Science.gov

Sample records for medium size sodium

  1. Minimization of corrosion using activated sodium bromide in a medium-size cooling tower

    SciTech Connect

    Nalepa, C.J.; Moore, R.M.; Golson, G.L.; Wolfe, T.W.; Puckorius, P.R.

    1996-07-01

    The cooling tower at the Albermarle Process Development Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, historically used chlorine as a biocide in combination with phosphorus-based corrosion/scale inhibitors. Although this regimen provided biocontrol, sludge and iron buildup was a problem in low-velocity, small cross-sectional areas of piping. A general cleanup of the system was performed in April 1995. This cleanup was followed with a switch to a two-component corrosion inhibitor/dispersant package. Alternate biocides were evaluated at this time. Activated sodium bromide was found to be particularly effective in this tower, which operates at pH {approximately}8.4. Relative to chlorine, the use of activated sodium bromide led to a decrease in general and pitting corrosion on mild steel. The reduced corrosion appears to be due to a combination of both chemical (less attack on passivated metal surfaces) and biological factors (better control of heterotrophic and sessile bacteria). These conclusions are supported by chemical analyses, corrosion meter and coupon data, dip slides, biological activity reaction tests, and visual observations of the tower sump and heat exchanger surfaces.

  2. Case study: Minimization of corrosion using activated sodium bromide in a medium-size cooling tower

    SciTech Connect

    Nalepa, C.J.; Moore, R.M.; Golson, G.L.; Wolfe, T.W.; Puckorius, P.R.

    1996-10-01

    The process loop cooling tower at the Albemarle Process Development Center in Baton Rouge, LA has historically used chlorine as the biocide together with industry accepted phosphorus-based corrosion/scale inhibitors. Although this regimen provided biocontrol, sludge and iron build-up was a recurring problem, especially in low-velocity, small cross-sectional areas of piping. A general clean-up of the system was performed in April, 1995. This clean-up was followed with a switch to a two-component corrosion inhibitor/dispersant package. It was decided to study alternate biocides as well at this time. Activated sodium bromide was found to be particularly effective in this tower, which operates at pH {approximately}8.4. Relative to chlorine, the use of activated sodium bromide led to a decrease in general and pitting corrosion on mild steel while maintaining prior performance on admiralty brass. The reduced corrosion appears to be due to a combination of both chemical (less attack on passivated metal surfaces) and biological factors (better control of heterotrophic and sessile bacteria). These conclusions are supported by chemical analyses, corrosion meter and coupon data, dip slides, BART (biological activity reaction test) tests, and visual observations of the tower sump and heat exchanger surfaces.

  3. Medium-size-vessel vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Eleftheriou, Despina; Brogan, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Medium-size-artery vasculitides do occur in childhood and manifest, in the main, as polyarteritis nodosa (PAN), cutaneous PAN and Kawasaki disease. Of these, PAN is the most serious, with high morbidity and not inconsequential mortality rates. New classification criteria for PAN have been validated that will have value in epidemiological studies and clinical trials. Renal involvement is common and recent therapeutic advances may result in improved treatment options. Cutaneous PAN is a milder disease characterised by periodic exacerbations and often associated with streptococcal infection. There is controversy as to whether this is a separate entity or part of the systemic PAN spectrum. Kawasaki disease is an acute self-limiting systemic vasculitis, the second commonest vasculitis in childhood and the commonest cause of childhood-acquired heart disease. Renal manifestations occur and include tubulointerstitial nephritis and renal failure. An infectious trigger and a genetic predisposition seem likely. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IV-Ig) and aspirin are effective therapeutically, but in resistant cases, either steroid or infliximab have a role. Greater understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in these three types of vasculitis and better long-term follow-up data will lead to improved therapy and prediction of prognosis. PMID:19946711

  4. From medium-sized to megawatt turbines...

    SciTech Connect

    Dongen, W. van

    1996-12-31

    One of the world`s first 500 kW turbines was installed in 1989 in the Netherlands. This forerunner of the current NedWind 500 kW range also represents the earliest predesign of the NedWind megawatt turbine. After the first 500 kW turbines with steel rotor blades and rotor diameter of 34 m, several design modifications followed, e.g. the rotor diameter was increased to 35 m and a tip brake was added. Later polyester blades were introduced and the rotor diameter was increased with 5 in. The drive train was also redesigned. Improvements on the 500 kW turbine concept has resulted in decreased cost, whereas annual energy output has increased to approx. 1.3 million kWh. Wind energy can substantially contribute to electricity supply. Maximum output in kiloWatthours is the target. Further improvement of the existing technology and implementation of flexible components may well prove to be a way to increase energy output, not only in medium or large sized wind turbines. 7 figs.

  5. Survival of Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in basal-casein medium supplemented with sodium selenite

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, G.R.; Cole, B.S. )

    1988-01-01

    The trace substance selenium is known to influence several systems exhibiting a high rate of cellular proliferation. Data are reported on survival patterns and times in various developmental stages of Tribolium confusum Duval reared in a defined medium supplemented with sodium selenite. Insects reared from eggs hatching in a selenium medium (Se medium) show a prolonged time in the larval period and marked larval mortality compared with those reared on unsupplemented medium. Adults emerging in an Se medium show reduced survival compared with adults transferred to such medium 1 wk after emergence. Larval survival patterns mimic those of the adult, whereby younger larvae that are transferred to Se medium appear to be more sensitive than those exposed to Se medium later in the larval stage. Transfer of Se medium-reared adults to unsupplemented medium as pupae has a beneficial effect on survival compared with adults that emerged in Se medium 1 wk before transfer.

  6. Promoting Learning in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Maria; Gray, Sue

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, small and medium-sized enterprises constituted 99% of all businesses in the United Kingdom in all but the electricity, gas, and water supply sector, providing 46% of nongovernment employment. SMEs' concern with day-to-day demands leaves them with limited time and resources to consider their training needs. Although providing support and…

  7. Historical Research and Medium-Sized Public Libraries: The Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piehl, Charles K.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the special collections and archival materials often found in medium-sized public libraries which should be fully used by historical researchers. It is suggested that public libraries need to advertise their collections which are of historical interest and to be more aware of the needs of the historical researcher. (Author/JL)

  8. Workplace Health Promotion within Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ann; Parahoo, Kader; Fleming, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore managers' understanding of workplace health promotion (WHP) and experiences of WHP activity within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in a Health and Social Care Trust area of Northern Ireland. The paper aims to focus on engagement with activities within the context of prevention of…

  9. Using Bitmaps for Medium Sized Information Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookstein, A.; Klein, S. T.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the theoretical framework of a retrieval system that uses data structures called bitmaps to improve search algorithms for medium-sized systems. Information retrieval systems that contain the full text of the documents are discussed, and the use of inverted files such as concordances for small texts is explained. (24 references) (LRW)

  10. Enantioselective Synthesis of Indole-Annulated Medium-Sized Rings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lin; Dai, Li-Xin; You, Shu-Li

    2016-05-11

    Asymmetric synthesis of indole-annulated medium-sized-ring compounds is developed through an iridium-catalyzed allylic dearomatization/retro-Mannich/hydrolysis cascade reaction. The reaction features mild conditions and a broad substrate scope. Under the optimal conditions, various seven-, eight-, or nine-membered-ring compounds can be afforded in good to excellent yields and excellent enantioselectivity. The proposed mechanism is supported by capturing the dearomatized intermediate through in situ reduction. PMID:27093370

  11. Bank Size and Small- and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) Lending: Evidence from China

    PubMed Central

    SHEN, YAN; SHEN, MINGGAO; XU, ZHONG; BAI, YING

    2014-01-01

    Summary Using panel data collected in 2005, we evaluate how bank size, discretion over credit, incentive schemes, competition, and the institutional environment affect lending to small- and medium-sized enterprises in China. We deal with the endogeneity problem using instrumental variables, and a reduced-form approach is also applied to allow for weak instruments in estimation. We find that total bank asset is an insignificant factor for banks’ decision on small- and medium-enterprise (SME) lending, but more local lending authority, more competition, carefully designed incentive schemes, and stronger law enforcement encourage commercial banks to lend to SMEs. PMID:26052179

  12. Micadur: Compact insulation system for medium-sized turbo generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aare, V.; Schuler, R. H.

    1981-12-01

    A high voltage, Class F, vacuum pressure impregnated insulation system for wound stator cores of the medium size turbogenerators is described. With this total impregnation technique the insulation process has been revolutionized. The excellent characteristics of this synthetic resin insulation system have made it possible to redesign the end winding support system for decisive improvement in reliability. This has been confirmed by operating experience in recent years. Test procedures were modified to suit the new insulation process and new repair procedures have been developed.

  13. Systematic Classifier OF Manufacturing Processes For Medium Size Shafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychagin, D. V.; Lasukov, A. A.; Walter, A. V.; Arkhipova, D. A.

    2016-04-01

    The article considers some issues of increasing efficiency of manufacturing preparation as a part of manufacturing processes design at a machine building enterprise. A tree of routing manufacturing processes for machining shafts of medium size is described as an example of clustering parts according to their structural and technological characteristics. Processing route for a certain part included into a certain group is developed through choosing machining operations for elementary surfaces of a part from the process route developed for a template representative of the group.

  14. Simplified modeling of liquid sodium medium with temperature and velocity gradient using real thermal-hydraulic data. Application to ultrasonic thermometry in sodium fast reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massacret, N.; Moysan, J.; Ploix, M. A.; Jeannot, J. P.; Corneloup, G.

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the French R&D program for the Generation IV reactors and specifically for the sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR), studies are carried out on innovative instrumentation methods in order to improve safety and to simplify the monitoring of fundamental physical parameters during reactor operation. The aim of the present work is to develop an acoustic thermometry method to follow up the sodium temperature at the outlet of subassemblies. The medium is a turbulent flow of liquid sodium at 550 °C with temperature inhomogeneities. To understand the effect of disturbance created by this medium, numerical simulations are proposed. A ray tracing code has been developed with Matlabin order to predict acoustic paths in this medium. This complex medium is accurately described by thermal-hydraulic data which are issued from a simulation of a real experiment in Japan. The analysis of these results allows understanding the effects of medium inhomogeneities on the further thermometric acoustic measurement.

  15. BTX measurements in a medium-sized European city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilidis, Georgios A.; Karakitsios, Spyros P.; Kassomenos, Pavlos A.

    The BTX levels are significantly high compared to the EU directive for benzene in European cities with population around or higher one million. Since there are hundreds of towns in Europe with smaller population, it is important to know the levels of aromatics in these areas. This work presents the results of a benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) measurement campaign that took place in Ioannina, a medium-sized Greek city. As a result of traffic situation and the local meteorological conditions, pollution levels in Ioannina are unusually high, at least for a city of that size. BTX levels were measured using passive samplers placed at several points around the city, as well as across a selected street canyon using both passive and active samplers, combined with simultaneous measurements of traffic flow and wind speed. The measurement procedure was repeated in an exact manner for all four seasons and the results suggest that benzene levels, at all sampling points, exceed the limit set by EU Directive 2000/69. Benzene levels appear correlated to traffic density, while benzene/toluene/xylene ratios present a seasonal variation linked to meteorological conditions.

  16. Climatic Effects of Medium-Sized Asteroid Impacts on Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardeen, C.; Garcia, R. R.; Toon, O. B.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Wolf, E. T.

    2015-12-01

    Using the Community Earth System Model (CESM), a three-dimensional coupled climate model with interactive chemistry, we have simulated the climate response to a medium-sized (1 km) asteroid impact on the land. An impact of this size would cause local fires and may also generate submicron dust particles. Dust aerosols are injected into the upper atmosphere where they persist for ~3 years. Soot aerosols from fires are injected into the troposphere and absorb solar radiation heating the air which helps loft the soot into the stratosphere where it persists for ~10 years. Initially, these aerosols cause a heating of over 240 K in the stratosphere and up to a 70% reduction in downwelling solar radiation at the surface. Global average surface temperature cools by as much as -8.5 K, ocean temperature cools by -4.5 K, precipitation is reduced by 50%, and the ozone column is reduced by 55%. The surface UV Index exceeds 20 in the tropics for several years. These changes represent a significant hazard to life on a global scale. These results extend the work of Pierazzo et al. (2010), also using CESM, which found a significant impact on stratospheric ozone, but little change in surface temperature or precipitation, from a 1 km asteroid impact in the ocean.

  17. Rotational variability in medium and large sized TNOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzi, Vania; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Licandro, J.; Emery, J. P.; Dalle Ore, C. M.

    2013-10-01

    Trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) are considered some of the most pristine objects in the Solar System. Their surfaces display a wide range of compositions, going from surfaces covered by dark irradiation mantels, to surfaces totally covered by ices. According to models of the retention of volatiles, only TNOs with a diameter d > 1000 km are expected to retain any of their original complement of volatile ices on their surface. However, surface refreshing processes on smaller bodies (e.g., collisions, transient atmospheres and cometary activity) could bring to the surface some amount of ices that are stable at depth. When these processes affect only part of the surface they cause surface heterogeneity. The study of rotational variability of medium and large sized TNOs is important to better understand the physical processes affecting their surfaces, and if these processes are local in scale or, on the contrary, extend across the whole surface. We present rotationally resolved spectroscopy of two TNOs, (20000) Varuna and (136472) Makemake. Varuna is a medium sized TNO ( 621 km). We observed Varuna with NICS@TNG telescope, in the NIR, covering two entire rotations of the object. The analysis of the data shows a homogeneous surface composed of a mixture of complex organics, silicates and water ice. Our data also indicate an upper limit of 10% of methane ice on the surface. The Dwarf Planet Makemake is also studied in this work. The surface of this large TNO shows that, similar to Pluto and Eris, it clearly retains large amounts of volatile ices. Moreover, thermal observations indicate that Makemake has a heterogeneous surface that could be the result of volatile migration. We present new visible spectra of Makemake, obtained with ISIS@WHT telescope, covering 80% of the surface. We present a detailed study of the differences in the absorption bands across the surface that are indicative of changes in the relative abundances of ices, temperature, and/or particle size

  18. Inhibition of biosynthesis of metalloprotease of Aeromonas sobria by sodium chloride in the medium.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Eizo; Kobayashi, Hidetomo; Yamanaka, Hiroyasu; Nair, Gopinath Balakrish; Takeda, Yoshifumi; Arimoto, Sakae; Negishi, Tomoe; Okamoto, Keinosuke

    2011-01-01

    The present authors have previously shown that the serine protease activity of Aeromonas sobria is markedly decreased when A. sobria is cultured in medium containing 3.0% sodium chloride (NaCl, concentration almost equivalent to sea water salinity), and that this occurs because, although the synthesis of ASP is not disturbed by the salt in the medium, the maturation pathway of serine protease of A. sobria (ASP) does not proceed successfully in such a medium. In this study, the effect of salt in the medium on the production of metalloprotease by A. sobria (AMP) was examined. A. sobria produced AMP in the milieu when the bacteria were cultured in medium containing (NaCl) at a concentration of 0.5%. However, AMP was not produced when the bacteria were cultured in salty medium containing 1.5% or more NaCl. To examine how NaCl reduces the production of metalloprotease by A. sobria, the amount of amp mRNA in the cell was measured and it was found that this decreased in proportion to the concentration of NaCl in the medium. The mRNA of amp was not detected in cells cultured in medium containing 1.5% or more NaCl. This means that the transcription of amp is inhibited in salty condition. As described, NaCl in the medium disturbs the maturation pathway of ASP. The mode of action whereby NaCl suppresses AMP activity in A. sobria differs from the mechanism for suppressing ASP activity. PMID:21175775

  19. Medium Modification of α Cluster Size in 6Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagata, T.; Akimune, H.; Nakayama, S.; Shima, T.; Miyamoto, S.

    2015-10-01

    The giant dipole resonance (GDR) in 6Li was investigated via the 6LI(γ, xn) reaction, where x = 1, 2 or 3 at an incident energy range of Eγ =5-55. The(γ, n) cross section was the most dominant cross section among them. The GDR in 6Li was found to consist of two components at Ex = 11 MeV and 33 MeV. The component at Ex = 11 MeV seems to be the intrinsic GDR in 6Li. The other at Ex = 33 MeV is inferred to be the GDR due to the α cluster excitation in 6Li, based on the comparison with the results in light ion reactions. The GDR in free 4He is known to locate at Ex= 26 MeV. However, the GDR excitation energy due tothe α cluster excitation in 6Li is found to be higher than that of the 4He. This fact suggests that the size of the α cluster in 6Li is smaller than that of 4He due to the nuclear medium effect.

  20. Overview of the EUROfusion Medium Size Tokamak program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Piero; Beurskens, Marc; Coda, Stefano; Eich, Thomas; Meyer, Hendrik; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2015-11-01

    As a result of the new organization of the European fusion programme, now under the umbrella of the EUROfusion Consortium, the MST (Medium Size Tokamaks) task force is in charge of executing the European science programme in the ASDEX Upgrade, TCV and MAST-U tokamaks. This paper will present an overview of the main results obtained in the 2014 campaign-where only ASDEX upgrade was operating-and the preliminary achievements of the recently started 2015/16 campaign, where also TCV will contribute. The main subjects of the experimental campaigns are (i) the development of scenarios relevant for the ITER Q=10 goal, in an all metal wall device (ii) the understanding of ELM mitigation/suppression with pellets and resonant magnetic perturbations, and in particular the effect of density versus collisionality, (iii) the understanding and optimization of methods for disruption mitigation or avoidance and runaway electrons control and (iv) the exploration of ITER and DEMO relevant scenarios with high normalized separatrix power flux, Psep / R , (Psep is the power through the separatrix, R the major radius) and tolerable target heat loads. The overview of the future programs in MST will be given. http://www.euro-fusionscipub.org/mst1

  1. Accurate thermochemistry for medium-sized and large molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavachari, K.; Stefanov, B.B.; Curtiss, L.A.

    1997-12-31

    Accurate techniques such as Gaussian-2 (G2) theory have been proposed in recent years to evaluate the thermochemistry of small molecules from first-principles. However, as the molecules get larger, the errors in G2 theory and similar approaches tend to accumulate. For example, the computed heats of formation of benzene and naphthalene with G2 and G2(MP2) theories, respectively, have errors of 3.9 and 7.2 kcal/mol. In this work, we explore strategies for computing accurate heats of formation for medium-sized and large molecules. In our first scheme, G2 theory is combined with isodesmic bond separation reaction energies to yield accurate thermochemistry for larger molecules. For a test set of 40 molecules composed of H, C, O, and N, our method yields enthalpies of formation, {Delta}H{sub f}{sup 0}(298 K), with a mean absolute deviation from experiment of only 0.5 kcal/mol. This is an improvement of a factor of three over the deviation of 1.5 kcal/mol seen in standard G2 theory.

  2. Salary Management System for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zhang; Guangli, Xu; Yuhuan, Zhang; Yilong, Lei

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in the process of wage entry, calculation, the total number are needed to be done manually in the past, the data volume is quite large, processing speed is low, and it is easy to make error, which is resulting in low efficiency. The main purpose of writing this paper is to present the basis of salary management system, establish a scientific database, the computer payroll system, using the computer instead of a lot of past manual work in order to reduce duplication of staff labor, it will improve working efficiency.This system combines the actual needs of SMEs, through in-depth study and practice of the C/S mode, PowerBuilder10.0 development tools, databases and SQL language, Completed a payroll system needs analysis, database design, application design and development work. Wages, departments, units and personnel database file are included in this system, and have data management, department management, personnel management and other functions, through the control and management of the database query, add, delete, modify, and other functions can be realized. This system is reasonable design, a more complete function, stable operation has been tested to meet the basic needs of the work.

  3. Inhibitor of Clostridium perfringens Formed by Heating Sodium Nitrite in a Chemically Defined Medium

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Dennis M.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.; Archer, Michael C.

    1975-01-01

    An inhibitor of Clostridium perfringens formed when low levels of nitrite were autoclaved with a defined chemical medium. A systematic study of the medium revealed that only amino acids and mineral salts were involved in the production of this inhibitor, which was proven to be a toxic compound formed from cysteine, ferrous sulfate, and sodium nitrite. The inhibitor was compared to several known compounds. S-nitrosocysteine inhibited the test organism, but would not form in the test system in amounts large enough to explain the observed inhibition. Roussin red salt was unstable in the test system and therefore was not the inhibitor. Roussin black salt, which was also inhibitory, could form in sufficient amounts to explain the inhibition. A complex of cysteine, iron, and nitrie oxide was detected in the autoclaved solution of cysteine, ferrous sulfate, and sodium nitrite; this cysteine complex did not appear to be inhibitory, however, at levels which could form in the autoclaved medium. The observed inhibition may have been due to the combined effects of sublethal concentrations of each compound. PMID:173239

  4. Theory of flotation of small and medium-size particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derjaguin, B. V.; Dukhin, S. S.

    1993-08-01

    The paper describes a theory of flotation of small and medium-size particles less than 50μ in radius) when their precipitation on a bubble surface depends more on surface forces than on inertia forces, and deformation of the bubble due to collisions with the particles may be neglected. The approach of the mineral particle to the bubble surface is regarded as taking place in three stages corresponding to movement of the particles through zones 1, 2 and 3. Zone 3 is a liquid wetting layer of such thickness that a positive or negative disjoining pressure arises in this intervening layer between the particle and the bubble. By zone 2 is meant the diffusional boundary layer of the bubble. In zone 1, which comprises the entire liquid outside zone 2, there are no surface forces. Precipitation of the particles is calculated by considering the forces acting in zones 1, 2 and 3. The particles move through zone 1 under the action of gravity and inertia. Analysis of the movement of the particles under the action of these forces gives the critical particle size, below which contact with the bubble surface is impossible, if the surface forces acting in zones 2 and 3 be neglected. The forces acting in zone 2 are ‘diffusio-phoretic’ forces due to the concentration gradient in the diffusional boundary layer. The concentration and electric field intensity distribution in zone 2 is calculated, taking into account ion diffusion to the deformed bubble surface. An examination is made of the ‘equilibrium’ surface forces acting in zone 3 independent of whether the bubble is at rest or in motion. These forces, which determine the behaviour of the thin wetting intervening layer between the bubble and the mineral particle and the height of the force barrier against its rupture, may be represented as results of the disjoining pressure forces acting on various parts of the film. The main components of the disjoining pressure are van der Waals forces, forces of an iono

  5. Muscarinic enhancement of persistent sodium current synchronizes striatal medium spiny neurons.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Tecuapetla, Fatuel; Vautrelle, Nicolas; Hernández, Adán; Vergara, Ramiro; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, José

    2009-08-01

    Network dynamics denoted by synchronous firing of neuronal pools rely on synaptic interactions and intrinsic properties. In striatal medium spiny neurons, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation endows neurons with nonlinear capabilities by inducing a negative-slope conductance region (NSCR) in the current-voltage relationship. Nonlinearities underlie associative learning, procedural memory, and the sequential organization of behavior in basal ganglia nuclei. The cholinergic system modulates the function of medium spiny projection neurons through the activation of muscarinic receptors, increasing the NMDA-induced NSCR. This enhancement is reflected as a change in the NMDA-induced network dynamics, making it more synchronous. Nevertheless, little is known about the contribution of intrinsic properties that promote this activity. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the cholinergic modulation of bistable behavior in the striatum, we used whole cell and calcium-imaging techniques. A persistent sodium current modulated by muscarinic receptor activation participated in the enhancement of the NSCR and the increased network synchrony. These experiments provide evidence that persistent sodium current generates bistable behavior in striatal neurons and contributes to the regulation of synchronous network activity. The neuromodulation of bistable properties could represent a cellular and network mechanism for cholinergic actions in the striatum. PMID:19474176

  6. 21 CFR 201.307 - Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and directions for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphates; package size limitation... Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.307 Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and... and Drug Administration indicate that multiple container sizes of sodium phosphates oral...

  7. 21 CFR 201.307 - Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and directions for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphates; package size limitation... Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.307 Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and... and Drug Administration indicate that multiple container sizes of sodium phosphates oral...

  8. [Sodium dichloroacetate decreases the size of experimental myocardial infarction in dogs].

    PubMed

    Karnafel, W

    1993-05-01

    The effect of sodium dichloroacetate on the size of myocardial infarction and on the changes of blood lactate and pyruvate levels after coronary artery occlusion were studies in 5 dogs. Sodium dichloroacetate administrated during coronary artery occlusion in dogs limited the size of myocardial necrotic area, simultaneous decrease of lactate and pyruvate levels in peripheral blood was observed. An analysis of lactate levels in blood samples from the coronary sinus and left atrium during coronary artery occlusion and the administration of sodium dichloroacetate suggests that the utilization of lactate by left ventricular myocardium under these conditions is increased. PMID:8366642

  9. Effect of liquid medium on size and shape of nanoparticles prepared by pulsed laser ablation of tin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajaj, Geetika; Soni, R. K.

    2009-11-01

    The effect of the surrounding liquid medium on the size, shape and optical absorption of synthesized nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation of pure tin in different liquids is investigated. The liquid not only confines the ablated species at the liquid-solid interface, but also it acts as a mediator for chemical reaction at the liquid-solid interface. The liquid media surrounding the target is thus an important factor affecting the shape, mean size, size distribution and composition of the particles. The ablation of tin target was carried out in deionized water, ethanol and acetone medium, leading to formation of tin and tin oxide nanoparticles of various sizes and shapes. Electron microscopy and optical absorption were employed for characterization of the particle size, shape and optical properties, respectively. The effect of surfactant was also studied by carrying out ablation in aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) solution. It was observed that the average particle size and size distribution are considerably reduced by using surfactant.

  10. Simplified modeling of liquid sodium medium with temperature and velocity gradient using real thermal-hydraulic data. Application to ultrasonic thermometry in sodium fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Massacret, N.; Jeannot, J. P.

    2013-01-25

    In the framework of the French R and D program for the Generation IV reactors and specifically for the sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR), studies are carried out on innovative instrumentation methods in order to improve safety and to simplify the monitoring of fundamental physical parameters during reactor operation. The aim of the present work is to develop an acoustic thermometry method to follow up the sodium temperature at the outlet of subassemblies. The medium is a turbulent flow of liquid sodium at 550 Degree-Sign C with temperature inhomogeneities. To understand the effect of disturbance created by this medium, numerical simulations are proposed. A ray tracing code has been developed with Matlab Copyright-Sign in order to predict acoustic paths in this medium. This complex medium is accurately described by thermal-hydraulic data which are issued from a simulation of a real experiment in Japan. The analysis of these results allows understanding the effects of medium inhomogeneities on the further thermometric acoustic measurement.

  11. Design and implementation of web server soft load balancing in small and medium-sized enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Liu

    2011-12-01

    With the expansion of business scale, small and medium-sized enterprises began to use information platform to improve their management and competition ability, the server becomes the core factor which restricts the enterprise's infomationization construction. This paper puts forward a suitable design scheme for small and medium-sized enterprise web server soft load balancing, and proved it effective through experiment.

  12. Management Education for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the European Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Rainer

    This report summarizes the activities of various bodies providing training impetus for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Europe on the three levels of (1) basic management education for potential small and medium-sized business owners and/or managers; (2) programs for small firm start-ups; and (3) activities to improve the management of…

  13. Managers' Understanding of Workplace Health Promotion within Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ann; Parahoo, Kader; Fleming, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed at exploring managers' understanding of workplace health promotion and experiences of workplace health promotion activity within small and medium-sized enterprises. Design: A Heideggerian interpretive phenomenological methodology was adopted. Setting: This study was undertaken with small and medium-sized enterprise…

  14. Sodium alanate nanoparticles--linking size to hydrogen storage properties.

    PubMed

    Baldé, Cornelis P; Hereijgers, Bart P C; Bitter, Johannes H; de Jong, Krijn P

    2008-05-28

    Important limitations in the application of light metal hydrides for hydrogen storage are slow kinetics and poor reversibility. To alleviate these problems doping and ball-milling are commonly applied, for NaAlH 4 leading to particle sizes down to 150 nm. By wet-chemical synthesis we have prepared carbon nanofiber-supported NaAlH 4 with discrete particle size ranges of 1-10 microm, 19-30 nm, and 2-10 nm. The hydrogen desorption temperatures and activation energies decreased from 186 degrees C and 116 kJ.mol (-1) for the largest particles to 70 degrees C and 58 kJ.mol (-1) for the smallest particles. In addition, decreasing particle sizes lowered the pressures needed for reloading. This reported size-performance correlation for NaAlH 4 may guide hydrogen storage research for a wide range of nanostructured light (metal) hydrides. PMID:18459778

  15. JB-300: An advanced medium size transport for 2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debrouwer, Giles; Graham, Katherine; Ison, Jim; Juarez, Vince; Moskalik, Steve; Pankonin, Jon; Weinstein, Arnold

    1993-01-01

    In the fall of 1992, the TAC Team was presented with a Request for Proposal (PFP) for a mid-size (250-350 passenger) commercial transport. The aircraft was to be extremely competitive in the areas of passenger comfort, performance, and economic aspects. Through the use of supercritical airfoils, a technologically advanced Very High By-pass Ratio (VHBR) turbofan engine, a low overall drag configuration, a comparable interior layout, and mild use of composites, the JB-300 offers an economically viable choice to the airlines. The cents per passenger mile of the JB-300 is 1.76, which is considerably lower than current aircraft in the same range. Overall, the JB-300 is a technologically advanced aircraft, which will meet the demands of the 21st century.

  16. [Migration toward medium-sized cities. Profound regional transformations].

    PubMed

    Corona, R; Tuiran, R

    1994-01-01

    Significant changes have occurred over the past two decades in the volume, intensity, direction, and modalities of internal migration in Mexico. Interstate migration, for example, has increased greatly. The number of persons living in a state different from that of their birth grew from 7.5 million in 1970 to 15.4 million in 1990, equivalent to 14.5% and 18.1% of the population, respectively. The growing volume and intensity of interstate migration have been accompanied by a declining rate of migration to Mexico City and to a lesser extent Guadalajara and Monterrey. Cities of intermediate size, defined as 100,000 to one million inhabitants, have multiplied since 1970 and a few have achieved great economic and demographic dynamism. In 1970, 16.6% of the population or 33.6% of the urban population lived in 37 intermediate cities, while by 1990 nearly 23.7% of the population and 39.0% of the urban population lived in 56 intermediate sized cities. Census and survey data confirm the power of attraction of a group of intermediate cities, but also reveal a complex array of situations. 24 of the 56 intermediate cities had populations of 100,000-250,000, and 21 had populations of 250,000-500,000. Most intermediate cities are located in the Northwest, Center-North, or Gulf regions. Some states have a number of intermediate cities and some have only one that concentrates most of the urban population. 26 of the 56 had growth rates over the two decades of over 4% annually and 20 had rates varying from 3% to 4%. 1990 census data show that 35% or more of the population were in-migrants in five cities: Tijuana, Mexicali and Ensenada in the Northwest, Cuernavaca in the Center-North, and Cancun in the Yucatan peninsula. Between 20% and 34% of the population were in-migrants in 14 intermediate cities. Cancun and Tijuana had the highest proportions of recent migrants. The volume of net migration of most states generally reflected that of their intermediate cities. The economic crisis

  17. The development of internet based ship design support system for small and medium sized shipyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sung-Chul; Lee, Soon-Sup; Kang, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Kyung-Ho

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, a prototype of ship basic planning system is implemented for the small and medium sized shipyards based on the internet technology and concurrent engineering concept. The system is designed from the user requirements. Consequently, standardized development environment and tools are selected. These tools are used for the system development to define and evaluate core application technologies. The system will contribute to increasing competitiveness of small and medium sized shipyards in the 21st century industrial en-vironment.

  18. Dense medium radiative transfer theory for two scattering layers with a Rayleigh distribution of particle sizes

    SciTech Connect

    West, R.; Tsang, Leung; Winebrenner, D.P. )

    1993-03-01

    Dense medium radiative transfer theory is applied to a three-layer model consisting of two scattering layers overlying a homogeneous half space with a size distribution of particles in each layer. A model with a distribution of sizes gives quite different results than those obtained from a model with a single size. The size distribution is especially important in the low frequency limit when scattering is strongly dependent on particle size. The size distribution and absorption characteristics also affect the extinction behavior as a function of fractional volume. Theoretical results are also compared with experimental data. The sizes, permittivities, and densities used in the numerical illustrations are typical values for snow.

  19. Sustainability and Small to Medium Sized Enterprises--How to Engage Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have a major advantage over larger organisations in regard to addressing sustainability issues--their size means they are able to react very quickly to changes in the business environment. They are disadvantaged, however, by lack of information on marketplace changes that make sustainability an opportunity…

  20. 40 CFR 428.60 - Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.60 Section 428.60... (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber Plants Subcategory § 428.60 Applicability; description of the medium-sized general...

  1. 40 CFR 428.60 - Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.60 Section 428.60... (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber Plants Subcategory § 428.60 Applicability; description of the medium-sized general...

  2. 40 CFR 428.60 - Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.60 Section 428.60... (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber Plants Subcategory § 428.60 Applicability; description of the medium-sized general...

  3. Formulation and optimization of nano-sized ethosomes for enhanced transdermal delivery of cromolyn sodium

    PubMed Central

    Rakesh, R.; Anoop, K. R.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The current study was aimed to investigate the feasibility of transdermal delivery of cromolyn sodium using a novel lipid vesicular carrier, ethosomes. Materials And Methods: Ethosomes of cromolyn sodium was prepared, optimized, and characterized for vesicle shape, vesicle size and size distribution, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release, in vitro skin permeation, in vitro skin deposition and vesicle stability. Histological examination of porcine ear skin treated with optimized ethosomal formulation was performed to study the change of skin morphologies. Results: The optimized cromolyn sodium ethosomes showed reasonable entrapment efficiency (49.88±1.84%), optimum nanometric size range (133.8 ± 7.5 nm), and high zeta potential (-69.82 ± 1.2 mV). In vitro drug release studies of optimized ethosomal formulation through cellophane membrane showed an enhanced and sustained delivery of drug compared to conventional liposomes, hydroethanolic, (45% v/v) and phosphate buffer saline PBS pH 7.4 drug solutions. The optimized ethosomal formulation showed significantly-enhanced transdermal flux (18.49 ± 0.08 mg/cm2/h) across porcine ear skin as compared to liposome (1.80 ± 0.12 mg/cm2/h), hydroethanolic drug solution (4.45 ± 0.71 mg/cm2/h), and PBS pH 7.4 drug solution (1.18 ± 0.35 mg/cm2/h). Moreover, ethosomal formulation showed better skin drug deposition (10.28 ± 0.67%) and shortest lag time (0.11 ± 0.09 h) for cromolyn sodium. Conclusion: Our significant results suggest that ethosomes can be a promising tool for transdermal delivery of cromolyn sodium. PMID:23248569

  4. The routine measurement of platelet size using sodium citrate alone as the anticoagulant.

    PubMed

    Bath, P M

    1993-10-18

    Mean platelet volume (MPV), a measure of platelet size, is becoming recognised as an important marker of platelet function. However, platelets swell in edetic acid (EDTA), the standard haematology anticoagulant, in a time-dependent manner making such measurements potentially unreliable. The effect of incubation time on MPV, and platelet distribution width (PDW), as measured in EDTA, low (1:9 volume/volume with blood) or high (1:4 v/v with blood) concentration sodium citrate was studied. MPV measured in high concentration sodium citrate did not change with time in contrast to MPV measured in either low concentration sodium citrate or EDTA which both increased in an inverse exponential fashion. MPV and PDW, measured in high concentration sodium citrate, had similar within-assay and between-assay coefficients of variation as other platelet, red cell and white cell haematology variables measured in EDTA: MPV 1.4%, 2.1%; PDW 1.4%, 1.5%; MCV 0.4%, 0.7%; PC 3.1%, 6.1%; WCC 1.5%, 7.3%; Hb 2.1%, 2.4% respectively. MPV measured in EDTA and corrected for incubation time approximated to, but was higher than, the MPV measured in high concentration sodium citrate. PDW correlated inversely with platelet count (r = -0.415, 2p < 0.001). MPV may be measured in sodium citrate (at 1:4 v/v with blood) alone with a better accuracy and reproducibility than similar measurements made in EDTA. Furthermore, such measurements are not influenced by incubation time, unlike for EDTA. PMID:8115997

  5. Continuing Education for Managers from Small and Medium Sized German Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fub, Jorg

    1995-01-01

    An international trade school in southern Germany, which is a highly export-oriented environment, has established a vocational and professional continuing education program for personnel of small- and medium-size companies. Offerings include a graduate course in international marketing, seminars for export companies, distance education in…

  6. An Agile Methodology for Implementing Service-Oriented Architecture in Small and Medium Sized Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laidlaw, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of Lean/Agile principles, using action research to develop and deploy new technology for Small and Medium sized enterprises. The research case was conducted at the Lapeer County Sheriff's Department and involves the initial deployment of a Service Oriented Architecture to alleviate the data…

  7. Supporting the E-Business Readiness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Approaches and Metrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jutla, Dawn; Bodorik, Peter; Dhaliwal, Jasbir

    2002-01-01

    Presents a conceptual model for governments in creating a climate that facilitates the national adoption of e-business. Focuses on the needs of small and medium-sized enterprises, suggests measures to assess how a country is performing in providing a positive e-business climate, and provides examples from Canada, The Netherlands, Norway, and…

  8. Business Continuity Planning Resources for Small- and Medium-Sized Businesses

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2010-05-14

    This document/memo summarizes existing resources and guidance on business continuity planning for small- to medium-sized businesses. DTRA will share this information with large commercial businesses who identified the need to help their suppliers and other key collaborators prepare business continuity plans in order to speed recovery from a wide-area bioterrorism incident.

  9. A Bare Bones Reference Collection for Small and Medium-Sized Public Libraries in Maine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Maine Library District, Portland.

    This reference list was compiled to offer Maine librarians who serve communities with the resources of small- or medium-sized libraries a starting point to assess their reference collections for breadth and depth. Initially based on a list distributed by the Vermont Department of Libraries in 1987, this guide evaluates reference materials on the…

  10. An Examination of Library World Wide Web Sites at Medium-Sized Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolppanen, Bradley P.; Miller, Joan; Wooden, Martha H.

    2000-01-01

    Presents the results of a study of Web sites for 133 academic libraries serving medium-sized universities. Suggests that navigational and design aspects need improvement; information should not be included unless it will be accessed and used; and greater use should be made of online tutorials and virtual tours to supplement regular bibliographic…

  11. Successful E-Learning in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    So far, e-learning has primarily been used when there are many learners involved. The up-front investments related to e-learning are relatively high, and may be perceived as prohibitive for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Some e-learning is, however, getting less expensive, and some e-learning models are more suited for small-scale…

  12. Toward a Singleton Undergraduate Computer Graphics Course in Small and Medium-Sized Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shesh, Amit

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the evolution of a single undergraduate computer graphics course over five semesters, driven by a primary question: if one could offer only one undergraduate course in graphics, what would it include? This constraint is relevant to many small and medium-sized colleges that lack resources, adequate expertise, and enrollment…

  13. Small and Medium-Sized Information Technology Firms: Assessment of Non-Local Partnership Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findikoglu, Melike Nur

    2012-01-01

    A two-phased qualitative study was conducted to explore the facilitators of non-local (i.e. domestic or international) partnerships formed by small- and medium-sized firms (SME). Rooted in trust, proximity and dynamic capabilities lenses, the study focused on behaviors of SMEs performing in dynamic, competitive and highly interlinked industry, the…

  14. Barriers to Employee Training in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises: Insights and Evidences from Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padachi, Kesseven; Bhiwajee, Soolakshna Lukea

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Training is an important component of successful business concerns. However, although there is growing acceptance amongst scholars that small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are engines that drive economies across nations, through their contribution in terms of job creation and poverty reduction; extant research portray that these…

  15. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    SciTech Connect

    Wipple, C.; Vosti, E.

    1997-11-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to address needs that are characterized of small to medium sized apparel manufactures and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for this specific efforts are discussed.

  16. Measurement of Bubble Size Distribution Based on Acoustic Propagation in Bubbly Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiongjun; Hsiao, Chao-Tsung; Choi, Jin-Keun; Chahine, Georges

    2013-03-01

    Acoustic properties are strongly affected by bubble size distribution in a bubbly medium. Measurement of the acoustic transmission becomes increasingly difficulty as the void fraction of the bubbly medium increases due to strong attenuation, while acoustic reflection can be measured more easily with increasing void fraction. The ABS ACOUSTIC BUBBLE SPECTROMETER®\\copyright, an instrument for bubble size measurement that is under development tries to take full advantage of the properties of acoustic propagation in bubbly media to extract bubble size distribution. Properties of both acoustic transmission and reflection in the bubbly medium from a range of short single-frequency bursts of acoustic waves at different frequencies are measured in an effort to deduce the bubble size distribution. With the combination of both acoustic transmission and reflection, assisted with validations from photography, the ABS ACOUSTIC BUBBLE SPECTROMETER®\\copyright has the potential to measure bubble size distributions in a wider void fraction range. This work was sponsored by Department of Energy SBIR program

  17. Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) Induces Colitis in Mice by Forming Nano-Lipocomplexes with Medium-Chain-Length Fatty Acids in the Colon

    PubMed Central

    Laroui, Hamed; Ingersoll, Sarah A.; Liu, Hong Chun; Baker, Mark T.; Ayyadurai, Saravanan; Charania, Moiz A.; Laroui, Famina; Yan, Yutao; Sitaraman, Shanthi V.; Merlin, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), primarily ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are inflammatory disorders caused by multiple factors. Research on IBD has often used the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. DSS induces in vivo but not in vitro intestinal inflammation. In addition, no DSS-associated molecule (free glucose, sodium sulfate solution, free dextran) induces in vitro or in vivo intestinal inflammation. We find that DSS but not dextran associated molecules established linkages with medium-chain-length fatty acids (MCFAs), such as dodecanoate, that are present in the colonic lumen. DSS complexed to MCFAs forms nanometer-sized vesicles ∼200 nm in diameter that can fuse with colonocyte membranes. The arrival of nanometer-sized DSS/MCFA vesicles in the cytoplasm may activate intestinal inflammatory signaling pathways. We also show that the inflammatory activity of DSS is mediated by the dextran moieties. The deleterious effect of DSS is localized principally in the distal colon, therefore it will be important to chemically modify DSS to develop materials beneficial to the colon without affecting colon-targeting specificity. PMID:22427817

  18. Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Building Monitoring and Controls Needs: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Piette, M. A.; Granderson, J.; Brown, Rich E.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Kuruganti, T.

    2012-10-31

    Buildings consume over 40% of the total energy consumption in the U.S. A significant portion of the energy consumed in buildings is wasted because of the lack of controls or the inability to use existing building automation systems (BASs) properly. Much of the waste occurs because of our inability to manage and controls buildings efficiently. Over 90% of the buildings are either small-size (<5,000 sf) or medium-size (between 5,000 sf and 50,000 sf); these buildings currently do not use BASs to monitor and control their building systems from a central location. According to Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), about 10% of the buildings in the U.S. use BASs or central controls to manage their building system operations. Buildings that use BASs are typically large (>100,000 sf). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP) to identify monitoring and control needs for small- and medium-sized commercial buildings and recommend possible solutions. This study documents the needs and solutions for small- and medium-sized buildings.

  19. Identification of medium-sized genomic deletions with low coverage, mate-paired restricted tags

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genomic deletions are known to be widespread in many species. Variant sequencing-based approaches for identifying deletions have been developed, but their powers to detect those deletions that affect medium-sized regions are limited when the sequencing coverage is low. Results We present a cost-effective method for identifying medium-sized deletions in genomic regions with low genomic coverage. Two mate-paired libraries were separately constructed from human cancerous tissue to generate paired short reads (ditags) from restriction fragments digested with a 4-base restriction enzyme. A total of 3 Gb of paired reads (1.0× genome size) was collected, and 175 deletions were inferred by identifying the ditags with disorder alignments to the reference genome sequence. Sanger sequencing results confirmed an overall detection accuracy of 95%. Good reproducibility was verified by the deletions that were detected by both libraries. Conclusions We provide an approach to accurately identify medium-sized deletions in large genomes with low sequence coverage. It can be applied in studies of comparative genomics and in the identification of germline and somatic variants. PMID:23347462

  20. Ionic Liquid-Induced Unprecedented Size Enhancement of Aggregates within Aqueous Sodium Dodecylbenzene Sulfonate

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Rewa; Baker, Gary A; Behera, Kamalakanta; Mohanty, Pravakar; Kurur, Narayanan; Pandey, Siddharth

    2010-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of aqueous micellar solutions may change in the presence of ionic liquids (ILs). Micelles help to increase the aqueous solubility of ILs. The average size of the micellar aggregates within aqueous sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) is observed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to increase in a sudden and drastic fashion as the IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]) is added. Similar addition of [bmim][PF6] to aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) results in only a slow gradual increase in average aggregate size. While addition of the IL [bmim][BF4] also gives rise to sudden aggregate size enhancement within aqueous SDBS, the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([emim][BF4]), and inorganic salts NaPF6 and NaBF4, only gradually increase the assembly size upon their addition. Bulk dynamic viscosity, microviscosity, dipolarity (indicated by the fluorescent reporter pyrene), zeta potential, and electrical conductance measurements were taken to gain insight into this unusual size enhancement. It is proposed that bmim cations of the IL undergo Coulombic attractive interactions with anionic headgroups at the micellar surface at all [bmim][PF6] concentrations in aqueous SDS; in aqueous SDBS, beyond a critical IL concentration, bmim becomes involved in cation- interaction with the phenyl moiety of SDBS within micellar aggregates with the butyl group aligned along the alkyl chain of the surfactant. This relocation of bmim results in an unprecedented size increase in micellar aggregates. Aromaticity of the IL cation alongside the presence of sufficiently aliphatic (butyl or longer) alkyl chains on the IL appear to be essential for this dramatic critical expansion in self-assembly dimensions within aqueous SDBS.

  1. Services Supporting Knowledge Maturing in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Ronald

    The hype around Web 2.0 has again sparked tremendous interest in IT-supported knowledge management and technology-enhanced learning in organizations. Although there has been abundant evidence of how to benefit from Web 2.0 technologies, information on how to go about deploying these in small and medium-sized enterprises in a coordinated manner are scarce. Based on the findings of an empirical study and an ethnographically informed study on knowledge maturing, this paper suggests a set of knowledge services to support a series of knowledge actions chained with the help of the knowledge maturing model. This set of services can be used by small and medium-sized enterprises for analyzing IT tools and systems which currently support their employees’ knowledge maturing activities, to foster knowledge cooperation with customers, suppliers and partners in their business environment and to find gaps which can be filled particularly by consuming services over the Web.

  2. Teaching Medium-Sized ERP Systems - A Problem-Based Learning Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, Axel; Matzner, Martin

    In order to increase the diversity in IS education, we discuss an approach for teaching medium-sized ERP systems in master courses. Many of today's IS curricula are biased toward large ERP packages. Nevertheless, these ERP systems are only a part of the ERP market. Hence, this chapter describes a course outline for a course on medium-sized ERP systems. Students had to study, analyze, and compare five different ERP systems during a semester. The chapter introduces a procedure model and scenario for setting up similar courses at other universities. Furthermore, it describes some of the students' outcomes and evaluates the contribution of the course with regard to a practical but also academic IS education.

  3. Financial and Tax Management in Small and Medium Sized Industrial Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bestvinová, Viera; Homokyová, Mária; Horváthová, Martina

    2012-12-01

    Target of this paper was to evaluate the importance of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in Slovakia and to determine the application of financial and tax management in this type of enterprises. The results of our findings confirm that SMEs have an important role in Slovakia, and also that especially small businesses have little or no experience with the application of financial and tax management. Therefore the paper contains recommendations for financial and tax management of SMEs.

  4. Assessing the effectiveness of safeguards at a medium-sized spent-fuel reprocessing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Higinbotham, W.; Fishbone, L.G.; Suda, S.

    1983-01-01

    In order to evaluate carefully and systematically the effectiveness of safeguards at nuclear-fuel-cycle facilities, the International Atomic Energy Agency has adopted a safeguards effectiveness assessment methodology. The methodology has been applied to a well-characterized, medium-sized, spent-fuel reprocessing plant to understand how explicit safeguards inspection procedures would serve to expose conceivable nuclear materials diversion schemes, should such diversion occur.

  5. Asymmetric Synthesis of Medium-Sized Rings by Intramolecular Au(I)-Catalyzed Cyclopropanation

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Iain D. G.; Ritter, Stefanie; Toste, F. Dean

    2009-01-01

    An efficient method for the asymmetric gold(I)-catalyzed preparation of medium sized rings has been developed. The method provides 7- to 9-membered rings in excellent yield. High enantioselectivities can be achieved for 7- and 8-membered ring products employing chiral gold(I) complexes. The results provide insight into the mechanism, showing the fluxional nature of gold(I)-stabilized vinyl carbenoid intermediates. PMID:19161306

  6. Consultant-Client Relationship and Knowledge Transfer in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises Change Processes.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Luis F; Ferreira, Aristides I; Can, Amina B

    2016-04-01

    Based on Szulanski's knowledge transfer model, this study examined how the communicational, motivational, and sharing of understanding variables influenced knowledge transfer and change processes in small- and medium-sized enterprises, particularly under projects developed by funded programs. The sample comprised 144 entrepreneurs, mostly male (65.3%) and mostly ages 35 to 45 years (40.3%), who filled an online questionnaire measuring the variables of "sharing of understanding," "motivation," "communication encoding competencies," "source credibility," "knowledge transfer," and "organizational change." Data were collected between 2011 and 2012 and measured the relationship between clients and consultants working in a Portuguese small- and medium-sized enterprise-oriented action learning program. To test the hypotheses, structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the antecedents of sharing of understanding, motivational, and communicational variables, which were positively correlated with the knowledge transfer between consultants and clients. This transfer was also positively correlated with organizational change. Overall, the study provides important considerations for practitioners and academicians and establishes new avenues for future studies concerning the issues of consultant-client relationship and the efficacy of Government-funded programs designed to improve performance of small- and medium-sized enterprises. PMID:27154382

  7. Open adrenalectomy for medium sized adrenocortical tumour: How I do it?

    PubMed Central

    Sameh, Wael M.; Kotb, Ahmed Fouad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of our work was to report our experience in managing cases with medium-sized adrenocortical carcinoma by the high retroperitoneal extra pleural approach. Methods: During the past 2 years, 10 patients with suspected adrenocortical carcinoma were managed by our technique: the high supra 10th rib, retroperitoneal extra pleural approach. We included cases with 5 to 10 cm adrenal masses, suspected as adrenocortical carcinoma. Results: The mean patient age was 38 years (range: 26–44), the median tumour volume was 7 cm (range: 5–8). Of the 10 patients, 7 were female. Of the patients, 6 had right- and 4 had left-sided tumours. Intraoperatively, all cases had proper surgical removal, with no apparent residual tumour tissue. No single patient required a chest tube or developed respiratory problems. There were no major vascular injuries during surgery. We did not compare our findings to the standard lateral or subcostal approaches, as in our institution we adopt this high lateral approach for medium-sized tumours, while managing larger tumours with transperitoneal subcostal approach and smaller tumours laparoscopically. Conclusion: The high supra 10th lateral retroperitoneal, extra pleural approach is a safe, doable technique, allowing easy access to medium-sized suprarenal tumours and its vasculature, for cases suspected to be adrenocortical carcinoma. PMID:26029297

  8. 75 FR 5804 - Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: U.S. and EU Export Activities, and Barriers and Opportunities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... published in the Federal Registers of October 28, 2009 (74 FR 55581); December 1, 2009 (74 FR 62812); and... COMMISSION Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: U.S. and EU Export Activities, and Barriers and Opportunities Experienced by U.S. Firms and Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Characteristics and Performance...

  9. 40 CFR 428.60 - Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.60 Section 428.60... RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber... fabricated rubber plants subcategory. The following provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  10. 40 CFR 428.60 - Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.60 Section 428.60... RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber... fabricated rubber plants subcategory. The following provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  11. Porous medium coffee ring effect and other factors affecting the first crystallisation time of sodium chloride at the surface of a drying porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidri, F.; Sghaier, N.; Eloukabi, H.; Prat, M.; Nasrallah, S. Ben

    2013-12-01

    We study the distribution of ions in a drying porous medium up to the formation of first crystals at the surface. The study is based on comparisons between numerical simulations and experiments with packings of glass beads. The experimental configuration, which is representative of many previous drying experiments, is characterized by the formation of an efflorescence fairy ring at the surface of the porous medium. The preferential formation of crystals at the periphery is explained by the combined effect of higher evaporation fluxes at the surface periphery, as in the classical coffee ring problem, and variations in the porosity near the wall bordering the packing. It is shown that both effects have a great impact on the time marking the occurrence of first crystals, which is referred to as the first crystallization time. The experiments indicate that the first crystallization time increases with a decreasing bead size for a given initial ion concentration. This is explained by the variation with bead size of the characteristic size of the near wall region where a preferential desaturation of the sample occurs as a result of the porosity increase near the wall. The study also reveals a significant salt supersaturation effect. This represents a noticeable fact in relation with salt weathering issues.

  12. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    SciTech Connect

    Wimple, C., LLNL

    1998-04-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX{sup TM}) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to identify opportunities for cost effective enhanced information technology use by small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for the specific DAMA Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) effort are discussed in this section. The approach used to gather information about current opportunities or needs is outlined in Section 2 Approach, and relevant findings are identified and a brief analysis of the information gathered is presented in Section 3 Findings. Recommendations based on the analysis, are offered in Section 4 Recommendations, and plans are suggested for DAMA follow-on in Section 5 Future Plans. Trip reports for each of the companies visited are contained in Appendix E - Company Trip Reports. These individual reports contain the data upon which the analysis presented in Section 3 Findings is based.

  13. Grafting of sodium montmorillonite with γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane in ethanol/water dispersing medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgari, Mohammad; Abouelmagd, Ahmed; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman

    2016-03-01

    In this work, silane grafted sodium montmorillonite was synthesized by γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane to make it compatible with the organic polymer. The grafting reaction was examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), 29Si NMR, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The appearance of new peaks for FTIR results confirmed the presence of the grafted silane onto the clay platelets. Besides, 29Si NMR results revealed another extra resonance which belongs to new bonds formed at clay edges and on the internal nanoclay platelets. TGA results confirmed that by increasing the amount of silane, the amount of grafting silane also increased which was shown by increase of mass loss. DTG results showed that by increasing the amount of aminosilane used for modification, the amount of intercalated silane is also increased.

  14. Prediction of Accurate Thermochemistry of Medium and Large Sized Radicals Using Connectivity-Based Hierarchy (CBH).

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Arkajyoti; Raghavachari, Krishnan

    2014-10-14

    Accurate modeling of the chemical reactions in many diverse areas such as combustion, photochemistry, or atmospheric chemistry strongly depends on the availability of thermochemical information of the radicals involved. However, accurate thermochemical investigations of radical systems using state of the art composite methods have mostly been restricted to the study of hydrocarbon radicals of modest size. In an alternative approach, systematic error-canceling thermochemical hierarchy of reaction schemes can be applied to yield accurate results for such systems. In this work, we have extended our connectivity-based hierarchy (CBH) method to the investigation of radical systems. We have calibrated our method using a test set of 30 medium sized radicals to evaluate their heats of formation. The CBH-rad30 test set contains radicals containing diverse functional groups as well as cyclic systems. We demonstrate that the sophisticated error-canceling isoatomic scheme (CBH-2) with modest levels of theory is adequate to provide heats of formation accurate to ∼1.5 kcal/mol. Finally, we predict heats of formation of 19 other large and medium sized radicals for which the accuracy of available heats of formation are less well-known. PMID:26588131

  15. [Application of health questionnaires for health management in small- and medium-sized enterprises].

    PubMed

    Kishida, K; Saito, M; Hasegawa, T; Aoki, S; Suzuki, S

    1986-01-01

    Two kinds of health questionnaires, the Todai Health Index (THI) and Cumulative Fatigue Index (CFI), were applied as a screening device for health management of workers belonging to small-medium sized enterprises. A total of 495 workers composed of 452 male workers of a glass-bottle manufacturing factory and 43 male workers of a soft-drink bottling factory were the subjects of the present study. It was found that the two kinds of health questionnaires were different from each other and have their own characteristics. Twelve scales of THI were grouped into two, the first consisting of ten scales (SUSY, RESP, EYSK, MOUT, DIGE, IMPU, MENT, DEPR, NERV, and LIFE) and the second consisting of two scales (AGGR and LISC). Nine categories of CFI were grouped into one by using principal factor analysis. It was confirmed that the twelve scale scores of THI obtained at small-medium sized factories differed from those scale scores of a reference group investigated at a large-sized enterprise. It is on the basis of the scales of aggressiveness and lies and also of the scale of mental unstability which characterizes workers, locality, job (clerical or field work), and size of industry (large or small sized) that the difference could be evaluated. Urban life characterized by a life style of staying up late at night and waking up late in the morning has been reflected on the scale of life irregularity. Irregularity of life induced by transformation of working schedule, such as two or three shifts of work and overtime, was also reflected on this scale. Two scales of THI test, i.e., many subjective symptoms and digestive organ complaints, seemed to be the representative scales indicating a close relation between work load and health level. The discriminant score for diagnosis of psychosomatic diseases is considered to be one of the most useful assessments of the individual's health condition. As mentioned above, THI is recommended as a convenient assessment method for health

  16. Occupational safety and health in small and medium-sized enterprises during social and economic transformation.

    PubMed

    Koradecka, D

    2001-01-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Central and Eastern Europe at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s were characterised by many people exposed to hazardous working conditions. Statistics recorded a considerable increase in the number of occupational diseases. They also showed that it was more dangerous to work for a small company. The transition from planned to market economy has brought about an increase in the number of SMEs in Poland. Data on them are provided. The role of the Central Institute for Labour Protection in studying SMEs is presented. A pilot study of employers and employees is discussed. PMID:11276261

  17. Detection of Medium-Sized Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons via Fluorescence Energy Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Serio, Nicole; Prignano, Lindsey; Peters, Sean; Levine, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    Reported herein is the use of proximity-induced non-covalent energy transfer for the detection of medium-sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This energy transfer occurs within the cavity of γ-cyclodextrin in various aqueous environments, including human plasma and coconut water. Highly efficient energy transfer was observed, and the efficiency of the energy transfer is independent of the concentration of γ-cyclodextrin used, demonstrating the importance of hydrophobic binding in facilitating such energy transfer. Low limits of detection were also observed for many of the PAHs investigated, which is promising for the development of fluorescence-based detection schemes. PMID:25821390

  18. Tidal River Elbe - a sediment budget for the grain size fraction of medium sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterscheid, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Human interventions have a historic and ongoing impact on estuarine sediment budgets across many estuaries worldwide. An early inference was the construction of embankments resulting in a constant loss of intertidal flats. Additionally, settlement activities and large scale land use changes in the upstream catchment areas had also an effect on sediment inflow rates. Today, the navigation channels in estuaries have been deepened for larger and more efficient vessels to reach a well-developed infrastructure of harbors and industrial areas often located far inland. In the past few years and just within the North-East Atlantic, the total annual amount of dredged sediments dumped at sea varied from 80 to 130 million tons (OSPAR Commission). In most estuaries across Europe the resulting human impact on the sediment fluxes and morphodynamics is significant. A good understanding of estuarine processes is essential for determining useful and meaningful measures to mitigate negative effects and to improve the current situation. Maintenance dredging and its environmental effects are therefore in the focus of public attention. Against this background, it is the aim of the presentation to identify and therefore to separate the particular effect that maintenance dredging has on sediment fluxes and budgets in the estuarine environment. Case study is the Tidal River Elbe in Germany, and here we set the focus on the grain size fraction of medium sand. In the past, river engineering measures forced the natural dynamics to form a concentrated stream flow along a fixed channel, except at a number of locations where side channels still exist. In addition to that, the main channel was deepened several times. The last deepening was in 1999/2000. The most significant deepening, however, took place from 1957 to 1962. Until then, an erosion-stable layer of marine clay (in German called "Klei") formed a flat bottom along most sections of the main channel. After removal of this layer of

  19. Continuous medium exchange and cell isolation by size-selective passage through slanted micro-obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Seungjeong; Choi, Sungyoung

    2014-02-01

    The ability to isolate cells from contaminant particles such as cellular debris and simultaneously exchange the carrier medium of the cells is important for obtaining experimental integrity and optimal cell health. Although microfluidic manipulation techniques have demonstrated their ability to exchange the carrier medium of cells, they still require large device footprint (typically several cm2) that makes it difficult for them to be integrated into microfluidic systems. Here, we report a microfluidic device that overcomes the limitation by utilizing size-selective passage through slanted obstacles. A gap formed underneath the obstacles allows passage of small contaminant particles, while directing larger cells along the periphery of the obstacles. We demonstrated the utility of our device in a small device footprint of 0.05 mm2 for efficient exchange of the carrier medium of mammalian cells, and achieved isolation of the cells from 1 µm diameter contaminant particles in 4.4 ms with an enrichment factor of 834, an isolation purity of ≈70%, and a throughput of 465 cells min-1.

  20. Chemical and isotopic fractionation by grain size separates. [in interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    Fractionation of refractory elements according to grain size is argued to occur during their growth. Two major modes should exist: (1) during thermal condensation sequences whenever the condensing phase (e.g. Mg2SiO4) does not alloy with the precondensed phase (e.g. MgAl2O4); (2) during accretion of gaseous atoms in the nonequilibrated interstellar medium. Processes dynamically sorting grains according to size (e.g. sedimentation) therefore are potentially capable of achieving fractionations normally attributed to separations of dust and gas. This paper considers the first mode during supernova condensation; however, it also can occur in an equilibrium solar condensation sequence owing to an overlooked freedom in that simplified description.

  1. Optical bistability in plasmonic nanoparticles: Effect of size, shape and embedding medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daneshfar, Nader; Foroughi, Hamidreza

    2016-09-01

    We theoretically investigate the optical bistability, which one input signal allows two possible outputs, from single spherical/cylindrical nanoparticles and also nanoshells in the frame work of quasi-static formalism. It is shown that the bistability behavior greatly depends on several parameters such as the nanoparticle size, material and the surrounding dielectric environment. We demonstrated the width of the bistability region and also the bistable threshold depends on the geometrical parameters, and can be tuned by adjusting the size of nanoparticle, the shell thickness and the dielectric constant of the embedding medium. It is also shown that the optical bistable behavior depends strongly on the shape of plasmonic nanoparticles and nanoshells. However, these dependences of optical bistability of spherical/cylindrical nanoparticles and nanoshells on changing of their geometrical parameters can be used for realize optical switching and sensing purposes.

  2. Differential sensitivity of medium- and large-sized striatal neurons to NMDA but not kainate receptor activation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, C; Itri, J N; Flores-Hernández, J; Hurst, R S; Calvert, C R; Levine, M S

    2001-11-01

    Infrared videomicroscopy and differential interference contrast optics were used to identify medium- and large-sized neurons in striatal slices from young rats. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were obtained to compare membrane currents evoked by application of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and kainate. Inward currents and current densities induced by NMDA were significantly smaller in large- than in medium-sized striatal neurons. The negative slope conductance for NMDA currents was greater in medium- than in large-sized neurons and more depolarization was required to remove the Mg2+ blockade. In contrast, currents induced by kainate were significantly greater in large-sized neurons whilst current densities were approximately equal in both cell types. Spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents occurred frequently in medium-sized neurons but were relatively infrequent in large-sized neurons. Excitatory postsynaptic currents evoked by electrical stimulation were smaller in large- than in medium-sized neurons. A final set of experiments assessed a functional consequence of the differential sensitivity of medium- and large-sized neurons to NMDA. Cell swelling was used to examine changes in somatic area in both neuronal types after prolonged application of NMDA or kainate. NMDA produced a time-dependent increase in somatic area in medium-sized neurons whilst it produced only minimal changes in large interneurons. In contrast, application of kainate produced significant swelling in both medium- and large-sized cells. We hypothesize that reduced sensitivity to NMDA may be due to variations in receptor subunit composition and/or the relative density of receptors in the two cell types. These findings help define the conditions that put neurons at risk for excitotoxic damage in neurological disorders. PMID:11860453

  3. Polyurethane foam loaded with sodium dodecylsulfate for the extraction of 'quat' pesticides from aqueous medium: Optimization of loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Vinhal, Jonas O; Lima, Claudio F; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2016-09-01

    The cationic herbicides paraquat, diquat and difenzoquat are largely used in different cultures worldwide. With this, there is an intrinsic risk of environmental contamination when these herbicides achieve natural waters. The goal of this work was to propose a novel and low-cost sorbent for the removal of the cited herbicides from aqueous medium. The proposed sorbent was prepared by loading polyurethane foam with sodium dodecylsulfate. The influence of several parameters (SDS concentration, HCl concentration and shaking time) on the loading process was investigated. The results obtained in this work demonstrated that all studied variables influenced the loading process, having significant effect on the extraction efficiency of the resulted PUF-SDS. At optimized conditions, the PUF was loaded by shaking 200mg of crushed foam with 200mL of a solution containing 5.0×10(-3)molL(-1) SDS and 0.25molL(-1) HCl, for 30min. The obtained PUF-SDS was efficient for removing the three herbicides from aqueous medium, achieving extraction percentages higher than 90%. The sorption process followed a pseudo second-order kinetics, which presented excellent predictive capacity of the amount of herbicide retained with time. PMID:27213562

  4. Increase of chronic low back pain prevalence in a medium-sized city of southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a highly disabling morbidity with high social, economic and individual effects. Demographic, occupational and behavioral changes that took place in Brazil over the last decade are related with an increasing burden of chronic conditions. Despite these changes, comparison studies on CLBP prevalence and associated factors, over time are scarce in the literature in general, and unknown in Brazil. The present study compared the CLBP prevalence in a medium sized city in Brazil between the years 2002 and 2010 and examined factors associated with prevalence in 2010. Methods Two cross-sectional studies with similar methodology were conducted in a medium-sized city in southern Brazil, in 2002 and 2010. 3182 individuals were interviewed in the first study and 2732 in the second one, all adults aged twenty years or more. Those who reported pain for seven weeks or more in the last three months in the lumbar region where considered cases of CLBP. Results The CLBP prevalence increased from 4.2% to 9.6% in 8 years. In most of the studied subgroups the CLBP prevalence has at least doubled and the increase was even larger among younger individuals with more years of education and higher economic status. Conclusions Increase in CLBP prevalence is worrisome because it is a condition responsible for substantial social impact, besides being an important source of demand for health services. PMID:23634830

  5. Detection of Clostridium difficile in small and medium-sized wild Mammals in Southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Claire M; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Rousseau, Joyce; Weese, J Scott

    2013-04-01

    We sampled 325 small and medium-sized wild mammals in Ontario, Canada in 2007 and 2010 to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Clostridium difficile in wild mammals living in proximity to captive wildlife and livestock. Clostridium difficile was isolated from five of 109 animals (4.6%) on four of 25 farms (16%), but was not isolated from any of the 216 samples from raccoons (Procyon lotor) living on the grounds of the Toronto Zoo. The positive animals included two raccoons from one beef farm, one raccoon from a different beef farm, one raccoon from a swine farm, and a shrew (Blarina brevicauda) from a dairy farm. None had evidence of gastrointestinal disease. Three of the five isolates were toxinotype variants (II, IV, and XIII) that are rarely identified in humans and domestic animals. The other two were toxinotype 0, a common toxinotype in humans and animals; however, all five isolates were of different ribotypes. None of the recovered ribotypes were recognized as ribotypes present in the authors' reference library of over 3,000 human and domestic animal C. difficile isolates. Neither the public health nor the animal health relevance of these findings is clear. It is not known whether C. difficile is a pathogen of small and medium-sized wild mammals, although the susceptibility of various laboratory species suggests it could cause disease. PMID:23568920

  6. Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in medium-sized to large arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Lindvall, Peter; Grayson, David; Bergström, Per; Bergenheim, A Tommy

    2015-06-01

    We have reviewed treatment results in terms of obliteration and complications in 24 patients with medium to large sized cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) (mean volume 18.5±8.9cm(3); range: 10-42) treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HSRT). AVMs are congenital lesions associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Radiosurgery is one option for treatment. However, in larger AVMs with volumes exceeding 10cm(3) obliteration rates are less favourable and radiation induced complications more frequent. For larger AVMs, volume-staged radiosurgery is one option while another option may be the use of HSRT. Patients were treated with 6-7Gy in five fractions to a total dose of 30-35Gy (mean total dose 32.9±1.6Gy [standard error of the mean]). Sixteen patients (69.6%) showed obliteration after a mean time of 35.2±14.8 months (range: 24-60). Only one patient (4.2%) experienced symptomatic radionecrosis. Our treatment with HSRT seems safe and efficient for treatment of medium to large sized AVMs. Treatment results seem to be in line with volume-staged radiosurgery and may be an alternative for AVMs not suitable for single fraction radiosurgery. PMID:25827867

  7. Performance of a Medium-Size Area nGEM Detector for Neutron Beam Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croci, G.; Cazzaniga, C.; Albani, G.; Muraro, A.; Claps, G.; Cavenago, M.; Grosso, G.; Murtas, F.; Pasqualotto, R.; Cippo, E. Perelli; Rebai, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Gorini, G.

    Fast neutron detectors with a sub-centimetric space resolution are required in order to qualify neutron beams in applications related to magnetically-controlled nuclear fusion plasmas and to spallation sources. Based on the results obtained with small area prototypes, the first medium-size (20 x 35.2 cm2 active area) nGEM detector has been realized for both the CNESM diagnostic system of the SPIDER NBI prototype for ITER and as a beam monitor for fast neutrons beam lines at spallation sources, too. The nGEM is a Triple GEM gaseous detector equipped with polyethylene layers used to convert fast neutrons into recoil protons through the elastic scattering process. This paper describes the performance of the medium-size nGEM detector tested at the VESUVIO beam line of the ISIS spallation source. Being this detector the actual largest area fast neutron detector based on the GEM technology, particular attention was paid in the study of detector response in different points over the active area. Measurements of GEM counting rate (both as a function of VGEM and of time) and of the capability of the detector to reconstruct the beam in different positions are presented. This detector serves as a basis for the realization of an even larger area detector that will be used in the MITICA NBI prototype for ITER that represents the evolution of SPIDER.

  8. Impact of sodium dodecyl sulphate on the dissolution of poorly soluble drug into biorelevant medium from drug-surfactant discs.

    PubMed

    Madelung, Peter; Ostergaard, Jesper; Bertelsen, Poul; Jørgensen, Erik V; Jacobsen, Jette; Müllertz, Anette

    2014-06-01

    The purpose was to elucidate the mechanism of action of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) on drug dissolution from discs under physiologically relevant conditions. The effect of incorporating SDS (4-30%, w/w) and drug into discs on the dissolution constant and solubility were evaluated for the poorly soluble drugs griseofulvin and felodipine in a biorelevant dissolution medium (BDM). Dissolution constants from dissolution profiles of drug discs with and without SDS were measured using miniaturized rotating disc dissolution. Solid state changes were investigated by X-ray diffraction. Solubility was determined using HPLC-UV. The interaction between micelles in BDM and SDS was investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry and dynamic light scattering. Isothermal titration calorimetry showed that SDS formed mixed micelles with bile salt:phospholipid (BS:PC) micelles in BDM. Dynamic light scattering showed that the addition of SDS made the BS:PC micelles grow up to 2.5 times in volume. As a function of SDS addition, the dissolution constant showed an apparent exponential increase, while drug solubility showed a weak linear dependence. The pronounced effect on dissolution constant with SDS in the discs is not caused by an increased surface area as SDS dissolves, micelles in the bulk medium or changes in the solid state properties of the drugs. The proposed mechanism involves a high local concentration of SDS at the solid-liquid interface as SDS dissolves and this solubilizes the drug. The improved solubility at the solid-liquid interface provided a much steeper concentration gradient resulted in a faster dissolution. The total amount of SDS in the discs only gave a minor increase in total surfactant concentration in the dissolution medium and did therefore not to any large extent affect the drug solubility in the bulk. PMID:24594297

  9. Understanding the Size-Dependent Sodium Storage Properties of Na2C6O6-Based Organic Electrodes for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaqun; Ding, Yu; Pan, Lijia; Shi, Ye; Yue, Zhuanghao; Shi, Yi; Yu, Guihua

    2016-05-11

    Organic electroactive materials represent a new generation of sustainable energy storage technology due to their unique features including environmental benignity, material sustainability, and highly tailorable properties. Here a carbonyl-based organic salt Na2C6O6, sodium rhodizonate (SR) dibasic, is systematically investigated for high-performance sodium-ion batteries. A combination of structural control, electrochemical analysis, and computational simulation show that rational morphological control can lead to significantly improved sodium storage performance. A facile antisolvent method was developed to synthesize microbulk, microrod, and nanorod structured SRs, which exhibit strong size-dependent sodium ion storage properties. The SR nanorod exhibited the best performance to deliver a reversible capacity of ∼190 mA h g(-1) at 0.1 C with over 90% retention after 100 cycles. At a high rate of 10 C, 50% of the capacity can be obtained due to enhanced reaction kinetics, and such high electrochemical activity maintains even at 80 °C. These results demonstrate a generic design route toward high-performance organic-based electrode materials for beyond Li-ion batteries. Using such a biomass-derived organic electrode material enables access to sustainable energy storage devices with low cost, high electrochemical performance and thermal stability. PMID:27078609

  10. Hybrid neural intelligent system to predict business failure in small-to-medium-size enterprises.

    PubMed

    Borrajo, M Lourdes; Baruque, Bruno; Corchado, Emilio; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan M

    2011-08-01

    During the last years there has been a growing need of developing innovative tools that can help small to medium sized enterprises to predict business failure as well as financial crisis. In this study we present a novel hybrid intelligent system aimed at monitoring the modus operandi of the companies and predicting possible failures. This system is implemented by means of a neural-based multi-agent system that models the different actors of the companies as agents. The core of the multi-agent system is a type of agent that incorporates a case-based reasoning system and automates the business control process and failure prediction. The stages of the case-based reasoning system are implemented by means of web services: the retrieval stage uses an innovative weighted voting summarization of self-organizing maps ensembles-based method and the reuse stage is implemented by means of a radial basis function neural network. An initial prototype was developed and the results obtained related to small and medium enterprises in a real scenario are presented. PMID:21809475

  11. Modeling, simulation, and concept design for hybrid-electric medium-size military trucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzoni, Giorgio; Josephson, John R.; Soliman, Ahmed; Hubert, Christopher; Cantemir, Codrin-Gruie; Dembski, Nicholas; Pisu, Pierluigi; Mikesell, David; Serrao, Lorenzo; Russell, James; Carroll, Mark

    2005-05-01

    A large scale design space exploration can provide valuable insight into vehicle design tradeoffs being considered for the U.S. Army"s FMTV (Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles). Through a grant from TACOM (Tank-automotive and Armaments Command), researchers have generated detailed road, surface, and grade conditions representative of the performance criteria of this medium-sized truck and constructed a virtual powertrain simulator for both conventional and hybrid variants. The simulator incorporates the latest technology among vehicle design options, including scalable ultracapacitor and NiMH battery packs as well as a variety of generator and traction motor configurations. An energy management control strategy has also been developed to provide efficiency and performance. A design space exploration for the family of vehicles involves running a large number of simulations with systematically varied vehicle design parameters, where each variant is paced through several different mission profiles and multiple attributes of performance are measured. The resulting designs are filtered to remove dominated designs, exposing the multi-criterial surface of optimality (Pareto optimal designs), and revealing the design tradeoffs as they impact vehicle performance and economy. The results are not yet definitive because ride and drivability measures were not included, and work is not finished on fine-tuning the modeled dynamics of some powertrain components. However, the work so far completed demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach to design space exploration, and the results to date suggest the powertrain configuration best suited to the FMTV mission.

  12. Medium-size power generation market now focus of Rolls-Royce

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, P.

    1996-12-01

    John Rose, Rolls-Royce chief executive, explained that the focus in power generation would now be upon small- and medium-sized power applications up to 150MW using its ranges of aeroderivative gas turbines, small steam turbines and diesel engines. The company already has an established position in this area and expects to become more competitive as aeroderivative gas turbines like the marine WR21 and industrial Trent reach the market. A measure of Rolls-Royce`s broad capability in medium power generation can be seen in the company`s decision to build its own cogen power station to provide heat and power to its major aerospace manufacturing facilities at Derby in the U.K. Work has already started on preparing land adjoining the site and the 60 MW power station is scheduled to go on line in January 1998. The US$60 million project is being carried out by Derby Cogeneration, a joint venture between Rolls-Royce Power Ventures and National Power Cogen, a subsidiary of the U.K.`s largest electrical power generator. 5 figs.

  13. Software-Defined Solutions for Managing Energy Use in Small to Medium Sized Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Peffer, Therese; Blumstein, Carl; Culler, David; Modera, Mark; Meier, Alan

    2015-09-10

    The Project uses state-of-the-art computer science to extend the benefits of Building Automation Systems (BAS) typically found in large buildings (>100,000 square foot) to medium-sized commercial buildings (<50,000 sq ft). The BAS developed in this project, termed OpenBAS, uses an open-source and open software architecture platform, user interface, and plug-and-play control devices to facilitate adoption of energy efficiency strategies in the commercial building sector throughout the United States. At the heart of this “turn key” BAS is the platform with three types of controllers—thermostat, lighting controller, and general controller—that are easily “discovered” by the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. The user interface showcases the platform and provides the control system set-up, system status display and means of automatically mapping the control points in the system.

  14. IT Governance Practices in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Recommendations from an Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rui; Zmud, Robert W.; Price, R. Leon

    Much has been learned through IT governance research about the nature of IT-related decisions, the location of decision rights for these decisions, and governance mechanisms applied to facilitate associated decision processes in large organisations. Our knowledge about IT governance structures in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME), on the other hand, is quite limited. Adopting a qualitative and inductive approach, this study examines the nature and influence of IT governance in SMEs through interviews with executives from three SMEs. Our results demonstrate that IT decision authority was centralized in all three SMEs but that senior management involvement in governance procedures and communication practices about governance policies were observed to explain differences in these organisations’ IT use. We propose recommendations based on the findings of this study.

  15. Glass formability in medium-sized molecular systems/pharmaceuticals. I. Thermodynamics vs. kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Wenkang; Li, Xiangqian; Chen, Zeming; Liu, Ying Dan; Labardi, Massimiliano; Capaccioli, Simone; Paluch, M.; Wang, Li-Min

    2016-05-01

    Scrutinizing critical thermodynamic and kinetic factors for glass formation and the glass stability of materials would benefit the screening of the glass formers for the industry of glassy materials. The present work aims at elucidating the factors that contribute to the glass formation by investigating medium-sized molecules of pharmaceuticals. Glass transition related thermodynamics and kinetics are performed on the pharmaceuticals using calorimetric, dielectric, and viscosity measurements. The characteristic thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of glass transition are found to reproduce the relations established for small-molecule glass formers. The systematic comparison of the thermodynamic and kinetic contributions to glass formation reveals that the melting-point viscosity is the crucial quantity for the glass formation. Of more interest is the finding of a rough correlation between the melting-point viscosity and the entropy of fusion normalized by the number of beads of the pharmaceuticals, suggesting the thermodynamics can partly manifest its contribution to glass formation via kinetics.

  16. Glass formability in medium-sized molecular systems/pharmaceuticals. I. Thermodynamics vs. kinetics.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wenkang; Li, Xiangqian; Chen, Zeming; Liu, Ying Dan; Labardi, Massimiliano; Capaccioli, Simone; Paluch, M; Wang, Li-Min

    2016-05-01

    Scrutinizing critical thermodynamic and kinetic factors for glass formation and the glass stability of materials would benefit the screening of the glass formers for the industry of glassy materials. The present work aims at elucidating the factors that contribute to the glass formation by investigating medium-sized molecules of pharmaceuticals. Glass transition related thermodynamics and kinetics are performed on the pharmaceuticals using calorimetric, dielectric, and viscosity measurements. The characteristic thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of glass transition are found to reproduce the relations established for small-molecule glass formers. The systematic comparison of the thermodynamic and kinetic contributions to glass formation reveals that the melting-point viscosity is the crucial quantity for the glass formation. Of more interest is the finding of a rough correlation between the melting-point viscosity and the entropy of fusion normalized by the number of beads of the pharmaceuticals, suggesting the thermodynamics can partly manifest its contribution to glass formation via kinetics. PMID:27155640

  17. Toward the construction of a medium size prototype Schwarzschild-Couder telescope for CTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousselle, J.; Byrum, K.; Cameron, R.; Connaughton, V.; Errando, M.; Griffiths, S.; Guarino, V.; Humensky, T. B.; Jenke, P.; Kaaret, P.; Kieda, D.; Limon, M.; Mognet, I.; Mukherjee, R.; Nieto, D.; Okumura, A.; Peck, A.; Petrashyk, A.; Ribeiro, D.; Stevenson, B.; Vassiliev, V.; Yu, P.

    2015-09-01

    The construction of a prototype Schwarzschild-Couder telescope (pSCT) started in early June 2015 at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in Southern Arizona, as a candidate medium-sized telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Compared to current Davies-Cotton telescopes, this novel instrument with an aplanatic two-mirror optical system will offer a wider field-of-view and improved angular resolution. In addition, the reduced plate scale of the camera allows the use of highly-integrated photon detectors such as silicon photo multipliers. As part of CTA, this design has the potential to greatly improve the performance of the next generation ground-based observatory for very high-energy (E>60 GeV) gamma-ray astronomy. In this contribution we present the design and performance of both optical and alignment systems of the pSCT.

  18. Benchmarking Density Functionals on Structural Parameters of Small-/Medium-Sized Organic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Brémond, Éric; Savarese, Marika; Su, Neil Qiang; Pérez-Jiménez, Ángel José; Xu, Xin; Sancho-García, Juan Carlos; Adamo, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    In this Letter we report the error analysis of 59 exchange-correlation functionals in evaluating the structural parameters of small- and medium-sized organic molecules. From this analysis, recently developed double hybrids, such as xDH-PBE0, emerge as the most reliable methods, while global hybrids confirm their robustness in reproducing molecular structures. Notably the M06-L density functional is the only semilocal method reaching an accuracy comparable to hybrids'. A comparison with errors obtained on energetic databases (including thermochemistry, reaction barriers, and interaction energies) indicate that most of the functionals have a coherent behavior, showing low (or high) deviations on both energy and structure data sets. Only a few of them are more prone toward one of these two properties. PMID:26730741

  19. Fully anharmonic IR and Raman spectra of medium-size molecular systems: accuracy and interpretation†

    PubMed Central

    Barone, Vincenzo; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Bloino, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Computation of full infrared (IR) and Raman spectra (including absolute intensities and transition energies) for medium- and large-sized molecular systems beyond the harmonic approximation is one of the most interesting challenges of contemporary computational chemistry. Contrary to common beliefs, low-order perturbation theory is able to deliver results of high accuracy (actually often better than those issuing from current direct dynamics approaches) provided that anharmonic resonances are properly managed. This perspective sketches the recent developments in our research group toward the development a robust and user-friendly virtual spectrometer rooted into the second-order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2) and usable also by non-specialists essentially as a black-box procedure. Several examples are explicitly worked out in order to illustrate the features of our computational tool together with the most important ongoing developments. PMID:24346191

  20. Survey of food safety practices on small to medium-sized farms and in farmers markets.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Judy A; Gaskin, Julia W; Harrison, Mark A; Cannon, Jennifer L; Boyer, Renee R; Zehnder, Geoffrey W

    2013-11-01

    As produce consumption has increased, so have foodborne disease outbreaks associated with fresh produce. Little research has addressed food safety practices used on small to medium-sized farms selling locally or in farmers markets. This study evaluated current food safety practices used by farmers on small to medium-sized farms and managers of farmers markets in Georgia, Virginia, and South Carolina based on responses to surveys. Surveys were developed, pretested, and revised before implementation with target audiences and were implemented via mail and the Web to maximize participation, with reminders sent to nonrespondents. Data were collected from 226 farmers and 45 market managers. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for all response variables. Responses from farmers indicated that more than 56% of them use manures. Of those who use manures, 34% use raw or mixtures of raw and composted manure, and over 26% wait fewer than 90 days between application of raw manure and harvest. Over 27% use water sources that have not been tested for safety for irrigation, and 16% use such water sources for washing produce. Over 43% do not sanitize surfaces that touch produce at the farm. Only 33% of farmers always clean transport containers between uses. Responses from market managers indicated that over 42% have no food safety standards in place for the market. Only 2 to 11% ask farmers specific questions about conditions on the farm that could affect product safety. Less than 25% of managers sanitize market surfaces. Only 11% always clean market containers between uses. Over 75% of markets offer no sanitation training to workers or vendors. While farmers and market managers are using many good practices, the results indicate that some practices being used may put consumers at risk of foodborne illness. Consequently, there is a need for training for both farmers and market managers. PMID:24215708

  1. Larval assemblages of large and medium-sized pelagic species in the Straits of Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, David E.; Llopiz, Joel K.; Guigand, Cedric M.; Cowen, Robert K.

    2010-07-01

    Critical gaps in our understanding of the distributions, interactions, life histories and preferred habitats of large and medium-size pelagic fishes severely constrain the implementation of ecosystem-based, spatially structured fisheries management approaches. In particular, spawning distributions and the environmental characteristics associated with the early life stages are poorly documented. In this study, we consider the diversity, assemblages, and associated habitat of the larvae of large and medium-sized pelagic species collected during 2 years of monthly surveys across the Straits of Florida. In total, 36 taxa and 14,295 individuals were collected, with the highest diversity occurring during the summer and in the western, frontal region of the Florida Current. Only a few species (e.g. Thunnus obesus, T. alalunga, Tetrapturus pfluegeri) considered for this study were absent. Small scombrids (e.g. T. atlanticus, Katsuwonus pelamis, Auxis spp.) and gempylids dominated the catch and were orders of magnitude more abundant than many of the rare species (e.g. Thunnus thynnus,Kajikia albida). Both constrained (CCA) and unconstrained (NMDS) multivariate analyses revealed a number of species groupings including: (1) a summer Florida edge assemblage (e.g. Auxis spp., Euthynnus alleterattus, Istiophorus platypterus); (2) a summer offshore assemblage (e.g. Makaira nigricans, T. atlanticus, Ruvettus pretiosus, Lampris guttatus); (3) an ubiquitous assemblage (e.g. K. pelamis, Coryphaena hippurus, Xiphias gladius); and (4) a spring/winter assemblage that was widely dispersed in space (e.g. trachipterids). The primary environmental factors associated with these assemblages were sea-surface temperature (highest in summer-early fall), day length (highest in early summer), thermocline depth (shallowest on the Florida side) and fluorescence (highest on the Florida side). Overall, the results of this study provide insights into how a remarkable diversity of pelagic species

  2. Effect of Berry Size and Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment on the Drying Characteristics of Blueberries under Infrared Radiation Heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research studied the effect on the drying characteristics of blueberries under infrared radiation (IR) heating of berry size and dipping pretreatment in hot sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Changes in the microstructure and diffusion coefficient of the berries after the NaOH pretreatment were...

  3. Use of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polymyxin B-sucrose medium for isolation of Vibrio vulnificus from shellfish.

    PubMed

    Bryant, R G; Jarvis, J; Janda, J M

    1987-07-01

    The differential and selective sodium dodecyl sulfate-polymyxin B-sucrose medium (SPS) of Kitaura et al. (T. Kitaura, S. Doke, I. Azuma, M. Imaida, K. Miyano, K. Harada, and E. Yabuuchii, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 17:205-209, 1983), which highlights alkylsulfatase activity, was evaluated for its potential use in the direct isolation and enumeration of Vibrio vulnificus from shellfish. V. vulnificus was detected by this method in six of nine shellfish samples collected from diverse geographic locales during the summer of 1986. Direct enumeration of V. vulnificus at 7.0 X 10(2) to 2.2 X 10(4) CFU/g of shellfish was achieved on SPS agar. All sample results were confirmed in parallel examinations by using conventional glucose-salt-Teepol (Shell Oil Co.) broth and alkaline peptone water enrichment with plating onto thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar. Additionally, alkylsulfatase activity was evaluated in vitro for 97 strains representing 14 Vibrio spp. V. vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae-01 were the only species consistently found to possess this activity. The range of plating efficiencies for random V. vulnificus strains analyzed on SPS was 11 to 74% (mean, 39%). The use of SPS shows great promise for the study of shellfish and other environmental sources for V. vulnificus. PMID:3662506

  4. Entropic nature of the adsorption of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate on nanoparticles of aluminum and iron oxides in aqueous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansurov, R. R.; Safronov, A. P.; Lakiza, N. V.

    2016-06-01

    The adsorption of anionic surfactant sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) from aqueous solution on the hydrophilic surfaces of aluminum oxide and iron oxide nanoparticles is studied via UV spectrophotometry, electrophoretic light scattering, and isothermal microcalorimetry. It is shown that the isotherms of the adsorption of SDBS on the surfaces of both oxides in the area of concentrations up to 0.6 mmol/L is linear. It is found that the positive zeta potential of the surfaces of the particles falls to zero and shifts toward the range of negative values due to adsorption. The adsorption of SDBS is characterized by positive enthalpy values over the investigated range of concentrations, while the loss of energy during adsorption indicates it is of an entropic nature. It is concluded that the probable cause of the increase in entropy is the dehydration of SDBS molecules during on surface adsorption. The obtained results are discussed in terms of the formation of hemimicelles of surfactant on the hydrophilic surfaces of metal oxide nanoparticles in an aqueous medium.

  5. Use of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polymyxin B-sucrose medium for isolation of Vibrio vulnificus from shellfish.

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, R G; Jarvis, J; Janda, J M

    1987-01-01

    The differential and selective sodium dodecyl sulfate-polymyxin B-sucrose medium (SPS) of Kitaura et al. (T. Kitaura, S. Doke, I. Azuma, M. Imaida, K. Miyano, K. Harada, and E. Yabuuchii, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 17:205-209, 1983), which highlights alkylsulfatase activity, was evaluated for its potential use in the direct isolation and enumeration of Vibrio vulnificus from shellfish. V. vulnificus was detected by this method in six of nine shellfish samples collected from diverse geographic locales during the summer of 1986. Direct enumeration of V. vulnificus at 7.0 X 10(2) to 2.2 X 10(4) CFU/g of shellfish was achieved on SPS agar. All sample results were confirmed in parallel examinations by using conventional glucose-salt-Teepol (Shell Oil Co.) broth and alkaline peptone water enrichment with plating onto thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar. Additionally, alkylsulfatase activity was evaluated in vitro for 97 strains representing 14 Vibrio spp. V. vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae-01 were the only species consistently found to possess this activity. The range of plating efficiencies for random V. vulnificus strains analyzed on SPS was 11 to 74% (mean, 39%). The use of SPS shows great promise for the study of shellfish and other environmental sources for V. vulnificus. Images PMID:3662506

  6. A comparison of workplace safety perceptions among financial decision-makers of medium- vs. large-size companies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Leamon, Tom B; Courtney, Theodore K; Chen, Peter Y; DeArmond, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This study, through a random national survey in the U.S., explored how corporate financial decision-makers perceive important workplace safety issues as a function of the size of the company for which they worked (medium- vs. large-size companies). Telephone surveys were conducted with 404 U.S. corporate financial decision-makers: 203 from medium-size companies and 201 from large companies. Results showed that the patterns of responding for participants from medium- and large-size companies were somewhat similar. The top-rated safety priorities in resource allocation reported by participants from both groups were overexertion, repetitive motion, and bodily reaction. They believed that there were direct and indirect costs associated with workplace injuries and for every dollar spent improving workplace safety, more than four dollars would be returned. They perceived the top benefits of an effective safety program to be predominately financial in nature - increased productivity and reduced costs - and the safety modification participants mentioned most often was to have more/better safety-focused training. However, more participants from large- than medium-size companies reported that "falling on the same level" was the major cause of workers' compensation loss, which is in line with industry loss data. Participants from large companies were more likely to see their safety programs as better than those of other companies in their industries, and those of medium-size companies were more likely to mention that there were no improvements needed for their companies. PMID:21094291

  7. Tidal River Elbe - a sediment budget for the grain size fraction of medium sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterscheid, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Human interventions have a historic and ongoing impact on estuarine sediment budgets across many estuaries worldwide. An early inference was the construction of embankments resulting in a constant loss of intertidal flats. Additionally, settlement activities and large scale land use changes in the upstream catchment areas had also an effect on sediment inflow rates. Today, the navigation channels in estuaries have been deepened for larger and more efficient vessels to reach a well-developed infrastructure of harbors and industrial areas often located far inland. In the past few years and just within the North-East Atlantic, the total annual amount of dredged sediments dumped at sea varied from 80 to 130 million tons (OSPAR Commission). In most estuaries across Europe the resulting human impact on the sediment fluxes and morphodynamics is significant. A good understanding of estuarine processes is essential for determining useful and meaningful measures to mitigate negative effects and to improve the current situation. Maintenance dredging and its environmental effects are therefore in the focus of public attention. Against this background, it is the aim of the presentation to identify and therefore to separate the particular effect that maintenance dredging has on sediment fluxes and budgets in the estuarine environment. Case study is the Tidal River Elbe in Germany, and here we set the focus on the grain size fraction of medium sand. In the past, river engineering measures forced the natural dynamics to form a concentrated stream flow along a fixed channel, except at a number of locations where side channels still exist. In addition to that, the main channel was deepened several times. The last deepening was in 1999/2000. The most significant deepening, however, took place from 1957 to 1962. Until then, an erosion-stable layer of marine clay (in German called "Klei") formed a flat bottom along most sections of the main channel. After removal of this layer of

  8. Volatile organic compounds in small- and medium-sized commercial buildings in California.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangmei May; Apte, Michael G; Maddalena, Randy; Bennett, Deborah H

    2011-10-15

    While small- and medium-sized commercial buildings (SMCBs) make up 96% of the commercial buildings in the U.S., serving a large variety of uses, little information is available on indoor air quality (IAQ) in SMCBs. This study investigated 37 SMCBs distributed across different sizes, ages, uses, and regions of California. We report indoor concentrations and whole building emission rates of a suite of 30 VOCs and aldehydes in these buildings. There was a considerable range in the concentrations for each of the contaminants, especially for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane, d-limonene, 2-butoxyethanol, toluene, 2,2,4-trimethylpentanediol diisobutyrate, and diethylphthalate. The cause of higher concentrations in some building categories generally corresponded to expected sources, for example, chloroform was higher in restaurants and grocery stores, and formaldehyde was higher in retail stores and offices. Factor analysis suggests sources in SMCBs include automobile/traffic, cleaning products, occupant sources, wood products/coating, and plasticizers. The comparison to health guidelines showed that formaldehyde concentrations were above the chronic RELs required by the OEHHA (9 μg/m³) in 86% of the buildings. Data collected in this study begins to fill the knowledge gap for IAQ in SMCBs and helps us understand the indoor sources of VOCs to further improve indoor air quality in SMCBs. PMID:21888354

  9. Deep blank-field catalogue for medium- and large-sized telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez Esteban, F. M.; Cabrera Lavers, A.; Cardiel, N.; Alacid, J. M.

    2012-11-01

    The observation of blank fields, defined as regions of the sky that are devoid of stars down to a given threshold magnitude, constitutes one of the most relevant calibration procedures required for the proper reduction of astronomical data obtained following typical observing strategies. In this work, we have used Delaunay triangulation to search for deep blank fields throughout the whole sky, with a minimum size of 10 arcmin in diameter and an increasing threshold magnitude from 15 to 18 in the R band of the USNO-B Catalog of the United States Naval Observatory. The result is a catalogue with the deepest blank fields known so far. A short sample of these regions has been tested with the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias, and it has been shown to be extremely useful for medium- and large-sized telescopes. Because some of the regions found could also be suitable for new extragalactic studies, we have estimated the galactic extinction in the direction of each deep blank field. This catalogue is accessible through the virtual observatory tool TESELA, and the user can retrieve - and visualize using ALADIN - the deep blank fields available near a given position in the sky.

  10. Extracting nuclear sizes of medium to heavy nuclei from total reaction cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, W.; Hatakeyama, S.; Ebata, S.; Suzuki, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Background: Proton and neutron radii are fundamental quantities of atomic nuclei. To study the sizes of short-lived unstable nuclei, there is a need for an alternative to electron scattering. Purpose: The recent paper by Horiuchi et al. [Phys. Rev. C 89, 011601(R) (2014)], 10.1103/PhysRevC.89.011601 proposed a possible way of extracting the matter and neutron-skin thickness of light- to medium-mass nuclei using total reaction cross section, σR. The analysis is extended to medium to heavy nuclei up to lead isotopes with due attention to Coulomb breakup contributions as well as density distributions improved by paring correlation. Methods: We formulate a quantitative calculation of σR based on the Glauber model including the Coulomb breakup. To substantiate the treatment of the Coulomb breakup, we also evaluate the Coulomb breakup cross section due to the electric dipole field in a canonical-basis-time-dependent-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory in the three-dimensional coordinate space. Results: We analyze σR's of 103 nuclei with Z =20 , 28, 40, 50, 70, and 82 incident on light targets, H,21, 4He, and 12C. Three kinds of Skyrme interactions are tested to generate those wave functions. To discuss possible uncertainty due to the Coulomb breakup, we examine its dependence on the target, the incident energy, and the Skyrme interaction. The proton is a most promising target for extracting the nuclear sizes as the Coulomb excitation can safely be neglected. We find that the so-called reaction radius, aR=√{σR/π } , for the proton target is very well approximated by a linear function of two variables, the matter radius and the skin thickness, in which three constants depend only on the incident energy. We quantify the accuracy of σR measurements needed to extract the nuclear sizes. Conclusions: The proton is the best target because, once the incident energy is set, its aR is very accurately determined by only the matter radius and neutron-skin thickness. If σR's at

  11. Comparison of microperc and mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy for medium-sized lower calyx stones.

    PubMed

    Tok, Adem; Akbulut, Fatih; Buldu, Ibrahim; Karatag, Tuna; Kucuktopcu, Onur; Gurbuz, Gokhan; Istanbulluoglu, Okan; Armagan, Abdullah; Tepeler, Abdulkadir; Tasci, Ali Ihsan

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to present the outcomes of comparative clinical study of microperc versus mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PNL) in the treatment of lower calyx stones of 10-20 mm. Patients with lower calyx stones treated with microperc (Group-1) or mini-PNL (Group-2) between 2011 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Demographics of the patients were compared, including age, gender, BMI, stone size, laterality and procedural parameters (operation and fluoroscopy time), and outcomes (success and complication rates). A total of 98 patients were evaluated, assigned to Group-1 (n = 58) and to Group-2 (n = 40). Groups were statistically similar in terms of age, stone size, and BMI (p = 0.3, 0.07, 0.6, respectively). The mean procedure and fluoroscopy duration for Group-1 were 43.02 ± 27.98 min and 112.05 ± 72.5 s, and 52.25 ± 23.09 min and 138.53 ± 56.39 s in Group-2 (p = 0.006 and 0.006). The mean hematocrit drop was significantly higher in Group-2 compared to Group-1 (3.98 vs. 1.96%; p < 0.001); however, none of the cases required blood transfusion. Overall complication rates exhibited no statistically significant difference (p = 0.57). Stone-free status was similar (86.2 vs. 82.5%, p = 0.66). The tubeless procedure rate was significantly higher in Group-1 (p < 0.001). In Group-2, duration of hospitalization was significantly longer than in Group-1 (2.63 vs. 1.55 days; p < 0.01). Outcomes of the present retrospective study show that microperc is a treatment option for medium-sized lower calyx stone, being associated with lower blood loss, procedure, reduced fluoroscopy and hospitalization time, and a higher tubeless rate. PMID:26194110

  12. Think locally, act locally: Detection of small, medium-sized, and large communities in large networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeub, Lucas G. S.; Balachandran, Prakash; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.; Mahoney, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    It is common in the study of networks to investigate intermediate-sized (or "meso-scale") features to try to gain an understanding of network structure and function. For example, numerous algorithms have been developed to try to identify "communities," which are typically construed as sets of nodes with denser connections internally than with the remainder of a network. In this paper, we adopt a complementary perspective that communities are associated with bottlenecks of locally biased dynamical processes that begin at seed sets of nodes, and we employ several different community-identification procedures (using diffusion-based and geodesic-based dynamics) to investigate community quality as a function of community size. Using several empirical and synthetic networks, we identify several distinct scenarios for "size-resolved community structure" that can arise in real (and realistic) networks: (1) the best small groups of nodes can be better than the best large groups (for a given formulation of the idea of a good community); (2) the best small groups can have a quality that is comparable to the best medium-sized and large groups; and (3) the best small groups of nodes can be worse than the best large groups. As we discuss in detail, which of these three cases holds for a given network can make an enormous difference when investigating and making claims about network community structure, and it is important to take this into account to obtain reliable downstream conclusions. Depending on which scenario holds, one may or may not be able to successfully identify "good" communities in a given network (and good communities might not even exist for a given community quality measure), the manner in which different small communities fit together to form meso-scale network structures can be very different, and processes such as viral propagation and information diffusion can exhibit very different dynamics. In addition, our results suggest that, for many large realistic

  13. Quantitative evaluation of waste prevention on the level of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs)

    SciTech Connect

    Laner, David Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-02-15

    Waste prevention is a principle means of achieving the goals of waste management and a key element for developing sustainable economies. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) contribute substantially to environmental degradation, often not even being aware of their environmental effects. Therefore, several initiatives have been launched in Austria aimed at supporting waste prevention measures on the level of SMEs. To promote the most efficient projects, they have to be evaluated with respect to their contribution to the goals of waste management. It is the aim of this paper to develop a methodology for evaluating waste prevention measures in SMEs based on their goal orientation. At first, conceptual problems of defining and delineating waste prevention activities are briefly discussed. Then an approach to evaluate waste prevention activities with respect to their environmental performance is presented and benchmarks which allow for an efficient use of the available funds are developed. Finally the evaluation method is applied to a number of former projects and the calculated results are analysed with respect to shortcomings and limitations of the model. It is found that the developed methodology can provide a tool for a more objective and comprehensible evaluation of waste prevention measures.

  14. Experimental testing of centrifugal pump: small and medium sized enterprise product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, R.; Paddiyatu, F.; Khafidh, M.; Nugroho, S.; Sugiyanto, S.; Jamari, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports the experimental testing for centrifugal pump for fisherman ship, manufactured by small and medium sized enterprises in Central Java Province, Indonesia. The research covers material analysis, component observation, endurance and vibration test. Six centrifugal pumps are tested and three main pump components are discussed: shaft, bearings and seals. The results show that the material of the shaft is predicted to support and transmit the load from the engine to impeller. The problem found in the tolerance and geometry accuracy of the shaft which causes difficulties during assembling process, excessive wear and leakage during testing. From the endurance and vibration test, the ball bearings fail and lock the shaft due to the fatigue on the rolling elements and raceways. The oil seal and water seal also fail in maintaining the oil and water in the chamber and induce the unlubricated system for the ball bearings. Some suggestions are delivered to improve the product quality of the centrifugal pump. A good quality of the centrifugal pump for fishermen ship and long life span is expected to be produced by local SMEs to win the free trade competition in the Indonesian market.

  15. An effective physical fitness program for small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Han Hui; Peng, Shu Mei; Yeh, Ching Ying; Chen, Chiou Jong; Chen, Ruey Yu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a practicable worksite physical fitness program for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Community-based intervention consisting of a three-month exercise course was conducted, and its benefits evaluated. A self-administrated structured questionnaire and physical fitness examination were designed to compare the difference between pre and post intervention. A total of 133 SME workers completed the lifestyle/exercise course and filled out the questionnaire, but 16 were excluded from the exercise group due to health reasons. After the intervention, health indicators such as weight, blood pressure, resting heart rate, waistline, BMI, front and back trunk flexibility, abdominal muscle durability and back muscle strength were significantly improved, and improvements in musculoskeletal disorders were seen in reduced neck pain (18.8%), wrist pain (17.4%), and upper/lower back pain (8.7% and 21.7%, respectively). Cardiovascular risk factors (BMI and resting heart rate) showed a significant improvement related to frequent participation in the program (p=0.02), and the exercise group reported a significant difference in overall health (p=0.02). This study has demonstrated an effective approach to community-based fitness intervention through SMEs. PMID:21372441

  16. Continuous improvement of the quality reporting system of a medium-size company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Anthony; Onuh, Spencer

    2001-10-01

    Many companies are faced with quality improvement issues on a daily basis but their response to this problem varies. This paper discusses the improvement in the defect reporting system at a medium sized manufacturing company following the appointment of an experienced, motivated, design engineer to be dedicated to that task. It sets out the situation that the engineer inherited and details the changes that were incorporated; it assesses which were successful and which failed. Following a survey of current literature, it was seen that there is little written specifically on the subject of audited defect reporting. It is felt that this study goes some way to filling that void. A successful survey of engineering companies in Southern Hampshire reinforces the principle findings, that the emphasising of the Check part of Demming's Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle is a novel approach to the Quality Improvement Process, and that it has reduced the cost of rework by an audited 80% in a period of two years.

  17. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from small and medium-sized Kansas mammals.

    PubMed

    Brillhart, D B; Fox, L B; Upton, S J

    1994-05-01

    Seven species of hard-bodied ticks were collected from 20 species of small and medium-sized mammals in Kansas; Amblyomma americanum L., Dermacentor variabilis (Say), Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard), Ixodes cookei Packard, I. kingi Bishopp, I. sculptus Neumann, and I. texanus Banks. Dermacentor variabilis was found statewide, A. americanum only in the eastern one-third of the state, and the Ixodes spp. and H. leporispalustris were widely scattered. The most common tick found was D. variabilis, both by itself and in association with other ticks. Mammals that ticks were collected from included Canis latrans Say, Cynomys ludovicianus ludovicianus (Ord), Didelphis virginianus Kerr, Geomys bursarius (Shaw), Lynx rufus (Schreber), Marmota monax bunkeri Black, Mephitis mephitis (Schreber), Microtus ochrogaster (Wagner), Mus musculus L., Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque), P. maniculatus (Wagner), Procyon lotor hirtus Nelson and Goldman, Reithrodontomys megalotis (Baird), Sciurus niger rufiventer Geoffroy, Sigmodon hispidus texianus (Audubon and Bachman), Sylvilagus floridanus (J. A. Allen), Taxidea taxus taxus (Schreber), and Vulpes velox velox (Say). PMID:8057327

  18. Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) infestation on medium-sized mammals and blue jays in northwestern Illinois.

    PubMed

    Mannelli, A; Kitron, U; Jones, C J; Slajchert, T L

    1993-09-01

    High prevalence of infestation of five species of medium-sized mammals and blue jays, Cyanocitta cristata (L.), by immature Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman and Corwin was found in Castle Rock State Park in northwestern Illinois during May-August 1991. Raccoons, Procyon lotor L., and opossums, Didelphis virginiana Kerr, were infested with the highest larval densities and were trapped primarily in bottomland forest and ecotone habitats. All species had similar nymphal densities, except the eastern cottontails, Sylvilagus floridanus Allen, which were infested with fewer nymphs. Infestation by I. dammini is reported for the first time for fox squirrels, Sciurus niger E. G. St. Hilaire, and for the first time in the midwestern United States for blue jays, C. cristata. These two species were hosts for nymphs in upland forest habitat. Molting rates varied among ticks that fed on different host species and among larvae that fed on individuals of the same species. Molting rate is proposed as an important factor in determining the relative importance of a host species to I. dammini population dynamics. PMID:8254647

  19. Quantitative evaluation of waste prevention on the level of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs).

    PubMed

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-02-01

    Waste prevention is a principle means of achieving the goals of waste management and a key element for developing sustainable economies. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) contribute substantially to environmental degradation, often not even being aware of their environmental effects. Therefore, several initiatives have been launched in Austria aimed at supporting waste prevention measures on the level of SMEs. To promote the most efficient projects, they have to be evaluated with respect to their contribution to the goals of waste management. It is the aim of this paper to develop a methodology for evaluating waste prevention measures in SMEs based on their goal orientation. At first, conceptual problems of defining and delineating waste prevention activities are briefly discussed. Then an approach to evaluate waste prevention activities with respect to their environmental performance is presented and benchmarks which allow for an efficient use of the available funds are developed. Finally the evaluation method is applied to a number of former projects and the calculated results are analysed with respect to shortcomings and limitations of the model. It is found that the developed methodology can provide a tool for a more objective and comprehensible evaluation of waste prevention measures. PMID:18676138

  20. Understanding the structural transformation, stability of medium-sized neutral and charged silicon clusters

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Li Ping; Zhang, Fang Hui; Zhu, Yong Sheng; Lu, Cheng; Kuang, Xiao Yu; Lv, Jian; Shao, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The structural and electronic properties for the global minimum structures of medium-sized neutral, anionic and cationic Sinμ (n = 20–30, μ = 0, −1 and +1) clusters have been studied using an unbiased CALYPSO structure searching method in conjunction with first-principles calculations. A large number of low-lying isomers are optimized at the B3PW91/6-311 + G* level of theory. Harmonic vibrational analysis has been performed to assure that the optimized geometries are stable. The growth behaviors clearly indicate that a structural transition from the prolate to spherical-like geometries occurs at n = 26 for neutral silicon clusters, n = 27 for anions and n = 25 for cations. These results are in good agreement with the available experimental and theoretical predicted findings. In addition, no significant structural differences are observed between the neutral and cation charged silicon clusters with n = 20–24, both of them favor prolate structures. The HOMO-LUMO gaps and vertical ionization potential patterns indicate that Si22 is the most chemical stable cluster, and its dynamical stability is deeply discussed by the vibrational spectra calculations. PMID:26526519

  1. Conditioned Medium From Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Limits Infarct Size and Enhances Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Danieli, Patrizia; Malpasso, Giuseppe; Ciuffreda, Maria Chiara; Cervio, Elisabetta; Calvillo, Laura; Copes, Francesco; Pisano, Federica; Mura, Manuela; Kleijn, Lennaert; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Viarengo, Gianluca; Rosti, Vittorio; Spinillo, Arsenio; Roccio, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    The paracrine properties of human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMCs) have not been fully elucidated. The goal of the present study was to elucidate whether hAMCs can exert beneficial paracrine effects on infarcted rat hearts, in particular through cardioprotection and angiogenesis. Moreover, we aimed to identify the putative active paracrine mediators. hAMCs were isolated, expanded, and characterized. In vitro, conditioned medium from hAMC (hAMC-CM) exhibited cytoprotective and proangiogenic properties. In vivo, injection of hAMC-CM into infarcted rat hearts limited the infarct size, reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and ventricular remodeling, and strongly promoted capillary formation at the infarct border zone. Gene array analysis led to the identification of 32 genes encoding for the secreted factors overexpressed by hAMCs. Among these, midkine and secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine were also upregulated at the protein level. Furthermore, high amounts of several proangiogenic factors were detected in hAMC-CM by cytokine array. Our results strongly support the concept that the administration of hAMC-CM favors the repair process after acute myocardial infarction. PMID:25824141

  2. Conditioned medium from human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells limits infarct size and enhances angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Danieli, Patrizia; Malpasso, Giuseppe; Ciuffreda, Maria Chiara; Cervio, Elisabetta; Calvillo, Laura; Copes, Francesco; Pisano, Federica; Mura, Manuela; Kleijn, Lennaert; de Boer, Rudolf A; Viarengo, Gianluca; Rosti, Vittorio; Spinillo, Arsenio; Roccio, Marianna; Gnecchi, Massimiliano

    2015-05-01

    The paracrine properties of human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMCs) have not been fully elucidated. The goal of the present study was to elucidate whether hAMCs can exert beneficial paracrine effects on infarcted rat hearts, in particular through cardioprotection and angiogenesis. Moreover, we aimed to identify the putative active paracrine mediators. hAMCs were isolated, expanded, and characterized. In vitro, conditioned medium from hAMC (hAMC-CM) exhibited cytoprotective and proangiogenic properties. In vivo, injection of hAMC-CM into infarcted rat hearts limited the infarct size, reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and ventricular remodeling, and strongly promoted capillary formation at the infarct border zone. Gene array analysis led to the identification of 32 genes encoding for the secreted factors overexpressed by hAMCs. Among these, midkine and secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine were also upregulated at the protein level. Furthermore, high amounts of several proangiogenic factors were detected in hAMC-CM by cytokine array. Our results strongly support the concept that the administration of hAMC-CM favors the repair process after acute myocardial infarction. PMID:25824141

  3. Home treatment of patients with small to medium sized acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Elf, J E; Jögi, J; Bajc, M

    2015-02-01

    Most patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) are still treated as inpatients. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients with acute PE, diagnosed using V/P SPECT between 2007 and 2011. Patients were treated at home if they were hemodynamically stable, did not require oxygen or parenteral analgetics, had no contraindications to anticoagulant treatment and V/P SPECT showed an extension of the PE of less than 40%. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of home treatment with our algorithm. During the study period 416 outpatients were diagnosed with acute symptomatic PE of whom in total 260 (62.5%) were discharged home from the emergency unit and another 47 (11%) within 24 h from admission. During 3 months follow-up one (0.3%) patient had a recurrent thrombotic event. Eleven (3.6%) patients had a major or clinically relevant bleed and the overall mortality was 2% (n = 6). There were no PE-related mortality. Home treatment should be considered and is safe in the majority of hemodynamically stable outpatients with small to medium size PE, quantified using V/P SPECT. PMID:24942995

  4. Energy conserved and costs saved by small and medium-size manufacturers, 1988--1989

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, F.W.

    1991-05-01

    Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Centers (EADCs) provided energy-conserving and cost saving assistance in 339 small and medium-size manufacturing plants nationwide during 1988-89. This report presents the results of what was recommended to those manufacturers, the record of what was implemented by them, and an analysis of the financial rewards gained by them. It also includes an accounting of the financial returns to the federal government, derived from taxes upon the cost savings, or incremental income, of the manufacturers who implement the EADCs` recommendations. EADCs collect implementation data within a year of the energy audit, and for these results that time period extended through 1990. The EADCs are located at accredited engineering departments of universities and staffed by faculty and students. At present there are 18 EADCs serving manufacturers in 37 states; of these, two were established as a result of the 1989 competition, and five more were chosen competitively in 1990. Most of the results in this report were generated by 11 EADCs (named in the Appendix); two others withdrew voluntarily after completing only 10 energy audits during 1988-89. Primary responsibility for selecting, training, evaluating, and managing the EADCs belongs to the Industrial Technology and Energy Management (ITEM) division of University City Science Center (UCSC). The Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies sponsors the EADC program through an agreement with UCSC.

  5. Resource efficiency and culture--workplace training for small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Bliesner, Anna; Liedtke, Christa; Rohn, Holger

    2014-05-15

    Although there are already some qualification offers available for enterprises to support resource efficiency innovations, the high potentials that can be identified especially for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have not been activated until now. As successful change lies in the hands of humans, the main aim of vocational education has to be the promotion of organisational and cultural changes in the enterprises. As there is already a small but increasing number of enterprises that perform very well in resource efficiency innovations one question arises: What are typical characteristics of those enterprises? Leaning on a good-practice approach, the project "ResourceCulture" is going to prove or falsify the hypothesis that enterprises being successful with resource efficiency innovations have a specific culture of trust, which substantially contributes to innovation processes, or even initially enables them. Detailed empirical field research will light up which correlations between resource efficiency, innovation and cultures of trust can be found and will offer important aspects for the improvement of management instruments and qualification concepts for workplace training. The project seizes qualification needs that were likewise mentioned by enterprises and consultants, regarding the implementation of resource efficiency. This article - based on first empirical field research results - derives preliminary indications for the design of the qualification module for the target groups resource efficiency consultants and managers. On this basis and in order to implement "ResourceCulture" conceptual and methodological starting points for workplace training are outlined. PMID:24364995

  6. Drivers for OSH interventions in small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Cagno, Enrico; Masi, Donato; Leão, Celina Pinto

    2016-01-01

    The debate concerning occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions has recently focused on the need of improving the evaluation of interventions, and in particular on the need for providing information about why the intervention worked or not, under what circumstances and in which context. Key concepts in the analysis of the context are the drivers, i.e., those factors enabling, fostering or facilitating OSH interventions. However, the concept of driver for an OSH intervention is both confused and contested. Although the term is widely used, there is little consensus on how drivers should be understood, how important they are in different contexts and how they can facilitate interventions. This exploratory study based on interviews with the owner-managers and the safety officers of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) gives an overview of the most characteristic drivers for OSH interventions. The results will be used to make an initial evaluation of SMEs' needs, and will help orient interventions and future research. PMID:26654679

  7. Feasibility of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility, energy management memorandum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, R. W.

    1982-09-01

    The thermal-economic feasibility was studied of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility designed to serve five varied industries. Generation options included one dual-fuel diesel and one gas turbine, both with waste heat boilers, and five fired boilers. Fuels included natural gas, and for the fired-boiler cases, also low-sulphur coal and municipal refuse. The fired-boiler cogeneration systems employed back-pressure steam turbines. For coal and refuse, the option of steam only without cogeneration was also assessed. The refuse-fired cases utilized modular incinerators. The options provided for a wide range of steam and electrical capacities. Deficient steam was assumed generated independently in existing equipment. Excess electrical power over that which could be displaced was assumed sold to Commonwealth Edison Company under PURPA (Public Utility Regulator Policies Act). The facility was assumed operated by a mutually owned corporation formed by the cogenerated power users. The economic analysis was predicted on currently applicable energy-investment tax credits and accelerated depreciation for a January 1985 startup date. Based on 100% equity financing, the results indicated that the best alternative was the modular-incinerator cogeneration system.

  8. Gastrointestinal nematodes in grazing dairy cattle from small and medium-sized farms in southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Piekarska, J; Płoneczka-Janeczko, K; Kantyka, M; Kuczaj, M; Gorczykowski, M; Janeczko, K

    2013-11-15

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes and the intensity of infection in grazing dairy cattle from small and medium-sized farms in southern Poland. The level of antibodies against Ostertagia ostertagi in the bulk tank milk (BTM) from the animals was also assessed. Rectal fecal samples collected from 361 cows on 20 farms were examined using Willis-Schlaaf flotation and the McMaster method. BTM samples were tested for the presence of O. ostertagi antibodies using ELISA. Multiplex PCR was used to identify the third-stage larvae (L3) of gastrointestinal nematodes derived from the culture of pooled fecal samples from sampled farms. Gastrointestinal nematode eggs were found in the samples from 18 of the 20 herds with a prevalence range from 20.4 to 94.5%. The average number of eggs excreted in the feces of the herds was 200 eggs per gram (EPG). Antibodies to O. ostertagi were found in 20 of the examined herds (100%), of which 6 had optical density ratios (ODR) greater than 0.5. PCR results showed the presence of three nematode species: Ostertagia ostertagi, Cooperia oncophora and Oesophagostomum radiatum. PMID:23958284

  9. Mousso structure: A deeply eroded, medium-sized, complex impact crater in northern Chad?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, Elmar; Schmieder, Martin

    2007-10-01

    The Mousso structure, a complex, ˜3.8 km circular structure centred on 17°58' N/19°53' E and located near the Mousso oasis, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, northern Chad, displays structural features typical for complex impact structures: a circular rim with concentric faults, an annular basin, and a central peak. Remote sensing investigations based on Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) data reveal a specific morphological-structural resemblance of the complex central peak of the Mousso structure to the central uplift of the Spider impact structure, Western Australia, and, to some degree, to the central uplifts of the Upheaval Dome, Sierra Madera, and Gosses Bluff impact structures. This is consistent with the layered sedimentary rocks associated with all of these structures. No endogenic geological processes such as magmatism, diapirism, karst dissolution, and glacial or fluvial erosion can conclusively explain the formation of the Mousso structure within a large area of flat-lying early Paleozoic sandstones. Thus, this paper proposes that the Mousso structure might represent a deeply eroded, medium-sized, complex impact structure. As field investigations are currently impossible due to the civil war in Chad, the search for shock-metamorphic effects in rocks of the Mousso structure remains outstanding.

  10. TELICS—A Telescope Instrument Control System for Small/Medium Sized Astronomical Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Mudit K.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Burse, Mahesh P.; Chordia, Pravin A.; Chillal, Kalpesh S.; Mestry, Vilas B.; Das, Hillol K.; Kohok, Abhay A.

    2009-10-01

    For any modern astronomical observatory, it is essential to have an efficient interface between the telescope and its back-end instruments. However, for small and medium-sized observatories, this requirement is often limited by tight financial constraints. Therefore a simple yet versatile and low-cost control system is required for such observatories to minimize cost and effort. Here we report the development of a modern, multipurpose instrument control system TELICS (Telescope Instrument Control System) to integrate the controls of various instruments and devices mounted on the telescope. TELICS consists of an embedded hardware unit known as a common control unit (CCU) in combination with Linux-based data acquisition and user interface. The hardware of the CCU is built around the ATmega 128 microcontroller (Atmel Corp.) and is designed with a backplane, master-slave architecture. A Qt-based graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed and the back-end application software is based on C/C++. TELICS provides feedback mechanisms that give the operator good visibility and a quick-look display of the status and modes of instruments as well as data. TELICS has been used for regular science observations since 2008 March on the 2 m, f/10 IUCAA Telescope located at Girawali in Pune, India.

  11. Fully Flexible Docking of Medium Sized Ligand Libraries with RosettaLigand

    PubMed Central

    DeLuca, Samuel; Khar, Karen; Meiler, Jens

    2015-01-01

    RosettaLigand has been successfully used to predict binding poses in protein-small molecule complexes. However, the RosettaLigand docking protocol is comparatively slow in identifying an initial starting pose for the small molecule (ligand) making it unfeasible for use in virtual High Throughput Screening (vHTS). To overcome this limitation, we developed a new sampling approach for placing the ligand in the protein binding site during the initial ‘low-resolution’ docking step. It combines the translational and rotational adjustments to the ligand pose in a single transformation step. The new algorithm is both more accurate and more time-efficient. The docking success rate is improved by 10–15% in a benchmark set of 43 protein/ligand complexes, reducing the number of models that typically need to be generated from 1000 to 150. The average time to generate a model is reduced from 50 seconds to 10 seconds. As a result we observe an effective 30-fold speed increase, making RosettaLigand appropriate for docking medium sized ligand libraries. We demonstrate that this improved initial placement of the ligand is critical for successful prediction of an accurate binding position in the ‘high-resolution’ full atom refinement step. PMID:26207742

  12. Methotrexate and etanercept-induced primary cutaneous CD4 positive small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma*

    PubMed Central

    MA, Han; Qiu, Shu; Lu, Rongbiao; Feng, Peiying; Lu, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs and biological agents may represent a potential risk of lymphoma development in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. But most cases are diffuse, large B-cell lymphomas. Primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma, a provisional entity in the 2005 WHO-EORTC classification of cutaneous lymphomas, is only described in a limited number of reports. To our knowledge, our case is a rare instance of primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma, after associated treatment with methotrexate and etanercept, in a patient with moderate rheumatoid arthritis who had undergone an orchidectomy incorrectly.

  13. Job Stress in the United Kingdom: Are Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and Large Enterprises Different?

    PubMed

    Lai, Yanqing; Saridakis, George; Blackburn, Robert

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the relationships between firm size and employees' experience of work stress. We used a matched employer-employee dataset (Workplace Employment Relations Survey 2011) that comprises of 7182 employees from 1210 private organizations in the United Kingdom. Initially, we find that employees in small and medium-sized enterprises experience lower level of overall job stress than those in large enterprises, although the effect disappears when we control for individual and organizational characteristics in the model. We also find that quantitative work overload, job insecurity and poor promotion opportunities, good work relationships and poor communication are strongly associated with job stress in the small and medium-sized enterprises, whereas qualitative work overload, poor job autonomy and employee engagements are more related with larger enterprises. Hence, our estimates show that the association and magnitude of estimated effects differ significantly by enterprise size. PMID:24302431

  14. Microbiological tap water profile of a medium-sized building and effect of water stagnation.

    PubMed

    Lipphaus, Patrick; Hammes, Frederik; Kötzsch, Stefan; Green, James; Gillespie, Simon; Nocker, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Whereas microbiological quality of drinking water in water distribution systems is routinely monitored for reasons of legal compliance, microbial numbers in tap water are grossly understudied. Motivated by gross differences in water from private households, we applied in this study flow cytometry as a rapid analytical method to quantify microbial concentrations in water sampled at diverse taps in a medium size research building receiving chlorinated water. Taps differed considerably in frequency of usage and were located in laboratories, bathrooms, and a coffee kitchen. Substantial differences were observed between taps with concentrations (per mL) in the range from 6.29 x 10(3) to 7.74 x 10(5) for total cells and from 1.66 x 10(3) to 4.31 x 10(5) for intact cells. The percentage of intact cells varied between 7% and 96%. Water from taps with very infrequent use showed the highest bacterial numbers and the highest proportions of intact cells. Stagnation tended to increase microbial numbers in water from those taps which were otherwise frequently used. Microbial numbers in other taps that were rarely opened were not affected by stagnation as their water is probably mostly stagnant. For cold water taps, microbial numbers and the percentage of intact cells tended to decline with flushing with the greatest decline for taps used least frequently whereas microbial concentrations in water from hot water taps tended to be somewhat more stable. We conclude that microbiological water quality is mainly determined by building-specific parameters. Tap water profiling can provide valuable insight into plumbing system hygiene and maintenance. PMID:24645441

  15. Morbidity of asylum seekers in a medium-sized German city.

    PubMed

    Führer, Amand; Eichner, Friederike; Stang, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    Asylum seekers constitute a particularly vulnerable group. Not only is their physical and mental health exposed to multiple stresses, but also their access to health care in Germany is legally restricted. Up to now, there is very limited scientific literature investigating the health-outcomes of asylum seekers in Germany. The aim of this study was to provide prevalence data on the morbidity and vaccination status of asylum seekers in a medium-sized German city. We used a structured questionnaire in a cross-sectional study on 214 adult asylum seekers (182 males, 24 females, 8 unknown) in Halle, Germany, 2015. The questionnaire inquired about the respondent's self-reported physical health and vaccination status and assessed their mental health using the Hopkins-Symptom-Checklist-25 and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Pain (37.9 %) and psychological illness (depression: 54.7 %, anxiety disorder: 40.2 %; post-traumatic stress disorder: 18.2 %) were the most prevalent complaints. Among asylum seekers with psychological complaints, co-morbidity was high (64.2 % had more than one psychological disease). 5.6 % of the respondents mentioned suicidal thoughts. The prevalence of chronic diseases was low. We suggest interventions to improve asylum seekers' health on two levels: first, the obligatory initial medical examination after the refugees' arrival at the reception centre should be complemented with questions related to the vaccination status and the most common complaints including pain and psychological diseases. Second, medical infrastructure should be expanded to better serve the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse patient populations, so that those screened positive can be referred for early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27068422

  16. Are fragment-based quantum chemistry methods applicable to medium-sized water clusters?

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dandan; Shen, Xiaoling; Li, Wei; Li, Shuhua

    2016-06-28

    Fragment-based quantum chemistry methods are either based on the many-body expansion or the inclusion-exclusion principle. To compare the applicability of these two categories of methods, we have systematically evaluated the performance of the generalized energy based fragmentation (GEBF) method (J. Phys. Chem. A, 2007, 111, 2193) and the electrostatically embedded many-body (EE-MB) method (J. Chem. Theory Comput., 2007, 3, 46) for medium-sized water clusters (H2O)n (n = 10, 20, 30). Our calculations demonstrate that the GEBF method provides uniformly accurate ground-state energies for 10 low-energy isomers of three water clusters under study at a series of theory levels, while the EE-MB method (with one water molecule as a fragment and without using the cutoff distance) shows a poor convergence for (H2O)20 and (H2O)30 when the basis set contains diffuse functions. Our analysis shows that the neglect of the basis set superposition error for each subsystem has little effect on the accuracy of the GEBF method, but leads to much less accurate results for the EE-MB method. The accuracy of the EE-MB method can be dramatically improved by using an appropriate cutoff distance and using two water molecules as a fragment. For (H2O)30, the average deviation of the EE-MB method truncated up to the three-body level calculated using this strategy (relative to the conventional energies) is about 0.003 hartree at the M06-2X/6-311++G** level, while the deviation of the GEBF method with a similar computational cost is less than 0.001 hartree. The GEBF method is demonstrated to be applicable for electronic structure calculations of water clusters at any basis set. PMID:27263629

  17. Maximum urban heat island intensity in a medium-sized coastal Mediterranean city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanastasiou, Dimitris K.; Kittas, Constantinos

    2012-02-01

    This paper studies the maximum intensity of the urban heat island (UHI) that develops in Volos urban area, a medium-sized coastal city in central Greece. The maximum temperature difference between the city center and a suburb is 3.4°C and 3.1°C during winter and summer, respectively, while during both seasons the average maximum UHI intensity is 2.0°C. The UHI usually starts developing after sunset during both seasons. It could be attributed to the different nocturnal radiative cooling rate and to the different anthropogenic heat emission rate that are observed at the city center and at the suburb, as well as to meteorological conditions. The analysis reveals that during both seasons the daily maximum hourly (DMH) UHI intensity is positively correlated with solar radiation and with previous day's maximum hourly UHI intensity and negatively correlated with wind speed. It is also negatively correlated with relative humidity during winter but positively correlated with it during summer. This difference could be attributed to the different mechanisms that mainly drive humidity levels (i.e., evaporation in winter and sea breeze (SB) in summer). Moreover, it is found that SB development triggers a delay in UHI formation in summer. The impact of atmospheric pollution on maximum UHI intensity is also examined. An increase in PM10 concentration is associated with an increase in maximum UHI intensity during winter and with a decrease during summer. The impact of PM10 on UHI is caused by the attenuation of the incoming and the outgoing radiation. Additionally, this study shows that the weekly cycle of the city activities induces a weekly variation in maximum UHI intensity levels. The weekly range of DMH UHI intensity is not very large, being more pronounced during winter (0.4°C). Moreover, a first attempt is made to predict the DMH UHI intensity by applying regression models, whose success is rather promising.

  18. Clinical audit of multidisciplinary care at a medium-sized hospital in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Multidisciplinary care is a key enabler in the provision of high quality care for cancer patients. Despite compelling evidence supporting their benefit to patients and for providers, multidisciplinary cancer conferences (MCC) are not universally occurring. Team composition of MCC reflects the multidisciplinary nature of the body. Lack of nursing input can have a negative impact on team decision making. The objective of this study was to evaluate multidisciplinary care and adherence to national recommendations at a medium-sized hospital through a clinical audit of cancer conferences and clinical records. Methods A total of 77 multidisciplinary cancer conferences were visited and 496 electronic health records were reviewed. The regularity of meetings and multidisciplinary attendance were evaluated. Each electronic health record was checked to verify documented prospective discussion before any treatment was started. Results Nine multidisciplinary teams meet on a weekly or biweekly basis at the hospital with an average number of ten people and six different specialties represented. Average duration of meetings was 46.8 min. Though most patients (64.5%) were discussed at some point at the relevant cancer conference, only 40% had a documented multidisciplinary team discussion prior to the first treatment. Pathological stage (pTNM) was documented in 53.6% of clinical records. Conclusions Nursing representatives should be included as usual attendees at cancer conferences. Prospective discussion of all cancer cases should be encouraged. Use of checklists and systematic collection of key information, specifically cancer staging, could improve clinical documentation in the electronic clinical record. PMID:24597686

  19. Heavy metal contamination of road-deposited sediments in a medium size city of China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Bian, Bo; Li, Lei

    2008-12-01

    Road-deposited sediment (RDS) is an important environmental medium that affects the characteristics of heavy metals in stormwater runoff. 62 RDS samples were collected from four different land use types (commercial, residential, intense traffic and riverside park) in the Zhenjiang city of China. The samples were analysed for concentrations of five metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni). The maximum mean concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni from different land use types were 686, 589, 158, 129 and 125 mg/kg, respectively. The intense traffic area displayed the highest metal concentrations, whilst Zn, Cr, Ni and Cu did not show any discernible variations among the other three areas. Seven particle sizes were analysed separately for the heavy metal concentrations. In all studied areas, particles <63 microm have the highest metal concentrations: 926-1,188 mg/kg of Zn, 270-928 mg/kg of Pb, 150-220 mg/kg of Cu, 99-172 mg/kg of Cr and 96-147 mg/kg of Ni. The fine particle fraction (<63 microm) of the samples accounted for about 25-60% of the total metal loading; in contrast, the coarsest fraction (1,000-2,000 microm) only contributed 1-5%. The calculated ecological risk index shows that considerably high potential risks exist in the intense traffic area particularly due to high concentrations of Pb. These findings provide invaluable information for the development of appropriate management strategies to decrease nonpoint source contamination loading to the water environment in urban areas. PMID:18085420

  20. Distribution and compartmental organization of GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons in the mouse nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Espallergues, Julie; de Kerchove d'Exaerde, Alban; El Mestikawy, Salah; Gerfen, Charles R.; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a critical brain region involved in many reward-related behaviors. The NAc comprises major compartments the core and the shell, which encompass several subterritories. GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) constitute the output neurons of the NAc core and shell. While the functional organization of the NAc core outputs resembles the one described for the dorsal striatum, a simple classification of the NAc shell neurons has been difficult to define due to the complexity of the compartmental segregation of cells. We used a variety of BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence (EGFP) or the Cre-recombinase (Cre) under the control of the promoter of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors and of adenosine A2a receptor to dissect the microanatomy of the NAc. Moreover, using various immunological markers we characterized in detail the distribution of MSNs in the mouse NAc. In addition, cell-type specific extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in the NAc subterritories was analyzed following acute administration of SKF81297 (a D1R-like agonist), quinpirole (a D2 receptors (D2R)-like agonist), apomorphine (a non-selective DA receptor agonist), raclopride (a D2R-like antagonist), and psychostimulant drugs, including cocaine and d-amphetamine. Each drug generated a unique topography and cell-type specific activation of ERK in the NAc. Our results show the existence of marked differences in the receptor expression pattern and functional activation of MSNs within the shell subterritories. This study emphasizes the anatomical and functional heterogeneity of the NAc, which will have to be considered in its further study. PMID:23423476

  1. Distribution and compartmental organization of GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons in the mouse nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Espallergues, Julie; de Kerchove d'Exaerde, Alban; El Mestikawy, Salah; Gerfen, Charles R; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a critical brain region involved in many reward-related behaviors. The NAc comprises major compartments the core and the shell, which encompass several subterritories. GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) constitute the output neurons of the NAc core and shell. While the functional organization of the NAc core outputs resembles the one described for the dorsal striatum, a simple classification of the NAc shell neurons has been difficult to define due to the complexity of the compartmental segregation of cells. We used a variety of BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence (EGFP) or the Cre-recombinase (Cre) under the control of the promoter of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors and of adenosine A2a receptor to dissect the microanatomy of the NAc. Moreover, using various immunological markers we characterized in detail the distribution of MSNs in the mouse NAc. In addition, cell-type specific extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in the NAc subterritories was analyzed following acute administration of SKF81297 (a D1R-like agonist), quinpirole (a D2 receptors (D2R)-like agonist), apomorphine (a non-selective DA receptor agonist), raclopride (a D2R-like antagonist), and psychostimulant drugs, including cocaine and d-amphetamine. Each drug generated a unique topography and cell-type specific activation of ERK in the NAc. Our results show the existence of marked differences in the receptor expression pattern and functional activation of MSNs within the shell subterritories. This study emphasizes the anatomical and functional heterogeneity of the NAc, which will have to be considered in its further study. PMID:23423476

  2. Place and type of meals consumed by adults in medium sized cities

    PubMed Central

    Carús, Juliana Pires; França, Giovanny V A; Barros, Aluísio J D

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the meals consumed by adults living in a midsize city in the South of Brazil, according to the place and preparation. METHODS A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 2012. The two-stage sampling design used the 2010 census tracts as primary sampling units. Data were collected on the place of meals (at home or out) and on the kind of preparations consumed at home (homemade, snacks, take away food) covering the two days prior to the interview, using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS The study included 2,927 adults, of which 59.0% were female, 60.0% were below 50 years of age and 58.0% were in work. Data were collected on 11,581 meals consumed on the two days preceding the interview, 25.0% were consumed outside of the home at lunchtime, and 10.0% at dinnertime. Considering home meals, most participants reported eating food prepared at home at both lunch and dinner. The majority of out-of-home meals (64.0% for lunch and 61.0% for dinner) were consumed in the work place, mostly based on food prepared at home. Individuals eating out of home were mostly male, young and highly educated. The occupational categories that ate at restaurants more often were trade workers, businessmen, teachers and graduate professionals. CONCLUSIONS Despite the changes in eating patterns described in Brazil in recent years, residents of medium-sized towns still mostly eat at home, consuming homemade food. PMID:24789639

  3. High-Resolution Spectroscopic Studies of Complexes Formed by Medium-Size Organic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Becucci, Maurizio; Melandri, Sonia

    2016-05-11

    A wealth of structural and dynamical information has been obtained in the last 30 years from the study of high-resolution spectra of molecular clusters generated in a cold supersonic expansion by means of highly resolved spectroscopic methods. The data obtained, generally lead to determination of the structures of stable conformations. In addition, in the case of weakly bound molecular complexes, it is usual to observe the effects of internal motions due to the shallowness of the potential energy surfaces involved and the flexibility of the systems. In the case of electronic excitation experiments, also the effect of electronic distribution changes on both equilibrium structures and internal motions becomes accessible. The structural and dynamical information that can be obtained by applying suitable theoretical models to the analysis of these unusually complex spectra allows the determination and understanding of the driving forces involved in formation of the molecular complex. In this way, many types of non-covalent interactions have been characterized, from pure van der Waals interactions in complexes of rare gases to moderate-strength and weak hydrogen bonds and to the most recent halogen bonds and n-π interactions. The aim of this review is to underline how the different experimental and theoretical methods converge in giving a detailed picture of weak interactions in small molecular adducts involving medium-size molecules. The conclusions regarding geometries and energies can contribute to understanding of the different driving forces involved in the dynamics of the processes and can be exploited in all fields of chemistry and biochemistry, from design of new materials with novel properties to rational design of drugs. PMID:26986455

  4. Fox baiting against Echinococcus multilocularis: contrasted achievements among two medium size cities.

    PubMed

    Comte, S; Raton, V; Raoul, F; Hegglin, D; Giraudoux, P; Deplazes, P; Favier, S; Gottschek, D; Umhang, G; Boué, F; Combes, B

    2013-08-01

    In Europe, most cities are currently colonized by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), which are considered to be the main definitive host of the zoonotic cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. The risk of transmission to humans is of particular concern where high fox populations overlap with high human populations. The distribution of baits containing praziquantel has successfully reduced the infection pressure in rural areas and in small plots within large cities. The purpose of this study was to assess its efficiency in two medium size cities (less than 100,000 inhabitants) in areas of high human alveolar echinococcosis incidence. From August 2006 to March 2009, 14 baiting campaigns of praziquantel treatment were run in Annemasse and Pontarlier (Eastern France), each of which encompassed 33 km(2), with a density of 40 baits/km(2). The bait consumption appeared to be lower in strictly urban context compared to suburban areas (78.9% vs. 93.4%) and lower in Annemasse than in Pontarlier (82.2% vs. 89.5%). During our study, the prevalence of E. multilocularis, as assessed by EM-ELISA on fox faeces collected in the field in Annemasse, was lower within the treated area than in the rural control area. A "before/during" treatment comparison revealed a significant decrease of spring prevalence from 13.3% to 2.2%. No significant change in prevalence was detected in Pontarlier (stable prevalence: 9.1%) where the contamination of the treated area followed the temporal trend observed in the control area. There, a greater resilience of the parasite's life cycle, probably due to a strong pressure of recontamination from outside the treated area, may have counteracted the prophylaxis treatment. These contrasted outcomes suggest that the frequency of fox anthelmintic treatment should be adapted to the local situation. PMID:23642656

  5. Lateral plume spreading in a medium size river plume using surface Lagrangian drifters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakoulaki, Georgia; MacDonald, Daniel; Cole, Kelly

    2016-04-01

    Groups of 27 Lagrangian drifters deployed in the Merrimack River plume over twelve tides, with river discharges ranging between 150-800 m3/s, are used to understand the external forcing mechanisms responsible for the extent of spreading in river plumes. The transition of buoyant flow from a confined estuary to an unconfined coastal ocean introduces the complicated phenomenon of lateral spreading, which occurs preferentially near the surface and results in a flow that spreads laterally as plume water propagates forward in the direction of mean flow. In this work, the temporal and spatial scales of the active spreading region are estimated in the sampled plumes and related to environmental parameters at the river mouth such as inflow river discharge, initial drifter velocity at the point of release, initial reduced gravity and initial internal wave speed. The initial wave speed was found to be the environmental parameter that best predicts the magnitude of the spatial and temporal scales of the active spreading region. Previous studies have asserted the importance of initial plume parameters in near-field plume evolution and here we extrapolate this idea to the mid-field. Interestingly, we find that that lateral plume spreading is arrested at approximately one inertial radius from the river mouth. We therefore propose that the shutdown of spreading is controlled almost exclusively by Coriolis force and it is responsible for converting spreading motion to spinning motion after the mid field region. The outcomes of this research are widely applicable to other energetic, medium size river plume systems and to the author's knowledge this is the first study to estimate lateral plume expansion using observations beyond the immediate near field region of a river plume. This work will provide further development in understanding plume dynamics and the fundamental physical processes that influence coastal ecosystems.

  6. Temperature and relative humidity distributions in a medium-size administrative town in southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akinbode, O M; Eludoyin, A O; Fashae, O A

    2008-04-01

    This study was carried out in one of the medium-sized public administrative towns in the southwestern part of Nigeria. Its aim is to highlight the effect of spatial distribution of settlements, population, and socio-economic activities on urban air temperature and humidity in the town. Temperature and relative humidity data from 1992 to 2001 were obtained from three meteorological stations in Akure, the Administrative Capital of Ondo State, Nigeria. The stations are located within the Federal Ministry of Aviation, Akure Airport (FMA), Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) and Federal School of Agriculture (SOA). Air temperature and relative humidity measurements were also obtained from 27 points, which were cited to include road junctions, markets, built up areas, etc., using sling psychrometer. The data were subsequently analysed for spatial and temporal variations using statistical packages (SPSS and Microsoft Excel) and isolines. Actual vapour pressure and dew point temperature were computed using Magnus conversion formulae. The results obtained showed that spatial variation was insignificant, in terms of the temperature and humidity variables. The annual mean temperature (Tmean) ranged between 21.9 and 30.4 degrees C while minimum (Tmin) and maximum (Tmax) temperatures varied from 13 to 26 and 21.5-39.6 degrees C, respectively. Relative humidity (RH), actual vapour pressure (Es) and dew point temperature (Td) values also varied from 39.1% to 98.2%, 19.7-20.8 gm(-3), and 17.3-17.8 degrees C, respectively. A significant relationship (p>0.6; r<0.05) between Tmin, Es and Td was observed while the daytime 'urban heat island' intensity (UHI) ranged between 0.5 and 2.5 degrees C within the study period. The study concluded that there is influence of urban canopy on the microclimate of Akure, and hypothesizes that the urban dwellers may be subjected to some levels of weather related physiological disorderliness. PMID:17482750

  7. Revenue-Based Financial Modeling: A Sustainable Model for Medium-Size, Private, Mission-Based Schools of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbouk, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the implementation and assessment of revenue-based budgeting at a medium-size, private, mission-based graduate school of education (SOE), under the pseudonym Peter Claver University (PCU). Additionally, two other similar schools were included in the study because they used revenue-based budgeting for a period of 10 years or…

  8. Graduate Transition into Work: The Bridging Role of Graduate Placement Programmes in the Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprise Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Pádraig

    2015-01-01

    This research looks at the role of graduate placement programmes in bridging the gap between higher education and the small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) sector. The research design and methodology used in this study was exploratory, in-depth and qualitative in nature. The research took the form of a multiple case study and focused on seven…

  9. Using the Critical Incident Technique to Research Decision Making regarding Access to Training and Development in Medium-Sized Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzer, Alan; Redmond, Janice; Sharafizad, Jalleh

    2012-01-01

    Employees in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) form part of a "disadvantaged" group within the workforce that receives less access to training and development (T&D) than employees in large firms. Prior research into reasons for the relatively low levels of employee participation in training and development has typically involved surveys of…

  10. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and...

  11. The Anonymity of Catalan and the Authenticity of Estonian: Two Paths for the Development of Medium-Sized Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Catalan and Estonian can be considered "medium-sized" languages with some key common features that allow us to analyze the evolution of the two cases comparatively. Firstly, other formerly hegemonic languages (Spanish and Russian, respectively) have historically minoritized them. Secondly, the political equilibrium has now changed in such a way…

  12. Is Small Finally Becoming Beautiful? Small and Medium-Size Enterprises in the New Economy. IES Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejonckheere, J.; Ramioul, M.; Van Hootegem, G.

    This report addresses small and medium-sized enterprises' (SMEs') role in the changing international division of labor and trade in information service activities. Chapter 2 describes the EMERGENCE project to map and measure eWork. Chapter 3 reviews literature that shows SMEs account for the overwhelming majority of companies and make a crucial…

  13. Entrepreneurial Training for the Growth of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Lessons from Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report brings together a number of principles as to best practice in supporting, through training, growth of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Central and Eastern Europe. Chapter 2 identifies key principles to be drawn from the West through a literature review. Chapter 3 reviews the "practice" of entrepreneurial training in Central…

  14. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and...

  15. Using Computer-Based Continuing Professional Education of Training Staff to Develop Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sooraksa, Nanta

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a career development program for staff involved in providing training for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand. Most of these staff were professional vocational teachers in schools. The program uses information communication technology (ICT), and its main objective is to teach Moodle software as a tool for…

  16. Organoselenium and DMAP co-catalysis: regioselective synthesis of medium-sized halolactones and bromooxepanes from unactivated alkenes.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ajay; Jana, Sadhan; Prasad, Ch Durga; Yadav, Abhimanyu; Kumar, Sangit

    2016-03-18

    A catalytic system consisting of bis(4-methoxyphenyl)selenide and 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP) has been developed for the regioselective synthesis of medium-sized bromo/iodo lactones and bromooxepanes possessing high transannular strain. (77)Se NMR, mass spectrometry and theoretical studies reveal that the reaction proceeds via a quaternary selenium intermediate. PMID:26906914

  17. Virtual Class: Distance Learning for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in the Spanish Region of Castilla y Leon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Blanca; Perez, Maria Angeles; Verdu, Maria Jesus; Navazo, Maria Agustina; Lopez, Ricardo; Mompo, Rafael; Garcia, Joaquin

    Lifelong learning is becoming a necessity in the new Information Society where everyone, particularly small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), must keep up with new technologies. Education and training are of the most importance in this updating. An interdisciplinary and inter-university work group called "Canalejas" (Spain) has developed a…

  18. Concept of an Exchange Network for the Development of Vocational Training in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudet, Rene

    An examination of the ways in which vocational training can be extended to small and medium-sized enterprises in the European Economic Community, this document consists of: an introduction; four parts containing multiple chapters; 10 case studies; and a bibliography. Following the introduction, which is an update of a report made in 1985, part one…

  19. A Bayesian Approach to International Distributor Selection for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Software Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lui, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying appropriate international distributors for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the software industry for overseas markets can determine a firm's future endeavors in international expansion. SMEs lack the complex skills in market research and decision analysis to identify suitable partners to engage in global market entry.…

  20. Climate change impact on medium and small sized river catchments in Germany: An ensemble assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, I.; Düthmann, D.; Liebert, J.; Berg, P.; Feldmann, H.; Ihringer, J.; Kunstmann, H.; Merz, B.; Schädler, G.; Wagner, S.

    2012-04-01

    This study investigates the impact of climate change on three small to medium sized river catchments in Germany using a high-resolution RCM ensemble of seven kilometers spatial resolution. The three catchments represent the characteristic hydrology of the alpine Southern Germany (Ammer) and more sub-mountainous regions in the Eastern (Mulde) and Western (Ruhr) parts. Possible changes in discharge characteristics and flood risk for the near future are examined. The ensemble approach in this project additionally allows the evaluation of the uncertainties in the future projections. With two global climate models (ECHAM5, CCCma3), three realisations of ECHAM5, two regional climate models (CLM, WRF) and three hydrological models (PRMS, SWIM and WaSiM-ETH), discharge of the three catchments is simulated and analyzed. Thereby, each catchment is simulated by two different hydrological models. Both global climate models (GCMs) are driven by the emission scenario A1B and the simulation period includes the years 1971-2000 as control period and 2021-2050 for the scenario. The results project that only the Ruhr catchment in the West of Germany will be subjected to higher flood hazard. The simulated significant future increases of the mean monthly maximum discharges are up to 20% in winter and summer. In spring and autumn, increase of flood hazard is less pronounced. For the other two catchments in the East and South of Germany, the flood hazard is projected to stay at the current level. The Ammer catchment shows statistical non-significant increasing flooding risks in winter and decreasing tendencies in summer. There are also no statistically significant changes projected for the Mulde catchment, although small increases can be seen in summer and autumn. The ensemble approach with different GCMs, high-resolution regional climate models (RCMs) and hydrological models allows the analysis of uncertainties and their attribution within the flood risk predictions. Major uncertainties

  1. Rupture process of four medium-sized earthquakes that occurred in the Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RodríGuez-Lozoya, HéCtor E.; Quintanar, Luis; Ortega, Roberto; Rebollar, Cecilio J.; Yagi, Yuji

    2008-10-01

    Four medium-sized earthquakes (Mw Global CMT project 5.5, 5.6, 5.9, 6.3; hereinafter named Topolobampo, Angel de la Guarda, San Lorenzo, and Loreto earthquakes, respectively) located in the Gulf of California Extensional Province were studied to obtain their kinematic rupture processes. A network of broadband seismic stations located around the Gulf of California recorded the events (Network of Autonomously Recording Seismographs-Baja and Red Sísmica de Banda Ancha). Inversion of the seismic moment tensor and body waveform modeling were used to obtain the fault geometry and slip distribution on the fault plane, respectively. From these analyses, we obtained source depths of the order of 5.5 ± 0.5 km. We found also that the source rupture processes of the Topolobampo and Angel de la Guarda events have simple moment rate functions and source time durations of 5.0 ± 1.2 and 4.2 ± 1.2 s, respectively. The Topolobampo event was a right-lateral strike-slip event, and Angel de la Guarda was a normal event. The San Lorenzo and Loreto shocks show a rather complex rupture, with source time durations of 7.5 ± 1.2 and 9.0 ± 1.2 s, respectively. For these earthquakes, we tested the resolution of numerical results, performing an extra inversion with smoother waveforms. The new inversions do not show the separated patches of slip, as in the first analysis, but the slip distribution has an elongated shape not characteristic of simple events. We cannot therefore conclude rupture propagation for the San Lorenzo event, although the extent of the patch for the Loreto earthquake agrees with aftershock locations. Estimates of source time durations for these earthquakes are at the upper limit of the values found for earthquakes elsewhere. Directions of P axes are in the same order of magnitude as the maximum horizontal stress obtained for the so-called Gulf of California stress province from borehole elongations, focal plane solutions, and fault slip data.

  2. The Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises Office (SME Office) at the European Medicines Agency.

    PubMed

    Carr, M

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December 2005, the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) launched an "SME Office" to provide financial and administrative assistance to micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), with the aim of promoting innovation and the development of new human and veterinary medicinal products by SMEs. According to current EU definition of an SME, companies with fewer than 250 employees, and an annual turnover of not more than 50 million euro or an annual balance sheet total of not more than 43 million euro, are eligible for assistance from the SME Office. Incentives available from the EMEA for SMEs, include: Administrative and procedural assistance from SME Office within the Agency; Fee reductions (90%) for scientific advice and inspections; Fee exemptions for certain administrative services (excluding parallel distribution); Deferral of the fee payable for an application for marketing authorisation or related inspection until after the grant of the marketing authorisation; Conditional fee exemption where scientific advice followed and marketing application is unsuccessful; Assistance with translations of the product information documents. At the end of May 2009, more than 380 companies from 21 countries across the European Economic Area (EEA) had SME status assigned by the EMEA. The large majority of companies are developing medicinal products for human use, 16 are veterinary companies, 15 companies are developing products for both human and veterinary use and 38 are regulatory consultants. Since the SME initiative started the Agency has processed more than 130 requests for scientific advice with fee reductions totalling of 6.9 million euro. Regulatory assistance has been provided to more than 170 companies and 12 companies have benefited from the SME translation service. Stakeholders have acknowledged the significant role the SME Office now plays as a service provider. In the period between January 2006 and June 2009, 34 applications for marketing authorization

  3. Karyotypes of some medium-sized Dytiscidae (Agabinae and Colymbetinae) (Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Angus, Robert B.; Clery, Molly J.; Carter, Jodie C.; Wenczek, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An account is given of the karyotypes of 29 species of medium sized Dytiscidae (Coleoptera). Of the 20 species of Agabus Leach, 1817, 18 have karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are either X0(♂) or XX (♀). These species are Agabus serricornis (Paykull, 1799), Agabus labiatus (Brahm, 1791), Agabus congener (Thunberg, 1794), Agabus lapponicus (Thomson, 1867), Agabus thomsoni (J. Sahlberg, 1871), Agabus confinis (Gyllenhal, 1808), Agabus sturmii (Gyllenhal, 1808), Agabus bipustulatus (Linnaeus, 1767), Agabus nevadensis Håkan Lindberg, 1939, Agabus wollastoni Sharp, 1882, Agabus melanarius Aubé, 1837, Agabus biguttatus (Olivier, 1795), Agabus binotatus Aubé, 1837, Agabus affinis (Paykull, 1798), Agabus unguicularis (Thomson, 1867), Agabus ramblae Millan & Ribera, 2001, Agabus conspersus (Marsham, 1802) and Agabus nebulosus (Forster, 1771). However two species, Agabus infuscatus Aubé, 1838 and Agabus adpressus Aubé, 1837, have developed a neo-XY system, with karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and XY sex chromosomes (♂). No chromosomal differences have been detected between typical Agabus bipustulatus and Agabus bipustulatus var. solieri Aubé, 1837, nor have any been found between the three species of the Agabus bipustulatus complex (Agabus bipustulatus, Agabus nevadensis and Agabus wollastoni). The four species of Colymbetes Clairville, 1806, Colymbetes fuscus (Linnaeus, 1758), Colymbetes paykulli Erichson, 1837, Colymbetes piceus Klug, 1834 and Colymbetes striatus (Linnaeus, 1758) have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are X0 (♂), XX (♀). Two of the species of Rhantus Dejean, 1833, Rhantus exsoletus (Forster, 1771) and Rhantus suturellus (Harris, 1828) have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and X0/XX sex chromosomes, but the other three species, Rhantus grapii (Gyllenhal, 1808), Rhantus frontalis (Marsham, 1802) and Rhantus suturalis (Macleay, 1825) have 22

  4. Assessment of metal exposure, ecological status and required water quality monitoring strategies in small- to medium-size temperate rivers.

    PubMed

    Marijić, Vlatka Filipović; Perić, Mirela Sertić; Kepčija, Renata Matoničkin; Dragun, Zrinka; Kovarik, Ivana; Gulin, Vesna; Erk, Marijana

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to obtain a better understanding of the seasonal variability of total dissolved metal/metalloid levels and physicochemical parameters within small- to medium-size freshwater ecosystems in temperate climate region. The research was conducted in four seasons in the Sutla River, medium-size polluted, and the Črnomerec Stream, small-size unpolluted watercourse in Croatia. In the Sutla River, characterized by the rural/industrial catchment, physicochemical parameters and total dissolved metal concentrations of 21 trace and 4 macro elements were analysed downstream of the point source of pollution, the glass production facility, indicating for the first time their variability across four seasons. Based on dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, nutrient concentrations, conductivity and total chemical oxygen demand, quality status of the Sutla River was good, but moderate to poor during summer, what was additionally confirmed by the highest levels of the most of 25 measured metals/metalloids in summer. Comparison with the reference small-size watercourse, the Črnomerec Stream, indicated significant anthropogenic impact on the Sutla River, most evident for Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb and Tl levels (3-70-fold higher in the Sutla River across all seasons). Generally, presented results indicated significant decrease of the water quality in the anthropogenically impacted small- to medium-size watercourses in summer, regarding physicochemical water parameters and total dissolved metal/metalloid concentrations, and pointed to significant seasonality of these parameters. Confirmed seasonality of river ecological status indicates that seasonal assessment represents a prerequisite for proper classification of the water quality in small- to medium-size temperate rivers. PMID:26745644

  5. Sodium modulates opioid receptors through a membrane component different from G-proteins. Demonstration by target size analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, S.; Costa, T.; Herz, A.

    1988-07-25

    The target size for opioid receptor binding was studied after manipulations known to affect the interactions between receptor and GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G-proteins). Addition of GTP or its analogs to the binding reaction, exposure of intact cells to pertussis toxin prior to irradiation, or treatment of irradiated membranes with N-ethylmaleimide did not change the target size (approximately equal to 100 kDa) for opioid receptors in NG 108-15 cells and rat brain. These data suggest that the 100-kDa species does not include an active subunit of a G-protein or alternatively that GTP does not promote the dissociation of the receptor-G-protein complex. The presence of Na+ (100 mM) in the radioligand binding assay induced a biphasic decay curve for agonist binding and a flattening of the monoexponential decay curve for a partial agonist. In both cases the effect was explained by an irradiation-induced loss of the low affinity state of the opioid receptor produced by the addition of Na+. This suggests that an allosteric inhibitor that mediates the effect of sodium on the receptor is destroyed at low doses of irradiation, leaving receptors which are no longer regulated by sodium. The effect of Na+ on target size was slightly increased by the simultaneous addition of GTP but was not altered by pertussis toxin treatment. Thus, the sodium unit is distinct from G-proteins and may represent a new component of the opioid receptor complex. Assuming a simple bimolecular model of one Na+ unit/receptor, the size of this inhibitor can be measured as 168 kDa.

  6. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size.

    PubMed

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

    2014-07-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a 'super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes. PMID:25033959

  7. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size

    PubMed Central

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

    2014-01-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a ‘super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes. PMID:25033959

  8. Size-Dependent Transition to High-Dimensional Chaotic Dynamics in a Two-Dimensional Excitable Medium

    SciTech Connect

    Strain, M.C.; Greenside, H.S.

    1998-03-01

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of an excitable medium with multiple spiral defects is shown to vary smoothly with system size from short-lived transients for small systems to extensive chaos for large systems. A comparison of the Lyapunov dimension density with the average spiral defect density suggests an average dimension per spiral defect varying between 3 and 7. We discuss some implications of these results for experimental studies of excitable media. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Size-Dependent Transition to High-Dimensional Chaotic Dynamics in a Two-Dimensional Excitable Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strain, Matthew C.; Greenside, Henry S.

    1998-03-01

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of an excitable medium with multiple spiral defects is shown to vary smoothly with system size from short-lived transients for small systems to extensive chaos for large systems. A comparison of the Lyapunov dimension density with the average spiral defect density suggests an average dimension per spiral defect varying between 3 and 7. We discuss some implications of these results for experimental studies of excitable media.

  10. Lowest-energy cage structures of medium-sized (ZnO){sub n} clusters with n = 15 − 24

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Lingli; Sai, Linwei; Zhao, Jijun; Qiu, Ruifeng

    2015-01-22

    Fullerene-like cage structures of medium-sized (ZnO){sub n} clusters with n = 15 − 24 were generated by spiral algorithm and optimized using density functional theory calculations. Most of these lowest-energy cage structures contain only four-membered and six-membered rings, whereas eight-membered rings were found in the lowest-energy cages of (ZnO){sub n} (n = 19, 20, 23, 24). Our best cage configurations either reproduce or prevail the previously reported ones. The size-dependent electronic properties were also discussed.

  11. ELECTRONIC SPECTROSCOPY OF MEDIUM-SIZED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CARRIERS OF THE 2175 A UV BUMP

    SciTech Connect

    Steglich, M.; Jaeger, C.; Rouille, G.; Huisken, F.; Mutschke, H.; Henning, Th. E-mail: Cornelia.Jaeger@uni-jena.de

    2010-03-20

    Mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been produced by means of laser pyrolysis. The main fraction of the extracted PAHs was primarily medium-sized, up to a maximum size of 38 carbon atoms per molecule. The use of different extraction solvents and subsequent chromatographic fractionation provided mixtures of different size distributions. UV-VIS absorption spectra have been measured at low temperature by matrix isolation spectroscopy and at room temperature with PAHs as film-like deposits on transparent substrates. In accordance with semi-empirical calculations, our findings suggest that large PAHs with sizes around 50-60 carbon atoms per molecule could be responsible for the interstellar UV bump at 217.5 nm.

  12. The Future of Small- and Medium-Sized Communities in the Prairie Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellar, Barry S., Ed.

    Four papers are featured. The first is a statistical overview and analysis of past, present and future happenings to small communities in the Region; it focuses on two indicators: (1) population growth or declining community class size and, (2) the changing distribution of commercial outlets by community class size. The other three papers report…

  13. Considerable Variation of Antibacterial Activity of Cu Nanoparticles Suspensions Depending on the Storage Time, Dispersive Medium, and Particle Sizes.

    PubMed

    Zakharova, Olga V; Godymchuk, Anna Yu; Gusev, Alexander A; Gulchenko, Svyatoslav I; Vasyukova, Inna A; Kuznetsov, Denis V

    2015-01-01

    Suspensions of Cu nanoparticles are promising for creating the new class of alternative antimicrobial products. In this study we examined copper nanoparticles of various sizes obtained by the method of wire electric explosion: nanopowder average size 50 nm (Cu 50) and 100 nm (Cu 100). The paper presents the complex study of the influence of physicochemical properties such as particle size and concentration of the freshly prepared and 24-hour suspensions of Cu nanoparticles in distilled water and physiological solution upon their toxicity to bacteria E. coli M-17. Ionic solution of Cu(2+) and sodium dichloroisocyanurate was used for comparison study. It has been shown that decrease in the nanoparticle size leads to changes in the correlation between toxicity and concentration as toxicity peaks are observed at low concentrations (0.0001⋯0.01 mg/L). It has been observed that antibacterial properties of Cu 50 nanoparticle suspensions are ceased after 24-hour storage, while for Cu 100 suspensions no correlation between antibacterial properties and storage time has been noted. Cu 100 nanoparticle suspensions at 10 mg/L concentration display higher toxicity at substituting physiological solution for water than Cu 50 suspensions. Dependence of the toxicity on the mean particle aggregates size in suspension was not revealed. PMID:26339611

  14. Considerable Variation of Antibacterial Activity of Cu Nanoparticles Suspensions Depending on the Storage Time, Dispersive Medium, and Particle Sizes

    PubMed Central

    Zakharova, Olga V.; Godymchuk, Anna Yu.; Gusev, Alexander A.; Gulchenko, Svyatoslav I.; Vasyukova, Inna A.; Kuznetsov, Denis V.

    2015-01-01

    Suspensions of Cu nanoparticles are promising for creating the new class of alternative antimicrobial products. In this study we examined copper nanoparticles of various sizes obtained by the method of wire electric explosion: nanopowder average size 50 nm (Cu 50) and 100 nm (Cu 100). The paper presents the complex study of the influence of physicochemical properties such as particle size and concentration of the freshly prepared and 24-hour suspensions of Cu nanoparticles in distilled water and physiological solution upon their toxicity to bacteria E. coli M-17. Ionic solution of Cu2+ and sodium dichloroisocyanurate was used for comparison study. It has been shown that decrease in the nanoparticle size leads to changes in the correlation between toxicity and concentration as toxicity peaks are observed at low concentrations (0.0001⋯0.01 mg/L). It has been observed that antibacterial properties of Cu 50 nanoparticle suspensions are ceased after 24-hour storage, while for Cu 100 suspensions no correlation between antibacterial properties and storage time has been noted. Cu 100 nanoparticle suspensions at 10 mg/L concentration display higher toxicity at substituting physiological solution for water than Cu 50 suspensions. Dependence of the toxicity on the mean particle aggregates size in suspension was not revealed. PMID:26339611

  15. Sorption of the herbicides diquat and difenzoquat from aqueous medium by polymeric resins in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate: Kinetic and mechanistic study.

    PubMed

    Vinhal, Jonas O; Lima, Claudio F; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this work was to propose a novel method for the solid-phase extraction of the herbicides diquat (DQT(2+)) and difenzoquat (DFQT(+)) from aqueous medium using polymeric Amberlite XAD-2 and XAD-4 resins in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). The addition of SDS to the medium was of fundamental importance in order to allow the formation of a negatively charged surface able to sorb the cationic solutes. Several factors that could influence the sorption process, such as SDS concentration in the medium, sorbent mass, pH, ionic strength, and initial concentration of the solutes were investigated. Kinetic studies were also performed to model the system and to identify the mechanisms that operate the sorption process of the herbicides. SDS concentration in the medium presented remarkable influence on the extraction efficiency, achieving maximum values when the ratios [SDS]/[herbicide] were approximately 90, for XAD-2, and 22 and 11 for DQT(2+) and DFQT(+), respectively, for XAD-4. The sorption process followed a pseudo second-order kinetic in all cases studied. It was also found that an intraparticle diffusion process controlled exclusively the sorption of the herbicides by the Amberlite XAD-2 and XAD-4 resins in the first 15 min, becoming less active with time. PMID:27070666

  16. Tribochemical wear of sodium trisilicate glass at the nanometer size scale

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, F.; Langford, S.C.; Dickinson, J.T.

    2006-01-15

    We report measurements of single-asperity wear on sodium trisilicate glass in basic solution using atomic force microscopy (AFM), where the silicon nitride tip was used both to tribologically load and image the surface. Single-asperity micron-square polishing was performed by rastering the AFM tip in a square pattern. More localized, 'nano'-machining was performed by drawing the AFM tip back and forth across the substrate in a linear fashion. In both modes, the wear rate gradually slowed during prolonged scanning. Changes in contact stress due to the wear of the AFM tip dramatically affect the observed wear rates. The changes in surface elevation for both the tip and the substrate display the same dependence on true stress and time for the case of square-raster scanning over micron dimensions. In the case of linear reciprocal scanning, conformal wear substantially modifies the rates and morphology of the wear of both the tip and the substrate.

  17. A qualitative study of pandemic influenza preparedness among small and medium-sized businesses in New York City.

    PubMed

    Burton, Deron C; Confield, Evan; Gasner, Mary Rose; Weisfuse, Isaac

    2011-10-01

    Small businesses need to engage in continuity planning to assure delivery of goods and services and to sustain the economy during an influenza pandemic. This is especially true in New York City, where 98 per cent of businesses have fewer than 100 employees. It was an objective therefore, to determine pandemic influenza business continuity practices and strategies suitable for small and medium-sized NYC businesses. The study design used focus groups, and the participants were owners and managers of businesses with fewer than 500 employees in New York City. The main outcome measures looked for were the degree of pandemic preparedness, and the feasibility of currently proposed business continuity strategies. Most participants reported that their businesses had no pandemic influenza plan. Agreement with feasibility of specific business continuity strategies was influenced by the type of business represented, cost of the strategy, and business size. It was concluded that recommendations for pandemic-related business continuity plans for small and medium-sized businesses should be tailored to the type and size of business and should highlight the broad utility of the proposed strategies to address a range of business stressors. PMID:22308579

  18. Predation selectively culls medium-sized species from island mammal faunas

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Emily; Cardillo, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Globally, elevated extinction risk in mammals is strongly associated with large body size. However, in regions where introduced predators exert strong top-down pressure on mammal populations, the selectivity of extinctions may be skewed towards species of intermediate body size, leading to a hump-shaped relationship between size and extinction risk. The existence of this kind of extinction pattern, and its link to predation, has been contentious and difficult to demonstrate. Here, we test the hypothesis of a hump-shaped body size–extinction relationship, using a database of 927 island mammal populations. We show that the size-selectivity of extinctions on many islands has exceeded that expected under null models. On islands with introduced predators, extinctions are biased towards intermediate body sizes, but this bias does not occur on islands without predators. Hence, on islands with a large-bodied mammal fauna, predators are selectively culling species from the lower end of the size distribution, and on islands with a small-bodied fauna they are culling species from the upper end. These findings suggest that it will be difficult to use predictable generalizations about extinction patterns, such as a positive body size–extinction risk association, to anticipate future species declines and plan conservation strategies accordingly. PMID:24694691

  19. Comparing capture-recapture methods for estimation of the size of small and medium-sized populations using empirical data on commercial turkey farms in Canada.

    PubMed

    El Allaki, Farouk; Christensen, Jette; Vallières, André

    2015-06-01

    The study objectives were (1) to conduct a systematic review of the performance of capture-recapture methods; (2) to use empirical data to estimate population size in a small-sized population (turkey breeder farms) and a medium-sized population (meat turkey farms) by applying two-source capture-recapture methods (the Lincoln-Petersen, the Chapman, and Chao's lower-bound estimators) and multi-source capture-recapture methods (the log-linear modeling and sample coverage approaches); and (3) to compare the performance of these methods in predicting the true population sizes (2007 data). Our set-up was unique in that we knew the population sizes for turkey breeder farms (99) and meat turkey farms (592) in Canada in 2007, which we applied as our true population sizes, and had surveillance data from the Canadian Notifiable Avian Influenza Surveillance System (2008-2012). We defined each calendar year of sampling as a data source. We confirmed that the two-source capture-recapture methods were sensitive to the violation of the local independence assumption. The log-linear modeling and sample coverage approaches yielded estimates that were closer to the true population sizes than were the estimates provided by the two-source methods for both populations. The performance of both multi-source capture-recapture methods depended on the number of data sources analyzed and the size of the population. Simulation studies are recommended to better understand the limits of each multi-source capture-recapture method. PMID:25542525

  20. Factors affecting size and swelling of poly(ethylene glycol) microspheres formed in aqueous sodium sulfate solutions without surfactants.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Michael D; Scott, Evan A; Elbert, Donald L

    2009-10-01

    The LCST behavior of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in aqueous sodium sulfate solutions was exploited to fabricate microspheres without the use of other monomers, polymers, surfactants or organic solvents. Reactive PEG derivatives underwent thermally induced phase separation to produce spherical PEG-rich domains that coarsened in size pending gelation, resulting in stable hydrogel microspheres between approximately 1 and 100 microns in size. The time required to reach the gel point during the coarsening process and the extent of crosslinking after gelation both affected the final microsphere size and swelling ratio. The gel point could be varied by pre-reaction of the PEG derivatives below the cloud point, or by controlling pH and temperature above the cloud point. Pre-reaction brought the PEG derivatives closer to the gel point prior to phase separation, while the pH and temperature influenced the rate of reaction. Dynamic light scattering indicated a percolation-to-cluster transition about 3-5 min following phase separation. The mean radius of PEG-rich droplets subsequently increased with time to the 1/4th power until gelation. PEG microspheres produced by these methods with controlled sizes and densities may be useful for the production of modular scaffolds for tissue engineering. PMID:19615738

  1. Adiabatic compressibility of AOT [sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate] reverse micelles: Analysis of a simple model based on micellar size and volumetric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amararene, A.; Gindre, M.; Le Huérou, J.-Y.; Urbach, W.; Valdez, D.; Waks, M.

    2000-01-01

    The self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules into supramolecular aggregates involves a number of complex phenomena and forces. Recent developments of highly sensitive, densimetric and acoustic methods on small volume samples have provided novel sensitive probes to explore the physical properties of these complex fluids. We have investigated, by high precision densimetry and ultrasound velocimetry, reverse micelles of [sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate] in oil (isooctane and decane), at increasing water concentration and at variable micellar volume fractions. The size of these spherical micelles has been determined by small angle x-ray scattering. Using these results, in the framework of the effective medium theory, we have developed a simple model of micellar compressibility, allowing the calculation of physical parameters (aggregation number, volume, and compressibility) of the surfactant monomolecular film as well as that of the micellar waters. In particular, we show that the central aqueous core designated as ``free'' water, located at a distance from the oil-water interacting interface, is twice as compressible as ``bulk'' water. One notable feature of this work is the influence of the nature of the oil on the above parameters.

  2. Analyzing the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises of a national technology innovation research and development program.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungmin

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of a national technology innovation research and development (R&D) program. In particular, an empirical analysis is presented that aims to answer the following question: "Is there a difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes?" Methodologically, the efficiency of a government-sponsored R&D project (i.e., GSP) is measured by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), and a nonparametric analysis of variance method, the Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test is adopted to see if the efficiency differences between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes are statistically significant. This study's major findings are as follows. First, contrary to our hypothesis, when we controlled the influence of government R&D subsidy size, there was no statistically significant difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types. However, the R&D collaboration type, "SME-University-Laboratory" Joint-Venture was superior to the others, achieving the largest median and the smallest interquartile range of DEA efficiency scores. Second, the differences in the efficiency were statistically significant between government R&D subsidy sizes, and the phenomenon of diseconomies of scale was identified on the whole. As the government R&D subsidy size increases, the central measures of DEA efficiency scores were reduced, but the dispersion measures rather tended to get larger. PMID:25120949

  3. Seasonally different reproductive investment in a medium-sized rodent (Cavia aperea).

    PubMed

    Rübensam, K; Hribal, R; Jewgenow, K; Guenther, A

    2015-09-01

    Pronounced seasonal variations in day length, temperature, and resource availability characterize the temperate regions and strongly influence the animals living in these environments. To survive and reproduce successfully, animals must allocate resources among competing physiological systems, and they usually adjust their time of breeding to the most adequate season. Here, we examined whether reproductive investment in the wild guinea pig (Cavia aperea) differs across seasons. We kept animals in combined indoor-outdoor enclosures under natural light and temperature year-round. We measured littering probability, litter size, and birth weight, as well as maternal weight loss during lactation. In addition, we measured ovulation rate as a parameter to adjust reproductive investment prenatally. Our data reveal strong seasonal variations in reproductive traits despite the fact that the animals reproduced year-round. The results show a reduced reproductive investment in winter, indicated by a lower litter size and birth weight of pups, whereas investment was highest in warm seasons (summer and autumn) with higher litter size and birth weight. Maternal weight loss in lactation was highest in cold seasons even if the litter size was lower. Furthermore, we found the regulation on the proximate level of the reproductive investment, the ovulation rate, to differ significantly between the seasons. PMID:26050611

  4. A Review of Supply Chain Collaboration Practices for Small and Medium-sized Manufacturers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, SY; Thoo, AC; Z, Sulaiman; FM, Muharam

    2016-05-01

    For the decades, organizations have endeavored to look for external sources for opportunities to achieve efficient and responsive supply chain with their partners especially for small and medium manufacturers (SMM). In this scenario, supply chain collaboration (SCC) is an interaction between supply chain members with the purpose of utilizes the knowledge and resources of customers and suppliers, and integrates the flows of products and information in order to achieve a common goal and obtain mutual benefit. The essential SCC dimensions for SMMs comprised of information sharing, joint knowledge creation, joint decision making, goal congruence and incentive sharing. The successful implementation of SCC can give SMMs an edge over their competitors. This paper aims to introduce a review of SCC practices for SMM. Overall, the findings provide managerial insights for the SMM in SCC implementation owing to resource scarcity and the need to draw SCC in order to ensure a sustainable competitive advantage.

  5. The Alignment System for a Medium-Sized Schwarzschild-Couder Telescope Prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Deivid; Humensky, Brian; Nieto, Daniel; V Vassiliev Group in UCLA division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P Kaaret Group at Iowa University Department of Physics and Astronomy, CTA Consortium

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an international project for a next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory. CTA, conceived as an array of tens of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, comprising small, medium and large-size telescopes, is aiming to improve on the sensitivity of current-generation experiments by an order of magnitude and provide energy coverage from 20 GeV to more than 300 TeV. The Schwarzschild-Couder design is a candidate 9-m diameter medium-sized telescope featuring a novel aplanatic two-mirror optical design capable of a wide field of view with significantly improved imaging resolution as compared to the traditional Davies-Cotton optical design. Achieving this imaging resolution imposes strict mirror alignment requirements that necessitate a sophisticated alignment system. This system uses a collection of position sensors between panels to determine the relative position of adjacent panels; each panel is mounted on a Stewart platform to allow motion control with six degrees of freedom, facilitating the alignment of the optical surface for the segmented primary and secondary mirrors. Alignments of the primary and secondary mirrors and the camera focal plane with respect to each other are performed utilizing a set of CCD cameras which image LEDs placed on the mirror panels to measure relative translation, and custom-built auto-collimators to measure relative tilt between the primary and secondary mirrors along the optical axis of the telescope. In this contribution we present the status of the development of the SC optical alignment system, soon to be materialized in a full-scale prototype SC medium-size telescope (pSCT) at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona.

  6. Staged Surgery with Total Excision and Lamellar Reconstructive for Medium-sized Divided Nevus of the Eyelids

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Quan, Yadan; Li, Kang; Liu, Jinling

    2015-01-01

    Background: To explore a prior treatment strategy for medium-sized (1.5–20 cm) divided nevus of the eyelids. Methods: Six patients who suffered from divided nevus of eyelids were recruited to this prospective, case series study between July 2008 and January 2014 (4 male and 2 female patients). The patients’ ages ranged from 14 to 29 years, with an average age of 24.5 years. All lesions were medium-sized (1.5–20 cm in diameter) and invaded eyelid margins and the posterior lamella of eyelids. Staged surgery involved total excision of lesions and then repair of the defects with advanced skin flaps and tarsoconjunctival flaps. Two staged surgeries were completed at intervals of at least 3 months. Results: All of the patients were followed up at least 3 months after the second surgery. Malignant transformation and recurrence were not observed. All of the flaps survived well, and all of the donor sites were healed with inconspicuous scarring. The only complication was eyelash sacrifices, and 5 of 6 patients suffered from this complication. Excellent cosmetic results were gained in all patients, with the exception of 1 patient who thought his postoperative appearance was only good because of the impalpable disparity in color and thickness between the skin flaps and recipient sites. Conclusions: A staged surgery approach with the total excision of lesions and lamellar reconstructive procedures to repair the defect is a reasonable treatment strategy and can achieve satisfactory cosmetic results for medium-sized (1.5–20 cm in diameter) divided nevus of eyelid. PMID:26180739

  7. Discriminating between Medium-Sized Tridactyl Trackmakers: Tracking Ornithopod Tracks in the Base of the Cretaceous (Berriasian, Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Castanera, Diego; Pascual, Carlos; Razzolini, Novella L.; Vila, Bernat; Barco, José L.; Canudo, José I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent work on the Jurassic-Cretaceous transition of the Iberian Range (Spain) has opened a new window onto the interpretation of the trackmakers of some medium-sized tridactyl tracks. The ichnotaxon Therangospodus oncalensis has been described in the Huérteles Formation (Berriasian) and is one of the classical tracks from the area assigned to medium-sized theropods. Methodology/Principal Findings A review of the type locality of Therangospodus oncalensis (Fuentesalvo tracksite) and other tracksites from the Huérteles Formation (Berriasian) has yielded new information on the morphology, gait and trackmaker identity of the aforementioned ichnospecies. The new data suggest that the trackmaker is an ornithopod rather than a theropod on the basis of the length/width ratio, the anterior triangle length-width ratio, the short steps, the round to quadrangular heel pad impression and the probable manus impressions. Conclusions/Significance T. oncalensis shows similarities with various tracks from the Berriasian of Europe assigned to Iguanodontipus. The ichnotaxonomical status of this ichnospecies is here considered as Iguanodontipus? oncalensis due to the current state of knowledge of the ichnotaxonomy of medium-sized ornithopod tracks. This reassessment of I? oncalensis also has two significant implications for the palaeoecology of the faunas during the deposition of the Huérteles Formation: 1- the high number and percentage of theropod tracks would be lower than previous papers have suggested. 2- the gregarious behaviour described in the type locality (Fuentesalvo) would be among ornithopods instead of theropods. PMID:24303075

  8. Synthesis, antimicrobial activity and molecular docking of novel tetracyclic scaffolds incorporating a flavonoid framework with medium sized oxygen heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Dongamanti, Ashok; Aamate, Vikas Kumar; Devulapally, Mohan Gandhi; Gundu, Srinivas; Kotni, Meena Kumari; Manga, Vijjulatha; Balasubramanian, Sridhar; Ernala, Prasad

    2015-02-15

    A convenient approach for the synthesis of novel tetracyclic scaffolds incorporating a flavonoid framework with medium sized heterocyclic rings (eight-, nine-, ten- and eleven-membered rings) containing two oxygen atoms from flavonols through alkylation using different dibromoalkanes was described. The synthesized compounds were established based on the spectral data and X-ray crystal structure for 6c. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity. Docking studies were carried out for most active two compounds 6f and 6i. PMID:25592711

  9. Medium-sized ideal reactor for continuous alcohol fermentation using immobilized microorganism

    SciTech Connect

    Skachova, H.; Gottvaldova, M.; Kucera, J.; Podrazky, V.

    1981-12-01

    Recently, alcohol fermentation has gained considerable attention with the aim of lowering its production cost in the production processes of both fuel ethanol and alcoholic beverages. The over-all cost is a summation of costs of various subsystems such as raw material (sugar, starch, and cellulosic substances) treatment, fermentation process, and alcohol separation from water solutions; lowering the cost of the fermentation process is very important in lowering the total cost. Several new techniques have been developed for economic continuous ethanol production. These include the slow growth of highly flocculent yeasts in a tower fermentor for beer production, use of a continuous wine fermentor with no mechanical stirring, cell recycle combined with continuous removal of ethanol under vacuum, a technique involving a bed of yeast admixed with an inert carrier, and use of immobilized yeast reactors in packed-bed column and in a three-stage double conical fluidized-bed bioreactor. All these techniques lead to increases, more or less, in reactor productivity, which in turn result in the reduction of the reactor size for a given production rate and a particular conversion. Since an improvement in the fermentation process often leads to a reduction of fermentor size and hence, a lowering of the initial construction cost, it is important to theoretically arrive at a solution to what is the minimum-size setup of ideal reactors from the viewpoint of liquid backmixing. In this short communication, the minimum-sized ideal reactor for a continuous alcohol fermentation using immobilized cells will be specifically discussed on the basis of a mathematical model. The solution will service for designing an optimal bioreactor. (Refs. 26).

  10. Molecular (global) and atom-in-cluster (local) polarizabilities of medium-size gold nanoclusters: isomer structure effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Juan I.; Baltazar-Méndez, Maria I.; Autschbach, Jochen; Castillo-Alvarado, F. L.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, we extend our recent study [J.I. Rodríguez, J. Autschbach, F.L. Castillo-Alvarado, M.I. Baltazar-Méndez, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 034109 (2011)] to quantify the isomer structure effects on the atom-in-cluster polarizabilities of medium size gold clusters Au ( n = 6, 12, 20, 34, 54). For three isomers for each cluster size, a density functional perturbation theory calculation was performed to compute the cluster polarizability and the polarizability of each atom in the cluster using Bader's "quantum theory of atoms in molecules" formalism. The cluster polarizability tensor is expressed as a sum of the atom-in-cluster atomic tensors. We found that the strong quadratic correlation ( R 2 = 0.98) in the isotropic polarizability of atoms in the cluster and their distance to the cluster center of mass reported before holds independently of the cluster structure.

  11. Monte Carlo studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M. D.; Jogler, T.; Dumm, J.; Funk, S.

    2015-06-07

    In this paper, we present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parameters including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters representative of the proposed Davies–Cotton (DC) and Schwarzchild–Couder (SC) MST designs, we compare the performance of the arrays by examining the gamma-ray angular resolution and differential point-source sensitivity. We further investigate the array performance under a wide range of conditions, determining the impact of the number of telescopes, telescope separation, night sky background, and geomagnetic field. We find a 30–40% improvement in the gamma-ray angular resolution at all energies when comparing arrays with an equal number of SC and DC telescopes, significantly enhancing point-source sensitivity in the MST energy range. Finally, we attribute the increase in point-source sensitivity to the improved optical point-spread function and smaller pixel size of the SC telescope design.

  12. Monte Carlo studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wood, M. D.; Jogler, T.; Dumm, J.; Funk, S.

    2015-06-07

    In this paper, we present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parametersmore » including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters representative of the proposed Davies–Cotton (DC) and Schwarzchild–Couder (SC) MST designs, we compare the performance of the arrays by examining the gamma-ray angular resolution and differential point-source sensitivity. We further investigate the array performance under a wide range of conditions, determining the impact of the number of telescopes, telescope separation, night sky background, and geomagnetic field. We find a 30–40% improvement in the gamma-ray angular resolution at all energies when comparing arrays with an equal number of SC and DC telescopes, significantly enhancing point-source sensitivity in the MST energy range. Finally, we attribute the increase in point-source sensitivity to the improved optical point-spread function and smaller pixel size of the SC telescope design.« less

  13. Monte Carlo studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, M.; Jogler, T.; Dumm, J.; Funk, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parameters including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters representative of the proposed Davies-Cotton (DC) and Schwarzchild-Couder (SC) MST designs, we compare the performance of the arrays by examining the gamma-ray angular resolution and differential point-source sensitivity. We further investigate the array performance under a wide range of conditions, determining the impact of the number of telescopes, telescope separation, night sky background, and geomagnetic field. We find a 30-40% improvement in the gamma-ray angular resolution at all energies when comparing arrays with an equal number of SC and DC telescopes, significantly enhancing point-source sensitivity in the MST energy range. We attribute the increase in point-source sensitivity to the improved optical point-spread function and smaller pixel size of the SC telescope design.

  14. Olive Oil Tracer Particle Size Analysis for Optical Flow Investigations in a Gas Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Shaun; Smith, Barton

    2014-11-01

    Seed tracer particles must be large enough to scatter sufficient light while being sufficiently small to follow the flow. These requirements motivate a desire for control over the particle size. For gas measurements, it is common to use atomized oil droplets as tracer particles. A Laskin nozzle is a device for generating oil droplets in air by directing high-pressure air through small holes under an oil surface. The droplet diameter frequency distribution can be varied by altering the hole diameter, the number of holes, or the inlet pressure. We will present a systematic study of the effect of these three parameters on the resultant particle distribution as it leaves the Laskin nozzle. The study was repeated for cases where the particles moved through a typical jet facility before their size was measured. While the jet facility resulted in an elimination of larger particles, the average particle diameter could be varied by a factor of two at both the seeder exit and downstream of the jet facility.

  15. Effect of nanoscale size and medium on metal work function in oleylamine-capped gold nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdellatif, M. H.; Ghosh, S.; Liakos, I.; Scarpellini, A.; Marras, S.; Diaspro, A.; Salerno, M.

    2016-02-01

    The work function is an important material property with several applications in photonics and optoelectronics. We aimed to characterize the work function of clusters resulting from gold nanocrystals capped with oleylamine surfactant and drop-casted onto gold substrate. We used scanning Kelvin probe microscopy to investigate the work function, and complemented our study mainly with X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The oleylamine works as an electron blocking layer through which the electrical conduction takes place by tunneling effect. The surface potential appears to depend on the size of the clusters, which can be ascribed to their difference in effective work function with the substrate. The charge state of gold clusters is discussed in comparison with theory, and their capacitance is calculated from a semi-analytical equation. The results suggest that at the nanoscale the work function is not an intrinsic property of a material but rather depends on the size and morphology of the clusters, including also effects of the surrounding materials.

  16. 3D Characterization of the Magnetic Signature of a Medium Sized Impact Crater at Odessa, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, A.; Soule, D.; Everett, M.; Rodman, T.; Mangue Ndong, M.; Pereira, A.; Platt, P.; Trahan, A.

    2008-12-01

    Meteorite impacts are a common occurrence throughout Earth's geologic history. Many of the surface expressions of large ancient impacts have been subsequently erased by weathering and erosion processes. The study of preserved meteorite impacts is necessary to better understand this natural hazard which has been increasingly linked to rapid climate change and mass extinctions. The 60 ka Odessa meteorite crater located in Ector Co. Texas, is unique because it is not only well-preserved, but also has been the subject of extensive geologic examination. Geologic mapping and numeric models indicate that the crater was caused by a relatively small oblique impactor. The crater rim is remarkably well exposed. Much of the ejecta blanket is present, although deeply eroded. There has been considerable site disturbance due to drilling, shaft excavation, trenching, construction of a museum, trails, and the oil/gas activity in surrounding fields. Two previous geophysical investigations have shown that our data clearly corresponds to large-scale thrust deformation. With this in mind we have performed 3D high resolution magnetic gradiometer surveys that will allow us to quantify and characterize the magnetic signature of small to medium impacts. We will tie this data set to a 3D photorealistic outcrop image provided by laser scanning with coarser-scale, below-ground geophysical information. Our geophysical imagery provides a useful constraint on numerical simulations of the impact and its immediate regional-scale environmental effects. This information can be used to identify impact sites whose surface expression has been erased by natural erosional processes, allowing for improved frequency estimates and improved geo-hazard assessment.

  17. Medium- to large-sized xylo-oligosaccharides are responsible for xylanase induction in Prevotella bryantii B14.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Kohji; Hirase, Tatsuaki; Kojima, Yoichi; Flint, Harry James

    2005-12-01

    Experiments were done to define the nature of the xylan-derived induction signal for xylanase activity, and evaluate which xylanase genes among the three known ones (xynA, xynB and xynC) are induced by the presence of xylan in Prevotella bryantii B(1)4. During the later stages of exponential growth on glucose, addition of 0.05 % water-soluble xylan (WS-X) stimulated xylanase formation within 30 min. Xylose, xylobiose, xylotriose, xylotetraose, xylopentaose, arabinose and glucuronic acid all failed to induce the xylanase activity. An acid-ethanol-soluble fraction of WS-X (approximate degree of polymerization 30) enhanced the activity significantly, whereas the acid-ethanol-insoluble fraction had no effect, unless first digested by the cloned P. bryantii XynC xylanase. These results indicate that medium- to large-sized xylo-oligosaccharides are responsible for induction. The transcription of all three known xylanase genes from P. bryantii was upregulated coordinately by addition of WS-X. There have been relatively few investigations into the regulation of xylanase activity in bacteria, and it appears to be unique that medium- to large-sized xylo-oligosaccharides are responsible for induction. PMID:16339957

  18. A biological and chemical characterization strategy for small and medium-sized industries connected to municipal sewage treatment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tarkpea, M.; Eklund, B.; Andren, C.; Gravenfors, E.; Kukulska, Z.

    1998-02-01

    A cost-effective strategy for the characterization of wastewater from small and medium-sized industries is described. A mobile laboratory, equipped for performing on-site biological tests, was established near wastewater treatment facilities in two cities in Sweden for 1 week each in November 1992 and November 1993. The biological and chemical characterization was done on 24-h samples from 29 industries representing 12 types of activity with a bias toward the surface treatment and graphics industries. The biological testing program included a modified nitrification test, the Microtox test, and a modified growth inhibition test using Selenastrum capricornutum (an alga test). A Ceriodaphnia dubia (crustacean) test was also used for some industries. Different chemical assessments, aimed at indicating toxic, persistent, and bioaccumulating substances, were chosen for each industry on the basis of information they provided. Results show that sampling period and time are important factors to consider when designing a characterization strategy. Twenty-four-hour sampling is preferred to weekly sampling because highly toxic emissions of short duration that are detrimental to the biological treatment plant may occur. Variability in emissions was shown in this study but would not have been detected by a study based on weekly sampling. The strategy developed in this study was shown to be both a cost-effective and efficient tool for characterizing effluents from small and medium-sized industries.

  19. Ozone perturbation from medium-size asteroid impacts in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierazzo, E.; Garcia, R. R.; Kinnison, D. E.; Marsh, D. R.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Crutzen, P. J.

    2010-11-01

    We present results of an investigation aimed at characterizing the effects of oceanic impacts of 500 m and 1 km diameter asteroids on the lower and middle atmosphere, estimating ozone loss and potential danger from UV radiation at the Earth's surface. Little work has been done so far to assess the atmospheric perturbation from the impact of objects in this size range, even though their sizes are close to the threshold for causing global environmental effects. In particular, at the Earth's surface oceanic impacts are twice more likely to occur than land impacts. This work represents the first attempt at combining impact simulations with a three-dimensional shock physics code (SOVA), and atmospheric simulations using the general circulation model with interactive chemistry WACCM. SOVA simulations provided an estimate of the amount and state of material ejected into the atmosphere by the impacts. Estimated water vapor in the upper atmosphere was then introduced in the initial conditions for the WACCM simulations that modeled the subsequent perturbation of atmospheric chemistry Final estimates of the change over time in UV flux at the surface due to the impact-induced ozone change are then carried out using the TUV radiative transfer model. The results suggest that mid-latitude oceanic impacts of 1 km asteroids can produce a significant, global perturbation of upper atmospheric chemistry, including multi-year global ozone depletion comparable to ozone hole records registered in the mid-1990 s. Asteroids 500 m in diameter cause limited perturbations of upper atmospheric chemistry with significant ozone depletion confined to the hemisphere in which the impact occurred. Impact-induced ozone depletion affects UV irradiance at the Earth's surface, resulting in levels of UV-B irradiance that can be dangerous for living organisms, and, in the tropics and initial midlatitude summers, far exceed levels currently experienced anywhere on Earth.

  20. Investigation of urban water quality using simulated rainfall in a medium size city of China.

    PubMed

    Bian, Bo; Cheng, Xiao-Juan; Li, Lei

    2011-12-01

    Road-deposited sediment (RDS) is an important environmental medium for impacting the characteristics of pollutants in stormwater runoff; it is of critical importance to investigate the water quality of urban environments. The paper develops a rainfall simulator as an important research tool to ensure homogeneity and reduce the large number of variables that are usually inherent to urban water quality research. The rainfall simulator was used to experiment runoff samples from typical residential and traffic areas in the Zhenjiang. The data show that land use is one of the major factors contributing to the difference in the pollutants concentration in the RDS. The maximum mean EMC for TN, TDN, TP, and TDP at residential area was 5.52, 3.07, 1.65, and 0.36 mg/L, respectively. The intense traffic area displayed the highest metal concentrations. Concentrations of runoff pollutants varied greatly with land use and storm characteristics. The correlation of pollutant concentrations with runoff times was another predominant phenomenon. Peaks in pollutants concentration occurred at 1 and 10 min during the whole storm event. A concentration peak that correlates with a peak in runoff flowrate correlates with rainfall intensity. The pollutant loadings (kilograms per hectare) in the Zhenjiang were 11.39 and 55.28 for COD, 8.42 and 57.48 for SS, 0.11 and 0.88 for TN, 0.02 and 0.14 for TP, 0.02 and 0.09 for Zn, and 0.01 and 0.04 for Pb. The higher rainfall contribute to the higher pollutant loading at the residential and intense traffic areas, as a result of the pollutant loadings direct dependence on rainfall intensity. The results confirmed that the rainfall simulator is a reliable tool for urban water quality research and can be used to simulate pollutant wash-off. These findings provide invaluable information for the development of appropriate management strategies to decrease nonpoint source contamination loading to the water environment in urban areas. PMID:21359999

  1. Mean force on a finite-sized spherical particle due to an acoustic field in a viscous compressible medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annamalai, Subramanian; Balachandar, S.; Parmar, Manoj K.

    2014-05-01

    An analytical expression to evaluate the second-order mean force (acoustic radiation force) on a finite-sized, rigid, spherical particle due to an acoustic wave is presented. The medium in which the particle is situated is taken to be both viscous and compressible. A far-field derivation approach has been used in determining the force, which is a function of the particle size, acoustic wavelength, and viscous boundary-layer thickness. It is assumed that the viscous length scale is negligibly small compared to the acoustic wavelength. The force expression presented here (i) reduces to the correct inviscid behavior (for both small- and finite-sized particles) and (ii) is identical to recent viscous results [M. Settnes and H. Bruus, Phys. Rev. E 85, 016327 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevE.85.016327] for small-sized particles. Further, the computed force qualitatively matches the computational fluid dynamics (finite-element) results [D. Foresti, M. Nabavi, and D. Poulikakos, J. Fluid Mech. 709, 581 (2012), 10.1017/jfm.2012.350] for finite-sized particles. Additionally, the mean force is interpreted in terms of a multipole expansion. Subsequently, considering the fact that the force expansion is an infinite series, the number of terms that are required or adequate to capture the force to a specified accuracy is also provided as a function of the particle size to acoustic wavelength ratio. The dependence of the force on particle density, kinematic viscosity, and bulk viscosity of the fluid is also investigated. Here, both traveling and standing waves are considered.

  2. Use of recycling through medium size granular filters to treat small food processing industry effluents.

    PubMed

    Ménoret, C; Boutin, C; Liénard, A; Brissaud, F

    2002-01-01

    Currently there are no suitable wastewater treatment systems for effluents from small food processing industries (dairy, cheese, wine production). Such raw sewages are characterized by high organic matter concentrations (about 10 g COD L-1) and relatively low daily volumes (about 2 m3). An adaptation of attached-growth cultures on fine media processes, known to be easy and inexpensive to use, could fit both the technical and economical context of those industries. Coarser filter particle size distributions than those normally used allow a better aeration and reduce clogging risk. The transit time of the effluent through the porous filter materials is shortened and requires recycling to increase the contact time between the biomass and the substrate. A pilot plant was built to compare the efficiency of two kinds of filter materials, gravel (2-5 mm) and pozzolana (3-7 mm). Two measurement campaigns were undertaken on a full-scale unit dealing with cheese dairy effluents. Both pilot-scale and full-scale plants show high COD removal rates (> 95%). Pilot-scale experiments show that accumulation of organic matter leads to the clogging of the recycling filter. To prevent early clogging, a better definition of feeding cycles is needed. PMID:12201106

  3. Contamination and risk assessment of metals in road-deposited sediments in a medium-sized city of China.

    PubMed

    Bian, Bo; Lin, Cheng; Wu, Hai suo

    2015-02-01

    Road-deposited sediment (RDS) is a valuable environmental medium for characterizing contamination of metals in urban areas and the associated risks to human health. A total of 62 RDS samples were collected for metal test in four urban areas in a medium size city in eastern China. The areas that represented different land uses consisted of intense traffic area (ITA), commercial area (CA), residential area (RA), and riverside park area (RPA). The effects of particle size and different land uses on metal contamination and health risk were the major focus in this study. The test results showed that RDS in ITA appeared to have higher metal content, enrichment factor (EF), ecological risk index (RI), and the non-cancer and cancer risks than in the other areas. The metal contamination and health risk increased inversely with particle size. The particles less than 63 μm were found to be most critical in development of metal contamination and health risk. The EF was measured to be greater than 2.0 in the four areas, indicating a moderate enrichment. The measured RI ranged between 50 and 200, indicating considerable to moderate risks. The non-cancer risk for children was high in the four areas but was low for adults in all test areas except in ITA. The cancer risk of Cr for children was high in all test areas. Based on the test results, the contamination control and management for metals in RDS shall focus on the effects from such factors as particles (<63 μm) and the land use for intense traffic (ITA). PMID:25463858

  4. The effect of sodium chloride concentration and pH on the growth of Salmonella typhimurium colonies on solid medium.

    PubMed

    McKay, A L; Peters, A C

    1995-10-01

    The growth of Salmonella typhimurium colonies on a model food system (agar solidified culture medium) was followed. Colony radius, determined using computer image analysis (IA) techniques, and viable cell number per colony were measured as indices of colony growth, and the effect of [NaCl] (0.5-3.5% (w/v)) and pH (7.0-5.0) on colony growth at 30 degrees C was observed; colonies were point inoculated from serial dilutions. Colony growth (between 13 and 26 h after inoculation) was linear when expressed in terms of radius, and exponential when expressed in terms of viable cell number per colony. Overall, both increasing the [NaCl] and decreasing the pH had little effect on colony growth, other than to delay the onset of linear radial growth. Initial specific growth rate (mu) ranged from 0.73 to 0.87 h-1. Thin films of agar medium on microscope slides allowed the growth of microcolonies to be observed after just 4 h incubation. A greater understanding of the growth kinetics of bacterial colonies, and the effects of environment on such data, may enable better control of foodborne bacterial pathogens, and consequently an improvement in food product safety. PMID:7592127

  5. Effects of follicle size and electrolytes and glucose in maturation medium on nuclear maturation and developmental competence of bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hisataka; Hashimoto, Shu; Ohota, Mayuko; Kimura, Koji; Shibano, Kenichi; Miyake, Masashi

    2004-02-01

    The concentrations of electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, Mg and Ca) and glucose in small follicle (SF) follicular fluid (SFF) and large follicle (LF) follicular fluid (LFF) from slaughterhouse-derived ovaries were studied. Oocytes were matured in medium based on synthetic oviductal fluid. The effects of various concentrations of electrolytes (Na, K, Ca and Mg) and glucose in the maturation medium on the progression of nuclear maturation and subsequent development were also studied. K in SFF was significantly greater than that in LFF. The Mg concentration in follicular fluid (FF) is 2.0-2.3 mM, which is greater than the concentration present in medium generally used for culture. The glucose concentration in FF is about 3.5-3.9 mM and rapidly decreases during the preservation of ovaries. LF oocytes resumed nuclear maturation and progressed to the M2 stage significantly faster than those collected from SF oocytes. In addition, more LF oocytes developed to blastocysts than did SF oocytes. Changing the Na/K ratio in the maturation medium from 16 to 24 did not affect either the progression of nuclear maturation or the rate of development. A low concentration of Mg (0.5 mM) combined with a low Ca concentration (0.5 mM) inhibited the rate of development, but did not affect the progression of nuclear maturation. On the other hand, increasing the Mg concentration to 2.0 mM from 0.5 mM hastened the progression of nuclear maturation and improved the rate of blastulation, irrespective of the Ca concentration. The progression of nuclear maturation was faster and the rate of development was greater with 5.56 mM glucose than with 1.5 mM glucose. The difference in time needed to progress to M2 among the experiment was about 2-3 h. Therefore, prolonging the maturation periods from 21 to 24 h did not change the rate of development. Our results show that the concentrations of Mg and glucose in the maturation medium and the follicle size enveloping the oocyte affect the progression of nuclear

  6. Graben on the Floors of Mercury's Medium-Sized Impact Basins: Extension from Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, D. M.; Freed, A. M.; Melosh, H. J.; Solomon, S. C.; Prockter, L. M.; Watters, T. R.; Zuber, M. T.

    2011-12-01

    Images taken by the MESSENGER spacecraft reveal a variety of faulting styles on the floors of major impact basins on Mercury. Two of the best-preserved peak-ring basins, Raditladi and Rachmaninoff (diameter D ~ 265 and 290 km) display predominantly circumferentially oriented graben on the floors within their peak rings. Similar graben are seen in Schrödinger basin on the Moon (D ~ 312 km), though the distribution and orientation of graben differ. This faulting style is not observed within much larger (D > 1000 km) impact basins on the Moon, where faulting is likely related to lithospheric flexure caused by subsidence of volcanic loads within the basin. In the Caloris basin on Mercury (D ~ 1500 km), extensional faulting is generally inferred to be related to uplift in response to different phases of exterior volcanic loading or lateral crustal flow. The smaller sizes of the Raditladi and Rachmaninoff basins combined with the absence of graben outside their peak rings make these mechanism unlikely to explain the observed faulting. Moreover, whereas the smooth plains inside the peak ring of Rachmaninoff basin appear to be volcanic in nature, the plains within Raditladi basin are not resolvably younger than the basin and may consist of solidified impact melt. Thus, any mechanism proposed to explain the origin of graben in these basins must apply to either floor material. Here we use thermo-mechanical finite element models to calculate the stress states resulting from several candidate mechanisms for graben formation. Models of subsidence associated with the emplacement of interior fill as well as those of uplift associated with undercompensated basin topography do not lead to the required stress state. We also explore the idea that porous breccias beneath the smooth plains are heated by impact melt or volcanic fill and undergo viscous compaction, causing subsidence of the fill material. In combination with interior filling by plains that thin outward, this mechanism

  7. Photolysis of the herbicide bispyribac sodium in aqueous medium under the influence of UV and sunlight in presence or absence of sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Kanrar, Bappaditya; Bhattacharyya, Anjan

    2009-11-01

    The photolysis of a rice herbicide Bispyribac sodium (Sodium 2, 6-bis [(4, 6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl) oxy] benzoate) has been studied in different aqueous medium (distilled water, pond water and Irrigation water) under the influence of UV (lambda max > or = 250 nm) and sunlight in presence or absence of sensitizers (TiO(2) and KNO(3)). The study was conducted under laboratory simulated condition which made it possible to evaluate the contribution of different factors viz. source of irradiation, solvent and sensitizers towards the photolysis of bispyribac sodium. The photodegradation proceeds via first order reaction Kinetics in all the cases. Five photo metabolites (M(1)-M(5)) were isolated in pure form by column chromatographic method from the irradiation system under UV influenced and TiO(2) as sensitizer. From the different spectral data (IR, NMR, UV-VIS, Mass) the structure of these five metabolites were assigned as M(1) (Phenol), M(2) [2, 6-Dihydroxy benzoic acid], M(3) [2, 6-bis [(4, 6 dimethoxypyrimidin-2yl) oxy] benzoic acid], M(4) [2-(3-Hydroxy-phenoxy)-pyrimidine-4, 6-diol] and M(5) as [2,4-Dihydroxy-3, 5-dimethoxy-6-(4-methoxy pyrimidine-2-yloxy)-benzoic acid]. Moreover, another six photometabolites (M(6)-M(11)) were identified from the different irradiation system on the basis of Micromass analysis. On the basis of MS/MS data analysis, the structure of these six photometabolites were assigned as M(6) [2-(4, 6-Dimethoxy-pyrimidin-2-yloxy)-6-hydroxy-benzoic acid], M(7) [2-Hydroxy-6-(4-hydroxy-6-methoxy-pyrimidin-2-yloxy)-benzoic acid], M(8) [4, 6-Dimethoxy-pyrimidin-2-ol], M(9) [6-Methoxy-pyrimidine-2, 4-diol], M(10) [2-Hydroxy-6-(pyrimidin-2-yloxy)-benzoic acid] and M(11) [2, 4, 6-Trimethoxy-pyrimidine]. The plausible Photodegradation pathways of bispyribac sodium in the present investigation were portrayed which proceeds via hydrolysis, hydrolytic cleavage, O-dealkylation, decarboxylation, dehydroxylation, O-alkylation and hydroxylation. PMID:20183091

  8. Aggregation behavior of sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate in aqueous ethylene glycol medium. A case of hydrogen bonding between surfactant and solvent and its manifestation in the surface tension isotherm.

    PubMed

    Das, D; Dey, J; Chandra, A K; Thapa, U; Ismail, K

    2012-11-13

    The dependence of critical micelle concentration (cmc) of sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate (AOT) on the amount of ethylene glycol (EG) in water + EG medium was reported to be unusual and different from that of other surfactants to the extent that the cmc of AOT in EG is lower than in water. It is yet to be understood why AOT behaves so in water + EG medium, although AOT is known to have some special properties. Hence in the present study cmc of AOT in water + EG medium in the range from 0 to 100% (by weight) EG is measured by using surface tension and fluorescence emission methods. In contrast to what was reported, this study revealed that with respect to EG amount the cmc of AOT follows the general trend and AOT has higher cmc in EG than in water. On the other hand, it was surprisingly found that a break in the surface tension isotherm occurs in the premicellar region when the amount of EG exceeds 50% rendering a bisigmoidal shape to the surface tension isotherm. UV spectral study showed that AOT and EG undergo hydrogen bonding in the premicellar region when the EG amount is ≥50% and this hydrogen bonding becomes less on adding NaCl. The density functional theory calculations also showed formation of hydrogen bonds between EG and AOT through the sulfonate group of AOT providing thereby support to the experimental findings. The calculations predicted a highly stable AOT-EG-H(2)O trimer complex with a binding energy of -37.93 kcal mol(-1). The present system is an example, which is first of its kind, of a case where hydrogen bonding with surfactant and solvent molecules results in a surface tension break. PMID:23072621

  9. Development of Proof-of-Concept Units for the Advanced Medium-Sized Mobile Power Sources (AMMPS) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Andriulli, JB

    2002-04-03

    The purpose of this report is to document the development of the proof-of-concept units within the Advanced Medium-sized Mobile Power Sources (AMMPS) program. The design used a small, lightweight diesel engine, a permanent magnet alternator, power electronics and digital controls as outlined in the philosophy detailed previously. One small proof-of-concept unit was completed and delivered to the military. The unit functioned well but was not optimized at the time of delivery to the military. A tremendous amount of experience was gained during this phase that can be used in the development of any follow-on AMMPS production systems. Lessons learned and recommendations for follow-on specifications are provided. The unit demonstrated that significant benefits are possible with the new design philosophy. Trade-offs will have to be made but many of the advantages appear to be within the technical grasp of the market.

  10. Environmental management in small and medium-sized companies: an analysis from the perspective of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Medina, Agustín J; Romero-Quintero, Leonardo; Sosa-Cabrera, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    In the business context, concern for the environment began to develop when pressure from the public administration and environmental awareness groups raised the specific requirements for companies. The Theory of Planned Behavior considers that people's conduct is determined by the intention of carrying out a certain behavior. Thus, the individual's intent is determined by three factors related to the desired outcome of the behavior: the Personal Attitude toward the Results, the Perceived Social Norms, and the Perceived Behavioral Control over the action. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are to clarify the attitudes of the managers of Canarian small and medium-sized companies about taking environmental measures, and try to demonstrate whether there is a relationship between the proposed factors and the intention to take these measures. PMID:24533094

  11. Quantum chemical study of the electronic properties of an Iridium-based photosensitizer bound to medium-sized silver clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokareva, Olga S.; Kühn, Oliver

    2015-08-01

    The equilibrium structures and electronic excitation spectra of the Ir(III) photosensitizer [Ir(ppy)2(bpy)]+ bound to medium-sized silver clusters Agn (n = 19, 20) are investigated using time-dependent density functional theory. The long-range corrected LC-BLYP approach is used with a system-specific range separation parameter. The weak physisorption of the hybrid complexes yields only small changes in the broadened absorption spectra of the hybrid system as compared with its constituents. However, the density of states as well as the fine structure of the spectra is strongly modified upon complexation. It is shown that the standard range separation parameter (0.47 bohr-1) cannot predict these properties correctly and the optimized value of 0.16 bohr-1 should be used instead.

  12. Environmental Management in Small and Medium-Sized Companies: An Analysis from the Perspective of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Medina, Agustín J.; Romero-Quintero, Leonardo; Sosa-Cabrera, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    In the business context, concern for the environment began to develop when pressure from the public administration and environmental awareness groups raised the specific requirements for companies. The Theory of Planned Behavior considers that people's conduct is determined by the intention of carrying out a certain behavior. Thus, the individual's intent is determined by three factors related to the desired outcome of the behavior: the Personal Attitude toward the Results, the Perceived Social Norms, and the Perceived Behavioral Control over the action. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are to clarify the attitudes of the managers of Canarian small and medium-sized companies about taking environmental measures, and try to demonstrate whether there is a relationship between the proposed factors and the intention to take these measures. PMID:24533094

  13. [Cultivation strategy and path analysis on big brand Chinese medicine for small and medium-sized enterprises].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Yan; Yang, Hong-Jun

    2014-03-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are important components in Chinese medicine industry. However, the lack of big brand is becoming an urgent problem which is critical to the survival of SMEs. This article discusses the concept and traits of Chinese medicine of big brand, from clinical, scientific and market value three aspects. Guided by market value, highlighting clinical value, aiming at the scientific value improvement of big brand cultivation, we put forward the key points in cultivation, aiming at obtaining branded Chinese medicine with widely recognized efficacy, good quality control system and mechanism well explained and meanwhile which can bring innovation improvement to theory of Chinese medicine. According to the characters of SMEs, we hold a view that to build multidisciplinary research union could be considered as basic path, and then, from top-level design, skill upgrading and application three stages to probe the implementation strategy. PMID:25204160

  14. Enhancing work motivation for Japanese female nurses in small to medium-sized private hospitals by analyzing job satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yasushi; Kido, Shigeri; Shahzad, Machiko Taruzuka; Shida, Kyoko; Satoh, Toshihiko; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2010-03-01

    Proper work environments are important for nurses to feel motivated. We examined the associations between work motivation and job satisfaction among Japanese nurses to improve their motivation. In Japan, relatively small and medium-sized private hospitals play a central role in the healthcare industry. In the present study, the subjects were nurses working in 23 small and medium-sized private hospitals that had 65 to 326 beds. We analyzed 1,116 registered and licensed practical female nurses (average age, 38.3 years; standard deviation, 11.3 years). Many nurses with their specialized nursing skills dedicate themselves to patient care. However, many of these nurses may not be interested in contributing to their hospitals. Nurses may have different opinions regarding dedication to patient care and contribution to their hospitals. Therefore, concerning work motivation, we produced these two different items, "Nurses' dedication to patients" and "Nurses' contribution to their hospitals." We also produced our own original new job satisfaction questionnaire. We found 7 facets of job satisfaction: "Work as specialists," "Workplace safety," "Relationships with superiors," "Work-life balance," "Relationships among nurses," "Communications with physicians," and "Salary." Multiple linear regression analyses show that both "Nurses' dedication to patients" and "Nurses' contribution to their hospitals" were significantly associated with "Work as specialists." Nurses feel their jobs of protecting people's lives and health are valuable. They do not feel motivated only by money. They value the intrinsic nature of their jobs. Creating proper work environments is important for nurses to be able to work as specialists. PMID:20208420

  15. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. IX. The interstellar medium seen through diffuse interstellar bands and neutral sodium&

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, J. Th.; Bailey, M.; Tatton, B. L.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Crowther, P. A.; de Koter, A.; Evans, C. J.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Howarth, I. D.; Richter, P.; Sana, H.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Taylor, W.; Walborn, N. R.

    2013-02-01

    Context. The Tarantula Nebula (a.k.a. 30 Dor) is a spectacular star-forming region in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), seen through gas in the Galactic disc and halo. Diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) offer a unique probe of the diffuse, cool-warm gas in these regions. Aims: The aim is to use DIBs as diagnostics of the local interstellar conditions, whilst at the same time deriving properties of the yet-unknown carriers of these enigmatic spectral features. Methods: Spectra of over 800 early-type stars from the Very Large Telescope Flames Tarantula Survey (VFTS) were analysed. Maps were created, separately, for the Galactic and LMC absorption in the DIBs at 4428 and 6614 Å and - in a smaller region near the central cluster R 136 - neutral sodium (the Na i D doublet); we also measured the DIBs at 5780 and 5797 Å. Results: The maps show strong 4428 and 6614 Å DIBs in the quiescent cloud complex to the south of 30 Dor but weak absorption in the harsher environments to the north (bubbles) and near the OB associations. The Na maps show at least five kinematic components in the LMC and a shell-like structure surrounding R 136, and small-scale structure in the Milky Way. The strengths of the 4428, 5780, 5797 and 6614 Å DIBs are correlated, also with Na absorption and visual extinction. The strong 4428 Å DIB is present already at low Na column density but the 6614, 5780 and 5797 Å DIBs start to be detectable at subsequently larger Na column densities. Conclusions: The carriers of the 4428, 6614, 5780 and 5797 Å DIBs are increasingly prone to removal from irradiated gas. The relative strength of the 5780 and 5797 Å DIBs clearly confirm the Tarantula Nebula as well as Galactic high-latitude gas to represent a harsh radiation environment. The resilience of the 4428 Å DIB suggests its carrier is large, compact and neutral. Structure is detected in the distribution of cool-warm gas on scales between one and >100 pc in the LMC and as little as 0.01 pc in the Sun

  16. Size properties of colloidal nanoparticles produced by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation and studying the effects of liquid medium and laser fluence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdieh, Mohammad Hossein; Fattahi, Behzad

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, pulsed laser ablation method was used for synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles of aluminum and titanium targets in distilled water, ethanol, and acetone as liquid environments. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectrophotometer and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used for characterization of produced nanoparticles. Using image processing technique and analyzing the SEM images, nanoparticles' mean size and size distribution were achieved. The results show that liquid medium has strong effect on size properties of produced nanoparticles. From the results, it was found that ablation of both metal targets in ethanol medium leads to formation of smaller size nanoparticles with narrower size distributions. The influence of laser fluence was also investigated. According to the results, higher laser fluence produces larger mean size nanoparticles with broader size distribution.

  17. Development of the ACS+OPC UA based control system for a CTA medium size telescope prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, Bagmeet; Oya, Igor; Birsin, Emrah; Köppel, Hendryk; Melkumyan, David; Schlenstedt, Stefan; Schmidt, Torsten; Schwanke, Ullrich; Wegner, Peter; Wiesand, Stephan; Winde, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation Very High Energy (VHE, defined as > 50GeV to several 100TeV) telescope facility, currently in the design and prototyping phase, and expected to come on-line around 2016. The array would have both a Northern and Southern hemisphere site, together delivering nearly complete sky coverage. The CTA array is planned to have ~100 telescopes of several different sizes to fulfill the sensitivity and energy coverage needs. Each telescope has a number of subsystems with varied hardware and control mechanisms; a drive system that gets commands and inputs via OPC UA (OPC Unified Architecture), mirror alignment systems based on XBee/ZigBee protocol and/or CAN bus, weather monitor accessed via serial/Ethernet ports, CCD cameras for calibration, Cherenkov camera, and the data read out electronics, etc. Integrating the control and data-acquisitions of such a distributed heterogeneous system calls for a framework that can handle such a multi-platform, multi-protocol scenario. The CORBA based ALMA Common software satisfies these needs very well and is currently being evaluated as the base software for developing the control system for CTA. A prototype for a Medium Size Telescope (MST, ~12m) is being developed and will be deployed in Berlin, by end of 2012. We present the development being carried out to integrate and control the various hardware subsystems of this MST prototype using ACS.

  18. Feeding a medium size PAFC generator with hydrogen obtained by the fermentation of biomasses: A preliminary analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ascoli, A.; Palumbo, P.; Sorlini, C.; Fancellu, G.

    1997-07-01

    The largest (1.3 MW nominal power) fuel cell generator in Europe is now under test at the Bicocca plant of Aem, the Milan Municipality Energy Utility. It is a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) generator, fed by pipeline methane through a reformer, and grid connected through an inverter. PAFC generators in general can also be fed, through a reformer, by a methane-rich biogas, obtained by the anaerobic digestion of a biomass. The yields of the microbiological treatment of cheese whey utilizing lactose-fermenting bacteria, capable to produce molecular hydrogen, have been tested in different conditions. The effective operation parameter of the Bicocca generator, experimentally observed during its initial test, have been used as the input data to analyze the possibility to feed medium-size PAFC generators by molecular H{sub 2} directly produced by the anaerobic fermentation of cheese whey. On the basis of this data, the actual size of the fermentor that would produce enough H{sub 2} to feed the Bicocca generator has been calculated. It has been also checked, on the basis of the same experimental data, that the entire cheese whey production of Lombardy and Emily regions could be fermented to produce the amount of H{sub 2} necessary to feed the Bicocca generator, leaving low-COD, easily disposable grey waters. This would also solve the problem of conditioning cheese whey for disposal, allowing substantial economies.

  19. Results and developments from the 12m Davies-Cotton medium-sized telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakes, Louise; Garczarcyk, Markus; Schlenstedt, Stefan; Sternberger, Ronny; Schwanke, Ullrich

    2015-09-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be the next generation ground-based observatory for gamma-ray astronomy, covering an energy range from a few tens of GeV to a few hundred TeV. The CTA project is currently in the design and prototyping phase, the start of construction is planned for 2016. The planned sensitivity of CTA improves on current ground based Cherenkov telescope experiments by about an order of magnitude. In the core energy range this sensitivity will be dominated by up to 40 Medium-Sized Telescopes (MSTs). These telescopes, of a modified Davies-Cotton mount type with a reflector diameter of 12 m, are currently being prototyped. A full-size mechanical prototype has been operating in Berlin since 2012. Several types of prototype mirrors have been developed and tested, and are mounted on the telescope. CCD cameras with various lenses are mounted on the prototype for studying deformation of the structure, testing alignment techniques, and telescope pointing using astrometry methods. The report will focus on results of optical and structural measurements, commissioning and testing of the MST prototype in Berlin, as well as the final design.

  20. On the variational computation of a large number of vibrational energy levels and wave functions for medium-sized molecules.

    PubMed

    Mátyus, Edit; Simunek, Ján; Császár, Attila G

    2009-08-21

    In a recent publication [J. Chem. Phys. 127, 084102 (2007)], the nearly variational DEWE approach (DEWE denotes Discrete variable representation of the Watson Hamiltonian using the Eckart frame and an Exact inclusion of a potential energy surface expressed in arbitrarily chosen coordinates) was developed to compute a large number of (ro)vibrational eigenpairs for medium-sized semirigid molecules having a single well-defined minimum. In this publication, memory, CPU, and hard disk usage requirements of DEWE, and thus of any DEWE-type approach, are carefully considered, analyzed, and optimized. Particular attention is paid to the sparse matrix-vector multiplication, the most expensive part of the computation, and to rate-determining steps in the iterative Lanczos eigensolver, including spectral transformation, reorthogonalization, and restart of the iteration. Algorithmic improvements are discussed in considerable detail. Numerical results are presented for the vibrational band origins of the (12)CH(4) and (12)CH(2)D(2) isotopologues of the methane molecule. The largest matrix handled on a personal computer during these computations is of the size of (4x10(8))x(4x10(8)). The best strategy for determining vibrational eigenpairs depends largely on the actual details of the required computation. Nevertheless, for a usual scenario requiring a large number of the lowest eigenpairs of the Hamiltonian matrix the combination of the thick-restart Lanczos method, shift-fold filtering, and periodic reorthogonalization appears to result in the computationally most feasible approach. PMID:19708731

  1. Effect of grid size in RCMs on the representation of floods in small and medium sized catchments in Austria: added value of convection-permitting simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reszler, Christian; Truhetz, Heimo; Switanek, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a small multi-model ensemble study of coupling two different ERA-Interim driven RCMs (WRF and COSMO-CLM) using different grid sizes (0.44°, 0.11°, 0.03°) with a hydrological model for representing floods in small to medium sized catchments in South-eastern Austria. The aim is to evaluate the benefit of grid size reduction and in particular, the added value of convection-permitting simulations with 0.03° (~ 3 km) resolution. The hydrological model is a spatially distributed model (1 km² grid), which was previously developed for operational flood forecasting and calibrated against data of more than 20 stream gauges with corresponding catchment sizes between 30 and 1000 km². The hindcast simulations (1989-2010) are evaluated in terms of accurately representing flood frequency, seasonality, as well as other flood event characteristics, such as weather type, antecedent soil moisture, etc. The results show, that for small catchments (< 200 km²) a resolution of 3 km is essential to accurately simulate the magnitude of flood events. Flood frequency and seasonality is represented well in all catchments. In the larger catchments a resolution of 0.11° (~ 12.5 km) already yields statistically satisfying results. Also, due to the short response times in the small sub-catchments a time step of 1 hour is required. However, in all setups a bias still exists in precipitation and temperature, which sometimes leads to unrealistic hydrological conditions. Ongoing work comprises the test a of novel statistical error correction method, which is expected to improve results particularly for higher quantiles. Also, a future run ("time-slice" experiment) is planned with the coupled model setup using the RCP8.5 emission scenario, the GCM of the Max-Planck-Institute Hamburg (MPI-ESM-LR), dynamically downscaled to 3 km by COSMO-CLM, and the novel error correction method. The study is funded by the Austrian Klima- und Energiefonds through the Austrian Climate

  2. Examinations on the Meteorologic Factors of Urban Heat Island Development in Small and Medium-sized Towns of Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szegedi, S.; Gyarmati, R.; Kapocska, L.; Toth, T.

    2010-09-01

    EXAMINATIONS ON THE METEOROLOGICAL FACTORS OF URBAN HEAT ISLAND DEVELOPMENT IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED TOWNS OF HUNGARY Sandor Szegedi, Renata Gyarmati, Laszlo Kapocska and Tamas Toth University of Debrecen Department of Meteorology, 4032 Debrecen Egyetem tér 1. The thermal difference between the settlements and their environment is called urban heat island (UHI). Potential UHI intensities are mainly determined by the size, population and built-up structure of settlements. Meteorological conditions have a determinant impact on the development of the heat island at a certain moment. International and Hungarian studies usually deal with metropolises and big cities; much less attention is paid to medium-sized and small towns. Consequently this study has been focused on the development of UHI in such Hungarian urbanized areas as mentioned above. Settlements, located near the city of Debrecen (ca. 220,000 inhabitants) in East Hungary, with population of about 30000, 20000 10000 and 1000 were chosen for the research. Car-mounted digital thermometers with data loggers were used. Twenty four measurements were carried out during a one-year-long campaign in 2003-2004. Synoptic conditions, especially cloudiness, wind direction and wind speed were taken to consideration as determinant factors. Spatial characteristics of UHI have been described. Results have proved the existence of UHI even in the smallest settlement under suitable weather conditions. The non-heating season proved to be more advantageous for the development of UHI due to stronger irradiance and frequent anticyclonic synoptic conditions. Effects of cloudiness and wind speed have been revealed as well. St type clouds have proved to be most effective in preventing the formation of UHI. A 90-100% St cover could completely eliminate the thermal differences between natural and artificial surfaces. Ci type clouds had the weakest impact, they could prevent the formation of the heat island only in the smallest

  3. Percutaneous Ethanol Injection of Unresectable Medium-to-Large-Sized Hepatomas Using a Multipronged Needle: Efficacy and Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.S. Kachura, J.R.; Gallinger, S.; Grant, D.; Greig, P.; McGilvray, I.; Knox, J.; Sherman, M.; Wong, F.; Wong, D.

    2007-04-15

    Fine needles with an end hole or multiple side holes have traditionally been used for percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) of hepatomas. This study retrospectively evaluates the safety and efficacy of PEI of unresectable medium-to-large (3.5-9 cm) hepatomas using a multipronged needle and with conscious sedation. Twelve patients, eight men and four women (age 51-77 years; mean: 69) received PEI for hepatomas, mostly subcapsular or exophytic in location with average tumor size of 5.6 cm (range: 3.5-9.0 cm). Patients were consciously sedated and an 18G retractable multipronged needle (Quadrafuse needle; Rex Medical, Philadelphia, PA) was used for injection under real-time ultrasound guidance. By varying the length of the prongs and rotating the needle, the alcohol was widely distributed within the tumor. The progress of ablation was monitored by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after each weekly injection and within a month after the final (third) injection and 3 months thereafter. An average total of 63 mL (range: 20-154 ml) of alcohol was injected per patient in an average of 2.3 sessions. Contrast-enhanced CT, ultrasound, or MRI was used to determine the degree of necrosis. Complete necrosis was noted in eight patients (67%), near-complete necrosis (90-99%) in two (16.7%), and partial success (50-89%) in two (16.7%). Follow-up in the first 9 months showed local recurrence in two patients and new lesions in another. There was no mortality. One patient developed renal failure, liver failure, and localized perforation of the stomach. He responded to medical treatment and surgery was not required for the perforation. One patient had severe postprocedural abdominal pain and fever, and another had transient hyperbilirubinemia; both recovered with conservative treatment. PEI with a multipronged needle is a new, safe, and efficacious method in treating medium-to-large-sized hepatocellular carcinoma under conscious

  4. Development of potential ecological niches in impact-induced hydrothermal systems: The small-to-medium size impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versh, Evelin; Kirsimäe, Kalle; Jõeleht, Argo

    2006-12-01

    Effect of meteorite impact on the biological evolution is usually considered by its catastrophic consequences. However, the impacts can create opportunity for other organisms and the structures themselves can serve as suitable ecological niches (oases) for life. In this contribution we present results of modeling of an impact-induced hydrothermal (IHT) system in a small-to-medium sized impact crater, where the development of zones habitable for primitive hydrothermal thermophilic and hypethermophilic microorganisms was studied. The impact and geothermal modeling was verified against the 4-km diameter Kärdla complex structure, Hiiumaa Island, Estonia. If there is an sufficient amount of water present in the target (e.g., sea cover, groundwater or permafrost resources) then the differential temperature fields created by the impact initiate a hydrothermal circulation system within the crater. The results of transient fluid flow and heat transfer simulations in Kärdla suggest that immediately after impact the temperatures in the central area, which contains the most hydrothermal alteration, were well above the boiling point. However, due to efficient heat loss at the groundwater vaporization front, the vapor-dominated area disappears within a few decades. In the central uplift area, the conditions favorable for thermophilic microorganisms (temperatures <100 °C) were reached in 500-1000 years after the impact. The overall cooling to ambient temperatures in the deeper parts of the central uplift lasted for thousands of years. In the crater depression and rim area the initial temperatures, suggested by the impact modeling, were much lower - from 150 °C to ambient temperatures, except locally in fracture zones and suevite pockets. Our data suggest that in small-to-medium size impact craters with insignificant melting, the suitable conditions for hydrothermal microbial communities are established shortly (tens to few hundreds of years as maximum) after the impact in

  5. Heat capacity, glass transition temperature, size of cooperatively rearranging regions, and network connectivity of sodium silicate and alkali borate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Borisova, N.V.; Ushakov, V.M.; Shultz, M.M.

    1994-07-01

    The radius of cooperatively rearranging domains at the glass transition in sodium silicate glasses and the number of bridging oxygen atoms in these domains are assessed within the framework of the kinetic theory of thermal fluctuations. The tendencies of the heat capacity, T{sub g}, and the cooperative rearrangement scale with the alkali oxide concentration in sodium silicate and alkali borate glasses are compared. The points of similarity and distinctions between them are revealed.

  6. Size of HII Regions Around High Redshift Quasars vs Intergalactic Medium Neutral Hydrogen Fraction at z~6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maselli, A.; Gallerani, S.; Ferrara, A.; Choudury, T. S.

    2006-08-01

    We discuss the robustness of constraints on the intergalactic medium neutral hydrogen fraction inferred from the extent of HII regions of high redshift quasars by means of their absorption spectra. We have combined state-of-art SPH and 3D Radiative Transfer (RT) simulations to extract a sample of mock quasar spectra and we have analyzed such a sample with a procedure commonly adopted in real observations. Our analysis shows that the size of the quasar HII regions measured in quasar spectra strongly underestimate the real HII extent, as a result of absorption by residual neutral hydrogen inside the HII region and red damping wing absorption produced by HI just outside the HII region. We demonstrate that, even an idealized large sample of observed spectra -with negligible uncertainties on the quasars parameters (ie. lifetime, luminosity)- is compatible with a surrounding IGM whose mean IGM neutral hydrogen fraction can range freely in the interval [0.05,1] . We conclude, that our current knowledge of the re-ionization process is not accurate enough to allow a direct conversion of the quasars HII region extent into a value for the mean IGM ionization fraction. Finally, we propose a statistical method which could allow to extract such information from a large sample of quasar spectra at z>6.

  7. [The certification of advanced therapy medicinal products. A quality label for product development in small and medium-sized enterprises].

    PubMed

    Berger, A; Schüle, S; Flory, E

    2011-07-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) are gene therapy, cell therapy, and tissue engineered products. To gain access to the market within the European Union, ATMPs must be authorized by the European Commission (EC). Especially for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), the European centralized procedure of marketing authorization that is conducted by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) constitutes a major challenge, because SMEs often have little experience with regulatory procedures and many have limited financial possibilities. To tackle these challenges, a certification procedure exclusively for SMEs and their ATMP development was introduced by the EC. Independently from a marketing authorization application, development and/or production processes can be certified. An issued certificate demonstrates that the respective process meets the current regulatory and scientific requirements of the EMA, representing a valuable milestone for putative investors and licensees. This article highlights the background, the detailed procedure, the minimum requirements, as well as the costs of certification, while giving further noteworthy guidance for interested parties. PMID:21698534

  8. Preliminary Design Study of Medium Sized Gas Cooled Fast Reactor with Natural Uranium as Fuel Cycle Input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meriyanti, Su'ud, Zaki; Rijal, K.; Zuhair, Ferhat, A.; Sekimoto, H.

    2010-06-01

    In this study a fesibility design study of medium sized (1000 MWt) gas cooled fast reactors which can utilize natural uranium as fuel cycle input has been conducted. Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is among six types of Generation IV Nuclear Power Plants. GFR with its hard neuron spectrum is superior for closed fuel cycle, and its ability to be operated in high temperature (850° C) makes various options of utilizations become possible. To obtain the capability of consuming natural uranium as fuel cycle input, modified CANDLE burn-up scheme[1-6] is adopted this GFR system by dividing the core into 10 parts of equal volume axially. Due to the limitation of thermal hydraulic aspects, the average power density of the proposed design is selected about 70 W/cc. As an optimization results, a design of 1000 MWt reactors which can be operated 10 years without refueling and fuel shuffling and just need natural uranium as fuel cycle input is discussed. The average discharge burn-up is about 280 GWd/ton HM. Enough margin for criticallity was obtained for this reactor.

  9. Risk determinants of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) - an exploratory study in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Ariful; Tedford, Des

    2012-08-01

    The smooth running of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) presents a significant challenge irrespective of the technological and human resources they may have at their disposal. SMEs continuously encounter daily internal and external undesirable events and unwanted setbacks to their operations that detract from their business performance. These are referred to as `disturbances' in our research study. Among the disturbances, some are likely to create risks to the enterprises in terms of loss of production, manufacturing capability, human resource, market share, and, of course, economic losses. These are finally referred to as `risk determinant' on the basis of their correlation with some risk indicators, which are linked to operational, occupational, and economic risks. To deal with these risk determinants effectively, SMEs need a systematic method of approach to identify and treat their potential effects along with an appropriate set of tools. However, initially, a strategic approach is required to identify typical risk determinants and their linkage with potential business risks. In this connection, we conducted this study to explore the answer to the research question: what are the typical risk determinants encountered by SMEs? We carried out an empirical investigation with a multi-method research approach (a combination of a questionnaire-based mail survey involving 212 SMEs and five in-depth case studies) in New Zealand. This paper presents a set of typical internal and external risk determinants, which need special attention to be dealt with to minimize operational risks of an SME.

  10. Study on recent execution of overall evaluation bidding method in small and medium-sized regional local governments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishima, Hirohide; Yanase, Norihiko

    About 70% of local governments in Japan, endeavored to introduce overall evaluation bidding method for their public works in 2011 and each authority ordered one or some projects in according to the new bidding process. That is, their enforcement was an only trial level and they say that the reason why is long-term procedure and heavily administrative load of the system. The author think that such burden has relationship of human affairs of local govern ments, practical problems on kinds and price of constructions and the officers' experience on the new bidding method. The aim of this study is to analyze such problems among the officers' profession, posts and experience of administrative matter by statistical data, questionnaire and hearing to the officers. The result could indicate that a group of small local governments uses the method appropriately and that another group of medium-sized rejects to increase more contracts in according to the new bidding system because of unbalance between the stuffs' ability and order quantity of public works.

  11. Preliminary Design Study of Medium Sized Gas Cooled Fast Reactor with Natural Uranium as Fuel Cycle Input

    SciTech Connect

    Meriyanti; Su'ud, Zaki; Rijal, K.; Zuhair; Ferhat, A.; Sekimoto, H.

    2010-06-22

    In this study a feasibility design study of medium sized (1000 MWt) gas cooled fast reactors which can utilize natural uranium as fuel cycle input has been conducted. Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is among six types of Generation IV Nuclear Power Plants. GFR with its hard neuron spectrum is superior for closed fuel cycle, and its ability to be operated in high temperature (850 deg. C) makes various options of utilizations become possible. To obtain the capability of consuming natural uranium as fuel cycle input, modified CANDLE burn-up scheme[1-6] is adopted this GFR system by dividing the core into 10 parts of equal volume axially. Due to the limitation of thermal hydraulic aspects, the average power density of the proposed design is selected about 70 W/cc. As an optimization results, a design of 1000 MWt reactors which can be operated 10 years without refueling and fuel shuffling and just need natural uranium as fuel cycle input is discussed. The average discharge burn-up is about 280 GWd/ton HM. Enough margin for criticality was obtained for this reactor.

  12. Urban farming and malaria risk factors in a medium-sized town in Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Barbara; Vounatsou, Penelope; Raso, Giovanna; Tschannen, Andres B; Becket, Emmanuel Gbede; Gosoniu, Laura; Cissé, Gueladio; Tanner, Marcel; N'goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg

    2006-12-01

    Urbanization occurs at a rapid pace across Africa and Asia and affects people's health and well-being. A typical feature in urban settings of Africa is the maintenance of traditional livelihoods, including agriculture. The purpose of this study was to investigate malaria risk factors in urban farming communities in a medium-sized town in Côte d'Ivoire. Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out among 112 households from six agricultural zones. First, the heads of households were interviewed on agricultural land use, farming practices, water storage, sanitation facilities, and socioeconomic status. Second, a finger prick blood sample was taken from all household members and examined for the occurrence and density of Plasmodia. Geographic coordinates of houses, farming plots, and potential mosquito breeding sites were recorded and integrated into a geographic information system. Predictors of Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed using non-random and random effects Bayesian regression models. The overall prevalence of P. falciparum was 32.1%. In children < 15 years of age, risk factors for a P. falciparum infection included living in a specific agricultural zone, close proximity to permanent ponds and fish ponds, periodic stays overnight in temporary farm huts, and low socioeconomic status. Our findings indicate that specific crop systems and specific agricultural practices may increase the risk of malaria in urban settings of tropical Africa. PMID:17172397

  13. Molecular size characterization and kinetics studies on hydrolysis of pullulan by pullulanase in an entangled alginate medium.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ghina; Rihouey, Christophe; Larreta-Garde, Véronique; Le Cerf, Didier; Picton, Luc

    2013-07-01

    The behavior of a hydrolytic enzyme (pullulanase) toward its substrate (pullulan) in the presence of a nonsubstrate (alginate), both below and above the critical entanglement concentration (C*), was studied. The hydrolysis kinetics were studied with the enzyme and alginate concentrations varied using two main methods: a colorimetric assay of the reducing extremities (RE), which allowed the number-average molar masses (Mn) of the oligosaccharides to be determined, and size exclusion chromatography with on-line, multiangle light scattering, viscometer, and differential refractive index detectors, which allowed the average molar masses, Mn and Mw, of the oligosaccharides during hydrolysis to be determined. Free pullulanase acts via an "endo" process. The presence of alginate slows the hydrolysis kinetics, particularly when the alginate concentration is greater than the C*. These results were confirmed by the evolution of the kinetic parameters (KM, Vmax) obtained via isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The amount of oligosaccharides produced is not dependent on the alginate concentration, and the endo enzyme behavior is not modified by the entanglement in the medium. These observations were also confirmed by ITC analysis in the presence of degraded alginate (without entanglement). Our results correlated with the substrate diffusion in entangled media. The pullulanase reaction in the presence of alginate is shown to be diffusion-dependent. PMID:23713899

  14. A Neurocomputational Method for Fully Automated 3D Dendritic Spine Detection and Segmentation of Medium-sized Spiny Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Chen, Kun; Baron, Matthew; Teylan, Merilee A.; Kim, Yong; Song, Zhihuan; Greengard, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Acquisition and quantitative analysis of high resolution images of dendritic spines are challenging tasks but are necessary for the study of animal models of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Currently available methods for automated dendritic spine detection are for the most part customized for 2D image slices, not volumetric 3D images. In this work, a fully automated method is proposed to detect and segment dendritic spines from 3D confocal microscopy images of medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs). MSNs constitute a major neuronal population in striatum, and abnormalities in their function are associated with several neurological and psychiatric diseases. Such automated detection is critical for the development of new 3D neuronal assays which can be used for the screening of drugs and the studies of their therapeutic effects. The proposed method utilizes a generalized gradient vector flow (GGVF) with a new smoothing constraint and then detects feature points near the central regions of dendrites and spines. Then, the central regions are refined and separated based on eigen-analysis and multiple shape measurements. Finally, the spines are segmented in 3D space using the fast marching algorithm, taking the detected central regions of spines as initial points. The proposed method is compared with three popular existing methods for centerline extraction and also with manual results for dendritic spine detection in 3D space. The experimental results and comparisons show that the proposed method is able to automatically and accurately detect, segment, and quantitate dendritic spines in 3D images of MSNs. PMID:20100579

  15. Uncertainties of Completeness Measures in Openstreetmap - a Case Study for Buildings in a Medium-Sized German City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törnros, T.; Dorn, H.; Hahmann, S.; Zipf, A.

    2015-08-01

    The completeness of buildings in OpenStreetMap (OSM) is estimated for a medium-sized German city and its surroundings by comparing the OSM data with data from an official building cadastre. As completeness measures we apply two unit-based methods that are frequently applied in similar studies. It is found that the estimation of OSM building completeness strongly differ between the methods. A count ratio (number of OSM buildings / number of reference buildings) tends to underestimate the actual building completeness and an area ratio (total OSM building area / total reference building area) instead tends to overestimate the completeness within the study area. It is argued that a simple pre-processing of the building footprint polygons leads to a more accurate completeness estimation when applying the count ratio. It is also suggested to more carefully examine the areas that have been mapped in OSM but not in the reference data set (false positives). In the present study region, these values are mainly due to simplified OSM polygons and they contribute to an overestimation of the OSM building completeness when applying the area ratio.

  16. Small-scale capture, transport and tank adaptation of live, medium-sized Scombrids using "Tuna Tubes".

    PubMed

    Bar, Ido; Dutney, Luke; Lee, Peter; Yazawa, Ryosuke; Yoshizaki, Goro; Takeuchi, Yutaka; Cummins, Scott; Elizur, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    The transport of live fish is a crucial step to establish fish culture in captivity, and is especially challenging for species that have not been commonly cultured before, therefore transport and handling methods need to be optimized and tailored. This study describes the use of tuna tubes for small-scale transport of medium-sized pelagic fish from the Scombridae family. Tuna tubes are an array of vertical tubes that hold the fish, while fresh seawater is pumped up the tubes and through the fish mouth and gills, providing oxygen and removing wastes. In this study, 19 fish were captured using rod and line and 42 % of the captured fish were transported alive in the custom-designed tuna tubes to an on-shore holding tank: five mackerel tuna (Euthynnus affinis) and three leaping bonito (Cybiosarda elegans). Out of these, just three (15.8 % of total fish) acclimatized to the tank's condition. Based on these results, we discuss an improved design of the tuna tubes that has the potential to increase survival rates and enable a simple and low cost method of transporting of live pelagic fish. PMID:26543739

  17. L-Phosphinothricin modulation of inwardly rectifying K(+) channels increased excitability in striatal medium-sized spiny neurons.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Laetitia; Desrus, Agnès; Même, Sandra; Même, William

    2016-07-01

    Phosphinotricin (L-PPT) is the active compound of a broad-spectrum herbicide. Acute poisoning with L-PPT has various clinical manifestations, including seizures and convulsions. However, the exact mechanism of L-PPT toxicity remains unclear. The present study addressed the role of L-PPT, in the excitability of striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs). In whole-cell current-clamp experiments, L-PPT increased the input resistance (Ri), decreased the rheobase and increased the firing frequency of action potentials. In voltage-clamp experiments, L-PPT inhibited the inward-rectifying potassium (Kir) currents. Finally, the effects of L-PPT mimicked the inhibition of Kir channels with Ba(2+) on neuronal excitability. Altogether, these results suggest that the herbicide L-PPT is a modulator of Kir channels in MSNs. Thereby, Kir channels are potent regulators of the excitability of MSNs and reduced open probability of these channels would generate a powerful upregulation of neuronal output. This effect may represent a possible mechanism for L-PPT dependent neuronal toxicity. PMID:27136897

  18. Inferred Variable FeO Content in Medium-sized Lunar Pyroclastic Deposits from LRO Diviner Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, K. A.; Horgan, B.; Greenhagen, B.; Allen, C.; Bell, J. F., III

    2014-01-01

    Lunar pyroclastic deposits (LPDs) are low albedo features that mantle underlying terrain (Gaddis et al. 1985). They are high priority targets for science and exploration as they are believed to originate from and therefore reflect the composition of the deep lunar interior (NRC, 2011). They are also the best potential resource of oxygen out of any Apollo samples (Allen et al. 1996). Historically, LPDs have been divided into regional versus local categories (Gaddis et al. 2003). The large (>1000 km2 area) regional deposits are deeply sourced (>400 km deep) and result from fire fountaining. Small (<1000 km2) local deposits are thought to result from Vulcanian eruptions in which magma is slowly emplaced beneath the surface until enough volatiles exsolve and the high pressure causes an explosion. Bennett et al. (2013) identified a local deposit (674 km2 area) that may have resulted from both Vulcanian activity and fire fountaining. This deposit potentially represents a new intermediate class of LPDs that straddles the interface between the two formation mechanisms. The deposit also exhibits the highest inferred FeO wt.% of any known lunar glass. In this work we investigate the inferred FeO abundances of other medium-sized deposits to characterize this potential new class of deposits and understand the magnitude of variations in inferred FeO among pyroclastic deposits. We use the method of Greenhagen et al. (2010) to calculate the wavelength of the Christiansen Feature (CF) from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer instrument thermal-infrared observations for four medium-sized deposits. From the CF values, we estimate each deposit's FeO abundance using the method of Allen et al. (2012). The four LPDs that we examined (Oppenheimer South, Beer, Cleomedes, and J. Herschel) all have average CF values from 8.22-8.28 microns, corresponding to FeO abundances of approx. 10-15 wt.%. All of these values are within the range and uncertainties of FeO abundances

  19. Impact of local urban design and traffic restrictions on air quality in a medium-sized town.

    PubMed

    Acero, J A; Simon, A; Padro, A; Santa Coloma, O

    2012-01-01

    Traffic is the major air pollution source in most urban areas. Nowadays, most of the strategies carried out to improve urban air quality are focused on reducing traffic emissions. Nevertheless, acting locally on urban design can also reduce levels of air pollutants. In this paper, both strategies are studied in several scenarios for a medium-sized town of the Basque Country (Spain). Two main actions are analysed in order to reduce traffic emissions: (1) minor extension ofa pre-existing low emission zone (LEZ); (2) substitution of 10% of passenger cars that are older than 5 years by hybrid and electric vehicles. Regarding local urban design, three alternatives for the development of one side of a street canyon are considered: (1) a park with trees; (2) an open space without obstacles; (3) a building. Two different urban traffic dispersion models are used to calculate the air quality scenarios: PROKAS (Gaussian&box) to analyse the reduction of traffic emissions in the whole urban area and WinMISKAM (CFD) to evaluate specific urban designs. The results show the effectiveness of the analysed actions. On one hand, the definition of a small LEZ, as well as the introduction in 2015 of vehicles with new technology (hybrid and electric), results in minor impacts on PM10 and NO2 ambient concentrations. On the other hand, local urban design can cause significant variation in spatial distribution ofpollutant concentrations emitted inside street canyons. Consequently, urban planners should consider all these aspects when dealing with urban air pollution control. PMID:23393990

  20. The Role of Remote Sensing for Sustainable Elephant Management in South Africa. Four Medium Sized Game Reserves as Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordaan, M.

    2012-07-01

    Loxodonta africana (African Elephant) are running out of living space so the protection of what space they have is essential. Existing areas of suitable elephant habitat need to be protected not only from human development but from the elephants themselves. As most elephant populations in South Africa are enclosed and multiplying, there is some increasing cause for concern as the damage caused will escalate and could reach unsustainable proportions. This study examined the utilization of satellite images for the detection of elephant induced ecosystem modification. A pilot study was conducted on four medium sized Game Reserves (each ±30 000 ha) in South Africa. The aim was to ascertain the feasibility of using image analysis as instrument by which Game Reserve managers could assess biodiversity richness, habitat loss, and population-habitat viability. NDVI as indicator of primary production in vegetation is one of the instruments used to evaluate whether the carrying capacity for elephants of each Game Reserve has been reached and to compare the current biomass with those of previous years. The study also looked at the use of the woody canopy cover as target for change detection analysis. Spectral characteristics of specific trees species which are known for being preferred by elephants were used to conduct a temporal analysis on satellite images starting from the period when the elephants were re-introduced into each Game Reserve, thus attempting to identify possible impact on the biodiversity of the respective Game Reserves. Images from satellites such as Landsat, SPOT, Quickbird and SumbandilaSAT provided the needed data and maps.

  1. Risk factors for uterine diseases on small- and medium-sized dairy farms determined by clinical, bacteriological, and cytological examinations.

    PubMed

    Prunner, Isabella; Wagener, Karen; Pothmann, Harald; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Drillich, Marc

    2014-10-01

    The involution process of the postpartum bovine uterus is usually accompanied by invasion of various bacteria. The objectives of this study were to identify the relationship between the postpartum findings as risk factors for clinical endometritis (CE) and subclinical endometritis (SE). Furthermore, the effects of CE or SE on reproductive performance in small- and medium-sized dairy herds were investigated. A total of 400 cows were examined by vaginoscopy for CE at 20 to 30 days postpartum, and samples were collected for cytological examinations for SE and for bacteriology by cytobrush technique. The vaginoscopic and cytological examinations showed that 27.3% and 21.0% of the cows were found with CE and SE, respectively. The bacterial community analyses revealed a large variety of bacteria. Overall, bacteria from the order Actinomycetales, Lactobacillales, Bacillales, Burkholderiales, Caulobacteriales Enterobacteriales, Pasteurellales, and Pseudomonadales were detected, whereas in 39.5% of the samples no bacterial growth was detectable. The uterine pathogens Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes were found in 16.8% and 13.0% of the samples cultivated under aerobic conditions. Other frequently isolated bacteria were Streptococcus spp. (31.3%), Staphylococcus spp. (20.0%), Corynebacterium spp. (16.5%), and Bacillus spp. (10.5%). The infection with T. pyogenes was the most important bacteriological risk factor for the occurrence of CE (odds ratio (OR) = 5.72; 95% CI = 3.07-10.83) and had a detrimental effect on the hazard of nonpregnancy by 200 days postpartum (hazard ratio = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.12-2.46). Calving assistance (OR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.16-2.98) and farm (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.02-1.20) were indicated as further risk factors for CE and SE. Effects of CE and SE on reproductive performance parameters could not be demonstrated. PMID:25066047

  2. Development of a Low NOx Medium sized Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Hydrogen-Rich Renewable and Opportunity Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, Ram

    2013-07-31

    This report presents the accomplishments at the completion of the DOE sponsored project (Contract # DE-FC26-09NT05873) undertaken by Solar Turbines Incorporated. The objective of this 54-month project was to develop a low NOx combustion system for a medium sized industrial gas turbine engine operating on Hydrogen-rich renewable and opportunity Fuels. The work in this project was focused on development of a combustion system sized for 15MW Titan 130 gas turbine engine based on design analysis and rig test results. Although detailed engine evaluation of the complete system is required prior to commercial application, those tasks were beyond the scope of this DOE sponsored project. The project tasks were organized in three stages, Stages 2 through 4. In Stage 2 of this project, Solar Turbines Incorporated characterized the low emission capability of current Titan 130 SoLoNOx fuel injector while operating on a matrix of fuel blends with varying Hydrogen concentration. The mapping in this phase was performed on a fuel injector designed for natural gas operation. Favorable test results were obtained in this phase on emissions and operability. However, the resulting fuel supply pressure needed to operate the engine with the lower Wobbe Index opportunity fuels would require additional gas compression, resulting in parasitic load and reduced thermal efficiency. In Stage 3, Solar characterized the pressure loss in the fuel injector and developed modifications to the fuel injection system through detailed network analysis. In this modification, only the fuel delivery flowpath was modified and the air-side of the injector and the premixing passages were not altered. The modified injector was fabricated and tested and verified to produce similar operability and emissions as the Stage 2 results. In parallel, Solar also fabricated a dual fuel capable injector with the same air-side flowpath to improve commercialization potential. This injector was also test verified to produce 15

  3. 78 FR 51746 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... European Union; Scheduling of an Additional Public Hearing With Simplified Filing Procedures AGENCY: United... Barriers that U.S. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the European Union... and Investment Partnership (TTIP) negotiations with the European Union (EU), is seeking to...

  4. Towards a Service-Oriented Enterprise: The Design of a Cloud Business Integration Platform in a Medium-Sized Manufacturing Enterprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamas, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    This case study research followed the two-year transition of a medium-sized manufacturing firm towards a service-oriented enterprise. A service-oriented enterprise is an emerging architecture of the firm that leverages the paradigm of services computing to integrate the capabilities of the firm with the complementary competencies of business…

  5. Dossier on Completed and Ongoing Activities in the Field of "Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises." (First Review 1986-1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melis, A.

    1991-01-01

    The European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training's (CEDEFOP) activities and research relating to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have focused on three areas of action: (1) development of training for SMEs; (2) information on the training provision available in the member states; and (3) promotion of the exchange and…

  6. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Collections Inventory Project: A Statistical Analysis of Inventory Data from a Medium-Sized Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Jan S.; Whisler, John A.; Sung, Nackil

    2009-01-01

    Using an electronic shelf-reading system a cost-benefit analysis was conducted of an inventory/shelf-reading project in a medium-sized academic library. Analyses include time spent, cataloging discrepancies, books found with active statuses, mis-shelving rate and distance, and subsequent use of found books. Correctly re-shelving "missing"…

  7. Funding Continuing Training in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Discussion and Case Studies from across the EU. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pukkinen, Tommi; Romijn, Clemens; Elson-Rogers, Sarah

    There are three main parts to this report of a study that used case studies to showcase the different approaches used to encourage more continuing training within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) across the European Union (EU). Section 1 discusses the importance of funding training in SMEs and highlights the various types of funding…

  8. Impact of Top Management Team on Firm Performance in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Adopting Commercial Open-Source Enterprise Resource Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cereola, Sandra J.; Wier, Benson; Norman, Carolyn Strand

    2012-01-01

    Based on the large number of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the United States, their increasing interest in enterprise-wide software systems and their impact on the US economy, it is important to understand the determinants that can facilitate the successful implementation and assimilation of such technology into these firms' daily…

  9. Analysis and Evaluation of Databases on Business and Management Training Schemes for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allesch, Jurgen; Preiss-Allesch, Dagmar

    This report describes a study that identified major databases in operation in the 12 European Community countries that provide small- and medium-sized enterprises with information on opportunities for obtaining training and continuing education. Thirty-five databases were identified through information obtained from telephone interviews or…

  10. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe: A Bibliographic Guide to Recommended Books for Small and Medium-Sized Libraries and School Media Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, Stephan M.

    Intended to aid librarians in small- and medium-sized libraries and media centers, this annotated bibliography lists 1,555 books focusing on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. The book is divided into four parts: (1) "General and Interrelated Themes--Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and Eastern European Countries"; (2) "Russian Empire…

  11. Interactional behavior of the polyelectrolyte poly sodium 4-styrene sulphonate (NaPSS) with imidazolium based surface active ionic liquids in an aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Renu; Kamal, Ajar; Kang, Tejwant Singh; Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar

    2015-09-28

    The present study aims to develop an understanding of the interactions between an anionic polyelectrolyte, poly sodium 4-styrene sulphonate (NaPSS), and cationic surface active imidazolium based ionic liquids (SAILs), [Cnmim][Cl] (n = 10, 12, 14) using a multi-technique approach. Various physicochemical and electrochemical techniques such as surface tension, conductivity, fluorescence, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), dynamic light scattering (DLS), turbidity, potentiometry, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) are employed to obtain comprehensive information about NaPSS-SAIL interactions. Different stages of interaction, corresponding to the critical aggregation concentration (cac), critical saturation concentration (Cs) and critical micelle concentration (cmc) have been observed owing to the strong electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, and the results obtained from different techniques complement each other very well. The results extracted from DLS and turbidity measurements clearly indicated that the size of the micelle like aggregates first decreases and then increases in the presence of polyelectrolyte. The binding isotherms obtained using potentiometry show a concentration dependence and the highly co-operative nature of the interactions which is attributed to aggregation of the polyelectrolyte-SAIL complexes. The diffusion coefficients (Dm) of the electroactive probe in the pure and NaPSS-SAIL mixed systems were obtained, which were further used to obtain the values of the micellar self-diffusion coefficients (D) and inter-micellar interaction parameters (kd). PMID:26300416

  12. Use of High Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing for Hydro-Geomorphologic Analysis of Medium-sized Arid Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeh, Yuval; Blumberg, Dan G.; Cohen, Hai; Morin, Efrat; Maman, Shimrit

    2016-04-01

    Arid environments are often remote, expansive, difficult to access and especially vulnerable to flash flood hazards due to the poor understanding of the phenomenon and the lack of meteorological, geomorphological, and hydrological data. For many years, catchment characteristics have been observed using point-based measurements such as rain gauges and soil sample analysis; on the other hand, use of remote sensing technologies can provide spatially continuous hydrological parameters and variables. The advances in remote sensing technologies can provide new geo-spatial data using high spatial and temporal resolution for basin-scale geomorphological analysis and hydrological models. This study used high spatial resolution remote sensing for hydro-geomorphologic analysis of the arid medium size Rahaf watershed (76 km2), located in the Judean Desert, Israel. During the research a high resolution geomorphological map of Rahaf basin was created using WorldView-2 multispectral satellite imageries; surface roughness was estimated using SIR-C and COSMO-SkyMed Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) spaceborne sensors; and rainstorm characteristics were extracted using ground-based meteorological radar. The geomorphological mapping of Rahaf into 17 classes with good accuracy. The surface roughness extraction using SAR over the basin showed that the correlation between the COSMO-SkyMed backscatter coefficient and the surface roughness was very strong with an R2 of 0.97. This study showed that using x-band spaceborne sensors with high spatial resolution, such as COSMO-SkyMed, are more suitable for surface roughness evaluation in flat arid environments and should be in favor with longer wavelength operating sensors such as the SIR-C. The current study presents an innovative method to evaluate Manning's hydraulic roughness coefficient (n) in arid environments using radar backscattering. The weather radar rainfall data was calibrated using rain gauges located in the watershed. The

  13. Crystallization of sodium chloride from a concentrated calcium chloride-potassium chloride-sodium chloride solution in a CMSMPR crystallizer: Observation of crystal size distribution and model validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byung Sang

    Compared to overwhelming technical data available in other advanced technologies, knowledge about particle technology, especially in particle synthesis from a solution, is still poor due to the lack of available equipment to study crystallization phenomena in a crystallizer. Recent technical advances in particle size measurement such as Coulter counter and laser light scattering have made in/ex situ study of some of particle synthesis, i.e., growth, attrition, and aggregation, possible with simple systems. Even with these advancements in measurement technology, to grasp fully the crystallization phenomena requires further theoretical and technical advances in understanding such particle synthesis mechanisms. Therefore, it is the motive of this work to establish the general processing parameters and to produce rigorous experimental data with reliable performance and characterization that rigorously account for the crystallization phenomena of nucleation, growth, aggregation, and breakage including their variations with time and space in a controlled continuous mixed-suspension mixed-product removal (CMSMPR) crystallizer. This dissertation reports the results and achievements in the following areas: (1) experimental programs to support the development and validation of the phenomenological models and generation of laboratory data for the purpose of testing, refining, and validating the crystallization process, (2) development of laboratory well-mixed crystallizer system and experimental protocols to generate crystal size distribution (CSD) data, (3) the effects of feed solution concentration, crystallization temperature, feed flow rate, and mixing speed, as well as different types of mixers resulting in the evolution of CSDs with time from a concentrated brine solution, (4) with statistically designed experiments the effects of processing variables on the resultant particle structure and CSD at steady state were quantified and related to each of those operating

  14. Evaluation of the COSHH Essentials Model with a Mixture of Organic Chemicals at a Medium-Sized Paint Producer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Slaven, James; Bowen, Russell B.; Harper, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Essentials model was evaluated using full-shift exposure measurements of five chemical components in a mixture [acetone, ethylbenzene, methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, and xylenes] at a medium-sized plant producing paint materials. Two tasks, batch-making and bucket-washing, were examined. Varying levels of control were already established in both tasks and the average exposures of individual chemicals were considerably lower than the regulatory and advisory 8-h standards. The average exposure fractions using the additive mixture formula were also less than unity (batch-making: 0.25, bucket-washing: 0.56) indicating the mixture of chemicals did not exceed the combined occupational exposure limit (OEL). The paper version of the COSHH Essentials model was used to calculate a predicted exposure range (PER) for each chemical according to different levels of control. The estimated PERs of the tested chemicals for both tasks did not show consistent agreement with exposure measurements when the comparison was made for each control method and this is believed to be because of the considerably different volatilities of the chemicals. Given the combination of health hazard and exposure potential components, the COSHH Essentials model recommended a control approach ‘special advice’ for both tasks, based on the potential reproductive hazard ascribed to toluene. This would not have been the same conclusion if some other chemical had been substituted (for example styrene, which has the same threshold limit value as toluene). Nevertheless, it was special advice, which had led to the combination of hygienic procedures in place at this plant. The probability of the combined exposure fractions exceeding unity was 0.0002 for the batch-making task indicating that the employees performing this task were most likely well protected below the OELs. Although the employees involved in the bucket-washing task had greater potential to

  15. Evaluation of the COSHH Essentials model with a mixture of organic chemicals at a medium-sized paint producer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Slaven, James; Bowen, Russell B; Harper, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Essentials model was evaluated using full-shift exposure measurements of five chemical components in a mixture [acetone, ethylbenzene, methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, and xylenes] at a medium-sized plant producing paint materials. Two tasks, batch-making and bucket-washing, were examined. Varying levels of control were already established in both tasks and the average exposures of individual chemicals were considerably lower than the regulatory and advisory 8-h standards. The average exposure fractions using the additive mixture formula were also less than unity (batch-making: 0.25, bucket-washing: 0.56) indicating the mixture of chemicals did not exceed the combined occupational exposure limit (OEL). The paper version of the COSHH Essentials model was used to calculate a predicted exposure range (PER) for each chemical according to different levels of control. The estimated PERs of the tested chemicals for both tasks did not show consistent agreement with exposure measurements when the comparison was made for each control method and this is believed to be because of the considerably different volatilities of the chemicals. Given the combination of health hazard and exposure potential components, the COSHH Essentials model recommended a control approach 'special advice' for both tasks, based on the potential reproductive hazard ascribed to toluene. This would not have been the same conclusion if some other chemical had been substituted (for example styrene, which has the same threshold limit value as toluene). Nevertheless, it was special advice, which had led to the combination of hygienic procedures in place at this plant. The probability of the combined exposure fractions exceeding unity was 0.0002 for the batch-making task indicating that the employees performing this task were most likely well protected below the OELs. Although the employees involved in the bucket-washing task had greater potential to exceed

  16. Coexistence of vasopressin, neurophysin and noradrenaline immunoreactivity in medium-sized cells of the locus coeruleus and subcoeruleus in the rat.

    PubMed

    Caffé, A R; van Leeuwen, F W; Buijs, R M; de Vries, G J; Geffard, M

    1985-07-01

    Vasopressin-and neurophysin-immunoreactive cells have recently been demonstrated in the rat locus coeruleus (A6) and subcoeruleus (A7). Using consecutive 5 microns thick frozen sections, medium-sized cells throughout the locus coeruleus area, but predominantly in the posterior parts of the A6 displayed coexistence for vasopressin and noradrenaline or neurophysin and noradrenaline immunoreactivity. The putative projection areas of putative fibers from vasopressin-containing cells in the locus coeruleus still remain to be elucidated. PMID:3896392

  17. Experience of Late–Middle-Aged Women who Reside in Small and Medium-Sized Cities in Becoming Psychologically Mature Women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Euna; Kim, Haeok

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to search the inner world of postmenopausal women in late-middle age who are facing senescence and live in small and medium-sized cities. Methods The methods of the study were the investigation and classification of answers to questions according to a declarative ethnography analysis. The questions asked to late–middle-aged women living in small and medium-sized cities were “How do you interpret and recognize the changes in the body after menopause?” and “Which methods do you choose and practice to maintain your health in relation to aging during middle age?”. Results Four positive topics and two negative topics were drawn from the study. The four positive themes were: ambition; completion of a great mission; life with a sense of affection; and gratitude for maintaining health. The negative themes were: undulating emotion; and filling the emptiness. Conclusion The recognition of changes in the body after menopause in late–middle-aged women in small and medium-sized cities can affect their preparation processes towards senescence. It is critical to find the means to manage emergency health cases from early adulthood to middle age, based on the outcomes of the study. The study also emphasizes the importance of the woman's family's alternative strategies and supportive systems, which can fit into the cultural context of the community. PMID:26430612

  18. Ultrasonographic fetometry formulas of inner chorionic cavity diameter and biparietal diameter for medium-sized dogs can be used in giant breeds.

    PubMed

    Socha, Piotr; Janowski, Tomasz; Bancerz-Kisiel, Agata

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the ultrasonographic fetometry method, involving inner chorionic cavity diameter (ICC) and biparietal diameter (BP) measurements, to predict the parturition date in giant breed dogs. Overall, 30 ICC and 24 BP measurements were taken on 24 giant breed bitches. The measured values were substituted into Luvoni and Grioni (2000) formulas for medium-sized bitches because formulas with ICC and BP to dogs with a body mass greater than 40 kg have not been defined. The accuracy of the parturition date predictions proved the method to be highly useful in the observed group of dogs. Prediction accuracy in the giants ranged between 54.16% (± 1 day, using BP) and 90% (± 2 days, using ICC), depending on the parameter measured and precision levels used. Numerically, the results obtained using ICC were better; however, no statistically significant differences between ICC and BP accuracy were found when comparing the effectiveness of the parturition date predictions. Regression lines based on the own fetometric measurements were highly convergent with the lines defined by Luvoni and Grioni (2000) formulas for medium-sized bitches. This outcome suggests a similar gestational development of fetuses in giant dogs and the possible use of Luvoni and Grioni (2000) formulas for medium-sized dogs with breeds weighing greater than 40 kg. PMID:26092700

  19. Medium- to long-term results of a randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of arthoscopic-subacromial decompression versus mini-open repair for the treatment of medium-sized rotator cuff tears

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Ann; Temperley, David; Odak, Saurabh; Walton, Michael J; Haines, John F; Trail, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Background We report on the medium- to long-term results of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) aiming to determine whether rotator cuff repair confers any advantage over arthroscopic sub-acromial decompression (ASAD) alone in the management of medium-sized rotator cuff tears. Methods Ethical approval was sought to follow-up patients previously enrolled in a completed and previously published RCT comparing the outcome of ASAD with mini-open cuff repair for the treatment of rotator cuff tear. Forty-two patients were enrolled in the original study, with a mean of 64 years (range 54 years to 77 years). Results Fifteen of the original 17 patients randomized to ASAD alone and 18 of the original 25 patients randomized to cuff repair were available for follow-up. Each patient underwent American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and Constant scoring, and clinical and ultrasound examination. Mean duration of follow-up was 7 years (range 5 years to 11 years). There was no statistically significant difference in terms of ASES, DASH and Constant scores at follow-up between the two groups. Some 33% of patients in the cuff-repair group had a proven re-rupture on ultrasound. This patient subgroup had significantly worse Constant scores compared to patients where the repair remained intact. None of the patients from either group developed cuff-tear arthropathy requiring arthroplasty surgery. Conclusions In this medium- to longer-term study, there is no demonstrable significant benefit of cuff repair over decompression alone for the treatment of medium-sized rotator cuff tears, in terms of ASES, DASH and Constant scores for pain, function and strength modules. The presence of cuff tear does not necessitate surgical repair. This conclusion should drive surgical strategies and shared decision-making between patients and surgeons. PMID:27583006

  20. Effect of particle size on their accumulation in an inflammatory lesion in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ayaka; Tanaka, Hiroki; Sakurai, Yu; Tange, Kota; Nakai, Yuta; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Takeda, Hiroshi; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Akita, Hidetaka

    2016-07-25

    Taking advantage of the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect is a promising approach for delivering macromolecules or nanoparticles to tumors. Recent studies revealed that this strategy is also applicable for targeting other pathological lesions (i.e. inflammatory disease). In the present study, we report the optimal size of a nanoparticle for allowing the higher accumulation of a particle in an inflammatory lesion using a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model. As a nanoparticle platform, we utilized a SS-cleavable and pH-activated lipid-like material (ssPalm), that can be used to produce particles in a variety of sizes ranging from 50nm to 180nm while using the same lipid composition. In healthy mice, particle accumulation remained low regardless of size. In contrast, the accumulation in inflammatory colon tissue was enhanced depending on the progress of the inflammation. In this situation, the apparent uptake clearance accumulation of a mid-sized particle (113nm on average) was higher than that for smaller and larger (54nm and 183nm in average, respectively) ones. Therefore, controlling particle size is an important parameter for the extensive targeting of inflammatory lesion. PMID:27231121

  1. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... this section). (e) The term very low sodium may be used in the labeling of OTC drug products intended.... (f) The term low sodium may be used in the labeling of OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion... the term sodium. (h) The terms sodium free, very low sodium, and low sodium shall be in print size...

  2. Impacts of Venturi Turbulent Mixing on the Size Distribution of Sodium Chloride and Dioctyl-Phthalate Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, M.-D.; Wainman, T.; Storey, J.

    2000-08-01

    Internal combustion engines are a major source of airborne particulate matter (PM). The size of the engine PM is in the sub-micrometer range. The number of engine particles per unit volume is high, normally in the range of 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 14}. To measure the size distribution of the engine particles dilution of an aerosol sample is required. A diluter utilizing a venturi ejector mixing technique is commercially available and tested. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if turbulence created by the ejector in the mini-dilutor changes the size of particles passing through it.

  3. Integrated hydrological modelling of small- and medium-sized water storages with application to the upper Fengman Reservoir Basin of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Peng, Y.; Chu, J.; Shoemaker, C. A.

    2012-03-01

    Hydrological simulation in regions with a large number of water storages is difficult due to the inaccurate water storage data, including both topologic parameters and operational rules. To address this issue, this paper presents an improved version of SWAT2005 (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, version 2005) using the satellite-based dataset Landsat, an empirical storage classification method, and some empirical relationships to estimate water storage and release from the various levels of flow regulation facilities. The improved SWAT2005 is characterised by three features: (1) a realistic representation of the relationships between the water surface area and volume of each type of water storage, ranging from small-sized ponds for water flow regulation to large-sized and medium-sized reservoirs for water supply and hydropower generation; (2) water balance and transport through a network combining both sequential and parallel streams and storage links; and (3) calibrations for the physical parameters and the human interference parameters. Both the original and improved SWAT2005 are applied to the upper Fengman Reservoir Basin, and the results of these applications are compared. The improved SWAT2005 accurately models small- and medium-sized storages, indicating a significantly improved performance from that of the original model in reproducing streamflows.

  4. Integrated hydrological modelling of small- and medium-sized water storages with application to the upper Fengman Reservoir Basin of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Peng, Y.; Chu, J.; Shoemaker, C. A.; Zhang, A.

    2012-11-01

    Hydrological simulation in regions with a large number of water storages is difficult due to inaccurate water storage data. To address this issue, this paper presents an improved version of SWAT2005 (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, version 2005) using Landsat, a satellite-based dataset, an empirical storage classification method and some empirical relationships to estimate water storage and release from the various sizes of flow detention and regulation facilities. The SWAT2005 is enhanced by three features: (1) a realistic representation of the relationships between the surface area and volume of each type of water storages, ranging from small-sized flow detention ponds to medium- and large-sized reservoirs with the various flow regulation functions; (2) water balance and transport through a network combining both sequential and parallel streams and storage links; and (3) calibrations for both physical and human interference parameters. Through a real-world watershed case study, it is found that the improved SWAT2005 more accurately models small- and medium-sized storages than the original model in reproducing streamflows in the watershed. The improved SWAT2005 can be an effective tool to assess the impact of water storage on hydrologic processes, which has not been well addressed in the current modelling exercises.

  5. Impacts of Venturi Turbulent Mixing on the Size Distributions of Sodium Chloride and Dioctyl-Phthalate Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, M-D.

    2000-08-23

    Internal combustion engines are a major source of airborne particulate matter (PM). The size of the engine PM is in the sub-micrometer range. The number of engine particles per unit volume is high, normally in the range of 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 14}. To measure the size distribution of the engine particles dilution of an aerosol sample is required. A diluter utilizing a venturi ejector mixing technique is commercially available and tested. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if turbulence created by the ejector in the mini-dilutor changes the size of particles passing through it. The results of the NaCl aerosol experiments show no discernible difference in the geometric mean diameter and geometric standard deviation of particles passing through the ejector. Similar results were found for the DOP particles. The ratio of the total number concentrations before and after the ejector indicates that a dilution ratio of approximately 20 applies equally for DOP and NaCl particles. This indicates the dilution capability of the ejector is not affected by the particle composition. The statistical analysis results of the first and second moments of a distribution indicate that the ejector may not change the major parameters (e.g., the geometric mean diameter and geometric standard deviation) characterizing the size distributions of NaCl and DOP particles. However, when the skewness was examined, it indicates that the ejector modifies the particle size distribution significantly. The ejector could change the skewness of the distribution in an unpredictable and inconsistent manner. Furthermore, when the variability of particle counts in individual size ranges as a result of the ejector is examined, one finds that the variability is greater for DOP particles in the size range of 40-150 nm than for NaCl particles in the size range of 30 to 350 nm. The numbers or particle counts in this size region are high enough that the Poisson counting errors are small (<10

  6. Development of a large-scale isolation chamber system for the safe and humane care of medium-sized laboratory animals harboring infectious diseases*

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xin; Qi, Jian-cheng; Long, Ming; Liang, Hao; Chen, Xiao; Li, Han; Li, Guang-bo; Zheng, Hao

    2010-01-01

    The close phylogenetic relationship between humans and non-human primates makes non-human primates an irreplaceable model for the study of human infectious diseases. In this study, we describe the development of a large-scale automatic multi-functional isolation chamber for use with medium-sized laboratory animals carrying infectious diseases. The isolation chamber, including the transfer chain, disinfection chain, negative air pressure isolation system, animal welfare system, and the automated system, is designed to meet all biological safety standards. To create an internal chamber environment that is completely isolated from the exterior, variable frequency drive blowers are used in the air-intake and air-exhaust system, precisely controlling the filtered air flow and providing an air-barrier protection. A double door transfer port is used to transfer material between the interior of the isolation chamber and the outside. A peracetic acid sterilizer and its associated pipeline allow for complete disinfection of the isolation chamber. All of the isolation chamber parameters can be automatically controlled by a programmable computerized menu, allowing for work with different animals in different-sized cages depending on the research project. The large-scale multi-functional isolation chamber provides a useful and safe system for working with infectious medium-sized laboratory animals in high-level bio-safety laboratories. PMID:20872984

  7. Eruptive activity of enigmatic medium-sized volcanoes in the Michoacán-Guanajuato Volcanic Field (MGVF), Central Mexico: The case of El Metate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrel, M.; Siebe, C.; Guilbaud, M. N.

    2014-12-01

    The MGVF has a total area of ca. 40,000 km2 and is well known for being the host of the only two monogenetic volcanoes in Mexico that were born in historical times: Jorullo (1759-1774) and Paricutin (1943-1952). Another particularity of the MGVF is its high number of eruptive vents with over 1000 small monogenetic cones and associated lava flows (average vol. of 0.021 km3) and ca. 400 medium-sized volcanoes (average vol. from 0.5 to 50 km3). Most of these medium-sized volcanoes may be characterized as shields that were produced dominantly by effusive activity as opposed to the small cones formed also by explosive phases of activity. The products of the small cones range from olivine basalts to andesites whereas the medium-sized volcanoes are restricted to a smaller compositional range in the andesitic domain. Although the medium-sized volcanoes are more sparsely distributed in time and space and less abundant than the small cones, the risks associated with renewal of this type of activity should not be neglected. This study focuses on El Metate which is probably the youngest shield of the MGVF (< 3,700 y. BP). Unlike a typical shield volcano composed of a succession of thin fluid basaltic flows, El Metate consists of well-preserved >60 m thick andesite flows distributed radially around a summit dome. Detailed mapping and sampling allowed us to reconstruct its eruptive activity and the time sequence of lava flow emplacement. We have identified 13 individual lava flows with lengths ranging between 3 and 15 km covering 103 km2 and average thicknesses between 60 and 150 m. Individual volumes range between 0.5 and 3.5 km3 for a total of 11 to 15 km3. Estimates of flow emplacement parameters indicate maximum average effusion rates ranging between 15 and 100 m3.s-1 and a cumulative duration from 15 to 30 years. Such a short emplacement time is comparable to the historical monogenetic eruption of nearby Paricutin volcano (9 years) but the erupted volume of lava is

  8. What affects the innovation performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the biotechnology industry? An empirical study on Korean biotech SMEs.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung-Nam; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2008-10-01

    Research-intensive small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a crucial role in the advancement of the biotechnology industry. This paper explored the impacts of internal and contextual variables on innovative activity in Korea and compared the results of this analysis with previous studies of other countries. Our analysis of 149 Korean biotech SMEs showed that the ratio of R&D expenditure to sales, the ratio of R&D employees to total employees, CEO characteristics, governmental support and international networking are positively correlated with a firm's innovation performance. The results may help decision makers to better foster SMEs in the Korean biotechnology industry. PMID:18506395

  9. How large are post-CCSD(T) contributions to the total atomization energies of medium-sized alkanes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karton, Amir

    2016-02-01

    The CCSD(T) method is often considered as the gold standard in quantum chemistry for single-reference systems. Using W4 and W4lite theories, we calculate post-CCSD(T) contributions to the total atomization energies (TAEs) of n-alkanes and show that they reach up to 0.65 kcal/mol for n-hexane. Furthermore, we find that post-CCSD(T) contributions increase linearly with the size of the n-alkane, indicating that they will reach ∼1 kcal/mol for n-decane (C10H22) and ∼2 kcal/mol for n-icosane (C20H42). These results are significant since today CCSD(T)/CBS-type methods are being applied to hydrocarbons of increasing size and are assumed to give TAEs with chemical accuracy for these systems.

  10. Gender differences in body size dissatisfaction among individuals with low, medium, or high levels of body focus.

    PubMed

    Lokken, Kristine; Ferraro, F Richard; Kirchner, Tara; Bowling, Margo

    2003-07-01

    The authors designed the present study to test whether women reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction than did men even when the 2 genders were matched on a measure of degree of body focus. Sixty undergraduates (30 men, 30 women) were screened on attention-to-body-shape scores and divided into high, medium, and low body-shape-focus groups. The participants also completed questionnaires that provided information on age, education, vocabulary ability, levels of depression, and body-image assessment. The groups did not differ (ps > .05) on age, education, vocabulary ability, or levels of depression. However, women in all 3 body-shape-focus categories indicated a larger discrepancy between their real vs. ideal body images (p < .01) than did the men. In the high-body-focus group, there was an 11:1ratio between women's and men's reported real-ideal body-shape discrepancies. Women showed greater body dissatisfaction than did men, even when the genders were matched on a measure of body focus. PMID:12926515

  11. Using Sodium-Chloride Tracers and Grain Size Analysis to Determine Hyporheic Permeability in Salmonid Spawning Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbery, J. W.; Janes, M. K.; Heffernan, J. E.; Horner, T.

    2012-12-01

    Embryonic mortality rates of salmonids are greatly affected by gravel permeability and grain size distributions within the host gravel. Typical permeability testing methods use a single standpipe to measure the permeability. For studies on the American and Feather Rivers in northern California, tracer tests were used to measure seepage velocity using a main "injection" well and several downstream monitoring wells. Bulk samples and pebble counts were used to measure grain size. Measurements were recorded at approximately 30cm depth in the gravel, where salmonid species typically lay their eggs. Sites were examined before and after stream restoration to compare subsurface habitat conditions. During each tracer test, a super-saturated NaCl solution was introduced into an "injection" standpipe with a short well screen located 30cm deep in the gravel. Identical downstream standpipes contained conductivity meters that sensed the NaCl as it passed through the gravel, causing a spike in specific conductance. Plotting the peak conductance against the arrival time allowed a seepage velocity to be measured in cm/second. Seepage velocity ranged from 0.2 - 0.7 cm/sec in restored gravel, and was less than 1.6 x 10-4 cm/sec in some un-restored areas. Grain size analysis showed that un-restored areas had an armored surface with d50 values ranging from 4-10 cm, while the subsurface showed excessive fine material supporting large grains smaller than those in the surface sample with d50 values ranging from 1.3 - 3.0 cm. Restored areas were found to contain a well sorted composition containing little to no fine material and a subsurface which closely matched the surface showing d50 values from 1.6 - 3.8 cm. Comparing results of tracer tests with grain size distributions in both restored and un-restored spawning gravels gives an indication of the relative health of a particular portion of a hyporheic river system, and the relative success of some restoration projects.

  12. First principles study of neutral and anionic (medium-size) aluminum nitride clusters: AlnNn, n=7-16.

    PubMed

    Costales, Aurora; Blanco, M A; Francisco, E; Pendas, A Martín; Pandey, Ravindra

    2006-03-01

    We report the results of a theoretical study of AlnNn (n=7-16) clusters that is based on density functional theory. We will focus on the evolution of structural and electronic properties with the cluster size in the stoichiometric AlN clusters considered. The results reveal that the structural and electronic properties tend to evolve toward their respective bulk limits. The rate of evolution is, however, slow due to the hollow globular shape exhibited by the clusters, which introduces large surface effects that dominate the properties studied. We will also discuss the changes induced upon addition of an extra electron to the respective neutral clusters. PMID:16509701

  13. Constraining the size of the Comptonizing medium by modelling the energy-dependent time lags of kHz QPOs of neutron star system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nagendra; Misra, Ranjeev

    2016-09-01

    We study the dependence of the estimated size and geometry of the medium on the time-averaged spectral model assumed and on the frequency of the kHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in the framework of a thermal Comptonization model. We use the high-quality time lag and rms obtained during 1996 March 3 observation of 4U 1608-52 by RXTE as well as other observations of the source at different QPO frequencies where a single time lag between two broad energy bands has been reported. We compare the results obtained when assuming that the time-averaged spectra are represented by the spectrally degenerate `hot (kTb ≥ 1 keV)' and `cold (kTb ≤ 0.5 keV)' seed spectral models where Tb is seed source temperature. We find that for the `hot-seed' model the medium size is in the range of 0.3-2.0 km and the size decreases with increasing QPO frequency. On the other hand, for the `cold-seed' model, the range for the sizes is much larger 0.5-20 km and hence perhaps show no variation with QPO frequency. Our results emphasize the need for broad-band spectral information combined with high-frequency timing to lift this degeneracy. We further compare the rms as a function of energy for the upper kHz QPO, and indeed we find that the driver for this QPO should be temperature variations of the corona identical to the lower kHz QPO. However, the time lag reported for the upper kHz QPO is hard, which if confirmed would challenge the simple Comptonization model presented here.

  14. Effects of incubation temperature, inoculum size, and medium on agreement of macro- and microdilution broth susceptibility test results for yeasts.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R A; McIntyre, K A; Galgiani, J N

    1990-01-01

    We examined the effects of temperature and inoculum on the agreement of macro- and microdilution broth MICs of five antifungal agents against six isolates of Candida species or Torulopsis glabrata. Incubation temperature affected results with amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, and SCH 39304, producing better agreement at 35 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. Agreement between methods was better with an inoculum size of 10(2) than with one of 10(4) yeast cells per ml in testing fluconazole or SCH 39304, and the discrepancies seen with a higher incubation temperature and a larger inoculum appeared to be additive. However, inoculum size did not seem to affect agreement between methods in testing amphotericin B, flucytosine, or ketoconazole. Regardless of test conditions, macrodilution broth MICs of amphotericin B for different isolates were strikingly higher than microdilution test MICs, with mean differences being greater than ninefold under some test conditions. We conclude that for most currently available antifungal agents, an incubation temperature of 35 degrees C and a starting yeast inoculum of less than 10(4) cells per ml improve the agreement between macro- and microdilution broth tests. PMID:2221863

  15. Study of the Surface Heterogeneity of icy dwarf?planets and other medium size Kuiper Belt objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Emery, Josh P.

    2015-10-01

    We propose a comprehensive analysis of the surface heterogeneity of a selected sample of dwarf-planets and candidates to be considered as dwarf-planets. The sample has been carefully selected to reach the scientific goals with a relative low cost in observing time. The research proposed here will be based on the analysis of the light-curve of these objects obtained using IRAC/Spitzer photometry. KBOs likely retain some of the most primitive material in the Solar System. Models of the retention of volatiles by small-bodies in the Solar System show that dwarf-planets can retain most of the original inventory of volatiles. A good example is Pluto. The surface of this body is formed by patches of CH4, N2 and CO and exhibits a large degree of surface heterogeneity. Our preliminary results of the IRAC/Spitzer light curves of Pluto, obtained by this group in 2004 and 2014, show the potential of these data to map the surface distribution of the different species of ices on the surface of KBOs. For this project we have selected six objects (out of a list of 15) that are ideal for this study using Spitzer photometry. Our sample covers two classes of bodies: Eris, Makemake and Haumea, all large enough to retain volatiles and so how signs of sublimation and condensation cycles on their surfaces; and Quaoar, Varuna and Ixion (D<1000 km) that may not have retained volatiles. If signs of heterogeneity are detected on IRAC data from these medium bodies (as suggested by previous studies) this could be due to a combination of collisions and irradiation. By addressing the compositional heterogeneity of this sample of KBOs the proposed work will address gaps in the scientific knowledge of the chemical and dynamical history of the outer Solar System as well as other planetary systems.}

  16. Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Carbonyl Compounds Present in the Cabins of Newly Produced, Medium- and Large-Size Coaches in China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan-Yang; Lin, Yi; Zhang, Han; Ding, Dongxiao; Sun, Xia; Huang, Qiansheng; Lin, Lifeng; Chen, Ya-Jie; Chi, Yu-Lang; Dong, Sijun

    2016-01-01

    An air-conditioned coach is an important form of transportation in modern motorized society; as a result, there is an increasing concern of in-vehicle air pollution. In this study, we aimed to identify and quantify the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds (CCs) in air samples collected from the cabins of newly produced, medium- and large-size coaches. Among the identified VOCs and CCs, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein/acetone, and isovaleraldehyde were relatively abundant in the cabins. Time was found to affect the emissions of the contaminants in the coaches. Except for benzaldehyde, valeraldehyde and benzene, the highest in-vehicle concentrations of VOCs and CCs were observed on the 15th day after coming off the assembly line, and the concentrations exhibited an approximately inverted U-shaped pattern as a function of time. Interestingly, this study also showed that the interior temperature of the coaches significantly affected the VOCs emissions from the interior materials, whereas the levels of CCs were mainly influenced by the relative humidity within the coaches. In China, guidelines and regulations for the in-vehicle air quality assessment of the coaches have not yet been issued. The results of this study provide further understanding of the in-vehicle air quality of air-conditioned coaches and can be used in the development of both specific and general rules regarding medium- and large-size coaches. PMID:27314375

  17. Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Carbonyl Compounds Present in the Cabins of Newly Produced, Medium- and Large-Size Coaches in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan-Yang; Lin, Yi; Zhang, Han; Ding, Dongxiao; Sun, Xia; Huang, Qiansheng; Lin, Lifeng; Chen, Ya-Jie; Chi, Yu-Lang; Dong, Sijun

    2016-01-01

    An air-conditioned coach is an important form of transportation in modern motorized society; as a result, there is an increasing concern of in-vehicle air pollution. In this study, we aimed to identify and quantify the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds (CCs) in air samples collected from the cabins of newly produced, medium- and large-size coaches. Among the identified VOCs and CCs, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein/acetone, and isovaleraldehyde were relatively abundant in the cabins. Time was found to affect the emissions of the contaminants in the coaches. Except for benzaldehyde, valeraldehyde and benzene, the highest in-vehicle concentrations of VOCs and CCs were observed on the 15th day after coming off the assembly line, and the concentrations exhibited an approximately inverted U-shaped pattern as a function of time. Interestingly, this study also showed that the interior temperature of the coaches significantly affected the VOCs emissions from the interior materials, whereas the levels of CCs were mainly influenced by the relative humidity within the coaches. In China, guidelines and regulations for the in-vehicle air quality assessment of the coaches have not yet been issued. The results of this study provide further understanding of the in-vehicle air quality of air-conditioned coaches and can be used in the development of both specific and general rules regarding medium- and large-size coaches. PMID:27314375

  18. Vaccine Pipeline Has Grown During The Past Two Decades With More Early-Stage Trials From Small And Medium-Size Companies.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Thomas J; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-02-01

    Many serious diseases lack safe and effective vaccines. Using a large commercial database, we examined trends in global vaccine research and development and found that the proportion of new vaccine candidates entering all stages of clinical development increased by 3-5 percentage points over the past two decades. Small and medium-size companies accounted for nearly twice as many new Phase I vaccine trials compared to large companies, but late-stage (Phase III) vaccine trials were dominated by large companies. There were no significant differences between vaccines and drugs in the probability of success in clinical trials or in profitability. Small and medium-size companies, including spin-outs from academic research centers, play an important role in innovative research and discovery. Our findings suggest that policy making targeted at smaller companies, such as prizes or opportunities for public-private partnerships, could support the development of new vaccines, particularly those targeting unmet medical needs and emerging public health threats. PMID:26858373

  19. Host associations of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitizing medium-sized mammals in a Lyme disease endemic area of southern New York.

    PubMed

    Fish, D; Dowler, R C

    1989-05-01

    Ticks of eight medium-sized mammal species were studied in an area of endemic Lyme disease in Westchester County, N.Y., from 1 April 1984 to 31 March 1985. Most (81%) of the 266 total mammal captures were raccoon, Procyon lotor (L.) (47%), opossum, Didelphis virginiana (Kerr) (19%), and striped skunk, Mephitis mephitis Schreber (15%); these host species accounted for 91% of the 1,519 ticks collected. Although the total number of ticks was rather evenly distributed among these mammals, species composition of ticks on each host species differed markedly. Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman, and Corwin was the most abundant tick species and accounted for 45% (690) of the total ticks collected. Immatures were most prevalent (56%) on opossum, and nearly all (86%) adults were found on this host species. I. cookei Marx was second in abundance (34%) and was most prevalent (60%) on skunk. I. texanus Banks and Dermacentor variabilis (Say) were less abundant (less than 20% collectively) and were most prevalent on raccoon. I. dentatus Marx on eastern cottontail, Sylvilagus floridanus (Allen), and I. marxi Banks on gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, were least abundant (less than 2% collectively). The prevalence of I. dammini on medium-sized mammals in southern New York may influence the epizoötiology of Lyme disease. PMID:2724317

  20. Post-operative complications associated with the Arthrex Canine Cranial Cruciate Ligament Repair Anchor System in small- to medium-sized dogs: A retrospective analysis (2009-2012).

    PubMed

    Rappa, Nick S; Radasch, Robert M

    2016-08-01

    This study classified and determined the post-operative complication rate associated with stabilization of cranial (CCL) ligament deficient stifles in small- to medium-sized dogs with the Arthrex Canine Cranial Cruciate Ligament Repair Anchor System (CCLRAS). Eighty-five medical records from 2009 to 2012 from 1 institution were evaluated. Complications were classified according to previously proposed definitions for orthopedic studies in veterinary medicine. Fifty-two owners were contacted by telephone at least 6 months after surgery and given a questionnaire to classify complications related to the implant. A visual analog scale was used to assess functionality and degree of pain. The overall complication rate was 30.3% with an inflammation-infection rate of 5.4% and a documented infection rate requiring implant removal of 1.8%. Owners reported full or acceptable function in 96% of cases with an average functional score of 86.5. Stabilization of CCL-deficient stifles in small- to medium-sized dogs with the Arthrex Canine CCLRAS is reliable with acceptable complication rates. PMID:27493284

  1. Dead Nano-Sized Lactobacillus plantarum Inhibits Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colon Cancer in Balb/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Ah; Kim, Hyunung; Lee, Kwang-Won; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-12-01

    The chemopreventive effects of dead nano-sized Lactobacillus plantarum (nLp) on colon carcinogenesis, induced by dextran sulfate sodium and azoxymethane, were evaluated using Balb/c mice and compared with the effects of pure live L. plantarum (pLp). nLp is a dead shrunken form of L. plantarum derived from kimchi and has a particle size of 0.5-1.0 μm. Animals fed nLp showed less weight loss, longer colons, lower colon weight/length ratios, and fewer colonic tumors compared with pLp. In addition, the administration of nLp significantly reduced the expression of inflammatory markers, mediated the expression of cell cycle and apoptotic markers in colon tissues, and elevated fecal IgA levels more than pLp. Accordingly, the present study shows that the anticolorectal cancer activities of nLp are greater than those of pLp and suggests this is due to the suppression of inflammation, the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and enhanced IgA secretion. PMID:26595186

  2. Simultaneous determination of desloratadine and montelukast sodium using second-derivative synchronous fluorescence spectrometry enhanced by an organized medium with applications to tablets and human plasma.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, F A; El-Enany, N; El-Shaheny, R N; Mikhail, I E

    2015-06-01

    A rapid, simple, and sensitive second-derivative synchronous fluorimetric method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of a binary mixture of desloratadine (DSL) and montelukast sodium (MKT) in their co-formulated tablets. The method is based on measurement of the synchronous fluorescence intensities of the two drugs in McIlvaine's buffer, pH 2.3, in the presence of carboxy methyl cellulose sodium (CMC) as a fluorescence enhancer at a constant wavelength difference (Δλ) of 160 nm. The presence of CMC enhanced the synchronous fluorescence intensity of DSL by 216% and that of MKT by 28%. A linear dependence of the concentration on the amplitude of the second derivative synchronous fluorescence spectra was achieved over the ranges of 0.10-2.00 and 0.20-2.00 µg/mL with limits of detection of 0.02 and 0.03, and limits of quantification of 0.05 and 0.10 µg/mL for DSL and MKT, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of the studied compounds in laboratory-prepared mixtures and tablets. The results were in good agreement with those obtained with the comparison method. The high sensitivity attained by the proposed method allowed the determination of MKT in spiked human plasma with average % recovery of 100.11 ± 2.44 (n = 3). PMID:25209552

  3. Characterization of the origin of fine particulate matter in a medium size urban area in the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikridas, Michael; Tasoglou, Antonios; Florou, Kalliopi; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2013-12-01

    A multi-stage methodology for investigating particulate pollution is developed and implemented for the case study area of Patras, Greece. Initially a low cost particulate matter mass monitor was used to assess aerosol mass concentrations indicating that the city, despite its small size (population around 200,000) and lack of heavy industry, violates both the daily and annual European Union PM standards. Increased PM10 concentrations were observed during the winter but local vehicular traffic was estimated to account for only 12 ± 4% of the PM10 concentration on an annual basis. In the second stage, PM2.5 chemical composition was measured at the urban center and biomass burning was identified as a major PM source during the colder months. In the third stage, PM2.5 concentration and chemical composition was also followed at a mostly upwind rural site around 40 km from the city. The transported pollution was found to account for 50% of the PM2.5 during winter and for more than 70% during the rest of the year. Almost all of the sulfates and 40-90%, depending on the season, of the organic aerosol are transported to the city from other areas. In the last stage, an intensive campaign took place during winter in order to quantify PM sources during the most polluted period. Nighttime sharp increases of the aerosol levels were observed with organic aerosol levels exceeding 80 μg m-3. Local biomass combustion and fossil fuel emissions for domestic heating were responsible for these levels.

  4. Medium-sized Au40(SR)24 and Au52(SR)32 nanoclusters with distinct gold-kernel structures and spectroscopic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wen Wu; Li, Yadong; Gao, Yi; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We have analyzed the structures of two medium-sized thiolate-protected gold nanoparticles (RS-AuNPs) Au40(SR)24 and Au52(SR)32 and identified the distinct structural features in their Au kernels [Sci. Adv., 2015, 1, e1500425]. We find that both Au kernels of the Au40(SR)24 and Au52(SR)32 nanoclusters can be classified as interpenetrating cuboctahedra. Simulated X-ray diffraction patterns of the RS-AuNPs with the cuboctahedral kernel are collected and then compared with the X-ray diffraction patterns of the RS-AuNPs of two other prevailing Au-kernels identified from previous experiments, namely the Ino-decahedral kernel and icosahedral kernel. The distinct X-ray diffraction patterns of RS-AuNPs with the three different types of Au-kernels can be utilized as signature features for future studies of structures of RS-AuNPs. Moreover, the simulated UV/Vis absorption spectra and Kohn-Sham orbital energy-level diagrams are obtained for the Au40(SR)24 and Au52(SR)32, on the basis of time-dependent density functional theory computation. The extrapolated optical band-edges of Au40(SR)24 and Au52(SR)32 are 1.1 eV and 1.25 eV, respectively. The feature peaks in the UV/Vis absorption spectra of the two clusters can be attributed to the d --> sp electronic transition. Lastly, the catalytic activities of the Au40(SR)24 and Au52(SR)32 are examined using CO oxidation as a probe. Both medium-sized thiolate-protected gold clusters can serve as effective stand-alone nanocatalysts.We have analyzed the structures of two medium-sized thiolate-protected gold nanoparticles (RS-AuNPs) Au40(SR)24 and Au52(SR)32 and identified the distinct structural features in their Au kernels [Sci. Adv., 2015, 1, e1500425]. We find that both Au kernels of the Au40(SR)24 and Au52(SR)32 nanoclusters can be classified as interpenetrating cuboctahedra. Simulated X-ray diffraction patterns of the RS-AuNPs with the cuboctahedral kernel are collected and then compared with the X-ray diffraction patterns of the RS

  5. Tracing Staphylococcus aureus in small and medium-sized food-processing factories on the basis of molecular sub-species typing.

    PubMed

    Koreňová, Janka; Rešková, Zuzana; Véghová, Adriana; Kuchta, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Contamination by Staphylococcus aureus of the production environment of three small or medium-sized food-processing factories in Slovakia was investigated on the basis of sub-species molecular identification by multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA). On the basis of MLVA profiling, bacterial isolates were assigned to 31 groups. Data from repeated samplings over a period of 3 years facilitated to draw spatial and temporal maps of the contamination routes for individual factories, as well as identification of potential persistent strains. Information obtained by MLVA typing allowed to identify sources and routes of contamination and, subsequently, will allow to optimize the technical and sanitation measures to ensure hygiene. PMID:25229709

  6. Medium-sized Au40(SR)24 and Au52(SR)32 nanoclusters with distinct gold-kernel structures and spectroscopic features.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen Wu; Li, Yadong; Gao, Yi; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-01-21

    We have analyzed the structures of two medium-sized thiolate-protected gold nanoparticles (RS-AuNPs) Au40(SR)24 and Au52(SR)32 and identified the distinct structural features in their Au kernels [Sci. Adv., 2015, 1, e1500425]. We find that both Au kernels of the Au40(SR)24 and Au52(SR)32 nanoclusters can be classified as interpenetrating cuboctahedra. Simulated X-ray diffraction patterns of the RS-AuNPs with the cuboctahedral kernel are collected and then compared with the X-ray diffraction patterns of the RS-AuNPs of two other prevailing Au-kernels identified from previous experiments, namely the Ino-decahedral kernel and icosahedral kernel. The distinct X-ray diffraction patterns of RS-AuNPs with the three different types of Au-kernels can be utilized as signature features for future studies of structures of RS-AuNPs. Moreover, the simulated UV/Vis absorption spectra and Kohn-Sham orbital energy-level diagrams are obtained for the Au40(SR)24 and Au52(SR)32, on the basis of time-dependent density functional theory computation. The extrapolated optical band-edges of Au40(SR)24 and Au52(SR)32 are 1.1 eV and 1.25 eV, respectively. The feature peaks in the UV/Vis absorption spectra of the two clusters can be attributed to the d → sp electronic transition. Lastly, the catalytic activities of the Au40(SR)24 and Au52(SR)32 are examined using CO oxidation as a probe. Both medium-sized thiolate-protected gold clusters can serve as effective stand-alone nanocatalysts. PMID:26676095

  7. Fixed-time Insemination in Pasture-based Medium-sized Dairy Operations of Northern Germany and an Attempt to Replace GnRH by hCG.

    PubMed

    Marthold, D; Detterer, J; Koenig von Borstel, U; Gauly, M; Holtz, W

    2016-02-01

    A field study was conducted aimed at (i) evaluating the practicability of a fixed-time insemination regime for medium-sized dairy operations of north-western Germany, representative for many regions of Central Europe and (ii) substituting hCG for GnRH as ovulation-inducing agent at the end of a presynch or ovsynch protocol in an attempt to reduce the incidence of premature luteal regression. Cows of two herds synchronized by presynch and two herds synchronized by ovsynch protocol were randomly allotted to three subgroups; in one group ovulation was induced by the GnRH analog buserelin, in another by hCG, whereas a third group remained untreated. The synchronized groups were fixed-time inseminated; the untreated group bred to observed oestrus. Relative to untreated herd mates, pregnancy rate in cows subjected to a presynch protocol with buserelin as ovulation-inducing agent was 74%; for hCG it was 60%. In cows subjected to an ovsynch protocol, the corresponding relative pregnancy rates reached 138% in the case of buserelin and 95% in the case of hCG. Average service interval was shortened by 1 week in the presynch and delayed by 2 weeks in the ovsynch group. It may be concluded that fixed-time insemination of cows synchronized via ovsynch protocol with buserelin as ovulation-inducing agent is practicable and may help improve efficiency and reduce the work load involved with herd management in medium-sized dairy operations. The substitution of hCG for buserelin was found to be not advisable. PMID:26661056

  8. Chemical management and control strategies: experiences from the GTZ pilot project on chemical safety in Indonesian small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Tischer, M; Scholaen, S

    2003-10-01

    In 1998 the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) launched the Convention Project on Chemical Safety in developing countries. The project aims to support developing countries in the implementation of the Rotterdam and Stockholm Conventions, create human resources and institutional capacities and to demonstrate via pilot measures how chemical safety in the partner countries can be improved and sustainably implemented in line with international standards. With this objective the development of a Chemical Management Guide (CM Guide) for small and medium-sized enterprises in developing countries has been initiated. The guide describes a step-by-step approach which is based on identifying 'hot-spots' as a first step, and making a chemical inventory as a second step. The third step is the continuous improvement of chemical management. In total, there are six tools that aim to support the chemical management process: basic concepts for risk assessment; description of control approaches; using material safety data sheets (MSDSs); risk phrases for hazardous substances; safety phrases for hazardous substances; symbols used for labelling hazardous substances. In the course of the test-implementation of the CM Guide in Indonesia, it was found that MSDSs were not available in most of the smaller companies. In contrast, medium-sized and larger companies do have more MSDSs available. It was also found that the way to engage the minds of company owners and managers is with economic arguments related to the loss, waste and expiry of materials, and quality standards expected from importing countries. PMID:14530183

  9. Development of medium-size half-mask facepiece for male workers at a shipyard and its fit performance in Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Don-Hee; Kim, David

    2014-01-01

    Ten years ago, three differently sized half-mask facepiece prototypes were constructed from silicon using computer graphics and statistical analysis to fit them according to Korean facial dimensions. The purpose of this study was to complete the medium-size half-mask respirator based on the prototype, which would provide an adequate fit performance for male workers at a shipyard, Hyundai Samho Heavy Industry Co., in Korea. The complete respirator--the hardness 55--was manufactured with existing accessories such as a filter, exhalation valve, and strap attached. The fit performance test was conducted by performing a quantitative fit-test on 48 male subjects: workers who usually wear half-mask respirators (Dobulife Tech Co., Model DM-911, Gwangju, Gyeonggi-do, Korea). The results showed that the hardness 55 provided male subject workers with much better fit performance than the existing mask constructed by the same company. Because softness of the material of the facepiece, in particular the inner part, influenced faceseal leakage, further research on developing better-fit respirator facepieces should consider carefully the fine control of material softness. PMID:24467771

  10. The control system of the 12-m medium-size telescope prototype: a test-ground for the CTA array control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, I.; Anguner, E. A.; Behera, B.; Birsin, E.; Fuessling, M.; Lindemann, R.; Melkumyan, D.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schwanke, U.; Sternberger, R.; Wegner, P.; Wiesand, S.

    2014-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be the next generation ground-based very-high energy -ray observatory. CTA will consist of two arrays: one in the Northern hemisphere composed of about 20 telescopes, and the other one in the Southern hemisphere composed of about 100 telescopes, both arrays containing telescopes of different sizes and types and in addition numerous auxiliary devices. In order to provide a test-ground for the CTA array control, the steering software of the 12-m medium size telescope (MST) prototype deployed in Berlin has been implemented using the tools and design concepts under consideration to be used for the control of the CTA array. The prototype control system is implemented based on the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Common Software (ACS) control middleware, with components implemented in Java, C++ and Python. The interfacing to the hardware is standardized via the Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control Unified Architecture (OPC UA). In order to access the OPC UA servers from the ACS framework in a common way, a library has been developed that allows to tie the OPC UA server nodes, methods and events to the equivalents in ACS components. The front-end of the archive system is able to identify the deployed components and to perform the sampling of the monitoring points of each component following time and value change triggers according to the selected configurations. The back-end of the archive system of the prototype is composed by two different databases: MySQL and MongoDB. MySQL has been selected as storage of the system configurations, while MongoDB is used to have an efficient storage of device monitoring data, CCD images, logging and alarm information. In this contribution, the details and conclusions on the implementation of the control software of the MST prototype are presented.

  11. The effect of an electronic medicine dispenser on diversion of buprenorphine-naloxone-experience from a medium-sized Finnish city.

    PubMed

    Uosukainen, Hanna; Pentikäinen, Hannu; Tacke, Ulrich

    2013-07-01

    Providing unobserved opioid substitution treatment (OST) safely is a major challenge. This study examined whether electronic medicine dispensers (EMDs) can reduce diversion of take-home buprenorphine-naloxone (BNX) in a medium-sized Finnish city. All BNX treated OST patients in Kuopio received their take-home BNX in EMDs for 4months. EMDs' effect on diversion was investigated using questionnaires completed by patients (n=37) and treatment staff (n=19), by survey at the local needle exchange service and by systematic review of drug screen data from the Kuopio University Hospital. The majority of patients (n=21, 68%) and treatment staff (n=11, 58%) preferred to use EMDs for the safe storage of tablets. Five patients (16%) declared that EMDs had prevented them from diverting BNX. However, EMDs had no detectable effect on the availability or origin of illegal BNX or on the hospital-treated buprenorphine-related health problems. EMDs may improve the safety of storage of take-home BNX, but their ability to prevent diversion needs further research. PMID:23433750

  12. Isolation and characterization of four medium-size disintegrins from the venoms of Central American viperid snakes of the genera Atropoides, Bothrops, Cerrophidion and Crotalus.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Yamileth; Castro, Adriana; Lomonte, Bruno; Rucavado, Alexandra; Fernández, Julián; Calvete, Juan J; Gutiérrez, José María

    2014-12-01

    Four disintegrins were isolated from the venoms of the Central American viperid snakes Atropoides mexicanus (atropoimin), Bothrops asper (bothrasperin), Cerrophidion sasai (sasaimin), and Crotalus simus (simusmin). Purifications were performed by reverse-phase HPLC. The four disintegrins have biochemical characteristics, i.e. molecular mass and location of Cys, which allow their classification within the group of medium-size disintegrins. All of them present the canonical RGD sequence, which determines their interaction with integrins in cell membranes. The disintegrins inhibited ADP and collagen-induced human platelet aggregation, with similar IC50s in the nM range. In addition, disintegrins inhibited the adhesion of an endothelial cell line and a melanoma cell line to the extracellular matrix proteins type I collagen, laminin, fibronectin, and vitronectin, albeit showing variable ability to exert this activity. This study expands the inventory of this family of viperid venom proteins, and reports, for the first time, disintegrins from the venoms of species of the genera Atropoides and Cerrophidion. PMID:25457103

  13. A simulation study of the energy-efficient options for upgrading and retrofitting a medium-size municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Mucha, Zbigniew; Mikosz, Jerzy

    2016-10-01

    Many municipal wastewater treatment plants are retrofitted with membrane filtration that replaces secondary clarification. Such a solution saves space and improves overall treatment efficiency but at the cost of increased energy consumption and reduced potential for energy recovery from sewage sludge. Thus, the plant takes a step back from reaching energy self-sufficiency. In the presented case study, two alternative upgrade options were simulated for a medium-size municipal wastewater treatment plant in Poland: the first one assumed optimization of the existing bioreactor, and the other - installation of microfiltration membrane units inside the bioreactor. In both cases, anaerobic digestion of waste sludge with biogas utilization is planned. The results have shown that while under both upgrade options, the plant's capacity can be effectively increased by approximately 50%, their effects on the plant's energy balance will be very different. Although the installation of membrane modules accompanied by the construction of anaerobic digestion tanks improves the plant's energy balance, it will remain negative. The option of optimizing the existing biological treatment system produces a positive energy balance with more energy produced from biogas than consumed. Thus, the plant is able to approach energy self-sufficiency. It has been concluded that retrofitting the plants with membrane filtration is not always the best option from the energy balance point of view and it should be preceded with a detailed analysis on a case-by-case basis. PMID:26878434

  14. Results from an exploratory study to identify the factors that contribute to success for UK medical device small- and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Hourd, P C; Williams, D J

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports the results from an exploratory study that sets out to identify and compare the strategic approaches and patterns of business practice employed by 14 UK small- and medium-sized enterprises to achieve success in the medical device sector of the health-care industry. An interview-based survey was used to construct individual case studies of the medical device technology (MDT) companies. A cross-case analysis was performed to search for patterns and themes that cut across these individual cases. Exploratory results revealed the heterogeneity of MDT companies and the distinctive features of the MDT innovation process that emphasize the importance of a strategic approach for achieving milestones in the product development and exploitation process and for creating value for the company and its stakeholders. Recognizing the heterogeneity of MDT companies, these exploratory findings call for further investigation to understand better the influence of components of the MDT innovation process on the commercialization life cycle and value trajectory. This is required to assist start-up or spin-out MDT companies in the UK and worldwide to navigate the critical transitions that determine access to financial and consumer markets and enhance the potential to build a successful business. This will be important not only for bioscience-based companies but also for engineering-based companies aiming to convert their activities into medical devices and the health- and social-care market. PMID:18756690

  15. PKA-dependent phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 does not correlate with translation efficiency in striatonigral and striatopallidal medium-sized spiny neurons.

    PubMed

    Biever, Anne; Puighermanal, Emma; Nishi, Akinori; David, Alexandre; Panciatici, Claire; Longueville, Sophie; Xirodimas, Dimitris; Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Meyuhas, Oded; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2015-03-11

    Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), a component of the 40S ribosomal subunit, is phosphorylated on several residues in response to numerous stimuli. Although commonly used as a marker for neuronal activity, its upstream mechanisms of regulation are poorly studied and its role in protein synthesis remains largely debated. Here, we demonstrate that the psychostimulant d-amphetamine (d-amph) markedly increases rpS6 phosphorylation at Ser235/236 sites in both crude and synaptoneurosomal preparations of the mouse striatum. This effect occurs selectively in D1R-expressing medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) and requires the cAMP/PKA/DARPP-32/PP-1 cascade, whereas it is independent of mTORC1/p70S6K, PKC, and ERK signaling. By developing a novel assay to label nascent peptidic chains, we show that the rpS6 phosphorylation induced in striatonigral MSNs by d-amph, as well as in striatopallidal MSNs by the antipsychotic haloperidol or in both subtypes by papaverine, is not correlated with the translation of global or 5' terminal oligopyrimidine tract mRNAs. Together, these results provide novel mechanistic insights into the in vivo regulation of the post-translational modification of rpS6 in the striatum and point out the lack of a relationship between PKA-dependent rpS6 phosphorylation and translation efficiency. PMID:25762659

  16. Medium- and large-sized mammals in a steppic savanna area of the Brazilian Pampa: survey and conservation issues of a poorly known fauna.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, C C; Galiano, D; Kubiak, B B; Marinho, J R

    2016-02-01

    The wildlife of the Brazilian Pampa is threatened by large-scale habitat loss, due in particular to the expansion of soybean cultivation and the conversion of grasslands areas into extensive areas of silviculture. It is essential to study how the mammal fauna copes with the highly fragmented, human-influenced, non-protected landscape. Our study presents the results of a survey of the large- and medium-sized mammals of a typical human-influenced steppic savanna area of the Pampa biome. The survey was conducted exclusively with the use of camera traps over a period of 16 months. The relative frequencies of species in the area were evaluated. We recorded 18 species, some of them locally threatened (Tamandua tetradactyla, Alouatta caraya, Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus wiedii, Puma yagouaroundi, Mazama gouazoubira and Cuniculus paca). Several species were found to thrive in the area; however, many species were considered rare, and undoubtedly new species could be recorded if we continued the sampling. Our results contribute to the knowledge of faunal diversity in the Pampa biome and associated habitats, warn about threats and provide support for conservation measures. PMID:26909626

  17. PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITIDE 3-KINASE AND PROTEIN KINASE C ZETA MEDIATE RETINOIC ACID INDUCTION OF DARPP-32 IN MEDIUM SIZE SPINY NEURONS IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Pedrini, Steve; Bogush, Alexey; Ehrlich, Michelle E

    2016-01-01

    Mature striatal medium size spiny neurons express the dopamine and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 32 kDa (DARPP-32), but little is known about the mechanisms regulating its levels, or the specification of fully differentiated neuronal subtypes. Cell extrinsic molecules that increase DARPP-32 mRNA and/or protein levels include retinoic acid (RA), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and estrogen (E2). We now demonstrate that RA regulates DARPP-32 mRNA and protein in primary striatal neuronal cultures. Furthermore, DARPP-32 induction by RA in vitro requires phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), but is independent of tropomyosin-related kinase b (TrkB), cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5), and protein kinase B (Akt). Using pharmacologic inhibitors of various isoforms of protein kinase C, we also demonstrate that DARPP-32 induction by RA in vitro is dependent on protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ). Thus, the signal transduction pathways mediated by RA are very different than those mediating DARPP-32 induction by brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). These data support the presence of multiple signal transduction pathways mediating expression of DARPP-32 in vitro, including a novel, important pathway via which PI3K regulates the contribution of PKCζ. PMID:18485106

  18. Analysis of Socio-demographics, Self-rated Health, Social Capital, and Happiness in a Medium-Sized Healthy City, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Heui Sug; Moon, Ji Young; Kim, Bong Gi; Nam, Eun Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background This study explores the relationships between social capital, self-rated health, and happiness and suggests ways to improve the happiness level of a community. Methods The survey was conducted with 445 people using stratified random sampling in a medium-sized city in Korea. Collected information included socio-demographic characteristics, social capital, self-rated health, and happiness. Results Among the demographic characteristics, age had a statistically significant association with happiness level. People in their 40s (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.13–0.88) and 50s (OR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.06–0.57) were less happy than people of other ages. Married people (OR = 4.58, CI = 1.99–10.53) were more likely to have a high happiness level compared to unmarried people. Cognitive social capital (OR = 1.34, CI = 1.19–1.51) and self-rated health (OR = 2.22, CI = 1.59–3.09) were positively associated with happiness. Conclusion The results suggest that social capital and level of health are determinants of subjective happiness. Public policies and programs for improving social capital are needed to support happiness among community residents. PMID:26770893

  19. The effect of air pollutants on birth weight in medium-sized towns in the state of São Paulo☆

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Veridiana de Paula; de Medeiros, Andréa Paula Peneluppi; de Lima, Thaiza Agostini Córdoba; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando Costa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of air pollution on birth weight in a medium-sized town in the State of São Paulo, Southeast Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using data from live births of mothers residing in São José dos Campos from 2005 to 2009. Data was obtained from the Department of Information and Computing of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Air pollutant data (PM10, SO2, and O3) and daily averages of their concentrations were obtained from the Environmental Sanitation & Technology Company. Statistical analysis was performed by linear and logistic regressions using the Excel and STATA v.7 software programs. RESULTS: Maternal exposure to air pollutants was not associated with low birth weight, with the exception of exposure to SO2 within the last month of pregnancy (OR=1.25; 95% CI=1.00-1.56). Maternal exposure to PM10 and SO2 during the last month of pregnancy led to lower weight at birth (0.28g and 3.15g, respectively) for each 1mg/m3 increase in the concentration of these pollutants, but without statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: This study failed to identify a statistically significant association between the levels of air pollutants and birth weight, with the exception of exposure to SO2 within the last month of pregnancy. PMID:25510993

  20. Health-Related Quality of Life and Its Correlates among Chinese Migrants in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Two Cities of Guangdong

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Liming; Zou, Guanyang; Zeng, Zhi; Han, Lu; Guo, Yan; Ling, Li

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore the relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) status and associated factors among rural-to-urban migrants in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 856 rural-to-urban migrants working at small- and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) in Shenzhen and Zhongshan City in 2012. Andersen's behavioral model was used as a theoretical framework to exam the relationships among factors affecting HRQOL. Analysis was performed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results Workers with statutory working hours, higher wages and less migrant experience had higher HRQOL scores. Need (contracting a disease in the past two weeks and perception of needing health service) had the greatest total effect on HRQOL (β = −0.78), followed by enabling (labor contract, insurance purchase, income, physical examination during work and training) (β = 0.40), predisposing (age, family separation, education) (β = 0.22) and health practices and use of health service (physical exercise weekly, health check-up and use of protective equipments) (β = −0.20). Conclusions Priority should be given to satisfy the needs of migrant workers, and improve the enabling resources. PMID:24392084

  1. Primary cutaneous CD4+ small to medium-size pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Volks, Natalie; Oschlies, Ilske; Cario, Gunnar; Weichenthal, Michael; Fölster-Holst, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Primary cutaneous CD4+ small to medium-size pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma (PCSM-TCL) is a rare disease that has been added as a provisional entity to the World Health Organization European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (WHO-EORTC) classification of lymphomas with primary cutaneous manifestations. Patients commonly present with a solitary nodule or plaque on the head or upper trunk, but are usually otherwise in good health. The prognosis is favorable, but the optimal treatment has not been defined. Recent publications have described the expression of programmed death-1 in PCSM-TCL and T-cell pseudolymphoma, suggesting a diagnostic value of this marker in the differential diagnosis of PCSM-TCL in contrast to other types of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. We present the case of a 12-year-old girl with a tumor of the right supraorbital area. She was treated as an outpatient four times with intralesional triamcinolone acetonide at intervals of 3 to 4 weeks. In addition to the case history, this report includes the clinical and histologic findings and a review of the current literature. PMID:23756295

  2. Therapeutic Effects of Benzoxazinorifamycin KRM-1648 Administered Alone or in Combination with a Half-Sized Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor or the Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Diclofenac Sodium against Mycobacterium avium Complex Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Chiaki; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Sato, Katsumasa; Kawauchi, Hideyuki; Kawahara, Shin; Tomioka, Haruaki

    1999-01-01

    The effects of half-sized secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor or diclofenac sodium administered alone or in combination with the benzoxazinorifamycin KRM-1648 on the therapeutic efficacy of KRM-1648 against Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in mice were studied. Neither of the two anti-inflammatory drugs affected the efficacy of KRM-1648, while they exerted significant modulating effects on tumor necrosis factor alpha production by MAC-infected macrophages. PMID:9925533

  3. Sodium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  4. The role of HIV/AIDS committees in effective workplace governance of HIV/AIDS in South African small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

    PubMed

    Vaas, Jocelyn R

    2008-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the role, status and scope of workplace HIV/AIDS committees as a means of effective workplace governance of the HIV/AIDS impact, and their role in extending social protective HIV/AIDS-related rights to employees. In-depth qualitative case studies were conducted in five South African small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that were actively implementing HIV/AIDS policies and programmes. Companies commonly implemented HIV/AIDS policies and programmes through a workplace committee dedicated to HIV/AIDS or a generic committee dealing with issues other than HIV/ AIDS. Management, through the human resources department and the occupational health practitioner often drove initial policy formulation, and had virtually sole control of the HIV/AIDS budget. Employee members of committees were mostly volunteers, and were often production or blue collar employees, while there was a notable lack of participation by white-collar employees, line management and trade unions. While the powers of workplace committees were largely consultative, employee committee members often managed in an indirect manner to secure and extend social protective rights on HIV/AIDS to employees, and monitor their effective implementation in practice. In the interim, workplace committees represented one of the best means to facilitate more effective workplace HIV/AIDS governance. However, the increased demands on collective bargaining as a result of an anticipated rises in AIDS-related morbidity and mortality might prove to be beyond the scope of such voluntary committees in the longer term. PMID:18496614

  5. eVerdEE: a web-based screening life-cycle assessment tool for European small and medium-sized enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naldesi, Luciano; Buttol, Patrizia; Masoni, Paolo; Misceo, Monica; Sára, Balázs

    2004-12-01

    "eLCA" is a European Commission financed project aimed at realising "On line green tools and services for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs)". Knowledge and use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) by SMEs are strategic to introduce the Integrated Product Policy (IPP) in Europe, but methodology simplification is needed. LCA requires a large amount of validated general and sector specific data. Since their availability and cost can be insuperable barriers for SMEs, pre-elaborated data/meta-data, use of standards and low cost solutions are required. Within the framework of the eLCA project an LCA software - eVerdEE - based on a simplified methodology and specialised for SMEs has been developed. eVerdEE is a web-based tool with some innovative features. Its main feature is the adaptation of ISO 14040 requirements to offer easy-to-handle functions with solid scientific bases. Complex methodological problems, such as the system boundaries definition, the data quality estimation and documentation, the choice of impact categories, are simplified according to the SMEs" needs. Predefined "Goal and Scope definition" and "Inventory" forms, a user-friendly and well structured procedure are time and cost-effective. The tool is supported by a database containing pre-elaborated environmental indicators of substances and processes for different impact categories. The impact assessment is calculated automatically by using the user"s input and the database values. The results have different levels of interpretation in order to identify the life cycle critical points and the improvement options. The use of a target plot allows the direct comparison of different design alternatives.

  6. Predictors of a Desire to be Helpful to Professional Nurses Among Japanese Nursing Assistants in Small- to Medium-Sized Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yasushi; Kono, Keiko; Toyoshima, Yasuko; Sugisaki, Hitomi; Matsuhashi, Ayako; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2016-06-01

    Registered nurses and licensed practical nurses have been educated as professional nurses. Professional nurses can concentrate on their jobs requiring a high degree of expertise with help they get from nursing assistants.If professional nurses have improper attitudes toward nursing assistants, it is most likely that the nursing assistants will not help them to the best of their ability. We investigated nursing assistants' impressions regarding professional nurses' attitudes, and what effects nursing assistants' impressions have on their "desire to be helpful to professional nurses." The study design was a cross sectional study. Twenty-five small- to medium-sized hospitals with 55 to 458 beds were included in this study. The analyzed subjects were 642 nursing assistants (96 males, 546 females). Factor analyses were conducted to extract the factors of nursing assistants' impressions regarding professional nurses' attitudes. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to investigate the predictors of "desire to be helpful to professional nurses." We discovered 5 factors: 1. professional nurses' model behavior, 2. manner dealing with nursing assistants, 3. respect for nursing assistants' passion for their work, 4. respect for nursing assistants' work, and 5. enhancing the ability of nursing assistants to do their work. The "desire to be helpful to professional nurses" was significantly associated with "professional nurses' model behavior," "manner dealing with nursing assistants" and "respect for nursing assistants' passion for their work." Factors 1 to 3 are fundamental principles when people establish appropriate relationships. Professional nurses must consider these fundamentals in their daily work in order to get complete cooperation from nursing assistants. PMID:27302725

  7. Drug-primed reinstatement of cocaine seeking in mice: increased excitability of medium-sized spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yao-Ying; Henley, Sandy M.; Toll, Jeff; Jentsch, James D.; Evans, Christopher J.; Levine, Michael S.; Cepeda, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    To examine the mechanisms of drug relapse, we first established a model for cocaine IVSA (intravenous self-administration) in mice, and subsequently examined electrophysiological alterations of MSNs (medium-sized spiny neurons) in the NAc (nucleus accumbens) before and after acute application of cocaine in slices. Three groups were included: master mice trained by AL (active lever) pressings followed by IV (intravenous) cocaine delivery, yoked mice that received passive IV cocaine administration initiated by paired master mice, and saline controls. MSNs recorded in the NAc shell in master mice exhibited higher membrane input resistances but lower frequencies and smaller amplitudes of sEPSCs (spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents) compared with neurons recorded from saline control mice, whereas cells in the NAc core had higher sEPSCs frequencies and larger amplitudes. Furthermore, sEPSCs in MSNs of the shell compartment displayed longer decay times, suggesting that both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms were involved. After acute re-exposure to a low-dose of cocaine in vitro, an AP (action potential)-dependent, persistent increase in sEPSC frequency was observed in both NAc shell and core MSNs from master, but not yoked or saline control mice. Furthermore, re-exposure to cocaine induced membrane hyperpolarization, but concomitantly increased excitability of MSNs from master mice, as evidenced by increased membrane input resistance, decreased depolarizing current to generate APs, and a more negative Thr (threshold) for firing. These data demonstrate functional differences in NAc MSNs after chronic contingent versus non-contingent IV cocaine administration in mice, as well as synaptic adaptations of MSNs before and after acute re-exposure to cocaine. Reversing these functional alterations in NAc could represent a rational target for the treatment of some reward-related behaviors, including drug addiction. PMID:24000958

  8. Design and development of a prototypical software for semi-automatic generation of test methodologies and security checklists for IT vulnerability assessment in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Thomas; Bellin, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the recent progress in the design and prototypical development of a software suite Copra Breeder* for semi-automatic generation of test methodologies and security checklists for IT vulnerability assessment in small and medium-sized enterprises.

  9. The Potential of Distance Education and Training for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Community. A Report for the Commission of the European Communities--Task Force Human Resources, Education, Training, and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintino, Luisa

    An evaluation was made of the training needs of the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Portugal, Spain, Greece, and Italy and the potential of open, distance, flexible, and multimedia learning to meet those needs. The methodology included contacts with training providers, governmental institutions, and SMEs and circulation of…

  10. Distributed simulation of long-term hydrological processes in a medium-sized periurban catchment under changing land use and rainwater management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labbas, Mériem; Braud, Isabelle; Branger, Flora; Kralisch, Sven

    2013-04-01

    Growing urbanization and related anthropogenic processes have a high potential to influence hydrological process dynamics. Typical consequences are an increase of surface imperviousness and modifications of water flow paths due to artificial channels and barriers (combined and separated system, sewer overflow device, roads, ditches, etc.). Periurban catchments, at the edge of large cities, are especially affected by fast anthropogenic modifications. They usually consist of a combination of natural areas, rural areas with dispersed settlements and urban areas mostly covered by built zones and spots of natural surfaces. In the context of the European Water Framework Directive (2000) and the Floods Directive (2007), integrated and sustainable solutions are needed to reduce flooding risks and river pollution at the scale of urban conglomerations or whole catchments. Their thorough management requires models able to assess the vulnerability of the territory and to compare the impact of different rainwater management options and planning issues. To address this question, we propose a methodology based on a multi-scale distributed hydrological modelling approach. It aims at quantifying the impact of ongoing urbanization and stormwater management on the long-term hydrological cycle in medium-sized periurban watershed. This method focuses on the understanding and formalization of dominant periurban hydrological processes from small scales (few ha to few km2) to larger scales (few hundred km2). The main objectives are to 1) simulate both urban and rural hydrological processes and 2) test the effects of different long-term land use and water management scenarios. The method relies on several tools and data: a distributed hydrological model adapted to the characteristics of periurban areas, land use and land cover maps from different dates (past, present, future) and information about rainwater management collected from local authorities. For the application of the method, the

  11. Medium-Sized Mammals around a Radioactive Liquid Waste Lagoon at Los Alamos National Laboratory: Uptake of Contaminants and Evaluation of Radio-Frequency Identification Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie A. Hansen; Phil R. Fresquez; Rhonda J. Robinson; John D. Huchton; Teralene S. Foxx

    1999-11-01

    Use of a radioactive liquid waste lagoon by medium-sized mammals and levels of tritium, other selected radionuclides, and metals in biological tissues of the animals were documented at Technical Area 53 (TA-53) of Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1997 and 1998. Rock squirrel (Spermophilus variegates), raccoon (Procyon lotor), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), and bobcat (Lynx rufus) were captured at TA-53 and at a control site on the Santa Fe National Forest. Captured animals were anesthetized and marked with radio-frequency identification (RFD) tags and/or ear tags. We collected urine and hair samples for tritium and metals (aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, and thallium) analyses, respectively. In addition, muscle and bone samples from two rock squirrels collected from each of TA-53, perimeter, and regional background sites were tested for tritium, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and total uranium. Animals at TA-53 were monitored entering and leaving the lagoon area using a RFID monitor to read identification numbers from the RFID tags of marked animals and a separate camera system to photograph all animals passing through the monitor. Cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus spp.), rock squirrel, and raccoon were the species most frequently photographed going through the RFID monitor. Less than half of all marked animals in the lagoon area were detected using the lagoon. Male and female rock squirrels from the lagoon area had significantly higher tritium concentrations compared to rock squirrels from the control area. Metals tested were not significantly higher in rock squirrels from TA-53, although there was a trend toward increased levels of lead in some individuals at TA-53. Muscle and bone samples from squirrels in the lagoon area appeared to have higher levels of tritium, total uranium, and {sup 137}Cs than samples collected from perimeter and

  12. Association between intention to stay on the job and job satisfaction among Japanese nurses in small and medium-sized private hospitals.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yasushi; Satoh, Toshihiko; Hosoi, Kaori; Miki, Takeo; Watanabe, Mitsuyasu; Kido, Shigeri; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2006-11-01

    In order to examine the relationship between the intention to stay on the job and job satisfaction among Japanese nurses, and to obtain clues for preventing turnover, we conducted a questionnaire survey. The subjects involved in the survey included 625 female nurses (registered nurses, licensed practical nurses and assistant nurses) working in 4 small and medium-sized private hospitals, excluding directors of nursing. Of the 625 questionnaires distributed, 556 (89.0%) were returned. After excluding the questionnaires with missing values, 480 questionnaires were analyzed (effective response rate, 76.8%). The average age of the respondents was 32.8 yr (range: 20-65). The content of the questionnaire was nurse attributes, job satisfaction (30 items) and intention to stay on the job. For job satisfaction, factor analysis (principal factor method and promax rotation) was performed, and factors with an eigenvalue of > or =1 were extracted. Six factors were extracted by factor analysis. These factors were interpreted as "Work as specialists" (1st factor), "Relationship with superiors" (2nd factor), "Comfortable life" (3rd factor), "Relationship among nurses" (4th factor), "Communication with physicians" (5th factor) and "Working conditions" (6th factor). The factor scores were calculated and used as a scale for the evaluation of job satisfaction. To investigate the factors associated with intention to stay on the job among nurses, the standard partial regression coefficient was computed by multiple linear regression analysis, with intention to stay on the job as the dependent variable, and nurse attributes and job satisfaction (factor scores) as independent variables. Various factors including the organizational culture of each hospital may affect the relationship between job satisfaction and the intention to stay on the job. In order to adjust for these factors, differences among hospitals were included in the statistical model as independent variables. The result of the

  13. Salt tolerant green crop species for sodium management in space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Shimoda, Toshifumi; Nose, Akihiro; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Ecological system and materials recycling loop of space agriculture are quite tight compared to natural ecological system on Earth. Sodium management will be a keen issue for space agricul-ture. Human nutritional requirements include sodium salt. Since sodium at high concentration is toxic for most of plant growth, excreted sodium of human waste should be removed from compost fertilizer. Use of marine algae is promising for harvesting potassium and other min-erals required for plant growth and returning remained sodium to satisfy human need of its intake. Farming salt tolerant green crop species is another approach to manage sodium problem in both space and terrestrial agriculture. We chose ice plant and New Zealand spinach. These two plant species are widely accepted green vegetable with many recipe. Ice plant can grow at the salinity level of sea water, and contain sodium salt up to 30% of its dry mass. Sodium distributes mainly in its bladder cells. New Zealand spinach is a plant species found in the front zone of sea shore, and tolerant against high salinity as well. Plant body size of both species at harvest is quite large, and easy to farm. Capability of bio-remediation of high saline soil is examined with ice plant and New Zealand spinach. Incubation medium was chosen to contain high concentration of sodium and potassium at the Na/K ratio of human excreta. In case Na/K ratio of plant body grown by this medium is greatly higher than that of incubation medium or soil, these halophytes are effective to remediate soil for farming less tolerant plant crop. Experimental results was less positive in this context.

  14. The formation of surface multilayers at the air-water interface from sodium polyethylene glycol monoalkyl ether sulfate/AlCl(3) solutions: the role of the size of the polyethylene oxide group.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Penfold, Jeff; Thomas, Robert K; Petkov, Jordan T; Tucker, Ian; Webster, John P R

    2013-09-17

    Neutron reflectivity, NR, and surface tension, ST, have been used to study the surface adsorption properties at the air-water interface of the anionic surfactant sodium polyethylene glycol monododecyl ether sulfate (sodium lauryl ether sulfate, SLES) in the presence of Al(3+) multivalent counterions, by the addition of AlCl3. In the absence of AlCl3 and at low AlCl3 concentrations monolayer adsorption is observed. With increasing AlCl3 concentration, surface multilayer formation is observed, driven by SLES/Al(3+) complex formation. The onset of multilayer formation occurs initially as a single bilayer or a multilayer structure with a limited number of bilayers, N, ≤3, and ultimately at higher AlCl3 concentrations N is large, >20. The evolution in the surface structure is determined by the surfactant and AlCl3 concentrations, and the size of the polyethylene oxide group in the different SLES surfactants studied. From the NR data, approximate surface phase diagrams are constructed, and the evolution of the surface structure with surfactant and electrolyte concentration is shown to be dependent on the size of the polyethylene oxide group. As the polyethylene oxide group increases in size the multilayer formation requires increasingly higher surfactant and AlCl3 concentrations to promote the formation. This is attributed to the increased steric hindrance of the polyethylene oxide group disrupting SLES/Al(3+) complex formation. PMID:23968161

  15. Sodium Oxybate

    MedlinePlus

    ... if you use or have ever used street drugs, or if you have overused prescription medications. Sodium oxybate may be harmful when taken by people other than the person for whom it was prescribed. Do not sell or give your sodium oxybate to anyone else; selling or sharing it is against the law. Store ...

  16. Report on the meetings of the small and medium size reactor (SMR) expert group of the organization for economic cooperation and development (OECD), Paris, France, June 15-16, 1989: Foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, W.J.

    1989-07-05

    The traveler attended the meeting of the Small and Medium Size Reactor (SMR) Expert Group of the OECD. The group agreed to identify the potential for SMRs in OECD countries and to document their views in a report. The group also developed and initiated a plan and schedule for this effort. This report describes significant activities that took place during the meeting and presents relevant information that has been collected in recent international studies.

  17. Cooperative Photo-/Lewis Acid Catalyzed Tandem Intramolecular [3 + 2] Cross-Cycloadditions of Cyclopropane 1,1-Diesters with α,β-Unsaturated Carbonyls for Medium-Sized Carbocycles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenjun; Chen, Shuai; Ren, Jun; Wang, Zhongwen

    2015-09-01

    A tandem isomerization/intramolecular [3 + 2] cross-cycloaddition (IMCC) of cyclopropane 1,1-diesters with α,β-unsaturated ketones/aldehydes under a cooperative catalysis of photo and Lewis acids has been successfully developed. This supplied a general and efficient strategy for construction of medium-sized carbocyclic (8-, 9-, and 10-membered) skeletons as well as such carbocycle-based bridged oxa-bicyclo[n.2.1] (n = 4-6) skeletons. PMID:26313742

  18. Inhibition of Hyperpolarization-Activated Cation Current in Medium-Sized DRG Neurons Contributed to the Antiallodynic Effect of Methylcobalamin in the Rat of a Chronic Compression of the DRG

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming; Han, Wenjuan; Zheng, Jianyong; Meng, Fancheng; Jiao, Xiying; Hu, Sanjue; Xu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Recently several lines of evidence demonstrated that methylcobalamin (MeCbl) might have potential analgesic effect in experimental and clinical studies. However, it was reported that MeCbl had no effect on treating lumbar spinal stenosis induced pain. Thus, the effects of short-term and long-term administration of MeCbl were examined in the chronic compression of dorsal root ganglion (CCD) model. We found that mechanical allodynia was significantly inhibited by a continuous application of high dose and a single treatment of a super high dose of MeCbl. Little is known about mechanisms underlying the analgesia of MeCbl. We examined the effect of MeCbl on the spontaneous activity (SA), the excitability, and hyperpolarization-activated nonselective cation ion current in compressed medium-sized dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons using extracellular single fiber recording in vivo and whole-cell patch clamp in vitro. We found that MeCbl significantly inhibited the SA of A-type sensory neurons in a dose-dependent manner and inhibited the excitability of medium-sized DRG neurons. In addition, MeCbl also decreased Ih current density in injured medium-sized DRG neurons. Our results proved that MeCbl might exert an analgesic effect through the inhibition Ih current and then might inhibit the hyperexcitability of primary sensory neurons under neuropathic pain state. PMID:26101670

  19. Modeling of DFT quality neural network potential for sodium clusters: Application to melting of sodium clusters (Na20 to Na40)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiriki, Siva; Bulusu, Satya S.

    2016-05-01

    The present work demonstrates the use of computationally inexpensive neural network (NN) potential for studying global optimizations and phase transitions in small to medium sized sodium clusters with DFT accuracy. Accuracy of NN potential has been tested by performing global optimizations in the size range of 16-40 atoms. We performed Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using NN potential to study the melting behaviour. Melting study in the size range of 20-40 atoms shows a characteristic premelting peak and a main melting peak. Our results using NN potentials support the idea of stepwise melting in small Na clusters (Aguado, 2011).

  20. Sodium affects the sperm motility in the European eel.

    PubMed

    Vílchez, M Carmen; Morini, Marina; Peñaranda, David S; Gallego, Víctor; Asturiano, Juan F; Pérez, Luz

    2016-08-01

    The role of seminal plasma sodium and activation media sodium on sperm motility was examined by selectively removing the element from these two media, in European eel sperm. Sperm size (sperm head area) was also measured using an ASMA (Automated Sperm Morphometry Analyses) system, in the different conditions. Intracellular sodium [Na(+)]i was quantitatively analyzed by first time in the spermatozoa from a marine fish species. Measurement of [Na(+)]i was done before and after motility activation, by Flow Cytometry, using CoroNa Green AM as a dye. Sperm motility activation induced an increase in [Na(+)]i, from 96.72mM in quiescent stage to 152.21mM post-activation in seawater. A significant decrease in sperm head area was observed post-activation in seawater. There was a notable reduction in sperm motility when sodium was removed from the seminal plasma, but not when it was removed from the activation media. Sodium removal was also linked to a significant reduction in sperm head area in comparison to the controls. Our results indicate that the presence of the ion Na(+) in the seminal plasma (or in the extender medium) is necessary for the preservation of sperm motility in European eel, probably because it plays a role in maintaining an appropriate sperm cell volume in the quiescent stage of the spermatozoa. PMID:27085371

  1. Thermo-electro-mechanical vibration analysis of size-dependent nanobeam resting on elastic medium under axial preload in presence of surface effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzbanrad, Javad; Boreiry, Mahya; Shaghaghi, Gholam Reza

    2016-07-01

    In the present manuscript, a nonclassical beam theory is developed to analyze free vibration of piezoelectric nanobeam by considering surface effects resting on Winkler-Pasternak elastic medium and thermal loading with axial preload. The nonclassical Eringen theory is utilized to incorporate the length-scale parameter to account for the small-scale effect, while the Gurtin-Murdoch model is employed to inject the surface effects including surface elasticity, surface stress and surface density. The governing equations are derived using Hamilton's principle in the framework of Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The governing partial differential equations of motions of system are reduced to a set of algebraic equations with the help of differential transformation method as a semi-analytical-numerical. The mathematical derivations and numerical results are presented in detail for various boundary conditions. Some numerical examples are illustrated in order to investigate the effect of several parameters such as the nonlocal parameter, piezoelectric voltage, surface effects, temperature change, axial preload and elastic medium parameters. Moreover, it is also indicated that the numerical results have good agreement with previous studies.

  2. Impact of extraction and elution media on non-size effects in size exclusion chromatography of proteins.

    PubMed

    Lambrecht, Marlies A; Rombouts, Ine; Van Kelst, Lotte; Delcour, Jan A

    2015-10-01

    Size exclusion chromatography is extensively used to separate proteins and to determine their apparent molecular weights. It separates proteins based on hydrodynamic volume, but interactions between the chromatography resin and proteins lead to non-size effects. This report discusses the impact of co-solvents [salt, urea, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), dithiothreitol] in extraction media when separating wheat gluten proteins, soy glycinin, bovine serum albumin and ovalbumin on a Biosep-SEC-S4000 column. With acetonitrile/water (1:1, v/v) containing 0.05% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid as eluent, salts and SDS in the extraction media increase while urea decreases non-size effects. Most gluten and globular proteins are extractable in sodium phosphate buffer (0.050M; pH 6.8) containing 2.0% (w/v) SDS. This chromatographic medium allows analyzing mixtures of various proteins without any non-size effects. PMID:26365913

  3. Development of nanocomposites based on hydroxyapatite/sodium alginate: Synthesis and characterisation

    SciTech Connect

    Rajkumar, M.; Meenakshisundaram, N.; Rajendran, V.

    2011-05-15

    In this study, a novel method was used to produce a nanostructured composite consisting of hydroxyapatite and sodium alginate by varying the composition of sodium alginate. The structure, morphology, simulated body fluid response and mechanical properties of the synthesised nanocomposites were characterised. From X-ray diffraction analysis, an increase in crystallite size and degree of crystallinity with an increase in the composition of sodium alginate up to 1.5 wt.% was observed. Further, it was found to decrease with an increase in the composition of sodium alginate. A notable peak shift from 1635 to 1607 cm{sup -1} and 1456 to 1418 cm{sup -1} in the Fourier transform infrared spectra of the nanocomposite was observed towards the lower wave number side when compared with pure hydroxyapatite. It reveals a strong interaction between the positively charged calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) and the negatively charged carboxyl group (COO{sup -}) in sodium alginate. Transmission electron microscopy images of pure hydroxyapatite showed a short nanorod-like morphology with an average particle size of 13 nm. Bioresorbability of the samples was observed by immersing them in simulated body fluid medium for 14 days to evaluate the changes in pH and Ca{sup 2+} ion strength. Microhardness shows an increasing trend with an increase in the composition of sodium alginate from 1.5 to 3.0 wt.%, which is similar to that in the density. - Research Highlights: {yields} We have prepared nanohydroxyapatite/sodium alginate as a composite. {yields} Effect of sodium alginate on the properties of nanohydrroxyapatite has been studied. {yields} The sodium alginate ranges from 0 to 3.75 wt.% has been used. {yields} Composites show improved biological and mechanical properties.

  4. Chronic reparative changes in medium-sized vessels in a case of primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma with angioinvasive features and cytotoxic phenotype: new histopathological findings in line with indolent clinical behavior.

    PubMed

    Macarenco, Ricardo S; de Oliveira, Deilson Elgui

    2015-05-01

    Angioinvasion/angiodestruction has been reported in a small subset of primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphomas (PCALCL). Recently, PCALCL with angioinvasive features and cytotoxic phenotype has been characterized as a variant associated with good clinical outcomes despite worrisome histopathologic features. We report a case of PCALCL with angioinvasive features and cytotoxic phenotype associated with reparative changes on the wall of medium-sized vessels involved by the neoplasm, including intimal fibroblastic proliferation and luminal obliteration. This vascular pattern, although previously unreported in PCALCL, is in accordance with the indolent behavior observed in this entity and provides a further link with lymphomatoid papulosis type E. PMID:25365499

  5. Diode-pumped medium-aperture-size square Nd,Y:CaF2 rod amplifier for Inertial Confinement Fusion laser drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiongxin; Qiu, Jisi; Fan, Zhongwei; Su, Liangbi; Wang, Haocheng

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, an 12 mm × 12 mm 0.5%Nd,5% Y:CaF2 crystal rod having a uniformly-distributed fluorescence spectrum and capable of operating as an amplifying medium at high repetition frequencies. A small gain of 2.7 is experimentally achieved at repetition frequency of 10 Hz for a pump center wavelength of 802 nm, power and absorption efficiency, 61.2 kW and 63.7%, respectively. Spatial-uniformity degradation of the output near-field beam distribution is observed, which should be attributed to the inhomogeneity of Nd,Y:CaF2 crystal. For a pump power of 61.2 kW, the stored energy of Nd,Y:CaF2 amplifier is 3.73 J. When the input energy is 50 mJ, the output laser energy is 1.4 J of extraction efficiency up to 37.53% after four-pass amplification.

  6. Diode-pumped medium-aperture-size square Nd,Y:CaF2 rod amplifier for Inertial Confinement Fusion laser drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiongxin; Qiu, Jisi; Fan, Zhongwei; Su, Liangbi; Wang, Haocheng

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, an 12 mm × 12 mm 0.5%Nd,5% Y:CaF2 crystal rod having a uniformly-distributed fluorescence spectrum and capable of operating as an amplifying medium at high repetition frequencies. A small gain of 2.7 is experimentally achieved at repetition frequency of 10 Hz for a pump center wavelength of 802 nm, power and absorption efficiency, 61.2 kW and 63.7%, respectively. Spatial-uniformity degradation of the output near-field beam distribution is observed, which should be attributed to the inhomogeneity of Nd,Y:CaF2 crystal. For a pump power of 61.2 kW, the stored energy of Nd,Y:CaF2 amplifier is 3.73 J. When the input energy is 50 mJ, the output laser energy is 1.4 J of extraction efficiency up to 37.53% after four-pass amplification.

  7. Acifluorfen, sodium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acifluorfen , sodium ; CASRN 62476 - 59 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  8. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate ; CASRN 148 - 18 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  9. Sodium fluoroacetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium fluoroacetate ; CASRN 62 - 74 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  10. Sodium azide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium azide ; CASRN 26628 - 22 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  11. Sodium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for sodium cyanide is included in the

  12. Performance of submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) with and without the addition of the different particle sizes of GAC as suspended medium.

    PubMed

    Johir, M A; Shanmuganathan, S; Vigneswaran, S; Kandasamy, J

    2013-08-01

    In this study the effect of different particle sizes of granular activated carbon (GAC) on the performance of a submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) was investigated. The sizes of GAC used were 150-300, 300-600 and 600-1200 μm. The SMBR was operated at a filtration flux of 20 L/m(2)h. The removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) with the addition of GAC was 95%. The concentration of biopolymers, humic, building block and low molecular weight neutral and acids in the SMBR effluent was reduced by 20%, 66-76%, 20-50%, 30-56%, respectively. It helped to reduce the sludge volume index (SVI) and transmembrane pressure (TMP) development by 30-40% and 58%, respectively. However, the removal of NH₄(+) and PO₄(3-) was relatively low of 35-45% and 34-43%, respectively. The SMBR effluent was rich in PO₄(3-) and was removed/recovered using hydrated ferric oxide (HFO). The removal of PO₄(3-) was almost 90%. PMID:23545069

  13. Grain size reduction and recording performance improvement by using NiW as a partial interlayer in CoCrPt/SiO2 recording medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong-Wei

    2011-12-01

    We report the effect of NiW, as an interlayer to partially replace Ru, on the microstructure, magnetic properties, and recording performance of CoCrPt/SiO2 perpendicular recording media. It was found that the full width at half maximum of the rocking curves of the Co (0002) peak changed little with NiW thickness up to 10 nm. However, further increase of NiW thickness caused a larger c-axis dispersion. The grain size of the CoCrPt/SiO2 recording layer was reduced from 10.9±1.8 nm for the films without NiW to 7.7±1.5 nm for films with 10-nm NiW as a partial interlayer. The coercivity, H c, nucleation field, H n, and the reverse overwrite, Rev_OV, of the CoCrPt/SiO2 layer did not change much (less than 15%) with increased NiW thickness. However, it did affect the switching field distribution of the CoCrPt/SiO2 layer (more than double). The recording performance was improved by using NiW as a partial interlayer, which was mainly attributed to the reduced grain size.

  14. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  15. Low sodium level

    MedlinePlus

    Low sodium level is a condition in which the amount of sodium (salt) in the blood is lower ... and this causes many of the symptoms of low sodium. With low sodium level (hyponatremia), the imbalance of ...

  16. Galactic Sodium from AGB Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzard, R. G.; Gibson, B. K.; Stancliffe, R. J.

    2007-11-01

    Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) models which include sodium from type II supernovae (SNe) alone underestimate the abundance of sodium in the interstellar medium by a factor of 2 to 3 over about 3 ridex in metallicity and predict a flat behavior in the evolution of riNafe at super-solar metallicities. Conversely, recent observations of stars with rifeh ˜ +0.4 suggest that riNafe increases at high metallicity. We have combined stellar evolution models of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars with the latest SN yields in an attempt to resolve these problems dots and have created many more.

  17. Land cover and future climate effects on the provision of hydrological services: SWAT applied to a medium-sized watershed of northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho-Santos, Claudia; Nunes, João Pedro; Monteiro, António T.; Hein, Lars; Honrado, João

    2015-04-01

    Land cover change and future climate conditions may influence the provision of hydrological services. Therefore, it is important to understand how these drivers will affect water supplies and water hazards mitigation, in order to support the planning and management of water resources. In this study, the separated and combined effects of land cover and future climate on the hydrology of the Vez watershed, northern Portugal, were evaluated. The Vez watershed (252 Km2) has a humid climate regime where precipitation is abundant all over the year (1500mm/yr), with exception of a summer with almost no rain. The SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model was calibrated against daily discharge, sediments and nitrates, with good agreements between model predictions and field observations related with discharge; the calibration of sediments and nitrates can be considered adequate given the limitations of observed data. Four hypothetical land cover scenarios were applied under current climate conditions (eucalyptus/pine, oak, agriculture/vine and low vegetation). Results for land cover revealed that the option for one particular scenario would not compromise the overall provision of hydrological services. However, the eucalyptus/pine scenario could reduce the annual water quantity by 7%, and up to 17% in the summer period; and the agriculture/vine scenario could increase soil erosion and nitrate exports. For the future climate scenario, a statistical downscaling of four ensemble GCMs (General Circulation Models), bias-corrected with ground observations was done for 2021-40 and 2041-60, using the RCP 4.5 medium emissions scenario. An increase in temperature (annual: 1.6°C; summer: 2.02°C) and a decrease in precipitation (annual: -3.9%), more pronounced in summer (-25%) are expected in the Vez watershed. Although climate change has only a modest effect in the reduction of the total annual discharge (-7%), the effect on streamflow during summer can be more pronounced (between

  18. Expression of programmed death-1 in primary cutaneous CD4-positive small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma, cutaneous pseudo-T-cell lymphoma, and other types of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Cetinözman, Fatma; Jansen, Patty M; Willemze, Rein

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigated whether programmed death-1 (PD-1) could serve as a useful diagnostic marker to differentiate between primary cutaneous CD4 small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma (PCSM-TCL) and cutaneous pseudo-T-cell lymphomas on the one hand and other types of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) on the other. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded skin biopsies from 26 patients with PCSM-TCL or pseudo-T-cell lymphoma, including 1 patient with a lymphomatoid drug eruption, and 52 skin biopsies from other types of CTCLs were stained for PD-1. In addition, PD-1-positive cases were stained with antibodies against BCL6, CXCL13, and CD10 to determine a possible relationship with follicular helper T (TFH) cells. In all 26 cases of PCSM-TCL or pseudo-T-cell lymphoma, the medium-sized to large-sized atypical T cells consistently expressed PD-1, BCL6, and CXCL13 but not CD10. PD-1 expression was found in only 2 of 21 cases of mycosis fungoides and in only 2 of 16 cases of cutaneous peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified. All 4 patients with an aggressive epidermotropic cytotoxic CD8 CTCL and all 11 cases with a primary cutaneous CD30 lymphoproliferative disorder were negative for PD-1. In conclusion, PD-1 is typically expressed by atypical cells in PCSM-TCL and pseudo-T-cell lymphoma but is not expressed or is rarely expressed in other types of CTCLs. Therefore, it may serve as a suitable adjunct in differential diagnosis. Our results demonstrate that the atypical cells in PCSM-TCL and pseudo-T-cell lymphomas share a common TFH phenotype and support the view that most cases classified nowadays as PCSM-TCL are identical to cutaneous pseudo-T-cell lymphomas described previously. PMID:21989349

  19. Low sodium diet (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ...

  20. Effect of the borax mass and pre-spray medium temperature on droplet size and velocity vector distributions of intermittently sprayed starchy solutions.

    PubMed

    Naz, Muhammad Yasin; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Ariwahjoedi, Bambang

    2015-02-01

    Spray coating technology has demonstrated great potential in the slow release fertilizers industry. The better understanding of the key spray parameters benefits both the environment and low cost coating processes. The use of starch based materials to coat the slow release fertilizers is a new development. However, the hydraulic spray jet breakup of the non-Newtonian starchy solutions is a complex phenomenon and very little known. The aim of this research was to study the axial and radial distributions of the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) and velocity vectors in pulsing spray patterns of native and modified tapioca starch solutions. To meet the objective, high speed imaging and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) techniques were employed to characterize the four compositions of the starch-urea-borax complex namely S0, S1, S2 and S3. The unheated solutions exhibited very high viscosities ranging from 2035 to 3030 cP. No jet breakup was seen at any stage of the nozzle operation at an injection pressure of 1-5 bar. However, at 80 °C temperature and 5 bar pressure, the viscosity was reduced to 455 to 638 cP and dense spray patterns emerged from the nozzle obscuring the PDA signals. The axial size distribution revealed a significant decrease in SMD along the spray centreline. The smallest axial SMD (51 to 79 μm) was noticed in S0 spray followed by S1, S2 and S3. Unlikely, the radial SMD in S0 spray did not vary significantly at any stage of the spray injection. This trend was attributed to the continuous growth of the surface wave instabilities on the native starch sheet. However, SMD obtained with S1, S2 and S3 varied appreciably along the radial direction. The mean velocity vector profiles followed the non-Gaussian distribution. The constant vector distributions were seen in the near nozzle regions, where the spray was in the phase of development. In far regions, the velocity vectors were poly-dispersed and a series of ups and downs were seen in the respective radial

  1. Assessing the potential of Medium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) and Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data for monitoring total suspended matter in small and intermediate sized lakes and reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarrant, P. E.; Amacher, J. A.; Neuer, S.

    2010-09-01

    Satellite remote sensing has been used extensively for many years to monitor the open oceans and coastal waters. These methods have been extended more recently to the study of inland waters. In this study we consider the potential application of data from two ocean color sensors, Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Medium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS), for monitoring the levels of suspended solids in small and intermediate sized lakes and reservoirs. We measured total suspended matter (TSM) in four southwestern United States lakes, Roosevelt Lake, Saguaro Lake, Bartlett Lake, and Lake Pleasant, and compared these field data with images obtained from these medium resolution satellite sensors. Our regression analysis of the complete data set identified a linear relationship between the field TSM values and both MODIS 250 m data (r2 = 0.461) and MERIS 290 m data (r2 = 0.521). This relationship improved substantially when data from the smallest lake in the study (Saguaro Lake) were excluded from the analysis (r2 = 0.819 and r2 = 0.888, respectively). The resultant linear models produced estimates with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) ranging from 3.14 mg/L (MODIS) and 2.04 mg/L (MERIS) for all four lakes combined, improving to 1.32 mg/L (MODIS) and 0.47 mg/L (MERIS) for a lake-specific regression. These results suggest that these satellite sensors have the potential to effectively monitor TSM in lakes and reservoirs, although a minimum practical lake size does appear to exist.

  2. Polymorphism of Metallic Sodium under Nanoconfinement.

    PubMed

    Uskov, A V; Nefedov, D Yu; Charnaya, E V; Haase, J; Michel, D; Kumzerov, Yu A; Fokin, A V; Bugaev, A S

    2016-01-13

    (23)Na NMR studies of sodium nanoparticles confined to porous glass with the 3.5 nm mean pore size were carried out. The emergence of the second component of the NMR line was observed below 240 K that evidences the occurrence of another modification of metallic sodium. The phase transition temperature is much higher than the martensite transformation temperature in bulk sodium. PMID:26714113

  3. Uptake of sodium in quince, sugar beet, and wheat protoplasts determined by the fluorescent sodium-binding dye benzofuran isophthalate.

    PubMed

    D'Onofrio, Claudio; Kader, Abdul; Lindberg, Sylvia

    2005-04-01

    The uptake of sodium into protoplasts of quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill, clone BA29), sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. Monohill), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Kadett) was determined by use of the acetoxy methyl ester of the fluorescent sodium-binding benzofuran isopthalate (SBFI-AM). In the presence of 1 mM CaCl2, little sodium was taken up in the cytosol of quince mesophyll cells compared to cytosols of sugar beet and wheat. Upon addition of 40 mM NaCl, approximately the same amount of sodium was taken up in leaf and root protoplasts of wheat, but no sodium was taken up in quince. However, in calcium-free medium, obtained by addition of ethylene glycol tetra acetic acid (EGTA), quince protoplasts transiently took up sodium in the cytosol when 200-400 mM NaCl was added to the protoplast medium. Moreover, after cultivation of quince in the presence of 200 mM sodium for 4 weeks, the cytosol of isolated protoplasts did not take up any sodium at all from a calcium-free medium. The results show that protoplasts from salt tolerant quince only temporarily take up sodium in the cytosol and that they have a mechanism for fast extrusion of sodium from that compartment. These mechanisms are probably important for the high salt tolerance of quince. Calcium blocks the sodium uptake into the cytosol of both quince and wheat protoplasts. PMID:15900884

  4. Sodium Spray Would Speed Silicon Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sancier, K. M.

    1983-01-01

    Production rate of solar-grade silicon in sodium/silicon tetrafluoride reactor increase by spray feed. Liquid-sodium droplet size is controlled by pressure of argon gas and by nozzle design. Baffle helps to prevent reactor opening from becoming clogged by reaction products.

  5. Hollow-fiber flow field-flow fractionation and multi-angle light scattering investigation of the size, shape and metal-release of silver nanoparticles in aqueous medium for nano-risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Marassi, Valentina; Casolari, Sonia; Roda, Barbara; Zattoni, Andrea; Reschiglian, Pierluigi; Panzavolta, Silvia; Tofail, Syed A M; Ortelli, Simona; Delpivo, Camilla; Blosi, Magda; Costa, Anna Luisa

    2015-03-15

    Due to the increased use of silver nanoparticles in industrial scale manufacturing, consumer products and nanomedicine reliable measurements of properties such as the size, shape and distribution of these nano particles in aqueous medium is critical. These properties indeed affect both functional properties and biological impacts especially in quantifying associated risks and identifying suitable risk-mediation strategies. The feasibility of on-line coupling of a fractionation technique such as hollow-fiber flow field flow fractionation (HF5) with a light scattering technique such as MALS (multi-angle light scattering) is investigated here for this purpose. Data obtained from such a fractionation technique and its combination thereof with MALS have been compared with those from more conventional but often complementary techniques e.g. transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray fluorescence. The combination of fractionation and multi angle light scattering techniques have been found to offer an ideal, hyphenated methodology for a simultaneous size-separation and characterization of silver nanoparticles. The hydrodynamic radii determined by fractionation techniques can be conveniently correlated to the mean average diameters determined by multi angle light scattering and reliable information on particle morphology in aqueous dispersion has been obtained. The ability to separate silver (Ag(+)) ions from silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) via membrane filtration during size analysis is an added advantage in obtaining quantitative insights to its risk potential. Most importantly, the methodology developed in this article can potentially be extended to similar characterization of metal-based nanoparticles when studying their functional effectiveness and hazard potential. PMID:25698553

  6. Low sodium level

    MedlinePlus

    Low sodium level is a condition in which the amount of sodium (salt) in the blood is lower than normal. The ... Sodium is found mostly in the body fluids outside the cells. It is very important for maintaining ...

  7. Diclofenac sodium.

    PubMed

    Small, R E

    1989-08-01

    The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, adverse effects, and dosage of diclofenac sodium are reviewed. Diclofenac, the first nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) to be approved that is a phenylacetic acid derivative, competes with arachidonic acid for binding to cyclo-oxygenase, resulting in decreased formation of prostaglandins. The drug has both analgesic and antipyretic activities. Diclofenac is efficiently absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract; peak plasma concentrations occur 1.5 to 2.0 hours after ingestion in fasting subjects. Even though diclofenac has a relatively short elimination half-life in plasma (1.5 hours), it persists in synovial fluid. The drug is metabolized in the liver and is eliminated by urinary and biliary excretion. In clinical trials, diclofenac was as effective as aspirin, diflunisal, indomethacin, sulindac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen in improving function and reducing pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. For treatment of osteoarthritis, diclofenac was equivalent in efficacy to aspirin, diflunisal, indomethacin, sulindac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, flurbiprofen, mefenamic acid, and piroxicam. Diclofenac was as effective as indomethacin or sulindac in treating ankylosing spondylitis. The most frequent adverse effects reported for diclofenac were gastrointestinal, but these effects were fewer and less serious than occurred with aspirin or indomethacin; in addition, diclofenac caused fewer central nervous system reactions than indomethacin. Diclofenac is administered in divided doses with meals. The recommended total daily dosage is 100 to 150 mg (osteoarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis) or 150 to 200 mg (rheumatoid arthritis). Diclofenac is effective, but no more so than other NSAIDs. It is structurally distinct and offers another choice in the treatment of rheumatological conditions. PMID:2670397

  8. Indication that the Nitrogen Source Influences Both Amount and Size of Exopolysaccharides Produced by Streptococcus thermophilus LY03 and Modelling of the Bacterial Growth and Exopolysaccharide Production in a Complex Medium

    PubMed Central

    Degeest, Bart; De Vuyst, Luc

    1999-01-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus LY03 is a yogurt strain producing the same exopolysaccharide material in both milk and MRS broth. Actually, two types of exopolysaccharides are produced simultaneously. The two exopolysaccharides are identical in monomer composition (galactose and glucose in a 4:1 ratio) but differ in molecular size. Gel permeation chromatography revealed a high-molecular-mass exopolysaccharide (1.8 × 106) and a low-molecular-mass exopolysaccharide (4.1 × 105). Both exopolysaccharides can be isolated from the fermentation broth separately. The proportion in which they are produced is strongly dependent on the carbon/nitrogen ratio of the fermentation broth. A shift from a high-molecular-mass exopolysaccharide to a low-molecular-mass exopolysaccharide was observed with increasing initial complex nitrogen concentrations. All necessary biokinetic parameters to study the kinetics of S. thermophilus LY03 fermentations were obtained from a mathematical model which describes both S. thermophilus LY03 growth and exopolysaccharide production and degradation. The model is valid with various initial complex nitrogen concentrations and can be applied to simulate exopolysaccharide production in a milk medium. PMID:10388677

  9. Calculating core-level excitations and X-ray absorption spectra of medium-sized closed-shell molecules with the algebraic-diagrammatic construction scheme for the polarization propagator.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Jan; Wormit, Michael; Dreuw, Andreas

    2014-10-01

    Core-level excitations are generated by absorption of high-energy radiation such as X-rays. To describe these energetically high-lying excited states theoretically, we have implemented a variant of the algebraic-diagrammatic construction scheme of second-order ADC(2) by applying the core-valence separation (CVS) approximation to the ADC(2) working equations. Besides excitation energies, the CVS-ADC(2) method also provides access to properties of core-excited states, thereby allowing for the calculation of X-ray absorption spectra. To demonstrate the potential of our implementation of CVS-ADC(2), we have chosen medium-sized molecules as examples that have either biological importance or find application in organic electronics. The calculated results of CVS-ADC(2) are compared with standard TD-DFT/B3LYP values and experimental data. In particular, the extended variant, CVS-ADC(2)-x, provides the most accurate results, and the agreement between the calculated values and experiment is remarkable. PMID:25130619

  10. Physicochemistry of interaction between the cationic polymer poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and the anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and sodium N-dodecanoylsarcosinate in water and isopropyl alcohol-water media.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Suvasree; Dan, Abhijit; Bhattacharya, Subhash C; Panda, Amiya K; Moulik, Satya P

    2011-05-01

    The physicochemistry of interaction of the cationic polymer poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) with the anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and sodium N-dodecanoylsarcosinate was studied in detail using tensiometry, turbidimetry, calorimetry, viscometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fair interaction initially formed induced small micelles of the surfactants and later on produced free normal micelles in solution. The interaction process yielded coacervates that initially grew by aggregation in the aqueous medium and disintegrated into smaller species at higher surfactant concentration. The phenomena observed were affected by the presence of isopropyl alcohol (IP) in the medium. The hydrodynamic sizes of the dispersed polymer and its surfactant-interacted species were determined by DLS measurements. The surface morphologies of the solvent-removed PDADMAC and its surfactant-interacted complexes from water and IP-water media were examined by the SEM technique. The morphologies witnessed different patterns depending on the composition and the solvent environment. The head groups of the dodecyl chain containing surfactants made differences in the interaction process. PMID:21466231

  11. Sodium blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods. The most common form of sodium is sodium chloride, which is table salt. This test is usually done as part of an electrolyte or basic metabolic panel blood test . Your blood sodium level represents a balance between the sodium and ...

  12. Some aspects of two-phase flow, heat transfer and dynamic instabilities in medium and high pressure steam generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, H. C.

    1981-03-01

    Experimental data for void fraction, incipient point of boiling, initial point of net vapor generation, bubble dynamics, dryout, two-phase flow pressure drop and density-wave oscillations were obtained in long, sodium heated steam generator tubes of different geometries for a wide range of operating conditions and at medium and high pressures. These data and data from literature taken in sodium and electrically heated steam generator tubes were correlated. Aspects of two-phase flow, heat transfer and density-wave oscillations in these steam generators disclosed include the distribution factor in small- and medium-size diameter steam generator tubes, the characteristic of the transitions at the incipient point of boiling and initial point of net vapor generation, bubble growth during subcooled nucleate flow boiling, the importance of the equivalent length for dryout in non-uniformly heated steam generator tubes and the mechanisms of density-wave oscillations in once-through steam generator tubes.

  13. Spatial distribution of D1R- and D2R-expressing medium-sized spiny neurons differs along the rostro-caudal axis of the mouse dorsal striatum.

    PubMed

    Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Espallergues, Julie; Mailly, Philippe; De Bundel, Dimitri; de Kerchove d'Exaerde, Alban; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Valjent, Emmanuel; Krieger, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    The striatum projection neurons are striatonigral and striatopallidal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) that preferentially express D1 (D1R) and D2 (D2R) dopamine receptors, respectively. It is generally assumed that these neurons are physically intermingled, without cytoarchitectural organization although this has not been tested. To address this question we used BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence (EGFP) under the control of Drd1a or Drd2 promoter and spatial point pattern statistics. We demonstrate that D1R- and D2R-expressing MSNs are randomly distributed in most of the dorsal striatum, whereas a specific region in the caudal striatum, adjacent to the GPe, lacks neurons expressing markers for indirect pathway neurons. This area comprises almost exclusively D1R-expressing MSNs. These neurons receive excitatory inputs from the primary auditory cortex and the medial geniculate thalamic nucleus and a rich dopamine innervation. This area contains cholinergic and GABAergic interneurons but apparently no D2R/A2aR modulation because no fluorescence was detected in the neuropil of Drd2-EGFP or Drd2-Cre, and Adora-Cre BAC transgenic mice crossed with reporter mice. This striatal area that expresses calbindin D28k, VGluT1 and 2, is poor in μ opiate receptors and preproenkephalin. Altogether, the differences observed in D1R-MSNs, D2R-MSNs, and interneurons densities, as well as the anatomical segregation of D1R- and D2R/A2aR-expressing MSNs suggest that there are regional differences in the organization of the striatum. PMID:23908605

  14. Spatial distribution of D1R- and D2R-expressing medium-sized spiny neurons differs along the rostro-caudal axis of the mouse dorsal striatum

    PubMed Central

    Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Espallergues, Julie; Mailly, Philippe; De Bundel, Dimitri; de Kerchove d'Exaerde, Alban; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Valjent, Emmanuel; Krieger, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    The striatum projection neurons are striatonigral and striatopallidal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) that preferentially express D1 (D1R) and D2 (D2R) dopamine receptors, respectively. It is generally assumed that these neurons are physically intermingled, without cytoarchitectural organization although this has not been tested. To address this question we used BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence (EGFP) under the control of Drd1a or Drd2 promoter and spatial point pattern statistics. We demonstrate that D1R- and D2R-expressing MSNs are randomly distributed in most of the dorsal striatum, whereas a specific region in the caudal striatum, adjacent to the GPe, lacks neurons expressing markers for indirect pathway neurons. This area comprises almost exclusively D1R-expressing MSNs. These neurons receive excitatory inputs from the primary auditory cortex and the medial geniculate thalamic nucleus and a rich dopamine innervation. This area contains cholinergic and GABAergic interneurons but apparently no D2R/A2aR modulation because no fluorescence was detected in the neuropil of Drd2-EGFP or Drd2-Cre, and Adora-Cre BAC transgenic mice crossed with reporter mice. This striatal area that expresses calbindin D28k, VGluT1 and 2, is poor in μ opiate receptors and preproenkephalin. Altogether, the differences observed in D1R-MSNs, D2R-MSNs, and interneurons densities, as well as the anatomical segregation of D1R- and D2R/A2aR-expressing MSNs suggest that there are regional differences in the organization of the striatum. PMID:23908605

  15. FLOW CYTOMETRIC EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF SODIUM BUTYRATE ON APOPTOSIS OF BOVINE NEUTROPHILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine blood neutrophils(PMN) from four clinically healthy cows were suspended in Dulbecco's minimal essential medium and incubated at 37C for 0, 2 or 6 hours in medium alone, with 100ng/ml bacterial endotoxin, 160nM sodium butyrate, 16uM actinomycin D, mixture of sodium butyrate and bacterial endot...

  16. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain and swelling. It is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Diclofenac sodium overdose occurs when someone takes more than the ...

  17. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  18. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Docusate Sodium Friday, 01 April 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to docusate sodium may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  19. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  20. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002630.htm Diclofenac sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain ...

  1. Fractional excretion of sodium

    MedlinePlus

    FE sodium; FENa ... to a lab. There, they are examined for salt (sodium) and creatinine levels. Creatinine is a chemical waste ... your normal foods with a normal amount of salt, unless otherwise instructed by your health care provider. ...

  2. Sodium blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... able to conserve water) Too much salt or sodium bicarbonate in the diet Use of certain medicines, including corticosteroids, laxatives, lithium, and medicines such as ibuprofen or naproxen Lower than normal sodium level is called hyponatremia. It may be due ...

  3. Large-scale sodium spray fire code validation (SOFICOV) test

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppson, D.W.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    A large-scale, sodium, spray fire code validation test was performed in the HEDL 850-m/sup 3/ Containment System Test Facility (CSTF) as part of the Sodium Spray Fire Code Validation (SOFICOV) program. Six hundred fifty eight kilograms of sodium spray was sprayed in an air atmosphere for a period of 2400 s. The sodium spray droplet sizes and spray pattern distribution were estimated. The containment atmosphere temperature and pressure response, containment wall temperature response and sodium reaction rate with oxygen were measured. These results are compared to post-test predictions using SPRAY and NACOM computer codes.

  4. Rechargeable sodium alloy anode

    SciTech Connect

    Jow, T.R.

    1988-06-28

    A secondary battery is described comprising: (a) an anode which comprises an alloy of sodium and one or metals selected from the group consisting of tin, lead antimony, bismuth, selenium and tellerium, (b) an electrolyte comprising one or more organic solvents and one or more sodium salts dissolved therein forming dissolved sodium cations in solution; and (c) a cathode; the sodium cations from the electrolyte alloying with the one or more metals of the alloy in the anode during the charging of the battery and sodium in the alloy disoloving in the electrolyte during the discharging of the battery.

  5. Modelling Cometary Sodium Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, K. S.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Neutral sodium is readily observed in cometary spectra and can be seen to form its own distinct tail at high activity comets. Solar radiation pressure accelerates the sodium atoms antisunward and, as strong sodium absorption lines are present in the solar spectrum, the magnitude of this force is dependent upon the Doppler shift of the incident solar radiation. Therefore the heliocentric velocity of the sodium atom directly determines its acceleration. This can produce unique effects, such as a stagnation region. Sodium is relatively easy to detect and so can potentially be used to trace mechanisms in the coma that are otherwise difficult to observe. The source of neutral sodium in the tail currently remains unknown. We have therefore developed a new, three dimensional Monte-Carlo model of neutral cometary sodium in order to facilitate testing of different source production functions. It includes weightings due to neutral sodium lifetime, variation of cometary sodium emission due to Fraunhofer absorption lines and solar flux variation with heliocentric distance. The Swings and Greenstein effects, which can have particularly dramatic effects in near-Sun comets, are also considered comprehensively. Preliminary results from this model are presented, focusing on a comparison of predictions of the neutral sodium tail of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with initial observations.

  6. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood

    2005-06-30

    Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) are known to be efficient, high-tonnage devices suitable for upgrading particles in the 50 to 0.5 mm size range. This versatile separator, which uses centrifugal forces to enhance the separation of fine particles that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash and lead-zinc ores. Due to the high tonnage, a small increase in DMC efficiency can have a large impact on plant profitability. Unfortunately, the knowledge base required to properly design and operate DMCs has been seriously eroded during the past several decades. In an attempt to correct this problem, a set of engineering tools have been developed to allow producers to improve the efficiency of their DMC circuits. These tools include (1) low-cost density tracers that can be used by plant operators to rapidly assess DMC performance, (2) mathematical process models that can be used to predict the influence of changes in operating and design variables on DMC performance, and (3) an expert advisor system that provides plant operators with a user-friendly interface for evaluating, optimizing and trouble-shooting DMC circuits. The field data required to develop these tools was collected by conducting detailed sampling and evaluation programs at several industrial plant sites. These data were used to demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental benefits that can be realized through the application of these engineering tools.

  7. Sodium remote from Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. A.; Schneider, N. M.

    1981-12-01

    Measurements of sodium emission lines originating in the middle Jupiter magnetosphere are measured, confirming the wide dispersal of neutral sodium in the Jovian system in at least two distinct manifestations. Candidate neutral transport processes in the context of the observed kinematical signatures are discussed. It is argued that the normal emission feature is produced by sodium atoms on bound elliptical orbits originating in the Io sodium cloud but with apojove in the field of view. Observations of the fast sodium feature indicate that atoms episodically acquire a broad range of line-of-sight velocities above the Jupiter gravitational escape speed and far above the speeds characteristic of surface-sputtered atoms. Three suggested reactions are distinguished according to (1) production rates based on estimated plasmaspheric properties, (2) kinematical signature, and (3) the timing of occurrences of the fast sodium feature.

  8. Action of sodium deoxycholate on Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    D'Mello, A.; Yotis, W.W.

    1987-08-01

    Sodium deoxycholate is used in a number of bacteriological media for the isolation and classification of gram-negative bacteria from food and the environment. Initial experiments to study the effect of deoxycholate on the growth parameters of Escherichia coli showed an increase in the lag time constant and generation time and a decrease in the growth rate constant total cell yield of this microorganisms. Cell fractionation studies indicated that sodium deoxycholate at levels used in bacteriological media interferes with the incorporation of (U-/sup 14/C)glucose into the cold-trichloroacetic acid-soluble, ethanol-soluble, and trypsin-soluble cellular fractions of E. coli. Finally, sodium deoxycholate interfered with the flagellation and motility of Proteus mirabilis and E. coli. It would appear then that further improvement of the deoxycholate medium may be in order.

  9. Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic to sodium polystyrene sulfonate, other polystyrene sulfonate resins, any other medications, or any of the ingredients ... salt substitutes containing potassium or foods that are high in potassium.

  10. Alternative Splicing of an Insect Sodium Channel Gene Generates Pharmacologically Distinct Sodium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jianguo; Liu, Zhiqi; Nomura, Yoshiko; Goldin, Alan L.; Dong, Ke

    2011-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a major mechanism by which potassium and calcium channels increase functional diversity in animals. Extensive alternative splicing of the para sodium channel gene and developmental regulation of alternative splicing have been reported in Drosophila species. Alternative splicing has also been observed for several mammalian voltage-gated sodium channel genes. However, the functional significance of alternative splicing of sodium channels has not been demonstrated. In this study, we identified three mutually exclusive alternative exons encoding part of segments 3 and 4 of domain III in the German cockroach sodium channel gene, paraCSMA. The splice site is conserved in the mouse, fish, and human Nav1.6 sodium channel genes, suggesting an ancient origin. One of the alternative exons possesses a stop codon, which would generate a truncated protein with only the first two domains. The splicing variant containing the stop codon is detected only in the PNS, whereas the other two full-size variants were detected in both the PNS and CNS. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, the two splicing variants produced robust sodium currents, but with different gating properties, whereas the splicing variant with the stop codon did not produce any detectable sodium current. Furthermore, these two functional splicing variants exhibited a striking difference in sensitivity to a pyrethroid insecticide, deltamethrin. Exon swapping partially reversed the channel sensitivity to deltamethrin. Our results therefore provide the first evidence that alternative splicing of a sodium channel gene produces pharmacologically distinct channels. PMID:12097481

  11. Thermophysical properties of sodium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, G. H.; Tokar, J. V.

    1969-01-01

    Assessment is given of physical and thermodynamic properties of sodium. FORTRAN subroutine computes enthalphy and entropy of sodium in given state, and composition, molecular weight, volume, and compressibility factor of corresponding vapor. Tabular results for saturated liquid and vapor are presented for a 500-2500 degree F range.

  12. Sodium in Store and Restaurant Food Environments - Guam, 2015.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Sandra L; VanFrank, Brenna K; Lundeen, Elizabeth; Uncangco, Alyssa; Alam, Lawrence; King, Sallyann M Coleman; Cogswell, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    Compared with the United States overall, Guam has higher mortality rates from cardiovascular disease and stroke (1). Excess sodium intake can increase blood pressure and risk for cardiovascular disease (2,3). To determine the availability and promotion of lower-sodium options in the nutrition environment, the Guam Department of Public Health and Social Services (DPHSS) conducted an assessment in September 2015 using previously validated tools adapted to include sodium measures. Stores (N = 114) and restaurants (N = 63) were randomly sampled by region (north, central, and south). Data from 100 stores and 62 restaurants were analyzed and weighted to account for the sampling design. Across the nine product types assessed, lower-sodium products were offered less frequently than regular-sodium products (p<0.001) with <50% of stores offering lower-sodium canned vegetables, tuna, salad dressing, soy sauce, and hot dogs. Lower-sodium products were also less frequently offered in small stores than large (two or more cash registers) stores. Reduced-sodium soy sauce cost more than regular soy sauce (p<0.001) in stores offering both options in the same size bottle. Few restaurants engaged in promotion practices such as posting sodium information (3%) or identifying lower-sodium entrées (1%). Improving the availability and promotion of lower-sodium foods in stores and restaurants could help support healthier eating in Guam. PMID:27227418

  13. Decode the Sodium Label Lingo

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Decode the Sodium Label Lingo Published January 24, 2013 Print Email Reading food labels can help you slash sodium. Here's how to decipher them. "Sodium free" or " ...

  14. METHOD FOR REMOVING SODIUM OXIDE FROM LIQUID SODIUM

    DOEpatents

    Bruggeman, W.H.; Voorhees, B.G.

    1957-12-01

    A method is described for removing sodium oxide from a fluent stream of liquid sodium by coldtrapping the sodium oxide. Apparatus utilizing this method is disclosed in United States Patent No. 2,745,552. Sodium will remain in a molten state at temperatures below that at which sodium oxide will crystallize out and form solid deposits, therefore, the contaminated stream of sodium is cooled to a temperature at which the solubility of sodium oxide in sodium is substantially decreased. Thereafter the stream of sodium is passed through a bed of stainless steel wool maintained at a temperature below that of the stream. The stream is kept in contact with the wool until the sodium oxide is removed by crystal growth on the wool, then the stream is reheated and returned to the system. This method is useful in purifying reactor coolants where the sodium oxide would otherwise deposit out on the walls and eventually plug the coolant tubes.

  15. Sodium laser guide star results at the Lick Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H.; Erbert, G.; Kuklo, T.

    1995-10-01

    Results of return signal level and guide star spot size for a sodium laser guide star recently installed at the Lick Observatory are presented. Operational characteristics of frequency stability, amplitude stability, and pointing accuracy are discussed.

  16. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, Glen V.; Lopez, John T.; Olich, Eugene E.; West, Calvin W.

    1989-01-01

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates.

  17. SODIUM DEUTERIUM REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheimer, E.D.; Weisberg, R.A.

    1963-02-26

    This patent relates to a barrier system for a sodium heavy water reactor capable of insuring absolute separation of the metal and water. Relatively cold D/sub 2/O moderator and reflector is contained in a calandria into which is immersed the fuel containing tubes. The fuel elements are cooled by the sodium which flows within the tubes and surrounds the fuel elements. The fuel containing tubes are surrounded by concentric barrier tubes forming annular spaces through which pass inert gases at substantially atmospheric pressure. Header rooms above and below the calandria are provided for supplying and withdrawing the sodium and inert gases in the calandria region. (AEC)

  18. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

    1989-11-21

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

  19. Separation and identification of the silt-sized heavy-mineral fraction in sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Commeau, Judith A.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Commeau, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    The separation of silt-sized minerals by specific gravity is made possible by using a nontoxic, heavy liquid medium of sodium polytungstate and water. Once separated, the silt-sized heavy-mineral fraction is prepared for analysis with a scanning electron microscope equipped with an automatic image analyzer and energy-dispersive spectrometer. Particles within each sample are sized and sorted according to their chemistry, and the data are tabulated in histograms and tables. Where possible, the user can define the chemical categories to simulate distinct mineral groups. Polymorphs and minerals that have overlapping compositions are combined into a group and differentiated by X-ray diffraction. Hundreds of particles can be rapidly sized and classified by chemistry. The technique can be employed on sediments from any environment.

  20. Survey of the transport properties of sodium superionic conductor materials for use in sodium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guin, M.; Tietz, F.

    2015-01-01

    One important issue in future scenarios predominantly using renewable energy sources is the electrochemical storage of electricity in batteries. Among all rechargeable battery technologies, Li-ion cells have the largest energy density and output voltage today, but they have yet to be optimized in terms of capacity, safety and cost for use as stationary systems. Recently, sodium batteries have been attracting attention again because of the abundant availability of Na. However, much work is still required in the field of sodium batteries in order to mature this technology. Sodium superionic conductor (NASICON) materials are a thoroughly studied class of solid electrolytes. In this study, their crystal structure, compositional diversity and ionic conductivity are surveyed and analysed in order to correlate the lattice parameters and specific crystal structure data with sodium conductivity and activation energy using as much data sets as possible. Approximately 110 compositions with the general formula Na1 + 2 w + x - y + zMw(II) Mx(III) My(V) M2 - w - x - y(IV) (SiO4)z(PO4) 3 - z were included in the data collection to determine an optimal size for the M cations. In addition, the impact of the amount of Na per formula unit on the conductivity and the substitution of P with Si are discussed. An extensive study of the size of the structural bottleneck for sodium conduction (formed by triangles of oxygen ions) was carried out to validate the influence of this geometrical parameter on sodium conductivity.

  1. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning, especially if the product is mixed with ammonia. This article is for information only. Do NOT ... hypochlorite, which may cause severe injury. NEVER mix ammonia with sodium hypochlorite (bleach or bleach-containing products). ...

  2. Sodium bisulfate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... in large amounts. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing sodium bisulfate. This article is for information only. ... Symptoms from swallowing more than a tablespoon of this acid may include: Burning pain in the mouth Chest pain from burns ...

  3. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Medical Management Guidelines for Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) . Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. Available at: www.atsdr.cdc. ...

  4. Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... comes as a suspension and as an oral powder for suspension to take by mouth. The suspension ... evenly.If you are taking sodium polystyrene sulfonate powder by mouth, mix the powder with 20 to ...

  5. Sodium hypochlorite dental accidents.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Mridula; Chhabra, Nidhi; Kumar, Gyanendra; Verma, Mahesh; Chhabra, Anuj

    2014-02-01

    Sodium hypochlorite is widely used in dentistry as an intra-canal irrigant, for debridement and to disinfect root canals. Although it is considered to be safe, serious mishap can result from its inappropriate use, and this has been reported infrequently in the literature. Two unusual cases of sodium hypochlorite toxicity and their successful non-surgical management are described in a 14-year-old girl and a 13-year-old boy. PMID:24090808

  6. Process for modifying the metal ion sorption capacity of a medium

    DOEpatents

    Lundquist, Susan H.

    2002-01-01

    A process for modifying a medium is disclosed that includes treating a medium having a metal ion sorption capacity with a solution that includes: A) an agent capable of forming a complex with metal ions; and B) ions selected from the group consisting of sodium ions, potassium ions, magnesium ions, and combinations thereof, to create a medium having an increased capacity to sorb metal ions relative to the untreated medium.

  7. Factors contributing to the breakdown of sodium beta-alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Buechele, A.C.

    1982-05-01

    Clarification of the breakdown process occurring during charge transfer in sodium beta alumina solid electrolytes was derived from: (1) studying the effects of molten sodium contact at 350/sup 0/C on single crystal sodium beta alumina and polycrystalline sodium beta alumina; (2) determination of critical current density by monitoring acoustic emissions accompanying crack growth in sodium/sodium beta alumina/sodium cells subjected to linear current ramping at 1 mA cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/; (3) failure analysis conducted on cycled electrolytes, some from commercial sodium/sulfur cells, which had been subjected to up to 703 Ahr cm/sup -2/ of charge transfer. Gray coloration developing in beta aluminas in contact with molten sodium was found to be a consequence of formation, through reduction by sodium, of oxygen vacancies charge compensated by electrons. Electronic conductivity of the electrolyte increases as a result. No second phase formation was detected. Colored electrolytes from sodium/sulfur cells show evidence of a newly recognized degradation mechanism in which fracture occurs when sodium is reduced and deposited internally under pressure as metal in regions where an electronic conductivity gradient exists. Heating colored beta aluminas in air produces reoxidation and bleaching. Kinetics and other properties of the coloration and bleaching processes were determined. Critical current density was found to bear an inverse relation to average electrolyte grain size. Evidence was found in the cycled electrolytes for a slow crack growth mechanism and a progressive mode of degradation advancing from the sulfur electrode interface. Implications of the findings for the construction and operation of sodium/sulfur battery systems are discussed.

  8. Improvement of end-point detection in the non-aqueous titration of sulphacetamide sodium.

    PubMed

    Soliman, S A; Belal, S; Bediar, M

    1984-04-01

    The sluggish end-point in the non-aqueous titration of sulphacetamide sodium in glacial acetic acid can be improved by addition of acetic anhydride to the titration medium, and selective determination of sulphacetamide sodium in presence of phenylephrine hydrochloride in eye drops then becomes possible. A mixture of sulphacetamide sodium and the antihistamine drug phenyltoloxamine dihydrogen citrate can also be analysed. PMID:18963589

  9. Preparation and physicochemical characterization of dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (aerosol OT) microemulsion for oral drug delivery.

    PubMed

    El-Laithy, Hanan M

    2003-01-01

    The performance of dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (aerosol OT) in the development of a pharmaceutically acceptable, stable, self-emulsifying water continuous microemulsion with high dilution efficiency was assessed. A pseudoternary microemulsion system was constructed using aerosol OT/medium-chain triglycerides with oleic acid/glycerol monooleate and water. The model microemulsion was characterized with regard to its electroconductive behavior, eosin sodium absorption, interfacial tension, and droplet size measurements after dilution with water. The percolation transition law, which makes it possible to determine the percolation threshold and to identify bicontinuous structures, was applied to the system. The interfacial tension changes associated with the microemulsion formation revealed ultralow values up to 30% oil at a surfactant/cosurfactant ratio of 3:1. Moreover, the investigated particle size and polydispersity using photon correlation spectroscopy after dilution with excess of the continuous phase proved the efficiency of the microemulsion system as a drug carrier that ensures an infinitely dilutable, homogeneous, and thermodynamically stable system. PMID:12916920

  10. Io's sodium cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, B. A.; Garneau, G. W.; Lavoie, S. K.

    1984-11-01

    The first two-dimensional images of the source region of Io's neutral sodium cloud have been acquired by ground-based observation. Observed asymmetries in its spatial brightness distribution provide new evidence that the cloud is supplied by sodium that is ejected nonisotropically from Io or its atmosphere. Complementary, high-time-resolution, calibrated image sequences that give the first comprehensive picture of the variations of the fainter regions of the cloud extending more than 100,000 kilometers from Io were also obtained. These data demonstrate that the cloud exhibits a persistent systematic behavior coupled with Io's orbital position, a distinct 'east-west orbital asymmetry', a variety of spatial morphologies, and true temporal changes. The geometric stability of the sodium source is also indicated. Isolation of the cloud's temporal changes constitutes an important milestone toward its utilization as a long-term probe of Io and the inner Jovian magnetosphere.

  11. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  12. Formulation and characterization of nanoencapsulated curcumin using sodium caseinate and its incorporation in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deep Diyuti; Mann, Bimlesh; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Rajan; Bajaj, Rajesh; Minaxi

    2016-01-01

    In the present investigation, the preparation and characterization of a curcumin nanoemulsion with milk protein (sodium caseinate) and its incorporation into ice cream were undertaken. Among the different combinations, the most stable formulation was observed using milk fat (8%), medium chain triglycerides (2%), curcumin (0.24%) and sodium caseinate (6%) with a mean particle size of 333.8 ± 7.18 nm, a zeta potential of -44.1 ± 0.72 mV and an encapsulation efficiency of 96.9 ± 0.28%. The effect of different processing conditions (heating, pH and ionic strength) on the particle size distribution and zeta potential of the nanoemulsion was evaluated. During heat treatment, the particle size of the nanoemulsion was increased from 333.8 ± 7.18 to 351.1 ± 4.04 nm. The nanoemulsion was destabilized at pH 4.6 and the particle size increased above and below pH 5.0. However, there was a slight increase in the particle size with a change in the ionic concentration. The release kinetics data suggested that in simulated gastro-intestinal digestion, the nanoemulsion was stable against pepsin digestion (a 5.25% release of curcumin), while pancreatic action led to a 16.12% release of curcumin from the nanoemulsion. Finally, our formulation was successfully incorporated into ice cream and the sensory attributes were evaluated. No significant difference was observed in the scores of the sensory attributes between the control and ice cream prepared with a curcumin nanoemulsion. Moreover, the encapsulation efficiency of the curcumin incorporated into the ice cream was 93.7%, which indicates that it can withstand the processing conditions. The findings suggest that ice cream is a suitable dairy product for the delivery of lipophilic bioactive components (curcumin) which can be used for therapeutic purposes. PMID:26501983

  13. CBI: Systems or Medium?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham-Wheat, Nancy L.

    This paper addresses one area of conflict in decisionmaking in computer-based instruction (CBI) research: the relationship between the researcher's definition of CBI either as a medium or as an integrated system and the design of meaningful research questions. (A medium is defined here as a device for the delivery of instruction, while an…

  14. Synthetic laser medium

    DOEpatents

    Stokowski, Stanley E.

    1989-01-01

    A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chormium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

  15. Synthetic laser medium

    DOEpatents

    Stokowski, S.E.

    1987-10-20

    A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chromium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

  16. Effective medium theory for anisotropic metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiujuan; Wu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Materials with anisotropic material parameters can be utilized to fabricate many fascinating devices, such as hyperlenses, metasolids, and one-way waveguides. In this study, we analyze the effects of geometric anisotropy on a two-dimensional metamaterial composed of a rectangular array of elliptic cylinders and derive an effective medium theory for such a metamaterial. We find that it is possible to obtain a closed-form analytical solution for the anisotropic effective medium parameters, provided the aspect ratio of the lattice and the eccentricity of the elliptic cylinder satisfy certain conditions. The derived effective medium theory not only recovers the well-known Maxwell-Garnett results in the quasi-static regime, but is also valid beyond the long-wavelength limit, where the wavelength in the host medium is comparable to the size of the lattice so that previous anisotropic effective medium theories fail. Such an advance greatly broadens the applicable realm of the effective medium theory and introduces many possibilities in the design of structures with desired anisotropic material characteristics. A real sample of a recently theoretically proposed anisotropic medium, with a near-zero index to control the flux, is achieved using the derived effective medium theory, and control of the electromagnetic waves in the sample is clearly demonstrated. PMID:25599847

  17. Chlorite (sodium salt)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorite ( sodium salt ) ; CASRN 7758 - 19 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  18. Dalapon, sodium salt

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dalapon , sodium salt ; CASRN 75 - 99 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  19. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  20. Effect of bicarbonate concentration on aerobic growth of campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentration on aerobic growth of Campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium. Fumarate-pyruvate broth medium was supplemented with 0.00 to 0.10% NaHCO3 and inoculated with Campylobacter coli 33559, Campyloba...

  1. Portion size

    MedlinePlus

    ... a woman's fist or a baseball One medium apple or orange is a tennis ball One-quarter ... you more satisfied. Some examples are having an apple with string cheese, whole-wheat crackers with peanut ...

  2. Differential and selective medium for isolation of Yersinia enterocolitica from stools.

    PubMed Central

    Agbonlahor, D E; Odugbemi, T; Dosunmu-Ogunbi, O

    1982-01-01

    A new differential and selective medium, DYS agar, was developed and evaluated from the isolation of Yersinia enterocolitica. Ther bile salts content of the medium resulted in high selectivity, and inclusion of arabinose, lysine, and arginine rendered Y. Enterocolitica very distinct from Proteus spp., Pseudomonas spp., and other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. DYS medium was more efficient for the isolation of Y. enterocolitica from experimentally inoculated fecal specimens than MacConkey, deoxycholate-citrate, and salmonella-shigella agars. Although the medium showed selectivity similar to that of another relatively new medium. Y medium (a selective medium for Y. enterocolitica containing sodium oxalate). DYS agar was found to be superior to Y medium in terms of differentiation of Y. enterocolitica from other intestinal organisms. DYS medium is simple to prepare. PMID:7068836

  3. Transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over NiPd nanoparticle catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mengnan; Zhang, Jiaguang; Yan, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs). Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal) NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active than both pure Ni and Pd NPs. Hot filtration experiment suggested the NPs to be the truly catalytic active species and kinetic analysis indicated the reaction mechanism to be different than most homogeneous catalysts. The enhanced activity of the bimetallic nanoparticles may be attributed to their smaller size and improved stability. PMID:24790945

  4. Transformation of Sodium Bicarbonate and CO2 into Sodium Formate over NiPd Nanoparticle Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mengnan; Zhang, Jiaguang; Yan, Ning

    2013-09-01

    The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs). Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal) NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active than both pure Ni and Pd NPs. Hot filtration experiment suggested the NPs to be the truly catalytic active species and kinetic analysis indicated the reaction mechanism to be different than most homogeneous catalysts. The enhanced activity of the bimetallic nanoparticles may be attributed to their smaller size and improved stability.

  5. Multiunit controlled-release diclofenac sodium capsules using complex of chitosan with sodium alginate or pectin.

    PubMed

    Mitrevej, A; Sinchaipanid, N; Rungvejhavuttivittaya, Y; Kositchaiyong, V

    2001-08-01

    This study explored the application of chitosan-alginate (CA) and chitosan-pectin (CP) complex films as drug release regulator for the preparation of multiunit controlled-release diclofenac sodium capsules. Pellets containing drug and microcrystalline cellulose, in a ratio of 3:5, were prepared in a fluidized rotary granulator. The pellets were coated with CA, CP, sodium alginate, pectin, and chitosan solutions. The pellets, equivalent to 75 mg drug, were filled into capsules. After 2 h of dissolution test in acidic medium, the amount of the drug released from any preparation was negligible. The pellets were further subject to pH 6.8 phosphate buffer More than 80% drug release at 12 h was observed with the uncoated pellets and those coated with sodium alginate, pectin or chitosan. Both 1% CA and 3% CP coated pellets exhibited drug release profiles similar to that of Voltaren SR75. It was found that approximately 60% and 85% of the drug were released at 12 and 24 h, respectively. Both Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses revealed complex formation between chitosan and these anionic polymers. It could be concluded that CA and CP complex film could be easily applied to diclofenac sodium pellets to control the release of the drug. PMID:11485180

  6. Sodium disorders in the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Tareen, Naureen; Martins, David; Nagami, Glenn; Levine, Barton; Norris, Keith C.

    2005-01-01

    Disorders of sodium imbalance are commonly encountered in clinical practice and can have a substantial impact on the prognosis of the patient. These disorders are more common in the elderly. Sodium disorders can cause serious neurologic symptoms and even death, particularly among hospitalized patients. The identification of sodium abnormalities and appropriate clinical intervention are critical for improving patient outcomes. Early recognition of hyponatremia and hypernatremia can provide a clue to an underlying disorder. In this update, we have summarized age-related homeostatic changes that impair sodium balance, medications that alter salt and water handling, and the recognition and management of sodium disorders in elderly patients. PMID:15712785

  7. Inhibition of Salmonella typhimurium by medium-chain fatty acids in an in vitro simulation of the porcine cecum.

    PubMed

    Messens, Winy; Goris, Johan; Dierick, Noël; Herman, Lieve; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2010-02-24

    Salmonella typhimurium was responsible for more than half of the reported cases of human salmonellosis in Belgium in 2007 and was the predominant serovar isolated from slaughter pig carcasses. To lower the Salmonella contamination of pork meat, measures can be taken at the primary production level, e.g. by reducing the shedding of Salmonella through the use of feed additives such as medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs). An in vitro continuous culture system, simulating the porcine cecum, was developed for investigating the effect of MCFAs (sodium caproate, sodium caprylate and sodium caprinate) on the pig intestinal microbial community. The system was monitored by plating on selective media, PCR-DGGE and HPLC analysis of fermentation products. An inoculated S. typhimurium strain could be maintained by the system at a population size of about 5 log(10)cfu/mL. By the addition of 15 mM caprylate, significant reductions of coliforms and Salmonella counts by 4.69 log(10) units (95% confidence interval: 4.19-5.18) could be achieved, while other bacterial populations were clearly less affected. This concentration seems economically feasible in pig feed, provided that the substance can reach the cecum without being absorbed. Thus, caprylate, for example in the form of encapsulated beads or as triacylglycerol oil, might have potential as a Salmonella-reducing additive in pig feed. PMID:19709819

  8. Sodium Heat Engine Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.P.; Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Dorris, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Dieckman, S.L.; Jaross, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.; Gregar, J.S.; Poeppel, R.B.; Raptis, A.C.; Valentin, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) is an efficient thermoelectric conversion device which directly generates electricity from a thermally regenerative electrochemical cell that relies on the unique conduction properties of {beta}{double prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). Laboratory models of a variety of SHE devices have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the system, engineering development of large prototype devices has been slowed by a series of materials and fabrication problems. Failure of the electrolyte tubes has been a recurring problem and a number of possible causes have been postulated. To address these issues, a two-phase engineering development program was undertaken. This report summarizes the final results of the first phase of the program, which included extensive materials characterization activities, a study of applicable nondestructive evaluation methods, an investigation of possible stress states that would contribute to fracture, and certain operational issues associated with the electromagnetic pumps used in the SHE prototype. Mechanical and microstructural evaluation of commercially obtained BASE tubes revealed that they should be adequate for SHE applications and that sodium exposure produced no appreciable deleterious strength effects. Processing activities to produce a more uniform and smaller grain size for the BASE tubes were completed using isostatic pressing, extrusion, and slip casting. Green tubes were sintered by conventional and microwave plasma methods. Of particular interest is the residual stress state in the BASE tubes, and both analysis and nondestructive evaluation methods were employed to evaluate these stresses. X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments were performed to determine the bulk residual stresses in commercially fabricated BASE tubes; however, tube-to-tube variations and variations among the various methods employed did not allow formulation of a definitive definition of the as-fabricated stress state.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solution with...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  14. Modelling of ultrasonic propagation in turbulent liquid sodium with temperature gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massacret, N.; Moysan, J.; Ploix, M. A.; Jeannot, J. P.; Corneloup, G.

    2014-05-01

    The use of ultrasonic instrumentation in sodium-cooled fast reactors requires to understand and to predict how ultrasonic waves can be deflected, slowed down or speeded up, depending on the thermo-hydraulic characteristics of the liquid sodium. These thermo-hydraulic characteristics are mainly the local temperature and flow speed of the sodium. In this study we show that ray theory can be used to simulate ultrasonic propagation in a medium similar to the core of a sodium-cooled fast reactor, in order to study ultrasonic instrumentation and prepare it installation and utilisation in the sodium of the nuclear reactor. A suitable model has been developed and a set of thermo-hydraulics data has been created, taking account of the particularities of the sodium flow. The results of these simulations are then analysed within the framework of acoustic thermometry, in order to determine which disturbance must be taken into account for the correct operation of the temperature measurement.

  15. Modelling of ultrasonic propagation in turbulent liquid sodium with temperature gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Massacret, N.; Moysan, J. Ploix, M. A.; Corneloup, G.; Jeannot, J. P.

    2014-05-28

    The use of ultrasonic instrumentation in sodium-cooled fast reactors requires to understand and to predict how ultrasonic waves can be deflected, slowed down or speeded up, depending on the thermo-hydraulic characteristics of the liquid sodium. These thermo-hydraulic characteristics are mainly the local temperature and flow speed of the sodium. In this study we show that ray theory can be used to simulate ultrasonic propagation in a medium similar to the core of a sodium-cooled fast reactor, in order to study ultrasonic instrumentation and prepare it installation and utilisation in the sodium of the nuclear reactor. A suitable model has been developed and a set of thermo-hydraulics data has been created, taking account of the particularities of the sodium flow. The results of these simulations are then analysed within the framework of acoustic thermometry, in order to determine which disturbance must be taken into account for the correct operation of the temperature measurement.

  16. Class Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Siobhan; Lumsden, Linda S.

    1994-01-01

    The items featured in this annotated bibliography touch on several aspects of the multifaceted class-size debate. Allen Odden reviews the literature and contends that class-size reduction should be used "sparingly and strategically." C. M. Achilles and colleagues examines two different class-size situations and find student test performance in the…

  17. Class Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Holly R.

    Exploring the class-size issue, this paper focuses on the primary grades and asks questions such as "does a reduction in class size promote an increase in academic achievement?" and "how substantial does the reduction in numbers have to be in order for a significant increase to occur?" The paper surveys debates on class size and the social factors…

  18. The violent interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccray, R.; Snow, T. P., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Observational evidence for high-velocity and high-temperature interstellar gas is reviewed. The physical processes that characterize this gas are described, including the ionization and emissivity of coronal gas, the behavior and appearance of high-velocity shocks, and interfaces between coronal gas and cooler interstellar gas. Hydrodynamical models for the action of supernova explosions and stellar winds on the interstellar medium are examined, and recent attempts to synthesize all the processes considered into a global model for the interstellar medium are discussed.

  19. Giant rodlike reversed micelles formed by sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate in n-heptane

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Z.J.; Neuman, R.D. )

    1994-08-01

    The solution behaviors of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (NaDEHP) in n-heptane were investigated by light-scattering and viscosity measurements. NaDEHP forms giant rodlike reversed micelles, with a radius of gyration as large as 53 nm, which violently contrasts with the literature view that the average micellar aggregation numbers in nonaqueous or apolar media are much smaller (seldom exceeding 20) than those in aqueous media. Significantly, a small amount of water plays the role of an antimicellar growth agent; i.e., the reversed micellar size decreases remarkably when [open quotes]dry[close quotes] solutions are exposed to humid air from which water vapor is absorbed or when bulk water is directly added - a behavior which is distinctly opposite to that for sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate/apolar medium systems. Thus, the literature views that large micelles can only be found in aqueous media and that the surfactant headgroups in reversed micelles are linked together by hydrogen bonds are misleading. It is suggested that the primary contribution to the driving force for the growth of rodlike NaDEHP reversed micelles is long-range electrostatic interactions among the headgroups of the surfactant molecules and their counterions, and a possible mechanism for the effect of water is also discussed. 27 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Sodium channel Nax is a regulator in epithelial sodium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Hong, Seok Jong; Zhong, Aimei; Xie, Ping; Jia, Shengxian; Xie, Zhong; Zeitchek, Michael; Niknam-Bienia, Solmaz; Zhao, Jingling; Porterfield, D Marshall; Surmeier, D James; Leung, Kai P; Galiano, Robert D; Mustoe, Thomas A

    2015-11-01

    The mechanisms by which the epidermis responds to disturbances in barrier function and restores homeostasis are unknown. With a perturbation of the epidermal barrier, water is lost, resulting in an increase in extracellular sodium concentration. We demonstrate that the sodium channel Nax functions as a sodium sensor. With increased extracellular sodium, Nax up-regulates prostasin, which results in activation of the sodium channel ENaC, resulting in increased sodium flux and increased downstream mRNA synthesis of inflammatory mediators. Nax is present in multiple epithelial tissues, and up-regulation of its downstream genes is found in hypertrophic scars. In animal models, blocking Nax expression results in improvement in scarring and atopic dermatitis-like symptoms, both of which are pathological conditions characterized by perturbations in barrier function. These findings support an important role for Nax in maintaining epithelial homeostasis. PMID:26537257

  1. Knowledge Production in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Meer, Han

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Hisham B. Ghassib's (2010) article entitled "Where Does Creativity Fit into a Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production?" When the author tries to characterise Ghassib's (2010) world, three words come into mind: University, Scientific Knowledge, and Marx. The author's world on the other…

  2. Ethanol production in small- to medium-size facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiler, E. A.; Coble, C. G.; Oneal, H. P.; Sweeten, J. M.; Reidenbach, V. G.; Schelling, G. T.; Lawhon, J. T.; Kay, R. D.; Lepori, W. A.; Aldred, W. H.

    1982-04-01

    In early 1980 system design criteria were developed for a small-scale ethanol production plant. The plant was eventually installed on November 1, 1980. It has a production capacity of 30 liters per hour; this can be increased easily (if desired) to 60 liters per hour with additional fermentation tanks. Sixty-six test runs were conducted to date in the alcohol production facility. Feedstocks evaluated in these tests include: corn (28 runs); grain sorghum (33 runs); grain sorghum grits (1 run); half corn/half sorghum (1 run); and sugarcane juice (3 runs). In addition, a small bench-scale fermentation and distillation system was used to evaluate sugarcane and sweet sorghum feedstocks prior to their evaluation in the larger unit. In each of these tests, evaluation of the following items was conducted: preprocessing requirements; operational problems; conversion efficiency (for example, liters of alcohol produced per kilogram of feedstock); energy balance and efficiency; nutritional recovery from stillage; solids separation by screw press; chemical characterization of stillage including liquid and solids fractions; wastewater requirements; and air pollution potential.

  3. Consecutive GA Pairs Stabilize Medium Size RNA Internal Loops†

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Turner, Douglas H.

    2014-01-01

    Internal loops in RNA are important for folding and function. Consecutive non-canonical pairs can form in internal loops having at least two nucleotides on each side. Thermodynamic and structural insights for such internal loops should improve approximations for their stabilities and predictions of secondary and three-dimensional structures. Most natural internal loops are purine rich. A series of oligoribonucleotides that form purine rich internal loops of 5 – 10 nucleotides, including kink-turn loops, were studied by UV melting, exchangeable proton and phosphorus NMR. Three consecutive GA pairs with the motif of 5′YGGA¯3′RAAG or GGA¯R3′AAGY5′ (i.e. 5′GGA¯3′3′AAG5′ closed on at least one side with a CG, UA, or UG pair with Y representing C or U and R representing A or G) stabilize internal loops having six to ten nucleotides. Certain motifs with two consecutive GA pairs are also stabilizing. In internal loops with three or more nucleotides on each side, the motif 5′UG¯3′GA has stability similar to 5′CG¯3′GA. A revised model for predicting stabilities of internal loops with 6 – 10 nucleotides is derived by multiple linear regression. Loops with 2 × 3 nucleotides are predicted well by a previous thermodynamic model. PMID:16548530

  4. Comprehensive Technology Utilization Leading to Excellence in Medium Sized Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diercks, Eileen; And Others

    Although limited finances and a student body of 3,200 have made it necessary to be selective in acquiring educational technology, the Plainfield (Illinois) Community Consolidated School District No. 202 has been very active in the regional partnership for excellence. Curricular programs at the Plainfield High School include use of…

  5. The Industrial Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel E. Bays; Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang

    2009-04-01

    This paper investigates the use of enrichment and moderator zoning methods for optimizing the r-z power distribution within sodium cooled fast reactors. These methods allow overall greater fuel utilization in the core resulting in more fuel being irradiated near the maximum allowed thermal power. The peak-to-average power density was held to 1.18. This core design, in conjunction with a multiple-reheat Brayton power conversion system, has merit for producing an industrial level of electrical output (2400MWth, 1000MWe) from a relatively compact core size. The total core radius, including reflectors and shields, was held to 1.78m. Preliminary safety analysis suggests that positive reactivity insertion resulting from a leak between the sodium primary loop and helium power conversion system can be mitigated using simple gas-liquid centripetal separation strategies in the plant’s primary loop.

  6. Sodium homeostasis with chronic sodium loading in preascitic cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, F; Liu, P; Blendis, L

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Preascitic cirrhotic patients receiving 200 mmol of sodium daily for seven days remain in positive sodium balance. Thereafter, sodium handling is unknown.
AIM—To assess renal sodium handling in preascitic cirrhosis on a high sodium diet for five weeks.
METHODS—Sixteen biopsy proven preascitic cirrhotics were assessed at weekly intervals for five weeks on a diet of 200 mmol sodium/day using a daily weight diary and weekly 24 hour urinary sodium estimations. Fasting supine neurohormone levels were measured at baseline and weekly for five weeks while haemodynamics were measured at baseline and at five weeks.
RESULTS—The daily diet of 200 mmol of sodium resulted in weight gain and a positive sodium balance for three weeks, associated with significant suppression of plasma renin activity and aldosterone levels, and a significant rise in plasma atrial natriuretic peptide levels (p<0.05). Patients' weights plateaued during week 4, associated with complete sodium balance and significant suppression of plasma noradrenaline levels (p<0.05). This was followed by a negative sodium balance and weight loss, and finally complete sodium balance, again despite a mean net gain of 2.3 (0.3) kg, associated with a return of plasma renin activity and aldosterone levels to within normal ranges. The lack of increase in central blood volume in addition to the persistent increase in plasma atrial natriuretic peptide levels indicated that residual volume expansion, consequent to persistent weight gain, was distributed on the venous side of the circulation. No free fluid was seen on repeat abdominal ultrasound after five weeks.
CONCLUSION—Preascitic cirrhotics have a natriuretic "escape" after three weeks on high sodium dietary intake, associated with elevated plasma atrial natriuretic peptide levels and suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. With continued suppressed sympathetic activity, preascitics re-establish complete sodium balance

  7. Hypermedia as medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dede, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Claims and rebuttals that hypermedia (the associative, nonlinear interconnection of multimedia materials) is a fundamentally innovative means of thinking and communicating are described. This representational architecture has many advantages that make it a major advance over other media; however, it also has several intrinsic problems that severly limits its effectiveness as a medium. These advantages and limits in applications are discussed.

  8. Holographic recording medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, Robert Allen (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A holographic recording medium comprising a conductive substrate, a photoconductive layer and an electrically alterable layer of a linear, low molecular weight hydrocarbon polymer has improved fatigue resistance. An acrylic barrier layer can be interposed between the photoconductive and electrically alterable layers.

  9. Mercury's sodium exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Carl A.

    In this dissertation I examine the properties and origins of the most energetic component of Mercury's atmosphere and how it couples to the planet's magnetosphere and space environment. Mercury' s atmosphere consists of particles liberated from its surface that follow ballistic, collisionless trajectories under the influence of gravity and solar radiation pressure. This tenuous atmosphere can be classified as an exosphere where the exobase boundary is the planet's surface. To explain how this exosphere is sustained, a number of theories have been presented: (1) thermal evaporation from the hot surface; (2) photo-desorption of surface materials by UV solar radiation; (3) sputtering by plasma surface interactions; and (4) vaporization of the surface by micro-meteorite impacts. Using a 3-dimensional numerical model, I determine the role each source has in populating the exosphere. New observations of Mercury's escaping atmosphere are presented using novel imaging techniques in which sodium acts as a tracer to identify atmospheric sources. I discuss the implications of these measurements for our understanding of the physical processes at work in the exosphere, and provide a foundation for modeling such processes. For the first time, this work quantifies the variability in the loss of Mercury's sodium as a seasonal effect. My observations show that atmospheric escape can, at times, exceed 1024 Na atoms/s, nearly twice the highest rate previously reported. By forward modeling Mercury' s atmospheric escape, I place new constraints on the source properties and eliminate the prevailing theory that the escaping tail is sputtered from the surface by solar wind ions. The MESSENGER spacecraft has recently discovered that sodium is distributed unevenly over the surface and that the magnetosphere is offset from the planet's center. Using the first model to include these effects, I demonstrate the magnetosphere's influence upon exospheric sources by simulating asymmetries observed

  10. Magnetometry with mesospheric sodium

    PubMed Central

    Higbie, James M.; Rochester, Simon M.; Patton, Brian; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Budker, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of magnetic fields on the few 100-km length scale is significant for many geophysical applications including mapping of crustal magnetism and ocean circulation measurements, yet available techniques for such measurements are very expensive or of limited accuracy. We propose a method for remote detection of magnetic fields using the naturally occurring atomic sodium-rich layer in the mesosphere and existing high-power lasers developed for laser guide star applications. The proposed method offers a dramatic reduction in cost and opens the way to large-scale, parallel magnetic mapping and monitoring for atmospheric science, navigation, and geophysics. PMID:21321235

  11. Magnetometry with mesospheric sodium.

    PubMed

    Higbie, James M; Rochester, Simon M; Patton, Brian; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Budker, Dmitry

    2011-03-01

    Measurement of magnetic fields on the few 100-km length scale is significant for many geophysical applications including mapping of crustal magnetism and ocean circulation measurements, yet available techniques for such measurements are very expensive or of limited accuracy. We propose a method for remote detection of magnetic fields using the naturally occurring atomic sodium-rich layer in the mesosphere and existing high-power lasers developed for laser guide star applications. The proposed method offers a dramatic reduction in cost and opens the way to large-scale, parallel magnetic mapping and monitoring for atmospheric science, navigation, and geophysics. PMID:21321235

  12. Correlational effect size benchmarks.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Frank A; Aguinis, Herman; Singh, Kulraj; Field, James G; Pierce, Charles A

    2015-03-01

    Effect size information is essential for the scientific enterprise and plays an increasingly central role in the scientific process. We extracted 147,328 correlations and developed a hierarchical taxonomy of variables reported in Journal of Applied Psychology and Personnel Psychology from 1980 to 2010 to produce empirical effect size benchmarks at the omnibus level, for 20 common research domains, and for an even finer grained level of generality. Results indicate that the usual interpretation and classification of effect sizes as small, medium, and large bear almost no resemblance to findings in the field, because distributions of effect sizes exhibit tertile partitions at values approximately one-half to one-third those intuited by Cohen (1988). Our results offer information that can be used for research planning and design purposes, such as producing better informed non-nil hypotheses and estimating statistical power and planning sample size accordingly. We also offer information useful for understanding the relative importance of the effect sizes found in a particular study in relationship to others and which research domains have advanced more or less, given that larger effect sizes indicate a better understanding of a phenomenon. Also, our study offers information about research domains for which the investigation of moderating effects may be more fruitful and provide information that is likely to facilitate the implementation of Bayesian analysis. Finally, our study offers information that practitioners can use to evaluate the relative effectiveness of various types of interventions. PMID:25314367

  13. Influence of genetic variance on sodium sensitivity of blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Luft, F C; Miller, J Z; Weinberger, M H; Grim, C E; Daugherty, S A; Christian, J C

    1987-02-01

    To examine the effect of genetic variance on blood pressure, sodium homeostasis, and its regulatory determinants, we studied 37 pairs of monozygotic twins and 18 pairs of dizygotic twins under conditions of volume expansion and contraction. We found that, in addition to blood pressure and body size, sodium excretion in response to provocative maneuvers, glomerular filtration rate, the renin-angiotensin system, and the sympathetic nervous system are influenced by genetic variance. To elucidate the interaction of genetic factors and an environmental influence, namely, salt intake, we restricted dietary sodium in 44 families of twin children. In addition to a modest decrease in blood pressure, we found heterogeneous responses in blood pressure indicative of sodium sensitivity and resistance which were normally distributed. Strong parent-offspring resemblances were found in baseline blood pressures which persisted when adjustments were made for age and weight. Further, mother-offspring resemblances were observed in the change in blood pressure with sodium restriction. We conclude that the control of sodium homeostasis is heritable and that the change in blood pressure with sodium restriction is familial as well. These data speak to the interaction between the genetic susceptibility to hypertension and environmental influences which may result in its expression. PMID:3553721

  14. Sodium hydroxide catalyzed monodispersed high surface area silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhakta, Snehasis; Dixit, Chandra K.; Bist, Itti; Abdel Jalil, Karim; Suib, Steven L.; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding of the synthesis kinetics and our ability to modulate medium conditions allowed us to generate nanoparticles via an ultra-fast process. The synthesis medium is kept quite simple with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as precursor and 50% ethanol and sodium hydroxide catalyst. Synthesis is performed under gentle conditions at 20 °C for 20 min Long synthesis time and catalyst-associated drawbacks are most crucial in silica nanoparticle synthesis. We have addressed both these bottlenecks by replacing the conventional Stober catalyst, ammonium hydroxide, with sodium hydroxide. We have reduced the overall synthesis time from 20 to 1/3 h, ∼60-fold decrease, and obtained highly monodispersed nanoparticles with 5-fold higher surface area than Stober particles. We have demonstrated that the developed NPs with ∼3-fold higher silane can be used as efficient probes for biosensor applications.

  15. Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding: Part 1: Topical report. [Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.; Lorenz, P.B.

    1987-07-01

    To compare oil recovery and alkali consumption in alkaline flooding using sodium bicarbonate with other alkaline agents, coreflooding experiments were performed in turn with viscosified sodium bicarbonate and viscosified sodium carbonate solutions. Oil recovery was monitored, and the effluent brine from these corefloods was analyzed for silicon, aluminum, pH, and total inorganic carbon. The results indicate that viscosified sodium bicarbonate recovered more of the asphaltic Cerro-Negro crude than of the less asphaltic Wilmington crude oil. The recovery efficiency using the viscosified sodium carbonate was similar for the two crudes. For both crudes, the percent oil recovery using viscosified sodium carbonate was slightly higher than that using the viscosified sodium bicarbonate. Mineral dissolution and decrease in pH were found to be greater in corefloods using viscosified sodium carbonate. Total inorganic carbon recovery can be obtained in corefloods with either agent, provided that a sufficient water drive follows the chemical slug. Long-term experiments were performed by recirculating alkaline solutions through oil-free, unfired Berea sandstone to monitor the rock/alkali interactions. The experimental results indicate an eight-fold decrease in quartz dissolution by sodium bicarbonate compared with sodium carbonate. Moderate magnesium solubility was observed at the pH of the bicarbonate solution. Low solubility of magnesium and aluminum at the pH of the carbonate indicates the possible formation of precipitates. In these experiments 13% of the carbonate was converted to bicarbonate. Total alkalinity was not significantly decreased with either agent. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

  16. Improved Medium for Sporulation of Clostridium perfringens1

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Charles L.; Strong, Dorothy H.

    1968-01-01

    An improved sporulation medium has been developed in which all five strains of Clostridium perfringens tested exhibited a 100- to 10,000-fold increase in numbers of spores when compared with spore yields in SEC medium under comparable conditions. In addition, three of five strains produced a 100- to 1,000-fold increase, with the remaining two strains yielding approximately the same numbers of spores, when compared with strains cultured in Ellner medium. At the 40-hr sampling time, 18 of 27 strains produced a 10- to 100-fold increase in numbers of spores in our medium, when compared to spore production obtained in a medium recently reported by Kim et al. The new medium contained yeast extract, 0.4%; proteose peptone, 1.5%; soluble starch, 0.4%; sodium thioglycolate, 0.1%; and Na2HPO4. 7H2O, 1.0%. In some cases, the spore yield could be increased by the addition of activated carbon to the new medium. The inclusion of activated carbon in the medium resulted in spores with slightly greater heat resistance than spores produced in the new medium without added carbon or in SEC or in Ellner medium. The major differences in heat resistance of the various strains appeared to be genetically determined rather than reflections of a particular sporulation medium. A definite heat-shock requirement was shown for four of four strains, with the optimal temperature ranging from 60 C for a heat-sensitive strain to 80 C for a heat-resistant strain. Heating for 20 min at the optimal temperature resulted in a 100-fold increase over the viable count obtained after heating for 20 min at 50 C. PMID:4295179

  17. Thermal decomposition of sodium bicarbonate and its effect on the reaction of sodium bicarbonate and sulfur dioxide in a simulated flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Keener, T.C.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of thermally decomposing sodium bicarbonate while simultaneously reacting with SO/sub 2/, was studied. The study was performed by quantitatively determining the rate of thermal decomposition as a function of particle size in an SO/sub 2/ free gas stream. The rate of reaction of sodium carbonate (product of the thermal decomposition) with SO/sub 2/ was then studied, and the data applied to a pore-plugging model which accounts for the loss in reactivity with increased reaction time. The reaction of sodium bicarbonate with SO/sub 2/ was then studied and the results compared to that for sodium carbonate. From the analysis of the data, the activation energy for the thermal decomposition reaction, the SO/sub 2/ sodium carbonate and SO/sub 2/ sodium bicarbonate reaction were derived. The thermal decomposition reaction of sodium biocarbonate was found to be similar to that of calcium carbonate below the point where heat transfer is rate limiting. The degree of conversion of sodium bicarbonate was found to be 12-17 times greater (depending on particle size) than that of sodium carbonate in the temperature range 250/sup 0/-350/sup 0/F (120/sup 0/-177/sup 0/C). This greater conversion was qualitatively explained by hypothesizing the formation of an activated species during thermal decomposition which would be more chemically reactive.

  18. Heterogeneous Transmutation Sodium Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. E. Bays

    2007-09-01

    The threshold-fission (fertile) nature of Am-241 is used to destroy this minor actinide by capitalizing upon neutron capture instead of fission within a sodium fast reactor. This neutron-capture and its subsequent decay chain leads to the breeding of even neutron number plutonium isotopes. A slightly moderated target design is proposed for breeding plutonium in an axial blanket located above the active “fast reactor” driver fuel region. A parametric study on the core height and fuel pin diameter-to-pitch ratio is used to explore the reactor and fuel cycle aspects of this design. This study resulted in both non-flattened and flattened core geometries. Both of these designs demonstrated a high capacity for removing americium from the fuel cycle. A reactivity coefficient analysis revealed that this heterogeneous design will have comparable safety aspects to a homogeneous reactor of comparable size. A mass balance analysis revealed that the heterogeneous design may reduce the number of fast reactors needed to close the current once-through light water reactor fuel cycle.

  19. Slow Sodium: An Oral Slowly Released Sodium Chloride Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, E. M.; Curtis, J. R.; Jewkes, R. J.; Jones, B. E.; Luck, V. A.; de Wardener, H. E.; Phillips, N.

    1971-01-01

    The use of a slowly released oral preparation of sodium chloride is described. It was given to patients and athletes to treat or prevent acute and chronic sodium chloride deficiency. Gastrointestinal side effects were not encountered after the ingestion of up to 500 mEq in one day or 200 mEq in 10 minutes. PMID:5569979

  20. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  1. Slow sodium: an oral slowly released sodium chloride preparation.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, E M; Curtis, J R; Jewkes, R J; Jones, B E; Luck, V A; de Wardener, H E; Phillips, N

    1971-09-11

    The use of a slowly released oral preparation of sodium chloride is described. It was given to patients and athletes to treat or prevent acute and chronic sodium chloride deficiency. Gastrointestinal side effects were not encountered after the ingestion of up to 500 mEq in one day or 200 mEq in 10 minutes. PMID:5569979

  2. GENOTOXICITY STUDIES OF SODIUM DICHLOROACETATE AND SODIUM TRICHLOROACETATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The genotoxic properties of sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) and sodium trichloroacetate (TCA)were evaluated in several short-term in vitro and in vivo assays. Neither compound was mutagenic in tester strain TA102 in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Both DCA and TCA were weak induc...

  3. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

  4. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  5. Portion Size Labeling and Intended Soft Drink Consumption: The Impact of Labeling Format and Size Portfolio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeer, Willemijn M.; Steenhuis, Ingrid H. M.; Leeuwis, Franca H.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess what portion size labeling "format" is most promising in helping consumers selecting appropriate soft drink sizes, and whether labeling impact depends on the size portfolio. Methods: An experimental study was conducted in fast-food restaurants in which 2 labeling formats (ie, reference portion size and small/medium/large…

  6. Waves in Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaya, H.

    1998-03-01

    Many hydrodynamical researches have been developed. Especially, analysis of the compressible flow is significantly improved by interstellar physicists. To obtain sufficient appreciation, we should not analyze only the effect of self-gravity of the system but also consider the property of inhomogeneity of the interstellar medium. I stress that another hydrodynamical approach is appreciated. That is the multi-phase-flow method. In the astrophysical context, there are few preliminary works of it. I intend to develop it in more suitable method for the interstellar physics. This dissertation is only the first step for me. But, fundamental properties of the multi-phase-flow are presented, considering the effect of compressibility, self-(and/or mutual) gravity, and friction between two phases. All of these properties are generally important to examine the origin, destruction and the global distribution of interstellar medium. My motivation is trying to delve into the global properties of the interstellar medium. The method of multi-phase-flow has great advantage for my aim, and its usefulness has been shown in this thesis.

  7. Culture Medium for Enterobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Neidhardt, Frederick C.; Bloch, Philip L.; Smith, David F.

    1974-01-01

    A new minimal medium for enterobacteria has been developed. It supports growth of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium at rates comparable to those of any of the traditional media that have high phosphate concentrations, but each of the macronutrients (phosphate, sulfate, and nitrogen) is present at a sufficiently low level to permit isotopic labeling. Buffering capacity is provided by an organic dipolar ion, morpholinopropane sulfonate, which has a desirable pK (7.2) and no apparent inhibitory effect on growth. The medium has been developed with the objectives of (i) providing reproducibility of chemical composition, (ii) meeting the experimentally determined nutritional needs of the cell, (iii) avoiding an unnecessary excess of the major ionic species, (iv) facilitating the adjustment of the levels of individual ionic species, both for isotopic labeling and for nutritional studies, (v) supplying a complete array of micronutrients, (vi) setting a particular ion as the crop-limiting factor when the carbon and energy source is in excess, and (vii) providing maximal convenience in the manufacture and storage of the medium. PMID:4604283

  8. Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate in refrigerated sliced salmon

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological quality and lipid oxidation of fresh salmon slices treated by dipping in 2.5% (w/v) aqueous solution of sodium acetate (NaA), sodium lactate (NaL), or sodium citrate (NaC) and stored at 1 °C. The results revealed that these salts were efficient (P < 0.05) against the proliferation of various categories of spoilage microorganisms; including aerobic and psychrotrophic populations, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae. The general order of antibacterial activity of the different organic salts used was; sodium acetate > sodium lactate > sodium citrate. Lipid oxidation, as expressed by peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, was significantly (P < 0.05) delayed in NaA- and NaC-treated samples. The antioxidant activity followed the order: NaC > NaA > NaL. The shelf life of the treated products was extended by 4–7 days more than that of the control. Therefore, sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate can be utilized as safe organic preservatives for fish under refrigerated storage. PMID:17471315

  9. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg....

  10. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg....

  11. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg....

  12. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg....

  13. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  15. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  16. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733 Food...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  19. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  20. 21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium formate. 186.1756 Section 186.1756 Food and....1756 Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2, CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Sodium alginate...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Sodium alginate is prepared by...

  3. Evidence for size and charge permselectivity of rat ascending colon. Effects of ricinoleate and bile salts on oxalic acid and neutral sugar transport.

    PubMed Central

    Kathpalia, S C; Favus, M J; Coe, F L

    1984-01-01

    We have measured unidirectional transmural fluxes of oxalate and neutral sugars across rat ascending colon in vitro, under short-circuit conditions, to characterize permeability barriers selective for size and charge. Ionic oxalate appears to be transported preferentially to sodium oxalate. Mucosal addition of taurocholate (1 mM), deoxycholate (1 mM), or ricinoleate (1 mM) increased bidirectional oxalate fluxes, and the ricinoleate effects were independent of medium calcium. Bidirectional fluxes of uncharged sugar molecules fell sharply at molecular weights above 76 (molecular radius above 3 A), and oxalate transport was retarded relative to that of uncharged molecules of similar size, suggesting that there is both size and charge permselectivity. Ricinoleate increased fluxes of all neutral molecules tested but changed neither the exclusion limits nor the cation selectivity of the epithelium. Bile salts and ricinoleate increase oxalate transport, probably by making more channels available, but do not alter size and charge selectivity. PMID:6432849

  4. Decomposition of Niobium Ore by Sodium Hydroxide Fusion Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiu-Li; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Wei, Chang; Zheng, Shi-Li; Sun, Qing

    2013-02-01

    The decomposition kinetics of niobium ore in the NaOH system was studied experimentally. The results show that the reaction products are sodium metaniobate and sodium niobate formed by the reaction of pyrochlore with sodium hydroxide under roasting. The effects of temperature, particle size, and mass ratio of alkali-to-ore were studied. The conversion rate of niobium exceeded 99 pct after 20 minutes at 923 K (650 °C) with a mass ratio of alkali-to-ore 1.2:1 and with initial particle size 75 to 106 μm. The kinetic study indicates that the shrinking core model is applicable and the process is controlled by a chemical reaction. The activation energy was calculated to be 78.82 kJ mol-1.

  5. Montmorillonite-Alginate Composites as a Drug delivery System: Intercalation and In vitro Release of Diclofenac sodium

    PubMed Central

    Kevadiya, B. D.; Patel, H. A.; Joshi, G. V.; Abdi, S. H. R.; Bajaj, H. C.

    2010-01-01

    Diclofenac sodium and alginate was intercalated into montmorillonite to form uniform sized beads by gelation method. The structure and surface morphology of the synthesized composite beads were characterized by powdered X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermo gravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Diclofenac release kinetics of the composite in simulated intestinal fluid medium (pH 7.4) and effect of montmorillonite content on the in vitro release of diclofenac from diclofenac-montmorillonite-alginate composites bead was investigated by UV/Vis spectrophotometer. Diclofenac encapsulation efficiency in the montmorillonite-alginate composites bead increases with an increase in the montmorillonite content. The control release of diclofenac from diclofenac-montmorillonite-alginate composites beads was observed to be better as compared to diclofenac-alginate beads. PMID:21969745

  6. Aerosol mobility size spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jian; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2007-11-20

    A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

  7. Sodium heat transfer system modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. F.; Fewell, M. E.

    1983-11-01

    The sodium heat transfer system of the international energy agency (IEA) small solar power systems (SSPS) central receiver system (CRS), which includes the heliostat field, receiver, hot and cold storage vessels, and sodium/water steam generator was modeled. The computer code SOLTES (simulator of large thermal energy systems), was used to model this system. The results from SOLTES are compared to measured data.

  8. ID-69 Sodium drain experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, D.C.

    1996-09-19

    This paper describes experiments to determine the sodium retention and drainage from the two key areas of an ID-69. This information is then used as the initiation point for guidelines of how to proceed with washing an ID-69 in the IEM Cell Sodium Removal System.

  9. CFD Modeling of Sodium-Oxide Deposition in Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Compact Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Tatli, Emre; Ferroni, Paolo; Mazzoccoli, Jason

    2015-09-02

    The possible use of compact heat exchangers (HXs) in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR) employing a Brayton cycle is promising due to their high power density and resulting small volume in comparison with conventional shell-and-tube HXs. However, the small diameter of their channels makes them more susceptible to plugging due to Na2O deposition during accident conditions. Although cold traps are designed to reduce oxygen impurity levels in the sodium coolant, their failure, in conjunction with accidental air ingress into the sodium boundary, could result in coolant oxygen levels that are above the saturation limit in the cooler parts of the HX channels. This can result in Na2O crystallization and the formation of solid deposits on cooled channel surfaces, limiting or even blocking coolant flow. The development of analysis tools capable of modeling the formation of these deposits in the presence of sodium flow will allow designers of SFRs to properly size the HX channels so that, in the scenario mentioned above, the reactor operator has sufficient time to detect and react to the affected HX. Until now, analytical methodologies to predict the formation of these deposits have been developed, but never implemented in a high-fidelity computational tool suited to modern reactor design techniques. This paper summarizes the challenges and the current status in the development of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methodology to predict deposit formation, with particular emphasis on sensitivity studies on some parameters affecting deposition.

  10. Colonic mucin synthesis is increased by sodium butyrate.

    PubMed

    Finnie, I A; Dwarakanath, A D; Taylor, B A; Rhodes, J M

    1995-01-01

    The effects of sodium butyrate and sodium bromo-octanoate (an inhibitor of beta oxidation) on colonic mucus glycoprotein (mucin) synthesis have been assessed using tissue from colonic resection samples. Epithelial biopsy specimens were incubated for 16 hours in RPMI 1640 with glutamine, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and N-acetyl-[3H]-glucosamine ([3H]-Glc NAc), and differing concentrations of sodium butyrate. Incorporation of [3H] Glc NAc into mucin by normal epithelium at least 10 cm distant from colonic cancer was increased in the presence of sodium butyrate in a dose dependent manner, with maximum effect (476%) at a concentration of 0.1 mM (number of specimens = 24 from six patients, p < 0.001). The increase in response to butyrate was not seen when specimens were incubated in the presence of the beta oxidation inhibitor sodium bromo-octanoate 0.05 M. The striking increase in mucin synthesis that results when butyrate is added to standard nutrient medium suggests that this may be an important mechanism affecting the rate of mucin synthesis in vivo and may also explain the therapeutic effect of butyrate in colitis. PMID:7890244

  11. 9 CFR 317.361 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... labeled serving size; (ii) The product contains no ingredient that is sodium chloride or is generally... refers to sodium chloride. However, references to salt content such as “unsalted,” “no salt,” “no salt... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for the...

  12. 9 CFR 317.361 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... labeled serving size; (ii) The product contains no ingredient that is sodium chloride or is generally... refers to sodium chloride. However, references to salt content such as “unsalted,” “no salt,” “no salt... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for the...

  13. 9 CFR 381.461 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... serving size; (ii) The product contains no ingredient that is sodium chloride or is generally understood... refers to sodium chloride. However, references to salt content such as “unsalted,” “no salt,” “no salt... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for the...

  14. 9 CFR 381.461 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... serving size; (ii) The product contains no ingredient that is sodium chloride or is generally understood... refers to sodium chloride. However, references to salt content such as “unsalted,” “no salt,” “no salt... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for the...

  15. 9 CFR 381.461 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... serving size; (ii) The product contains no ingredient that is sodium chloride or is generally understood... refers to sodium chloride. However, references to salt content such as “unsalted,” “no salt,” “no salt... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for the...

  16. 9 CFR 317.361 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... labeled serving size; (ii) The product contains no ingredient that is sodium chloride or is generally... refers to sodium chloride. However, references to salt content such as “unsalted,” “no salt,” “no salt... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for the...

  17. Uptake and Distribution of Sodium and Potassium by Corn Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Johanson, Julie G.; Cheeseman, John M.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of sodium and potassium throughout corn (Zea mays L. [A632 × Crows 3640] × Oh 43) plants is not simply a matter of uptake by cortical cells and irreversible delivery to the xylem for upward transport. We show that sodium, but not potassium, accumulates in the mesocotyl of corn seedlings grown on NaCl medium. Upon transfer to NaCl-free medium, total sodium is reduced by export through the roots but remains at high levels within the mesocotyl. We report experiments which consider uptake from the xylem. Shoots excised at the seed were allowed to transpire solutions containing 22Na and 42K. Potassium uptake within the mesocotyl was very sensitive to concentration, increasing 27-fold between 1 and 10 millimolar. Sodium uptake was dependent upon the square root of the concentration suggesting active accumulation. At sodium concentrations below 1 millimolar, more than 80% of the sodium in the plant was retained in the mesocotyl. Both the uptake by and retention within the mesocotyl were dependent upon transpiration rate as well as concentration. We discuss the limitations of measuring uptake from a finite, depletable medium. The mesocotyl is a modified root with a cuticularized epidermis. We discuss the feasibility of using this `plastic-coated root' as a model for root transport studies. PMID:16663165

  18. Evolutionary primacy of sodium bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Mulkidjanian, Armen Y; Galperin, Michael Y; Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2008-01-01

    Background The F- and V-type ATPases are rotary molecular machines that couple translocation of protons or sodium ions across the membrane to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP. Both the F-type (found in most bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts) and V-type (found in archaea, some bacteria, and eukaryotic vacuoles) ATPases can translocate either protons or sodium ions. The prevalent proton-dependent ATPases are generally viewed as the primary form of the enzyme whereas the sodium-translocating ATPases of some prokaryotes are usually construed as an exotic adaptation to survival in extreme environments. Results We combine structural and phylogenetic analyses to clarify the evolutionary relation between the proton- and sodium-translocating ATPases. A comparison of the structures of the membrane-embedded oligomeric proteolipid rings of sodium-dependent F- and V-ATPases reveals nearly identical sets of amino acids involved in sodium binding. We show that the sodium-dependent ATPases are scattered among proton-dependent ATPases in both the F- and the V-branches of the phylogenetic tree. Conclusion Barring convergent emergence of the same set of ligands in several lineages, these findings indicate that the use of sodium gradient for ATP synthesis is the ancestral modality of membrane bioenergetics. Thus, a primitive, sodium-impermeable but proton-permeable cell membrane that harboured a set of sodium-transporting enzymes appears to have been the evolutionary predecessor of the more structurally demanding proton-tight membranes. The use of proton as the coupling ion appears to be a later innovation that emerged on several independent occasions. Reviewers This article was reviewed by J. Peter Gogarten, Martijn A. Huynen, and Igor B. Zhulin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section. PMID:18380897

  19. 40 CFR 415.170 - Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. 415.170 Section 415.170 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Dichromate and Sodium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.170 Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. The provisions...

  20. Altered sodium channel-protein associations in critical illness myopathy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the acute phase of critical illness myopathy (CIM) there is inexcitability of skeletal muscle. In a rat model of CIM, muscle inexcitability is due to inactivation of sodium channels. A major contributor to this sodium channel inactivation is a hyperpolarized shift in the voltage dependence of sodium channel inactivation. The goal of the current study was to find a biochemical correlate of the hyperpolarized shift in sodium channel inactivation. Methods The rat model of CIM was generated by cutting the sciatic nerve and subsequent injections of dexamethasone for 7 days. Skeletal muscle membranes were prepared from gastrocnemius muscles, and purification and biochemical analyses carried out. Immunoprecipitations were performed with a pan-sodium channel antibody, and the resulting complexes probed in Western blots with various antibodies. Results We carried out analyses of sodium channel glycosylation, phosphorylation, and association with other proteins. Although there was some loss of channel glycosylation in the disease, as assessed by size analysis of glycosylated and de-glycosylated protein in control and CIM samples, previous work by other investigators suggest that such loss would most likely shift channel inactivation gating in a depolarizing direction; thus such loss was viewed as compensatory rather than causative of the disease. A phosphorylation site at serine 487 was identified on the NaV 1.4 sodium channel α subunit, but there was no clear evidence of altered phosphorylation in the disease. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments carried out with a pan-sodium channel antibody confirmed that the sodium channel was associated with proteins of the dystrophin associated protein complex (DAPC). This complex differed between control and CIM samples. Syntrophin, dystrophin, and plectin associated strongly with sodium channels in both control and disease conditions, while β-dystroglycan and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) associated

  1. Sodium fire testing: structural evaluation of sodium fire suppression system

    SciTech Connect

    1984-08-01

    This report describes the development and the lessons learned from the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Sodium Fire Testing Program (DRS 26.03). The purpose of this program was to evaluate the behavior of the Sodium Fire Suppression System and validate the analytical techniques used in the calculation of the effects of sodium fires in air-filled cells. This report focuses on the fire suppression capability and the structural integrity of the Fire Suppression System. System features are discussed; the test facility is described and the key results are provided. Modifications to the fire suppression system and the plant made as a result of test experience are also discussed.

  2. Calculating body frame size (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a person's wrist circumference in relation to his height. For example, a man whose height is over 5' 5" and wrist is 6" ... person is small, medium, or large boned. Women: Height under 5'2" Small = wrist size less than ...

  3. Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.K.

    1982-06-01

    The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units.

  4. 21 CFR 186.1770 - Sodium oleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium oleate. 186.1770 Section 186.1770 Food and....1770 Sodium oleate. (a) Sodium oleate (C18H33O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 143-19-1) is the sodium salt of oleic.... Commercially, sodium oleate is made by mixing and heating flaked sodium hydroxide and oleic acid. (b)...

  5. Medium optimization for enhanced co-production of two bioactive metabolites in the same fermentation by a statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Song, Yong-Chun; Xu, Hao; Guo, Ye; Li, Jing; Tan, Ren-Xiang

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes improved optimization method that combines the one-factor-at-a-time method (OFAT), Plackett-Burman design, and the response surface method (RSM), which were used to optimize the medium for the production of fumigaclavine C (FC) and helvolic acid (HA) from endophytic Aspergillus fumigatus CY018 simultaneously. The ideal carbon and nitrogen sources for the two compounds were assessed initially via the one-factor-at-a-time method. Three key cultivation factors (pH, phosphate, and inoculum size) were chosen based on the results of Plackett-Burman design, and subsequently optimized by the central composite design. The two metabolites were amply afforded when the cultivation was carried out with the inoculum size of 2.45% at pH 4.2 and 28°C for 19 days in the medium containing (g/l): mannitol 50, sodium succinate 5.4, NaNO₃ 2, MgSO₄·7H₂O 0.3, FeSO₄·7H₂O 0.01, and KH₂PO₄ 0.67. The highest yields of FC and HA achieved herein were 17.26 and 16.88 mg/l. This work might be the first endeavor leading to the improved simultaneous production of two complex active metabolites with a single strain. PMID:22115035

  6. Synthesis and characterization of carbon microsphere for extinguishing sodium fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snehalatha, V.; Ponraju, D.; Nashine, B. K.; Chellapandi, P.

    2013-06-01

    In Sodium cooled Fast breeder Reactors (SFRs), accidental leakage of liquid sodium leads to sodium fire. Carbon microsphere is a promising and novel extinguishant for sodium fire since it possesses high thermal conductivity, chemical inertness and excellent flow characteristics. Low density Carbon microsphere (CMS) with high thermal stability was successfully synthesized from functionalized styrene divinyl benzene copolymer by carbonization under inert atmosphere. Protocol for stepwise carbonization was developed by optimizing heating rate and time of heating. The synthesized CMS was characterized by Densimeter, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Fourier Transfer Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetry (TG), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and RAMAN spectroscopy. CMS thus obtained was spherical in shape having diameters ranging between 60 to 80μm with narrow size distribution. The smooth surface of CMS ensures its free flow characteristics. The yield of carbonization process was about 38%. The performance of CMS was tested on small scale sodium. This paper describes the development of carbon microsphere for extinguishing sodium fire and its characteristics.

  7. Structure and polymer form of poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates produced by Pseudomonas oleovorans grown with mixture of sodium octanoate/undecylenic acid and sodium octanoate/5-phenylvaleric acid.

    PubMed

    Ho, I-Ching; Yang, Sheng-Pin; Chiu, Wen-Yen; Huang, Shih-Yow

    2007-01-30

    PHAs (poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates) obtained by Pseudomonas oleovorans grown with mixed carbon sources were investigated. Mixed carbon sources were sodium octanoate/undecylenic acid and sodium octanoate/5-phenylvaleric acid. Effect of carbon source in pre-culture on PHAs structure was investigated. Main fermentation was conducted with mixture of sodium octanoate/undecylenic acid, and PHA contained both saturated and unsaturated units. When more undecylenic acid was used in the medium, the ratio of unsaturated unit increased and the T(g) of the products also changed. The PHA grown with mixture of sodium octanoate and undecylenic acid was a random copolymer, which was determined by DSC analysis. Using mixed carbon sources of sodium octanoate and 5-phenylvaleric acid, highest dry cell weight and PHA concentration were obtained when 0.02g or 0.04g of 5-phenylvaleric acid were added in 50mL medium. Cultured with sodium octanoate and 5-phenylvaleric acid, PHA containing HO (3-hydroxyoctanoate) unit and HPV (3-hydroxy-5-phenylvalerate) unit was produced. T(g) of the products fell between those of pure PHO and pure PHPV. By means of DSC analysis and fractionation method, the PHA obtained was regarded as a random copolymer. PMID:16919325

  8. The Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1995-01-01

    The Interstellar Medium (ISM) forms an integral part of the lifecycle of stars and the galaxy. Stars are formed by gravitational contraction of interstellar clouds. Over their life, stars return much of their mass to the ISM through winds and supernova explosions, resulting in a slow enrichment in heavy elements. Understanding the origin and evolution of the ISM is a key problem within astrophysics. The KAO has made many important contributions to studies of the interstellar medium both on the macro and on the micro scale. In this overview, I will concentrate on two breakthroughs in the last decade in which KAO observations have played a major role: (1) the importance of large Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules for the ISM (section 3) and (2) the study of Photodissociation Regions (PDRs) as an analog for the diffuse ISM at large (section 4). Appropriately, the micro and macro problem are intricately interwoven in these problems. Finally, section 5 reviews the origin of the (CII) emission observed by COBE.

  9. The Local Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redfield, S.

    2006-09-01

    The Local Interstellar Medium (LISM) is a unique environment that presents an opportunity to study general interstellar phenomena in great detail and in three dimensions. In particular, high resolution optical and ultraviolet spectroscopy have proven to be powerful tools for addressing fundamental questions concerning the physical conditions and three-dimensional (3D) morphology of this local material. After reviewing our current understanding of the structure of gas in the solar neighborhood, I will discuss the influence that the LISM can have on stellar and planetary systems, including LISM dust deposition onto planetary atmospheres and the modulation of galactic cosmic rays through the astrosphere --- the balancing interface between the outward pressure of the magnetized stellar wind and the inward pressure of the surrounding interstellar medium. On Earth, galactic cosmic rays may play a role as contributors to ozone layer chemistry, planetary electrical discharge frequency, biological mutation rates, and climate. Since the LISM shares the same volume as practically all known extrasolar planets, the prototypical debris disks systems, and nearby low-mass star-formation sites, it will be important to understand the structures of the LISM and how they may influence planetary atmospheres.

  10. Susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to the food preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su-Chen; Foster, Niki F; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important enteric pathogen of humans and food animals. Recently it has been isolated from retail foods with prevalences up to 42%, prompting concern that contaminated foods may be one of the reasons for increased community-acquired C. difficile infection (CA-CDI). A number of studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in raw meats and fresh vegetables; however, fewer studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in ready-to-eat meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of 11 C. difficile isolates of food animal and retail food origins to food preservatives commonly used in ready-to-eat meats. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite against C. difficile. Checkerboard assays were used to investigate the combined effect of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate, commonly used in combination in meats. Modal MIC values for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite were 250 μg/ml, >4000 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml, respectively. No bactericidal activity was observed for all three food preservatives. The checkerboard assays showed indifferent interaction between sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate. This study demonstrated that C. difficile can survive in the presence of food preservatives at concentrations higher than the current maximum permitted levels allowed in ready-to-eat meats. The possibility of retail ready-to-eat meats contaminated with C. difficile acting as a source of CDI needs to be investigated. PMID:26700884

  11. Radio Is an Educational Medium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duby, Aliza

    This report summarizes information found in a survey of the literature on radio as an educational medium which covered the published literature from many areas of the world. Comments on the literature reviewed are provided throughout the text, which is organized under seven major headings: (1) Radio, Mass Medium; (2) Radio, the Medium (broadening…

  12. Changes in sodium levels in chain restaurant foods in Canada (2010−2013): a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Scourboutakos, Mary J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Several restaurant chains have committed to reducing sodium levels in their foods; however, how much sodium levels have changed over the past few years is unknown. The objective was to measure changes in sodium in restaurant foods from 2010 to 2013. Methods Data for the serving size, calorie and sodium level of 3878 foods were collected from the websites of 61 Canadian restaurant chains in 2010 and 2013. A longitudinal study of changes in sodium levels in foods available from the restaurants in 2010 and 2013 (n = 2198) was conducted. Levels in newly reported and discontinued foods were also investigated. Results Sodium levels (mg/serving) decreased in 30.1% of foods, increased in 16.3% and were unchanged in 53.6%. The average change in foods with a decrease in sodium was –220 (standard deviation [SD] ± 303) mg/serving (a decline of 19% [SD ± 17%]), whereas the average change in foods with an increase in sodium was 251 (SD ± 349) mg/serving (a 44% [SD ± 104%] increase). The prevalence and magnitude of change varied depending on the restaurant and food category. Overall, there was a small, yet significant, decrease in sodium per serving (–25 [SD ± 268] mg, p < 0.001); however, the percentage of foods exceeding the daily sodium adequate intake (1500 mg) and tolerable upper intake level (2300 mg) remained unchanged. Interpretation The observed increases and decreases in sodium show that industry efforts to voluntarily decrease sodium levels in Canadian restaurant foods have produced inconsistent results. Although the lower levels in some foods show that sodium reduction is possible, the simultaneous increase in other foods demonstrates the need for targets and timelines for sodium reduction in restaurants. PMID:25553327

  13. Structural and electronic properties of sodium nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Luis A.; Reyes-Nava, Juan A.; Garzon, Ignacio L.

    2006-03-01

    Recent advances on mass selection of sodium nanoclusters and their characterization by photoemission electron spectroscopy [1] have given useful data for a variety of clusters sizes. These data may lead to assignments of the relevant structures by comparing the measured photoelectron spectra (PES) with the electronic density of states (DOS) obtained from DFT calculations. In this work, the lowest energy structures modeled by the many-body Gupta potential, are obtained by using molecular dynamics simulations for Nan (n= 178, 204, 271, 298-300, 309). DFT calculations were then performed for neutral, positively- and negatively-charged Nan clusters. A comparison between the DOS of clusters of the same size but different charge will be presented, as well as between the available experimental PES and the theoretical obtained DOS.[1] H. Haberland, T. Hippler, J. Donges, O. Kostko, M. Schmidt, B. von Issendorff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 035701 (2005).

  14. The sodium/sulphur battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudworth, J. L.

    1984-02-01

    Problems encountered in the design and development of a practical sodium/sulphur battery are reviewed and several solutions are offered. Consideration is given to the degradation of the solid electrolyte, beta alumina; problems with the sodium electrode associated with the sodium/beta alumina interface; and the loss of capacity identified with the sulphur electrode. Attention is also given to the search for corrosion-resistant materials for use as the current collector and to the geometry of the cell design. Criteria for a successful road vehicle battery are discussed.

  15. Sodium MRI: methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Madelin, Guillaume; Lee, Jae-Seung; Regatte, Ravinder R; Jerschow, Alexej

    2014-05-01

    Sodium NMR spectroscopy and MRI have become popular in recent years through the increased availability of high-field MRI scanners, advanced scanner hardware and improved methodology. Sodium MRI is being evaluated for stroke and tumor detection, for breast cancer studies, and for the assessment of osteoarthritis and muscle and kidney functions, to name just a few. In this article, we aim to present an up-to-date review of the theoretical background, the methodology, the challenges, limitations, and current and potential new applications of sodium MRI. PMID:24815363

  16. Sodium MRI: Methods and applications

    PubMed Central

    Madelin, Guillaume; Lee, Jae-Seung; Regatte, Ravinder R.; Jerschow, Alexej

    2014-01-01

    Sodium NMR spectroscopy and MRI have become popular in recent years through the increased availability of high-field MRI scanners, advanced scanner hardware and improved methodology. Sodium MRI is being evaluated for stroke and tumor detection, for breast cancer studies, and for the assessment of osteoarthritis and muscle and kidney functions, to name just a few. In this article, we aim to present an up-to-date review of the theoretical background, the methodology, the challenges and limitations, and current and potential new applications of sodium MRI. PMID:24815363

  17. Effects of sodium on electrical properties in Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaoka, Akira; Yoshino, Kenji; Miyake, Hideto; Taniyama, Tomoyasu; Kakimoto, Koichi; Nose, Yoshitaro; Scarpulla, Michael A.

    2014-04-14

    We have studied the effect of sodium on the electrical properties of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) single crystal by using temperature dependence of Hall effect measurement. The sodium substitution on the cation site in CZTS is observed from the increasing of unit-cell size by powder X-ray diffraction. Sodium increases the effective hole concentration and makes the thermal activation energy smaller. The degree of compensation decreases with sodium incorporation, thus the hole mobility is enhanced. We revealed that sodium is important dopant in CZTS to control the electrical properties.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of hollow silica particles from tetraethyl orthosilicate and sodium silicate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiwoong; Lee, Jinwoo; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Jang, Hee Dong

    2013-03-01

    We herein introduce an effective method to synthesize hollow silica particles (HSPs) from tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) as silica sources using a sacrificial template method with a simple modification. The advantage of the method is that it can be applied to synthesize HSPs from not only TEOS but also Na2SiO3 silica sources without changing the method adopted to obtain the sacrificial polymeric templates. Polystyrene particles are adopted as sacrificial templates to synthesize the HSPs, and a conventional dispersion polymerization method is used to synthesis polystyrene particles in an oil medium. Size control of HSPs is enabled by modulation of the polymerization initiator content (2,2'-Azoisobutyronitrile). The particle size, shell thickness, and morphology are analyzed. Light reflection spectra are measured to obtain the light reflection properties of the HSPs. The results indicate that the hollow architecture is the most important factor in determining the light reflection properties of the particles. Such particles are potential candidates for use in light reflectors and heat insulators, as they may reduce energy consumption in heating and cooling applications. PMID:23755680

  19. The turbulent interstellar medium and pressure-bounded molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Philip

    1988-01-01

    The existence of turbulence throughout the interstellar medium suggests that an appropriate value for the average pressure may be P/K larger than about 10,000. Negative-index polytropic models of interstellar clouds in equilibrium with an external medium at these pressures are predicted to have sizes, line widths, masses, and size-line width and size-density relations in good agreement with those observed and inferred for dark clouds. Thus these observed features of interstellar clouds do not require that they be completely self-gravitating or 'virialized' in the commonly used sense.

  20. Slow convergence to effective medium in finite discrete metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapine, M.; McPhedran, R. C.; Poulton, C. G.

    2016-06-01

    It is known that metamaterial properties may differ significantly from the predictions of effective-medium theory. In many cases this is due to the finite size and discrete structure, which cannot be neglected in practical samples with a relatively small amount of elements. We analyze the response of finite discrete metamaterial objects of a spherical shape and demonstrate the role of boundary effects in these structures, pointing out an interplay between the size of the structure and the dissipation. We conclude that the discrepancy between the actual resonance frequency of a sphere and the effective-medium prediction is inversely proportional to the size of the sphere.