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  1. Mathematical vistas

    SciTech Connect

    Malkevitch, J. ); McCarthy, D. )

    1990-01-01

    The papers in this volume represent talks given at the monthly meetings of the Mathematics Section of the New York Academy of Sciences. They reflect the operating philosophy of the Section in its efforts to make a meaningful contribution to the mathematical life of a community that is exceedingly rich in cultural resources and intellectual opportunities. Each week during the academic year a dazzling abundance of mathematical seminars and colloquia is available in the New York metropolitan area. Most of these offer highly technical treatments intended for specialists. At the New York Academy we try to provide a forum of a different sort, where interesting ideas are presented in a congenial atmosphere to a broad mathematical audience. Many of the Section talks contain substantial specialized material, but we ask our speakers to include a strong expository component aimed at working mathematicians presumed to have no expert knowledge of the topic at hand. We urge speakers to try to provide the motivating interest they themselves would like to find in an introduction to a field other than their own. The same advice has been given to the authors of the present papers, with the goal of producing a collection that will be both accessible and stimulating to mathematical minds at large. We have tried to provide variety in the mathematical vistas offered; both pure and applied mathematics are well represented. Since the papers are presented alphabetically by author, some guidance seems appropriate as to what sorts of topics are treated, and where. There are three papers in analysis: those by Engber, Narici and Beckenstein, and Todd. Engber's deals with complex analysis on compact Riemann surfaces; Narici and Beckenstein provide an introduction to analysis on non-Archimendean fields; Todd surveys an area of contemporary functional analysis.

  2. Native Son. Vista Volunteer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urvant, Ellen; And Others

    The June issue of the Vista Volunteer is devoted to a presentation of the current plight of the American Indian emphasizing the injustice with which the Indian has been treated. Throughout the 5 articles the achievements and efforts of the Vista volunteers working with various Indian tribes are described. Statements by Indian leaders point up the…

  3. SNP-VISTA

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Nameeta; Teplitsky, Michael; Minovitsky, Simon; Dubchak, Inna

    2005-11-07

    SNP-VISTA aids in analyses of the following types of data: A. Large-scale re-sequence data of disease-related genes for discovery of associated and/or causative alleles (GeneSNP-VISTA). B. Massive amounts of ecogenomics data for studying homologous recombination in microbial populations (EcoSNP-VISTA). The main features and capabilities of SNP-VISTA are: 1) Mapping of SNPs to gene structure; 2) classification of SNPs, based on their location in the gene, frequency of occurrence in samples and allele composition; 3) clustering, based on user-defined subsets of SNPs, highlighting haplotypes as well as recombinant sequences; 4) integration of protein conservation visualization; and 5) display of automatically calculated recombination points that are user-editable. The main strength of SNP-VISTA is its graphical interface and use of visual representations, which support interactive exploration and hence better understanding of large-scale SNPs data.

  4. SNP-VISTA

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-11-07

    SNP-VISTA aids in analyses of the following types of data: A. Large-scale re-sequence data of disease-related genes for discovery of associated and/or causative alleles (GeneSNP-VISTA). B. Massive amounts of ecogenomics data for studying homologous recombination in microbial populations (EcoSNP-VISTA). The main features and capabilities of SNP-VISTA are: 1) Mapping of SNPs to gene structure; 2) classification of SNPs, based on their location in the gene, frequency of occurrence in samples and allele composition; 3) clustering,more » based on user-defined subsets of SNPs, highlighting haplotypes as well as recombinant sequences; 4) integration of protein conservation visualization; and 5) display of automatically calculated recombination points that are user-editable. The main strength of SNP-VISTA is its graphical interface and use of visual representations, which support interactive exploration and hence better understanding of large-scale SNPs data.« less

  5. VISTA: project status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPherson, Alistair M.; Born, Andrew; Sutherland, Will; Emerson, Jim; Little, Bryan; Jeffers, Paul; Stewart, Malcolm; Murray, John; Ward, Kim

    2006-06-01

    VISTA is a 4-m wide field survey telescope with a near infra-red camera and a demanding f/1 primary design now well into its manufacturing phase. We contracted out major items, and generated a coordinated approach to the management of engineering budgets through systems engineering, risks through risk management, and safety through the generation of safety cases. Control of the interfaces and science requirements has been maintained and developed through the current phase. The project is developing the commissioning plan to deliver an effective and safe facility. The current status of VISTA is presented as we move towards the on site integration phase.

  6. GenomeVista

    SciTech Connect

    Poliakov, Alexander; Couronne, Olivier

    2002-11-04

    Aligning large vertebrate genomes that are structurally complex poses a variety of problems not encountered on smaller scales. Such genomes are rich in repetitive elements and contain multiple segmental duplications, which increases the difficulty of identifying true orthologous SNA segments in alignments. The sizes of the sequences make many alignment algorithms designed for comparing single proteins extremely inefficient when processing large genomic intervals. We integrated both local and global alignment tools and developed a suite of programs for automatically aligning large vertebrate genomes and identifying conserved non-coding regions in the alignments. Our method uses the BLAT local alignment program to find anchors on the base genome to identify regions of possible homology for a query sequence. These regions are postprocessed to find the best candidates which are then globally aligned using the AVID global alignment program. In the last step conserved non-coding segments are identified using VISTA. Our methods are fast and the resulting alignments exhibit a high degree of sensitivity, covering more than 90% of known coding exons in the human genome. The GenomeVISTA software is a suite of Perl programs that is built on a MySQL database platform. The scheduler gets control data from the database, builds a queve of jobs, and dispatches them to a PC cluster for execution. The main program, running on each node of the cluster, processes individual sequences. A Perl library acts as an interface between the database and the above programs. The use of a separate library allows the programs to function independently of the database schema. The library also improves on the standard Perl MySQL database interfere package by providing auto-reconnect functionality and improved error handling.

  7. GenomeVista

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-11-04

    Aligning large vertebrate genomes that are structurally complex poses a variety of problems not encountered on smaller scales. Such genomes are rich in repetitive elements and contain multiple segmental duplications, which increases the difficulty of identifying true orthologous SNA segments in alignments. The sizes of the sequences make many alignment algorithms designed for comparing single proteins extremely inefficient when processing large genomic intervals. We integrated both local and global alignment tools and developed a suitemore » of programs for automatically aligning large vertebrate genomes and identifying conserved non-coding regions in the alignments. Our method uses the BLAT local alignment program to find anchors on the base genome to identify regions of possible homology for a query sequence. These regions are postprocessed to find the best candidates which are then globally aligned using the AVID global alignment program. In the last step conserved non-coding segments are identified using VISTA. Our methods are fast and the resulting alignments exhibit a high degree of sensitivity, covering more than 90% of known coding exons in the human genome. The GenomeVISTA software is a suite of Perl programs that is built on a MySQL database platform. The scheduler gets control data from the database, builds a queve of jobs, and dispatches them to a PC cluster for execution. The main program, running on each node of the cluster, processes individual sequences. A Perl library acts as an interface between the database and the above programs. The use of a separate library allows the programs to function independently of the database schema. The library also improves on the standard Perl MySQL database interfere package by providing auto-reconnect functionality and improved error handling.« less

  8. Vista Version 0.7

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-05-05

    Vista is a database management system tailored to the needs of scientific computing. It provides data storage for Index Sets, topological relationships, parameters, and fields. It provides scoping capabilities for data along with a nice way of managing attribute queries. It is an in-core database that is intended to replace the majority of data structures used in scientific software.

  9. School Board Recall Revives Vista.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Planning and Management, 1996

    1996-01-01

    In November 1992, Vista (California) residents elected two conservative Christians to four-year terms on the school board. Controversial topics at board meetings divided the community. In a November 1994 recall election two conservatives were replaced by two moderates. An interview with the board president and superintendent describes how school…

  10. VISTA Views the Sculptor Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-06-01

    A spectacular new image of the Sculptor Galaxy (NGC 253) has been taken with the ESO VISTA telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile as part of one of its first major observational campaigns. By observing in infrared light VISTA's view is less affected by dust and reveals a myriad of cooler stars as well as a prominent bar of stars across the central region. The VISTA image provides much new information on the history and development of the galaxy. The Sculptor Galaxy (NGC 253) lies in the constellation of the same name and is one of the brightest galaxies in the sky. It is prominent enough to be seen with good binoculars and was discovered by Caroline Herschel from England in 1783. NGC 253 is a spiral galaxy that lies about 13 million light-years away. It is the brightest member of a small collection of galaxies called the Sculptor Group, one of the closest such groupings to our own Local Group of galaxies. Part of its visual prominence comes from its status as a starburst galaxy, one in the throes of rapid star formation. NGC 253 is also very dusty, which obscures the view of many parts of the galaxy (eso0902). Seen from Earth, the galaxy is almost edge on, with the spiral arms clearly visible in the outer parts, along with a bright core at its centre. VISTA, the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy, the latest addition to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Chilean Atacama Desert, is the world's largest survey telescope. After being handed over to ESO at the end of 2009 (eso0949) the telescope was used for two detailed studies of small sections of the sky before it embarked on the much larger surveys that are now in progress. One of these "mini surveys" was a detailed study of NGC 253 and its environment. As VISTA works at infrared wavelengths it can see right through most of the dust that is such a prominent feature of the Sculptor Galaxy when viewed in visible light. Huge numbers of cooler stars that are barely detectable with visible

  11. VISTA - computational tools for comparative genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Frazer, Kelly A.; Pachter, Lior; Poliakov, Alexander; Rubin,Edward M.; Dubchak, Inna

    2004-01-01

    Comparison of DNA sequences from different species is a fundamental method for identifying functional elements in genomes. Here we describe the VISTA family of tools created to assist biologists in carrying out this task. Our first VISTA server at http://www-gsd.lbl.gov/VISTA/ was launched in the summer of 2000 and was designed to align long genomic sequences and visualize these alignments with associated functional annotations. Currently the VISTA site includes multiple comparative genomics tools and provides users with rich capabilities to browse pre-computed whole-genome alignments of large vertebrate genomes and other groups of organisms with VISTA Browser, submit their own sequences of interest to several VISTA servers for various types of comparative analysis, and obtain detailed comparative analysis results for a set of cardiovascular genes. We illustrate capabilities of the VISTA site by the analysis of a 180 kilobase (kb) interval on human chromosome 5 that encodes for the kinesin family member3A (KIF3A) protein.

  12. Implementing Boot Control for Windows Vista

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashino, Yuki; Fujita, Keisuke; Furusawa, Maiko; Uehara, Tetsutaro; Sasaki, Ryoichi

    A digital forensic logging system must prevent the booting of unauthorized programs and the modification of evidence. Our previous research developed Dig-Force2, a boot control system for Windows XP platforms that employs API hooking and a trusted platform module. However, Dig-Force2 cannot be used for Windows Vista systems because the hooked API cannot monitor booting programs in user accounts. This paper describes an enhanced version of Dig-Force2, which uses a TPM and a white list to provide boot control functionality for Windows Vista systems. In addition, the paper presents the results of security and performance evaluations of the boot control system.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Genome Sequences with VISTA

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dubchak, Inna

    VISTA is a comprehensive suite of programs and databases developed by and hosted at the Genomics Division of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. They provide information and tools designed to facilitate comparative analysis of genomic sequences. Users have two ways to interact with the suite of applications at the VISTA portal. They can submit their own sequences and alignments for analysis (VISTA servers) or examine pre-computed whole-genome alignments of different species. A key menu option is the Enhancer Browser and Database at http://enhancer.lbl.gov/. The VISTA Enhancer Browser is a central resource for experimentally validated human noncoding fragments with gene enhancer activity as assessed in transgenic mice. Most of these noncoding elements were selected for testing based on their extreme conservation with other vertebrates. The results of this enhancer screen are provided through this publicly available website. The browser also features relevant results by external contributors and a large collection of additional genome-wide conserved noncoding elements which are candidate enhancer sequences. The LBL developers invite external groups to submit computational predictions of developmental enhancers. As of 10/19/2009 the database contains information on 1109 in vivo tested elements - 508 elements with enhancer activity.

  14. A Clearer View of Vista Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descy, Don E.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses some features of Windows Vista that may be of interest to teachers and/or their students. These are: (1) User Account Control; (2) Windows Firewall; (3) Windows Backup; (4) Parental Controls; (5) Windows Sidebar and Gadgets; (6) Instant Search; and (7) Windows ReadyBoost.

  15. BUENA VISTA HIGH SCHOOL--DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EGBERT, ROBERT L.

    A DETAILED SYSTEM DESCRIPTION OF THE 11TH-GRADE ENGLISH COURSE WHICH COMBINES TEAM TEACHING WITH CLOSED-CIRCUIT TELEVISION AT THE BUENA VISTA HIGH SCHOOL IN SAGINAW, MICHIGAN, WAS PRESENTED. THE SECOND IN A SERIES OF THREE REPORTS, THIS REPORT PRESENTED AN ANALYSIS OF (1) COURSE OPERATING PROCEDURES, (2) TIME SPENT IN VARIOUS GROUPINGS AND…

  16. VISTA: Pioneering New Survey Telescope Starts Work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-12-01

    A new telescope - VISTA (the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) - has just started work at ESO's Paranal Observatory and has made its first release of pictures. VISTA is a survey telescope working at infrared wavelengths and is the world's largest telescope dedicated to mapping the sky. Its large mirror, wide field of view and very sensitive detectors will reveal a completely new view of the southern sky. Spectacular new images of the Flame Nebula, the centre of our Milky Way galaxy and the Fornax Galaxy Cluster show that it is working extremely well. VISTA is the latest telescope to be added to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. It is housed on the peak adjacent to the one hosting the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and shares the same exceptional observing conditions. VISTA's main mirror is 4.1 metres across and is the most highly curved mirror of this size and quality ever made - its deviations from a perfect surface are less than a few thousandths of the thickness of a human hair - and its construction and polishing presented formidable challenges. VISTA was conceived and developed by a consortium of 18 universities in the United Kingdom [1] led by Queen Mary, University of London and became an in-kind contribution to ESO as part of the UK's accession agreement. The telescope design and construction were project-managed by the Science and Technology Facilities Council's UK Astronomy Technology Centre (STFC, UK ATC). Provisional acceptance of VISTA was formally granted by ESO at a ceremony at ESO's Headquarters in Garching, Germany, attended by representatives of Queen Mary, University of London and STFC, on 10 December 2009 and the telescope will now be operated by ESO. "VISTA is a unique addition to ESO's observatory on Cerro Paranal. It will play a pioneering role in surveying the southern sky at infrared wavelengths and will find many interesting targets for further study by the Very Large Telescope, ALMA and

  17. VISTA: Pioneering New Survey Telescope Starts Work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-12-01

    A new telescope - VISTA (the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) - has just started work at ESO's Paranal Observatory and has made its first release of pictures. VISTA is a survey telescope working at infrared wavelengths and is the world's largest telescope dedicated to mapping the sky. Its large mirror, wide field of view and very sensitive detectors will reveal a completely new view of the southern sky. Spectacular new images of the Flame Nebula, the centre of our Milky Way galaxy and the Fornax Galaxy Cluster show that it is working extremely well. VISTA is the latest telescope to be added to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. It is housed on the peak adjacent to the one hosting the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and shares the same exceptional observing conditions. VISTA's main mirror is 4.1 metres across and is the most highly curved mirror of this size and quality ever made - its deviations from a perfect surface are less than a few thousandths of the thickness of a human hair - and its construction and polishing presented formidable challenges. VISTA was conceived and developed by a consortium of 18 universities in the United Kingdom [1] led by Queen Mary, University of London and became an in-kind contribution to ESO as part of the UK's accession agreement. The telescope design and construction were project-managed by the Science and Technology Facilities Council's UK Astronomy Technology Centre (STFC, UK ATC). Provisional acceptance of VISTA was formally granted by ESO at a ceremony at ESO's Headquarters in Garching, Germany, attended by representatives of Queen Mary, University of London and STFC, on 10 December 2009 and the telescope will now be operated by ESO. "VISTA is a unique addition to ESO's observatory on Cerro Paranal. It will play a pioneering role in surveying the southern sky at infrared wavelengths and will find many interesting targets for further study by the Very Large Telescope, ALMA and

  18. The VISTA Deep Extragalactic Observations (VIDEO) Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, M. J.; Häußler, B.; McAlpine, K.

    2013-12-01

    The VIDEO survey is designed to answer key questions regarding the formation and evolution of galaxies, in particular the role of accretion onto black holes and how galaxy evolution may vary depending on environment. VIDEO undertakes deep near-infrared imaging over three well-observed extragalactic fields allowing in-depth study of galaxy evolution over 1 < z < 4, linking the shallower VST and VISTA surveys with the UltraVISTA survey. The area and depth of the VIDEO survey enables the detection of the bulk of the luminosity density arising from galaxies over 90% of the history of the Universe, as well as the most massive galaxies at all epochs and any associated accretion activity. A few scientific highlights from the early VIDEO data are provided.

  19. Some Correlates of Success and Satisfaction in Urban VISTA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Marjorie H.

    A study of volunteer success and satisfaction among a group of urban VISTA volunteers who trained at Columbia School of Social Work attempted to determine what enables a VISTA volunteer to perform effectively in his field assignment, and to define the roots of volunteer satisfaction with the VISTA experience. Factors studied are grouped into five…

  20. VISTA Reveals the Secret of the Unicorn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    A new infrared image from ESO's VISTA survey telescope reveals an extraordinary landscape of glowing tendrils of gas, dark clouds and young stars within the constellation of Monoceros (the Unicorn). This star-forming region, known as Monoceros R2, is embedded within a huge dark cloud. The region is almost completely obscured by interstellar dust when viewed in visible light, but is spectacular in the infrared. An active stellar nursery lies hidden inside a massive dark cloud rich in molecules and dust in the constellation of Monoceros. Although it appears close in the sky to the more familiar Orion Nebula it is actually almost twice as far from Earth, at a distance of about 2700 light-years. In visible light a grouping of massive hot stars creates a beautiful collection of reflection nebulae where the bluish starlight is scattered from parts of the dark, foggy outer layers of the molecular cloud. However, most of the new-born massive stars remain hidden as the thick interstellar dust strongly absorbs their ultraviolet and visible light. In this gorgeous infrared image taken from ESO's Paranal Observatory in northern Chile, the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA [1], eso0949) penetrates the dark curtain of cosmic dust and reveals in astonishing detail the folds, loops and filaments sculpted from the dusty interstellar matter by intense particle winds and the radiation emitted by hot young stars. "When I first saw this image I just said 'Wow!' I was amazed to see all the dust streamers so clearly around the Monoceros R2 cluster, as well as the jets from highly embedded young stellar objects. There is such a great wealth of exciting detail revealed in these VISTA images," says Jim Emerson, of Queen Mary, University of London and leader of the VISTA consortium. With its huge field of view, large mirror and sensitive camera, VISTA is ideal for obtaining deep, high quality infrared images of large areas of the sky, such as the Monoceros R2 region

  1. VISTA Captures Celestial Cat's Hidden Secrets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    The Cat's Paw Nebula, NGC 6334, is a huge stellar nursery, the birthplace of hundreds of massive stars. In a magnificent new ESO image taken with the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile, the glowing gas and dust clouds obscuring the view are penetrated by infrared light and some of the Cat's hidden young stars are revealed. Towards the heart of the Milky Way, 5500 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Scorpius (the Scorpion), the Cat's Paw Nebula stretches across 50 light-years. In visible light, gas and dust are illuminated by hot young stars, creating strange reddish shapes that give the object its nickname. A recent image by ESO's Wide Field Imager (WFI) at the La Silla Observatory (eso1003) captured this visible light view in great detail. NGC 6334 is one of the most active nurseries of massive stars in our galaxy. VISTA, the latest addition to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Chilean Atacama Desert, is the world's largest survey telescope (eso0949). It works at infrared wavelengths, seeing right through much of the dust that is such a beautiful but distracting aspect of the nebula, and revealing objects hidden from the sight of visible light telescopes. Visible light tends to be scattered and absorbed by interstellar dust, but the dust is nearly transparent to infrared light. VISTA has a main mirror that is 4.1 metres across and it is equipped with the largest infrared camera on any telescope. It shares the spectacular viewing conditions with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), which is located on the nearby summit. With this powerful instrument at their command, astronomers were keen to see the birth pains of the big young stars in the Cat's Paw Nebula, some nearly ten times the mass of the Sun. The view in the infrared is strikingly different from that in visible light. With the dust obscuring the view far less, they can learn much more about how these stars form and develop in their first

  2. VISTA Captures Celestial Cat's Hidden Secrets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    The Cat's Paw Nebula, NGC 6334, is a huge stellar nursery, the birthplace of hundreds of massive stars. In a magnificent new ESO image taken with the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile, the glowing gas and dust clouds obscuring the view are penetrated by infrared light and some of the Cat's hidden young stars are revealed. Towards the heart of the Milky Way, 5500 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Scorpius (the Scorpion), the Cat's Paw Nebula stretches across 50 light-years. In visible light, gas and dust are illuminated by hot young stars, creating strange reddish shapes that give the object its nickname. A recent image by ESO's Wide Field Imager (WFI) at the La Silla Observatory (eso1003) captured this visible light view in great detail. NGC 6334 is one of the most active nurseries of massive stars in our galaxy. VISTA, the latest addition to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Chilean Atacama Desert, is the world's largest survey telescope (eso0949). It works at infrared wavelengths, seeing right through much of the dust that is such a beautiful but distracting aspect of the nebula, and revealing objects hidden from the sight of visible light telescopes. Visible light tends to be scattered and absorbed by interstellar dust, but the dust is nearly transparent to infrared light. VISTA has a main mirror that is 4.1 metres across and it is equipped with the largest infrared camera on any telescope. It shares the spectacular viewing conditions with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), which is located on the nearby summit. With this powerful instrument at their command, astronomers were keen to see the birth pains of the big young stars in the Cat's Paw Nebula, some nearly ten times the mass of the Sun. The view in the infrared is strikingly different from that in visible light. With the dust obscuring the view far less, they can learn much more about how these stars form and develop in their first

  3. The VISTA Deep Extragalactic Observations (VIDEO) survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, Matt J.; Bonfield, D. G.; Bruce, V. A.; Geach, J. E.; McAlpine, K.; McLure, R. J.; González-Solares, E.; Irwin, M.; Lewis, J.; Yoldas, A. Kupcu; Andreon, S.; Cross, N. J. G.; Emerson, J. P.; Dalton, G.; Dunlop, J. S.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Le, Fèvre O.; Karouzos, M.; Meisenheimer, K.; Oliver, S.; Rawlings, S.; Simpson, C.; Smail, I.; Smith, D. J. B.; Sullivan, M.; Sutherland, W.; White, S. V.; Zwart, J. T. L.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the first data release of the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) Deep Extragalactic Observations (VIDEO) survey. VIDEO is a ˜12 deg2 survey in the near-infrared Z, Y, J, H and Ks bands, specifically designed to enable the evolution of galaxies and large structures to be traced as a function of both epoch and environment from the present day out to z = 4, and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and the most massive galaxies up to and into the epoch of reionization. With its depth and area, VIDEO will be able to fully explore the period in the Universe where AGN and starburst activity were at their peak and the first galaxy clusters were beginning to virialize. VIDEO therefore offers a unique data set with which to investigate the interplay between AGN, starbursts and environment, and the role of feedback at a time when it was potentially most crucial. We provide data over the VIDEO-XMM3 tile, which also covers the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey Deep-1 field (CFHTLS-D1). The released VIDEO data reach a 5σ AB-magnitude depth of Z = 25.7, Y = 24.5, J = 24.4, H = 24.1 and Ks = 23.8 in 2 arcsec diameter apertures (the full depth of Y = 24.6 will be reached within the full integration time in future releases). The data are compared to previous surveys over this field and we find good astrometric agreement with the Two Micron All Sky Survey, and source counts in agreement with the recently released UltraVISTA survey data. The addition of the VIDEO data to the CFHTLS-D1 optical data increases the accuracy of photometric redshifts and significantly reduces the fraction of catastrophic outliers over the redshift range 0 < z < 1 from 5.8 to 3.1 per cent in the absence of an i-band luminosity prior. However, we expect that the main improvement in photometric redshifts will come in the redshift range 1 < z < 4 due to the sensitivity to the Balmer and 4000 Å breaks provided by the near-infrared VISTA filters. All

  4. VISTA regulates the development of protective anti-tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    LeMercier, Isabelle; Chen, Wenna; Lines, Janet L.; Day, Maria; Li, Jiannan; Sergent, Petra; Noelle, Randolph J.; Wang, Li

    2014-01-01

    V-domain Ig suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA) is a novel negative checkpoint ligand that is homologous to PD-L1 and suppresses T cell activation. This study demonstrates the multiple mechanisms whereby VISTA relieves negative regulation by hematopoietic cells and enhances protective anti-tumor immunity. VISTA is highly expressed on myeloid cells and Foxp3+CD4+ regulatory cells, but not on tumor cells within the tumor microenvironment (TME). VISTA monoclonal antibody (mab) treatment increased the number of tumor-specific T cells in the periphery, and enhanced the infiltration, proliferation and effector function of tumor-reactive T cells within the TME. VISTA blockade altered the suppressive feature of the TME, by decreasing the presence of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells and increasing the presence of activated DCs within the TME. In addition, VISTA blockade impaired the suppressive function and reduced the emergence of tumor-specific Foxp3+CD4+ regulatory T cells. Consequently, VISTA mab administration as a monotherapy significantly suppressed the growth of both transplantable and inducible melanoma. Initial studies explored a combinatorial regimen using VISTA blockade and a peptide-based cancer vaccine with TLR agonists as adjuvants. VISTA blockade synergized with the vaccine to effectively impair the growth of established tumors. Our study therefore establishes a foundation for designing VISTA-targeted approaches either as a monotherapy or in combination with additional immune-targeted strategies for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:24691994

  5. 77 FR 60904 - Safety Zone; Rio Vista Bass Derby Fireworks, Sacramento River, Rio Vista, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ...'' W (NAD 83). Upon commencement of the 15 minute fireworks display, scheduled to take place from 8:30... 38 09'18'' N, 121 41'15'' W (NAD 83) for the Rio Vista Bass Derby Fireworks in 33 CFR 165.1191....

  6. The VISTA Deep Extragalactic Observations (VIDEO) Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfield, David G.; Jarvis, M. J.; VIDEO Consortium

    2010-01-01

    The VISTA Deep Extragalactic Observations (VIDEO) survey is a 12 sq. degree, Z,Y,J,H,Ks survey, to be carried out with the new ESO Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA). The survey is specifically designed to enable galaxy and cluster/structure evolution to be traced as a function of both epoch and environment from the present day out to redshift z=4, and AGN and the most massive galaxies up to and into the epoch of reionization. With its depth and area, VIDEO will be able to fully probe the epoch of activity in the Universe, where AGN and starburst activity were at their peak and the first galaxy clusters were beginning to virialise. VIDEO therefore offers a unique data set with which to investigate the interplay between AGN, starbursts and environment, and the role of feedback at a time when it is most crucial. The three survey fields (ELAIS-S1, XMM-LSS, and CDF-S) have been chosen to maximise overlap with complementary multiwavelength data, and, as an ESO public survey, for future follow-up from southern facilities including the VLT, APEX, and ALMA. We have also recently established an agreement with the Dark Energy Survey Supernova Survey which will allow rest-frame optical light curves to be measured for distant supernovae, thus negating some of the biases inherent to optical surveys.

  7. The vista paradox: Framing or contrast?

    PubMed

    Daum, S Oliver; Both, Bernhard S; Bertamini, Marco; Hecht, Heiko

    2015-12-01

    The vista paradox is the illusion in which an object seen through a window appears to shrink in apparent size (and appears farther away) as the observer approaches the window. Paradoxically, the distal object appears smaller as its visual angle increases. We investigated the effect in four experiments varying object size, distance, point of fixation, and texture of the frame and of the object. In the first experiment, we tried to confirm the illusion and to test the robustness of the phenomenon. In the second experiment, we manipulated where subjects fixated (on the frame or on the object) as well as the texture of the object and the frame. Fixation was essential for the illusion: fixating the frame led to an apparent shrinking of the object, whereas fixation on the object did not. Texture of the frame intensified the apparent shrinking of the object. In a third experiment, we separated the point of fixation from the frame in a between-subjects design. Finally, in Experiment 4, we showed that the paradox does not require a frame, but it requires a fixation on a location different from the object. That is, the window or frame is dispensable for the vista paradox, but fixation is critical. PMID:26280259

  8. VISTA Reveals the Secret of the Unicorn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    A new infrared image from ESO's VISTA survey telescope reveals an extraordinary landscape of glowing tendrils of gas, dark clouds and young stars within the constellation of Monoceros (the Unicorn). This star-forming region, known as Monoceros R2, is embedded within a huge dark cloud. The region is almost completely obscured by interstellar dust when viewed in visible light, but is spectacular in the infrared. An active stellar nursery lies hidden inside a massive dark cloud rich in molecules and dust in the constellation of Monoceros. Although it appears close in the sky to the more familiar Orion Nebula it is actually almost twice as far from Earth, at a distance of about 2700 light-years. In visible light a grouping of massive hot stars creates a beautiful collection of reflection nebulae where the bluish starlight is scattered from parts of the dark, foggy outer layers of the molecular cloud. However, most of the new-born massive stars remain hidden as the thick interstellar dust strongly absorbs their ultraviolet and visible light. In this gorgeous infrared image taken from ESO's Paranal Observatory in northern Chile, the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA [1], eso0949) penetrates the dark curtain of cosmic dust and reveals in astonishing detail the folds, loops and filaments sculpted from the dusty interstellar matter by intense particle winds and the radiation emitted by hot young stars. "When I first saw this image I just said 'Wow!' I was amazed to see all the dust streamers so clearly around the Monoceros R2 cluster, as well as the jets from highly embedded young stellar objects. There is such a great wealth of exciting detail revealed in these VISTA images," says Jim Emerson, of Queen Mary, University of London and leader of the VISTA consortium. With its huge field of view, large mirror and sensitive camera, VISTA is ideal for obtaining deep, high quality infrared images of large areas of the sky, such as the Monoceros R2 region

  9. VISTA Stares Deeply into the Blue Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    This new infrared image of the Lagoon Nebula was captured as part of a five-year study of the Milky Way using ESO's VISTA telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. This is a small piece of a much larger image of the region surrounding the nebula, which is, in turn, only one part of a huge survey. Astronomers are currently using ESO's Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) to scour the Milky Way's central regions for variable objects and map its structure in greater detail than ever before. This huge survey is called VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) [1]. The new infrared image presented here was taken as part of this survey. It shows the stellar nursery called the Lagoon Nebula (also known as Messier 8, see eso0936), which lies about 4000-5000 light-years away in the constellation of Sagittarius (the Archer). Infrared observations allow astronomers to peer behind the veil of dust that prevents them from seeing celestial objects in visible light. This is because visible light, which has a wavelength that is about the same size as the dust particles, is strongly scattered, but the longer wavelength infrared light can pass through the dust largely unscathed. VISTA, with its 4.1-metre diameter mirror - the largest survey telescope in the world - is dedicated to surveying large areas of the sky at near-infrared wavelengths deeply and quickly. It is therefore ideally suited to studying star birth. Stars typically form in large molecular clouds of gas and dust, which collapse under their own weight. The Lagoon Nebula, however, is also home to a number of much more compact regions of collapsing gas and dust, called Bok globules [2]. These dark clouds are so dense that, even in the infrared, they can block the starlight from background stars. But the most famous dark feature in the nebula, for which it is named, is the lagoon-shaped dust lane that winds its way through the glowing cloud of gas. Hot, young stars, which give off intense

  10. Microsoft's Vista: Guarantees People with Special Needs Access to Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John M.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the accessibility features of Microsoft's Windows Vista. One of the most innovative aspects of Windows Vista is a new accessibility and automated testing model called Microsoft UI Automation, which reduces development costs not only for accessible and assistive technology (AT) developers, but also for…

  11. World Wide Web Search Engines: AltaVista and Yahoo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machovec, George S., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the history, structure, and search capabilities of Internet search tools AltaVista and Yahoo. AltaVista provides relevance-ranked feedback on full-text searches. Yahoo indexes Web "citations" only but does organize information hierarchically into predefined categories. Yahoo has recently become a publicly held company and currently…

  12. Measuring the Impact of VISTA on Poverty Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafkin, Sol H.; And Others

    Sharp limitations on measuring the impact of Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA) can be largely overcome by developing an improved system and techniques for planning projects and their likely effects. The distinguishing characteristics of VISTA for measurement purposes are: a large number of volunteer program activities and sponsors, hence…

  13. VISTA Stares Deeply into the Blue Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    This new infrared image of the Lagoon Nebula was captured as part of a five-year study of the Milky Way using ESO's VISTA telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. This is a small piece of a much larger image of the region surrounding the nebula, which is, in turn, only one part of a huge survey. Astronomers are currently using ESO's Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) to scour the Milky Way's central regions for variable objects and map its structure in greater detail than ever before. This huge survey is called VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) [1]. The new infrared image presented here was taken as part of this survey. It shows the stellar nursery called the Lagoon Nebula (also known as Messier 8, see eso0936), which lies about 4000-5000 light-years away in the constellation of Sagittarius (the Archer). Infrared observations allow astronomers to peer behind the veil of dust that prevents them from seeing celestial objects in visible light. This is because visible light, which has a wavelength that is about the same size as the dust particles, is strongly scattered, but the longer wavelength infrared light can pass through the dust largely unscathed. VISTA, with its 4.1-metre diameter mirror - the largest survey telescope in the world - is dedicated to surveying large areas of the sky at near-infrared wavelengths deeply and quickly. It is therefore ideally suited to studying star birth. Stars typically form in large molecular clouds of gas and dust, which collapse under their own weight. The Lagoon Nebula, however, is also home to a number of much more compact regions of collapsing gas and dust, called Bok globules [2]. These dark clouds are so dense that, even in the infrared, they can block the starlight from background stars. But the most famous dark feature in the nebula, for which it is named, is the lagoon-shaped dust lane that winds its way through the glowing cloud of gas. Hot, young stars, which give off intense

  14. Wavefront sensing within the VISTA infrared camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Paul; Berry, Paul; Bingham, Richard G.; Bissonauth, Nirmal; Caldwell, Martin; Dipper, Nigel A.; Dunlop, Colin N.; Henry, David M.; Luke, Peter; Myers, Richard M.; Robertson, David J.

    2004-09-01

    VISTA is a 4-metre survey telescope currently being constructed on the NTT peak of ESO"s Cerro Paranal Observatory. The telescope will be equipped with a dedicated infrared camera providing images of a 1.65 degree field of view. The telescope and camera are of an innovative f/3.26 design with no intermediate focus and no cold stop. The mosaic of 16 IR detectors is located directly at Cassegrain focus and a novel baffle arrangement is used to suppress stray light within the cryostat. The pointing and alignment of the telescope and camera is monitored by wavefront sensing elements within the camera cryostat itself. This paper describes the optical, mechanical, electronic and thermal design of the combined curvature sensor and auto-guider units positioned at the periphery of the camera field of view. Centroid and image aberration data is provided to the telescope control system allowing real time correction of pointing and alignment of the actively positioned M2 unit. Also described are the custom optics, mounted in the camera filter wheel, which are used to perform near on-axis high order curvature sensing. Analysis of the corresponding defocused images allows calibration tables of M1 actuator positions to be constructed for varying telescope declination and temperature.

  15. VISTA Telescope opto-mechanical integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffers, Paul; Henry, David

    2010-07-01

    VISTA1 is an infrared survey telescope which delivers 0.5 arc second images over a 1.65 degree diameter unvignetted field of view. The project was split into separate work-packages, which after successful individual acceptance, were integrated by the project office. The main mechanical integration is the matching up of two sides of a controlled interface and should be a straightforward process. This covers the mounting of the M2 Hexapod, the installation of the M2 mirror assembly onto the M2 Hexapod, the M1 attachment to the M1 support system components and installation of the instrument mass simulator. The second stage of this integration is the mechanical alignment of the optical elements (i.e. M1 & M2) to the telescope mechanical axis. This is achieved through use of jigs and alignment equipment combined with the inbuilt adjustment in both the M2 on it's Hexapod and the manual adjustment of the M1 on its positional definers. This then leaves the telescope in a state ready to start optical commissioning using a Shack Hartman wavefront sensor. This paper deals with the mechanical integration and alignment of the telescope components up to the start of optical commissioning. There will be discussion of the build-up of information through the separate component acceptance details, to the equipment methodology, preparation and actual integration of the different systems. There will also be discussion of lessons learned.

  16. Parameter Studies for the VISTA Spacecraft Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, C D

    2000-11-21

    The baseline design for the VISTA spacecraft concept employs a diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) driver. This type of driver is now under development at LLNL and elsewhere as an extension of the mature solid-state (glass) laser technology developed for terrestrial applications of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). A DPSSL is repratable up to at least 30 Hz, and has an efficiency soon to be experimentally verified of at least 10%. By using a detailed systems code including the essential physics of a DPSSL, we have run parameter studies for the baseline roundtrip (RT) to Mars with a 100-ton payload. We describe the results of these studies as a function of the optimized (minimum) RT flight duration. We also demonstrate why DT fuel gives the best performance, although DD, D3He, or even antimatter can be used, and why DT-ignited DD is probably the fuel most preferred. We also describe the overall power flow, showing where the fusion energy is ultimately utilized, and estimate the variation in performance to the planets dictated by variations in target gain and other parameters.

  17. VXMS: the VISTA extreme multiplex spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Content, Robert; Shanks, Tom; Sharples, Ray; Bramall, David; Percival, Will

    2012-09-01

    A study for a spectrograph delivering at least 10000 slits for galaxies and 20000 for stars over a 2.5 deg2 field have been completed as an answer to the call for proposal for future VISTA MOS instrumentation. In a single night, 65000 galaxy redshifts can be measured to z~0.7 and beyond for measuring the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) scale and many other science goals. The design features ten cloned spectrographs which give a smaller total weight and length than a unique spectrograph to make it placable in the space envelope of the Cassegrain focus. The clones use a transparent design including a grism in which all optics are about the size or smaller than the clone rectangular subfield so that they can be tightly packed with little gaps between subfields. Only low cost glasses are used; the variations in chromatic aberrations between bands are compensated by changing a box containing the grism and two adjacent lenses. Two bands cover the 550nm to 900nm wavelength range at resolution of 1100 for blue end and 3000 for red end while another cover the Calcium triplet at 5000. An optional box does imaging but we studied different innovative methods for acquisition without imaging. A new 2.3° corrector was designed that places the pupil before and relatively near the focal plane which permits to give more space at the back of the spectrographs by placing them in a hedgehog configuration. An offaxis field lens in each spectrograph permits to control the pupil position.

  18. 9. VIEW OF CROWN POINT LOOKING NORTH. VISTA HOUSE, UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF CROWN POINT LOOKING NORTH. VISTA HOUSE, UPPER RETAINING WALL, FLAG POLE AND PARKING LOT IN VIEW. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Crown Point, East of Corbett, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  19. 5. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, vista at stop three. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, vista at stop three. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  20. 4. WASHBURN POINT VISTA AREA. HALF DOME AT CENTER REAR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. WASHBURN POINT VISTA AREA. HALF DOME AT CENTER REAR. LOOKING NE. GIS: N-37 43 13.7 / W-119 34 23.0 - Glacier Point Road, Between Chinquapin Flat & Glacier Point, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  1. KINEROS UPLAND MODEL ELEMENTS (OVERLAND FLOW PLANES) FOR THE SIERRA VISTA SUBWATERSHED SIERRA VISTA SUBWATERSHED USING THE 1973 NALC LANDCOVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    KINEROS upland model elements (overland flow planes) for the Sierra Vista subwatershed, with results from a KINEROS simulation run through AGWA using the 1973 NALC landcover data for model parameterization.

  2. 76 FR 12719 - City of Escondido, California, and Vista Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission City of Escondido, California, and Vista Irrigation District; Notice of... Escondido, California, (Escondido) and Vista Irrigation District (Vista). e. Name of Project: Bear Valley..., (619) 544-0123; and Don A. Smith, Director of Water Resources, Vista Irrigation District, 1391...

  3. 31. COAST LANDSCAPE VIEW FROM VISTA POINT AT END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. COAST LANDSCAPE VIEW FROM VISTA POINT AT END OF ENDERT'S BEACH ROAD (ABANDONED OLD HIGHWAY 101). NOTE CRESCENT CITY AT LEFT REAR. LOOKING NNW. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  4. The Unexpected Vista: A Physicist's View of Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trefil, James S.

    This 12-chapter book examines different phenomena as viewed by those trained in physics. These views (or vistas) are promulgated to demonstrate that the infinite variety of things seen in the material world can be reduced to a handful of general laws and to share with the public the richness of the scientist's world view. The phenomena examined…

  5. 4. VISTA POINT AND INTERPRETIVE PLAQUE AT LEE VINING CANYON. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VISTA POINT AND INTERPRETIVE PLAQUE AT LEE VINING CANYON. NOTE ROAD CUT ON CANYON WALL. LOOKING NNE. GIS: N-37 56 30.3 / 119 13 44.8 - Tioga Road, Between Crane Flat & Tioga Pass, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  6. SNP-VISTA: An interactive SNP visualization tool

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nameeta; Teplitsky, Michael V; Minovitsky, Simon; Pennacchio, Len A; Hugenholtz, Philip; Hamann, Bernd; Dubchak, Inna L

    2005-01-01

    Background Recent advances in sequencing technologies promise to provide a better understanding of the genetics of human disease as well as the evolution of microbial populations. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are established genetic markers that aid in the identification of loci affecting quantitative traits and/or disease in a wide variety of eukaryotic species. With today's technological capabilities, it has become possible to re-sequence a large set of appropriate candidate genes in individuals with a given disease in an attempt to identify causative mutations. In addition, SNPs have been used extensively in efforts to study the evolution of microbial populations, and the recent application of random shotgun sequencing to environmental samples enables more extensive SNP analysis of co-occurring and co-evolving microbial populations. The program is available at [1]. Results We have developed and present two modifications of an interactive visualization tool, SNP-VISTA, to aid in the analyses of the following types of data: A. Large-scale re-sequence data of disease-related genes for discovery of associated and/or causative alleles (GeneSNP-VISTA). B. Massive amounts of ecogenomics data for studying homologous recombination in microbial populations (EcoSNP-VISTA). The main features and capabilities of SNP-VISTA are: 1) mapping of SNPs to gene structure; 2) classification of SNPs, based on their location in the gene, frequency of occurrence in samples and allele composition; 3) clustering, based on user-defined subsets of SNPs, highlighting haplotypes as well as recombinant sequences; 4) integration of protein evolutionary conservation visualization; and 5) display of automatically calculated recombination points that are user-editable. Conclusion The main strength of SNP-VISTA is its graphical interface and use of visual representations, which support interactive exploration and hence better understanding of large-scale SNP data by the user. PMID

  7. First Scientific Results from the VISTA Hemisphere Survey (VHS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, R. G.; Banerji, M.; Gonzalez, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Bejar, V. J.; Lodieu, N.; Rebolo, R.; VHS Collaboration

    2013-12-01

    The first Galactic and extragalactic results from the VISTA Hemisphere Survey (VHS) are presented. The aim of the VHS is to carry out a near-infrared survey which, when combined with other VISTA public surveys, will result in coverage of the whole southern celestial hemisphere (~20 000 square degrees) to a depth 30 times fainter than the Two Micron All Sky Survey in at least two wavebands (J and Ks). The VHS vision includes a deep optical survey over the same area and this is now being realised with the VST surveys and the Dark Energy Survey, which has recently started. A summary of the survey progress is presented, with some follow-up results on low-mass stars and high-redshift quasars.

  8. 45 CFR 1211.1-14 - Final determination by Director of VISTA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Final determination by Director of VISTA. 1211.1-14 Section 1211.1-14 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-14 Final determination by Director of VISTA. The Director of VISTA...

  9. 45 CFR 1210.3-9 - Decision by Director of VISTA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Decision by Director of VISTA. 1210.3-9 Section 1210.3-9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES VISTA Volunteer Early Termination § 1210.3-9 Decision...

  10. Multiple Whole Genome Alignments and Novel Biomedical Applicationsat the VISTA Portal

    SciTech Connect

    Brudno, Michael; Poliakov, Alexander; Minovitsky, Simon; Ratnere,Igor; Dubchak, Inna

    2007-02-01

    The VISTA portal for comparative genomics is designed togive biomedical scientists a unified set of tools to lead them from theraw DNA sequences through the alignment and annotation to thevisualization of the results. The VISTA portal also hosts alignments of anumber of genomes computed by our group, allowing users to study regionsof their interest without having to manually download the individualsequences. Here we describe various algorithmic and functionalimprovements implemented in the VISTA portal over the last two years. TheVISTA Portal is accessible at http://genome.lbl.gov/vista.

  11. 76 FR 12720 - City of Escondido, CA, and Vista Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission City of Escondido, CA, and Vista Irrigation District; Notice of Application... Filed: December 3, 2010. d. Applicant: City of Escondido, California (Escondido) and Vista Irrigation... ] Water Resources, Vista Irrigation District, 1391 Engineer Street, Vista, CA 92081, (207) 945-5621....

  12. VISTA, a success story: from conceptual design to operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, Andrew J.

    2010-07-01

    This paper considers the development and progression of the VISTA telescope, from conception to the point where it is now being operated by the scientific community (end user). It analyses and evaluates the value of effective project management and systems engineering practices with practical examples. The practical application of systems engineering is addressed throughout the requirement capture and management, design, manufacture, assembly, and installation, integration, verification and acceptance phases, highlighting the value gained by appropriate application of step-by-step procedures and tools. The special emphasis given to the importance of effective systems engineering during on-site installation, verification and validation will be illustrated. Project management aspects are covered from tendering and procurement through contractor management processes to final integration and commissioning, with great emphasis placed on the importance of a "win-win" approach and the benefits of effective, constructive customer/contractor liaison. Consideration is given to the details and practicalities of day-to-day site management, safety, housekeeping, and the management and support of site personnel and services. Recommendations are made to improve the effectiveness of UK ATC system engineering and project management so that future projects can benefit from the lessons learned on VISTA.

  13. Experimental Physical Sciences Vistas: MaRIE (draft)

    SciTech Connect

    Shlachter, Jack

    2010-09-08

    To achieve breakthrough scientific discoveries in the 21st century, a convergence and integration of world-leading experimental facilities and capabilities with theory, modeling, and simulation is necessary. In this issue of Experimental Physical Sciences Vistas, I am excited to present our plans for Los Alamos National Laboratory's future flagship experimental facility, MaRIE (Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes). MaRIE is a facility that will provide transformational understanding of matter in extreme conditions required to reduce or resolve key weapons performance uncertainties, develop the materials needed for advanced energy systems, and transform our ability to create materials by design. Our unique role in materials science starting with the Manhattan Project has positioned us well to develop a contemporary materials strategy pushing the frontiers of controlled functionality - the design and tailoring of a material for the unique demands of a specific application. Controlled functionality requires improvement in understanding of the structure and properties of materials in order to synthesize and process materials with unique characteristics. In the nuclear weapons program today, improving data and models to increase confidence in the stockpile can take years from concept to new knowledge. Our goal with MaRIE is to accelerate this process by enhancing predictive capability - the ability to compute a priori the observables of an experiment or test and pertinent confidence intervals using verified and validated simulation tools. It is a science-based approach that includes the use of advanced experimental tools, theoretical models, and multi-physics codes, simultaneously dealing with multiple aspects of physical operation of a system that are needed to develop an increasingly mature predictive capability. This same approach is needed to accelerate improvements to other systems such as nuclear reactors. MaRIE will be valuable to many national security

  14. SNP-VISTA: An Interactive SNPs Visualization Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Nameeta; Teplitsky, Michael V.; Pennacchio, Len A.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Hamann, Bernd; Dubchak, Inna L.

    2005-07-05

    Recent advances in sequencing technologies promise better diagnostics for many diseases as well as better understanding of evolution of microbial populations. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms(SNPs) are established genetic markers that aid in the identification of loci affecting quantitative traits and/or disease in a wide variety of eukaryotic species. With today's technological capabilities, it is possible to re-sequence a large set of appropriate candidate genes in individuals with a given disease and then screen for causative mutations.In addition, SNPs have been used extensively in efforts to study the evolution of microbial populations, and the recent application of random shotgun sequencing to environmental samples makes possible more extensive SNP analysis of co-occurring and co-evolving microbial populations. The program is available at http://genome.lbl.gov/vista/snpvista.

  15. First T dwarfs in the VISTA Hemisphere Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodieu, N.; Burningham, B.; Day-Jones, A.; Scholz, R.-D.; Marocco, F.; Koposov, S.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Lucas, P. W.; Cruz, P.; Lillo, J.; Jones, H.; Perez-Garrido, A.; Ruiz, M. T.; Pinfield, D.; Rebolo, R.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Boudreault, S.; Emerson, J. P.; Banerji, M.; González-Solares, E.; Hodgkin, S. T.; McMahon, R.; Canty, J.; Contreras, C.

    2012-12-01

    Aims: The aim of the project is to improve our current knowledge of the density of T dwarfs and the shape of the substellar initial mass function by identifying a magnitude-limited sample of T dwarfs in the full southern sky. Methods: We present the results of a photometric search aimed at discovering cool brown dwarfs in the southern sky imaged at infrared wavelengths by the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) and the Wide Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) satellite mission. We combined the first data release (DR1) of the VISTA Hemisphere Survey (VHS) and the WISE preliminary data release to extract candidates with red mid-infrared colours and near- to mid-infrared colours characteristics of cool brown dwarfs. Results: The VHS DR1 vs. WISE search returned tens of T dwarf candidates, 13 of which are presented here, including two previously published in the literature and five new ones confirmed spectroscopically with spectral types between T4.5 and T8. We estimate that the two T6 dwarfs lie within 16 pc and the T4.5 within 25 pc. The remaining three are 30-50 pc distant. The only T7 dwarf in our sample is the faintest of its spectral class with J = 19.28 mag. The other six T dwarf candidates remain without spectroscopic follow-up. We also improve our knowledge on the proper motion accuracy for three bright T dwarfs by combining multi-epoch data from public databases (DENIS, 2MASS, VHS, WISE, Spitzer). Based on observations made with the Calar Alto 3.5-m telescope, the Magellan telescope at Las Campanas, the ESO Very Large Telescope at the Paranal Observatory, and the IAC80 at Teide Observatory.Figures 1 and 2 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. 78 FR 68133 - In the Matter of Far Vista Petroleum Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of Far Vista Petroleum Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading November 8, 2013. It... require a suspension of trading in the securities of Far Vista Petroleum Corp. (``FVSTA'') because...

  17. 77 FR 38482 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Three Mile Slough, Rio Vista, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Three Mile Slough, Rio Vista, CA... across Three Mile Slough, mile 0.1, at Rio Vista, CA. The deviation is necessary to allow California... Transportation has requested a temporary change to the operation of the Hwy 160 drawbridge across Three...

  18. 45 CFR 1211.1-16 - Grievance procedure for National VISTA Grant Volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Grievance procedure for National VISTA Grant Volunteers. 1211.1-16 Section 1211.1-16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-16 Grievance procedure for National VISTA Grant...

  19. 78 FR 39773 - Monta Vista Software, LLC, a Subsidiary of Cavium, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... in the Federal Register on April 30, 2013 (78 FR 25306). At the request of the State agency, the... Employment and Training Administration Monta Vista Software, LLC, a Subsidiary of Cavium, Inc., Including..., Texas; Monta Vista Software, LLC, a Subsidiary of Cavium, Inc., Including Workers Whose...

  20. Warriors for the Poor; The Story of VISTA; Volunteers in Service to America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, William H.; Thomas, Ross

    This volume relates the origins of Volunteers in Service To America (VISTA), its problems and achievements. Originating in President Kennedy's proposal for a national service corps (1963), VISTA reached concrete form with the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964. While white middle class youth constitute the bulk of the volunteers, the organization…

  1. A panoramic VISTA of the stellar halo of NGC 253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greggio, L.; Rejkuba, M.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Arnaboldi, M.; Iodice, E.; Irwin, M.; Neeser, M. J.; Emerson, J.

    2014-02-01

    Context. Outskirts of large galaxies contain important information about galaxy formation and assembly. Resolved star count studies can probe the extremely low surface brightness of the outer halos. Aims: NGC 253 is a nearly edge-on disk galaxy in the Sculptor group, of which we resolved the halo stars from ground-based images, with the aim of studying its stellar population content, the structure and the overall extent of the halo. Methods: We use Z and J-band images from the VIRCAM camera mounted on the VISTA telescope to construct the spatially resolved J vs. Z-J color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). The very deep photometry and the wide area covered allow us to trace the red giant branch (RGB) and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars that belong to the halo of NGC 253 out to 50 kpc along the galaxy's minor axis. Results: We confirm the existence of an extra-planar stellar component of the disk, with a very prominent southern shelf and a symmetrical feature on the north side. The only additional visible substructure is an overdensity in the north-west part of the halo ~28 kpc distant from the plane and extending over 20 kpc parallel with the disk of the galaxy. Our data are not deep enough to distinguish its stellar population from that of the surrounding halo, but the excess of stars above the smooth halo traces the mass of the parent population of ~7.5 × 106M⊙. From stellar counts, we measure the transition from the disk to the halo at a radial distance of about 25 kpc with a clear break in the number density profile. The isodensity contours show that the inner halo is a flattened structure that blends with a more extended, diffuse, rounder outer halo. Such external structure can be traced to the very edge of our image out to 50 kpc from the disk plane. The number density profile of the stars in the stellar halo follows a power law with index -1.6, as a function of radius. The CMD shows a very homogeneous stellar population across the field. By comparing

  2. Energy Efficient Community Development in California: Chula Vista Research Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gas Technology Institute

    2009-03-31

    In 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy joined the California Energy Commission in funding a project to begin to examine the technical, economic and institutional (policy and regulatory) aspects of energy-efficient community development. That research project was known as the Chula Vista Research Project for the host California community that co-sponsored the initiative. The researches proved that the strategic integration of the selected and economically viable buildings energy efficiency (EE) measures, photovoltaics (PV), distributed generation (DG), and district cooling can produce significant reductions in aggregate energy consumption, peak demand and emissions, compared to the developer/builder's proposed baseline approach. However, the central power plant emission reductions achieved through use of the EE-DG option would increase local air emissions. The electric and natural gas utility infrastructure impacts associated with the use of the EE and EE-PV options were deemed relatively insignificant while use of the EE-DG option would result in a significant reduction of necessary electric distribution facilities to serve a large-scale development project. The results of the Chula Vista project are detailed in three separate documents: (1) Energy-Efficient Community Development in California; Chula Vista Research Project report contains a detailed description of the research effort and findings. This includes the methodologies, and tools used and the analysis of the efficiency, economic and emissions impacts of alternative energy technology and community design options for two development sites. Research topics covered included: (a) Energy supply, demand, and control technologies and related strategies for structures; (b) Application of locally available renewable energy resources including solar thermal and PV technology and on-site power generation with heat recovery; (c) Integration of local energy resources into district energy systems and existing energy

  3. VISION - Vienna survey in Orion. I. VISTA Orion A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meingast, Stefan; Alves, João; Mardones, Diego; Teixeira, Paula Stella; Lombardi, Marco; Großschedl, Josefa; Ascenso, Joana; Bouy, Herve; Forbrich, Jan; Goodman, Alyssa; Hacar, Alvaro; Hasenberger, Birgit; Kainulainen, Jouni; Kubiak, Karolina; Lada, Charles; Lada, Elizabeth; Moitinho, André; Petr-Gotzens, Monika; Rodrigues, Lara; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Orion A hosts the nearest massive star factory, thus offering a unique opportunity to resolve the processes connected with the formation of both low- and high-mass stars. Here we present the most detailed and sensitive near-infrared (NIR) observations of the entire molecular cloud to date. Aims: With the unique combination of high image quality, survey coverage, and sensitivity, our NIR survey of Orion A aims at establishing a solid empirical foundation for further studies of this important cloud. In this first paper we present the observations, data reduction, and source catalog generation. To demonstrate the data quality, we present a first application of our catalog to estimate the number of stars currently forming inside Orion A and to verify the existence of a more evolved young foreground population. Methods: We used the European Southern Observatory's (ESO) Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) to survey the entire Orion A molecular cloud in the NIR J,H, and KS bands, covering a total of ~18.3 deg2. We implemented all data reduction recipes independently of the ESO pipeline. Estimates of the young populations toward Orion A are derived via the KS-band luminosity function. Results: Our catalog (799 995 sources) increases the source counts compared to the Two Micron All Sky Survey by about an order of magnitude. The 90% completeness limits are 20.4, 19.9, and 19.0 mag in J,H, and KS, respectively. The reduced images have 20% better resolution on average compared to pipeline products. We find between 2300 and 3000 embedded objects in Orion A and confirm that there is an extended foreground population above the Galactic field, in agreement with previous work. Conclusions: The Orion A VISTA catalog represents the most detailed NIR view of the nearest massive star-forming region and provides a fundamental basis for future studies of star formation processes toward Orion. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla

  4. Reusing the VLT control system on the VISTA Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrett, D. L.; Stewart, Malcolm

    2010-07-01

    Once it was decided that the VISTA infra-red survey telescope would be built on Paranal and operated by ESO it was clear that there would be many long term advantages in basing the control system on that of the VLTs. Benefits over developing a new system such as lower development costs or disadvantages such as constraints on the design were not the most important factors in deciding how to implement the TCS, but now that the telescope is complete the pros and cons of re-using an existing system can be evaluated. This paper reviews the lessons learned during construction and commissioning and attempts to show where reusing an existing system was a help and where it was a hindrance. It highlights those things that could have been done differently to better exploit the fact the we were using a system that was already proven to work and where, with hindsight, we would have been better to re-implement components from scratch rather than modifying an existing one.

  5. VISTA - A Constellation for Real Time Regional Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerman, Max; Boland, Lee; da Silva Curiel, Alex; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    2002-01-01

    The role of satellites in medium and high-resolution reconnaissance of the Earth's surface has been well demonstrated in recent years through missions such as Landsat, SPOT, IKONOS, ImageSat and Quickbird. The market for such data products is well served and likely to become more competitive with further very-high-resolution missions. Whereas commercial markets have concentrated on enhancing resolution, the small satellite sector has concentrated on reducing the cost of data products, and the development of systems providing niche services. One such EO requirement that can be well met by smaller satellites is the need for higher temporal resolution, as this typically requires a large number of satellites to operate as a constellation - thus far financially impractical using conventional EO satellites. Surrey is currently engaged in building its first constellation that will provide daily global coverage at moderate resolution (32-metre GSD and 600km swath) in three spectral bands. Targeted at providing timely quick-look data products for disaster mitigation and monitoring, the constellation comprises 7 satellites in a single orbital plane. Each satellite has a wide swath so that successive satellites progressively cover the entire globe in a single day. The Vista constellation takes this concept a step further, and is proposed for applications requiring near-continuous surveillance of regional activity. By introducing a multiple plane constellation of small Earth observation satellites, it is possible to monitor continuously selected regions anywhere on the globe. The paper describes the system trades and outlines the scope of the performance that could be obtained from such a system. A cost model illustrates that the balance between launch and space segment costs must be reached by considering suitable replacement strategies, and that the system is highly sensitive to requirement creep. Finally, it is shown that the use of cost effective, small satellites leads to

  6. Software for Scientists Facing Wicked Problems: Lessons from the VISTAS Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Visualization for Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems project (VISTAS) aims to help scientists produce effective environmental science visualizations for their own use and for use in presenting their work to a wide range of stakeholders (including other scientists, decision maker...

  7. Use of BIS VISTA bilateral monitor for diagnosis of intraoperative seizures, a case report.

    PubMed

    Iturri Clavero, F; Tamayo Medel, G; de Orte Sancho, K; González Uriarte, A; Iglesias Martínez, A; Martínez Ruíz, A

    2015-12-01

    Changes in BIS (bispectral index) VISTA bilateral monitoring system associated with intraoperative episodes of generalized and focal seizures, during total intravenous anesthesia for resection of a left frontal parasagittal meningioma, are herein described. PMID:25944463

  8. Shatter Cones in Basalt: A Natural Example from the Vista Alegre Impact Structure, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittarello, L.; Nestola, F.; Viti, C.; Crósta, A. P.; Koeberl, C.

    2015-09-01

    Shatter cones, formed in fine-grained basalt in the Vista Alegre impact structure (Brazil), exhibit cataclastic layers sub-parallel to the striated surfaces and a continuous melt rock film, investigated with TEM, decorating the striated surface.

  9. New Vistas Open with MIDI at the VLT Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    "First Fringes" in Mid-Infrared Spectral Region with Two Giant Telescopes Summary Following several weeks of around-the-clock work, a team of astronomers and engineers from Germany, the Netherlands, France and ESO [2] has successfully performed the first observations with the MID-Infrared interferometric instrument (MIDI), a new, extremely powerful instrument just installed in the underground laboratory of the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). In the early morning of December 15, 2002, two of the 8.2 m VLT unit telescopes (ANTU and MELIPAL) were pointed towards the southern star eta Carinae and the two light beams were directed via the complex intervening optics system towards MIDI. After a few hours of tuning and optimization, strong and stable interferometric fringes were obtained, indicating that all VLTI components - from telescopes to the new instrument - were working together perfectly. Two more stars were observed before sunrise, further proving the stability of the entire system. The first observations with MIDI mark one more important step towards full and regular operation of the VLT Interferometer [3] . They are a result of five years of determined efforts within a concerted technology project, based on a close collaboration between ESO and several European research institutes (see below). Now opening great research vistas, they also represent several "firsts" in observational astrophysics, together amounting to a real breakthrough in the field of astronomical interferometry . New views at mid-infrared wavelengths : MIDI is sensitive to light of a wavelength near 10 µm, i.e., in the mid-infrared spectral region ("thermal infrared"). This provides rich opportunities to study a wide range of otherwise inaccessible, crucial astrophysical phenomena, e.g., the formation of planets in dusty disks around newborn stars and the innermost regions around black holes. However, it is a great technical challenge to perform mid

  10. Differential contribution of three immune checkpoint (VISTA, CTLA-4, PD-1) pathways to antitumor responses against squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yuta; Ohno, Tatsukuni; Nishii, Naoto; Harada, Kiyoshi; Yagita, Hideo; Azuma, Miyuki

    2016-06-01

    V domain-containing Ig suppressor of T-cell activation (VISTA)/PD-1H is a novel immune checkpoint molecule for regulating T-cell activation. We examined the effects of anti-VISTA mAb monotherapy and combination therapy with CTLA-4 or PD-1 blockade in a squamous cell carcinoma (SCCVII) model. VISTA monotherapy did not show clear tumor growth regression, but efficiently induced CD8(+) T cell activation by converting resting and exhausted cells into functional effector cells. VISTA monotherapy did not inhibit recruitment of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the tumor microenvironment (TME). As an additional treatment to VISTA, CTLA-4 blockade, but not PD-1 blockade, elicited further tumor regression. The CTLA-4 and VISTA combination efficiently inhibited Treg recruitment and increased the ratios of both CD8 T/Treg and CD4 conventional T (Tcon)/Treg in the TME, whereas the PD-1 and VISTA combination dramatically increased tumor-recruiting CD8(+) T cells, but markedly reduced the Tcon/Treg ratio. Our results demonstrate that VISTA blockade efficiently converts CD8(+) T cells into functional effector T cells, but is not sufficient to regress tumor growth due to weak Treg suppression in the TME. Our results suggest that combined CTLA-4 and VISTA blockade is more efficacious than combined PD-1 and VISTA blockade for tumors like head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in which Treg-mediated immune regulation is dominant. PMID:27208845

  11. rVISTA 2.0: Evolutionary Analysis of Transcription Factor Binding Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Loots, G G; Ovcharenko, I

    2004-01-28

    Identifying and characterizing the patterns of DNA cis-regulatory modules represents a challenge that has the potential to reveal the regulatory language the genome uses to dictate transcriptional dynamics. Several studies have demonstrated that regulatory modules are under positive selection and therefore are often conserved between related species. Using this evolutionary principle we have created a comparative tool, rVISTA, for analyzing the regulatory potential of noncoding sequences. The rVISTA tool combines transcription factor binding site (TFBS) predictions, sequence comparisons and cluster analysis to identify noncoding DNA regions that are highly conserved and present in a specific configuration within an alignment. Here we present the newly developed version 2.0 of the rVISTA tool that can process alignments generated by both zPicture and PipMaker alignment programs or use pre-computed pairwise alignments of seven vertebrate genomes available from the ECR Browser. The rVISTA web server is closely interconnected with the TRANSFAC database, allowing users to either search for matrices present in the TRANSFAC library collection or search for user-defined consensus sequences. rVISTA tool is publicly available at http://rvista.dcode.org/.

  12. A vista of new knowledge from ESA's Hipparcos astronomy mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-05-01

    Hipparcos is a milestone in the history of astronomy. In 1985 the American physicist Freeman J. Dyson hailed Hipparcos as the first major new development in space science to come from outside the United States. The spacecraft operated in orbit 1989-93, measuring the angles between stars in the sky. Over a further three years, computing teams across Europe generated a consistent, high-precision plot of 118,000 stars in the Hipparcos Catalogue and somewhat less accurate (but still unprecedented) data on a million stars in the Tycho Catalogue. The distances, motions, pairings and variability of stars are now known far more accurately than ever before. Hipparcos will make an impact on every branch of astronomy, from the Solar System to the history of the Universe, and especially on theories of stars and their evolution. For almost a year, astronomers most closely associated with the mission have had an early view of the completed catalogues and in Venice they will summarize their initial results. The Hipparcos data will be published in June, as an extraordinary contribution from Europe to astronomy all around the world. The success of Hipparcos has created problems for the organizers of Venice symposium. Altogether 190 scientific papers were offered for presentation by various groups of astronomers. With three mornings and three afternoons available for the main scientific sessions, 67 oral presentations are accommodated, by restricting speakers to 10-15 minutes each. For the rest, there will a generous display of results in the form of posters. Thus Hipparcos will be celebrated by a vista of new knowledge. The stars are looking younger Already Hipparcos seems to cure a headache concerning the ages of stars. As recently as last year, astronomers were perplexed by a contradiction between their estimates of the age of the Universe, and stars that seemed to be older. An early Hipparcos result announced in February 1997 (ESA Information Note 04/97) concerned the winking

  13. The Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA): Design, technical overview, and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Will; Emerson, Jim; Dalton, Gavin; Atad-Ettedgui, Eli; Beard, Steven; Bennett, Richard; Bezawada, Naidu; Born, Andrew; Caldwell, Martin; Clark, Paul; Craig, Simon; Henry, David; Jeffers, Paul; Little, Bryan; McPherson, Alistair; Murray, John; Stewart, Malcolm; Stobie, Brian; Terrett, David; Ward, Kim; Whalley, Martin; Woodhouse, Guy

    2015-03-01

    The Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) is the 4-m wide-field survey telescope at ESO's Paranal Observatory, equipped with the world's largest near-infrared imaging camera (VISTA IR Camera, VIRCAM), with 1.65 degree diameter field of view, and 67 Mpixels giving 0.6 deg2 active pixel area, operating at wavelengths 0.8-2.3 μm. We provide a short history of the project, and an overview of the technical details of the full system including the optical design, mirrors, telescope structure, IR camera, active optics, enclosure and software. The system includes several innovative design features such as the f/1 primary mirror, thedichroic cold-baffle camera design and the sophisticated wavefront sensing system delivering closed-loop 5-axis alignment of the secondary mirror. We conclude with a summary of the delivered performance, and a short overview of the six ESO public surveys in progress on VISTA.

  14. The VISTA spacecraft: Advantages of ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) for interplanetary fusions propulsion applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, Charles D.; Klein, Gail; Sercel, Joel; Hoffman, Nate; Murray, Kathy; Chang-Diaz, Franklin

    1987-01-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an attractive engine power source for interplanetary manned spacecraft, especially for near-term missions requiring minimum flight duration, because ICF has inherent high power-to-mass ratios and high specific impulses. We have developed a new vehicle concept called VISTA that uses ICF and is capable of round-trip manned missions to Mars in 100 days using A.D. 2020 technology. We describe VISTA's engine operation, discuss associated plasma issues, and describe the advantages of DT fuel for near-term applications. Although ICF is potentially superior to non-fusion technologies for near-term interplanetary transport, the performance capabilities of VISTA cannot be meaningfully compared with those of magnetic-fusion systems because of the lack of a comparable study of the magnetic-fusion systems. We urge that such a study be conducted.

  15. The VISTA spacecraft: Advantages of ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) for interplanetary fusion propulsion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, C.D.; Klein, G.; Sercel, J.; Hoffman, N.; Murray, K.; Chang-Diaz, F.

    1987-10-02

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an attractive engine power source for interplanetary manned spacecraft, especially for near-term missions requiring minimum flight duration, because ICF has inherent high power-to-mass ratios and high specific impulses. We have developed a new vehicle concept called VISTA that uses ICF and is capable of round-trip manned missions to Mars in 100 days using A.D. 2020 technology. We describe VISTA's engine operation, discuss associated plasma issues, and describe the advantages of DT fuel for near-term applications. Although ICF is potentially superior to non-fusion technologies for near-term interplanetary transport, the performance capabilities of VISTA cannot be meaningfully compared with those of magnetic-fusion systems because of the lack of a comparable study of the magnetic-fusion systems. We urge that such a study be conducted.

  16. Major results from safety-related integral effect tests with VISTA-ITL for the SMART design

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H. S.; Min, B. Y.; Shin, Y. C.; Yi, S. J.

    2012-07-01

    A series of integral effect tests (IETs) was performed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. (KAERI) using the VISTA integral test loop (VISTA-ITL) as a small-scale IET program. Among them this paper presents major results acquired from the safety-related IETs with the VISTA-ITL facility for the SMART design. Three small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) tests of safety injection system (SIS) line break, shutdown cooling system (SCS) line break and pressurizer safety valve (PSV) line break were successfully performed and the transient characteristics of a complete loss of flowrate (CLOF) was simulated properly with the VISTA-ITL facility. (authors)

  17. SpliceVista, a Tool for Splice Variant Identification and Visualization in Shotgun Proteomics Data*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yafeng; Hultin-Rosenberg, Lina; Forshed, Jenny; Branca, Rui M. M.; Orre, Lukas M.; Lehtiö, Janne

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a pervasive process in eukaryotic organisms. More than 90% of human genes have alternatively spliced products, and aberrant splicing has been shown to be associated with many diseases. Current methods employed in the detection of splice variants include prediction by clustering of expressed sequence tags, exon microarray, and mRNA sequencing, all methods focusing on RNA-level information. There is a lack of tools for analyzing splice variants at the protein level. Here, we present SpliceVista, a tool for splice variant identification and visualization based on mass spectrometry proteomics data. SpliceVista retrieves gene structure and translated sequences from alternative splicing databases and maps MS-identified peptides to splice variants. The visualization module plots the exon composition of each splice variant and aligns identified peptides with transcript positions. If quantitative mass spectrometry data are used, SpliceVista plots the quantitative patterns for each peptide and provides users with the option to cluster peptides based on their quantitative patterns. SpliceVista can identify splice-variant-specific peptides, providing the possibility for variant-specific analysis. The tool was tested on two experimental datasets (PXD000065 and PXD000134). In A431 cells treated with gefitinib, 2983 splice-variant-specific peptides corresponding to 939 splice variants were identified. Through comparison of splice-variant-centric, protein-centric, and gene-centric quantification, several genes (e.g. EIF4H) were found to have differentially regulated splice variants after gefitinib treatment. The same discrepancy between protein-centric and splice-centric quantification was detected in the other dataset, in which induced pluripotent stem cells were compared with parental fibroblast and human embryotic stem cells. In addition, SpliceVista can be used to visualize novel splice variants inferred from peptide-level evidence. In summary, SpliceVista

  18. SpliceVista, a tool for splice variant identification and visualization in shotgun proteomics data.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yafeng; Hultin-Rosenberg, Lina; Forshed, Jenny; Branca, Rui M M; Orre, Lukas M; Lehtiö, Janne

    2014-06-01

    Alternative splicing is a pervasive process in eukaryotic organisms. More than 90% of human genes have alternatively spliced products, and aberrant splicing has been shown to be associated with many diseases. Current methods employed in the detection of splice variants include prediction by clustering of expressed sequence tags, exon microarray, and mRNA sequencing, all methods focusing on RNA-level information. There is a lack of tools for analyzing splice variants at the protein level. Here, we present SpliceVista, a tool for splice variant identification and visualization based on mass spectrometry proteomics data. SpliceVista retrieves gene structure and translated sequences from alternative splicing databases and maps MS-identified peptides to splice variants. The visualization module plots the exon composition of each splice variant and aligns identified peptides with transcript positions. If quantitative mass spectrometry data are used, SpliceVista plots the quantitative patterns for each peptide and provides users with the option to cluster peptides based on their quantitative patterns. SpliceVista can identify splice-variant-specific peptides, providing the possibility for variant-specific analysis. The tool was tested on two experimental datasets (PXD000065 and PXD000134). In A431 cells treated with gefitinib, 2983 splice-variant-specific peptides corresponding to 939 splice variants were identified. Through comparison of splice-variant-centric, protein-centric, and gene-centric quantification, several genes (e.g. EIF4H) were found to have differentially regulated splice variants after gefitinib treatment. The same discrepancy between protein-centric and splice-centric quantification was detected in the other dataset, in which induced pluripotent stem cells were compared with parental fibroblast and human embryotic stem cells. In addition, SpliceVista can be used to visualize novel splice variants inferred from peptide-level evidence. In summary, SpliceVista

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VISTA Magellanic Cloud Survey. V. Cepheids (Ripepi+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripepi, V.; Moretti, M. I.; Marconi, M.; Clementini, G.; Cioni, M.-R. L.; Marquette, J. B.; Girardi, L.; Rubele, S.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; de Grijs, R.; Gibson, B. K.; Oliveira, J. M.; van Loon, J. T.; Emerson, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    In order to obtain well-sampled light curves, the VMC Ks-band time series observations were scheduled into 12 separate epochs distributed over ideally several consecutive months. The VMC data, processed through the pipeline (Irwin et al., 2004, Proc. SPIE, 5493, 411) of the VISTA Data Flow System (VDFS; Emerson et al. 2004, Proc. SPIE, 5493, 401), were retrieved from the VISTA Science Archive (VSA; Cross et al., 2012A&A...548A.119C, http://horus.roe.ac.uk/versus/). (3 data files).

  20. TreeQ-VISTA: An Interactive Tree Visualization Tool withFunctional Annotation Query Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Shengyin; Anderson, Iain; Kunin, Victor; Cipriano, Michael; Minovitsky, Simon; Weber, Gunther; Amenta, Nina; Hamann, Bernd; Dubchak,Inna

    2007-05-07

    Summary: We describe a general multiplatform exploratorytool called TreeQ-Vista, designed for presenting functional annotationsin a phylogenetic context. Traits, such as phenotypic and genomicproperties, are interactively queried from a relational database with auser-friendly interface which provides a set of tools for users with orwithout SQL knowledge. The query results are projected onto aphylogenetic tree and can be displayed in multiple color groups. A richset of browsing, grouping and query tools are provided to facilitatetrait exploration, comparison and analysis.Availability: The program,detailed tutorial and examples are available online athttp://genome-test.lbl.gov/vista/TreeQVista.

  1. A vista of new knowledge from ESA's Hipparcos astronomy mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-05-01

    Hipparcos is a milestone in the history of astronomy. In 1985 the American physicist Freeman J. Dyson hailed Hipparcos as the first major new development in space science to come from outside the United States. The spacecraft operated in orbit 1989-93, measuring the angles between stars in the sky. Over a further three years, computing teams across Europe generated a consistent, high-precision plot of 118,000 stars in the Hipparcos Catalogue and somewhat less accurate (but still unprecedented) data on a million stars in the Tycho Catalogue. The distances, motions, pairings and variability of stars are now known far more accurately than ever before. Hipparcos will make an impact on every branch of astronomy, from the Solar System to the history of the Universe, and especially on theories of stars and their evolution. For almost a year, astronomers most closely associated with the mission have had an early view of the completed catalogues and in Venice they will summarize their initial results. The Hipparcos data will be published in June, as an extraordinary contribution from Europe to astronomy all around the world. The success of Hipparcos has created problems for the organizers of Venice symposium. Altogether 190 scientific papers were offered for presentation by various groups of astronomers. With three mornings and three afternoons available for the main scientific sessions, 67 oral presentations are accommodated, by restricting speakers to 10-15 minutes each. For the rest, there will a generous display of results in the form of posters. Thus Hipparcos will be celebrated by a vista of new knowledge. The stars are looking younger Already Hipparcos seems to cure a headache concerning the ages of stars. As recently as last year, astronomers were perplexed by a contradiction between their estimates of the age of the Universe, and stars that seemed to be older. An early Hipparcos result announced in February 1997 (ESA Information Note 04/97) concerned the winking

  2. VISTA (Vertical Integration of Science, Technology, and Applications) user interface software study

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, G.

    1990-04-01

    The Vertical Integration of Science, Technology, and Applications (VISTA) project is an initiative to employ modern information and communications technology for rapid and effective application of basic research results by end users. Developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, VISTA's purpose is to develop and deploy information systems (software or software/hardware products) to broad segments of various markets. Inherent in these products would be mechanisms for accessing PNL-resident information about the problem. A goal of VISTA is to incorporate existing, commercially available user interface technology into the VISTA UIMS. Commercial systems are generally more complete, reliable, and cost-effective than software developed in-house. The objective of this report is to examine the current state of commercial user interface software and discuss the implications of selections thereof. This report begins by describing the functionality of the user interface as it applies to users and application developers. Next, a reference model is presented defining the various operational software layers of a graphical user interface. The main body follows which examines current user interface technology by sampling a number of commercial systems. Both the window system and user interface toolkit markets are surveyed. A summary of the current technology concludes this report. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. 78 FR 26807 - Vista Grande Drainage Basin Improvement Project, Fort Funston, Golden Gate National Recreation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... the Vista Grande Watershed Drainage Basin and the effects of coastal erosion. The National Park... reduce future erosion. The existing force main would also be removed and replaced with a similar... renovated to protect it from erosion and extend its operating life. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  4. Expanding Opportunities: Disabled Students and Microcomputer Instruction at Berkeley's Vista College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holleman, John J., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Vista College has always placed high priority on making its classes available to disabled students. When public demand mandated instruction in microcomputers, a program was designed to be accessible to handicapped and able-bodied individuals. Describes how this program was achieved and the success of the college's computer learning center. (JN)

  5. Development of an Instrument for the Evaluation of Certificated Personnel for Vista College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holleman, John J.

    In response to a California legislative mandate and in the absence of agreed upon procedures for peer evaluation, Vista College undertook a survey of instruments utilized by other colleges and institutions for faculty evaluation. Evaluation forms were requested from 12 colleges and a total of 18 forms were received. These forms, and two obtained…

  6. 77 FR 40705 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Buena Vista...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... for the Buena Vista Lake shrew in the Federal Register on October 21, 2009 (74 FR 53999). Based on new... a revised draft economic analysis. On April 28, 2011, we announced in the Federal Register (76 FR... Register on October 21, 2009 (74 FR 53999), and on the draft economic analysis (DEA) of the 2009...

  7. 76 FR 74782 - City of Escondido Vista Irrigation District; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... Regulatory Commission's regulations, 18 CFR Part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City of Escondido Vista Irrigation District; Notice of Availability...

  8. 78 FR 39835 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Buena Vista...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... rule. We listed the Buena Vista Lake shrew as an endangered species in 2002 (67 FR 10101; March 6, 2002), proposed critical habitat in 2004 (69 FR 51417; August 19, 2004), and designated final critical habitat in 2005 (70 FR 3438; January 24, 2005). The previous final designation excluded all but 84 acres...

  9. VISTA: A μ-Thermogravimeter for Investigation of Volatile Compounds in Planetary Environments.

    PubMed

    Palomba, Ernesto; Longobardo, Andrea; Dirri, Fabrizio; Zampetti, Emiliano; Biondi, David; Saggin, Bortolino; Bearzotti, Andrea; Macagnano, Antonella

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the VISTA (Volatile In Situ Thermogravimetry Analyser) instrument, conceived to perform planetary in-situ measurements. VISTA can detect and quantify the presence of volatile compounds of astrobiological interest, such as water and organics, in planetary samples. These measurements can be particularly relevant when performed on primitive asteroids or comets, or on targets of potential astrobiological interest such as Mars or Jupiter's satellite Europa. VISTA is based on a micro-thermogravimetry technique, widely used in different environments to study absorption and sublimation processes. The instrument core is a piezoelectric crystal microbalance, whose frequency variations are affected by variations of the mass of the deposited sample, due to chemical processes such as sublimation, condensation or absorption/desorption. The low mass (i.e. 40 g), the low volume (less than 10 cm(3)) and the low power (less than 1 W) required makes this kind of instrument very suitable for space missions. This paper discusses the planetary applications of VISTA, and shows the calibration operations performed on the breadboard, as well as the performance tests which demonstrate the capability of the breadboard to characterize volatile compounds of planetary interests. PMID:26603435

  10. VISTA: A μ-Thermogravimeter for Investigation of Volatile Compounds in Planetary Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomba, Ernesto; Longobardo, Andrea; Dirri, Fabrizio; Zampetti, Emiliano; Biondi, David; Saggin, Bortolino; Bearzotti, Andrea; Macagnano, Antonella

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the VISTA (Volatile In Situ Thermogravimetry Analyser) instrument, conceived to perform planetary in-situ measurements. VISTA can detect and quantify the presence of volatile compounds of astrobiological interest, such as water and organics, in planetary samples. These measurements can be particularly relevant when performed on primitive asteroids or comets, or on targets of potential astrobiological interest such as Mars or Jupiter's satellite Europa. VISTA is based on a micro-thermogravimetry technique, widely used in different environments to study absorption and sublimation processes. The instrument core is a piezoelectric crystal microbalance, whose frequency variations are affected by variations of the mass of the deposited sample, due to chemical processes such as sublimation, condensation or absorption/desorption. The low mass (i.e. 40 g), the low volume (less than 10 cm3) and the low power (less than 1 W) required makes this kind of instrument very suitable for space missions. This paper discusses the planetary applications of VISTA, and shows the calibration operations performed on the breadboard, as well as the performance tests which demonstrate the capability of the breadboard to characterize volatile compounds of planetary interests.

  11. Disruption of the immune-checkpoint VISTA gene imparts a proinflammatory phenotype with predisposition to the development of autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Le Mercier, Isabelle; Putra, Juan; Chen, Wenna; Liu, Jun; Schenk, Austin D; Nowak, Elizabeth C; Suriawinata, Arief A; Li, Jiannan; Noelle, Randolph J

    2014-10-14

    V domain-containing Ig suppressor of T-cell activation (VISTA) is a negative checkpoint regulator that suppresses T cell-mediated immune responses. Previous studies using a VISTA-neutralizing monoclonal antibody show that VISTA blockade enhances T-cell activation. The current study describes a comprehensive characterization of mice in which the gene for VISTA has been deleted. Despite the apparent normal hematopoietic development in young mice, VISTA genetic deficiency leads to a gradual accumulation of spontaneously activated T cells, accompanied by the production of a spectrum of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Enhanced T-cell responsiveness was also observed upon immunization with neoantigen. Despite the presence of multiorgan chronic inflammation, aged VISTA-deficient mice did not develop systemic or organ-specific autoimmune disease. Interbreeding of the VISTA-deficient mice with 2D2 T-cell receptor transgenic mice, which are predisposed to the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, drastically enhanced disease incidence and intensity. Disease development is correlated with the increase in the activation of encephalitogenic T cells in the periphery and enhanced infiltration into the CNS. Taken together, our data suggest that VISTA is a negative checkpoint regulator whose loss of function lowers the threshold for T-cell activation, allowing for an enhanced proinflammatory phenotype and an increase in the frequency and intensity of autoimmunity under susceptible conditions. PMID:25267631

  12. Vista School District Digital Intranet: The Delivery of Advanced Placement Courses to Young Adult Learners in Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, David; Stevens, Ken; Boone, Wilbert; Barry, Maurice

    In partnership with the Memorial University of Newfoundland, the Vista School District, 1 of 10 districts in Newfoundland, Canada, established the Vista School District Digital Intranet (VSDDI) to deliver Web-based advanced placement courses to rural students. Advanced placement mathematics, physics, biology, and chemistry courses are delivered…

  13. Hydrocarbon occurrences near Kyle Hot Springs, Buena Vista Valley, Pershing County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ehni, W.J.; McCarthy, H.; Neumann, W.H.

    1995-06-01

    Buena Vista Valley is a small Tertiary Basin located in Northwestern Nevada. Oil was discovered in a mineral exploration hole drilled by Independence Mining Company Inc. (IMC) during October, 1993 near Kyle Hot Springs in Buena Vista Valley. The hole flowed unchecked for four and a half days, producing an estimated 500 barrels of oil with large volumes of hot water, before it was plugged and abandoned. In August of 1994 a continuous core hole was drilled by Barton/Evans to further evaluate the oil occurrences in the IMC hole. Two oil zones were found in the Barton/Evans hole, both of which have similar characteristics to the oil produced in the IMC hole. Pristane and phytane ratios (pr/ph) for oil samples from both holes are low (<0.1) which suggests that the source rock for this oil is from non marine lacustrine Tertiary sediments. There are no detectable hydrocarbons in the gas emanating from Kyle Hot Springs which indicates that the current day geothermal system is not in direct contact with any oil accumulations. Organic rich Triassic marine rocks which outcrop west of Buena Vista Valley, are over mature which supports the hypothesis that unexposed organic rich Tertiary rocks occurring in the deeper portions of the basin acted as the source for the oil occurrences in the IMC hole and in the Barton/Evans hole. In 1974, Standard Oil drilled an 11,000 foot well south of Buena Vista Valley in the Carson Sink and encountered organic rich Tertiary sediments at about 3500`. If this organic rich unit extends north into Buena Vista Valley, local geothermal anomalies might play an important role in the generation of oil. Earlier researches have reported that such anomalies do exist with temperature gradients approaching 100 C per kilometer west of Kyle Hot Springs in an area where gravity data suggest a relatively thick interval of Tertiary rocks have accumulated.

  14. Overview of the VISTA Spacecraft Concept Powered by Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, C D

    2000-11-21

    VISTA was conceived through a detailed systems analysis as a viable, realistic, and defensible spacecraft concept based on advanced ICF technology but existing or near-term technology for other systems. It is a conical self-contained single-stage piloted spacecraft in which a magnetic thrust chamber directs the plasma emissions from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets into a rearward exhaust. VISTA's propulsion system is therefore unique because it is based on (1) a rather mature technology (ICF), which is known to work with sufficient driver input; (2) direct heating of all expellant by the fusion process, thus providing high mass flow rates without significant degradation of jet efficiency; and (3) a magnetic thrust chamber, which avoids the plasma thermalization and resultant degradation of specific impulse that are unavoidable with the use of mechanical thrust chambers. VISTA therefore has inherently high power/mass ratios and high specific impulses. With advanced ICF technology, ultra-fast roundtrips (RTs) to objects within the solar system are possible (e.g., {ge}145 days RT to Mars, {ge}7 years RT to Pluto). Such short-duration missions are imperative to minimize the human physiological deteriorations arising from zero gravity and the cosmic-radiation. In addition, VISTA offers on-board artificial gravity and propellant-based shielding from cosmic rays, thus reducing the physiological deteriorations to insignificant levels. In this paper, we give an overview of the various vehicle systems for this concept, estimate the general missions performance capabilities for interplanetary missions, and describe in detail the performance for the baseline mission of a piloted roundtrip to Mars with a 100-ton payload. Items requiring further research include a reduction of the wet mass from its baseline value of 6,000 metric tons, and the development of fast ignition or its equivalent to provide target gains in excess of several hundred. With target gains well

  15. New Vistas Open with MIDI at the VLT Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    "First Fringes" in Mid-Infrared Spectral Region with Two Giant Telescopes Summary Following several weeks of around-the-clock work, a team of astronomers and engineers from Germany, the Netherlands, France and ESO [2] has successfully performed the first observations with the MID-Infrared interferometric instrument (MIDI), a new, extremely powerful instrument just installed in the underground laboratory of the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). In the early morning of December 15, 2002, two of the 8.2 m VLT unit telescopes (ANTU and MELIPAL) were pointed towards the southern star eta Carinae and the two light beams were directed via the complex intervening optics system towards MIDI. After a few hours of tuning and optimization, strong and stable interferometric fringes were obtained, indicating that all VLTI components - from telescopes to the new instrument - were working together perfectly. Two more stars were observed before sunrise, further proving the stability of the entire system. The first observations with MIDI mark one more important step towards full and regular operation of the VLT Interferometer [3] . They are a result of five years of determined efforts within a concerted technology project, based on a close collaboration between ESO and several European research institutes (see below). Now opening great research vistas, they also represent several "firsts" in observational astrophysics, together amounting to a real breakthrough in the field of astronomical interferometry . New views at mid-infrared wavelengths : MIDI is sensitive to light of a wavelength near 10 µm, i.e., in the mid-infrared spectral region ("thermal infrared"). This provides rich opportunities to study a wide range of otherwise inaccessible, crucial astrophysical phenomena, e.g., the formation of planets in dusty disks around newborn stars and the innermost regions around black holes. However, it is a great technical challenge to perform mid

  16. Appendices of an appraisal for the use of geothermal energy in state-owned buildings in Colorado. Section B: Buena Vista

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.T.; Coe, B.A.; Dick, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Two state-owned building complexes have been evaluated for the use of geothermal energy within the vicinity of Buena Vista: the Colorado State Reformatory south of Buena Vista and the State Highway Department Building in downtown Buena Vista. The following are included: resource assessment for the Buena Vista area, building retrofit engineering for the two buildings, economic evaluations, institutional requirements, and environmental considerations. (MHR)

  17. Phylo-VISTA: An Interactive Visualization Tool for Multiple DNA Sequence Alignments

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Nameeta; Couronne, Olivier; Pennacchio, Len A.; Brudno, Michael; Batzoglou, Serafim; Bethel, E. Wes; Rubin, Edward M.; Hamann, Bernd; Dubchak, Inna

    2004-04-01

    We have developed Phylo-VISTA (Shah et al., 2003), an interactive software tool for analyzing multiple alignments by visualizing a similarity measure for DNA sequences of multiple species. The complexity of visual presentation is effectively organized using a framework based upon inter-species phylogenetic relationships. The phylogenetic organization supports rapid, user-guided inter-species comparison. To aid in navigation through large sequence datasets, Phylo-VISTA provides a user with the ability to select and view data at varying resolutions. The combination of multi-resolution data visualization and analysis, combined with the phylogenetic framework for inter-species comparison, produces a highly flexible and powerful tool for visual data analysis of multiple sequence alignments.

  18. Phylo-VISTA: An interactive visualization tool for multiple DNAsequence alignments

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Nameeta; Couronne, Olivier; Pennacchio, Len A.; Brudno,Michael; Batzoglou, Serafim; Bethel, E. Wes; Rubin, Edward M.; Hamann,Bernd; Dubchak, Inna

    2003-04-25

    Motivation. The power of multi-sequence comparison forbiological discovery is well established and sequence data from a growinglist of organisms is becoming available. Thus, a need exists forcomputational strategies to visually compare multiple aligned sequencesto support conservation analysis across various species. To be efficientthese visualization algorithms require the ability to universally handlea wide range of evolutionary distances while taking into accountphylogeny Results. We have developed Phylo-VISTA, an interactive tool foranalyzing multiple alignments by visualizing the similarity of DNAsequences among multiple species while considering their phylogenicrelationships. Features include a broad spectrum of resolution parametersfor examining the alignment and the ability to easily compare any subtreeof sequences within a complete alignment dataset. Phylo-VISTA uses VISTAconcepts that have been successfully applied previously to a wide rangeof comparative genomics data analysis problems. Availability Phylo-VISTAis an interactive java applet available for downloading athttp://graphics.cs.ucdavis.edu/~;nyshah/Phylo-VISTA. It is also availableon-line at http://www-gsd.lbl.gov/phylovista and is integrated with theglobal alignment program LAGAN athttp://lagan.stanford.edu.Contactphylovista@lbl.gov

  19. Early archosauromorph remains from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of north-eastern Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Ezcurra, Martín D; Velozo, Pablo; Meneghel, Melitta; Piñeiro, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    The Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is crucial to understand the impact of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction on the early evolution of the group and its subsequent dominance in Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystems. However, the Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is still very poor in most continents and hampers the identification of global macroevolutionary patterns. Here we describe cranial and postcranial bones from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of northeastern Uruguay that contribute to increase the meagre early archosauromorph record from South America. A basioccipital fused to both partial exoccipitals and three cervical vertebrae are assigned to Archosauromorpha based on apomorphies or a unique combination of characters. The archosauromorph remains of the Buena Vista Formation probably represent a multi-taxonomic assemblage composed of non-archosauriform archosauromorphs and a 'proterosuchid-grade' animal. This assemblage does not contribute in the discussion of a Late Permian or Early Triassic age for the Buena Vista Formation, but reinforces the broad palaeobiogeographic distribution of 'proterosuchid grade' diapsids in Permo-Triassic beds worldwide. PMID:25737816

  20. Early archosauromorph remains from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of north-eastern Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Velozo, Pablo; Meneghel, Melitta; Piñeiro, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    The Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is crucial to understand the impact of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction on the early evolution of the group and its subsequent dominance in Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystems. However, the Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is still very poor in most continents and hampers the identification of global macroevolutionary patterns. Here we describe cranial and postcranial bones from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of northeastern Uruguay that contribute to increase the meagre early archosauromorph record from South America. A basioccipital fused to both partial exoccipitals and three cervical vertebrae are assigned to Archosauromorpha based on apomorphies or a unique combination of characters. The archosauromorph remains of the Buena Vista Formation probably represent a multi-taxonomic assemblage composed of non-archosauriform archosauromorphs and a ‘proterosuchid-grade’ animal. This assemblage does not contribute in the discussion of a Late Permian or Early Triassic age for the Buena Vista Formation, but reinforces the broad palaeobiogeographic distribution of ‘proterosuchid grade’ diapsids in Permo-Triassic beds worldwide. PMID:25737816

  1. VISTA: a micro-thermogravimeter to analyze condensable species in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomba, Ernesto; Zampetti, Emiliano; Longobardo, Andrea; Biondi, David; Saggin, Bortolino; Boccaccini, Angelo; Dirri, Fabrizio

    Thermogravimetry is a technique largely used in order to study absorption/desorption and sublimation/evaporation processes in several environments. Micro-thermogravimetry (mu-TGA) is particularly suitable for space applications, due to the very small mass, volume and power required by mu-TGA sensors. VISTA (Volatile In Situ Thermogravimetry Analyser) is a micro-thermogravimeter developed at IAPS-INAF (Rome) which aims to measure the amount of volatiles of scientific interest (e.g. water, organics) in planetary environments. It is based on Piezoelectric Crystal Microbalances (PCM), whose resonant frequency is linearly related to the deposited mass. The PCM heating/cooling allows the release/deposition of volatile materials, allowing to measure their abundance and to infer their composition. The instrument has been selected in the payload of the ESA MarcoPolo-R proposed mission, aiming to analyze in situ and bring to Earth samples of asteroidal regolith. In this framework, VISTA would measure the water and organic content in the asteroid regolith, detect the possible cometary-like activity of the asteroid and assess the contamination issue. VISTA could be used also to assess relevant scientific issue concerning planetary atmospheres. It has been studied for the ESA Cosmic Vision proposed missions EVE (European Venus Explorer) and TAE (Titan Aerial Explorer), which planned an in-situ analysis of the Venus and Titan atmosphere, respectively. In the framework of a Venus in-situ mission, VISTA would have the following goals: - Measurement of dew points of condensable species, and hence of humidity (by cooling the PCM down to condensation temperatures) - Measurement of amount of refractory species in the Venus cloud aerosols (by heating the PCM) - Measurement of electric charge of cloud particles (by coupling the thermogravimeter and an electric field generator) In the framework of a Titan in-situ mission, the heating of the VISTA PCM would: - determine the presence of

  2. KINEROS UPLAND MODEL ELEMENTS (OVERLAND FLOW PLANES) FOR THE SIERRA VISTA SUBWATERSHED USING THE 1997 NALC LANDCOVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    KINEROS upland model elements (overland flow planes) for the Sierra Vista subwatershed, with results from a KINEROS simulation run through AGWA using the 1997 NALC landcover data for model parameterization.

  3. Orion in a New Light - VISTA exposes high-speed antics of young stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-02-01

    The Orion Nebula reveals many of its hidden secrets in a dramatic image taken by ESO's new VISTA survey telescope. The telescope's huge field of view can show the full splendour of the whole nebula and VISTA's infrared vision also allows it to peer deeply into dusty regions that are normally hidden and expose the curious behaviour of the very active young stars buried there. VISTA - the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy - is the latest addition to ESO's Paranal Observatory (eso0949). It is the largest survey telescope in the world and is dedicated to mapping the sky at infrared wavelengths. The large (4.1-metre) mirror, wide field of view and very sensitive detectors make VISTA a unique instrument. This dramatic new image of the Orion Nebula illustrates VISTA's remarkable powers. The Orion Nebula [1] is a vast stellar nursery lying about 1350 light-years from Earth. Although the nebula is spectacular when seen through an ordinary telescope, what can be seen using visible light is only a small part of a cloud of gas in which stars are forming. Most of the action is deeply embedded in dust clouds and to see what is really happening astronomers need to use telescopes with detectors sensitive to the longer wavelength radiation that can penetrate the dust. VISTA has imaged the Orion Nebula at wavelengths about twice as long as can be detected by the human eye. As in the many visible light pictures of this object, the new wide field VISTA image shows the familiar bat-like form of the nebula in the centre of the picture as well as the fascinating surrounding area. At the very heart of this region lie the four bright stars forming the Trapezium, a group of very hot young stars pumping out fierce ultraviolet radiation that is clearing the surrounding region and making the gas glow. However, observing in the infrared allows VISTA to reveal many other young stars in this central region that cannot be seen in visible light. Looking to the region above the

  4. VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV): Current Status and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, R.; Hempel, M.; Alonso-García, J.; Toledo, I.; Borissova, J.; González, O.; Beamin, J. C.; Minniti, D.; Lucas, P.; Emerson, J.; Ahumada, A.; Aigrain, S.; Alonso, M. V.; Amôres, E.; Angeloni, R.; Arias, J.; Bandyopadhyay, R.; Barbá, R.; Barbuy, B.; Baume, G.; Bedin, L.; Bica, E.; Bronfman, L.; Carraro, G.; Catelan, M.; Clariá, J.; Contreras, C.; Cross, N.; Davis, C.; de Grijs, R.; Dékány, I.; Janet Drew, J. D.; Fariña, C.; Feinstein, C.; Fernández Lajús, E.; Folkes, S.; Gamen, R.; Geisler, D.; Gieren, W.; Goldman, B.; Gosling, A.; Gunthardt, G.; Gurovich, S.; Hambly, N.; Hanson, M.; Hoare, M.; Irwin, M.; Ivanov, V.; Jordán, A.; Kerins, E.; Kinemuchi, K.; Kurtev, R.; Longmore, A.; López-Corredoira, M.; Maccarone, T.; Martín, E.; Masetti, N.; Mennickent, R.; Merlo, D.; Messineo, M.; Mirabel, F.; Monaco, L.; Moni Bidin, C.; Morelli, L.; Padilla, N.; Palma, T.; Parisi, M. C.; Parker, Q.; Pavani, D.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Pietrzynski, G.; Pignata, G.; Rejkuba, M.; Rojas, A.; Roman Lopes, A.; Ruiz, M. T.; Sale, S.; Saviane, I.; Schreiber, M.; Schröder, A.; Sharma, S.; Smith, M.; Sodré, L., Jr.; Soto, M.; Stephens, A.; Tamura, M.; Tappert, C.; Thompson, M.; Valenti, E.; Vanzi, L.; Weidmann, W.; Zoccali, M.

    2010-09-01

    VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) is a public ESO near-IR variability survey aimed at scanning the Milky Way Bulge and an adjacent section of the mid-plane. VVV observations started in October 2009 during ESO science verification. Regular observations for the first year of the survey have been conducted since February 2010 and will cover a total area of 520 square degrees in five passbands and five epochs. Here we address the first results obtained from the VVV Survey as well as the current status of the observations.

  5. VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV): Halfway Status and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempel, M.; Minniti, D.; Dékány, I.; Saito, R. K.; Lucas, P. W.; Emerson, J. P.; Ahumada, A. V.; Aigrain, S.; Alonso, M. V.; Alonso-García, J.; Amôres, E. B.; Angeloni, R.; Arias, J.; Bandyopadhyay, R.; Barbá, R. H.; Barbuy, B.; Baume, G.; Beamin, J. C.; Bedin, L.; Bica, E.; Borissova, J.; Bronfman, L.; Carraro, G.; Catelan, M.; Clariá, J. J.; Contreras, C.; Cross, N.; Davis, C.; de Grijs, R.; Drew, J. E.; Fariña, C.; Feinstein, C.; Fernández-Lajús, E. F.; Folkes, S.; Gamen, R. C.; Geisler, D.; Gieren, W.; Goldman, B.; González, O.; Gosling, A.; Gunthardt, G.; Gurovich, S.; Hambly, N. C.; Hanson, M.; Hoare, M.; Irwin, M. J.; Ivanov, V. D.; Jordán, A.; Kerins, E.; Kinemuchi, K.; Kurtev, R.; Longmore, A.; López-Corredoira, M.; Maccarone, T.; Martín, E.; Masetti, N.; Mennickent, R. E.; Merlo, D.; Messineo, M.; Mirabel, I. F.; Monaco, L.; Moni-Bidin, C.; Morelli, L.; Padilla, N.; Palma, T.; Parisi, M. C.; Parker, Q.; Pavani, D.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Pietrzynski, G.; Pignata, G.; Rejkuba, M.; Rojas, A.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Ruiz, M. T.; Sale, S. E.; Saviane, I.; Schreiber, M. R.; Schröder, A. C.; Sharma, S.; Smith, M.; Sodré, L., Jr.; Soto, M.; Stephens, A. W.; Tamura, M.; Tappert, C.; Thompson, M. A.; Toledo, I.; Valenti, E.; Vanzi, L.; Weidmann, W.; Zoccali, M.

    2014-03-01

    The VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) survey is one of six near-infrared ESO public surveys, and is now in its fourth year of observing. Although far from being complete, the VVV survey has already delivered many results, some directly connected to the intended science goals (detection of variable stars, microlensing events, new star clusters), others concerning more exotic objects, e.g., novae. Now, at the end of the fourth observing period, and comprising roughly 50% of the proposed observations, the status of the survey, as well some of results based on the VVV data, are presented.

  6. Near-infrared colors of minor planets recovered from VISTA-VHS survey (MOVIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, M.; Licandro, J.; Morate, D.; de León, J.; Nedelcu, D. A.; Rebolo, R.; McMahon, R. G.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Irwin, M.

    2016-06-01

    Context. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) provide information about the surface composition of about 100 000 minor planets. The resulting visible colors and albedos enabled us to group them in several major classes, which are a simplified view of the diversity shown by the few existing spectra. A large set of data in the 0.8-2.5 μm, where wide spectral features are expected, is required to refine and complement the global picture of these small bodies of the solar system. Aims: We aim to obtain the near-infrared colors for a large sample of solar system objects using the observations made during the VISTA-VHS survey. Methods: We performed a serendipitous search in VISTA-VHS observations using a pipeline developed to retrieve and process the data that corresponds to solar system objects (SSo). The resulting photometric data is analyzed using color-color plots and by comparison with the known spectral properties of asteroids. Results: The colors and the magnitudes of the minor planets observed by the VISTA survey are compiled into three catalogs that are available online: the detections catalog (MOVIS-D), the magnitudes catalog (MOVIS-M), and the colors catalog (MOVIS-C). They were built using the third data release of the survey (VISTA VHS-DR3). A total of 39 947 objects were detected, including 52 NEAs, 325 Mars Crossers, 515 Hungaria asteroids, 38 428 main-belt asteroids, 146 Cybele asteroids, 147 Hilda asteroids, 270 Trojans, 13 comets, 12 Kuiper Belt objects and Neptune with its four satellites. The colors found for asteroids with known spectral properties reveal well-defined patterns corresponding to different mineralogies. The distributions of MOVIS-C data in color-color plots shows clusters identified with different taxonomic types. All the diagrams that use (Y - J) color separate the spectral classes more effectively than the (J - H) and (H - Ks) plots used until now: even for large color errors (<0.1), the

  7. Traveltime for the Truckee River between Tahoe City, California, and Vista, Nevada, 2006 and 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crompton, E. James

    2008-01-01

    Traveltime measurements were made during 2006 and 2007 along the Truckee River between Tahoe City, Calif., and Vista, Nev. Fluorescent rhodamine WT dye was injected at various locations along the river during streamflows ranging from 143 to 2,660 cubic feet per second. The resulting data, presented in tabular and graphic form, may be useful to water-quality modelers or water-resources managers concerned with predicting the movement of soluble contaminants accidentally spilled into the Truckee River. The data provided in this report also could be used to determine the dispersion-related characteristics (duration and magnitude of pollutant concentrations) that may be expected in the Truckee River.

  8. SMUVS: Spitzer Matching survey of the UltraVISTA ultra-deep Stripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputi, Karina; Ashby, Matthew; Fazio, Giovanni; Huang, Jiasheng; Dunlop, James; Franx, Marijn; Le Fevre, Olivier; Fynbo, Johan; McCracken, Henry; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Muzzin, Adam; Ilbert, Olivier; Somerville, Rachel; Wechsler, Risa; Behroozi, Peter; Lu, Yu

    2014-12-01

    We request 2026.5 hours to homogenize the matching ultra-deep IRAC data of the UltraVISTA ultra-deep stripes, producing a final area of ~0.6 square degrees with the deepest near- and mid-IR coverage existing in any such large area of the sky (H, Ks, [3.6], [4.5] ~ 25.3-26.1 AB mag; 5 sigma). The UltraVISTA ultra-deep stripes are contained within the larger COSMOS field, which has a rich collection of multi-wavelength, ancillary data, making it ideal to study different aspects of galaxy evolution with high statistical significance and excellent redshift accuracy. The UltraVISTA ultra-deep stripes are the region of the COSMOS field where these studies can be pushed to the highest redshifts, but securely identifying high-z galaxies, and determining their stellar masses, will only be possible if ultra-deep mid-IR data are available. Our IRAC observations will allow us to: 1) extend the galaxy stellar mass function at redshifts z=3 to z=5 to the intermediate mass regime (M~5x10^9-10^10 Msun), which is critical to constrain galaxy formation models; 2) gain a factor of six in the area where it is possible to effectively search for z>=6 galaxies and study their properties; 3) measure, for the first time, the large-scale structure traced by an unbiased galaxy sample at z=5 to z=7, and make the link to their host dark matter haloes. This cannot be done in any other field of the sky, as the UltraVISTA ultra-deep stripes form a quasi-contiguous, regular-shape field, which has a unique combination of large area and photometric depth. 4) provide a unique resource for the selection of secure z>5 targets for JWST and ALMA follow up. Our observations will have an enormous legacy value which amply justifies this new observing-time investment in the COSMOS field. Spitzer cannot miss this unique opportunity to open up a large 0.6 square-degree window to the early Universe.

  9. Biological survey of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (Buena Vista), Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    O'Farrell, T.P.; Sauls, M.L.

    1987-06-01

    A field survey of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2, Kern County, California, was conducted to determine the distribution and relative abundance of endangered species and other wildlife. Of the 343 San Joaquin kit fox dens found in 40 sections, 33 were observed by surveyors in transit and 310 were found along transects. Of the latter, 264 were typical subterranean dens and 46 were atypical dens in man-made structures. Estimated density of dens was 28.8 +- 4.4 per square mile; relative density was 9.2/1000 acres. The number of typical dens observed per section was inversely correlated with the number of petroleum wells per section (intensity of development). Atypical dens were usually found to be in pipes or pipe culverts and were positively correlated with density of wells. Relative densities of black-tailed jackrabbits (41.9/1000 acres) and desert cottontails (17.1/1000 acres), preferred prey for foxes, were high compared with densities reported on other public lands. Most (81%) of the 19 blunt-nosed leopard lizards were observed in six adjacent sections located in the gentle foothills near Buena Vista Lake playa. Most (86%) of the 275 giant kangaroo rat burrow systems were observed in ten sections containing flat, relatively undeveloped terrain in and around upper Buena Vista Valley. San Joaquin antelope ground squirrels were the second most commonly observed diurnal vertebrate: 761 observations in 45 sections. A total of 6740 observations of 61 species of wildlife were made.

  10. High-precision astrometry with VVV - I. An independent reduction pipeline for VIRCAM@VISTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libralato, M.; Bellini, A.; Bedin, L. R.; Anderson, J.; Piotto, G.; Nascimbeni, V.; Platais, I.; Minniti, D.; Zoccali, M.

    2015-06-01

    We present a new reduction pipeline for the VIRCAM@VISTA detector and describe the method developed to obtain high-precision astrometry with the VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) data set. We derive an accurate geometric-distortion correction using as calibration field the globular cluster NGC 5139, and showed that we are able to reach a relative astrometric precision of about 8 mas per coordinate per exposure for well-measured stars over a field of view of more than 1 deg2. This geometric-distortion correction is made available to the community. As a test bed, we chose a field centred around the globular cluster NGC 6656 from the VVV archive and computed proper motions for the stars within. With 45 epochs spread over four years, we show that we are able to achieve a precision of 1.4 mas yr-1 and to isolate each population observed in the field (cluster, Bulge and Disc) using proper motions. We used proper-motion-selected field stars to measure the motion difference between Galactic disc and bulge stars. Our proper-motion measurements are consistent with UCAC4 and PPMXL, though our errors are much smaller. Models have still difficulties in reproducing the observations in this highly reddened Galactic regions.

  11. Vista goes online: Decision-analytic systems for real-time decision-making in mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew; Horvitz, Eric; Ruokangas, Corinne; Srinivas, Sampath

    1994-01-01

    The Vista project has centered on the use of decision-theoretic approaches for managing the display of critical information relevant to real-time operations decisions. The Vista-I project originally developed a prototype of these approaches for managing flight control displays in the Space Shuttle Mission Control Center (MCC). The follow-on Vista-II project integrated these approaches in a workstation program which currently is being certified for use in the MCC. To our knowledge, this will be the first application of automated decision-theoretic reasoning techniques for real-time spacecraft operations. We shall describe the development and capabilities of the Vista-II system, and provide an overview of the use of decision-theoretic reasoning techniques to the problems of managing the complexity of flight controller displays. We discuss the relevance of the Vista techniques within the MCC decision-making environment, focusing on the problems of detecting and diagnosing spacecraft electromechanical subsystems component failures with limited information, and the problem of determining what control actions should be taken in high-stakes, time-critical situations in response to a diagnosis performed under uncertainty. Finally, we shall outline our current research directions for follow-on projects.

  12. A volcanological and geochemical investigation of Boa Vista, Cape Verde Islands; 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology and field constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyhr, Charlotte T.; Holm, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Boa Vista, the easternmost island in the Cape Verde archipelago, consists of volcanic products, minor intrusions and a thin partial sedimentary cover. The first 15 age results from 40Ar/ 39Ar incremental heating analysis of groundmass separates from volcanic and plutonic rocks from Boa Vista are presented. The combination of age results and field observations demonstrates that the volcanic activity that formed the island occurred in three main stages: (1) > 16 Ma, (2) 15-12.5 Ma and (3) 9.5-4.5 Ma. The first stage, restricted to the north eastern part of the island, is dominated by ankaramitic lavas. The second stage, consisting of evolved lavas of phonolitic-trachytic compositions and nepheline syenites, makes up large central parts of the island. The large volume of evolved rocks and the extended eruption period of several Ma make stage 2 in Boa Vista unique to Cape Verde. Mainly basanites and nephelinites were erupted during the third stage, initially dominated by eruption of subaerial mafic lavas around 9 Ma. Pillow lavas are erupted around 7 Ma whereupon dominantly subaerial mafic lavas were erupted. Stage 3 saw volcanism in many centres distributed mainly along the present coastline and with activity partly overlapping in time. The volcanic evolution of Boa Vista constrains the initiation of volcanic activity in the Cape Verde archipelago to the eastern islands. Major and trace element geochemistry of 160 volcanic and plutonic rocks representing the entire exposed chronological sequence on Boa Vista is presented, revealing an extremely well developed Daly Gap. Only a little was modified from the mafic magmas that rose in small batches from the mantle. Compositional variation distinguishes each volcanic complex and was to a large extent present in the mantle melts. The highly evolved stage 2 phonolites and trachytes are related through the fractional crystallization of three compositionally distinct magmas. Two of these may have been derived by crystal

  13. Gravity data from the Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    This report (1) summarizes changes to the Sierra Vista Subwatershed regional time-lapse gravity network with respect to station locations and (2) presents 2014 and 2015 gravity measurements and gravity values at each station. A prior gravity network, established between 2000 and 2005, was revised in 2014 to cover a larger number of stations over a smaller geographic area in order to decrease measurement and interpolation uncertainty. The network currently consists of 59 gravity stations, including 14 absolute-gravity stations. Following above-average rainfall during summer 2014, gravity increased at all but one of the absolute-gravity stations that were observed in both June 2014 and January 2015. This increase in gravity indicates increased groundwater storage in the aquifer and (or) unsaturated zone as a result of rainfall and infiltration.

  14. 500 K and Below - Finding Ultracool Dwarfs with the UKIRT/WFCAM and VISTA surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, P. W.; Ukidss Consortium; Vista Consortium

    2003-10-01

    I describe the very large area infrared UKIRT surveys which will begin in 2003 and their impact on the field of brown dwarf searches. These surveys will reach K≈19 and survey on the order of 20% of the sky. Present plans are for ZJHK imaging, with repeats in J or K to detect proper motions. It is expected that brown dwarfs in the 400-500 K range will be detected, possibly reaching the threshold at which liquid water droplet clouds will form in the upper atmosphere. Some planetary mass 'sub-brown dwarfs' may also be detected if any exist within 10 parsecs. These surveys form natural successors to 2MASS, DENIS and SLOAN. The 4-m VISTA telescope will conduct similar surveys in the southern hemisphere beginning around 2005-6.

  15. Astronaut David Brown talks with team members from Lake Buena Vista, Fla

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Astronaut David Brown chats with members of the Explorers team, from Lake Buena Vista, Fla., during the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition held March 9-11 in the KSC Visitor Complex Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students from all over the country are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing at the Southeast Regional event, 16 are Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  16. Isla Vista virus: a genetically novel hantavirus of the California vole Microtus californicus.

    PubMed

    Song, W; Torrez-Martinez, N; Irwin, W; Harrison, F J; Davis, R; Ascher, M; Jay, M; Hjelle, B

    1995-12-01

    Prospect Hill virus (PH) was isolated from a meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) in 1982, and much of its genome has been sequenced. Hantaviruses of other New World microtine rodents have not been genetically characterized. We show that another Microtus species (the California vole M. californicus) from the United States is host to a genetically distinct PH-like hantavirus, Isla Vista virus (ILV). The nucleocapsid protein of ILV differs from that of PH by 11.1% and a portion of the G2 glycoprotein differs from that of PH by 19.6%. ILV antibodies were identified in five of 33 specimens of M. californicus collected in 1975 and 1994-1995. Enzymatic amplification studies showed that 1975 and 1994-1995 ILV genomes were highly similar. Secondary infection of Peromyscus californicus was identified in Santa Barbara County, California. A long-standing enzootic of a genetically distinct hantavirus lineage is present in California voles. PMID:8847529

  17. Direct Visualization of Short Transverse Relaxation Time Component (ViSTa)

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Se-Hong; Bilello, Michel; Schindler, Matthew; Markowitz, Clyde E.; Detre, John A.; Lee, Jongho

    2013-01-01

    White matter of the brain has been demonstrated to have multiple relaxation components. Among them, the short transverse relaxation time component (T2 < 40 ms; T2* < 25 ms at 3T) has been suggested to originate from myelin water whereas long transverse relaxation time components have been associated with axonal and/or interstitial water. In myelin water imaging, T2 or T2* signal decay is measured to estimate myelin water fraction based on T2 or T2* differences among the water components. This method has been demonstrated to be sensitive to demyelination in the brain but suffers from low SNR and image artifacts originating from ill-conditioned multi-exponential fitting. In this study, a novel approach that selectively acquires short transverse relaxation time signal is proposed. The method utilizes a double inversion RF pair to suppress a range of long T1 signal. This suppression leaves short T2* signal, which has been suggested to have short T1, as the primary source of the image. The experimental results confirms that after suppression of long T1 signals, the image is dominated by short T2* in the range of myelin water, allowing us to directly visualize the short transverse relaxation time component in the brain. Compared to conventional myelin water imaging, this new method of direct visualization of short relaxation time component (ViSTa) provides high quality images. When applied to multiple sclerosis patients, chronic lesions show significantly reduced signal intensity in ViSTa images suggesting sensitivity to demyelination. PMID:23796545

  18. Environmental and morphological changes around the Maritime Maya site Vista Alegre.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaijel, Roy; Goodman, Beverly; Glover, Jeffrey; Beddows, Patricia; Carter, Alice; Smith, Derek; Rissolo, Dominique; Ben Avraham, Zvi

    2016-04-01

    The untold story of the Maritime Maya from the ancient port site Vista Alegre, is being written for the first time using a multidisciplinary effort that aims to reconstruct the environmental and morphological history of the site. Vista Alegre is located on the north-eastern tip of the Yucatan peninsula, on the ancient Maritime Maya trade routes. This strategic point between the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, offers an ideal setting for this kind of research, which will add to the general Maritime Maya history. The multidisciplinary effort is part of a larger project called "Costa Escodida". The project's main goals are to learn how the ancient inhabitants adapted to the environment, and to understand how this coastal site was integrated into broader maritime trade routes. The portion of the research presented here concentrates on the sites geomorphology and climate during the past 2-3000 years through the multiproxy analysis of marine sediment core and surface samples combined with archaeological data. This study aids our understanding of the site's possible functions, the environmental challenges the local inhabits contended with, and the identification of ancient harboring locations. The site was inhabited from the 9th century B.C until the mid 16th century A.D., with an apparent two century abandonment phase from the mid 7th to 9th century A.D. According to the results, five depositional phases can be recognized, and the related shoreline reconstruction shows a general trend of a flooded terrestrial landscape. This 'flooding' relates well to relative sea-level curves published in the region. Continued analysis of results from the research, and future research activities, may make it possible to recognize hurricane proxies in the sediment, locate underwater manmade seafaring artifacts and facilities, determine the range of economic opportunities for past inhabitants and quantify the availability of potable water sources.

  19. Challenges encountered using standard vector control measures for dengue in Boa Vista, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Problem In 2010, dengue virus (DENV) serotype–4 was detected during a dengue outbreak in the Amazonian city of Boa Vista. At that time Brazil was already endemic for DENV-1, DENV-2 and DENV-3. This was the first time DENV-4 was observed in the country after it was initially detected and eliminated in 1981. Approach To hinder the spread of DENV-4 throughout Brazil, standard vector control measures were intensified. Vector control professionals visited 56 837 households in 22 out of 31 districts of Boa Vista, to eliminate mosquito-breeding sites. Water storage containers were treated with the larvicide diflubenzuron, and deltamethrin was sprayed for adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Fifteen days later, a second larvae survey and additional deltamethrin applications were performed. Local setting In Brazil, dengue vector control is managed at all three government levels. Regular surveillance of Aedes aegypti is done four to six times a year to strengthen mosquito control activities in areas with high-vector density. Educational dengue control campaigns in communities are scarce, especially between outbreaks. Relevant changes In spite of extensive implementation of all standard control actions recommended by the Brazilian dengue control programme, only a slight decrease in mosquito density was detected. Lessons learnt There is a need to redesign all levels of dengue control. Public consultation and engagement, behaviour change and actions that go beyond technical impositions are required. Vector control programme managers need to reflect on what constitutes good practices and whether intermittent information campaigns are effective measures for dengue prevention and control. PMID:25378760

  20. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA. USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT VALLEY VISTA, AZ FINAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at an Arizona Water Company (AWC) facility in Sedona, AZ, commonly referred to as Valley Vista. The objectives of the project were t...

  1. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT VALLEY VISTA, AZ SIX-MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the first six months of the EPA arsenic removal technology demonstration project at the Arizona Water Company (AWC) facility in Sedona, AZ, commonly referred to as Valley Vista. The main objective of the...

  2. Physical and chemical data for the Sacramento River at Rio Vista, California, November 1983 through November 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ota, Allan Y.; Schemel, L.E.; Hager, S.W.

    1986-01-01

    Physical and chemical data for the Sacramento River at Rio Vista , California, for the period of November 1983 through November 1984 are presented in this report. Measurements include specific conductance, alkalinity, suspended particulate matter, and the dissolved inorganic nutrients: nitrite, nitrate + nitrite, ammonium, dissolved silica, and ortho-phosphate. Numerical results are tabulated and details of the methods are described. (USGS)

  3. Evaluations of fungicides and fungicide timing for the control of soybean rust at Bella Vista, Paraguay, 2005-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    About 8000 soybean seeds were planted at Bella Vista, Paraguay on 12 Nov 2005 in four row plots, 24 ft long, with 18 in. row spacing and two rows of border. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with four replications. Treatments consisted of Headline 2.09EC, Folicur 3.6F, ...

  4. 78 FR 53477 - Notice of Relocation of the Bureau of Land Management's San Pedro Project Office in Sierra Vista, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Relocation of the Bureau of Land Management's San Pedro Project Office in Sierra Vista, AZ AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the relocation of the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) San......

  5. A new felsic cone-sheet swarm in the Central Atlantic Islands: The cone-sheet swarm of Boa Vista (Cape Verde)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancochea, Eumenio; Huertas, María José; Hernán, Francisco; Brändle, José Luis

    2014-03-01

    The island of Boa Vista is one of the oceanic islands with the largest amount of felsic rocks reported in the world (50% of the total outcropping igneous rocks of Boa Vista). The felsic rocks are trachytes and phonolites generated within the second main stage of the volcanic activity that lasted about four million years.

  6. Qualitative differences in memory for vista and environmental spaces are caused by opaque borders, not movement or successive presentation.

    PubMed

    Meilinger, Tobias; Strickrodt, Marianne; Bülthoff, Heinrich H

    2016-10-01

    Two classes of space define our everyday experience within our surrounding environment: vista spaces, such as rooms or streets which can be perceived from one vantage point, and environmental spaces, for example, buildings and towns which are grasped from multiple views acquired during locomotion. However, theories of spatial representations often treat both spaces as equal. The present experiments show that this assumption cannot be upheld. Participants learned exactly the same layout of objects either within a single room or spread across multiple corridors. By utilizing a pointing and a placement task we tested the acquired configurational memory. In Experiment 1 retrieving memory of the object layout acquired in environmental space was affected by the distance of the traveled path and the order in which the objects were learned. In contrast, memory retrieval of objects learned in vista space was not bound to distance and relied on different ordering schemes (e.g., along the layout structure). Furthermore, spatial memory of both spaces differed with respect to the employed reference frame orientation. Environmental space memory was organized along the learning experience rather than layout intrinsic structure. In Experiment 2 participants memorized the object layout presented within the vista space room of Experiment 1 while the learning procedure emulated environmental space learning (movement, successive object presentation). Neither factor rendered similar results as found in environmental space learning. This shows that memory differences between vista and environmental space originated mainly from the spatial compartmentalization which was unique to environmental space learning. Our results suggest that transferring conclusions from findings obtained in vista space to environmental spaces and vice versa should be made with caution. PMID:27367592

  7. VISTA -- A Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transport Application Powered by Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, C D

    2005-03-31

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an ideal technology to power self-contained single-stage piloted (manned) spacecraft within the solar system because of its inherently high power/mass ratios and high specific impulses (i.e., high exhaust velocities). These technological advantages are retained when ICF is utilized with a magnetic thrust chamber, which avoids the plasma thermalization and resultant degradation of specific impulse that are unavoidable with the use of mechanical thrust chambers. We started with Rod Hyde's 1983 description of an ICF-powered engine concept using a magnetic thrust chamber, and conducted a more detailed systems study to develop a viable, realistic, and defensible spacecraft concept based on ICF technology projected to be available in the first half of the 21st century. The results include an entirely new conical spacecraft conceptual design utilizing near-existing radiator technology. We describe the various vehicle systems for this new concept, estimate the missions performance capabilities for general missions to the planets within the solar system, and describe in detail the performance for the baseline mission of a piloted roundtrip to Mars with a 100-ton payload. For this mission, we show that roundtrips totaling {ge}145 days are possible with advanced DT fusion technology and a total (wet) spacecraft mass of about 6000 metric tons. Such short-duration missions are advantageous to minimize the known cosmic-radiation hazards to astronauts, and are even more important to minimize the physiological deteriorations arising from zero gravity. These ICF-powered missions are considerably faster than those available using chemical or nuclear-electric-propulsion technologies with minimum-mass vehicle configurations. VISTA also offers onboard artificial gravity and propellant-based shielding from cosmic rays, thus reducing the known hazards and physiological deteriorations to insignificant levels. We emphasize, however, that the degree to

  8. VISTA/NF-16D programmable helmet-mounted display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Alexander A.

    1997-06-01

    The VISTA/NV-16D is currently the newest in-flight simulator in the USAF inventory. This unique research aircraft will be fitted with the GEC-Marconi Avionics Programmable Display System. This equipment provides the capability to rapidly develop display concepts on both helmet-mounted display and head up displays in a dynamic flight test environment. The equipment provided includes an enhanced Viper II Helmet Mounted Display fitted to the HGU-86/P helmet. Display drive is provided by a very capable graphics generation system which also provides display drive to the standard F-16 Head Up Display. The system provides real time reprogrammable stroke and stroke on raster symbology on the HUD and on the HMD. The system is initially configured with monocular Stroke only HMD drive, but growth to dual HMD, stroke on video and binocular HMDs is available. The Honeywell Advanced Metal Tolerant Helmet Tracker System is integrated within the HMD Programmable Display System providing very accurate helmet orientation information to the graphics generator which is used for the display of space stabilized symbology when required. A fail safe backup display generator provides reversionary display on the HUD. This paper provides a detailed description of this equipment and also address some of the design techniques involved in developing this high performance system.

  9. Characterization of dispersion, attenuation, and anisotropy at the Buena Vista Hills field, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackert, C.L.; Parra, J.O.; Brown, R.L.; Collier, H.A.

    2001-01-01

    We create a log of intrinsic dispersion and attenuation for the Antelope Shale formation of the Buena Vista Hills field, San Joaquin Valley, California. High dispersion (or low Q) values correlate with thin sand and carbonate beds within the Antelope Shale. These beds are at least ten times as permeable as the host shale formation, so this effect provides a possible avenue for seismic prediction of permeability. The dispersion log is formed through comparison of crosswell seismic velocities (measured at approximately 1 kHz) and sonic log velocities (measured at approximately 10 kHz). In order to provide a proper basis for comparison, the sonic log must first be adjusted for field anisotropy, scaling effects, and resolution of measurement. We estimate a local shale anisotropy of about 20% based on correlations generated from published measurements of other shale fields. We apply resolution enhancement to capture the thin sand and carbonate beds, and windowed Backus averaging to match the measurement scales. A modeling study verifies the technique, and shows that beds of thickness greater than 30 cm have a measurement signature. The actual resolution is on the order of the crosswell Fresnel length, or about 7 m for the model study.

  10. Melting and cataclastic features in shatter cones in basalt from the Vista Alegre impact structure, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittarello, Lidia; Nestola, Fabrizio; Viti, Cecilia; Crósta, Alvaro Penteado; Koeberl, Christian

    2015-07-01

    Shatter cones are one of the most widely recognized pieces of evidence for meteorite impact events on Earth, but the process responsible for their formation is still debated. Evidence of melting on shatter cone surfaces has been rarely reported in the literature from terrestrial impact craters but has been recently observed in impact experiments. Although several models for shatter cones formation have been proposed, so far, no one can explain all the observed features. Shatter cones' from the Vista Alegre impact structure, Brazil, formed in fine-grained basalt of the Jurassic-Cretaceous Serra Geral Formation (Paraná large igneous province). A continuous quenched melt film, consisting of a crystalline phase, mica, and amorphous material, decorates the striated surface. Ultracataclasites, containing subrounded pyroxene clasts in an ultrafine-grained matrix, occur subparallel to the striated surface. Several techniques were applied to characterize the crystalline phase in the melt, including Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Results are not consistent with any known mineral, but they do suggest a possible rare or new type of clinopyroxene. This peculiar evidence of melting and cataclasis in relation with shatter cone surfaces is interpreted as the result of tensile fracturing at the tip of a fast propagating shock-induced rupture, which led to the formation of shatter cones at the tail of the shock front, likely during the early stage of the impact events.

  11. Morphological Classification of High-redshift Massive Galaxies in the COSMOS/UltraVISTA Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, G. W.; Ma, Z. Y.; Kong, X.

    2015-09-01

    Utilizing the multi-band photometry catalog of the COSMOS (Cosmic Evolution Survey)/UltraVISTA (Ultra-deep Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) field and the high-resolution HST WFC3 (Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3) near-infrared imaging from the CANDELS (Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey) field, we present a quantitative study of the morphological classification of galaxy for a large mass-selected sample. Our sample includes 362 galaxies within photometric redshift 1leq zleq3 and stellar mass M_{*}geq 10^{10.5} M_{odot}. The results from the rest-frame (U-V) vs. (V-J) (UVJ) colors classification, visual inspection, nonparametric morphology analysis, and structural parameters study are in good agreement with each other. Quiescent galaxies (QGs) classified by UVJ colors generally have larger Sérsic index (n) and Gini coefficient (G), smaller size (r_mathrm{e}) and moment (M_{20}), and they are visually compact. While star-forming galaxies (SFGs) are reversed. In the meantime, we explore the size evolution with redshift for various divisions of QG and SFG samples, and confirm that both of size will enlarge with time, but QGs are rapider than SFGs. Moreover, we find that the choice of division between QGs and SFGs (i.e. colour, shape, morphology) is not particularly critical.

  12. VISTA Enhancer Browser--A Database of Tissue-Specific HumanEnhancers

    SciTech Connect

    Visel, Axel; Minovitsky, Simon; Dubchak, Inna; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2006-08-01

    Despite the known existence of distant-acting cis-regulatoryelements in the human genome, only a small fraction of these elements hasbeen identified and experimentally characterized in vivo. This paucity ofenhancer collections with defined activities has thus hinderedcomputational approaches for the genome-wide prediction of enhancers andtheir functions. To fill this void, we utilize comparative genomeanalysis to identify candidate enhancer elements in the human genomecoupled with the experimental determination of their in vivo enhanceractivity in transgenic mice (1). These data are available through theVISTA Enhancer Browser (http://enhancer.lbl.gov). This growing databasecurrently contains over 250 experimentally tested DNA fragments, of whichmore than 100 have been validated as tissue-specific enhancers. For eachpositive enhancer, we provide digital images of whole-mount embryostaining at embryonic day 11.5 and an anatomical description of thereporter gene expression pattern. Users can retrieve elements near singlegenes of interest, search for enhancers that target reporter geneexpression to a particular tissue, or download entire collections ofenhancers with a defined tissue specificity or conservation depth. Theseexperimentally validated training sets are expected to provide a basisfor a wide range of downstream computational and functional studies ofenhancer function.

  13. Morphological Classification of High-redshift Massive Galaxies in the COSMOS/UltraVISTA Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan-wen, Fang; Zhong-yang, Ma; Xu, Kong

    2016-04-01

    Utilizing the multi-band photometric data of the COSMOS (Cosmic Evolution Survey)/UltraVISTA (Ultra-deep Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) field and the high-resolution HST WFC3 (Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3) near-infrared images in the CANDELS (Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey) field, we have selected 362 galaxies with the redshifts of 1≤ z ≤3 and the stellar masses of M* ≥ 1010.5M⊙, and made the classification study on the morphologies of these massive galaxies. The results from the UVJ ((U-V) vs (V-J)) two-color diagram classification, visual classification, non-model based classification (Gini coefficient G and moment index M20), and model based classification (Sérsic index n) are in good agreement with each other. Compared with the star-forming galaxies (SFGs), the quiescent galaxies (QGs) defined by the UVJ two-color diagram exhibit the compact elliptical structures, and generally have larger n and G, but smaller M20 and galaxy's effective radius re. The evolution of galaxy size with the redshift is obvious for various QG and SFG samples defined by the different classification systems (two-color diagram classification system, model and non-model based classification systems), and this evolutionary tendency is stronger for QGs in comparison with SFGs, independent to the selection of galaxy classification methods.

  14. Using articulated scene models for dynamic 3d scene analysis in vista spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuter, Niklas; Swadzba, Agnes; Kummert, Franz; Wachsmuth, Sven

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we describe an efficient but detailed new approach to analyze complex dynamic scenes directly in 3D. The arising information is important for mobile robots to solve tasks in the area of household robotics. In our work a mobile robot builds an articulated scene model by observing the environment in the visual field or rather in the so-called vista space. The articulated scene model consists of essential knowledge about the static background, about autonomously moving entities like humans or robots and finally, in contrast to existing approaches, information about articulated parts. These parts describe movable objects like chairs, doors or other tangible entities, which could be moved by an agent. The combination of the static scene, the self-moving entities and the movable objects in one articulated scene model enhances the calculation of each single part. The reconstruction process for parts of the static scene benefits from removal of the dynamic parts and in turn, the moving parts can be extracted more easily through the knowledge about the background. In our experiments we show, that the system delivers simultaneously an accurate static background model, moving persons and movable objects. This information of the articulated scene model enables a mobile robot to detect and keep track of interaction partners, to navigate safely through the environment and finally, to strengthen the interaction with the user through the knowledge about the 3D articulated objects and 3D scene analysis. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Species accounts for the Alamosa/Monte Vista/Baca National Wildlife Refuge Complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellison, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an interagency agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Alamosa/Monte Vista/Baca National Wildlife Refuge Complex requested help with the synthesis of scientific information for 10 focal species and their habitat requirements in response to common Refuge management activities in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. This information will be instrumental in developing the Service's Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP), which is required by law for each unit of the National Wildlife Refuge System. After consultation with Refuge managers and USGS staff, the 10 species chosen for detailed literature reviews and synthesis of information were the following: (1) American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana); (2) Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolorPorzana carolina); (4) White-faced Ibis (Plegadis chihi); (5) Black Tern (Chlidonias niger); (6) Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus); (7) Brewer's Sparrow (Spizella breweri); (8) Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis); (9) Northern Leopard Frog [Lithobates (=Rana) pipiens]; and, (10) Tadpole Shrimp (Triops longicaudatus).

  16. A basic radial dike swarm of Boa Vista (Cape Verde Archipelago); its significance in the evolution of the island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancochea, Eumenio; Hernán, Francisco; Huertas, María José; Brändle, José Luis

    2012-10-01

    A basic radial dike swarm unrelated to other basic units of Boa Vista (Cape Verde Archipelago) has been localized and characterized in the central sector of the island. According to new radiometric data three main stages in the evolution of Boa Vista are distinguished: the earlier (the Old Volcanic Complex: 17-16 Ma) is equivalent to the shield building stage of Hawaii and the later (the Recent Volcanics (8-4 Ma) is in some aspects comparable to the post-erosional stage. An important intermediate essentially felsic stage (the Trachytic-Phonolitic Complex: 14.3-12.8 Ma) followed the basaltic shield stage. This felsic stage has equivalents in some other oceanic islands as the Canary Islands, specially Gran Canaria, Tenerife, and La Gomera. The central sector of Boa Vista is also occupied by the Felsic Subvolcanic Complex, a unit consisting of phonolitic breccias, syenites and monzonites that represent the Trachytic-Phonolitic Complex hypabyssal roots. The felsic rocks as a whole constitute half of the total amount of igneous rocks on the island making up Boa Vista, the island with the highest percentage of felsic rocks in the Central Atlantic Ocean. More than 200 dikes of the basic radial swarm intruding the Felsic Subvolcanic Complex have been measured. The intensity of the multiple dike injection is sometimes rather high, roughly a dike every 5 m. The individual dikes have an observable mean length of about 300 m. The composition of these dikes is always foiditic (nephelinites, melilitites, and limburgites), slightly different in composition (more alkaline and richer in incompatible elements) to the other basic units of the island (the Old Volcanic Complex and the Recent Volcanics). The radial dikes converge in an area located NW of the geometrical center of Boa Vista, a zone where the hypothetical center of the Old Volcanic Complex and the Trachytic-Phonolitic Complex edifices must also have been situated. The ages obtained from the dikes (between 14.8 and 11.5 Ma

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VISTA variables in Sagittarius dSph (McDonald+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Sloan, G. C.; Kerins, E.; Lagadec, E.; Minniti, D.

    2014-11-01

    Details of the VISTA photometric observations can be found in Paper II (McDonald et al., 2013MNRAS.436..413M, Cat. J/MNRAS/436/413). Briefly summarized, the observations cover seven tiles, each of which is 1.5x1.0 square degrees, placed on the known overdensities of Sgr dSph stars, in an irregular polygon around M54. Each tile was observed in Z over either 12 or 13 epochs taken between 2012 April 06 and 2012 August 01 ut. Through tile overlaps, a small subset of objects are covered in up to 48 epochs. Tile-by-tile data catalogues were automatically reduced with the VISTA version 1.2 pipeline at the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit. (3 data files).

  18. Rare erroneous results on the Siemens Dimension Vista® platform due to urine carryover: A warning to current users.

    PubMed

    Karger, Amy B; Senn, Christine; Skogseth, Kathy; Floodman, Stacy

    2016-07-01

    In 2014, the West Bank Laboratory at the University of Minnesota, part of the non-profit Fairview Health Services system, went live with two Siemens Dimension Vista® 500 instruments. In the first few months after go-live, the lab began receiving reports of rare, erroneous results from clinicians. After further investigation it was noted that most of the errors being reported followed a consistent pattern with significantly elevated potassium, BUN and creatinine. After months of unsuccessful troubleshooting with Siemens, our lab and others within the Fairview Health Services system began hypothesizing that urine carryover was occurring due to the pattern of elevated analytes, and asked Siemens to investigate this hypothesis. In March 2016 Siemens confirmed a software defect which omits an aliquot probe rinse resulting in sample carryover in rare cases. Our objective is to alert current users of the Siemens Dimension Vista® instruments to this rare but alarming phenomenon, discuss the frequency and impact of the erroneous results at our institution, and detail recommended steps for users of Siemens Dimension Vista® instruments to help retrospectively determine whether they have experienced similar erroneous results. PMID:27174361

  19. Photometric Redshifts for the Dark Energy Survey and VISTA and Implications for Large Scale Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Banerji, Manda; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Lahav, Ofer; Lin, Huan; /Fermilab

    2007-11-01

    We conduct a detailed analysis of the photometric redshift requirements for the proposed Dark Energy Survey (DES) using two sets of mock galaxy simulations and an artificial neural network code-ANNz. In particular, we examine how optical photometry in the DES grizY bands can be complemented with near infra-red photometry from the planned VISTA Hemisphere Survey (VHS) in the JHK{sub s} bands in order to improve the photometric redshift estimate by a factor of two at z > 1. We draw attention to the effects of galaxy formation scenarios such as reddening on the photo-z estimate and using our neural network code, calculate A{sub v} for these reddened galaxies. We also look at the impact of using different training sets when calculating photometric redshifts. In particular, we find that using the ongoing DEEP2 and VVDS-Deep spectroscopic surveys to calibrate photometric redshifts for DES, will prove effective. However we need to be aware of uncertainties in the photometric redshift bias that arise when using different training sets as these will translate into errors in the dark energy equation of state parameter, w. Furthermore, we show that the neural network error estimate on the photometric redshift may be used to remove outliers from our samples before any kind of cosmological analysis, in particular for large-scale structure experiments. By removing all galaxies with a 1{sigma} photo-z scatter greater than 0.1 from our DES+VHS sample, we can constrain the galaxy power spectrum out to a redshift of 2 and reduce the fractional error on this power spectrum by {approx}15-20% compared to using the entire catalogue.

  20. Physical properties of distant red galaxies in the COSMOS/UltraVISTA field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhongyang; Fang, Guanwen; Kong, Xu; Fan, Lulu

    2015-10-01

    We present a study on physical properties for a large distant red galaxy (DRG) sample, using the K-selected multi-band photometry catalog of the COSMOS/UltraVISTA field and the CANDELS near-infrared data. Our sample includes 4485 DRGs with (J - K)AB > 1.16 and KAB < 23.4 mag, and 132 DRGs have HST/WFC3 morphological measurements. The results of nonparametric measurements of DRG morphology are consistent with our rest-frame UVJ color classification; quiescent DRGs are generally compact while star-forming DRGs tend to have extended structures. We find the star formation rate (SFR) and the stellar mass of star-forming DRGs present tight "main sequence" relations in all redshift bins. Moreover, the specific SFR (sSFR) of DRGs increases with redshift in all stellar mass bins and DRGs with higher stellar masses generally have lower sSFRs, which indicates that galaxies were much more active on average in the past, and star formation contributes more to the mass growth of low-mass galaxies than to high-mass galaxies. The infrared-derived SFR dominates the total SFR of DRGs which occupy the high-mass range, implying that the J - K color criterion effectively selects massive and dusty galaxies. DRGs with higher M* generally have redder (U - V)rest colors, and the (U - V)rest colors of DRGs become bluer at higher redshifts, suggesting high-mass galaxies have higher internal dust extinctions or older stellar ages and they evolve with time. Finally, we find that DRGs have different overlap among extremely red objects, BzK galaxies, IRAC-selected extremely red objects, and high-z ultraluminous infrared galaxies, indicating that DRGs are not a special population and they can also be selected by other color criteria.

  1. Massive galaxies at 1-6 from the Spitzer-SERVS plus VISTA-VIDEO surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajina, Anna; Capozzi, Diego; Lacy, Mark; Maraston, Claudia; Pforr, Janine; Messias, Hugo; Farrah, Duncan; Gonzales-Solares, Eduardo; Jarvis, Matt; Marchesini, Danilo; Marchetti, Lucia; Mauduit, Jean-Claude; Vaccari, Mattia

    2014-06-01

    We exploit the uniqueness of the Spitzer Representative Volume Survey (SERVS), which provides Spitzer IRAC 3.6 and 4.5um imaging down to A 23 for a total area of 18 sq.deg., to probe massive galaxies out to 6 within a representative cosmic volume. We focus on the 1.5 sq.deg. area inside the XMM-LSS field, where we combine SERVS with VISTA-VIDEO ZYJHK_S data (down to A 24 at H and K_S). We select extremely red galaxies as either those with H-m3.6>1.6 (HIEROs) and/or K_S-m4.5>1.6 (KIEROs), and calculate their photometric redshifts and stellar population properties using different stellar population models and fitting codes. We find that (H/K)IEROs have a redshift distribution that covers 1-6; are massive (median log(Mstar/Msun)=10.8); and dusty (median E(B-V)=0.4). They have significant star-formation rates (typically 10-100Msun/yr) based on both our stellar population fitting and the fact that ~50% have MIPS24\\um and/or SPIRE250um detections. A comparison with recent stellar mass function estimates, suggests that (H/K)IERO samples contain a large fraction of the Mstar>10^11Msun galaxies at 2-5. Our study also reveals five z>5 candidates, all with Mstar>10^11Msun. Our results suggest that, over the full area of overlap between SERVS and VIDEO, we will find >10,000 (H/K)IEROs, including a few tens of z>5 massive galaxies, allowing an exceptional probe into the build-up of the stellar mass in the universe.

  2. Cardiovascular Risk in Men Aged Over 40 in Boa Vista, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Lima Junior, Mário Maciel; Bezerra, Emanuel Araújo; Ticianeli, José Geraldo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of disease in the developed world. Early detection and risk prediction are a key component in reducing cardiovascular mortality. The Framingham Risk Score uses age, sex, cholesterol, blood pressure, diabetes, and smoking to calculate the 10-year risk probability of developing cardiovascular disease for a given patient. The aim of this study was to examine cardiovascular disease risk in men aged over 40 years in Boa Vista, Brazil and identify socioeconomic factors contributing to the risk. Methods: This was an epidemiological, cross-sectional, descriptive study. Physical examination and questionnaire survey were conducted on the participants. Results: Of the 598 participants (average age = 55.38 ± 10.77 years), 346 completed all the examinations and answered the survey, while 252 completed the survey and the physical examinations but did not undertake the laboratory tests. A large proportion of participants were overweight (42.6%) or obese (23.6%), 14.5% were hypertensive, and 71.9% were prehypertensive. Consumption of red meat and junk food was high, while participation in the exercise was low. Framingham scores ranged from −3 to 13 (mean score: 3.86 ± 3.16). A total of 204 participants (34.1%) had a low risk of cardiovascular disease, 98 (16.4%) had a medium risk, and 44 (7.4%) possessed high risk. Increased abdominal circumference (P = 0.013), resting pulse (P = 0.002), and prostate-specific antigen levels (P < 0.001) were associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Conclusions: Our study highlights a worrying trend in increasing obesity and hypertension, most likely associated with increasingly poor diet and reduced participation in exercises. As the Brazilian population ages, this will drive increasing rates of cardiovascular mortality unless these trends are reversed. This study suggests that such campaigns should focus on men over the age of 40, who are married or divorced and of

  3. Embedded Clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud Using the VISTA Magellanic Clouds Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romita, Krista; Lada, Elizabeth; Cioni, Maria-Rosa

    2016-04-01

    We present initial results of the first large-scale survey of embedded star clusters in molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using near-infrared imaging from the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy Magellanic Clouds Survey. We explored a ∼1.65 deg2 area of the LMC, which contains the well-known star-forming region 30 Doradus as well as ∼14% of the galaxy’s CO clouds, and identified 67 embedded cluster candidates, 45 of which are newly discovered as clusters. We have determined the sizes, luminosities, and masses for these embedded clusters, examined the star formation rates (SFRs) of their corresponding molecular clouds, and made a comparison between the LMC and the Milky Way. Our preliminary results indicate that embedded clusters in the LMC are generally larger, more luminous, and more massive than those in the local Milky Way. We also find that the surface densities of both embedded clusters and molecular clouds is ∼3 times higher than in our local environment, the embedded cluster mass surface density is ∼40 times higher, the SFR is ∼20 times higher, and the star formation efficiency is ∼10 times higher. Despite these differences, the SFRs of the LMC molecular clouds are consistent with the SFR scaling law presented in Lada et al. This consistency indicates that while the conditions of embedded cluster formation may vary between environments, the overall process within molecular clouds may be universal. Based on observations made with VISTA at the Paranal Observatory under program ID 179.B-2003.

  4. Googling Stroke ASPECTS to Determine Disability: Exploratory Analysis from VISTA-Acute Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Beare, Richard; Chen, Jian; Phan, Thanh G.

    2015-01-01

    The summed Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) is useful for predicting stroke outcome. The anatomical information in the CT template is rarely used for this purpose because traditional regression methods are not adept at handling collinearity (relatedness) among brain regions. While penalized logistic regression (PLR) can handle collinearity, it does not provide an intuitive understanding of the interaction among network structures in a way that eigenvector method such as PageRank can (used in Google search engine). In this exploratory analysis we applied graph theoretical analysis to explore the relationship among ASPECTS regions with respect to disability outcome. The Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA) was searched for patients who had infarct in at least one ASPECTS region (ASPECTS ≤9, ASPECTS=10 were excluded), and disability (modified Rankin score/mRS). A directed graph was created from a cross correlation matrix (thresholded at false discovery rate of 0.01) of the ASPECTS regions and demographic variables and disability (mRS>2). We estimated the network-based importance of each ASPECTS region by comparing PageRank and node strength measures. These results were compared with those from PLR. There were 185 subjects, average age 67.5± 12.8 years (55% Males). Model 1: demographic variables having no direct connection with disability, the highest PageRank was M2 (0.225, bootstrap 95% CI 0.215-0.347). Model 2: demographic variables having direct connection with disability, the highest PageRank were M2 (0.205, bootstrap 95% CI 0.194-0.367) and M5 (0.125, bootstrap 95% CI 0.096-0.204). Both models illustrate the importance of M2 region to disability. The PageRank method reveals complex interaction among ASPECTS regions with respects to disability. This approach may help to understand the infarcted brain network involved in stroke disability. PMID:25961856

  5. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  6. Multiple Gingival Recession Defects Treated with Coronally Advanced Flap and Either the VISTA Technique Enhanced with GEM 21S or Periosteal Pedicle Graft: A 9-Month Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Dandu, Shruti Raju; Murthy, K Raja

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clinically evaluate and compare the efficacy of the vestibular incision subperiosteal tunnel access (VISTA) technique using Bio-Gide (Geistlich) membrane enhanced with GEM 21S (Osteohealth) with periosteal pedicle graft (PPG) using a coronally advanced flap. Multiple gingival recession sites in 15 individuals were randomly assigned either to experimental site A (VISTA) or experimental site B (PPG) in a split-mouth design. The clinical parameters were recorded at baseline and 9 months postoperatively. Repeated measures analysis of variance with post hoc Bonferroni correction and paired t test were used to assess statistical significance (P < .05). Mean recession depth significantly decreased from 4.21 ± 1.08 mm (presurgery) to 0.61 ± 0.92 mm (9 months) with VISTA (87.37 ± 17.78% root coverage) and from 4.17 ± 1.18 mm (presurgery) to 1.16 ± 0.92 mm (9 months) with PPG (71.84 ± 19.25% root coverage). Width of keratinized tissue and clinical attachment gain were significantly higher in the VISTA group compared with the PPG group. Within the limits of the study both VISTA and PPG groups resulted in a significant amount of root coverage. The VISTA technique was less invasive and required minimal time and clinical maneuvering. It also resulted in a superior esthetic outcome. PMID:26901301

  7. A distribuição de velocidades na linha de visada em galáxias barradas vistas de face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Com o objetivo de realizar um estudo cinemático da componente vertical de barras em galáxias, obtivemos espectros de fenda longa de alta razão S/N ao longo dos eixos maior e menor de 14 galáxias barradas vistas de face, nos telescópios de 1.52m do ESO em La Silla, Chile, e de 2.3m do Steward Observatory em Kitt Peak, Arizona. Estes dados nos permitiram determinar a distribuição de velocidades das estrelas ao longo do eixo vertical das barras e discos destes sistemas, tanto no centro como em pontos que distam cerca de 5 e 20 segundos de arco do núcleo, correspondendo a distâncias de cerca de 0.7 e 2.8 kpc, respectivamente. Desta forma, a variação radial da distribuição de velocidades também pôde ser avaliada. Este tipo de análise tem raros exemplos na literatura por ser caro em termos de tempo de telescópio. Entretanto, é de fácil justificativa, considerando que traz novas informações que podem ser utilizadas para aperfeiçoar modelos teóricos acerca da formação e evolução de galáxias. Um algoritmo por nós desenvolvido foi utilizado para obter as distribuições de velocidades como Gaussianas generalizadas (polinômios de Gauss-Hermite), o que traz um ingrediente a mais neste tipo de estudo que, tradicionalmente, se utiliza de Gaussianas puras, uma hipótese nem sempre razoável. Apresentaremos os resultados deste trabalho, que incluem um diagnóstico para a identificação de barras recém formadas, e testes para o modelo isotérmico de discos. Mostraremos que: (i) a escolha das estrelas padrão em velocidade, e dos parâmetros da Gaussiana, deve ser muito bem justificada já que tem influência significativa nos resultados; (ii) muitas galáxias apresentam uma depressão na dispersão de velocidades na região central, que pode estar associada a um disco interno; e (iii) a dispersão de velocidades é constante ao longo da barra, nos eixos maior e menor, mas cai substancialmente quando se passa da barra para o disco.

  8. The VISTA Kilo-degree Infrared Galaxy (VIKING) Survey: Bridging the Gap between Low and High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edge, A.; Sutherland, W.; Kuijken, K.; Driver, S.; McMahon, R.; Eales, S.; Emerson, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    VIKING is a medium-deep survey of 1500 square degrees over two areas of the extragalactic sky with VISTA in zYJHKs bands to sample the restframe optical for galaxies at z >~ 1. VIKING complements the two other surveys — VHS with its large area but shallower depth and VIDEO with its greater photometric depth and smaller spatial coverage. In addition to a 0.7 < z < 2 galaxy survey, the area and depth of VIKING enables other studies, such as detection of distant quasars and low-mass stars and many galaxy clusters and superclusters. The early results are summarised and future prospects presented.

  9. Proyecto Costa Escondida: Interdisciplinary Research at the Ancient Maya Port Site of Vista Alegre, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, J.; Rissolo, D.; Beddows, P. A.; Goodman, B.; Smith, D.

    2013-05-01

    At the northeast tip of the Yucatan Peninsula - where the Caribbean meets the Gulf - lies the ancient Maya port site of Vista Alegre. The inhabitants of this site, much like the people living nearby today, were forced to contend with the challenging coastal environment of Laguna Holbox. The sediment-rich, low gradient of the north coast presents a contrasting landscape compared to the Caribbean coast, where water resources are of much larger magnitude and evident in the extensive systems of cenotes (sinkholes) and underground rivers that supported pre-Columbian sites along this eastern rocky sediment-poor coastline. For past inhabitants the north coast was a mosaic of low-lying, non-arable zones where access to potable water was a challenge for inhabitants well into the 20th century. By bringing together scholars from the fields of archaeology, coastal ecology, geoarchaeology, and hydrogeology, the Proyecto Costa Escondida is focusing on the dynamic relationship between the Maya and their coastal landscape over the past 3000 years. To date we have collected 12 manual push-cores from the shallow waters surrounding Vista Alegre, which have been analyzed at 1 cm resolution using standard methods for Loss on Ignition (LOI), δ18Ocarb and δ13Ccarb of bulk carbonate, granulometry, micropalentology, and AMS radiocarbon dating. In addition to have baseline comparative data, we have conducted near-shore and terrestrial coastal ecological surveys along with the mapping of coastal water salinity and temperatures in the dry and wet seasons. Overall, the chemical proxies, lithology, and paleosalinity model reconstructed to date reveal four onlapping parasequences representing an overall transgression of the coastline with strong seasonality of water chemistry that has been changing under the control of rising sea levels over the past 3000 years. The sedimentation rate and timing of the transition to marine is in reasonable agreement with local sea level curves meaning that the

  10. The VISTA Carina Nebula Survey. II. Spatial distribution of the infrared-excess-selected young stellar population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeidler, P.; Preibisch, T.; Ratzka, T.; Roccatagliata, V.; Petr-Gotzens, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    We performed a deep wide-field (6.76 sq. deg) near-infrared survey with the VISTA telescope that covers the entire extent of the Carina nebula complex (CNC). The point-source catalog created from these data contains around four million individual objects down to masses of 0.1 M⊙. We present a statistical study of the large-scale spatial distribution and an investigation of the clustering properties of infrared-excesses objects, which are used to trace disk-bearing young stellar objects (YSOs). A selection based on a near-infrared (J-H) versus (H-Ks) color-color diagram shows an almost uniform distribution over the entire observed area. We interpret this as a result of the very high degree of background contamination that arises from the Carina Nebula's location close to the Galactic plane. Complementing the VISTA near-infrared catalog with Spitzer IRAC mid-infrared photometry improves the situation of the background contamination considerably. We find that a (J-H) versus (Ks- [4.5]) color-color diagram is well suited to tracing the population of YSO-candidates (cYSOs) by their infrared excess. We identify 8781 sources with strong infrared excess, which we consider as cYSOs. This sample is used to investigate the spatial distribution of the cYSOs with a nearest-neighbor analysis. The surface density distribution of cYSOs agrees well with the shape of the clouds as seen in our Herschel far-infrared survey. The strong decline in the surface density of excess sources outside the area of the clouds supports the hypothesis that our excess-selected sample consists predominantly of cYSOs with a low level of background contamination. This analysis allows us to identify 14 groups of cYSOs outside the central area.Our results suggest that the total population of cYSOs in the CNC comprises about 164 000 objects, with a substantial fraction (~35%) located in the northern, still not well studied parts. Our cluster analysis suggests that roughly half of the cYSOs constitute a

  11. A decision-theoretic approach to the display of information for time-critical decisions: The Vista project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvitz, Eric; Ruokangas, Corinne; Srinivas, Sampath; Barry, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    We describe a collaborative research and development effort between the Palo Alto Laboratory of the Rockwell Science Center, Rockwell Space Operations Company, and the Propulsion Systems Section of NASA JSC to design computational tools that can manage the complexity of information displayed to human operators in high-stakes, time-critical decision contexts. We shall review an application from NASA Mission Control and describe how we integrated a probabilistic diagnostic model and a time-dependent utility model, with techniques for managing the complexity of computer displays. Then, we shall describe the behavior of VPROP, a system constructed to demonstrate promising display-management techniques. Finally, we shall describe our current research directions on the Vista 2 follow-on project.

  12. 4MOST - The new wide-field, high-multiplex spectroscopic survey facility for ESO's VISTA telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Roelof S.; Consortium, 4MOST

    2015-08-01

    4MOST is a wide-field, high-multiplex spectroscopic survey facility under development for the VISTA telescope of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), the only facility of its kind planned for the southern sky. Its main science drivers are in the fields of galactic archeology, high-energy physics, galaxy evolution and cosmology. 4MOST will in particular provide the spectroscopic complements to the large area surveys coming from space missions like Gaia, eROSITA, Euclid, and PLATO and from ground-based facilities like VISTA, VST, DECam, LSST and SKA. Surveys are planned to determine the chemo-dynamical structure and evolution of the Milky Way and to characterize Dark Energy as function of time through multiple methods (e.g., BAO, RSD, lensing) and tracers (galaxies, AGN, Ly-α Forest, galaxy clusters, SNe 1a).The 4MOST baseline concept features a 2.7 degree diameter field-of-view with about 2400 fibres in the focal surface that are configured by a fibre positioner based on the tilting spine principle. The fibres feed two types of spectrographs; ˜1600 fibres go to two spectrographs with resolution R>5000 (˜390-930 nm) and ˜800 fibres to a spectrograph with R>18,000 (˜392-437 nm, 515-572 nm and 605-675 nm). Both types of spectrographs are fixed-configuration, three-channel spectrographs.4MOST will have an unique operations concept in which 5 year public surveys from both the consortium and the ESO community will be combined and observed in parallel during each exposure, resulting in more than 25 million spectra of targets spread over a large fraction of the southern sky. The 4MOST Facility Simulator (4FS) was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of this observing concept. 4MOST has been accepted for implementation by ESO and has moved into its construction phase. Operations are expected to start by the early 2021.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - PHYSICAL REMOVAL OF MICROBIOLOGICAL & PARTICULATE CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER: US FILTER 3M10C MICROFILTRATION MEMBRANE SYSTEM AT CHULA VISTA, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the US Filter 3M10C membrane system was conducted over a 44-day test period at the Aqua 2000 Research Center in Chula Vista, California. The test period extended from July 24, 2002 to September 5, 2002. The source water was a blend of Colorado River and ...

  14. Hearing on the Reauthorization of VISTA. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Select Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This document reports on a congressional oversight hearing on the Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA) Program on its 25th anniversary. This hearing is also the opening hearing toward the reauthorization of VISTA, the Federal Government's only full-time domestic volunteer service to alleviate poverty-related problems. Testimony includes…

  15. Hundreds of new cluster candidates in the VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea survey DR1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbá, R. H.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Nilo Castellón, J. L.; Firpo, V.; Minniti, D.; Lucas, P.; Emerson, J. P.; Hempel, M.; Soto, M.; Saito, R. K.

    2015-09-01

    Context. VISTA variables in the Vía Láctea is an ESO Public survey dedicated to scanning the bulge and an adjacent portion of the Galactic disk in the fourth quadrant using the VISTA telescope and its near-infrared camera VIRCAM. One of the leading goals of the VVV survey is to contribute to knowledge of the star cluster population of the Milky Way. Aims: To improve the census of Galactic star clusters, we performed a systematic and careful scan of the JHKs images of the Galactic plane section of the VVV survey. Methods: Our detection procedure is based on a combination of stellar density maps and visual inspection of promising features in the J-, H-, and KS-band images. The material examined are VVV JHKS color-composite images corresponding to Data Release 1 of VVV. Results: We report the discovery of 493 new infrared star cluster candidates. The analysis of the spatial distribution show that the clusters are very concentrated in the Galactic plane, presenting some local maxima around the position of large star-forming complexes, such as G305, RCW 95, and RCW 106. The vast majority of the new star cluster candidates are quite compact and generally surrounded by bright and/or dark nebulosities. IRAS point sources are associated with 59% of the sample, while 88% are associated with MSX point sources. GLIMPSE 8 μm images of the cluster candidates show a variety of morphologies, with 292 clusters dominated by knotty sources, while 361 clusters show some kind of nebulosity in this wavelength regime. Spatial cross-correlation with young stellar objects, masers, and extended green-object catalogs suggest that a large sample of the new cluster candidates are extremely young. In particular, 104 star clusters associated with methanol masers are excellent candidates for ongoing massive star formation. Also, there is a special set of sixteen cluster candidates that present clear signposts of star-forming activity having associated simultaneosly dark nebulae, young stellar

  16. In-situ fluid-pressure measurements for earthquake prediction: An example from a deep well at Hi Vista, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, John H.; Urban, T. C.

    1984-03-01

    Short-term earthquake prediction requires sensitive instruments for measuring the small anomalous changes in stress and strain that precede earthquakes. Instruments installed at or near the surface have proven too noisy for measuring anomalies of the size expected to occur, and it is now recognized that even to have the possibility of a reliable earthquake-prediction system will require instruments installed in drill holes at depths sufficient to reduce the background noise to a level below that of the expected premonitory signals. We are conducting experiments to determine the maximum signal-to-noise improvement that can be obtained in drill holes. In a 592 m well in the Mojave Desert near Hi Vista, California, we measured water-level changes with amplitudes greater than 10 cm, induced by earth tides. By removing the effects of barometric pressure and the stress related to earth tides, we have achieved a sensitivity to volumetric strain rates of 10-9 to 10-10 per day. Further improvement may be possible, and it appears that a successful earthquake-prediction capability may be achieved with an array of instruments installed in drill holes at depths of about 1 km, assuming that the premonitory strain signals are, in fact, present.

  17. Significance of Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene stratigraphy to development of Buena Vista field, San Joaquin Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kuespert, J.G.

    1987-05-01

    Late Pliocene to early Pleistocene depositional patterns of upper Etchegoin and lower San Joaquin Formation sand and shale units in the Buena vista field area were controlled by changes in clastic input, eustatic sea level, structural growth, and circulation patterns in the south end of the San Joaquin Valley. Wireline and drill-strip logs, core depositions, paleontology, and petrographic data from these units suggest the interpretation of a series of shallow to marginal marine deposits with distinctive morphologic features and production characteristics. Late Pliocene marginal marine drainage systems transported clastics from southerly sources as structural and/or eustatic changes shoaled the southern area. An erosional hiatus and shallow marine transgression marked the extent of Plio-Pleistocene shoaling and rapid early Pleistocene foundering. Later Pleistocene changes in sediment supply and structural growth isolated the area from marine conditions as the basin filled with nonmarine sediments. Early field development was influenced by the areal distribution and reservoir characteristics of these sands as well as by the timing of such development activity. Depositional models derived from these data are useful in constructing paleogeographic models with regional hydrocarbon significance.

  18. In-situ fluid-pressure measurements for earthquake prediction: An example from a deep well at Hi Vista, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, J.H.; Urban, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    Short-term earthquake prediction requires sensitive instruments for measuring the small anomalous changes in stress and strain that precede earthquakes. Instruments installed at or near the surface have proven too noisy for measuring anomalies of the size expected to occur, and it is now recognized that even to have the possibility of a reliable earthquake-prediction system will require instruments installed in drill holes at depths sufficient to reduce the background noise to a level below that of the expected premonitory signals. We are conducting experiments to determine the maximum signal-to-noise improvement that can be obtained in drill holes. In a 592 m well in the Mojave Desert near Hi Vista, California, we measured water-level changes with amplitudes greater than 10 cm, induced by earth tides. By removing the effects of barometric pressure and the stress related to earth tides, we have achieved a sensitivity to volumetric strain rates of 10-9 to 10-10 per day. Further improvement may be possible, and it appears that a successful earthquake-prediction capability may be achieved with an array of instruments installed in drill holes at depths of about 1 km, assuming that the premonitory strain signals are, in fact, present. ?? 1985 Birkha??user Verlag.

  19. Property description and fact-finding report for NPR-2, Buena Vista Hills Field, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The US Department of Energy has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Consultant under contract DE-AC01-96FE64202. This authorizes a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) in Kern County, California. The report that follows is the Phase 1 fact-finding and property description for that study. The United States of America owns 100 percent of the mineral rights and 96.1 percent of surface rights in 10,447 acres of the 30,182 acres contained within NPR-2. This property comprises the Buena Vista Hills Oil Field. Oil and gas companies have leased out 9,227 acres in 17 separate leases. Discovered in 1909, this field has approximately 435 active wells producing 2,819 gross barrels of oil and 8.6 million cubic feet of gas per day. Net production to the Government royalty interests include 200 barrels of oil per day and 750 thousand cubic feet of gas per day. Royalty revenues are about $1.7 million per year. Remaining recoverable reserves are approximately 407 thousand barrels of oil and 1.8 billion cubic feet of gas. Significant plugging and abandonment (P&A) and environmental liabilities are present, but these should be the responsibility of the lessees. Ultimate liability still rests with the United States and may increase as the leases are sold to smaller and smaller operators.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea Survey DR1 (Minniti+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minniti, D.; et al.

    2015-01-01

    The VVV survey targets the galactic bulge and a piece of the adjacent plane in Z, Y, J, H, and Ks. The total area of this survey is 520 square degrees and contains 355 open and 33 globular clusters. The VVV is multi-epoch in nature in order to detect a large number of variable objects and will provide > 100 carefully spaced observations for each tile. 5-sigma detection limits are Z=21.9, Y=21.2, J=20.2, H=18.2, Ks=18.1. These will be used to create a 3-dimensional map of the Bulge from well-understood distance indicators such as RR Lyrae stars. Other science drivers include the ages of stellar populations, globular cluster evolution, as well as the stellar initial mass function. The VVV Survey data delivered in this part of ESO Data Release 1 (DR1) includes the VISTA/VIRCAM paw-print and tile images that were acquired until September 30, 2010, and processed by the Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit (CASU). This VVV_CAT data release contains the single-epoch band-merged (Z,Y,J,H,Ks) catalogues associated with the VVV tile images that have already been released in the part of DR1 identified as VVV in the ESO archive. VVV_CAT contains 269 tile catalogues. (1 data file).

  1. Percussive tool use by Taï Western chimpanzees and Fazenda Boa Vista bearded capuchin monkeys: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Sirianni, Giulia; Fragaszy, Dorothy; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-11-19

    Percussive tool use holds special interest for scientists concerned with human origins. We summarize the findings from two field sites, Taï and Fazenda Boa Vista, where percussive tool use by chimpanzees and bearded capuchins, respectively, has been extensively investigated. We describe the ecological settings in which nut-cracking occurs and focus on four aspects of nut-cracking that have important cognitive implications, namely selection of tools, tool transport, tool modification and modulation of actions to reach the goal of cracking the nut. We comment on similarities and differences in behaviour and consider whether the observed differences reflect ecological, morphological, social and/or cognitive factors. Both species are sensitive to physical properties of tools, adjust their selection of hammers conditionally to the resistance of the nuts and to transport distance, and modulate the energy of their strikes under some conditions. However, chimpanzees transport hammers more frequently and for longer distances, take into account a higher number of combinations of variables and occasionally intentionally modify tools. A parsimonious interpretation of our findings is that morphological, ecological and social factors account for the observed differences. Confirmation of plausible cognitive differences in nut-cracking requires data not yet available. PMID:26483529

  2. Using MASSCLEAN to Describe Stellar Clusters Found in the Vista Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, B.; Hanson, M. M.; Borissova, J.; Kurtev, R.; Ivanov, V. D.; Catelan, M.; Larsen, S. S.; Minniti, D.; Lucas, P.

    2014-10-01

    The important parameters: age, mass and distance of resolved or partially resolved stellar clusters are better accurately determined by using color-magnitude diagrams (CMD). However, when the main sequence turnoff is not available or clearly identifiable, large errors in all parameters result when using simple isochrone fitting, particularly when observations are limited to near-infrared bands. We used the MASSCLEAN package to perform 5 million Monte Carlo simulations of stochastically sampled stellar clusters in order to generate CMD templates for a variety of cluster masses and ages and which mimic the observational photometric errors. This results in the creation of tens of thousands of n-dimensional stellar density maps (templates) in numerous color planes as a function of age and mass. We use these MASSCLEAN CMD templates to refine and sharpen traditional isochrone fitting to analyze the newly discovered stellar clusters/cluster candidates from the Vista Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) Survey. Our MASSCLEAN templates are also being used to design and optimize search algorithms for stellar clusters in broad-band surveys.

  3. Continuation of a deep borehole stress measurement profile near the San Andreas Fault: 1. Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements at Hi Vista, Mojave Desert, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, Stephen H.; Zoback, Mark D.; Healy, John H.

    1988-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements were made in a 592-m-deep well at Hi Vista, California, 32 km from the San Andreas fault in the western Mojave Desert. The relative magnitudes of the horizontal principal stresses and the calculated overburden stress indicate that the stress regime at this site is transitional between thrust faulting and strike-slip faulting. The azimuths of the induced hydraulic fractures at Hi Vista exhibit considerable scatter, and the indicated direction of the maximum horizontal principal stress ranges from north-northeast to northwest. The measured magnitudes of the horizontal principal stresses and the horizontal deviatoric stress in this well are less than or equal to those measured in a nearby well of comparable depth 4 km from the San Andreas fault. This result contrasts with the increase in these stress components with distance from the San Andreas fault that was observed in a shallower borehole profile in the same area. Marked fluctuations in both stress magnitudes and orientations with depth in the Hi Vista well, however, may result from a localized perturbation to the regional stress regime. No correlation was found to exist in this well between stress magnitudes and either P wave velocities or natural fracture densities, although the low stresses measured at a depth of about 540 m may reflect proximity to an intensely fractured and permeable zone at the bottom of the well.

  4. Combining Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data with near-infrared data from the ESO VISTA Hemisphere Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerji, Manda; Jouvel, S.; Lin, H.; McMahon, R. G.; Lahav, O.; Castander, F. J.; Abdalla, F. B.; Bertin, E.; Bosman, S. E.; Carnero, A.; Kind, M. Carrasco; da Costa, L. N.; Gerdes, D.; Gschwend, J.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Merson, A.; Miller, C.; Ogando, R.; Pellegrini, P.; Reed, S.; Saglia, R.; Sánchez, C.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bernstein, J.; Bernstein, R.; Capozzi, D.; Childress, M.; Cunha, Carlos E.; Davis, T. M.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Findlay, J.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Glazebrook, K.; González-Fernández, C.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Honscheid, K.; Irwin, M. J.; Jarvis, M. J.; Kim, A.; Koposov, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kupcu-Yoldas, A.; Lagattuta, D.; Lewis, J. R.; Lidman, C.; Makler, M.; Marriner, J.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, Joseph J.; Neilsen, E.; Peoples, J.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla, I.; Sharp, R.; Soares-Santos, M.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Tucker, D.; Uddin, S. A.; Wechsler, R.; Wester, W.; Yuan, F.; Zuntz, J.

    2015-01-01

    We present the combination of optical data from the Science Verification phase of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) with near-infrared (NIR) data from the European Southern Observatory VISTA Hemisphere Survey (VHS). The deep optical detections from DES are used to extract fluxes and associated errors from the shallower VHS data. Joint seven-band (grizYJK) photometric catalogues are produced in a single 3 sq-deg dedicated camera field centred at 02h26m-04d36m where the availability of ancillary multiwavelength photometry and spectroscopy allows us to test the data quality. Dual photometry increases the number of DES galaxies with measured VHS fluxes by a factor of ˜4.5 relative to a simple catalogue level matching and results in a ˜1.5 mag increase in the 80 per cent completeness limit of the NIR data. Almost 70 per cent of DES sources have useful NIR flux measurements in this initial catalogue. Photometric redshifts are estimated for a subset of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts and initial results, although currently limited by small number statistics, indicate that the VHS data can help reduce the photometric redshift scatter at both z < 0.5 and z > 1. We present example DES+VHS colour selection criteria for high-redshift luminous red galaxies (LRGs) at z ˜ 0.7 as well as luminous quasars. Using spectroscopic observations in this field we show that the additional VHS fluxes enable a cleaner selection of both populations with <10 per cent contamination from galactic stars in the case of spectroscopically confirmed quasars and <0.5 per cent contamination from galactic stars in the case of spectroscopically confirmed LRGs. The combined DES+VHS data set, which will eventually cover almost 5000 sq-deg, will therefore enable a range of new science and be ideally suited for target selection for future wide-field spectroscopic surveys.

  5. VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV): The public ESO near-IR variability survey of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minniti, D.; Lucas, P. W.; Emerson, J. P.; Saito, R. K.; Hempel, M.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Ahumada, A. V.; Alonso, M. V.; Alonso-Garcia, J.; Arias, J. I.; Bandyopadhyay, R. M.; Barbá, R. H.; Barbuy, B.; Bedin, L. R.; Bica, E.; Borissova, J.; Bronfman, L.; Carraro, G.; Catelan, M.; Clariá, J. J.; Cross, N.; de Grijs, R.; Dékány, I.; Drew, J. E.; Fariña, C.; Feinstein, C.; Fernández Lajús, E.; Gamen, R. C.; Geisler, D.; Gieren, W.; Goldman, B.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Gunthardt, G.; Gurovich, S.; Hambly, N. C.; Irwin, M. J.; Ivanov, V. D.; Jordán, A.; Kerins, E.; Kinemuchi, K.; Kurtev, R.; López-Corredoira, M.; Maccarone, T.; Masetti, N.; Merlo, D.; Messineo, M.; Mirabel, I. F.; Monaco, L.; Morelli, L.; Padilla, N.; Palma, T.; Parisi, M. C.; Pignata, G.; Rejkuba, M.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Sale, S. E.; Schreiber, M. R.; Schröder, A. C.; Smith, M.; , L. Sodré, Jr.; Soto, M.; Tamura, M.; Tappert, C.; Thompson, M. A.; Toledo, I.; Zoccali, M.; Pietrzynski, G.

    2010-07-01

    We describe the public ESO near-IR variability survey (VVV) scanning the Milky Way bulge and an adjacent section of the mid-plane where star formation activity is high. The survey will take 1929 h of observations with the 4-m VISTA telescope during 5 years (2010-2014), covering ˜10 9 point sources across an area of 520 deg 2, including 33 known globular clusters and ˜350 open clusters. The final product will be a deep near-IR atlas in five passbands (0.9-2.5 μm) and a catalogue of more than 10 6 variable point sources. Unlike single-epoch surveys that, in most cases, only produce 2-D maps, the VVV variable star survey will enable the construction of a 3-D map of the surveyed region using well-understood distance indicators such as RR Lyrae stars, and Cepheids. It will yield important information on the ages of the populations. The observations will be combined with data from MACHO, OGLE, EROS, VST, Spitzer, HST, Chandra, INTEGRAL, WISE, Fermi LAT, XMM-Newton, GAIA and ALMA for a complete understanding of the variable sources in the inner Milky Way. This public survey will provide data available to the whole community and therefore will enable further studies of the history of the Milky Way, its globular cluster evolution, and the population census of the Galactic Bulge and center, as well as the investigations of the star forming regions in the disk. The combined variable star catalogues will have important implications for theoretical investigations of pulsation properties of stars.

  6. Groundwater and surface-water interaction and potential for underground water storage in the Buena Vista-Salida Basin, Chaffee County, Colorado, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Kenneth R.; Ivahnenko, Tamara I.; Stogner, Robert W.; Bruce, James F.

    2014-01-01

    By 2030, the population of the Arkansas Headwaters Region, which includes all of Chaffee and Lake Counties and parts of Custer, Fremont, and Park Counties, Colorado, is forecast to increase about 73 percent. As the region’s population increases, it is anticipated that groundwater will be used to meet much of the increased demand. In September 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper Arkansas Water Conservancy District and with support from the Colorado Water Conservation Board; Chaffee, Custer, and Fremont Counties; Buena Vista, Cañon City, Poncha Springs, and Salida; and Round Mountain Water and Sanitation District, began a 3-year study of groundwater and surface-water conditions in the Buena Vista-Salida Basin. This report presents results from the study of the Buena Vista-Salida Basin including synoptic gain-loss measurements and water budgets of Cottonwood, Chalk, and Browns Creeks, changes in groundwater storage, estimates of specific yield, transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity from aquifer tests and slug tests, an evaluation of areas with potential for underground water storage, and estimates of stream-accretion response-time factors for hypothetical recharge and selected streams in the basin. The four synoptic measurements of flow of Cottonwood, Chalk, and Browns Creeks, suggest quantifiable groundwater gains and losses in selected segments in all three perennial streams. The synoptic measurements of flow of Cottonwood and Browns Creeks suggest a seasonal variability, where positive later-irrigation season values in these creeks suggest groundwater discharge, possibly as infiltrated irrigation water. The overall sum of gains and losses on Chalk Creek does not indicate a seasonal variability but indicates a gaining stream in April and August/September. Gains and losses in the measured upper segments of Chalk Creek likely are affected by the Chalk Cliffs Rearing Unit (fish hatchery). Monthly water budgets were estimated for

  7. Massive Photometry of Milky Way Star Clusters from the "Vista Variables in the Vía Lactea" ESO Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauro, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    The ``VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea'' (VVV) ESO Public Survey is collecting unprecedented deep near-infrared (nIR) ZYJHKs observations of the Galactic bulge and adjacent disk. We developed the VVV-SkZ_pipeline, a DAOPHOT-based photometric pipeline, created to perform point-spread function (PSF) fitting photometry of VVV data. The pipeline permits the user to obtain PSF-fitting photometry with all of the benefits of the power and accuracy of the DAOPHOT suite, replacing the user in its repetitive interactive use in all the operations. We show that the pipeline simplifies the photometric procedure minimizing idle time, and provides an astrometrized photometric catalog reliable up to more than 2 magnitudes brighter than the saturation limit, where other techniques fail. It also produces deeper and more accurate photometry. These achievements allow VVV-SkZ_pipeline to produce data well anchored to the selected standard photometric system and analyze very important data (i.e. TRGB, RGB slope, HB morphology, RR Lyrae), that other methods either do not allow or do so in a more limited way. We present the photometric database for 36 previously known Galactic globular clusters (GGCs), plus 3 newly discovered Galactic stellar clusters. Each catalog is out to the tidal radius. Additionally to the color-magnitude diagrams, we show some of the first scientific results obtained. The opportunity to obtain reliable photometry up to more than 2 magnitudes brighter than the saturation limit was fundamental for the determination of the calibration relations for the Calcium Triplet method using nIR photometry. We obtain the calibration relations both for the equivalent widths in the Rutledge (1997) and DaCosta et al. (2009) and Saviane et al. (2012) database. We report the discovery of a peculiar horizontal branch (HB) in NGC 6440 and NGC 6569, two massive and metal-rich GGCs located in the Galactic bulge, within 4 kpc from the Galactic Center. In both clusters, two distinct

  8. A STRONGLY LENSED MASSIVE ULTRACOMPACT QUIESCENT GALAXY AT z {approx} 2.4 IN THE COSMOS/UltraVISTA FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Muzzin, Adam; Labbe, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Holt, J.; Szomoru, Daniel; Van de Sande, Jesse; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Brammer, Gabriel; Marchesini, Danilo; Stefanon, Mauro; Buitrago, F.; Dunlop, James; Caputi, K. I.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Le Fevre, Olivier; McCracken, Henry J.

    2012-12-20

    We report the discovery of a massive ultracompact quiescent galaxy that has been strongly lensed into multiple images by a foreground galaxy at z 0.960. This system was serendipitously discovered as a set of extremely K{sub s} -bright high-redshift galaxies with red J - K{sub s} colors using new data from the UltraVISTA YJHK{sub s} near-infrared survey. The system was also previously identified as an optically faint lens/source system using the COSMOS Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging by Faure et al. Photometric redshifts for the three brightest images of the source galaxy determined from 27-band photometry place the source at z = 2.4 {+-} 0.1. We provide an updated lens model for the system that is a good fit to the positions and morphologies of the galaxies in the ACS image. The lens model implies that the magnification of the three brightest images is a factor of 4-5. We use the lens model, combined with the K{sub s} -band image, to constrain the size and Sersic profile of the galaxy. The best-fit model is an ultracompact galaxy (R{sub e} = 0.64{sup +0.08}{sub -0.18} kpc, lensing-corrected), with a Sersic profile that is intermediate between a disk and a bulge profile (n 2.2{sup +2.3}{sub -{sub 0.9}}), albeit with considerable uncertainties on the Sersic profile. We present aperture photometry for the source galaxy images that have been corrected for flux contamination from the central lens. The best-fit stellar population model is a massive galaxy (log(M{sub star}/M{sub Sun }) = 10.8{sup +0.1}{sub -0.1}, lensing-corrected) with an age of 1.0{sup +1.0}{sub -0.4} Gyr, moderate dust extinction (A{sub v} = 0.8{sup +0.5}{sub -0.6}), and a low specific star formation rate (log(SSFR) <-11.0 yr{sup -1}). This is typical of massive ''red-and-dead'' galaxies at this redshift and confirms that this source is the first bona fide strongly lensed massive ultracompact quiescent galaxy to be discovered. We conclude with a discussion of the prospects of finding a larger

  9. Evolution of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (POR) in Apiales - POR 1 is missing.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Hansen, Niels Bjørn; Laursen, Tomas; Weitzel, Corinna; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2016-05-01

    The NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligate electron donor to eukaryotic microsomal cytochromes P450 enzymes. The number of PORs within plant species is limited to one to four isoforms, with the most common being two PORs per plant. These enzymes provide electrons to a huge number of different cytochromes P450s (from 50 to several hundred within one plant). Within the eudicotyledons, PORs can be divided into two major clades, POR 1 and POR 2. Based on our own sequencing analysis and publicly available data, we have identified 45 PORs from the angiosperm order Apiales. These were subjected to a phylogenetic analysis along with 237 other publicly available (NCBI and oneKP) POR sequences found within the clade Asterids. Here, we show that the order Apiales only harbor members of the POR 2 clade, which are further divided into two distinct subclades. This is in contrast to most other eudicotyledon orders that have both POR 1 and POR 2. This suggests that through gene duplications and one gene deletion, Apiales only contain members of the POR 2 clade. Three POR 2 isoforms from Thapsia garganica L., Apiaceae, were all full-length in an Illumina root transcriptome dataset (available from the SRA at NCBI). All three genes were shown to be functional upon reconstitution into nanodiscs, confirming that none of the isoforms are pseudogenes. PMID:26854662

  10. Portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This document provides storage requirements for 1,000 CFM portable exhausters POR-O07/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F. These requirements are presented in three parts: preparation for storage, storage maintenance and testing, and retrieval from storage. The exhauster component identification numbers listed in this document contain the prefix POR-007 or POR-008 depending on which exhauster is being used.

  11. A diVIsive Shuffling Approach (VIStA) for gene expression analysis to identify subtypes in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An important step toward understanding the biological mechanisms underlying a complex disease is a refined understanding of its clinical heterogeneity. Relating clinical and molecular differences may allow us to define more specific subtypes of patients that respond differently to therapeutic interventions. Results We developed a novel unbiased method called diVIsive Shuffling Approach (VIStA) that identifies subgroups of patients by maximizing the difference in their gene expression patterns. We tested our algorithm on 140 subjects with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and found four distinct, biologically and clinically meaningful combinations of clinical characteristics that are associated with large gene expression differences. The dominant characteristic in these combinations was the severity of airflow limitation. Other frequently identified measures included emphysema, fibrinogen levels, phlegm, BMI and age. A pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes in the identified subtypes suggests that VIStA is capable of capturing specific molecular signatures within in each group. Conclusions The introduced methodology allowed us to identify combinations of clinical characteristics that correspond to clear gene expression differences. The resulting subtypes for COPD contribute to a better understanding of its heterogeneity. PMID:25032995

  12. Review of mineral estate of the United States at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2, Buena Vista Hills Field, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-09

    The purpose of this report is to present this Consultant`s findings regarding the nature and extent of the mineral estate of the United States at National Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2), Buena Vista Hills Field, Kern County, California. Determination of the mineral estate is a necessary prerequisite to this Consultant`s calculation of estimated future cash flows attributable to said estate, which calculations are presented in the accompanying report entitled ``Phase II Final Report, Study of Alternatives for Future Operations of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves, NPR-2, California.`` This Report contains a discussion of the leases in effect at NPR-2 and subsequent contracts affecting such leases. This Report also summarizes discrepancies found between the current royalty calculation procedures utilized at NPR-2 and those procedures required under applicable agreements and regulations. Recommendations for maximizing the government`s income stream at NPR-2 are discussed in the concluding section of this Report.

  13. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Miller, Walter L; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2011-04-10

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ∼40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ∼60%, is found on ∼28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (∼8% of Asians and ∼13% of Caucasians) at -152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ∼30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  14. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Walter L.; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ~40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ~60%, is found on ~28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (~8% of Asians and ~13% of Caucasians) at −152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ~30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically-relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  15. Ephemeral-Stream Channel and Basin-Floor Infiltration and Recharge in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coes, A.L.; Pool, D.R.

    2007-01-01

    The timing and location of streamflow in the San Pedro River are partially dependent on the aerial distribution of recharge in the Sierra Vista subwatershed. Previous investigators have assumed that recharge in the subwatershed occurs only along the mountain fronts by way of stream-channel infiltration near the contact between low-permeability rocks of the mountains and the basin fill. Recent studies in other alluvial basins of the Southwestern United States, however, have shown that significant recharge can occur through the sediments of ephemeral stream channels at locations several kilometers distant from the mountains. The purpose of this study was to characterize the spatial distribution of infiltration and subsequent recharge through the ephemeral channels in the Sierra Vista subwatershed. Infiltration fluxes in ephemeral channels and through the basin floor of the subwatershed were estimated by using several methods. Data collected during the drilling and coring of 16 boreholes included physical, thermal, and hydraulic properties of sediments; chloride concentrations of sediments; and pore-water stable-isotope values and tritium activity. Surface and subsurface sediment temperatures were continuously measured at each borehole. Twelve boreholes were drilled in five ephemeral stream channels to estimate infiltration within ephemeral channels. Active infiltration was verified to at least 20 meters at 11 of the 12 borehole sites on the basis of low sediment-chloride concentrations, high soil-water contents, and pore-water tritium activity similar to present-day precipitation. Consolidated sediments at the twelfth site prevented core recovery and estimation of infiltration. Analytical and numerical methods were applied to determine the surface infiltration flux required to produce the observed sediment-temperature fluctuations at six sites. Infiltration fluxes were determined for summer ephemeral flow events only because no winter flows were recorded at the sites

  16. The Evolution of the Stellar Mass Functions of Star-forming and Quiescent Galaxies to z = 4 from the COSMOS/UltraVISTA Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzzin, Adam; Marchesini, Danilo; Stefanon, Mauro; Franx, Marijn; McCracken, Henry J.; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Dunlop, James S.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Brammer, Gabriel; Labbé, Ivo; van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2013-11-01

    We present measurements of the stellar mass functions (SMFs) of star-forming and quiescent galaxies to z = 4 using a sample of 95,675 Ks -selected galaxies in the COSMOS/UltraVISTA field. The SMFs of the combined population are in good agreement with previous measurements and show that the stellar mass density of the universe was only 50%, 10%, and 1% of its current value at z ~ 0.75, 2.0, and 3.5, respectively. The quiescent population drives most of the overall growth, with the stellar mass density of these galaxies increasing as ρstarvprop(1 + z)-4.7 ± 0.4 since z = 3.5, whereas the mass density of star-forming galaxies increases as ρstarvprop(1 + z)-2.3 ± 0.2. At z > 2.5, star-forming galaxies dominate the total SMF at all stellar masses, although a non-zero population of quiescent galaxies persists to z = 4. Comparisons of the Ks -selected star-forming galaxy SMFs with UV-selected SMFs at 2.5 < z < 4 show reasonable agreement and suggest that UV-selected samples are representative of the majority of the stellar mass density at z > 3.5. We estimate the average mass growth of individual galaxies by selecting galaxies at fixed cumulative number density. The average galaxy with log(M star/M ⊙) = 11.5 at z = 0.3 has grown in mass by only 0.2 dex (0.3 dex) since z = 2.0 (3.5), whereas those with log(M star/M ⊙) = 10.5 have grown by >1.0 dex since z = 2. At z < 2, the time derivatives of the mass growth are always larger for lower-mass galaxies, which demonstrates that the mass growth in galaxies since that redshift is mass-dependent and primarily bottom-up. Lastly, we examine potential sources of systematic uncertainties in the SMFs and find that those from photo-z templates, stellar population synthesis modeling, and the definition of quiescent galaxies dominate the total error budget in the SMFs. Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under ESO programme ID 179.A-2005 and on data products

  17. Desigualdades por cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Información básica de las desigualdades en salud por cáncer en EE. UU., factores que contribuyen a la carga desproporcionada del cáncer en algunos grupos y ejemplos de desigualdades en incidencia y mortalidad entre ciertos grupos de la población.

  18. Ground-Water Flow Model of the Sierra Vista Subwatershed and Sonoran Portions of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Southeastern Arizona, United States, and Northern Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pool, D.R.; Dickinson, Jesse E.

    2007-01-01

    A numerical ground-water model was developed to simulate seasonal and long-term variations in ground-water flow in the Sierra Vista subwatershed, Arizona, United States, and Sonora, Mexico, portions of the Upper San Pedro Basin. This model includes the simulation of details of the groundwater flow system that were not simulated by previous models, such as ground-water flow in the sedimentary rocks that surround and underlie the alluvial basin deposits, withdrawals for dewatering purposes at the Tombstone mine, discharge to springs in the Huachuca Mountains, thick low-permeability intervals of silt and clay that separate the ground-water flow system into deep-confined and shallow-unconfined systems, ephemeral-channel recharge, and seasonal variations in ground-water discharge by wells and evapotranspiration. Steady-state and transient conditions during 1902-2003 were simulated by using a five-layer numerical ground- water flow model representing multiple hydrogeologic units. Hydraulic properties of model layers, streamflow, and evapotranspiration rates were estimated as part of the calibration process by using observed water levels, vertical hydraulic gradients, streamflow, and estimated evapotranspiration rates as constraints. Simulations approximate observed water-level trends throughout most of the model area and streamflow trends at the Charleston streamflow-gaging station on the San Pedro River. Differences in observed and simulated water levels, streamflow, and evapotranspiration could be reduced through simulation of climate-related variations in recharge rates and recharge from flood-flow infiltration.

  19. Evaluation of simulations to understand effects of groundwater development and artificial recharge on the surface water and riparian vegetation Sierra Vista subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leake, Stanley A.; Gungle, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey documented a five-layer groundwater flow model of the Sierra Vista and Sonoran subwatersheds of the Upper San Pedro Basin. The model has been applied by a private consultant to evaluate the effects of projected groundwater pumping through 2105 and effects of artificial recharge at three near-stream sites for 2012-2111. The main concern regarding simulations of long-term groundwater pumping is the effect of artificial model boundaries on modeled response, particularly for pumping near Cananea, Sonora, Mexico, which is adjacent to an artificial no-flow boundary. Concerns regarding the simulations of the effects of artificial recharge near streams include the resolution of the model and the representation of the model properties at the site scale; a possible limited ability of the model to correctly apportion recharge response between increased streamflow and increased evapotranspiration; a limited ability of the model to simulate detailed geometries of artificial recharge areas and evapotranspiration areas; and stream locations with the 820-foot grid spacing of the basin-scale model. In spite of these concerns, use of the U.S. Geological Survey five-layer groundwater flow model by the consultant are reasonable and valid.

  20. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Gorasia, Dhana G.; Veith, Paul D.; Hanssen, Eric G.; Glew, Michelle D.; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32–36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  1. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  2. The VMC survey. IX. Pilot study of the proper motion of stellar populations in the LMC from 2MASS and VISTA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioni, M.-R. L.; Girardi, L.; Moretti, M. I.; Piffl, T.; Ripepi, V.; Rubele, S.; Scholz, R.-D.; Bekki, K.; Clementini, G.; Ivanov, V. D.; Oliveira, J. M.; van Loon, J. Th.

    2014-02-01

    Context. Proper motion (PM) studies are fundamental ingredients in the understanding of the orbital history of galaxies. Current measurements do not yet provide a satisfactory answer to the possible scenarios for the formation and evolution of the Magellanic Clouds and of the Bridge and Stream that link them with each other and with our Galaxy. Aims: We use multi-epoch near-infrared observations from the VISTA survey of the Magellanic Cloud system (VMC) to measure the PM of stars of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), in one tile of 1.5 deg2 centred at (α,δ) = (05:59:23.136, -66:20:28.68) and including the south ecliptic pole, with respect to their Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) position over a time baseline of about 10 years. Proper motions from VMC observations only, spanning a time range of about 1 year, are also derived. Methods: Stars of different ages are selected from the colour-magnitude diagram, (J - Ks) vs. Ks, and their average coordinate displacement is computed from the difference between Ks band observations from VMC and 2MASS or among VMC data alone for stars as faint as Ks = 19 mag. Proper motions are derived by averaging up to seven 2MASS-VMC combinations in the first case and from the slope of the best-fit line among the seven VMC epochs in the second case. Separate PM values are obtained for Cepheids, RR Lyrae stars, long period variables, and eclipsing binary stars in the field. Results: The PM of ~40 000 LMC stars in the tile, with respect to ~8000 background galaxies, obtained from VMC data alone, is μαcos (δ) = +2.20 ± 0.06 (stat) ±0.29 (sys) and μδ = +1.70 ± 0.06 (stat) ±0.30 (sys) mas yr-1. This value agrees with recent ground-based determinations, but is larger than studies with the Hubble Space Telescope; this discrepancy may be due to additional systematic errors in the data. Our result implies either higher tangential motion or higher internal motion, or a combination of these, although we cannot discuss these possibilities

  3. Landslides: Geomorphology and Sea Cliff Hazard Potential, Santa Barbara - Isla Vista, California J.F. Klath and E.A. Keller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klath, J. F.; Keller, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal areas are often characterized by high population densities in an ever changing, dynamic environment. The world's coasts are often dominated by steeply sloping sea cliffs, the morphology of which reflects rock type, wave erosion, and surface erosion, as well as human activities such changing vegetation, urban runoff, and construction of coastal defenses. The Santa Barbara and Goleta area, with over 17 km of sea cliffs and beaches, extends from Santa Barbara Point west to the hamlet of Isla Vista. A deeper understanding of the local geology and the physical processes generating slope failure and, thus, landward cliff retreat is important for general public safety, as well as future development and planning. Our research objective includes assessment of landslide hazard potential through investigation of previous landslides and how these events relate to various physical variables and characteristics within the surrounding bedrock. How does landslide frequency, volume, and type relate to varying local bedrock and structure? Two geologic formations dominate the sea cliffs of the Santa Barbara area: Monterey shale (upper, middle, and lower) and Monterey Sisquoc shale. Geology varies from hard cemented shale and diatomaceous, low specific gravity shale to compaction shale. Variations in landslide characteristics are linked closely to the geology of a specific site that affects how easily rock units are weathered and eroded by wave erosion, naturally occurring oil and water seeps, burnt shale events, and landslide type and frequency on steeply dipped bedding planes/daylighting beds. Naturally occurring features linked to human processes often weaken bedrock and, thus, increase the likelihood of landslides. We categorize landslide frequency, type, and triggers; location of beach access, drainage pipes, and water; and oil and tar seeps in order to develop suggestions to minimize landslide potential. Lastly, using previously published erosion cliff retreat rates and

  4. Mergers as triggers for nuclear activity: a near-IR study of the close environment of AGN in the VISTA-VIDEO survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karouzos, M.; Jarvis, M. J.; Bonfield, D.

    2014-03-01

    There is an ongoing debate concerning the driver of nuclear activity in galaxies, with active galactic nuclei (AGN) either being triggered by major or minor galactic mergers or, alternatively, through secular processes like cold gas accretion and/or formation of bars. We investigate the close environment of active galaxies selected in the X-ray, the radio and the mid-IR. We utilize the first data release of the new near-IR VISTA Deep Extragalactic Observations (VIDEO) survey of the XMM-Large Scale Structure field. We use two measures of environment density, namely counts within a given aperture and a finite redshift slice (pseudo-3D density) and closest neighbour density measures Σ2 and Σ5. We select both AGN and control samples, matching them in redshift and apparent Ks-band magnitude. We find that AGN are found in a range of environments, with a subset of the AGN samples residing in overdense environments. Seyfert-like X-ray AGN and flat-spectrum radio-AGN are found to inhabit significantly overdense environments compared to their control sample. The relation between overdensities and AGN luminosity does not however reveal any positive correlation. Given the absence of an environment density-AGN luminosity relation, we find no support for a scheme where high-luminosity AGN are preferentially triggered by mergers. On the contrary, we find that AGN likely trace over dense environments at high redshift due to the fact that they inhabit the most massive galaxies, rather than being an AGN.

  5. First discoveries of z ˜ 6 quasars with the Kilo-Degree Survey and VISTA Kilo-Degree Infrared Galaxy survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venemans, B. P.; Verdoes Kleijn, G. A.; Mwebaze, J.; Valentijn, E. A.; Bañados, E.; Decarli, R.; de Jong, J. T. A.; Findlay, J. R.; Kuijken, K. H.; Barbera, F. La; McFarland, J. P.; McMahon, R. G.; Napolitano, N.; Sikkema, G.; Sutherland, W. J.

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of our first year of quasar search in the ongoing ESO public Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS) and VISTA Kilo-Degree Infrared Galaxy (VIKING) surveys. These surveys are among the deeper wide-field surveys that can be used to uncover large numbers of z ˜ 6 quasars. This allows us to probe a more common population of z ˜ 6 quasars that is fainter than the well-studied quasars from the main Sloan Digital Sky Survey. From this first set of combined survey catalogues covering ˜250 deg2 we selected point sources down to ZAB = 22 that had a very red i - Z (i - Z > 2.2) colour. After follow-up imaging and spectroscopy, we discovered four new quasars in the redshift range 5.8 < z < 6.0. The absolute magnitudes at a rest-frame wavelength of 1450 Å are between -26.6 < M1450 < -24.4, confirming that we can find quasars fainter than M*, which at z = 6 has been estimated to be between M* = -25.1 and M* = -27.6. The discovery of four quasars in 250 deg2 of survey data is consistent with predictions based on the z ˜ 6 quasar luminosity function. We discuss various ways to push the candidate selection to fainter magnitudes and we expect to find about 30 new quasars down to an absolute magnitude of M1450 = -24. Studying this homogeneously selected faint quasar population will be important to gain insight into the onset of the co-evolution of the black holes and their stellar hosts.

  6. Hyperluminous reddened broad-line quasars at z ˜ 2 from the VISTA Hemisphere Survey and WISE all-sky survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerji, Manda; McMahon, Richard G.; Hewett, Paul C.; Gonzalez-Solares, Eduardo; Koposov, Sergey E.

    2013-02-01

    We present the first sample of spectroscopically confirmed heavily reddened broad-line quasars selected using the new near-infrared VISTA Hemisphere Survey and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky survey. Observations of four candidates with (J - K) > 2.5 and K ≤ 16.5 over ˜180 deg2 lead to confirmation that two are highly dust-reddened broad-line Type 1 quasars at z ˜ 2. The typical dust extinctions are AV ˜ 2-2.5 mag. We measure black hole masses of ˜109 M⊙ and extinction-corrected bolometric luminosities of ˜1047 erg s-1, making them some of the brightest Type 1 quasars currently known. Despite this, these quasars lie well below the detection limits of wide-field optical surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with iAB > 22. We also present WISE photometry at 3-22 μm, for our full sample of spectroscopically confirmed reddened quasars including those selected from the UKIDSS Large Area Survey. We demonstrate that the rest-frame infrared spectral energy distributions of these reddened quasars are similar to ultraviolet-luminous Type 1 quasars with significant hot dust emission and starburst quasar hosts like Mrk 231. The average 12-μm flux density of our reddened quasars is similar to that of the recently discovered hyperluminous infrared galaxy (HyLIRG) WISE 1814+3412 (z = 2.452) at similar redshifts, with two of our reddened quasars also having comparable 22-μm flux densities to this extreme HyLIRG. These optically faint, heavily reddened broad-line quasars are therefore among the most mid-infrared-luminous galaxies at z ˜ 2, now being discovered using WISE.

  7. Vista Sabre II: integration of helmet-mounted tracker/display and high off-boresight missile seeker into F-15 aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merryman, Ron F. K.

    1994-06-01

    Future air battles will increasingly rely on aircraft capable of directing their advanced weapons with greater accuracy and at larger off-boresight angles. Analysis of current threats indicate that potential adversaries include this enhanced technology in their aircraft today. Helmet-mounted Tracker/Displays (HMT/D) provide a ready and capable response to that threat. These pilot- friendly systems allow the pilot to lock-on to targets and fire missiles at much greater angles than normally allowed in the head up display (HUD). Vista Sabre II is a congressionally mandated special project to evaluate a helmet-mounted display in an operational environment. The program effort involves the installation of two helmet-mounted tracker/display systems on two operational F-15C aircraft for demonstrating the capabilities of this technology in air-to-air combat. The system will provide the pilot with weapon status, targeting information, and other important, time critical, information necessary for effective air-to-air engagements at any head orientation without having to look into the cockpit or through the head up display (HUD). Also integrated into the system is a Navy high off-boresight missile seeker (HOBS) with extended range capability to track targets at high angles off the aircraft's boresight. The helmet display and HOBS will help the pilot lock a missile faster and simulate the missile launch. During the period of demonstration flights, the system will be evaluated through all aspects of the close-in, visual air-to-air combat arena, as well as investigating the human factors issues unique to helmet-mounted systems.

  8. New Vistas for Functionalized Polyoxometalates

    SciTech Connect

    Maatta, Eric A.

    2006-04-21

    Polyoxometalates (POMs) - the multimetallic oxoanions [MxOyXz]n? formed by Mo, W, and, to a lesser extent, V, Nb and Ta ? have been described as "a class of inorganic compounds that is unmatched in terms of molecular and electronic structural versatility, reactivity, and relevance". The remarkable breadth of POM chemistry, which extends to areas as diverse as catalysis, medicine, imaging, photo- and electrochromism, and magnetic materials, derives from the confluence of the species' attractive intrinsic characteristics and their extraordinary compositional range. While many of these systems are easy to prepare, it is often difficult to modify POMs in a rational manner. Our goal is to provide for the intrinsic modifcation of POM systems so as to enable their further utility: our approach has provided many examples of fundamentally new types of polyoxometalates in which their ubiquitous oxo [O]2? ligands have been replaced by other isoelectronic entities including organoimido [N-R]2? and diazoalkane [NNCR2]2?ligands. These nitrogenous POM derivatives retain the attractive attributes typical of the class but with altered and tunable characteristics including their redox behavior and electronic absorption patterns. The organoimido and diazoalkane species provide the ability to couple remote and useful functionality via the appended substituents R. We also are now engaged in the preparation and study of nitrido-POM systems: these unprecedented inorganic complexes offer the possibility of effecting various types of nitrido-based transformations (such as nitrogen transfer) which could benefit from the superior oxidative and thermal stability of the POM ligation environment.

  9. THE EVOLUTION OF THE STELLAR MASS FUNCTIONS OF STAR-FORMING AND QUIESCENT GALAXIES TO z = 4 FROM THE COSMOS/UltraVISTA SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn; Labbé, Ivo; Marchesini, Danilo; Stefanon, Mauro; McCracken, Henry J.; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Dunlop, James S.; Brammer, Gabriel; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2013-11-01

    We present measurements of the stellar mass functions (SMFs) of star-forming and quiescent galaxies to z = 4 using a sample of 95,675 K{sub s} -selected galaxies in the COSMOS/UltraVISTA field. The SMFs of the combined population are in good agreement with previous measurements and show that the stellar mass density of the universe was only 50%, 10%, and 1% of its current value at z ∼ 0.75, 2.0, and 3.5, respectively. The quiescent population drives most of the overall growth, with the stellar mass density of these galaxies increasing as ρ{sub star}∝(1 + z){sup –4.7±0.4} since z = 3.5, whereas the mass density of star-forming galaxies increases as ρ{sub star}∝(1 + z){sup –2.3±0.2}. At z > 2.5, star-forming galaxies dominate the total SMF at all stellar masses, although a non-zero population of quiescent galaxies persists to z = 4. Comparisons of the K{sub s} -selected star-forming galaxy SMFs with UV-selected SMFs at 2.5 < z < 4 show reasonable agreement and suggest that UV-selected samples are representative of the majority of the stellar mass density at z > 3.5. We estimate the average mass growth of individual galaxies by selecting galaxies at fixed cumulative number density. The average galaxy with log(M{sub star}/M{sub ☉}) = 11.5 at z = 0.3 has grown in mass by only 0.2 dex (0.3 dex) since z = 2.0 (3.5), whereas those with log(M{sub star}/M{sub ☉}) = 10.5 have grown by >1.0 dex since z = 2. At z < 2, the time derivatives of the mass growth are always larger for lower-mass galaxies, which demonstrates that the mass growth in galaxies since that redshift is mass-dependent and primarily bottom-up. Lastly, we examine potential sources of systematic uncertainties in the SMFs and find that those from photo-z templates, stellar population synthesis modeling, and the definition of quiescent galaxies dominate the total error budget in the SMFs.

  10. One year duration of immunity of the modified live bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and type 2 and bovine herpesvirus-1 fractions of Vista® Once SQ vaccine.

    PubMed

    Purtle, Lisa; Mattick, Debra; Schneider, Corey; Smith, Linda; Xue, Wenzhi; Trigo, Emilio

    2016-03-18

    Three studies were performed to determine the duration of immunity of the bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and type 2 (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2) and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) fractions of a commercially prepared modified-live vaccine. Vista® Once SQ (Vista®) vaccine contains five modified-live viruses, BVDV-1, BVDV-2, BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and bovine parainfluenza 3 virus, and two modified-live bacteria, Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica. For all three studies, calves were administered a single dose of vaccine or placebo vaccine subcutaneously, and were challenged with one of the three virulent viruses at least one year following vaccination. Calves were evaluated daily following challenge for clinical signs of disease associated with viral infection, nasal swab samples were evaluated for virus shedding, and serum was tested for neutralizing antibodies. Following the BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 challenges, whole blood was evaluated for white blood cell counts, and for the BVDV-2 study, whole blood was also evaluated for platelet counts. Calves vaccinated with BVDV type 1a, were protected from challenge with BVDV type 1b, and had significant reductions in clinical disease, fever, leukopenia, and virus shedding compared to control calves. Vaccinated calves in the BVDV-2 study were protected from clinical disease, mortality, fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and virus shedding compared to controls. Vaccinated calves in the BHV-1 study were protected from clinical disease and fever, and had significantly reduced duration of nasal virus shedding. These three studies demonstrated that a single administration of the Vista® vaccine to healthy calves induces protective immunity against BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and BHV-1 that lasts at least one year following vaccination. PMID:26859238

  11. VVV DR1: The first data release of the Milky Way bulge and southern plane from the near-infrared ESO public survey VISTA variables in the Vía Láctea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, R. K.; Hempel, M.; Minniti, D.; Lucas, P. W.; Rejkuba, M.; Toledo, I.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Alonso-García, J.; Irwin, M. J.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Lewis, J. R.; Cross, N.; Ivanov, V. D.; Kerins, E.; Emerson, J. P.; Soto, M.; Amôres, E. B.; Gurovich, S.; Dékány, I.; Angeloni, R.; Beamin, J. C.; Catelan, M.; Padilla, N.; Zoccali, M.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Moni Bidin, C.; Mauro, F.; Geisler, D.; Folkes, S. L.; Sale, S. E.; Borissova, J.; Kurtev, R.; Ahumada, A. V.; Alonso, M. V.; Adamson, A.; Arias, J. I.; Bandyopadhyay, R. M.; Barbá, R. H.; Barbuy, B.; Baume, G. L.; Bedin, L. R.; Bellini, A.; Benjamin, R.; Bica, E.; Bonatto, C.; Bronfman, L.; Carraro, G.; Chenè, A. N.; Clariá, J. J.; Clarke, J. R. A.; Contreras, C.; Corvillón, A.; de Grijs, R.; Dias, B.; Drew, J. E.; Fariña, C.; Feinstein, C.; Fernández-Lajús, E.; Gamen, R. C.; Gieren, W.; Goldman, B.; González-Fernández, C.; Grand, R. J. J.; Gunthardt, G.; Hambly, N. C.; Hanson, M. M.; Hełminiak, K. G.; Hoare, M. G.; Huckvale, L.; Jordán, A.; Kinemuchi, K.; Longmore, A.; López-Corredoira, M.; Maccarone, T.; Majaess, D.; Martín, E. L.; Masetti, N.; Mennickent, R. E.; Mirabel, I. F.; Monaco, L.; Morelli, L.; Motta, V.; Palma, T.; Parisi, M. C.; Parker, Q.; Peñaloza, F.; Pietrzyński, G.; Pignata, G.; Popescu, B.; Read, M. A.; Rojas, A.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Ruiz, M. T.; Saviane, I.; Schreiber, M. R.; Schröder, A. C.; Sharma, S.; Smith, M. D.; Sodré, L.; Stead, J.; Stephens, A. W.; Tamura, M.; Tappert, C.; Thompson, M. A.; Valenti, E.; Vanzi, L.; Walton, N. A.; Weidmann, W.; Zijlstra, A.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The ESO public survey VISTA variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) started in 2010. VVV targets 562 sq. deg in the Galactic bulge and an adjacent plane region and is expected to run for about five years. Aims: We describe the progress of the survey observations in the first observing season, the observing strategy, and quality of the data obtained. Methods: The observations are carried out on the 4-m VISTA telescope in the ZYJHKs filters. In addition to the multi-band imaging the variability monitoring campaign in the Ks filter has started. Data reduction is carried out using the pipeline at the Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit. The photometric and astrometric calibration is performed via the numerous 2MASS sources observed in each pointing. Results: The first data release contains the aperture photometry and astrometric catalogues for 348 individual pointings in the ZYJHKs filters taken in the 2010 observing season. The typical image quality is 0.9 arcsec {-1.0 arcsec}. The stringent photometric and image quality requirements of the survey are satisfied in 100% of the JHKs images in the disk area and 90% of the JHKs images in the bulge area. The completeness in the Z and Y images is 84% in the disk, and 40% in the bulge. The first season catalogues contain 1.28 × 108 stellar sources in the bulge and 1.68 × 108 in the disk area detected in at least one of the photometric bands. The combined, multi-band catalogues contain more than 1.63 × 108 stellar sources. About 10% of these are double detections because of overlapping adjacent pointings. These overlapping multiple detections are used to characterise the quality of the data. The images in the JHKs bands extend typically 4 mag deeper than 2MASS. The magnitude limit and photometric quality depend strongly on crowding in the inner Galactic regions. The astrometry for Ks = 15-18 mag has rms 35-175 mas. Conclusions: The VVV Survey data products offer a unique dataset to map the stellar populations in the

  12. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  13. Astronomy in the Classroom: Why? (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Clase: ¿Por Qué?) Astronomia na Sala de Aula: Por Quê?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daros Gama, Leandro; Bagdonas Henrique, Alexandre

    2010-07-01

    There are many discussions about the relevance of the topics covered in classes. One subject in particular is the focus of this essay: astronomy. In what sense and to what extent it would be worth to teach it in science or other kind of classes? In this paper we discuss some aspects of the advantages of dealing with this area of knowledge in schools, taking into account the epistemological and axiological dimensions of astronomy, in light of the vision of science as an intelligent dialogue with the world (Bachelard), in addition to the "problematization" knowledge of Paulo Freire. We propose that in fact the Astronomy does not need to be seen as just a new set of contents to be taught, but appears as a set of motivational contents for historical-philosophical discussions, and permit the discussion of concepts of other disciplines. Numerosas discusiones se están llevando a cabo acerca de la pertinencia de los temas tradicionalmente tratados en las clases. Uno de los temas, en particular, es el foco de este ensayo: la astronomía. ¿En qué sentido y en qué medida sería conveniente tratarla en clase, ya sea en clases de ciencias naturales, específicamente en las de astronomía o asignaturas afines? Elaboramos en este artículo algunos aspectos de las ventajas de tratar esta área del conocimiento en las escuelas, teniendo en cuenta las dimensiones epistemológica y axiológica de la astronomía, a la luz de la visión de la ciencia como un diálogo inteligente con el mundo (Bachelard), además de la propuesta del conocimiento "problematizador" de Paulo Freire. Proponemos que en realidad la astronomía no tiene por qué ser vista sólo como un nuevo conjunto de contenidos que se enseñan, sino que aparece como un conjunto de temas de motivación para el debate histórico-filosófico y para permitir la discusión de los conceptos típicos de otras disciplinas. Muitas discussões vêm acontecendo sobre a relevância dos temas abordados em sala de aula. Um tema, em

  14. Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the Por secretion system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the Por secretion system (PorSS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorO, PorP, PorQ, PorT, PorU, PorV (PG27, LptO), PorW and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the PorSS, we compared the proteomes of P. gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (PorSS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB porK (PorSS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free culture supernatant of the PorSS-proficient strain but were absent or faint in that of the PorSS-deficient strain. These identified proteins possessed the C-terminal domains (CTDs), which had been suggested to form the CTD protein family. These results indicate that the PorSS is used for secretion of a number of proteins other than gingipains and that the CTDs of the proteins are associated with the PorSS-dependent secretion. PMID:23075153

  15. System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

  16. Disminuyen en los Estados Unidos las infecciones por VPH.

    Cancer.gov

    La infección por los tipos del virus del papiloma humano (VPH) en el blanco de la vacuna cuadrivalente se redujo en casi dos tercios en las adolescentes desde que se recomendó la vacunación en los Estados Unidos.

  17. Centros oncológicos designados por el NCI

    Cancer.gov

    El programa de centros oncológicos designados por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) reconoce a los centros de todo el país que cumplen con rigurosos criterios para participar en proyectos avanzados de primer nivel para la investigación multidisciplinaria del cáncer.

  18. Se evitaron casi 800 000 muertes por descenso del tabaquismo

    Cancer.gov

    Programas y estrategias de control del tabaco del siglo XX fueron responsables de la prevención de más de 795 000 muertes por cáncer de pulmón en Estados Unidos de 1975 al 2000. Si todo el tabaquismo en este país hubiera cesado después de la publicación d

  19. Design of the Violence and Stress Assessment (ViStA) Study: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Care Management for PTSD Among Predominantly Latino Patients in Safety Net Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Lisa S.; Eisenman, David P.; Green, Bonnie L.; Kaltman, Stacey; Wong, Eunice C.; Han, Bing; Cassells, Andrea; Tobin, Jonathan N.

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common problem in primary care. Although effective treatments are available, little is known about whether such treatments are effective within the context of Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) that serve as national “safety nets” for providing primary care for low income and underinsured patients. The Violence and Stress Assessment (ViStA) study is the first randomized controlled trial (RCT) to test the impact of a care management intervention for treating PTSD in FQHCs. To develop a PTSD management intervention appropriate for lower resource FQHCs and the predominantly Latino patients they serve, formative work was conducted through a collaborative effort between researchers and an FQHC practice-based research network. This article describes how FQHC stakeholders were convened to review, assess, and prioritize evidence-based strategies for addressing patient, clinician, and system-level barriers to care. This multi-component care management intervention incorporates diagnosis with feedback, patient education and activation; navigation and linkage to community resources; clinician education and medication guidance; and structured cross-disciplinary communication and continuity of care, all facilitated by care managers with FQHC experience. We also describe the evaluation design of this five-year RCT and the characteristics of the 404 English or Spanish speaking patients enrolled in the study and randomized to either the intervention or to usual care. Patients are assessed at baseline, six months, and 12 months to examine intervention effectiveness on PTSD, other mental health symptoms, health-related quality-of-life, health care service use; and perceived barriers to care and satisfaction with care. PMID:24747932

  20. From Fortress to Vista on the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfond, Jay A.

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to creating an international campus, America's universities are far better at welcoming faculty and students from abroad--and sending students to study abroad--than in truly elevating global consciousness. Simply having foreign individuals on campus doesn't make global citizens of the rest. Exposure is hardly sufficient. Like…

  1. Bayou Vista: A Market-Driven Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izzo, G. Martin; Teal, Elisabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    The case touches on several areas of marketing: ethics, sales issues, conflicts of interest, marketing forecasts, and issues of pricing. Joe Brice, the visionary and real estate broker for a 36-lot subdivision of moderately priced single-family homes targeting the $190,000 to $260,000 range, seems to have identified an unmet housing market,…

  2. The VISTA Deep Extragalactic Observations (VIDEO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, Matt

    2012-10-01

    VIDEO is a 12 square degree survey covering the XMMLSS, CDFS and ELAIS-S1 fields with the aim of tracing the formation and evolution of galaxies from the earliest times until the present day, with the areal coverage ensuring that the impact of environment can also be considered. I will describe the scientiAic aims and current status of the VIDEO Survey and present some of the recent results based on the early data.

  3. New vistas in planetary radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. K., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Recent progress in planetary radio astronomy is reviewed, where the most significant advances have come from spacecraft observations. The low-frequency radio spectra of the earth, Jupiter, and Saturn are compared, and the striking similarity in shapes is noted. New radio data are examined which provide a way to compare the magnetic field strengths of the planets. More detailed information on the radio structures of Jupiter and Saturn, and possibly on Uranus, is expected from the 1977 Mariner Jupiter-Saturn mission.

  4. Focus 8, New Vistas in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Angelo John, Ed.

    The booklet discusses the role of the Educational Testing Service (ETS) in research on aspects of special education. Among research projects noted are those undertaken at the Institute for the Study of Exceptional Children: studies comparing premature with normal infants, evaluating the Infant Assessment Battery, measuring mother-infant…

  5. Redefining the Vistas of Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) held its conference in Chicago. The president of NCSS that year, and the last New Yorker to hold this office, was Donald Bragaw, who was the head of the Social Studies Bureau of the New York State Education Department. In this article, the author shares the salient points of…

  6. A New Vista in Scientific Data Management

    SciTech Connect

    Keasler, J

    2004-12-13

    This paper examines the use of an in-core database in place of traditional data structures in two ASC codes. Results so far indicate a dramatic reduction in code, coupled with an increase in functionality. Performance impact has been around one percent for the majority of problems tested. Debugging has been the major roadblock thus far, and a portable browser tool has been written that will soon work with a variety of debuggers.

  7. Neisseria meningitidis Lacking the Major Porins PorA and PorB Is Viable and Modulates Apoptosis and the Oxidative Burst of Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Peak, Ian R; Chen, Adrienne; Jen, Freda E-C; Jennings, Courtney; Schulz, Benjamin L; Saunders, Nigel J; Khan, Arshad; Seifert, H Steven; Jennings, Michael P

    2016-08-01

    The bacterial pathogen Neisseria meningitidis expresses two major outer-membrane porins. PorA expression is subject to phase-variation (high frequency, random, on-off switching), and both PorA and PorB are antigenically variable between strains. PorA expression is variable and not correlated with meningococcal colonisation or invasive disease, whereas all naturally-occurring strains express PorB suggesting strong selection for expression. We have generated N. meningitidis strains lacking expression of both major porins, demonstrating that they are dispensable for bacterial growth in vitro. The porAB mutant strain has an exponential growth rate similar to the parental strain, as do the single porA or porB mutants, but the porAB mutant strain does not reach the same cell density in stationary phase. Proteomic analysis suggests that the double mutant strain exhibits compensatory expression changes in proteins associated with cellular redox state, energy/nutrient metabolism, and membrane stability. On solid media, there is obvious growth impairment that is rescued by addition of blood or serum from mammalian species, particularly heme. These porin mutants are not impaired in their capacity to inhibit both staurosporine-induced apoptosis and a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced oxidative burst in human neutrophils suggesting that the porins are not the only bacterial factors that can modulate these processes in host cells. PMID:26562068

  8. Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Hardie, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, L. L.; Jones, M.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Pucknell, V.; Rigby, S. V.; Seller, P.; Scraggs, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Sweeney, A.; PorGamRays Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point 133Ba and 57Co sources located ˜35 mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of ˜20 mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

  9. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    This document describes Acceptance Testing performed on Portable Exhauster POR-007/Skid E. It includes measurements of bearing vibration levels, pressure decay testing, programmable logic controller interlocks, high vacuum, flow and pressure control functional testing. The purpose of Acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-0490, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  10. Typing and surface charges of the variable loop regions of PorB from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, Paola; Neri, Arianna; Tanabe, Mikio; Fazio, Cecilia; Massari, Paola

    2016-06-01

    PorB is a pan-Neisserial major outer membrane protein with a trimeric β-barrel structure. Each monomer presents eight periplasmic turns and eight surface exposed loop regions with sequence variability. PorB induces activation of host cell responses via a TLR2-dependent mechanism likely mediated by electrostatic interactions between TLR2 and PorB surface exposed loops. Variability in the loop amino acid sequence is known to influence cell responses to PorB in vitro, particularly for the residues in L5 and L7. In this work, the sequence of the porB gene and the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from 35 invasive meningococcal isolates belonging to the main clonal complexes identified in Italy and from five carriage genomes available on the website http://pubmlst.org/neisseria/ were examined. Analysis of the porB encoding regions from the invasive meningococci has identified four new alleles and a potential association between porB alleles, serogroup, and clonal complexes. Through computer-based modeling and analysis of the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from these strains, loop charge segregation between PorB from invasive serogroups B and C was observed. Specifically, loops 1, 4, and 7 were negatively charged and L2 and L8 were mostly neutral in serogroup B isolates, while an overall homogeneous positive surface charge was present in PorB from invasive serogroup C strains. A higher PorB sequence variability was observed among carriage genomes, and a general prevalence of negative loop surface charges. The surface charge differences in PorB from serogroups B and C invasive and carriage strains may, in part, influence the outcomes of Neisseriae interactions with host cells. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(6):488-495, 2016. PMID:27156582

  11. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    Portable Exhauster POR-008 was procured via HNF-0490, Specification for a Portable Exhausted System for Waste Tank Ventilation. Prior to taking ownership, acceptance testing was performed at the vendors. However at the conclusion of testing a number of issues remained that required resolution before the exhausters could be used by Project W-320. The purpose of acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-O49O, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  12. VDAC and the bacterial porin PorB of Neisseria gonorrhoeae share mitochondrial import pathways.

    PubMed

    Müller, Anne; Rassow, Joachim; Grimm, Jan; Machuy, Nikolaus; Meyer, Thomas F; Rudel, Thomas

    2002-04-15

    The human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae induces host cell apoptosis during infection by delivering the outer membrane protein PorB to the host cell's mitochondria. PorB is a pore-forming beta-barrel protein sharing several features with the mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), which is involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Here we show that PorB of pathogenic Neisseria species produced by host cells is efficiently targeted to mitochondria. Imported PorB resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane and forms multimers with similar sizes as in the outer bacterial membrane. The mitochondria completely lose their membrane potential, a characteristic previously observed in cells infected with gonococci or treated with purified PorB. Closely related bacterial porins of non-pathogenic Neisseria mucosa or Escherichia coli remain in the cytosol. Import of PorB into mitochondria in vivo is independent of a linear signal sequence. Insertion of PorB into the mitochondrial outer membrane in vitro depends on the activity of Tom5, Tom20 and Tom40, but is independent of Tom70. Our data show that human VDAC and bacterial PorB are imported into mitochondria by a similar mechanism. PMID:11953311

  13. Successful Mnemonics for "por"/"para" and Affirmative Commands with Pronouns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Two mnemonic devices, "4A Rule" and "PERFECT," are described to simplify the learning of two grammar points: the placement of object pronouns with respect to commands and the distinction between "por" and "para." (five references) (LB)

  14. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Zoe A; Seviour, Robert J; Tucci, Joseph; Petrovski, Steve

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  15. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Zoe A.; Seviour, Robert J.; Tucci, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  16. Crystallographic analysis of Neisseria meningitidis PorB extracellular loops potentially implicated in TLR2 recognition.

    PubMed

    Kattner, Christof; Toussi, Deana N; Zaucha, Jan; Wetzler, Lee M; Rüppel, Nadine; Zachariae, Ulrich; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2014-03-01

    Among all Neisseriae species, Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the only human pathogens, causative agents of bacterial meningitis and gonorrhoea, respectively. PorB, a pan-Neisseriae trimeric porin that mediates diffusive transport of essential molecules across the bacterial outer membrane, is also known to activate host innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated signaling. The molecular mechanism of PorB binding to TLR2 is not known, but it has been hypothesized that electrostatic interactions contribute to ligand/receptor binding. Strain-specific sequence variability in the surface-exposed loops of PorB which are potentially implicated in TLR2 binding, may explain the difference in TLR2-mediated cell activation in vitro by PorB homologs from the commensal Neisseriae lactamica and the pathogen N. meningitidis. Here, we report a comparative structural analysis of PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup B strain 8765 (63% sequence homology with PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup W135) and a mutant in which amino acid substitutions in the extracellular loop 7 lead to significantly reduced TLR2-dependent activity in vitro. We observe that this mutation both alters the loop conformation and causes dramatic changes of electrostatic surface charge, both of which may affect TLR2 recognition and signaling. PMID:24361688

  17. Structural basis for solute transport, nucleotide regulation, and immunological recognition of Neisseria meningitidis PorB

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Mikio; Nimigean, Crina M.; Iverson, T.M.

    2010-06-25

    PorB is the second most prevalent outer membrane protein in Neisseria meningitidis. PorB is required for neisserial pathogenesis and can elicit a Toll-like receptor mediated host immune response. Here, the x-ray crystal structure of PorB has been determined to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. Structural analysis and cocrystallization studies identify three putative solute translocation pathways through the channel pore: One pathway transports anions nonselectively, one transports cations nonselectively, and one facilitates the specific uptake of sugars. During infection, PorB likely binds host mitochondrial ATP, and cocrystallization with the ATP analog AMP-PNP suggests that binding of nucleotides regulates these translocation pathways both by partial occlusion of the pore and by restricting the motion of a putative voltage gating loop. PorB is located on the surface of N. meningitidis and can be recognized by receptors of the host innate immune system. Features of PorB suggest that Toll-like receptor mediated recognition outer membrane proteins may be initiated with a nonspecific electrostatic attraction.

  18. Structural basis for solute transport, nucleotide regulation, and immunological recognition of Neisseria meningitidis PorB

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Mikio; Nimigean, Crina M.; Iverson, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    PorB is the second most prevalent outer membrane protein in Neisseria meningitidis. PorB is required for neisserial pathogenesis and can elicit a Toll-like receptor mediated host immune response. Here, the x-ray crystal structure of PorB has been determined to 2.3 Å resolution. Structural analysis and cocrystallization studies identify three putative solute translocation pathways through the channel pore: One pathway transports anions nonselectively, one transports cations nonselectively, and one facilitates the specific uptake of sugars. During infection, PorB likely binds host mitochondrial ATP, and cocrystallization with the ATP analog AMP–PNP suggests that binding of nucleotides regulates these translocation pathways both by partial occlusion of the pore and by restricting the motion of a putative voltage gating loop. PorB is located on the surface of N. meningitidis and can be recognized by receptors of the host innate immune system. Features of PorB suggest that Toll-like receptor mediated recognition outer membrane proteins may be initiated with a nonspecific electrostatic attraction. PMID:20351243

  19. An investigation of exploitation versus exploration in GBEA optimization of PORS 15 and 16 Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Kaelynn

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the variations in time to solution are driven by the competing mechanisms of exploration and exploitation.This thesis explores this hypothesis by examining two contrasting problems that embody the hypothesized tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. Plus one recall store (PORS) is an optimization problem based on the idea of a simple calculator with four buttons: plus, one, store, and recall. Integer addition and store are classified as operations, and one and memory recall are classified as terminals. The goal is to arrange a fixed number of keystrokes in a way that maximizes the numerical result. PORS 15 (15 keystrokes) represents the subset of difficult PORS problems and PORS 16 (16 keystrokes) represents the subset of PORS problems that are easiest to optimize. The goal of this work is to examine the tradeoff between exploitation and exploration in graph based evolutionary algorithm (GBEA) optimization. To do this, computational experiments are used to examine how solutions evolve in PORS 15 and 16 problems when solved using GBEAs. The experiment is comprised of three components; the graphs and the population, the evolutionary algorithm rule set, and the example problems. The complete, hypercube, and cycle graphs were used for this experiment. A fixed population size was used.

  20. Molecular characterisation of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates from different outbreaks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Rivera-Benítez, J F; Blomström, A-L; Ramliden, M; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Ramírez-Mendoza, H; Berg, M

    2016-02-01

    Since the report of the initial outbreak of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) infection in pigs, only one full-length genome from 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been characterised. To investigate the overall genetic variation, full-length gene nucleotide sequences of current PorPV isolates were obtained from different clinical cases of infected swine. Genome organisation and sequence analysis of the encoded proteins (NP, P, F, M, HN and L) revealed high sequence conservation of the NP protein and the expression of the P and V proteins in all PorPV isolates. The V protein of one isolate displayed a mutation that has been implicated to antagonise the antiviral immune responses of the host. The M protein indicated a variation in a short region that could affect the electrostatic charge and the interaction with the membrane. One PorPV isolate recovered from the lungs showed a mutation at the cleavage site (HRKKR) of the F protein that could represent an important factor to determine the tissue tropism and pathogenicity of this virus. The HN protein showed high sequence identity through the years (up to 2013). Additionally, a number of sequence motifs of very high amino acid conservation among the PorPV isolates important for polymerase activity of the L protein have been identified. In summary, genetic comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that three different genetic variants of PorPV are currently spreading within the swine population, and a new generation of circulating virus with different characteristics has begun to emerge. PMID:26728078

  1. Por Secretion System-Dependent Secretion and Glycosylation of Porphyromonas gingivalis Hemin-Binding Protein 35

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Mikio; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Kondo, Yoshio; Narita, Yuka; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2011-01-01

    The anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in severe forms of periodontal disease and refractory periapical perodontitis. We have recently found that P. gingivalis has a novel secretion system named the Por secretion system (PorSS), which is responsible for secretion of major extracellular proteinases, Arg-gingipains (Rgps) and Lys-gingipain. These proteinases contain conserved C-terminal domains (CTDs) in their C-termini. Hemin-binding protein 35 (HBP35), which is one of the outer membrane proteins of P. gingivalis and contributes to its haem utilization, also contains a CTD, suggesting that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS. In this study, immunoblot analysis of P. gingivalis mutants deficient in the PorSS or in the biosynthesis of anionic polysaccharide-lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) revealed that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS and is glycosylated with A-LPS. From deletion analysis with a GFP-CTD[HBP35] green fluorescent protein fusion, the C-terminal 22 amino acid residues of CTD[HBP35] were found to be required for cell surface translocation and glycosylation. The GFP-CTD fusion study also revealed that the CTDs of CPG70, peptidylarginine deiminase, P27 and RgpB play roles in PorSS-dependent translocation and glycosylation. However, CTD-region peptides were not found in samples of glycosylated HBP35 protein by peptide map fingerprinting analysis, and antibodies against CTD-regions peptides did not react with glycosylated HBP35 protein. These results suggest both that the CTD region functions as a recognition signal for the PorSS and that glycosylation of CTD proteins occurs after removal of the CTD region. Rabbits were used for making antisera against bacterial proteins in this study. PMID:21731719

  2. Gliding Motility and Por Secretion System Genes Are Widespread among Members of the Phylum Bacteroidetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yongtao

    2013-01-01

    The phylum Bacteroidetes is large and diverse, with rapid gliding motility and the ability to digest macromolecules associated with many genera and species. Recently, a novel protein secretion system, the Por secretion system (PorSS), was identified in two members of the phylum, the gliding bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae and the nonmotile oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. The components of the PorSS are not similar in sequence to those of other well-studied bacterial secretion systems. The F. johnsoniae PorSS genes are a subset of the gliding motility genes, suggesting a role for the secretion system in motility. The F. johnsoniae PorSS is needed for assembly of the gliding motility apparatus and for secretion of a chitinase, and the P. gingivalis PorSS is involved in secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors. Comparative analysis of 37 genomes of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes revealed the widespread occurrence of gliding motility genes and PorSS genes. Genes associated with other bacterial protein secretion systems were less common. The results suggest that gliding motility is more common than previously reported. Microscopic observations confirmed that organisms previously described as nonmotile, including Croceibacter atlanticus, “Gramella forsetii,” Paludibacter propionicigenes, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Robiginitalea biformata, exhibit gliding motility. Three genes (gldA, gldF, and gldG) that encode an apparent ATP-binding cassette transporter required for F. johnsoniae gliding were absent from two related gliding bacteria, suggesting that the transporter may not be central to gliding motility. PMID:23123910

  3. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  4. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  5. An Analysis of Interlanguage Development Over Time: Part 1, "por" and "para".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guntermann, Gail

    1992-01-01

    The first part of a larger planned investigation, this study examines the use of "por" and "para" by nine Peace Corps volunteers in oral interviews at the end of training and roughly one year later, to trace their acquisition over time, in two learning contexts. (24 references) (LB)

  6. The Acquisition of Lexical Meaning in a Study Abroad Context: The Spanish Prepositions "por" and "para."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A.; Ryan, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of the development of form/function relations of the prepositions "por" and "para" at different levels of proficiency in the interlanguage of study-abroad students in Granada, Spain, revealed "noncanonical" as well as "canonical" uses of these prepositions. The most common noncanonical uses were as substitutions for other prepositions…

  7. The porA gene in serogroup A meningococci: evolutionary stability and mechanism of genetic variation.

    PubMed

    Suker, J; Feavers, I M; Achtman, M; Morelli, G; Wang, J F; Maiden, M C

    1994-04-01

    Molecular analyses were applied to the genes encoding variants of the serosubtyping antigen, the class 1 outer membrane protein (PorA), from 55 serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis strains. These genes were evolutionarily stable and exhibited a limited range of genetic variation, primarily generated by recombination. Translation of the gene sequences revealed a total of 19 distinct amino acid sequences in the variable regions of the protein, 6 of which were not recognized by currently available serosubtyping monoclonal antibodies. Knowledge of these amino acid sequences permitted a rational re-assignment of serosubtype names. Comparison of the complete genes with porA gene sequences from serogroup B and C meningococci showed that serogroup A possessed a limited number of the possible porA genes from a globally distributed gene pool. Each serogroup A subgroup was characterized by one of four porA gene types, probably acquired upon subgroup divergence, which was stable over periods of decades and during epidemiological spread. Comparison with other variable genes (pil and iga) indicated that the three alleles were independently assorted within the subgroup, suggesting that their gene types were older than the subgroups in which they occurred. PMID:8057850

  8. Informe a la Nación de mortalidad por cáncer sigue bajando

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, de 1975 a 2009, indica que los índices generales de mortalidad por cáncer siguen bajando en los Estados Unidos en hombres y mujeres, entre todos los grupos raciales y étnicos principales y para todo

  9. Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

    Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.

  10. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-06-27

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-005 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  11. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-006 skid D

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-07-29

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-006 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  12. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-004 skid B

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-05-06

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-004 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  13. Apollo 12, A New Vista for Lunar Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Man's second lunar landing, Apollo 12, provided a wealth of scientific information about the moon. The deployment of the magnetometer, seismometer, and ionosphere detector, and other activities on the lunar surface are described. A number of color photographs show the astronauts setting up equipment on the moon as well as close-ups of the lunar…

  14. New vistas in the diagnosis of diabetic polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Papanas, Nikolaos; Ziegler, Dan

    2014-12-01

    New modalities are now available to improve the diagnosis of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). The present review discusses the progress achieved in this area. First, the minimal diagnostic criteria have been better clarified. Moreover, there are now new bedside tests available, such as the indicator test Neuropad, NeuroQuick, Ipswich Touch Test (IpTT), Vibratip, NC-stat(®)/DPNCheck™ for automated nerve conduction study (NCS), tactile circumferential discriminator, steel ball-bearing, and SUDOSCAN(®), while more sophisticated modalities include skin biopsy and corneal confocal microscopy (CCM). Some tests can be used as screening tools, including primary care setting (Neuropad, IpTT, Vibratip, automated NCS), while others are more suitable for research, including evaluation of DPN in prospective studies (CCM, skin biopsy). Importantly, there is some evidence of earlier DPN diagnosis with the aid of some tests (Neuropad, skin biopsy, CCM). Further advantages provided by different tests are educational value and self-examination. Thus far, the potential of these tests has not been fully utilised. In particular, they have not been validated against standardised clinical examination scores in terms of predicting foot ulcers and amputations. Hence, it now remains to investigate the potential benefits from the widespread use of these tests for earlier and easier diagnosis of DPN in the everyday clinic. PMID:24839196

  15. City of Chula Vista hydrogen fuel cell bus demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, B.; Bamberger, B.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen as an energy carrier and fuel has potential for various uses including electricity, commercial, residential, transportation, and industrial. It is an energy carrier that can be produced from a variety of primary sources and potentially can accomplish these various uses while significantly reducing pollution by substituting for or reducing the use of fossil fuels. One of the most immediate and potentially viable roles for hydrogen as an energy carrier will be its use as a transportation fuel, especially in densely populated urban areas where automotive emissions contribute significantly to air pollution. The Department of Energy`s commitment to research and development of hydrogen as an alternative fuel, and California`s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) requirements, both provide the impetus and favorable circumstance for demonstrating hydrogen as a transportation fuel on an urban bus system. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using solid polymer fuel cells in a hydrogen-powered electric drive system for an urban transit bus application. Fuel cell buses use hydrogen fuel and oxygen from the air to produce electrical power with the only byproduct being pure water. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are proposed for this project. Current evidence suggests that fuel cells, which rely on hydrogen and a process known as proton exchange to generate their power, appear to have an infinite life span. All exhaust pollution is completely eliminated, resulting in a Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV). An urban bus system offers the potential for developing a market for the production of hydrogen propulsion technology due to extensive vehicular use in densely populated areas experiencing pollution from numerous sources, and because the central garaging facilities or the bus system facilitates fueling and maintenance functions.

  16. David Almond's "Skellig": "A New Vista of Contemplation"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Susan Louise

    2009-01-01

    The debates that have arisen regarding Darwin's theories of evolution and Christian views of creation and their place in education in the United States have frequently been extremely heated, resulting in trials, hearings, and laws. This article provides an overview of some of the disagreements and illustrates how David Almond's British novel,…

  17. Computer Science Education Accreditation Guidelines: New Vistas in Teacher Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Harriet; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents background material leading to the development of guidelines for computer science education teacher preparation programs. An overview of the two basic programs is presented, implications for professional education units and the education community are explored, and future directions are identified. (GLR)

  18. Cytometry in Cell Necrobiology Revisited. Recent Advances and New Vistas

    PubMed Central

    Wlodkowic, Donald; Skommer, Joanna; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    Over a decade has passed since publication of the last review on “Cytometry in cell necrobiology.” During these years we have witnessed many substantial developments in the field of cell necrobiology such as remarkable advancements in cytometric technologies and improvements in analytical biochemistry. The latest innovative platforms such as laser scanning cytometry, multispectral imaging cytometry, spectroscopic cytometry, and microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip solutions rapidly emerge as highly advantageous tools in cell necrobiology studies. Furthermore, we have recently gained substantial knowledge on alternative cell demise modes such as caspase-independent apoptosis-like programmed cell death (PCD), autophagy, necrosis-like PCD, or mitotic catastrophe, all with profound connotations to pathogenesis and treatment. Although detection of classical, caspase-dependent apoptosis is still the major ground for the advancement of cytometric techniques, there is an increasing demand for novel analytical tools to rapidly quantify noncanonical modes of cell death. This review highlights the key developments warranting a renaissance and evolution of cytometric techniques in the field of cell necrobiology. PMID:20235235

  19. New Vistas in Chemical Product and Process Design.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Babi, Deenesh K; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-06-01

    Design of chemicals-based products is broadly classified into those that are process centered and those that are product centered. In this article, the designs of both classes of products are reviewed from a process systems point of view; developments related to the design of the chemical product, its corresponding process, and its integration are highlighted. Although significant advances have been made in the development of systematic model-based techniques for process design (also for optimization, operation, and control), much work is needed to reach the same level for product design. Timeline diagrams illustrating key contributions in product design, process design, and integrated product-process design are presented. The search for novel, innovative, and sustainable solutions must be matched by consideration of issues related to the multidisciplinary nature of problems, the lack of data needed for model development, solution strategies that incorporate multiscale options, and reliability versus predictive power. The need for an integrated model-experiment-based design approach is discussed together with benefits of employing a systematic computer-aided framework with built-in design templates. PMID:27088667

  20. Mi Familia (My Family). Chula Vista Readers, Book One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Olst, Ofelia; And Others

    This is book one in a series of beginning readers in Spanish for preschool and grade one. The program is designed to prepare children to read in Spanish by teaching the sound-symbol relationship in sequential order with simple reading selections. This book introduces the consonants "m,""p,""s,""l," and the consonant blend "pl." (Author/AM)

  1. Health policy and the private sector. New vistas for nursing.

    PubMed

    Pulcini, J; Mason, D J; Cohen, S S; Kovner, C; Leavitt, J K

    2000-01-01

    During the past two decades, the drive to rein in rising health care costs has shifted some of the power in health care policy making from professional groups, government agencies, and not-for-profit health care organizations to large for-profit corporations (1-4). This has been a world-wide phenomenon, as the provision and financing of health care services is shifted from governments to private health care organizations (5,6). In the United States, the shift in power is manifested in profound ways. Market competition and bottom-line economics have permeated the health care system, creating powerful new incentives for mergers, other corporate restructuring, and the shift to for-profit status by formerly not-for-profit insurance companies and providers. Private sector health care is now increasingly influenced by for-profit organizations (3). Moreover, the health insurance industry has been transformed as traditional indemnity insurance is replaced by versions of managed care. The role of government, or the public sector, in setting parameters for health care financing and standards for the delivery of health care services is increasingly outpaced in cost cutting by organizations that directly face the bottom line. In addition, private foundations, many of which are under the auspices of managed care organizations, now fund a large proportion of health care research and demonstration projects, a task once largely within the realm of the government. Through education and experience, nurses have developed political sophistication and understanding of policy making in the public sector (7). The challenge now is to educate nurses to adapt their political and policy strategies to the new health care milieu. This challenge is particularly crucial for advanced practice nurses, who must survive in a managed care environment. PMID:11040670

  2. Health Promotion Education in India: Present Landscape and Future Vistas

    PubMed Central

    Pati, Sanghamitra; Sharma, Kavya; Zodpey, Sanjay; Chauhan, Kavita; Dobe, Madhumita

    2012-01-01

    ‘Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health’. This stream of public health is emerging as a critical domain within the realm of disease prevention. Over the last two decades, the curative model of health care has begun a subtle shift towards a participatory model of health promotion emphasizing upon practice of healthy lifestyles and creating healthy communities. Health promotion encompasses five key strategies with health communication and education as its cornerstones. Present study is an attempt to explore the current situation of health promotion education in India with an aim to provide a background for capacity building in health promotion. A systematic predefined method was adopted to collect and compile information on existing academic programs pertaining to health promotion and health education/communication. Results of the study reveal that currently health promotion education in India is fragmented and not uniform across institutes. It is yet to be recognized as a critical domain of public health education. Mostly teaching of health promotion is limited to health education and communication. There is a need for designing programmes for short-term and long-term capacity building, with focus on innovative methods and approaches. Public health institutes and associations could play a proactive role in designing and imparting academic programs on health promotion. Enhancing alliances with various institutes involved in health promotion activities and networking among public health and medical institutes as well as health services delivery systems would be more productive. PMID:22980352

  3. Leveraging the Deliverance Phenomenon: Penteco/Charismatic Vista.

    PubMed

    Asamoah, Moses Kumi

    2016-10-01

    This article reflects on the deliverance concept within Classical Pentecostalism and Neo-Pentecostalism against historical and contemporary considerations. The research design combined ethnography and case study. Participant observation and in-depth interviews were used for data collection. Findings include: overstretched demonic mentality; the notion that the Penteco/Charismatic believer cannot be possessed but could be harassed by demons; and dehumanizing situations inherent in deliverance practice. It is recommended that sanity, care and collaboration be established amongst deliverance practitioners, psychologists, psychiatrists, professional counsellors as well as other business experts to ensure a holistic deliverance practice and also to enhance the dignity and value of the deliverance ministry in Ghana and Africa at large. PMID:26912091

  4. Punto de Vista--The Significance of a Well.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Andrea, Patricia

    1979-01-01

    The article discusses community action in the Mora Valley, as the Mora Land and Water Protective Association decides whether--and how--to fight an intrusion into traditional life in the valley by the Mora Research Center (a tree farm operated by New Mexico State University). (Editor/NQ)

  5. Social Construction: Vistas in Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gergen, Kenneth J.; Lightfoot, Cynthia; Sydow, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    We explore here the potentials of a social constructionist orientation to knowledge for research and clinical practice. Dialogues on social construction emphasize the communal origins of knowledge. They stress the cultural basis of knowledge claims, the significance of language, the value saturation of all knowledge, and the significance of…

  6. Locomotor and verbal distance judgments in action and vista space.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Johanna; Krauss, Elsa; Münch, Agnes; Jungmann, Reiner; Oberfeld, Daniel; Hecht, Heiko

    2011-04-01

    Judging distances is crucial when interacting with the environment. For short distances in action space (up to 30 m), both explicit verbal estimates and locomotor judgments are fairly accurate. For large distances, data have remained scarce. In two laboratory experiments, our observers judged distances to visual targets presented stereoscopically, either by giving a verbal estimate or by walking the distance to the target on a treadmill. While verbal judgments remained linearly scaled over the whole range of distances from 20 to 262 m, locomotor judgments fell short at distances above 100 m, indicating that observers overestimated the distance they had traveled and increasingly did so as a function of actual target distance. This pattern persisted when controlling for the potential confound of fatigue or reluctance to walk. We discuss different approaches to explain our findings and stress the importance of a differential use of distance cues. A model of leaky path integration showed a good fit with our locomotor data. PMID:21365183

  7. Visceral Vistas: Basil Hirschowitz and the Birth of Fiberoptic Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Ian S; Howell, Joel D; Evans, H Hughes

    2016-08-01

    Fiberoptic endoscopy was developed at the University of Michigan in the 1950s by gastroenterology fellow Basil Hirschowitz and 2 physicists. Previous methods to visualize the gastrointestinal lumen used rigid instruments that relied on rudimentary optical systems. They were limited in reach and caused patients considerable discomfort. Fiberoptic technology dramatically changed endoscopic practice. The fiberoptic endoscope, or fiberscope, was a flexible instrument that allowed direct inspection of the gastrointestinal lumen. Although many practicing endoscopists initially resisted its adoption, the fiberscope ultimately held sway. Studying the period from the fiberscope's first introduction in the late 1950s to its more widespread acceptance in the late 1960s may help us understand how a new technology makes its way into routine clinical practice. PMID:27479222

  8. Correlation between Serological and Sequencing Analyses of the PorB Outer Membrane Protein in the Neisseria meningitidis Serotyping System

    PubMed Central

    Sacchi, Claudio T.; Lemos, Ana P. S.; Whitney, Anne M.; Solari, Claude A.; Brandt, Mary E.; Melles, Carmo E. A.; Frasch, Carl E.; Mayer, Leonard W.

    1998-01-01

    The current serological typing scheme for Neisseria meningitidis is not comprehensive; a proportion of isolates are not serotypeable. DNA sequence analysis and predicted amino acid sequences were used to characterize the structures of variable-region (VR) epitopes on N. meningitidis PorB proteins (PorB VR typing). Twenty-six porB gene sequences were obtained from GenBank and aligned with 41 new sequences. Primary amino acid structures predicted from those genes were grouped into 30 VR families of related variants that displayed at least 60% similarity. We correlated VR families with monoclonal antibody (MAb) reactivities, establishing a relationship between VR families and epitope locations for 15 serotype-defining MAbs. The current panel of serotype-defining MAbs underestimates by at least 50% the PorB VR variability because reagents for several major VR families are lacking or because a number of VR variants within some families are not recognized by serotype-defining MAbs. These difficulties, also reported for serosubtyping based on the PorA protein, are shown as inconsistent results between serological and sequence analyses, leading to inaccurate strain identification and incomplete epidemiological data. The information from this study enabled the expansion of the panel of MAbs currently available for serotyping, by including MAbs of previously undetermined specificities. Use of the expanded serotype panel enabled us to improve the sensitivity of serotyping by resolving a number of formerly nonserotypeable strains. In most cases, this information can be used to predict the VR family placement of unknown PorB proteins without sequencing the entire porB gene. PorB VR typing complements serotyping, and a combination of both techniques may be used for full characterization of meningococcal strains. The present work represents the most complete and integrated data set of PorB VR sequences and MAb reactivities of serogroup B and C meningococci produced to date. PMID

  9. Zinc Finger Nuclease Knock-out of NADPH:Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) in Human Tumor Cell Lines Demonstrates That Hypoxia-activated Prodrugs Differ in POR Dependence*

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jiechuang; Gu, Yongchuan; Pruijn, Frederik B.; Smaill, Jeff B.; Patterson, Adam V.; Guise, Christopher P.; Wilson, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia, a ubiquitous feature of tumors, can be exploited by hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) that are substrates for one-electron reduction in the absence of oxygen. NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is considered one of the major enzymes responsible, based on studies using purified enzyme or forced overexpression in cell lines. To examine the role of POR in HAP activation at endogenous levels of expression, POR knock-outs were generated in HCT116 and SiHa cells by targeted mutation of exon 8 using zinc finger nucleases. Absolute quantitation by proteotypic peptide mass spectrometry of DNA sequence-confirmed multiallelic mutants demonstrated expression of proteins with residual one-electron reductase activity in some clones and identified two (Hko2 from HCT116 and S2ko1 from SiHa) that were functionally null by multiple criteria. Sensitivities of the clones to 11 HAP (six nitroaromatics, three benzotriazine N-oxides, and two quinones) were compared with wild-type and POR-overexpressing cells. All except the quinones were potentiated by POR overexpression. Knocking out POR had a marked effect on antiproliferative activity of the 5-nitroquinoline SN24349 in both genetic backgrounds after anoxic exposure but little or no effect on activity of most other HAP, including the clinical stage 2-nitroimidazole mustard TH-302, dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and benzotriazine N-oxide SN30000. Clonogenic cell killing and reductive metabolism of PR-104A and SN30000 under anoxia also showed little change in the POR knock-outs. Thus, although POR expression is a potential biomarker of sensitivity to some HAP, identification of other one-electron reductases responsible for HAP activation is needed for their rational clinical development. PMID:24196959

  10. Characterization of Plasmid pOR1 from Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale and Construction of a Shuttle Plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Ruud; Chansiripornchai, Niwat; Gaastra, Wim; van Putten, Jos P. M.

    2004-01-01

    The bacterium Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale has been recognized as an emerging pathogen in poultry since about 10 years ago. Knowledge of this bacterium and its mechanisms of virulence is still very limited. Here we report the development of a transformation system that enables genetic modification of O. rhinotracheale. The system is based on a cryptic plasmid, pOR1, that was derived from an O. rhinotracheale strain of serotype K. Sequencing indicated that the plasmid consisted of 14,787 nucleotides. Sequence analysis revealed one replication origin and several rep genes that control plasmid replication and copy number, respectively. In addition, pOR1 contains genes with similarity to a heavy-metal-transporting ATPase, a TonB-linked siderophore receptor, and a laccase. Reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that these genes were transcribed. Other putative open reading frames exhibited similarities with a virulence-associated protein in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and a number of genes coding for proteins with unknown function. An Escherichia coli-O. rhinotracheale shuttle plasmid (pOREC1) was constructed by cloning the replication origin and rep genes from pOR1 and the cfxA gene from Bacteroides vulgatus, which codes for resistance to the antibiotic cefoxitin, into plasmid pGEM7 by using E. coli as a host. pOREC1 was electroporated into O. rhinotracheale and yielded cefoxitin-resistant transformants. The pOREC1 isolated from these transformants was reintroduced into E. coli, demonstrating that pOREC1 acts as an independent replicon in both E. coli and O. rhinotracheale, fulfilling the criteria for a shuttle plasmid that can be used for transformation, targeted mutagenesis, and the construction of defined attenuated vaccine strains. PMID:15466524