Science.gov

Sample records for medium energy proton

  1. Low-energy cosmic ray protons from nuclear interactions of cosmic rays with the interstellar medium.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, H. T.

    1973-01-01

    The intensity of low-energy (less than 100 MeV) protons from nuclear interactions of higher-energy (above 100 MeV) cosmic rays with the interstellar medium is calculated. The resultant intensity in the 10- to 100-MeV range is larger by a factor of 3-5 than the observed proton intensity near earth. The calculated intensity from nuclear interactions constitutes a lower limit on the actual proton intensity in interstellar space.

  2. Medium energy proton radiation damage to (AlGa)As-GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loo, R. Y.; Kamath, G. S.; Knechtli, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of (AlGa)As-GaAs solar cells irradiated by medium energy 2, 5, and 10 MeV protons was evaluated. The Si cells without coverglass and a number of GaAs solar cells with 12 mil coverglass were irradiated simultaneously with bare GaAs cells. The cell degradation is directly related to the penetration of depth of protons with GaAs. The influence of periodic and continuous thermal annealing on the GaAs solar cells was investigated.

  3. A new medium energy beam transport line for the proton injector of AGS-RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.; Briscoe, B.; Fite, J.; LoDestro, V.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Hayashizaki, N.

    2010-09-12

    In Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a 750 keV medium energy beam transport line between the 201 MHz 750 keV proton RFQ and the 200 MeV Alvarez DTL is being modified to get a better transmission of the beam. Within a tight space, high field gradient quadrupoles (65 Tm) and newly designed steering magnets (6.5 mm in length) will be installed considering the cross-talk effects. Also a new half wave length 200 MHz buncher is being prepared. The beam commissioning will be done in this year. To enhance the performance of the proton linacs, the MEBT is being modified. New quadrupole magnets, steering magnets and a half wave length buncher as shown in Figure 7 will be installed and be commissioned soon.

  4. Multiplicity and entropy scaling of medium-energy protons emitted in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelsalam, A.; Kamel, S.; Hafiz, M. E.

    2015-10-01

    The behavior and the properties of medium-energy protons with kinetic energies in the range 26 - 400 MeV is derived from measurements of the particle yields and spectra in the final state of relativistic heavy-ion collisions (16O-AgBr interactions at 60 A and 200 A GeV and 32S-AgBr interactions at 3.7 A and 200 A GeV) and their interpretation in terms of the higher order moments. The multiplicity distributions have been fitted well with the Gaussian distribution function. The data are also compared with the predictions of the modified FRITIOF model, showing that the FRITIOF model does not reproduce the trend and the magnitude of the data. Measurements of the ratio of the variance to the mean show that the production of target fragments at high energies cannot be considered as a statistically independent process. However, the deviation of each multiplicity distribution from a Poisson law provides evidence for correlations. The KNO scaling behavior of two types of scaling (Koba-Nielsen-Olesen (KNO) scaling and Hegyi scaling) functions in terms of the multiplicity distribution is investigated. A simplified universal function has been used in each scaling to display the experimental data. An examination of the relationship between the entropy, the average multiplicity, and the KNO function is performed. Entropy production and subsequent scaling in nucleus-nucleus collisions are carried out by analyzing the experimental data over a wide energy range (Dubna and SPS). Interestingly, the data points corresponding to various energies overlap and fall on a single curve, indicating the presence of a kind of entropy scaling.

  5. Proton Reaction Data Library for Nuclear Activation (Medium Energy Nuclear Data Library.)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-03-01

    Version 00 GROUPXS does file handling and processing of the double-differential continuum-emission cross sections stored in the new MF6 format of ENDF/VI. It treats the energy-angle data that are supposed to be represented by a Legendre-polynomial expansion in the center-of-mass system and can do the following: (1) Conversion of MF6 data from center-of-mass system to the laboratory system, with the possibility to continue the calculation with the options (2), (3), and (4). (2) Conversion ofmore » Legendre-polynomial representation into point-wise angular data, in MF6 format. (3) Conversion of data from MF6 into MF4 + MF5 (ENDF-V). (4) Calculation of group constants, scattering matrices and transfer matrices for arbitrary group structures with a fusion micro-flux weighting spectrum (PN-approximation). The code treats only continuum reaction types that are stored in the MF6 format with the restrictions as specified for the European Fusion File (EFF1). These restrictions are not inconvenient for the purpose of fusion neutronics calculations and they facilitate relatively simple processing . This neutron reaction data library can be used for nuclear activation and transmutation applications at energies up to 100 MeV.« less

  6. Experimental Studies of the Coulomb Force Effects in Deuteron-Proton Break-up Reaction at Medium Energy Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciepał, I.; Parol, W.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Khatri, G.; Kistryn, St.; Kłos, B.; Kozela, A.; Kulessa, P.; Messchendorp, J.; Skwira-Chalot, I.; Stephan, E.; Włoch, B.

    2016-03-01

    A set of differential cross-section data of the 1H(d, pp)n breakup reaction at 130 and 160 MeV deuteron beam energies has been measured in the forward polar angles domain. The data were collected with the use of the Germanium Wall (FZ Jülich) and BINA (KVI Groningen) detectors. This part of the phase-space is special with respect to the dominant Coulomb force influence on the system dynamics. The data are compared with the theoretical calculations based on the Argonne V18 potential supplemented with the long-range electromagnetic component. The predictions also include the Urbana IX three nucleon force model. The strongest Coulomb effects are found in regions where the relative energy of the two protons is the smallest.

  7. Calculation of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent induced by medium energy neutrons and protons and comparison with experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Bishop, B. L.

    1972-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations have been carried out to determine the absorbed dose and dose equivalent for 592-MeV protons incident on a cylindrical phantom and for neutrons from 580-MeV proton-Be collisions incident on a semi-infinite phantom. For both configurations, the calculated depth dependence of the absorbed dose is in good agreement with experimental data.

  8. Tailoring medium energy proton beam to induce low energy nuclear reactions in ⁸⁶SrCl₂ for production of PET radioisotope ⁸⁶Y.

    PubMed

    Medvedev, Dmitri G; Mausner, Leonard F; Pile, Philip

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports results of experiments at Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) aiming to investigate effective production of positron emitting radioisotope (86)Y by the low energy (86)Sr(p,n) reaction. BLIP is a facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory designed for the proton irradiation of the targets for isotope production at high and intermediate proton energies. The proton beam is delivered by the Linear Accelerator (LINAC) whose incident energy is tunable from 200 to 66 MeV in approximately 21 MeV increments. The array was designed to ensure energy degradation from 66 MeV down to less than 20 MeV. Aluminum slabs were used to degrade the proton energy down to the required range. The production yield of (86)Y (1.2+/-0.1 mCi (44.4+/-3.7) MBq/μAh) and ratio of radioisotopic impurities was determined by assaying an aliquot of the irradiated (86)SrCl2 solution by gamma spectroscopy. The analysis of energy dependence of the (86)Y production yield and the ratios of radioisotopic impurities has been used to adjust degrader thickness. Experimental data showed substantial discrepancies in actual energy propagation compared to energy loss calculations. PMID:25813003

  9. Medium modifications of the rho meson at CERN super proton synchrotron energies (200 GeV/nucleon)

    SciTech Connect

    Chanfray, G.; Rapp, R.; Wambach, J.

    1996-01-01

    Rho meson propagation in hot hadronic matter is studied in a model with coupling to {pi}{pi} states. Medium modifications are induced by a change of the pion dispersion relation through collisions with nucleons and {Delta}{close_quote}s in the fireball. Maintaining gauge invariance dilepton production is calculated and compared to the recent data of the CERES Collaboration in central S+Au collisions at 200 GeV/u. The observed enhancement of the rate below the rho meson mass can be largely accounted for. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  10. On the anisotropies of interplanetary low-energy proton intensities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesses, M. E.; Sarris, E. T.

    1975-01-01

    Explorer 35 proton anisotropic flux data (proton energies between 0.3 and 6.3 MeV) and simultaneous magnetic field measurements were used to supply more information on the propagation characteristics of low-energy protons in the interplanetary medium. During the rising portions of the proton events, large field-aligned anisotropies were observed. During the decaying part of the proton events, either radial anisotropy or near-isotropy was noticed. In addition, certain observations made during the decaying part of the proton events revealed anisotropies deviating significantly from the radial direction.

  11. Experimental medium energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: search for the H-dibaryon at the AGS; weak interaction studies with hypernuclear decays at the AGS; search for the {xi}(2230) at LEAR; relativistic proton-nucleus and heavy ion-nucleus collisions at the SPS; hyperon-antihyperon production studies at LEAR; photoproduction of strange CEBAF; and experiment design development.

  12. Experimental Medium Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Search for the H Dibaryon at the AGS; hypernuclear weak decay studies at the LAGS; search for strangelets using the 2 GeV/c beam line; experiment to detect double lambda hypernuclei; hyperon photoproduction at CEBAF; the region 1 drift chambers for the CLAS spectrometer; parity violating electron scattering from the proton: the G{sup 0}experiment at CEBAF; and relativistic heavy ion - nucleus collisions at the SPS.

  13. Charm quark energy loss in proton-proton collisions at LHC energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Sascha; Gossiaux, Pol Bernard; Werner, Klaus; Aichelin, Jörg

    2013-03-01

    Heavy quarks, i.e. charm and bottom quarks are one of the crucial probes in the high energy nuclear collision program at current day accelerators. It has been shown at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) that heavy quarks show a remarkable medium suppression despite their high mass. In these proceedings we report on a study of heavy quark energy loss in high multiplicity proton-proton collisions at energies accessible to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Recent experimental results from the LHC collaborations have shown that the notion of creating an interacting system is not completely off limits. The higher energies in LHC proton-proton collisions lead to multiplicities comparable to Cu+Cu collisions at RHIC. Within this environment high-momentum heavy quarks experience a non-negligible energy loss.

  14. A vertical-beam target station and high-power targetry for the cyclotron production of radionuclides with medium energy protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steyn, G. F.; Vermeulen, C.; Botha, A. H.; Conradie, J. L.; Crafford, J. P. A.; Delsink, J. L. G.; Dietrich, J.; du Plessis, H.; Fourie, D. T.; Kormány, Z.; van Niekerk, M. J.; Rohwer, P. F.; Stodart, N. P.; de Villiers, J. G.

    2013-11-01

    A vertical-beam target station (VBTS) is described to exploit the high-intensity proton beams delivered by the upgraded separated-sector cyclotron of iThemba LABS for the production of longer-lived, high value radionuclides such as 22Na, 68Ge and 82Sr. Aspects of the targetry are discussed as well as a beam splitter, which makes it possible to perform radionuclide production bombardments simultaneously in two irradiation vaults. With tandem targets in two stations, four targets can be bombarded simultaneously. The delivery of 66 MeV proton beams of higher intensity has been realized by installing fixed frequency, flat-top RF resonators on both the main cyclotron and an injector cyclotron. The increase in beam intensity also required new non-destructive diagnostic components in the relevant high-energy beamlines. An overview is given of the current radionuclide production target stations, their similarities and differences and the role of the VBTS in the production programme.

  15. [Medium energy meson research

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    The activities of this group are primarily concerned with experiments using the Crystal Barrel Detector. This detector is installed and operating at the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) at CERN. QCD, the modem theory of the strong interaction, is reasonably well understood at high energies, but unfortunately, low-energy QCD is still not well understood, and is far from being adequately tested. The Crystal Barrel experiments are designed to provide some of the tests. The basic line of research involves meson spectroscopy, analyses bearing on the quark and/or gluon content of nuclear states, and the exploration of mechanisms and rules which govern p[bar p] annihilation dynamics. The Crystal Barrel Detector detects and identifies charged and neutral particles with a geometric acceptance close to 100%. The principal component of the detector is an array of 1,380 CsI(TI) crystals. These crystals surround a Jet Drift Chamber (JDC), located in a 1.5 Tesla magnetic field, which measures the momentum and dE/dx of charged particles. One of the very interesting physics goals of the detector is a search for exotic mesonic states -- glueballs and hybrids. Annihilation at rest will be studied with both liquid and gaseous hydrogen targets. The gaseous target offers the possibility of triggering on atomic L-shell X rays so that specific initial angular momentum states can be studied.These topics as well as other related topics are discussed in this report.

  16. [Medium energy meson research

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, K.M.

    1992-12-01

    The activities of this group are primarily concerned with experiments using the Crystal Barrel Detector. This detector is installed and operating at the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) at CERN. QCD, the modem theory of the strong interaction, is reasonably well understood at high energies, but unfortunately, low-energy QCD is still not well understood, and is far from being adequately tested. The Crystal Barrel experiments are designed to provide some of the tests. The basic line of research involves meson spectroscopy, analyses bearing on the quark and/or gluon content of nuclear states, and the exploration of mechanisms and rules which govern p{bar p} annihilation dynamics. The Crystal Barrel Detector detects and identifies charged and neutral particles with a geometric acceptance close to 100%. The principal component of the detector is an array of 1,380 CsI(TI) crystals. These crystals surround a Jet Drift Chamber (JDC), located in a 1.5 Tesla magnetic field, which measures the momentum and dE/dx of charged particles. One of the very interesting physics goals of the detector is a search for exotic mesonic states -- glueballs and hybrids. Annihilation at rest will be studied with both liquid and gaseous hydrogen targets. The gaseous target offers the possibility of triggering on atomic L-shell X rays so that specific initial angular momentum states can be studied.These topics as well as other related topics are discussed in this report.

  17. Effect of intermolecular orientation upon proton transfer within a polarizable medium.

    PubMed Central

    Scheiner, S; Duan, X

    1991-01-01

    Ab initio calculations are used to investigate the proton transfer process in bacteriorhodopsin. HN = CH2 serves as a small prototype of the Schiff base while HCOO- models its carboxylate-containing counterion and HO- the hydroxyl group of water of tyrosine, leading to the HCOO-..H+..NHCH2 and HO-..H+..NHCH2 complexes. In isolation, both complexes prefer a neutral pair configuration wherein the central proton is associated with the anion. However, the Schiff base may be protonated in the former complex, producing the HCOO-..+HNHCH2 ion pair, when there is a high degree of dielectric coupling with an external polarizable medium. Within a range of intermediate level coupling, the equilibrium position of the proton (on either the carboxylate or Schiff base) can be switched by suitable changes in the intermolecular angle. pK shift resulting from a 60 degrees reorientation are calculated to be some 5-12 pK U within the coupling range where proton transfers are possible. The energy barrier to proton transfer reinforces the ability of changes in angle and dielectric coupling to induce a proton transfer. PMID:1660318

  18. Low-Energy Proton Testing Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Marshall, Paul W.; Heidel, David F.; Schwank, James R.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Xapsos, M.A.; Ladbury, Raymond L.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Berg, Melanie; Kim, Hak S.; Phan, Anthony; Friendlich, M.R.; Rodbell, Kenneth P.; Hakey, Mark C.; Dodd, Paul E.; Reed, Robert A.; Weller, Robert A.; Mendenhall, Marcus H.; Sierawski, B.D.

    2009-01-01

    Use of low-energy protons and high-energy light ions is becoming necessary to investigate current-generation SEU thresholds. Systematic errors can dominate measurements made with low-energy protons. Range and energy straggling contribute to systematic error. Low-energy proton testing is not a step-and-repeat process. Low-energy protons and high-energy light ions can be used to measure SEU cross section of single sensitive features; important for simulation.

  19. Developing a phenomenological model of the proton trajectory within a heterogeneous medium required for proton imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins Fekete, Charles-Antoine; Doolan, Paul; Dias, Marta F.; Beaulieu, Luc; Seco, Joao

    2015-07-01

    To develop an accurate phenomenological model of the cubic spline path estimate of the proton path, accounting for the initial proton energy and water equivalent thickness (WET) traversed. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were used to calculate the path of protons crossing various WET (10-30 cm) of different material (LN300, water and CB2-50% CaCO3) for a range of initial energies (180-330 MeV). For each MC trajectory, cubic spline trajectories (CST) were constructed based on the entrance and exit information of the protons and compared with the MC using the root mean square (RMS) metric. The CST path is dependent on the direction vector magnitudes (|P0,1|). First, |P0,1| is set to the proton path length (with factor Λ0,1\\text{Norm} = 1.0). Then, two optimal factor Λ0,1{} are introduced in |P0,1|. The factors are varied to minimize the RMS difference with MC paths for every configuration. A set of Λ0,1\\text{opt} factors, function of WET/water equivalent path length (WEPL), that minimizes the RMS are presented. MTF analysis is then performed on proton radiographs of a line-pair phantom reconstructed using the CST trajectories. Λ0,1\\text{opt} was fitted to the WET/WEPL ratio using a quadratic function (Y = A + BX2 where A = 1.01,0.99, B = 0.43,-  0.46 respectively for Λ0\\text{opt} , Λ1\\text{opt} ). The RMS deviation calculated along the path, between the CST and the MC, increases with the WET. The increase is larger when using Λ0,1\\text{Norm} than Λ0,1\\text{opt} (difference of 5.0% with WET/WEPL = 0.66). For 230/330 MeV protons, the MTF10% was found to increase by 40/16% respectively for a thin phantom (15 cm) when using the Λ0,1\\text{opt} model compared to the Λ0,1\\text{Norm} model. Calculation times for Λ0,1\\text{opt} are scaled down compared to MLP and RMS deviation are similar within standard deviation. Based on the results of this study, using CST with the Λ0,1\\text{opt} factors reduces the RMS deviation and increases the spatial

  20. Developing a phenomenological model of the proton trajectory within a heterogeneous medium required for proton imaging.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Charles-Antoine Collins; Doolan, Paul; Dias, Marta F; Beaulieu, Luc; Seco, Joao

    2015-07-01

    To develop an accurate phenomenological model of the cubic spline path estimate of the proton path, accounting for the initial proton energy and water equivalent thickness (WET) traversed. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were used to calculate the path of protons crossing various WET (10-30 cm) of different material (LN300, water and CB2-50% CaCO3) for a range of initial energies (180-330 MeV). For each MC trajectory, cubic spline trajectories (CST) were constructed based on the entrance and exit information of the protons and compared with the MC using the root mean square (RMS) metric. The CST path is dependent on the direction vector magnitudes (|P0,1|). First, |P0,1| is set to the proton path length (with factor Λ(Norm)(0,1) = 1.0). Then, two optimal factor Λ(0,1) are introduced in |P0,1|. The factors are varied to minimize the RMS difference with MC paths for every configuration. A set of Λ(opt)(0,1) factors, function of WET/water equivalent path length (WEPL), that minimizes the RMS are presented. MTF analysis is then performed on proton radiographs of a line-pair phantom reconstructed using the CST trajectories. Λ(opt)(0,1) was fitted to the WET/WEPL ratio using a quadratic function (Y = A + BX(2) where A = 1.01,0.99, B = 0.43,-  0.46 respectively for Λ(opt)(0), Λ(opt)(1)). The RMS deviation calculated along the path, between the CST and the MC, increases with the WET. The increase is larger when using Λ(Norm)(0,1) than Λ(opt)(0,1) (difference of 5.0% with WET/WEPL = 0.66). For 230/330 MeV protons, the MTF10% was found to increase by 40/16% respectively for a thin phantom (15 cm) when using the Λ(opt)(0,1) model compared to the Λ(Norm)(0,1) model. Calculation times for Λ(opt)(0,1) are scaled down compared to MLP and RMS deviation are similar within standard deviation.B ased on the results of this study, using CST with the Λ(opt)(0,1) factors reduces the RMS deviation and increases the spatial resolution when reconstructing proton

  1. Fisk-Gloeckler Suprathermal Proton Spectrum in the Heliosheath and the Local Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Niemann, H. B.; Hartle, R. E.; Paschalidis, N.; Chornay, D.; Coplan, M.; Johnson, R. E.

    2010-01-01

    Convergence of suprathermal keV-MeV proton and ion spectra approximately to the Fisk-Gloeckler (F-G) form j(E) = j(sub 0) E(sup -1.5) in Voyager land 2 heliosheath measurements is suggestive of distributed acceleration in Kolmogorov turbulence which may extend well beyond the heliopause into the local interstellar medium (LISM). Turbulence of this type is already indicated by interstellar radio scintillation measurements of electron density power spectra. Previously published extrapolations (Cooper et al., 2003, 2006) of the LISM proton spectrum from eV to GeV energies are highly consistent with the F-G power-law and further indicative of such turbulence and LISM effectiveness of the F-G cascade acceleration process. The LISM pressure computed from this spectrum well exceeds that from current estimates for the LISM magnetic field, so exchange of energy between the protons and the magnetic field would likely have a strong role in evolution of the turbulence as per the F-G theory and as long ago proposed for cosmic ray energies by Parker and others. Pressure-dependent estimates of the LISM field strength should not ignore this potentially strong and even dominant contribution from the plasma. Presence of high-beta suprathermal plasma on LISM field lines could significantly affect interactions with the heliospheric outer boundary region and might potentially account for distributed and more discrete features in ongoing measurements of energetic neutral emission from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) mission.

  2. Medium energy elementary particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: muon beam development at LAMPF; muon physics; a new precision measurement of the muon g-2 value; measurement of the spin-dependent structure functions of the neutron and proton; and meson factories. (LSP)

  3. Studies in medium energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Green, A.; Hoffmann, G.W.; McDonough, J.; Purcell, M.J.; Ray, R.L.; Read, D.E.; Worn, S.D.

    1991-12-01

    This document constitutes the (1991--1992) technical progress report and continuation proposal for the ongoing medium energy nuclear physics research program supported by the US Department of Energy through special Research Grant DE-FG05-88ER40444. The experiments discussed are conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) and the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) facility of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The overall motivation for the work discussed in this document is driven by three main objectives: (1) provide hadron-nucleon and hadron-nucleus scattering data which serve to facilitate the study of effective two-body interactions, test (and possibly determine) nuclear structure, and help study reaction mechanisms and dynamics; (2) provide unique, first-of-a-kind exploratory'' hadron-nucleus scattering data in the hope that such data will lead to discovery of new phenomena and new physics; and (3) perform precision tests of fundamental interactions, such as rare decay searches, whose observation would imply fundamental new physics.

  4. Elastic Proton Scattering of Medium Mass Nuclei from Coupled-Cluster Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, G.; MichelN.,

    2012-01-01

    Using coupled-cluster theory and interactions from chiral effective field theory, we compute overlap functions for transfer and scattering of low-energy protons on the target nucleus 40Ca. Effects of three-nucleon forces are included phenomenologically as in-medium two-nucleon interactions. Using known asymptotic forms for one-nucleon overlap functions we derive a simple and intuitive way of computing scattering observables such as elastic scattering phase shifts and cross sections. As a first application and proof of principle, we compute phase shifts and differential interaction cross sections at energies of 9.6 and 12.44 MeV and compare with experimental data. Our computed diffraction minima are in fair agreement with experimental results, while we tend to overestimate the cross sections at large scattering angles.

  5. Heavy quark energy loss in high multiplicity proton-proton collisions at the LHC.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Sascha; Gossiaux, Pol Bernard; Werner, Klaus; Aichelin, Jörg

    2011-07-15

    One of the most promising probes to study deconfined matter created in high energy nuclear collisions is the energy loss of (heavy) quarks. It has been shown in experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider that even charm and bottom quarks, despite their high mass, experience a remarkable medium suppression in the quark gluon plasma. In this exploratory investigation we study the energy loss of heavy quarks in high multiplicity proton-proton collisions at LHC energies. Although the colliding systems are smaller than compared to those at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (p+p vs Au+Au), the higher energy might lead to multiplicities comparable to Cu+Cu collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The interaction of charm quarks with this environment gives rise to a non-negligible suppression of high momentum heavy quarks in elementary collisions. PMID:21838351

  6. Proton conducting, composite sulfonated polymer membrane for medium temperature and low relative humidity fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dong Won; Kang, Na Rae; Lee, Kang Hyuck; Cho, Doo Hee; Kim, Ji Hoon; Lee, Won Hyo; Lee, Young Moo

    2014-09-01

    Inorganic-organic composite membranes are fabricated using zirconium acetylacetonate nanoparticles and biphenol-based sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) as an inorganic, proton conducting nanomaterial and a polymer matrix, respectively. An amphiphilic surfactant (Pluronic®) induces distribution of the inorganic nanoparticles over the entire polymer membrane. The composite membranes are thermally stable up to 200 °C. Zirconium acetylacetonate improves inter-chain interactions and the robustness of polymer membranes resulting in excellent membrane mechanical properties. In addition, composite membranes show outstanding proton conductivity compared to that of the pristine membrane at medium temperatures (80-120 °C) and low relative humidity (<50%) conditions. This improvement is due to the presence of acetylacetonate anions, which bind water molecules and act as an additional proton conducting site and/or medium. Therefore, the composite membranes significantly outperform the pristine membrane in fuel cell performance tests at medium temperatures and low relative humidity.

  7. Hydrogen as an energy medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, K. E.

    1976-01-01

    Coal, though abundant in certain geographical locations of the USA poses environmental problems associated with its mining and combustion. Also, nuclear fission energy appears to have problems regarding safety and radioactive waste disposal that are as yet unresolved. The paper discusses hydrogen use and market projection along with energy sources for hydrogen production. Particular attention is given to hydrogen production technology as related to electrolysis and thermochemical water decomposition. Economics of hydrogen will ultimately be determined by the price and availability of future energy carriers such as electricity and synthetic natural gas. Thermochemical methods of hydrogen production appear to offer promise largely in the efficiency of energy conversion and in capital costs over electrolytic methods.

  8. Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering Excitation Functions at Intermediate Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Bisplinghoff, J.; Daniel, R.; Diehl, O.; Engelhardt, H.; Ernst, J.; Eversheim, P.; Gro-Hardt, R.; Heider, S.; Heine, A.; Hinterberger, F.; Jahn, R.; Jeske, M.; Lahr, U.; Maschuw, R.; Mayer-Kuckuk, T.; Mosel, F.; Rohdje, H.; Rosendaal, D.; Ro, U.; Scheid, H.; Schulz-Rojahn, M.; Schwandt, F.; Schwarz, V.; Trelle, H.; Wiedmann, W.; Ziegler, R.; Albers, D.; Bollmann, R.; Bueer, K.; Dohrmann, F.; Gasthuber, M.; Greiff, J.; Gro, A.; Igelbrink, M.; Langkau, R.; Lindlein, J.; Mueller, M.; Muenstermann, M.; Schirm, N.; Scobel, W.; Wellinghausen, A.; Woller, K.; Cloth, P.; Gebel, R.; Maier, R.; Prasuhn, D.; von Rossen, P.; Sterzenbach, G.

    1997-03-01

    Excitation functions of proton-proton elastic scattering cross sections have been measured in narrow steps for projectile momenta p{sub p} (energies T{sub p}) from 1100 to 3300MeV/c (500 to 2500MeV) in the angular range 35{degree}{le}{Theta}{sub c.m.}{le}90{degree} with a detector providing {Delta}{Theta}{sub c.m.}{approx}1.4{degree} resolution. Measurements have been performed continuously during projectile acceleration in the cooler synchrotron COSY with an internal CH{sub 2} fiber target, taking particular care to monitor luminosity as a function of T{sub p}. The advantages of this experimental technique are demonstrated, and the excitation functions obtained are compared to existing cross section data. No evidence for narrow structures was found. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Is the reaction between formic acid and protonated aminomethanol a possible source of glycine precursors in the interstellar medium?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redondo, Pilar; Largo, Antonio; Barrientos, Carmen

    2015-07-01

    Context. One of the most interesting questions in interstellar chemistry concerns whether we can detect the basic building blocks of proteins in astronomical sources. In ascertaining whether amino acids could be possible interstellar molecules, a crucial point is how they could be synthesized in the interstellar medium. Aims: We do a theoretical study of the ion-molecule reaction involving protonated aminomethanol and formic acid to establish its viability in space. This ion-molecule reaction has been proposed by other authors as a possible way to produce glycine in the interstellar medium. Methods: The relevant stationary points on the potential energy surface of the reaction between protonated aminomethanol and formic acid have been theoretically studied by using ab initio methods. The second-order Moller-Plesset level was employed, in conjunction with the correlation-consistent polarized valence triple-zeta (cc-pVTZ) basis set. In addition, the electronic energies were refined by means of single-point calculations at the CCSD(T) level (coupled cluster single and double excitation model augmented with a non-iterative treatment of triple excitations) on the MP2/cc-pVTZ geometries with the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set. Results: Formation of protonated glycine is an exothermic process; however, the process presents a net activation barrier that makes this reaction unfeasible under interstellar conditions. Conclusions: The reaction of protonated aminomethanol with formic acid does not seem to be a plausible source of interstellar glycine. This particular case is a clear example that a detailed study of the potential energy surface is needed to establish the relevance of a process in the interstellar medium.

  10. Energy Production Demonstrator for Megawatt Proton Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Pronskikh, Vitaly S.; Mokhov, Nikolai V.; Novitski, Igor; Tyutyunnikov, Sergey I.

    2014-07-16

    A preliminary study of the Energy Production Demonstrator (EPD) concept - a solid heavy metal target irradiated by GeV-range intense proton beams and producing more energy than consuming - is carried out. Neutron production, fission, energy deposition, energy gain, testing volume and helium production are simulated with the MARS15 code for tungsten, thorium, and natural uranium targets in the proton energy range 0.5 to 120 GeV. This study shows that the proton energy range of 2 to 4 GeV is optimal for both a natU EPD and the tungsten-based testing station that would be the most suitable for proton accelerator facilities. Conservative estimates, not including breeding and fission of plutonium, based on the simulations suggest that the proton beam current of 1 mA will be sufficient to produce 1 GW of thermal output power with the natU EPD while supplying < 8% of that power to operate the accelerator. The thermal analysis shows that the concept considered has a problem due to a possible core meltdown; however, a number of approaches (a beam rastering, in first place) are suggested to mitigate the issue. The efficiency of the considered EPD as a Materials Test Station (MTS) is also evaluated in this study.

  11. Medium energy nuclear physics research

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, G.A.; Dubach, J.F.; Hicks, R.S.; Miskimen, R.A.

    1988-09-01

    The UMass group has concentrated on using electromagnetic probes, particularly the electron in high-energy scattering experiments at the Stanford Liner Accelerator Center (SLAC). Plans are also being made for high energy work at the Continuous Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). The properties of this accelerator should permit a whole new class of coincidence experiments to be carried out. At SLAC UMass has made major contributions toward the plans for a cluster-jet gas target and detector system at the 16 GeV PEP storage ring. For the future CEBAF accelerator, tests were made of the feasibility of operating wire drift chambers in the vicinity of a continuous electron beam at the University Illinois microtron. At the same time a program of studies of the nuclear structure of more complex nuclei has been continued at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center and in Amsterdam at the NIKHEF-K laboratory. At the MIT-Bates Accelerator, because of an unforeseen change in beam scheduling as a result of problems with the T{sub 20} experiment, the UMass group was able to complete data acquisition on experiments involving 180{degrees} elastic magnetic scattering on {sup 117}Sn and {sup 41}Ca. A considerable effort has been given to preparations for a future experiment at Bates involving the high-resolution threshold electrodisintegration of the deuteron. The use of these chambers should permit a high degree of discrimination against background events in the measurement of the almost neutrino-like small cross sections that are expected. In Amsterdam at the NIKHEF-K facility, single arm (e,e{prime}) measurements were made in November of 1987 on {sup 10}B in order to better determine the p{sub 3/2} wave function from the transition from the J{sup pi} = 3{sup +} ground state to the O{sup +} excited state at 1.74 MeV. In 1988, (e,e{prime}p) coincidence measurements on {sup 10}B were completed. The objective was to obtain information on the p{sub 3/2} wave function by another means.

  12. Medium energy nuclear physics research

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, G.A.; Dubach, J.F.; Hicks, R.S.; Miskimen, R.A.

    1992-06-01

    This paper covers the following topics: Experiment 87-02: Threshold Electrodisintegration of the Deuteron at High Q{sup 2}; Measurement of the 5th Structure Function in Deuterium and {sup 12}C; Single-Particle Densities of sd-Shell Nuclei; Experiment 84-28: Transverse Form Factors of {sup 117}Sn; Experiment 82-11: Elastic Magnetic Electron Scattering from {sup 13}C; Experiment 89-09: Measurement of the Elastic Magnetic Form Factor of {sup 3}He at High Momentum Transfer; Experiment 89-15: Coincidence Measurement of the D(e,e{prime}p) Cross-Section at Low Excitation Energy and High Momentum Transfer; Experiment 87-09: Measurement of the Quadrupole Contribution to the N {yields} {Delta} Excitation; Experiment E-140: Measurement of the x-, Q{sup 2} and A-Dependence of R = {sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub T}; PEP Beam-Gas Event Analysis: Physics with the SLAC TPC/2{gamma} Detector; Drift Chamber Tests at Brookhaven National Laboratory; Experiment PR-89-031: Multi-nucleon Knockout Using the CLAS Detector; Electronics Design for the CLAS Region 1 Drift Chamber; Color Transparencies in the Electroproduction of Nucleon Resonances; and Experiment PR-89-015: Study of Coincidence Reactions in the Dip and Delta-Resonance Regions.

  13. The spectrum of flare protons in the low-energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daibog, E. I.; Kurt, V. G.; Stolpovskii, V. G.

    1981-09-01

    An analysis is presented of the spectra of flare protons in the 0.08-150 MeV energy range, measured at about 1 AE on the Prognoz-6 satellite. The spectral data are compared with the energy dependence of the observation time of the maximum flux of flare protons. It is shown that changes in the slope in the spectrum and in the energy dependence of maximum times occur at approximately the same energy. Energy losses of protons in the interplanetary medium due to adiabatic cooling are determined. This effect is significant for protons with energies less than 1 MeV, and, in the case of flares of low importance, plays a decisive role in the formation of the spectrum of the observed flare protons.

  14. Energies of backstreaming protons in the foreshock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenstadt, E. W.

    1976-01-01

    A predicted pattern of energy vs detector location in the cislunar region is displayed for protons of zero pitch angle traveling upstream away from the quasi-parallel bow shock. The pattern is implied by upstream wave boundary properties. In the solar ecliptic, protons are estimated to have a minimum of 1.1 times the solar wind bulk energy E sub SW when the wave boundary is in the early morning sector and a maximum of 8.2 E sub SW when the boundary is near the predawn flank.

  15. Proton-Nucleus Elastic Cross Sections Using Two-Body In-Medium Scattering Amplitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, a method was developed of extracting nucleon-nucleon (NN) cross sections in the medium directly from experiment. The in-medium NN cross sections form the basic ingredients of several heavy-ion scattering approaches including the coupled-channel approach developed at the Langley Research Center. The ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the two-body scattering amplitude in the medium was investigated. These ratios are used in combination with the in-medium NN cross sections to calculate elastic proton-nucleus cross sections. The agreement is excellent with the available experimental data. These cross sections are needed for the radiation risk assessment of space missions.

  16. A CW superconducting linac as the proton driver for a medium baseline neutrino beam in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-Hui; Tang, Jing-Yu

    2014-12-01

    In a long-term planning for neutrino experiments in China, a medium baseline neutrino beam is proposed which uses a continue wave (CW) superconducting linac of 15 MW in beam power as the proton driver. The linac will be based on the technologies which are under development by the China-ADS project, namely it is also composed of a 3.2 MeV normal conducting RFQ and five different types of superconducting cavities. However, the design philosophy is quite different from the China-ADS linac because of the much weaker requirement on reliability here. The nominal design energy and current are 1.5 GeV and 10 mA, respectively. The general considerations and preliminary results on the physics design will be presented here. In addition, the alternative designs such as 2.0 GeV and 2.5 GeV, which may be required by the general design, can be easily extended from the nominal one.

  17. Calibration of a proton beam energy monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Moyers, M. F.; Coutrakon, G. B.; Ghebremedhin, A.; Shahnazi, K.; Koss, P.; Sanders, E.

    2007-06-15

    Delivery of therapeutic proton beams requires an absolute energy accuracy of {+-}0.64 to 0.27 MeV for patch fields and a relative energy accuracy of {+-}0.10 to 0.25 MeV for tailoring the depth dose distribution using the energy stacking technique. Achromatic switchyard tunes, which lead to better stability of the beam incident onto the patient, unfortunately limit the ability of switchyard magnet tesla meters to verify the correct beam energy within the tolerances listed above. A new monitor to measure the proton energy before each pulse is transported through the switchyard has been installed into a proton synchrotron. The purpose of this monitor is to correct and/or inhibit beam delivery when the measured beam energy is outside of the tolerances for treatment. The monitor calculates the beam energy using data from two frequency and eight beam position monitors that measure the revolution frequency of the proton bunches and the effective offset of the orbit from the nominal radius of the synchrotron. The new energy monitor has been calibrated by measuring the range of the beam through water and comparing with published range-energy tables for various energies. A relationship between depth dose curves and range-energy tables was first determined using Monte Carlo simulations of particle transport and energy deposition. To reduce the uncertainties associated with typical scanning water phantoms, a new technique was devised in which the beam energy was scanned while fixed thickness water tanks were sandwiched between two fixed parallel plate ionization chambers. Using a multitude of tank sizes, several energies were tested to determine the nominal accelerator orbit radius. After calibration, the energy reported by the control system matched the energy derived by range measurements to better than 0.72 MeV for all nine energies tested between 40 and 255 MeV with an average difference of -0.33 MeV. A study of different combinations of revolution frequency and radial

  18. Calibration of a proton beam energy monitor.

    PubMed

    Moyers, M F; Coutrakon, G B; Ghebremedhin, A; Shahnazi, K; Koss, P; Sanders, E

    2007-06-01

    Delivery of therapeutic proton beams requires an absolute energy accuracy of +/-0.64 to 0.27 MeV for patch fields and a relative energy accuracy of +/-0.10 to 0.25 MeV for tailoring the depth dose distribution using the energy stacking technique. Achromatic switchyard tunes, which lead to better stability of the beam incident onto the patient, unfortunately limit the ability of switchyard magnet tesla meters to verify the correct beam energy within the tolerances listed above. A new monitor to measure the proton energy before each pulse is transported through the switchyard has been installed into a proton synchrotron. The purpose of this monitor is to correct and/or inhibit beam delivery when the measured beam energy is outside of the tolerances for treatment. The monitor calculates the beam energy using data from two frequency and eight beam position monitors that measure the revolution frequency of the proton bunches and the effective offset of the orbit from the nominal radius of the synchrotron. The new energy monitor has been calibrated by measuring the range of the beam through water and comparing with published range-energy tables for various energies. A relationship between depth dose curves and range-energy tables was first determined using Monte Carlo simulations of particle transport and energy deposition. To reduce the uncertainties associated with typical scanning water phantoms, a new technique was devised in which the beam energy was scanned while fixed thickness water tanks were sandwiched between two fixed parallel plate ionization chambers. Using a multitude of tank sizes, several energies were tested to determine the nominal accelerator orbit radius. After calibration, the energy reported by the control system matched the energy derived by range measurements to better than 0.72 MeV for all nine energies tested between 40 and 255 MeV with an average difference of -0.33 MeV. A study of different combinations of revolution frequency and radial

  19. Injection system of teh SSC Medium Energy Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, N.; Gerig, R.; McGill, J.; Brown, K.

    1994-04-01

    The Medium Energy Booster (MEB) is the third of the SSCL accelerators and the largest of the resistive magnet synchrotrons. It accelerates protons from an injection momentum of 12 GeV/c to a top momentum of 200 GeV/c. A beam injection system has been designed to inject the beam transferred from the Low Energy Booster onto the MEB closed orbit in the MEB injection insertion region. The beam is injected via a vertical bending Lambertson septum magnet and a horizontal kicker with appropriate matching and very little beam loss and emittance dilution. The beam optics of the injection system is described in this paper. The required parameters of the Lambertson septum magnet and the injection kicker are given.

  20. Evaluation at the medium energy region for Pb-208 and Bi-209

    SciTech Connect

    Fukahori, Tokio; Pearlstein, S.

    1991-01-01

    Medium energy nuclear data in the 1--1000 MeV range is necessary to accelerator applications which include spallation neutron sources for radioactive waste treatment and accelerator shielding design, medical applications which include isotopes production and radiation therapy, and space applications. For the design of fission and fusion reactors, the nuclear data file for neutrons below 20 MeV is available and well evaluated. Evaluated nuclear data for protons and data in the medium energy region, however, have not been prepared completely. Evaluation in the medium energy region was performed using the theoretical calculation code ALICE-P or experimental data. In this paper, the evaluation of neutron and proton induced nuclear data for Pb-208 and Bi-209 has been performed using ALICE-P, empirical calculations and new systematics for the fission cross section. The evaluated data are compiled for possible inclusion in the ENDF/B-VI High Energy File. 204 refs., 51 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Proton-proton and proton-antiproton elastic scattering at high energies: Theory, phenomenology, and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Tai Tsun.

    1990-01-01

    This is a brief review of the progress in the understanding, during the past twenty years, of hadronic elastic scattering near the forward direction at high energies. On the basis of quantum gauge field theories, the Pomeron is found to be a branch cut above 1. Using the physical picture that this result implies, phenomenology for proton-proton and antiproton-proton elastic scattering is constructed. Two noteworthy features are that, at high energies, both the total cross section and the ratio of the integrated elastic cross section to the total cross section to the total cross section are increasing functions of the center-of-mass energy. Detailed predictions are given for the elastic differential cross sections, Coulomb interference and the ratios of the real to imaginary parts of the forward amplitudes. These predictions have been extensively and accurately confirmed by experiments, and have also been given both for future experiments on existing accelerators and for experiments on future accelerators. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Proton-proton and proton-antiproton elastic scattering at high energies: Theory, phenomenology, and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Tai Tsun

    1990-12-31

    This is a brief review of the progress in the understanding, during the past twenty years, of hadronic elastic scattering near the forward direction at high energies. On the basis of quantum gauge field theories, the Pomeron is found to be a branch cut above 1. Using the physical picture that this result implies, phenomenology for proton-proton and antiproton-proton elastic scattering is constructed. Two noteworthy features are that, at high energies, both the total cross section and the ratio of the integrated elastic cross section to the total cross section to the total cross section are increasing functions of the center-of-mass energy. Detailed predictions are given for the elastic differential cross sections, Coulomb interference and the ratios of the real to imaginary parts of the forward amplitudes. These predictions have been extensively and accurately confirmed by experiments, and have also been given both for future experiments on existing accelerators and for experiments on future accelerators. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Energy spectrum control for modulated proton beams.

    PubMed

    Hsi, Wen C; Moyers, Michael F; Nichiporov, Dmitri; Anferov, Vladimir; Wolanski, Mark; Allgower, Chris E; Farr, Jonathan B; Mascia, Anthony E; Schreuder, Andries N

    2009-06-01

    In proton therapy delivered with range modulated beams, the energy spectrum of protons entering the delivery nozzle can affect the dose uniformity within the target region and the dose gradient around its periphery. For a cyclotron with a fixed extraction energy, a rangeshifter is used to change the energy but this produces increasing energy spreads for decreasing energies. This study investigated the magnitude of the effects of different energy spreads on dose uniformity and distal edge dose gradient and determined the limits for controlling the incident spectrum. A multilayer Faraday cup (MLFC) was calibrated against depth dose curves measured in water for nonmodulated beams with various incident spectra. Depth dose curves were measured in a water phantom and in a multilayer ionization chamber detector for modulated beams using different incident energy spreads. Some nozzle entrance energy spectra can produce unacceptable dose nonuniformities of up to +/-21% over the modulated region. For modulated beams and small beam ranges, the width of the distal penumbra can vary by a factor of 2.5. When the energy spread was controlled within the defined limits, the dose nonuniformity was less than +/-3%. To facilitate understanding of the results, the data were compared to the measured and Monte Carlo calculated data from a variable extraction energy synchrotron which has a narrow spectrum for all energies. Dose uniformity is only maintained within prescription limits when the energy spread is controlled. At low energies, a large spread can be beneficial for extending the energy range at which a single range modulator device can be used. An MLFC can be used as part of a feedback to provide specified energy spreads for different energies. PMID:19610318

  4. Energy spectrum control for modulated proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Hsi, Wen C.; Moyers, Michael F.; Nichiporov, Dmitri; Anferov, Vladimir; Wolanski, Mark; Allgower, Chris E.; Farr, Jonathan B.; Mascia, Anthony E.; Schreuder, Andries N.

    2009-06-15

    In proton therapy delivered with range modulated beams, the energy spectrum of protons entering the delivery nozzle can affect the dose uniformity within the target region and the dose gradient around its periphery. For a cyclotron with a fixed extraction energy, a rangeshifter is used to change the energy but this produces increasing energy spreads for decreasing energies. This study investigated the magnitude of the effects of different energy spreads on dose uniformity and distal edge dose gradient and determined the limits for controlling the incident spectrum. A multilayer Faraday cup (MLFC) was calibrated against depth dose curves measured in water for nonmodulated beams with various incident spectra. Depth dose curves were measured in a water phantom and in a multilayer ionization chamber detector for modulated beams using different incident energy spreads. Some nozzle entrance energy spectra can produce unacceptable dose nonuniformities of up to {+-}21% over the modulated region. For modulated beams and small beam ranges, the width of the distal penumbra can vary by a factor of 2.5. When the energy spread was controlled within the defined limits, the dose nonuniformity was less than {+-}3%. To facilitate understanding of the results, the data were compared to the measured and Monte Carlo calculated data from a variable extraction energy synchrotron which has a narrow spectrum for all energies. Dose uniformity is only maintained within prescription limits when the energy spread is controlled. At low energies, a large spread can be beneficial for extending the energy range at which a single range modulator device can be used. An MLFC can be used as part of a feedback to provide specified energy spreads for different energies.

  5. Nuclear structure studies with medium energy probes. [Northwestern Univ

    SciTech Connect

    Seth, Kamal K.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the continuing program of experimental research in nuclear structure with medium-energy probes during the year 1979-1980 is reviewed, and the research activities planned for the year 1980-1981 are discussed. In the study of pion-induced reactions emphasis is placed on investigation of isovector characteristics of nuclear excitations and on double charge exchange reactions. Pion production studies form the major part of the program of experiments with proton beams of 400 to 800 MeV at LAMPF. Current emphasis is on the bearing of these investigations on di-baryon existence. The study of high-spin states and magnetic scattering constitute the main goals of the electron scattering program at Bates. Representative results are presented; completed work is reported in the usual publications. (RWR)

  6. Small Business Innovation Research Award Success Story: Proton Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-01

    This success story describes Proton Energy Systems, a small business that designs and manufactures proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis sytems to produce hydrogen from water. The U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program has supported much of Proton's technology development through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Awards and other non-SBIR funding.

  7. Proton energy optimization and reduction for intensity-modulated proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenhua; Lim, Gino; Liao, Li; Li, Yupeng; Jiang, Shengpeng; Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Heng; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Zhu, X Ronald; Gomez, Daniel; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) is commonly delivered via the spot-scanning technique. To 'scan' the target volume, the proton beam is controlled by varying its energy to penetrate the patient's body at different depths. Although scanning the proton beamlets or spots with the same energy can be as fast as 10-20 m s(-1), changing from one proton energy to another requires approximately two additional seconds. The total IMPT delivery time thus depends mainly on the number of proton energies used in a treatment. Current treatment planning systems typically use all proton energies that are required for the proton beam to penetrate in a range from the distal edge to the proximal edge of the target. The optimal selection of proton energies has not been well studied. In this study, we sought to determine the feasibility of optimizing and reducing the number of proton energies in IMPT planning. We proposed an iterative mixed-integer programming optimization method to select a subset of all available proton energies while satisfying dosimetric criteria. We applied our proposed method to six patient datasets: four cases of prostate cancer, one case of lung cancer, and one case of mesothelioma. The numbers of energies were reduced by 14.3%-18.9% for the prostate cancer cases, 11.0% for the lung cancer cases and 26.5% for the mesothelioma case. The results indicate that the number of proton energies used in conventionally designed IMPT plans can be reduced without degrading dosimetric performance. The IMPT delivery efficiency could be improved by energy layer optimization leading to increased throughput for a busy proton center in which a delivery system with slow energy switch is employed. PMID:25295881

  8. Proton energy optimization and reduction for intensity-modulated proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wenhua; Lim, Gino; Liao, Li; Li, Yupeng; Jiang, Shengpeng; Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Heng; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Zhu, X. Ronald; Gomez, Daniel; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) is commonly delivered via the spot-scanning technique. To “scan” the target volume, the proton beam is controlled by varying its energy to penetrate the patient’s body at different depths. Although scanning the proton beamlets or spots with the same energy can be as fast as 10–20 m/s, changing from one proton energy to another requires approximately two additional seconds. The total IMPT delivery time thus depends mainly on the number of proton energies used in a treatment. Current treatment planning systems typically use all proton energies that are required for the proton beam to penetrate in a range from the distal edge to the proximal edge of the target. The optimal selection of proton energies has not been well studied. In this study, we sought to determine the feasibility of optimizing and reducing the number of proton energies in IMPT planning. We proposed an iterative mixed-integer programming optimization method to select a subset of all available proton energies while satisfying dosimetric criteria. We applied our proposed method to six patient datasets: four cases of prostate cancer, one case of lung cancer, and one case of mesothelioma. The numbers of energies were reduced by 14.3%–18.9% for the prostate cancer cases, 11.0% for the lung cancer cases, and 26.5% for the mesothelioma case. The results indicate that the number of proton energies used in conventionally designed IMPT plans can be reduced without degrading dosimetric performance. The IMPT delivery efficiency could be improved by energy layer optimization leading to increased throughput for a busy proton center in which a delivery system with slow energy switch is employed. PMID:25295881

  9. Proton energy optimization and reduction for intensity-modulated proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wenhua; Lim, Gino; Liao, Li; Li, Yupeng; Jiang, Shengpeng; Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Heng; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Zhu, X. Ronald; Gomez, Daniel; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2014-10-01

    Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) is commonly delivered via the spot-scanning technique. To ‘scan’ the target volume, the proton beam is controlled by varying its energy to penetrate the patient’s body at different depths. Although scanning the proton beamlets or spots with the same energy can be as fast as 10-20 m s-1, changing from one proton energy to another requires approximately two additional seconds. The total IMPT delivery time thus depends mainly on the number of proton energies used in a treatment. Current treatment planning systems typically use all proton energies that are required for the proton beam to penetrate in a range from the distal edge to the proximal edge of the target. The optimal selection of proton energies has not been well studied. In this study, we sought to determine the feasibility of optimizing and reducing the number of proton energies in IMPT planning. We proposed an iterative mixed-integer programming optimization method to select a subset of all available proton energies while satisfying dosimetric criteria. We applied our proposed method to six patient datasets: four cases of prostate cancer, one case of lung cancer, and one case of mesothelioma. The numbers of energies were reduced by 14.3%-18.9% for the prostate cancer cases, 11.0% for the lung cancer cases and 26.5% for the mesothelioma case. The results indicate that the number of proton energies used in conventionally designed IMPT plans can be reduced without degrading dosimetric performance. The IMPT delivery efficiency could be improved by energy layer optimization leading to increased throughput for a busy proton center in which a delivery system with slow energy switch is employed.

  10. Medium-spin structure of single valence-proton nucleus {sup 133}Sb

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, W.; Kurcewicz, W.; Korgul, A.; Daly, P. J.; Bhattacharyya, P.; Zhang, C. T.; Durell, J. L.; Leddy, M. J.; Jones, M. A.; Phillips, W. R.

    2000-08-01

    Excited states in the nucleus {sup 133}Sb, populated in spontaneous fission of {sup 248}Cm, were studied with EUROGAM2. Medium-spin structure, described as the {nu}(f{sub 7/2}h{sub 11/2}{sup -1}) multiplet of the {sup 132}Sn core coupled to the odd proton in the g{sub 7/2} orbital, has been identified in this nucleus. Levels corresponding to the octupole excitations of the {sup 132}Sn core were also identified. Some uncertainties concerning isomeric decays in {sup 133}Sb, observed in previous works, have been resolved. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  11. Single-energy intensity modulated proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Farace, Paolo; Righetto, Roberto; Cianchetti, Marco

    2015-10-01

    In this note, an intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) technique, based on the use of high single-energy (SE-IMPT) pencil beams, is described.The method uses only the highest system energy (226 MeV) and only lateral penumbra to produce dose gradient, as in photon therapy. In the study, after a preliminary analysis of the width of proton pencil beam penumbras at different depths, SE-IMPT was compared with conventional IMPT in a phantom containing titanium inserts and in a patient, affected by a spinal chordoma with fixation rods.It was shown that SE-IMPT has the potential to produce a sharp dose gradient and that it is not affected by the uncertainties produced by metal implants crossed by the proton beams. Moreover, in the chordoma patient, target coverage and organ at risk sparing of the SE-IMPT plan resulted comparable to that of the less reliable conventional IMPT technique. Robustness analysis confirmed that SE-IMPT was not affected by range errors, which can drastically affect the IMPT plan.When accepting a low-dose spread as in modern photon techniques, SE-IMPT could be an option for the treatment of lesions (e.g. cervical bone tumours) where steep dose gradient could improve curability, and where range uncertainty, due for example to the presence of metal implants, hampers conventional IMPT. PMID:26352616

  12. Single-energy intensity modulated proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farace, Paolo; Righetto, Roberto; Cianchetti, Marco

    2015-09-01

    In this note, an intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) technique, based on the use of high single-energy (SE-IMPT) pencil beams, is described. The method uses only the highest system energy (226 MeV) and only lateral penumbra to produce dose gradient, as in photon therapy. In the study, after a preliminary analysis of the width of proton pencil beam penumbras at different depths, SE-IMPT was compared with conventional IMPT in a phantom containing titanium inserts and in a patient, affected by a spinal chordoma with fixation rods. It was shown that SE-IMPT has the potential to produce a sharp dose gradient and that it is not affected by the uncertainties produced by metal implants crossed by the proton beams. Moreover, in the chordoma patient, target coverage and organ at risk sparing of the SE-IMPT plan resulted comparable to that of the less reliable conventional IMPT technique. Robustness analysis confirmed that SE-IMPT was not affected by range errors, which can drastically affect the IMPT plan. When accepting a low-dose spread as in modern photon techniques, SE-IMPT could be an option for the treatment of lesions (e.g. cervical bone tumours) where steep dose gradient could improve curability, and where range uncertainty, due for example to the presence of metal implants, hampers conventional IMPT.

  13. Systematics of proton and diproton separation energies for light nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, B.J.

    1997-10-01

    A simple method to estimate proton and two-proton separation energies of proton-rich nuclei is presented that is sufficiently accurate to allow the prediction of suitable candidates for observable diproton decay. The method is based on the systematics of measured particle separation energies. Predictions for proton-rich nuclei with Z=18{minus}24 are compared with the results of previous calculations. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Short- and Medium-term Atmospheric Effects of Very Large Solar Proton Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Marsh, Daniel R.; Vitt, Francis M.; Garcia, Rolando R.; Fleming, Eric L.; Labow, Gordon J.; Randall, Cora E.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Funke, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    Long-term variations in ozone have been caused by both natural and humankind related processes. In particular, the humankind or anthropogenic influence on ozone from chlorofluorocarbons and halons (chlorine and bromine) has led to international regulations greatly limiting the release of these substances. These anthropogenic effects on ozone are most important in polar regions and have been significant since the 1970s. Certain natural ozone influences are also important in polar regions and are caused by the impact of solar charged particles on the atmosphere. Such natural variations have been studied in order to better quantify the human influence on polar ozone. Large-scale explosions on the Sun near solar maximum lead to emissions of charged particles (mainly protons and electrons), some of which enter the Earth's magnetosphere and rain down on the polar regions. "Solar proton events" have been used to describe these phenomena since the protons associated with these solar events sometimes create a significant atmospheric disturbance. We have used the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) to study the short- and medium-term (days to a few months) influences of solar proton events between 1963 and 2005 on stratospheric ozone. The four largest events in the past 45 years (August 1972; October 1989; July 2000; and October-November 2003) caused very distinctive polar changes in layers of the Earth's atmosphere known as the stratosphere (12-50 km; -7-30 miles) and mesosphere (50-90 km; 30-55 miles). The solar protons connected with these events created hydrogen- and nitrogen- containing compounds, which led to the polar ozone destruction. The hydrogen-containing compounds have very short lifetimes and lasted for only a few days (typically the duration of the solar proton event). On the other hand, the nitrogen-containing compounds lasted much longer, especially in the Winter. The nitrogen oxides were predicted

  15. Detailed parametrization of neutrino and gamma-ray energy spectra from high energy proton-proton interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supanitsky, A. D.

    2016-02-01

    Gamma rays and neutrinos are produced as a result of proton-proton interactions that occur in different astrophysical contexts. The detection of these two types of messengers is of great importance for the study of different physical phenomena, related to nonthermal processes, taking place in different astrophysical scenarios. Therefore, the knowledge of the energy spectrum of these two types of particles, as a function of the incident proton energy, is essential for the interpretation of the observational data. In this paper, parametrizations of the energy spectra of gamma rays and neutrinos, originated in proton-proton collisions, are presented. The energy range of the incident protons considered extends from 102 to 108 GeV . The parametrizations are based on Monte Carlo simulations of proton-proton interactions performed with the hadronic interaction models QGSJET-II-04 and EPOS-LHC, which have recently been updated with the data taken by the Large Hadron Collider.

  16. Medium modified two-body scattering amplitude from proton-nucleus total cross-sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    Recently (R.K. Tripathi, J.W. Wilson, F.A. Cucinotta, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 145 (1998) 277; R.K. Tripathi, F.A. Cucinotta, J.W. Wilson, NASA-TP-1998-208438), we have extracted nucleon-nucleon (N-N) cross-sections in the medium directly from experiment. The in-medium N-N cross-sections form the basic ingredients of several heavy-ion scattering approaches including the coupled-channel approach developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. Here, we investigate the ratio of real to imaginary part of the two-body scattering amplitude in the medium. These ratios are used in combination with the in-medium N-N cross-sections to calculate total proton-nucleus cross-sections. The agreement is excellent with the available experimental data. These cross-sections are needed for the radiation risk assessment of space missions. c2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. PRaVDA: High Energy Physics towards proton Computed Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, T.

    2016-07-01

    Proton radiotherapy is an increasingly popular modality for treating cancers of the head and neck, and in paediatrics. To maximise the potential of proton radiotherapy it is essential to know the distribution, and more importantly the proton stopping powers, of the body tissues between the proton beam and the tumour. A stopping power map could be measured directly, and uncertainties in the treatment vastly reduce, if the patient was imaged with protons instead of conventional x-rays. Here we outline the application of technologies developed for High Energy Physics to provide clinical-quality proton Computed Tomography, in so reducing range uncertainties and enhancing the treatment of cancer.

  18. Energy spectra and LET spectra of protons behind shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Sari; Barak, Joseph

    2014-08-01

    With the advent of devices sensitive to SEU due to direct ionization by protons, it became important to know the flux and energies of protons behind aluminum shielding or within satellites. We present new analytically derived expressions for the energy distribution of incident protons, after passing the shielding, and of secondary protons emitted within the shielding. The results are compared with those of the MULASSIS code. In some cases, like a satellite in a GCR orbit, the contribution of the secondary protons to SEU might be the dominant one. Proton energy-distributions behind shielding are proportional, at low energy values, to inverse proton-LET in aluminum. Their calculated LET-spectra in silicon can be used for evaluating SEU-rate in space. The analytic expressions presented here can be useful in calculating the influence of shielding on other incident ions and secondary ions.

  19. Theoretical aspects of energy range relations, stopping power and energy straggling of protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmer, W.

    2007-07-01

    The Bragg-Kleeman rule RCSDA=AE0p provides a connection between the initial energy E0 of a proton and the range RCSDA in a medium, if the continuous-slowing-down approximation (CSDA) is assumed. The rule results from a generalized (nonrelativistic) Langevin equation; its integration also yields information on the residual energy E(z) or dE(z)/dz of a proton at position z. A relativistic extension of the generalized Langevin equation leads to the formula RCSDA=A(E0+E02/2Mc2)p. Since the initial energy E0 of therapeutic protons satisfies E0≪2Mc2, relativistic contributions can be treated as correction terms. Besides this phenomenological aspect, a complete integration of Bethe-Bloch equation (BBE) is presented, which provides the determination of RCSDA, E(z), dE(z)/dz and works without any empirical parameters. The results of these different methods are compared with Monte Carlo calculations (GEANT4). Since the energy transfer from proton to the environmental atomic electrons regarded in the CSDA-framework has to account for local fluctuations, an analysis of the Gaussian convolution and the Landau-Vavilov distribution function is performed on the basis of quantum-statistical mechanics. The Landau tail can be described as a Hermite polynomial correction of a Gaussian convolution.

  20. Hydration energies of protonated and sodiated thiouracils.

    PubMed

    Wincel, Henryk

    2014-12-01

    Hydration reactions of protonated and sodiated thiouracils (2-thiouracil, 6-methyl-2-thiouracil, and 4-thiouracil) generated by electrospray ionization have been studied in a gas phase at 10 mbar using a pulsed ion-beam high-pressure mass spectrometer. The thermochemical data, ΔH(o)n, ΔS(o)n, and ΔG(o)n, for the hydrated systems were obtained by equilibrium measurements. The water binding energies of protonated thiouracils, [2SU]H(+) and [6Me2SU]H(+), were found to be of the order of 51 kJ/mol for the first, and 46 kJ/mol for the second water molecule. For [4SU]H(+), these values are 3-4 kJ/mol lower. For sodiated complexes, these energies are similar for all studied systems, and varied between 62 and 68 kJ/mol for the first and between 48 and 51 kJ/mol for the second water molecule. The structural aspects of the precursors for hydrated complexes are discussed in conjunction with available literature data. PMID:25270881

  1. Hydration Energies of Protonated and Sodiated Thiouracils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wincel, Henryk

    2014-12-01

    Hydration reactions of protonated and sodiated thiouracils (2-thiouracil, 6-methyl-2-thiouracil, and 4-thiouracil) generated by electrospray ionization have been studied in a gas phase at 10 mbar using a pulsed ion-beam high-pressure mass spectrometer. The thermochemical data, ΔH o n, ΔS o n, and ΔG o n, for the hydrated systems were obtained by equilibrium measurements. The water binding energies of protonated thiouracils, [2SU]H+ and [6Me2SU]H+, were found to be of the order of 51 kJ/mol for the first, and 46 kJ/mol for the second water molecule. For [4SU]H+, these values are 3-4 kJ/mol lower. For sodiated complexes, these energies are similar for all studied systems, and varied between 62 and 68 kJ/mol for the first and between 48 and 51 kJ/mol for the second water molecule. The structural aspects of the precursors for hydrated complexes are discussed in conjunction with available literature data.

  2. Simulation of proton-induced energy deposition in integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernald, Kenneth W.; Kerns, Sherra E.

    1988-01-01

    A time-efficient simulation technique was developed for modeling the energy deposition by incident protons in modern integrated circuits. To avoid the excessive computer time required by many proton-effects simulators, a stochastic method was chosen to model the various physical effects responsible for energy deposition by incident protons. Using probability density functions to describe the nuclear reactions responsible for most proton-induced memory upsets, the simulator determines the probability of a proton hit depositing the energy necessary for circuit destabilization. This factor is combined with various circuit parameters to determine the expected error-rate in a given proton environment. An analysis of transient or dose-rate effects is also performed. A comparison to experimental energy-disposition data proves the simulator to be quite accurate for predicting the expected number of events in certain integrated circuits.

  3. In-medium effects for nuclear matter in the Fermi-energy domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, O.; Durand, D.; Lehaut, G.; Borderie, B.; Frankland, J. D.; Rivet, M. F.; Bougault, R.; Chbihi, A.; Galichet, E.; Guinet, D.; La Commara, M.; Le Neindre, N.; Lombardo, I.; Manduci, L.; Marini, P.; Napolitani, P.; Pârlog, M.; Rosato, E.; Spadaccini, G.; Vient, E.; Vigilante, M.; Indra Collaboration

    2014-12-01

    Background: By looking specifically at free nucleons (here protons), we present for the first time a comprehensive body of experimental results concerning the mean free path, the nucleon-nucleon cross-section and in-medium effects in nuclear matter. Purpose: Using the large dataset of exclusive measurements provided by the 4 π array INDRA, we determine the relative degree of stopping as a function of system mass and bombarding energy. We show that the stopping can be directly related to the transport properties in the nuclear medium. Methods: We perform a systematic study of protons nuclear stopping in central collisions for heavy-ion induced reactions in the Fermi-energy domain, between 15 A and 100 A MeV. Results: It is found that the mean free path exhibits a maximum at λN N=9.5 ±2 fm, around Einc=35 A MeV incident energy and decreases toward an asymptotic value λN N=4.5 ±1 fm at Einc=100 A MeV. Conclusions: After accounting for Pauli blocking of elastic nucleon-nucleon collisions, it is shown that the effective in-medium N N cross section is further reduced compared to the free value in this energy range. Therefore, in-medium effects cannot be neglected in the Fermi-energy range. These results bring new fundamental inputs for microscopic descriptions of nuclear reactions in the Fermi-energy domain.

  4. Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Reactions with Photometric Bases Reveal Free Energy Relationships for Proton Transfer.

    PubMed

    Eisenhart, Thomas T; Howland, William C; Dempsey, Jillian L

    2016-08-18

    The proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) oxidation of p-aminophenol in acetonitrile was initiated via stopped-flow rapid-mixing and spectroscopically monitored. For oxidation by ferrocenium in the presence of 7-(dimethylamino)quinoline proton acceptors, both the electron transfer and proton transfer components could be optically monitored in the visible region; the decay of the ferrocenium absorbance is readily monitored (λmax = 620 nm), and the absorbance of the 2,4-substituted 7-(dimethylamino)quinoline derivatives (λmax = 370-392 nm) red-shifts substantially (ca. 70 nm) upon protonation. Spectral analysis revealed the reaction proceeds via a stepwise electron transfer-proton transfer process, and modeling of the kinetics traces monitoring the ferrocenium and quinolinium signals provided rate constants for elementary proton and electron transfer steps. As the pKa values of the conjugate acids of the 2,4-R-7-(dimethylamino)quinoline derivatives employed were readily tuned by varying the substituents at the 2- and 4-positions of the quinoline backbone, the driving force for proton transfer was systematically varied. Proton transfer rate constants (kPT,2 = (1.5-7.5) × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1), kPT,4 = (0.55-3.0) × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1)) were found to correlate with the pKa of the conjugate acid of the proton acceptor, in agreement with anticipated free energy relationships for proton transfer processes in PCET reactions. PMID:27500804

  5. Effects of in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections on stopping observable and ratio of free protons in heavy-ion collisions at 400 MeV/nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jun; Huang, Ching-Yuan; Xie, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Feng-Shou

    2016-07-01

    The effects of in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections on the stopping observable and ratio of free protons in heavy-ion collisions at 400MeV/nucleon have been investigated within the framework of the IQMD+GEMINI model. Five kinds of in-medium corrections of nucleon-nucleon cross sections, which are considerably different in the referred energy and density, have been used in the model. It has been found that calculations of the stopping decrease when the in-medium cross sections decrease. Moreover, the ratio of free protons Rp depends not only on the value of the in-medium factors but also on its isospin dependence. In order to investigate the isospin effect of in-medium factors on the ratio of free protons Rp, the isospin dependence of in-medium factors has been adjusted and used in the model. The calculations have shown that the isospin dependence of in-medium factors does not impact the stopping, but impacts the ratio of free protons Rp. When the in-medium factors relation f nn med > f pp med is used in the model, the calculated values of Rp are larger than those in the f nn med < f pp med case.

  6. Non-resonant kaon pair production and medium effects in proton-nucleus collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paryev, E. Ya; Hartmann, M.; Kiselev, Yu T.

    2015-07-01

    We study the non-resonant (non-ϕ) production of {{K}+}{{K}-} pairs by protons of 2.83 GeV kinetic energy on C, Cu, Ag and Au targets within the collision model, based on the nuclear spectral function, for incoherent primary proton-nucleon and secondary pion-nucleon creation processes. The model takes into account the initial proton and final kaon absorption, target nucleon binding and Fermi motion as well as nuclear mean-field potential effects on these processes. We calculate the antikaon momentum dependences of the exclusive absolute and relative {{K}+}{{K}-} pair yields in the acceptance window of the ANKE magnetic spectrometer, used in a recent experiment performed at COoler SYnchrotron (COSY), within the different scenarios for the antikaon-nucleus optical potential. We demonstrate that the above observables are strongly sensitive to this potential. Therefore, they can be useful to help determine the {{K}-} optical potential from the direct comparison of the results of our calculations with the data from the respective ANKE-at-COSY experiment. We also show that the pion-nucleon production channels dominate in the low-momentum {{K}-}, {{K}+} production in the considered kinematics and, hence, they have to be accounted for in the analysis of these data.

  7. TH-A-19A-01: An Open Source Software for Proton Treatment Planning in Heterogeneous Medium

    SciTech Connect

    Desplanques, M; Baroni, G; Wang, K; Phillips, J; Gueorguiev, G; Sharp, G

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Due to its success in Radiation Oncology during the last decade, interest in proton therapy is on the rise. Unfortunately, despite the global enthusiasm in the field, there is presently no free, multiplatform and customizable Treatment Planning System (TPS) providing proton dose distributions in heterogenous medium. This restricts substantially the progress of clinical research for groups without access to a commercial Proton TPS. The latest implementation of our pencil beam dose calculation algorithm for proton beams within the 3D Slicer open-source environment fulfills all the conditions described above. Methods: The core dose calculation algorithm is based on the Hong algorithm (1), which was upgraded with the Kanematsu theory describing the evolution of the lateral scattering of proton beamlets in heterogeneous medium. This algorithm deals with both mono-energetic beams and Spread Out Bragg Peak (SOBP). In order to be user-friendly, we provide a graphical user interface implemented with the Qt libraries, and visualization with the 3D Slicer medical image analysis software. Two different pencil beam algorithms were developed, and the clinical proton beam line at our facility was modeled. Results: The dose distributions provided by our algorithms were compared to dose distributions coming from both commercialized XiO TPS and literature (dose measurements, GEANT4 and MCNPx) and turned out to be in a good agreement, with maximum dose discrepancies of 5% in homogeneous phantoms and 10% in heterogeneous phantoms. The algorithm of SOBP creation from an optimized weigthing of mono-energetic beams results in flat SOBP. Conclusion: We hope that our efforts in implementing this new, open-source proton TPS will help the research groups to have a free access to a useful, reliable proton dose calculation software.(1) L. Hong et al., A pencil beam algorithm for proton dose calculations, Phys. Med. Biol. 41 (1996) 1305–1330. This project is paid for by NCI

  8. Transport of low- and medium-energy electron and ion beams in seawater and its vapors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erwin, Daniel A.; Kunc, Joseph A.

    1988-01-01

    A general theory of stopping power for electrons and ions in a target medium (gas, liquid, or thin solid foil) containing neutral as well as positive and negative ions is developed. The approach is quite accurate in the low- and medium-energy range (less than 1 MeV), where the Bethe stopping-power cross section is inaccurate. The energy transfer during individual collisions is treated by the binary-encounter approximation. The theory is applied to determine the stopping power of seawater, whose major components are H2O molecules and Na(+) and Cl(-) ions. The stopping-power cross sections for low- and medium-energy protons in water show excellent agreement with existing measurements.

  9. A detection system for very low-energy protons from {beta}-delayed proton decay

    SciTech Connect

    Spiridon, A.; Pollacco, E.; Trache, L.; Simmons, E.; McCleskey, M.; Roeder, B. T.; Tribble, R. E.; Pascovici, G.; Riallot, M.; Mols, J. P.; Kebbiri, M.

    2012-11-20

    We have recently developed a gas based detection system called AstroBox, motivated by nuclear astrophysics studies. The goal was to detect very low-energy protons from {beta}-delayed p-decay with reduced beta background and improved energy resolution. The detector was tested using the {beta}-delayed proton-emitter 23Al previously studied with a set-up based on thin double-sided Si strip detectors. The proton spectrum obtained with AstroBox showed no beta background down to {approx}80 keV. The low energy (206 keV, 267 keV) proton peaks were positively identified, well separated, and the resolution was improved.

  10. Thermal and structural stability of medium energy target carrier assembly for NOvA at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, M.W.; Ader, C.; Anderson, K.; Hylen, J.; Martens, M.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    The NOvA project will upgrade the existing Neutrino at Main Injector (NuMI) project beamline at Fermilab to accommodate beam power of 700 kW. The Medium Energy (ME) graphite target assembly is provided through an accord with the State Research Center of Russia Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP) at Protvino, Russia. The effects of proton beam energy deposition within beamline components are considered as thermal stability of the target carrier assembly and alignment budget are critical operational issues. Results of finite element thermal and structural analysis involving the target carrier assembly is provided with detail regarding the target's beryllium windows.

  11. MEIC Proton Beam Formation with a Low Energy Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuhong

    2015-09-01

    The MEIC proton and ion beams are generated, accumulated, accelerated and cooled in a new green-field ion injector complex designed specifically to support its high luminosity goal. This injector consists of sources, a linac and a small booster ring. In this paper we explore feasibility of a short ion linac that injects low-energy protons and ions into the booster ring.

  12. Ab Initio Investigation of Cation Proton Affinity and Proton Transfer Energy for Energetic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Caleb M; Gordon, Mark S

    2016-08-01

    Protonation of the anion in an ionic liquid plays a key role in the hypergolic reaction between ionic liquids and oxidizers such as white fuming nitric acid. To investigate the influence of the cation on the protonation reaction, the deprotonation energy of a set of cations has been calculated at the MP2 level of theory. Specifically, guanidinium, dimethyltriazanium, triethylamine, N-ethyl-N-methyl-pyrrolidinium, N-ethyl-pyridinium, 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium, 1-ethyl-4-methyl-1,2,4-triazolium, and 1-butyl-4-methyl-1,2,4-triazolium were studied. In addition, the net proton transfer energies from the cations to a set of previously studied anions was calculated, demonstrating an inverse correlation between the net proton transfer energy and the likelihood that the cation/anion combination will react hypergolically with white fuming nitric acid. It is suggested that this correlation occurs due to a balance between the energy released by the proton transfer and the rate of proton transfer as determined by the ionicity of the ionic liquid. PMID:27397644

  13. Hardness assurance for proton direct ionization-induced SEEs using a high-energy proton beam

    SciTech Connect

    Dodds, Nathaniel Anson; Schwank, James R.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Dodd, Paul E.; Doyle, Barney Lee; Trinczek, M.; Blackmore, E. W.; Rodbell, K. P.; Reed, R. A.; Pellish, J. A.; LaBel, K. A.; Marshall, P. W.; Swanson, Scot E.; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Van Deusen, Stuart B.; Sexton, Frederick W.; Martinez, Marino J.; Gordon, M. S.

    2014-11-06

    The low-energy proton energy spectra of all shielded space environments have the same shape. This shape is easily reproduced in the laboratory by degrading a high-energy proton beam, producing a high-fidelity test environment. We use this test environment to dramatically simplify rate prediction for proton direct ionization effects, allowing the work to be done at high-energy proton facilities, on encapsulated parts, without knowledge of the IC design, and with little or no computer simulations required. Proton direct ionization (PDI) is predicted to significantly contribute to the total error rate under the conditions investigated. Scaling effects are discussed using data from 65-nm, 45-nm, and 32-nm SOI SRAMs. These data also show that grazing-angle protons will dominate the PDI-induced error rate due to their higher effective LET, so PDI hardness assurance methods must account for angular effects to be conservative. As a result, we show that this angular dependence can be exploited to quickly assess whether an IC is susceptible to PDI.

  14. Hardness assurance for proton direct ionization-induced SEEs using a high-energy proton beam

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dodds, Nathaniel Anson; Schwank, James R.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Dodd, Paul E.; Doyle, Barney Lee; Trinczek, M.; Blackmore, E. W.; Rodbell, K. P.; Reed, R. A.; Pellish, J. A.; et al

    2014-11-06

    The low-energy proton energy spectra of all shielded space environments have the same shape. This shape is easily reproduced in the laboratory by degrading a high-energy proton beam, producing a high-fidelity test environment. We use this test environment to dramatically simplify rate prediction for proton direct ionization effects, allowing the work to be done at high-energy proton facilities, on encapsulated parts, without knowledge of the IC design, and with little or no computer simulations required. Proton direct ionization (PDI) is predicted to significantly contribute to the total error rate under the conditions investigated. Scaling effects are discussed using data frommore » 65-nm, 45-nm, and 32-nm SOI SRAMs. These data also show that grazing-angle protons will dominate the PDI-induced error rate due to their higher effective LET, so PDI hardness assurance methods must account for angular effects to be conservative. As a result, we show that this angular dependence can be exploited to quickly assess whether an IC is susceptible to PDI.« less

  15. A fast chopper for medium energy beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrak, R.; Wildman, D.

    2014-10-01

    The key elements have been constructed for a fast chopper system capable of removing single 2.5 MeV proton bunches spaced at 325 MHz. The average chopping rate is ~ 1 MHz. The components include a pulse delaying microstrip structure for deflecting the beam, high voltage (1.2 kV) fast (ns rise time) pulsers, and an associated wideband combiner. Various designs for the deflecting structures have been studied. Measurements of the microstrip structures' coverage factors and pulse shapes are presented.

  16. Fission foil detector calibrations with high energy protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    Fission foil detectors (FFD's) are passive devices composed of heavy metal foils in contact with muscovite mica films. The heavy metal nuclei have significant cross sections for fission when irradiated with neutrons and protons. Each isotope is characterized by threshold energies for the fission reactions and particular energy-dependent cross sections. In the FFD's, fission fragments produced by the reactions are emitted from the foils and create latent particle tracks in the adjacent mica films. When the films are processed surface tracks are formed which can be optically counted. The track densities are indications of the fluences and spectra of neutrons and/or protons. In the past, detection efficiencies have been calculated using the low energy neutron calibrated dosimeters and published fission cross sections for neutrons and protons. The problem is that the addition of a large kinetic energy to the (n,nucleus) or (p,nucleus) reaction could increase the energies and ranges of emitted fission fragments and increase the detector sensitivity as compared with lower energy neutron calibrations. High energy calibrations are the only method of resolving the uncertainties in detector efficiencies. At high energies, either proton or neutron calibrations are sufficient since the cross section data show that the proton and neutron fission cross sections are approximately equal. High energy proton beams have been utilized (1.8 and 4.9 GeV, 80 and 140 MeV) for measuring the tracks of fission fragments emitted backward and forward.

  17. Acceleration of low-energy protons and alpha particles at interplanetary shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholer, M.; Hovestadt, D.; Ipavich, F. M.; Gloeckler, G.

    1983-01-01

    The low-energy protons and alpha particles in the energy range 30 keV/charge to 150 keV/charge associated with three different interplanetary shock waves in the immediate preshock and postshock region are studied using data obtained by the ISEE 3. The spatial distributions in the preshock and postshock medium are presented, and the dependence of the phase space density at different energies on the distance from the shock and on the form of the distribution function of both species immediately at the shock is examined. It is found that in the preshock region the particles are flowing in the solar wind frame of reference away from the shock and in the postshock medium the distribution is more or less isotropic in this frame of reference. The distribution function in the postshock region can be represented by a power law in energy which has the same spectral exponent for both protons and alpha particles. It is concluded that the first-order Fermi acceleration process can consistently explain the data, although the spectra of diffuse bow shock associated particles are different from the spectra of the interplanetary shock-associated particles in the immediate vicinity of the shock. In addition, the mean free path of the low energy ions in the preshock medium is found to be considerably smaller than the mean free path determined by the turbulence of the background interplanetary medium.

  18. Concept of proton radiography using energy resolved dose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentefour, El H.; Schnuerer, Roland; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Energy resolved dosimetry offers a potential path to single detector based proton imaging using scanned proton beams. This is because energy resolved dose functions encrypt the radiological depth at which the measurements are made. When a set of predetermined proton beams ‘proton imaging field’ are used to deliver a well determined dose distribution in a specific volume, then, at any given depth x of this volume, the behavior of the dose against the energies of the proton imaging field is unique and characterizes the depth x. This concept applies directly to proton therapy scanning delivery methods (pencil beam scanning and uniform scanning) and it can be extended to the proton therapy passive delivery methods (single and double scattering) if the delivery of the irradiation is time-controlled with a known time-energy relationship. To derive the water equivalent path length (WEPL) from the energy resolved dose measurement, one may proceed in two different ways. A first method is by matching the measured energy resolved dose function to a pre-established calibration database of the behavior of the energy resolved dose in water, measured over the entire range of radiological depths with at least 1 mm spatial resolution. This calibration database can also be made specific to the patient if computed using the patient x-CT data. A second method to determine the WEPL is by using the empirical relationships between the WEPL and the integral dose or the depth at 80% of the proximal fall off of the energy resolved dose functions in water. In this note, we establish the evidence of the fundamental relationship between the energy resolved dose and the WEPL at the depth of the measurement. Then, we illustrate this relationship with experimental data and discuss its imaging dynamic range for 230 MeV protons.

  19. Concept of proton radiography using energy resolved dose measurement.

    PubMed

    Bentefour, El H; Schnuerer, Roland; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2016-08-21

    Energy resolved dosimetry offers a potential path to single detector based proton imaging using scanned proton beams. This is because energy resolved dose functions encrypt the radiological depth at which the measurements are made. When a set of predetermined proton beams 'proton imaging field' are used to deliver a well determined dose distribution in a specific volume, then, at any given depth x of this volume, the behavior of the dose against the energies of the proton imaging field is unique and characterizes the depth x. This concept applies directly to proton therapy scanning delivery methods (pencil beam scanning and uniform scanning) and it can be extended to the proton therapy passive delivery methods (single and double scattering) if the delivery of the irradiation is time-controlled with a known time-energy relationship. To derive the water equivalent path length (WEPL) from the energy resolved dose measurement, one may proceed in two different ways. A first method is by matching the measured energy resolved dose function to a pre-established calibration database of the behavior of the energy resolved dose in water, measured over the entire range of radiological depths with at least 1 mm spatial resolution. This calibration database can also be made specific to the patient if computed using the patient x-CT data. A second method to determine the WEPL is by using the empirical relationships between the WEPL and the integral dose or the depth at 80% of the proximal fall off of the energy resolved dose functions in water. In this note, we establish the evidence of the fundamental relationship between the energy resolved dose and the WEPL at the depth of the measurement. Then, we illustrate this relationship with experimental data and discuss its imaging dynamic range for 230 MeV protons. PMID:27435446

  20. Surface NMR measurement of proton relaxation times in medium to coarse-grained sand aquifer.

    PubMed

    Shushakov, O A

    1996-01-01

    A surface NMR investigation of groundwater in the geomagnetic field is under study. To detect the surface NMR a wire loop with a diameter of about 100 m, being an antenna for both an exciting field source and the NMR signal receiver, is laid out on the ground. A sinusoidal current pulse with a rectangular envelope is passed through the loop to excite the NMR signal. The carrier frequency of the oscillating current in this pulse is equal to the Larmor frequency of protons in the Earth's magnetic field. The current amplitude is changed up to 200 amps and the pulse duration is fixed and is equal to 40 ms. The exciting pulse is followed by an induction emf signal caused by the Larmor nuclear precession in geomagnetic field. The relaxation times T1, T2, and T2* were measured by the surface NMR for both groundwater in medium to coarse-grained sand at borehole and for bulk water under the ice surface of frozen lake. To determine T1, a longitudinal interference in experiments with repeated pulses was measured. A sequence with equal period between equal excitation pulses was used. The relaxation times T1, T2, measured for bulk water under the ice of the Ob reservoir were 1.0 s and 0.7 s, respectively. To estimate an influence of dissolved oxygen T1 of the same water at the same temperature was measured by lab NMR with and without pumping of oxygen. The relaxation time T1 measured for water in the medium to coarse-grained sand is 0.65 s. The relaxation time T2 estimated by spin echo sequence is found to be equal to 0.15 s. The relaxation time T2* is found to be about 80 ms. This result contradicts published earlier phenomenological correlation between relaxation time T2* and grain size of water-bearing rock. This could be as a result of unsound approach based on grain size or influence of paramagnetic impurities. PMID:8970122

  1. Proton Content and Nature in Perovskite Ceramic Membranes for Medium Temperature Fuel Cells and Electrolysers

    PubMed Central

    Colomban, Philippe; Zaafrani, Oumaya; Slodczyk, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Recent interest in environmentally friendly technology has promoted research on green house gas-free devices such as water steam electrolyzers, fuel cells and CO2/syngas converters. In such applications, proton conducting perovskite ceramics appear especially promising as electrolyte membranes. Prior to a successful industrial application, it is necessary to determine/understand their complex physical and chemical behavior, especially that related to proton incorporation mechanism, content and nature of bulk protonic species. Based on the results of quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QNS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman and IR measurements we will show the complexity of the protonation process and the importance of differentiation between the protonic species adsorbed on a membrane surface and the bulk protons. The bulk proton content is very low, with a doping limit (~1–5 × 10−3 mole/mole), but sufficient to guarantee proton conduction below 600 °C. The bulk protons posses an ionic, covalent bond free nature and may occupy an interstitial site in the host perovskite structure. PMID:24958293

  2. High energy protons generation by two sequential laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Shen, Baifei E-mail: zhxm@siom.ac.cn; Zhang, Xiaomei E-mail: zhxm@siom.ac.cn; Wang, Wenpeng; Xu, Jiancai; Yi, Longqing; Shi, Yin

    2015-04-15

    The sequential proton acceleration by two laser pulses of relativistic intensity is proposed to produce high energy protons. In the scheme, a relativistic super-Gaussian (SG) laser pulse followed by a Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) pulse irradiates dense plasma attached by underdense plasma. A proton beam is produced from the target and accelerated in the radiation pressure regime by the short SG pulse and then trapped and re-accelerated in a special bubble driven by the LG pulse in the underdense plasma. The advantages of radiation pressure acceleration and LG transverse structure are combined to achieve the effective trapping and acceleration of protons. In a two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation, protons of 6.7 GeV are obtained from a 2 × 10{sup 22 }W/cm{sup 2} SG laser pulse and a LG pulse at a lower peak intensity.

  3. In-medium modified energy-momentum tensor form factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Ju-Hyun; Yakhshiev, Ulugbek; Kim, Hyun-Chul

    2014-04-01

    In this talk, we report a recent investigation on the energy-momentum tensor form factors of the nucleon in nuclear medium, based on the framework of the in-medium modified chiral soliton model. The model was constructed by taking into account the influence of the surrounding environment to the mesonic sector (π-, ρ- and ω-meson properties). We briefly discuss the results of the energy-momentum tensor form factors.

  4. Proton-Proton On Shell Optical Potential at High Energies and the Hollowness Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arriola, Enrique Ruiz; Broniowski, Wojciech

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the usefulness of the optical potential as suggested by the double spectral Mandelstam representation at very high energies, such as in the proton-proton scattering at ISR and the LHC. Its particular meaning regarding the interpretation of the scattering data up to the maximum available measured energies is discussed. Our analysis reconstructs 3D dynamics from the effective transverse 2D impact parameter representation and suggests that besides the onset of gray nucleons at the LHC there appears an inelasticity depletion (hollowness) which precludes convolution models at the attometer scale.

  5. Proton-Proton On Shell Optical Potential at High Energies and the Hollowness Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arriola, Enrique Ruiz; Broniowski, Wojciech

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the usefulness of the optical potential as suggested by the double spectral Mandelstam representation at very high energies, such as in the proton-proton scattering at ISR and the LHC. Its particular meaning regarding the interpretation of the scattering data up to the maximum available measured energies is discussed. Our analysis reconstructs 3D dynamics from the effective transverse 2D impact parameter representation and suggests that besides the onset of gray nucleons at the LHC there appears an inelasticity depletion (hollowness) which precludes convolution models at the attometer scale.

  6. Electromagnetic energy flux vector for a dispersive linear medium.

    PubMed

    Crenshaw, Michael E; Akozbek, Neset

    2006-05-01

    The electromagnetic energy flux vector in a dispersive linear medium is derived from energy conservation and microscopic quantum electrodynamics and is found to be of the Umov form as the product of an electromagnetic energy density and a velocity vector. PMID:16803063

  7. Response of BC418 Plastic Scintillator to Low Energy Protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daub, B. H.; Henzl, V.; Kovash, M. A.; Matthews, J. L.; Miller, Z. W.; Shoniyozov, K.; Yang, H.

    2012-10-01

    The response of fast plastic scintillators is unknown for proton energies below approximately 300 keV. The response of BC418 plastic scintillator to protons from 100 keV to 3.6 MeV was measured using elastic scattering of neutrons at the University of Kentucky and at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. At Kentucky, protons of precise energies from a Van de Graaff accelerator impinged on a thin LiF target to produce neutrons in narrow energy bands. At Los Alamos, neutrons were produced from a tungsten spallation source and their energies determined by time of flight. In both experiments a coincidence was detected between the recoiling proton in the plastic scintillator and the elastically scattered neutron in a liquid scintillator. The energy of the recoil proton is determined by the elastic scattering kinematics, with the scattered neutron energy precisely determined by time of flight. The results are compared with previous measurements of the response of similar plastic scintillators in the energy region where they overlap.

  8. Maximum kinetic energy considerations in proton stereotactic radiosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Sengbusch, Evan R.; Mackie, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum proton kinetic energy required to treat a given percentage of patients eligible for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with coplanar arc-based proton therapy, contingent upon the number and location of gantry angles used. Treatment plans from 100 consecutive patients treated with SRS at the University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center between June of 2007 and March of 2010 were analyzed. For each target volume within each patient, in-house software was used to place proton pencil beam spots over the distal surface of the target volume from 51 equally-spaced gantry angles of up to 360°. For each beam spot, the radiological path length from the surface of the patient to the distal boundary of the target was then calculated along a ray from the gantry location to the location of the beam spot. This data was used to generate a maximum proton energy requirement for each patient as a function of the arc length that would be spanned by the gantry angles used in a given treatment. If only a single treatment angle is required, 100% of the patients included in the study could be treated by a proton beam with a maximum kinetic energy of 118 MeV. As the length of the treatment arc is increased to 90°, 180°, 270°, and 360°, the maximum energy requirement increases to 127, 145, 156, and 179 MeV, respectively. A very high percentage of SRS patients could be treated at relatively low proton energies if the gantry angles used in the treatment plan do not span a large treatment arc. Maximum proton kinetic energy requirements increase linearly with size of the treatment arc. PMID:21844866

  9. Maximum proton kinetic energy and patient-generated neutron fluence considerations in proton beam arc delivery radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Sengbusch, E; Pérez-Andújar, A; DeLuca, P M; Mackie, T R

    2009-02-01

    Several compact proton accelerator systems for use in proton therapy have recently been proposed. Of paramount importance to the development of such an accelerator system is the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, that must be reached by the treatment system. The commonly used value for the maximum kinetic energy required for a medical proton accelerator is 250 MeV, but it has not been demonstrated that this energy is indeed necessary to treat all or most patients eligible for proton therapy. This article quantifies the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, necessary to treat a given percentage of patients with rotational proton therapy, and examines the impact of this energy threshold on the cost and feasibility of a compact, gantry-mounted proton accelerator treatment system. One hundred randomized treatment plans from patients treated with IMRT were analyzed. The maximum radiological pathlength from the surface of the patient to the distal edge of the treatment volume was obtained for 180 degrees continuous arc proton therapy and for 180 degrees split arc proton therapy (two 90 degrees arcs) using CT# profiles from the Pinnacle (Philips Medical Systems, Madison, WI) treatment planning system. In each case, the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, that would be necessary to treat the patient was calculated using proton range tables for various media. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to quantify neutron production in a water phantom representing a patient as a function of the maximum proton kinetic energy achievable by a proton treatment system. Protons with a kinetic energy of 240 MeV, immediately prior to entry into the patient, were needed to treat 100% of patients in this study. However, it was shown that 90% of patients could be treated at 198 MeV, and 95% of patients could be treated at 207 MeV. Decreasing the

  10. Maximum proton kinetic energy and patient-generated neutron fluence considerations in proton beam arc delivery radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sengbusch, E.; Pérez-Andújar, A.; DeLuca, P. M.; Mackie, T. R.

    2009-01-01

    Several compact proton accelerator systems for use in proton therapy have recently been proposed. Of paramount importance to the development of such an accelerator system is the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, that must be reached by the treatment system. The commonly used value for the maximum kinetic energy required for a medical proton accelerator is 250 MeV, but it has not been demonstrated that this energy is indeed necessary to treat all or most patients eligible for proton therapy. This article quantifies the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, necessary to treat a given percentage of patients with rotational proton therapy, and examines the impact of this energy threshold on the cost and feasibility of a compact, gantry-mounted proton accelerator treatment system. One hundred randomized treatment plans from patients treated with IMRT were analyzed. The maximum radiological pathlength from the surface of the patient to the distal edge of the treatment volume was obtained for 180° continuous arc proton therapy and for 180° split arc proton therapy (two 90° arcs) using CT# profiles from the Pinnacle™ (Philips Medical Systems, Madison, WI) treatment planning system. In each case, the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, that would be necessary to treat the patient was calculated using proton range tables for various media. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to quantify neutron production in a water phantom representing a patient as a function of the maximum proton kinetic energy achievable by a proton treatment system. Protons with a kinetic energy of 240 MeV, immediately prior to entry into the patient, were needed to treat 100% of patients in this study. However, it was shown that 90% of patients could be treated at 198 MeV, and 95% of patients could be treated at 207 MeV. Decreasing the proton kinetic

  11. Photoproduction of scalar mesons at medium energies

    SciTech Connect

    Da Silva, M. L.; Machado, M. V.

    2013-03-25

    In this work we will focus on photoproduction of mesons states a{sub 0}(980), f{sub 0}(1500) and f{sub 0}(1710). The f{sub 0}(1500) and f{sub 0}(1710) mesons will be considered in distinct mixing possibilities and assuming that a{sub 0}(980) is member of the ground-state nonet. The theoretical formalism is the Regge approach with reggeized {rho} and {omega} exchange. The differential and integrated total cross section are computed for the cases of the mesons a{sub 0}(980), f{sub 0}(1500) and f{sub 0}(1710) focusing the GlueX energy regime with photon energy E = 9 GeV.

  12. Comprehensive description of J/ψ production in proton-proton collisions at collider energies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ma, Yan -Qing; Venugopalan, Raju

    2014-11-04

    We employ a small x Color Glass Condensate + Non-Relativistic QCD (NRQCD) formalism to compute J/ψ production at low p⊥ in proton-proton collisions at collider energies. Very good agreement is obtained for total cross-sections, rapidity distributions and low momentum p⊥ distributions. Similar agreement is obtained for ψ' production. We observe an overlap region in p⊥ where our results match smoothly to those obtained in a next-to-leading order (NLO) collinearly factorized NRQCD formalism. The relative contribution of color singlet and color octet contributions can be quantified in the CGC+NRQCD framework, with the former contributing approximately 10% of the total cross-section.

  13. Energy Spectra and Mass Composition of Cosmic Rays in the Fractal-Like Galactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagutin, A. A.; Tyumentsev, A. G.; Yushkov, A. V.

    We consider the problem of the cosmic ray spectrum formation assuming that cosmic rays are produced by galactic sources. The fractional diffusion equation proposed in our recent papers is used to describe the cosmic rays propagation in interstellar medium. We show that in the framework of this approach it is possible to explain the locally observed basic features of the cosmic rays in the energy region 1010 ÷ 1020 eV: difference between spectral exponents of protons and other nuclei, mass composition variation, "knee" problem, flattening of the primary spectrum for E ≥ 1018 ÷ 1019 eV.

  14. Relative Proton Affinities from Kinetic Energy Release Distributions for Dissociation of Proton-Bound Dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Hache, John J.; Laskin, Julia ); Futrell, Jean H.)

    2002-12-19

    Kinetic energy release distributions (KERDs) upon dissociation of proton-bound dimers are utilized along with Finite Heat Bath theory analysis to obtain relative proton affinities of monomeric species composing the dimer. The proposed approach allows accurate measurement of relative proton affinities based on KERD measurements for the compound with unknown thermochemical properties versus a single reference base. It also allows distinguishing the cases when dissociation of proton-bound dimers is associated with reverse activation barrier, for which both our approach and the kinetic method become inapplicable. Results are reported for the n-butanol-n-propanol dimer, for which there is no significant difference in entropy effects for two reactions and for the pyrrolidine-1,2-ethylenediamine dimer, which is characterized by a significant difference in entropy effects for the two competing reactions. Relative protonation affinities of -1.0?0.3 kcal/mol for the n-butanol-n-propanol pair and 0.27?0.10 kcal/mol for the pyrrolidine-1,2-ethylenediamine pair are in good agreement with literature values. Relative reaction entropies were extracted from the branching ratio and KERD measurements. Good correspondence was found between the relative reaction entropies for the n-butanol-n-propanol dimer (D(DS?)=-0.3?1.5 cal/mol K) and the relative protonation entropy for the two monomers (D(DSp)=0). However, the relative reaction entropy for the pyrrolidine-1,2-ethylenediamine dimer is higher than the difference in protonation entropies (D(DS?)=8.2?0.5 cal/mol K vs. D(DSp)=5 cal/mol K).

  15. Proton irradiation energy dependence of defect formation in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sanggeun; Seo, Jungmok; Hong, Juree; Park, Seul Hyun; Lee, Joo-Hee; Min, Byung-Wook; Lee, Taeyoon

    2015-07-01

    Graphene transistors on SiO2/Si were irradiated with 5, 10, and 15 MeV protons at a dose rate of 2 × 1014 cm-2. The effect of proton irradiation on the structural defects and electrical characteristics of graphene was measured using Raman spectroscopy and electrical measurements. Raman spectra exhibited high intensity peaks induced by defects after 5 and 10 MeV proton irradiation, whereas no significant defect-induced peaks were observed after 15 MeV proton irradiation. The drain current of graphene transistors decreased and the Dirac point shifted after proton irradiation; however, a flattening in the Dirac point occurred after 15 MeV proton irradiation. The variations in characteristics were attributed to different types of graphene defects, which were closely related to the irradiation energy dependency of the transferred energy. Our observation results were in good agreement with the Bethe formula as well as the stopping and range of ions in matter simulation results.

  16. Measurements of proton energy spectra using a radiochromic film stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filkins, T. M.; Steidle, Jessica; Ellison, D. M.; Steidle, Jeffrey; Freeman, C. G.; Padalino, S. J.; Fiksel, G.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.

    2014-10-01

    The energy spectrum of protons accelerated from the rear-side of a thin foil illuminated with ultra-intense laser light from the OMEGA EP laser system at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) was measured using a stack of radiochromic film (RCF). The film stack consisted of four layers of Gafchromic HD-V2 film and four layers of Gafchromic MD-V2-55 film. Aluminum foils of various thicknesses were placed between each piece of RCF in the stack. This arrangement allowed protons with energies of 30 MeV to reach the back layer of RCF in the stack. The stack was placed in the detector plane of a Thomson parabola ion energy (TPIE) spectrometer. Each piece of film in the stack was scanned using a commercially available flat-bed scanner (Epson 10000XL). The resulting optical density was converted into proton fluence using an absolute calibration of the RCF obtained at the SUNY Geneseo 1.7 MV Pelletron accelerator laboratory. In these calibration measurements, the sensitivity of the radiochromic film was measured using monoenergetic protons produced by the accelerator. Details of the analysis procedure and the resulting proton energy spectra will be presented. Funded in part by a grant from the DOE through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  17. Investigation of high-energy-proton effects in aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Czajkowski, C.J.; Snead, C.L. Jr.; Todosow, M.

    1997-12-01

    Specimens of 1100 aluminum were exposed to several fluences of 23.5-GeV protons at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron. Although this energy is above those currently being proposed for spallation-neutron applications, the results can be viewed as indicative of trends and other microstructural evolution with fluence that take place with high-energy proton exposures such as those associated with an increasing ratio of gas generation to dpa. TEM investigation showed significantly larger bubble size and lower density of bubbles compared with lower-energy proton results. Additional testing showed that the tensile strength increased with fluence as expected, but the microhardness decreased, a result for which an intepretation is still under investigation.

  18. Monte Carlo approach for hadron azimuthal correlations in high energy proton and nuclear collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Alejandro; Dominguez, Isabel; Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Magnin, J.; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena

    2012-09-01

    We use a Monte Carlo approach to study hadron azimuthal angular correlations in high-energy proton-proton and central nucleus-nucleus collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider energies at midrapidity. We build a hadron event generator that incorporates the production of 2→2 and 2→3 parton processes and their evolution into hadron states. For nucleus-nucleus collisions we include the effect of parton energy loss in the quark-gluon plasma using a modified fragmentation function approach. In the presence of the medium, for the case when three partons are produced in the hard scattering, we analyze the Monte Carlo sample in parton and hadron momentum bins to reconstruct the angular correlations. We characterize this sample by the number of partons that are able to hadronize by fragmentation within the selected bins. In the nuclear environment the model allows hadronization by fragmentation only for partons with momentum above a threshold pTthresh=2.4 GeV. We argue that one should treat properly the effect of those partons with momentum below the threshold, because their interaction with the medium may lead to showers of low-momentum hadrons along the direction of motion of the original partons as the medium becomes diluted.

  19. Medium modification of photon-tagged and inclusive jets in high-multiplicity proton-proton collisions.

    PubMed

    Zakharov, B G

    2014-01-24

    We study modification of the photon-tagged and inclusive jets in pp collisions at sqrt[s]=7  TeV due to mini-quark-gluon plasma which can be produced in high multiplicity events. We show that for underlying events with dN(ch)/dη∼20-60 the medium effects lead to a considerable modification of the photon-tagged and inclusive jet fragmentation functions. For inclusive jets, the magnitude of the effect is surprisingly large. The effect is quite strong even for typical underlying events. We find that the spectrum of charged hadrons is suppressed by ∼35%-40% at p(T)∼5-10  GeV. PMID:24484134

  20. Low energy inner zone protons{emdash}revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Vampola, A.L.

    1996-07-01

    Flux data from a two-element proton telescope flown on the S3-3 satellite in the 1976{endash}1979 time period were averaged to provide a low energy (80 keV to 3.2 MeV) proton model in the inner zone which is more realistic than the AP8 extrapolations. At {ital L}=1.35 and 1.85, S3-3 proton fluxes at 1.5 MeV and alpha particles at 4 MeV agree with published data. In the range {ital L}=1.35 to 1.85, the 1.5 to 3.2 MeV proton channel fluxes on S3-3 also agree with the AP8 model. But in this {ital L} range at 80 keV to 1.5 MeV, the S3-3 proton telescope measured higher fluxes than are present in the AP8 model. The discrepancy is maximum in the {ital L}=1.35 to 1.45 range and increases at lower energies, with the maximum discrepancy being three orders of magnitude in the 80 to 150 keV range at {ital L}=1.4. A model to supplement AP8 has been developed covering the energy range 80 keV to 3.2 MeV over the {ital L} range of 1.2 to 2.4. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Intermediate energy proton-deuteron elastic scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    A fully symmetrized multiple scattering series is considered for the description of proton-deuteron elastic scattering. An off-shell continuation of the experimentally known twobody amplitudes that retains the exchange symmeteries required for the calculation is presented. The one boson exchange terms of the two body amplitudes are evaluated exactly in this off-shell prescription. The first two terms of the multiple scattering series are calculated explicitly whereas multiple scattering effects are obtained as minimum variance estimates from the 146-MeV data of Postma and Wilson. The multiple scattering corrections indeed consist of low order partial waves as suggested by Sloan based on model studies with separable interactions. The Hamada-Johnston wave function is shown consistent with the data for internucleon distances greater than about 0.84 fm.

  2. Energy distribution of proton microbeam transmitted through two flat plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, G. U. L.; Rajta, I.; Bereczky, R. J.; Tőkési, K.

    2015-07-01

    The transmission of 1 MeV proton microbeam passing between two parallel flat plates was investigated. Three different materials were used in our experiments. As insulators we used Polytetrafluoroethylene and borosilicate glass plates and glass with gold layer on the surface as conductor. The surface of the plates was parallel to the beam axis and one of the plates was moved towards the beam. The energy distribution and the deflection of the transmitted beam were measured as the function of the sample distance relative to the beam. We found systematic differences between the behaviour of the metallic and insulator samples. The proton microbeam suffered significant deflection towards the sample surface due to the image acceleration when using conductor material. In case of the glass and Polytetrafluoroethylene plates the beam was deflected into the opposite direction, and the incident protons did not suffer significant energy loss, which is the consequence of the guiding effect.

  3. CGC/saturation approach for high energy soft interactions: v2 in proton-proton collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotsman, E.; Levin, E.; Maor, U.; Tapia, S.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we continue our program to construct a model for high energy soft interactions, based on the CGC/saturation approach. We demonstrate that in our model, which describes diffractive physics as well as multiparticle production at high energy, the density variation mechanism leads to the value of v2 , which is about 60%-70% of the measured v2 . Bearing in mind that in the CGC/saturation approach there are two other mechanisms present, Bose enhancement in the wave function and local anisotropy, we believe that the azimuthal long range rapidity correlations in proton-proton collisions stem from the CGC/saturation physics, and not from quark-gluon plasma production.

  4. Energy dependence of the ridge in high multiplicity proton-proton collisions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dusling, Kevin; Tribedy, Prithwish; Venugopalan, Raju

    2016-01-27

    In this study, we demonstrate that the recent measurement of azimuthally collimated, long-range rapidity (“ridge”) correlations in √s=13 TeV proton-proton (p+p) collisions by the ATLAS Collaboration at the LHC are in agreement with expectations from the color glass condensate effective theory of high-energy QCD. The observation that the integrated near-side yield as a function of multiplicity is independent of collision energy is a natural consequence of the fact that multiparticle production is driven by a single semihard saturation scale in the color glass condensate framework. We argue further that the azimuthal structure of these recent ATLAS ridge measurements strongly constrainsmore » hydrodynamic interpretations of such correlations in high-multiplicity p+p collisions.« less

  5. Dynamics of the correlation between polar cap radio absorption and solar energetic proton fluxes in the interplanetary medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouznetsov, A.; Knudsen, D. J.; Donovan, E. F.; Spanswick, E.

    2014-03-01

    During solar energetic particle (SEP) events, large fluxes of energetic particles spreading throughout the interplanetary medium (IPM) have access to the upper polar atmosphere where they play important roles in physical and chemical processes. We examine the dynamics of the relation between solar energetic proton (SEP) fluxes detected outside the magnetosphere by SOHO, at geosynchronous orbit by GOES 8, and in low earth orbit by NOAA 15 (POES) satellites on one hand, and ionospheric absorption measured by a NORSTAR riometer in the polar cap on the other. We attempt to isolate SEP-related signals by rejecting periods influenced by electron precipitation and solar radio bursts. Under these conditions we find R2of up to 0.9 between the logarithms of SEP flux and absorption for all satellites, but with the additional restriction to periods beginning 10 h after event onsets and within tens of hours following times of maximum flux. We find that the flux-absorption correlation is poor during the first few hours of an event, which we attribute to the fact that SEP angular distributions are often highly peaked along the interplanetary magnetic field during the early stages of an event. Such highly anisotropic distributions map to small regions inside the polar caps, making it unlikely that the corresponding absorption signal will be detected by a single riometer. These observations suggest that riometers in combination with a suitable numerical tool can be used as a diagnostic of properties of energetic proton populations in the interplanetary medium.

  6. Low energy proton bidirectional anisotropies and their relation to transient interplanetary magnetic structures: ISEE-3 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, R. G.; Sanderson, T. R.; Wenzel, K. P.; Smith, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    It is known that the interplanetary medium in the period approaching solar maximum is characterized by an enhancement in the occurrence of transient solar wind streams and shocks and that such systems are often associated with looplike magnetic structures or clouds. There is observational evidence that bidirectional, field aligned flows of low energy particles could be a signature of such looplike structures, although detailed models for the magnetic field configuration and injection mechanisms do not exist at the current time. Preliminary results of a survey of low energy proton bidirectional anisotropies measured on ISEE-3 in the interplanetary medium between August 1978 and May 1982, together with magnetic field data from the same spacecraft are presented.

  7. Electrochemical cells for medium- and large-scale energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Wei, Xiaoliang; Choi, Daiwon; Lu, Xiaochuan; Yang, G.; Sun, C.

    2014-12-12

    This is one of the chapters in the book titled “Advances in batteries for large- and medium-scale energy storage: Applications in power systems and electric vehicles” that will be published by the Woodhead Publishing Limited. The chapter discusses the basic electrochemical fundamentals of electrochemical energy storage devices with a focus on the rechargeable batteries. Several practical secondary battery systems are also discussed as examples

  8. MCNP6 simulation of light and medium nuclei fragmentation at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashnik, Stepan G.; Kerby, Leslie M.

    2016-05-01

    Fragmentation reactions induced on light and medium nuclei by protons and light nuclei of energies around 1 GeV/nucleon and below are studied with the Los Alamos transport code MCNP6 and with its CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03 event generators. CEM and LAQGSM assume that intermediate-energy fragmentation reactions on light nuclei occur generally in two stages. The first stage is the intranuclear cascade (INC), followed by the second, Fermi breakup disintegration of light excited residual nuclei produced after the INC. CEM and LAQGSM account also for coalescence of light fragments (complex particles) up to 4He from energetic nucleons emitted during INC. We investigate the validity and performance of MCNP6, CEM, and LAQGSM in simulating fragmentation reactions at intermediate energies and discuss possible ways of further improving these codes.

  9. MCNP6 Simulation of Light and Medium Nuclei Fragmentation at Intermediate Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Mashnik, Stepan Georgievich; Kerby, Leslie Marie

    2015-08-24

    Fragmentation reactions induced on light and medium nuclei by protons and light nuclei of energies around 1 GeV/nucleon and below are studied with the Los Alamos transport code MCNP6 and with its CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03 event generators. CEM and LAQGSM assume that intermediate-energy fragmentation reactions on light nuclei occur generally in two stages. The first stage is the intranuclear cascade (INC), followed by the second, Fermi breakup disintegration of light excited residual nuclei produced after the INC. CEM and LAQGSM account also for coalescence of light fragments (complex particles) up to sup>4He from energetic nucleons emitted during INC. We investigate the validity and performance of MCNP6, CEM, and LAQGSM in simulating fragmentation reactions at intermediate energies and discuss possible ways of further improving these codes.

  10. An Assessment of Nuclear Isomers as an Energy Storage Medium

    SciTech Connect

    Hartouni, Edward P.

    2009-03-16

    Nuclear Isomers have been suggested as a potential high energy density medium that might be used to store energy. This talk assesses the state of the science supporting key elements of using nuclear isomers in energy storage applications. The focus is on the nuclear isomer {sup 178m2}Hf which has been most widely suggested for energy storage applications. However, the science issues apply to all nuclear isomer. The assessment addresses the production of the nuclear isomer, and inducing the release of the isomer. Also discussed are novel speculations on photon and/or neutron chain reactions, both as a 'pure' material as well as mixed with other materials.

  11. An Assessment of Nuclear Isomers as an Energy Storage Medium

    SciTech Connect

    Hartouni, E P

    2008-12-08

    Nuclear Isomers have been suggested as a potential high energy density medium that might be used to store energy. This talk assesses the state of the science supporting key elements of using nuclear isomers in energy storage applications. The focus is on the nuclear isomer {sup 178m2}Hf which has been most widely suggested for energy storage applications. However, the science issues apply to all nuclear isomer. The assessment addresses the production of the nuclear isomer, and inducing the release of the isomer. Also discussed are novel speculations on photon and/or neutron chain reactions, both as a 'pure' material as well as mixed with other materials.

  12. Paths and ionization losses of proton energy in different substances

    SciTech Connect

    Vasilovskiy, I.M.; Karpov, I.I.; Petrukhin, V.I.; Prokoshkin, Yu.D.

    1986-02-14

    Ionization energy losses of charged particles in a substance are described by the well-known Bethe-Bloch formula. However, the magnitudes of the ionization potentials in region of low proton energies (E < 100 MeV) for heavy elements prove to be considerably larger than those at high energies. Thus, studies of ionization losses in the region of high energies are the main source of the experimental information necessary for the correction of the Bethe-Bloch formula and determination of magnitudes of ionization potentials I. The purpose of this work was to measure the magnitudes of ionization losses dE/ds, paths R and ionization potentials I at a proton energy of E 670 MeV. The measurements were taken by the relative method for different substances of x, and the magnitudes of q sub x=(dE/ds) sub x/(dE/ds) sub Al and px=R sub x/R sub Al were found. Quantities qx and px weakly depend on the energy E where at E=200-600 MeV, a=(2-4).10-2 for different substances. The proton energy was determined with an accuracy of 2 MeV.

  13. The Design of a Large Booster Ring for the Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jlab

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Nissen, Todd Satogata, Yuhong Zhang

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we present the current design of the large booster ring for the Medium energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jefferson Lab. The booster ring takes 3 GeV protons or ions of equivalent rigidity from a pre-booster ring, and accelerates them to 20 GeV for protons or equivalent energy for light to heavy ions before sending them to the ion collider ring. The present design calls for a figure-8 shape of the ring for superior preservation of ion polarization. The ring is made of warm magnets and shares a tunnel with the two collider rings. Acceleration is achieved by warm RF systems. The linear optics has been designed with the transition energy above the highest beam energy in the ring so crossing of transition energy will be avoided. Preliminary beam dynamics studies including chromaticity compensation are presented in this paper.

  14. Interplay between proton-neutron pairing and deformation in self-conjugated medium mass nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambacurta, Danilo; Lacroix, Denis

    2016-05-01

    We employ a model combining self-consistent mean-field and shell model techniques to study the competition between particle-like and proton-neutron pairing correlations in fp-shell even-even self-conjugate nuclei. Deformation effects are realistically and microscopically described. The resulting approach can give a precise description of pairing correlations and eventually treat the coexistence of different condensate formed of pairs with different total spin/ isospin. The standard BCS calculations are systematically compared with approaches including correlation effects beyond the independent quasi-particle picture. The competition between proton-neutron correlations in the isoscalar and isovector channels is also analyzed, as well as their dependence on the deformation properties.

  15. About multiple scattering of high energy protons in crystal deflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taratin, A. M.; Scandale, W.

    2015-07-01

    The process of multiple scattering of high energy protons in a silicon crystal at its amorphous orientation was studied by simulation of proton trajectories in the model of binary collisions and by a straight simulation of the sequences of proton collisions with atoms when their impact parameters are randomly and uniformly distributed on the symmetry cell for a given crystallography direction. The value of the RMS deflection of multiple scattering obtained by the simulation is in a good agreement with the experiment and more than 15% larger than it follows from the Moliere theory. The obtained RMS deflection used in the Gaussian approach of multiple scattering well describes dechanneling of protons in the frame of the planar potential model. Different number of proton collisions with atoms occurs along the same crystal length for different crystal orientations. However, the change of the collision number is compensated by the corresponding change of the mean square deflection in a single collision. Therefore, multiple scattering is the same for different crystal orientations. The generator of multiple scattering for amorphous crystal orientations was proposed.

  16. Energy flow along the medium-induced parton cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaizot, J.-P.; Mehtar-Tani, Y.

    2016-05-01

    We discuss the dynamics of parton cascades that develop in dense QCD matter, and contrast their properties with those of similar cascades of gluon radiation in vacuum. We argue that such cascades belong to two distinct classes that are characterized respectively by an increasing or a constant (or decreasing) branching rate along the cascade. In the former class, of which the BDMPS, medium-induced, cascade constitutes a typical example, it takes a finite time to transport a finite amount of energy to very soft quanta, while this time is essentially infinite in the latter case, to which the DGLAP cascade belongs. The medium induced cascade is accompanied by a constant flow of energy towards arbitrary soft modes, leading eventually to the accumulation of the initial energy of the leading particle at zero energy. It also exhibits scaling properties akin to wave turbulence. These properties do not show up in the cascade that develops in vacuum. There, the energy accumulates in the spectrum at smaller and smaller energy as the cascade develops, but the energy never flows all the way down to zero energy. Our analysis suggests that the way the energy is shared among the offsprings of a splitting gluon has little impact on the qualitative properties of the cascades, provided the kernel that governs the splittings is not too singular.

  17. Comprehensive description of J/ψ production in proton-proton collisions at collider energies.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan-Qing; Venugopalan, Raju

    2014-11-01

    We employ a small x color glass condensate (CGC)+ nonrelativistic QCD (NRQCD) formalism to compute J/ψ production at low p(⊥) in proton-proton collisions at collider energies. Very good agreement is obtained for total cross sections, rapidity distributions, and low momentum p(⊥) distributions. Similar agreement is obtained for ψ' production. We observe an overlap region in p(⊥) where our results match smoothly to those obtained in a next-to-leading order collinearly factorized NRQCD formalism. The relative contribution of color singlet and color octet contributions can be quantified in the CGC+NRQCD framework, with the former contributing approximately 10% of the total cross section. PMID:25415899

  18. Proton-proton, pion-proton and pion-pion diffractive collisions at ultrahigh energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisovich, V. V.; Nikonov, K. V.; Nikonov, V. A.; Nyiri, J.

    2014-05-01

    The LHC energies are those at which the asymptotic regime in hadron-hadron diffractive collisions (pp, πp, ππ) might be switched on. Based on results of the Dakhno-Nikonov eikonal model which is a generalization of the Good-Walker eikonal approach for a continuous set of channels, we present a picture for transformation of the constituent quark mode to the black disk one. In the black disk mode (√ {s} >= 10 TeV), we have a growth of the logarithm squared type for total and elastic cross-sections, σtot ln2 s and σel ln2 s and (τ = q⊥2&sigma_; tot)-scaling for diffractive scattering and diffractive dissociation of hadrons. The diffractive dissociation cross-section grows as σD ln s, σDD ln s, and their relative contribution tends to zero: σD/σtot → 0, σDD/σtot → 0. Asymptotic characteristics of diffractive and total cross-sections are universal, and this results in the asymptotical equality of cross-sections for all types of hadrons (the Gribov universality). The energy scale for switching on the asymptotic mode is estimated for different processes.

  19. A Four-fluid MHD Model of the Solar Wind/Interstellar Medium Interaction with Turbulence Transport and Pickup Protons as Separate Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usmanov, Arcadi V.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Matthaeus, William H.

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a four-fluid, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic model of the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium. The unique features of the model are: (a) a three-fluid description for the charged components of the solar wind and interstellar plasmas (thermal protons, electrons, and pickup protons), (b) the built-in turbulence transport equations based on Reynolds decomposition and coupled with the mean-flow Reynolds-averaged equations, and (c) a solar corona/solar wind model that supplies inner boundary conditions at 40 au by computing solar wind and magnetic field parameters outward from the coronal base. The three charged species are described by separate energy equations and are assumed to move with the same velocity. The fourth fluid in the model is the interstellar hydrogen which is treated by separate continuity, momentum, and energy equations and is coupled with the charged components through photoionization and charge exchange. We evaluate the effects of turbulence transport and pickup protons on the global heliospheric structure and compute the distribution of plasma, magnetic field, and turbulence parameters throughout the heliosphere for representative solar minimum and maximum conditions. We compare our results with Voyager 1 observations in the outer heliosheath and show that the relative amplitude of magnetic fluctuations just outside the heliopause is in close agreement with the value inferred from Voyager 1 measurements by Burlaga et al. The simulated profiles of magnetic field parameters in the outer heliosheath are in qualitative agreement with the Voyager 1 observations and with the analytical model of magnetic field draping around the heliopause of Isenberg et al.

  20. Proton Linear Energy Transfer measurement using Emulsion Cloud Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jae-ik; Park, Seyjoon; Kim, Haksoo; Kim, Meyoung; Jeong, Chiyoung; Cho, Sungkoo; Lim, Young Kyung; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong; Morishima, Kunihiro; Naganawa, Naotaka; Sato, Osamu; Kwak, Jungwon; Kim, Sung Hyun; Cho, Jung Sook; Ahn, Jung Keun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Chun Sil; Incerti, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes to determine the correlation between the Volume Pulse Height (VPH) measured by nuclear emulsion and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) calculated by Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. The nuclear emulsion was irradiated at the National Cancer Center (NCC) with a therapeutic proton beam and was installed at 5.2 m distance from the beam nozzle structure with various thicknesses of water-equivalent material (PMMA) blocks to position with specific positions along the Bragg curve. After the beam exposure and development of the emulsion films, the films were scanned by S-UTS developed in Nagoya University. The proton tracks in the scanned films were reconstructed using the 'NETSCAN' method. Through this procedure, the VPH can be derived from each reconstructed proton track at each position along the Bragg curve. The VPH value indicates the magnitude of energy loss in proton track. By comparison with the simulation results obtained using Geant4, we found the correlation between the LET calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and the VPH measured by the nuclear emulsion.

  1. Medium effects on charmonium production at ultrarelativistic energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Kai; Xu, Nu; Xu, Zhe; Zhuang, Pengfei

    2014-05-01

    We investigate with a transport approach the cold and hot nuclear matter effects on the charmonium transverse momentum distributions in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The newly defined nuclear modification factor rAA=AA/pp and elliptic flow v2 for J /ψ are sensitive to the nature of the hot medium and the thermalization of heavy quarks. From Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) through Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to Large Hadron Collider (LHC) colliding energies, we observe dramatic changes in the centrality dependence of rAA. We find that, at LHC energy, the finally observed charmonia are dominated by the regeneration from thermalized heavy quarks.

  2. MINOS+: a Proposal to FNAL to run MINOS with the medium energy NuMI beam

    SciTech Connect

    Tzanankos, G.; Bishai, M.; Diwan, M.; Escobar, C.O.; Gomes, R.A.; Gouffon, P.; Blake, A.; Thomson, M.; Patterson, R.B.; Adamson, P.; Childress, S.; /Fermilab /IIT, Chicago /Los Alamos /Minnesota U. /Minnesota U., Duluth /Bhubaneswar, NISER /Iowa State U.

    2011-05-01

    This is a proposal to continue to expose the two MINOS detectors to the NuMI muon neutrino beam for three years starting in 2013. The medium energy setting of the NuMI beam projected for NO{nu}A will deliver about 18 x 10{sup 20} protons-on-target during the first three years of operation. This will allow the MINOS Far Detector to collect more than 10,000 charged current muon neutrino events in the 4-10 GeV energy range and provide a stringent test for non-standard neutrino interactions, sterile neutrinos, extra dimensions, neutrino time-of-flight, and perhaps more. In addition there will be more than 3,000 neutral current events which will be particularly useful in extending the sterile neutrino search range.

  3. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hyojae; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok

    2016-02-01

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  4. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyojae; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok

    2016-02-01

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described. PMID:26932088

  5. Analytical calculation of proton linear energy transfer in voxelized geometries including secondary protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Parcerisa, D.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Dolney, D.; Kondrla, M.; Fager, M.; Carabe, A.

    2016-02-01

    In order to integrate radiobiological modelling with clinical treatment planning for proton radiotherapy, we extended our in-house treatment planning system FoCa with a 3D analytical algorithm to calculate linear energy transfer (LET) in voxelized patient geometries. Both active scanning and passive scattering delivery modalities are supported. The analytical calculation is much faster than the Monte-Carlo (MC) method and it can be implemented in the inverse treatment planning optimization suite, allowing us to create LET-based objectives in inverse planning. The LET was calculated by combining a 1D analytical approach including a novel correction for secondary protons with pencil-beam type LET-kernels. Then, these LET kernels were inserted into the proton-convolution-superposition algorithm in FoCa. The analytical LET distributions were benchmarked against MC simulations carried out in Geant4. A cohort of simple phantom and patient plans representing a wide variety of sites (prostate, lung, brain, head and neck) was selected. The calculation algorithm was able to reproduce the MC LET to within 6% (1 standard deviation) for low-LET areas (under 1.7 keV μm-1) and within 22% for the high-LET areas above that threshold. The dose and LET distributions can be further extended, using radiobiological models, to include radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) calculations in the treatment planning system. This implementation also allows for radiobiological optimization of treatments by including RBE-weighted dose constraints in the inverse treatment planning process.

  6. Neutrino diagnostics of ultrahigh energy cosmic ray protons

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlers, Markus; Sarkar, Subir; Anchordoqui, Luis A.

    2009-04-15

    The energy at which cosmic rays from extra-galactic sources begin to dominate over those from galactic sources is an important open question in astroparticle physics. A natural candidate is the energy at the 'ankle' in the approximately power-law energy spectrum which is indicative of a crossover from a falling galactic component to a flatter extra-galactic component. The transition can occur without such flattening but this requires some degree of conspiracy of the spectral shapes and normalizations of the two components. Nevertheless, it has been argued that extra-galactic sources of cosmic ray protons that undergo interactions on the CMB can reproduce the energy spectrum below the ankle if the crossover energy is as low as the 'second knee' in the spectrum. This low crossover model is constrained by direct measurements by the Pierre Auger Observatory, which indicate a heavier composition at these energies. We demonstrate that upper limits on the cosmic diffuse neutrino flux provide a complementary constraint on the proton fraction in ultra-high energy extra-galactic cosmic rays and forthcoming data from IceCube will provide a definitive test of this model.

  7. Advanced proton-exchange materials for energy efficient fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Cy H.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Hickner, Michael A.; Cornelius, Christopher James; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2005-12-01

    The ''Advanced Proton-Exchange Materials for Energy Efficient Fuel Cells'' Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project began in October 2002 and ended in September 2005. This LDRD was funded by the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy strategic business unit. The purpose of this LDRD was to initiate the fundamental research necessary for the development of a novel proton-exchange membranes (PEM) to overcome the material and performance limitations of the ''state of the art'' Nafion that is used in both hydrogen and methanol fuel cells. An atomistic modeling effort was added to this LDRD in order to establish a frame work between predicted morphology and observed PEM morphology in order to relate it to fuel cell performance. Significant progress was made in the area of PEM material design, development, and demonstration during this LDRD. A fundamental understanding involving the role of the structure of the PEM material as a function of sulfonic acid content, polymer topology, chemical composition, molecular weight, and electrode electrolyte ink development was demonstrated during this LDRD. PEM materials based upon random and block polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes were created and evaluated for improvements in proton conductivity, reduced swelling, reduced O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} permeability, and increased thermal stability. Results from this work reveal that the family of polyphenylenes potentially solves several technical challenges associated with obtaining a high temperature PEM membrane. Fuel cell relevant properties such as high proton conductivity (>120 mS/cm), good thermal stability, and mechanical robustness were demonstrated during this LDRD. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments and results of this LDRD.

  8. MCNP6 Simulation of Light and Medium Nuclei Fragmentation at Intermediate Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Mashnik, Stepan Georgievich; Kerby, Leslie Marie

    2015-05-22

    MCNP6, the latest and most advanced LANL Monte Carlo transport code, representing a merger of MCNP5 and MCNPX, is actually much more than the sum of those two computer codes; MCNP6 is available to the public via RSICC at Oak Ridge, TN, USA. In the present work, MCNP6 was validated and verified (V&V) against different experimental data on intermediate-energy fragmentation reactions, and results by several other codes, using mainly the latest modifications of the Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM) and of the Los Alamos version of the Quark-Gluon String Model (LAQGSM) event generators CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03. It was found that MCNP6 using CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03 describes well fragmentation reactions induced on light and medium target nuclei by protons and light nuclei of energies around 1 GeV/nucleon and below, and can serve as a reliable simulation tool for different applications, like cosmic-ray-induced single event upsets (SEU’s), radiation protection, and cancer therapy with proton and ion beams, to name just a few. Future improvements of the predicting capabilities of MCNP6 for such reactions are possible, and are discussed in this work.

  9. Analytical calculation of proton linear energy transfer in voxelized geometries including secondary protons.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Parcerisa, D; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Dolney, D; Kondrla, M; Fager, M; Carabe, A

    2016-02-21

    In order to integrate radiobiological modelling with clinical treatment planning for proton radiotherapy, we extended our in-house treatment planning system FoCa with a 3D analytical algorithm to calculate linear energy transfer (LET) in voxelized patient geometries. Both active scanning and passive scattering delivery modalities are supported. The analytical calculation is much faster than the Monte-Carlo (MC) method and it can be implemented in the inverse treatment planning optimization suite, allowing us to create LET-based objectives in inverse planning. The LET was calculated by combining a 1D analytical approach including a novel correction for secondary protons with pencil-beam type LET-kernels. Then, these LET kernels were inserted into the proton-convolution-superposition algorithm in FoCa. The analytical LET distributions were benchmarked against MC simulations carried out in Geant4. A cohort of simple phantom and patient plans representing a wide variety of sites (prostate, lung, brain, head and neck) was selected. The calculation algorithm was able to reproduce the MC LET to within 6% (1 standard deviation) for low-LET areas (under 1.7 keV μm(-1)) and within 22% for the high-LET areas above that threshold. The dose and LET distributions can be further extended, using radiobiological models, to include radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) calculations in the treatment planning system. This implementation also allows for radiobiological optimization of treatments by including RBE-weighted dose constraints in the inverse treatment planning process. PMID:26840945

  10. Medium-Energy Nuclear Data Library (MENDLIB): Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Siciliano, E.R.; Arthur, E.D.

    1987-10-01

    This document describes an initial step towards the formation of a computerized on-line data library, which would contain published medium-energy experimental data, and which would serve the basic and applied needs of the medium-energy nuclear physics community. The data emphasized in this project will be from measured charged-particle and meson induced nuclear scattering and reactions; an area for which no such data base presently exists. Access to the data will be through a menu-driven program in a user-friendly environment. The project is divided into three phases: Phase 1 involves compilation of Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) data from nucleon and pion induced reactions, Phase 2 includes nucleon and pion data from other medium-energy facilities, and Phase 3 includes electron, light-ion, and possibly kaon and anti-nucleon data. The initial goals, the manner in which they would be pursued, and the resources needed to implement Phase 1 (the pilot phase) are discussed in detail. Possible expansion of Phase 1 to attain the envisioned goals of Phase 2 and 3 are briefly outlined. During all stages of the project, input from the community will be sought via the various facility user groups and the American Physical Society Division of Nuclear Physics. It is proposed that the Applied Nuclear Science Group (T-2) of the Los Alamos National Laboratory oversees the development and implementation of this project, and the LAMPF VAX computers be used as the host computers for on-line access.

  11. Medium energy gamma ray astronomy with transpacific balloon flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zych, A. D.; Jennings, M. C.; White, R. S.; Dayton, B.

    1981-01-01

    Transpacific balloon flights with the University of California, Riverside (UCR) double scatter telescope are discussed. With flight durations from 5 days up to perhaps 15 days the long observation times necessary for medium energy (1-30 MeV) gamma ray astronomy can be obtained. These flights would be made under the auspices of the Joint U.S.-Japan Balloon Flight Program at NASA. It is proposed that flights can provide at least 30 hours of observation time per flight for many discrete source candidates and 120 hours for detecting low intensity cosmic gamma ray bursts.

  12. A boron phosphate-phosphoric acid composite membrane for medium temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamlouk, M.; Scott, K.

    2015-07-01

    A composite membrane based on a non-stoichiometric composition of BPO4 with excess of PO4 (BPOx) was synthesised and characterised for medium temperature fuel cell use (120-180 °C). The electrolyte was characterised by FTIR, SS-NMR, TGA and XRD and showed that the B-O is tetrahedral, in agreement with reports in the literature that boron phosphorus oxide compounds at B:P < 1 are exclusively built of borate and phosphate tetrahedra. Platinum micro electrodes were used to study the electrolyte compatibility and stability towards oxygen reduction at 150 °C and to obtain kinetic and mass transport parameters. The conductivities of the pure BPOx membrane electrolyte and a Polybenzimidazole (PBI)-4BPOx composite membrane were 7.9 × 10-2 S cm-1 and 4.5 × 10-2 S cm-1 respectively at 150 °C, 5%RH. Fuel cell tests showed a significant enhancement in performance of BPOx over that of typical 5.6H3PO4-PBI membrane electrolyte. The enhancement is due to the improved ionic conductivity (3×), a higher exchange current density of the oxygen reduction (30×) and a lower membrane gas permeability (10×). Fuel cell current densities at 0.6 V were 706 and 425 mA cm-2 for BPOx and 5.6H3PO4-PBI, respectively, at 150 °C with O2 (atm).

  13. Energy enhancement of proton acceleration in combinational radiation pressure and bubble by optimizing plasma density

    SciTech Connect

    Bake, Muhammad Ali; Xie Baisong; Shan Zhang; Hong Xueren; Wang Hongyu

    2012-08-15

    The combinational laser radiation pressure and plasma bubble fields to accelerate protons are researched through theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. The dephasing length of the accelerated protons bunch in the front of the bubble and the density gradient effect of background plasma on the accelerating phase are analyzed in detail theoretically. The radiation damping effect on the accelerated protons energy is also considered. And it is demonstrated by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations that the protons bunch energy can be increased by using the background plasma with negative density gradient. However, radiation damping makes the maximal energy of the accelerated protons a little reduction.

  14. Steps towards a Medium-Energy Gamma-ray Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnery, Julie

    We propose to develop, fabricate, and test a small-scale medium-energy (0.2 - 500 MeV) gamma-ray telescope, optimized for photon detection in both the Compton-scattering and pair-production regimes. The instrument will consist of a double-sided Si-strip tracking detector with energy deposition readout, a composite CdZnTe-strip (CZT) and CsI(Tl)-log calorimeter with high spatial and good energy resolution, and a highly efficient anti-coincidence detector (ACD). This instrument will be a prototype for a potential future MIDEX-scale mission (ComPair) designed to provide a more than order of magnitude increase in sensitivity to the MeV gamma-ray Universe compared to past missions. ComPair will provide a significant improvement in both angular and energy resolution over previous instruments operating in the 0.2-100 MeV range, offering a truly new window on this poorly explored energy range. In this proposal, the team proposes to develop and test the key detection elements for ComPair, integrate these elements in a prototype telescope, perform a series of beam tests to demonstrate the performance, and perform a balloon test flight to study the background rejection capability of the prototype instrument. As a result, we will establish the proof of concept for a Si-CZT Compton-Pair space telescope and elevate the TRL for the ComPair technology to 6-7.

  15. Low-energy proton increases associated with interplanetary shock waves.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmeira, R. A. R.; Allum, F. R.; Rao, U. R.

    1971-01-01

    Impulsive increases in the low energy proton flux observed by the Explorer 34 satellite, in very close time association with geomagnetic storm sudden commencements are described. It is shown that these events are of short duration (20-30 min) and occur only during the decay phase of a solar cosmic-ray flare event. The differential energy spectrum and the angular distribution of the direction of arrival of the particles are discussed. Two similar increases observed far away from the earth by the Pioneer 7 and 8 deep-space probes are also presented. These impulsive increases are compared with Energetic Storm Particle events and their similarities and differences are discussed. A model is suggested to explain these increases, based on the sweeping and trapping of low energy cosmic rays of solar origin by the advancing shock front responsible for the sudden commencement detected on the earth.

  16. Ripple formation on silicon by medium energy ion bombardment.

    PubMed

    Chini, Tapas Kumar; Datta, Debi Prasad; Bhattacharyya, Satya Ranjan

    2009-06-01

    The formation of a self-organized nanoscale ripple pattern after off-normally incident ion bombardment on the surface of amorphous materials, or on semiconductors like silicon that are easily amorphized by ion bombardment, has attracted much attention in recent years from the point of view of both theory and applications. As the energy of the impinging ions increases from low to medium, i.e. several hundred eV to a few tens of keV, the ratio of amplitude to wavelength of the generated ripple pattern becomes so large that inter-peak shadowing of the incident ion flux takes place. Morphologically, the sinusoidal surface profile starts to become distorted after prolonged ion bombardment under such conditions. Structural and compositional modifications of the ripple morphology generated under shadowing conditions include the formation of a thicker amorphous layer with high incorporation of argon atoms in the form of nanometer sized bubbles around the middle part of the front slope of the ripple facing the ion beam, as compared to the rear slope. The present paper reviews recent developments in the experimental study of morphological, structural and compositional aspects of ripple patterns generated on a silicon surface after medium keV (30-120 keV) argon bombardment mainly at an angle of ion incidence of 60°. PMID:21715743

  17. An online, energy-resolving beam profile detector for laser-driven proton beams.

    PubMed

    Metzkes, J; Zeil, K; Kraft, S D; Karsch, L; Sobiella, M; Rehwald, M; Obst, L; Schlenvoigt, H-P; Schramm, U

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a scintillator-based online beam profile detector for the characterization of laser-driven proton beams is presented. Using a pixelated matrix with varying absorber thicknesses, the proton beam is spatially resolved in two dimensions and simultaneously energy-resolved. A thin plastic scintillator placed behind the absorber and read out by a CCD camera is used as the active detector material. The spatial detector resolution reaches down to ∼4 mm and the detector can resolve proton beam profiles for up to 9 proton threshold energies. With these detector design parameters, the spatial characteristics of the proton distribution and its cut-off energy can be analyzed online and on-shot under vacuum conditions. The paper discusses the detector design, its characterization and calibration at a conventional proton source, as well as the first detector application at a laser-driven proton source. PMID:27587116

  18. Note: Proton microbeam formation with continuously variable kinetic energy using a compact system for three-dimensional proton beam writing

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, T. Ishii, Y.

    2015-03-15

    A compact focused gaseous ion beam system has been developed to form proton microbeams of a few hundreds of keV with a penetration depth of micrometer range in 3-dimensional proton beam writing. Proton microbeams with kinetic energies of 100-140 keV were experimentally formed on the same point at a constant ratio of the kinetic energy of the object side to that of the image side. The experimental results indicate that the beam diameters were measured to be almost constant at approximately 6 μm at the same point with the kinetic energy range. These characteristics of the system were experimentally and numerically demonstrated to be maintained as long as the ratio was constant.

  19. Resonant photonuclear isotope detection using medium-energy photon beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejiri, Hiroyasu; Shima, Tatsushi

    2012-02-01

    Resonant photonuclear isotope detection (RPID) is a nondestructive detection/assay of nuclear isotopes by measuring γ rays following photonuclear reaction products. Medium-energy wideband photons of Eγ=12-16MeV are used for the photonuclear (γ,n) reactions and γ rays characteristic of the reaction products are measured by means of high-sensitivity Ge detectors. Impurities of stable and radioactive isotopes of the orders of μgr—ngr and ppm—ppb are investigated. RPID is used to study nuclear isotopes of astronuclear and particle physics interests and those of geological and historical interests. It is used to identify radioactive isotopes of fission products as well.

  20. [Spin dependent phenomena in medium energy physics]. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Souder, P.A.

    1992-11-01

    The Syracuse University Medium Energy Physics Group was actively engaged in several research projects. A laser was used to polarize muonic atoms with the goal of measuring fundamental spin-dependent parameters in the reaction {mu}{sup {minus}} + {sup 3}He {yields} {sup 3}H + {nu}. Time-averaged polarizations of 26.8{plus_minus}2.3% were achieved for the muon in muonic {sup 3}He. The new approach uses atomic spin-dependent reactions between laser polarized Rb vapor and muonic helium. To exploit these high polarizations in a muon capture experiment an ion chamber which will detect the recoil tritons and also serve as a polarizing cell. Final data-taking will begin for an experiment to measure the spin-dependent structure functions of the neutron. A 288-element hodoscope system which features good timing and precise mechanical tolerances was constructed and evaluated.

  1. Elastic proton-deuteron scattering at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Ramazani-Moghaddam-Arani, A.; Amir-Ahmadi, H. R.; Biegun, A.; Eslami-Kalantari, M.; Joulaeizadeh, L.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Mardanpour, H.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Moeini, H.; Shende, S. V.; Bacher, A. D.; Bailey, C. D.; Stephenson, E. J.; Gasparic, I.; Kistryn, St.; Sworst, R.; Kozela, A.; Micherdzinska, A. M.; Stephan, E.

    2008-07-15

    Observables in elastic proton-deuteron scattering are sensitive probes of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and three-nucleon force effects. The present experimental database for this reaction is large, but contains a large discrepancy between data sets for the differential cross section taken at 135 MeV/nucleon by two experimental research groups. This article reviews the background of this problem and presents new data taken at Kernfysisch Versneller Instituute (KVI). Differential cross sections and analyzing powers for the {sup 2}H(p-vector,d)p and {sup 1}H(d-vector,d)p reactions at 135 MeV/nucleon and 65 MeV/nucleon, respectively, have been measured. The differential cross-section data differ significantly from previous measurements and consistently follow the energy dependence as expected from an interpolation of published data taken over a large range at intermediate energies.

  2. Si film separation obtained by high energy proton implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Braley, C.; Mazen, F.; Papon, A.-M.; Rieutord, F.; Charvet, A.-M.; Ntsoenzok, E.

    2012-11-06

    High energy protons implantation in the 1-1.5 MeV range can be used to detach free-standing thin silicon films with thickness between 15 and 30 {mu}m. Recently, we showed that Si orientation has a strong effect on the layer separation threshold fluence and efficiency. While complete delamination of (111)Si films is achieved, (100)Si films separation is more challenging due to blistering phenomena or partial separation of the implanted layer. In this work, we study the fracture mechanism in (100) and (111)Si after high energy implantation in order to understand the origin of such a behavior. We notably point out that fracture precursor defects, i.e. the platelets, preferentially form on (111) planes, as a consequence of the low strain level in the damaged region in our implantation conditions. Fracture therefore propagates easily in (111)Si, while it requires higher fluence to overcome unfavorable precursors orientation and propagate in (100)Si.

  3. Energy dependence of moments of net-proton multiplicity distributions at RHIC.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Banerjee, A; Barnovska, Z; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Corliss, R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Davila Leyva, A; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Grosnick, D; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hajkova, O; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Hays-Wehle, J P; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Korsch, W; Kotchenda, L; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Leight, W; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lima, L M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Madagodagettige Don, D M M D; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Oliveira, R A N; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Peterson, A; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Plyku, D; Poljak, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandacz, A; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; deSouza, U G; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Walker, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-01-24

    We report the beam energy (sqrt[sNN]=7.7-200  GeV) and collision centrality dependence of the mean (M), standard deviation (σ), skewness (S), and kurtosis (κ) of the net-proton multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions. The measurements are carried out by the STAR experiment at midrapidity (|y|<0.5) and within the transverse momentum range 0.4Energy Scan program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. These measurements are important for understanding the quantum chromodynamic phase diagram. The products of the moments, Sσ and κσ2, are sensitive to the correlation length of the hot and dense medium created in the collisions and are related to the ratios of baryon number susceptibilities of corresponding orders. The products of moments are found to have values significantly below the Skellam expectation and close to expectations based on independent proton and antiproton production. The measurements are compared to a transport model calculation to understand the effect of acceptance and baryon number conservation and also to a hadron resonance gas model. PMID:24484135

  4. Enhancement of the maximum proton energy by funnel-geometry target in laser-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Peng; Fan, Dapeng; Li, Yuxiao

    2016-09-01

    Enhancement of the maximum proton energy using a funnel-geometry target is demonstrated through particle simulations of laser-plasma interactions. When an intense short-pulse laser illuminate a thin foil target, the foil electrons are pushed by the laser ponderomotive force, and then form an electron cloud at the target rear surface. The electron cloud generates a strong electrostatic field, which accelerates the protons to high energies. If there is a hole in the rear of target, the shape of the electron cloud and the distribution of the protons will be affected by the protuberant part of the hole. In this paper, a funnel-geometry target is proposed to improve the maximum proton energy. Using particle-in-cell 2-dimensional simulations, the transverse electric field generated by the side wall of four different holes are calculated, and protons inside holes are restricted to specific shapes by these field. In the funnel-geometry target, more protons are restricted near the center of the longitudinal accelerating electric field, thus protons experiencing longer accelerating time and distance in the sheath field compared with that in a traditional cylinder hole target. Accordingly, more and higher energy protons are produced from the funnel-geometry target. The maximum proton energy is improved by about 4 MeV compared with a traditional cylinder-shaped hole target. The funnel-geometry target serves as a new method to improve the maximum proton energy in laser-plasma interactions.

  5. A prediction model for bipolar RAMs in a high energy ion/proton environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, D. K.; Price, W. E.; Nichols, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    A model has been developed which predicts the relative susceptibility of bipolar RAMs to heavy ion and proton upset. During the course of evaluating this model, physical and electrical variations were also evaluated indicating that the minimum internal signal level is the primary upset susceptibility indicator. Unfortunately, all of the physical and electrical variations expected during a normal product development cycle are in direct opposition to improved high-energy particle upset tolerance. Hence, a trade-off between highly susceptible, low power (medium speed) devices must be made against the less susceptible, higher power (high speed) equivalent device, taking into account the systems trade-off with respect to system power, software, error correction procedures and/or circuit redundancy.

  6. In-medium nuclear interactions of low-energy hadrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    2007-11-01

    Exotic atoms provide a unique laboratory for studying strong interactions and nuclear medium effects at zero kinetic energy. Experimental and theoretical developments of the last decade in the study of exotic atoms and some related low-energy reactions are reviewed. The exotic atoms considered are of π-,K-,pbar,Σ-, and also the so far unobserved Ξ- atoms. The analysis of these atomic systems consists of fitting density-dependent optical potentials Vopt=t(ρ)ρ to comprehensive sets of data of strong-interaction level shifts, widths and yields across the periodic table. These provide information on the in-medium hadron-nucleon t matrix t(ρ) over a wide range of densities up to central nuclear densities. For pions, the review focuses on the extraction of the πN in-medium s-wave interaction from pionic atoms, which include also the deeply bound π- atomic states recently observed at GSI in isotopes of Sn and Pb. Also included are recent measurements at PSI of elastic scattering of π± on Si, Ca, Ni and Zr at 21.5 MeV. The experimental results are analyzed in the context of chirally motivated π-nuclear potentials, and the evidence for partial restoration of chiral symmetry in dense nuclear matter is critically discussed. For antikaons, we review the evidence from K- atoms, and also from low-energy K-p scattering and reaction data for and against a deepKbar-nucleus potential of 150-200 MeV attraction at nuclear matter density. The case for relatively narrow deeply bound K-atomic states is made, essentially independent of the potential-depth issue. Recent experimental suggestions from KEK and DA ΦNE (Frascati) for signals of Kbar-nuclear deeply bound states are reviewed, and dynamical models for calculating binding energies and widths of Kbar- nuclear states are discussed. For kaons we review the evidence, from K+ total and reaction cross section measurements at the AGS (BNL) on Li, C, Si and Ca at plab=500-700 MeV/c, for significant absorptivity of t

  7. Er + medium energy ion implantation into lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svecova, B.; Nekvindova, P.; Mackova, A.; Oswald, J.; Vacik, J.; Grötzschel, R.; Spirkova, J.

    2009-05-01

    Erbium-doped lithium niobate (Er:LiNbO3) is a prospective photonics component, operating at 1.5 μm, which could find its use chiefly as an optical amplifier or waveguide laser. In this study, we have focused on the properties of the optically active Er:LiNbO3 layers, which are fabricated by medium energy ion implantation under various experimental conditions. Erbium ions were implanted at energies of 330 and 500 keV with fluences of 1.0 × 1015, 2.5 × 1015 and 1.0 × 1016 cm-2 into LiNbO3 single-crystalline cuts of various orientations. The as-implanted samples were annealed in air at 350 °C for 5 h. The depth distribution and diffusion profiles of the implanted Er were measured by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) using 2 MeV He+ ions. The projected range RP and projected range straggling ΔRP were calculated employing the SRIM code. The damage distribution and structural changes were described using the RBS/channelling method. Changes of the lithium concentration depth distribution were studied by Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP). The photoluminescence spectra of the samples were measured to determine whether the emission was in the desired region of 1.5 μm. The obtained data made it possible to reveal the relations between the structural changes of erbium-implanted lithium niobate and its luminescence properties important for photonics applications.

  8. Nuclear structure and reaction studies at medium energies

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, G.W.; Ray, R.L.

    1990-10-01

    This document constitutes the (1988--1991) technical progress report for the ongoing medium energy physics research program supported by the US Department of Energy through special Research Grant FG05-88ER40444. The experiments discussed are conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF), the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) facility of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The overall motivation for the work discussed in this document is driven by three main objectives: (1) provide hadron-nucleon and hadron-nucleus scattering data which serve to facilitate the study of effective two-body interactions, test (and possibly determine) nuclear structure, and help study reaction mechanisms and dynamics;(2) provide unique, first-of-a-kind exploratory'' hadron-nucleus scattering data in the hope that such data will lead to discovery of new phenomena and new physics; and (3) perform precision tests of fundamental interactions, such as rare decay searches, whose observation would imply fundamental new physics.

  9. Response of BC-418 plastic scintillator to low-energy protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daub, B. H.; Henzl, V.; Kovash, M. A.; Matthews, J. L.; Miller, Z. W.; Shoniyozov, K.; Yang, H.

    2013-02-01

    The response of fast plastic scintillators to protons is unknown for energies below approximately 300 keV. The response of BC-418 plastic scintillator to protons from 100 keV to 1 MeV was measured using elastic scattering of neutrons at the University of Kentucky. Protons of precise energies from a Van de Graaff accelerator impinged on a thin LiF target to produce neutrons in narrow energy bands. A coincidence was detected between the recoiling proton in the plastic scintillator and the elastically scattered neutron in a liquid scintillator. The energy of the recoil proton was determined by the elastic scattering kinematics, with the scattered neutron energy precisely determined by time of flight. The results are compared with previous measurements of the response of similar plastic scintillators in the energy region where they overlap.

  10. Quantifying Low Energy Proton Damage in Multijunction Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, Scott R.; Burke, Edward A.; Walters, Robert J.; Warner, Jeffrey H.; Summers, Geoffrey P.; Lorentzen, Justin R.; Morton, Thomas L.; Taylor, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of the effects of low energy proton irradiation on the electrical performance of triple junction (3J) InGaP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells is presented. The Monte Carlo ion transport code (SRIM) is used to simulate the damage profile induced in a 3J solar cell under the conditions of typical ground testing and that of the space environment. The results are used to present a quantitative analysis of the defect, and hence damage, distribution induced in the cell active region by the different radiation conditions. The modelling results show that, in the space environment, the solar cell will experience a uniform damage distribution through the active region of the cell. Through an application of the displacement damage dose analysis methodology, the implications of this result on mission performance predictions are investigated.

  11. High-energy proton imaging for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Prall, M.; Durante, M.; Berger, T.; Przybyla, B.; Graeff, C.; Lang, P. M.; LaTessa, C.; Shestov, L.; Simoniello, P.; Danly, C.; Mariam, F.; Merrill, F.; Nedrow, P.; Wilde, C.; Varentsov, D.

    2016-01-01

    The charged particle community is looking for techniques exploiting proton interactions instead of X-ray absorption for creating images of human tissue. Due to multiple Coulomb scattering inside the measured object it has shown to be highly non-trivial to achieve sufficient spatial resolution. We present imaging of biological tissue with a proton microscope. This device relies on magnetic optics, distinguishing it from most published proton imaging methods. For these methods reducing the data acquisition time to a clinically acceptable level has turned out to be challenging. In a proton microscope, data acquisition and processing are much simpler. This device even allows imaging in real time. The primary medical application will be image guidance in proton radiosurgery. Proton images demonstrating the potential for this application are presented. Tomographic reconstructions are included to raise awareness of the possibility of high-resolution proton tomography using magneto-optics. PMID:27282667

  12. High-energy proton imaging for biomedical applications

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Prall, Matthias; Durante, Marco; Berger, Thomas; Przybyla, B.; Graeff, C.; Lang, Phillipp M.; LaTessa, Ciara; Shestov, Less; Simoniello, P.; Danly, Christopher R.; et al

    2016-06-10

    The charged particle community is looking for techniques exploiting proton interactions instead of X-ray absorption for creating images of human tissue. Due to multiple Coulomb scattering inside the measured object it has shown to be highly non-trivial to achieve sufficient spatial resolution. We present imaging of biological tissue with a proton microscope. This device relies on magnetic optics, distinguishing it from most published proton imaging methods. For these methods reducing the data acquisition time to a clinically acceptable level has turned out to be challenging. In a proton microscope, data acquisition and processing are much simpler. This device even allowsmore » imaging in real time. The primary medical application will be image guidance in proton radiosurgery. Proton images demonstrating the potential for this application are presented. As a result, tomographic reconstructions are included to raise awareness of the possibility of high-resolution proton tomography using magneto-optics.« less

  13. High-energy proton imaging for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prall, M.; Durante, M.; Berger, T.; Przybyla, B.; Graeff, C.; Lang, P. M.; Latessa, C.; Shestov, L.; Simoniello, P.; Danly, C.; Mariam, F.; Merrill, F.; Nedrow, P.; Wilde, C.; Varentsov, D.

    2016-06-01

    The charged particle community is looking for techniques exploiting proton interactions instead of X-ray absorption for creating images of human tissue. Due to multiple Coulomb scattering inside the measured object it has shown to be highly non-trivial to achieve sufficient spatial resolution. We present imaging of biological tissue with a proton microscope. This device relies on magnetic optics, distinguishing it from most published proton imaging methods. For these methods reducing the data acquisition time to a clinically acceptable level has turned out to be challenging. In a proton microscope, data acquisition and processing are much simpler. This device even allows imaging in real time. The primary medical application will be image guidance in proton radiosurgery. Proton images demonstrating the potential for this application are presented. Tomographic reconstructions are included to raise awareness of the possibility of high-resolution proton tomography using magneto-optics.

  14. Note: A new angle-resolved proton energy spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Y.; Su, L. N.; Liu, M.; Liu, B. C.; Shen, Z. W.; Fan, H. T.; Li, Y. T.; Chen, L. M.; Lu, X.; Ma, J. L.; Wang, W. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Wei, Z. Y.; Zhang, J.

    2013-09-15

    In typical laser-driven proton acceleration experiments Thomson parabola proton spectrometers are used to measure the proton spectra with very small acceptance angle in specific directions. Stacks composed of CR-39 nuclear track detectors, imaging plates, or radiochromic films are used to measure the angular distributions of the proton beams, respectively. In this paper, a new proton spectrometer, which can measure the spectra and angular distributions simultaneously, has been designed. Proton acceleration experiments performed on the Xtreme light III laser system demonstrates that the spectrometer can give angle-resolved spectra with a large acceptance angle. This will be conductive to revealing the acceleration mechanisms, optimization, and applications of laser-driven proton beams.

  15. High-energy proton imaging for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Prall, M; Durante, M; Berger, T; Przybyla, B; Graeff, C; Lang, P M; LaTessa, C; Shestov, L; Simoniello, P; Danly, C; Mariam, F; Merrill, F; Nedrow, P; Wilde, C; Varentsov, D

    2016-01-01

    The charged particle community is looking for techniques exploiting proton interactions instead of X-ray absorption for creating images of human tissue. Due to multiple Coulomb scattering inside the measured object it has shown to be highly non-trivial to achieve sufficient spatial resolution. We present imaging of biological tissue with a proton microscope. This device relies on magnetic optics, distinguishing it from most published proton imaging methods. For these methods reducing the data acquisition time to a clinically acceptable level has turned out to be challenging. In a proton microscope, data acquisition and processing are much simpler. This device even allows imaging in real time. The primary medical application will be image guidance in proton radiosurgery. Proton images demonstrating the potential for this application are presented. Tomographic reconstructions are included to raise awareness of the possibility of high-resolution proton tomography using magneto-optics. PMID:27282667

  16. Dosimetry of low energy proton beams for use in spacecraft parts testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.

    1975-01-01

    Thermoluminescent Dosimeters tes (TLD) were used to measure proton fluences consisting of 5MeV or lower energies. The results were at variance with the corresponding gamma measurements. The results of experiments on low energy proton dosimetry using LiF-in-teflon microrods (TLD-700 or LiF-7), are presented.

  17. Determination of solar proton fluxes and energies at high solar latitudes by UV radiation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witt, N.; Blum, P. W.; Ajello, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The latitudinal variation of the solar proton flux and energy causes a density increase at high solar latitudes of the neutral gas penetrating the heliosphere. Measurements of the neutral density by UV resonance radiation observations from interplanetary spacecraft thus permit deductions on the dependence of the solar proton flux on heliographic latitude. Using both the results of Mariner 10 measurements and of other off-ecliptic solar wind observations, the values of the solar proton fluxes and energies at polar heliographic latitudes are determined for several cases of interest. The Mariner 10 analysis, together with IPS results, indicate a significant decrease of the solar proton flux at polar latitudes.

  18. Energy loss of protons and deuterons at low energies in Pd polycrystalline thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celedón, C.; Sánchez, E. A.; Moreno, M. S.; Arista, N. R.; Uribe, J. D.; Mery, M.; Valdés, J. E.; Vargas, P.

    2013-07-01

    We have investigated experimentally and by computer simulations the energy-loss distributions of low-energy (E<10 keV) protons and deuterons transmitted through polycrystalline palladium thin films. In contrast to previous experiments on various transition metals we find that the stopping power of Pd is proportional to the ion velocity. Data of protons and deuterons are coincident within the experimental uncertainties, showing the absence of an isotopic effect on the stopping power of Pd in this energy range. The experimental results were analyzed and compared with Monte Carlo computer simulations and previous theoretical models. The difference in the velocity dependence of the energy loss of hydrogen ions in Pd with respect to other transition metals (Cu, Ag, and Au) is explained by a theoretical analysis based on the properties of the d-electron bands of those elements.

  19. Neutron-proton elliptic flow difference as a probe for the high density dependence of the symmetry energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozma, M. D.

    2011-06-01

    We employ an isospin dependent version of the QMD transport model to study the influence of the isospin dependent part of the nuclear matter equation of state and in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross-sections on the dynamics of heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies. We find that the extraction of useful information on the isospin-dependent part of the equation of state of nuclear matter from proton or neutron elliptic flows is obstructed by their sensitivity to model parameters and in-medium values of nucleon-nucleon cross-sections. Opposite to that, neutron-proton elliptic flow difference shows little dependence on those variables while its dependence on the isospin asymmetric EoS is enhanced, making it more suitable for a model independent constraining of the high-density behaviour of asy-EoS. Comparison with existing experimental FOPI-LAND neutron-hydrogen data can be used to set an upper limit to the softness of asy-EoS. Successful constraining of the asy-EoS via neutron-proton elliptic flow difference will require experimental data of higher accuracy than presently available.

  20. Hole-boring radiation pressure acceleration as a basis for producing high-energy proton bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, A. P. L.; Trines, R. M. G. M.; Dover, N. P.; Najmudin, Z.

    2012-11-01

    The production of high-energy protons by the ‘hole-boring’ radiation pressure acceleration (HB-RPA) mechanism of laser-driven ion acceleration is examined in the case where the plasma has a density less than a0nc in 2D. Previously this was examined in 1D (Robinson 2011 Phys. Plasmas 18 056701) and was motivated by previous predictions of the non-linear criterion for an ultra-intense laser pulse to penetrate a dense plasma. By reducing the density well below a0nc the proton energies achieved increases considerably, thus leading to proton energies >100 MeV at laser intensities close to current capabilities. The results show that good quality proton beams with proton energies >100 MeV can be obtained via HB-RPA using targets with densities in the range 12-20nc and laser intensities in the range 5 × 1021-3 × 1022 W cm-2.

  1. Impact of high energy high intensity proton beams on targets: Case studies for Super Proton Synchrotron and Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, N. A.; Sancho, J. Blanco; Shutov, A.; Schmidt, R.; Piriz, A. R.

    2012-05-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7 TeV. Each beam comprises 2808 bunches and the separation between two neighboring bunches is 25 ns. The energy stored in each beam is 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is very important when working with such powerful beams. An accidental release of even a very small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. The machine protection system is essential to handle all types of possible accidental hazards; however, it is important to know about possible consequences of failures. One of the critical failure scenarios is when the entire beam is lost at a single point. In this paper we present detailed numerical simulations of the full impact of one LHC beam on a cylindrical solid carbon target. First, the energy deposition by the protons is calculated with the FLUKA code and this energy deposition is used in the BIG2 code to study the corresponding thermodynamic and the hydrodynamic response of the target that leads to a reduction in the density. The modified density distribution is used in FLUKA to calculate new energy loss distribution and the two codes are thus run iteratively. A suitable iteration step is considered to be the time interval during which the target density along the axis decreases by 15%-20%. Our simulations suggest that the full LHC proton beam penetrates up to 25 m in solid carbon whereas the range of the shower from a single proton in solid carbon is just about 3 m (hydrodynamic tunneling effect). It is planned to perform experiments at the experimental facility HiRadMat (High Radiation Materials) at CERN using the proton beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), to compare experimental results with the theoretical predictions. Therefore simulations of the response of a solid copper cylindrical target hit by the SPS beam were performed. The particle energy in the SPS beam is 440

  2. Internal spin structure of the proton from high energy polarized e-p scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, V.W.; Baum, G.; Bergstroem, M.R.

    1981-02-01

    A review is given of experimental knowledge of the spin dependent structure functions of the proton, which is based on inclusive high energy scattering of longitudinal polarized electrons by longitudinally polarized protons in both the deep inelastic and resonance regions, and includes preliminary results from our most recent SLAC experiment. Implications for scaling, sum rules, models of proton structure, and the hyperfine structure interval in hydrogen are given. Possible future directions of research are indicated.

  3. Neutrons in proton pencil beam scanning: parameterization of energy, quality factors and RBE.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Uwe; Hälg, Roger A; Baiocco, Giorgio; Lomax, Tony

    2016-08-21

    The biological effectiveness of neutrons produced during proton therapy in inducing cancer is unknown, but potentially large. In particular, since neutron biological effectiveness is energy dependent, it is necessary to estimate, besides the dose, also the energy spectra, in order to obtain quantities which could be a measure of the biological effectiveness and test current models and new approaches against epidemiological studies on cancer induction after proton therapy. For patients treated with proton pencil beam scanning, this work aims to predict the spatially localized neutron energies, the effective quality factor, the weighting factor according to ICRP, and two RBE values, the first obtained from the saturation corrected dose mean lineal energy and the second from DSB cluster induction. A proton pencil beam was Monte Carlo simulated using GEANT. Based on the simulated neutron spectra for three different proton beam energies a parameterization of energy, quality factors and RBE was calculated. The pencil beam algorithm used for treatment planning at PSI has been extended using the developed parameterizations in order to calculate the spatially localized neutron energy, quality factors and RBE for each treated patient. The parameterization represents the simple quantification of neutron energy in two energy bins and the quality factors and RBE with a satisfying precision up to 85 cm away from the proton pencil beam when compared to the results based on 3D Monte Carlo simulations. The root mean square error of the energy estimate between Monte Carlo simulation based results and the parameterization is 3.9%. For the quality factors and RBE estimates it is smaller than 0.9%. The model was successfully integrated into the PSI treatment planning system. It was found that the parameterizations for neutron energy, quality factors and RBE were independent of proton energy in the investigated energy range of interest for proton therapy. The pencil beam algorithm has

  4. Neutrons in proton pencil beam scanning: parameterization of energy, quality factors and RBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Uwe; Hälg, Roger A.; Baiocco, Giorgio; Lomax, Tony

    2016-08-01

    The biological effectiveness of neutrons produced during proton therapy in inducing cancer is unknown, but potentially large. In particular, since neutron biological effectiveness is energy dependent, it is necessary to estimate, besides the dose, also the energy spectra, in order to obtain quantities which could be a measure of the biological effectiveness and test current models and new approaches against epidemiological studies on cancer induction after proton therapy. For patients treated with proton pencil beam scanning, this work aims to predict the spatially localized neutron energies, the effective quality factor, the weighting factor according to ICRP, and two RBE values, the first obtained from the saturation corrected dose mean lineal energy and the second from DSB cluster induction. A proton pencil beam was Monte Carlo simulated using GEANT. Based on the simulated neutron spectra for three different proton beam energies a parameterization of energy, quality factors and RBE was calculated. The pencil beam algorithm used for treatment planning at PSI has been extended using the developed parameterizations in order to calculate the spatially localized neutron energy, quality factors and RBE for each treated patient. The parameterization represents the simple quantification of neutron energy in two energy bins and the quality factors and RBE with a satisfying precision up to 85 cm away from the proton pencil beam when compared to the results based on 3D Monte Carlo simulations. The root mean square error of the energy estimate between Monte Carlo simulation based results and the parameterization is 3.9%. For the quality factors and RBE estimates it is smaller than 0.9%. The model was successfully integrated into the PSI treatment planning system. It was found that the parameterizations for neutron energy, quality factors and RBE were independent of proton energy in the investigated energy range of interest for proton therapy. The pencil beam algorithm has

  5. A program in medium energy nuclear physics. Progress report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, B.L.; Dhuga, K.S.

    1995-10-01

    This progress report and continuation proposal summarizes our achievements for the period from July 1, 1994 to September 30, 1995 and requests continued funding for our program in experimental medium-energy nuclear physics. The focus of our program remains the understanding of the short-range part of the strong interaction in the nuclear medium. In the past year we have focused our attention ever more sharply on experiments with real tagged photons, and we have successfully defended two new experimental proposals: Photofission of Actinide and Preactinide Nuclei at SAL and Photoproduction of the {rho} Meson from the Proton with Linearly Polarized Photons at CEBAF. (We are co-spokespersons on two previously approved Hall-B experiments at CEBAF, Photoreactions on {sup 3}He and Photoabsorption and Photofission of Nuclei.) As part of the team that is instrumenting the Photon Tagger for Hall B; we report excellent progress on the focal-plane detector array that is being built at our Nuclear Detector Laboratory, as well as progress on our plans for instrumentation of a tagged polarized-photon beam using coherent bremsstrahlung. Also, we shall soon receive a large computer system (from the SSC) which will form the basis for our new Data Analysis Center, which, like the Nuclear Detector Laboratory, will be operated under the auspices of The George Washington University Center for Nuclear Studies. Finally, during the past year we have published six more papers on the results of our measurements of pion scattering at LAMPF and of electron scattering at NIKHEF and Bates, and we can report that nearly all of the remaining papers documenting this long series of measurements are in the pipeline.

  6. Fusion Energy and Stopping Power in a Degenerate DT Pellet Driven by a Laser-Accelerated Proton Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrangiz, M.; Ghasemizad, A.; Jafari, S.; Khanbabaei, B.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we have improved the fast ignition scheme in order to have more authority needed for high-energy-gain. Due to the more penetrability and energy deposition of the particle beams in fusion targets, we employ a laser-to-ion converter foil as a scheme for generating energetic ion beams to ignite the fusion fuel. We find the favorable intensity and wavelength of incident laser by evaluating the laser-proton conversion gain. By calculating the source-target distance, proton beam power and energy are estimated. Our analysis is generalized to the plasma degeneracy effects which can increase the fusion gain several orders of magnitude by decreasing the ion-electron collisions in the plasma. It is found that the wavelength of 0.53 μm and the intensity of about 1020 W/cm2, by saving about 10% conversion coefficient, are the suitable measured values for converting a laser into protons. Besides, stopping power and fusion burn calculations have been done in degenerate and non-degenerate plasma mediums. The results indicate that in the presence of degeneracy, the rate of fusion enhances. Supported by the Research Council of University of Guilan

  7. Development of a medium-energy superconducting heavy-ion linac.

    SciTech Connect

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Physics

    2002-03-01

    The Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) facility project includes a cw 1.4 GeV driver linac and a 100 MV postaccelerator both based on superconducting (SC) cavities operating at frequencies from 48 to 805 MHz. In these linacs more than 99% of the total voltage is provided by SC cavities. An initial acceleration is provided by room temperature radio frequency quadrupoles. The driver linac is designed for acceleration of any ion species, from protons up to 900 MeV to uranium up to 400 MeV/u. The novel feature of the driver linac is an acceleration of multiple charge-state heavy-ion beams in order to achieve 400 kW beam power. This paper presents design features of a medium-energy SC heavy-ion linac taking the RIA driver linac as an example. The dynamics of single and multiple charge-state beams are detailed, including the effects of possible errors in rf field parameters and misalignments of transverse focusing elements. The important design considerations of such linac are presented. Several new conceptual solutions in beam dynamics in SC accelerating structures for heavy-ion applications are discussed.

  8. Measurements of the proton-air cross section with high energy cosmic ray experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Rasha

    2016-07-01

    Detecting Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) enables us to measure the proton-air inelastic cross section σinel p-air at energies that we are unable to access with particle accelerators. The proton-proton cross section σp-p is subsequently inferred from the proton-air cross section at these energies. UHECR experiments have been reportingon the proton-air inelastic cross section starting with the Fly's Eye in 1984 at √s =30 TeV and ending with the most recent result of the Telescope Array experiment at √s = 95 TeV in 2015. In this proceeding, I will summarize the most recent experimental results on the σinel p-air measurements from the UHECR experiments.

  9. Optimization of the {sup 7}Li(p,n) proton beam energy for BNCT applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bleuel, D.L.; Donahue, R.J.

    1996-02-01

    The reaction {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7} Be has been proposed as an accelerator-based source of neutrons for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). This reaction has a large steep resonance for proton energies of about 2.3 MeV which ends at about 2.5 MeV. It has generally been accepted that one should use 2.5 MeV protons to get the highest yield of neutrons for BNCT. This paper suggests that for BNCT the optimum proton energy may be about 2.3 MeV and that a proton energy of about 2.2 MeV will provide the same useful neutron fluence outside a thinner moderator as the neutron fluence from a 2.5 MeV proton beam with a thicker moderator.

  10. Enhancement of proton energy by polarization switch in laser acceleration of multi-ion foils

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Tung-Chang; Shao, Xi; Liu, Chuan-Sheng; Eliasson, Bengt; Wang, Jyhpyng; Chen, Shih-Hung

    2013-10-15

    We present a scheme to significantly increase the energy of quasi-monoenergetic protons accelerated by a laser beam without increasing the input power. This improvement is accomplished by first irradiating the foil several wave periods with circular polarization and then switching the laser to linear polarization. The polarization switch increases the electron temperature and thereby moves more electrons ahead of the proton layer, resulting in a space charge electric field pushing the protons forwards. The scaling of the proton energy evolution with respect to the switching time is studied, and an optimal switching time is obtained. The proton energy for the case with optimal switching time can reach about 80 MeV with an input laser power of 70 TW, an improvement of more than 30% compared to the case without polarization switch.

  11. Unusual energy dispersion at the proton isotropy boundary: a statistical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyaeva, Sonya; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Sergeev, Viktor; Chernyaev, Ivan

    The regular appearance of equatorward boundary of the isotropic proton precipitation (isotropy boundary, IB) is interpreted as a manifestation of the boundary between adiabatic and non-adiabatic particle motion regimes. Accordingly, the energy dependence of IB latitude (energy dispersion, with lower latitude IB observed for higher energy protons in case of normal dispersion) carries the information about the real magnetic field gradients (or, sporadic appearance of other scattering mechanism, in case of anomalous dispersion). In this study we investigate statistically the IB energy dispersion of the >30 and >80 keV energetic protons using data from low-altitude polar satellites NOAA-19 and -18 in September 2009, when two spacecraft follow each other along the same orbit. We found that the events with normal dispersion at proton energies of 30 to 80 keV protons constitute less than 20% of the total number of events (regardless of geomagnetic activity). In other cases (80%) we see either the coincidence of the proton IB at different energies (within 0.2(°) ), or the precipitation pattern is complicated by the presence of isolated precipitation structures equatorward of the IB. In small amount of cases the anomalous (inverse) energy dispersion was also observed, suggesting the presence of different precipitation mechanisms. To help discriminate between current sheet scattering and other mechanisms we also obtained the average relationship between empirical ratios of trapped and precipitated proton fluxes at different energies near the IB for cases of normal dispersion. The near coincidence of the proton IBs can be observed in the case of sharp magnetic field Bz gradients (Bz jumps), whose amplitude should be about 60% of the Bz background value. Their existence is tested by considering magnetic field observations at radial passes of THEMIS spacecraft near the IB observation meridian in the near magnetosphere, supported by adaptive modeling and other relevant

  12. Proton Structure in High-Energy High-Multiplicity p-p Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Głazek, Stanisław D.; Kubiczek, Patryk

    2016-06-01

    A few-body proton image, expected to be derivable from QCD in the renormalization group procedure for effective particles, is used within the Monte Carlo Glauber model to calculate the anisotropy coefficients in the initial collision-state of matter in high-energy high-multiplicity proton-proton interaction events. We estimate the ridge-like correlations in the final hadronic state by assuming their proportionality to the initial collision-state anisotropy. In our estimates, some distinct few-body proton structures appear capable of accounting for the magnitude of p-p ridge effect, with potentially discernible differences in dependence on multiplicity.

  13. Proton calibration of low energy neutron detectors containing (6)LiF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the present calibrations is to measure the proton response of the detectors with accelerated beams having energies within the region of maximum intensities in the trapped proton spectrum encountered in near-Earth orbit. This response is compared with the responses of the spaceflight detectors when related to proton exposures. All of the spaceflight neutron measurements have been accompanied by TLD absorbed doses measurements in close proximity within the spacecraft. For purposes of comparison, the spaceflight TLD doses are assumed to be proton doses.

  14. Gamma-ray astronomy in the medium energy (10-50 MeV) range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kniffen, D. A.; Bertsch, D. L.; Morris, D. J.; Palmeira, R. A. R.; Rao, K. R.

    1977-01-01

    To observe the medium energy component of the intense galactic center gamma-ray emission, two balloon flights of a medium energy gamma-ray spark chamber telescope were flown in Brazil in 1975. The results indicate the emission is higher than previously thought and above the predictions of a theoretical model proposed.

  15. Proton scattering on carbon nuclei in bichromatic laser field at moderate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barna, I. F.; Varró, S.

    2016-02-01

    We present the general theory for proton nuclei scattering in a bichromatic laser field. As a physical example we consider proton collision on 12C at 49 MeV/amu moderate energies in the field of a titan sapphire laser with its second harmonic.

  16. Theoretical studies in medium-energy nuclear and hadronic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, C.J.; Macfarlane, M.H.; Matsui, Tetsuo; Serot, B.D.

    1991-12-03

    In the period covered by this report (April 1, 1991 to March 31, 1992), work focused on six main areas: (1) Relativistic Theories of Nuclear Structure and Saturation, (2) Relativistic Descriptions of Proton-Nucleus and Electron-Nucleus Scattering, (3) Nonrelativistic Theory of Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions, (4) Relativistic Many-Body Theory at Finite Temperature and Density, (5) Neutrino Interactions in Dense Matter, (6) Quark Models of Nuclear and Quark Matter.

  17. Pion- and proton-nucleus interactions at intermediate energy

    SciTech Connect

    Dehnhard, D.

    1992-02-01

    {pi}-meson and proton beams from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) and the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) were used in scattering and reaction experiments on atomic nuclei. The experimental data allow tests of models of the reaction mechanism and of nuclear structure. For example, the asymmetries observed in a pion scattering experiment on polarized {sup 13}C nuclei were found to contain unique information on the isoscalar spin density. However, further experiments on polarized nuclei of simpler structure are needed to provide the data for a thorough analysis of the reaction mechanism. For this reason a pion scattering experiment on a polarized {sup 3}He target is planned and a high-resolution study on {sup 6}Li({pi},{pi}{prime}) will be done. An analysis of {pi}-triton coincidence events from the {sup 4}He({pi},{pi}{prime}t)p reaction yielded evidence for direct triton knock-out from {sup 4}He. This work will be continued at higher incident pion energies. Additional work on the {sup 4}He(p,n) reaction at IUCF is planned to determine the isovector strength in mass-4 nuclei and the level parameters of {sup 4}Li.

  18. Validating the predicted lateral straggling of MeV-energy proton beams.

    SciTech Connect

    Felter, Thomas E.; Antolak, Arlyn J.; Bench, Graham

    2004-02-01

    Proton imaging is a potential nondestructive method for characterizing NIF (National Ignition Facility) targets in two- and three-dimensions with micron-scale spatial resolution. The main limitation for high resolution imaging with proton beams, especially for thick samples, is the positional blurring of the proton beam, known as 'lateral straggling'. Accurate prediction of the amount of lateral straggling and, consequently, the achievable spatial resolution in pertinent NIF target material combinations and geometries requires validated proton transport models. We present results of Monte Carlo simulations of MeV-energy proton transport through thin ({approx}1 micron thick) metal foils. The calculated residual proton distributions are compared to recent lateral straggling measurements obtained at the LLNL 4-MV Pelletron accelerator.

  19. Validating the Predicted Lateral Straggling of MeV-Energy Proton Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Bench, G; Felter, T; Antolak, A

    2003-11-20

    Proton imaging is a potential nondestructive method for characterizing NIF (National Ignition Facility) targets in two- and three-dimensions with micron-scale spatial resolution. The main limitation for high resolution imaging with proton beams, especially for thick samples, is the positional blurring of the proton beam, known as ''lateral straggling''. Accurate prediction of the amount of lateral straggling and, consequently, the achievable spatial resolution in pertinent NIF target material combinations and geometries requires validated proton transport models. We present results of Monte Carlo simulations of MeV-energy proton transport through thin ({approx}1 micron thick) metal foils. The calculated residual proton distributions are compared to recent lateral straggling measurements obtained at the LLNL 4-MV Pelletron accelerator.

  20. Single event upset and charge collection measurements using high energy protons and neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Normand, E.; Oberg, D.L.; Wert, J.L.; Ness, J.D.; Majewski, P.P. ); Wender, S.; Gavron, A. )

    1994-12-01

    RAMs, microcontrollers and surface barrier detectors were exposed to beams of high energy protons and neutrons to measure the induced number of upsets as well as energy deposition. The WNR facility at Los Alamos provided a neutron spectrum similar to that of the atmospheric neutrons. Its effect on devices was compared to that of protons with energies of 200, 400, 500, and 800 MeV. Measurements indicate that SEU cross sections for 400 MeV protons are similar to those induced by the atmospheric neutron spectrum.

  1. Pion- and proton-nucleus interactions at intermediate energy

    SciTech Connect

    Dehnhard, D.

    1992-12-01

    We report on scattering and reaction experiments on light nuclei using the [pi]-meson and proton beams from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) and the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF). Differential cross sections, cross section asymmetries, and angular correlation functions have been measured in order to test models of the reaction mechanism and of nuclear structure. At LAMPF we have measured asymmetries for pion scattering from polarized [sup 13]C which are uniquely sensitive to the isoscalar spin density. In order to determine details of the reaction mechanism, we have obtained approval for a scattering experiment on polarized [sup 3]He for which the nuclear structure is very well known. We have completed data taking for two studies of elastic scattering of [pi][sup +] from [sup 6]Li and [sup l3]C. The detailed differential cross sections from these experiments will be used to constrain theoretical analyses of previous polarization experiments done at the Pierre-Scherrer-Institute (PSI) and at LAMPF. We have analyzed [pi]-triton coincidence events from the [sup 4]He([pi],[pi][prime] t)p reaction and have found evidence for direct triton knockout from [sup 4]He. We have extended these angular correlation measurements to higher energies and to [sup 2]H and [sup 3]He targets. At IUCF we have performed the first [sup 4]He(p,n) experiment at intermediate energies, T[sub p] = 100, 147, and 200 MeV, in a search for previously reported narrow states in [sup 4]Li of widths of [approx] 1 MeV. Within the statistics of the data we have found no evidence for such narrow structures.

  2. CMOS Active Pixel Sensors as energy-range detectors for proton Computed Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, M.; Anaxagoras, T.; Evans, P. M.; Green, S.; Manolopoulos, S.; Nieto-Camero, J.; Parker, D. J.; Poludniowski, G.; Price, T.; Waltham, C.; Allinson, N. M.

    2015-06-01

    Since the first proof of concept in the early 70s, a number of technologies has been proposed to perform proton CT (pCT), as a means of mapping tissue stopping power for accurate treatment planning in proton therapy. Previous prototypes of energy-range detectors for pCT have been mainly based on the use of scintillator-based calorimeters, to measure proton residual energy after passing through the patient. However, such an approach is limited by the need for only a single proton passing through the energy-range detector in a read-out cycle. A novel approach to this problem could be the use of pixelated detectors, where the independent read-out of each pixel allows to measure simultaneously the residual energy of a number of protons in the same read-out cycle, facilitating a faster and more efficient pCT scan. This paper investigates the suitability of CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APSs) to track individual protons as they go through a number of CMOS layers, forming an energy-range telescope. Measurements performed at the iThemba Laboratories will be presented and analysed in terms of correlation, to confirm capability of proton tracking for CMOS APSs.

  3. The Quest for Spinning Glue in High-Energy Polarized Proton-Proton Collisions at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Surrow, Bernd

    2007-10-26

    The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is carrying out a spin physics program colliding transverse or longitudinal polarized proton beams at {radical}(s) = 200-500 GeV to gain a deeper insight into the spin structure and dynamics of the proton. These studies provide fundamental tests of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD).One of the main objectives of the STAR spin physics program is the determination of the polarized gluon distribution function through a measurement of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry, A{sub LL}, for various processes. Recent results will be shown on the measurement of A{sub LL} for inclusive jet production, neutral pion production and charged pion production at {radical}(s) = 200 GeV.

  4. The dependence of single event upset on proton energy /15-590 MeV/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. K.; Price, W. E.; Andrews, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Low earth orbit satellite and Jupiter orbiter probe semiconductor devices may incur soft errors or single event upsets, manifested as bit flips, during exposure to such nuclear particles or heavy ions as trapped protons with energies ranging up to 1000 MeV. Experimental data is given on the average proton fluence needed to cause a bit flip as a function of proton energy for isoplanar bipolar TTL RAMs. Error dependence data shape and threshold energy can be related to the existing body of theoretical data on energy deposition following proton nuclear reactions. Experimental data also show that the relative cross sectional amplitude for functionally identical devices can be related to the device's power consumption.

  5. Differences in excitation energy transfer of Arthrospira platensis cells grown in seawater medium and freshwater medium, probed by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arba, Muhammad; Aikawa, Shimpei; Niki, Kenta; Yokono, Makio; Kondo, Akihiko; Akimoto, Seiji

    2013-11-01

    Excitation energy transfer of Arthrospira platensis cells grown in f/2 medium (a high salinity medium) and SOT medium (a control) was investigated by steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopies. Growth in f/2 medium induced changes in absorption and fluorescence spectra as well as in the energy transfer pathways. Excitation energy captured by phycobilisome (PBS) was transferred directly to photosystem (PS) I, instead of being first transferred to an intermediate (PBS → PSII → PSI), as observed in SOT medium. The respiration rate increased while photosynthetic rate reduced in f/2 medium. Possible causes of the differences in light-harvesting and energy-transfer processes between the two media are discussed.

  6. Comparison of the energy response of an ionization spectrometer for pions and protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. V.; Verma, S. D.

    1971-01-01

    An ionization spectrometer consisting of a sandwich of iron absorbers and plastic scintillation counters was used to measure the energy of pions and protons in the interval 10 to 1000 GeV. For the limited energy interval of 10 to 40 GeV, pions and protons were identified by an air cerenkov counter. Interactions in carbon were studied in a multiplate cloud chamber placed between the cerenkov counter and the spectrometer. Knowledge of these interactions were used in conjunction with a Monte Carlo simulation of the cascade process to study differences in the response of the spectrometer to pions and protons.

  7. Infrared spectroscopic and conductivity studies of ureasil-based proton conducting membranes for medium temperature fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Vince, Jelica; Vuk, Angela Šurca; Stangar, Urška Lavrenčič; Perše, Lidija Slemenik; Orel, Boris; Hočevar, Stanko

    2010-12-01

    Proton conducting membranes for fuel cells were prepared by the sol-gel process from two different ureasil organic-inorganic hybrid precursors: bis[(N-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)ureido]-terminated poly(propylene glycol) 4000 (PPGU) and bis[3-(N-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)ureido)propyl]-terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane) 1000 (PDMSU). Heteropoly silicotungstic acid was added to actuate the reactions of hydrolysis and condensation and to introduce proton conductivity. XRD measurements of membranes revealed the presence of a diffraction peak at 6.3°, which could be ascribed to gradual formation of R-(SiO3/2) silsesquioxane clusters, i.e. arrangement of the Si-O-Si skeleton on the nano-scale. TG and DSC measurements showed thermal stability of the membranes above 120 °C. Proton conductivities at room temperature were of the order of 10-4 to 10-3 S/cm, classifying the membranes in the group of super ionic conductors. At elevated temperatures up to 160 °C and at conditions of autogenous pressure, conductivities increased up to values acceptable for fuel cells of 10-1 S/cm, which could be the result of the presence of H3O+ ions. The protonation of the urea groups and the formation of amidonium ions [C(OH)=NH+] were followed using IR ATR spectroscopy. PMID:24061888

  8. Stoichiometric relationship between energy-dependent proton ejection and electron transport in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Brand, M D; Reynafarje, B; Lehninger, A L

    1976-02-01

    The number of protons ejected during electron transport per pair of electrons per energy-conserving site (the H+/site ratio) was measured in rat liver mitochondria by three different methods under conditions in which transmembrane movements of endogenous phosphate were minized or eliminated. (1) In the Ca2+ pulse method, between 3.5 and 4.0 molecules of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 1.75 to 2.0 Ca2+ ions were accumulated per 2 e- per site during Ca2+ induced electron transport in the presence of rotenone, when measured under conditions in which movements of endogenous phosphate were negligible. Since entry of 3-hydroxybutyrate requires its protonation to the free acid these data correspond to an H+/site ratio of 3.5-4.0 (2) In the oxygen pulse method addition of known amounts of oxygen to anaerobic mitochondria in the presence of substrate yielded H+/site ratios of 3.0 when phosphate transport was eliminated by addition of N-ethylmaleimide or by anaerobic washing to remove endogenous phosphate. In the absence of such measures the observed H+/site ratio was 2.0. (3) In the reductant pulse method measurement of the initial steady rates of H+ ejection and oxygen consumption by mitochondria in an aerobic medium after addition of substrate gave H+/site near 4.0 in the presence of N-ethylmaleimide; in the absence of the inhibitor the observed ratio was only 2.0. These and other experiments reported indicate that the values of 2.0 earlier obtained for the H+/site ratio by Mitchell and Moyle [Biochem J. (1967) 105, 1147-1162] and others were underestimates due to the unrecognized masking of H+ ejection by movements of endogenous phosphate. The results presented here show that the H+/site ratio of mitochondrial electron transport is at least 3.0 and may be as high as 4.0. PMID:1061146

  9. Modeling of exclusive parton distributions and long-range rapidity correlations in proton-proton collisions at the LHC energies

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalenko, V. N.

    2013-10-15

    The soft part of proton-proton interaction is considered within a phenomenological model that involves the formation of color strings. Under the assumption that an elementary collision is associated with the interaction of two color dipoles, the total inelastic cross section and the multiplicity of charged particles are estimated in order to fix model parameters. Particular attention is given to modeling of exclusive parton distributions with allowance for the energy-conservation law and for fixing the center of mass, which are necessary for describing correlations. An algorithm that describes the fusion of strings in the transverse plane and which takes into account their finite rapidity width is developed. The influence of string-fusion effects on long-range correlations is found within this mechanism.

  10. Energy spectrum of medium energy gamma-rays from the galactic center region. [experimental design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmeira, R. A. R.; Ramanujarao, K.; Dutra, S. L. G.; Bertsch, D. L.; Kniffen, D. A.; Morris, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    A balloon-borne magnetic core digitized spark chamber with two assemblies of spark-chambers above and below the scintillation counters was used to measure the medium energy gamma ray flux from the galactic center region. Gamma ray calculations are based on the multiple scattering of the pair electrons in 15 aluminum plates interleaved in the spark chamber modules. Counting rates determined during ascent and at ceiling indicate the presence of diffuse component in this energy range. Preliminary results give an integral flux between 15 and 70 MeV compared to the differential points in other results.

  11. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Medium Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Brian A.; Wang, Weimin; Lane, Michael D.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Liu, Bing

    2009-09-01

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium Offices (AEDG-MO or the Guide), a design guidance document which intends to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in medium office buildings that just meet the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  12. New insights gained on mechanisms of low-energy proton-induced SEUs by minimizing energy straggle

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dodds, Nathaniel Anson; Dodd, Paul E.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Sexton, Frederick W.; Martinez, Marino J.; Black, Jeffrey D.; Marshall, P. W.; Reed, R. A.; McCurdy, M. W.; Weller, R. A.; et al

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present low-energy proton single-event upset (SEU) data on a 65 nm SOI SRAM whose substrate has been completely removed. Since the protons only had to penetrate a very thin buried oxide layer, these measurements were affected by far less energy loss, energy straggle, flux attrition, and angular scattering than previous datasets. The minimization of these common sources of experimental interference allows more direct interpretation of the data and deeper insight into SEU mechanisms. The results show a strong angular dependence, demonstrate that energy straggle, flux attrition, and angular scattering affect the measured SEU cross sections, andmore » prove that proton direct ionization is the dominant mechanism for low-energy proton-induced SEUs in these circuits.« less

  13. New insights gained on mechanisms of low-energy proton-induced SEUs by minimizing energy straggle

    SciTech Connect

    Dodds, Nathaniel Anson; Dodd, Paul E.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Sexton, Frederick W.; Martinez, Marino J.; Black, Jeffrey D.; Marshall, P. W.; Reed, R. A.; McCurdy, M. W.; Weller, R. A.; Pellish, J. A.; Rodbell, K. P.; Gordon, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present low-energy proton single-event upset (SEU) data on a 65 nm SOI SRAM whose substrate has been completely removed. Since the protons only had to penetrate a very thin buried oxide layer, these measurements were affected by far less energy loss, energy straggle, flux attrition, and angular scattering than previous datasets. The minimization of these common sources of experimental interference allows more direct interpretation of the data and deeper insight into SEU mechanisms. The results show a strong angular dependence, demonstrate that energy straggle, flux attrition, and angular scattering affect the measured SEU cross sections, and prove that proton direct ionization is the dominant mechanism for low-energy proton-induced SEUs in these circuits.

  14. Beam collimation and energy spectrum compression of laser-accelerated proton beams using solenoid field and RF cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, J.; Gu, Y. Q.; Zhu, B.; Hong, W.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Zhou, W. M.; Cao, L. F.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a new method of laser produced proton beam collimation and spectrum compression using a combination of a solenoid field and a RF cavity. The solenoid collects laser-driven protons efficiently within an angle that is smaller than 12 degrees because it is mounted few millimeters from the target, and collimates protons with energies around 2.3 MeV. The collimated proton beam then passes through a RF cavity to allow compression of the spectrum. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations demonstrate the proton beam transport in the solenoid and RF electric fields. Excellent energy compression and collection efficiency of protons are presented. This method for proton beam optimization is suitable for high repetition-rate laser acceleration proton beams, which could be used as an injector for a conventional proton accelerator.

  15. Metamaterial-based lossy anisotropic epsilon-near-zero medium for energy collimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Nian-Hai; Zhang, Peng; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2016-06-01

    A lossy anisotropic epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) medium may lead to a counterintuitive phenomenon of omnidirectional bending-to-normal refraction [S. Feng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 193904 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.193904], which offers a fabulous strategy for energy collimation and energy harvesting. Here, in the scope of effective medium theory, we systematically investigate two simple metamaterial configurations, i.e., metal-dielectric-layered structures and the wire medium, to explore the possibility of fulfilling the conditions of such an anisotropic lossy ENZ medium by playing with materials' parameters. Both realistic metamaterial structures and their effective medium equivalences have been numerically simulated, and the results are in excellent agreement with each other. Our study provides clear guidance and therefore paves the way towards the search for proper designs of anisotropic metamaterials for a decent effect of energy collimation and wave-front manipulation.

  16. Proton-proton femtoscopy and access to dynamical sources at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, E. V.; Verde, G.; Minniti, T.; Danielewicz, P.; Barker, B.

    2014-03-01

    Accessing dynamics in heavy-ion collisions represents a priority in nuclear physics, due to its links to the isospin dependence of the nuclear Equation of State and the space-time properties of systems under extreme conditions produced during the reaction. By means of particle-particle correlations it is possible to probe such space-time properties, allowing one to learn about the space-time properties of the source of particle emission. In this poster presentation we show an application of imaging techniques to study the two-proton source function at the dynamical stage of the reaction.

  17. Spin-spin correlations in proton-proton collisions at high energy and threshold enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    de Teramond, G.F.

    1988-05-01

    The striking effects in the spin structure observed in elastic proton collisions and the Nuclear Transparency phenomenon recently discovered at BNL are described in terms of heavy quark threshold enhancements. The deviations from scaling laws and the broadening of the angular distributions at resonance are also consistent with the introduction of new degrees of freedom in the pp system. This implies new s-channel physics. Predictions are given for the spin effects in pp collisions near 18.5 GeV/c at large p/sub T//sup 2/ where new measurements are planned. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Correlations in Intermediate Energy Two-Proton Removal Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer, K.; Bazin, D.; Gade, A.; Tostevin, J. A.; Baugher, T.; Chajecki, Z.; Coupland, D.; Famiano, M. A.; Ghosh, T. K.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hodges, R.; Howard, M. E.; Kilburn, M.; Lynch, W. G.; Manning, B.; Meierbachtol, K.; Quarterman, P.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Sanetullaev, A.; Simpson, E. C.; Stroberg, S. R.; Tsang, M. B.; Weisshaar, D.; Winkelbauer, J.; Winkler, R.; Youngs, M.

    2012-11-01

    We report final-state-exclusive measurements of the light charged fragments in coincidence with Ne26 residual nuclei following the direct two-proton removal from a neutron-rich Mg28 secondary beam. A Dalitz-plot analysis and comparisons with simulations show that a majority of the triple-coincidence events with two protons display phase-space correlations consistent with the (two-body) kinematics of a spatially correlated pair-removal mechanism. The fraction of such correlated events, 56(12)%, is consistent with the fraction of the calculated cross section, 64%, arising from spin S=0 two-proton configurations in the entrance-channel (shell-model) Mg28 ground state wave function. This result promises access to an additional and more specific probe of the spin and spatial correlations of valence nucleon pairs in exotic nuclei produced as fast secondary beams.

  19. High-energy protons from submicron-sized targets

    SciTech Connect

    Bychenkov, V. Yu.; Govras, E. A.; Brantov, A. V.; Popov, K. I.

    2012-07-11

    Improving of intensity contrast ratio of intense short laser pulses is making it possible to use submicron-sized targets, both spherical and plane, in the interest of proton acceleration for different applications. The way of improving of the ion beam quality is utilization of targets with two ion species - heavy ions (majority) and light ions, e.g. protons, (minority). Two different approaches, analytical theory and particle-in-cell simulations (PIC) are presented for studying the characteristics of laser-triggered ions due to the Coulomb-like mechanism of particle acceleration from submicron-sized targets. The comparative analysis of explosions of heterogeneous (layered) and homogeneously mixed targets for production of best quality ion bunches has been performed. We also found the regime of anisotropic proton acceleration from spherical targets with light and heavy ions relevant to the experiments with submicron-diameter droplets from water spray target irradiated by an ultrashort intense laser pulse.

  20. Relations Between Microwave Bursts and Near-Earth High-Energy Proton Enhancements and Their Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grechnev, V. V.; Kiselev, V. I.; Meshalkina, N. S.; Chertok, I. M.

    2015-10-01

    We further study the relations between parameters of bursts at 35 GHz recorded with the Nobeyama Radio Polarimeters during 25 years and solar proton events (Grechnev et al. in Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 65, S4, 2013a). Here we address the relations between the microwave fluences at 35 GHz and near-Earth proton fluences above 100 MeV to find information on their sources and evaluate their diagnostic potential. The correlation between the microwave and proton fluences is pronouncedly higher than between their peak fluxes. This probably reflects a dependence of the total number of protons on the duration of the acceleration process. In events with strong flares, the correlation coefficients of high-energy proton fluences with microwave and soft X-ray fluences are higher than those with the speeds of coronal mass ejections. The results indicate a statistically larger contribution of flare processes to high-energy proton fluxes. Acceleration by shock waves seems to be less important at high energies in events associated with strong flares, although its contribution is probable and possibly prevails in weaker events. The probability of a detectable proton enhancement was found to directly depend on the peak flux, duration, and fluence of the 35 GHz burst, while the role of the Big Flare Syndrome might have been overestimated previously. Empirical diagnostic relations are proposed.

  1. Energy-latitude dispersion patterns near the isotropy boundaries of energetic protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, V. A.; Chernyaeva, S. A.; Apatenkov, S. V.; Ganushkina, N. Y.; Dubyagin, S. V.

    2015-08-01

    Non-adiabatic motion of plasma sheet protons causes pitch-angle scattering and isotropic precipitation to the ionosphere, which forms the proton auroral oval. This mechanism related to current sheet scattering (CSS) provides a specific energy-latitude dispersion pattern near the equatorward boundary of proton isotropic precipitation (isotropy boundary, IB), with precipitation sharply decreasing at higher (lower) latitude for protons with lower (higher) energy. However, this boundary maps to the inner magnetosphere, where wave-induced scattering may provide different dispersion patterns as recently demonstrated by Liang et al. (2014). Motivated by the potential usage of the IBs for the magnetotail monitoring as well as by the need to better understand the mechanisms forming the proton IB, we investigate statistically the details of particle flux patterns near the proton IB using NOAA-POES polar spacecraft observations made during September 2009. By comparing precipitated-to-trapped flux ratio (J0/J90) at >30 and >80 keV proton energies, we found a relatively small number of simple CSS-type dispersion events (only 31 %). The clear reversed (wave-induced) dispersion patterns were very rare (5 %). The most frequent pattern had nearly coinciding IBs at two energies (63 %). The structured precipitation with multiple IBs was very frequent (60 %), that is, with two or more significant J0/J90 dropouts. The average latitudinal width of multiple IB structures was about 1°. Investigation of dozens of paired auroral zone crossings of POES satellites showed that the IB pattern is stable on a timescale of less than 2 min (a few proton bounce periods) but can evolve on a longer (several minutes) scale, suggesting temporal changes in some mesoscale structures in the equatorial magnetosphere. We discuss the possible role of CSS-related and wave-induced mechanisms and their possible coupling to interpret the emerging complicated patterns of proton isotropy boundaries.

  2. Shortening Delivery Times of Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy by Reducing Proton Energy Layers During Treatment Plan Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Water, Steven van de; Kooy, Hanne M.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S.

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: To shorten delivery times of intensity modulated proton therapy by reducing the number of energy layers in the treatment plan. Methods and Materials: We have developed an energy layer reduction method, which was implemented into our in-house-developed multicriteria treatment planning system “Erasmus-iCycle.” The method consisted of 2 components: (1) minimizing the logarithm of the total spot weight per energy layer; and (2) iteratively excluding low-weighted energy layers. The method was benchmarked by comparing a robust “time-efficient plan” (with energy layer reduction) with a robust “standard clinical plan” (without energy layer reduction) for 5 oropharyngeal cases and 5 prostate cases. Both plans of each patient had equal robust plan quality, because the worst-case dose parameters of the standard clinical plan were used as dose constraints for the time-efficient plan. Worst-case robust optimization was performed, accounting for setup errors of 3 mm and range errors of 3% + 1 mm. We evaluated the number of energy layers and the expected delivery time per fraction, assuming 30 seconds per beam direction, 10 ms per spot, and 400 Giga-protons per minute. The energy switching time was varied from 0.1 to 5 seconds. Results: The number of energy layers was on average reduced by 45% (range, 30%-56%) for the oropharyngeal cases and by 28% (range, 25%-32%) for the prostate cases. When assuming 1, 2, or 5 seconds energy switching time, the average delivery time was shortened from 3.9 to 3.0 minutes (25%), 6.0 to 4.2 minutes (32%), or 12.3 to 7.7 minutes (38%) for the oropharyngeal cases, and from 3.4 to 2.9 minutes (16%), 5.2 to 4.2 minutes (20%), or 10.6 to 8.0 minutes (24%) for the prostate cases. Conclusions: Delivery times of intensity modulated proton therapy can be reduced substantially without compromising robust plan quality. Shorter delivery times are likely to reduce treatment uncertainties and costs.

  3. Flexible, durable proton energy degraders for the GE PETtrace

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, J. W.; Gagnon, K.; Severin, G. W.; Valdovinos, H. F.; Nickles, R. J.; Barnhart, T. E.

    2012-12-19

    In order to limit the formation of radioisotopic impurities during proton bombardments of solid targets, two methods of introducing degrader foils into the beam upstream of the target were tested. The first design uses a 445 {mu}m thick fixed degrader machined from a single piece of aluminum. The second design permits introduction of foils made of any material and was tested with foils as thick as 635 {mu}m (also aluminium). In both cases, the foils are cooled with by water flowing through an annular channel outside the radius of the beam. Both designs proved durable and tolerated proton beam currents in excess of 80 {mu}A.

  4. Evaluation of energy deposition and secondary particle production in proton therapy of brain using a slab head phantom

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Sayyed Bijan; Hadizadeh, Mohammad Hadi; Mowlavi, Ali Asghar; Loushab, Mahdy Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Aim Evaluation of energy deposition of protons in human brain and calculation of the secondary neutrons and photons produced by protons in proton therapy. Background Radiation therapy is one of the main methods of treating localized cancer tumors. The use of high energy proton beam in radiotherapy was proposed almost 60 years ago. In recent years, there has been a revival of interest in this subject in the context of radiation therapy. High energy protons suffer little angular deflection and have a well-defined penetration range, with a sharp increase in the energy loss at the end of their trajectories, namely the Bragg peak. Materials and methods A slab head phantom was used for the purpose of simulating proton therapy in brain tissue. In this study simulation was carried out using the Monte Carlo MCNPX code. Results By using mono energetic proton pencil beams, energy depositions in tissues, especially inside the brain, as well as estimating the neutron and photon production as a result of proton interactions in the body, together with their energy spectra, were calculated or obtained. The amount of energy escaped from the head by secondary neutrons and photons was determined. Conclusions It was found that for high energy proton beams the amount of escaped energy by neutrons is almost 10 times larger than that by photons. We estimated that at 110 MeV beam energy, the overall proton energy “leaked” from the head by secondary photons and neutrons to be around 1%. PMID:25337410

  5. Investigation of gold nanoparticle radiosensitization mechanisms using a free radical scavenger and protons of different energies.

    PubMed

    Jeynes, J C G; Merchant, M J; Spindler, A; Wera, A-C; Kirkby, K J

    2014-11-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been shown to sensitize cancer cells to x-ray radiation, particularly at kV energies where photoelectric interactions dominate and the high atomic number of gold makes a large difference to x-ray absorption. Protons have a high cross-section for gold at a large range of relevant clinical energies, and so potentially could be used with GNPs for increased therapeutic effect.Here, we investigate the contribution of secondary electron emission to cancer cell radiosensitization and investigate how this parameter is affected by proton energy and a free radical scavenger. We simulate the emission from a realistic cell phantom containing GNPs after traversal by protons and x-rays with different energies. We find that with a range of proton energies (1-250 MeV) there is a small increase in secondaries compared to a much larger increase with x-rays. Secondary electrons are known to produce toxic free radicals. Using a cancer cell line in vitro we find that a free radical scavenger has no protective effect on cells containing GNPs irradiated with 3 MeV protons, while it does protect against cells irradiated with x-rays. We conclude that GNP generated free radicals are a major cause of radiosensitization and that there is likely to be much less dose enhancement effect with clinical proton beams compared to x-rays. PMID:25296027

  6. Investigation of gold nanoparticle radiosensitization mechanisms using a free radical scavenger and protons of different energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeynes, J. C. G.; Merchant, M. J.; Spindler, A.; Wera, A.-C.; Kirkby, K. J.

    2014-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been shown to sensitize cancer cells to x-ray radiation, particularly at kV energies where photoelectric interactions dominate and the high atomic number of gold makes a large difference to x-ray absorption. Protons have a high cross-section for gold at a large range of relevant clinical energies, and so potentially could be used with GNPs for increased therapeutic effect. Here, we investigate the contribution of secondary electron emission to cancer cell radiosensitization and investigate how this parameter is affected by proton energy and a free radical scavenger. We simulate the emission from a realistic cell phantom containing GNPs after traversal by protons and x-rays with different energies. We find that with a range of proton energies (1-250 MeV) there is a small increase in secondaries compared to a much larger increase with x-rays. Secondary electrons are known to produce toxic free radicals. Using a cancer cell line in vitro we find that a free radical scavenger has no protective effect on cells containing GNPs irradiated with 3 MeV protons, while it does protect against cells irradiated with x-rays. We conclude that GNP generated free radicals are a major cause of radiosensitization and that there is likely to be much less dose enhancement effect with clinical proton beams compared to x-rays.

  7. Cylindrical radiant energy direction device with refractive medium

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland

    1978-01-01

    A device is provided for directing radiant energy and includes a refractive element and a reflective boundary. The reflective boundary is so contoured that incident energy directed thereto by the refractive element is directed to the exit surface thereof or onto the surface of an energy absorber positioned at the exit surface.

  8. High energy conversion efficiency in laser-proton acceleration by controlling laser-energy deposition onto thin foil targets

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, C. M.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Markey, K.; Scott, R. H. H.; Lancaster, K. L.; Musgrave, I. O.; Spindloe, C.; Winstone, T.; Wyatt, D.; Neely, D.; Gray, R. J.; McKenna, P.; Rosinski, M.; Badziak, J.; Wolowski, J.; Deppert, O.; Batani, D.; Davies, J. R.; Hassan, S. M.; Tatarakis, M.; and others

    2014-02-24

    An all-optical approach to laser-proton acceleration enhancement is investigated using the simplest of target designs to demonstrate application-relevant levels of energy conversion efficiency between laser and protons. Controlled deposition of laser energy, in the form of a double-pulse temporal envelope, is investigated in combination with thin foil targets in which recirculation of laser-accelerated electrons can lead to optimal conditions for coupling laser drive energy into the proton beam. This approach is shown to deliver a substantial enhancement in the coupling of laser energy to 5–30 MeV protons, compared to single pulse irradiation, reaching a record high 15% conversion efficiency with a temporal separation of 1 ps between the two pulses and a 5 μm-thick Au foil. A 1D simulation code is used to support and explain the origin of the observation of an optimum pulse separation of ∼1 ps.

  9. Medium-energy ion-beam simulation of the effect of ionizing radiation and displacement damage on SiO2-based memristive nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, Alexey; Mikhaylov, Alexey; Korolev, Dmitry; Guseinov, Davud; Gryaznov, Eugeny; Okulich, Eugenia; Sergeev, Victor; Antonov, Ivan; Kasatkin, Alexandr; Gorshkov, Oleg; Tetelbaum, David; Kozlovski, Vitali

    2016-07-01

    The principles of ion-beam simulation of the effect of fast (fission) neutrons and high-energy protons based on medium-energy ion irradiation have been developed for the Au/Zr/SiO2/TiN/Ti capacitor-like memristive nanostructures demonstrating the repeatable resistive switching phenomenon. By using the Monte-Carlo approach, the irradiation fluences of H+, Si+ and O+ ions at the energy of 150 keV are determined that provide the ionization and displacement damage equivalent to the cases of space protons (15 MeV) and fission neutrons (1 MeV) irradiation. No significant change in the resistive switching parameters is observed under ion irradiation up to the fluences corresponding to the extreme fluence of 1017 cm-2 of space protons or fission neutrons. The high-level radiation tolerance of the memristive nanostructures is experimentally confirmed with the application of 15 MeV proton irradiation and is interpreted as related to the local nature of conducting filaments and high concentration of the initial field-induced defects in oxide film.

  10. Cognitive effects of proton irradiation at differing energy levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During exploratory class missions to space outside of the magnetic field of the Earth, astronauts will be exposed to various forms of radiation including solar particle events (SPE) which are predominantly composed of protons. As such it is important to characterize the cognitive effects of exposure...

  11. [Spin dependent phenomena in medium energy physics]. [Syracuse Univ. , Syracuse, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Souder, P.A.

    1992-11-01

    The Syracuse University Medium Energy Physics Group was actively engaged in several research projects. A laser was used to polarize muonic atoms with the goal of measuring fundamental spin-dependent parameters in the reaction [mu][sup [minus

  12. Propensity and Risk Assessment for Solar Particle Events: Consideration of Integral Fluence at High Proton Energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee; Hayat, Matthew J.; Feiveson, alan H.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2008-01-01

    For future space missions with longer duration, exposure to large solar particle events (SPEs) with high energy levels is the major concern during extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) on the lunar and Mars surface. The expected SPE propensity for large proton fluence was estimated from a non-homogeneous Poisson model using the historical database for measurements of protons with energy > 30 MeV, Phi(sub 30). The database includes a continuous data set for the past 5 solar cycles. The resultant SPE risk analysis for a specific mission period was made including the 95% confidence level. In addition to total particle intensity of SPE, the detailed energy spectra of protons especially at high energy levels were recognized as extremely important parameter for the risk assessment, since there remains a significant cancer risks from those energetic particles for large events. Using all the recorded proton fluence of SPEs for energies >60 and >100 MeV, Phi(sub 60) and Phi(sub 100), respectively, the expected propensities of SPEs abundant with high energy protons were estimated from the same non-homogeneous Poisson model and the representative cancer risk was analyzed. The dependencies of risk with different energy spectra, for e.g. between soft and hard SPEs, were evaluated. Finally, we describe approaches to improve radiation protection of astronauts and optimize mission planning for future space missions.

  13. Laser-driven high-energy proton beam with homogeneous spatial profile from a nanosphere target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margarone, D.; Kim, I. J.; Psikal, J.; Kaufman, J.; Mocek, T.; Choi, I. W.; Stolcova, L.; Proska, J.; Choukourov, A.; Melnichuk, I.; Klimo, O.; Limpouch, J.; Sung, J. H.; Lee, S. K.; Korn, G.; Jeong, T. M.

    2015-07-01

    A high-energy, high-yield proton beam with a good homogeneous profile has been generated from a nanosphere target irradiated by a short (30-fs), intense (7 ×1020 W /cm2 ) laser pulse. A maximum proton energy of 30 MeV has been observed with a high proton number of 7 ×1010 in the energy range 5-30 MeV. A homogeneous spatial profile with a uniformity (standard deviation from an average value within 85% beam area) of 15% is observed with the nanosphere dielectric target. Particle-in-cell simulations show the enhancement of proton cutoff energy and proton number with the nanosphere target and reveal that the homogeneous beam profile is related with a broadened angular distribution of hot electrons, which is initiated by the nanosphere structure. The homogeneous spatial properties obtained with the nanosphere target will be advantageous in developing laser-driven proton sources for practical applications in which high-quality beams are required.

  14. Three-hadron angular correlations in high-energy proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus collisions from perturbative QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, Alejandro; Ortiz, Antonio; Paic, Guy; Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Magnin, J.; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena

    2011-08-15

    We study three-hadron azimuthal angular correlations in high-energy proton-proton and central nucleus-nucleus collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the CERN Large Hadron Collider at midrapidity. We use the leading-order parton matrix elements for 2{yields}3 processes and include the effect of parton energy loss in the quark-gluon plasma using the modified fragmentation function approach. For the case when the produced hadrons have either the same or not too different momenta, we observe two away-side peaks at 2{pi}/3 and 4{pi}/3. We consider the dependence of the angular correlations on energy loss parameters that have been used in studies of single inclusive hadron production at RHIC. Our results on the angular dependence of the cross section agree well with preliminary data by the PHENIX Collaboration. We comment on the possible contribution of 2{yields}3 processes to dihadron angular correlations and how a comparison of the two processes may help characterize the plasma further.

  15. The LILIA experiment: Energy selection and post-acceleration of laser generated protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchetti, Giorgio; Sinigardi, Stefano; Londrillo, Pasquale; Rossi, Francesco; Sumini, Marco; Giove, Dario; De Martinis, Carlo

    2012-12-01

    The LILIA experiment is planned at the SPARCLAB facility of the Frascati INFN laboratories. We have simulated the laser acceleration of protons, the transport and energy selection with collimators and a pulsed solenoid and the post-acceleration with a compact high field linac. For the highest achievable intensity corresponding to a = 30 over 108 protons at 30 MeV with a 3% spread are selected, and at least107 protons are post-accelerated up to 60 MeV. If a 10 Hz repetition rated can be achieved the delivered dose would be suitable for the treatment of small superficial tumors.

  16. The LILIA experiment: Energy selection and post-acceleration of laser generated protons

    SciTech Connect

    Turchetti, Giorgio; Sinigardi, Stefano; Londrillo, Pasquale; Rossi, Francesco; Sumini, Marco; Giove, Dario; De Martinis, Carlo

    2012-12-21

    The LILIA experiment is planned at the SPARCLAB facility of the Frascati INFN laboratories. We have simulated the laser acceleration of protons, the transport and energy selection with collimators and a pulsed solenoid and the post-acceleration with a compact high field linac. For the highest achievable intensity corresponding to a= 30 over 10{sup 8} protons at 30 MeV with a 3% spread are selected, and at least10{sup 7} protons are post-accelerated up to 60 MeV. If a 10 Hz repetition rated can be achieved the delivered dose would be suitable for the treatment of small superficial tumors.

  17. Response of a tungsten powder target to an incident high energy proton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Fitton, M.; Loveridge, P.; O'Dell, J.; Charitonidis, N.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fabich, A.; Rivkin, L.

    2014-10-01

    The experiment described in this paper is the first study of the response of a static tungsten powder sample to an impinging high energy proton beam pulse. The experiment was carried out at the HiRadMat facility at CERN. Observations include high speed videos of a proton beam induced perturbation of the powder sample as well as data from a laser Doppler vibrometer measuring the oscillations of the powder container. A comparison with a previous analogous experiment which studied a proton beam interaction with mercury is made.

  18. The energy spectra of solar energetic protons in the large energy range: their functional form and parameters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nymmik, Rikho; Pervaia, Taisia

    2016-07-01

    Experimental data on the fluxes of protons of solar energetic particles (SEP) are analyzed. It is known that above energies of 2-45 MeV (averaging 27-30 MeV), the proton spectra are a power-law function of the energy (at relativistic energies - from the momentum) of the particles. At lower energies, the spectra become harder, with the high-energy part of the spectra forming the "knee". This report is devoted to the determination of the parameters of the SEP spectra, having the form of a "double power-law shape", to ascertain the reliability of the parameters of the approximations of the experimental data.

  19. A Nuclear Interaction Model for Understanding Results of Single Event Testing with High Energy Protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culpepper, William X.; ONeill, Pat; Nicholson, Leonard L.

    2000-01-01

    An internuclear cascade and evaporation model has been adapted to estimate the LET spectrum generated during testing with 200 MeV protons. The model-generated heavy ion LET spectrum is compared to the heavy ion LET spectrum seen on orbit. This comparison is the basis for predicting single event failure rates from heavy ions using results from a single proton test. Of equal importance, this spectra comparison also establishes an estimate of the risk of encountering a failure mode on orbit that was not detected during proton testing. Verification of the general results of the model is presented based on experiments, individual part test results, and flight data. Acceptance of this model and its estimate of remaining risk opens the hardware verification philosophy to the consideration of radiation testing with high energy protons at the board and box level instead of the more standard method of individual part testing with low energy heavy ions.

  20. Comparison of proton energy loss in thick absorbers in terms of a reduced calibration curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yevseyeva, O.; de Assis, J. T.; Evseev, I. G.; Schelin, H. R.; Ahmann, F.; Paschuk, S. A.; Milhoretto, E.; Setti, J. A. P.; Diaz, K. S.; Hormaza, J. M.; Lopes, R. T.

    2011-10-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are essential for the support of particle experiments and developments of novel particle registration systems ranging from detectors developed for high-energy physics experiments at CERN to those for medical tomography. For proton beams, popular Monte Carlo codes like TRIM/SRIM, MCNPX and GEANT4 generate very similar final energy spectra for relatively thin absorbers, with differences unlikely to be detected in experiments. For thick absorbers, however, the disagreement is much larger, even for a moderate energy resolution. The reason for this is unclear because the actual overall accuracy of the proton stopping power in the Bethe-Bloch domain is known to be about 1%. One approach to investigate these differences is to compare, for example, the data from the NIST PSTAR and the SRIM reference data tables with the output of the Monte Carlo codes. When the various codes are validated against these tables, the differences in the simulated spectra mainly reflect the differences in the reference tables. Of more practical interest is the validation of the codes against experimental data for thick absorbers. However, only few experimental data sets are available here, and the existing data have been acquired at different initial proton energies and for different absorber materials. In order to compare the results of Monte Carlo simulations with existing experimental data, we applied the so-called reduced calibration method. This reduced calibration curve represents the range-energy dependence normalizing the range scale to the full projected range (for a given initial proton energy in a given material), and the proton energy scale to the given initial proton energy. The advantage of this approach is that the reduced calibration curve is nearly energy and material independent, and, thus, experimental, simulated and published reference data obtained at different energies and for different materials can be compared in one graph.

  1. Significance of medium energy gamma ray astronomy in the study of cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.; Bignami, G. F.; Cheung, C. Y.

    1975-01-01

    Medium energy (about 10 to 30 MeV) gamma ray astronomy provides information on the product of the galactic electron cosmic ray intensity and the galactic matter to which the electrons are dynamically coupled by the magnetic field. Because high energy (greater than 100 MeV) gamma ray astronomy provides analogous information for the nucleonic cosmic rays and the relevant matter, a comparison between high energy and medium energy gamma ray intensities provides a direct ratio of the cosmic ray electrons and nucleons throughout the galaxy. A calculation of gamma ray production by electron bremsstrahlung shows that: bremsstrahlung energy loss is probably not negligible over the lifetime of the electrons in the galaxy; and the approximate bremsstrahlung calculation often used previously overestimates the gamma ray intensity by about a factor of two. As a specific example, expected medium energy gamma ray intensities are calculated for the speral arm model.

  2. Evaporation protons from 8B+58Ni at near barrier energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador-Valenzuela, P.; Aguilera, E. F.; Martinez-Quiroz, E.; Lizcano, D.; Kolata, J. J.; Roberts, A.; Becchetti, F. D.; Ojaruega, M.; Febbraro, M.; Guimarães, V.; Rossi, E. S., Jr.; Huiza, J. F. P.; Acosta, L.; Belyaeva, T. L.

    2011-10-01

    Yields of evaporated protons from the 8B+58Ni reaction are measured at backward angles, for several near barrier energies. Statistical model calculations using the code PACE are used to extrapolate the measurements to the whole angular region in order to get angle integrated cross sections. Fusion cross sections are deduced by using the calculated proton multiplicities. The obtained fusion excitation function shows a large enhancement as compared to BPM calculations using conventional barrier parameters.

  3. Energy- and time-resolved detection of prompt gamma-rays for proton range verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verburg, Joost M.; Riley, Kent; Bortfeld, Thomas; Seco, Joao

    2013-10-01

    In this work, we present experimental results of a novel prompt gamma-ray detector for proton beam range verification. The detection system features an actively shielded cerium-doped lanthanum(III) bromide scintillator, coupled to a digital data acquisition system. The acquisition was synchronized to the cyclotron radio frequency to separate the prompt gamma-ray signals from the later-arriving neutron-induced background. We designed the detector to provide a high energy resolution and an effective reduction of background events, enabling discrete proton-induced prompt gamma lines to be resolved. Measuring discrete prompt gamma lines has several benefits for range verification. As the discrete energies correspond to specific nuclear transitions, the magnitudes of the different gamma lines have unique correlations with the proton energy and can be directly related to nuclear reaction cross sections. The quantification of discrete gamma lines also enables elemental analysis of tissue in the beam path, providing a better prediction of prompt gamma-ray yields. We present the results of experiments in which a water phantom was irradiated with proton pencil-beams in a clinical proton therapy gantry. A slit collimator was used to collimate the prompt gamma-rays, and measurements were performed at 27 positions along the path of proton beams with ranges of 9, 16 and 23 g cm-2 in water. The magnitudes of discrete gamma lines at 4.44, 5.2 and 6.13 MeV were quantified. The prompt gamma lines were found to be clearly resolved in dimensions of energy and time, and had a reproducible correlation with the proton depth-dose curve. We conclude that the measurement of discrete prompt gamma-rays for in vivo range verification of clinical proton beams is feasible, and plan to further study methods and detector designs for clinical use.

  4. Energy relaxation of multi-MeV protons traveling in compressed DT+Be plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhigang; He, Bin; Fu, Zhen-Guo; Zhang, Ping

    2014-07-15

    We investigate the stopping power of the multi-MeV protons moving in the hot dense deuterium-tritium plasmas mixed with beryllium (Be), which is important in inertial confinement fusion experiments. It is shown that with increasing the density of Be, the stopping power of the proton also increases with the peaks shifting towards higher projectile velocity, which leads to the reduction of both the projectile range and the energy transferred to the electrons.

  5. Resonant double photoionization of lithium studied with medium energy resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehlitz, R.; Juranić, P. N.

    2006-10-01

    We have measured the relative photoionization cross section for the formation of Li2+ ions between 148 and 161eV photon energy with higher photon-energy resolution than in previous Li2+ studies. This energy region is characterized by double and triple excitations that lead to strong enhancements in the Li2+ cross section. As a result, the double-to-single photoionization ratio shows a dramatic resonance structure not seen before. We have determined the resonance positions and widths using Fano-profile fits to the Li2+ data and compare them to previously published values and a calculated Li2+ cross-section curve.

  6. Microstructured snow targets for high energy quasi-monoenergetic proton acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleifer, E.; Nahum, E.; Eisenmann, S.; Botton, M.; Baspaly, A.; Pomerantz, I.; Abricht, F.; Branzel, J.; Priebe, G.; Steinke, S.; Andreev, A.; Schnuerer, M.; Sandner, W.; Gordon, D.; Sprangle, P.; Ledingham, K. W. D.; Zigler, A.

    2013-05-01

    Compact size sources of high energy protons (50-200MeV) are expected to be key technology in a wide range of scientific applications 1-8. One promising approach is the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) scheme 9,10, holding record level of 67MeV protons generated by a peta-Watt laser 11. In general, laser intensity exceeding 1018 W/cm2 is required to produce MeV level protons. Another approach is the Break-Out Afterburner (BOA) scheme which is a more efficient acceleration scheme but requires an extremely clean pulse with contrast ratio of above 10-10. Increasing the energy of the accelerated protons using modest energy laser sources is a very attractive task nowadays. Recently, nano-scale targets were used to accelerate ions 12,13 but no significant enhancement of the accelerated proton energy was measured. Here we report on the generation of up to 20MeV by a modest (5TW) laser system interacting with a microstructured snow target deposited on a Sapphire substrate. This scheme relax also the requirement of high contrast ratio between the pulse and the pre-pulse, where the latter produces the highly structured plasma essential for the interaction process. The plasma near the tip of the snow target is subject to locally enhanced laser intensity with high spatial gradients, and enhanced charge separation is obtained. Electrostatic fields of extremely high intensities are produced, and protons are accelerated to MeV-level energies. PIC simulations of this targets reproduce the experimentally measured energy scaling and predict the generation of 150 MeV protons from laser power of 100TW laser system18.

  7. Energy loss by resonance line photons in an absorbing medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummer, D. G.; Kunasz, P. B.

    1980-01-01

    The mean path length of photons undergoing repeated scatterings in media of large optical thickness is calculated from accurate numerical solutions of the transfer equation including the effect of frequency redistribution characteristic of combined Doppler and natural broadening. Energy loss by continuous absorption processes, such as ionization or dust absorption, is discussed, and asymptotic scaling laws for the energy loss, the mean path length, and the mean number of scatterings are inferred from the numerical data.

  8. Proton transfer and energy coupling in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanyi, J. K.

    1992-01-01

    A description of the rate constants and the energetics of the elementary reaction steps of the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin has been helpful in understanding the mechanism of proton transport in this light-driven pump. The evidence suggests a single unbranched reaction sequence, BR-hv----K in equilibrium with L in equilibrium with M1----M2 in equilibrium with N in equilibrium with O----BR, where coupling to the proton-motive force is at the energetically and mechanistically important M1----M2 step. The consequences of site-specific mutations expressed homologously in Halobacterium halobium have revealed characteristics of the Schiff base deprotonation in the L----M1 reaction, the reorientation of the Schiff base from the extracellular to the cytoplasmic side in the M1----M2 reaction, and the reprotonation of the Schiff base in the M2----N reaction.

  9. Isochoric heating of matter by laser-accelerated high-energy protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antici, P.; Fuchs, J.; Atzeni, S.; Benuzzi, A.; Brambrink, E.; Esposito, M.; Koenig, M.; Ravasio, A.; Schreiber, J.; Schiavi, A.; Audebert, P.

    2006-06-01

    We describe an experiment on isochoric heating of matter by intense laser-accelerated protons. The experiment was performed using the LULI 100 TW facility with 15-20 J on target energy and > 1019 W.cm - 2 maximum focused intensity. Focusing the laser on a 10 micron thick Au foil, we accelerated forward a laminar proton beam with a maximum energy of 16 MeV. This proton beam irradiated and heated a secondary target positioned after a variable vacuum gap. The heating was diagnosed by 1D and 2D time-resolved measurements of the optical self-emission of the heated target rear-surface. Detailed results as a function of the Z and the thickness of the secondary target as well as analysis, including a full modelling of the target heating with a 2D hydro-code (DUED) coupled to a proton energy deposition code, were obtained. We have also studied the efficiency of heating as a function of the primary target topology, i.e. either flat, which results in a diverging proton beam, or curved, which has the ability of focusing partly the proton beam.

  10. Partial cross sections of helium satellites at medium photon energies

    SciTech Connect

    Wehlitz, R.; Sellin, I.A.; Hemmers, O.

    1997-04-01

    Still of current interest is the important role of single ionization with excitation compared to single ionization alone. The coupling between the electrons and the incoming photon is a single-particle operator. Thus, an excitation in addition to an ionization, leading to a so-called satellite line in a photoelectron spectrum, is entirely due to electron-electron interaction and probes the electron correlation in the ground and final state. Therefore the authors have undertaken the study of the intensity of helium satellites He{sup +}nl (n = 2 - 6) relative to the main photoline (n = 1) as a function of photon energy at photon energies well above threshold up to 900 eV. From these results they could calculate the partial cross-sections of the helium satellites. In order to test the consistency of their satellite-to-1s ratios with published double-to-single photoionization ratios, the authors calculated the double-to-single photoionization ratio from their measured ratios using the theoretical energy-distribution curves of Chang and Poe and Le Rouzo and Dal Cappello which proved to be valid for photon energies below 120 eV. These calculated double-to-single ionization ratios agree fairly well with recent ion measurements. In the lower photon energy range the authors ratios agree better with the ratios of Doerner et al. while for higher photon energies the agreement is better with the values of Levin et al.

  11. The energy source of the interplanetary medium and the heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Eugene N.

    1987-01-01

    The activity of the interplanetary medium arises from occasional transient outbursts of the active corona and, for the most part, from the interaction of fast and slow streams in the solar wind. The basic driver is the heat input to the corona, both transient and steady. The fast streams issue from coronal holes where the heat input may be Alfven waves with root mean squared (rms) fluid velocities of nearly 100 km/sec or may be wholly or in part the waves refracted into the hole from neighboring active regions. If the latter, then the character of the wind from the coronal hole depends upon the proximity and vigor of active regions, with significant differences between the polar and low altitude solar wind. In any case, there is no observational support for any of these ideas, so that the primary cause of the wind from the Sun, as well as any other similar star is not without mystery. It is to be hoped that ground-based observations together with the input from the Solar Optical Telescope and the International Solar Polar Mission may in time succeed in clearing up some of the basic questions.

  12. Theoretical and computational studies of renewable energy materials: Room temperature ionic liquids and proton exchange membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shulu

    2011-12-01

    Two kinds of renewable energy materials, room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and proton exchange membranes (PEMs), especially Nafion, are studied by computational and theoretical approaches. The ultimate purpose of the present research is to design novel materials to meet the future energy demands. To elucidate the effect of alkyl side chain length and anion on the structure and dynamics of the mixtures, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of three RTILs/water mixtures at various water mole fractions: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM+)/BF4-, 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium (OMIM+)/BF4-, and OMIM +/Cl- are performed. Replacing the BMIM + cation with OMIM+ results in stronger aggregation of the cations as well as a slower diffusion of the anions, and replacing the BF4- anion with Cl- alters the water distribution at low water mole fractions and slows diffusion of the mixtures. Potential experimental manifestations of these behaviors in both cases are provided. Proton solvation properties and transport mechanisms are studied in hydrated Nafion, by using the self-consistent multistate empirical valence bond (SCI-MS-EVB) method. It is found that by stabilizing a more Zundel-like (H5O 2+) structure in the first solvation shells, the solvation of excess protons, as well as the proton hydration structure are both influenced by the sulfonate groups. Hydrate proton-related hydrogen bond networks are observed to be more stable than those with water alone. In order to characterize the nature of the proton transport (PT), diffusive motion, Arrhenius activation energies, and transport pathways are calculated and analyzed. Analysis of diffusive motion suggests that (1) a proton-hopping mechanism dominates the proton transport for the studied water loading levels and (2) there is an obvious degree of anti-correlation between the proton hopping and the vehicular transport. The activation energy drops rapidly with an increasing water content when the water loading level is smaller

  13. Interaction of High-Energy Proton Beam with a Thin Target and Multiplicities of Neutron

    SciTech Connect

    Demirkol, I.; Tatar, M.; Safak, M. S.; Arasoglu, A.; Tel, E.

    2007-04-23

    An important ingredient in the performance of accelerator driven systems for energy production, waste transmutation and other applications are the number of spallation neutrons produced per incident proton. The neutron multiplicities, angular and energy distributions are usually calculated using simulation codes. We have presented multiplicities of the neutrons emitted in the interaction of a high-energy proton (1500 MeV) with a thin target Pb, Bi. In this study we have used the code ISABEL to calculate multiplicities of the neutron emitted. The results obtained have been compared with the available data.

  14. The effect of low energy protons on silicon solar cells with simulated coverglass cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasner, S.; Anspaugh, B.; Francis, R.; Marvin, D.

    1991-01-01

    Results of a series of low-energy proton (LEP) tests are presented. The purpose of the tests was to investigate the effect of low-energy protons on the electrical performance of solar cells with simulated cracked covers. The results of the tests were then related to the space environment. A matrix of LEP tests was set up using solar cells with simulated cracks to determine the effect on electrical performance as a function of fluence, energy, crack width, coverglass adhesive shielding, crack location, and solar cell size. The results of the test were, for the most part, logical, and consistent.

  15. Measurement of high energy resolution inelastic proton scattering at and close to zero degrees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamii, A.; Fujita, Y.; Matsubara, H.; Adachi, T.; Carter, J.; Dozono, M.; Fujita, H.; Fujita, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Hatanaka, K.; Itahashi, T.; Itoh, M.; Kawabata, T.; Nakanishi, K.; Ninomiya, S.; Perez-Cerdan, A. B.; Popescu, L.; Rubio, B.; Saito, T.; Sakaguchi, H.; Sakemi, Y.; Sasamoto, Y.; Shimbara, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Smit, F. D.; Tameshige, Y.; Yosoi, M.; Zenhiro, J.

    2009-07-01

    Measurements of inelastic proton scattering with high energy resolution at forward scattering angles including 0∘ are described. High-resolution halo-free beams were accelerated by the cyclotron complex at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics. Instrumental background events were minimized using the high-quality beam. The remaining instrumental background events were eliminated by applying a background subtraction method. As a result, clean spectra were obtained even for a heavy target nucleus such as Pb208. A high energy resolution of 20 keV (FWHM) and a scattering angle resolution of ±0.6∘ were achieved at an incident proton energy of 295 MeV.

  16. The energy dependence of lithium formate and alanine EPR dosimeters for medium energy x rays

    SciTech Connect

    Waldeland, Einar; Hole, Eli Olaug; Sagstuen, Einar; Malinen, Eirik

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To perform a systematic investigation of the energy dependence of alanine and lilthium formate EPR dosimeters for medium energy x rays. Methods: Lithium formate and alanine EPR dosimeters were exposed to eight different x-ray beam qualities, with nominal potentials ranging from 50 to 200 kV. Following ionometry based on standards of absorbed dose to water, the dosimeters were given two different doses of approximately 3 and 6 Gy for each radiation quality, with three dosimeters for each dose. A reference series was also irradiated to three different dose levels at a {sup 60}Co unit. The dose to water energy response, that is, the dosimeter reading per absorbed dose to water relative to that for {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays, was estimated for each beam quality. In addition, the energy response was calculated by Monte Carlo simulations and compared to the experimental energy response. Results: The experimental energy response estimates ranged from 0.89 to 0.94 and from 0.68 to 0.90 for lithium formate and alanine, respectively. The uncertainties in the experimental energy response estimates were typically 3%. The relative effectiveness, that is, the ratio of the experimental energy response to that following Monte Carlo simulations was, on average, 0.96 and 0.94 for lithium formate and alanine, respectively. Conclusions: This work shows that lithium formate dosimeters are less dependent on x-ray energy than alanine. Furthermore, as the relative effectiveness for both lithium formate and alanine were systematically less than unity, the yield of radiation-induced radicals is decreased following x-irradiation compared to irradiation with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays.

  17. Evolution of Fissionlike Reactions in Medium Energy Heavy Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Jaeyong

    MSU 4pi Array has been completed with the addition of multiwire proportional counters (MWPC). Bragg curve counters (BCC) have been successfully run in the standalone mode. These detectors combined with other components of the Array enabled the measurement of intermediate mass fragment (IMF: 3 <=q Z>=q18) as well as light charged particles in coincidence with fissionlike fragments in a 4pi>=ometry, over a wide energy range (E_{beam} = 15-115 AMeV) for the reaction ^ {40}Ar + ^{232} Th. The exclusive folding angle distribution data provide direct evidence that fissionlike processes following incomplete-fusion are still an appreciable exit channel for beam energies as high as 115 AMeV. Three distinct sources of IMF emission are identified by the azimuthal angular correlation function among two fissionlike fragments and an IMF. Respective contributions of the three emission modes to the IMF multiplicity with the beam energy are estimated. Prefission emission gains dominance in this energy range while the evaporation from the fissionlike fragments decreases to the point that its importance becomes comparable to that of simultaneous ternary breakup.

  18. New limit on the low-energy antiproton/proton ratio in the Galactic cosmic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlen, S. P.; Beatty, J. J.; Barwick, S.; Gerbier, G.; Bower, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented from a balloon-borne apparatus searching for low-energy antiprotons in the Galactic cosmic rays. For energies less than 640 MeV at the top of the atmosphere, no cosmic-ray antiprotons were observed. This yields an upper limit to the antiproton/proton ratio of 0.000046 at the 85-percent confidence level.

  19. Jet energy measurement with the ATLAS detector in proton-proton collisions at √{s}=7 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, D.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Beck, G. A.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Buira-Clark, D.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Buttinger, W.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G. 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B.; Ferencei, J.; Ferland, J.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrara, V.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer, M. L.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filippas, A.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, G.; Fischer, P.; Fisher, M. J.; Fisher, S. M.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleckner, J.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Flick, T.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Fokitis, M.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Fopma, J.; Forbush, D. A.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Foster, J. M.; Fournier, D.; Foussat, A.; Fowler, A. J.; Fowler, K.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Frank, T.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; Fratina, S.; Freestone, J.; French, S. T.; Friedrich, F.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. 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A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockmanns, T.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strang, M.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Strong, J. A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Stupak, J.; Sturm, P.; Soh, D. A.; Su, D.; Subramania, HS.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suita, K.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Sviridov, Yu. M.; Swedish, S.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szeless, B.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tani, K.; Tannoury, N.; Tappern, G. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teinturier, M.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Thadome, J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thompson, R. J.; Thun, R. P.; Tian, F.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Y. A.; Timmermans, C. J. W. P.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F. J.; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokunaga, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N. D.; Torchiani, I.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Traynor, D.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T. N.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.-W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tua, A.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuggle, J. M.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Twomey, M. S.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tyrvainen, H.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D. G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villani, E. G.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virchaux, M.; Virzi, J.; Vitells, O.; Viti, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T. T.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vujicic, M.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walbersloh, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Weydert, C.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; Whitaker, S. P.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S. R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wong, W. C.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, M.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wunstorf, R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ybeles Smit, G. V.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaets, V. G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zalite, Yo. K.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, Q.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2013-03-01

    The jet energy scale and its systematic uncertainty are determined for jets measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC in proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of sqrt{s}=7 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 38 pb-1. Jets are reconstructed with the anti- k t algorithm with distance parameters R=0.4 or R=0.6. Jet energy and angle corrections are determined from Monte Carlo simulations to calibrate jets with transverse momenta p T≥20 GeV and pseudorapidities | η|<4.5. The jet energy systematic uncertainty is estimated using the single isolated hadron response measured in situ and in test-beams, exploiting the transverse momentum balance between central and forward jets in events with dijet topologies and studying systematic variations in Monte Carlo simulations. The jet energy uncertainty is less than 2.5 % in the central calorimeter region (| η|<0.8) for jets with 60≤ p T<800 GeV, and is maximally 14 % for p T<30 GeV in the most forward region 3.2≤| η|<4.5. The jet energy is validated for jet transverse momenta up to 1 TeV to the level of a few percent using several in situ techniques by comparing a well-known reference such as the recoiling photon p T, the sum of the transverse momenta of tracks associated to the jet, or a system of low- p T jets recoiling against a high- p T jet. More sophisticated jet calibration schemes are presented based on calorimeter cell energy density weighting or hadronic properties of jets, aiming for an improved jet energy resolution and a reduced flavour dependence of the jet response. The systematic uncertainty of the jet energy determined from a combination of in situ techniques is consistent with the one derived from single hadron response measurements over a wide kinematic range. The nominal corrections and uncertainties are derived for isolated jets in an inclusive sample of high- p T jets. Special cases such as event topologies with close-by jets, or selections of samples with an enhanced

  20. High-energy proton radiation damage of high-purity germanium detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pehl, R. H.; Varnell, L. S.; Metzger, A. E.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative studies of radiation damage in high-purity germanium gamma-ray detectors due to high-energy charged particles have been carried out; two 1.0 cm thick planar detectors were irradiated by 6 GeV/c protons. Under proton bombardment, degradation in the energy resolution was found to begin below 7 x 10 to the 7th protons/sq cm and increased proportionately in both detectors until the experiment was terminated at a total flux of 5.7 x 10 to the 8th protons/sq cm, equivalent to about a six year exposure to cosmic-ray protons in space. At the end of the irradiation, the FWHM resolution measured at 1332 keV stood at 8.5 and 13.6 keV, with both detectors of only marginal utility as a spectrometer due to the severe tailing caused by charge trapping. Annealing these detectors after proton damage was found to be much easier than after neutron damage.

  1. Stochastic spatial energy deposition profiles for MeV protons and keV electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udalagama, C.; Bettiol, A. A.; Watt, F.

    2009-12-01

    With the rapid advances being made in novel high-energy ion-beam techniques such as proton beam writing, single-ion-event effects, ion-beam-radiation therapy, ion-induced fluorescence imaging, proton/ion microscopy, and ion-induced electron imaging, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the spatial energy-deposition profiles of energetic ions as they penetrate matter. In this work we present the results of comprehensive yet straightforward event-by-event Monte Carlo calculations that simulate ion/electron propagation and secondary electron ( δ ray) generation to yield spatial energy-deposition data. These calculations combine SRIM/TRIM features, EEDL97 data and volume-plasmon-localization models with a modified version of one of the newer δ ray generation models, namely, the Hansen-Kocbach-Stolterfoht. The development of the computer code DEEP (deposition of energy due to electrons and protons) offers a unique means of studying the energy-deposition/redistribution problem while still retaining the important stochastic nature inherent in these processes which cannot be achieved with analytical modeling. As an example of an application of DEEP we present results that compare the energy-deposition profiles of primary MeV protons and primary keV electrons in polymethymethacrylate. Such data are important when comparing proximity effects in the direct write lithography processes of proton-beam writing and electron-beam writing. Our calculations demonstrate that protons are able to maintain highly compact spatial energy-deposition profiles compared with electrons.

  2. Results on damage induced by high-energy protons in LYSO calorimeter crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dissertori, G.; Luckey, D.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pauss, F.; Quittnat, M.; Wallny, R.; Glaser, M.

    2014-05-01

    Lutetium-Yttrium Orthosilicate doped with Cerium (LYSO), as a bright scintillating crystal, is a candidate for calorimetry applications in strong ionising-radiation fields and large high-energy hadron fluences are expected at the CERN Large Hadron Collider after the planned High-Luminosity upgrade. There, proton-proton collisions will produce fast hadron fluences up to ~ 5 ×1014cm-2 in the large-rapidity regions of the calorimeters. The performance of LYSO has been investigated, after exposure to different fluences of 24 GeV c-1 protons. Measured changes in optical transmission as a function of proton fluence are presented, and the evolution over time due to spontaneous recovery at room temperature is studied. The activation of materials will also be an issue in the described environment. Studies of the ambient dose induced by LYSO and its evolution with time, in comparison with other scintillating crystals, have also been performed through measurements and FLUKA simulations.

  3. Exclusive production of {omega} meson in proton-proton collisions at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Cisek, Anna; Lebiedowicz, Piotr; Schaefer, Wolfgang; Szczurek, Antoni

    2011-06-01

    First we calculate cross section for the {gamma}p{yields}{omega}p reaction from the threshold to very large energies. At low energies the pion exchange is the dominant mechanism. At large energies the experimental cross section can be well described assuming Pomeron exchange within the k{sub t}-factorization approach by adjusting light quark constituent mass. Next we calculate differential distributions for the pp{yields}pp{omega} reaction at RHIC, Tevatron and LHC energies for the first time in the literature. We consider photon-Pomeron (Pomeron-photon), photon-pion (pion-photon) as well as novel diffractive hadronic bremsstrahlung mechanisms. The latter are included in the meson/Reggeon exchange picture with parameters fixed from the known phenomenology. Interesting rapidity distributions are predicted. The hadronic bremsstrahlung contributions dominate at large (forward, backward) rapidities. At small energies the photon-Pomeron contribution is negligible compared to the bremsstrahlung contributions. It could be, however, easily identified at large energies at midrapidities. Absorptions effects are included and discussed. Our predictions are ready for verification at RHIC and LHC.

  4. Bibliographic survey of medium energy inclusive reaction data

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, E.D.; Madland, D.G.; McClellan, D.M.

    1986-04-01

    A bibliographic survey of inclusive reaction data (experimental and theoretical) for several projectile types having energies between 50 and 1000 MeV has been completed. Approximately one thousand references selected from this survey describe the current state of knowledge for particle-induced inclusive reaction data. The search covered data for the following projectiles: p, d, t, /sup 3/He, /sup 4/He, and lithium ions.

  5. Accelerating protons to therapeutic energies with ultraintense, ultraclean, and ultrashort laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Bulanov, Stepan S.; Brantov, Andrei; Bychenkov, Valery Yu.; Chvykov, Vladimir; Kalinchenko, Galina; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Rousseau, Pascal; Reed, Stephen; Yanovsky, Victor; Krushelnick, Karl; Litzenberg, Dale William; Maksimchuk, Anatoly

    2008-05-15

    Proton acceleration by high-intensity laser pulses from ultrathin foils for hadron therapy is discussed. With the improvement of the laser intensity contrast ratio to 10{sup -11} achieved on the Hercules laser at the University of Michigan, it became possible to attain laser-solid interactions at intensities up to 10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2} that allows an efficient regime of laser-driven ion acceleration from submicron foils. Particle-in-cell (PIC) computer simulations of proton acceleration in the directed Coulomb explosion regime from ultrathin double-layer (heavy ions/light ions) foils of different thicknesses were performed under the anticipated experimental conditions for the Hercules laser with pulse energies from 3 to 15 J, pulse duration of 30 fs at full width half maximum (FWHM), focused to a spot size of 0.8 {mu}m (FWHM). In this regime heavy ions expand predominantly in the direction of laser pulse propagation enhancing the longitudinal charge separation electric field that accelerates light ions. The dependence of the maximum proton energy on the foil thickness has been found and the laser pulse characteristics have been matched with the thickness of the target to ensure the most efficient acceleration. Moreover, the proton spectrum demonstrates a peaked structure at high energies, which is required for radiation therapy. Two-dimensional PIC simulations show that a 150-500 TW laser pulse is able to accelerate protons up to 100-220 MeV energies.

  6. Accelerating protons to therapeutic energies with ultraintense, ultraclean, and ultrashort laser pulses

    PubMed Central

    Bulanov, Stepan S.; Brantov, Andrei; Bychenkov, Valery Yu.; Chvykov, Vladimir; Kalinchenko, Galina; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Rousseau, Pascal; Reed, Stephen; Yanovsky, Victor; Krushelnick, Karl; Litzenberg, Dale William; Maksimchuk, Anatoly

    2008-01-01

    Proton acceleration by high-intensity laser pulses from ultrathin foils for hadron therapy is discussed. With the improvement of the laser intensity contrast ratio to 10−11 achieved on the Hercules laser at the University of Michigan, it became possible to attain laser-solid interactions at intensities up to 1022 W∕cm2 that allows an efficient regime of laser-driven ion acceleration from submicron foils. Particle-in-cell (PIC) computer simulations of proton acceleration in the directed Coulomb explosion regime from ultrathin double-layer (heavy ions∕light ions) foils of different thicknesses were performed under the anticipated experimental conditions for the Hercules laser with pulse energies from 3 to 15 J, pulse duration of 30 fs at full width half maximum (FWHM), focused to a spot size of 0.8 μm (FWHM). In this regime heavy ions expand predominantly in the direction of laser pulse propagation enhancing the longitudinal charge separation electric field that accelerates light ions. The dependence of the maximum proton energy on the foil thickness has been found and the laser pulse characteristics have been matched with the thickness of the target to ensure the most efficient acceleration. Moreover, the proton spectrum demonstrates a peaked structure at high energies, which is required for radiation therapy. Two-dimensional PIC simulations show that a 150–500 TW laser pulse is able to accelerate protons up to 100–220 MeV energies. PMID:18561651

  7. Properties of high-energy isoscalar monopole excitations in medium-heavy mass spherical nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Gorelik, M. L. Shlomo, Sh. Tulupov, B. A. Urin, M. H.

    2015-07-15

    The recently developed particle-hole dispersive optical model is applied to describe properties of high-energy isoscalar monopole excitations in medium-heavy mass spherical nuclei. In particular, the double transition density averaged over the energy of the isoscalar monopole excitations is considered for {sup 208}Pb in a wide energy interval, which includes the isoscalar giant monopole resonance and its overtone. The energy-averaged strength functions of these resonances are also analyzed.

  8. Medium modification of γ jets in high-energy heavy-ion collisions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhu, Yan

    2013-08-01

    Two puzzling features in the experimental study of jet quenching in central Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC are explained within a linearized Boltzmann transport model for jet propagation. A γ-tagged jet is found to lose about 15% of its initial energy while its azimuthal angle remains almost unchanged due to rapid cooling of the medium. The reconstructed jet fragmentation function is found to have some modest enhancement at both small and large fractional momenta as compared to that in the vacuum because of the increased contribution of leading particles to the reconstructed jet energy and induced gluon radiation and recoiled partons. A γ-tagged jet fragmentation function is proposed that is more sensitive to jet-medium interaction and the jet transport parameter in the medium. The effects of recoiled medium partons on the reconstructed jets are also discussed. PMID:23971567

  9. LDEF (Postflight), M0002-01 : Trapped-Proton Energy Spectrum Determination, Tray G12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The postflight photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC after the experiment tray was removed from the LDEF. The Trapped Proton Energy Spectrum Determination Experiment is one of four experiments located in a three (3) inch deep LDEF end center tray. Additional Trapped Proton Energy Experiments are located in periph eral LDEF integrated experiment trays in the D03 and D09 tray locations. The Trapped Proton Energy experiment, located in the upper left quadrant of the integrated tray, appears to be intact with no apparent physical damage. The brown discoloration appears to be much lighter in this photograph than in the flight photograph, however, the postflight photograph of the individual experiment verifies the darker discoloration in the flight photograph. The light ing angle and intensity appear to have washed out the colors in the upper half of the integrated tray. The sub experiments appear to be intact and secure.

  10. Energy analysis of cool, medium, and dark roofs on residential buildings in the U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, Michael A.

    This study reports an energy analysis of cool, medium, and dark roofs on residential buildings in the U.S. Three analyses were undertaken in this study: energy consumption, economic analysis, and an environmental analysis. The energy consumption reports the electricity and natural gas consumption of the simulations. The economic analysis uses tools such as simple payback period (SPP) and net present value (NPV) to determine the profitability of the cool roof and the medium roof. The variable change for each simulation model was the roof color. The default color was a dark roof and the results were focused on the changes produced by the cool roof and the medium roof. The environmental analysis uses CO2 emissions to assess the environmental impact of the cool roof and the medium roof. The analysis uses the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EnergyPlus software to produce simulations of a typical, two-story residential home in the U.S. The building details of the typical, two-story U.S. residential home and the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) building code standards used are discussed in this study. This study indicates that, when material and labor costs are. assessed, the cool roof and the medium roof do not yield a SPP less than 10 years. Furthermore, the NPV results assess that neither the cool roof nor the medium roof are a profitable investment in any climate zone in the U.S. The environmental analysis demonstrates that both the cool roof and the medium roof have a positive impact in warmer climates by reducing the CO2 emissions as much as 264 kg and 129 kg, respectively.