested that a primordial crust with up to 45 km thickness can be formed already during the Martian core formation (Norman, 1999). We suggest that the sinking of iron diapirs delivered by pre-differentiated impactors induced impact- and shear heating-related temperature anomalies in the mantle that fostered the formation of early Martian crust. Thus, the crustal thickness distribution would largely be a result of planetary core formation, late impact history and the onset of mantle convection. In this study, we examine parameter sets that will likely cause hemispherical asymmetry in both core formation and onset of mantle convection. To test this hypothesis we use numerical models to simulate the formation of the Martian iron core and the resulting mantle convection pattern, while peridotite melting is enabled to track melting caused by shear and radioactive heating.?We perform 2D simulations using the spherical-Cartesian code I2ELVIS (Gerya and Yuen, 2007) for planetary accretion and the spherical code STAGYY (Tackley, 2008) for the consequent onset of mantle convection. We apply a temperature-, stress- and melt-fraction dependent viscoplastic rheology inside a Mars-sized planet. Radioactive and shear heating as well as consumption of latent heat by silicate melting are taken into account. The depth of neutral buoyancy of silicate melt with respect to solid silicates is determined by the difference in compressibility of the liquid and solid phase. To self-consistently simulate the silicate phase changes expected inside a Mars-sized body, we use the thermodynamical database PerpleX (Connolly, 2005). As initial condition for core formation (I2ELVIS), we apply randomly distributed iron diapirs with 75 km radius inside the planet, representing the cores of stochastically distributed impactors. Additionally, we explore the effect of one giant impactor core on the planetary evolution. Results indicate that the presence of a large impactor core induces hemispherically asymmetrical core formation. The amplitude of shear heating anomalies often exceeds the solidus of primitive mantle material and thus, the formation of a considerable amount of silicate melt is observed. The resulting temperature field after core formation is then read into the mantle convection code STAYY. The hemispherical magma ocean induced by one late giant impactor favours a dichotomous crust formation during a few Ma after core formation. Afterwards, the extraction of excess heat produced by the sinking of the giant impactor through the mantle leads to a localized region of massive magmatism, comparable to Tharsis, whereas the rest of the mantle is dominated by a sluggish convection pattern with limited crust formation that prevails during the further evolution of the planet. REFERENCES? Connolly, J.A.D. 2005. EPSL, 236. Gerya, T.V. & Yuen, D.A. 2007. PEPI, 163. Keller, T. & Tackley, P.J. 2009. Icarus, 202. Norman, M.D. 1999. Meteorit. Planet. Sci., 34. Tackley, P.J. 2008. PEPI, 171.

Golabek, Gregor; Keller, Tobias; Gerya, Taras; Zhu, Guizhi; Tackley, Paul

2010-05-01

127

Towards self-consistent modelling of the Martian dichotomy: The influence of one-ridge convection on crustal thickness distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction In order to find a possible explanation for the origin of the Martian crustal dichotomy, a number of recent papers have examined the effect of layered viscosity on the evolution of a degree-1 mantle convection, e.g. [1] and [2]. It was found that a mid-mantle viscosity jump in the Martian mantle, combined with highly temperature- and depth-dependent viscosity, are effective in developing a degree-1 convection within 200-300 Million years of core formation. Such a layered viscosity profile could be justified by Martian mineralogy, where both olivine to spinel and garnet/pyroxene to majorite transitions occur below a mantle depth of 1000 km. All of these high-pressure mineral phases show higher strength than their corresponding upper mantle phases and thus a higher viscosity might be expected [3]. However, the actual effect of a degree-1 convective planform on the crustal thickness distribution has not yet been demonstrated. So far, it has not been obvious whether a thinner crust, due to sublithospheric erosion and crustal thinning, or a thicker crust, due to enhanced crustal production, would form above the hemisphere of mantle upwelling. Also, the general shape of the dichotomy, which is not symmetrically hemispherical, has not yet been fully investigated. In this study we therefore discuss, how the evolution of low-degree mantle convection inside the planet Mars is reflected on its surface in terms of crustal thickness distribution. This will allow us to draw some conclusions towards a possible theory of how the dichotomy was formed in early Martian history. Method This study involves full planet-scale modelling of the crustal patterns produced by 3D-spherical models of Martian mantle convection. All results are computed using the finitevolume multigrid code StagYY [4]. By using tracer particles to track composition, a self-consistent treatment modelling melting and chemical differentiation has been added to models of thermal convection. This allows us to obtain model maps of the crustal thickness distribution as it evolves with time on the whole planetary surface due to underlying convection patterns. To obtain rapid reduction of convective degree, a strongly depth- and temperature-dependent rheology has been applied with additional viscosity jumps at each mineralogical phase transition. See Fig. 1 for a typical viscosity profile used in this study. Results and Discussion Due to very expensive computation (3.5 Million gridpoints, 50 Million tracer particles), the parameter range for this study has to be rather narrow. The results of the model runs display a number of consitent features appearing over the examined range of Rayleigh numbers (3.107 to 7.107) and initial temperatures (1500 K to 1600 K). The most striking of the results is not only the fact, that convection rapidly (<200 Myr) evolves into a pattern of very low degree but also that the obtained convective planform, does not satisfy the expectation of a spherically symmetrical one-plume convection (l=1). It is rather like what we would call oneridge convection (see Fig. 2) where the upwelling is a ridgeshaped feature covering a variable angle around the CMB. A closer look at this feature reveals that it consist of two plumes at each end, interlinked by a sheet-like upwelling region of lower intensity. From this point of view, it represents a stable transition state between l=1 and l=2 convection. Most melt in our model runs is generated above the major ridge-shaped upwelling region and thus crustal thickness distribution to a first order reflects the large-scale upwelling pattern in the mantle. Additional melting occurs where small-scale convection is active underneath the rigid lid. Due to this effect, the hemisphere of downwelling is covered by crust, too, but it is remarkably thinner than above major upwellings (Fig. 2). Although mean crustal thickness is slightly overestimated in all of our models, the relative distribution of crustal thickness seems to be quite Marslike. To analyze crustal structure of some of our model runs, we plot his

Keller, T.; Tackley, P. J.

2008-09-01

128

Volume-limited SDSS/First quasars and the radio dichotomy  

SciTech Connect

Much evidence has been presented in favor of and against the existence of two distinct populations of quasars, radio-loud and radio-quiet. The SDSS differs from earlier optically selected quasar surveys in the large number of quasars and the targeting of FIRST radio source counterparts as quasar candidates. This allows a qualitatively different approach of constructing a series of samples at different redshifts which are volume-limited with respect to both radio and optical luminosity. This technique avoids any biases from the strong evolution of quasar counts with redshift and potential redshift-dependent selection effects. We find that optical and radio luminosities of quasars detected in both SDSS and FIRST are not well correlated within each redshift shell, although the fraction of radio detections among optically selected quasars remains roughly constant at 10% for z {le} 3.2. The distribution in the luminosity-luminosity plane does not appear to be strongly bimodal. The optical luminosity function is marginally flatter at higher radio luminosities.

Sebastian Jester; R.G. Kron

2004-03-12

129

Dichotomy in host environments and signs of recycled active galactic nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse the relation between active galactic nuclei (AGN) host properties and large-scale environment for a representative red and blue AGN host galaxy sample selected from the Data Release 4 Sloan Digital Sky Survey. A comparison is made with two carefully constructed control samples of non-active galaxies, covering the same redshift range and colour baseline. The cross-correlation functions show that the density distribution of neighbours is almost identical for blue galaxies, either active or non-active. Although active red galaxies inhabit environments less dense compared to non-active red galaxies, both reside in environments considerably denser than those of blue hosts. Moreover, the radial density profile of AGN relative to galaxy group centres is less concentrated than galaxies. This is particularly evident when comparing red AGN and non-active galaxies. The properties of the neighbouring galaxies of blue and red AGN and non active galaxies reflect this effect. While the neighbourhood of the blue samples is indistinguishable, the red AGN environs show an excess of blue-star-forming galaxies with respect to their non-active counterpart. On the other hand, the active and non-active blue systems have similar environments but markedly different morphological distributions, showing an excess of blue early-type AGN, which are argued to be late-stage mergers. This comparison reveals that the observable differences between active red and blue host galaxy properties including star formation history and AGN activity depends on the environment within which the galaxies form and evolve.

Coldwell, Georgina V.; Lambas, Diego G.; Söchting, Ilona K.; Gurovich, Sebastián

2009-10-01

130

Surface colors of Iapetus and Hyperion as derived from Cassini ISS data, and implications for the global albedo dichotomy origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since June 2004, various multi-color images (0.3-1.0 ?m) of Iapetus were taken by the Cassini camera. These observations cover almost exclusively the leading side, including the dark hemisphere (Cassini Regio). Highest-resolution color data at 1.0 km/pxl show northern parts of the leading hemisphere, others at 4.3 km/pxl or worse cover the full leading side and reach areas somewhat beyond the 180 degrees W meridian. For Hyperion, one useful 4-color data set (9.4 km/pxl) is currently available. Between 0 degrees W and 180 degrees W longitude, the dark Cassini Regio has a reddish and uniform color. However, dark material extending towards the trailing side shows a different color. The transition zones at mid-latitudes are characterized by an areal separation of bright icy and dark material. Within the southern bright terrain, the 180 degrees W meridian marks a rather sharp color boundary, with the trailing-side material showing flatter spectra. Hyperion material shows spectral slopes in between the dark and bright material spectral slopes on Iapetus. However, areas of similar brightness show much redder spectra. Data interpretation: (1) Exogenic material on retrograde orbits might have reddened the *whole* leading side, but has presumably not darkened it very much. The same source might have caused the reddish color on brighter Hyperion. (2) Darkening of Iapetus by thermal segregation of ice particles as suggested by Spencer (LPSC, 2005) might be consistent with the local dark/bright pattern within the transition zones at mid-latitudes. These two processes, if significant, should be ongoing today and might be responsible for the observed absence of bright-ray or bright-floor craters within Cassini Regio. (3) The color difference within Cassini Regio was not predicted by any model and awaits an explanation. More data, especially from the bright trailing side, is needed to set further constraints. Possibly, up to three different processes caused the albedo dichotomy as visible on Iapetus today?

Denk, T.; Neukum, G.; Roatsch, Th.; Burns, J. A.; Helfenstein, P.; Porco, C. C.; Cassini ISS Team

2005-08-01

131

Evolution of the Martian Highlands along the Dichotomy Boundary: Geologic Mapping of the Deuteronilus Mensae Region, Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deuteronilus Mensae, a gradational boundary zone in the northern mid-latitudes of Mars, includes the transition from the rugged cratered highlands and polygonal mesas of Arabia Terra to the northern lowlands of Acidalia Planitia. Within this zone, features diagnostic of Martian 'fretted' terrain are observed, including numerous lobate debris aprons. The concentration of aprons indicate that ground ice was, or still is present, which is of great interest because of their potential association with changes in Martian climate. North of the boundary zone are the northern lowlands, a depositional sink that perhaps was once filled by large standing bodies of water. The lowlands have surface elevations that are several kilometers below the ancient highlands with significantly younger surface ages. To better understand the geologic evolution of the Arabia Terra highlands, we have mapped the geology of a north-south transect across the Martian dichotomy boundary from 32.5 N to 47.5 N and 20-25 E. To the south, the ancient highland plateau has been modified by subsurface volatile activity, causing surface collapse and the formation of numerous elongated closed depressions containing blocks of the pre-existing surface. Parts of the plateau have also been dissected by fluvial channels that may have formed by sapping processes or short- lived precipitation-derived overland flow. In the central portion of the map area, the preserved highlands transition to individual mesas with tops that have a similar morphology to the continuous plateau. Below highland escarpments and mesa walls, lobate debris aprons have surface lineations and deflected margins indicating flow of volatile-rich materials. Fretted valleys appear to originate at the highland margin and develop by backwasting of plateau materials. In this central area, we did not find any distinct geomorphologic features related to coastal processes that would support the hypothesis of an ancient lowland ocean. To the north, within areas of smooth and knobby plains, clusters of small mesas and knobs are surrounded by debris aprons. Mesa tops gradually decrease in elevation towards the north and their surfaces are sometimes covered by mantling deposits. Two mesa-forming units with tops at consistently different surface elevations suggest a regional stratigraphic sequence of less-resistant upper mesa materials overlying more-resistant lower mesa materials. Preliminary crater retention age ranges from Viking data are Early-to-Mid Noachian for plateau materials, Early-to-Mid Noachian for dissected plateau materials, and Late Noachian to Early Hesperian for smooth plains materials.

Chuang, F. C.; Crown, D. A.

2006-12-01

132

Dichotomies, Complementarities and Tensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing immigrant population in Catalonia is experiencing the inadequacy of the educational system in general, and of the teaching of mathematics in particular. Most of the ethnic minority students are from Magrib (North Africa), but the presence of students from other countries in Africa, Latin America, Asia and Eastern Europe is also significant, not to mention the Catalan Gipsy

Núria Gorgorió; Núria Planas; Alan Boshop

133

Madonna: Like a Dichotomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in communication classes find it useful to study Madonna because she is a fascinating and prolific cultural figure whose merit and intentions are matters of great controversy. As the quintessential music-video star, she is also perhaps the medium's most significant auteur. In the areas of women's roles, motherhood, sexuality, race and…

Burns, Gary; Kizer, Elizabeth

134

A structure for quasars under the scope of polarization - I. The UV/optical polarization dichotomy of type-1 and type-2 AGN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present ultraviolet/optical spectropolarimetric modelling of the phenomenologically based structure for quasars proposed by Elvis (2000). In this first paper of a series, we explore the continuum polarization emerging from radiatively accelerated and bent winds that were vertically launched from the accretion disc in an active galactic nucleus (AGN). We simulate the radiative transfer occurring in Thomson scattering and dust extinction media over a range of morphological parameters and optical depths of the wind. We demonstrate that the wind geometry proposed by Elvis with a phenomenologically derived bending angle of ? = 60° still underestimates the observed optical polarization percentage of type-1 and type-2 AGN and does not yet reproduce the expected dichotomy of the polarization position angle. To recover the observed polarization properties, a smaller bending angle and some amount of dust shielding in the equatorial region should be considered. A two-phase outflow is found to generate both the observed polarization dichotomy and acceptable levels of polarization degree if the wind has a bending angle ? = 45°, and the conical shells have a half-opening angle of 3° < ?? < 10°. The absorbing dust column at the wind base should be in the range 1 < ?dust ? 4 (? being integrated over 2000-8000 Å). Straightforward observational tests from spectropolarimetry and from determining the number density of different AGN types can be performed to further constrain the wind geometry.

Marin, F.; Goosmann, R. W.

2013-10-01

135

Amazonian Mid-Latitude Regional Glaciation on Mars: Lineated Valley Fill, Lobate Debris Aprons and Plateau Deposits at the Dichotomy Boundary and Implications for Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dichotomy boundary on Mars represents a distinct geologic, topographic, morphologic and crustal thickness boundary that is characterized by a wide range of modificational processes. The Deuteronilus-Protonilus region represents the area where the boundary reaches its highest latitude. The fretted terrain, located in the vicinity of the dichotomy boundary at these mid-northern latitudes on Mars, displays two enigmatic terrain types: lobate debris aprons (LDA) and lineated valley fill (LVF). The prevailing hypotheses for their origin has been mass wasting from mesa margins and valley walls, with movement periodically assisted by groundwater seepage or atmospheric vapor diffusion into the debris aprons, causing ice-assisted creep. Creep from opposite valley walls and convergence in valley centers has been called on to explain the parallel, along-valley lineations, and little evidence has been found for down-valley movement. New higher-resolution THEMIS and MOC data, however, show compelling evidence for a more integrated picture of LVF formation, suggesting a significant role for regional glaciation. We find evidence for: 1) localized alcoves, sources of hundreds of narrow, lobate concentric-ridged debris flows; 2) bulbous-headed tributary valley systems, which contain converging LVF that feeds into larger valley systems; 3) rounded-sharp-paired intersections of the corners of tributary entrances into main valleys, with sharp corners pointing down-flow; 4) narrow arete-like linear plateau ridge remnants, commonly parallel to LVF; 5) horseshoe-shaped ridges up-valley of topographic obstacles, with deformed and folded upslope LVF; 6) convergence and merging of LVF in the down-valley directions; 7) deformation, distortion and folding of LVF in the vicinity of convergence; 8) distinctive lobe-shaped termini where LVF emerges into the northern lowlands. We interpret these LVF features to have formed as parts of integrated valley glacial systems extending hundreds of km, with accumulation zones on plateaus and in alcoves, converging debris-covered valley glaciers eroding and altering pre-existing valley systems, and ablation zones at distal margins; observed today are sublimation residues preserving morainal remnants of down-valley glacial flow. On the basis of our mapping of the nature and extent of these deposits along the dichotomy boundary, we interpret them to be due to topographically induced adiabatic upwelling of water-rich polar air, cooling and precipitation at the dichotomy boundary to foster snow and ice accumulation, and consequent glacial flow. We are currently considering two end-member options for conditions of origin: 1) emplacement at high obliquity when polar ice deposits are mobilized and transported equatorward, and/or 2) during periods of temporary, outflow channel induced flooding of the adjacent northern lowlands, freezing and sublimation of these deposits, and subsequent atmospheric transport to the dichotomy boundary.

Head, J. W.; Marchant, D. R.

2005-12-01

136

Formation of a conductive core, grooved terrains, and strongly differentiated interior of Ganymede due to dehydration of primordial hydrous rock with implication for the dichotomy from Callisto  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new hypothesis for the formation of the conductive core and the surface grooved terrains on Ganymede. Numerical simulations for the interior thermal history are performed assuming that the primordial rocky core was initially hydrated. The primordial core is heated by long-lived radiogenic isotopes and becomes dehydrated if the temperature exceeds about 900 K. The volume expansion accompanying the dehydration is possibly enough large for the formation of the observed grooved terrains on Ganymede. Dehydration also results in the sharp viscosity increase, and the central temperature possibly exceeds the eutectic point of troilite and iron oxide, allowing the formation of a conductive core. Given the reasonable silicate fraction (~45-52 wt %), Ganymede's interior can form a conductive core while slightly smaller Callisto can escape from sufficient heating for melting the conductive material. This may explain the observed dichotomy in the surface geology and internal structure between the both giant icy satellites.

Kimura, J.; Kuramoto, K.

2012-09-01

137

Toward a Multidimensional Continuum Model of Functional Psychoses for Research Purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Schizophrenia (SZ), schizoaffective disorder (SA), major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BPD) are clinically\\u000a heterogeneous conditions called “functional psychoses” (FP). The paradigm, underlying the current model of FP, was based on\\u000a Kraepelinian dichotomy and was a practical starting point for the categorical classification of FP. Nevertheless, the concept\\u000a is increasingly challenged by emerging data from modern research in the

Michael S. Ritsner

138

Stress experienced in utero reduces sexual dichotomies in neurogenesis, microenvironment, and cell death in the adult rat hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Hippocampal function and plasticity differ with gender, but the regulatory mechanisms underlying sex differences remain elusive and may be established early in life. The present study sought to elucidate sex differences in hippocampal plasticity under normal developmental conditions and in response to repetitive, predictable versus varied, unpredictable prenatal stress (PS). Adult male and diestrous female offspring of pregnant rats exposed to no stress (control), repetitive stress (PS-restraint), or a randomized sequence of varied stressors (PS-random) during the last week of pregnancy were examined for hippocampal proliferation, neurogenesis, cell death, and local microenvironment using endogenous markers. Regional volume was also estimated by stereology. Control animals had comparable proliferation and regional volume regardless of sex, but females had lower neurogenesis compared to males. Increased cell death and differential hippocampal precursor kinetics both appear to contribute to reduced neurogenesis in females. Reduced local interleukin-1beta (IL-I? immunoreactivity (IR) in females argues for a mechanistic role for the anti-apoptotic cytokine in driving sex differences in cell death. Prenatal stress significantly impacted the hippocampus, with both stress paradigms causing robust decreases in actively proliferating cells in males and females. Several other hippocampal measures were feminized in males such as precursor kinetics, IL-I?-IR density, and cell death, reducing or abolishing some sex differences. The findings expand our understanding of the mechanisms underlying sex differences and highlight the critical role early stress can play on the balance between proliferation, neurogenesis, cell death, and hippocampal microenvironment in adulthood.

Mandyam, Chitra D.; Crawford, Elena F.; Eisch, Amelia J.; Rivier, Catherine L.; Richardson, Heather N.

2013-01-01

139

The Role of Core Mass in Controlling Evaporation: The Kepler Radius Distribution and the Kepler-36 Density Dichotomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use models of coupled thermal evolution and photo-evaporative mass loss to understand the formation and evolution of the Kepler-36 system. We show that the large contrast in mean planetary density observed by Carter et al. can be explained as a natural consequence of photo-evaporation from planets that formed with similar initial compositions. However, rather than being due to differences in XUV irradiation between the planets, we find that this contrast is due to the difference in the masses of the planets' rock/iron cores and the impact that this has on mass-loss evolution. We explore in detail how our coupled models depend on irradiation, mass, age, composition, and the efficiency of mass loss. Based on fits to large numbers of coupled evolution and mass-loss runs, we provide analytic fits to understand threshold XUV fluxes for significant atmospheric loss, as a function of core mass and mass-loss efficiency. Finally we discuss these results in the context of recent studies of the radius distribution of Kepler candidates. Using our parameter study, we make testable predictions for the frequency of sub-Neptune-sized planets. We show that 1.8-4.0 R ? planets should become significantly less common on orbits within 10 days and discuss the possibility of a narrow "occurrence valley" in the radius-flux distribution. Moreover, we describe how photo-evaporation provides a natural explanation for the recent observations of Ciardi et al. that inner planets are preferentially smaller within the systems.

Lopez, Eric D.; Fortney, Jonathan J.

2013-10-01

140

Jargonial-Obfuscation(J-O) DISambiguation Elimination via Siegel-Baez Cognition Category-Semantics(C-S) in Siegel FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS (Son of TRIZ)/(F=C) Tabular List-Format Dichotomy Truth-Table Matrix Analytics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NOT "philosophy" per se but raising serious salient Arnol'd [Huygens and Barrow, Newton and Hooke(96)] questions begged is Rota empiricism Husserl VS. Frege maths-objects Dichotomy controversy: Hill-Haddock[Husserl or Frege?(00)]as manifestly-demonstrated by Hintikka[B.U.]-Critchey[Derrida Deconstruction Ethics(78)] deconstruction; Altshuler TRIZ; Siegel F=C/C-S; Siegel-Baez(UCR) Cognition C-S = "Category-theory "+" Cognitive-Semantics[Wierzbica-Langacker-Lakoff-Nunez[Where Maths Comes From(00)]-Fauconnier-Turner[Blending(98)]-Coulson[Semantic-Leaps (00)

Siegel, Carl Ludwig; Carl-Ludwig Siegel, Edward

2011-03-01

141

Evidence of stratabound liquefaction in the formation of fractured topographic margins, cone chains and pit catenas along the Martian Dichotomy Boundary and in Isidis Planitia, Mars.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the low-lying plains along much of the Martian Dichotomy Boundary (MDB) and in the Isidis impact basin, cones and curving chains of cones, referred to as thumbprint terrain (TPT), are common. In the same settings, pit chains (catenas) occur in orthogonal to curving and conchoidal fracture sets between mesa-like crustal blocks, generally at or near topographic margins. Many of the fractures consist of linked pits rather than simple propagated cracks. These assemblages are often associated with the more disaggregated populations of blocks comprising chaos terrain. We show that the local planimetric arrangement of the cone chains, fractures and pit catenas is strikingly similar in both shape and scale, including lateral separation, length, longitudinal slope and radius of curvature. The summits of cones tend to be closely accordant along individual cone chains. Neighbouring cone chains tend to be mutually accordant on low gradient basin surfaces but generally stepped en echelon closer to the fractured basin margins. Similarly, the crustal blocks (including very isolated block sets) are often mutually stepped, and fractures between these en echelon blocks tend to be very close to horizontal. Hence, many cone chains, fractures and pit catenas in fractures share the property of being arranged along strike. They diverge morphologically by the cone chains being positive forms separated by narrow gulfs but the pit catenas being negative forms separated by planar blocks. All of these characteristics point to the possibility that the arcuate cone chains and the arcuate pit catenas have a common origin. In particular, we hypothesise that the cone chains characteristic of TPT along the MDB and in Isidis are filled, indurated and then exhumed pit catenas revealed by the stripping-away of intervening blocks [cf. 1]. Many other surfaces on Mars are pervaded by pits and pit catenas, with evidence of former water flow through the catenas suggesting that ground-ice thaw played a role in at least one mode of catena formation [2]. As well as presenting the morphological evidence for a genetic association between TPT and pit catenas, we present corroborative evidence that fluvial channel networks on Mars have in places increased in complexity through the linking of pits arranged in linear to arcuate arrays, culminating in a pseudo-branching channel network. Such systems do not occur at topographic margins and did not disintegrate into stepped crustal blocks. However, the scale of these channels and the volumes of liquid intermittently impounded in craters along these channel systems indicate that pit chains are associated with significant excess groundwater production leading to channelized flow, including catastrophic discharges when crater-impounded lakes along-flow were breached. Are the MDB and Isidis cone chains exhumed pit catenas and are the pits the surface expression of more deep-seated conduits? Do pit catenas indicate excess pore-water production, sufficient to link individual pits and dissect crustal blocks? Together, do these assemblages reflect the degradation of the MDB and Isidis margins and the subsequent stripping of adjacent low-lying plains? The crucial observations presented in this research (cone chains lying between crustal blocks, together with the morphometric similarities) are consistent with the interpretation of the cones and catenas having a common origin. Consequently, we hypothesise that the translated, back-rotated, tilted and capsized disposition of en echelon blocks is very reminiscent of the morphology produced during lateral spreading [3] associated with stratabound liquefaction below a low-gradient, rigid, insensitive surface. Significantly, such liquefaction events cause extensive, arcuate ground fractures along with the discharge of sediment-laden groundwater from the liquefiable substratum to the surface through pipes and conical boils confined within inter-block fractures. These conduits and their injectite are frequently indurated by secondary mineralisation, often making them more competent and le

Gallagher, C.; Balme, M. R.

2012-04-01

142

Resting-State Brain Organization Revealed by Functional Covariance Networks  

PubMed Central

Background Brain network studies using techniques of intrinsic connectivity network based on fMRI time series (TS-ICN) and structural covariance network (SCN) have mapped out functional and structural organization of human brain at respective time scales. However, there lacks a meso-time-scale network to bridge the ICN and SCN and get insights of brain functional organization. Methodology and Principal Findings We proposed a functional covariance network (FCN) method by measuring the covariance of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in BOLD signals across subjects, and compared the patterns of ALFF-FCNs with the TS-ICNs and SCNs by mapping the brain networks of default network, task-positive network and sensory networks. We demonstrated large overlap among FCNs, ICNs and SCNs and modular nature in FCNs and ICNs by using conjunctional analysis. Most interestingly, FCN analysis showed a network dichotomy consisting of anti-correlated high-level cognitive system and low-level perceptive system, which is a novel finding different from the ICN dichotomy consisting of the default-mode network and the task-positive network. Conclusion The current study proposed an ALFF-FCN approach to measure the interregional correlation of brain activity responding to short periods of state, and revealed novel organization patterns of resting-state brain activity from an intermediate time scale.

Wang, Zhengge; Yuan, Cuiping; Jiao, Qing; Chen, Huafu; Biswal, Bharat B.; Lu, Guangming; Liu, Yijun

2011-01-01

143

Demand functions and reflexivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the theory of ordered spaces and in microeconomic theory two important notions, the notion of the base for a cone which is defined by a continuous linear functional and the notion of the budget set are equivalent. In economic theory the maximization of the preference relation of a consumer on any budget set defines the demand correspondence which at any price vector indicates the preferred vectors of goods and this is one of the fundamental notions of this theory. Contrary to the finite-dimensional economies, in the infinite-dimensional ones, the existence of the demand correspondence is not ensured. In this article we show that in reflexive spaces (and in some other classes of Banach spaces), there are only two classes of closed cones, i.e. cones whose any budget set is bounded and cones whose any budget set is unbounded. Based on this dichotomy result, we prove that in the first category of these cones the demand correspondence exists and that it is upper hemicontinuous. We prove also a characterization of reflexive spaces based on the existence of the demand correspondences.

Polyrakis, Ioannis A.

2008-02-01

144

Comparative morphology of porpoise (Cetacea: Phocoenidae) pterygoid sinuses: phylogenetic and functional implications.  

PubMed

High-resolution X-ray computed tomographic scans were used to examine pterygoid sinus morphology within extant porpoise species and one delphinid (Tursiops truncatus), in order to consider: 1) intraspecific and interspecific variation among the studied species; 2) the most parsimonious sequence of character acquisition; and 3) the potential functional roles of the preorbital lobes of the sinuses in sound reflection. Scans revealed that the pterygoid/palatine regions are mediolaterally broader in the earliest diverging phocoenid (Neophocaena phocaenoides) and Tursiops truncatus than the dorsoventrally elongated sinuses observed in other species. Rostrocaudal lengths of the sphenoidal regions of the sinuses in all individuals studied are proportionally similar, indicating conservatism in this region across species. The neonate Phocoena phocoena has shorter preorbital lobes than adults, but they are still proportionally longer than Neophocaena phocaenoides and Phocoena spinipinnis. The preorbital lobes broaden mediolaterally to varying degrees across species; in particular, Phocoenoides dalli has the largest dorsal and lateral expansion of this region. Assuming the highest pulse frequency produced by porpoises is 150 kHz, all regions of the preorbital lobes are thick enough to reflect the wavelengths produced. In addition, the neonate preorbital lobes are not as elongated as they are in adults, and the dorsal third of this region may not reflect sound to the same extent. This study reinforces the importance of using nondestructive methods to quantify variation in endocranial anatomy and the value of CT data for recovering phylogenetically useful information, as well as functional roles sinuses play in concert with the soft tissue head anatomy for biosonar. PMID:22965565

Racicot, Rachel A; Berta, Annalisa

2012-09-11

145

Muscle function during gait is invariant to age when walking speed is controlled.  

PubMed

Older adults walk more slowly, take shorter steps, and spend more time with both legs on the ground compared to young adults. Although many studies have investigated the effects of aging on the kinematics and kinetics of gait, little is known about the corresponding changes in muscle function. The aim of this study was to describe and compare the actions of the lower-limb muscles in accelerating the body's center of mass (COM) in healthy young and older adults. Three-dimensional gait analysis and subject-specific musculoskeletal modeling were used to calculate lower-limb muscle forces and muscle contributions to COM accelerations when both groups walked at the same speed. The orientations of all body segments during walking, except that of the pelvis, were invariant to age when these quantities were expressed in a global reference frame. The older subjects tilted their pelves more anteriorly during the stance phase. The mean contributions of the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, vasti, gastrocnemius and soleus to the vertical, fore-aft and mediolateral COM accelerations (support, progression and balance, respectively) were similar in the two groups. However, the gluteus medius contributed significantly less to support (p<0.05) while the gluteus maximus and contralateral erector spinae contributed significantly more to balance (p<0.05) during early stance in the older subjects. These results provide insight into the functional roles of the individual leg muscles during gait in older adults, and highlight the importance of the hip and back muscles in controlling mediolateral balance. PMID:23267819

Lim, Yoong Ping; Lin, Yi-Chung; Pandy, Marcus G

2012-12-23

146

Function and quality of life in patients with recurvatum deformity after primary total knee arthroplasty: a review of our joint registry.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to assess function and quality of life in patients with recurvatum at 2 years after primary total knee arthroplasty. This prospective study involves 2587 total knee arthroplasty from 2004 to 2008 with 2-year follow-up. Patients' demographics, diagnosis, implants, range of motion, laxity, and knee and SF-36 scores were recorded. Recurvatum deformity of 0°, 1° to 5°, 6° to 10°, and more than 10° were classified as grades 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Grade 1 had similar functional scores to grade 0 but significantly better SF1, SF4, SF5, and SF8 when compared with grades 2 and 3. Patients with mediolateral translation of more than 5 mm were more likely to have grades 2 and 3 recurvatum (P = .01), indicating global laxity. Postoperative recurvatum of more than 5° significantly impacts function and quality of life of patients. PMID:22153947

Siddiqui, Mohd Mashfiqul A; Yeo, Seng Jin; Sivaiah, Potla; Chia, Shi-Lu; Chin, Pak Lin; Lo, Ngai Nung

2011-12-09

147

Physics Proofs of Four Millennium-Problems(MP) via CATEGORY-SEMANTICS(C-S)/F=C Aristotle SQUARE-of-OPPOSITION(SoO) DEduction-LOGIC DichotomY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Siegel-Baez Cognitive-Category-Semantics"(C-C-S) tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics SoO jargonial-obfuscation elimination query WHAT? yields four "pure"-maths MP "Feet of Clay!!!" proofs: (1) Siegel [AMS Natl.Mtg.(02)-Abs.973-03-126: (CCNY;64)!!!<<<(94;Wiles)] Fermat's: Last-Thm. = Least-Action Ppl.; (2) P=/=NP TRIVIAL simple Euclid geometry/dimensions: NO computer anything"Feet of Clay!!!"; (3) Birch-Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture; (4) Riemann-hypotheses via COMBO.: Siegel[AMS Natl.Mtg.(02)-Abs.973-60-124] digits log-law inversion to ONLY BEQS with ONLY zero-digit BEC, AND Rayleigh[1870;graph-thy."short-CUT method"[Doyle-Snell, Random-Walks & Electric-Nets,MAA(81)]-"Anderson"[(58)] critical-strip C-localization!!! SoO DichotomY ("V") IdentitY: #s:( Euler v Bernoulli) = (Sets v Multisets) = Quantum-Statistics(FD v BE) = Power-Spectra(1/f?(0) v 1/f?(1)) = Conic-Sections(Ellipse v Hyperbola) = Extent(Locality v Globality);Siegel[(89)] (so MIScalled) "complexity" as UTTER-SIMPLICITY(!!!) v COMPLICATEDNESS MEASURE(S) definition.

Clay, London; Carl-Ludwig Siegel, Edward

2011-03-01

148

Physics Proofs of Four Millennium-Problems(MP) via CATEGORY-SEMANTICS(C-S)/F=C Aristotle SQUARE-of-OPPOSITION(SoO) DEduction-LOGIC DichotomY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Siegel-Baez C-S/F=C tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics SoO jargonial-obfuscation elimination query WHAT? yields four ``pure''-maths MP ``Feet of Clay!!!'' proofs:(1)Siegel [AMS Natl.Mtg.(2002)-Abs.#:973-03-126:(@CCNY;1964!!!)<<<(1994; Wiles)]Fermat's: Last-Theorem = Least-Action Principle; (2) P=/=NP TRIVIAL simple Euclid geometry/dimensions: NO computer anything;``Feet of Clay!!!''; (3)Birch-Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture; (4)Riemann-hypotheses via combination of: Siegel [AMS Natl.Mtg. (2002)-Abs.#:973-60-124 digits logarithmic-law simple algebraic- inversion to ONLY BEQS with ONLY zero-digit BEC, AND Rayleigh [(1870);graph-theory ``short-CUT method''[Doyle- Snell,Random- Walks & Electric-Networks,MAA(1981)]-``Anderson'' [PRL(1958)] critical-strip 1/2 complex-plane localization!!! SoO DichotomY (``v'') IdentitY: numbers(Euler v Bernoulli) = (Sets v Multisets) = Quantum-Statistics(F.-D. v B.-E.) = Power- Spectra(1/f^(0) v 1/f^(1.000...) = Conic-Sections(Ellipse v (Parabola) v Hyperbola) = Extent(Locality v Globality); Siegel [MRS Fractals Symp.(1989)](so MIScalled)``complexity'' as UTTER- SIMPLICITY (!!!) v COMPLICATEDNESS MEASURE(S) definition.

Clay, L.; Siegel, E.

2010-03-01

149

Gradistic vs. Cladistic Views in the Classification of Chondrites: The (L,H) Dichotomy and the Missing L/LL Precursors (NIPR Statistics VI.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chondritic parent body evolutionary trends were projected -- on the basis of the NIPR Antarctic dataset (Yanai et al, 1995) -- in multicomponent functions (i.e. Fe-C-H2O race) of chondrite types for all groups. We looked for the possible precursors of L/LL chondrites.

Lukács, B.; Holba, A.; Bérczi, Sz.

1999-03-01

150

Uniform distribution of Galois conjugates and beta-conjugates of a Parry number near the unit circle and dichotomy of Perron numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentration and equi-distribution, near the unit circle, in Solomyak's set, of the union of the Galois conjugates and the beta-conjugates of a Parry number $\\\\beta$ are characterized by means of the Erd\\\\H{o}s-Tur\\\\'an approach, and its improvements by Mignotte and Amoroso, applied to the analytical function $f_{\\\\beta}(z) = -1 + \\\\sum_{i \\\\geq 1} t_i z^i$ associated with the R\\\\'enyi $\\\\beta$-expansion $d_{\\\\beta}(1)=

Jean-Louis Verger-Gaugry

2008-01-01

151

Mediolateral hoof balance in relation to the handedness of apprentice farriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horses that had been trimmed and shod by apprentice farriers were sourced from the Royal School of Military Engineering, Melton Mowbray (37 horses) and from the Household Cavalry, Knightsbridge (54 horses). The lateral and medial hoof wall angles of both forelimbs were measured using a Ruidoso hoof gauge by the same operator. The difference between the lateral and medial hoof

A. Ronchetti; P. Day; R. Weller

2011-01-01

152

From fibrositis to functional somatic syndromes to a bell-shaped curve of pain and sensory sensitivity: evolution of a clinical construct.  

PubMed

This article attempts to demonstrate insight into understanding the evolving spectrum of functional somatic syndromes. It will become evident that in understanding these highly complex disorders, neither the Cartesian dichotomy regarding body-mind distinction nor the pure reductionist approach to disease (which attempts to explain clinical phenomena on the basis of underlying structural derangement) can be strictly adhered to. Only use of a truly integrative framework of thinking can allow us to both recognize and accept the overlapping basic similarity between these conditions and, in turn, teach us about nearly any medical condition characterized by pain or sensory symptoms. PMID:19647139

Ablin, Kobby; Clauw, Daniel J

2009-05-01

153

Coarse-fine dichotomies in human stereopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a long history of research into depth percepts from very large disparities, beyond the fusion limit. Such diplopic stimuli have repeatedly been shown to provide reliable depth percepts. A number of researchers have pointed to differences between the processing of small and large disparities, arguing that they are subserved by distinct neural mechanisms. Other studies have pointed to

Laurie M. Wilcox; Robert S. Allison

2009-01-01

154

Planetary science: Evolutionary dichotomy for rocky planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple model shows that a rocky planet close to its star may solidify so slowly that its water is lost to space and the planet becomes desiccated, whereas a planet farther out may solidify quickly and retain its water. See Letter p.607

Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.

2013-05-01

155

Heterosexuality/homosexuality: dichotomy or continuum.  

PubMed

A recent reanalysis of Kinsey's data rejected his conclusion that heterosexuality and homosexuality were a continuum. A number of studies have been published over the past decade reporting that 5% or less of adolescents were aware of homosexual feelings, a finding also inconsistent with Kinsey's data. These studies have rejected prenatal hormones and rearing by homosexual parents as influencing sexual orientation. If Kinsey's data are correct and 40% or more of adolescents are aware of homosexual feeling the findings of these studies are invalid. Two replications of an initial study with representative samples of medical students found over 40% of both males and females currently aware of some homosexual feelings, consistent with Kinsey's conclusion. The ratio of reported homosexual to heterosexual feelings correlated with opposite sex-linked behaviors in the male, supporting the validity of the subjects' reports. If subjects representative of other subgroups of the population are investigated with this easily implemented method and report similar data, this theoretically and sociologically significant divergence of belief concerning the incidence of the heterosexual/homosexual balance would be resolved. PMID:3689108

McConaghy, N

1987-10-01

156

Dichotomies in Teaching, Application, and Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors propose a move from the old control model of teaching, managing, and leading based on stability and power to a new enterprise model based on speed and constant self-innovation. They hope to promote the practice of a rapid incremental innovation strategy that produces practitioners and educators dedicated to continuous…

Heames, Joyce T.; Service, Robert W.

2003-01-01

157

Phenotypic dichotomies in the foreign body reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand the relationship between macrophage\\/foreign body giant cell adhesion and activation on surface-modified biomaterials, quantitative assessment of adherent cell density (cells per mm2) and cytokine production (pgs per mL) were determined by ELISA. Further analysis to identify cellular activation was carried out by normalizing the cytokine concentration data to provide a measure of cellular activation. This method of

James M. Anderson; Jacqueline A. Jones

2007-01-01

158

Homespun and Microchips: India's Economic Dichotomy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

India is a study in contrasts. It is a nation that produces nuclear weapons and launches sophisticated satellites into geosynchronous earth orbit, yet 260 million (26%) of its citizens live beneath the official poverty line. India's universities annually ...

E. L. Dahlstrom

2003-01-01

159

Directed functional connectivity matures with motor learning in a cortical pattern generator.  

PubMed

Sequential motor skills may be encoded by feedforward networks that consist of groups of neurons that fire in sequence (Abeles 1991; Long et al. 2010). However, there has been no evidence of an anatomic map of activation sequence in motor control circuits, which would be potentially detectable as directed functional connectivity of coactive neuron groups. The proposed pattern generator for birdsong, the HVC (Long and Fee 2008; Vu et al. 1994), contains axons that are preferentially oriented in the rostrocaudal axis (Nottebohm et al. 1982; Stauffer et al. 2012). We used four-tetrode recordings to assess the activity of ensembles of single neurons along the rostrocaudal HVC axis in anesthetized zebra finches. We found an axial, polarized neural network in which sequential activity is directionally organized along the rostrocaudal axis in adult males, who produce a stereotyped song. Principal neurons fired in rostrocaudal order and with interneurons that were rostral to them, suggesting that groups of excitatory neurons fire at the leading edge of travelling waves of inhibition. Consistent with the synchronization of neurons by caudally travelling waves of inhibition, the activity of interneurons was more coherent in the orthogonal mediolateral axis than in the rostrocaudal axis. If directed functional connectivity within the HVC is important for stereotyped, learned song, then it may be lacking in juveniles, which sing a highly variable song. Indeed, we found little evidence for network directionality in juveniles. These data indicate that a functionally directed network within the HVC matures during sensorimotor learning and may underlie vocal patterning. PMID:23175804

Day, Nancy F; Terleski, Kyle L; Nykamp, Duane Q; Nick, Teresa A

2012-11-21

160

Morphology and behaviour: functional links in development and evolution.  

PubMed

Development and evolution of animal behaviour and morphology are frequently addressed independently, as reflected in the dichotomy of disciplines dedicated to their study distinguishing object of study (morphology versus behaviour) and perspective (ultimate versus proximate). Although traits are known to develop and evolve semi-independently, they are matched together in development and evolution to produce a unique functional phenotype. Here I highlight similarities shared by both traits, such as the decisive role played by the environment for their ontogeny. Considering the widespread developmental and functional entanglement between both traits, many cases of adaptive evolution are better understood when proximate and ultimate explanations are integrated. A field integrating these perspectives is evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), which studies the developmental basis of phenotypic diversity. Ultimate aspects in evo-devo studies--which have mostly focused on morphological traits--could become more apparent when behaviour, 'the integrator of form and function', is integrated into the same framework of analysis. Integrating a trait such as behaviour at a different level in the biological hierarchy will help to better understand not only how behavioural diversity is produced, but also how levels are connected to produce functional phenotypes and how these evolve. A possible framework to accommodate and compare form and function at different levels of the biological hierarchy is outlined. At the end, some methodological issues are discussed. PMID:21690124

Bertossa, Rinaldo C

2011-07-27

161

Zebrin-immunopositive and -immunonegative stripe pairs represent functional units in the pigeon vestibulocerebellum.  

PubMed

The cerebellum is a site of complex sensorimotor integration and contains up to 80% of the neurons in the brain, yet comparatively little is known about the organization of sensorimotor systems within the cerebellum. It is known that afferent projections and Purkinje cell (PC) response properties are organized into sagittal "zones" in the cerebellum. Moreover, the isoenzyme aldolase C [also known as zebrin II (ZII)] is heterogeneously expressed in cerebellar PCs such that there are sagittal stripes of PCs with high expression (ZII+) interdigitated with stripes of little or no expression (ZII-). In the present study, we show how the ZII stripes in folium IXcd of the vestibulocerebellum in pigeons are related to response properties of PCs. IXcd consists of seven pairs of ZII+/- stripes denoted P1+/- (medial) to P7+/- (lateral). Electrophysiological studies have shown that vestibulocerebellar PCs respond to particular patterns of optic flow resulting from self-motion in three-dimensional space. In our study, we recorded optic flow preferences from PCs in IXcd, marked recording locations with injections of fluorescent tracer, and subsequently immunoreacted coronal sections for ZII. We found that the PCs within a ZII+/- stripe pair all responded best to the same pattern of optic flow. That is, a ZII+/- stripe pair forms a functional unit in the cerebellum. This is the first demonstration that the function of PCs is associated with ZII stripes across the mediolateral extent of an entire folium. PMID:22973000

Graham, David J; Wylie, Douglas R

2012-09-12

162

Vascular smooth muscle phenotypic diversity and function  

PubMed Central

The control of force production in vascular smooth muscle is critical to the normal regulation of blood flow and pressure, and altered regulation is common to diseases such as hypertension, heart failure, and ischemia. A great deal has been learned about imbalances in vasoconstrictor and vasodilator signals, e.g., angiotensin, endothelin, norepinephrine, and nitric oxide, that regulate vascular tone in normal and disease contexts. In contrast there has been limited study of how the phenotypic state of the vascular smooth muscle cell may influence the contractile response to these signaling pathways dependent upon the developmental, tissue-specific (vascular bed) or disease context. Smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle lineages are traditionally classified into fast or slow sublineages based on rates of contraction and relaxation, recognizing that this simple dichotomy vastly underrepresents muscle phenotypic diversity. A great deal has been learned about developmental specification of the striated muscle sublineages and their phenotypic interconversions in the mature animal under the control of mechanical load, neural input, and hormones. In contrast there has been relatively limited study of smooth muscle contractile phenotypic diversity. This is surprising given the number of diseases in which smooth muscle contractile dysfunction plays a key role. This review focuses on smooth muscle contractile phenotypic diversity in the vascular system, how it is generated, and how it may determine vascular function in developmental and disease contexts.

2010-01-01

163

A landmark contribution to poultry science--Immunological function of the bursa of Fabricius.  

PubMed

The article "The bursa of Fabricius and antibody production" by Bruce Glick, Timothy S. Chang, and R. George Jaap first demonstrated the role of the bursa in immune development. Birds, including chickens, possess a peculiar organ, the bursa of Fabricius. The organ was recognized for more than 300 yr before its function was described in 1956. Discovery of the bursa as an essential component of the immune response began by accident. Removal of the bursa, bursectomy, during the rapid growth period diminished the antibody response to Salmonella. A paper describing this exceptional finding was initially rejected by Science and ultimately published in Poultry Science. This revelation triggered sequential events leading to the understanding of the dichotomy of the immune response. Additional work in multiple laboratories over many years revealed fundamental immune mechanisms attributable to the bursa. Understanding those mechanisms advanced agricultural and biomedical science. PMID:19276427

Taylor, R L; McCorkle, F M

2009-04-01

164

Hypergeometric Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page includes the encyclopedia entries for hypergeometric functions including Hermit, parabolic cylinder and Laguerre functions, Chebyshev and Fibonacci functions, Legendre functions, Gegenbauer and Jacobi functions, confluent hypergeometric functions, hypergeometric functions, Meijer G functions, hypergeometric functions of several variables and angular momentum functions.

165

Identifying Real Dichotomies Underlying the False Dichotomy: Twenty-First Century Mediation in an Eclectic Regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some people (lawyers, scholars, judges, dispute resolvers, policymakers) are more concerned about fidelity to procedural protocols while others are more concerned with the substantive rules governing disputes and substantive outcomes. Those in the dispute resolution community preferring facilitation tend to be proceduralists. For them, the observance of proper procedure is a high goal, perhaps the dominant goal. They reason, often

Jeffrey W. Stempel

2000-01-01

166

Multifactorial inheritance, rates of maturation and psychiatry's taxonomic dilemma: on Saugstad's "radical proposition" for two extremes of brain function and structure.  

PubMed

This paper reviews aspects of Letten F. Saugstad's Maturation Theory in relation to the Kraepelinian dichotomy and psychiatric classification. The maturation theory is based on existing neuroscience, cross-national and mental health case register data and offers an innovative alternative to current etiological formulations. The maturational theory holds (1) that manic depressive illness relates to early maturation and (2) the schizophrenic syndrome relates to late maturation. The foundation of these processes lies in cerebral pruning of excitatory synapses particularly at puberty but also at a number of earlier crucial periods in development. The process of synaptic pruning has by puberty eliminated some 40% of the synapses, leading to the disappearance of glutematergic excitatory synapses without apparently appreciably influencing inhibitory GABAergic neurons. As a consequence, early maturation is related to the manic-depressive syndrome and characterized by increased neural excitability. Conversely, late maturation is related to schizophrenia characterized by diminished neural activity. Saugstad demonstrates using cross-national and neuroscience studies the multifactoral and environmental influences on rates of maturation and thereby mental illness. Using these data Saugstad reasons her agreement with the Kraepelinian dichotomy based on the existence of two extremes in brain structure and function developed through interactions between the person and the environment. PMID:18516513

deVries, Marten W

2008-06-01

167

A sharp cadherin-6 gene expression boundary in the developing mouse cortical plate demarcates the future functional areal border.  

PubMed

The mammalian cerebral cortex can be tangentially subdivided into tens of functional areas with distinct cyto-architectures and neural circuitries; however, it remains elusive how these areal borders are genetically elaborated during development. Here we establish original bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mouse lines that specifically recapitulate cadherin-6 (Cdh6) mRNA expression profiles in the layer IV of the somatosensory cortex and by detailing their cortical development, we show that a sharp Cdh6 gene expression boundary is formed at a mediolateral coordinate along the cortical layer IV as early as the postnatal day 5 (P5). By further applying mouse genetics that allows rigid cell fate tracing with CreERT2 expression, it is demonstrated that the Cdh6 gene expression boundary set at around P4 eventually demarcates the areal border between the somatosensory barrel and limb field at P20. In the P6 cortical cell pellet culture system, neurons with Cdh6 expression preferentially form aggregates in a manner dependent on Ca(2+) and electroporation-based Cdh6 overexpression limited to the postnatal stages perturbs area-specific cell organization in the barrel field. These results suggest that Cdh6 expression in the nascent cortical plate may serve solidification of the protomap for cortical functional areas. PMID:22875867

Terakawa, Youhei W; Inoue, Yukiko U; Asami, Junko; Hoshino, Mikio; Inoue, Takayoshi

2012-08-08

168

Elementary Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page includes the encyclopedia entries for power functions (square root and power), exponential functions, trigonometric functions (e.g. sin, cos), inverse trigonometric functions (e.g. arcSin, arcCos), hyperbolic functions (e.g. sinh, cosh), inverse hyperbolic functions (e.g. arcSinh, arcCosh), product logarightms, roots, maximum and minimum and cardinal functions.

169

Clinical study of location and reproducibility of three mandibular positions in relation to body posture and muscle function.  

PubMed

Clinical studies have confirmed the adequate reproducibility of both centric occlusion and centric relation when used as reference positions during treatment; however, the reproducibility of the neuromuscular position has been found inadequate. This study evaluated the location and reproducibility of these three mandibular positions in relation to body posture, sitting and supine, and bilateral muscle activity before and after the insertion of a flat mandibular positioning device equilibrated to balance the muscle functions, as shown by two electromyography biofeedback instruments. Intraoral recordings were made in 11 young subjects with complete natural dentition. Acrylic resin clutches that supported a screw point in the maxillary arch and painted glass in the mandibular arch were used and positioned not to interfere with the occlusion. The distances of the screw scratch from two of the edges of the painted glass were used to measure the anteroposterior and mediolateral locations with a micrometer. The reproducibility was evaluated by measuring the scratch surface by measuring the weight of the print cutouts made from photographs of the scratches taken with a stereoscope. The location and reproducibility of centric occlusion and centric relation were not affected by body posture. A more precise posterior neuromuscular position was obtained in the supine position. The insertion of a mandibular positioning device did not affect centric occlusion but gave a more precise centric relation. Neuromuscular position became as precise as centric occlusion and was located anteroposteriorly between centric occlusion and centric relation. PMID:7722936

Tripodakis, A P; Smulow, J B; Mehta, N R; Clark, R E

1995-02-01

170

Evidence of sensorimotor deficits in functional ankle instability: a systematic review with meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Functional ankle instability (FAI) has been associated with impaired sensorimotor function; however individual studies have produced conflicting results. In an attempt to reduce this ambiguity, a systematic review with meta-analysis was undertaken to determine which sensorimotor deficits exist with FAI. Fifty-three studies assessing sensorimotor factors in subjects with FAI were included from 465 identified articles. Studies were rated for methodological quality and data were pooled for peroneal reaction time, joint position sense, and postural sway during single-leg stance and time to stabilisation from a single-leg jump. Data on joint movement sense were unable to be pooled. When subjects with unstable ankles were compared to healthy controls, sensorimotor impairments were demonstrated for passive joint position sense (mean difference (MD)=0.7 degrees , 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2-1.2 degrees , p=0.004), active joint position sense (MD=0.6 degrees , 95% CI: 0.2-1.0 degrees , p=0.002), postural sway in single-leg stance (standardised MD (SMD)=0.6, 95% CI: 0.2-1.0, p=0.002), the star excursion balance test (SMD=0.4, 95% CI: 0.1-0.7, p=0.009), and time to stabilisation from a single-leg jump in a medio-lateral (MD=0.6 ms, 95% CI: 0.4-0.8, p<0.0001) and an antero-posterior direction (MD=0.7 ms, 95% CI: 0.4-1.0, p<0.0001). Peroneal reaction time was not affected. Sensorimotor deficits occur for joint position sense and postural control in subjects with FAI. Deficits in peroneal muscle reaction time following perturbation are not evident. PMID:19442581

Munn, Joanne; Sullivan, S John; Schneiders, Anthony G

2009-05-12

171

Inverse Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using Mathcad, Maple, Mathmatica, or MatLab, learner should be able to review concepts of inverse functions, and to use those concepts, together with functions defined by integrals, to develop inverse trigonometric functions.

Smith, David; Moore, Lawrence

2001-01-25

172

Mode of delivery and subsequent long-term sexual function of primiparous women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimal information exists on unintended health consequences following childbirth, particularly in relation to mode of delivery. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of mode of delivery on long-term sexual satisfaction of women by using a validated questionnaire. Forty-five primiparous women who had cesarean deliveries and 90 primiparous women who had vaginal deliveries with mediolateral episiotomies enrolled in the study.

S Gungor; I Baser; S Ceyhan; E Karasahin; C H Acikel

2007-01-01

173

The Luminosity Functions of Young Stellar Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a new theoretical framework for computing the evolution of both the mass function (MF) and luminosity function (LF) of a young stellar cluster that is forming within a molecular cloud core. Our method utilizes detailed results from stellar evolution theory, and assumes that young clusters arise from the continual collapse of dense cloud cores over an extended period of time. By further demanding that the stars reaching the main sequence conform to a prescribed Initial Mass Function (IMF), we are able to explicitly solve for the separate contributions, to the cluster MF & LF, from each of the evolving populations of protostars, pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars and main sequence (MS) stars. Among the many detailed results generally predicted by our calculations, we find that the protostellar LF is peaked at a characteristic luminosity throughout the time of cluster formation, and that the time-averaged number fraction in protostars is typically just a few percent. At most times, the vast majority of cluster members are PMS stars, but the cluster light is dominated in the first Myr by the intrinsically brighter protostars. After about 10 Myr, the higher mass MS stars provide most of the light. In the intervening period, a pronounced step in the cluster LF is seen at about 10 L_?. A preliminary application of our models to the rho Ophiuchus embedded cluster indicates that it is reaching the end of its early evolution; we estimate its age to be about 1 Myr, to within a factor of two. A corollary of this result is our theoretical expectation that there should be > 160 stars with bolometric L > 0.01 L_? in this cluster, a significant fraction of which would be below the brown dwarf hydrogen burning limit of 0.08 M_?. This interesting prediction suggests the idea that a good place to look for brown dwarfs is in star forming regions, where they are presumably born in elevated numbers. This, however, runs counter to the current state of observational affairs in regard to the search for baryonic dark matter in the form of brown dwarfs. One possible way out of this dichotomy between theory and observation would be to find a physical mechanism for severely attenuating the low mass end of the IMF. This research was supported by NSF Grants AST-90-14479 & AST-90-22501.

Fletcher, A. B.; Stahler, S. W.

1995-05-01

174

Highly specific role of hypocretin (orexin) neurons: differential activation as a function of diurnal phase, operant reinforcement versus operant avoidance and light level.  

PubMed

Hypocretin (Hcrt) cell loss is responsible for narcolepsy, but Hcrt's role in normal behavior is unclear. We found that Hcrt knock-out mice were unable to work for food or water reward during the light phase. However, they were unimpaired relative to wild-type (WT) mice when working for reward during the dark phase or when working to avoid shock in the light or dark phase. In WT mice, expression of Fos in Hcrt neurons occurs only in the light phase when working for positive reinforcement. Expression was seen throughout the mediolateral extent of the Hcrt field. Fos was not expressed when expected or unexpected unearned rewards were presented, when working to avoid negative reinforcement, or when given or expecting shock, even though these conditions elicit maximal electroencephalogram (EEG) arousal. Fos was not expressed in the light phase when light was removed. This may explain the lack of light-induced arousal in narcoleptics and its presence in normal individuals. This is the first demonstration of such specificity of arousal system function and has implications for understanding the motivational and circadian consequences of arousal system dysfunction. The current results also indicate that comparable and complementary specificities must exist in other arousal systems. PMID:22031892

McGregor, Ronald; Wu, Ming-Fung; Barber, Grace; Ramanathan, Lalini; Siegel, Jerome M

2011-10-26

175

Riemann-Hypothesis Millennium-Problem(MP) Physics Proof via CATEGORY-SEMANTICS(C-S)/F=C Aristotle SQUARE-of-OPPOSITION(SoO) DEduction-LOGIC DichotomY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riemann-hypothesis physics-proof combines: Siegel-Antonoff-Smith[AMS Joint Mtg.(2002)-Abs.973-03-126] digits on-average statistics HIll[Am. J. Math 123, 3, 887(1996)] logarithm-function's (1,0)-fixed-point base=units=scale-invariance proven Newcomb[Am. J. Math. 4, 39(1881)]-Weyl[Goett. Nachr.(1914); Math. Ann. 7, 313(1916)]-Benford[Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 78, 4, 51(1938)]-law [Kac, Math. of Stat.-Reasoning(1955); Raimi, Sci. Am. 221, 109(1969)] algebraic-inversion to ONLY Bose-Einstein quantum-statistics(BEQS) with digit d = 0 gapFUL Bose-Einstein Condensation(BEC) insight that digits are quanta are bosons were always digits, via Siegel-Baez category-semantics tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics in Plato-Aristotle classic "square-of-opposition" : FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS/Category-Semantics, with Goodkind Bose-Einstein condensation(BEC) ABOVE ground-state with/and Rayleigh(cut-limit of "short-cut method";1870)-Polya(1922)-"Anderson"(1958) localization [Doyle and Snell, Random-Walks and Electrical-Networks, MAA(1981)-p.99-100!!!].

Baez, J.; Lapidaryus, M.; Carl-Ludwig Siegel, Edward

2011-03-01

176

Functional Illiteracy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Statistics indicating that the problem of illiteracy is lessening mask a greater problem--that of functional illiteracy. Functional illiterates may have some reading and writing skills but are not able to apply them as functioning members of society. A 1975 study using the most sophisticated instrument that had ever been used to determine…

Hovey, Sheryl

177

Riemann-Hypothesis Millennium-Problem(MP) Physics Proof via CATEGORY-SEMANTICS(C-S)/F=C Aristotle SQUARE-of-OPPOSITION(SoO) DEduction-LOGIC DichotomY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riemann-hypothesis physics-proof combines: Siegel-Antono-Smith[AMS Joint Mtg.(2002)- Abs.973-03-126] digits on-average statistics HIll[Am. J. Math 123, 3, 887(1996)] logarithm-function's (1,0)- xed-point base=units=scale-invariance proven Newcomb [Am. J. Math. 4, 39(1881)]-Weyl[Goett. Nachr.(1914); Math. Ann.7, 313(1916)]-Benford[Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 78, 4, 51(1938)]-law [Kac,Math. of Stat.-Reasoning(1955); Raimi, Sci. Am. 221, 109(1969)] algebraic-inversion to ONLY Bose-Einstein quantum-statistics(BEQS) with digit d = 0 gapFUL Bose-Einstein Condensation(BEC) insight that digits are quanta are bosons because bosons are and always were quanta are and always were digits, via Siegel-Baez category-semantics tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics in Plato-Aristotle classic "square-of-opposition" : FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS/Category-Semantics, with Goodkind Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC) ABOVE ground-state with/and Rayleigh(cut-limit of "short-cut method";1870)-Polya(1922)-"Anderson"(1958) localization [Doyle and Snell,Random-Walks and Electrical-Networks, MAA(1981)-p.99-100!!!] in Brillouin[Wave-Propagation in Periodic-Structures(1946) Dover(1922)]-Hubbard-Beeby[J.Phys.C(1967)] Siegel[J.Nonxline-Sol.40,453(1980)] generalized-disorder collective-boson negative-dispersion mode-softening universality-principle(GP) first use of the ``square-of-opposition'' in physics since Plato and Aristote!!!

Baez, Joao-Joan; Lapidaryus, Michelle; Carl-Ludwig Siegel, Edward

2013-03-01

178

Function or not a Function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After completing this activity, students will understand the definition of a function and use it to identify whether or not an input-output pairing represents a function. Step by step instructions guide students in using their graphing calculators to determine if a graph represents a function by using a moving vertical line. A worksheet and teacher notes aid in teaching this lesson.

2011-11-28

179

Turning Semicircular Canal Function on Its Head: Dinosaurs and a Novel Vestibular Analysis  

PubMed Central

Previous investigations have correlated vestibular function to locomotion in vertebrates by scaling semicircular duct radius of curvature to body mass. However, this method fails to discriminate bipedal from quadrupedal non-avian dinosaurs. Because they exhibit a broad range of relative head sizes, we use dinosaurs to test the hypothesis that semicircular ducts scale more closely with head size. Comparing the area enclosed by each semicircular canal to estimated body mass and to two different measures of head size, skull length and estimated head mass, reveals significant patterns that corroborate a connection between physical parameters of the head and semicircular canal morphology. Head mass more strongly correlates with anterior semicircular canal size than does body mass and statistically separates bipedal from quadrupedal taxa, with bipeds exhibiting relatively larger canals. This morphologic dichotomy likely reflects adaptations of the vestibular system to stability demands associated with terrestrial locomotion on two, versus four, feet. This new method has implications for reinterpreting previous studies and informing future studies on the connection between locomotion type and vestibular function.

Georgi, Justin A.; Sipla, Justin S.; Forster, Catherine A.

2013-01-01

180

Turning semicircular canal function on its head: dinosaurs and a novel vestibular analysis.  

PubMed

Previous investigations have correlated vestibular function to locomotion in vertebrates by scaling semicircular duct radius of curvature to body mass. However, this method fails to discriminate bipedal from quadrupedal non-avian dinosaurs. Because they exhibit a broad range of relative head sizes, we use dinosaurs to test the hypothesis that semicircular ducts scale more closely with head size. Comparing the area enclosed by each semicircular canal to estimated body mass and to two different measures of head size, skull length and estimated head mass, reveals significant patterns that corroborate a connection between physical parameters of the head and semicircular canal morphology. Head mass more strongly correlates with anterior semicircular canal size than does body mass and statistically separates bipedal from quadrupedal taxa, with bipeds exhibiting relatively larger canals. This morphologic dichotomy likely reflects adaptations of the vestibular system to stability demands associated with terrestrial locomotion on two, versus four, feet. This new method has implications for reinterpreting previous studies and informing future studies on the connection between locomotion type and vestibular function. PMID:23516495

Georgi, Justin A; Sipla, Justin S; Forster, Catherine A

2013-03-13

181

Integration of molecular functions at the ecosystemic level: breakthroughs and future goals of environmental genomics and post-genomics  

PubMed Central

Environmental genomics and genome-wide expression approaches deal with large-scale sequence-based information obtained from environmental samples, at organismal, population or community levels. To date, environmental genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics are arguably the most powerful approaches to discover completely novel ecological functions and to link organismal capabilities, organism–environment interactions, functional diversity, ecosystem processes, evolution and Earth history. Thus, environmental genomics is not merely a toolbox of new technologies but also a source of novel ecological concepts and hypotheses. By removing previous dichotomies between ecophysiology, population ecology, community ecology and ecosystem functioning, environmental genomics enables the integration of sequence-based information into higher ecological and evolutionary levels. However, environmental genomics, along with transcriptomics and proteomics, must involve pluridisciplinary research, such as new developments in bioinformatics, in order to integrate high-throughput molecular biology techniques into ecology. In this review, the validity of environmental genomics and post-genomics for studying ecosystem functioning is discussed in terms of major advances and expectations, as well as in terms of potential hurdles and limitations. Novel avenues for improving the use of these approaches to test theory-driven ecological hypotheses are also explored.

Vandenkoornhuyse, Philippe; Dufresne, Alexis; Quaiser, Achim; Gouesbet, Gwenola; Binet, Francoise; Francez, Andre-Jean; Mahe, Stephane; Bormans, Myriam; Lagadeuc, Yvan; Couee, Ivan

2010-01-01

182

Function Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet allows learners to explore simple linear functions. Students determine the algebraic form of a linear equation by entering inputs into the machine and by looking for patterns in the outputs. The function rules available are: integers from -10 to 10 are either added to, subtracted from, or multiplied by the input x to yield the output y.

2011-01-01

183

Function Junction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity teaches students about function transformations using f(x)=x and f(x)=x^2. Step by step instructions show students how to use their graphing calculators to explore the functions. A worksheet is included to test understanding of the lesson.

2008-11-04

184

Functions Grapher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Discussing functions can be a tricky endeavor, but having a handy interactive way to talk about functions can relieve a great deal of stress. As part of the Mathematical Sciences Digital Library, this Functions Grapher application is designed to let users enter one or two functions. After doing so, users can trace along either one with coordinates shown dynamically changing at all times. The application was created by Professor Barbara Kaskosz of the University of Rhode Island, and it can be used by students in algebra, pre-calculus, or calculus courses. Of course, educators may wish to use it in their classrooms for illustrative purposes and they can also pass along to students who might find the very idea of functions and their operation a bit puzzling.

Kaskosz, Barbara

185

The nature and function of the media arts critic  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Internet survey of 56 media arts critics found numerous job tides are applied to individuals sharing the same role. Some are called reporters; others are critics, reviewers, columnists and editors. Accordingly, these critics have different views on what should be their roles. As job titles vary, the traditional dichotomy between objective reporting and subjective criticism is less clear. While

2003-01-01

186

Carcinoma origin dictates differential skewing of monocyte function  

PubMed Central

Macrophages are versatile cells, which phenotype is profoundly influenced by their environment. Pro-inflammatory classically activated or M1 macrophages, and anti-inflammatory alternatively-activated or M2 macrophages represent two extremes of a continuum of functional states. Consequently, macrophages that are present in tumors can exert tumor-promoting and tumor-suppressing activity, depending on the tumor milieu. In this study we investigated how human monocytes—the precursors of macrophages—are influenced by carcinoma cells of different origin. We demonstrate that monocytes, stimulated with breast cancer supernatant, showed increased expression of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-8 and chemokines CCL17 and CCL22, which are associated with an alternatively-activated phenotype. By contrast, monocytes that were cultured in supernatants of colon cancer cells produced more pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-12 and TNF?) and reactive oxygen species. Secretome analysis revealed differential secretion of proteins by colon and breast cancer cell lines, of which the proteoglycan versican was exclusively secreted by colon carcinoma cell lines. Reducing active versican by blocking with monoclonal antibodies or shRNA diminished pro-inflammatory cytokine production by monocytes. Thus, colon carcinoma cells polarize monocytes toward a more classically-activated anti-tumorigenic phenotype, whereas breast carcinomas predispose monocytes toward an alternatively activated phenotype. Interestingly, presence of macrophages in breast or colon carcinomas correlates with poor or good prognosis in patients, respectively. The observed discrepancy in macrophage activation by either colon or breast carcinoma cells may therefore explain the dichotomy between patient prognosis and macrophage presence in these different tumors. Designing new therapies, directing development of monocytes toward M1 activated tumor macrophages in cancer patients, may have great clinical benefits.

Bogels, Marijn; Braster, Rens; Nijland, Philip G.; Gul, Nuray; van de Luijtgaarden, Wendy; Fijneman, Remond J.A.; Meijer, Gerrit A.; Jimenez, Connie R.; Beelen, Robert H.J.; van Egmond, Marjolein

2012-01-01

187

Managerial Intuition across Cultures: Beyond a "West-East Dichotomy"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Studies investigating intuition from a cultural and cross-cultural perspective have a long tradition in various disciplines but, due to the increased internationalization of business, an understanding of the mental lives of other cultures became one of the priorities of management practitioners and theoreticians. Cultures of…

Wozniak, Anna

2006-01-01

188

Alternatives to Institutional Care of the Elderly: beyond the Dichotomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The growth in the demand for long-term care services and accompanying cost implications have spurred interest in alternatives to nursing homes. The rationale for such alternatives is a mixture of prevention, displacement, and deinstitutionalization; none may result. The alternative may prove to be additive rather than substitutive. (Author)|

Kane, Robert L.; Kane, Rosalie A.

1980-01-01

189

Managerial Intuition across Cultures: Beyond a "West-East Dichotomy"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Studies investigating intuition from a cultural and cross-cultural perspective have a long tradition in various disciplines but, due to the increased internationalization of business, an understanding of the mental lives of other cultures became one of the priorities of management practitioners and theoreticians. Cultures of…

Wozniak, Anna

2006-01-01

190

Beyond Remedial Dichotomies: Are "Underprepared" College Students a Marginalized Majority?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article questions the dichotomous labeling and conceptualization of remedial and nonremedial students, particularly the added distinctions emphasized between four-year and two-year colleges, and it calls for a focus on the common challenges among all underprepared college students. The content of this article has attempted to broaden the…

Deil-Amen, Regina

2011-01-01

191

Dichotomy and perceptual distortions in absolute pitch ability  

PubMed Central

Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability to identify the pitch of a tone without the aid of a reference tone. Understanding both the nature and genesis of AP can provide insights into neuroplasticity in the auditory system. We explored factors that may influence the accuracy of pitch perception in AP subjects both during the development of the trait and in later age. We used a Web-based survey and a pitch-labeling test to collect perceptual data from 2,213 individuals, 981 (44%) of whom proved to have extraordinary pitch-naming ability. The bimodal distribution in pitch-naming ability signifies AP as a distinct perceptual trait, with possible implications for its genetic basis. The wealth of these data has allowed us to uncover unsuspected note-naming irregularities suggestive of a “perceptual magnet” centered at the note “A.” In addition, we document a gradual decline in pitch-naming accuracy with age, characterized by a perceptual shift in the “sharp” direction. These findings speak both to the process of acquisition of AP and to its stability.

Athos, E. Alexandra; Levinson, Barbara; Kistler, Amy; Zemansky, Jason; Bostrom, Alan; Freimer, Nelson; Gitschier, Jane

2007-01-01

192

QSO Type1/Type2 dichotomy (Borguet+, 2008)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This table contains the measurements/compilation of host galaxy/ extended emission position angle in the visible and near-IR domain, polarimetric data, and radio axis orientation for the 135 quasars of our sample. The angles are given in degrees east of north. The table gives the spectral and the radio-loud/radio-quiet classification of each object according to the references. (2 data files).

Borguet, B.; Hutsemekers, D.; Letawe, G.; Letawe, Y.; Magain, P.

2007-11-01

193

Tolerance to Alliance: Deconstructing Dichotomies to Advocate for All Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article argues that teachers in the twenty-first century need to incorporate queer theory into their teaching practice and their discussions about individual differences in order to advocate for those students most likely to be bullied in schools. It provides a brief background on queer theory, gives an introduction to central ideas of the…

Berg, Margaret

2013-01-01

194

A coordination chemistry dichotomy for icosahedral carborane-based ligands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the majority of ligands in modern chemistry take advantage of carbon-based substituent effects to tune the sterics and electronics of coordinating moieties, we describe here how icosahedral carboranes—boron-rich clusters—can influence metal–ligand interactions. Using a series of phosphine–thioether chelating ligands featuring meta- or ortho-carboranes grafted on the sulfur atom, we were able to tune the lability of the platinum–sulfur interaction

Alexander M. Spokoyny; Charles W. Machan; Daniel J. Clingerman; Mari S. Rosen; Michael J. Wiester; Robert D. Kennedy; Charlotte L. Stern; Amy A. Sarjeant; Chad A. Mirkin

2011-01-01

195

A coordination chemistry dichotomy for icosahedral carborane-based ligands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the majority of ligands in modern chemistry take advantage of carbon-based substituent effects to tune the sterics and electronics of coordinating moieties, we describe here how icosahedral carboranes---boron-rich clusters---can influence metal-ligand interactions. Using a series of phosphine-thioether chelating ligands featuring meta- or ortho-carboranes grafted on the sulfur atom, we were able to tune the lability of the platinum-sulfur interaction

Alexander M. Spokoyny; Charles W. Machan; Daniel J. Clingerman; Mari S. Rosen; Michael J. Wiester; Robert D. Kennedy; Charlotte L. Stern; Amy A. Sarjeant; Chad A. Mirkin

2011-01-01

196

Topographic Change of the Dichotomy Boundary Suggested by Crustal Inversion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Linear negative gravity anomalies in Acidalia Planitia along the eastern edge of Tempe Terra and along the northem edge of Arabia Terra have been noted in Mars Global Surveyor gravity fields. Once proposed to represent buried fluvial channels, it is now b...

G. A. Neumann

2004-01-01

197

MRS. NICKLEBY'S MONOLOGUE: THE DICHOTOMY OF PESSIMISM AND OPTIMISM IN \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mrs. Nickleby constantly interrupts the flow of action in Nicholas Nickleby with her soliloquies in which she envisions wealth and happiness for her family. When viewed against the harsh realities of the novel, her comments seem to be merely the visionary ramblings of an old lady; but, as the novel ends, Dickens reminds us that her dreams have come true.

LESLIE M. THOMPSON

1969-01-01

198

TOWARDS A DICHOTOMY OF THE ENERGY SECTOR IN FINLAND?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarises the results from four studies on the potential of renewable energy sources (RES) and one study on the economic feasibility of distributed renewable energy production, in Finland. A major part of Finnish rural areas could be self-sufficient in energy production. The theoretical energy content consists of logging residues, straw, reed canary grass (potential on fallowed grounds) and

Pekka Peura; Timo Hyttinen

199

Ethical dichotomies in organ transplantation a time for bridge building  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid advances of the past 15 years have resolved many of the technical and immunologic limitations to organ transplantation. With the success rates that can now be achieved, there is increased attention to the limited supply of donor organs and to cost considerations, the remaining obstacles to wide application of organ transplantation. Competition for organs and for funding demands greater

Owen S. Surman; A. Benedict Cosimi

1996-01-01

200

Women and the Dichotomy of Literacy: Public/Private Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By viewing women's literacy within the context of America from the Colonial period until the present, it is clear that men have traditionally shaped and controlled who shall be literate and what shall be viewed as literate, both within and outside the educational system. Women's writing from the Colonial period is virtually non-existent, and…

McGann, Patrick

201

The dichotomy of relative humidity on indoor air quality.  

PubMed

Dry and irritated mucous membranes of the eyes and airways are common symptoms reported in office-like environments. Earlier studies suggested that indoor pollutants were responsible. We have re-evaluated, by review of the literature, how low relative humidity (RH) may influence the immediately perceived indoor air quality (IAQ), including odour, and cause irritation symptoms (i.e. longer-term perceived IAQ). "Relative humidity" were searched in major databases, and combined with: air quality, cabin air, dry eyes, formaldehyde, inflammation, mucous membranes, offices, ozone, pungency, sensory irritation, particles, precorneal tear film, sick building syndrome, stuffy air, and VOCs. The impact of RH on the immediately and longer-term perceived IAQ by VOCs, ozone, and particles is complex, because both the thermodynamic condition and the emission characteristics of building materials are influenced. Epidemiological, clinical, and human exposure studies indicate that low RH plays a role in the increase of reporting eye irritation symptoms and alteration of the precorneal tear film. These effects may be exacerbated during visual display unit work. The recommendation that IAQ should be "dry and cool" may be useful for evaluation of the immediately perceived IAQ in material emission testing, but should be considered cautiously about the development of irritation symptoms in eyes and upper airways during a workday. Studies indicate that RH about 40% is better for the eyes and upper airways than levels below 30%. The optimal RH may differ for the eyes and the airways regarding desiccation of the mucous membranes. PMID:17499853

Wolkoff, Peder; Kjaergaard, Søren K

2007-05-17

202

Chromosomal Dichotomy in Blood and Marrow of Acute Leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The chromosome patterns in freshly aspirated, noncultured marrow of six patients with acute leukemia differed consistently from the findings in cultured blood of the same individuals. Unique anomalies in chromosome number and\\/or morphology char acterized all six marrows but none of the essentially diploid blood cultures. The cyto- genetic peculiarities of the leukemic marrows were, on the whole, unrelated

T. ISHIHARA; L. H. CROSSWHITE; ANDTHEODORE S. HAUSCHKA

203

The Multilingual/Bilingual Dichotomy: An Exploration of Individual Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Bilingualism (Sanz, 2000), motivation (Pintrich, 1989), and language aptitude (Grigorenko, Sternberg, and Ehrman, 2000) are crucial individual differences that contribute to successful adult language learning. Since Gardner's (1985) seminal work on motivation, many studies have shown that motivation is dynamic and that it affects language…

Thompson, Amy S.

2009-01-01

204

New political thinking and Russian patriotism: The dichotomy of perestroika  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes Mikhail Gorbachev has proposed in Soviet foreign policy have been the subject of considerable debate. This paper offers a different criterion for measuring the extent of Gorbachev's new political thinking in foreign policy—a comparison with the foreign policy agenda of domestic dissidents, most notably Russian nationalists.Such a comparison shows how the official program of perestroika in foreign policy,

Nicolai N. Petro

1990-01-01

205

Stewart on Teaching versus Facilitating: A Misconstrued Dichotomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a recent article, D. Stewart has misrepresented the positions of some of those who view teachers as facilitators of learning. The author defines four principles that represent a sensible interpretation of facilitating learning. The idea of the teacher as facilitator actually holds great promise for improved teaching. (SLD)|

Case, Roland; And Others

1994-01-01

206

The stressful condition as a nutritionally dependent adaptive dichotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The injured body manifests a cascade of cytokine-induced metabolic events aimed at developing defense mechanisms and tissue repair. Rising concentrations of counterregulatory hormones work in concert with cytokines to generate overall insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), postreceptor resistance and energy requirements grounded on lipid dependency. Salient features are self-sustained hypercortisolemia persisting as long as cytokines are oversecreted and

Yves Ingenbleek; Larry Bernstein

1999-01-01

207

The Policy-Practice Dichotomy: Can We Straddle the Divide?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article I review the literature on a topical issue in education generally and curriculum implementation in particular, namely why it is so difficult to translate policy into practice. How do we come to understand policy and its link(s) to what actually happens inside classrooms? I locate the inquiry within the broader literature on…

Blignaut, Sylvan

2007-01-01

208

The dual functions of the extreme N-terminus of TDP-43 in regulating its biological activity and inclusion formation  

PubMed Central

TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is the principal component of ubiquitinated inclusions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the most common pathological subtype of frontotemporal dementia—frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43-positive inclusions (FTLD-TDP). To date, the C-terminus of TDP-43, which is aggregation-prone and contains almost all ALS-associated mutations, has garnered much attention while the functions of the N-terminus of TDP-43 remain largely unknown. To bridge this gap in our knowledge, we utilized novel cell culture and computer-assisted models to evaluate which region(s) of TDP-43 regulate its folding, self-interaction, biological activity and aggregation. We determined that the extreme N-terminus of TDP-43, specifically the first 10 residues, regulates folding of TDP-43 monomers necessary for proper homodimerization and TDP-43-regulated splicing. Despite such beneficial functions, we discovered an interesting dichotomy: full-length TDP-43 aggregation, which is believed to be a pathogenic process, also requires the extreme N-terminus of TDP-43. As such, we provide new insight into the structural basis for TDP-43 function and aggregation, and we suggest that stabilization of TDP-43 homodimers, the physiologically active form of TDP-43, may be a promising therapeutic strategy for ALS and FTLD-TDP.

Zhang, Yong-Jie; Caulfield, Thomas; Xu, Ya-Fei; Gendron, Tania F.; Hubbard, Jaime; Stetler, Caroline; Sasaguri, Hiroki; Whitelaw, Ena C.; Cai, Shuyi; Lee, Wing Cheung; Petrucelli, Leonard

2013-01-01

209

Function Revolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity allows the user to find the volume and surface area of various functions as they are rotated around axes. This applet can be used to practice finding integrals using the disk and washer methods of calculating volume.

210

Club Function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore the definition of a function by playing an interactive game called âClub Function.â The goal of the game is to be in the club! With students each assigned to be either a zebra or a rhinoceros, they group themselves according to the ârulesâ of the club function. After two minutes, students freeze in their groups, and if they are not correctly following the rules of the club function, then they are not allowed into the âclub.â Through this activity students come to understand that one x-coordinate can only have one corresponding y-coordinate while y-coordinates can have many x-coordinates that correspond to it.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

211

Functional diarrhea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional diarrhea occurs as part of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and as an isolated symptom as functional (painless)\\u000a diarrhea. Progress has been made in defining these disorders and in identifying new mechanisms involved in symptom production.\\u000a A strong link exists between intestinal infection and IBS, as is the role of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). The importance of\\u000a persistent subclinical inflammation is

Michael J. G. Farthing; Cranmer Terrace

2005-01-01

212

Objective functions.  

PubMed

Multiple sequence alignment involves alignment of more than two sequences and is an NP-complete problem. Therefore, heuristic algorithms that use different criteria to find an approximation to the optimal solution are employed. At the heart of these approaches lie the scoring and objective functions that a given algorithm uses to compare competing solutions in constructing a multiple sequence alignment. These objective functions are often motivated by the biological paradigms that govern functional similarities and evolutionary relations. Most existing approaches utilize a progressive process where the final alignment is constructed sequentially by adding new sequences into an existing multiple sequence alignment matrix, which is dynamically updated. In doing this, the core scoring function to assess accuracies of pairwise alignments generally remains the same, while the objective functions used in intermediary steps differ. Nevertheless, the overall assessment of the final multiple sequence alignment is generally calculated by an extension of pairwise scorings. In this chapter, we explore different scoring and objective functions used in calculating the accuracy and optimization of a multiple sequence alignment and provide utilization of these criteria in popularly used multiple sequence alignment algorithms. PMID:24170394

Do?an, Haluk; Otu, Hasan H

2014-01-01

213

The neutron star and black hole initial mass function  

SciTech Connect

Using recently calculated models for massive stellar evolution and supernovae coupled to a model for Galactic chemical evolution, neutron star and black hole birth functions (number of neutron stars and black holes as a function of their mass) are determined for the Milky Way galaxy. For these stars that explode as Type II supernovae, the models give birth functions that are bimodal with peaks at 1.27 and 1.76 {ital M}{sub {circle_dot}} and average masses within those peaks of 1.28 and 1.73 {ital M}{sub {circle_dot}}. For these stars that explode as Type Ib there is a narrower spread of remnant masses, the average being 1.32 {ital M}{sub {circle_dot}}, and less evidence for bimodality. These values will be increased, especially in the more massive Type II supernovae, if significant accretion continues during the initial launching of the shock, and the number of heavier neutron stars could be depleted by black hole formation. The principal reason for the dichotomy in remnant masses for Type II is the difference in the presupernova structure of stars above and below 19 {ital M}{sub {circle_dot}}, the mass separating stars that burn carbon convectively from those that produce less carbon and burn radiatively. The Type Ib{close_quote}s and the lower mass group of the Type II{close_quote}s compare favorably with measured neutron star masses, and in particular to the Thorsett {ital et} {ital al}. (1993) determination of the average neutron star mass in 17 systems; 1.35{plus_minus}0.27 {ital M}{sub {circle_dot}}. Variations in the exponent of a Salpeter initial mass function are shown not to affect the locations of the two peaks in the distribution function, but do affect their relative amplitudes. Sources of uncertainty, in particular placement of the mass cut and sensitivity to the explosion energy, are discussed, and estimates of the total number of neutron stars and black holes in the Galaxy are given. (Abstract Truncated)

Timmes, F.X. [Laboratory for Astrophysics and Space Research, Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60667 (United States)]|[, Board of Studies in Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States)]|[, General Studies Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550. (United States); Woosley, S.E. [Board of Studies in Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States)]|[General Studies Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Weaver, T.A. [General Studies Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

1996-02-01

214

Functional conservation between members of an ancient duplicated transcription factor family, LSF/Grainyhead.  

PubMed

The LSF/Grainyhead transcription factor family is involved in many important biological processes, including cell cycle, cell growth and development. In order to investigate the evolutionary conservation of these biological roles, we have characterized two new family members in Caenorhabditis elegans and Xenopus laevis. The C.elegans member, Ce-GRH-1, groups with the Grainyhead subfamily, while the X.laevis member, Xl-LSF, groups with the LSF subfamily. Ce-GRH-1 binds DNA in a sequence-specific manner identical to that of Drosophila melanogaster Grainyhead. In addition, Ce-GRH-1 binds to sequences upstream of the C.elegans gene encoding aromatic L-amino-acid decarboxylase and genes involved in post-embryonic development, mab-5 and dbl-1. All three C.elegans genes are homologs of D.melanogaster Grainyhead-regulated genes. RNA-mediated interference of Ce-grh-1 results in embryonic lethality in worms, accompanied by soft, defective cuticles. These phenotypes are strikingly similar to those observed previously in D.melanogaster grainyhead mutants, suggesting conservation of the developmental role of these family members over the course of evolution. Our phylogenetic analysis of the expanded LSF/GRH family (including other previously unrecognized proteins/ESTs) suggests that the structural and functional dichotomy of this family dates back more than 700 million years, i.e. to the time when the first multicellular organisms are thought to have arisen. PMID:12888489

Venkatesan, Kavitha; McManus, Heather R; Mello, Craig C; Smith, Temple F; Hansen, Ulla

2003-08-01

215

Functional conservation between members of an ancient duplicated transcription factor family, LSF/Grainyhead  

PubMed Central

The LSF/Grainyhead transcription factor family is involved in many important biological processes, including cell cycle, cell growth and development. In order to investigate the evolutionary conservation of these biological roles, we have characterized two new family members in Caenorhabditis elegans and Xenopus laevis. The C.elegans member, Ce-GRH-1, groups with the Grainyhead subfamily, while the X.laevis member, Xl-LSF, groups with the LSF subfamily. Ce-GRH-1 binds DNA in a sequence-specific manner identical to that of Drosophila melanogaster Grainyhead. In addition, Ce-GRH-1 binds to sequences upstream of the C.elegans gene encoding aromatic l-amino-acid decarboxylase and genes involved in post-embryonic development, mab-5 and dbl-1. All three C.elegans genes are homologs of D.melanogaster Grainyhead-regulated genes. RNA-mediated interference of Ce-grh-1 results in embryonic lethality in worms, accompanied by soft, defective cuticles. These phenotypes are strikingly similar to those observed previously in D.melanogaster grainyhead mutants, suggesting conservation of the developmental role of these family members over the course of evolution. Our phylogenetic analysis of the expanded LSF/GRH family (including other previously unrecognized proteins/ESTs) suggests that the structural and functional dichotomy of this family dates back more than 700 million years, i.e. to the time when the first multicellular organisms are thought to have arisen.

Venkatesan, Kavitha; McManus, Heather R.; Mello, Craig C.; Smith, Temple F.; Hansen, Ulla

2003-01-01

216

Functions and Models: New Functions from Old Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Match the graph of a transformation of a function with its equation representation;Determine the domain of a combination of functions from the domains of the original functions;Express a given function as the nontrivial composition of two or more elementary functions;Graph a given function by applying appropriate transformations to elementary functions

Freeze, Michael

2003-01-22

217

OGA Function  

Cancer.gov

The Office of Grants Administration is the focal point for all business-related activities associated with the negotiation, award, and administration of grants and cooperative agreements within the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The purpose of this section is to express briefly the spirit and manner in which these functions are carried out by the Office of Grants Administration.

218

Functional dendrimers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review new results in the field of dendrimers and hyper-branched molecules are collected. After this relatively new and appealing research topic had entered the field of chemistry, as well as biology, physics, and medicine, fascinating results and the possibilities arising from them are growing just like the functionalities of a dendrimer from generation to generation. Owing to the

F Vögtle; S Gestermann; R Hesse; H Schwierz; B Windisch

2000-01-01

219

PLACENTA: FUNCTIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The placenta combines many functional activities. It serves as a barrier to protect the fetus, but serves as the primary site of physiological exchange between the conceptus and parent. It provides the substrates for fetal metabolism and disposes of the waste products. The placenta synthesizes both ...

220

Function Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two-dimensional (x,y) functions: linear (slope-intercept, point-slope, and general forms), polynomial (definition, roots, graphs), and exponential (definition, exponential growth, radioactive decay, money matters - simple, compound, and continuous interest, effective annual rate, ordinary annuity, and loans). From the Mathematics area of Zona Land: Education in Physics and Mathematics.

Zobel, Edward A.

2008-09-19

221

Pedotransfer Functions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Often, there is a need to estimate parameters governing retention and transport of water and chemicals in soils from other, readily available data. Equations expressing relationships between soil properties were proposed to be called pedotransfer functions. This entry provides the overview of the st...

222

Functional Nanowires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanotechnology offers the promise of enabling revolutionary advances in diverse areas ranging from electronics, optoelectronics, and energy to healthcare. Underpinning the realization of such advances are the nanoscale ma te rials and corresponding nanodevices central to these application areas. Semiconductor nanowires and nanobelts are emerging as one of the most powerful and diverse classes of functional nanoma te - rials

Charles M. Lieber; Zhong Lin Wang

2007-01-01

223

Functional dyspepsia  

PubMed Central

Dyspepsia is a common term used for a heterogeneous group of abdominal symptoms. Functional dyspepsia (FD) is the focus of this review. The 2006 Rome III criteria defined FD and its subgroups, postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) and epigastric pain syndrome (EPS). FD is a very common condition with a high prevalence throughout the world, adversely affecting the quality of life of patients. The pathophysiology of FD has been under investigation during the past two decades. Multiple mechanisms such as abnormal gastric emptying, visceral hypersensitivity, impaired gastric accommodation, and central nervous system factors are likely involved. Several tests are available for the assessment of various physiologic functions possibly involved in the pathogenesis of FD, and some of these could be used in clinical practice, helping to understand the abnormalities underlining patients’ complaints. Currently, the possibilities of pharmacological therapy for FD are still limited, however, experience of using prokinetics, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), and several alternative techniques has been accumulated. The different combinations of alterations in physiologic gastrointestinal and central nervous system functions result in the very heterogeneous nature of FD so combined approaches to these patients could be beneficial in challenging cases.

Brun, Rita; Kuo, Braden

2010-01-01

224

Function of pectoral fins in rainbow trout: behavioral repertoire and hydrodynamic forces.  

PubMed

Salmonid fishes (trout, salmon and relatives) have served as a model system for study of the mechanics of aquatic animal locomotion, yet little is known about the function of non-axial propulsors in this major taxonomic group. In this study we examine the behavioral and hydromechanical repertoire of the paired pectoral fins of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, performing both steady rectilinear swimming and unsteady maneuvering locomotion. A combination of kinematic analysis and quantitative flow visualization (using digital particle image velocimetry) enables identification of the propulsive roles played by pectoral fin motions. During constant-speed swimming (0.5 and 1.0 body length s(-1)), the pectoral fins remain adducted against the body. These fins are actively recruited, however, for a variety of maneuvering behaviors, including station holding in still water (hovering), low-speed (i.e. non-fast-start) turning, and rapid deceleration of the body during braking. Despite having a shallow pectoral-fin base orientation (the plesiomorphic teleost condition), trout are capable of rotating the fin base over 30 degrees during maneuvering, which affords the fin an impressive degree of kinematic versatility. When hovering, the pectoral fins are depressed beneath the body and twisted along their long axes to allow anteroposterior sculling. During turning and braking, the fins undergo spanwise rotation in the opposite direction and exhibit mediolateral and dorsoventral excursions. Water velocity fields and calculated momentum flows in the wake of the pectoral fins reveal that positive thrust is not generated during maneuvering, except during the retraction half-stroke of hovering. Relatively large laterally directed fluid force (mean 2.7 mN) is developed during turning, whose reaction powers yawing rotation of the body (4-41 degrees s(-1)). During deceleration, the wake-force line of action falls below the center of mass of the body, and this result supports a long-standing mechanical model of braking by fishes with ventrally positioned paired fins. Despite its traditional categorization as a propulsor of limited functional importance, the salmoniform pectoral fin exhibits a diverse locomotor repertoire comparable to that of higher teleostean fishes. PMID:12547936

Drucker, Eliot G; Lauder, George V

2003-03-01

225

Nicotine Addiction and Nicotine's Actions Are Associated with Separate Cingulate Cortex Functional Circuits  

PubMed Central

Context Understanding the mechanisms underlying nicotine addiction in order to develop more effective treatment is a public health priority. Research consistently shows that nicotine transiently improves multiple cognitive functions. However, using nicotine replacement to treat nicotine addiction yields generally inconsistent results. While this dichotomy is well known, the reasons are unclear. Imaging studies showed that nicotine challenges almost always involve cingulate cortex, suggesting that this loci may be a key region associated with nicotine addiction and its treatment. Objective To identify cingulate functional circuits that are associated with the severity of nicotine addiction and to study how nicotine affects them. Design Using region-specific resting-state fMRI signals to extract resting-state cingulate functional connectivity, and to study how nicotine addiction and acute nicotine administration modulate these functional pathways, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Setting Outpatient clinics. Participants Nineteen healthy smokers. Intervention(s) Single dose (21/35mg) nicotine patch. Main Outcome Measure(s) Correlation of nicotine addiction severity and cingulate resting state functional connectivity, and effects of acute nicotine on connectivity strength. Results Clearly separated pathways that correlated with nicotine addiction vs. nicotinic action were found. The severity of nicotine addiction was associated with the strength of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC)-striatal circuits, which were not modified by nicotine patch administration. In contrast, acute nicotine enhanced cingulate-neocortical functional connectivity patterns. Conclusions Nicotine addiction was strongly associated with functional circuits interconnecting dACC and the striatum. Acute nicotine administration had no significant effect on these circuits. Rather, nicotine enhanced several cingulate-neocortical functional connectivity circuits that were not associated with the severity of nicotine addiction, but may play a role in nicotine's cognitive enhancing properties. Resting state dACC-striatum functional connectivity may serve as a circuit-level biomarker for nicotine addiction, and the development of new therapeutics aiming to enhance the dACC-striatum functional pathways may be effective for nicotine addiction treatment.

Hong, L. Elliot; Gu, Hong; Yang, Yihong; Ross, Thomas J.; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Buchholz, Brittany; Thaker, Gunvant K.; Stein, Elliot A.

2008-01-01

226

Wetland Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource explains a number of critical functions performed by wetlands. Students will discover that wetlands moderate impacts from flooding, control erosion, purify water, and provide habitat for fish and wildlife. They also provide a unique natural environment for people to enjoy outdoor recreation activities. It is part of a module that aims to help students get to know the complexities of wetlands, discover wildlife, enjoy the experience of being outdoors, and learn how necessary wetlands are to the health of our environment. Although it is about wetlands in New England for educators and their middle school students, it suggests ways to study wetland characteristics, why wetlands are important, and how students and teachers can help protect a local wetland in any part of the country. An associated set of activities is also available.

227

Executive functions.  

PubMed

Executive functions (EFs) make possible mentally playing with ideas; taking the time to think before acting; meeting novel, unanticipated challenges; resisting temptations; and staying focused. Core EFs are inhibition [response inhibition (self-control--resisting temptations and resisting acting impulsively) and interference control (selective attention and cognitive inhibition)], working memory, and cognitive flexibility (including creatively thinking "outside the box," seeing anything from different perspectives, and quickly and flexibly adapting to changed circumstances). The developmental progression and representative measures of each are discussed. Controversies are addressed (e.g., the relation between EFs and fluid intelligence, self-regulation, executive attention, and effortful control, and the relation between working memory and inhibition and attention). The importance of social, emotional, and physical health for cognitive health is discussed because stress, lack of sleep, loneliness, or lack of exercise each impair EFs. That EFs are trainable and can be improved with practice is addressed, including diverse methods tried thus far. PMID:23020641

Diamond, Adele

2012-09-27

228

Hepatitis C Virus Replication and Golgi Function in Brefeldin A-Resistant Hepatoma-Derived Cells  

PubMed Central

Recent reports indicate that the replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) depends on the GBF1-Arf1-COP-I pathway. We generated Huh-7-derived cell lines resistant to brefeldin A (BFA), which is an inhibitor of this pathway. The resistant cell lines could be sorted into two phenotypes regarding BFA-induced toxicity, inhibition of albumin secretion, and inhibition of HCV infection. Two cell lines were more than 100 times more resistant to BFA than the parental Huh-7 cells in these 3 assays. This resistant phenotype was correlated with the presence of a point mutation in the Sec7 domain of GBF1, which is known to impair the binding of BFA. Surprisingly, the morphology of the cis-Golgi of these cells remained sensitive to BFA at concentrations of the drug that allowed albumin secretion, indicating a dichotomy between the phenotypes of secretion and Golgi morphology. Cells of the second group were about 10 times more resistant than parental Huh-7 cells to the BFA-induced toxicity. The EC50 for albumin secretion was only 1.5–1.8 fold higher in these cells than in Huh-7 cells. However their level of secretion in the presence of inhibitory doses of BFA was 5 to 15 times higher. Despite this partially effective secretory pathway in the presence of BFA, the HCV infection was almost as sensitive to BFA as in Huh-7 cells. This suggests that the function of GBF1 in HCV replication does not simply reflect its role of regulator of the secretory pathway of the host cell. Thus, our results confirm the involvement of GBF1 in HCV replication, and suggest that GBF1 might fulfill another function, in addition to the regulation of the secretory pathway, during HCV replication.

Farhat, Rayan; Goueslain, Lucie; Wychowski, Czeslaw; Belouzard, Sandrine; Feneant, Lucie; Jackson, Catherine L.; Dubuisson, Jean; Rouille, Yves

2013-01-01

229

Functional amyloid  

PubMed Central

Evidence is growing at an increasing-pace that amyloid fibers are not just the result of aberrant protein folding associated with neurodegenerative diseases, but are widespread in nature for beneficial reasons. Amyloid is an attractive building material because its robust design and simple repetitive structure make for very durable and metabolically cheap material. But this requires that the production of amyloid be put under firm control. This appears to involve the use of four to five chaperones that are expressed under the control of the same promoter as the amyloid proteins. Significant progress has been made in deciphering this process in E. coli's csg operon, also found in Salmonella. Recently, we have discovered a new and unrelated operon (fap) responsible for amyloid production in Pseudomonas, which also confers biofilm-forming properties to E. coli. Intriguingly, this operon shares a number of features with csg, namely two homologous proteins (one of which, FapC, has been shown to be directly involved in amyloid build-up) and a small number of auxiliary proteins. However, FapC seems to be less economically structured than its E. coli counterpart, with a smaller number of repeats and very large and variable linker regions. Furthermore, the putative chaperones are not homologous to their csg counterparts and have intriguing homologies to proteins with other functions. These findings suggest that controlled amyloid production has arisen on many independent occasions due to the usefulness of the product and offers the potential for intriguing insights into how nature disarms and reconstructs a potentially very dangerous weapon.

2010-01-01

230

Functions and Models: Inverse Functions and Logarithms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Determine whether a given function is one-to-one from its graph;Find the formula for the inverse of a given function;Translate between logarithmic and exponential expressions;Solve equations involving exponential and logarithmic functions

Freeze, Michael

2003-01-22

231

Assessing Function and Functional Outcome in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The diagnosis of schizophrenia can only be made in the presence of a loss of functioning in domains such as employment, independent\\u000a living, and social functioning. Accurately measuring functioning is central to research on the course of the disorder, treatment\\u000a and rehabilitation outcomes, and biosocial factors in schizophrenia. Assessments of functional disability have described three\\u000a dimensions of functioning: functional capacity,

Elizabeth Bromley; John S. Brekke

232

Design and evaluation of a new type of knee orthosis to align the mediolateral angle of the knee joint with osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Background. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease which influences the performance of the knee joint. Moreover, the force and moments applied on the joint increase in contrast to normal subjects. Various types of knee orthoses have been designed to solve the mentioned problems. However, there are other problems in terms of distal migration during walking and the alignment of the orthosis which cannot be changed following the use of brace. Therefore, the main aim of the research was to design an orthosis to solve the aforementioned problems. Method. A new type of knee orthosis was designed with a modular structure. Two patients with knee OA participated in this research project. The force applied on the foot, moment transmitted through the knee joint, and spatiotemporal gait parameters were measured by use of a motion analysis system. Results. The results of the research showed that the adduction moment applied on the knee joint decreased while subjects walked with the new knee orthosis (P-value < 0.05). Conclusion. The new design of the knee brace can be used as an effective treatment to decrease the loads applied on the knee joint and to improve the alignment whilst walking. PMID:22577565

Esrafilian, Amir; Karimi, Mohammad Taghi; Eshraghi, Arezoo

2012-04-19

233

The Riemann Zeta Function: A Divine Function?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract As the Riemann hypothesis approaches its 150, birthday, it still seems the mathematical community is some way o,solving the problem. This project examines the Riemann -function and its properties, including amongst other things, the location and number of -zeros, along with the functional equation for the,-function. The link between the Riemann -function and the prime numbers is considered and

Luke Arthur McDermott

2007-01-01

234

Are Subitizing and Counting Implemented as Separate or Functionally Overlapping Processes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enumeration of small groups of four or fewer objects is very fast and accurate (often called “subitizing”), but gets slower and more error prone for more than four items (“counting”). Many theories have been proposed to account for this dichotomy, most suggesting that “subitizing” and “counting” are two qualitatively different and separable processes. Others, in contrast, have proposed that the

Manuela Piazza; Andrea Mechelli; Brian Butterworth; Cathy J. Price

2002-01-01

235

Divergence of allosteric effects of rapacuronium on binding and function of muscarinic receptors  

PubMed Central

Background Many neuromuscular blockers act as negative allosteric modulators of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors by decreasing affinity and potency of acetylcholine. The neuromuscular blocker rapacuronium has been shown to have facilitatory effects at muscarinic receptors leading to bronchospasm. We examined the influence of rapacuronium on acetylcholine (ACh) binding to and activation of individual subtypes of muscarinic receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells to determine its receptor selectivity. Results At equilibrium rapacuronium bound to all subtypes of muscarinic receptors with micromolar affinity (2.7-17 ?M) and displayed negative cooperativity with both high- and low-affinity ACh binding states. Rapacuronium accelerated [3H]ACh association with and dissociation from odd-numbered receptor subtypes. With respect to [35S]GTP?S binding rapacuronium alone behaved as an inverse agonist at all subtypes. Rapacuronium concentration-dependently decreased the potency of ACh-induced [35S]GTP?S binding at M2 and M4 receptors. In contrast, 0.1 ?M rapacuronium significantly increased ACh potency at M1, M3, and M5 receptors. Kinetic measurements at M3 receptors showed acceleration of the rate of ACh-induced [35S]GTP?S binding by rapacuronium. Conclusions Our data demonstrate a novel dichotomy in rapacuronium effects at odd-numbered muscarinic receptors. Rapacuronium accelerates the rate of ACh binding but decreases its affinity under equilibrium conditions. This results in potentiation of receptor activation at low concentrations of rapacuronium (1 ?M) but not at high concentrations (10 ?M). These observations highlight the relevance and necessity of performing physiological tests under non-equilibrium conditions in evaluating the functional effects of allosteric modulators at muscarinic receptors. They also provide molecular basis for potentiating M3 receptor-mediated bronchoconstriction.

2009-01-01

236

Functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain  

PubMed Central

The Rome diagnostic criteria for the functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain are used widely in research and practice. A committee consensus approach, including criticism from multinational expert reviewers, was used to revise the diagnostic criteria and update diagnosis and treatment recommendations, based on research results. The terminology was clarified and the diagnostic criteria and management recommendations were revised. A functional bowel disorder (FBD) is diagnosed by characteristic symptoms for at least 12 weeks during the preceding 12 months in the absence of a structural or biochemical explanation. The irritable bowel syndrome, functional abdominal bloating, functional constipation, and functional diarrhea are distinguished by symptom-based diagnostic criteria. Unspecified FBD lacks criteria for the other FBDs. Diagnostic testing is individualized, depending on patient age, primary symptom characteristics, and other clinical and laboratory features. Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is defined as either the FAP syndrome, which requires at least six months of pain with poor relation to gut function and loss of daily activities, or unspecified FAP, which lacks criteria for the FAP syndrome. An organic cause for the pain must be excluded, but aspects of the patient's pain behavior are of primary importance. Treatment of the FBDs relies upon confident diagnosis, explanation, and reassurance. Diet alteration, drug treatment, and psychotherapy may be beneficial, depending on the symptoms and psychological features.???Keywords: functional bowel disorder; functional constipation; functional diarrhea; irritable bowel syndrome; functional abdominal pain; functional abdominal bloating; Rome II

Thompson, W; Longstreth, G; Drossman, D; Heaton, K; Irvine, E; Muller-Lissner, S

1999-01-01

237

Peas, Please: A Case Report and Neuroscientific Review of Dissociative Amnesia and Fugue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissociative amnesia that encompasses one's entire life and identity is a rare disorder, as is dissociative fugue. In evaluating such cases, a dichotomy is often invoked between functional and organic etiologies. However, this dichotomy suffers from both conceptual and ethical flaws. Conceptually, putative brain-based, organic etiologies for many dissociative disorders—including dissociative amnesia—exist. Ethically, such dichotomies may result in dismissive care

Kai MacDonald; Tina MacDonald

2009-01-01

238

Functional differences and complementation between dendritic cells and macrophages in T-cell activation.  

PubMed Central

Functional differences and cell collaboration between murine lymphoid dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages (M phi) in antigen presentation for T-cell activation were analysed with splenic DC and M phi, culture-derived bone-marrow (BM)-M phi, and DC-like and M phi-like cell lines. DC were the best stimulators of allogeneic mixed leucocyte reaction (MLR), but splenic M phi and small activated BM-M phi were almost as effective. In contrast to MLR stimulation, small activated BM-M phi were the most effective antigen-presenting cells (APC) for the presentation of whole Corynebacterium parvum (CP) organisms, possibly by virtue of their phagocytic and lysosomal functions, which could be particularly important for processing particulate antigens. Large activated BM-M phi were ineffective in stimulating MLR and CP-specific T-cell proliferation. The functional differences between BM-M phi subsets could not be explained by failure to express surface Ia or to take up antigen. Non-phagocytic APC, such as DC and the DC-like line P388AD.4, had low presenting activity for CP and were much less effective at presenting glutaraldehyde-fixed CP than M phi. This suggests that DC are dependent on the shedding of soluble antigen (reduced by glutaraldehyde fixation) from the bacteria, and they may also be less efficient than M phi at processing the fixed bacteria. The Ia- M phi-like line. P388D1, was devoid of APC activity, but could greatly enhance P388AD.4-induced T-cell proliferation to whole bacterial organisms. Similarly, co-culture of splenic DC and M phi produced very pronounced synergistic effects in proliferative responses to CP and keyhole limpet haemocyanin. The function of M phi n this partnership was sensitive to chloroquine and could not be replaced by M phi culture fluids or recombinant interleukin-1. Thus, M phi may contribute processed antigen in a form more suitable for presentation by DC. These results provide a rationale for the functional dichotomy between DC and M phi.

Guidos, C; Sinha, A A; Lee, K C

1987-01-01

239

Investigating function and connectivity of morphometric findings--exemplified on cerebellar atrophy in spinocerebellar ataxia 17 (SCA17).  

PubMed

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA17) is a rare autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia but also a broad spectrum of other neuropsychiatric signs. As anatomical and structural studies have shown severe cerebellar atrophy in SCA17 and a differentiation of the human cerebellum into an anterior sensorimotor and posterior cognitive/emotional partition has been implicated, we aimed at investigating functional connectivity patterns of two cerebellar clusters of atrophy revealed by a morphometric analysis in SCA17 patients. In particular, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) revealed a large cluster of atrophy in SCA17 in the bilateral anterior cerebellum (lobule V) and another one in the left posterior cerebellum (lobules IX, VIIb, VIIIA, VIIIB). These two cerebellar clusters were used as seeds for functional connectivity analyses using task-based meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and task-free resting state connectivity analysis. Results demonstrated first consistent functional connectivity throughout the cerebellum itself; the anterior cerebellar seed showed stronger connectivity to lobules V, VI and to some extent I-IV, and the posterior cerebellar seed to the posterior lobules VI-IX. Importantly, the cerebellar anterior seed also showed consistently stronger functional connectivity than the posterior one with pre- and motor areas as well as the primary somatosensory cortex. In turn, task-based task-independent functional connectivity analyses revealed that the cerebellar posterior seed was linked with fronto-temporo-parietal areas as well as partly the insula and the thalamus, i.e., brain regions implicated in cognitive and affective processes. Functional characterization of experiments activating either cerebellar seed further corroborated this notion, revealing mainly motor-related functions for the anterior cluster and predominantly cognitive functions were associated for the posterior one. The differential functional connectivity of the cerebellar anterior and posterior cluster highlights the manifold connections and dichotomy of the human cerebellum, providing additional valuable information about probably disrupted cerebellar-cerebral connections and reflecting the brunt of motor but also the broad spectrum of neuropsychiatric deficits in SCA17. PMID:22659444

Reetz, Kathrin; Dogan, Imis; Rolfs, Arndt; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Schulz, Jörg B; Laird, Angela R; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B

2012-05-30

240

The Wigner Function as Distribution Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some entangled states have nonnegative Wigner representative function. The latter allow being viewed as a distribution function of local hidden variables. It is argued herewith that the interpretation of expectation values using such distribution functions as local hidden variable theory requires restrictions pertaining to the observables under study. The reasoning lead to support the view that violation of Bell’s inequalities

M. Revzen

2006-01-01

241

Wave-function functionals for the density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend the idea of the constrained-search variational method for the construction of wave-function functionals ?[?] of functions ?. The search is constrained to those functions ? such that ?[?] reproduces the density ?(r) while simultaneously leading to an upper bound to the energy. The functionals are thereby normalized and automatically satisfy the electron-nucleus coalescence condition. The functionals ?[?] are also constructed to satisfy the electron-electron coalescence condition. The method is applied to the ground state of the helium atom to construct functionals ?[?] that reproduce the density as given by the Kinoshita correlated wave function. The expectation of single-particle operators W=?irin, n=-2,-1,1,2, W=?i?(ri) are exact, as must be the case. The expectations of the kinetic energy operator W=-(1)/(2)?i?i2, the two-particle operators W=?nun, n=-2,-1,1,2, where u=|ri-rj|, and the energy are accurate. We note that the construction of such functionals ?[?] is an application of the Levy-Lieb constrained-search definition of density functional theory. It is thereby possible to rigorously determine which functional ?[?] is closer to the true wave function.

Slamet, Marlina; Pan, Xiao-Yin; Sahni, Viraht

2011-11-01

242

Functional Microorganisms for Functional Food Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional microorganisms and health benefits represent a binomial with great potential for fermented functional foods. The health benefits of fermented functional foods are expressed either directly through the interactions of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as the result of the ingestion of microbial metabolites synthesized during fermentation (biogenic effect). Since the importance of high viability

M. Gobbetti; R. Di Cagno; M. De Angelis

2010-01-01

243

An essay on Bion's beta function.  

PubMed

Among the major theorists studying the effect of the external world on the individual, none had a more ambiguous relationship to the psychic manifestations of the environment than Wilfred Bion. On the one hand his theory of the mind contained a new concept, beta elements, to depict the intrusion of the material world into the mental sphere, while on the other he radically opposed the use of sensory perception as a source for clinical insight. The author examines this dichotomy as an outgrowth of her interest in the place of external reality in psychoanalytic theory. As a result, this essay is an attempt to clarify the source for Bion's theorizing, in order to be more specific about the applicability of his concepts and his precepts. PMID:23421664

Oliner, Marion M

2013-02-01

244

Normal Functioning Family  

MedlinePLUS

... Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Normal Functioning Family Family Life Listen Normal Functioning Family Article Body Is there any way to tell if my family is functioning normally? Many parents ask themselves this ...

245

Functional genomics of sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional genomics is a systematic and high-throughput effort to analyze the functions of genes and gene products. Functional genomics is divided into gene- and phenotype-driven approaches. Gene-driven approaches to the functional genomics of sleep have demonstrated that transcripts of many genes change as a function of behavioral state. A phenotype-driven approach includes identification and characterization of gene function through the

Miroslaw Mackiewicz; Allan I. Pack

2003-01-01

246

Wave-function functionals for the density  

SciTech Connect

We extend the idea of the constrained-search variational method for the construction of wave-function functionals {psi}[{chi}] of functions {chi}. The search is constrained to those functions {chi} such that {psi}[{chi}] reproduces the density {rho}(r) while simultaneously leading to an upper bound to the energy. The functionals are thereby normalized and automatically satisfy the electron-nucleus coalescence condition. The functionals {psi}[{chi}] are also constructed to satisfy the electron-electron coalescence condition. The method is applied to the ground state of the helium atom to construct functionals {psi}[{chi}] that reproduce the density as given by the Kinoshita correlated wave function. The expectation of single-particle operators W={Sigma}{sub i}r{sub i}{sup n}, n=-2,-1,1,2, W={Sigma}{sub i}{delta}(r{sub i}) are exact, as must be the case. The expectations of the kinetic energy operator W=-(1/2){Sigma}{sub i}{nabla}{sub i}{sup 2}, the two-particle operators W={Sigma}{sub n}u{sup n}, n=-2,-1,1,2, where u=|r{sub i}-r{sub j}|, and the energy are accurate. We note that the construction of such functionals {psi}[{chi}] is an application of the Levy-Lieb constrained-search definition of density functional theory. It is thereby possible to rigorously determine which functional {psi}[{chi}] is closer to the true wave function.

Slamet, Marlina; Pan Xiaoyin; Sahni, Viraht [Sacred Heart University, Fairfield, Connecticut 06825 (United States); Faculty of Science, Ningbo University, 315211 Ningbo (China); Brooklyn College and The Graduate School of the City University of New York, New York, New York 10016 (United States)

2011-11-15

247

The Euler's Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. This article is concerned with the Euler's function (10) that plays an im- portant role in cryptograms. In the first section, we present some selected theorems on in- tegers. Next, we define the Euler's function. Finally, three theorems relating to the Euler's function are proved. The third theorem concerns two relatively prime integers which make up the Euler's function

Yasushi Fuwa; Yoshinori Fujisawa

248

Photon wave function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photon wave function is a controversial concept. Controversies stem from the fact that photon wave functions can not have all the properties of the Schroedinger wave functions of nonrelativistic wave mechanics. Insistence on those properties that, owing to peculiarities of photon dynamics, cannot be rendered, led some physicists to the extreme opinion that the photon wave function does not exist.

Iwo Bialynicki-Birula

2005-01-01

249

Sleep function(s) and cerebral metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The function(s) of sleep would probably be better understood if the metabolic processes taking place within the central nervous system (CNS) during sleep were known in greater detail. The general pattern of the energy requirements of the brain during sleep is now outlined. Brain energy metabolism dramatically decreases during slow wave sleep (SWS) whereas, during rapid eye movement sleep (REMS),

P. Maquet

1995-01-01

250

Hidden Function Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hidden Function model evaluates a function f(x) with parameters. It is designed to teach function concepts by allowing a teacher to define a function, hide that function in a repackaged jar file, and asking students to find the hidden function. Students vary the independent variable and observe the resulting function value. If the unknown function includes arbitrary parameters (e.g., f(x)=a*x-3) the parameters appear as additional input fields. The Hidden Function model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_math_HiddenFunction.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. EJS is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is available in the OSP Collection.

Christian, Wolfgang

2012-07-12

251

Special Functions Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

EJS Special Functions Model shows how to access special functions in the OSP numerics package. The simulation displays a graph of the special function over the given range as well as the value of the selected function at a single point. The following special functions can be displayed: Legendre polynomials Pn(x) associated Legendre functions Pnm(x) Laguerre polynomials Ln(x) associated Laguerre polynomials Lnm(x) Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind Tn(x) Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind Un(x) Bessel functions Jn(x) A description of the EJS special functions along with links to more information about the functions are provided.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-12-16

252

Linear Function Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students plug values into a function to see what the output is for that function. Then based on that information, they have to guess the coefficient and constant for a linear function. This activity allows students to explore linear functions and what input values are useful to figuring out the linear function performed by the function machine. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

253

Pulmonary function tests  

MedlinePLUS

PFTs; Spirometry; Spirogram; Lung function tests ... Pulmonary function tests are done to: Diagnose certain types of lung disease (such as asthma , bronchitis , and emphysema) Find the cause of shortness of breath Measure whether exposure ...

254

Pulmonary Function Tests  

MedlinePLUS

Patient Information Series AMERICAN THORACIC SOCIETY Lung function tests can be used to: Compare your lung function with known ? ? standards that show how well your lungs should be working. Measure the ...

255

Thyroid Function Tests  

MedlinePLUS

... Services NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH What is the thyroid gland? The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped ... and their release into the bloodstream. Why are thyroid function tests performed? Thyroid function tests are used ...

256

Functionally Graded Materials VII.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Functionally graded materials (FGMs) exhibit spatial variations, in composition and/or microstructure, which have been imposed for the specific purpose of controlling the resultant variations in the thermal, structural or functional properties. During the...

J. Gong L. Chen L. Zhang W. Pan

2003-01-01

257

Functions-Day Trips  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore functions as they use their knowledge of patterns and number operations to analyze function tables and graph them. Using tables and graphs, students determine which items are the best deals.

Samantha Yuhanick, Andrea Lauber & Ernest Pozzi/Baltimore Co. & District of Columbia Public Schools

2009-07-03

258

Functions Satisfying Lipschitz Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the paper is to investigate metric spaces that support nonconstant functions of Lipschitz class alpha, with emphasis on the case alpha > 1. The structure of various Banach algebras of functions satisfying Lipschitz conditions is also invest...

J. D. Stein

1968-01-01

259

Anyons and the quantum Hall effect—A pedagogical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dichotomy between fermions and bosons is at the root of many physical phenomena, from metallic conduction of electricity to super-fluidity, and from the periodic table to coherent propagation of light. The dichotomy originates from the symmetry of the quantum mechanical wave function to the interchange of two identical particles. In systems that are confined to two spatial dimensions particles

Ady Stern; Ady

2008-01-01

260

Monotone Boolean functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monotone Boolean functions are an important object in discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics. Topics related to these functions have been actively studied for several decades. Many results have been obtained, and many papers published. However, until now there has been no sufficiently complete monograph or survey of results of investigations concerning monotone Boolean functions. The object of this survey is to present the main results on monotone Boolean functions obtained during the last 50 years.

Korshunov, A. D.

2003-10-01

261

Photosynthetic Functions of Chlorophylls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorophylls (Chls) are the signature pigments of photosynthetic organisms and have several distinct functions, including\\u000a photochemical activity and antenna function. Chls carry out reversible photochemical oxidations and reductions, which determine\\u000a the basic mechanism of functioning of the photosynthetic reaction center (RC). The light-harvesting function of chlorophylls\\u000a is based on their ability to absorb light over a wide spectral region. The

Alexander N. Melkozernov; Robert E. Blankenship

262

Fuzzy membership function optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Goodness of fuzzy control depends on several factors; one of them is shape of membership functions. Assignment of membership functions for clustered data is subjective in nature; however, it cannot be done arbitrarily. A membership function in general form defines only a structure; optimization of its parameters is desirable for good control. This paper gives a method for iterative parameter optimization of assigned membership functions.

Nagy, Endre

2012-11-01

263

On Lambert's W Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lambert's W function is the inverse of the function w 7! wew. It has been appliedin combinatorics, number theory, fluid mechanics, quantum mechanics, and biochemistry.Some of these applications are briefly described here. This paper presents a new discussionof the complex branches of W , asymptotic expansions valid for all branches, an efficientnumerical procedure for evaluating the function to arbitrary precision,

Robert M. Corless; Gaston H. Gonnet; D. E. G. Hare; David J. Jeffrey

1993-01-01

264

Weakly ??-continuous functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we introduce a new class of generalizations of continuous functions via ??-open sets called weakly ??-continuous functions. Moreover, we study some of its fundamental properties and characterizations. The concept of weak ??-continuous is weaker than ??-continuous, weakly ?-continuous and weakly ?-continuous functions, are also discussed.

Aljarrah, Heyam Hussein; Md Noorani, Mohd Salmi

2013-09-01

265

Photon wave functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that a photon wave function can be introduced if one is willing to redefine, in what we feel is a physically meaningful way, what one wishes to mean by such a wave function. The generation of a photon wave function by a spontaneously emitting atom is discussed.

J. E. Sipe

1995-01-01

266

The Function of Introns  

PubMed Central

The intron–exon architecture of many eukaryotic genes raises the intriguing question of whether this unique organization serves any function, or is it simply a result of the spread of functionless introns in eukaryotic genomes. In this review, we show that introns in contemporary species fulfill a broad spectrum of functions, and are involved in virtually every step of mRNA processing. We propose that this great diversity of intronic functions supports the notion that introns were indeed selfish elements in early eukaryotes, but then independently gained numerous functions in different eukaryotic lineages. We suggest a novel criterion of evolutionary conservation, dubbed intron positional conservation, which can identify functional introns.

Chorev, Michal; Carmel, Liran

2012-01-01

267

On genetic map functions  

SciTech Connect

Various genetic map functions have been proposed to infer the unobservable genetic distance between two loci from the observable recombination fraction between them. Some map functions were found to fit data better than others. When there are more than three markers, multilocus recombination probabilities cannot be uniquely determined by the defining property of map functions, and different methods have been proposed to permit the use of map functions to analyze multilocus data. If for a given map function, there is a probability model for recombination that can give rise to it, then joint recombination probabilities can be deduced from this model. This provides another way to use map functions in multilocus analysis. In this paper we show that stationary renewal processes give rise to most of the map functions in the literature. Furthermore, we show that the interevent distributions of these renewal processes can all be approximated quite well by gamma distributions. 43 refs., 4 figs.

Zhao, Hongyu [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Speed, T.P. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1996-04-01

268

The cosmological mass function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the cosmological mass function from a theoretical point of view, starting from the seminal paper of Press and Shechter to the latest developments, and discusses some improvements on mass-function models in the literature. The numerical mass function given by Yahagi et al. YNY is compared with the theoretical mass function obtained in the present paper by means of an excursionset model and an improved version of the barrier shape obtained by Del Popolo and Gambera [30], which implicitly takes account of the total angularmomentum acquired by the proto-structure during its evolution and of a non-zero cosmological constant. The mass function obtained in the present paper is in better agreement with the simulations of Del Popolo than other previous models. The mass function considered provides as good a fit to the simulation results as the function proposed in Del Popolo, but, in contrast to this latter function, was derived from a sound theoretical basis. The evolution of the mass function is calculated in a ?CDM model, and the results compared with those of Reed et al. [94], who used a high resolution ?CDM numerical simulation to calculate the mass function of dark matter haloes down to the scale of dwarf galaxies and back to a redshift of fifteen. The mass function obtained in the present paper gives similar predictions as the Sheth-Tormen (ST) mass function, but does not overpredict the number of extremely rare objects. The results confirm previous findings that the simulated halo mass function can be described solely by the variance of the mass distribution, and thus has no explicit redshift dependence. It is show that a PS-like approach together with the ellipsoidal model introduced in Del Popolo provides a better description of the theoretical mass function.

Del Popolo, A.; Yesilyurt, I. S.

2007-09-01

269

Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders  

PubMed Central

This is the first attempt at defining criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. The decision-making process was as for adults and consisted of arriving at consensus, based on clinical experience. This paper is intended to be a quick reference. The classification system selected differs from the one used in the adult population in that it is organized according to main complaints instead of being organ-targeted. Because the child is still developing, some disorders such as toddler's diarrhea (or functional diarrhea) are linked to certain physiologic stages; others may result from behavioral responses to sphincter function acquisition such as fecal retention; others will only be recognizable after the child is cognitively mature enough to report the symptoms (e.g., dyspepsia). Infant regurgitation, rumination, and cyclic vomiting constitute the vomiting disorders. Abdominal pain disorders are classified as: functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional abdominal pain, abdominal migraine, and aerophagia. Disorders of defecation include: infant dyschezia, functional constipation, functional fecal retention, and functional non-retentive fecal soiling. Some disorders, such as IBS and dyspepsia and functional abdominal pain, are exact replications of the adult criteria because there are enough data to confirm that they represent specific and similar disorders in pediatrics. Other disorders not included in the pediatric classification, such as functional biliary disorders, do occur in children; however, existing data are insufficient to warrant including them at the present time. For these disorders, it is suggested that, for the time being, clinicians refer to the criteria established for the adult population.???Keywords: infant vomiting; cyclic vomiting syndrome; functional dyspepsia in children; irritable bowel syndrome in children; functional abdominal pain in children; functional diarrhea in children; functional constipation in children; Rome II

Rasquin-Weber, A; Hyman, P; Cucchiara, S; Fleisher, D; Hyams, J; Milla, P; Staiano, A

1999-01-01

270

B Plant function analysis report  

SciTech Connect

The document contains the functions, function definitions, function interfaces, function interface definitions, Input Computer Automated Manufacturing Definition (IDEFO) diagrams, and a function hierarchy chart that describe what needs to be performed to deactivate B Plant.

Lund, D.P.; B Plant Working Group

1995-09-01

271

Functional Explanation and the Function of Explanation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teleological explanations (TEs) account for the existence or properties of an entity in terms of a function: we have hearts because they pump blood, and telephones for communication. While many teleological explanations seem appropriate, others are clearly not warranted--for example, that rain exists for plants to grow. Five experiments explore…

Lombrozo, Tania; Carey, Susan

2006-01-01

272

Pediatric Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders  

PubMed Central

Functional gastrointestinal disorders continue to be a prevalent set of conditions faced by the healthcare team and have a significant emotional and economic impact. In this review, the authors highlight some of the common functional disorders seen in pediatric patients (functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, functional abdominal pain) as well as one of the more intriguing (cyclic vomiting). The most recent Pediatric Rome Working Group has modified the definitions of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Current studies have used these categorizations to understand better the epidemiology, etiology, and treatment options for these disorders. As more data are available, children and their families will be offered a better understanding of the conditions and more effective treatments to overcome them. The importance of making an accurate diagnosis of a functional gastrointestinal disorder cannot be overemphasized.

McOmber, Mark A.; Shulman, Robert J.

2010-01-01

273

Time Functions as Utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion\\u000a of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the\\u000a causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog\\u000a in

E. Minguzzi

2010-01-01

274

Functional Trees for Regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present and evaluate a new algorithm for supervised learning regression problems. The algorithm combines\\u000a a univariate regression tree with a linear regression function by means of constructive induction. When growing the tree,\\u000a at each internal node, a linear-regression function creates one new attribute. This new attribute is the instantiation of\\u000a the regression function for each example

Joao Gama

2001-01-01

275

Differential Symmetric Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A (generalized) Wronskian is a determinant of the form det$ [D^{\\\\alpha_i} x_j]_{1 \\\\leq i, j \\\\leq n} $, where D is the differential operator. Wronskians are differential analogs of alternants. Imitating Jacobi's definition of Schur functions as quotients of two alternants, we define differential Schur functions as quotients of two Wronskians. Differential Schur functions are absolute invariants of the general

Joseph P. S. Kung

2000-01-01

276

The functional status questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive functional assessment requires thorough and careful inquiry, which is difficult to accomplish in most busy\\u000a clinical practices. This paper examines the reliability and validity of the Functional Status Questionnaire (FSQ), a brief,\\u000a standardized, self-administered questionnaire designed to provide a comprehensive and feasible assessment of physical, psychological,\\u000a social and role function in ambulatory patients. The FSQ can be completed

Alan M. Jette; Allyson R. Davies; Paul D. Cleary; David R. Calkins; Lisa V. Rubenstein; Arlene Fink; Jacqueline Kosecoff; Roy T. Young; Robert H. Brook; Thomas L. Delbanco

1986-01-01

277

Executive functions and extraversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Executive functions and extraversion have been linked to similar neurological substrates. Participants were tested on a variety of tasks that assessed performance on three components of executive functioning (i.e., shifting, updating, and inhibition) and two measures of extraversion (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised and Carver and White’s BIS\\/BAS scales). More extraverted participants showed different patterns of executive function performance than the more

Alana M. Campbell; Deana B. Davalos; David P. McCabe; Lucy J. Troup

2011-01-01

278

Functions and Algorithms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This session, the third one in the Annenberg series "Patterns, Functions, and Algebra", enables the teacher to investigate algorithms and functions. Topics covered include the importance of doing and undoing in mathematics, determining when a process can or cannot be undone, using function machines to picture and undo algorithms, and recognizing that functions produce unique outputs. The session includes sequentially organized problems, video viewing, interactive activities, readings, and homework. The materials may be used on your own, in a study group, or as a facilitated online course for graduate credit, which is offered at a reasonable cost.

2002-01-01

279

Emotions: form follows function.  

PubMed

Emotion research has been divided by debate as to whether emotions are universal in form or cognitively constructed. We review an emerging approach that focuses on function rather than form. Functional affective science suggests that the particular origin of an emotion is relatively unimportant; instead, emotions can be understood in terms of a rapidly deployed set of mechanisms that structure perception, cognition and behavior to facilitate goal fulfillment. Evidence from this approach suggests at least three major functions of emotion: sensory gating, embodying affect, and integrating knowledge toward goal resolution. These functions appear to be universal and automatically activated, yet also moderated by conscious representation and regulatory efforts. PMID:23375166

Farb, Norman A S; Chapman, Hanah A; Anderson, Adam K

2013-01-31

280

Renormalization group functional equations  

SciTech Connect

Functional conjugation methods are used to analyze the global structure of various renormalization group trajectories and to gain insight into the interplay between continuous and discrete rescaling. With minimal assumptions, the methods produce continuous flows from step-scaling {sigma} functions and lead to exact functional relations for the local flow {beta} functions, whose solutions may have novel, exotic features, including multiple branches. As a result, fixed points of {sigma} are sometimes not true fixed points under continuous changes in scale and zeroes of {beta} do not necessarily signal fixed points of the flow but instead may only indicate turning points of the trajectories.

Curtright, Thomas L. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida 33124-8046 (United States); Zachos, Cosmas K. [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439-4815 (United States)

2011-03-15

281

Graphing and Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Graphing points, lines, and writing equations from tables or graphs. Functions. Read carefully about plotting points at coolmath4kids. Coolmath Plotting Points Play the game twice or more if you aren't getting most of them right. A score of over 7000 would be good. Coordinate plane quadrants and ordered pairs. Read about Time/distance Time and distance graphs and then Time/speed. Time and speed graphs Read about and practice functions. Intro to functions Function crunchersDomain and range. Domain and Range Then vertical line test. Vertical Line Test ...

Arnold, Mrs.

2011-11-17

282

Much Ado about Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys basic results on complexity classes of partial multivalued functions. We stress basic inclusion relations, interesting hierarchies, and results that demon- strate that hierarchies are extant.

Alan L. Selman

1996-01-01

283

Effective classical partition functions  

SciTech Connect

We present a method by which a quantum-mechanical partition function can be approximated from below by an effective classical partition function. The associated potential is obtained by a simple smearing procedure. For a strongly anharmonic oscillator and a double-well potential, the lowest approximation gives a free energy which is accurate to a few percent, even at zero temperature.

Feynman, R.P.; Kleinert, H.

1986-12-01

284

Double Function Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash applet allows the user to explore the concept of a function using an input-output machine with two operations and options to set and hide or reveal all operations and numbers. A notepad is available for recording inputs and outputs, and a loop function takes the current output as the next input.

Bunker, Dan

2010-01-01

285

Contest success functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tournaments, conflict, and rent-seeking have been modelled as contests in which participants exert effort to increase their probability of winning a prize. A Contest Success Function (CSF) provides each player's probability of winning as a function of all players' efforts. In this paper the additive CSF employed in most contests is axiomatized, with an independence from irrelevant alternatives property as

Stergios Skaperdas

1996-01-01

286

An Alternate Functionality Reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trade dress law does not protect the appearance of a product design feature (e.g., a product's configuration) against unauthorized copying if the feature is functional, but may protect the appearance if the feature is nonfunctional. The functionality doctrine is intended to preserve competition in the market for a product incorporating a design feature that allegedly is protected by trade dress

Harold R. Weinberg

2010-01-01

287

Functional anorectal disorders.  

PubMed

This report defines criteria for diagnosing functional anorectal disorders (ie, fecal incontinence, anorectal pain, and disorders of defecation). Functional fecal incontinence is defined as the uncontrolled passage of fecal material recurring for > or =3 months in an individual with a developmental age of > or =4 years that is associated with: (1) abnormal functioning of normally innervated and structurally intact muscles, and/or (2) no or minor abnormalities of sphincter structure and/or innervation insufficient to explain fecal incontinence, and/or (3) normal or disordered bowel habits (ie, fecal retention or diarrhea), and/or (4) psychological causes. However, conditions wherein structural and/or neurogenic abnormalities explain the symptom, or are part of a generalized process (eg, diabetic neuropathy) are not included within functional fecal incontinence. Functional fecal incontinence is a common, but underrecognized symptom, which is equally prevalent in men and women, and can often cause considerable distress. The clinical features are useful for guiding diagnostic testing and therapy. Functional anorectal pain syndromes include proctalgia fugax (fleeting pain) and chronic proctalgia; chronic proctalgia may be subdivided into levator ani syndrome and unspecified anorectal pain, which are defined by arbitrary clinical criteria. Functional defecation disorders are characterized by 2 or more symptoms of constipation, with > or =2 of the following features during defecation: impaired evacuation, inappropriate contraction of the pelvic floor muscles, and inadequate propulsive forces. Functional disorders of defecation may be amenable to pelvic floor retraining by biofeedback therapy (such as dyssynergic defecation). PMID:16678564

Bharucha, Adil E; Wald, Arnold; Enck, Paul; Rao, Satish

2006-04-01

288

Pulmonary Function Tests  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary function tests are valuable investigations in the management of patients with suspected or previously diagnosed respiratory disease. They aid diagnosis, help monitor response to treatment and can guide decisions regarding further treatment and intervention. The interpretation of pulmonary functions tests requires knowledge of respiratory physiology. In this review we describe investigations routinely used and discuss their clinical implications.

Ranu, Harpreet; Wilde, Michael; Madden, Brendan

2011-01-01

289

Functionalization of carbon nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon nanotubes have unique properties that make them attractive for different engineering applications. However, because of their chemical inertness, carbon nanotubes have to be functionalized in order to acquire additional physico-chemical properties. Large multiwalled carbon nanotubes are different from fullerenes and singlewalled nanotubes because the stresses in their walls are almost relaxed while most chemical methods for fullerene functionalization exploit

Guzeliya Korneva

2008-01-01

290

Benchmarking web site functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To measure, classify and compare web site functions' development. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The objectives were achieved by developing a methodology to measure, classify and compare web site functions development. The measurement was based on the presence (or absence) of 91 web site components. The classification was achieved using an applied correspondence analysis. The comparison was performed with respect to

Hugues Boisvert; Marie-Andrée Caron

2006-01-01

291

LITHIUM AND RENAL FUNCTIONS  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Thirty patients of affective disorder who were on lithium for a year and thirty patients on antidepressant were studied in detail for renal functions. Our observation is that lithium therapy does not lead to any deterioration in kidney functions. The results are discussed.

Sethi, N.; Trivedi, J.K.; Sethi, B.B.

1987-01-01

292

Functional living biointerphases.  

PubMed

Lactococcus lactis is modified to express a fibronectin fragment (FNIII????) as a membrane protein. This interphase, based on a living system, can be further exploited to provide spatio-temporal factors to direct cell function at the material interface. This approach establishes a new paradigm in biomaterial surface functionalization for biomedical applications. PMID:23447109

Saadeddin, Anas; Rodrigo-Navarro, Aleixandre; Monedero, Vicente; Rico, Patricia; Moratal, David; González-Martín, María Luisa; Navarro, David; García, Andrés J; Salmerón-Sánchez, Manuel

2013-02-28

293

The Planck Radiation Functions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Blackbody radiation is used as an example to illustrate that oversimplification in teaching quantum ideas can result in later misunderstanding. Although textbooks give Planck's distribution function in terms of wavelength, there are actually 12 different radiation functions. Some of the more interesting ones are given and discussed. (JN)

Larsen, Russell D.

1985-01-01

294

Rehabilitation and Maximizing Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Federal nursing facility regulations require that care be provided for residents to “attain or maintain” the highest possible\\u000a level of physical, mental, and psychosocial function and well-being [1, 2]. Rehabilitation services and care to promote maximum\\u000a function are a fundamental component of nursing facility care.

Thomas Lawrence

295

The Gamow functional  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a formalism that represents pure states, mixtures and generalized states as functionals on an algebra containing the observables of the system. Along these states, there are other functionals that decay exponentially at all times and therefore can be used to describe resonance phenomena.

Castagnino, M.; Gadella, M.; Id Betán, R.; Laura, R.

2001-04-01

296

Sociality and optimal functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article outlines an approach to optimal functioning based on an elaboration of the Sociality corollary of Kelly's (1955) personal construct psychology. Nine aspects of optimal functioning (discrimination, flexibility, creativity, responsibility, openness, commitment, courage, forgiveness, and reverence) are discussed in terms of their theoretical, empirical, and clinical implications. All of these aspects are viewed as an elaboration of empathy.

L. M. Leitner; D. T. Pfenninger

1994-01-01

297

Functional foods innovations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The aim of the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit (DFFRU), ERRC, ARS, USDA, is to improve human health and well being by developing functional food and consumer products that utilize milk and fruit and vegetable processing residues of specialty crops. Major research approaches involve: biotec...

298

CRYPTOGRAPHIC HASH FUNCTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hash functions were introduced in cryptology in the late seventies as a tool to protect the authenticity of information. Soon it became clear that they were a very useful building block to solve other security problems in telecommunication and computer networks. This paper sketches the history of the concept, discusses the applications of hash functions, and presents the approaches which

Bart Preneel

299

Receptors: Structure and Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

ey to the coordination of the functions of individ- ual cells within the intact organism is intercellular communication, a means by which the individual cell is regulated in its specialized functions in a manner that serves the integrated needs of the organism as a whole. This process of intercellular signaling is achieved through myriad molecules that interact specifically with their

Dennis K. Stone

300

Learning Probabilistic Prediction Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of how to learn rules, when those rules make probabilistic statements about the future, is considered. Issues are discussed that arise when attempting to determine what a good prediction function is, when those prediction functions make probabilistic assumptions. Learning has at least two purposes: to enable the learner to make predictions in the future and to satisfy intellectual

Alfredo De Santis; George Markowsky; Mark N. Wegman

1988-01-01

301

Functional Accounts of Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we outline the history, elements, and variations of functional accounts of emotions. Summarising diverse theories and observations, we propose that functional accounts of emotions: (1) address why humans have emotions; (2) de® ne emotions as solutions to problems and opportunities related to physical and social survival; (3) treat emotions as systems of interrelated components; and (4) focus

James J. Gross

1999-01-01

302

Radial basis functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radial basis function methods are modern ways to approximate multivariate functions, especially in the absence of grid data. They have been known, tested and analysed for several years now and many positive properties have been identied. This paper gives a selective but up-to-date survey of several recent developments that explains their usefulness from the theoretical point of view and contributes

M. D. Buhmann

2000-01-01

303

Implementing belief function computations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This papers discusses several implementation aspects for Dempster-Shafer belief functions. The main objective is to propose an appropriate representation of mass functions and e-cient data structures and algorithms for the two basic operations of combination and marginaliza- tion.

Rolf Haenni; Norbert Lehmann

2003-01-01

304

Modeling Protein Domain Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This simple but effective laboratory exercise helps students understand the concept of protein domain function. They use foam beads, Styrofoam craft balls, and pipe cleaners to explore how domains within protein active sites interact to form a functional protein. The activity allows students to gain content mastery and an understanding of the…

Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton "Buck"; Hull, Elizabeth

2007-01-01

305

Nuclear Density Functional Theory  

SciTech Connect

An understanding of atomic nuclei is crucial for a complete nuclear theory, for nuclear astrophysics, for performing new experimental tasks, and for various other applications. Within a density functional theory, the total binding energy of the nucleus is given by a functional of the nuclear density matrices and their derivatives. The variation of the energy density functional with respect to particle and pairing densities leads to the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations. The "Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional" (UNEDF) SciDAC project, to develop and optimize the energy density functional for atomic nuclei using state-of-the-art computational infrastructure, is briefly described. The ultimate goal is to replace current phenomenological models of the nucleus with a well-founded microscopic theory with minimal uncertainties, capable of describing nuclear data and extrapolating to unknown regions.

Stoitsov, Mario [ORNL

2010-01-01

306

Time Functions as Utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K + relation (Seifert’s relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg’s and Levin’s theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K + (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin’s theorem and smoothing techniques.

Minguzzi, E.

2010-09-01

307

Plant functional genomics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functional genome analysis of plants has entered the high-throughput stage. The complete genome information from key species such as Arabidopsis thaliana and rice is now available and will further boost the application of a range of new technologies to functional plant gene analysis. To broadly assign functions to unknown genes, different fast and multiparallel approaches are currently used and developed. These new technologies are based on known methods but are adapted and improved to accommodate for comprehensive, large-scale gene analysis, i.e. such techniques are novel in the sense that their design allows researchers to analyse many genes at the same time and at an unprecedented pace. Such methods allow analysis of the different constituents of the cell that help to deduce gene function, namely the transcripts, proteins and metabolites. Similarly the phenotypic variations of entire mutant collections can now be analysed in a much faster and more efficient way than before. The different methodologies have developed to form their own fields within the functional genomics technological platform and are termed transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and phenomics. Gene function, however, cannot solely be inferred by using only one such approach. Rather, it is only by bringing together all the information collected by different functional genomic tools that one will be able to unequivocally assign functions to unknown plant genes. This review focuses on current technical developments and their impact on the field of plant functional genomics. The lower plant Physcomitrella is introduced as a new model system for gene function analysis, owing to its high rate of homologous recombination.

Holtorf, Hauke; Guitton, Marie-Christine; Reski, Ralf

2002-04-01

308

Functional Analysis Proofs of Some Theorems in Function Theory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Functional analysis proofs of three theorems in functions theory are given. The first theorem is Runge's theorem on approximation by rational functions. The second is the familiar theorem that there exists an analytic function that interpolates arbitrary ...

L. A. Rubel B. A. Taylor

1969-01-01

309

Assessment of splenic function  

PubMed Central

Hyposplenic patients are at risk of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI), which carries mortality of up to 70%. Therefore, preventive measures are warranted. However, patients with diminished splenic function are difficult to identify. In this review we discuss immunological, haematological and scintigraphic parameters that can be used to measure splenic function. IgM memory B cells are a potential parameter for assessing splenic function; however, more studies are necessary for its validation. Detection of Howell–Jolly bodies does not reflect splenic function accurately, whereas determining the percentage of pitted erythrocytes is a well-evaluated method and seems a good first-line investigation for assessing splenic function. When assessing spleen function, 99mTc-labelled, heat-altered, autologous erythrocyte scintigraphy with multimodality single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-CT technology is the best approach, as all facets of splenic function are evaluated. In conclusion, although scintigraphic methods are most reliable, they are not suitable for screening large populations. We therefore recommend using the percentage of pitted erythrocytes, albeit suboptimal, as a first-line investigation and subsequently confirming abnormal readings by means of scintigraphy. More studies evaluating the value of potentially new markers are needed.

Lammers, A. J. J.; Bennink, R. J.; ten Berge, I. J. M.; Speelman, P.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.

2010-01-01

310

[The hazard function].  

PubMed

In cohort studies the event occurrence is usually described by the incidence rate and the survivor function. In comparison with these estimators the plot of the hazard function has the advantage to show the variations of the occurrence of the event along the period of observation, which often are important to be highlighted. Furthermore, when comparing individuals with different characteristics, the hazard function is a valuable support to check the assumption and to interpret the results of a Cox regression model. This paper illustrates the method for estimating the hazard function and an example is given from a real case by using the survival data of the breast cancers collected in the IMPACT study, aimed to detect the efficacy of the mammographic screening program. The relationship between the usual estimators and the hazard function is shown and its role in the survival regression modelling is emphasized. In the example the estimate of the hazard function allows to point out that the mortality rate of breast cancer in the first year after the diagnosis is lower than later and that the difference between the hazards of the invited cases and those of the not invited cases is approximately constant along the whole l0 years follow up, two important remarks both demonstrating the usefulness of the application of this function in the analysis of cohort studies. PMID:18326427

Coviello, Enzo; Miccinesi, Guido; Puliti, Donella; Paci, Eugenio

311

The Enzyme Function Initiative.  

PubMed

The Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI) was recently established to address the challenge of assigning reliable functions to enzymes discovered in bacterial genome projects; in this Current Topic, we review the structure and operations of the EFI. The EFI includes the Superfamily/Genome, Protein, Structure, Computation, and Data/Dissemination Cores that provide the infrastructure for reliably predicting the in vitro functions of unknown enzymes. The initial targets for functional assignment are selected from five functionally diverse superfamilies (amidohydrolase, enolase, glutathione transferase, haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase, and isoprenoid synthase), with five superfamily specific Bridging Projects experimentally testing the predicted in vitro enzymatic activities. The EFI also includes the Microbiology Core that evaluates the in vivo context of in vitro enzymatic functions and confirms the functional predictions of the EFI. The deliverables of the EFI to the scientific community include (1) development of a large-scale, multidisciplinary sequence/structure-based strategy for functional assignment of unknown enzymes discovered in genome projects (target selection, protein production, structure determination, computation, experimental enzymology, microbiology, and structure-based annotation), (2) dissemination of the strategy to the community via publications, collaborations, workshops, and symposia, (3) computational and bioinformatic tools for using the strategy, (4) provision of experimental protocols and/or reagents for enzyme production and characterization, and (5) dissemination of data via the EFI's Website, http://enzymefunction.org. The realization of multidisciplinary strategies for functional assignment will begin to define the full metabolic diversity that exists in nature and will impact basic biochemical and evolutionary understanding, as well as a wide range of applications of central importance to industrial, medicinal, and pharmaceutical efforts. PMID:21999478

Gerlt, John A; Allen, Karen N; Almo, Steven C; Armstrong, Richard N; Babbitt, Patricia C; Cronan, John E; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Imker, Heidi J; Jacobson, Matthew P; Minor, Wladek; Poulter, C Dale; Raushel, Frank M; Sali, Andrej; Shoichet, Brian K; Sweedler, Jonathan V

2011-10-26

312

The Enzyme Function Initiative†  

PubMed Central

The Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI) was recently established to address the challenge of assigning reliable functions to enzymes discovered in bacterial genome projects; in this Current Topic we review the structure and operations of the EFI. The EFI includes the Superfamily/Genome, Protein, Structure, Computation, and Data/Dissemination Cores that provide the infrastructure for reliably predicting the in vitro functions of unknown enzymes. The initial targets for functional assignment are selected from five functionally diverse superfamilies (amidohydrolase, enolase, glutathione transferase, haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase, and isoprenoid synthase), with five superfamily-specific Bridging Projects experimentally testing the predicted in vitro enzymatic activities. The EFI also includes the Microbiology Core that evaluates the in vivo context of in vitro enzymatic functions and confirms the functional predictions of the EFI. The deliverables of the EFI to the scientific community include: 1) development of a large-scale, multidisciplinary sequence/structure-based strategy for functional assignment of unknown enzymes discovered in genome projects (target selection, protein production, structure determination, computation, experimental enzymology, microbiology, and structure-based annotation); 2) dissemination of the strategy to the community via publications, collaborations, workshops, and symposia; 3) computational and bioinformatic tools for using the strategy; 4) provision of experimental protocols and/or reagents for enzyme production and characterization; and 5) dissemination of data via the EFI’s website, enzymefunction.org. The realization of multidisciplinary strategies for functional assignment will begin to define the full metabolic diversity that exists in nature and will impact basic biochemical and evolutionary understanding, as well as a wide range of applications of central importance to industrial, medicinal and pharmaceutical efforts.

Gerlt, John A.; Allen, Karen N.; Almo, Steven C.; Armstrong, Richard N.; Babbitt, Patricia C.; Cronan, John E.; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Imker, Heidi J.; Jacobson, Matthew P.; Minor, Wladek; Poulter, C. Dale; Raushel, Frank M.; Sali, Andrej; Shoichet, Brian K.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

2011-01-01

313

Approximation by hinge functions  

SciTech Connect

Breiman has defined {open_quotes}hinge functions{close_quotes} for use as basis functions in least squares approximations to data. A hinge function is the max (or min) function of two linear functions. In this paper, the author assumes the existence of smooth function f(x) and a set of samples of the form (x, f(x)) drawn from a probability distribution {rho}(x). The author hopes to find the best fitting hinge function h(x) in the least squares sense. There are two problems with this plan. First, Breiman has suggested an algorithm to perform this fit. The author shows that this algorithm is not robust and also shows how to create examples on which the algorithm diverges. Second, if the author tries to use the data to minimize the fit in the usual discrete least squares sense, the functional that must be minimized is continuous in the variables, but has a derivative which jumps at the data. This paper takes a different approach. This approach is an example of a method that the author has developed called {open_quotes}Monte Carlo Regression{close_quotes}. (A paper on the general theory is in preparation.) The author shall show that since the function f is continuous, the analytic form of the least squares equation is continuously differentiable. A local minimum is solved for by using Newton`s method, where the entries of the Hessian are estimated directly from the data by Monte Carlo. The algorithm has the desirable properties that it is quadratically convergent from any starting guess sufficiently close to a solution and that each iteration requires only a linear system solve.

Faber, V.

1997-05-01

314

Functional evo-devo.  

PubMed

Functional factors such as optimal design and adaptive value have been the central concern of evolutionary biology since the advent of the New Synthesis. By contrast, evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) has concentrated primarily on structural factors such as the ways in which body parts can be built. These different emphases have stood in the way of an integrated understanding of the role of development in evolution. Here, we try to bridge this gap by outlining the relevance of functional factors in evo-devo. We use modularity and the view of development as a flexible evolutionary system to outline a unified perspective that includes both structural and functional aspects. PMID:16806575

Breuker, Casper J; Debat, Vincent; Klingenberg, Christian Peter

2006-06-30

315

Tetraspanins and vascular functions  

PubMed Central

Tetraspanins are multiple membrane-spanning proteins that likely function as the organizers of membrane microdomains. Tetraspanins associate with other membrane-bound molecules such as cell-adhesion proteins, growth factor receptors, and Ig superfamily members and regulate key cellular processes such as adhesion, migration, and fusion. Tetraspanins are widely expressed in vascular and haematopoietic cells and are involved in both physiological and pathological processes related to angiogenesis, vascular injury, thrombosis, and haemostasis. A wide body of evidence suggests that tetraspanins directly regulate the development and functions of the vascular system and the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. This article reviews current understanding of the roles of tetraspanins in vascular functions.

Zhang, Feng; Kotha, Jayaprakash; Jennings, Lisa K.; Zhang, Xin A.

2009-01-01

316

Functional Group Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Literature on analytical methods related to the functional groups of 17 chemical compounds is reviewed. These compounds include acids, acid azides, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, amino acids, aromatic hydrocarbons, carbodiimides, carbohydrates, ethers, nitro compounds, nitrosamines, organometallic compounds, peroxides, phenols, silicon compounds,…

Smith, Walter T., Jr.; Patterson, John M.

1984-01-01

317

Renal Structure & Function Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity includes three sequential classroom activities for pairs of students using worksheets. This includes removeable stickers sequencing kinesthetic activity, diagram coloring and table matching to correlate nephron and cell-level anatomical features with physiological function.

Ms. Terry Thompson (Wor-Wic Community College Math/Science)

2007-07-31

318

Partition Density Functional Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Partition Density Functional Theory (PDFT) is a formally exact method for obtaining molecular properties from self-consistent calculations on isolated fragments [1,2]. For a given choice of fragmentation, PDFT outputs the (in principle exact) molecular energy and density, as well as fragment densities that sum to the correct molecular density. I describe our progress understanding the behavior of the fragment energies as a function of fragment occupations, derivative discontinuities, practical implementation, and applications of PDFT to small molecules. I also discuss implications for ground-state Density Functional Theory, such as the promise of PDFT to circumvent the delocalization error of approximate density functionals. [4pt] [1] M.H. Cohen and A. Wasserman, J. Phys. Chem. A, 111, 2229(2007).[0pt] [2] P. Elliott, K. Burke, M.H. Cohen, and A. Wasserman, Phys. Rev. A 82, 024501 (2010).

Wasserman, Adam

2012-02-01

319

Kidney function tests  

MedlinePLUS

... chap 8. Oh MS. Evaluation of renal function, water, electrolytes and acid-base balance. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders ...

320

Functional Programming and Parallel Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional languages belong to a neat and very high-level programming paradigm. A functional program is a set of function definitions. The ?-Calculus, a theory of functions under recursion, offers a solid theoretic background to functional programming. In 1978, John Backus pointed at the functional programming as a natural candidate to solve “the software crisis”.

Rafael Dueire Lins

1996-01-01

321

Program refactoring using functional aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A functional aspect is an aspect that has the semantics of a trans- formation; it is a function that maps a program to an advised pro- gram. Functional aspects are composed by function composition. In this paper, we explore functional aspects in the context of aspect- oriented refactoring. We show that refactoring legacy applications using functional aspects is just as

Sven Apel; Christian Kästner; Don S. Batory

2008-01-01

322

Structure function monitor  

SciTech Connect

Methods and apparatus for a structure function monitor provide for generation of parameters characterizing a refractive medium. In an embodiment, a structure function monitor acquires images of a pupil plane and an image plane and, from these images, retrieves the phase over an aperture, unwraps the retrieved phase, and analyzes the unwrapped retrieved phase. In an embodiment, analysis yields atmospheric parameters measured at spatial scales from zero to the diameter of a telescope used to collect light from a source.

McGraw, John T. (Placitas, NM); Zimmer, Peter C. (Albuquerque, NM); Ackermann, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-01-24

323

Functionally based virtual embossing  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Embossing is the art of decorating metals in relief from the reverse side. This article describes how virtual embossing can\\u000a be done using a functionally based representation of the metal plate and the tools. The program is implemented as an interactive\\u000a shape modeler where a functional model of the metal plate is subsequently modified with offset and set-theoretic operations.\\u000a For

Alexei Sourin

2001-01-01

324

Functional Family Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Functional Family Therapy (FFT) is all about helping youth and families who are in trouble. Central to FFT is the belief this\\u000a can be accomplished by changing family interactions and improving relationship functioning as the primary vehicle for changing\\u000a dysfunctional individual behaviors. FFT shares many similarities with other systems approaches; however, FFT offers a comprehensive\\u000a framework for understanding adolescent behavior

James F. Alexander; Michael S. Robbins

325

The Psychosocial Functioning Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The derivation and psychometric analyses of a general purpose outcome\\/survey instrument—the Psychosocial Functioning Inventory (PFI—are described. The instrument contains scales designed to measure a wide array of constructs, including subjective well-being, social functioning, stressful events, treatment dependency\\/aftercare, and consumer satisfaction. Extensive reliability and validity analyses are reported, indicating reasonable reliability and validity for the PFI scales.

Mark A. Feragne; Richard Longabaugh; John F. Stevenson

1983-01-01

326

Functioning in Rheumatoid Arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: There is increasing evidence and awareness that rheumatoid arthritis symptoms, such as joint pain and activity limitations, are strongly influenced by psychosocial variables. We hypothesized that depression is significantly associated with functional capabilities in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Method: We examined in a cross-sectional, retrospective data-based study the role of depression, pain severity, and self-efficacy in daily functioning in

Claudia A. Orengo; Steven H. Wei; Victor A. Molinari; D. Danielle Hale; Mark E. Kunik

2001-01-01

327

Ecological Functions of Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We use the term “function” to mean processes or manifestations of processes. Wetlands probably have hundreds of functions,\\u000a but only a small number are considered important to most people. Some values are based on aesthetics, such as beauty and naturalness,\\u000a but many are economic, such as water quality improvement, wildlife hunting lease value, and sustainable timber production.\\u000a Some of the

John A. Nyman

328

Functional Abdominal Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is a relatively less common functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder defined by\\u000a the presence of constant or frequently recurring abdominal pain that is not associated with eating, change in bowel habits,\\u000a or menstrual periods (Drossman Gastroenterology 130:1377–1390, 2006), which points to a more centrally targeted (spinal and supraspinal) basis for the symptoms. However, FAPS is frequently

Madhusudan Grover; Douglas A. Drossman

2010-01-01

329

Obesity and Immune Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The chapter reviews the literature pertaining to the role of obesity in modulating immune function. Obesity is found in both\\u000a genetic and diet-induced obese animal models as well as in obese humans to impair immune response; both innate and acquired\\u000a immune functions are affected. The immune dysfunction during obesity increases host susceptibility to infections and to chronic\\u000a inflammatory diseases.

Qingde Zhou; Salomon Amar

330

Treatment of functional diarrhea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Functional diarrhea (FD), one of the functional gastrointestinal disorders, is characterized by chronic or recurrent diarrhea\\u000a not explained by structural or biochemical abnormalities. The treatment of FD is intimately associated with establishing the\\u000a correct diagnosis. First, FD needs to be distinguished from diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), in which,\\u000a unlike in FD, abdominal pain is a primary diagnostic criterion.

Evan S. Dellon; Yehuda Ringel

2006-01-01

331

Adaptive transfer functions  

SciTech Connect

This paper details the approach and methodology used to build adaptive transfer functions in a feed-forward Back-Propagation neural network, and provides insight into the structure dependent properties of using non-scaled analog inputs. The results of using adaptive transfer functions are shown to outperform conventional architectures in the implementation of a mechanical power transmission gearbox design expert system knowledge base. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Goulding, J.R. (Portland State Univ., OR (USA))

1991-01-01

332

Wave Function Plotter Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ejs Wave Function Plotter model displays a one-dimensional wave function u(x,t) depicting a disturbance at position x and time t. The disturbance can be mass density, pressure, or electric field depending on the physical context. The default wave function is sinusoidal but any other analytic function can be entered in the text box. The number of sampling points can also be changed. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. Ejs Wave Function Plotter model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_osc_chains_WaveFunctionPlotter.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models for Newtonian mechanics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-07-05

333

Disorders of Platelet Function  

PubMed Central

Platelets play an important role in hemostasis, and alterations in platelet function may be the cause of abnormal bleeding in a wide variety of congenital and acquired clinical disorders. Platelet dysfunction may be classified as disorders of (1) substrate connective tissue, (2) adhesion, (3) aggregation and (4) platelet-release reaction. The congenital defects of platelet function, although uncommon, have provided important insights into platelet physiology and pathophysiology and, as a group, are less common, better characterized and more readily classified than the acquired defects. The severity of bleeding resulting from platelet dysfunction varies greatly and is substantially increased when another defect of hemostasis coexists. A disorder of platelet function is suspected on the basis of the history and physical examination and is confirmed by the finding of a prolonged bleeding time in the presence of an adequate number of platelets. A specific diagnosis often requires measurements of the factor VIII and von Willebrand factor complex and other tests of platelet function. Some of these tests may be available only in specialized laboratories. Therapy for bleeding episodes resulting from platelet dysfunction is directed at (1) removing or treating the underlying cause of the platelet disorder; (2) replacing the missing plasma cofactors needed to support normal platelet function (such as by the transfusion of cryoprecipitate in patients with von Willebrand disease, and (3) transfusing functional platelets in the form of platelet concentrates in patients with disorders of intrinsic platelet dysfunction. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.

Huebsch, Lothar B.; Harker, Laurence A.

1981-01-01

334

Confinement from correlation functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the Polyakov loop potential in Yang-Mills theory from the fully dressed primitively divergent correlation functions only. This is done in a variety of functional approaches ranging from functional renormalization group equations over Dyson-Schwinger equations to two-particle irreducible functionals. We present a confinement criterion that links the infrared behavior of propagators and vertices to the Polyakov loop expectation value. The present work extends the works of [J. Braun , Phys. Lett. B 684, 262 (2010)PYLBAJ0370-2693; F. Marhauser and J. M. Pawlowski, arXiv:0812.1144; J. Braun , Eur. Phys. J. C 70, 689 (2010)EPCFFB1434-6044] to general functional methods and sharpens the confinement criterion presented there. The computations are based on the thermal correlation functions in the Landau gauge calculated in [L. Fister and J. M. Pawlowski, arXiv:1112.5440; L. Fister and J. M. Pawlowski, arXiv:1112.5429; L. Fister, Ph.D. thesis, Heidelberg University, 2012].

Fister, Leonard; Pawlowski, Jan M.

2013-08-01

335

Neurophysiology of functional imaging  

PubMed Central

The successes of PET and fMRI in non-invasively localizing sensory functions had encouraged efforts to transform the subjective concepts of cognitive psychology into objective physical measures. The assumption was that mental functions could be decomposed into non-overlapping, context-independent modules that are operated on by separable areas of a computer-like brain. The modularity concept and the computer theory of brain both have been challenged by neurophysiological measures of baseline and incremental functional energetics, and by the many reports of delocalized and negative BOLD signals. Combining fMRI and electrophysiological measures of brain function we have made connections between these neurophysiological results and observable properties of mental life (i.e., awareness). We illustrate this approach with a sensory stimulation experiment; the degree of localization found in BOLD signal was related to the energetic status of the brain which, when manipulated by anesthetics, affected the degree of awareness. The influence of brain energy upon functional imaging maps is changing the interpretations of neuroimaging experiments, from psychological concepts generating computer-like responses to empirical responses dominated by the high brain activity at rest. In our view “baseline” is an operational term, an adjective that defines a property of a state of the system before it is perturbed by a stimulus. Given the dependence of observable psychological properties upon the “baseline” energy, we believe that it is unnecessarily limiting to define a particular state as the baseline.

van Eijsden, Pieter; Hyder, Fahmeed; Rothman, Douglas L.; Shulman, Robert G.

2009-01-01

336

The Tensor Distribution Function  

PubMed Central

Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful tool that can be employed to study white matter microstructure by examining the 3D displacement profile of water molecules in brain tissue. By applying diffusion-sensitized gradients along a minimum of six directions, second-order tensors (represented by three-by-three positive definite matrices) can be computed to model dominant diffusion processes. However, conventional DTI is not sufficient to resolve more complicated white matter configurations, e.g., crossing fiber tracts. Recently, a number of high-angular resolution schemes with more than six gradient directions have been employed to address this issue. In this article, we introduce the tensor distribution function (TDF), a probability function defined on the space of symmetric positive definite matrices. Using the calculus of variations, we solve the TDF that optimally describes the observed data. Here, fiber crossing is modeled as an ensemble of Gaussian diffusion processes with weights specified by the TDF. Once this optimal TDF is determined, the orientation distribution function (ODF) can easily be computed by analytic integration of the resulting displacement probability function. Moreover, a tensor orientation distribution function (TOD) may also be derived from the TDF, allowing for the estimation of principal fiber directions and their corresponding eigenvalues.

Leow, A. D.; Zhu, S.; Zhan, L.; McMahon, K.; de Zubicaray, G. I.; Meredith, M.; Wright, M. J.; Toga, A. W.; Thompson, P. M.

2009-01-01

337

Difference and Functional Equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A short article designed to provide an introduction to functional equations, those in which a function is sought which is to satisfy certain relations among its values at all points. For example, we may look for functions satisfying f(x*y)=f(x)+f(y) and enquire whether the logarithm function f(x)=log(x) is the only solution. (It's not.) In some cases the nature of the answer is different when we insist that the functional equation hold for all real x, or all complex x, or only those in certain domains, for example. A special case involves difference equations, that is, equations comparing f(x) - f(x-1), for example, with some expression involving x and f(x). In some ways these are discrete analogues of differential equations; thus we face similar questions of existence and uniqueness of solutions, global behaviour, and computational stability. History; applications and related fields and subfields; textbooks, reference works, and tutorials; software and tables; other web sites with this focus.

Rusin, David J., 1957-

2007-12-17

338

Functional peptides by design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proteins are nature's machines, built to function in many different ways. The ability to form so many functional molecules from the same few building blocks relies on the ability of these molecules to fold into specific structures. In this work, functional peptides are designed based on the information that has been gathered from nature concerning the relationships between sequence and structure. Chemists are not limited to naturally occurring amino acids, but may use any synthetically accessible residue imaginable. Herein, three novel amino acids are synthesized for facile incorporation into peptide sequences. These residues are designed to play a role in peptide folding through the formation of buried salt-bridges. They are small basic residues with varying hydrophobicity, and their ability to specify novel folds when incorporated into GCN4-p1 is demonstrated. Design is used to link intramolecular folding of another peptide to its function. MAX1 is designed to fold into a beta-hairpin structure upon the addition of distinct environmental stimuli. Once folded, this peptide self-assembles into a hydrogel material. Many applications can be envisioned for this hydrogel material, including its use as a tissue engineering scaffold. Cytocompatibility and antimicrobial activity studies demonstrate the ability of this hydrogel to support the selective proliferation of mammalian cells over certain bacterial strains. Thus, function has been successfully designed into a peptide.

Kretsinger, Juliana K.

339

Recursion Relations and Functional Equations for the Riemann Zeta Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

New recursion relations for the Riemann zeta function are introduced. Their derivation started from the standard functional equation. The new functional equations have both real and imaginary increment versions and can be applied over the whole complex plane. We have developed various versions of the recursion relations eliminating each of the coefficient functions, leaving plain zeta functions

Henrik Stenlund

2011-01-01

340

Splenic function in haemophilia.  

PubMed

Studies of splenic function were carried out on 17 haemophilic patients over 9 years of age, and 20 control patients. The clearance of autologous heat-damaged 99mTc-labelled erythrocytes from circulation and into the spleen was measured: the spleen area by scintillation scanning, and the enumeration of pitted erythrocytes by direct interference microscopy. Splenic enlargement was observed in 10 patients (59%). On the basis of the clearance half-time, splenic function was normal in 3/13 (23%) and hyperactive in 9/13 (69%) patients. One heavily transfused patient had a hypoactive spleen with long clearance half-time, slow splenic uptake of radioactivity and high pit counts. These results demonstrate that the spleen of haemophiliacs is usually enlarged and functionally abnormal. PMID:3596365

Zago, M A; Covas, D T; Ismael, S J; Bottura, C

1987-01-01

341

Adaptative Mapping Functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the aim to detect millimetric horizontal and vertical site displacements of geophysical origin, we investigate the problem of the propagation of electromagnetic GNSS signals through the troposphere. Our approach is to ray-trace the propagation, integrating the eikonal differential system through the atmospheric refractivity structures provided by the ECMWF model levels at all elevations and azimuths, and to characterize the delays by several mapping functions relative to each kind of physical processes perturbing the propagation. We especially focus on the lateral azimuthal variability of the propagation, and map the various processes describing the delays and ray bending by adapting suitable mapping functions at each time step. These newly adaptative mapping functions, developped at GRGS Toulouse (GRGS-T-AMF), summarize hundred thousands of rays in a few tens of coefficients at a few millimeters precision whatever the azimuth and for a five degrees elevation cutoff, and are suitable to correct GNSS signals at the measurement level.

Gegout, Pascal; Biancale, Richard; Soudarin, Laurent

2010-05-01

342

Ghrelin and Functional Dyspepsia  

PubMed Central

The majority of patients with dyspepsia have no identifiable cause of their disease, leading to a diagnosis of functional dyspepsia (FD). While a number of different factors affect gut activity, components of the nervous and endocrine systems are essential for normal gut function. Communication between the brain and gut occurs via direct neural connections or endocrine signaling events. Ghrelin, a peptide produced by the stomach, affects gastric motility/emptying and secretion, suggesting it may play a pathophysiological role in FD. It is also possible that the functional abnormalities in FD may affect ghrelin production in the stomach. Plasma ghrelin levels are reported to be altered in FD, correlating with FD symptom score. Furthermore, some patients with FD suffer from anorexia with body-weight loss. As ghrelin increases gastric emptying and promotes feeding, ghrelin therapy may be a new approach to the treatment of FD.

Akamizu, Takashi; Iwakura, Hiroshi; Ariyasu, Hiroyuki; Kangawa, Kenji

2010-01-01

343

[Delayed graft function].  

PubMed

Delayed return to kidney function after transplantation is characterized essentially by acute ischemic tubular necrosis. It remains frequent and has no curative treatment. However, an induction treatment of antilymphocyte serum may reduce the delay in recuperation. In patients with delayed function, the maintenance immunosuppressive treatment should take into account the excessive risk of acute rejection over the short term and the more rapid deterioration of renal function over the long term. This means that biopsies to screen for acute rejection should be done systematically before the end of the 3rd month and anticalcineurin toxicity-sparing treatment should be considered, replacing anticalcineurins immediately with belatacept or after the 3-month acute period with proliferation signal inhibitors, if the kidney histology tests permit. In all cases, the classical measures of kidney protection remain indispensable. PMID:19000884

Hertig, A

2008-10-01

344

Pain and functional imaging.  

PubMed

Functional neuroimaging has fundamentally changed our knowledge about the cerebral representation of pain. For the first time it has been possible to delineate the functional anatomy of different aspects of pain in the medial and lateral pain systems in the brain. The rapid developments in imaging methods over the past years have led to a consensus in the description of the central pain responses between different studies and also to a definition of a central pain matrix with specialized subfunctions in man. In the near future we will see studies where a systems perspective allows for a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms in the higher-order frontal and parietal cortices. Also, pending the development of experimental paradigms, the functional anatomy of the emotional aspects of pain will become better known. PMID:10466155

Ingvar, M

1999-07-29

345

Notch tumor suppressor function  

PubMed Central

Cancer development results from deregulated control of stem cell populations and alterations in their surrounding environment. Notch signaling is an important form of direct cell-cell communication involved in cell fate determination, stem cell potential and lineage commitment. The biological function of this pathway is critically context-dependent. Here we review the pro-differentiation role and tumor suppressing function of this pathway, as revealed by loss of function in keratinocytes and skin, downstream of p53 and in cross-connection with other determinants of stem cell potential and/or tumor formation, like p63 and Rho/CDC42 effectors. The possibility that Notch signaling elicits a duality of signals, involved in growth/differentiation control and cell survival will be discussed, in the context of novel approaches for cancer therapy.

Dotto, G. Paolo

2009-01-01

346

STUDIES ON THYMUS FUNCTION  

PubMed Central

Immunological restoration of 45-day old, neonatally thymectomized C3Hf mice by treatment with humoral thymic function (thymoma grafts, thymus or thymoma in diffusion chambers) ranges from 0 to 12% and is difficult to acheive. When small numbers (5–20 x 106) of young adult lymphohemopoietic cells, ineffective by themselves, are given in association with humoral thymic function, a cooperative effect is observed and restoration ranges from 30 to 60%. With a particular cell dosage (20 x 106), effectivity for cooperation with thymic function was the following in decreasing order: spleen, lymph nodes, thoracic duct cells, bone marrow, blood leukocytes, thymus, and Peyer's patch cells. Comparable results were obtained using spleen, thymus, and hemopoietic liver from newborn donors in association with thymic function. For similar cell dosages, newborn thymus cells were more effective than adult thymus in their cooperative effect with thymic function. Dispersed thymus cells in association with young adult bone marrow or newborn hemopoietic liver cells showed no synergism for the cooperative effect with thymic function in the present model. Using hemiallogeneic cells (F1 hybrid into parent) it was possible to show that restoration was mediated by proliferative expansion of the injected cells. This was indicated by specific tolerance to tissues of the other parental strain and by cellular chimerism, especially of lymphoid tissues, as indicated by chromosome markers and absence of significant numbers of immunocompetent cells of host origin. A population of paritally differentiated cells of hemopoietic origin, termed postthymic, sensitive to humoral activity of the thymus and present in the lymphohemopoietic tissues of adult and newborn mice is postulated to explain our results. These cells are postthymic and thymus dependent in the sense that they already received thymic influence, probably through traffic, and are incapable of self-renewal in absence of the thymus. Sensitivity to humoral activity of the thymus is characterized by proliferative expansion and/or a differentiative process eventually leading to larger numbers of competent cells.

Stutman, Osias; Yunis, Edmond J.; Good, Robert A.

1970-01-01

347

Generalized Wigner functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase space distributions have found use in a wide variety of physical contexts, where they are generally introduced either to gain intuition about the problem at hand or to reduce its computational cost. A particular distribution that has been particularly useful both in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and in paraxial optics is the Wigner distribution function. In optics, the aligner function may be constructed for paraxial, stationary, partially coherent optical fields by seeking a phase space distribution that assigns weight to rays which is bilinear in the field and which satisfies for paraxial propagation: (a) conservation along rays in free space propagation and (b) integration over all rays through a point yields the spectral density at that point. In order to construct a similar formalism for nonparaxial optical fields, a family of angle-impact Wigner functions was recently defined by seeking distributions which satisfy (a) and (b) for nonparaxial propagation. The first part of this thesis considers extensions of the angle-impact Wigner function formalism. Two techniques are proposed to compute nonlocal, second-order coherence properties of the field, such as the cross-spectral density. Additionally, techniques are described for propagating angle-impact Wigner functions past interfaces between homogeneous, isotropic transparent media. The second part of this thesis describes techniques for constructing several new phase space distributions. All constructions involve enforcing (a) conservation of the distribution along intuitive trajectories and (b) integration over all trajectories arriving at a "point" (which may include space and time) yields a local quantity of interest at that point. Generalizations of the Wigner function are constructed for a stationary field in an anisotropic medium, a pulse propagating in a one dimensional dispersive medium, and relativistic quantum mechanics.

Petruccelli, Jonathan C.

348

Peroxisome Biogenesis and Function  

PubMed Central

Peroxisomes are small and single membrane-delimited organelles that execute numerous metabolic reactions and have pivotal roles in plant growth and development. In recent years, forward and reverse genetic studies along with biochemical and cell biological analyses in Arabidopsis have enabled researchers to identify many peroxisome proteins and elucidate their functions. This review focuses on the advances in our understanding of peroxisome biogenesis and metabolism, and further explores the contribution of large-scale analysis, such as in sillco predictions and proteomics, in augmenting our knowledge of peroxisome function In Arabidopsis.

Kaur, Navneet; Reumann, Sigrun; Hu, Jianping

2009-01-01

349

Functional components in peanuts.  

PubMed

Peanut is one of the most widely used legumes due to its nutrition and taste. The fact that is has been recognized recently as a functional food, its evaluation for its role in a heart-healthy diet has received tremendous attention. Functional compounds have been isolated, identified, quantified, and even enhanced to maximize the amount for adequate health benefits. The peanut industry's byproducts such as peanut hulls and shells, skins, and even leaves and roots have also been identified as possible sources of bioactive compounds. New uses for these underutilized renewable sources can create new market opportunities and increase the value of agricultural residues. PMID:18756396

Francisco, Maria Leonora D L; Resurreccion, A V A

2008-09-01

350

Unpolarized Structure Functions  

SciTech Connect

Over the past decade measurements of unpolarized structure functions with unprecedented precision have significantly advanced our knowledge of nucleon structure. These have for the first time allowed quantitative tests of the phenomenon of quark-hadron duality, and provided a deeper understanding of the transition from hadron to quark degrees of freedom in inclusive scattering. Dedicated Rosenbluth-separation experiments have yielded high-precision transverse and longitudinal structure functions in regions previously unexplored, and new techniques have enabled the first glimpses of the structure of the free neutron, without contamination from nuclear effects.

M. E. Christy,W. Melnitchouk

2011-06-01

351

Additively decomposed quasiconvex functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recently published paper with the same title, Debreu and Koopmans have studied conditions which imply the quasiconvexity of the function\\u000a$$f(x) = \\\\mathop \\\\sum \\\\limits_{i = 1}^n f_i (x_i ),x_i \\\\in X_i ,$$\\u000a wherex = (x1,x2,?,xn) and, fori = 1, 2,?, n,X1 is a finite-dimensional open convex set andfi a real-valued nonconstant function onX1 These conditions involve the

J.-P. Crouzeix; P. O. Lindberg

1986-01-01

352

Design of Functional Metalloproteins  

PubMed Central

Metalloproteins catalyze some of the most difficult and yet important functions in Nature, such as photosynthesis and water oxidation. An ultimate test of our knowledge of how metalloproteins work is by designing novel metalloproteins. Such design can not only reveal hidden structural features that may be missing from studies of native metalloproteins and their variants, but also result in new metalloenzymes for biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications. While it is much more challenging to design metalloproteins than non-metalloproteins, much progress has been made in this area, particularly toward functional design, thanks to recent progress in areas such as computational and structural biology.

Lu, Yi; Yeung, Natasha; Sieracki, Nathan; Marshall, Nicholas M.

2009-01-01

353

SIX FUNCTIONALS FIXED POINT THEOREM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Six Functionals Fixed Point Theorem is a generalization of the Five Functionals Fixed Point Theorem as well as the original triple xed point theorem of Leggett-Williams. In the Six Functionals Fixed Point Theorem, none of the functional boundaries are required to map above or below the boundary in the functional sense. As an application, the existence of at least

RICHARD AVERY; JOHNNY HENDERSON

2008-01-01

354

Influence functions for distributional statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social evaluation functions used in policy impact analysis can be viewed as real-valued functionals of the underlying outcome distributions. Influence functions may be used to identify the sources of variation in social outcomes in terms of individual or household characteristics. This paper sets forth in clear terms the definition of the influence function and recentered influence function, and catalogs these

B. Essama-Nssah; Peter J. Lambert

2011-01-01

355

Comparisons of power transfer functions and flow transfer functions  

SciTech Connect

Transfer functions may be used to calculate component feedbacks or temperature increments by convolution of the transfer function with the appropriate fractional change in system-quantity. Power-change transfer functions have been reported. The corresponding flow transfer functions for this case, and comparison with the power transfer functions, are reported here. Results of feedback simulation of ramped flow transients using flow transfer functions are also described.

Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

1987-11-15

356

A Convenient Dichotomy: Critical Eyes on the Limits to Biological Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In "The Secret Identity of a Biology Textbook: straight and naturally sexed," Jesse Bazzul and Heather Sykes conduct a case study of a biology textbook as an oppressive instructional material. Using queer theory they explore how the text of the biology textbook produces "truths" about sex, gender, and sexuality. Their analysis is complemented by…

Milne, Catherine

2011-01-01

357

Gender as Contradiction: From Dichotomies to Diversity in Natural Resource Extraction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the varied nature of resource dependent communities, the gendered experiences of women and men may vary in unexpected and contradictory ways. Building on a review and critique of existing theoretical approaches and studies of US and Canadian extractive resource communities in both the feminist and rural social science literature, we provide…

O'Shaughnessy, Sara; Krogman, Naomi T.

2011-01-01

358

Water in the Lunar Interior and the Apparent KREEP-Mare Dichotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent SIMS analysis of lunar apatite has shown that hydroxyl is structurally bound within lunar apatite from a number of different lunar lithologic types (McCubbin et al., 2010a, 2010b; Boyce et al., 2010; Greenwood et al., 2010). These studies along with previous SIMS analyses of lunar fire fountain glasses (Saal et al., 2008) confirm that there is at least some

F. M. McCubbin; H. Nekvasil

2010-01-01

359

Deconstructing and Transgressing the Theory?Practice dichotomy in early childhood education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article theorizes and exemplifies reconceptualized teaching practices, both in early childhood education (ECE) 1 and in a couple of programs within the new Swedish Teacher Education (since 2001). 2 These programs are tightly knit to the last 12 years of reconceptualized early childhood education practices in and around Stockholm, built on deconstructive, co-constructive, and re-constructive principles, inspired by poststructural

Hillevi Lenz Taguchi

2007-01-01

360

Activity as Object-Related: Resolving the Dichotomy of Individual and Collective Planes of Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article suggests that the principle of object-relatedness, introduced by Vygotsky and expanded by A. N. Leontiev, can be used to conceptualize human subjectivity within a profoundly social view of human development. This is achieved by reformulating the premises of cultural-historical activity theory to include the notion that material…

Stetsenko, Anna

2005-01-01

361

Chromospheric activity in evolved stars - The rotation-activity connection and the binary-single dichotomy  

SciTech Connect

A tabulation of measured values of the Ca II H and K (S) index are transformed to the original Mount Wilson definition of the index. The tabulation includes main-sequence, evolved, single, and tidally coupled (RS CVn) binary stars. The (S) indices are analyzed against Wilson's (1976) I(HK) intensity estimates, showing that Wilson's estimates are only a two-state indicator. Ca II H and K fluxes are computed and calibrated with published values of rotation periods. It is found that the single and binary stars are consistent with a single relationship between rotation and Ca II excess emission flux. 25 refs.

Young, A.; Ajir, F.; Thurman, G. (San Diego State Univ., CA (USA))

1989-11-01

362

Primary marine organic aerosol: A dichotomy of low hygroscopicity and high CCN activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-time resolution measurements of primary marine organic sea-spray physico-chemical properties reveal an apparent dichotomous behavior in terms of water uptake: specifically sea-spray aerosol enriched in organic matter possesses a low hydroscopic Growth Factor (GF˜1.25) while simultaneously having a cloud condensation nucleus/condensation nuclei (CCN/CN) activation efficiency of between 83% at 0.25% supersaturation and 100% at 0.75%. In contrast, the activation efficiency of particles dominated by non-sea-salt (nss)-sulfate ranged between 48-100% over supersaturation range of 0.25%-1%. Simultaneous retrieval of Cloud Droplet Number Concentration (CDNC) during primary organic aerosol plumes reveals CDNC concentrations of 350 cm-3 for organic mass concentrations 3-4 ?g m-3. It is demonstrated that the retrieved high CDNCs under clean marine conditions can only be explained by organic sea-spray and corroborates the high CCN activation efficiency associated with primary organics. It is postulated that marine hydrogels are responsible for this dichotomous behavior.

Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Ceburnis, Darius; Martucci, Giovanni; Bialek, Jakub; Monahan, Ciaran; Rinaldi, Matteo; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Berresheim, Harald; Worsnop, Douglas R.; O'Dowd, Colin

2011-11-01

363

Moving Beyond Strawmen and Artificial Dichotomies: Adaptive Management When an Endangered Species Uses an Invasive One  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evans et al. (Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 2008) have attempted to enmesh me in their dispute with the Florida Bureau of Invasive Plant Management about a specific\\u000a system, Kings Bay\\/Crystal River. In so doing, they repeatedly mischaracterize my positions in order to depict, incorrectly,\\u000a invasion biology as monolithic and me as a representative of one extreme of a false

Daniel Simberloff

2009-01-01

364

Mare Basalts as Mantle Probes: Dichotomies Between Remotely Gathered and Sample Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mare basalts and pyroclastic glasses allow our only petrologic look at the lunar mantle, as bonafide mantle xenoliths are not present in the existing lunar sample collection. Knowledge thus gleaned demonstrates that the there was an early "lunar magma ocean" (LMO), the cooling of which produced an igneous cumulate mantle forming source regions for mare basalts. More sophisticated models demonstrated that late-stage ilmenite-rich cumulates would be denser than early cumulates and sink, or cause limited to full-scale overturn of the cumulate pile. Still under debate is the scale of the LMO: Was this whole Moon melting or only the outer about 400 km? If whole Moon melting is invoked, then differentiation of the Moon into a flotation plagioclase-rich crust, a mafic mineral cumulate mantle, and an Fe-rich core is more easily facilitated. Some have suggested that the lunar core is made up of the dense, ilmenite-rich late-stage cumulates from the lunar magma ocean because the material that formed the Moon came primarily from already differentiated Earth mantle, so it would not contain enough Fe to form a metallic Fe core. How can mare volcanism be used to constrain such models?

Neal, Clive R.

1998-01-01

365

Erasing a false dichotomy: The complex nature of broad absorption line quasars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of this thesis is to test the various models proposed to explain the important subclass of quasars known as broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. In particular, I focus on whether viewing angle alone can explain why only a fraction of quasars exhibit BALs in their optical/ultraviolet spectra, or if some other model or combination of models is more likely. Much of the work contained here focuses on radio-selected BAL quasars, a relatively poorly studied class to this point, and so a secondary goal is to provide a detailed analysis of their properties. Finally, I provide a large spectropolarimetric atlas of BAL quasars for use by the community. Using new multi-frequency radio observations of a large sample of BAL quasars, and a carefully selected, well-matched sample of unabsorbed quasars, I show that there does appear to be an overabundance of steep-spectrum BAL sources, though they cover a wide range of spectral slopes. Monte-Carlo modeling of these distributions show that BAL quasars are seen from a range of viewing angles, including all of the viewing angles that unabsorbed quasars are seen from. However, at the largest viewing angles, we will generally see BAL quasars. No other spectral features or quasar outflow properties correlate with viewing angle, suggesting that BAL winds in all directions are driven by the same mechanism. BAL quasars are indeed more likely to be polarized than non-BAL sources. However, this is not simply due to orientation or extinction of the direct un-polarized continuum light, as polarization does not correlate with viewing angle or dust extinction. It seems that there is much variation in the polarizing scattering material, both in its location and geometry, between individual sources. This makes it difficult to use polarization studies to constrain BAL quasar models, though it is likely useful for detailed study of individual objects. Simple explanations using only one parameter are clearly no longer sufficient, and we must move toward a more complex picture to explain these objects.

DiPompeo, Michael A.

366

A STRONG DICHOTOMY IN S0 DISK PROFILES BETWEEN THE VIRGO CLUSTER AND THE FIELD  

SciTech Connect

We report evidence for a striking difference between S0 galaxies in the local field and the Virgo Cluster. While field S0 galaxies have disks whose surface-brightness profiles are roughly equally divided between the three main types (Types I, II, and III: single-exponential, truncated, and antitruncated), Virgo S0s appear to be entirely lacking in disk truncations. More specifically, the fraction of truncations in S0 galaxies with M{sub B} < -17 is 28{sup +7}{sub -6}% for the field versus 0{sup +4}{sub -0}% for the Virgo Cluster galaxies; the difference is significant at the 99.7% level. The discrepancy is made up almost entirely by Type I profiles, which are almost twice as frequent in the Virgo Cluster as they are in the field. This suggests that S0 formation may be driven by different processes in cluster and field environments, and that outer-disk effects can be useful tests of S0 formation models.

Erwin, Peter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Gutierrez, Leonel; Beckman, John E., E-mail: erwin@mpe.mpg.de [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lactea s/n, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

2012-01-15

367

Educational Leadership and Culture in China: Dichotomies between Chinese and Anglo-American Leadership Traditions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores the extent to which Chinese school leaders espouse dichotomous or integrated Chinese and Anglo-American leadership and management preferences. Data are drawn from questionnaires completed by school leaders and from semi-structured interviews with individual school leaders from different parts of China. The exploratory study…

Law, Wing-Wah

2012-01-01

368

Deconstructing and Transgressing the Theory-Practice Dichotomy in Early Childhood Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article theorizes and exemplifies reconceptualized teaching practices, both in early childhood education (ECE) and in a couple of programs within the new Swedish Teacher Education (since 2001). These programs are tightly knit to the last 12 years of reconceptualized early childhood education practices in and around Stockholm, built on…

Taguchi, Hillevi Lenz

2007-01-01

369

Iapetus: Unique Surface Properties and a Global Color Dichotomy from Cassini Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 2004, Saturn's moon Iapetus has been observed repeatedly with the Imaging Science Subsystem of the Cassini spacecraft. The images show numerous impact craters down to the resolution limit of ~10 meters per pixel. Small, bright craters within the dark hemisphere indicate a dark blanket thickness on the order of meters or less. Dark, equator-facing and bright, poleward-facing crater walls

Tilmann Denk; Gerhard Neukum; Thomas Roatsch; Carolyn C. Porco; Joseph A. Burns; Götz G. Galuba; Nico Schmedemann; Paul Helfenstein; Peter C. Thomas; Roland J. Wagner; Robert A. West

2010-01-01

370

DICHOTOMY: A Resource Discovery and Scheduling Protocol for Multihop Ad hoc Mobile Grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a good amount of research over the past few years on the integration of mobile devices into compu- tational grids. Little of it, however, has addressed the mor e challenging issue of dynamically establishing spontaneou s, multihop ad hoc mobile grids, and then only in preliminary form. In such grids, resource discovery and scheduling have been traditionally

Antônio Tadeu A. Gomes; Artur Ziviani; Luciana Dos S. Lima; Markus Endler

2007-01-01

371

The Efficacy/Effeminacy Braid: Unpicking the Performance Studies/Theatre Studies Dichotomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that in the popular imagination, theatre is still linked integrally and stereotypically with homosexuality. Discusses various critical debates of the 1960s about the linguistic and conceptual divorce of theatre and theatricality from performance and performativity. Concludes that if Theatre Studies has an enemy at all, it is in its own…

Bottoms, Stephen J.

2003-01-01

372

Phase equilibria of ultramafic compositions on Mercury and the origin of the compositional dichotomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of major element ratios obtained by the MESSENGER spacecraft using x-ray fluorescence spectra are used to calculate absolute element abundances of lavas at the surface of Mercury. We discuss calculation methods and assumptions that take into account the distribution of major elements between silicate, metal, and sulfide components and the potential occurrence of sulfide minerals under reduced conditions. These first compositional data, which represent large areas of mixed high-reflectance volcanic plains and low-reflectance materials and do not include the northern volcanic plains, share common silica- and magnesium-rich characteristics. They are most similar to terrestrial volcanic rocks known as basaltic komatiites. Two compositional groups are distinguished by the presence or absence of a clinopyroxene component. Melting experiments at one atmosphere on the average compositions of each of the two groups constrain the potential mineralogy at Mercury's surface, which should be dominated by orthopyroxene (protoenstatite and orthoenstatite), plagioclase, minor olivine if any, clinopyroxene (augite), and tridymite. The two compositional groups cannot be related to each other by any fractional crystallization process, suggesting differentiated source compositions for the two components and implying multi-stage differentiation and remelting processes for Mercury. Comparison with high-pressure phase equilibria supports partial melting at pressure <10 kbar, in agreement with last equilibration of the melts close to the crust-mantle boundary with two different mantle lithologies (harzburgite and lherzolite). Magma ocean crystallization followed by adiabatic decompression of mantle layers during cumulate overturn and/or convection would have produced adequate conditions to explain surface compositions. The surface of Mercury is not an unmodified quenched crust of primordial bulk planetary composition. Ultramafic lavas from Mercury have high liquidus temperatures (1450-1350 °C) and very low viscosities, in accordance with the eruption style characterized by flooding of pre-existing impact craters by lava and absence of central volcanoes.

Charlier, Bernard; Grove, Timothy L.; Zuber, Maria T.

2013-02-01

373

A second look at the dichotomy between consumers and providers in an HSA.  

PubMed

A study of the voting behavior of both consumers and providers involved in an HSA review committee is undertaken to determine the amount of voting cohesion (solidarity) demonstrated by these two basic interest groups as well as the directions in review decisions desired by both of these groups. The case study, involving the third largest HSA in the country, attempts to discern whether the theory of interest group liberalism can be used to describe correctly consumer and provider behavior relative to review decisions. The conclusions reached are that (1) consumers and providers do have differences in their intra-group voting cohesion, but that more importantly (2) they vote for the same end results in terms of approving or denying project reviews. The paper suggests that rational decision tools can play more of an effective role in achieving cost containment. PMID:10307193

Grossman, R M

1978-04-01

374

Exploring Narratives and Antenarratives of Graffiti Artists: Beyond Dichotomies of Commitment and Detachment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we propose engagement in critical analysis of social phenomena—here, that of ‘commitment’—through consideration of narratives of and about graffiti artists (‘graffers’). We discuss ways in which graffers are viewed as demonstrating conformance with or rebellion against prevailing social mores. We address representations of them through their own work, as well as in the media and in academic

Martyna Sliwa; George Cairns

2007-01-01

375

Caught in a "West/China Dichotomy": Doing Critical Sociolinguistic Ethnography in Zhejiang Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article focuses on how issues of power and identity were negotiated when doing a critical sociolinguistic ethnography as a Spanish researcher in the Chinese educational context. Data come from fieldwork conducted in 3 different primary and secondary schools together in Zhejiang province, where inside- and outside-classroom…

Perez-Milans, Miguel

2011-01-01

376

Caught in a “West\\/China Dichotomy”: Doing Critical Sociolinguistic Ethnography in Zhejiang Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on how issues of power and identity were negotiated when doing a critical sociolinguistic ethnography as a Spanish researcher in the Chinese educational context. Data come from fieldwork conducted in 3 different primary and secondary schools together in Zhejiang province, where inside- and outside-classroom interactional\\/discursive practices were analyzed in relation to the current sociopolitical\\/socioeconomic conditions of China.

Miguel Pérez-Milans

2011-01-01

377

MAGNETARS VERSUS HIGH MAGNETIC FIELD PULSARS: A THEORETICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE APPARENT DICHOTOMY  

SciTech Connect

Highly magnetized neutron stars (NSs) are characterized by a bewildering range of astrophysical manifestations. Here, building on our simulations of the evolution of magnetic stresses in the NS crust and its ensuing fractures, we explore in detail, for the middle-aged and old NSs, the dependence of starquake frequency and energetics on the relative strength of the poloidal (B{sub p}) and toroidal (B{sub tor}) components. We find that, for B{sub p} {approx}> 10{sup 14} G, since a strong crustal toroidal field B{sub tor} {approx} B{sub p} is quickly formed on a Hall timescale, the initial toroidal field needs to be B{sub tor} >> B{sub p} to have a clear influence on the outbursting behavior. For initial fields B{sub p} {approx}< 10{sup 14} G, it is very unlikely that a middle-aged (t {approx} 10{sup 5} years) NS shows any bursting activity. This study allows us to solve the apparent puzzle of how NSs with similar dipolar magnetic fields can behave in a remarkably different way: an outbursting 'magnetar' with a high X-ray luminosity, or a quiet, low-luminosity, 'high-B' radio pulsar. As an example, we consider the specific cases of the magnetar 1E 2259+586 and the radio pulsar PSR J1814-1744, which at present have a similar dipolar field {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} G. We determine for each object an initial magnetic field configuration that reproduces the observed timing parameters at their current age. The same two configurations also account for the differences in quiescent X-ray luminosity and for the 'magnetar/outbursting' behavior of 1E 2259+586 but not of PSR J1814-1744. We further use the theoretically predicted surface temperature distribution to compute the light curve for these objects. In the case of 1E 2259+586, for which data are available, our predicted temperature distribution gives rise to a pulse profile whose double-peaked nature and modulation level are consistent with the observations.

Pons, Jose A. [Department de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat d'Alacant, Ap. Correus 99, E-03080 Alacant (Spain); Perna, Rosalba [JILA and Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Science, University of Colorado at Boulder, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80304 (United States)

2011-11-10

378

Affective Aspects on Mathematics Conceptualization: From Dichotomies to an Integrated Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present paper aims to propose a theoretical reflection in order to overcome a strong tradition in psychology concerning the analysis of cognition and affectivity as dichotomic processes explaining human behaviours. A general theory of the human subject is presented to discussion, followed by the proposition of a new unit of analysis for the…

Araujo, Claudia Roberta; Andrade, Fernanda; Hazin, Izabel; Falcao, Jorge Tarcisio da Rocha; do Nascimento, Jorge Costa; Lessa, Monica Maria Lins

2003-01-01

379

Reconstructing Multicultural Education through Personal Story: Transcending the Essentialist/Relativist Dichotomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like so many other concepts in education, multiculturalism is a term that has lost its potency because of miseducative examples that serve to maintain Whiteness as the cultural norm. At first it offered great promise, but now as a "social science" quite often one is just exchanging one type of essentialism for another. The "packet" approach that…

Lake, Robert

2010-01-01

380

ABA and PBS: The Dangers in Creating Artificial Dichotomies in Behavioral Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, there has been a great deal of controversy regarding the definition and independence of Positive Behavioral Supports (PBS) within the context of behavioral intervention. Specifically, behavior analysts have argued over whether PBS is subsumed within Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) or whether it can be considered a separate…

Weiss, Mary Jane; DelPizzo-Cheng, Eliza; LaRue, Robert H.; Sloman, Kimberly

2009-01-01

381

Institutional Academic Freedom vs. Faculty Academic Freedom in Public Colleges and Universities: A Dubious Dichotomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the origins of recent federal appellate decisions' divergence from the Supreme Court's identification of teachers' or faculty's academic freedom as "a special concern of the First Amendment." Suggests ways in which academic freedom might better be accorded its rightful importance within the framework of current Supreme Court First…

Hiers, Richard H.

2002-01-01

382

Bureaucratic Abuse and the False Dichotomy between Intentional and Unintentional Child Injuries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the arbitrary distinctions between intentional and unintentional child injuries, noting that a careful review of the literature of both child abuse and unintentional child injury revealed similarities among the risk factors associated with the two outcomes. A single, multifactor model of injury etiology, the ecologic model, is…

Kotch, Jonathan B.; And Others

383

Attention and predictions: control of spatial attention beyond the endogenous-exogenous dichotomy  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms of attention control have been extensively studied with a variety of methodologies in animals and in humans. Human studies using non-invasive imaging techniques highlighted a remarkable difference between the pattern of responses in dorsal fronto-parietal regions vs. ventral fronto-parietal (vFP) regions, primarily lateralized to the right hemisphere. Initially, this distinction at the neuro-physiological level has been related to the distinction between cognitive processes associated with strategic/endogenous vs. stimulus-driven/exogenous of attention control. Nonetheless, quite soon it has become evident that, in almost any situation, attention control entails a complex combination of factors related to both the current sensory input and endogenous aspects associated with the experimental context. Here, we review several of these aspects first discussing the joint contribution of endogenous and stimulus-driven factors during spatial orienting in complex environments and, then, turning to the role of expectations and predictions in spatial re-orienting. We emphasize that strategic factors play a pivotal role for the activation of the ventral system during stimulus-driven control, and that the dorsal system makes use of stimulus-driven signals for top-down control. We conclude that both the dorsal and the vFP networks integrate endogenous and exogenous signals during spatial attention control and that future investigations should manipulate both these factors concurrently, so as to reveal to full extent of these interactions.

Macaluso, Emiliano; Doricchi, Fabrizio

2013-01-01

384

Dichotomy of Ca2+ in the heart: contraction versus intracellular signaling  

PubMed Central

Ca2+ plays a pivotal role in both excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) and activation of Ca2+-dependent signaling pathways. One of the remaining questions in cardiac biology is how Ca2+-dependent signaling pathways are regulated under conditions of continual Ca2+ transients that mediate cardiac contraction during each heartbeat. Ca2+-calmodulin–dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activation and its ability to regulate histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) nuclear shuttling represent a critical Ca2+-dependent signaling circuit for controlling cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, yet the mechanism of activation by Ca2+ is not known. In this issue of the JCI, Wu et al. convincingly demonstrate that the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) is involved in local control of Ca2+ for activating CaMKII in the nuclear envelope of adult ventricular cardiac myocytes. The overall paradigm that is demonstrated is the best example of a molecular mechanism whereby signaling is directly regulated by a local Ca2+ pool that is disparate or geometrically insensitive to cytosolic Ca2+ underlying each contractile cycle.

Molkentin, Jeffery D.

2006-01-01

385

Economics of Controlling Vertebrate Wildlife: the Pest-Asset Dichotomy and Environmental Conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some wildlife species are agricultural pests (or otherwise a problem) but their populations are often valued by other than agriculturalists or by those not adversely affected by them directly. For non-farmers, the population levels of such wildlife are frequently pure public goods. This is one source of market failure in the economically optimal social control of an (agricultural) pest of

Clement A. Tisdell

2011-01-01

386

Moving beyond the Dichotomy: Meeting the Needs of Urban Students through Contextually-Relevant Education Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this article is to move beyond the more traditional question, "Does business have a role in public education?" A historical overview of education suggests that the involvement of the private sector is not a new phenomenon and is not likely to end in the near future. Here, the authors argue that a much more fruitful line of inquiry is…

Seaton, Gregory; Dell'Angelo, Tabitha; Spencer, Margaret Beale; Youngblood, Joseph

2007-01-01

387

Integration or Dichotomy of Teaching and Research? A case study of primary initial teacher educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on research analysing how primary initial teacher educators define and participate in research activities. A representative sample of teacher educators in one institution in the UK were interviewed in depth to identify individuals' perceptions of the place of research in their work. All the interviewees saw their most important role as teaching and supporting students. In all

Jean Murray

1998-01-01

388

Activity as Object-Related: Resolving the Dichotomy of Individual and Collective Planes of Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article suggests that the principle of object-relatedness, introduced by Vygotsky and expanded by A. N. Leontiev, can be used to conceptualize human subjectivity within a profoundly social view of hu- man development. This is achieved by reformulating the premises of cultural-historical activity theory to include the notion that material production, intersubjective exchanges, and human subjectivity form a unified three-fold

Anna Stetsenko

2005-01-01

389

Activity as Object-Related: Resolving the Dichotomy of Individual and Collective Planes of Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article suggests that the principle of object-relatedness, introduced by Vygotsky and expanded by A. N. Leontiev, can be used to conceptualize human subjectivity within a profoundly social view of human development. This is achieved by reformulating the premises of cultural-historical activity theory to include the notion that material…

Stetsenko, Anna

2005-01-01

390

Why dichotomies can be misleading while dualities fit the analysis of complex phenomena.  

PubMed

Humans' tendency to classify and categorize is definitely overspread, but it can be misleading at all fields, including epistemology, ontology, theory, and analysis of scientific knowledge construction itself. Sanchez and Loredo (IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science 43:4, 2009-DOI 10.1007/s12124-009-9091-1) in their article on classification of contemporary constructivists fall exactly into such pitfall- even as their effort to make sense of many outstanding theorists is impressive and inriguing. A further analysis, however, points at the theoretical trap posed by such endeavor, for models arisen from different epistemological standpoints cannot be compared along the lines of a simplistic polarity between "objectivism" and "subjectivism". There is much more to be taken into account when a intrinsically complex subject like constructivism and constructionism epistemological approach and their welcome different versions--perspectives--are submitted to analysis and critical evaluation. PMID:19756899

Branco, Angela Uchoa

2009-12-01

391

Journalistic Schizophrenia: The Law/Ethics Dichotomy. Research Bulletin Number 4, Volume 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two hundred fourteen journalism students responded to a questionnaire designed to test the extent of the disparity between journalistic attitudes toward law and ethics in the area of invasion of privacy by photography in both print and broadcast media. The survey instrument presented eight cases in which allegations of media invasion of privacy…

Mundt, Whitney R.; Broussard, E. Joseph

392

Is it dichotomy or tension: I am a scientist. No, wait! I am a teacher!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explores through a naturalistic inquiry the tensions between a science professor's two enacted identities. More specifically, this study looks at how a biology professor's identity-in-practice shifts and evolves over time through collaborations with a science education professor. These shifts were marked by an emphasis on teaching, rather than solely a focus on science. Data were collected through formal interviews and notes taken during planning sessions that took place between the biology professor and the science educator. Findings reveal that although the biology professor is able to reconcile both his science and teacher identity, structural elements of his workplace do not encourage him to enact his teacher identity. Recommendations for college science teaching are discussed.

Aydeniz, Mehmet; Hodge, Lynn Liao

2011-03-01

393

'Naturalistic vs reductionistic approaches to health-related practice: opposing dichotomy or symbiotic partnership?'.  

PubMed

Complementary therapies, within Health Service arenas, have traditionally been associated with 'naturalistic' approaches to health care provision rather than with 'reductionist' practices. Evidence does exist, however, that certain approaches to complementary therapies can exist comfortably within both camps. Subsequent debates within nursing literature, surrounding the place and validity of reductionist approaches to health care provision and their relationship with the 'counter-part' naturalistic (i.e. empowerment) approaches to health care, have existed for some time now. Naturalistic (inductive and interpretive) and reductionistic (deductive and fixed) classifications of health care provision have continued to be viewed, by many health care professionals, as apposite, divided and allopathic. This appears to be even more so recently where elements of reductionist health care have been portrayed in terms that serve to undervalue and undermine its contribution. This is whilst naturalistic approaches, in far more favourable terms, have gone on to be 'championed' by many health professions. This account sets out to investigate how this situation impacts upon the discipline of complementary therapies. It seeks to do so by defining the nature and purpose of these differing approaches - particularly within the boundaries of health promotion activities. It goes on to suggest that our current practices/viewpoints, related to these particular approaches, could be considered in themselves to be flawed, limiting and reductionist with a potential to unwittingly create a counterproductive practice ethic. As an alternative to this situation, it is suggested that by identifying the strengths and weaknesses of both stances it is possible to find common ground which marries together the more favourable aspects of these approaches. This can subsequently provide a clearer and more productive consensus for complementary therapies and other naturalistic-based practices to move forward. PMID:11858473

Whitehead, D

2000-08-01

394

Gender as Contradiction: From Dichotomies to Diversity in Natural Resource Extraction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Given the varied nature of resource dependent communities, the gendered experiences of women and men may vary in unexpected and contradictory ways. Building on a review and critique of existing theoretical approaches and studies of US and Canadian extractive resource communities in both the feminist and rural social science literature, we provide…

O'Shaughnessy, Sara; Krogman, Naomi T.

2011-01-01

395

Re-thinking American intervention in the 1948 Italian election: beyond a success–failure dichotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

American intervention in the 1948 Italian national election campaign has long been a source of contention. Most scholarship has assessed the Truman administration's activities in binary terms that revolve on simplistic notions of ‘success’; the idea that American efforts did or did not affect the outcome. The subsequent tendency has been to celebrate or critique US intervention. This article traces

Kaeten Mistry

2011-01-01

396

The tyranny of gendered spaces – reflections from beyond the gender dichotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues critically that the consequences of a binary system of gender norms is experienced as a kind of gender tyranny both for those who transgress gender in their daily lives, but also for those whose lives are lived within such constraints. Feminist geographers and urban theorists have argued that space is gendered and that gendering has profound consequences

Petra L. Doan

2010-01-01

397

Toward Understanding the Fanaroff-Riley Dichotomy in Radio Source Morphology and Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Paper I we presented the results of a study of the interrelationships between host galaxy magnitude, optical line luminosity, and radio luminosity in a large sample of Fanaroff-Riley classes 1 and 2 (FR 1 and FR 2) radio galaxies. We report several important differences between the FR 1 and FR 2 radio galaxies. At the same host galaxy magnitude

Stefi A. Baum; Esther L. Zirbel; Christopher P. O'Dea

1995-01-01

398

Classroom Innovation for the Chinese Learner: Transcending Dichotomies and Transforming Pedagogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since the pioneering work on the paradox of the Chinese learner (Watkins & Biggs, 1996; 2001), there has been growing enthusiasm\\u000a for examining teaching and learning for Chinese learners (Fan, Wong, Cai, & Li, 2004; Lee & Mok, 2008; Rastall, 2006). Biggs\\u000a (1996) examined Western misperceptions and discussed the importance of sociocultural, contextual and systems perspectives\\u000a for interpreting learning in

Carol K. K. Chan

399

Formation of Iapetus' extreme albedo dichotomy by exogenically triggered thermal ice migration.  

PubMed

The extreme albedo asymmetry of Saturn's moon Iapetus, which is about 10 times as bright on its trailing hemisphere as on its leading hemisphere, has been an enigma for three centuries. Deposition of exogenic dark material on the leading side has been proposed as a cause, but this alone cannot explain the global shape, sharpness, and complexity of the transition between Iapetus' bright and dark terrain. We demonstrate that all these characteristics, and the asymmetry's large amplitude, can be plausibly explained by runaway global thermal migration of water ice, triggered by the deposition of dark material on the leading hemisphere. This mechanism is unique to Iapetus among the saturnian satellites because its slow rotation produces unusually high daytime temperatures and water ice sublimation rates for a given albedo. PMID:20007862

Spencer, John R; Denk, Tilmann

2009-12-10

400

Gender Neutralities, Dichotomies and Hidden Inequalities: Analysis of Vocational Teachers' Reflections on Gender in the Profession  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article analyses how Finnish vocational teachers make sense of the meanings of gender in their work. The context of the study consists of the two most gender segregated environments of vocational education: the female-dominated Sector of Health and Social Services and the male-dominated Sector of Technology and Transport. Our analysis draws…

Lappalainen, Sirpa; Lahelma, Elina; Pehkonen, Leila; Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

2012-01-01

401

Impression Management Versus Intrapsychic Explanations in Social Psychology: A Useful Dichotomy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impression management refers to the behavioral strategies that people use to create desired social images or identities. This article focuses on the current status of impression management explanations in social psychology. We argue that the common practice of referring to impression management theory is misleading. Many potential theories of impression management exist, each based on distinct assumptions. We also review

Philip E. Tetlock; Antony S. Manstead

1985-01-01

402

Brain size, life history, and metabolism at the marsupial/placental dichotomy.  

PubMed

The evolution of mammalian brain size is directly linked with the evolution of the brain's unique structure and performance. Both maternal life history investment traits and basal metabolic rate (BMR) correlate with relative brain size, but current hypotheses regarding the details of these relationships are based largely on placental mammals. Using encephalization quotients, partial correlation analyses, and bivariate regressions relating brain size to maternal investment times and BMR, we provide a direct quantitative comparison of brain size evolution in marsupials and placentals, whose reproduction and metabolism differ extensively. Our results show that the misconception that marsupials are systematically smaller-brained than placentals is driven by the inclusion of one large-brained placental clade, Primates. Marsupial and placental brain size partial correlations differ in that marsupials lack a partial correlation of BMR with brain size. This contradicts hypotheses stating that the maintenance of relatively larger brains requires higher BMRs. We suggest that a positive BMR-brain size correlation is a placental trait related to the intimate physiological contact between mother and offspring during gestation. Marsupials instead achieve brain sizes comparable to placentals through extended lactation. Comparison with avian brain evolution suggests that placental brain size should be constrained due to placentals' relative precociality, as has been hypothesized for precocial bird hatchlings. We propose that placentals circumvent this constraint because of their focus on gestation, as opposed to the marsupial emphasis on lactation. Marsupials represent a less constrained condition, demonstrating that hypotheses regarding placental brain size evolution cannot be generalized to all mammals. PMID:20823252

Weisbecker, Vera; Goswami, Anjali

2010-09-07

403

Ossification heterochrony in the therian postcranial skeleton and the marsupial-placental dichotomy.  

PubMed

Postcranial ossification sequences in 24 therian mammals and three outgroup taxa were obtained using clear staining and computed tomography to test the hypothesis that the marsupial forelimb is developmentally accelerated, and to assess patterns of therian postcranial ossification. Sequence rank variation of individual bones, phylogenetic analysis, and algorithm-based heterochrony optimization using event pairs were employed. Phylogenetic analysis only recovers Marsupialia, Australidelphia, and Eulipotyphla. Little heterochrony is found within marsupials and placentals. However, heterochrony was observed between marsupials and placentals, relating to late ossification in hind limb long bones and early ossification of the anterior axial skeleton. Also, ossification rank position of marsupial forelimb and shoulder girdle elements is more conservative than that of placentals; in placentals the hind limb area is more conservative. The differing ossification patterns in marsupials can be explained with a combination of muscular strain and energy allocation constraints, both resulting from the requirement of active movement of the altricial marsupial neonates toward the teat. Peramelemorphs, which are comparatively passive at birth and include species with relatively derived forelimbs, differ little from other marsupials in ossification sequence. This suggests that ossification heterochrony in marsupials is not directly related to diversity constraints on the marsupial forelimb and shoulder girdle. PMID:18489720

Weisbecker, Vera; Goswami, Anjali; Wroe, Stephen; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

2008-05-16

404

Embryo Impacts and Gas Giant Mergers. I. Dichotomy of Jupiter and Saturn's Core Mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interior to the gaseous envelopes of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, there are high-density cores with masses larger than 10 Earth masses. According to the conventional sequential accretion hypothesis, such massive cores are needed for the onset of efficient accretion of their gaseous envelopes. However, Jupiter's gaseous envelope is more massive and its core may be less massive than those of

Shu Lin Li; C. B. Agnor; D. N. C. Lin

2010-01-01

405

EMBRYO IMPACTS AND GAS GIANT MERGERS. I. DICHOTOMY OF JUPITER AND SATURN's CORE MASS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interior to the gaseous envelopes of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, there are high-density cores with masses larger than 10 Earth masses. According to the conventional sequential accretion hypothesis, such massive cores are needed for the onset of efficient accretion of their gaseous envelopes. However, Jupiter's gaseous envelope is more massive and its core may be less massive than those of

Li Shulin; C. B. Agnor; D. N. C. Lin

2010-01-01

406

Iapetus Surface Temperatures, and the Influence of Sublimation on the Albedo Dichotomy: Cassini CIRS Constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on the Cassini orbiter obtained extensive observations of Iapetus' thermal emission during the New Year 2005 flyby, with best 8 - 16 ? m spatial resolution of 35 km per pixel. Observed subsolar temperatures on the dark terrain reach nearly 130 K, much warmer than any other satellite surface in the Saturn system, due to the combination of low albedo and slow rotation. These high temperatures mean that, uniquely in the Saturn system, water ice sublimation rates are significant at low latitudes on Iapetus' dark side, and surface water ice is probably not stable there on geological timescales. This result is consistent with the lack of water ice at low latitudes on the dark terrain inferred from Cassini UVIS UV spectra (Hendrix et al., 2005 LPSC). Thermally-controlled migration of water ice may thus contribute to the curious shape of the light/dark boundary on Iapetus, with bright poles and dark terrain extending round the equator onto the trailing side. Impacts of Saturn-centric or prograde heliocentric material cannot alone explain this shape, as their impact flux depends only on distance from the apex of motion (though the impact distribution of Oort cloud comet dust may be consistent with the observed albedo pattern (Cook and Franklin 1970)). We model the ballistic migration of water ice across the surface of Iapetus, determining temperatures and sublimation rates assuming CIRS-constrained thermal inertia and a simple dependence of albedo on distance from the apex of motion. Water ice is lost rapidly from low latitudes on the dark leading side and accumulates near the poles, and is also lost, though more slowly, in equatorial regions near the sub-Saturn and anti-Saturn points. The resulting water ice distribution pattern matches the distribution of Iapetus' bright terrain remarkably well. Albedo modification by thermal migration can thus help to reconcile Iapetus' albedo patterns with albedo control by Saturn-centric or prograde heliocentric impactors.

Spencer, J. R.; Pearl, J. C.; Segura, M.; Cassini CIRS Team

2005-08-01

407

The martian hemispheric dichotomy may be due to a giant impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of the two approximately hemispherical, fundamentally different geological provinces into which Mars is divided, the more southerly province is heavily cratered, while the northern is lightly cratered and contains younger geological units. Lowlands occupy about one-third of Mars, and these are separated from the highlands by a distinct scarp or by a sloping transitional zone which is characterized by a variety of landforms that are unknown on other planets. It is presently proposed that the largest expanse of lowlands is substantially due to the formation of a large impact basin early in the planet's history, which has markedly influenced the character of the Martian surface.

Wilhelms, D. E.; Squyres, S. W.

1984-05-01

408

A convenient dichotomy: critical eyes on the limits to biological knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In The Secret Identity of a Biology Textbook: straight and naturally sexed, Jesse Bazzul and Heather Sykes conduct a case study of a biology textbook as an oppressive instructional material. Using queer theory they explore how the text of the biology textbook produces "truths" about sex, gender, and sexuality. Their analysis is complemented by the Forum papers by Jay Lemke and Francis Broadway who broaden the analysis examining the way that what counts as knowledge in science is a political decision while also encouraging authors, including Bazzul and Sykes, to also look critically at their own theoretical lenses. In this paper I pull together their ideas while exploring cultural contexts for a more nuanced representation of biological knowledge and the politics of what it means to know science.

Milne, Catherine

2011-06-01

409

Magnetic coercivity and intensity of Mars crust: Dichotomy formation via unicellular convection mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intense magnetic anomalies over the Mars surface indicate that during the early history of Mars large portions of Mars crust formed in the presence of global magnetic field. Distribution of the magnetic anomalies can be divided into three zones. Zone 1 is where the magnetic signature is negligible or of low intensity. Zone 2 is the region of intermediate crustal anomalies and Zone 3 is where there are magnetic anomalies of extreme magnetic intensity. Crater demagnetization behavior suggests that at least part of the Zone 3 located near the South Pole is generated by rocks with large magnetic coercivity. TRM analyses with terrestrial rocks suggest that compositional banding significantly enhances the TRM intensity. Both magnetic coercivity and intensity values near the South pole suggest presence of a deformation and compositional zoning of the rock in the Mars crust. This can be most simply explained by contractional deformation due to density contrasts above the down welling zone at the South Pole and formation of new crust above the upwelling zone at the North pole.

Kletetschka, G.; Acuna, M. H.; Connerney, J. E.; Wasilewski, P. J.; Ness, N. F.

2005-12-01

410

Low-energy impact distribution and the albedo dichotomy of Iapetus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We put forward a dynamical model for the distribution of dust falling on the surface of Iapetus. Theoretical distributions are obtained by solving the Saturn-Iapetus circular restricted three-body problem for low- and intermediate-energy particles entering the system and colliding with Iapetus. Comparison of the resulting impact densities with photometric data gives an empirical model for the boundary of the heavily impacted regions, which reproduces some, but not all, relevant features of the observed dark region. Comparison with the dust deposition rate assumed to trigger the thermal segregation process proposed by Spencer & Denk (2010) gives instead qualitatively good agreement. The relevant features are best reproduced for a uniform density of incoming particles within a relatively narrow range of intermediate energies. The corresponding incoming trajectories are direct and originate in a close external neighbourhood of Iapetus' orbit, at no more than 1.33 times the Saturn-Iapetus distance. The features of the population originating this flux, as shaped by the influence of Solar gravity, are briefly discussed.

Leiva, A. M.; Briozzo, C. B.

2013-04-01

411

Terrain Darkening on Iapetus: An Analysis of Processes Leading to Global and Local Dichotomy Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the insolation geometry using different models for the reflection. A model derived from [3] with a linear interpolation between lunar and Lambert-like scattering reproduced the dark patterns relatively well (Fig. 2). To understand the exact nature of the threshold necessary for the darkening process, we simulated different crater characteristics. Taking the latitude of the craters into account, we get an averaged energy flux. With the knowledge of the temperature-dependence of the sublimation (compare [4]) we can estimate the sublimation rate needed to trigger the feedback and compare it with estimates for the global process.

Galuba, G. G.; Denk, T.; Neukum, G.

2011-10-01

412

Formation of Iapetus' Extreme Albedo Dichotomy by Exogenically Triggered Thermal Ice Migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extreme albedo asymmetry of Saturn's moon Iapetus, which is about 10 times as bright on its trailing hemisphere as on its leading hemisphere, has been an enigma for three centuries. Deposition of exogenic dark material on the leading side has been proposed as a cause, but this alone cannot explain the global shape, sharpness, and complexity of the transition

John R. Spencer; Tilmann Denk

2010-01-01

413

Ethical/Legal Dichotomies on the First Amendment Rights of the Student Press.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A survey was conducted of 260 high school principals in 48 states concerning their knowledge of communication law as it related to freedom of the press under the First Amendment of the United States Constitution. The survey instrument contained information concerning nine composite court cases, and respondents were asked to indicate for each case…

Broussard, E. Joseph; Blackmon, C. Robert

414

The Evaluation of Psychopharmacological Enhancers Beyond a Normative “Natural”–“Artificial” Dichotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extra-therapeutic use of psychotropic drugs to improve cognition and to enhance mood has been the subject of controversial\\u000a discussion in bioethics, in medicine but also in public for many years. Concerns over a liberal dealing with pharmacological\\u000a enhancers are raised not only from a biomedical–pharmacological perspective, but particularly from an ethical one. Within\\u000a these ethical concerns, there is one

Jakov Gather

415

Growth of the hemispheric dichotomy and the cessation of plate tectonics on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Mars is currently not tectonically active, it may have experienced plate tectonics early in its history. The southern hemisphere of Mars possesses a thick crust which probably renders the lithosphere positively buoyant. In this paper we present numerical and scaling arguments which show that if the area of positively buoyant lithosphere grows beyond a critical fraction (?50% for Mars),

A. Lenardic; F. Nimmo; L. Moresi

2004-01-01

416

Growth of the hemispheric dichotomy and the cessation of plate tectonics on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Mars is currently not tectonically active, it may have experienced plate tectonics early in its history. The southern hemisphere of Mars possesses a thick crust which probably renders the lithosphere positively buoyant. We present numerical and scaling arguments which show that if the area of positively buoyant lithosphere grows beyond a critical fraction, plate tectonics will stop. Heat transfer

A. Lenardic; F. Nimmo; L. Moresi; M. Collier

2004-01-01

417

Low-Level Ionizing Radiation and Human Leukemia: Juvenile and Adult Dichotomy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Human leukemia mortality rates for 43 urban populations (cities) of the United States, 1957-1964, were analyzed against several environmental variables using mean annual rates per 100,000 persons for all ages, and for two age subsets. One subset involves ...

E. J. Bowers B. S. Zemel R. J. Hickey I. E. Allen L. L. Junker

1985-01-01

418

Dichotomy between U.S. Tobacco Export Policy and Antismoking Initiatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S cigarette companies had tried for many years to expand their sales to Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand, whose markets were substantially closed to cigarette imports. Smoking is legal in these countries, however, imports were kept out by high t...

1990-01-01

419

Cognitive function and hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of lowering blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive subjects is well known but the relationship between hypertension and cognitive function is controversial. This article reviews the role of hypertension in the aetiology of cognitive impairment and the relationships between BP, cerebral perfusion and cognition. It also summarizes findings of studies addressing the effect of antihypertensive therapy and cognition. An

J Birns; L Kalra

2009-01-01

420

Decoding Cilia Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of the ancestral eukaryotic flagellum is an example of a cellular organelle that became dispensable in some modern eukaryotes while remaining an essential motile and sensory apparatus in others. To help define the repertoire of specialized proteins needed for the formation and function of cilia, we used comparative genomics to analyze the genomes of organisms with prototypical cilia,

Tomer Avidor-Reiss; Andreia M. Maer; Edmund Koundakjian; Andrey Polyanovsky; Thomas Keil; Shankar Subramaniam; Charles S. Zuker

2004-01-01

421

Functional schematic diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A carefully planned schematic diagram will simplify the study and servicing of electronic equipment. Whereas a conventional schematic merely shows the electrical components and how they are connected, a functional schematic will place these parts on the drawing in such a way as to delineate the circuits they build. This circuit concept versus component concept is the main thesis of

S. H. Larick

1946-01-01

422

Transcutaneous Functional Electrical Stimulator \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research groups in the field of functional elec- trical stimulation (FES) are often confronted with the fact that existing and commercially available FES stimulators do not provide sufficient flexibility and cannot be used to perform different FES tasks. The lack of flexibility of the commercial systems until now forced various FES research teams to develop their own stimulators. This paper

Thierry Keller; Milos R. Popovic; Ion P. I. Pappas; Pierre-Yves Muller

2002-01-01

423

Functional esophageal disorders  

PubMed Central

The functional esophageal disorders include globus, rumination syndrome, and symptoms that typify esophageal diseases (chest pain, heartburn, and dysphagia). Factors responsible for symptom production are poorly understood. The criteria for diagnosis rest not only on compatible symptoms but also on exclusion of structural and metabolic disorders that might mimic the functional disorders. Additionally, a functional diagnosis is precluded by the presence of a pathology-based motor disorder or pathological reflux, defined by evidence of reflux esophagitis or abnormal acid exposure time during ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring. Management is largely empirical, although efficacy of psychopharmacological agents and psychological or behavioral approaches has been established for serveral of the functional esophageal disorders. As gastroesophageal reflux disease overlaps in presentation with most of these disorders and because symptoms are at least partially provoked by acid reflux events in many patients, antireflux therapy also plays an important role both in diagnosis and management. Further understanding of the fundamental mechanisms responsible for symptoms is a priority for future research efforts, as is the consideration of treatment outcome in a broader sense than reduction in esophageal symptoms alone. Likewise, the value of inclusive rather than restrictive diagnostic criteria that encompass other gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal symptoms should be examined to improve the accuracy of symptom-based criteria and reduce the dependence on objective testing.???Keywords: globus; rumination; chest pain; esophageal motility disorders; esophageal spasm; gastroesophageal reflux disease; Rome II

Clouse, R; Richter, J; Heading, R; Janssens, J; Wilson, J

1999-01-01

424

Hantush Well Function revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we comment on some recent numerical and analytical work to evaluate the Hantush Well Function. We correct an expression found in a Comment by Nadarajah (J. of Hydrology, vol. 338, p. 152-153 (2007)) to a paper by Prodanoff et al. (J. of Hydrology, vol. 318, p. 173-183 (2006)). We subsequently derived another analytic representation based on a

E. J. M. Veling; C. Maas

2010-01-01

425

Functional abdominal pain  

PubMed Central

Functional abdominal pain or functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is an uncommon functional gut disorder characterised by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain attributed to the gut but poorly related to gut function. It is associated with abnormal illness behaviour and patients show psychological morbidity that is often minimised or denied in an attempt to discover an organic cause for symptoms. Thus the conventional biomedical approach to the management of such patients is unhelpful and a person's symptom experience is more usefully investigated using a biopsychosocial evaluation, which necessarily entails a multidisciplinary system of healthcare provision. Currently the pathophysiology of the disorder is poorly understood but is most likely to involve a dysfunction of central pain mechanisms either in terms of attentional bias, for example, hypervigilance or a failure of central pain modulation/inhibition. Although modern neurophysiological investigation of patients is promising and may provide important insights into the pathophysiology of FAPS, current clinical management relies on an effective physician-patient relationship in which limits on clinical investigation are set and achievable treatment goals tailored to the patient's needs are pursued.

Matthews, P; Aziz, Q

2005-01-01

426

Functionality of pizza ingredients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to review the types of pizza and the functionality of basic ingredients of pizza with special focus on the effects of pizza toppings on health. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Phenomenological research has raised awareness and increased insight into the role of various pizza ingredients and health benefits of different pizza toppings and consequently pizza is called a

Preeti Singh; G. K. Goyal

2011-01-01

427

Split Brain Functioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summarizing recent research, this article defines the functions performed by the left and right sides of the human brain. Attention is given to the right side, or the nondominant side, of the brain and its potential in terms of perception of the environment, music, art, geometry, and the aesthetics. (JC)|

Cassel, Russell N.

1978-01-01

428

Objectification and Semiotic Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this paper is to study students' difficulties when they have to ascribe the same meaning to different representations of the same mathematical object. We address two theoretical tools that are at the core of Radford's cultural semiotic and Godino's onto-semiotic approaches: objectification and the semiotic function. The analysis…

Santi, George

2011-01-01

429

Evaluating resource selection functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A resource selection function (RSF) is any model that yields values proportional to the probability of use of a resource unit. RSF models often are fitted using generalized linear models (GLMs) although a variety of statistical models might be used. Information criteria such as the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) or Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC) are tools that can be useful

Mark S. Boyce; Pierre R. Vernier; Scott E. Nielsen; Fiona K. A. Schmiegelow

2002-01-01

430

Chromosome structure and function  

SciTech Connect

This book presents topics in chromosome structure and function. Topics covered include: the structure of interphase chromatin; chromatin structure, gene expression and differentiation; organization of mitotic chromosomes; organization of meiotic chromosomes and synaptonimal complexes; the lampbrush chromsome of animal oocytes; dosage compensation in mammals: x chromosome inactivation; and polytene chromosomes.

Risley, M.S.

1986-01-01

431

Functional Family Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reviews the major elements of the functional family therapy model, i.e., the conceptual underpinnings, empirical foundations, treatment goals, and technology. Topics addressed include: (1) the assumption that deviant behavior is an influence strategy not acceptable to others; (2) the use of intervention strategies; (3) the role of the…

Alexander, James F.; And Others

432

Functional Business Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Defines computerized functional business games as those focusing on decision making and integration in the areas of accounting/finance, marketing, personnel/human resources, and production/operations. Nine currently available games are reviewed and evaluated in the context of a learning model. (Author/LRW)|

Biggs, William D.

1987-01-01

433

Color and Psychological Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color is a ubiquitous perceptual experience, yet little scientific information about the influence of color on affect, cognition, and behavior is available. Accordingly, we have developed a general model of color and psychological functioning, which we present in this article. We also describe a hypothesis derived from this model regarding the influence of red in achievement contexts. In addition, we

Andrew J. Elliot; Markus A. Maier

2007-01-01

434

Improved Heterogeneous Distance Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instance-based learning techniques typically handle continuous and linear input values well, but often do not handle nominal input attributes appropriately. The Value Difference Metric (VDM) was designed to find reasonable distance values between nominal attribute values, but it largely ignores continuous attributes, requiring discretization to map continuous values into nominal values. This paper proposes three new heterogeneous distance functions, called

D. Randall Wilson; Tony R. Martinez

1997-01-01

435

Muscle function loss  

MedlinePLUS

... nerve injury, or brain damage ( stroke or other brain injury) The loss of muscle function after these types of events can be severe. Often it will not completely return, even with treatment. Paralysis can be temporary or permanent. It can affect ...

436

Deriving Function From Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The fold and biochemical activity of a protein are tightly coupled. Once a protein is characterized, it is usual to determine\\u000a its structure in order to derive an atomic descrip- tion of its molecular mechanism. The fold reveals interaction surfaces,\\u000a ligand-binding pockets, and the precise juxtaposition of functional groups.

Annabel E. Todd

437

Movement with Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These three investigations use movement to reinforce the concepts of linear functions and systems of equations. Multiple representations are used throughout, along with tools such as motion detectors and remote-controlled cars. Students explore how position, speed, and varying motion are reflected in graphs, tables, and algebraic equations.

Mathematics, Illuminations N.

2009-12-04

438

A Utile Function Optimizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recast the problem of unconstrained con- tinuous evolutionary optimization as inference in a fixed graphical model. This approach allows us to address several pervasive issues in optimization, including the traditionally difficult problem of selecting an algorithm that is most appropriate for a given task. This is accomplished by placing a prior distribution over the expected class of functions, then

Christopher K. Monson; Kevin D. Seppi; James L. Carroll

2007-01-01

439

Jost functions for quarkonium  

SciTech Connect

The authors examine the interaction in quarkonium by means of the potential V(r) = -..cap alpha..r + ..beta..r + V/sub o/. Within the framework of the Fuda generalization of the van Leeuwen-Reiner approach, the off-shell Jost functions and the off-shell and half-off-shell T-matrices are derived

Pikh, S.S.; Lis, O.M.

1986-11-01

440

Parallelism and Functionalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has recently been argued by Paul Thagard (1986) that parallel computational models of cognition demonstrate the falsity of the popular theory of mind known as funct\\/onal\\/sm. It is my contention that his argument is seriously mistaken and rests on a misunderstanding of the functionalist position. While my primary aim is to defend functionalism from Thagard's attack, in the process

William M. Ramsey

1989-01-01

441

Hydrogenic Wave Functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter summarizes the solutions of the one-electron nonrelativistic Schrödinger equation, and the one-electron relativistic Dirac equation, for the Coulomb potential. The standard notations and conventions used in the mathematics literature for special functions have been chosen in preference to the notations customarily used in the physics literature whenever there is a conflict. This has been done to facilitate the use of standard reference works such as Abramowitz and Stegun [9.1], the Bateman project [9.2,3], Gradshteyn and Ryzhik [9.4], Jahnke and Emde [9.5], Luke [9.6,7], Magnus, Oberhettinger, and Soni [9.8], Olver [9.9], Szego [9.10], and the new NIST Digital Library of Mathematical Functions project, which is preparing a hardcover update [9.11] of Abramowitz and Stegun [9.1] and an online digital library of mathematical functions [9.12]. The section on special functions contains many of the formulas which are needed to check the results quoted in the previous sections, together with a number of other useful formulas. Itincludes a brief introduction to asymptotic methods.

Hill, Robert

442

Iridescence: a functional perspective  

PubMed Central

In animals, iridescence is generated by the interaction of light with biological tissues that are nanostructured to produce thin films or diffraction gratings. Uniquely among animal visual signals, the study of iridescent coloration contributes to biological and physical sciences by enhancing our understanding of the evolution of communication strategies, and by providing insights into physical optics and inspiring biomimetic technologies useful to humans. Iridescent colours are found in a broad diversity of animal taxa ranging from diminutive marine copepods to terrestrial insects and birds. Iridescent coloration has received a surge of research interest of late, and studies have focused on both characterizing the nanostructures responsible for producing iridescence and identifying the behavioural functions of iridescent colours. In this paper, we begin with a brief description of colour production mechanisms in animals and provide a general overview of the taxonomic distribution of iridescent colours. We then highlight unique properties of iridescent signals and review the proposed functions of iridescent coloration, focusing, in particular, on the ways in which iridescent colours allow animals to communicate with conspecifics and avoid predators. We conclude with a brief overview of non-communicative functions of iridescence in animals. Despite the vast amount of recent work on animal iridescence, our review reveals that many proposed functions of iridescent coloration remain virtually unexplored, and this area is clearly ripe for future research.

Doucet, Stephanie M.; Meadows, Melissa G.

2009-01-01

443

Two Variable Function Pump  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Enter two complex numbers (z and c) as ordered pairs of real numbers, then click a button to iterate step by step. The iterates are graphed in the x-y plane and printed out in table form. This is an introduction to the idea of prisoners/escapees in iterated functions and the calculation of fractal Julia sets.

444

Structure and Function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Structure and Function is a graduate-level professional development course designed to enhance your understanding and teaching of life science. In two sessions, you will investigate life science topics using hands-on activities and online resources including video segments, interactive activities, readings, and other multimedia materials. These resources are drawn from Teachers' Domain, WGBH's digital library service.

2010-01-01

445

Applying radial basis functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the application of neural networks to general and radial basis functions and in particular to adaptive equalization and interference rejection problems. Neural-network-based algorithms strike a good balance between performance and complexity in adaptive equalization, and show promise in spread spectrum systems

BERNARD MULGREW

1996-01-01

446

Generalized Q-functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modulus squared of a class of wavefunctions defined on phase space is used to define a generalized family of Q or Husimi functions. A parameter ? specifies orderings in a mapping from the operator |????| to the corresponding phase space wavefunction, where ? is a given fiducial vector. The choice ? = 0 specifies the Weyl mapping and the

T. B. Smith

2006-01-01

447

The photon wave function  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review and sharpen the concept of a photon wave function based on the quantum theory of light. We argue that a point-like atom serves as the archetype for both the creation and detection of photons. Spontaneous emission from atoms provides a spatially localized source of photon states that serves as a natural wave packet basis for quantum states of

A. Muthukrishnan; M. O. Scully; M. S. Zubairy

2005-01-01

448

COPPER AND BRAIN FUNCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing evidence shows that brain development and function are impaired when the brain is deprived of copper either through dietary copper deficiency or through genetic defects in copper transport. A number of copper-dependent enzymes whose activities are lowered by copper deprivation form the ba...

449

Arranging. CAP Job Function.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Job Function Booklet (Arranging) is one of the 14 components (see note) of the Career Alert Planning (CAP) program, a set of individualized materials designed to help participants find out about themselves and about the kind of work for which they are suited. In this program, participants become acquainted with occupations that are…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

450

Functionalities of Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functionality is a relationship between an independent and a dependent variable. In the article's four-part presentation, literacy is the independent variable; its relationship to the dependent variables of work, sex and age groups, justice, and individual and social values in Third World countries forms the focus of the discussion. (AG)

Adiseshiah, Malcolm S.

1975-01-01

451

Introduction to Green's Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The tutorial introducing students to Greenâs functions was first developed by Professor John Berger of the Colorado School of Mines. That tutorial has been expanded and updated by Professor Ernian Pan and Sandra Djurkovic of the Civil Engineering and the Mathematics Departments of the University of Akron. The zip file