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Sample records for medium energy x-rays

  1. Centaurus X-3 - New low- and medium-energy X-ray observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, K.; Agrawal, P. C.; Garmire, G.

    1975-01-01

    Low- and medium-energy X-ray observations of Cen X-3 during two pointed sounding-rocket experiments are discussed. The lack of low-energy emission from Cen X-3 is consistent with the identification of Krzeminski's star as the optical counterpart of Cen X-3 and normal reddening, in contrast to an earlier measurement by Bleeker et al (1973).

  2. The energy dependence of lithium formate and alanine EPR dosimeters for medium energy x rays

    SciTech Connect

    Waldeland, Einar; Hole, Eli Olaug; Sagstuen, Einar; Malinen, Eirik

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To perform a systematic investigation of the energy dependence of alanine and lilthium formate EPR dosimeters for medium energy x rays. Methods: Lithium formate and alanine EPR dosimeters were exposed to eight different x-ray beam qualities, with nominal potentials ranging from 50 to 200 kV. Following ionometry based on standards of absorbed dose to water, the dosimeters were given two different doses of approximately 3 and 6 Gy for each radiation quality, with three dosimeters for each dose. A reference series was also irradiated to three different dose levels at a {sup 60}Co unit. The dose to water energy response, that is, the dosimeter reading per absorbed dose to water relative to that for {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays, was estimated for each beam quality. In addition, the energy response was calculated by Monte Carlo simulations and compared to the experimental energy response. Results: The experimental energy response estimates ranged from 0.89 to 0.94 and from 0.68 to 0.90 for lithium formate and alanine, respectively. The uncertainties in the experimental energy response estimates were typically 3%. The relative effectiveness, that is, the ratio of the experimental energy response to that following Monte Carlo simulations was, on average, 0.96 and 0.94 for lithium formate and alanine, respectively. Conclusions: This work shows that lithium formate dosimeters are less dependent on x-ray energy than alanine. Furthermore, as the relative effectiveness for both lithium formate and alanine were systematically less than unity, the yield of radiation-induced radicals is decreased following x-irradiation compared to irradiation with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays.

  3. Comparison of the NIST and BIPM Medium-Energy X-Ray Air-Kerma Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Burns, D. T.; O’Brien, M.; Lamperti, P.; Boutillon, M.

    2003-01-01

    The air-kerma standards used for the measurement of medium-energy x rays were compared at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The comparison involved a series of measurements at the BIPM and the NIST using the air-kerma standards and two NIST reference-class transfer ionization standards. Reference beam qualities in the range from 60 kV to 300 kV were used. The results show the standards to be in agreement within the combined standard uncertainty of the comparison of 0.35 %.

  4. Relative response of the alanine dosimeter to medium energy x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, M.; Büermann, L.

    2015-08-01

    The response of the alanine dosimeter to kilovoltage x-rays with respect to the dose to water was measured, relative to the response to Co-60 radiation. Two series of x-ray qualities were investigated, one ranging from 30 kV to 100 kV tube voltage (TW series), the other one ranging from 70 kV to 280 kV (TH series). Due to the use of the water calorimeter as a primary standard, the uncertainty of the delivered dose is significantly lower than for other published data. The alanine response was measured as described in a previous publication (Anton et al 2013 Phys. Med. Biol. 58 3259-82). The uncertainty component due to the alanine measurement and analysis is ⩽0.4%, the major part of the combined uncertainty of the relative response originates from the uncertainty of the delivered dose. The relative uncertainties of the relative response vary from ⩽2% for the TW series to ⩽1.1% for the TH series. Different from the behaviour of the alanine dosimeter for megavoltage x-rays or electrons, the relative response drops significantly from unity for Co-60 radiation to less than 64% for the TW quality with a tube voltage of 30 kV. In order to reproduce this behaviour through Monte Carlo simulations, not only the ratio of the absorbed dose to alanine to the absorbed dose to water has to be known, but also the intrinsic efficiency, i.e. the dependence of the number of free radicals generated per unit of absorbed dose on the photon energy. This quantity is not yet accessible for the TW series. For a possible use of the alanine dosimeter for kilovoltage x-rays, for example in electronic brachytherapy, users should rely on the measured data for the relative response which have become available with this publication.

  5. Relative response of the alanine dosimeter to medium energy x-rays.

    PubMed

    Anton, M; Büermann, L

    2015-08-01

    The response of the alanine dosimeter to kilovoltage x-rays with respect to the dose to water was measured, relative to the response to Co-60 radiation.Two series of x-ray qualities were investigated, one ranging from 30 kV to 100 kV tube voltage (TW series), the other one ranging from 70 kV to 280 kV (TH series). Due to the use of the water calorimeter as a primary standard, the uncertainty of the delivered dose is significantly lower than for other published data. The alanine response was measured as described in a previous publication (Anton et al 2013 Phys. Med. Biol. 58 3259-82). The uncertainty component due to the alanine measurement and analysis is ⩽0.4%, the major part of the combined uncertainty of the relative response originates from the uncertainty of the delivered dose. The relative uncertainties of the relative response vary from ⩽2% for the TW series to ⩽1.1% for the TH series.Different from the behaviour of the alanine dosimeter for megavoltage x-rays or electrons, the relative response drops significantly from unity for Co-60 radiation to less than 64% for the TW quality with a tube voltage of 30 kV. In order to reproduce this behaviour through Monte Carlo simulations, not only the ratio of the absorbed dose to alanine to the absorbed dose to water has to be known, but also the intrinsic efficiency, i.e. the dependence of the number of free radicals generated per unit of absorbed dose on the photon energy. This quantity is not yet accessible for the TW series.For a possible use of the alanine dosimeter for kilovoltage x-rays, for example in electronic brachytherapy, users should rely on the measured data for the relative response which have become available with this publication. PMID:26216572

  6. Quality indexes based on water measurements for low and medium energy x-ray beams: A theoretical study with PENELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Chica, U.; Anguiano, M.; Lallena, A. M.; Vilches, M.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose : To study the use of quality indexes based on ratios of absorbed doses in water at two different depths to characterize x-ray beams of low and medium energies. Methods : A total of 55 x-ray beam spectra were generated with the codes XCOMP5R and SPEKCALC and used as input of a series of Monte Carlo simulations performed with PENELOPE, in which the percentage depth doses in water and thek{sub Q,Q{sub 0}} factors, defined in the TRS-398 protocol, were determined for each beam. Some of these calculations were performed by simulating the ionization chamber PTW 30010. Results : The authors found that the relation betweenk{sub Q,Q{sub 0}} and the ratios of absorbed doses at two depths is almost linear. A set of ratios statistically compatible with that showing the best fit has been determined. Conclusions : The results of this study point out which of these ratios of absorbed doses in water could be used to better characterize x-ray beams of low and medium energies.

  7. Development of observational and instrumental techniques in hard X-ray and medium energy gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelling, M.

    1985-01-01

    The technical activities, scientific results, related space hardware projects and personnel of the high energy astrophysics program are reported. The development of observational and instrumental techniques in hard X-ray (0.001 to 100 keV) and medium energy gamma-ray (0.1 to 10 MeV) astronomy are examined. Many of these techniques were developed explicitly for use on high altitude balloons where most of the scientific results were obtained. The extensive observational activity using balloons are tabulated. Virtually every research activity will eventually result in a major space hardware development effort.

  8. Comparison of photocurrent enhancement and upset enhancement in CMOS devices in a medium-energy x-ray environment

    SciTech Connect

    Beutler, D.E.; Beezhold, W.; Browning, J.S.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Counts, N.E. ); Knott, D.P. ); Freshman, C.L.; Conners, M.P. )

    1990-08-01

    Radiation-induced upset levels in SA3001 static random access memories (SRAM's) and SA 3246 clock integrated circuits (IC's) have been measured in a medium-energy flash X-ray environment (average photon energy {approximately}100 keV) where dose-enhancing effects are very important. By comparing device responses using a non-dose-enhancing ceramic package lid and a dose-enhancing Kovar/gold lid, dose-enhancement factors for photocurrent and upset were generated. The observed upset enhancement factors of 3.0 {plus minus} 0.5 (SRAM) and 2.2 {plus minus} 0.2 (clock IC) are in excellent agreement with measurements of photocurrent enhancement factors (2.5 {plus minus} 0.5) in diodes processed with the same diffusions as the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) IC's irradiated in a steady-state X-ray environment. These results indicate that upset is dominated by the radiation-induced transient supply current in these IC's, and that steady-state diode photocurrent measurements are a good predictor of both photocurrent and upset enhancement for IC's made with this technology.

  9. Determination of the energy dependence of the BC-408 plastic scintillation detector in medium energy x-ray beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yücel, H.; Çubukçu, Ş.; Uyar, E.; Engin, Y.

    2014-11-01

    The energy dependence of the response of BC-408 plastic scintillator (PS), an approximately water-equivalent material, has been investigated by employing standardized x-ray beams. IEC RQA and ISO N series x-ray beam qualities, in the range of 40-100 kVp, were calibrated using a PTW-type ionization chamber. The energy response of a thick BC-408 PS detector was measured using the multichannel pulse height analysis method. The response of BC-408 PS increased gradually with increasing energy in the energy range of 40-80 kVp and then showed a flat behavior at about 80 to 120 kVp. This might be due to the self-attenuation of scintillation light by the scintillator itself and may also be partly due to the ionization quenching, leading to a reduction in the intensity of the light output from the scintillator. The results indicated that the sensitivity drop in BC-408 PS material at lower photon energies may be overcome by adding some high-Z elements to its polyvinyltoluene (PVT) base. The material modification may compensate for the drop in the response at lower photon energies. Thus plastic scintillation dosimetry is potentially suitable for applications in diagnostic radiology.

  10. ART-XC: A Medium-energy X-ray Telescope System for the Spectrum-R-Gamma Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arefiev, V.; Pavlinsky, M.; Lapshov, I.; Thachenko, A.; Sazonov, S.; Revnivtsev, M.; Semena, N.; Buntov,M.; Vikhlinin, A.; Gubarev, M.; ODell, S.; Ramsey, B.; Romaine, S.; Swartz. D/; Weisskopf, M.; Hasinger, G.; Predehl, P.; Grigorovich, S.; Litvin, D.; Meidinger, N.; Strueder, L. W.

    2008-01-01

    The ART-XC instrument is an X-ray grazing-incidence telescope system in an ABRIXAS-type optical configuration optimized for the survey observational mode of the Spectrum-RG astrophysical mission which is scheduled to be launched in 2011. ART-XC has two units, each equipped with four identical X-ray multi-shell mirror modules. The optical axes of the individual mirror modules are not parallel but are separated by several degrees to permit the four modules to share a single CCD focal plane detector, 1/4 of the area each. The 450-micron-thick pnCCD (similar to the adjacent eROSITA telescope detector) will allow detection of X-ray photons up to 15 keV. The field of view of the individual mirror module is about 18 x 18 arcminutes(exp 2) and the sensitivity of the ART-XC system for 4 years of survey will be better than 10(exp -12) erg s(exp -1) cm(exp -2) over the 4-12 keV energy band. This will allow the ART-XC instrument to discover several thousand new AGNs.

  11. Observing soft X-ray line emission from the interstellar medium with X-ray calorimeter on a sounding rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, J.; Edwards, B.; Juda, M.; Mccammon, D.; Skinner, M.; Kelley, R.; Moseley, H.; Schoelkopf, R.; Szymkowiak, A.

    1990-01-01

    For an X-ray calorimeter working at 0.1 K, the energy resolution ideally can be as good as one eV for a practical detector. A detector with a resolution of 17 eV FWHM at 6 keV has been constructed. It is expected that this can be improved by a factor of two or more. With X-ray calorimeters flown on a sounding rocket, it should be possible to observe soft X-ray line emission from the interstellar medium over the energy range 0.07 to 1 keV. Here, a preliminary design for an X-ray calorimeter rocket experiment and the spectrum which might be observed from an equilibrium plasma are presented. For later X-ray calorimeter sounding rocket experiments, it is planned to add an aluminum foil mirror with collecting area of about 400 sq cm to observe line features from bright supernova remnants.

  12. First international comparison of primary absorbed dose to water standards in the medium-energy X-ray range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büermann, Ludwig; Guerra, Antonio Stefano; Pimpinella, Maria; Pinto, Massimo; de Pooter, Jacco; de Prez, Leon; Jansen, Bartel; Denoziere, Marc; Rapp, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first international comparison of primary measurement standards of absorbed dose to water for the medium-energy X-ray range. Three of the participants (VSL, PTB, LNE-LNHB) used their existing water calorimeter based standards and one participant (ENEA) recently developed a new standard based on a water-graphite calorimeter. The participants calibrated three transfer chambers of the same type in terms of absorbed dose to water (NDw) and in addition in terms of air kerma (NK) using the CCRI radiation qualities in the range 100 kV to 250 kV. The additional NK values were intended to be used for a physical analysis of the ratios NDw/NK. All participants had previously participated in the BIPM.RI(I)-K3 key comparison of air kerma standards. Ratios of pairs of NMI's NK results of the current comparison were found to be consistent with the corresponding key comparison results within the expanded uncertainties of 0.6 % - 1 %. The NDw results were analysed in terms of the degrees of equivalence with the comparison reference values which were calculated for each beam quality as the weighted means of all results. The participant's results were consistent with the reference value within the expanded uncertainties. However, these expanded uncertainties varied significantly and ranged between about 1-1.8 % for the water calorimeter based standards and were estimated at 3.7 % for the water-graphite calorimeter. It was shown previously that the ratios NDw/NK for the type of ionization chamber used as transfer chamber in this comparison were very close (within less than 1 %) to the calculated values of (bar muen/ρ)w,ad, the mean values of the water-to-air ratio of the mass-energy-absorption coefficients at the depth d in water. Some of the participant's results deviated significantly from the expected behavior. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of

  13. X-ray constraints on the intergalactic medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldcroft, Thomas; Elvis, Martin; Mcdowell, Jonathan; Fiore, Fabrizio

    1994-01-01

    We use ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) spectra of z approximately equal 3 quasars to constrain the density and temperature of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Strong low-energy cutoffs in PSPC spectra of high-redshift quasars are common. However, the absence of absorption toward some high-redshift quasars can be used to put limits on the possible cosmological density, Omega(sub G), of a hot diffuse intergalactic medium (IGM), via an X-ray Gunn-Peterson test using edge and line opacity in the soft X-rays. The K-edges of oxygen, neon, and carbon and the L-edge of iron produce most of the absorption which is spread out by the redshift of the source. We assume an isotropic, isothermal, nonevolving model of the IGM and calculate the optical depth of this absorption. We find that this test can constrain an enriched IGM at temperatures near 10(exp 5) - 10(exp 6) K, intermediate between the hot IGM ruled out by COBE, and the cold IGM ruled out by the traditional Ly alpha Gunn -Peterson test. Photoionization if the IGM by the ultraviolet and X-ray background has a large effect. We give results for three z approximately equal 3 quasars and discuss how the various trade-offs among temperature, abundance, and backgroud radiation strength affect the limits on Omega (sub G). In addition to the high-redshift case, we discuss techniques for constraining the IGM using X-ray spectra of low-redhift quasars (z approximately equal 0.1 - 0.3). Currently available X-ray spectral data have insufficient energy resolution to constrain the IGM umambiguously, and so expected detection limits for future high-resolution spectrometers are presented. We find that with a large effective area (approximately 2000 sq cm), it is possible to substantially constrain or detect the IGM at the densities which are typically predicted.

  14. KEY COMPARISON: APMP/TCRI key comparison report of measurement of air kerma for medium-energy x-rays (APMP.RI(I)-K3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Hwang, W. S.; Kotler, L. H.; Webb, D. V.; Büermann, L.; Burns, D. T.; Takeyeddin, M.; Shaha, V. V.; Srimanoroth, S.; Meghzifene, A.; Hah, S. H.; Chun, K. J.; Kadni, T. B.; Takata, N.; Msimang, Z.

    2008-01-01

    The APMP/TCRI Dosimetry Working Group performed the APMP.RI(I)-K3 key comparison of measurement of air kerma for medium-energy x-rays (100 kV to 250 kV) between 2000 and 2003. In total, 11 institutes took part in the comparison, among which 8 were APMP member laboratories. Two commercial cavity ionization chambers were used as transfer instruments and circulated among the participants. All the participants established the 100 kV, 135 kV, 180 kV and 250 kV x-ray beam qualities equivalent to those of the BIPM. The results showed that the maximum difference between the participants and the BIPM in the medium-energy x ray range, evaluated using the comparison data of the linking laboratories ARPANSA and PTB, is less than 1.4%. The degrees of equivalence between the participants are presented and this comparison confirms the calibration capabilities of the participating laboratories. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section I, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  15. Thimble ionization chambers in medium-energy x-ray beams and the role of constructive details of the central electrode: Monte Carlo simulations and measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubrich, F.; Wulff, J.; Kranzer, R.; Zink, K.

    2008-09-01

    This paper presents investigations of thimble ionization chamber response in medium-energy kilovoltage x-ray beams (70-280 kVp, 0.09-3.40 mm Cu HVL). Two thimble ionization chambers (PTW30015 and PTW30016) were investigated, regarding the influence of the central electrode dimensions made of aluminum. Measurements were carried out in photon fields of different beam quality. Corresponding Monte Carlo simulations employing the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code system were performed. The simulations included the modelling of the x-ray tube and measurement setup for generation of x-ray spectra. These spectra were subsequently used to calculate the absorbed energy in the air cavity of the two thimble ionization chamber models and the air kerma at the reference point of the chambers. Measurements and simulations revealed an optimal diameter of the central electrode, concerning an almost energy-independent response of the ionizaton chamber. The Monte Carlo simulations are in good agreement with the measured values, expressed in beam quality correction factors kQ. The agreement was generally within 0.6% but could only be achieved with an accurate model of the central electrode including its exact shape. Otherwise, deviations up to 8.5% resulted, decreasing with higher photon energies, which can be addressed to the high yield of the photoelectric effect in the electrode material aluminum at low photon energies.

  16. A graphite calorimeter for absolute measurements of absorbed dose to water: application in medium-energy x-ray filtered beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, M.; Pimpinella, M.; Quini, M.; D'Arienzo, M.; Astefanoaei, I.; Loreti, S.; Guerra, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    The Italian National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology (ENEA-INMRI) has designed and built a graphite calorimeter that, in a water phantom, has allowed the determination of the absorbed dose to water in medium-energy x-rays with generating voltages from 180 to 250 kV. The new standard is a miniaturized three-bodies calorimeter, with a disc-shaped core of 21 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness weighing 1.134 g, sealed in a PMMA waterproof envelope with air-evacuated gaps. The measured absorbed dose to graphite is converted into absorbed dose to water by means of an energy-dependent conversion factor obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. Heat-transfer correction factors were determined by FEM calculations. At a source-to-detector distance of 100 cm, a depth in water of 2 g cm-2, and at a dose rate of about 0.15 Gy min-1, results of calorimetric measurements of absorbed dose to water, D w, were compared to experimental determinations, D wK, obtained via an ionization chamber calibrated in terms of air kerma, according to established dosimetry protocols. The combined standard uncertainty of D w and D wK were estimated as 1.9% and 1.7%, respectively. The two absorbed dose to water determinations were in agreement within 1%, well below the stated measurement uncertainties. Advancements are in progress to extend the measurement capability of the new in-water-phantom graphite calorimeter to other filtered medium-energy x-ray qualities and to reduce the D w uncertainty to around 1%. The new calorimeter represents the first implementation of in-water-phantom graphite calorimetry in the kilovoltage range and, allowing independent determinations of D w, it will contribute to establish a robust system of absorbed dose to water primary standards for medium-energy x-ray beams.

  17. The interstellar medium and the soft X-ray background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowden, S. L.

    1996-01-01

    The soft X-ray background (SXRB) surface brightness provides data to study the approximately 10(exp 6) K plasma of the local interstellar medium of our Galaxy. Various studies were carried out in order to search for negative correlation, or shadowing, of the SXRB, and were coupled with interstellar medium absorption line studies. The purpose was to determine whether the distances to the shadowing material will lead to a three dimensional mapping of the X-ray emitting, and X-ray absorbing components.

  18. Ultrasoft X-ray background observations of the Local Interstellar Medium

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, W.T.; Snowden, S.L.; Bloch, J.J.; Juda, M.; Jahoda, K.M.; Mccammon, D.

    1984-11-01

    Preliminary results from a May 8, 1984 sounding rocket survey of the soft X-ray background are presented. The X-ray detectors are sensitive to X-rays in three soft X-ray bandpasses: 80 to 110 eV, 90 to 188 eV, and 284 to 532 eV (at 20% of peak response). The lowest energy X-rays in this range have a mean free path of order 10 to the 19th power/sq cm and provide information about the Local Interstellar Medium. The count rate in the 80 to 110 eV energy band (the Be band) tracks the 90 to 188 (eV band (the B band) very well, indicating that the same approx. 1 million degree gas that is responsible for the B band emission may be responsible for the bulk of the Be band X-rays as well.

  19. Ultrasoft X-ray Background Observations of the Local Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, W. T.; Snowden, S. L.; Bloch, J. J.; Juda, M.; Jahoda, K. M.; Mccammon, D.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary results from a May 8, 1984 sounding rocket survey of the soft X-ray background are presented. The X-ray detectors are sensitive to X-rays in three soft X-ray bandpasses: 80 to 110 eV, 90 to 188 eV, and 284 to 532 eV (at 20% of peak response). The lowest energy X-rays in this range have a mean free path of order 10 to the 19th power/sq cm and provide information about the local interstellar medium. The count rate in the 80 to 110 eV energy band (the Be band) tracks the 90 to 188 (eV band (the B band) very well, indicating that the same approx. 1 million degree gas that is responsible for the B band emission may be responsible for the bulk of the Be band X-rays as well.

  20. A graphite calorimeter for absolute measurements of absorbed dose to water: application in medium-energy x-ray filtered beams.

    PubMed

    Pinto, M; Pimpinella, M; Quini, M; D'Arienzo, M; Astefanoaei, I; Loreti, S; Guerra, A S

    2016-02-21

    The Italian National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology (ENEA-INMRI) has designed and built a graphite calorimeter that, in a water phantom, has allowed the determination of the absorbed dose to water in medium-energy x-rays with generating voltages from 180 to 250 kV. The new standard is a miniaturized three-bodies calorimeter, with a disc-shaped core of 21 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness weighing 1.134 g, sealed in a PMMA waterproof envelope with air-evacuated gaps. The measured absorbed dose to graphite is converted into absorbed dose to water by means of an energy-dependent conversion factor obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. Heat-transfer correction factors were determined by FEM calculations. At a source-to-detector distance of 100 cm, a depth in water of 2 g cm(-2), and at a dose rate of about 0.15 Gy min(-1), results of calorimetric measurements of absorbed dose to water, D(w), were compared to experimental determinations, D wK, obtained via an ionization chamber calibrated in terms of air kerma, according to established dosimetry protocols. The combined standard uncertainty of D(w) and D(wK) were estimated as 1.9% and 1.7%, respectively. The two absorbed dose to water determinations were in agreement within 1%, well below the stated measurement uncertainties. Advancements are in progress to extend the measurement capability of the new in-water-phantom graphite calorimeter to other filtered medium-energy x-ray qualities and to reduce the D(w) uncertainty to around 1%. The new calorimeter represents the first implementation of in-water-phantom graphite calorimetry in the kilovoltage range and, allowing independent determinations of D(w), it will contribute to establish a robust system of absorbed dose to water primary standards for medium-energy x-ray beams. PMID:26841127

  1. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K3 of the air-kerma standards of the NMIJ, Japan and the BIPM in medium-energy x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, D. T.; Kessler, C.; Tanaka, T.; Kurosawa, T.; Saito, N.

    2016-01-01

    A key comparison has been made between the air-kerma standards of the NMIJ, Japan and the BIPM in the medium-energy x-ray range. The results show the standards to be in agreement at the level of the standard uncertainty of the comparison of 3.1 parts in 103. A trend is evident in the results for the different radiation qualities. The results are analysed and presented in terms of degrees of equivalence, suitable for entry in the BIPM key comparison database. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  2. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K3 of the air-kerma standards of the NRC, Canada and the BIPM in medium-energy x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, D. T.; Kessler, C.; Mainegra-Hing, E.; Shen, H.; McEwen, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    A key comparison has been made between the air-kerma standards of the NRC, Canada and the BIPM in the medium-energy x-ray range. The results show the standards to be in agreement at the level of the standard uncertainty of the comparison of 3.3 parts in 103. The results are analysed and presented in terms of degrees of equivalence, suitable for entry in the BIPM key comparison database. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  3. Low energy x-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, W.R.

    1981-06-05

    A subkilovolt spectrometer has been produced to permit high-energy-resolution, time-dependent x-ray intensity measurements. The diffracting element is a curved mica (d = 9.95A) crystal. To preclude higher order (n > 1) diffractions, a carbon x-ray mirror that reflects only photons with energies less than approx. 1.1 keV is utilized ahead of the diffracting element. The nominal energy range of interest is 800 to 900 eV. The diffracted photons are detected by a gold-surface photoelectric diode designed to have a very good frequency response, and whose current is recorded on an oscilloscope. A thin, aluminium light barrier is placed between the diffracting crystal and the photoelectric diode detector to keep any uv generated on or scattered by the crystal from illuminating the detector. High spectral energy resolution is provided by many photocathodes between 8- and 50-eV wide placed serially along the diffracted x-ray beam at the detector position. The spectrometer was calibrated for energy and energy dispersion using the Ni L..cap alpha../sub 1/ /sub 2/ lines produced in the LLNL IONAC accelerator and in third order using a molybdenum target x-ray tube. For the latter calibration the carbon mirror was replaced by one surfaced with rhodium to raise the cut-off energy to about 3 keV. The carbon mirror reflection dependence on energy was measured using one of our Henke x-ray sources. The curved mica crystal diffraction efficiency was measured on our Low-Energy x-ray (LEX) machine. The spectrometer performs well although some changes in the way the x-ray mirror is held are desirable. 16 figures.

  4. Low Energy X-Ray Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodruff, Wayne R.

    1981-10-01

    A subkilovolt spectrometer has been produced to permit high-energy-resolution, time-dependent x-ray intensity measurements. The diffracting element is a curved mica (d=9.95Å) crystal. To preclude higher order (n≳1) diffractions, a carbon x-ray mirror that reflects only photons with energies less than ˜1.1 keV is utilized ahead of the diffracting element. The nominal energy range of interest is 800 to 900 eV. The diffracted photons are detected by a gold-surfaced photoelectric diode designed to have a very good frequency response, and whose current is recorded on an oscilloscope. A thin, aluminum light barrier is placed between the diffracting crystal and the photoelectric diode detector to keep any UV generated on or scattered by the crystal from illuminating the detector. High spectral enegy resolution is provided by many photocathodes between 8- and 50-eV wide placed serially along the diffracted x-ray beam at the detector position. The spectrometer was calibrated for energy and energy dispersion using the Ni Lα1,2 lines produced in the LLNL IONAC accelerator and in third order using a molybdenum target x-ray tube. For the latter calibration the carbon mirror was replaced by one surfaced with rhodium to raise the cut-off energy to about 3 keV. The carbon mirror reflection dependence on energy was measured using one of our Henke x-ray sources. The curved mica crystal diffraction efficiency was measured on our Low-Energy X-ray (LEX) machine. The spectrometer performs well although some changes in the way the x-ray mirror is held are desirable.

  5. Energy resolved X-ray grating interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Thuering, T.; Stampanoni, M.; Barber, W. C.; Iwanczyk, J. S.; Seo, Y.; Alhassen, F.

    2013-05-13

    Although compatible with polychromatic radiation, the sensitivity in X-ray phase contrast imaging with a grating interferometer is strongly dependent on the X-ray spectrum. We used an energy resolving detector to quantitatively investigate the dependency of the noise from the spectral bandwidth and to consequently optimize the system-by selecting the best energy band matching the experimental conditions-with respect to sensitivity maximization and, eventually, dose. Further, since theoretical calculations of the spectrum are usually limited due to non-ideal conditions, an energy resolving detector accurately quantifies the spectral changes induced by the interferometer including flux reduction and beam hardening.

  6. X-Ray Transition Energies Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 128 X-Ray Transition Energies Database (Web, free access)   This X-ray transition table provides the energies and wavelengths for the K and L transitions connecting energy levels having principal quantum numbers n = 1, 2, 3, and 4. The elements covered include Z = 10, neon to Z = 100, fermium. There are two unique features of this data base: (1) a serious attempt to have all experimental values on a scale consistent with the International System of measurement (the SI) and (2) inclusion of accurate theoretical estimates for all transitions.

  7. Energy Scales in X-Ray Microcalorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tillotson, W. A.; Boyce, K. R.; Brown, G. V.; Cottam, J.; Figueroa, E.; Kelley, R. L.; Porter, F. S.; Stahle, C. K.

    2003-01-01

    Microcalorimeter pulse shape characteristics, such as pulse height, decay time and rise time, are dependent on the detector temperature and bias as well as the photon energy and flux. We examine the nature of the temperature dependency by illuminating the ASTRO-E2 X-ray Spectrometer (XRS) microcalorimeter array with X-rays generated by electron impact on a range of foil targets. The resulting pulses are collected for a range of detector temperatures. We observe and model the temperature dependence of the pulse shape characteristics by fitting the data with non-linear pulse models. Our aim is to determine a robust method for correcting the energy scale obtained in ground calibration for slight differences in the operating conditions while in orbit.

  8. Oxygen, neon, and iron X-ray absorption in the local interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatuzz, Efraín; García, Javier A.; Kallman, Timothy R.; Mendoza, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We present a detailed study of X-ray absorption in the local interstellar medium by analyzing the X-ray spectra of 24 galactic sources obtained with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer and the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer. Methods: By modeling the continuum with a simple broken power-law and by implementing the new ISMabs X-ray absorption model, we have estimated the total H, O, Ne, and Fe column densities towards the observed sources. Results: We have determined the absorbing material distribution as a function of source distance and galactic latitude-longitude. Conclusions: Direct estimates of the fractions of neutrally, singly, and doubly ionized species of O, Ne, and Fe reveal the dominance of the cold component, thus indicating an overall low degree of ionization. Our results are expected to be sensitive to the model used to describe the continuum in all sources.

  9. ISMabs: A COMPREHENSIVE X-RAY ABSORPTION MODEL FOR THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Gatuzz, E.; Mendoza, C.; García, J.; Kallman, T. R.; Gorczyca, T. W. E-mail: claudio@ivic.gob.ve E-mail: timothy.r.kallman@nasa.gov

    2015-02-10

    We present an X-ray absorption model for the interstellar medium, to be referred to as ISMabs, that takes into account both neutral and ionized species of cosmically abundant elements, and includes the most accurate atomic data available. Using high-resolution spectra from eight X-ray binaries obtained with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer, we proceed to benchmark the atomic data in the model particularly in the neon K-edge region. Compared with previous photoabsorption models, which solely rely on neutral species, the inclusion of ions leads to improved spectral fits. Fit parameters comprise the column densities of abundant contributors that allow direct estimates of the ionization states. ISMabs is provided in the appropriate format to be implemented in widely used X-ray spectral fitting packages such as XSPEC, ISIS, and SHERPA.

  10. ISMabs: A Comprehensive X-Ray Absorption Model for the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatuzz, E.; García, J.; Kallman, T. R.; Mendoza, C.; Gorczyca, T. W.

    2015-02-01

    We present an X-ray absorption model for the interstellar medium, to be referred to as ISMabs, that takes into account both neutral and ionized species of cosmically abundant elements, and includes the most accurate atomic data available. Using high-resolution spectra from eight X-ray binaries obtained with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer, we proceed to benchmark the atomic data in the model particularly in the neon K-edge region. Compared with previous photoabsorption models, which solely rely on neutral species, the inclusion of ions leads to improved spectral fits. Fit parameters comprise the column densities of abundant contributors that allow direct estimates of the ionization states. ISMabs is provided in the appropriate format to be implemented in widely used X-ray spectral fitting packages such as XSPEC, ISIS, and SHERPA.

  11. A new X-ray Absorption Model for the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatuzz, E.; Kallman, T.; García, J.; Gorczyca, T.; Mendoza, C.

    2014-07-01

    Absorption from the interstellar medium (ISM) affects every X-ray observation. Its effects are usually removed or studied using models which assume that the gas is neutral. However, spectra show that ions are present in most or many lines of sight. We present a model for interstellar X-ray absorption, which we call ismabs, that includes both ions and neutral elements and which uses the most accurate atomic data available for abundant elements. We have benchmarked ismabs using high-resolution spectra from X-ray binary sources obtained with the High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) on the Chandra X-ray observatory. The oxygen and neon K edge absorption regions as well as the iron L edge absorption region have been studied in detail. Although the neutral component is dominant in these spectra, the inclusion of ions leads to better fits to observed data, compared with previous work which only included neutral elements. The use of ismabs allows the determination of column densities of abundant elements, and their mean ionization states. Ismabs is fast and has relatively few free parameters. It has been developed for use with common X-ray spectral fitting packages such as XSPEC or ISIS.

  12. Techniques of absolute low energy x-ray calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Day, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    Recent advances in pulsed plasma research, materials science, and astrophysics have required many new diagnostic instruments for use in the low energy x-ray regime. The characterization of these instruments has provided a challenge to instrument designers and provided the momentum to improve x-ray sources and dosimetry techniques. In this paper, the present state-of-the-art in low energy x-ray characterization techniques is reviewed. A summary is given of low energy x-ray generator technology and dosimetry techniques including a discussion of thin window proportional counters and ionization chambers. A review is included of the widely used x-ray data bases and a sample of ultrasoft x-ray measuring procedures, chopped x-ray source generators, phase sensitive detection of ultralow currents, and angular divergence measurements.

  13. The high energy X-ray universe

    PubMed Central

    Giacconi, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    Since its beginning in the early 1960s, the field of X-ray astronomy has exploded, experiencing a ten-billion-fold increase in sensitivity, which brought it on par with the most advanced facilities at all wavelengths. I will briefly describe the revolutionary first discoveries prior to the launch of the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observatories, present some of the current achievements, and offer some thoughts about the future of this field. PMID:20404148

  14. The Einstein Observatory Extended Medium-Sensitivity Survey. I - X-ray data and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gioia, I. M.; Maccacaro, T.; Schild, R. E.; Wolter, A.; Stocke, J. T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the analysis of the X-ray data and the optical identification for the Einstein Observatory Extended Medium-Sensitivity Survey (EMSS). The survey consists of 835 serendipitous sources detected at or above 4 times the rms level in 1435 imaging proportional counter fields with centers located away from the Galactic plane. Their limiting sensitivities are about (5-300) x 10 to the -14th ergs/sq cm sec in the 0.3-3.5-keV energy band. A total area of 778 square deg of the high-Galactic-latitude sky has been covered. The data have been analyzed using the REV1 processing system, which takes into account the nonuniformities of the detector. The resulting EMSS catalog of X-ray sources is a flux-limited and homogeneous sample of astronomical objects that can be used for statistical studies.

  15. Comparison of X-ray techniques and energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John F.; Harris, Lowell D.

    1988-12-01

    Examples are given of objects scanned with a variety of X-ray techniques: digital radiography, laminography, backscatter imaging, and computed tomography. Several comparisons are made where an assembly or composite material is scanned at several energies or resolutions. An image made using an isotope source and photon counting is compared to an image using integrated signals from an X-ray source.

  16. High energy-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, J.B.; Moncton, D.E.; Fujii

    1984-01-01

    A brief review is presented of various aspects of high energy-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering based on synchrotron sources. We show what kinematical advantages are provided by the photon probe and propose mirror and monochromator designs to achieve an optically efficient beam line for inelastic x-ray scattering.

  17. Two facets of the x-ray microanalysis at low voltage: The secondary fluorescence x-rays emission and the microcalorimeter energy-dispersive spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Hendrix

    The best spatial resolution, for a microanalysis with a scanning electron microscope (SEND, is achieved by using a low voltage electron beam. But the x-ray microanalysis was developed for high electron beam energy (greater than 10 keV). Also, the specimen will often contain light and medium elements and the analyst will have to use a mixture of K, L, and sometime M x-ray peaks for the x-ray microanalysis. With a mixture of family lines, it will be common to have secondary fluorescence x-rays emission by K--L and L--K interactions. The accuracy of the fluorescence correction models presently used by the analyst are not well known for these interactions. This work shows that the modified secondary fluorescence x-rays emission correction models can improve the accuracy of the microanalysis for K--L and L--K interactions. The general equation derived in this work allows the identification of three factors which influence the secondary fluorescence x-rays emission. The fluorescence production factor epsilonƒ can be used to predict the importance of the secondary fluorescence x-rays emission. A large value of epsilonƒ indicates that a fluorescence correction is needed. Another disadvantage of using a low voltage is that there are more frequent occurrences of x-ray peaks overlap. A new microanalysis instruments that combines the high-spatial resolution and high-energy resolution for x-ray detection is needed. The microcalorimeter energy-dispersive spectrometer (muEDS) should improve the low voltage microanalysis, but the maturity of this technology has to be evaluated first. One of the first commercial muEDS for x-ray microanalysis in a SEM is studied and analyzed in this work. This commercial muEDS has an excellent energy resolution (˜ 15 eV) and can detect x-rays of low energy. This x-ray detector can be used as a high-spatial resolution and high-energy resolution microanalysis instrument. There are still hurdles that this technology must overcome before its

  18. X-ray characterization by energy-resolved powder diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, G.; Hooker, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    A method for single-shot, nondestructive characterization of broadband x-ray beams, based on energy-resolved powder diffraction, is described. Monte-Carlo simulations are used to simulate data for x-ray beams in the keV range with parameters similar to those generated by betatron oscillations in a laser-driven plasma accelerator. The retrieved x-ray spectra are found to be in excellent agreement with those of the input beams for realistic numbers of incident photons. It is demonstrated that the angular divergence of the x rays can be deduced from the deviation of the detected photons from the Debye-Scherrer rings which would be produced by a parallel beam. It is shown that the angular divergence can be measured as a function of the photon energy, yielding the angularly resolved spectrum of the input x-ray beam.

  19. EFFECT OF METALLICITY ON X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE WARM-HOT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Ursino, E.; Galeazzi, M.; Roncarelli, M.

    2010-09-20

    Hydrodynamic simulations predict that a significant fraction of the gas in the current universe is in the form of high temperature, highly ionized plasma emitting and absorbing primarily in the soft X-ray and UV bands, dubbed the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). Its signature should be observable in redshifted emission and absorption lines from highly ionized elements. To determine the expected WHIM emission in the soft X-ray band we used the output of a large scale smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulation to generate images and spectra with angular resolution of 14'' and energy resolution of 1 eV. The current biggest limit of any hydrodynamic simulation in predicting the X-ray emission comes from metal diffusion. In our investigation, by using four different models for the WHIM metallicity we have found a strong dependence of the emission on the model used, with differences up to almost an order of magnitude. For each model, we have investigated the redshift distribution and angular scale of the emission, confirming that most photons come from redshift z < 1.2 and that the emission has a typical angular scale of less than a few arcminutes. We also compared our simulations with the few currently available observations and found that, within the variation of the metallicity models, our predictions are in good agreement with current constraints on the WHIM emission, and at this time the weak experimental constraints on the WHIM emission are not sufficient to exclude any of the models used.

  20. The High Energy Astronomy Observatory X-ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R.; Austin, G.; Koch, D.; Jagoda, N.; Kirchner, T.; Dias, R.

    1978-01-01

    The High Energy Astronomy Observatory-Mission B (HEAO-B) is a satellite observatory for the purpose of performing a detailed X-ray survey of the celestial sphere. Measurements will be made of stellar radiation in the range 0.2 through 20 keV. The primary viewing requirement is to provide final aspect solution and internal alignment information to correlate an observed X-ray image with the celestial sphere to within one-and-one-half arc seconds. The Observatory consists of the HEAO Spacecraft together with the X-ray Telescope. The Spacecraft provides the required attitude control and determination system, data telemetry system, space solar power system, and interface with the launch vehicle. The X-ray Telescope includes a high resolution mirror assembly, optical bench metering structure, X-ray detectors, detector positioning system, detector electronics and aspect sensing system.

  1. The X-Ray Zurich Environmental Study (X-ZENS). II. X-Ray Observations of the Diffuse Intragroup Medium in Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miniati, Francesco; Finoguenov, Alexis; Silverman, John D.; Carollo, Marcella; Cibinel, Anna; Lilly, Simon J.; Schawinski, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of a pilot XMM-Newton and Chandra program aimed at studying the diffuse intragroup medium (IGM) of optically selected nearby groups from the Zurich ENvironmental Study (ZENS) catalog. The groups are in a narrow mass range about {10}13 {M}⊙ , a mass scale at which the interplay between the IGM and the group member galaxies is still largely unprobed. X-ray emission from the IGM is detected in the energy band 0.5-2 keV with flux ≤slant {10}-13 erg s-1 cm-2, which is one order of magnitude fainter than for typical ROSAT groups (RASS). For many groups, we set upper limits on the X-ray luminosity, indicating that the detections are likely probing the upper envelope of the X-ray emitting groups. We find that weighting the group halo mass by the fraction of the total stellar mass locked in the bulge galaxy components might reduce the bias of mass estimates based on the total optical luminosity with respect to the X-ray mass estimates, (consistent with Andreon, at larger mass scales). We measure a stellar mass fraction with a median value of about 1%, with a contribution from the most massive galaxies between 30% and 50%. Optical and X-ray data often give complementary answers concerning the dynamical state of the groups, and are essential for a complete picture of the group system. Extending this pilot program to a larger sample of groups is necessary to unveil any imprint of interaction between member galaxies and IGM in halo potentials of key importance for environmentally driven galactic evolution.

  2. Heating the intergalactic medium by X-rays from population III binaries in high-redshift galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Hao; Norman, Michael L.; Ahn, Kyungjin; Wise, John H.; O'Shea, Brian W. E-mail: mlnorman@ucsd.edu E-mail: jwise@gatech.edu

    2014-08-20

    Due to their long mean free path, X-rays are expected to have an important impact on cosmic reionization by heating and ionizing the intergalactic medium (IGM) on large scales, especially after simulations have suggested that Population III (Pop III) stars may form in pairs at redshifts as high as 20-30. We use the Pop III distribution and evolution from a self-consistent cosmological radiation hydrodynamic simulation of the formation of the first galaxies and a simple Pop III X-ray binary model to estimate their X-ray output in a high-density region larger than 100 comoving (Mpc){sup 3}. We then combine three different methods—ray tracing, a one-zone model, and X-ray background modeling—to investigate the X-ray propagation, intensity distribution, and long-term effects on the IGM thermal and ionization state. The efficiency and morphology of photoheating and photoionization are dependent on the photon energies. The sub-kiloelectronvolt X-rays only impact the IGM near the sources, while the kiloelectronvolt photons contribute significantly to the X-ray background and heat and ionize the IGM smoothly. The X-rays just below 1 keV are most efficient in heating and ionizing the IGM. We find that the IGM might be heated to over 100 K by z = 10 and the high-density source region might reach 10{sup 4} K, limited by atomic hydrogen cooling. This may be important for predicting the 21 cm neutral hydrogen signals. On the other hand, the free electrons from X-ray ionizations are not enough to contribute significantly to the optical depth of the cosmic microwave background to the Thomson scattering.

  3. Development of a low debris x-ray backlighter source via laser irradiation of a cluster gas medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Hazel; Patankar, Siddarth; Giltrap, Samuel; Stuart, Nicholas; Robinson, Timothy; Gumbrell, Edward; Smith, Roland; Imperial College Team; AWE Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    X-ray backlighter sources, typically based on laser irradiated solid targets, are of great importance for radiography of transient plasmas produced in high power laser-target interactions. Here we report on the development of an atomic cluster gas based x-ray source and assess its viability for x-ray point projection imaging motivated by the debris free, high repetition rate nature of laser-cluster gas interactions. The dependence on cluster size and atomic number of the anisotropic radial x-ray distribution, 100 μm x-ray source size and multi-keV free electron temperatures produced by the interaction of a 1TW short pulse (500fs), high contrast laser system operating at 1054nm with high density Ar, Kr and Xe cluster gas media have been investigated. Previously, when propagated through a large (10mm) volume cluster gas medium at 1017 atoms/cc, >95% of the laser energy contained in a short pulse was absorbed launching a strong, radiative cylindrical blast wave. At 1019 atoms/cc, the absorption of the laser energy by the cluster gas medium was high (>85%). However, optical probing at 2 ω showed that the laser energy was predominantly absorbed at the edge of the gas volume where the energy absorbed per unit length rapidly changed over a scale length of 2mm launching a radiative, elliptical blast wave.

  4. Dosimetric properties of high energy current (HEC) detector in keV x-ray beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zygmanski, Piotr; Shrestha, Suman; Elshahat, Bassem; Karellas, Andrew; Sajo, Erno

    2015-04-01

    We introduce a new x-ray radiation detector. The detector employs high-energy current (HEC) formed by secondary electrons consisting predominantly of photoelectrons and Auger electrons, to directly convert x-ray energy to detector signal without externally applied power and without amplification. The HEC detector is a multilayer structure composed of thin conducting layers separated by dielectric layers with an overall thickness of less than a millimeter. It can be cut to any size and shape, formed into curvilinear surfaces, and thus can be designed for a variety of QA applications. We present basic dosimetric properties of the detector as function of x-ray energy, depth in the medium, area and aspect ratio of the detector, as well as other parameters. The prototype detectors show similar dosimetric properties to those of a thimble ionization chamber, which operates at high voltage. The initial results obtained for kilovoltage x-rays merit further research and development towards specific medical applications.

  5. Treatment of foods with high-energy X rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleland, M. R.; Meissner, J.; Herer, A. S.; Beers, E. W.

    2001-07-01

    The treatment of foods with ionizing energy in the form of gamma rays, accelerated electrons, and X rays can produce beneficial effects, such as inhibiting the sprouting in potatoes, onions, and garlic, controlling insects in fruits, vegetables, and grains, inhibiting the growth of fungi, pasteurizing fresh meat, poultry, and seafood, and sterilizing spices and food additives. After many years of research, these processes have been approved by regulatory authorities in many countries and commercial applications have been increasing. High-energy X rays are especially useful for treating large packages of food. The most attractive features are product penetration, absorbed dose uniformity, high utilization efficiency and short processing time. The ability to energize the X-ray source only when needed enhances the safety and convenience of this technique. The availability of high-energy, high-power electron accelerators, which can be used as X-ray generators, makes it feasible to process large quantities of food economically. Several industrial accelerator facilities already have X-ray conversion equipment and several more will soon be built with product conveying systems designed to take advantage of the unique characteristics of high-energy X rays. These concepts will be reviewed briefly in this paper.

  6. Dual-energy flash x-ray generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Sagae, Michiaki; Takahashi, Kei; Shikoda, Arimitsu; Oizumi, Teiji; Ojima, Hidenori; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Tamakawa, Yoshiharu; Yanagisawa, Toru; Fujiwara, Akihiro; Mitoya, Kanji

    1995-05-01

    The fundamental studies on a dual-energy flash x-ray generator for performing the energy-selective two-direction radiography are described. This generator consisted of the following components: a negative high- voltage power supply, a polarity-inversion-type high-voltage pulser having a 5 nF combined ceramic condenser, a turbo molecular pump, and two flash x-ray tubes. The condenser in the pulser was charged from -60 to -80 kV, and the electric charges in the condenser were discharged to two x-ray tubes. The maximum output voltage from the pulser was about -1.5 times the charged voltage because the cable transmission line was employed. Using a tube, the maximum tube voltage was about 110 kV. The maximum tube current and the x-ray intensity were less than 3 kA and 5 (mu) C/kg at 0.5 m per pulse, respectively. In contrast, the tube current and the intensity has approximately half the above values when two tubes were employed. The pulse widths were less than 200 ns, and two shots of flash x rays were obtained simultaneously. Each photon energy of flash x rays can be changed by controlling the space between the anode and cathode electrodes.

  7. Comprehensive x-ray spectral code for high energy astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Liedahl, D A; Fournier, K B; Mauche, C W

    2000-08-18

    The aim of this project has been to develop a spectral analysis tool with a level of quality and completeness commensurate to that expected in data from the current generation of X-ray observatories. The code is called LXSS (Livermore X-Ray Spectral Synthesizer). X-ray-emitting astrophysical plasmas are rarely, if ever, in LTE, so they have adopted the detailed level accounting approach, in which rates for processes that populate or depopulate atomic energy levels are treated explicitly. This entails the generation of a large quantity of atomic data, most of which is calculated using ''in-house'' computer codes. Calculations are benchmarked against laboratory data, and spectral models have been used to provide first-time interpretations of astrophysical X-ray spectra. The design of a versatile graphical user interface that allows access to and manipulation of the atomic database comprises the second major part of the project.

  8. Portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction and radiography system for archaeometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza Cuevas, Ariadna; Perez Gravie, Homero

    2011-03-01

    Starting on a laboratory developed portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometer; three different analytical results can be performed: analysis of chemical elements, analysis of major chemical crystalline phase and structural analysis, which represents a contribution to a new, low cost development of portable X-ray analyzer; since these results are respectively obtained with independent equipments for X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and radiography. Detection limits of PXRF were characterized using standard reference materials for ceramics, glass, bronze and bones, which are the main materials requiring quantitative analysis in art and archeological objects. A setup for simultaneous energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and diffraction (ED (XRF-XRD)) in the reflection mode has been tested for in situ and non-destructive analysis according to the requirements of art objects inspection. The system uses a single low power X-ray tube and an X-ray energy dispersive detector to measure X-ray diffraction spectrum at a fixed angle. Application to the identification of jadeite-jade mineral in archeological objects by XRD is presented. A local high resolution radiography image obtained with the same low power X-ray tube allows for studies in painting and archeological bones.

  9. Deeply X-raying the high-energy sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottacini, Eugenio; Ajello, Marco

    2016-05-01

    All-sky explorations by Fermi-LAT have revolutionized our view of the gamma-ray Universe. While its ongoing all-sky survey counts thousands of sources, essential issues related to the nature of unassociated sources call for more sensitive all-sky surveys at hard X-ray energies that allow for their identification. This latter energy band encodes the hard-tail of the thermal emission and the soft-tail of non-thermal emission thereby bridging the non-thermal and thermal emission mechanisms of gamma-ray sources. All-sky surveys at hard X-rays are best performed by current coded-mask telescopes Swift/BAT and INTEGRAL/IBIS. To boost the hard X-ray all-sky sensitivity, we have developed an ad hoc technique by combining photons from independent observations of BAT and IBIS. The resulting Swift-INTEGRAL X-ray (SIX) survey has an improved source-number density. This improvement is essential to enhance the positive hard X-ray - gamma-ray source matches. We present the results from the scientific link between the neighboring gamma-ray and hard X-ray bands in the context of galactic and extragalactic source classes of the second catalog Fermi Gamma-ray LAT (2FGL).

  10. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of four active galaxies - Probing the intercloud medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Kenneth S. K.; Canizares, Claude R.; Markert, Thomas H.; Arnaud, Keith A.

    1990-01-01

    The focal plane crystal spectrometer (FPCS) on the Einstein Observatory has been used to perform a high-resolution spectroscopic search for oxygen X-ray line emission from four active galaxies: Fairall 9, Mrk 421, Mrk 501, and PKS 0548 - 322. Specifically, O VIII Ly-alpha and Ly-beta, whose unredshifted energies are 653 and 775 eV, respectively, were sought. No narrow-line emission was detected within the energy bands searched. Upper limits are calculated on the line flux from these sources of 30 eV equivalent width and use a photoionization model to place corresponding upper limits on the densities of diffuse gas surrounding the active nuclei. The upper limits on gas density range from about 0.02-50/cu cm and probe various radial distances from the central source. This is the first time high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy has been used to place constraints on the intercloud medium in active galaxies.

  11. Exotic X-ray Sources from Intermediate Energy Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Chouffani, K.; Wells, D.; Harmon, F.; Jones, J.L.; Lancaster, G.

    2003-08-26

    High intensity x-ray beams are used in a wide variety of applications in solid-state physics, medicine, biology and material sciences. Synchrotron radiation (SR) is currently the primary, high-quality x-ray source that satisfies both brilliance and tunability. The high cost, large size and low x-ray energies of SR facilities, however, are serious limitations. Alternatively, 'novel' x-ray sources are now possible due to new small linear accelerator (LINAC) technology, such as improved beam emittance, low background, sub-Picosecond beam pulses, high beam stability and higher repetition rate. These sources all stem from processes that produce Radiation from relativistic Electron beams in (crystalline) Periodic Structures (REPS), or the periodic 'structure' of laser light. REPS x-ray sources are serious candidates for bright, compact, portable, monochromatic, and tunable x-ray sources with varying degrees of polarization and coherence. Despite the discovery and early research into these sources over the past 25 years, these sources are still in their infancy. Experimental and theoretical research are still urgently needed to answer fundamental questions about the practical and ultimate limits of their brightness, mono-chromaticity etc. We present experimental results and theoretical comparisons for three exotic REPS sources. These are Laser-Compton Scattering (LCS), Channeling Radiation (CR) and Parametric X-Radiation (PXR)

  12. The High Energy X-ray Imager Technology (HEXITEC) for Solar Hard X-ray Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert Y.; Gaskin, Jessica; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Seller, Paul; Wilson, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    High angular resolution HXR optics require detectors with a large number of fine pixels in order to adequately sample the telescope point spread function (PSF) over the entire field of view. Excessively over-sampling the PSF will increase readout noise and require more processing with no appreciable increase in image quality. An appropriate level of over-sampling is to have 3 pixels within the HPD. For current high resolution X-ray mirrors, the HPD is about 25 arcsec. Over a 6-m focal length this converts to 750 µm, the optimum pixel size is around 250 µm. Annother requirement are that the detectors must also have high efficiency in the HXR region, good energy resolution, low background, low power requirements, and low sensitivity to radiation damage. For solar observations, the ability to handle high counting rates is also extremely desirable. The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK has been developing the electronics for such a detector. Dubbed HEXITEC, for High Energy X-Ray Imaging Technology, this Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), can be bonded to 1- or 2- mm-thick Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) or Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT), to create a fine (250 µm pitch) HXR detector. The NASA Marshall Space Flight CenterMSFC and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been working with RAL over the past few years to develop these detectors to be used with HXR focusing telescopes. We present on recent results and capabilities as applied to solar observations.

  13. Focal construct geometry for high intensity energy dispersive x-ray diffraction based on x-ray capillary optics.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangzuo; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi; Jiang, Bowen; Zhu, Yu

    2016-03-14

    We presented a focal construct geometry (FCG) method for high intensity energy dispersive X-ray diffraction by utilizing a home-made ellipsoidal single-bounce capillary (ESBC) and a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens (PPXRL). The ESBC was employed to focus the X-rays from a conventional laboratory source into a small focal spot and to produce an annular X-ray beam in the far-field. Additionally, diffracted polychromatic X-rays were confocally collected by the PPXRL attached to a stationary energy-resolved detector. Our FCG method based on ESBC and PPXRL had achieved relatively high intensity diffraction peaks and effectively narrowed the diffraction peak width which was helpful in improving the potential d-spacing resolution for material phase analysis. PMID:26979685

  14. Focal construct geometry for high intensity energy dispersive x-ray diffraction based on x-ray capillary optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fangzuo; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi; Jiang, Bowen; Zhu, Yu

    2016-03-01

    We presented a focal construct geometry (FCG) method for high intensity energy dispersive X-ray diffraction by utilizing a home-made ellipsoidal single-bounce capillary (ESBC) and a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens (PPXRL). The ESBC was employed to focus the X-rays from a conventional laboratory source into a small focal spot and to produce an annular X-ray beam in the far-field. Additionally, diffracted polychromatic X-rays were confocally collected by the PPXRL attached to a stationary energy-resolved detector. Our FCG method based on ESBC and PPXRL had achieved relatively high intensity diffraction peaks and effectively narrowed the diffraction peak width which was helpful in improving the potential d-spacing resolution for material phase analysis.

  15. Radiation processing with high-energy X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleland, Marshall R.; Stichelbaut, Frédéric

    2013-03-01

    The radiation processing of materials and commercial products with high-energy X-rays, which are also identified by the German term bremsstrahlung, can produce beneficial changes that are similar to those obtained by irradiation with nuclear gamma rays emitted by cobalt-60 sources. Both X-rays and gamma rays are electromagnetic radiations with short wavelengths and high photon energies that can stimulate chemical reactions by creating ions and free radicals in irradiated materials. Nevertheless, there are some physical differences in these energy sources that can influence the choice for practical applications. The English translation of bremsstrahlung is braking radiatiorn or deceleration radiation. It is produced when energetic electrons are deflected by the strong electric field near an atomic nucleus. The efficiency for producing this kind of electromagnetic energy increases with the kinetic energy of the electrons and the atomic number of the target material. The energy spectrum of the emitted X-ray photons is very broad and extends up to the maximum energy of the incident electrons. In contrast, a cobalt-60 nucleus emits two gamma rays simultaneously, which have well-defined energies. Another significant difference is the angular distribution of the radiation. Nuclear gamma rays are emitted in all directions, but high-energy bremsstrahlung photons are concentrated in the direction of the incident electrons when they strike the target material. This property enables an X-ray processing facility to be more compact than a gamma-ray processing facility with similar throughput capacity, and it increases the penetration and the efficiency for absorbing the emitted X-ray energy in the irradiated material. Recent increases in the electron energy and the electron beam power from modern industrial accelerators have increased the throughput rates in X-ray processing facilities, so that this irradiation method is now economically competitive with large cobalt-60

  16. Tentative study on high-photon-energy quasi-x-ray laser generator by forming plasma x-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Hayasi, Yasuomi; Ichimaru, Toshio; Mori, Hidezo; Tanaka, Etsuro; Ojima, Hidenori; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Usuki, Tatsumi; Sato, Koetsu; Sakamaki, Kimio; Tamakawa, Yoshiharu

    2001-04-01

    Tentative study on high-photon-energy quasi-x-ray-laser generator by forming plasma x-ray source is described. The generator employs a high-voltage power supply, a low-impedance coaxial transmission line, a high-voltage condenser with a capacity of about 200 nF, a turbo-molecular pump, a thyristor pulse generator as a trigger device, and a flash x-ray tube. The high-voltage main condenser is charged up to 60 kV by the power supply, and the electric charges in the condenser are discharged to the tube after triggering the cathode electrode. The flash x-rays are then produced. The x-ray tube is of a demountable triode that is connected to the turbo molecular pump with a pressure of approximately 1 mPa. As the electron flows from the cathode electrode are roughly converged to the copper target by the electric field in the tube, the plasma x- ray source, which consists of metal ions and electrons, forms by the target evaporating. Both the tube voltage and current displayed damped oscillations, and their peak values increased according to increases in the charging voltage. In the present work, the peak tube voltage was much higher than the initial charging voltage of the main condenser, and the peak current was about 25 kA with a charging voltage of 60 kV. When the charging voltage was increased, the plasma x-ray source formed, and the characteristic x-ray intensities of K-series lines increased. When the plate target was employed, we observed high-intensity characteristic x-rays from the axial direction of the linear plasma x-ray source. In the case where the rod target was employed, we detected higher-intensity characteristic x-rays.

  17. A dynamic synchrotron X-ray imaging study of effective temperature in a vibrated granular medium.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yixin; Zhang, Xiaodan; Kou, Binquan; Li, Xiangting; Xiao, Xianghui; Fezzaa, Kamel; Wang, Yujie

    2014-08-01

    We present a dynamic synchrotron X-ray imaging study of the effective temperature Teff in a vibrated granular medium. By tracking the directed motion and the fluctuation dynamics of the tracers inside, we obtained Teff of the system using the Einstein relationship. We found that as the system unjams with increasing vibration intensities Γ, the structural relaxation time τ increases substantially which can be fitted by an Arrhenius law using Teff. And the characteristic energy scale of structural relaxation yielded by the Arrhenius fitting is E = 0.20 ± 0.02pd(3), where p is the pressure and d is the background particle diameter, which is consistent with those from hard sphere simulations in which the structural relaxation happens via the opening up of free volume against pressure. PMID:24930865

  18. X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich properties of the warm-hot intergalactic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Ursino, E.; Galeazzi, M.; Huffenberger, K.

    2014-07-01

    We use numerical simulations to predict the soft X-ray ([0.4-0.6] keV) and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) signal (at 150 GHz) from a large-scale structure in the universe and then compute two-point statistics to study the spatial distribution and time evolution of the signals. The average X-ray signal predicted for the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) is in good agreement with observational constraints that set it at about 10% of the total diffuse X-ray background. The characteristic angle computed with the autocorrelation function is of the order of some arcminutes and becomes smaller at higher redshift. The power spectrum peak of the SZ due to the WHIM is at l ∼ 10,000 and has an amplitude of ∼0.2 μK{sup 2}, about one order of magnitude below the signal measured with telescopes like Planck, Atacama Cosmology Telescope, and South Pole Telescope. Even if the high-redshift WHIM signal is too weak to be detected using X-rays only, the small-scale correlation between X-ray and SZ maps is dominated by the high-redshift WHIM. This makes the analysis of the SZ signal in support of X-rays a promising tool to study the early time WHIM.

  19. Single atom identification by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lovejoy, T. C.; Dellby, N.; Krivanek, O. L.; Ramasse, Q. M.; Falke, M.; Kaeppel, A.; Terborg, R.; Zan, R.

    2012-04-09

    Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, single, isolated impurity atoms of silicon and platinum in monolayer and multilayer graphene are identified. Simultaneously acquired electron energy loss spectra confirm the elemental identification. Contamination difficulties are overcome by employing near-UHV sample conditions. Signal intensities agree within a factor of two with standardless estimates.

  20. Simultaneous dual-energy X-ray stereo imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mokso, Rajmund; Oberta, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Dual-energy or K-edge imaging is used to enhance contrast between two or more materials in an object and is routinely realised by acquiring two separate X-ray images each at different X-ray wavelength. On a broadband synchrotron source an imaging system to acquire the two images simultaneously was realised. The single-shot approach allows dual-energy and stereo imaging to be applied to dynamic systems. Using a Laue–Bragg crystal splitting scheme, the X-ray beam was split into two and the two beam branches could be easily tuned to either the same or to two different wavelengths. Due to the crystals’ mutual position, the two beam branches intercept each other under a non-zero angle and create a stereoscopic setup. PMID:26134814

  1. Energy determination in industrial X-ray processing facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleland, M. R.; Gregoire, O.; Stichelbaut, F.; Gomola, I.; Galloway, R. A.; Schlecht, J.

    2005-12-01

    In industrial irradiation facilities, the determination of maximum photon or electron energy is important for regulated processes, such as food irradiation, and for assurance of treatment reproducibility. With electron beam irradiators, this has been done by measuring the depth-dose distribution in a homogeneous material. For X-ray irradiators, an analogous method has not yet been recommended. This paper describes a procedure suitable for typical industrial irradiation processes, which is based on common practice in the field of therapeutic X-ray treatment. It utilizes a measurement of the slope of the exponential attenuation curve of X-rays in a thick stack of polyethylene plates. Monte Carlo simulations and experimental tests have been performed to verify the suitability and accuracy of the method between 3 MeV and 8 MeV.

  2. High resolution, low energy avalanche photodiode X-ray detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, R.; Vanderpuye, K.; Entine, G.; Squillante, M. R.

    1991-01-01

    Silicon avalanche photodiodes have been fabricated, and their performance as X-ray detectors has been measured. Photon sensitivity and energy resolution were measured as a function of size and operating parameters. Noise thresholds as low as 212 eV were obtained at room temperature, and backscatter X-ray fluorescence data were obtained for aluminum and other light elements. It is concluded that the results with the X-ray detector are extremely encouraging, and the performance is challenging the best available proportional counters. While not at the performance level of either cryogenic silicon or HgI2, these device operate at room temperature and can be reproduced in large numbers and with much larger areas than typically achieved with HgI2. In addition, they are rugged and appear to be indefinitely stable.

  3. Energy-selective filtration of dental x-ray beams

    SciTech Connect

    Gelskey, D.E.; Baker, C.G.

    1981-11-01

    Samarium is known for its ability to filter simultaneously low- and high-energy x-ray photons from an x-ray beam that are not useful in producing a diagnostic radiograph. This study was undertaken to determine the optimum thickness of samarium required to minimize patient exposure and exposure time. The results indicate that use of a filter thickness of 0.16 mm. minimized patient radiation exposure and permitted the use of an exposure time sufficiently short to minimize motion unsharpness. The incorporation of a 0.16 mm. samarium filter in the x-ray beam reduced exposure by about 40 percent as compared to a 2.5 mm. aluminum filter; the exposure time must be increased approximately twice to obtain optical densities equivalent to those produced with aluminum filtration.

  4. RADIO GALAXY FEEDBACK IN X-RAY-SELECTED GROUPS FROM COSMOS: THE EFFECT ON THE INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Giodini, S.; Finoguenov, A.; Boehringer, H.; Pierini, D.; Smolcic, V.; Massey, R.; BIrzan, L.; Zamorani, G.; Oklopcic, A.; Pratt, G. W.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Thompson, D.

    2010-05-01

    We quantify the importance of the mechanical energy released by radio galaxies inside galaxy groups. We use scaling relations to estimate the mechanical energy released by 16 radio-active galactic nuclei located inside X-ray-detected galaxy groups in the COSMOS field. By comparing this energy output to the host groups' gravitational binding energy, we find that radio galaxies produce sufficient energy to unbind a significant fraction of the intragroup medium. This unbinding effect is negligible in massive galaxy clusters with deeper potential wells. Our results correctly reproduce the breaking of self-similarity observed in the scaling relation between entropy and temperature for galaxy groups.

  5. X-Ray Constraints on the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, K. D.; Snowden, S. I.; Mushotzky, R. F.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Three observational constraints can be placed on a warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) using ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) pointed and survey data, the emission strength, the energy spectrum, and the fluctuation spectrum. The upper limit to the emission strength of the WHIM is 7.5 +/- 1.0 keV/(s*sq cm*sr*keV) in the 3/4 keV band, an unknown portion of which value may be due to our own Galactic halo. The spectral stape of the WHIM emission can be described as thermal emission with logT = 6.42, although the true spectrum is more likely to come from a range of temperatures. The values of emission strength and spectral shape are in reasonable agreement with hydrodynamical cosmological models. The autocorrelation function in the 0.44 keV < E < 1.21 keV band range, w(theta), for the extragalactic soft X-ray background (SXRB) which includes both the WHIM and contributions due to point sources, is approx. < 0.002 for 10 min < 0 < 20 min in the 3/4 keV band. This value is lower than the Croft et al. (2000) cosmological model by a factor of approx. 5, but is still not inconsistent with cosmological models. It is also found that the normalization of the extragalactic power law component of the soft X-ray background spectrum must be 9.5 +/- 0.9 keV/(s*sq cm*sr*keV) to be consistent with the ROSAT All-Sky Survey.

  6. Phase contrast imaging with coherent high energy X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Snigireva, I.

    1997-02-01

    X-ray imaging concern high energy domain (>6 keV) like a contact radiography, projection microscopy and tomography is used for many years to discern the features of the internal structure non destructively in material science, medicine and biology. In so doing the main contrast formation is absorption that makes some limitations for imaging of the light density materials and what is more the resolution of these techniques is not better than 10-100 {mu}m. It was turned out that there is now way in which to overcome 1{mu}m or even sub-{mu}m resolution limit except phase contrast imaging. It is well known in optics that the phase contrast is realised when interference between reference wave front and transmitted through the sample take place. Examples of this imaging are: phase contrast microscopy suggested by Zernike and Gabor (in-line) holography. Both of this techniques: phase contrast x-ray microscopy and holography are successfully progressing now in soft x-ray region. For imaging in the hard X-rays to enhance the contrast and to be able to resolve phase variations across the beam the high degree of the time and more importantly spatial coherence is needed. Because of this it was reasonable that the perfect crystal optics was involved like Bonse-Hart interferometry, double-crystal and even triple-crystal set-up using Laue and Bragg geometry with asymmetrically cut crystals.

  7. High energy, high resolution X-ray optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Joy, Marshall; Kahn, Steven

    1990-01-01

    The scientific goals of X-ray astronomy are considered to evaluate the relative advantages of using classical Wolter-1 optics or using a different approach. The portion of the X-ray band over 10 keV is unexploited in the present X-ray optics technology, and focussing in this portion of the band is crucial because nonfocussed experiments are background limited. The basic design of 'hard' X-ray optics is described theoretically emphasizing the very small angles of incidence in the grazing-incidence optics. Optimization of the signal-to-noise ratio is found to occur at a finite angular resolution. In real applications, the effective area reduced by the efficiency of the two reflections is 80 percent at energies up to 40 keV, and the quality of the reflecting surface can be monitored to minimize scattering. Focussing optics are found to offer improvements in signal-to-noise as well as more effective scientific return because microelectronic focal-plane technology is employed.

  8. High-Energy X-Ray Timing Experiment Detections of Hard X-Ray Tails in Scorpius X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Flavio; Heindl, William A.; Rothschild, Richard E.; Gruber, Duane E.

    2001-02-01

    We report the detection of a nonthermal hard X-ray component from Sco X-1 based on the analysis of 20-220 keV spectra obtained with the High-Energy X-Ray Timing Experiment on board the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer satellite. We find that the addition of a power-law component to a thermal bremsstrahlung model is required to achieve a good fit in five of 16 observations analyzed. Using Proportional Counter Array data, we were able to track the movement of the source along the Z diagram, and we found that the presence of the hard X-ray tail is not confined to a specific Z position. However, we do observe an indication that the power-law index hardens with increasing M, as indicated from the position on the Z diagram. We find that the derived nonthermal luminosities are ~10% of that derived for the brightest of the atoll sources.

  9. ENERGY FEEDBACK FROM X-RAY BINARIES IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Fragos, T.; Zezas, A.; Lehmer, B. D.; Naoz, S.; Basu-Zych, A.

    2013-10-20

    X-ray photons, because of their long mean-free paths, can easily escape the galactic environments where they are produced, and interact at long distances with the intergalactic medium, potentially having a significant contribution to the heating and reionization of the early universe. The two most important sources of X-ray photons in the universe are active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and X-ray binaries (XRBs). In this Letter we use results from detailed, large scale population synthesis simulations to study the energy feedback of XRBs, from the first galaxies (z ∼ 20) until today. We estimate that X-ray emission from XRBs dominates over AGN at z ∼> 6-8. The shape of the spectral energy distribution of the emission from XRBs shows little change with redshift, in contrast to its normalization which evolves by ∼4 orders of magnitude, primarily due to the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate. However, the metallicity and the mean stellar age of a given XRB population affect significantly its X-ray output. Specifically, the X-ray luminosity from high-mass XRBs per unit of star-formation rate varies an order of magnitude going from solar metallicity to less than 10% solar, and the X-ray luminosity from low-mass XRBs per unit of stellar mass peaks at an age of ∼300 Myr and then decreases gradually at later times, showing little variation for mean stellar ages ∼> 3 Gyr. Finally, we provide analytical and tabulated prescriptions for the energy output of XRBs, that can be directly incorporated in cosmological simulations.

  10. Energy Feedback from X-Ray Binaries in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragos, T.; Lehmer, B. D.; Naoz, S.; Zezas, A.; Basu-Zych, A.

    2013-10-01

    X-ray photons, because of their long mean-free paths, can easily escape the galactic environments where they are produced, and interact at long distances with the intergalactic medium, potentially having a significant contribution to the heating and reionization of the early universe. The two most important sources of X-ray photons in the universe are active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and X-ray binaries (XRBs). In this Letter we use results from detailed, large scale population synthesis simulations to study the energy feedback of XRBs, from the first galaxies (z ~ 20) until today. We estimate that X-ray emission from XRBs dominates over AGN at z >~ 6-8. The shape of the spectral energy distribution of the emission from XRBs shows little change with redshift, in contrast to its normalization which evolves by ~4 orders of magnitude, primarily due to the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate. However, the metallicity and the mean stellar age of a given XRB population affect significantly its X-ray output. Specifically, the X-ray luminosity from high-mass XRBs per unit of star-formation rate varies an order of magnitude going from solar metallicity to less than 10% solar, and the X-ray luminosity from low-mass XRBs per unit of stellar mass peaks at an age of ~300 Myr and then decreases gradually at later times, showing little variation for mean stellar ages >~ 3 Gyr. Finally, we provide analytical and tabulated prescriptions for the energy output of XRBs, that can be directly incorporated in cosmological simulations.

  11. Energy Feedback from X-ray Binaries in the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fragos, T.; Lehmer, B..; Naoz, S.; Zezas, A.; Basu-Zych, A.

    2013-01-01

    X-ray photons, because of their long mean-free paths, can easily escape the galactic environments where they are produced, and interact at long distances with the intergalactic medium, potentially having a significant contribution to the heating and reionization of the early universe. The two most important sources of X-ray photons in the universe are active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and X-ray binaries (XRBs). In this Letter we use results from detailed, large scale population synthesis simulations to study the energy feedback of XRBs, from the first galaxies (z (redshift) approximately equal to 20) until today.We estimate that X-ray emission from XRBs dominates over AGN at z (redshift) greater than or approximately equal to 6-8. The shape of the spectral energy distribution of the emission from XRBs shows little change with redshift, in contrast to its normalization which evolves by approximately 4 orders of magnitude, primarily due to the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate. However, the metallicity and the mean stellar age of a given XRB population affect significantly its X-ray output. Specifically, the X-ray luminosity from high-mass XRBs per unit of star-formation rate varies an order of magnitude going from solar metallicity to less than 10% solar, and the X-ray luminosity from low-mass XRBs per unit of stellar mass peaks at an age of approximately 300 Myr (million years) and then decreases gradually at later times, showing little variation for mean stellar ages 3 Gyr (Giga years, or billion years). Finally, we provide analytical and tabulated prescriptions for the energy output of XRBs, that can be directly incorporated in cosmological simulations.

  12. Bone age assessment by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in children: an alternative for X-ray?

    PubMed Central

    Heppe, D H M; Taal, H R; Ernst, G D S; Van Den Akker, E L T; Lequin, M M H; Hokken-Koelega, A C S; Geelhoed, J J M; Jaddoe, V W V

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to validate dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a method to assess bone age in children. Methods Paired dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans and X-rays of the left hand were performed in 95 children who attended the paediatric endocrinology outpatient clinic of University Hospital Rotterdam, the Netherlands. We compared bone age assessments by DXA scan with those performed by X-ray. Bone age assessment was performed by two blinded observers according to the reference method of Greulich and Pyle. Intra-observer and interobserver reproducibility were investigated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and agreement was tested using Bland and Altman plots. Results The intra-observer ICCs for both observers were 0.997 and 0.991 for X-ray and 0.993 and 0.987 for DXA assessments. The interobserver ICC was 0.993 and 0.991 for X-ray and DXA assessments, respectively. The mean difference between bone age assessed by X-ray and DXA was 0.11 years. The limits of agreement ranged from −0.82 to 1.05 years, which means that 95% of all differences between the methods were covered by this range. Conclusions Results of bone age assessment by DXA scan are similar to those obtained by X-ray. The DXA method seems to be an alternative for assessing bone age in a paediatric hospital-based population. PMID:21586503

  13. Bursting SN 1996cr's bubble: hydrodynamic and X-ray modelling of its circumstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwarkadas, V. V.; Dewey, D.; Bauer, F.

    2010-09-01

    SN1996cr is one of the five closest supernovae (SNe) to explode in the past 30 yr. Due to its fortuitous location in the Circinus galaxy at ~3.7 Mpc, there is a wealth of recently acquired and serendipitous archival data available to piece together its evolution over the past decade, including a recent 485-ks Chandra high-energy transmission grating spectrum. In order to interpret these data, we have explored hydrodynamic simulations, followed by computations of simulated spectra and light curves under non-equilibrium ionization conditions, and directly compared them to the observations. Our simulated spectra manage to fit both the X-ray continuum and lines at four epochs satisfactorily, while our computed light curves are in good agreement with additional flux-monitoring data sets. These calculations allow us to infer the nature and structure of the circumstellar medium (CSM), the evolution of the SN shock wave, and the abundances of the ejecta and surrounding medium. The data imply that SN 1996cr exploded in a low-density medium before interacting with a dense shell of material about 0.03 pc away from the progenitor star. We speculate that the shell could be due to the interaction of a blue supergiant or Wolf-Rayet wind with a previously existing red supergiant (RSG) wind. The shock wave has now exited the shell and is expanding in the medium exterior to it, possibly the undisturbed continuation of the dense RSG wind. The narrow lines that earned SN 1996cr its IIn designation possibly arise from dense, shocked clumps in the CSM. Although the possibility for a luminous blue variable progenitor for this Type IIn SN cannot be completely excluded, it is inconsistent with much of the data. These calculations allow us to probe the stellar mass-loss in the very last phases (<104 yr) of a massive star's life (>106 yr), and provide another means to deducing the progenitor of the SN.

  14. Spectacular X-ray Jet Points Toward Cosmic Energy Booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-06-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has revealed a spectacular luminous spike of X rays that emanates from the vicinity of a giant black hole in the center of the radio galaxy Pictor A. The spike, or jet, is due to a beam of particles that streaks across hundreds of thousands of light years of intergalactic space toward a brilliant X-ray hot spot that marks its end point. Pictor A Image Press Image and Caption The hot spot is at least 800 thousand light years (8 times the diameter of our Milky Way galaxy) away from where the jet originates. It is thought to represent the advancing head of the jet, which brightens conspicuously where it plows into the tenuous gas of intergalactic space. The jet, powered by the giant black hole, originates from a region of space no bigger than the solar system. "Both the brightness and the spectrum of the X rays are very different from what theory predicts," Professor Andrew Wilson reported today at the 196th national meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Rochester, New York. Wilson, of the University of Maryland, College Park, along with Dr. Patrick Shopbell and Dr. Andrew Young, also of the University of Maryland, are submitting an article on this research to the Astrophysical Journal. "The Chandra observations are telling us that something out there is producing many more high-energy particles than we expected," said Wilson. One possible explanation for the X rays is that shock waves along the side and head of the X-ray jet are accelerating electrons and possibly protons to speeds close to that of light. In the process the electrons are boosted to energies as high as 100 million times their own rest mass energy. These electrons lose their energy rapidly as they produce X rays, so this could be the first direct evidence of this process so far outside a galaxy. The hot spot has been seen with optical and radio telescopes. Radio telescopes have also observed a faint jet. Jets are thought to be produced by the extreme

  15. High energy X-ray observations of extragalactic objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baity, W. A.; Gruber, D. E.; Matteson, J. L.; Knight, F. K.; Nolan, P. L.; Scheepmaker, A.; Wheaton, W. A.; Hofman, J. A.; Primini, F. A.; Lewin, W. H. G.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary results are reported for scanning observations of the active galaxy NGC 5128 (Cen A) and the Type 1 Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 with the low-energy detectors of the HEAO-1 A-4 hard X-ray instrument. The X-ray spectra in the energy range from 15 to 100 keV are shown to be consistent with previous observations of these galaxies. It is noted that NGC 5128 rose in intensity from 1972 to 1975, that spectral softening occurred after early 1973, and that the source has since decreased in intensity while maintaining an E to the -1.7 photon power law. The results for NGC 4151 indicate variable absorption below 10 keV and a power-law slope of about E to the -1.4 in the range from 10 keV to 10 MeV.

  16. Reanalysis of X-ray emission from M87. 2: The multiphase medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, John C.

    1994-01-01

    In a previous paper, we showed that a single-phase model for the gas around M87 simultaneously explained most available X-ray data. Total enclosed masses derived from the model, however, fell well below the determinations from optical measurements. In this paper, we consider possible solutions to the inconsistency, including two multiphase medium models for the gas and the consequences of systematic errors of the Einstein Focal Point Crystal Spectrometer (FPCS). First, we find that when constraints from optical mass determinations are not considered, the best-fit model to the X-ray data is always the single-phase model. Multiphase models or consideration of FPCS systematic errors are required only when optical mass constraints are included. We find that the cooling time model of White & Sarazin adequately explains the available X-ray data and predicts total masses which agree with optical measurements. An ad hoc power-law multiphase does not. This shows both that the existence of mass dropping out of the ambient phase is consistent with the data and that the cooling-time model gives a reasonable parameterization of the dropout rate. Our derived mass accretion rate is similar to previous determinations. The implications of this result for cluster mass determinations in general are discussed. We then consider 'self absorbing' models where we assume that material dropping out of the ambient medium goes completely into X-ray absorbing gas. The resulting internal absorption is small compared to Galactic absorption at most radii. The models are therefore indistinguishable from models with only Galactic absorption. We finally show that it is alternatively possible to simultaneously fit optical mass measurements and X-ray data with a single-phase model if some of the observed FPCS line fluxes are too high by the maximum systematic error. This possiblity can be checked with new data from satellites such as ASCA.

  17. On the detectability of CO molecules in the interstellar medium via X-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joachimi, Katerine; Gatuzz, Efraín; García, Javier A.; Kallman, Timothy R.

    2016-09-01

    We present a study of the detectability of CO molecules in the Galactic interstellar medium using high-resolution X-ray spectra obtained with the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer. We analysed 10 bright low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) to study the CO contribution in their line of sights. A total of 25 observations were fitted with the ISMabs X-ray absorption model which includes photoabsorption cross-sections for O I, O II, O III and CO. We performed a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation analysis of the goodness of fit in order to estimate the significance of the CO detection. We determine that the statistical analysis prevents a significant detection of CO molecular X-ray absorption features, except for the lines of sight towards XTE J1718-330 and 4U 1636-53. In the case of XTE J1817-330, this is the first report of the presence of CO along its line of sight. Our results reinforce the conclusion that molecules have a minor contribution to the absorption features in the O K-edge spectral region. We estimate a CO column density lower limit to perform a significant detection with XMM-Newton of N(CO) > 6 × 1016 cm-2 for typical exposure times.

  18. The effects of X-rays from active galactic nuclei on the interstellar medium of the surrounding galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of an active nucleus on the large-scale properties of the host galaxy are examined, focusing on the effects of X-ray heating on the host galaxy's interstellar medium. The basic properties of AGNs and several questions concerning AGNs are reviewed. The relationship between X-ray heated winds and coronae is outlined. The case of X-ray heated winds in type 2 Seyfert galaxies is discussed.

  19. High Resolution Spectroscopy of X-ray Quasars: Searching for the X-ray Absorption from the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Taotao; Canizares, Claude R.; Marshall, Herman L.

    2004-01-01

    We present a survey of six low to moderate redshift quasars with Chandra and XMM-Newton. The primary goal is to search for the narrow X-ray absorption lines produced by highly ionized metals in the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium. All the X-ray spectra can be well fitted by a power law with neutral hydrogen absorption. Only one feature is detected at above 3-sigma level in all the spectra, which is consistent with statistic fluctuation. We discuss the implications in our understanding of the baryon content of the universe. We also discuss the implication of the non-detection of the local (z approx. 0) X-ray absorption.

  20. Refractive optical elements and optical system for high energy x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, M.; Altapova, V.; Baumbach, T.; Kluge, M.; Last, A.; Marschall, F.; Mohr, J.; Nazmov, V.; Vogt, H.

    2012-05-17

    In material science, X-ray radiation with photon energies above 25 keV is used because of its penetration into high density materials. Research of the inner structure of novel materials, such as electrodes in high power batteries for engines, require X-ray microscopes operating in the hard X-ray energy range. A flexible X-ray microscope for hard X-rays with photon energies higher than 25 keV will be realized at the synchrotron source ANKA in Karlsruhe, Germany. The device will use refractive X-ray lenses as condenser as well as objective lenses.

  1. Studies of dark energy with X-ray observatories.

    PubMed

    Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2010-04-20

    I review the contribution of Chandra X-ray Observatory to studies of dark energy. There are two broad classes of observable effects of dark energy: evolution of the expansion rate of the Universe, and slow down in the rate of growth of cosmic structures. Chandra has detected and measured both of these effects through observations of galaxy clusters. A combination of the Chandra results with other cosmological datasets leads to 5% constraints on the dark energy equation-of-state parameter, and limits possible deviations of gravity on large scales from general relativity. PMID:20404207

  2. Studies of dark energy with x-ray observatories

    PubMed Central

    Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2010-01-01

    I review the contribution of Chandra X-ray Observatory to studies of dark energy. There are two broad classes of observable effects of dark energy: evolution of the expansion rate of the Universe, and slow down in the rate of growth of cosmic structures. Chandra has detected and measured both of these effects through observations of galaxy clusters. A combination of the Chandra results with other cosmological datasets leads to 5% constraints on the dark energy equation-of-state parameter, and limits possible deviations of gravity on large scales from general relativity. PMID:20404207

  3. High resolution, multiple-energy linear sweep detector for x-ray imaging

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, Victor; Goodman, Claude A.

    1996-01-01

    Apparatus for generating plural electrical signals in a single scan in response to incident X-rays received from an object. Each electrical signal represents an image of the object at a different range of energies of the incident X-rays. The apparatus comprises a first X-ray detector, a second X-ray detector stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector, and an X-ray absorber stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector. The X-ray absorber provides an energy-dependent absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the first X-ray detector, but provides no absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the second X-ray detector. The first X-ray detector includes a linear array of first pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a first range of energies. The first X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a first electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the first pixels. The second X-ray detector includes a linear array of second pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a second range of energies, broader than the first range of energies. The second X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a second electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the second pixels.

  4. High resolution, multiple-energy linear sweep detector for x-ray imaging

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Goodman, C.A.

    1996-08-20

    Apparatus is disclosed for generating plural electrical signals in a single scan in response to incident X-rays received from an object. Each electrical signal represents an image of the object at a different range of energies of the incident X-rays. The apparatus comprises a first X-ray detector, a second X-ray detector stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector, and an X-ray absorber stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector. The X-ray absorber provides an energy-dependent absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the first X-ray detector, but provides no absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the second X-ray detector. The first X-ray detector includes a linear array of first pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a first range of energies. The first X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a first electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the first pixels. The second X-ray detector includes a linear array of second pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a second range of energies, broader than the first range of energies. The second X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a second electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the second pixels. 12 figs.

  5. X-ray scatter correction for dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry: compensation of patient's lean/fat composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinten, Jean-Marc; Darboux, Michel; Bordy, Thomas; Robert-Coutant, Christine; Gonon, Georges

    2004-05-01

    At CEA-LETI, a DEXA approach for systems using a digital 2D radiographic detector has been developed. It relies on an original X-rays scatter management method, based on a combined use of an analytical model and of scatter calibration data acquired through different thicknesses of Lucite slabs. Since Lucite X-rays interaction properties are equivalent to fat, the approach leads to a scatter flux map representative of a 100% fat region. However, patients" soft tissues are composed of lean and fat. Therefore, the obtained scatter map has to be refined in order to take into account the various fat ratios that can present patients. This refinement consists in establishing a formula relating the fat ratio to the thicknesses of Low and High Energy Lucite slabs leading to same signal level. This proportion is then used to compute, on the basis of X-rays/matter interaction equations, correction factors to apply to Lucite equivalent X-rays scatter map. Influence of fat ratio correction has been evaluated, on a digital 2D bone densitometer, with phantoms composed of a PVC step (simulating bone) and different Lucite/water thicknesses as well as on patients. The results show that our X-rays scatter determination approach can take into account variations of body composition.

  6. Low dose, limited energy spectroscopic x-ray microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson Weker, Johanna; Li, Yiyang; Chueh, William C.

    2015-09-01

    In order to achieve high quality in situ spectroscopic X-ray microscopy of complex systems far from equilibrium, such as lithium ion batteries under standard electrochemical cycling, careful consideration of the total number of energy points is required. Enough energy points are need to accurately determine the per pixel chemical information; however, total radiation dose needs to be limited to avoid damaging the system which would produce misleading results. Here we consider the number of energy points need to accurately reproduce the state of charge maps of a LiFePO2 electrode recorded during electrochemical cycling. We observe very good per pixel agreement using only 13 energy points. Additionally, we find the quality of the agreement is heavily dependent on the number of energy points used in the post edge fit during normalization of the spectra rather than the total number of energies used. Finally, we suggest a straightforward protocol for determining the minimum number of energy points needed prior to initiating any in situ spectroscopic X-ray microscopy experiment.

  7. Dosimetric properties of high energy current (HEC) detector in keV x-ray beams.

    PubMed

    Zygmanski, Piotr; Shrestha, Suman; Elshahat, Bassem; Karellas, Andrew; Sajo, Erno

    2015-04-01

    We introduce a new x-ray radiation detector. The detector employs high-energy current (HEC) formed by secondary electrons consisting predominantly of photoelectrons and Auger electrons, to directly convert x-ray energy to detector signal without externally applied power and without amplification. The HEC detector is a multilayer structure composed of thin conducting layers separated by dielectric layers with an overall thickness of less than a millimeter. It can be cut to any size and shape, formed into curvilinear surfaces, and thus can be designed for a variety of QA applications. We present basic dosimetric properties of the detector as function of x-ray energy, depth in the medium, area and aspect ratio of the detector, as well as other parameters. The prototype detectors show similar dosimetric properties to those of a thimble ionization chamber, which operates at high voltage. The initial results obtained for kilovoltage x-rays merit further research and development towards specific medical applications. PMID:25789488

  8. A Versatile Medium-Resolution X-ray Emission Spectrometer for Diamond Anvil Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mortensen, Devon R.; Seidler, G. T.; Bradley, J. A.; Lipp, M. J.; Evans, W. J.; Chow, P.; Xiao, Y. M.; Boman, G.; Bowden, Mark E.

    2013-08-28

    We present design and performance details for a polycapillary-coupled x-ray spectrometer that provides very high collection efficiency at a moderate energy resolution suitable for many studies of nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy, especially for samples of heavy elements under high pressures. Using a single Bragg analyzer operating close to a backscattering so as to minimize the effect of the weak divergence of the quasicollimated exit beam from the polycapillary optic, this instrument can maintain a typical energy resolution of 5 eV over photon energies from 5 keV to 10 keV. We find dramatically improved count rates as compared to a traditional higher-resolution instrument based on a single spherically-bent crystal analyzer.

  9. A versatile medium-resolution x-ray emission spectrometer for diamond anvil cell applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mortensen, D. R.; Seidler, G. T.; Bradley, J. A.; Lipp, M. J.; Evans, W. J.; Chow, P.; Xiao, Y.-M.; Boman, G.; Bowden, M. E.

    2013-08-15

    We present design and performance details for a polycapillary-coupled x-ray spectrometer that provides very high collection efficiency at a moderate energy resolution suitable for many studies of nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy, especially for samples of heavy elements under high pressures. Using a single Bragg analyzer operating close to backscattering geometry so as to minimize the effect of the weak divergence of the quasicollimated exit beam from the polycapillary optic, this instrument can maintain a typical energy resolution of 5 eV over photon energies from 5 keV to 10 keV. We find dramatically improved count rates as compared to a traditional higher-resolution instrument based on a single spherically bent crystal analyzer.

  10. Methods for calculating X-ray diffuse scattering from a crystalline medium with spheroidal quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punegov, V. I.; Sivkov, D. V.

    2015-03-01

    Two independent approaches to calculate the angular distribution of X-ray diffusion scattering from a crystalline medium with spheroidal quantum dots (QDs) have been proposed. The first method is based on the analytical solution involving the multipole expansion of elastic strain fields beyond QDs. The second approach is based on calculations of atomic displacements near QDs by the Green's function method. An analysis of the diffuse scattering intensity distribution in the reciprocal space within these two approaches shows that both methods yield similar results for the chosen models of QD spatial distribution.

  11. Methods for calculating X-ray diffuse scattering from a crystalline medium with spheroidal quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Punegov, V. I. Sivkov, D. V.

    2015-03-15

    Two independent approaches to calculate the angular distribution of X-ray diffusion scattering from a crystalline medium with spheroidal quantum dots (QDs) have been proposed. The first method is based on the analytical solution involving the multipole expansion of elastic strain fields beyond QDs. The second approach is based on calculations of atomic displacements near QDs by the Green’s function method. An analysis of the diffuse scattering intensity distribution in the reciprocal space within these two approaches shows that both methods yield similar results for the chosen models of QD spatial distribution.

  12. Carbon and oxygen X-ray line emission from the interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnopper, H. W.; Delvaille, J. P.; Rocchia, R.; Blondel, C.; Cheron, C.; Christy, J. C.; Ducros, R.; Koch, L.; Rothenflug, R.

    1982-01-01

    A soft X-ray, 0.3-1.0 keV spectrum from a 1 sr region which includes a portion of the North Polar Spur, obtained by three rocketborne lithium-drifted silicon detectors, shows the C V, C VI, O VII and O VIII emission lines. The spectrum is well fitted by a two-component, modified Kato (1976) model, where the coronal emission is in collisional equilibrium, with interstellar medium and North Polar Spur temperatures of 1.1 and 3.8 million K, respectively.

  13. Dimensionality and noise in energy selective x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Robert E.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To develop and test a method to quantify the effect of dimensionality on the noise in energy selective x-ray imaging.Methods: The Cramèr-Rao lower bound (CRLB), a universal lower limit of the covariance of any unbiased estimator, is used to quantify the noise. It is shown that increasing dimensionality always increases, or at best leaves the same, the variance. An analytic formula for the increase in variance in an energy selective x-ray system is derived. The formula is used to gain insight into the dependence of the increase in variance on the properties of the additional basis functions, the measurement noise covariance, and the source spectrum. The formula is also used with computer simulations to quantify the dependence of the additional variance on these factors. Simulated images of an object with three materials are used to demonstrate the trade-off of increased information with dimensionality and noise. The images are computed from energy selective data with a maximum likelihood estimator.Results: The increase in variance depends most importantly on the dimension and on the properties of the additional basis functions. With the attenuation coefficients of cortical bone, soft tissue, and adipose tissue as the basis functions, the increase in variance of the bone component from two to three dimensions is 1.4 × 10{sup 3}. With the soft tissue component, it is 2.7 × 10{sup 4}. If the attenuation coefficient of a high atomic number contrast agent is used as the third basis function, there is only a slight increase in the variance from two to three basis functions, 1.03 and 7.4 for the bone and soft tissue components, respectively. The changes in spectrum shape with beam hardening also have a substantial effect. They increase the variance by a factor of approximately 200 for the bone component and 220 for the soft tissue component as the soft tissue object thickness increases from 1 to 30 cm. Decreasing the energy resolution of the detectors increases

  14. Measuring Performance of Energy-Dispersive X-ray Systems.

    PubMed

    Statham

    1998-11-01

    : As Si(Li) detector technology has matured, many of the fundamental problems have been addressed in the competition among manufacturers and there is now an expectation, implied by many textbooks, that all energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) detectors are made and will perform in the same way. Although there has been some convergence in Si(Li) systems and these are still the most common, manufacturing recipes still differ and there are many alternative EDX devices, such as microcalorimeters and room temperature detectors, that have both advantages and disadvantages over Si(Li). Rather than emphasizing differences in technologies, performance measures should reveal benefits relevant to the intended application. The instrument is inevitably going to be a "black box" of integrated components; this article reviews some of the methods that have been applied and introduces some new techniques that can be used to assess performance without resorting to complex software or sophisticated mathematical algorithms. Sensitivity, resolution, artefacts, and stability are discussed with particular application to compositional analysis using electron beam excitation of X-rays in the 100-eV to 10-keV energy region. PMID:10087283

  15. A medium sensitivity X-ray survey using the Einstein Observatory - The log N-log S relation for extragalactic X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maccacaro, T.; Gioia, I. M.; Zamorani, G.; Feigelson, E. D.; Fener, M.; Giacconi, R.; Griffiths, R. E.; Murray, S. S.; Stocke, J.; Liebert, J.

    1982-01-01

    The paper presents results of an X-ray survey of about 50 sq deg of the high galactic latitude sky at sensitivities in the range of 7 x 10 to the -14 to 5 x 10 to the -12 ergs/sq cm/s. The number-flux relation is derived for the extragalactic population to yield a best-fit power-law slope of 1.53 + or - 0.16, and the content of the sample is analyzed in terms of types of sources, appearing to be significantly different from the content of similar samples selected at higher fluxes. The medium sensitivity sample of extragalactic sources is dominated by active galactic nuclei, while samples selected at higher fluxes and higher energies are dominated by clusters of galaxies. Thus, the number-flux relation for extragalactic sources may be interpreted to a first approximation as the sum of the two different distributions with flatter and steeper slopes describing clusters and AGNs, respectively.

  16. Characterization of Japanese color sticks by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manso, M.; Valadas, S.; Pessanha, S.; Guilherme, A.; Queralt, I.; Candeias, A. E.; Carvalho, M. L.

    2010-04-01

    This work comprises the use of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) techniques for the study of the composition of twentieth century traditional Japanese color sticks. By using the combination of analytical techniques it was possible to obtain information on inorganic and organic pigments, binders and fillers present in the sticks. The colorant materials identified in the sticks were zinc and titanium white, chrome yellow, yellow and red ochre, vermillion, alizarin, indigo, Prussian and synthetic ultramarine blue. The results also showed that calcite and barite were used as inorganic mineral fillers while Arabic gum was the medium used. EDXRF offered great potential for such investigations since it allowed the identification of the elements present in the sample preserving its integrity. However, this information alone was not enough to clearly identify some of the materials in study and therefore it was necessary to use XRD and FTIR techniques.

  17. Detecting the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium through X-Ray Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yangsen; Shull, J. Michael; Wang, Q. Daniel; Cash, Webster

    2012-02-01

    The warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) at temperatures 105-107 K is believed to contain 30%-50% of the baryons in the local universe. However, all current X-ray detections of the WHIM at redshifts z > 0 are of low statistical significance (lsim 3σ) and/or controversial. In this work, we aim to establish the detection limits of current X-ray observatories and explore requirements for next-generation X-ray telescopes for studying the WHIM through X-ray absorption lines. We analyze all available grating observations of Mrk 421 and obtain spectra with signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) of ~90 and 190 per 50 mÅ spectral bin from Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, respectively. Although these spectra are two of the best ever collected with Chandra and XMM-Newton, we cannot confirm the two WHIM systems reported by Nicastro et al. in 2005. Our bootstrap simulations indicate that spectra with such high S/N cannot constrain the WHIM with O VII column densities N_{O VII}≈ 10^{15} cm^{-2} (corresponding to an equivalent width of 2.5 mÅ for a Doppler velocity of 50 km s-1) at >~ 3σ significance level. The simulation results also suggest that it would take >60 Ms for Chandra and 140 Ms for XMM-Newton to measure the N_{OVII} at >=4σ from a spectrum of a background QSO with flux of ~0.2 mCrab (1 Crab = 2 × 10-8 erg s-1 cm-2 at 0.5-2 keV). Future X-ray spectrographs need to be equipped with spectral resolution R ~ 4000 and effective area A >= 100 cm2 to accomplish the similar constraints with an exposure time of ~2 Ms and would require ~11 Ms to survey the 15 QSOs with flux >~ 0.2 mCrab along which clear intergalactic O VI absorbers have been detected.

  18. High energy X-ray phase and dark-field imaging using a random absorption mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongchang; Kashyap, Yogesh; Cai, Biao; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-07-01

    High energy X-ray imaging has unique advantage over conventional X-ray imaging, since it enables higher penetration into materials with significantly reduced radiation damage. However, the absorption contrast in high energy region is considerably low due to the reduced X-ray absorption cross section for most materials. Even though the X-ray phase and dark-field imaging techniques can provide substantially increased contrast and complementary information, fabricating dedicated optics for high energies still remain a challenge. To address this issue, we present an alternative X-ray imaging approach to produce transmission, phase and scattering signals at high X-ray energies by using a random absorption mask. Importantly, in addition to the synchrotron radiation source, this approach has been demonstrated for practical imaging application with a laboratory-based microfocus X-ray source. This new imaging method could be potentially useful for studying thick samples or heavy materials for advanced research in materials science.

  19. 30-Lens interferometer for high-energy X-rays.

    PubMed

    Lyubomirskiy, Mikhail; Snigireva, Irina; Kohn, Victor; Kuznetsov, Sergey; Yunkin, Vyacheslav; Vaughan, Gavin; Snigirev, Anatoly

    2016-09-01

    A novel high-energy multi-lens interferometer consisting of 30 arrays of planar compound refractive lenses is reported. Under coherent illumination each lens array creates a diffraction-limited secondary source. Overlapping such coherent beams produces an interference pattern demonstrating strong longitudinal functional dependence. The proposed multi-lens interferometer was tested experimentally at the 100 m-long ID11 ESRF beamline in the X-ray energy range from 30 to 65 keV. The interference pattern generated by the interferometer was recorded at fundamental and fractional Talbot distances. An effective source size (FWHM) of the order of 15 µm was determined from the first Talbot image, proving the concept that the multi-lens interferometer can be used as a high-resolution tool for beam diagnostics. PMID:27577763

  20. X-ray selected galaxy clusters in the Pan-STARRS Medium Deep Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, H.; Edge, A. C.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Huber, M. E.; Kaiser, N.; Price, P. A.; Tonry, J. L.

    2013-06-01

    We present the results of a pilot study for the extended Massive Cluster Survey (eMACS), a comprehensive search for distant, X-ray luminous galaxy clusters at z > 0.5. Our pilot study applies the eMACS concept to the 71 deg2 area extended by the 10 fields of the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) Medium Deep Survey (MDS). Candidate clusters are identified by visual inspection of PS1 images in the g, r, i and z bands in a 5 × 5 arcmin2 region around X-ray sources detected in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS). To test and optimize the eMACS X-ray selection criteria, our pilot study uses the largest possible RASS data base, i.e. all RASS sources listed in the Bright and Faint Source Catalogues (BSC and FSC) that fall within the MDS footprint. We apply no additional constraints regarding X-ray flux, spectral hardness ratio or photon statistics and lower the redshift threshold to z > 0.3 to extend the probed luminosity range to poorer systems. Scrutiny of PS1/MDS images for 41 BSC and 200 FSC sources combined with dedicated spectroscopic follow-up observations results in a sample of 11 clusters with estimated or spectroscopic redshifts of z > 0.3. In order to assess and quantify the degree of point source contamination of the observed RASS fluxes, we examine archival Chandra data obtained in targeted and serendipitous observations of six of the 11 clusters found. As expected, the diffuse emission from all six systems is contaminated by point sources to some degree, and for half of them active galactic nucleus emission dominates. X-ray follow-up observations will thus be crucial in order to establish robust cluster luminosities for eMACS clusters. Although the small number of distant X-ray luminous clusters in the MDS does not allow us to make firm predictions for the over 20 000 deg2 of extragalactic sky covered by eMACS, the identification of two extremely promising eMACS cluster candidates at z ≳ 0.6 (both yet to be observed with Chandra) in such a small solid angle is encouraging

  1. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and body composition.

    PubMed

    Laskey, M A

    1996-01-01

    This review describes the advantages and limitations of dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA), a technique that is widely used clinically to assess a patient's risk of osteoporosis and to monitor the effects of therapy. DXA is also increasingly used to measure body composition in terms of fat and fat-free mass. There are three commercial manufacturers of DXA instruments: Lunar, Hologic, and Norland. All systems generate X-rays at two different energies and make use of the differential attenuation of the X-ray beam at these two energies to calculate the bone mineral content and soft tissue composition in the scanned region. Most DXA instruments measure bone mineral in the clinically important sites of the spine, hip, and forearm. More specialized systems also perform whole-body scans and can be used to determine the bone and soft tissue composition of the whole body and subregions such as arms, legs, and trunk. The effective dose incurred during DXA scanning is very small, and, consequently, DXA is a simple and safe technique that can be used for children and the old and frail. Precision of all DXA measurements is excellent but varies with the region under investigation. Precision is best for young healthy subjects (coefficient of variation is about 1% for the spine and whole body bone measurements) but is less good for osteoporotic and obese subjects. The accuracy of DXA measurements, however, can be problematic. Marked systematic differences in bone and soft tissue values are found between the three commercial systems due to differences in calibration, bone edge detection, and other factors. In addition, differences in reference data provided by each manufacturer can lead to an individual appearing normal on one machine but at risk of osteoporosis on another. At present, DXA cannot be regarded as a "gold standard" for body composition. However, the continuing development of DXA and the introduction of new software is greatly improving the performance of this

  2. Improved energy coupling into the gain region of the Ni-like Pd transient collisional x-ray laser

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R; Dunn, J; Filevich, J; Moon, S; Nilsen, J; Keenan, R; Shlyaptsev, V; Rocca, J; Hunter, J; Shepherd, R; Booth, R; Marconi, M

    2004-10-05

    We present within this paper a series of experiments, which yield new observations to further our understanding of the transient collisional x-ray laser medium. We use the recently developed technique of picosecond x-ray laser interferometry to probe the plasma conditions in which the x-ray laser is generated and propagates. This yields two dimensional electron density maps of the plasma taken at different times relative to the peak of the 600ps plasma-forming beam. In another experimental campaign, the output of the x-ray laser plasma column is imaged with a spherical multilayer mirror onto a CCD camera to give a two-dimensional intensity map of the x-ray laser output. Near-field imaging gives insights into refraction, output intensity and spatial mode structure. Combining these images with the density maps gives an indication of the electron density at which the x-ray laser is being emitted at (yielding insights into the effect of density gradients on beam propagation). Experimental observations coupled with simulations predict that most effective coupling of laser pump energy occurs when the duration of the main heating pulse is comparable to the gain lifetime ({approx}10ps for Ni-like schemes). This can increase the output intensity by more than an order of magnitude relative to the case were the same pumping energy is delivered within a shorter heating pulse duration (< 3ps). We have also conducted an experiment in which the output of the x-ray laser was imaged onto the entrance slit of a high temporal resolution streak camera. This effectively takes a one-dimensional slice of the x-ray laser spatial profile and sweeps it in time. Under some conditions we observe rapid movement of the x-ray laser ({approx} 3 {micro}m/ps) towards the target surface.

  3. Feasibility of kilovoltage x-ray energy modulation by gaseous media and its application in contrast-enhanced radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Facundo-Flores, E. L.; Garnica-Garza, H. M.

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To present a method to modulate the energy contents of a kilovoltage x-ray beam that makes use of a gas as the modulating medium. The method is capable of producing arbitrary x-ray spectra by varying the pressure of the modulating gas and the peak kilovoltage (kVp) of the x-ray beams whose energy is being modulated.Methods: An aluminum chamber was machined with a 0.5 cm wall thickness, designed to withstand pressures of more than 80 atm. A pressure sensor and electrovalves were used to monitor and regulate the gas pressure. Argon was used as the modulating gas. A CdTe spectrometer was used to measure x-ray spectra for different combinations of kVp and gas pressure, thus obtaining a set of basis x-ray functions. An arbitrary x-ray spectrum can then be formed by the linear combination of such basis functions. In order to show one possible application of the modulation method, a contrast-enhanced radiotherapy prostate treatment was optimized with respect to the x-ray beam energy, without restrictions on the possible shape of the resultant x-ray spectra.Results: The x-ray spectra basis functions obtained display a smooth and gradual variation of their average energy as a function of the gas pressure for a given kVp, sometimes in the order of 1 or 2 keV. This gradual variation would be difficult to obtain with a conventional aluminum or copper filters, as the change in thickness necessary to reproduce the data presented would be in the order of micrometers, making necessary the use of a large number of such filters. Using the modulation method presented here, the authors were able to reconstruct the optimized x-ray spectra from the measured basis functions, for different optimization objectives.Conclusions: A method has been developed that allows for the controlled modulation of the energy contents of kilovoltage x-ray spectra. The method has been shown to be able to reproduce spectra of arbitrary shape, such as those obtained from the optimization of contrast

  4. High-Energy X-Ray Diffraction Analysis Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-11-29

    The functionality of heRXD includes the following: distance and angular calibration and viewing flat-panel detector images used for X-ray diffraction; image (polar) rebinning or "caking"; line position fitting in powder diffraction images; image segmentation or "blob finding"; crystal orentation indesing; and lattice vector refinement. These functionalities encompass a critical set analyzing teh data for high-energy diffraction measurements that are currently performed at synchrotron sources such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The software design modularmore » and open source under LGPL. The intent is to provide a common framework and graphical user interface that has the ability to utillize internal as well as external subroutines to provide various optins for performing the fuctionalities listed above. The software will initially be deployed at several national user facilities--including APS, ALS, and CHESS--and then made available for download using a hosting service such as sourceforge.« less

  5. High-Energy X-Ray Diffraction Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-29

    The functionality of heRXD includes the following: distance and angular calibration and viewing flat-panel detector images used for X-ray diffraction; image (polar) rebinning or "caking"; line position fitting in powder diffraction images; image segmentation or "blob finding"; crystal orentation indesing; and lattice vector refinement. These functionalities encompass a critical set analyzing teh data for high-energy diffraction measurements that are currently performed at synchrotron sources such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The software design modular and open source under LGPL. The intent is to provide a common framework and graphical user interface that has the ability to utillize internal as well as external subroutines to provide various optins for performing the fuctionalities listed above. The software will initially be deployed at several national user facilities--including APS, ALS, and CHESS--and then made available for download using a hosting service such as sourceforge.

  6. Development of Compton X-ray spectrometer for high energy resolution single-shot high-flux hard X-ray spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Sadaoki; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Sakata, Shohei; Zhang, Zhe; Abe, Yuki; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Miyamoto, Shuji; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Takemoto, Akinori; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Azechi, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Hard X-ray spectroscopy is an essential diagnostics used to understand physical processes that take place in high energy density plasmas produced by intense laser-plasma interactions. A bundle of hard X-ray detectors, of which the responses have different energy thresholds, is used as a conventional single-shot spectrometer for high-flux (>10(13) photons/shot) hard X-rays. However, high energy resolution (Δhv/hv < 0.1) is not achievable with a differential energy threshold (DET) X-ray spectrometer because its energy resolution is limited by energy differences between the response thresholds. Experimental demonstration of a Compton X-ray spectrometer has already been performed for obtaining higher energy resolution than that of DET spectrometers. In this paper, we describe design details of the Compton X-ray spectrometer, especially dependence of energy resolution and absolute response on photon-electron converter design and its background reduction scheme, and also its application to the laser-plasma interaction experiment. The developed spectrometer was used for spectroscopy of bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by intense laser-plasma interactions using a 200 μm thickness SiO2 converter. The X-ray spectrum obtained with the Compton X-ray spectrometer is consistent with that obtained with a DET X-ray spectrometer, furthermore higher certainly of a spectral intensity is obtained with the Compton X-ray spectrometer than that with the DET X-ray spectrometer in the photon energy range above 5 MeV. PMID:27131669

  7. Development of Compton X-ray spectrometer for high energy resolution single-shot high-flux hard X-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Sadaoki; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Sakata, Shohei; Zhang, Zhe; Abe, Yuki; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Miyamoto, Shuji; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Takemoto, Akinori; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Azechi, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Hard X-ray spectroscopy is an essential diagnostics used to understand physical processes that take place in high energy density plasmas produced by intense laser-plasma interactions. A bundle of hard X-ray detectors, of which the responses have different energy thresholds, is used as a conventional single-shot spectrometer for high-flux (>1013 photons/shot) hard X-rays. However, high energy resolution (Δhv/hv < 0.1) is not achievable with a differential energy threshold (DET) X-ray spectrometer because its energy resolution is limited by energy differences between the response thresholds. Experimental demonstration of a Compton X-ray spectrometer has already been performed for obtaining higher energy resolution than that of DET spectrometers. In this paper, we describe design details of the Compton X-ray spectrometer, especially dependence of energy resolution and absolute response on photon-electron converter design and its background reduction scheme, and also its application to the laser-plasma interaction experiment. The developed spectrometer was used for spectroscopy of bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by intense laser-plasma interactions using a 200 μm thickness SiO2 converter. The X-ray spectrum obtained with the Compton X-ray spectrometer is consistent with that obtained with a DET X-ray spectrometer, furthermore higher certainly of a spectral intensity is obtained with the Compton X-ray spectrometer than that with the DET X-ray spectrometer in the photon energy range above 5 MeV.

  8. High resolution energy-sensitive digital X-ray

    DOEpatents

    Nygren, D.R.

    1995-07-18

    An apparatus and method for detecting an x-ray and for determining the depth of penetration of an x-ray into a semiconductor strip detector. In one embodiment, a semiconductor strip detector formed of semiconductor material is disposed in an edge-on orientation towards an x-ray source such that x-rays from the x-ray source are incident upon and substantially perpendicular to the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector. The semiconductor strip detector is formed of a plurality of segments. The segments are coupled together in a collinear arrangement such that the semiconductor strip detector has a length great enough such that substantially all of the x-rays incident on the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector interact with the semiconductor material which forms the semiconductor strip detector. A plurality of electrodes are connected to the semiconductor strip detector such that each one of the semiconductor strip detector segments has at least one of the of electrodes coupled thereto. A signal processor is also coupled to each one of the electrodes. The present detector detects an interaction within the semiconductor strip detector, between an x-ray and the semiconductor material, and also indicates the depth of penetration of the x-ray into the semiconductor strip detector at the time of the interaction. 5 figs.

  9. High resolution energy-sensitive digital X-ray

    DOEpatents

    Nygren, David R.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting an x-ray and for determining the depth of penetration of an x-ray into a semiconductor strip detector. In one embodiment, a semiconductor strip detector formed of semiconductor material is disposed in an edge-on orientation towards an x-ray source such that x-rays From the x-ray source are incident upon and substantially perpendicular to the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector. The semiconductor strip detector is formed of a plurality of segments. The segments are coupled together in a collinear arrangement such that the semiconductor strip detector has a length great enough such that substantially all of the x-rays incident on the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector interact with the semiconductor material which forms the semiconductor strip detector. A plurality of electrodes are connected to the semiconductor strip detect or such that each one of the of semiconductor strip detector segments has at least one of the of electrodes coupled thereto. A signal processor is also coupled to each one of the electrodes. The present detector detects an interaction within the semiconductor strip detector, between an x-ray and the semiconductor material, and also indicates the depth of penetration of the x-ray into the semiconductor strip detector at the time of the interaction.

  10. The Diffuse EUV and X-Ray Background as a Probe of the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieu, Richard

    2001-01-01

    We have used the Deep Survey telescope of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer to investigate shadows in the diffuse EUV/soft X-ray background that are cast by clouds in the interstellar medium. We confirm the existence of a shadow previously reported and provide evidence for two new shadows. We used IRAS data to identify the clouds producing these shadows and to determine their optical depth to EUV radiation. The EUV-absorbing clouds are optically thick in the EUV, and all EUV emission detected in the direction of these shadows must be produced from material in front of the clouds. We obtained new optical data to determine the distance to these clouds. We use a new differential cloud technique to obtain the pressure of the interstellar medium. These results do not depend on any zero-level calibration of the data. Our results provide evidence that the pressure of the hot interstellar gas is the same in three different directions in the local interstellar medium and is at least 8 times higher than that derived for the Local Cloud surrounding our Sun. This provides new evidence for large thermal pressure imbalances in the local ISM and directly contradicts the basic assumption of thermal pressure equilibrium used in almost all present models of the interstellar medium.

  11. Quasi-stellar objects in the intergalactic medium: Source for the cosmic X-ray background

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, R.D.

    1980-06-15

    QSOs are regarded as sources of both electromagnetic radiation and ejected matter that heat and ionize a dense intergalactic medium (IGM). Using current estimates of QSO luminosity, number density, evolution, and spectral index, we study three viable models: the diffuse cosmic X-ray background is (1) due entirely to thermal Bremsstrahlung of the IGM, (2) completely supplied by QSO X-radiation, (3) or a combination of both. The upper limits on an IGM fractional density with respect to closure are ..cap omega..=0.26, 0.24, and 0.21 for pure collisional, photo/collisional mixture, and pure photoionization, respectively. These calculations give emission spectra, Compton distortion of the cosmic microwave background, and optical depths to distant OSOs for comparison with relevant data.

  12. Real-time contrast medium detection in x-ray images by mathematical morphology operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ly, Dieu Sang; Beucher, Serge; Bilodeau, Michel

    2015-11-01

    This paper proposes a solution to contrast agent (CA) detection in angiograms by considering x-ray images as intensity images and applying mathematical morphology operators. We present two detection approaches, one based on the intensity infimum and the other based on the dual reconstruction. The evaluation using several data sets shows that both techniques are able to detect the presence of the contrast medium volume. Moreover, the dual reconstruction-based method is proven to be faster in processing time and more effective than the intensity infimum-based method in distinguishing the intensity change at the same location from the displacement of the same region. In addition, we show how to track the CA passage through a region of interest by observing the intensity evolution in successive submasks.

  13. Tailored density profile of heterogeneous underdense medium of a multi-foil assembly for multi-keV x-ray sources optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primout, Michel; Babonneau, Daniele; Videau, Laurent; Jacquet, Laurent; CEA, DAM, DIF Team

    2015-11-01

    We studied multi-keV x-ray source made of titanium foils assembly. The purpose of this heterogeneous structure is to create a medium with the same hydroradiative properties as an efficient -but yet non existing- pure metallic-like underdense homogeneous medium. We can mimic the multi-keV x-ray emission of an equivalent underdense medium of any density between 5 and 40 mg /cc . For both cases, the highest multi-keV x-ray conversion efficiency has been found at density around 20 mg/cc. This optimum is best realized by assembly of a set of 0.1 μm titanium foils separated by 20 μm of vacuum. Note that the concept can be easily extended to higher Z materials like iron, copper or germanium at higher x-ray emission energy. This approach allows us to build any non uniform homogeneous underdense medium with tailored density profiles : increasing or decreasing ones, both longitudinally and transversally to the laser incident direction. This is a very promising method provided that we can design any foils assembly with thickness as low as 0.1 μm , what has been proved feasible in recent studies of the reference [Shao-yong Tu et al. in PoP, 21, 043107, 2014]. Each configuration has been simulated by the 2D rad-hydro code FCI2 with Arbitrary Eulerian-Lagrangian rezoning option.

  14. Dual energy iodine contrast CT with monochromatic x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Dilmanian, F.A.; Wu, X.Y.; Kress, J.

    1995-12-31

    Computed tomography (CT) with monochromatic x-ray beams was used to image phantoms and a live rabbit using the preclinical Multiple Energy Computed Tomography (MECT) system at the National Synchrotron Light Source. MECT has a horizontal fan beam with a subject apparatus rotating about a vertical axis. Images were obtained at 43 keV for single-energy studies, and at energies immediately below and above the 33.17 keV iodine K-edge for dual-energy subtraction CT. Two CdWO{sub 4}-photodiode array detectors were used. The high-resolution detector (0.5 mm pitch, uncollimated) provided 14 line pair/cm in-plane spatial resolution, with lower image noise than conventional CT. Images with the low-resolution detector (1.844-mm pitch, collimated to 0.922 mm detector elements) had a sensitivity for iodine of {approx} 60 {micro}g/cc in 11-mm channels inside a 135 mm-diameter acrylic cylindrical phantom for a slice height of 2.5 mm and a surface does of {approx} 4 cGy. The image noise was {approx} 1 Hounsfield Unit (HU); it was {approx} 3 HU for the same phantom imaged with conventional CT at approximately the same dose, slice height, and spatial resolution ({approx} 7 lp/cm). These results show the potential advantage of MECT, despite present technical limitations.

  15. Superiority of Low Energy 160 KV X-Rays Compared to High Energy 6 MV X-Rays in Heavy Element Radiosensitization for Cancer Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sara N.; Pradhan, Anil K.; Nahar, Sultana N.; Barth, Rolf F.; Yang, Weilian; Nakkula, Robin J.; Palmer, Alycia; Turro, Claudia

    2013-06-01

    High energy X-rays in the MeV range are generally employed in conventional radiation therapy from linear accelerators (LINAC) to ensure sufficient penetration depths. However, lower energy X-rays in the keV range may be more effective when coupled with heavy element (high-Z or HZ) radiosensitizers. Numerical simulations of X-ray energy deposition for tumor phantoms sensitized with HZ radiosensitizers were performed using the Monte Carlo code Geant4. The results showed enhancement in energy deposition to radiosensitized phantoms relative to unsensitized phantoms for low energy X-rays in the keV range. In contrast, minimal enhancement was seen using high energy X-rays in the MeV range. Dose enhancement factors (DEFs) were computed and showed radiosensitization only in the low energy range < 200 keV, far lower than the energy of the majority of photons in the LINAC energy range. In vitro studies were carried to demonstrate the tumoricidal effects of HZ sensitized F98 rat glioma cells following irradiation with both low energy 160 kV and high energy 6 MV X-ray sources. The platinum compound, pyridine terpyridine Pt(II) nitrate, was initially used because it was 7x less toxic that an equivalent amount of carboplatin in vitro studies. This would allow us to separate the radiotoxic and the chemotoxic effects of HZ sensitizers. Results from this study showed a 10-fold dose dependent reduction in surviving fractions (SF) of radiosensitized cells treated with low energy 160 kV X-rays compared to those treated with 6 MV X-rays. This is in agreement with our simulations that show an increase in dose deposition in radiosensitized tumors for low energy X-rays. Due to unforeen in vivo toxicity, however, another in vitro study was performed using the commonly used, Pt-based chemotherapeutic drug carboplatin which confirmed earlier results. This lays the ground work for a planned in vivo study using F98 glioma bearing rats. This study demonstrates that while high energy X-rays are

  16. An edge-on charge-transfer design for energy-resolved x-ray detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zaifeng; Yang, Haoyu; Cong, Wenxiang; Wang, Ge

    2016-06-01

    As an x-ray beam goes through the human body, it will collect important information via interaction with tissues. Since this interaction is energy-sensitive, the state-of-the-art spectral CT technologies provide higher quality images of biological tissues with x-ray energy information (or spectral information). With existing energy-integrating technologies, a large fraction of energy information is ignored in the x-ray detection process. Although the recently proposed photon-counting technology promises to achieve higher image quality at a lower radiation dose, it suffers from limitations in counting rate, performance uniformity, and fabrication cost. In this paper, we focus on an alternative approach to resolve the energy distribution of transmitted x-ray photons. First, we analyze the x-ray attenuation in a silicon substrate and describe a linear approximation model for x-ray detection. Then, we design an edge-on architecture based on the proposed energy-resolving model. In our design, the x-ray-photon-induced charges are transferred sequentially resembling the working process of a CCD camera. Finally, we numerically evaluate the linear approximation of x-ray attenuation and derive the energy distribution of x-ray photons. Our simulation results show that the proposed energy-sensing approach is feasible and has the potential to complement the photon-counting technology.

  17. An edge-on charge-transfer design for energy-resolved x-ray detection.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zaifeng; Yang, Haoyu; Cong, Wenxiang; Wang, Ge

    2016-06-01

    As an x-ray beam goes through the human body, it will collect important information via interaction with tissues. Since this interaction is energy-sensitive, the state-of-the-art spectral CT technologies provide higher quality images of biological tissues with x-ray energy information (or spectral information). With existing energy-integrating technologies, a large fraction of energy information is ignored in the x-ray detection process. Although the recently proposed photon-counting technology promises to achieve higher image quality at a lower radiation dose, it suffers from limitations in counting rate, performance uniformity, and fabrication cost. In this paper, we focus on an alternative approach to resolve the energy distribution of transmitted x-ray photons. First, we analyze the x-ray attenuation in a silicon substrate and describe a linear approximation model for x-ray detection. Then, we design an edge-on architecture based on the proposed energy-resolving model. In our design, the x-ray-photon-induced charges are transferred sequentially resembling the working process of a CCD camera. Finally, we numerically evaluate the linear approximation of x-ray attenuation and derive the energy distribution of x-ray photons. Our simulation results show that the proposed energy-sensing approach is feasible and has the potential to complement the photon-counting technology. PMID:27192190

  18. Coasting External Shock in Wind Medium: An Origin for the X-ray Plateau Decay Component in Swift GRB Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Rongfeng; Matzner, C. D.

    2012-01-01

    The plateaus observed in about one half of the early X-ray afterglows are the most puzzling feature in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by Swift. By analyzing the temporal and spectral indices of a large X-ray plateau sample, we find that 55% can be explained by external, forward shock synchrotron emission produced by a relativistic ejecta coasting in a ρ r-2, wind-like medium; no energy injection into the shock is needed. After the ejecta collects enough medium and transitions to the adiabatic, decelerating blastwave phase, it produces the post-plateau decay. For those bursts consistent with this model, we find an upper limit for the initial Lorentz factor of the ejecta, Γ0 ≤ 46 (ɛe/0.1)-0.24 (ɛB/0.01)0.17 the isotropic equivalent total ejecta energy is Eiso 1053 (ɛe/0.1)-1.3 (ɛB/0.01)-0.09 (tb/104 s) erg, where ɛe and ɛB are the fractions of the total energy at the shock downstream that are carried by electrons and the magnetic field, respectively, and tb is the end of the plateau. Our finding supports Wolf-Rayet stars as the progenitor stars of some GRBs. It raises intriguing questions about the origin of an intermediate-Γ0 ejecta, which we speculate is connected to the GRB jet emergence from its host star. For the remaining 45% of the sample, the post-plateau decline is too rapid to be explained in the coasting-in-wind model, and energy injection appears to be required.

  19. An energy and intensity monitor for X-ray absorption near-edge structure measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jonge, Martin D.; Paterson, David; McNulty, Ian; Rau, Christoph; Brandes, Jay A.; Ingall, Ellery

    2010-07-01

    An in-line X-ray beam energy and intensity monitor has been developed for use in focussed X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) measurements. The monitor uses only the X-ray intensity that would otherwise bypass our zone-plate focussing optic and relies on a measurement of photoemission current. The monitor is inexpensive, easy to align, and provides valuable feedback about the X-ray energy. Operation of the monitor is demonstrated for measurements of phosphorus XANES. The precision of the energy determination is around 0.5 eV.

  20. Energy discriminating x-ray camera utilizing a cadmium telluride detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Purkhet, Abderyim; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Osawa, Akihiro; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Wantanabe, Manabu; Nagao, Jiro; Nomiya, Seiichiro; Hitomi, Keitaro; Tanaka, Etsuro; Kawai, Toshiaki; Sato, Shigehiro; Ogawa, Akira; Onagawa, Jun

    2009-07-01

    An energy-discriminating x-ray camera is useful for performing monochromatic radiography using polychromatic x rays. This x-ray camera was developed to carry out K-edge radiography using iodine-based contrast media. In this camera, objects are exposed by a cone beam from a cerium x-ray generator, and penetrating x-ray photons are detected by a cadmium telluride detector with an amplifier unit. The optimal x-ray photon energy and the energy width are selected out using a multichannel analyzer, and the photon number is counted by a counter card. Radiography was performed by the detector scanning using an x-y stage driven by a two-stage controller, and radiograms obtained by energy discriminating are shown on a personal computer monitor. In radiography, the tube voltage and current were 60 kV and 36 μA, respectively, and the x-ray intensity was 4.7 μGy/s. Cerium K-series characteristic x rays are absorbed effectively by iodine-based contrast media, and iodine K-edge radiography was performed using x rays with energies just beyond iodine K-edge energy 33.2 keV.

  1. Primeval gas clouds and the low-energy X-ray background. [galactic cluster formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellogg, E. M.

    1977-01-01

    A model for the appearance of the all-sky low-energy X-ray background on a fine angular scale is presented which is based on primeval hot gas clouds associated with the formation of clusters of galaxies according to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (1972) model. It is noted that the background could have both granular and diffuse components if it is due to such gas clouds. The observed appearance of the granular component is predicted along with the observable characteristics of collapsing protoclusters. The effects of distant X-ray-emitting QSOs, radio galaxies, and normal galaxies on the observations are considered, and these sources are shown not to interfere with the possibility of observing the protoclusters. It is concluded that if sufficient heating occurred in an intracluster medium within some clusters of galaxies at the protocluster epoch, the ensemble properties of protoclusters could be observed with an X-ray telescope, and the time at which protoclusters formed could perhaps be estimated.

  2. Interferometric phase detection at x-ray energies via Fano resonance control.

    PubMed

    Heeg, K P; Ott, C; Schumacher, D; Wille, H-C; Röhlsberger, R; Pfeifer, T; Evers, J

    2015-05-22

    Modern x-ray light sources promise access to structure and dynamics of matter in largely unexplored spectral regions. However, the desired information is encoded in the light intensity and phase, whereas detectors register only the intensity. This phase problem is ubiquitous in crystallography and imaging and impedes the exploration of quantum effects at x-ray energies. Here, we demonstrate phase-sensitive measurements characterizing the quantum state of a nuclear two-level system at hard x-ray energies. The nuclei are initially prepared in a superposition state. Subsequently, the relative phase of this superposition is interferometrically reconstructed from the emitted x rays. Our results form a first step towards x-ray quantum state tomography and provide new avenues for structure determination and precision metrology via x-ray Fano interference. PMID:26047250

  3. Multi-energy Soft X-ray diagnostic for NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tritz, Kevin; Stutman, Dan; Finkenthal, Michael; Kumar, Deepak; Clayton, Daniel

    2010-11-01

    A high resolution, ``multi-energy'' soft X-ray (ME-SXR) diagnostic is being developed for the NSTX edge plasma. The system will measure with spatial resolution of <=1cm and with ˜10 kHz bandwidth the XUV and SXR emission from the outer NSTX regions, including the pedestal, and will serve for studies of edge particle and electron transport, of ELM dynamics, and other edge phenomena. The system comprises five tangential AXUV diode arrays, viewing the plasma between 0.5

  4. Practical energy response estimation of photon counting detectors for spectral X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Dong-Goo; Lee, Jongha; Sung, Younghun; Lee, SeongDeok

    2010-04-01

    Spectral X-ray imaging is a promising technique to drastically improve the diagnostic quality of radiography and computed tomography (CT), since it enables material decomposition and/or identification based on the energy dependency of material-specific X-ray attenuation. Unlike the charge-integration based X-ray detectors, photon counting X-ray detectors (PCXDs) can discriminate the energies of incident X-ray photons and thereby multi-energy images can be obtained in single exposure. However, the measured data are not accurate since the spectra of incident X-rays are distorted according to the energy response function (ERF) of a PCXD. Thus ERF should be properly estimated in advance for accurate spectral imaging. This paper presents a simple method for ERF estimation based on a polychromatic X-ray source that is widely used for medical imaging. The method consists of three steps: source spectra measurement, detector spectra reconstruction, and ERF inverse estimation. Real spectra of an X-ray tube are first measured at all kVs by using an X-ray spectrometer. The corresponding detector spectra are obtained by threshold scans. The ERF is then estimated by solving the inverse problem. Simulations are conducted to demonstrate the concept of the proposed method.

  5. Automatic detection of bone fragments in poultry using multi-energy x-rays

    DOEpatents

    Gleason, Shaun S [Knoxville, TN; Paulus, Michael J [Knoxville, TN; Mullens, James A [Knoxville, TN

    2002-04-09

    At least two linear arrays of x-ray detectors are placed below a conveyor belt in a poultry processing plant. Multiple-energy x-ray sources illuminate the poultry and are detected by the detectors. Laser profilometry is used to measure the poultry thickness as the x-ray data is acquired. The detector readout is processed in real time to detect the presence of small highly attenuating fragments in the poultry, i.e., bone, metal, and cartilage.

  6. Interferometric X-Ray Imaging of Breast Cancer Specimens at 51 keV X-Ray Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Tohoru; Wu, Jin; Tsuchiya, Yoshinori; Yoneyama, Akio; Lwin, Thet Thet; Aiyoshi, Yuji; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Ueno, Ei

    2004-08-01

    The feasibility of the interferometric X-ray imaging technique is examined for revealing the features of breast cancer specimens. The interferometric X-ray imaging system consisted of an asymmetrically cut silicon crystal, a monolithic X-ray interferometer, a phase-shifter, an object cell, and an X-ray CCD camera. Ten 10-mm-thick formalin-fixed breast cancer specimens were imaged at 51 keV, and these images were compared with absorption-contrast X-ray images obtained at 18 keV monochromatic synchrotron X-ray. The interferometric X-ray images clearly depicted the essential features of the breast cancer such as microcalcification down to a size of 0.036 mm, spiculation, and detailed inner soft tissue structures closely matched with histopathological morphology, while the absorption-contrast X-ray images obtained using nearly the same X-ray dose only resolved microcalcification down to a size of 0.108 mm and spiculation. The interferometric X-ray imaging technique can be considered to be an innovative technique for the early and accurate diagnosis of breast cancer using an extremely low X-ray dose.

  7. A Review of X-ray Diagnostic Calibrations in the 2 to 100 keV Region Using the High Energy X-ray Calibration Facility (HEX)

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Zaheer; Pond, T; Buckles, R A; Maddox, B R; Chen, C D; DeWald, E L; Izumi, N; Stewart, R

    2010-05-19

    The precise and accurate measurement of X-rays in the 2 keV to 100 keV region is crucial to the understanding of HED plasmas and warm dense matter in general. With the emergence of inertially confined plasma facilities as the premier platforms for ICF, laboratory astrophysics, and national security related plasma experiments, the need to calibrate diagnostics in the high energy X-ray regime has grown. At National Security Technologies High Energy X-ray Calibration Facility (HEX) in Livermore, California, X-ray imagers, filter-fluorescer spectrometers, crystal spectrometers, image plates, and nuclear diagnostics are calibrated. The HEX can provide measurements of atomic line radiation, X-ray flux (accuracy within 10%), and X-ray energy (accuracy within 1%). The HEX source is comprised of a commercial 160 kV X-ray tube, a fluorescer wheel, a filter wheel, and a lead encasement. The X-ray tube produces a Tungsten bremsstrahlung spectrum which causes a foil to fluoresce line radiation. To minimize bremsstrahlung in the radiation for calibration we also provide various foils as filters. For experimental purposes, a vacuum box capable of 10{sup -7} Torr, as well as HPGe and CdTe radiation detectors, are provided on an optical table. Most geometries and arrangements can be changed to meet experimental needs.

  8. DIFFUSE HARD X-RAY EMISSION IN STARBURST GALAXIES AS SYNCHROTRON FROM VERY HIGH ENERGY ELECTRONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lacki, Brian C.; Thompson, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    The origin of the diffuse hard X-ray (2-10 keV) emission from starburst galaxies is a long-standing problem. We suggest that synchrotron emission of 10-100 TeV electrons and positrons (e {sup {+-}}) can contribute to this emission, because starbursts have strong magnetic fields. We consider three sources of e {sup {+-}} at these energies: (1) primary electrons directly accelerated by supernova remnants, (2) pionic secondary e {sup {+-}} created by inelastic collisions between cosmic ray (CR) protons and gas nuclei in the dense interstellar medium of starbursts, and (3) pair e {sup {+-}} produced between the interactions between 10 and 100 TeV {gamma}-rays and the intense far-infrared (FIR) radiation fields of starbursts. We create one-zone steady-state models of the CR population in the Galactic center (R {<=} 112 pc), NGC 253, M82, and Arp 220's nuclei, assuming a power-law injection spectrum for electrons and protons. We consider different injection spectral slopes, magnetic field strengths, CR acceleration efficiencies, and diffusive escape times, and include advective escape, radiative cooling processes, and secondary and pair e {sup {+-}}. We compare these models to extant radio and GeV and TeV {gamma}-ray data for these starbursts, and calculate the diffuse synchrotron X-ray and inverse Compton (IC) luminosities of these starbursts in the models which satisfy multiwavelength constraints. If the primary electron spectrum extends to {approx}PeV energies and has a proton/electron injection ratio similar to the Galactic value, we find that synchrotron emission contributes 2%-20% of their unresolved, diffuse hard X-ray emission. However, there is great uncertainty in this conclusion because of the limited information on the CR electron spectrum at these high energies. IC emission is likewise a minority of the unresolved X-ray emission in these starbursts, from 0.1% in the Galactic center to 10% in Arp 220's nuclei, with the main uncertainty being the starbursts

  9. Diffuse Hard X-Ray Emission in Starburst Galaxies as Synchrotron from Very High Energy Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacki, Brian C.; Thompson, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    The origin of the diffuse hard X-ray (2-10 keV) emission from starburst galaxies is a long-standing problem. We suggest that synchrotron emission of 10-100 TeV electrons and positrons (e ±) can contribute to this emission, because starbursts have strong magnetic fields. We consider three sources of e ± at these energies: (1) primary electrons directly accelerated by supernova remnants, (2) pionic secondary e ± created by inelastic collisions between cosmic ray (CR) protons and gas nuclei in the dense interstellar medium of starbursts, and (3) pair e ± produced between the interactions between 10 and 100 TeV γ-rays and the intense far-infrared (FIR) radiation fields of starbursts. We create one-zone steady-state models of the CR population in the Galactic center (R <= 112 pc), NGC 253, M82, and Arp 220's nuclei, assuming a power-law injection spectrum for electrons and protons. We consider different injection spectral slopes, magnetic field strengths, CR acceleration efficiencies, and diffusive escape times, and include advective escape, radiative cooling processes, and secondary and pair e ±. We compare these models to extant radio and GeV and TeV γ-ray data for these starbursts, and calculate the diffuse synchrotron X-ray and inverse Compton (IC) luminosities of these starbursts in the models which satisfy multiwavelength constraints. If the primary electron spectrum extends to ~PeV energies and has a proton/electron injection ratio similar to the Galactic value, we find that synchrotron emission contributes 2%-20% of their unresolved, diffuse hard X-ray emission. However, there is great uncertainty in this conclusion because of the limited information on the CR electron spectrum at these high energies. IC emission is likewise a minority of the unresolved X-ray emission in these starbursts, from 0.1% in the Galactic center to 10% in Arp 220's nuclei, with the main uncertainty being the starbursts' magnetic field. We also model generic starbursts, including

  10. Laser-driven hard-x-ray generation based on ultrafast selected energy x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements of Ni compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Shan Fang; Carter, Josh D.; Ng, Vicky; Guo Ting

    2005-02-01

    Three Ni compounds were studied by ultrafast selected energy x-ray absorption spectroscopy using a laser-driven electron x-ray source with a tungsten target. The measured K edges of these Ni compounds using this self-referencing method were made identical to those measured with synchrotron x-ray sources. This enabled us to determine the absolute peak positions of tungsten L{alpha}{sub 1} and L{alpha}{sub 2} emitted from this source to be within 1 eV of those from the neutral tungsten atoms, which strongly suggested that the x rays were emitted from high energy electrons interacting with tungsten atoms in the solid target. This is the best evidence to date that directly supports the cold atom x-ray generation theory.

  11. An X-ray image of the violent interstellar medium in 30 Doradus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Q.; Helfand, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the X-ray emission from the largest H II region complex in the Local Group, 30 Dor, is presented. Applying a new maximum entropy deconvolution algorithm to the Einstein Observatory data, reveals striking correlations among the X-ray, radio, and optical morphologies of the region, with X-ray-emitting bubbles filling cavities surrounded by H-alpha shells and coextensive diffuse X-ray and radio continuum emission from throughout the region. The total X-ray luminosity in the 0.16-3.5 keV band from an area within 160 pc of the central cluster R136 is about 2 x 10 to the 37th ergs/sec.

  12. An X-ray image of the violent interstellar medium in 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Helfand, D. J.

    1991-04-01

    A detailed analysis of the X-ray emission from the largest H II region complex in the Local Group, 30 Dor, is presented. Applying a new maximum entropy deconvolution algorithm to the Einstein Observatory data, reveals striking correlations among the X-ray, radio, and optical morphologies of the region, with X-ray-emitting bubbles filling cavities surrounded by H-alpha shells and coextensive diffuse X-ray and radio continuum emission from throughout the region. The total X-ray luminosity in the 0.16-3.5 keV band from an area within 160 pc of the central cluster R136 is about 2 x 10 to the 37th ergs/sec.

  13. Research Into Characteristics of X-Ray Emission Laser Beams from Solid-State Cathode Medium of High-Current Glow Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabut, Alexander B.

    2006-02-01

    X-ray emissions ranging 1.2-3.0 keV with dose rate up to 1.0 Gy/s have been registered in experiments with high-current Glow Discharge. The emissions energy and intensity depend on the cathode material, the kind of plasma-forming gas, and the discharge parameters. The experiments were carried out on the high-current glow discharge device using D2, H2, Kr, and Xe at pressure up to 10 Torr, as well as cathode samples made from Al, Sc, Ti, Ni, Nb, Zr, Mo, Pd, Ta, W, Pt, at current up to 500 mA, and discharge voltage of 500-2500 V. Two emission modes were revealed under the experiments: (1) Diffusion X-rays was observed as separate X-ray bursts (up to 5 × 105 bursts a second and up to 106 X-ray quanta in a burst), (2) X-rays in the form of laser microbeams (up to 104 beams a second and up to 1010 X-ray of quanta in a beam, angular divergence was up to 10-4, the duration of the separate laser beams must be τ = 3 × 10-13-3 × 10-14 s, the separate beam power must be 107-108 W). The emission of the X-ray laser beams occurred when the discharge occurred and within 100 ms after turning off the current. The results of experimental research into the characteristics of secondary penetrating radiation occurring when interacting primary X-ray beams from a solid-state cathode medium with targets made of various materials are reported. It was shown that the secondary radiation consisted of fast electrons. Secondary radiation of two types was observed: (1) The emission with a continuous temporal spectrum in the form of separate bursts with intensity up to 106 fast electrons a burst. (2) The emission with a discrete temporal spectrum and emission rate up to 1010 fast electrons a burst. A third type of the penetrating radiation was observed as well. This type was recorded directly by the photomultiplier placed behind of the target without the scintillator. The abnormal high penetrating ability of this radiation type requires additional research to explain. The obtained results

  14. Studying X-Ray Binaries with High Energy Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, P.; West, Donald K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further our understanding of the dynamics of secreting neutron stars and black holes in the hope of using these systems as probes of the physics of strong gravitational fetus. The main focus of this work has been a multi-year program of simultaneous millisecond X-ray timing and spectral observations carried out with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) to perform the X-ray timing and one of the satellites Asca, BeppoSAX, or Chandra to perform X-ray spectral measurements. With the advent of Chandra, we have extended our work to incLude extragalactic X-ray binaries. We conducted a comprehensive study of the X-ray and radio behavior of the Black Hole Candidate (BHC) X-ray transient XTE J1550-564 using RXTE, Chandra, and the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). We showed that strong radio emission is associated with major X-ray outbursts involving an X-ray state transition, while a compact radio jet is seen in the low/hard X-ray state found in the outburst decay. Interesting, the total energy required to produce the compact jet may be a substantial fraction of the total accretion energy of the system in that state. We also performed a detailed study of the spectral and timing properties of the decay. In joint RXTE/BeppoSAX observations of the neutron-star X-ray binary Cyg X-2, we discovered a correlation between the timing properties (the frequency of the horizontal branch oscillations) and the properties of a soft, thermal component of the X-ray spectrum. d e showed that more detX- ray from accreting neutron stars. We have completed analysis of RXTE observations of the X-ray transient SAX J1750.8-2900 made after detection of X-ray bursts from the source with the BeppoSAX Wide-Field Camera. We discovered millisecond oscillations in both the persistent emission and in the X-ray bursts.

  15. Technology development for high-energy x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian; Engelhaupt, Darell; Kester, Thomas; Speegle, Chet

    2006-06-01

    We are developing hard-x-ray optics using an electroformed-nickel-replication process off superpolished mandrels. To date, we have fabricated over 100 shells for our HERO balloon payload with typical angular resolutions in the 13-15 arcsec range. This paper discusses the factors currently limiting this resolution and various developments geared towards the production of higher-resolution optics.

  16. Removal of the iodinated X-ray contrast medium diatrizoate by anaerobic transformation.

    PubMed

    Redeker, Maria; Wick, Arne; Meermann, Björn; Ternes, Thomas A

    2014-09-01

    The iodinated X-ray contrast medium diatrizoate is known to be very persistent in current wastewater treatment as well as in environmental compartments. In this study, the potential of anaerobic processes in soils, sediments, and during wastewater treatment to remove and transform diatrizoate was investigated. In anaerobic batch experiments with soil and sediment seven biologically formed transformation products (TPs) as well as the corresponding transformation pathway were identified. The TPs resulted from successive deiodinations and deacetylations. The final TP 3,5-diaminobenzoic acid (DABA) was stable under anaerobic conditions. However, DABA was further transformed under air atmosphere, indicating the potential for the mineralization of diatrizoate by combining anaerobic and aerobic conditions. With the development of a methodology using complementary liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry techniques, all identified TPs were quantified and the mass balance could be closed without having authentic standards for four of the TPs available. The detection and quantification of diatrizoate TPs in groundwater, in technical wetlands with anaerobic zones, and in a pilot wastewater treatment plant established for anaerobic treatment highlights the transferability and up-scaling of the results attained by laboratory experiments to environmental conditions. PMID:25140788

  17. Energy dependence measurement of small-type optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter by means of characteristic X-rays induced with general diagnostic X-ray equipment.

    PubMed

    Takegami, Kazuki; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Okino, Hiroki; Kimoto, Natsumi; Maehata, Itsumi; Kanazawa, Yuki; Okazaki, Tohru; Hashizume, Takuya; Kobayashi, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    For X-ray inspections by way of general X-ray equipment, it is important to measure an entrance-skin dose. Recently, a small optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter was made commercially available by Landauer, Inc. The dosimeter does not interfere with the medical images; therefore, it is expected to be a convenient detector for measuring personal exposure doses. In an actual clinical situation, it is assumed that X-rays of different energies will be detected by a dosimeter. For evaluation of the exposure dose measured by a dosimeter, it is necessary to know the energy dependence of the dosimeter. Our aim in this study was to measure the energy dependence of the OSL dosimeter experimentally in the diagnostic X-ray region. Metal samples weighing several grams were irradiated and, in this way, characteristic X-rays having energies ranging from 8 to 85 keV were generated. Using these mono-energetic X-rays, the dosimeter was irradiated. Simultaneously, the fluence of the X-rays was determined with a CdTe detector. The energy-dependent efficiency of the dosimeter was derived from the measured value of the dosimeter and the fluence. Moreover, the energy-dependent efficiency was calculated by Monte-Carlo simulation. The efficiency obtained in the experiment was in good agreement with that of the simulation. In conclusion, our proposed method, in which characteristic X-rays are used, is valuable for measurement of the energy dependence of a small OSL dosimeter in the diagnostic X-ray region. PMID:26589210

  18. The high energy X-ray spectrum of the Crab Nebula observed from OSO 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, J. F.; Crannell, L. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Orwig, L. E.; Maurer, G. S.; Frost, K. J.

    1977-01-01

    The X-ray spectrum of the Crab Nebula was measured with the scintillation spectrometer on board the OSO-8 satellite. The total emission of the X-ray source shows no long term variability. The spectrum itself can be described by a single power law out to energies of at least 500 keV.

  19. ENERGY-DISPERSIVE, X-RAY REFLECTIVITY DENSITY MEASUREMENTS OF POROUS SIO2 XEROGELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    X-ray reflectivity has been used to nondestructively measure the density of thin, porous, SiO2-based xerogels. Critical angle, defined by total external reflection, was measured for multiple x-ray energies to correct for sample misalignment error in me determination of the densit...

  20. Evaluation of resolution performance of high energy x-ray CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Makoto; Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Sato, Osamu; Sato, Katsutoshi; Takatsuji, Toshiyuki

    2015-07-01

    Dimensional X-ray CT has attracted production industry due to its nature [1] enabling not only external dimensional measurement but also internal dimensional measurement which has been difficult for pre-existing dimensional measurement instruments. However, because the reconstruction process of three dimensional volume image may be affected by various kinds of error sources of the hardware and also the software, performance evaluation of dimensional X-ray CT has become one of the major issues [2], especially for X-ray CT system with higher energy such as several MeV. Resolution performance of high energy X-ray CT was evaluated by using a series of phantoms which equip regular line-and-space structures with various pitch sizes down to 100 micrometer. These phantoms were prototyped in the identical pitch sizes with three different materials. These phantoms were practically measured by a high energy X-ray CT. Results and perspective of the resolution performance is presented.

  1. The Einstein Observatory Medium Sensitivity Survey - Optical identifications for a complete sample of X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocke, J. T.; Liebert, J.; Gioia, I. M.; Maccacaro, T.; Griffiths, R. E.; Danziger, I. J.; Kunth, D.; Lub, J.

    1983-01-01

    It is suggested that virtually all the X-ray sources in the Einstein Observatory's Medium Sensitivity Survey flux range can be identified with objects visible on the POSS, on the basis of the complete identification of all sources north of -25 deg declination. There is no evidence for a significant population of 'blank field' X-ray sources at this flux level, and therefore no evidence for any new X-ray source class with very high L(x)/L(v). Most of the quasars detected in the present survey are spectroscopically similar to optical or radio-selected quasars. About 25 percent of the quasar sample, however, had reddish colors, and permitted lines dominated by a narrow-line component. These objects form a second sequence of active galactic nuclei, distinct in their optical properties from the broad line objects.

  2. A Chandra X-Ray Investigation of the Violent Interstellar Medium: From Dwarf Starbursts to Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, J. P.; Heckman, T.; Strickland, D.; Ptak, A.

    2005-07-01

    We have analyzed observations with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory of the diffuse emission by hot gas in seven dwarf starburst galaxies, six edge-on starburst galaxies, and nine ultraluminous infrared galaxies. These systems cover ranges of ~104 in X-ray luminosity, and several thousand in star formation rate and K-band luminosity (a proxy for stellar mass). Despite this range in fundamental parameters, we find that the properties of the diffuse X-ray emission are very similar in all three classes of starburst galaxies. The spectrum of the diffuse emission is well fitted by thermal emission from gas with kT~0.25-0.8 keV and with several times solar abundance ratios of α-elements to Fe. The ratio of the thermal X-ray to far-infrared luminosity is roughly constant, as is the characteristic surface brightness of the diffuse X-ray emission. The size of the diffuse X-ray source increases systematically with both far-infrared and K-band luminosity. All three classes show strong morphological relationships between the regions of hot gas probed by the diffuse X-ray emission and the warm gas probed by optical line emission. These findings suggest that the same physical mechanism is producing the diffuse X-ray emission in the three types of starbursts. These results are consistent with that mechanism being shocks driven by a galactic ``superwind,'' which is powered by the kinetic energy collectively supplied by stellar winds and supernovae in the starburst.

  3. The interstellar medium in the direction of the Crab Nebula - Reconciling soft X-ray and radio observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ride, S. K.; Walker, A. B. C., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The total soft X-ray photoabsorption cross section of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the direction of the Crab Nebula is computed on the basis of a two-phase model of the ISM. This cross section is used to reanalyze Copernicus data on the X-ray spectrum of the Crab between 0.7 and 1.5 keV. The total hydrogen column density along the line of sight to that nebula is found to be approximately 2.6 by 10 to the 21st power H atoms/sq cm. This result is evaluated in light of the two-phase model of the ISM, and the predictions based on the X-ray data are compared with results of radio and UV observations. A discrepancy between the radio and X-ray measurements of the hydrogen column density is resolved by noting that 21-cm absorption measurements sample only the neutral hydrogen in clouds while X-ray measurements are sensitive to all forms of hydrogen in both cloud and intercloud regions. It is suggested that roughly 50% of the hydrogen in the direction of the Crab Nebula is in clouds and that 85% of this hydrogen is neutral and atomic.

  4. Shielded radiography with a laser-driven MeV-energy X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shouyuan; Golovin, Grigory; Miller, Cameron; Haden, Daniel; Banerjee, Sudeep; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Cheng; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Baozhen; Clarke, Shaun; Pozzi, Sara; Umstadter, Donald

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of experimental and numerical-simulation studies of shielded radiography using narrowband MeV-energy X-rays from a compact all-laser-driven inverse-Compton-scattering X-ray light source. This recently developed X-ray light source is based on a laser-wakefield accelerator with ultra-high-field gradient (GeV/cm). We demonstrate experimentally high-quality radiographic imaging (image contrast of 0.4 and signal-to-noise ratio of 2:1) of a target composed of 8-mm thick depleted uranium shielded by 80-mm thick steel, using a 6-MeV X-ray beam with a spread of 45% (FWHM) and 107 photons in a single shot. The corresponding dose of the X-ray pulse measured in front of the target is ∼100 nGy/pulse. Simulations performed using the Monte-Carlo code MCNPX accurately reproduce the experimental results. These simulations also demonstrate that the narrow bandwidth of the Compton X-ray source operating at 6 and 9 MeV leads to a reduction of deposited dose as compared to broadband bremsstrahlung sources with the same end-point energy. The X-ray beam's inherently low-divergence angle (∼mrad) is advantageous and effective for interrogation at standoff distance. These results demonstrate significant benefits of all-laser driven Compton X-rays for shielded radiography.

  5. Black Holes, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy: Measuring the Invisible through X Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Christine

    2009-05-01

    X-ray telescopes allow us to ``see'' the high energy radiation from objects that cannot be seen at other wavelengths including black holes and the very hot gas in galaxies and clusters of galaxies. Since soft X-rays are absorbed by our atmosphere, X-ray detectors must be flown above most of the Earth's atmosphere. The first orbiting X-ray telescope flew on Skylab in the early 1970's and recorded images of the Sun on film. Observing fainter X-ray sources required both the development of large, high-incidence mirrors and the development of electronic detectors capable of measuring the arrival of an X-ray photon in two dimensions. This talk will review the development of X-ray observatories from the early Einstein observatory through the current Chandra, SWIFT and XMM-Newton missions. While X-ray observations have changed our views in many areas of astronomy from stars to quasars, this talk will focus on the advances in our knowledge of supermassive black holes, dark matter and dark energy.

  6. Single photon energy dispersive x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Higginbotham, Andrew; Patel, Shamim; Ciricosta, Orlando; Suggit, Matthew J.; Wark, Justin S.; Hawreliak, James A.; Collins, Gilbert W.; Coppari, Federica; Eggert, Jon H.; Tang, Henry

    2014-03-15

    With the pressure range accessible to laser driven compression experiments on solid material rising rapidly, new challenges in the diagnosis of samples in harsh laser environments are emerging. When driving to TPa pressures (conditions highly relevant to planetary interiors), traditional x-ray diffraction techniques are plagued by increased sources of background and noise, as well as a potential reduction in signal. In this paper we present a new diffraction diagnostic designed to record x-ray diffraction in low signal-to-noise environments. By utilising single photon counting techniques we demonstrate the ability to record diffraction patterns on nanosecond timescales, and subsequently separate, photon-by-photon, signal from background. In doing this, we mitigate many of the issues surrounding the use of high intensity lasers to drive samples to extremes of pressure, allowing for structural information to be obtained in a regime which is currently largely unexplored.

  7. High-energy x-ray diffraction study of pure amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Laaziri, K.; Kycia, S.; Roorda, S.; Chicoine, M.; Robertson, J.L.; Wang, J.; Moss, S.C.

    1999-11-01

    Medium and high-energy x-ray diffraction has been used to study the atomic structure of pure amorphous Si prepared by MeV Si implantation into crystalline silicon. Both as-implanted and annealed samples were studied. The inelastically scattered x rays were removed by fitting the energy spectrum for the scattered x rays. The atomic scattering factor of silicon, previously known reliably up to 20 {Angstrom}{sup {minus}1}, has been extended to 55 {Angstrom}{sup {minus}1}. The radial distribution function of amorphous Si, before and after annealing, has been determined through an unbiased Fourier transformation of the normalized scattering data. Gaussian fits to the first neighbor peak in these functions shows that scattering data out to at least 40 {Angstrom}{sup {minus}1} is required to reliably determine the radial distribution function. The first-shell coordination number increases from 3.79 to 3.88 upon thermal annealing at 600{degree}C, whereas that of crystalline Si determined from similar measurements on a Si powder analyzed using the same technique is 4.0. Amorphous Si is therefore under coordinated relative to crystalline Si. Noise in the distribution function, caused by statistical variations in the scattering data at high-momentum transfer, has been reduced without affecting the experimental resolution through filtering of the interference function after subtracting the contribution of the first-neighbor peak. The difference induced by thermal annealing in the remainder of the radial distribution functions, thus revealed, is much smaller than previously believed. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Tunable narrow-photon-energy x-ray source using a silicon single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Tanaka, Etsuro; Mori, Hidezo; Kawai, Toshiaki; Inoue, Takashi; Ogawa, Akira; Izumisawa, Mitsuru; Shozushima, Masanori; Takahashi, Kiyomi; Sato, Shigehiro; Ichimaru, Toshio; Takayama, Kazuyoshi

    2007-09-01

    A preliminary experiment for producing narrow-photon-energy cone-beam x-rays using a silicon single crystal is described. In order to produce low-photon-energy x-rays, a 100-µm-focus x-ray generator in conjunction with a (111) plane silicon crystal is employed. The x-ray beams from the source are confined by an x-y diaphragm, and monochromatic cone beams are formed by the crystal and three lead plates. The x-ray generator consists of a main controller and a unit with a high-voltage circuit and a 100-µm-focus x-ray tube. In this experiment, the maximum tube voltage and current were 35 kV and 0.50 mA, respectively, and the x-ray intensity of the microfocus generator was 343 μGy/s at 1.0 m from the source with a tube voltage of 30 kV and a current of 0.50 mA. The effective photon energy is determined by Bragg's angle, and the photon-energy width is regulated by the angle delta. Using this generator in conjunction with a computed radiography system, quasi-monochromatic radiography was performed using a cone beam with an effective energy of approximately 15.5 keV.

  9. High-energy x-ray backlighter spectrum measurements using calibrated image plates

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, B.R.; Park, H.S.; Remington, B.A.; Izumi, N.; Chen, S.; Chen, C.; Kimminau, G.; Ali, Z.; Haugh, M.J.; Ma, Q.

    2012-10-10

    The x-ray spectrum between 18 and 88 keV generated by a petawatt laser driven x-ray backlighter target was measured using a 12-channel differential filter pair spectrometer. The spectrometer consists of a series of filter pairs on a Ta mask coupled with an x-ray sensitive image plate. A calibration of Fuji{trademark} MS and SR image plates was conducted using a tungsten anode x-ray source and the resulting calibration applied to the design of the Ross pair spectrometer. Additionally, the fade rate and resolution of the image plate system were measured for quantitative radiographic applications. The conversion efficiency of laser energy into silver K{alpha} x rays from a petawatt laser target was measured using the differential filter pair spectrometer and compared to measurements using a single photon counting charge coupled device.

  10. Empirical studies of solar flares: Comparison of X-ray and H alpha filtergrams and analysis of the energy balance of the X-ray plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The physics of solar flares was investigated through a combined analysis of X-ray filtergrams of the high temperature coronal component of flares and H alpha filtergrams of the low temperature chromospheric component. The data were used to study the magnetic field configuration and its changes in solar flares, and to examine the chromospheric location and structure of X-ray bright points (XPB) and XPB flares. Each topic and the germane data are discussed. The energy balance of the thermal X-ray plasma in flares, while not studied, is addressed.

  11. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2 in the X-Ray Calibration Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This photograph is of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2 telescope being evaluated by engineers in the clean room of the X-Ray Calibration Facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The MSFC was heavily engaged in the technical and scientific aspects, testing and calibration, of the HEAO-2 telescope The HEAO-2 was the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date. The X-Ray Calibration Facility was built in 1976 for testing MSFC's HEAO-2. The facility is the world's largest, most advanced laboratory for simulating x-ray emissions from distant celestial objects. It produced a space-like environment in which components related to x-ray telescope imaging are tested and the quality of their performance in space is predicted. The original facility contained a 1,000-foot long by 3-foot diameter vacuum tube (for the x-ray path) cornecting an x-ray generator and an instrument test chamber. Recently, the facility was upgraded to evaluate the optical elements of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, Chandra X-Ray Observatory and Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory.

  12. A new approach to account for the medium-dependent effect in model-based dose calculations for kilovoltage x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlowski, Jason M.; Ding, George X.

    2011-07-01

    This study presents a new approach to accurately account for the medium-dependent effect in model-based dose calculations for kilovoltage (kV) x-rays. This approach is based on the hypothesis that the correction factors needed to convert dose from model-based dose calculations to absorbed dose-to-medium depend on both the attenuation characteristics of the absorbing media and the changes to the energy spectrum of the incident x-rays as they traverse media with an effective atomic number different than that of water. Using Monte Carlo simulation techniques, we obtained empirical medium-dependent correction factors that take both effects into account. We found that the correction factors can be expressed as a function of a single quantity, called the effective bone depth, which is a measure of the amount of bone that an x-ray beam must penetrate to reach a voxel. Since the effective bone depth can be calculated from volumetric patient CT images, the medium-dependent correction factors can be obtained for model-based dose calculations based on patient CT images. We tested the accuracy of this new approach on 14 patients for the case of calculating imaging dose from kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography used for patient setup in radiotherapy, and compared it with the Monte Carlo method, which is regarded as the 'gold standard'. For all patients studied, the new approach resulted in mean dose errors of less than 3%. This is in contrast to current available inhomogeneity corrected methods, which have been shown to result in mean errors of up to -103% for bone and 8% for soft tissue. Since there is a huge gain in the calculation speed relative to the Monte Carlo method (~two orders of magnitude) with an acceptable loss of accuracy, this approach provides an alternative accurate dose calculation method for kV x-rays.

  13. NuSTAR Detection of High-energy X-Ray Emission and Rapid Variability from Sagittarius Asstarf Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrière, Nicolas M.; Tomsick, John A.; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Dexter, Jason; Grefenstette, Brian; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Mori, Kaya; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.; Zhang, Shuo; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Sagittarius Asstarf harbors the supermassive black hole that lies at the dynamical center of our Galaxy. Sagittarius Asstarf spends most of its time in a low luminosity emission state but flares frequently in the infrared and X-ray, increasing up to a few hundred fold in brightness for up to a few hours at a time. The physical processes giving rise to the X-ray flares are uncertain. Here we report the detection with the NuSTAR observatory in Summer and Fall 2012 of four low to medium amplitude X-ray flares to energies up to 79 keV. For the first time, we clearly see that the power-law spectrum of Sagittarius Asstarf X-ray flares extends to high energy, with no evidence for a cutoff. Although the photon index of the absorbed power-law fits are in agreement with past observations, we find a difference between the photon index of two of the flares (significant at the 95% confidence level). The spectra of the two brightest flares (~55 times quiescence in the 2-10 keV band) are compared to simple physical models in an attempt to identify the main X-ray emission mechanism, but the data do not allow us to significantly discriminate between them. However, we confirm the previous finding that the parameters obtained with synchrotron models are, for the X-ray emission, physically more reasonable than those obtained with inverse Compton models. One flare exhibits large and rapid (<100 s) variability, which, considering the total energy radiated, constrains the location of the flaring region to be within ~10 Schwarzschild radii of the black hole.

  14. High energy X-ray phase and dark-field imaging using a random absorption mask

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongchang; Kashyap, Yogesh; Cai, Biao; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-01-01

    High energy X-ray imaging has unique advantage over conventional X-ray imaging, since it enables higher penetration into materials with significantly reduced radiation damage. However, the absorption contrast in high energy region is considerably low due to the reduced X-ray absorption cross section for most materials. Even though the X-ray phase and dark-field imaging techniques can provide substantially increased contrast and complementary information, fabricating dedicated optics for high energies still remain a challenge. To address this issue, we present an alternative X-ray imaging approach to produce transmission, phase and scattering signals at high X-ray energies by using a random absorption mask. Importantly, in addition to the synchrotron radiation source, this approach has been demonstrated for practical imaging application with a laboratory-based microfocus X-ray source. This new imaging method could be potentially useful for studying thick samples or heavy materials for advanced research in materials science. PMID:27466217

  15. High energy X-ray phase and dark-field imaging using a random absorption mask.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongchang; Kashyap, Yogesh; Cai, Biao; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-01-01

    High energy X-ray imaging has unique advantage over conventional X-ray imaging, since it enables higher penetration into materials with significantly reduced radiation damage. However, the absorption contrast in high energy region is considerably low due to the reduced X-ray absorption cross section for most materials. Even though the X-ray phase and dark-field imaging techniques can provide substantially increased contrast and complementary information, fabricating dedicated optics for high energies still remain a challenge. To address this issue, we present an alternative X-ray imaging approach to produce transmission, phase and scattering signals at high X-ray energies by using a random absorption mask. Importantly, in addition to the synchrotron radiation source, this approach has been demonstrated for practical imaging application with a laboratory-based microfocus X-ray source. This new imaging method could be potentially useful for studying thick samples or heavy materials for advanced research in materials science. PMID:27466217

  16. Understanding Electrocatalytic Pathways in Low and Medium Temperature Fuel Cells: Synchrotron-based In Situ X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mukerjee, S.; Ziegelbauer, J; Arruda, T; Ramaker, D; Shyam, B

    2008-01-01

    Over the last few decades, researchers have made significant developments in producing more advanced electrocatalytic materials for power generation applications. For example, traditional fuel cell catalysts often involve high-priced precious metals such as Pt. However, in order for fuel cells to become commercially viable, there is a need to reduce or completely remove precious metal altogether. As a result, a myriad of novel, unconventional materials have been explored such as chalcogenides, porphyrins, and organic-metal-macrocycles for low/medium temperature fuel cells as well as enzymatic and microbial fuel cells. As these materials increasingly become more complex, researchers often find themselves in search of new characterization methods, especially those which are allow in situ and operando measurements with element specificity. One such method that has received much attention for analysis of electrocatalytic materials is X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). XAS is an element specific, core level absorption technique which yields structural and electronic information. As a core electron method, XAS requires an extremely bright source, hence a synchrotron. The resulting intensity of synchrotron radiation allow for experiments to be conducted in situ, under electrochemically relevant conditions. Although a bulk-averaging technique requiring rigorous mathematical manipulation, XAS has the added benefit that it can probe materials which possess no long range order. This makes it ideal to characterize nano-scale electrocatalysts. XAS experiments are conducted by ramping the X-ray photon energy while measuring absorption of the incident beam the sample or by counting fluorescent photons released from a sample due to subsequent relaxation. Absorption mode XAS follows the Beer-Lambert Law, {mu}x = log(I{sub 0}/I{sub t}) (1) where {mu} is the absorption coefficient, x is the sample thickness and I{sub 0} and I{sub t} are the intensities of the incident and

  17. Dual-energy bone densitometry using a single 100 ns x-ray pulse.

    PubMed

    Seely, J F; Boyer, C N; Holland, G E

    1998-10-01

    A pulsed, portable hard x-ray source has been developed for medical imaging and flash x-ray absorptiometry. The source is powered by a Marx generator that drives a field emission x-ray tube which produces a 30-300 keV x-ray pulse of 100 ns duration. The x-ray fluence has dual-energy properties. The x-ray energy is relatively high early in the pulse and lower later in the pulse. The feasibility of using a single x-ray pulse for precision bone densitometry was analyzed. A computer simulation model was developed for the x-ray source, the filtration that enhances the dual-energy distribution, the absorption of the energy distribution by bone mineral and soft tissue, and the dual-energy detection system. It is feasible to determine the bone mineral density (BMD) of axial sites such as the lumbar spine and proximal femur with 2% precision over an area that is 15-20 mm in size, depending on the bone mineral and soft tissue thicknesses. An algorithm for determining the absolute BMD, to an accuracy of 2%, using a Plexiglas/TiO2 calibration phantom is discussed. At a distance of 50 cm from the source, the patient exposure is 3.7 mR. The average absorbed bone and tissue doses are 0.6 and 4.3 mrem, respectively. Factors that facilitate diagnostic measurements in clinical settings are the short patient observation time and the portability of the x-ray source. PMID:9800712

  18. Energy-dependent Orbital Modulation of X-rays and Constraints on Emission of the Jet in Cyg X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Maitra, Chandreyee; Frankowski, Adam; Skinner, Gerald K.; Misra, Ranjeev

    2012-01-01

    We study orbital modulation of X-rays from Cyg X-3, using data from Swift, INTEGRAL and RXTE. Using the wealth of the presently available data and an improved averaging method, we obtain energy-dependent folded and averaged light curves with unprecedented accuracy. We find that above 5 keV, the modulation depth decreases with the increasing energy, which is consistent with the modulation being caused by both bound-free absorption and Compton scattering in the stellar wind of the donor, with minima corresponding to the highest optical depth, which occurs around the superior conjunction. We find a decrease of the depth below 3 keV, which appears to be due to re-emission of the absorbed continuum by the wind in soft X-ray lines. Based on the shape of the folded light curves, any X-ray contribution from the jet in Cyg X-3, which emits ?-rays detected at energies > 0.1 GeV in soft spectral states, is found to be minor up to 100 keV. This implies the presence of a rather sharp low-energy break in the jet MeV-range spectrum.We also calculate phase-resolved RXTE X-ray spectra, and show the difference between the spectra corresponding to phases around the superior and inferior conjunctions can indeed be accounted for by a combined effect of bound-free absorption in an ionized medium and Compton scattering.

  19. Scintillator Evaluation for High-Energy X-Ray Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    S. S. Lutz; S. A. Baker

    2001-09-01

    This report presents results derived from a digital radiography study performed using x-rays from a 2.3 MeV, rod-pinch diode. Detailed is a parameter study of cerium-doped lutetium ortho-silicate (LSO) scintillator thickness, as it relates to system resolution and detection quantum efficiency (DQE). Additionally, the detection statistics of LSO were compared with that of CsI(Tl). As a result of this study we found the LSO scintillator with a thickness of 3 mm to yield the highest system DQE over the range of spatial frequencies from 0.75 to 2.5 mm{sup -1}.

  20. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and the Role of Relaxation Energy in Understanding Chemical Shifts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Frank O.; White, Michael G.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the measurement of electrons ejected from a system which is being irradiated with X-rays or ultraviolet photons, and a theoretical model for calculating core-electron ionization energies. (MLH)

  1. Event-Driven X-Ray CCD Detectors for High Energy Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricker, George R.

    2004-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing the Event-Driven X- Ray CCD (EDCCD) detector system for high energy astrophysics is presented. The topics include: 1) EDCCD: Description and Advantages; 2) Summary of Grant Activity Carried Out; and 3) EDCCD Test System.

  2. Instantaneous x-ray radiation energy from laser produced polystyrene plasmas for shock ignition conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, Wanli; Wei, Huiyue; Li, Zhichao; Yi, Rongqing; Zhu, Tuo; Song, Tianmin; Huang, Chengwu; Yang, Jiamin

    2013-10-15

    Laser target energy coupling mechanism is crucial in the shock ignition (SI) scheme, and x-ray radiation energy is a non-negligible portion of the laser produced plasma energy. To evaluate the x-ray radiation energy amount at conditions relevant to SI scheme, instantaneous x-ray radiation energy is investigated experimentally with continuum phase plates smoothed lasers irradiating layer polystyrene targets. Comparative laser pulses without and with shock spike are employed. With the measured x-ray angular distribution, full space x-ray radiation energy and conversion efficiency are observed. Instantaneous scaling law of x-ray conversion efficiency is obtained as a function of laser intensity and time. It should be pointed out that the scaling law is available for any laser pulse shape and intensity, with which irradiates polystyrene planar target with intensity from 2 × 10{sup 14} to 1.8 × 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. Numerical analysis of the laser energy transformation is performed, and the simulation results agree with the experimental data.

  3. Fat to muscle ratio measurements with dual energy x-ray absorbtiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A.; Luo, J.; Wang, A.; Broadbent, C.; Zhong, J.; Dilmanian, F. A.; Zafonte, F.; Zhong, Z.

    2015-07-01

    Accurate measurement of the fat-to-muscle ratio in animal model is important for obesity research. An efficient way to measure the fat to muscle ratio in animal model using dual-energy absorptiometry is presented in this paper. A radioactive source exciting x-ray fluorescence from a target material is used to provide the two x-ray energies needed. The x-rays, after transmitting through the sample, are measured with an energy-sensitive Ge detector. Phantoms and specimens were measured. The results showed that the method was sensitive to the fat to muscle ratios with good linearity. A standard deviation of a few percent in the fat to muscle ratio could be observed with the x-ray dose of 0.001 mGy.

  4. Fat to muscle ratio measurements with dual energy x-ray absorbtiometry

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, A.; Luo, J.; Wang, A.; Broadbent, C.; Zhong, J.; Dilmanian, F. A.; Zafonte, F.; Zhong, Z.

    2015-03-14

    Accurate measurement of the fat-to-muscle ratio in animal model is important for obesity research. In addition, an efficient way to measure the fat to muscle ratio in animal model using dual-energy absorptiometry is presented in this paper. A radioactive source exciting x-ray fluorescence from a target material is used to provide the two x-ray energies needed. The x-rays, after transmitting through the sample, are measured with an energy-sensitive Ge detector. Phantoms and specimens were measured. The results showed that the method was sensitive to the fat to muscle ratios with good linearity. A standard deviation of a few percent inmore » the fat to muscle ratio could be observed with the x-ray dose of 0.001 mGy.« less

  5. Fat to muscle ratio measurements with dual energy x-ray absorbtiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, A.; Luo, J.; Wang, A.; Broadbent, C.; Zhong, J.; Dilmanian, F. A.; Zafonte, F.; Zhong, Z.

    2015-03-14

    Accurate measurement of the fat-to-muscle ratio in animal model is important for obesity research. In addition, an efficient way to measure the fat to muscle ratio in animal model using dual-energy absorptiometry is presented in this paper. A radioactive source exciting x-ray fluorescence from a target material is used to provide the two x-ray energies needed. The x-rays, after transmitting through the sample, are measured with an energy-sensitive Ge detector. Phantoms and specimens were measured. The results showed that the method was sensitive to the fat to muscle ratios with good linearity. A standard deviation of a few percent in the fat to muscle ratio could be observed with the x-ray dose of 0.001 mGy.

  6. Inferring the Energy Distribution of Accelerated Electrons in Solar Flares from X-ray Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.; Sui, Linhui; Su, Yang

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the energy distribution of electrons accelerated in solar flares is important for constraining possible acceleration mechanisms and for understanding the relationships between flare X-ray sources, radio sources, and particles observed in space. Solar flare hard X-rays are primarily emitted from dense, thick-target regions in the lower atmosphere, but the electrons are understood to be accelerated higher in the corona. Various processes can distort the X-ray spectrum or the energy distribution of electrons before they reach the thick-target region. After briefly reviewing the processes that affect the X-ray spectrum and the electron distribution, I will describe recent results from a study of flare spectra from RHESSI to determine the importance of these processes in inferring the energy distribution of accelerated electrons.

  7. Energy response calibration of photon-counting detectors using X-ray fluorescence: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, H-M; Ding, H; Ziemer, BP; Molloi, S

    2014-01-01

    Accurate energy calibration is critical for the application of energy-resolved photon-counting detectors in spectral imaging. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of energy response calibration and characterization of a photon-counting detector using X-ray fluorescence. A comprehensive Monte Carlo simulation study was performed using Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) to investigate the optimal technique for X-ray fluorescence calibration. Simulations were conducted using a 100 kVp tungsten-anode spectra with 2.7 mm Al filter for a single pixel cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector with 3 × 3 mm2 in detection area. The angular dependence of X-ray fluorescence and scatter background was investigated by varying the detection angle from 20° to 170° with respect to the beam direction. The effects of the detector material, shape, and size on the recorded X-ray fluorescence were investigated. The fluorescent material size effect was considered with and without the container for the fluorescent material. In order to provide validation for the simulation result, the angular dependence of X-ray fluorescence from five fluorescent materials was experimentally measured using a spectrometer. Finally, eleven of the fluorescent materials were used for energy calibration of a CZT-based photon-counting detector. The optimal detection angle was determined to be approximately at 120° with respect to the beam direction, which showed the highest fluorescence to scatter ratio (FSR) with a weak dependence on the fluorescent material size. The feasibility of X-ray fluorescence for energy calibration of photon-counting detectors in the diagnostic X-ray energy range was verified by successfully calibrating the energy response of a CZT-based photon-counting detector. The results of this study can be used as a guideline to implement the X-ray fluorescence calibration method for photon-counting detectors in a typical imaging laboratory. PMID:25369288

  8. FEEDBACK FROM HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARIES ON THE HIGH-REDSHIFT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM: MODEL SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Power, Chris; James, Gillian; Wynn, Graham; Combet, Celine

    2013-02-10

    Massive stars at redshifts z {approx}> 6 are predicted to have played a pivotal role in cosmological reionization as luminous sources of ultraviolet (UV) photons. However, the remnants of these massive stars could be equally important as X-ray-luminous (L{sub X} {approx} 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1}) high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). Because the absorption cross section of neutral hydrogen decreases sharply with photon energy ({sigma}{proportional_to}E {sup -3}), X-rays can escape more freely than UV photons from the star-forming regions in which they are produced, allowing HMXBs to make a potentially significant contribution to the ionizing X-ray background during reionization. In this paper, we explore the ionizing power of HMXBs at redshifts z {approx}> 6 using a Monte Carlo model for a coeval stellar population of main-sequence stars and HMXBs. Using the archetypal Galactic HMXB Cygnus X-1 as our template, we propose a composite HMXB spectral energy distribution consisting of blackbody and power-law components, whose contributions depend on the accretion state of the system. We determine the time-dependent ionizing power of a combined population of UV-luminous stars and X-ray-luminous HMXBs and deduce fitting formulae for the boost in the population's ionizing power arising from HMXBs; these fits allow for simple implementation of HMXB feedback in numerical simulations. Based on this analysis, we estimate the contribution of high-redshift HMXBs to the present-day soft X-ray background, and we show that it is a factor of {approx}100-1000 smaller than the observed limit. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for the role of HMXBs in reionization and in high-redshift galaxy formation.

  9. Photon interference effect in x-ray absorption spectra over a wide energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Suzuki, M.; Kawamura, N.; Kappen, P.; Korecki, P.; Haack, N.; Materlik, G.

    2002-09-01

    We consider fundamental structures in x-ray absorption spectra over a wide energy range. We formulate the elastic scattering in addition to the photoelectric absorption in recently reported photon interference x-ray absorption fine structure (πXAFS). The simulations show excellent agreement with experimental x-ray absorption spectra for platinum and tungsten powders far above and below the L absorption edges. πXAFS can be as big as in the order of 10% of XAFS, and cannot be easily neglected in detailed analysis of XAFS and related phenomena.

  10. Calibration of an imaging crystal spectrometer for low x-ray energies

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G.; Bitter, M.

    2008-01-15

    An x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer was designed for the Hanbit magnetic mirror device to observe spectra of heliumlike neon at 13.4474 A. The spectrometer consists of a spherically bent mica crystal and an x-ray sensitive vacuum charge coupled device camera. This spectrometer can provide spatially resolved spectra, making it possible to obtain profiles of the ion charge state distribution from line ratios and profiles of the plasma rotation velocity from Doppler shift measurements. The paper describes measurements of spectral resolution of this instrument for low x-ray energies.

  11. Interferometric phase-contrast X-ray CT imaging of VX2 rabbit cancer at 35keV X-ray energy

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Tohoru; Wu Jin; Tsuchiya, Yoshinori; Lwin, Thet-Thet; Itai, Yuji; Yoneyama, Akio; Hyodo, Kazuyuki

    2004-05-12

    Imaging of large objects at 17.7-keV low x-ray energy causes huge x-ray exposure to the objects even using interferometric phase-contrast x-ray CT (PCCT). Thus, we tried to obtain PCCT images at high x-ray energy of 35keV and examined the image quality using a formalin-fixed VX2 rabbit cancer specimen with 15-mm in diameter. The PCCT system consisted of an asymmetrically cut silicon (220) crystal, a monolithic x-ray interferometer, a phase-shifter, an object cell and an x-ray CCD camera. The PCCT at 35 keV clearly visualized various inner structures of VX2 rabbit cancer such as necrosis, cancer, the surrounding tumor vessels, and normal liver tissue. Besides, image-contrast was not degraded significantly. These results suggest that the PCCT at 35 KeV is sufficient to clearly depict the histopathological morphology of VX2 rabbit cancer specimen.

  12. Low-photon-energy plasma flash x-ray generator (LPFXG-2002)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Makoto; Sato, Eiichi; Hayasi, Yasuomi; Usuki, Tatsumi; Sato, Koetsu; Tanaka, Etsuro; Mori, Hidezo; Ojima, Hidenori; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Ido, Hideaki

    2003-07-01

    In this study, we have made a low photon energy flash x-ray generator with a titanium target and have measured the radiographic characteristics. The flash x-ray generator consists of a high-voltage power supply, a high-voltage condenser, a turbo molecular pump and a flash x-ray tube. The condenser is charged up to about 30 kV, and the electric charges in the condenser are discharged to the tube after triggering the cathode. The linear plasma x-ray source forms from the target evaporation, and then the flash x-rays are generated from the plasma in the axial direction. K-series emission of titanium has been confirmed in experiments qualitatively and characteristics of the generator have been measured. K-series x-ray of titanium had a high resolution and enable us to take radiographs of a thin rabbit's ear clearly using the CR (Computed Radiography) system. The effect of titanium on the target of the soft flash x-ray tube has been indicated accordingly.

  13. Tunable narrow-photon-energy X-ray generator utilizing a tungsten-target tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Ando, Masami; Tanaka, Etsuro; Mori, Hidezo; Kawai, Toshiaki; Inoue, Takashi; Ogawa, Akira; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Onagawa, Jun; Ido, Hideaki

    2006-11-01

    A preliminary experiment for producing narrow-photon-energy cone-beam X-rays using a silicon single crystal is described. In order to produce low-photon-energy X-rays, a 100-μm-focus X-ray generator in conjunction with a (1 1 1) plane silicon crystal is employed. The X-ray generator consists of a main controller and a unit with a high-voltage circuit and a microfocus X-ray tube. The maximum tube voltage and current were 35 kV and 0.50 mA, respectively, and the X-ray intensity of the microfocus generator was 48.3 μGy/s at 1.0 m from the source with a tube voltage of 30 kV and a current of 0.50 mA. The effective photon energy is determined by Bragg's angle, and the photon-energy width is regulated by the angle delta. Using this generator in conjunction with a computed radiography system, quasi-monochromatic radiography was performed using a cone beam with an effective energy of approximately 17 keV.

  14. Low-energy x-ray irradiation for electrophysiological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schauer, D.A.; Zeman, G.H.; Pellmar, T.C.

    1989-01-01

    High-dose-rate acute whole-body exposures have been the main focus of radiobiology research conducted at the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) for many years. Extensive quantitative studies have been conducted analyzing behavioral effects, radiation-induced syndromes, and combined injury phenomena. Tolliver and Pellmar initiated a study to evaluate radiation damage to brain neurophysiology. A 50-kVp molybdenum target/filter x-ray tube was installed inside a lead-shielded Faraday cage. High-dose rates of up to 1.54 Gy/min (17.4-keV weighted average photons) were used to conduct local in vitro irradiations of the hippocampal region of guinea pig brains. Electrophysiological recordings of subtle changes in neuronal activity indicate this system is suitable for this application.

  15. Bone mineral measurement using dual energy x ray densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Steven W.

    1989-01-01

    Bone mineral measurements before and after space missions have shown that weightlessness greatly accelerates bone demineralization. Bone mineral losses as high as 1 to 3 percent per month were reported. Highly precise instrumentation is required to monitor this loss and thereby test the efficacy of treatment. During the last year, a significant improvement was made in Dual-Photon Absorptiometry by replacing the radioactive source with an x ray tube. Advantages of this system include: better precision, lower patient dose, better spacial resolution, and shorter scan times. The high precision and low radiation dose of this technique will allow detection of bone mineral changes of less than 1 percent with measurements conducted directly at the sites of interest. This will allow the required bone mineral studies to be completed in a shorter time with greater confidence.

  16. Red and Dead Supergiants: what X-ray and radio observations of type IIP supernovae reveal about the interaction of shocks with the medium the star explodes in

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Alak; Chakraborti, Sayan

    2015-08-01

    X-ray and radio emission from a class of supernovae that forms almost half of all core collapse supernovae, type II Plateau SNe (SNIIP) probe the interaction of the SN shock with the medium the parent star exploded in. We have carried out observations of a number of SN IIP with Chandra, EVLA and GMRT telescopes. Our Chandra observations of SN 2013ej and SN 2004dj measured the separate contributions of thermal emission from the SN shocks and the power-law nonthermal part arising out of accelerated particles undergoing inverse Compton scattering on low energy photons from the SN photosphere. The combination of radio and X-ray properties indicate the (lack of) equipartition between magnetic fields amplified by the shock and the relativistic particles accelerated by it. Since the SN shock travels through the circumstellar wind at a speed much higher than that of the wind set up by the progenitor, the X-ray observations track the long history of mass loss from the progenitor star. An interesting case is that of SN 2011ja, which suggests that a fraction of type IIP supernovae may interact with circumstellar medium set up by episodic or non-steady ejections from the progenitor.

  17. Comparison between absorbed dose to water standards established by water calorimetry at the LNE-LNHB and by application of international air-kerma based protocols for kilovoltage medium energy x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perichon, N.; Rapp, B.; Denoziere, M.; Daures, J.; Ostrowsky, A.; Bordy, J.-M.

    2013-05-01

    Nowadays, the absorbed dose to water for kilovoltage x-ray beams is determined from standards in terms of air-kerma by application of international dosimetry protocols. New standards in terms of absorbed dose to water has just been established for these beams at the LNE-LNHB, using water calorimetry, at a depth of 2 cm in water in accordance with protocols. The aim of this study is to compare these new standards in terms of absorbed dose to water, to the dose values calculated from the application of four international protocols based on air-kerma standards (IAEA TRS-277, AAPM TG-61, IPEMB and NCS-10). The acceleration potentials of the six beams studied are between 80 and 300 kV with half-value layers between 3.01 mm of aluminum and 3.40 mm of copper. A difference between the two methods smaller than 2.1% was reported. The standard uncertainty of water calorimetry being below 0.8%, and the one associated with the values from protocols being around 2.5%, the results are in good agreement. The calibration coefficients of some ionization chambers in terms of absorbed dose to water, established by application of calorimetry and air-kerma based dosimetry protocols, were also compared. The best agreement with the calibration coefficients established by water calorimetry was found for those established with the AAPM TG-61 protocol.

  18. Investigation of TLD-700 energy response to low energy x-ray encountered in diagnostic radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrati, Ammar; Bourouina, Mourad; Khalal-Kouache, Karima

    2016-05-01

    The aim of thiswork is to study the energy dependence of thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD-700) for low energy X-ray beams encountered in conventional diagnostic radiology. In the first step, we studied some characteristics (reproducibility and linearity) of TLD-700 chips using a 137Cs source, and selected TLD chips with reproducibility better than 2.5%. Then we determined TLD-700 energy response for diagnostic radiology X-ray qualities, and investigated its influence on air kerma estimate. A maximum deviation of 60% can be obtained if TLDs are calibrated for 137Cs radiation source and used in diagnostic radiology fields. However, this deviation became less than 20% if TLDs chips are calibrated for the reference x-ray radiation quality RQR5 (recommended by the IEC 61267 standard). Consequently, we recommend calibrating this kind of TLDdetector with RQR5 diagnostic radiology X-ray quality. This method permits to obtain a good accuracy when assessing the entrance dose in diagnostic radiology procedures.

  19. Radio and X-ray Diagnostics of Energy Release in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin

    2013-07-01

    Solar flares involve catastrophic release of magnetic energy previously stored in the Sun's corona. This dissertation focuses on studies of radio and hard X-ray emissions as diagnostics of energy release in flares. A major part of the dissertation is exploiting spatially resolved dynamic spectroscopy to study coherent radio bursts. The Frequency-Agile Solar Radiotelescope Subsystem Testbed, a three-element radio interferometer, provides the first opportunity of doing such studies on zebra-pattern bursts. The observations allow us to identify the relevant emission mechanism, enabling diagnostics of the plasma parameters in the source. With the help of coronal magnetic field extrapolations, the source is placed into a three-dimensional magnetic field configuration and its relation to the energy release is clarified. The next part of the dissertation discusses the "solar mode" commissioning of the upgraded Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). As a general purpose telescope, special provisions should be made for the VLA to enable solar observations. Based on the test results on the VLA's hardware, solar observing and calibration strategies are developed. Now the VLA is capable of observing the Sun with simultaneous imaging and dynamic spectroscopy over a large bandwidth at high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions. The upgraded VLA is used to observe decimetric type III radio bursts, which are the radio signature of propagating fast electron beams produced in flares. The new observing technique allows detailed trajectories of these electron beams to be derived. Combined with multi-wavelength observations, the properties of the energy release site, electron beams, and the surrounding coronal medium are deduced. The dissertation also presents a study on coronal hard X-ray/gamma-ray sources. Rather extreme conditions are needed to account for some observed coronal hard X-ray/gamma-ray sources using the usually-assumed non-thermal bremsstrahlung emission. This

  20. The role of x-ray Swank factor in energy-resolving photon-counting imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Tanguay, Jesse; Kim, Ho Kyung; Cunningham, Ian. A.

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: Energy-resolved x-ray imaging has the potential to improve contrast-to-noise ratio by measuring the energy of each interacting photon and applying optimal weighting factors. The success of energy-resolving photon-counting (EPC) detectors relies on the ability of an x-ray detector to accurately measure the energy of each interacting photon. However, the escape of characteristic emissions and Compton scatter degrades spectral information. This article makes the theoretical connection between accuracy and imprecision in energy measurements with the x-ray Swank factor for a-Se, Si, CdZnTe, and HgI{sub 2}-based detectors. Methods: For a detector that implements adaptive binning to sum all elements in which x-ray energy is deposited for a single interaction, energy imprecision is shown to depend on the Swank factor for a large element with x rays incident at the center. The response function for each converter material is determined using Monte Carlo methods and used to determine energy accuracy, Swank factor, and relative energy imprecision in photon-energy measurements. Results: For each material, at energies below the respective K edges, accuracy is close to unity and imprecision is only a few percent. Above the K-edge energies, characteristic emission results in a drop in accuracy and precision that depends on escape probability. In Si, and to some extent a-Se, Compton-scatter escape also degrades energy precision with increasing energy. The influence of converter thickness on energy accuracy and imprecision is modest for low-Z materials but becomes important when using high-Z materials at energies greater than the K-edge energies. Conclusions: Accuracy and precision in energy measurements by EPC detectors are determined largely by the energy-dependent x-ray Swank factor. Modest decreases in the Swank factor (5%-15%) result in large increases in relative imprecision (30%-40%).

  1. Simultaneous small- and wide-angle scattering at high X-ray energies.

    PubMed

    Daniels, J E; Pontoni, D; Hoo, Rui Ping; Honkimäki, V

    2010-07-01

    Combined small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) is a powerful technique for the study of materials at length scales ranging from atomic/molecular sizes (a few angstroms) to the mesoscopic regime ( approximately 1 nm to approximately 1 microm). A set-up to apply this technique at high X-ray energies (E > 50 keV) has been developed. Hard X-rays permit the execution of at least three classes of investigations that are significantly more difficult to perform at standard X-ray energies (8-20 keV): (i) in situ strain analysis revealing anisotropic strain behaviour both at the atomic (WAXS) as well as at the mesoscopic (SAXS) length scales, (ii) acquisition of WAXS patterns to very large q (>20 A(-1)) thus allowing atomic pair distribution function analysis (SAXS/PDF) of micro- and nano-structured materials, and (iii) utilization of complex sample environments involving thick X-ray windows and/or samples that can be penetrated only by high-energy X-rays. Using the reported set-up a time resolution of approximately two seconds was demonstrated. It is planned to further improve this time resolution in the near future. PMID:20567079

  2. High-Energy X-ray Absorption Diagnostics as an Experimental Combustion Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunnmon, Jared; Sobhani, Sadaf; Hinshaw, Waldo; Fahrig, Rebecca; Ihme, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    X-ray diagnostics such as X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) have recently been utilized for measurement of scalar concentration fields in gas-phase flow phenomena. In this study, we apply high-energy X-ray absorption techniques to visualize a laboratory-scale flame via fluoroscopic measurements by using krypton as a radiodense tracer media. Advantages of X-ray absorption diagnostics in a combustion context, including application to optically inaccessible environments and lack of ambient photon interference, are demonstrated. Analysis methods and metrics for extracting physical insights from these data are presented. The accuracy of the diagnostic is assessed via comparison to known results from canonical flame configurations, and the potential for further applications is discussed. Support from the NDSEG fellowship, Bosch, and NASA are gratefully acknolwedged.

  3. Hiresmon: A Fast High Resolution Beam Position Monitor for Medium Hard and Hard X-Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Menk, Ralf Hendrik; Giuressi, Dario; Arfelli, Fulvia; Rigon, Luigi

    2007-01-19

    The high-resolution x-ray beam position monitor (XBPM) is based on the principle of a segmented longitudinal ionization chamber with integrated readout and USB2 link. In contrast to traditional transversal ionization chambers here the incident x-rays are parallel to the collecting field which allows absolute intensity measurements with a precision better than 0.3 %. Simultaneously the beam position in vertical and horizontal direction can be measured with a frame rate of one kHz. The precision of position encoding depends only on the SNR of the synchrotron radiation and is in the order of micro meters at one kHz frame rate and 108 photon /sec at 9 KeV.

  4. A Medium-Format, Mixed-Mode Pixel Array Detector for Kilohertz X-ray Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, M. W.; Chamberlain, D.; Green, K. S.; Philipp, H. T.; Purohit, P.; Strohman, C.; Gruner, S. M.

    2013-03-01

    An x-ray pixel array detector (PAD) capable of framing up to 1 kHz is described. This hybrid detector is constructed from a 3-side buttable, 128×128 pixel module based upon the mixed-mode pixel array detector (MMPAD) chip developed jointly by Cornell and Area Detector Systems Corporation (Poway, CA). The chip uses a charge integrating front end for a high instantaneous count rate yet with single photon sensitivity. In-pixel circuitry utilizing a digital overflow counter extends the per frame dynamic range to >4×107 x-rays/pixel. Results are shown from a base configuration of a 2×3 module array (256×384 pixels).

  5. Calculating the X-Ray Fluorescence from the Planet Mercury Due to High-Energy Electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbine, T. H.; Trombka, J. I.; Bergstrom, P. M., Jr.; Christon, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    The least-studied terrestrial planet is Mercury due to its proximity to the Sun, which makes telescopic observations and spacecraft encounters difficult. Our lack of knowledge about Mercury should change in the near future due to the recent launching of MESSENGER, a Mercury orbiter. Another mission (BepiColombo) is currently being planned. The x-ray spectrometer on MESSENGER (and planned for BepiColombo) can characterize the elemental composition of a planetary surface by measuring emitted fluorescent x-rays. If electrons are ejected from an atom s inner shell by interaction with energetic particles such as photons, electrons, or ions, electrons from an outer shell can transfer to the inner shell. Characteristic x-rays are then emitted with energies that are the difference between the binding energy of the ion in its excited state and that of the ion in its ground state. Because each element has a unique set of energy levels, each element emits x-rays at a unique set of energies. Electrons and ions usually do not have the needed flux at high energies to cause significant x-ray fluorescence on most planetary bodies. This is not the case for Mercury where high-energy particles were detected during the Mariner 10 flybys. Mercury has an intrinsic magnetic field that deflects the solar wind, resulting in a bow shock in the solar wind and a magnetospheric cavity. Electrons and ions accelerated in the magnetosphere tend to follow its magnetic field lines and can impact the surface on Mercury s dark side Modeling has been done to determine if x-ray fluorescence resulting from the impact of high-energy electrons accelerated in Mercury's magnetosphere can be detected by MESSENGER. Our goal is to understand how much bulk chemical information can be obtained from x-ray fluorescence measurements on the dark side of Mercury.

  6. ''Hybrid'' calibrations of a Dual Energy X-ray Scanner for material testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröger, C.; Bartle, C. M.; West, J. G.

    2006-05-01

    Conventional x-ray tubes produce a fan-shaped x-ray beam covering a large spectrum of energies, which is why the fundamental law of x-ray attenuation is not readily applicable. As the mathematical formulation of the problem would be too cumbersome, calibrations using well-defined objects are carried out, which in turn allow the use of multienergy x-rays for measurements. Occasionally, such calibrations may not lead to the desired results. This could be for instance due to an insensitivity of x-rays towards low atomic number elements. Here we present such a case on hand the example of raw natural fibre. The DEXA parameters correlated with the fibre parameter wool base, but show distinct correlation for geographical regions of the origin of the wool. A calibration that is valid independently of geographical origin can be achieved by including independently measured parameters of the calibration body. We demonstrate a successful calibration that uses dual energy x-ray scanning technology as well as a size parameter of the fibre in the regression equation.

  7. High-energy processes in Young Stellar Objects -- the radio--X-ray (dis)connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbrich, Jan; Wolk, Scott; Osten, Rachel

    2009-09-01

    Low-mass young stellar objects show high levels of magnetic activity in a wide spectral range. Powerful flares have been observed from X-ray to radio wavelengths. It has been expected that radio and X-ray emission from YSOs are correlated if magnetic fields close to the star are responsible for both nonthermal radio emission (usually gyrosynchrotron radiation) and thermal hot-plasma X-ray emission (see Guedel & Benz 1994). These high-energy processes strongly influence the surroundings of the YSOs, including irradiation of their disks. A deeper understanding of these processes requires taking into account their manifestations in different spectral ranges. However, the strong variability of YSOs ideally necessitates simultaneous multi-wavelength observations or at least a large sample of sources. While a general correlation of radio and X-ray luminosities of phenomena ranging from solar flares to active stars has been found for more evolved stars, it remains unclear to what degree it applies to YSOs -- particularly their earliest evolutionary stages. Drawing from the latest simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of star-forming regions as well as on archival data from the Chandra Orion Ultra-deep project, we present an update on the question of whether and how the radio and X-ray properties of YSOs are correlated and what this tells us about high-energy processes in YSOs compared to other classes of active stars. We mostly find a very limited relation between the X-ray and radio fluxes indicating a non-magnetic origin for some of the radio or X-ray emission.

  8. HEAO 1 observations of high-energy X-rays from 3C273. [quasar emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primini, F. A.; Cooke, B. A.; Dobson, C. A.; Howe, S. K.; Scheepmaker, A.; Wheaton, W. A.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Baity, W. A.; Gruber, D. E.; Matteson, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    The first detection of high energy (13 to 120 keV) X rays from the quasar 3C273, made by the HEAO 1 satellite, is reported. Observations were made with the 13 to 180 keV slat collimated detectors of the high energy X-ray and low energy gamma-ray (A4) experiment during December 1977-January 1978 and June-July 1978. Results are consistent with the previously observed X-ray flux variability on a scale of months. Photon count rates are presented for each of five energy bands and count rate and photon spectra for the June through July 1978 observations are derived. A comparison of the data obtained with that at lower X-ray energies and higher gamma-ray energies indicates that there is an overall spectral steepening from low to high energies and a possible break near 20 keV, which may be due to the gamma rays originating from a different region than that of the X rays.

  9. Compensational scintillation detector with a flat energy response for flash X-ray measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Liang; Quan Lin; Zhang Zhongbing; Ouyang Xiaoping; Liu Bin; Liu Jinliang

    2013-01-15

    To measure the intensity of flash X-ray sources directly, a novel scintillation detector with a fast time response and flat energy response is developed by combining film scintillators of doped ZnO crystal and fast organic scintillator together. Through compensation design, the dual-scintillator detector (DSD) achieved a flat energy response to X-rays from tens of keV to several MeV, and sub-nanosecond time response by coupling to ultrafast photo-electronic devices. A prototype detector was fabricated according to the theoretical design; it employed ZnO:In and EJ228 with thicknesses of 0.3 mm and 0.1 mm, respectively. The energy response of this detector was tested on monoenergetic X-ray and {gamma}-ray sources. The detector performs very well with a sensitivity fluctuation below 5% for 8 discrete energy points within the 40-250 keV energy region and for other energies of 662 keV and 1.25 MeV as well, showing good accordance with the theoretical design. Additionally, the detector works properly for the application to the flash X-ray radiation field absolute intensity measurement. This DSD may be very useful for the diagnosis of time-resolved dynamic physical processes of flash X-ray sources without knowing the exact energy spectrum.

  10. Evaluating the performance of a MOSFET dosimeter at diagnostic X-ray energies for interventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Chida, Koichi; Inaba, Youhei; Masuyama, Hanako; Yanagawa, Isao; Mori, Issei; Saito, Haruo; Maruoka, Shin; Zuguchi, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    For reducing the risk of skin injury during interventional radiology (IR) procedures, it has been suggested that physicians track patients' exposure doses. The metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter is designed to measure patient exposure dose during radiotherapy applications at megavoltage photon energies. Our purpose in this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a MOSFET dosimeter (OneDose system) to measure patients' skin dose during exposure to diagnostic X-ray energies used in IR. The response of the OneDose system was almost constant at diagnostic X-ray energies, although the sensitivity was higher than that at megavoltage photon energies. We found that the angular dependence was minimal at diagnostic X-ray energies. The OneDose is almost invisible on X-ray images at diagnostic energies. Furthermore, the OneDose is easy to handle. The OneDose sensor performs well at diagnostic X-ray energies, although real-time measurements are not feasible. Thus, the OneDose system may prove useful in measuring patient exposure dose during IR. PMID:20821130

  11. Evaluation of Exposure From a Low Energy X-Ray Device Using Thermoluminescent Dosimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Harris, William S., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The exposure from an electron beam welding device was evaluated using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The device generated low energy X-rays which the current dose equivalent conversion algorithm was not designed to evaluate making it necessary to obtain additional information relating to TLD operation at the photon energies encountered with the device. This was accomplished by performing irradiations at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) using low energy X-ray techniques. The resulting data was used to determine TLD badge response for low energy X-rays and to establish the relationship between TLD element response and the dose equivalent at specific depths in tissue for these photon energies. The new energy/dose equivalent calibration data was used to calculate the shallow and eye dose equivalent of badges exposed to the device.

  12. High energy X-ray and radio studies of Scorpius X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, M. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Dolan, J. F.; Crannell, C. J.; Maurer, G. S.; Frost, K. J.; Orwig, L. E.; Graf, W.; Price, K. M.

    1978-01-01

    The results from extended high energy X-ray observations of Scorpius XR-1 from the OSO-8 satellite are reported here. The source was observed for a total of 15 days in 1975, 1977 and 1978. Simultaneous 10.7 GHz and 4.75 GHz radio data were obtained during the 1978 observation, and low energy X-ray data during the 1975 and 1978 observations. The data reveals a lack of any correlation between the high energy X-rays and the other energy ranges. A three standard deviation upper limit of 22% was obtained for any modulation of the high energy flux with the binary period. No high energy tail was observed at any time.

  13. Characteristics of the low photon energy plasma x-ray generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Toriyabe, Hiroyuki; Sagae, Michiaki; Hayasi, Yasuomi; Usuki, Tatsumi; Sato, Koetsu; Ido, Hideaki; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Tamakawa, Yoshiharu

    2001-12-01

    The tentative experiment for production low photon energy characteristic x-rays using a capillary is described. The capillary of this flash x-ray tube was improved in order to increase the x-ray intensity and to generate high-intensity characteristic x-rays by forming the linear plasma x-ray source. The generator consists of a high-voltage power supply, a polarity-inversion ignitron pulse generator, a turbo-molecular pump, and a radiation tube with a capillary. A high-voltage condenser of 0.2(mu) F in the pulse generator is charged up to 20 kV by the power supply, and the electric charges in the condenser are discharged to the capillary in the tube after closing the ignitron. In the present work, the pump evacuates air from the tube with a pressure of about 1 mPa, and the aluminum anode and cathode electrodes are employed to produce characteristic x-rays. The diameter and the length of the capillary are 2.0 and 29 mm, respectively, and both the cathode voltage and the discharge current displayed almost the damped oscillations. The peak values of the voltage and current increased when the charging voltage was increase, and their maximum values were -9.2 kV and 4.6 kA, respectively. The x-ray durations detected by a 1.6 micrometers aluminum filter were less than 10microsecond(s) , and we observe the intensity of aluminum characteristic x-rays.

  14. ALEXIS (Array of Low-Energy X-Ray Imaging Sensors): A narrow-band survey/monitor of the ultrasoft x-ray sky

    SciTech Connect

    Priedhorsky, W.C.; Bloch, J.J.; Cordova, F.; Smith, B.W.; Ulibarri, M.; Chavez, J.; Evans, E.; Seigmund, O.H.W.; Marshall, H.; Vallerga, J.

    1989-01-01

    Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories are building an ultrasoft X-ray monitor experiment. This experiment, called ALEXIS (Array of Low-Energy X-Ray Imaging Sensors), consists of six compact normal-incidence telescopes. ALEXIS will operate in the range 70--110 eV. The ultrasoft X-ray/EUV band is nearly uncharted territory for astrophysics. ALEXIS, with its wide fields-of-view and well-defined wavelength bands, will complement the upcoming NASA Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer and ROSAT EUV Wide Field Camera, which are sensitive broad-band survey experiments. The program objectives of ALEXIS are to (1) demonstrate the feasibility of a wide field-of-view, normal incidence ultrasoft X-ray telescope system and (2) to determine ultrasoft X-ray backgrounds in the space environment. As a dividend, ALEXIS will pursue the following scientific objectives: (1) to map the diffuse background, with unprecedented angular resolution, in several emission-line bands, (2) to perform a narrow-band survey of point sources, (3) to search for transient phenomena in the ultrasoft X-ray band, and (4) to provide synoptic monitoring of variable ultrasoft X-ray sources such as cataclysmic variables and flare stars. ALEXIS is designed to be flown on a small autonomous payload carrier (a minisat) that could be launched from any expendable launch vehicle. The experiment weighs 100 pounds, draws 40 watts, and produces 10 kbps of data. It can be flown in any low earth orbit. Onboard data storage allows operation and tracking from a single ground station at Los Alamos. 57 refs., 12 figs.

  15. Plasma Diagnostic Calibration and Characterizations with High Energy X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Zaheer Ali

    2009-06-05

    National Security Technologies’ High Energy X-ray (HEX) Facility is unique in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. The HEX provides fluorescent X-rays of 5 keV to 100 keV with fluence of 10^5–10^6 photons/cm^2/second at the desired line energy. Low energy lines can be filtered, and both filters and fluorescers can be changed rapidly. We present results of calibrating image plates (sensitivity and modulation transfer function), a Bremsstrahlung spectrometer (stacked filters and image plates), and the National Ignition Facility’s Filter- Fluorescer Experiment (FFLEX) high energy X-ray spectrometer. We also show results of a scintillator light yield and alignment study for a neutron imaging system.

  16. Energy calibration of the pixels of spectral X-ray detectors.

    PubMed

    Panta, Raj Kumar; Walsh, Michael F; Bell, Stephen T; Anderson, Nigel G; Butler, Anthony P; Butler, Philip H

    2015-03-01

    The energy information acquired using spectral X-ray detectors allows noninvasive identification and characterization of chemical components of a material. To achieve this, it is important that the energy response of the detector is calibrated. The established techniques for energy calibration are not practical for routine use in pre-clinical or clinical research environment. This is due to the requirements of using monochromatic radiation sources such as synchrotron, radio-isotopes, and prohibitively long time needed to set up the equipment and make measurements. To address these limitations, we have developed an automated technique for calibrating the energy response of the pixels in a spectral X-ray detector that runs with minimal user intervention. This technique uses the X-ray tube voltage (kVp) as a reference energy, which is stepped through an energy range of interest. This technique locates the energy threshold where a pixel transitions from not-counting (off) to counting (on). Similarly, we have developed a technique for calibrating the energy response of individual pixels using X-ray fluorescence generated by metallic targets directly irradiated with polychromatic X-rays, and additionally γ-rays from (241)Am. This technique was used to measure the energy response of individual pixels in CdTe-Medipix3RX by characterizing noise performance, threshold dispersion, gain variation and spectral resolution. The comparison of these two techniques shows the energy difference of 1 keV at 59.5 keV which is less than the spectral resolution of the detector (full-width at half-maximum of 8 keV at 59.5 keV). Both techniques can be used as quality control tools in a pre-clinical multi-energy CT scanner using spectral X-ray detectors. PMID:25051546

  17. Pulse energy measurement at the hard x-ray laser in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Tanaka, T.; Saito, N.; Kurosawa, T.; Richter, M.; Sorokin, A. A.; Tiedtke, K.; Kudo, T.; Yabashi, M.; Tono, K.; Ishikawa, T.

    2012-07-09

    The pulse energies of a free electron laser have accurately been measured in the hard x-ray spectral range. In the photon energy regime from 4.4 keV to 16.8 keV, pulse energies up to 100 {mu}J were obtained at the hard x-ray laser facility SACLA (SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free-electron LAser). Two independent methods, using a cryogenic radiometer and a gas monitor detector, were applied and agreement within 3.3% was achieved. Based on our validated pulse energy measurement, a SACLA online monitor detector could be calibrated for all future experiments.

  18. The 20 element HgI2 energy dispersive x ray array detector system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwanczyk, J. A.; Dorri, N.; Wang, M.; Szczebiot, R. W.; Dabrowski, A. J.; Hedman, B.; Hodgson, K. O.; Patt, B. E.

    1991-11-01

    This paper describes recent progress in the development of HgI2 energy dispersive x-ray detector arrays and associated miniaturized processing electronics for synchrotron radiation research applications. The experimental results with a 20 element array detector were obtained under realistic synchrotron beam conditions at SSRL. An energy resolution of 250 eV (FWHM) at 5.9 keV (Mn-K(sub a)) was achieved. Energy resolution and throughput measurements versus input count rate and energy of incoming radiation have been measured. Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectra were taken from diluted samples simulating proteins with nickel.

  19. X-RAY SEARCHES FOR EMISSION FROM THE WHIM IN THE GALACTIC HALO AND THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Bregman, Joel N.; Otte, Birgit; Irwin, Jimmy A.; Putman, Mary E.; Lloyd-Davies, Edward J.; Bruens, Christian E-mail: otteb@umich.edu E-mail: mputman@astro.columbia.edu E-mail: cbruens@astro.uni-bonn.de

    2009-07-10

    At least 50% of the baryons in the local universe are undetected and predicted to be in a hot dilute phase (10{sup 5}-10{sup 7} K) in low and moderate overdensity environments. We searched for the predicted diffuse faint emission through shadowing observations whereby cool foreground gas absorbs more distant diffuse emission. Observations were obtained with Chandra and XMM-Newton. Using the cold gas in two galaxies, NGC 891 and NGC 5907, shadows were not detected and a newer observation of NGC 891 fails to confirm a previously reported X-ray shadow. Our upper limits lie above model predictions. For Local Group studies, we used a cloud in the Magellanic Stream and a compact high-velocity cloud to search for a shadow. Instead of a shadow, the X-ray emission was brighter toward the Magellanic Stream cloud and there is a less significant brightness enhancement toward the other cloud also. The brightness enhancement toward the Magellanic Stream cloud is probably due to an interaction with a hot ambient medium that surrounds the Milky Way. We suggest that this interaction drives a shock into the cloud, heating the gas to X-ray emitting temperatures.

  20. Probing X-Ray Absorption and Optical Extinction in the Interstellar Medium Using Chandra Observations of Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foight, Dillon R.; Güver, Tolga; Özel, Feryal; Slane, Patrick O.

    2016-07-01

    We present a comprehensive study of interstellar X-ray extinction using the extensive Chandra supernova remnant (SNR) archive and use our results to refine the empirical relation between the hydrogen column density and optical extinction. In our analysis, we make use of the large, uniform data sample to assess various systematic uncertainties in the measurement of the interstellar X-ray absorption. Specifically, we address systematic uncertainties that originate from (i) the emission models used to fit SNR spectra; (ii) the spatial variations within individual remnants; (iii) the physical conditions of the remnant such as composition, temperature, and non-equilibrium regions; and (iv) the model used for the absorption of X-rays in the interstellar medium. Using a Bayesian framework to quantify these systematic uncertainties, and combining the resulting hydrogen column density measurements with the measurements of optical extinction toward the same remnants, we find the empirical relation N H = (2.87 ± 0.12) × 1021 A V cm‑2, which is significantly higher than the previous measurements.

  1. The extended medium sensitivity survey distant cluster sample - X-ray data and interpretation of the luminosity evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, J. P.; Gioia, I. M.; Maccacaro, T.; Morris, S. L.; Stocke, J. T.; Wolter, A.

    1992-01-01

    The X-ray properties of a cluster of galaxies subsample of the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey is described. A summary of this sample and its implication has been presented previously; this paper gives the full details. The cluster subsample is 98.4 percent identified and contains 93 X-ray-selected clusters to a redshift of 0.58. The cluster X-ray luminosity function at three cosmic epochs is derived. While the present luminosity function agrees with previous determinations at the lowest redshifts, it is found that the volume density of high-luminosity clusters is greater now than it was in the past. The normalization, shape, and time dependence of the luminosity function can be described by a simple hierarchical formation model with parameters which also describe the temperature function of an independent sample of low-redshift clusters. In this model the comoving hot gas density remains constant with time at least to redshifts of order 0.35.

  2. Analytic model of energy-absorption response functions in compound X-ray detector materials.

    PubMed

    Yun, Seungman; Kim, Ho Kyung; Youn, Hanbean; Tanguay, Jesse; Cunningham, Ian A

    2013-10-01

    The absorbed energy distribution (AED) in X-ray imaging detectors is an important factor that affects both energy resolution and image quality through the Swank factor and detective quantum efficiency. In the diagnostic energy range (20-140 keV), escape of characteristic photons following photoelectric absorption and Compton scatter photons are primary sources of absorbed-energy dispersion in X-ray detectors. In this paper, we describe the development of an analytic model of the AED in compound X-ray detector materials, based on the cascaded-systems approach, that includes the effects of escape and reabsorption of characteristic and Compton-scatter photons. We derive analytic expressions for both semi-infinite slab and pixel geometries and validate our approach by Monte Carlo simulations. The analytic model provides the energy-dependent X-ray response function of arbitrary compound materials without time-consuming Monte Carlo simulations. We believe this model will be useful for correcting spectral distortion artifacts commonly observed in photon-counting applications and optimal design and development of novel X-ray detectors. PMID:23744671

  3. Volumetric measurement of residual stress using high energy x-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitesell, R.; McKenna, A.; Wendt, S.; Gray, J.

    2016-02-01

    We present results and recent developments from our laboratory, bench-top high energy x-ray diffraction system (HEXRD), between diffraction energies 50 and 150 KeV, to measure internal strain of moderately sized objects. Traditional x-ray strain measurements are limited to a few microns depth due to the use of Cu Kα1 Mo Kα1 radiation. The use of high energy x-rays for volumetric measurements of strain is typically the domain of synchrotron sources. We discuss the use of industrial 320kVp tube sources to generate a brighter x-ray beam along with a method using the intrinsic 43 eV width of the Kα1 characteristic peak of tungsten to measure volumetric strains in a number of industrially relevant materials. We will present volumetric strain measurements from two examples, first, additive manufacturing (AM) parts with various build configurations and, secondly, residual strain depth profiles from shot peened surface treatments. The spatial resolution of these depth profiles is ˜75 microns. The development of a faster method as compared to energy dispersive or θ-2θ scans is based on the intensity variation measurement of the strain using the aforementioned 43 eV characteristic tungsten kα line. We will present recent results on the development of this new tool and on x-ray diffraction measurements at high energy.

  4. X-ray ionization yields and energy spectra in liquid argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondar, A.; Buzulutskov, A.; Dolgov, A.; Shekhtman, L.; Sokolov, A.

    2016-04-01

    The main purpose of this work is to provide reference data on X-ray ionization yields and energy spectra in liquid Ar to the studies in the field of Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors (CRADs) for rare-event and other experiments, based on liquid Ar detectors. We present the results of two related researches. First, the X-ray recombination coefficients in the energy range of 10-1000 keV and ionization yields at different electric fields, between 0.6 and 2.3 kV/cm, are determined in liquid Ar based on the results of a dedicated experiment. Second, the energy spectra of pulsed X-rays in liquid Ar in the energy range of 15-40 keV, obtained in given experiments including that with the two-phase CRAD, are interpreted and compared to those calculated using a computer program, to correctly determine the absorbed X-ray energy. The X-ray recombination coefficients and ionization yields have for the first time been presented for liquid Ar in systematic way.

  5. Room-temperature mercuric iodide spectrometry for low-energy X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusmiss, J. H.; Barton, J. B.; Huth, G. C.; Economou, T. E.; Turkevich, A. L.; Iwanczyk, J. S.; Dabrowski, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    A discussion of the limits of energy resolution in different energy ranges is given. The energy resolution of a spectrometer is analyzed in terms of the parameters characterizing the crystal, the detector, and the amplification electronics. A high-resolution room-temperature HgI2 spectrometry system was used to measure low-energy X-ray fluorescence spectra. For the MgK-alpha X-ray line the measured resolution was 245 eV (fwhm); the electronic noise linewidth of the system was 225 eV. Alpha-particles were used to excite X-ray fluorescence from low-Z elements separately or in combination. The shape of the photopeaks in the spectra is discussed.

  6. Quantitative simulation and density reconstruction in high-energy X-ray radiograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Li; Xu, Haibo

    2014-03-01

    Numerical radiograph using Monte Carlo method is used to study fidelity of density reconstruction in high-energy X-ray radiography. A density reconstruction method for a polyenergetic X-ray source and an object composed of different materials is proposed. The method includes energy spectrum, angular spectrum and spot size of photon source. And it includes mass absorption coefficients explicitly in density reconstruction as well. A constrained conjugate gradient algorithm and variation regularization are applied to determine material edges and density reconstruction of a French test object. It shows that the method is valid for density reconstruction and energy spectrum of imaging photons is important in obtaining accurate material densities in high-energy X-ray radiograph.

  7. X-ray grating interferometry at photon energies over 180 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Yaniz, M.; Koch, F.; Zanette, I.; Rack, A.; Meyer, P.; Kunka, D.; Hipp, A.; Mohr, J.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2015-04-01

    We report on the implementation and characterization of grating interferometry operating at an x-ray energy of 183 keV. With the possibility to use this technique at high x-ray energies, bigger specimens could be studied in a quantitative way. Also, imaging strongly absorbing specimens will benefit from the advantages of the phase and dark-field signals provided by grating interferometry. However, especially at these high photon energies the performance of the absorption grating becomes a key point on the quality of the system, because the grating lines need to keep their small width of a couple of micrometers and exhibit a greater height of hundreds of micrometers. The performance of high aspect ratio absorption gratings fabricated with different techniques is discussed. Further, a dark-field image of an alkaline multicell battery highlights the potential of high energy x-ray grating based imaging.

  8. X-ray grating interferometry at photon energies over 180 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz-Yaniz, M.; Koch, F.; Meyer, P.; Kunka, D.; Mohr, J.; Zanette, I.; Rack, A.; Hipp, A.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2015-04-13

    We report on the implementation and characterization of grating interferometry operating at an x-ray energy of 183 keV. With the possibility to use this technique at high x-ray energies, bigger specimens could be studied in a quantitative way. Also, imaging strongly absorbing specimens will benefit from the advantages of the phase and dark-field signals provided by grating interferometry. However, especially at these high photon energies the performance of the absorption grating becomes a key point on the quality of the system, because the grating lines need to keep their small width of a couple of micrometers and exhibit a greater height of hundreds of micrometers. The performance of high aspect ratio absorption gratings fabricated with different techniques is discussed. Further, a dark-field image of an alkaline multicell battery highlights the potential of high energy x-ray grating based imaging.

  9. Design and Implementation of an Acoustic X-ray Detector to Measure the LCLS Beam Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Loos, Jennifer L.; /San Jose State U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    On April 11, 2009, first light was seen from LCLS. The present apparatus being used to measure the x-ray beam energy is the Total Energy Sensor which uses a suite of thermal sensors. Another device is needed to cross-check the energy measurements. This new diagnostic tool utilizes radiation acoustic phenomena to determine the x-ray beam energy. A target is hit by the x-rays from the beam, and a voltage is generated in two piezoelectric sensors attached to the target in response to the consequent deformation. Once the voltage is known, the power can be obtained. Thermal sensors will also be attached to the target for calibration purposes. Material selection and design were based on: durability, ultra-high vacuum compatibility, safety and thermal properties. The target material was also chosen for its acoustic properties which were determined from tests using a frequency generator and laser. Initial tests suggest the device will function as anticipated.

  10. Strain Measurements using High Energy White X-rays at SPring-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shobu, T.; Kaneko, H.; Mizuki, J.; Konishi, H.; Shibano, J.; Hirata, T.; Suzuki, K.

    2007-01-01

    The strain in the bulk of a material was evaluated using high energy white X-rays from a synchrotron radiation source at SPring-8. The specimen, which was a 5 mm thick austenitic stainless steel sample (JIS-SUS304L), was subjected to bending. The internal strain was measured using white X-rays, which ranged in energy from 60 keV to 125 keV. Highly accurate internal strain measurements were accomplished by simultaneously using strain data from several lattice planes of α -Fe. Furthermore, utilizing diffracted beams with a high energy, a high peak count, and a profile similar to a Gaussian distribution decreased the error of the strain measurement The results indicated that high energy white X-rays can effectively measure the internal strain at a millimeter depth.

  11. Physics-based modeling of X-ray CT measurements with energy-integrating detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yong; Gao, Hewei; Wu, Mingye; Pack, Jed D.; Xu, Hao; Tao, Kun; Fitzgerald, Paul F.; De Man, Bruno

    2014-03-01

    Computer simulation tools for X-ray CT are important for research efforts in developing reconstructionmethods, designing new CT architectures, and improving X-ray source and detector technologies. In this paper, we propose a physics-based modeling method for X-ray CT measurements with energy-integrating detectors. It accurately accounts for the dependence characteristics on energy, depth and spatial location of the X-ray detection process, which is either ignored or over simplified in most existing CT simulation methods. Compared with methods based on Monte Carlo simulations, it is computationally much more efficient due to the use of a look-up table for optical collection efficiency. To model the CT measurments, the proposed model considers five separate effects: energy- and location-dependent absorption of the incident X-rays, conversion of the absorbed X-rays into the optical photons emitted by the scintillator, location-dependent collection of the emitted optical photons, quantumefficiency of converting fromoptical photons to electrons, and electronic noise. We evaluated the proposed method by comparing the noise levels in the reconstructed images from measured data and simulations of a GE LightSpeed VCT system. Using the results of a 20 cm water phantom and a 35 cm polyethylene (PE) disk at various X-ray tube voltages (kVp) and currents (mA), we demonstrated that the proposed method produces realistic CT simulations. The difference in noise standard deviation between measurements and simulations is approximately 2% for the water phantom and 10% for the PE phantom.

  12. Energy Dispersive X-ray Tomography for 3D Elemental Mapping of Individual Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Slater, Thomas J A; Lewis, Edward A; Haigh, Sarah J

    2016-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy within the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) provides accurate elemental analysis with high spatial resolution, and is even capable of providing atomically resolved elemental maps. In this technique, a highly focused electron beam is incident upon a thin sample and the energy of emitted X-rays is measured in order to determine the atomic species of material within the beam path. This elementally sensitive spectroscopy technique can be extended to three dimensional tomographic imaging by acquiring multiple spectrum images with the sample tilted along an axis perpendicular to the electron beam direction. Elemental distributions within single nanoparticles are often important for determining their optical, catalytic and magnetic properties. Techniques such as X-ray tomography and slice and view energy dispersive X-ray mapping in the scanning electron microscope provide elementally sensitive three dimensional imaging but are typically limited to spatial resolutions of > 20 nm. Atom probe tomography provides near atomic resolution but preparing nanoparticle samples for atom probe analysis is often challenging. Thus, elementally sensitive techniques applied within the scanning transmission electron microscope are uniquely placed to study elemental distributions within nanoparticles of dimensions 10-100 nm. Here, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy within the STEM is applied to investigate the distribution of elements in single AgAu nanoparticles. The surface segregation of both Ag and Au, at different nanoparticle compositions, has been observed. PMID:27403838

  13. X-Ray Lines Close to Kll Auger Electron Energies from Iron, Cobalt, Nickel, and Copper Monocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Yeon Deog

    1990-01-01

    By x-ray bombardment of metal monocrystals (Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu), x-rays of KLL radiative Auger electrons (KLL RAE) can be observed on the low energy side of the Kalpha lines. The energies of the x-rays of the KLL RAE of each monocrystal are the same for different lattice planes and when different kinds of x-ray tubes (Mo, W, and Cu) are used. Therefore, the peak energies detected within the KLL Auger electron energy limit are interpreted as KLL RAE x-rays. The measured intensity ratios of KLL/Kalpha are about 0.3%. Additionally, the ratio of I(Kbeta )/I(Kalpha) and I(Si escape peak)/I(Kalpha) are measured. All of these values agree well with theoretical values. The beam shapes of KLL RAE x-rays are studied by taking pictures of x-ray films. The intensity distribution for Ni and Cu are measured by changing the crystal angle with respect to the incident x-ray beam near the Bragg angles of KLL RAE x-rays. It is shown that the KLL RAE x-rays are very sharp and stimulated when the crystal is set at the Bragg angle of the KLL RAE with respect to the incident beam, which contains both the pumping radiation and Bremsstrahlung of the frequencies in the KLL RAE range in which the KLL x-rays stimulation is achieved.

  14. Z-pinches as intense x-ray sources for high energy density physics application

    SciTech Connect

    Matzen, M.K.

    1997-02-01

    Fast z-pinch implosions can convert more than 10% of the stored electrical energy in a pulsed-power accelerator into x rays. These x rays are produced when an imploding cylindrical plasma, driven by the magnetic field pressure associated with very large axial currents, stagnates upon the cylindrical axis of symmetry. On the Saturn pulsed-power accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories, for example, currents of 6 to 8 MA with a risetime of less than 50 ns are driven through cylindrically-symmetric loads, producing implosions velocities as high as 100 cm/{mu}s and x-ray energies as high as 500 kJ. The keV component of the resulting x-ray spectrum has been used for many years 8 a radiation source for material response studies. Alternatively, the x-ray output can be thermalized into a near-Planckian x-ray source by containing it within a large cylindrical radiation case. These large volume, long-lived radiation sources have recently been used for ICF-relevant ablator physics experiments as well as astrophysical opacity and radiation-material interaction experiments. Hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and cylindrical load symmetry are critical, limiting factors in determining the assembled plasma densities and temperatures, and thus in the x-ray pulse widths that can be produced on these accelerators. In recent experiments on the Saturn accelerator, these implosion nonuniformities have been minimized by using uniform-fill gas puff loads or by using wire arrays with as many a 192 wires. These techniques produced significant improvements in the pinched plasma quality, Zn reproducibility, and x-ray output power. X-ray pulse widths of less than 5 ns and peak powers of 75{+-}10 TW have been achieved with arrays of 120 tungsten wires. These powers represent greater than a factor of three in power amplification over the electrical power of the Saturn n accelerator, and are a record for x-ray powers in the laboratory.

  15. Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction in the diamond anvil, high-pressure apparatus - Comparison of synchrotron and conventional X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spain, I. L.; Black, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The use of both conventional fixed-anode X-ray sources and synchrotron radiation to carry out energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction experiments at high pressure in a diamond anvil cell, is discussed. The photon flux at the sample and at the detector for the two cases are compared and the results are presented in graphs. It is shown that synchrotron radiation experiments can be performed with nearly two orders of magnitude increase in data rate if superior detectors and detector electronics are available.

  16. Combination of Raman, Infrared, and X-Ray Energy-Dispersion Spectroscopies and X-Ray Diffraction to Study a Fossilization Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sousa Filho, Francisco Eduardo; da Silva, João Hermínio; Feitosa Saraiva, Antônio Álamo; Brito, Deyvid Dennys S.; Viana, Bartolomeu Cruz; de Oliveira Abagaro, Bruno Tavares; de Tarso Cavalcante Freire, Paulo

    2011-12-01

    X-ray diffraction was combined with X-ray energy-dispersion, Fourier-transform infrared, and Raman spectroscopies to study the fossilization of a Cretaceous specimen of the plant Brachyphyllum castilhoi, a fossil from the Ipubi Formation, in the Araripe Sedimentary Basin, Northeastern Brazil. Among the possible fossilization processes, which could involve pyrite, silicon oxide, calcium oxide, or other minerals, we were able to single out pyritization as the central mechanism producing the fossil, more than 100 million years ago. In addition to expanding the knowledge of the Ipubi Formation, this study shows that, when combined with other experimental techniques, Raman spectroscopy is a valuable tool at the paleontologist's disposal.

  17. Application of dual-energy x-ray techniques for automated food container inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shashishekhar, N.; Veselitza, D.

    2016-02-01

    Manufacturing for plastic food containers often results in small metal particles getting into the containers during the production process. Metal detectors are usually not sensitive enough to detect these metal particles (0.5 mm or lesser), especially when the containers are stacked in large sealed shipping packages; X-ray inspection of these packages provides a viable alternative. This paper presents the results of an investigation into dual-energy X-ray techniques for automated detection of small metal particles in plastic food container packages. The sample packages consist of sealed cardboard boxes containing stacks of food containers: plastic cups for food, and Styrofoam cups for noodles. The primary goal of the investigation was to automatically identify small metal particles down to 0.5 mm diameter in size or less, randomly located within the containers. The multiple container stacks in each box make it virtually impossible to reliably detect the particles with single-energy X-ray techniques either visually or with image processing. The stacks get overlaid in the X-ray image and create many indications almost identical in contrast and size to real metal particles. Dual-energy X-ray techniques were investigated and found to result in a clear separation of the metal particles from the food container stack-ups. Automated image analysis of the resulting images provides reliable detection of the small metal particles.

  18. X-ray measurements at high-power lasers. Relative conversion efficiencies of short pulse laser light into K X-ray radiation in medium to high Z elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabo, C. I.; Indelicato, P.; Gumberidze, A.; Holland, G. E.; Seely, J. F.; Hudson, L. T.; Henins, A.; Audebert, P.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Tabakhoff, E.; Brambrink, E.

    2009-03-01

    Conversion efficiencies of laser light into K x-ray radiation are used to characterize laser-solid interactions e.g. in measurements with back-lighter targets in Inertial Confinement Fusion research or in ultra short x-ray science where ultra short laser pulses are used to create x-rays for investigation of dynamic processes. In our measurements we observed high energy (few tens of keV) K x-ray radiation of element pairs created upon impact of a 1 ps, 100 J laser pulse on the target surface. The high-energy electrons created in this interaction ionise and excite the target material. We have used high purity alloy foils of Pd and Ag, as well as In and Sn and crystals of CsI and rare earth molybdates as target materials. Both constituents of these targets were simultaneously excited in one shot. The K x-ray radiation was dispersed and detected with the LCS (LULI Crystal Spectrometer), a Cauchois-type cylindrically bent transmission-crystal spectrometer. Measuring ratios in the x-ray spectra permits determination of relative conversion efficiencies for pairs of elements under identical laser-target interaction conditions.

  19. High-energy synchrotron radiation x-ray microscopy: Present status and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Spanne, P. ); Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R. )

    1991-01-01

    High-energy radiation synchrotron x-ray microscopy is used to characterize materials of importance to the chemical and materials sciences and chemical engineering. The x-ray microscope (XRM) forms images of elemental distributions fluorescent x rays or images of mass distributions by measurement of the linear attenuation coefficient of the material. Distributions of sections through materials are obtained non-destructively using the technique of computed microtomography. The energy range of the x rays used for the XRM ranges from a few keV at the minimum value to more than 100 keV, which is sufficient to excite the K-edge of all naturally occurring elements. The work in progress at the Brookhaven NSLS X26 and X17 XRM is described in order to show the current status of the XRM. While there are many possible approaches to the XRM instrumentation, this instrument gives state-of-the-art performance in most respects and serves as a reasonable example of the present status of the instrumentation in terms of the spatial resolution and minimum detection limits obtainable. The examples of applications cited give an idea of the types of research fields that are currently under investigation. They can be used to illustrate how the field of x-ray microscopy will benefit from the use of bending magnets and insertion devices at the Advanced Photon Source. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  20. High energy X-ray observations of the 38-second pulsar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, P. F.; Levine, A. M.; Bautz, M.; Howe, S. K.; Lang, F. L.; Primini, F. A.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Gruber, D. E.; Knight, F. K.; Nolan, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    The results of observations of the 38-second pulsar obtained at high X-ray energies (13-180 keV) with the UCSD/MIT instrument aboard HEAO 1 are reported. The results include a measurement of the source location, measurement of the pulse profile, and determination of the average intensity and spectrum during each of three time intervals spanning a baseline of 1 year. The total intensity of the pulsar is seen to vary on a 6-month time scale. The spectrum is hard but, like other X-ray pulsars, steepens at energies above 20 keV.

  1. Energy calibration of a high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Verbeni, Roberto; D'Astuto, Matteo; Krisch, Michael; Lorenzen, Maren; Mermet, Alain; Monaco, Giulio; Requardt, Herwig; Sette, Francesco

    2008-08-01

    The energy scale of a triple-axis x-ray spectrometer with meV energy resolution based on perfect silicon crystal optics is calibrated, utilizing the most recent determination of the silicon lattice parameter and its thermal expansion coefficient and recording the dispersion of longitudinal acoustic and optical phonons in a diamond single crystal and the molecular vibration mode in liquid nitrogen. Comparison of the x-ray results with previous inelastic neutron and Raman scattering results as well as with ab initio phonon dispersion calculations yields an overall agreement better than 2%. PMID:19044359

  2. Energy calibration of a high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Verbeni, Roberto; D'Astuto, Matteo; Krisch, Michael; Lorenzen, Maren; Mermet, Alain; Monaco, Giulio; Requardt, Herwig; Sette, Francesco

    2008-08-15

    The energy scale of a triple-axis x-ray spectrometer with meV energy resolution based on perfect silicon crystal optics is calibrated, utilizing the most recent determination of the silicon lattice parameter and its thermal expansion coefficient and recording the dispersion of longitudinal acoustic and optical phonons in a diamond single crystal and the molecular vibration mode in liquid nitrogen. Comparison of the x-ray results with previous inelastic neutron and Raman scattering results as well as with ab initio phonon dispersion calculations yields an overall agreement better than 2%.

  3. Catalytic Adventures in Space and Time Using High Energy X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, Mark A.; Di Michiel, Marco; Ferri, Davide; Fernàndez-Garcia, Marcos; Beale, Andrew M.; Jacques, Simon D. M.; Chupas, Peter J.; Chapman, Karena W.

    2014-09-16

    Very high energy X-rays have long offered great promise in providing great insight into the inner workings of catalysts; insights that may complement the array of techniques available to researchers in catalysis either in the laboratory or at more conventional X-ray wavelengths. This contribution aims to critically assess the diverse possibilities now available in the high energy domain as a result of the maturation of third generation synchrotron facilities and to look forward to the potential that forthcoming developments in synchrotron source technology may offer the world of catalysis in the near future.

  4. Tentative experiment for generating low-photon-energy quasi-x-ray lasers using a capillary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Toriyabe, Hiroyuki; Awaji, Wataru; Hayasi, Yasuomi; Ichimaru, Toshio; Usuki, Tatsumi; Sato, Koetsu; Ojima, Hidenori; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Tamakawa, Yoshiharu

    2001-04-01

    The tentative experiment for producing low-photon-energy quasi-x-ray laser using a capillary is described. This flash x-ray generator was improved in order to increase the x-ray intensity and to produce high-intensity characteristic x-rays by forming the linear plasma x-ray source. The generator consists of a high-voltage power supply, a polarity-inversion ignitron pulse generator, a turbo-molecular pump, and a radiation tube with a capillary. A high-voltage condenser of 0.2 (mu) F in the pulse generator is charged up to 20 kV by the power supply, and the electric charges in the condenser are discharged to the capillary in the tube after closing the ignitron. In the present work, the chamber is evacuated by the pump with a pressure of about 1 mPa, and the carbon anode and cathode electrodes are employed to produce K(alpha) characteristic x-rays. The diameter and the length of the ferrite capillary are 2.0 and 29 mm, respectively, and both the cathode voltage and the discharge current displayed damped oscillations. The peak values of the voltage and current increased when the charging voltage was increased, and their maximum values were -9.9 kV and 4.4 kA, respectively. The pulse durations of the x-rays were nearly equivalent to those of the damped oscillations in the voltage and current, and their values were less than 20 microseconds. In the spectrum measurement, we observed the carbon K(alpha) line.

  5. Energy dependence of power-spectral noise in X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiele, Holger; Yu, Wenfei

    2014-08-01

    Black hole and neutron star X-ray binaries show variability on time-scales ranging from milliseconds to years. In the last two decades a detailed phenomenological picture of short-term variability in low-mass X-ray binaries has emerged mainly based on RXTE observations that cover energies above 3 keV. This picture comprises periodic or quasi-periodic variability, seen as spikes or humps in power density spectra, that are superposed on broad noise components. The overall shape of the noise components as well as the occurrence of quasi-periodic oscillations is known to vary with the state of the X-ray binary. We are accomplishing a comprehensive study of archival XMM-Newton observations in timing or burst mode of more than ten black hole and more than thirty neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries to investigate the variability properties of these sources at softer energies where the thermal disk component starts to emerge.Here we present some results of the energy dependence of the noise component in power density spectra: a discussion of the energy dependence of the power spectral state that we found in the “plateau” state of GRS 1915+105 and the intermediate state of 4U 1630-47; the dependence of the break-frequency of the band-limited noise component as well as the quasi-periodic oscillations on the studied energy band in several X-ray binaries like GX 339-4 or Swift J1753.5-0127. We will discuss the implications of these findings for the picture of the accretion geometry in black hole X-ray binaries.

  6. Validation of a New Skinfold Prediction Equation Based on Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Cowan, Celsi; Thyfault, John; LaFontaine, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Skinfold prediction equations recommended by the American College of Sports Medicine underestimate body fat percentage. The purpose of this research was to validate an alternative equation for men created from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Two hundred ninety-seven males, aged 18-65, completed a skinfold assessment and dual energy x-ray…

  7. Superconducting Detector System for High-Resolution Energy-Dispersive Soft X-Ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, S; Niedermayr, T; Drury, O; Funk, T; Frank, M; Labov, S E; Cramer, S

    2001-02-21

    Synchrotron-based soft x-ray spectroscopy is often limited by detector performance. Grating spectrometers have the resolution, but lack the efficiency for the analysis of dilute samples. Semiconducting Si(Li) or Ge detectors are efficient, but often lack the resolution to separate weak signals from strong nearby lines in multi-element samples. Superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) operated at temperatures below 1 K can be used as high-resolution high-efficiency x-ray detectors. They combine high energy resolution around 10 eV FWHM with the broad band efficiency of energy-dispersive detectors. We have designed a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) to operate STJ detectors in x-ray fluorescence measurements at beam line 4 of the ALS. We demonstrate the capabilities of such a detector system for fluorescence analysis of dilute metal sites in proteins and inorganic model compounds.

  8. Time-delayed beam splitting with energy separation of x-ray channels

    SciTech Connect

    Stetsko, Yuri P.; Shvyd'ko, Yuri V.; Brian Stephenson, G.

    2013-10-21

    We introduce a time-delayed beam splitting method based on the energy separation of x-ray photon beams. It is implemented and theoretically substantiated on an example of an x-ray optical scheme similar to that of the classical Michelson interferometer. The splitter/mixer uses Bragg-case diffraction from a thin diamond crystal. Another two diamond crystals are used as back-reflectors. Because of energy separation and a minimal number (three) of optical elements, the split-delay line has high efficiency and is simple to operate. Due to the high transparency of diamond crystal, the split-delay line can be used in a beam sharing mode at x-ray free-electron laser facilities.

  9. Cosmic X-ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, D.; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1985-01-01

    A progress report of research activities carried out in the area of cosmic X-ray physics is presented. The Diffuse X-ray Spectrometer DXS which has been flown twice as a rocket payload is described. The observation times proved to be too small for meaningful X-ray data to be obtained. Data collection and reduction activities from the Ultra-Soft X-ray background (UXT) instrument are described. UXT consists of three mechanically-collimated X-ray gas proportional counters with window/filter combinations which allow measurements in three energy bands, Be (80-110 eV), B (90-187 eV), and O (e84-532 eV). The Be band measurements provide an important constraint on local absorption of X-rays from the hot component of the local interstellar medium. Work has also continued on the development of a calorimetric detector for high-resolution spectroscopy in the 0.1 keV - 8keV energy range.

  10. Monochromatic x-ray radiography for areal-density measurement of inertial fusion energy fuel in fast ignition experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fujioka, Shinsuke; Fujiwara, Takashi; Tanabe, Minoru; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Nagatomo, Hideo; Ohira, Shinji; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Azechi, Hiroshi; Inubushi, Yuichi

    2010-10-15

    Ultrafast, two-dimensional x-ray imaging is an important diagnostics for the inertial fusion energy research, especially in investigating implosion dynamics at the final stage of the fuel compression. Although x-ray radiography was applied to observing the implosion dynamics, intense x-rays emitted from the high temperature and dense fuel core itself are often superimposed on the radiograph. This problem can be solved by coupling the x-ray radiography with monochromatic x-ray imaging technique. In the experiment, 2.8 or 5.2 keV backlight x-rays emitted from laser-irradiated polyvinyl chloride or vanadium foils were selectively imaged by spherically bent quartz crystals with discriminating the out-of-band emission from the fuel core. This x-ray radiography system achieved 24 {mu}m and 100 ps of spatial and temporal resolutions, respectively.

  11. Observation of solar high energy gamma and X-ray emission and solar energetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struminsky, A.; Gan, W.

    2015-08-01

    We considered 18 solar flares observed between June 2010 and July 2012, in which high energy >100 MeV γ-emission was registered by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard FermiGRO. We examined for these γ-events soft X-ray observations by GOES, hard X-ray observations by the Anti-Coincidence Shield of the SPectrometer aboard INTEGRAL (ACS SPI) and the Gamma-Ray burst Monitor (GBM) aboard FermiGRO. Hard X-ray and π0-decay γ-ray emissions are used as tracers of electron and proton acceleration, respectively. Bursts of hard X-ray were observed by ACS SPI during impulsive phase of 13 events. Bursts of hard X- ray >100 keV were not found during time intervals, when prolonged hard y-emission was registered by LAT/FermiGRO. Those events showing prolonged high-energy gamma-ray emission not accompanied by >100 keV hard X-ray emission are interpreted as an indication of either different acceleration processes for protons and electrons or as the presence of a proton population accelerated during the impulsive phase of the flare and subsequently trapped by some magnetic structure. In-situ energetic particle measurements by GOES and STEREO (High Energy Telescope, HET) shows that five of these y-events were not accompanied by SEP events at 1 AU, even when multi-point measurements including STEREO are taken into account. Therefore accelerated protons are not always released into the heliosphere. A longer delay between the maximum temperature and the maximum emission measure characterises flares with prolonged high energy γ-emission and solar proton events.

  12. The application of thermoluminescence dosimetry in X-ray energy discrimination.

    PubMed

    Nelson, V K; Holloway, L; McLean, I D

    2015-12-01

    Clinical dosimetry requires an understanding of radiation energy to accurately determine the delivered dose. For many situations this is known, however there are also many situations where the radiation energy is not well known, thus limiting dosimetric accuracy. This is the case in personnel dosimetry where thermo luminescent (TL) dosimetry is the method of choice. Traditionally beam energy characteristics in personnel dosimetry are determined through discrimination with the use of various filters fitted within a radiation monitor. The presence of scattered and characteristic radiation produced by these metallic filters, however, can compromise the results. In this study the TL response of five materials TLD100, TLD100H, TLD200, TLD400 and TLD500, was measured at various X-ray energies. The TL sensitivity ratio for various combinations of materials as a function of X-ray energy was calculated. The results indicate that in personal dosimetry a combination of three or more TL detector system has a better accuracy of estimation of effective radiation energy of an X-ray beam than some of the current method of employed for energy estimation and has the potential to improve the accuracy in dose determination in a variety of practical situations. The development of this method also has application in other fields including quality assurance of the orthovoltage therapy machines, dosimetry intercomparisons of kilovoltage X-ray beams, and measurement of the dose to critical organs outside a treatment field of a megavoltage therapy beam. PMID:26330215

  13. Effects of High-Energy X-Ray Radiation on MoS2 FETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Amritesh; Thoutam, Laxman; Zhang, Wei; Kovi, Kiran; Banerjee, Sanjay; Das, Saptarshi

    FETs based on semiconducting MoS2 nanosheets are currently being extensively explored for various nanoelectronic device applications. In real-life, several of these applications mandate the exposure of devices to X-ray radiation. In this study, we investigate the effects of high-energy X-ray radiation on few-layer MoS2 transistors. Back-gated MoS2 FETs on SiO2 substrates were fabricated and exposed to X-ray radiation in an enclosed X-ray tube utilizing tungsten as the X-ray source. The devices were exposed to successive radiation doses up to a cumulative dose of 1500 kilorads (Krads). Even after high radiation doses, the devices maintained acceptable electrical performance with high ION/IOFF ratios and good current saturation. The subthreshold swing remained similar to initial values. There was, however, a slight reduction in the ON-currents after each successive radiation, concomitant with a positive threshold voltage shift that can be attributed to the formation of negative-fixed charges in the substrate. Moreover, the maximum transconductance (gm) of the devices decreased slightly with increasing radiation dose. Finally, Raman spectroscopy revealed practically no change in the in-plane and out-of-plane Raman modes of MoS2 after radiation.

  14. Bismuth Sulfide Nanoflowers for Detection of X-rays in the Mammographic Energy Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nambiar, Shruti; Osei, Ernest K.; Yeow, John T. W.

    2015-03-01

    The increased use of diagnostic x-rays, especially in the field of medical radiology, has necessitated a significant demand for high resolution, real-time radiation detectors. In this regard, the photoresponse of bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3), an n-type semiconducting metal chalcogenide, to low energy x-rays has been investigated in this study. In recent years, several types of nanomaterials of Bi2S3 have been widely studied for optoelectronic and thermoelectric applications. However, photoresponse of Bi2S3 nanomaterials for dosimetric applications has not yet been reported. The photosensitivity of Bi2S3 with nanoscale ``flower-like'' structures was characterized under x-ray tube-potentials typically used in mammographic procedures. Both dark current and photocurrent were measured under varying x-ray doses, field sizes, and bias voltages for each of the tube potentials - 20, 23, 26 and 30 kV. Results show that the Bi2S3 nanoflowers instantaneously responded to even minor changes in the dose delivered. The photoresponse was found to be relatively high (few nA) at bias voltage as low as +1 V, and fairly repeatable for both short and long exposures to mammographic x-rays with minimal or no loss in sensitivity. The overall dose-sensitivity of the Bi2S3 nanoflowers was found to be similar to that of a micro-ionization chamber.

  15. Bismuth Sulfide Nanoflowers for Detection of X-rays in the Mammographic Energy Range

    PubMed Central

    Nambiar, Shruti; Osei, Ernest K.; Yeow, John T. W.

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of diagnostic x-rays, especially in the field of medical radiology, has necessitated a significant demand for high resolution, real-time radiation detectors. In this regard, the photoresponse of bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3), an n-type semiconducting metal chalcogenide, to low energy x-rays has been investigated in this study. In recent years, several types of nanomaterials of Bi2S3 have been widely studied for optoelectronic and thermoelectric applications. However, photoresponse of Bi2S3 nanomaterials for dosimetric applications has not yet been reported. The photosensitivity of Bi2S3 with nanoscale “flower-like” structures was characterized under x-ray tube-potentials typically used in mammographic procedures. Both dark current and photocurrent were measured under varying x-ray doses, field sizes, and bias voltages for each of the tube potentials – 20, 23, 26 and 30 kV. Results show that the Bi2S3 nanoflowers instantaneously responded to even minor changes in the dose delivered. The photoresponse was found to be relatively high (few nA) at bias voltage as low as +1 V, and fairly repeatable for both short and long exposures to mammographic x-rays with minimal or no loss in sensitivity. The overall dose-sensitivity of the Bi2S3 nanoflowers was found to be similar to that of a micro-ionization chamber. PMID:25801531

  16. Diagnosing x-ray power and energy of tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Kun-lun; Ren, Xiao-dong; Huang, Xian-bin Zhang, Si-qun; Zhou, Shao-tong; Dan, Jia-kun; Li, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Ouyang, Kai; Cai, Hong-chun; Wei, Bing; Ji, Ce; Feng, Shu-ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei-ping; Deng, Jian-jun

    2015-11-15

    Fast z-pinch is a very efficient way of converting electromagnetic energy to radiation. With an 8-10 MA current on primary test stand facility, about 1 MJ electromagnetic energy is delivered to vacuum chamber, which heats z-pinch plasma to radiate soft x-ray. To develop a pulsed high power x-ray source, we studied the applicability of diagnosing x-ray power from tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode (FSR-XRD). The detector was originally developed to diagnose radiation of a hohlraum in SG-III prototype laser facility. It utilized a gold cathode XRD and a specially configured compound gold filter to yield a nearly flat spectral response in photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV. In practice, it was critical to avoid surface contamination of gold cathode. It is illustrated that an exposure of an XRD to multiple shots caused a significant change of response. Thus, in diagnosing x-ray power and energy, we used each XRD in only one shot after calibration. In a shot serial, output of FSR-XRD was compared with output of a nickel bolometer. In these shots, the outputs agreed with each other within their uncertainties which were about 12% for FSR-XRD and about 15% for bolometer. Moreover, the ratios between the FSR-XRD and the bolometer among different shots were explored. In 8 shots, the standard deviation of the ratio was 6%. It is comparable to XRD response change of 7%.

  17. Diagnosing x-ray power and energy of tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun-lun; Ren, Xiao-dong; Huang, Xian-bin; Zhang, Si-qun; Zhou, Shao-tong; Dan, Jia-kun; Li, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Ouyang, Kai; Cai, Hong-chun; Wei, Bing; Ji, Ce; Feng, Shu-ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei-ping; Deng, Jian-jun

    2015-11-01

    Fast z-pinch is a very efficient way of converting electromagnetic energy to radiation. With an 8-10 MA current on primary test stand facility, about 1 MJ electromagnetic energy is delivered to vacuum chamber, which heats z-pinch plasma to radiate soft x-ray. To develop a pulsed high power x-ray source, we studied the applicability of diagnosing x-ray power from tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode (FSR-XRD). The detector was originally developed to diagnose radiation of a hohlraum in SG-III prototype laser facility. It utilized a gold cathode XRD and a specially configured compound gold filter to yield a nearly flat spectral response in photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV. In practice, it was critical to avoid surface contamination of gold cathode. It is illustrated that an exposure of an XRD to multiple shots caused a significant change of response. Thus, in diagnosing x-ray power and energy, we used each XRD in only one shot after calibration. In a shot serial, output of FSR-XRD was compared with output of a nickel bolometer. In these shots, the outputs agreed with each other within their uncertainties which were about 12% for FSR-XRD and about 15% for bolometer. Moreover, the ratios between the FSR-XRD and the bolometer among different shots were explored. In 8 shots, the standard deviation of the ratio was 6%. It is comparable to XRD response change of 7%. PMID:26628136

  18. Diagnosing x-ray power and energy of tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kun-lun; Ren, Xiao-dong; Huang, Xian-bin; Zhang, Si-qun; Zhou, Shao-tong; Dan, Jia-kun; Li, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Ouyang, Kai; Cai, Hong-chun; Wei, Bing; Ji, Ce; Feng, Shu-ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei-ping; Deng, Jian-jun

    2015-11-01

    Fast z-pinch is a very efficient way of converting electromagnetic energy to radiation. With an 8-10 MA current on primary test stand facility, about 1 MJ electromagnetic energy is delivered to vacuum chamber, which heats z-pinch plasma to radiate soft x-ray. To develop a pulsed high power x-ray source, we studied the applicability of diagnosing x-ray power from tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode (FSR-XRD). The detector was originally developed to diagnose radiation of a hohlraum in SG-III prototype laser facility. It utilized a gold cathode XRD and a specially configured compound gold filter to yield a nearly flat spectral response in photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV. In practice, it was critical to avoid surface contamination of gold cathode. It is illustrated that an exposure of an XRD to multiple shots caused a significant change of response. Thus, in diagnosing x-ray power and energy, we used each XRD in only one shot after calibration. In a shot serial, output of FSR-XRD was compared with output of a nickel bolometer. In these shots, the outputs agreed with each other within their uncertainties which were about 12% for FSR-XRD and about 15% for bolometer. Moreover, the ratios between the FSR-XRD and the bolometer among different shots were explored. In 8 shots, the standard deviation of the ratio was 6%. It is comparable to XRD response change of 7%.

  19. Inelastic x-ray scattering at modest energy resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, K. D.; Tischler, J. Z.; Larson, B. C.

    1997-07-01

    We report results from the development of an inelastic scattering spectrometer designed to take advantage of high energy synchrotron radiation available at CHESS. The device allows a large increase of the effective scattering volume in the sample by permitting measurements to be made in an energy range up to 25 KeV. The highest useable energy appears limited by the efficiency of the analyzers under consideration. At 20 KeV a novel 4-bounce, sagittal focusing monochromator passes 10e11 photons/second with Darwin width limited energy resolution. In the scattering plane, the monochromator images the electron beam producing a small scattering source for the analyzing optics. Analyzer systems under study include a cooled mosaic crystal in para-focusing geometry, and an adjustable spherically bent silicon crystal respectively for parallel and point-by-point collection of the energy loss spectrum. This paper discusses the optical configurations presents results from our early measurements and suggests directions for improvements.

  20. Energy calibration of superconducting transition edge sensors for x-ray detection using pulse analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hollerith, C.; Simmnacher, B.; Weiland, R.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Isaila, C.; Jochum, J.; Potzel, W.; Hoehne, J.; Phelan, K.; Wernicke, D.; May, T.

    2006-05-15

    Transition edge sensors (TESs) have been developed to be used as high-resolution x-ray detectors. They show excellent energy resolution and can be used in many applications. TESs are a special kind of calorimeters that can determine small temperature changes after x-ray absorption. Such a temperature change causes a strong resistance change (superconducting to normal-conducting phase transition) that can be measured. The energy calibration of a TES based spectrometer is problematic due to the nonlinear behavior of the detector response. In this article, a method is introduced to calibrate the energy scale of TES spectra. This is accomplished by calculating the energy dependence of the response of the detector operated in electrothermal feedback mode. Using this method a calibration accuracy of a few eV for an x-ray energy of 6 keV can be achieved. Examples of energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) measurements demonstrate the high quality of this method for everyday use of TES EDS detectors in material analysis. However, because the method relies only on a few very general assumptions, it should also be useful for other kinds of TES detectors.

  1. A dynamic material discrimination algorithm for dual MV energy X-ray digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Li, Ruizhe; Zhang, Siyuan; Zhao, Tiao; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2016-08-01

    Dual-energy X-ray radiography has become a well-established technique in medical, industrial, and security applications, because of its material or tissue discrimination capability. The main difficulty of this technique is dealing with the materials overlapping problem. When there are two or more materials along the X-ray beam path, its material discrimination performance will be affected. In order to solve this problem, a new dynamic material discrimination algorithm is proposed for dual-energy X-ray digital radiography, which can also be extended to multi-energy X-ray situations. The algorithm has three steps: α-curve-based pre-classification, decomposition of overlapped materials, and the final material recognition. The key of the algorithm is to establish a dual-energy radiograph database of both pure basis materials and pair combinations of them. After the pre-classification results, original dual-energy projections of overlapped materials can be dynamically decomposed into two sets of dual-energy radiographs of each pure material by the algorithm. Thus, more accurate discrimination results can be provided even with the existence of the overlapping problem. Both numerical and experimental results that prove the validity and effectiveness of the algorithm are presented. PMID:27239987

  2. Modification of Layer Structures of Superconducting Tunnel Junctions to Improve X-ray Energy Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukibe, Masahiro; Fujii, Go; Shiki, Shigetomo; Kitajima, Yoshinori; Ohkubo, Masataka

    2016-07-01

    The layer structure of a Nb/Al-based superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) X-ray detector was modified to improve the energy resolution (Δ E) of STJ X-ray detectors by suppressing the recombination of excited quasiparticles in the electrodes. A 100-pixel array of 100 × 100 \\upmu m STJs with a symmetric layer structure of Nb (300 nm)/Al-AlOx(70 nm)/Al (70 nm)/Nb (300 nm) was fabricated. Fabrication yields of the 100 pixels were more than 90 %. The average leak current of the STJ array was 8 nA. The mean Δ E of the STJ array was 6.7 ± 1.0 eV for 400 eV X-rays. This Δ E is the best value reported for Nb/Al STJs.

  3. Improvements in the Low Energy Collection Efficiency of Si(Li) X-ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Cox,C.; Fischer, D.; Schwartz, W.; Song, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Soft X-ray beam-line applications are of fundamental importance to material research, and commonly employ high-resolution Si(Li) detectors for energy dispersive spectroscopy. However, the measurement of X-rays below 1 keV is compromised by absorption in the material layers in front of the active crystal and a dead layer at the crystal surface. Various Schottky barrier type contacts were investigated resulting in a 40% reduction of the dead-layer thickness and a factor of two increased sensitivity at carbon K{sub {alpha}} compared to the standard Si(Li) detector. Si(Li) detectors were tested on the U7A soft X-ray beam-line at the National Synchrotron Light Source and on a scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  4. Demonstration of x-ray fluorescence imaging of a high-energy-density plasma

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, M. J. Gamboa, E. J.; Keiter, P. A.; Fein, J. R.; Klein, S. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; LeFevre, H. J.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Wan, W. C.; Drake, R. P.; Montgomery, D. S.; Biener, M. M.; Fournier, K. B.; Streit, J.

    2014-11-15

    Experiments at the Trident Laser Facility have successfully demonstrated the use of x-ray fluorescence imaging (XRFI) to diagnose shocked carbonized resorcinol formaldehyde (CRF) foams doped with Ti. One laser beam created a shock wave in the doped foam. A second laser beam produced a flux of vanadium He-α x-rays, which in turn induced Ti K-shell fluorescence within the foam. Spectrally resolved 1D imaging of the x-ray fluorescence provided shock location and compression measurements. Additionally, experiments using a collimator demonstrated that one can probe specific regions within a target. These results show that XRFI is a capable alternative to path-integrated measurements for diagnosing hydrodynamic experiments at high energy density.

  5. ICF ignition capsule neutron, gamma ray, and high energy x-ray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, P. A.; Wilson, D. C.; Swenson, F. J.; Morgan, G. L.

    2003-03-01

    Post-processed total neutron, RIF neutron, gamma-ray, and x-ray images from 2D LASNEX calculations of burning ignition capsules are presented. The capsules have yields ranging from tens of kilojoules (failures) to over 16 MJ (ignition), and their implosion symmetry ranges from prolate (flattest at the hohlraum equator) to oblate (flattest towards the laser entrance hole). The simulated total neutron images emphasize regions of high DT density and temperature; the reaction-in-flight neutrons emphasize regions of high DT density; the gamma rays emphasize regions of high shell density; and the high energy x rays (>10 keV) emphasize regions of high temperature.

  6. Characterization of detection efficiency as function of energy for soft x-ray detectorsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacella, D.; Mazon, D.; Romano, A.; Malard, P.; Pizzicaroli, G.

    2008-10-01

    A new technique has been especially developed for determining the detection efficiency of the silicon surface barrier diodes used for tomography reconstructions at Tore Supra, as function of the energy of the x-ray photons, in the range of 4-25keV. The response of these diodes has been studied for different bias voltages (0-120V), with a portable x-ray electronic tube and a cooled Si-p-i-n diode, working in photon counting mode, for the absolute calibration.

  7. The high energy X-ray detector on the Ariel-5 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, A. R.; Coe, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    The Imperial College hard X-ray detector which is used to make spectral measurements in the 26 keV to 1.2 MeV energy range on celestial X-ray sources from the Ariel-5 satellite is described. Details are given of the design, calibration and in-orbit performance of the detector. A modulation process is used to detect weak signals against a background and we give details of the spectrum unfolding techniques used to convert the measured spectra into corrected incident spectra.

  8. Thermal Acoustic Sensor for High Pulse Energy X-ray FEL Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.J.; Frisch, J.C.; Kraft, E.M.; Loos, J.; Bentsen, G.S.; /Rochester U.

    2011-12-13

    The pulse energy density of X-ray FELs will saturate or destroy conventional X-ray diagnostics, and the use of large beam attenuation will result in a beam that is dominated by harmonics. We present preliminary results at the LCLS from a pulse energy detector based on the thermal acoustic effect. In this type of detector an X-ray resistant material (boron carbide in this system) intercepts the beam. The pulse heating of the target material produces an acoustic pulse that can be detected with high frequency microphones to produce a signal that is linear in the absorbed energy. The thermal acoustic detector is designed to provide first- and second-order calorimetric measurement of X-ray FEL pulse energy. The first-order calorimetry is a direct temperature measurement of a target designed to absorb all or most of the FEL pulse power with minimal heat leak. The second-order measurement detects the vibration caused by the rapid thermoelastic expansion of the target material each time it absorbs a photon pulse. Both the temperature change and the amplitude of the acoustic signal are directly related to the photon pulse energy.

  9. Preliminary research on dual-energy X-ray phase-contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hua-Jie; Wang, Sheng-Hao; Gao, Kun; Wang, Zhi-Li; Zhang, Can; Yang, Meng; Zhang, Kai; Zhu, Pei-Ping

    2016-04-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has been widely applied to measure the bone mineral density (BMD) and soft-tissue composition of the human body. However, the use of DEXA is greatly limited for low-Z materials such as soft tissues due to their weak absorption, while X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCI) shows significantly improved contrast in comparison with the conventional standard absorption-based X-ray imaging for soft tissues. In this paper, we propose a novel X-ray phase-contrast method to measure the area density of low-Z materials, including a single-energy method and a dual-energy method. The single-energy method is for the area density calculation of one low-Z material, while the dual-energy method aims to calculate the area densities of two low-Z materials simultaneously. Comparing the experimental and simulation results with the theoretical ones, the new method proves to have the potential to replace DEXA in area density measurement. The new method sets the prerequisites for a future precise and low-dose area density calculation method for low-Z materials. Supported by Major State Basic Research Development Program (2012CB825800), Science Fund for Creative Research Groups (11321503) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11179004, 10979055, 11205189, 11205157)

  10. CMOS-sensors for energy-resolved X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doering, D.; Amar-Youcef, S.; Baudot, J.; Deveaux, M.; Dulinski, W.; Kachel, M.; Linnik, B.; Müntz, C.; Stroth, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Due to their low noise, CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors are suited to sense X-rays with a few keV quantum energy, which is of interest for high resolution X-ray imaging. Moreover, the good energy resolution of the silicon sensors might be used to measure this quantum energy. Combining both features with the good spatial resolution of CMOS sensors opens the potential to build ``color sensitive" X-ray cameras. Taking such colored images is hampered by the need to operate the CMOS sensors in a single photon counting mode, which restricts the photon flux capability of the sensors. More importantly, the charge sharing between the pixels smears the potentially good energy resolution of the sensors. Based on our experience with CMOS sensors for charged particle tracking, we studied techniques to overcome the latter by means of an offline processing of the data obtained from a CMOS sensor prototype. We found that the energy resolution of the pixels can be recovered at the expense of reduced quantum efficiency. We will introduce the results of our study and discuss the feasibility of taking colored X-ray pictures with CMOS sensors.