Science.gov

Sample records for mees estonia laval

  1. What is Δ mee 2?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parke, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    The current short baseline reactor experiments, Daya Bay and RENO (Double Chooz) have measured (or are capable of measuring) an effective Δ m2 associated with the atmospheric oscillation scale of 0.5 km /MeV in electron antineutrino disappearance. In this paper, I compare and contrast the different definitions of such an effective Δ m2 and argue that the simple, L/E independent definition given by Δ mee 2≡cos2θ12Δ m312+sin2θ12Δ m322, i.e. "the νe weighted average of Δ m312 and Δ m322," is superior to all other definitions and is useful for both short baseline experiments mentioned above and for the future medium baseline experiments JUNO and RENO-50.

  2. Training University Administrators at the Universite Laval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Yves M.

    1984-01-01

    Specific problems in training college administrators are discussed, including the Laval University program for training administrators who take a major part in institutional policy formation and resource and personnel management (presidents, vice presidents, deans, deans of faculty, department heads, and directors of university centers). (MSE)

  3. Biobanking in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Keis, Aime

    2016-03-01

    Estonia is a democratic, parliamentary republic with a health care system that is built on the principle of compulsory, solidarity-based insurance and the all-round availability of services of private service providers. Estonia has specific biobank legislation as well as oversight via data protection laws. Its population-based biobank, the Estonian Genome Center (EGCUT), established in 2001, is one of the largest biobanks in Europe, and its database may be used only for scientific research, public health research, and statistics. The EGCUT can issue data to a third party, but only in coded form. This comprehensive database of genotypic, phenotypic, health, and genealogical information represents about 5% of Estonia's adult population, and is the largest cohort ever gathered in Estonia. Government approval is required for international data sharing, and sharing can be further limited by the requirement of ethics approval and permission from Estonian government. PMID:27256120

  4. A Class of De Laval Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falkovich, S. V.

    1949-01-01

    A study is made herein of the irrotational adiabatic motion of a gas in the transition from subsonic to supersonic velocities. A shape of the de Laval nozzle is given, which transforms a homogeneous plane-parallel flow at large subsonic velocity into a supersonic flow without any shockwaves beyond the transition line from the subsonic to the supersonic regions of flow. The method of solution is based on integration near the transition line of the gas equations of motion in the form investigated by S. A. Christianovich.

  5. Drumlins of Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rõuk, Aarend-Mihkel; Raukas, Anto

    1989-05-01

    Drumlins, megaflutings and other subglacial streamlined forms, highly variable in shape and size, are widely distributed in Estonia as well as on the bottom of the Gulf of Finland, which was also affected by continental ice. Their total number amounts to 1000. The main drumlin fields are most common in Central Estonia on lateral slopes of bedrock uplands and/or in depressions between them, and they serve as a transitional landscape type between predominantly erosional (in northern Estonia) and depositional zones (in southern Estonia) of the Scandinavian ice sheet. Nevertheless, the local details of bedrock topography and glacial and deglacial history have led to some deviations (e.g. the unique Saadjärv field of big drumlins and megaflutings is situated in a "glacier shadow", on the lee side of a bedrock upland). Being of varied composition and age, drumlins and related streamlined forms represent complex interactions between erosional, transporting and depositional processes, although the dynamics of their formation are still somewhat enigmatic. It seems that in Estonia drumlins were formed both during ice advances and retreats. In some cases there are moraine hillocks, kames and eskers and other ice disintegration features superimposed on drumlins.

  6. Mitigation analysis for Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, A.; Roos, J.; Pesur, A.

    1996-09-01

    The present report provides data on the mitigation analysis of Estonia. The results for energy, forest and agricultural sectors and macro-economic analysis are given. The Government of Estonia has identified the development of energy production as the main strategical means in the movement towards market economy. Now 99% of electricity generation and about 25% of heat production in Estonia is based on oil shale combustion. To increase the efficiency of oil shale-fired power plants and decrease CO{sub 2} emissions, the State Enterprise (SE) Eesti Energia (Estonian Energy) is planning to reconstruct these power plants and introduce the Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) combustion technology for oil shale burning to replace the Pulverized Combustion (PC). According to the Estonian Forest Policy, two general objectives are of importance: sustainability in forestry and efficiency in forest management. For the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from agriculture, it is necessary to increase the efficiency of production resource usage. The growth of the GDP in 1995 was 2.9% as a result of large-scale privatization activities in Estonia and re-introduction of the available, but unused production capacities with the help of foreign and domestic investments. It is assumed that the medium growth rate of GDP reaches 6% in 1998.

  7. On the Theory of the Laval Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falkovich, S. V.

    1949-01-01

    In the present paper, the motion of a gas in a plane-parallel Laval nozzle in the neighborhood of the transition from subsonic to supersonic velocities is studied. In a recently published paper, F. I. Frankl, applying the holograph method of Chaplygin, undertook a detailed investigation of the character of the flow near the line of transition from subsonic to supersonic velocities. From the results of Tricomi's investigation on the theory of differential equations of the mixed elliptic-hyperbolic type, Frankl introduced as one of the independent variables in place of the modulus of the velocity, a certain specially chosen function of this modulus. He thereby succeeded in explaining the character of the flow at the point of intersection of the transition line and the axis of symmetry (center of the nozzle) and in studying the behavior of the stream function in the neighborhood of this point by separating out the principal term having, together with its derivatives, the maximum value as compared with the corresponding corrections. This principal term is represented in Frankl's paper in the form of a linear combination of two hypergeometric functions. In order to find this linear combination, it is necessary to solve a number of boundary problems, which results in a complex analysis. In the investigation of the flow with which this paper is concerned, a second method is applied. This method is based on the transformation of the equations of motion to a form that may be called canonical for the system of differential equations of the mixed elliptic-hyperbolic type to which the system of equations of the motion of an ideal compressible fluid refers. By studying the behavior of the integrals of this system in the neighborhood of the parabolic line, the principal term of the solution is easily separated out in the form of a polynomial of the third degree. As a result, the computation of the transitional part of the nozzle is considerably simplified.

  8. Diagnostics of DC plasma jets generated with Laval anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Rahmane, M.; Soucy, G.; Boulos, M.I.; Henne, R.

    1995-12-31

    Plasma jets originating from d.c. torches equipped with Laval nozzles are considered to be more efficient for both vacuum and atmospheric plasma spraying than those generated with the standard cylindrical anodes. The present study is devoted to the measurement of the temperature and velocity fields in plasma jets resulting from three different nozzles: a cylindrical and two Laval anodes with nominal Mach numbers of 2.5 and 3. The enthalpy probe and emission spectroscopy techniques are used for this purpose. Attention is given to the effect of the chamber pressure on the distribution of the temperature and velocity fields. The results show that when Laval nozzles are used at reduced chamber pressure (200 torr), the jets are wider, with higher temperature and velocity values in the central regions, compared to those obtained using cylindrical anodes. These characteristics are expected to improve the results of plasma spraying processes with respect to the layer quality and deposition efficiency.

  9. Investigation the flushing flow of liquid methane in Laval nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snigerev, B. A.; Tukmakov, A. L.; Tonkonog, V. G.

    2016-06-01

    Turbulent flushing flow of methane in Laval nozzles are investigated. To describe the motion of vapor-liquid mixture are used Favre averaged over the set of equations including the equations conservation of mass, momentum, and energy for a homogeneous mixture consisting from liquid and vapour phases. Numerical flow simulation based on cavitation approach using an additional transport equation for the volume fraction of the liquid phase. The study of the expiry of boiling methane at different degrees of underheating and the back pressures in the Laval nozzle are performed.

  10. Country report: Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaasik, Helle

    2015-12-01

    The situation of women in education, work, and research in Estonia is relatively good. Nevertheless, science (especially engineering) remains a male-dominated field. The total number of female scientists and engineers in the workforce is about two-thirds that of males. Moreover, the gender imbalance in the researcher population increases with age. Significant pay-gap and power imbalances between the genders remain both in Estonian society in general and in the fields of science and technology. In many practical situations, behavior of both men and women is still guided by gender stereotypes.

  11. A Building Development Plan at Laval University, Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daoust, Gilles

    2004-01-01

    Laval University is launching a series of major development projects aimed at meeting the needs of an institution that currently offers over 350 academic programmes to more than 36,000 students. This article will focus on three of the most important construction projects that are already under way or about to start: the Wood Processing Centre,…

  12. Performance aspects of de Laval spray-forming nozzles

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    Spray forming is a multiphase fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is directed onto a suitably shaped substrate or pattern to produce a coherent, near-net-shape deposit The technology can simplify materials processing where simultaneously improving product quality. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials using de Laval nozzles. Here we briefly describe the flow field characterization and atomization behavior of liquid metals in linear de Laval nozzles, and illustrate their versatility by summarizing results from three spray-forming programs. In one program, low-carbon steel strip >0.75 mm was produced. In another program, polymer membranes [approximately] 5 [mu]m thick were spray formed. Finally, recent results in spray forming molds, dies, and related tooling for rapid prototyping are described.

  13. Performance aspects of de Laval spray-forming nozzles

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1993-05-01

    Spray forming is a multiphase fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is directed onto a suitably shaped substrate or pattern to produce a coherent, near-net-shape deposit The technology can simplify materials processing where simultaneously improving product quality. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials using de Laval nozzles. Here we briefly describe the flow field characterization and atomization behavior of liquid metals in linear de Laval nozzles, and illustrate their versatility by summarizing results from three spray-forming programs. In one program, low-carbon steel strip >0.75 mm was produced. In another program, polymer membranes {approximately} 5 {mu}m thick were spray formed. Finally, recent results in spray forming molds, dies, and related tooling for rapid prototyping are described.

  14. Laval nozzle as an acoustic analogue of a massive field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuyubamba, M. A.

    2013-10-01

    We study a gas flow in the Laval nozzle, which is a convergent-divergent tube that has a sonic point in its throat. We show how to obtain the appropriate form of the tube, so that the acoustic perturbations of the gas flow in it satisfy any given wave-like equation. With the help of the proposed method we find the Laval nozzle, which is an acoustic analogue of the massive scalar field in the background of the Schwarzschild black hole. This gives us a possibility to observe in a laboratory the quasinormal ringing of the massive scalar field, which, for special set of the parameters, can have infinitely long-living oscillations in its spectrum.

  15. Morel-Lavallée syndrome of the tibia

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Szabolcs Lajos; Recarte, Angel; Villafañe, Oscar; Lecumberri, Pedro; Csernátony, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Morel-Lavallée syndrome of the tibia is a rarely published entity which needs special attention in the treatment of the degloving injury conjoined with tibial fracture. The authors present the case of a radiologically easily manageable tibial fracture complicated by soft tissue damage. The authors discuss the pertinent literature, the pitfalls and controversies of the treatment and the authors would like to offer our suggestions for minimising the complications. PMID:22687671

  16. Estonia: health system review.

    PubMed

    Lai, Taavi; Habicht, Triin; Kahur, Kristiina; Reinap, Marge; Kiivet, Raul; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the Estonian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Without doubt, the main issue has been the 2008 financial crisis. Although Estonia has managed the downturn quite successfully and overall satisfaction with the system remains high, it is hard to predict the longer-term effects of the austerity package. The latter included some cuts in benefits and prices, increased cost sharing for certain services, extended waiting times, and a reduction in specialized care. In terms of health outcomes, important progress was made in life expectancy, which is nearing the European Union (EU) average, and infant mortality. Improvements are necessary in smoking and alcohol consumption, which are linked to the majority of avoidable diseases. Although the health behaviour of the population is improving, large disparities between groups exist and obesity rates, particularly among young people, are increasing. In health care, the burden of out-of-pocket payments is still distributed towards vulnerable groups. Furthermore, the number of hospitals, hospital beds and average length of stay has decreased to the EU average level, yet bed occupancy rates are still below EU averages and efficiency advances could be made. Going forwards, a number of pre-crisis challenges remain. These include ensuring sustainability of health care financing, guaranteeing a sufficient level of human resources, prioritizing patient-centred health care, integrating health and social care services, implementing intersectoral action to promote healthy behaviour, safeguarding access to health care for lower socioeconomic groups, and, lastly, improving evaluation and monitoring tools across the health system. PMID:24334730

  17. A Connecticut Yankee in Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Edward M.

    1998-01-01

    Compares the real incomes of U.S. and Estonian workers using a procedure from Mark Twain's "A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court." Argues that the application of Twain's logic to the recent economic development of Estonia provides a colorful approach to teaching economic issues. (DSK)

  18. Use of de Laval nozzles in spray forming

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1993-04-01

    Spray forming is a near-net-shape fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is deposited onto a suitably-shaped substrate or pattern to produce a coherent solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing, oftentimes while substantially improving product quality. Spray forming is applicable to a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offers property improvements resulting from rapid solidification (e.g. refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities, and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials using de Laval nozzles. This paper briefly describes the atomization behavior of liquid metals in linear de Laval nozzles and illustrates the versatility of the process by summarizing results from two spray-forming programs. In one program, low-carbon steel strip > 0.75 mm thick was produced; in the other, polymer membranes {approximately}5 {mu}m thick were spray formed.

  19. Morel-Lavallée lesion of the elbow with ultrasound and MRI correlation

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Jordan Scott; Gorbachova, Tetyana; Guttentag, Adam; Raphael, James

    2015-01-01

    Morel-Lavallée lesions are hemolymphatic, nonanatomic fluid collections that result from a separation of the subcutaneous tissue from the underlying fascia. Ultrasound and MRI characteristics of such lesions have been previously described and can be helpful in establishing a diagnosis and guiding clinical management. We present a case of a Morel-Lavallée lesion of the elbow, with ultrasound and MRI correlation, which has not been reported in the radiology literature heretofore. PMID:27186255

  20. Structure design of and experimental research on a two-stage laval foam breaker for foam fluid recycling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-song; Cao, Pin-lu; Yin, Kun

    2015-07-01

    Environmental, economical and efficient antifoaming technology is the basis for achievement of foam drilling fluid recycling. The present study designed a novel two-stage laval mechanical foam breaker that primarily uses vacuum generated by Coanda effect and Laval principle to break foam. Numerical simulation results showed that the value and distribution of negative pressure of two-stage laval foam breaker were larger than that of the normal foam breaker. Experimental results showed that foam-breaking efficiency of two-stage laval foam breaker was higher than that of normal foam breaker, when gas-to-liquid ratio and liquid flow rate changed. The foam-breaking efficiency of normal foam breaker decreased rapidly with increasing foam stability, whereas the two-stage laval foam breaker remained unchanged. Foam base fluid would be recycled using two-stage laval foam breaker, which would reduce the foam drilling cost sharply and waste disposals that adverse by affect the environment. PMID:26387358

  1. Condensation of uranium hexafluoride in supersonic Laval nozzle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Y.; Isomura, S.; Ashimine, K.; Takeuchi, K.

    1998-08-01

    Condensation, by homogeneous nucleation, of UF6 carried in a mixture of argon and methane was studied experimentally in a continuously operating supersonic Laval nozzle. The onset of condensation was detected by Rayleigh light scattering. Measurements of static pressure in the nozzle, together with the equations of isentropic flow, permitted the determination of the relation between the pressure of UF6, Pk, and the temperature, Tc, at the observed onset of condensation. The experiments addressed conditions of condensation onset in the range 80

  2. Issues of Importance to Urban Youth Service Providers. MEE Report Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MEE Productions Inc., Philadelphia, PA. Research Div.

    What Motivational Educational Entertainment (MEE) has learned about popular urban youth culture and the "hip-hop generation" is updated and expanded, focusing on substance use and abuse, violence, and sexuality. Qualitative focus groups were used to obtain the opinions of former high school dropouts who were enrolled in General Equivalency Diploma…

  3. The Enculturation of BoMee: Looking at the World through Deaf Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Sherman; Corwin, Joanne

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a cultural model of deafness, describing the experiences of a deaf child as enculturation into a deaf world. The implications of this view on social, cognitive, and linguistic development are explored through description of BoMee, an adopted Korean deaf child being raised in a multilingual, multicultural environment.…

  4. All That Swells Is Not A Bruise The Morel-Lavallée Lesion.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Carol L; Eisenman, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Frequently overlooked, Morel-Lavallée lesions are associated with a closed degloving or shearing mechanism causing a dehiscence of underlying soft tissue with formation of a potential space. This space fills with blood, lymph, and cellular debris, giving the lesion a fluctuant appearance on examination. The potential space associated with larger lesions can be a source for hemorrhage in the appropriate clinical context. However, these lesions are often diagnosed late in their clinical course or are misdiagnosed, leading to long-term complications. Management of this injury typically depends upon the size of the lesion. This article discusses a Morel-Lavallée lesion in an active-duty Servicemember requiring treatment by a plastic surgeon and includes the pathophysiology of Morel-Lavallée lesions, diagnostic strategies, and management pearls. PMID:27045507

  5. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (164). Morel-Lavallée lesion

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Sook Chuei Wendy; Wong, Bak Siew Steven

    2016-01-01

    A 31-year-old male motorcyclist presented with prepatellar swelling of the left knee after a collision with a car. Magnetic resonance imaging of the knee showed no bony or ligamentous injury to the knee. Instead, a well-defined, thin-walled, T2-weighted hyperintense fluid collection with internal septations was identified in a prefascial location overlying the left patella and patellar tendon. The findings were in keeping with those of a Morel-Lavallée lesion, a closed internal degloving injury. Morel-Lavallée lesions are occasionally encountered after a blunt soft-tissue trauma. The presentation and imaging features are discussed. PMID:26831317

  6. Estonia--Going Home Again: Returning to the Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedak-Kari, Maria

    This paper provides background on The National Library of Estonia (NLE), discusses a fellowship project for developing the National Library, and presents the impressions of the author, an Estonian American, who traveled to Estonia. The NLE looks to the West for automation, information, and institutional modeling. The NLE is Estonia's equivalent of…

  7. Interdisciplinary research at the SMEAR Estonia station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noe, Steffen M.; Niinemets, Ülo; Kangur, Ahto; Hõrrak, Urmas; Soosaar, Kaido; Mander, Ülo

    2014-05-01

    Interdisciplinary research on ecosystem-atmosphere relations has been an issue since many years in Estonia. Since 2008, these activities have been intensified and led to the build up of a SMEAR (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) type station in Estonia. It is part of the Estonian Environmental Observatory, a delocalized research infrastructure that is operated by several Estonian universities and research institutions. It's core is located in the experimental forestry district in Järvselja where a major portion of the ecosystem and atmospheric research activities take place. Here, we present an overview of the current state of research which especially takes care of the hemiboreal forest ecosystem. Continuous build up of comprehensive measurements at diverse sites has led to a network of stations over Estonia. It's location in the transition zone between boreal and temperate forest ecosystems allows for new and updated hypothesis regarding fluxes of energy and matter in a globally changing climate system.

  8. Test de Français Laval-Montreal: Does It Measure What It Should Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmit, Romain; Saif, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a study conducted as part of a larger investigation of the predictive validity of the Test de Français Laval-Montreal (TFLM), a high-stakes French language test used for admission and placement purposes for Teacher-Training Programs (TTPs) in major francophone universities in Canada (Schmitt, 2015). The objective of this…

  9. University Reform in Quebec: The Strike at Laval 1976. Yale Higher Education Research Group Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Geoffrey J.

    Quebec colleges remained firmly entrenched in the pure classicism of prerevolutionary France until well into the twentieth century. Formal Roman Catholic Church control of Laval University, a Jesuit university, ceased in 1965 at a time when the institution and its administration were expanding greatly, and the faculty quickly began to resent the…

  10. Practical Comparison of Cylindrical Nozzle and De Laval Nozzle for Wire Arc Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matz, Marc-Manuel; Aumiller, Markus

    2014-12-01

    In this article, two different nozzle designs (cylindrical nozzle and de Laval nozzle) are compared for use in wire arc spraying. The choice of nozzle is of particular importance because its geometry has a significant influence on the spraying result. The materials used for spraying are steel and copper. By using the de Laval atomizing gas nozzle, the aim is to improve adhesion on the one hand while reducing cost on the other. These objectives have been achieved for the most part, indicating that continued research and development in this area would be useful. Significant potential exists to optimize the efficiency of both the free gas jet and nozzle which have considerable impact on the gas velocity and thus, ultimately, on the spraying result. The measurements carried out have shown that there is a close correlation between the velocity of the gas flow and atomization of the droplets. An explanatory model for varying spraying results with different wire materials using open nozzle systems with de Laval orifice is given and confirmed. For new burner head constructions, an interaction of the atomizing gas nozzle, the contact tips, and wire materials must be considered to achieve all benefits of a de Laval nozzle.

  11. Practical Comparison of Cylindrical Nozzle and De Laval Nozzle for Wire Arc Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matz, Marc-Manuel; Aumiller, Markus

    2014-09-01

    In this article, two different nozzle designs (cylindrical nozzle and de Laval nozzle) are compared for use in wire arc spraying. The choice of nozzle is of particular importance because its geometry has a significant influence on the spraying result. The materials used for spraying are steel and copper. By using the de Laval atomizing gas nozzle, the aim is to improve adhesion on the one hand while reducing cost on the other. These objectives have been achieved for the most part, indicating that continued research and development in this area would be useful. Significant potential exists to optimize the efficiency of both the free gas jet and nozzle which have considerable impact on the gas velocity and thus, ultimately, on the spraying result. The measurements carried out have shown that there is a close correlation between the velocity of the gas flow and atomization of the droplets. An explanatory model for varying spraying results with different wire materials using open nozzle systems with de Laval orifice is given and confirmed. For new burner head constructions, an interaction of the atomizing gas nozzle, the contact tips, and wire materials must be considered to achieve all benefits of a de Laval nozzle.

  12. All-optical event horizon in an optical analog of a Laval nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elazar, M.; Fleurov, V.; Bar-Ad, S.

    2012-12-01

    Exploiting the fact that light propagation in defocusing nonlinear media can mimic the transonic flow of an equivalent fluid, we demonstrate experimentally the formation of an all-optical event horizon in a waveguide structure akin to a hydrodynamic Laval nozzle. The analog event horizon which forms at the nozzle throat is suggested as a platform for analogous gravity experiments.

  13. Relevance and Limitation of Periodic Programme Evaluation: The Case of Laval University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milot, Louise

    1995-01-01

    An explanation of the periodic evaluation of Laval University (Canada) programs begins with an outline of the university's organizational structure and administrative bodies. The justification, objectives, and scope of the evaluation policy are then described, and some benefits and problems are discussed. (MSE)

  14. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Paulo; Levitas, Anthony; Radó, Péter; Shewbridge, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This report for Estonia forms part of the OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. School resources are understood in a broad way,…

  15. Stakeholder Perspectives: CLIL Programme Management in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehisto, Peeter; Asser, Hiie

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, Estonia launched a voluntary Estonian language CLIL programme for seven year-olds in four Russian-medium schools. The programme has expanded rapidly to a total of 48 kindergartens and schools. This paper reports on research into stakeholder perspectives on programme management. In addition to surveying parents, teachers, vice-principals…

  16. Existence of Global Solutions for Unsteady Isentropic Gas Flow in a Laval Nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuge, Naoki

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we study the motion of isentropic gas in the Laval nozzle. The Laval nozzle is the most important type of nozzle utilized in some turbines. In particular, we consider unsteady flows, including transonic gas flows, and prove the existence of global solutions for the Cauchy problem. In spite of its importance, this problem has received little attention until now. The most difficult point is to obtain bounded estimates for approximate solutions. To overcome this, we introduce a modified Godunov scheme. The corresponding approximate solutions consist of piecewise steady-state solutions of an auxiliary equation and yield a sharper bounded estimate. As a result, we find an invariant region for our solutions. Finally, in order to prove their convergence, we use the compensated compactness framework.

  17. Astronomy in the society and culture of Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leedjärv, Laurits

    2011-06-01

    History and present state of astronomy in a small North-Eastern European country are considered. There is a rather big number (about 35) of professional astronomers in Estonia, including 21 IAU members. Through some outstanding persons, astronomy in Estonia has significant relations with the society. The same can be said about the culture. Well-developed astronomy has contributed into the cooperation of Estonia with the European Space Agency, and thus, has an indirect effect to the country's economy.

  18. Feasibility and Acceptability of Mobile Epilepsy Educational System (MEES) for People with Epilepsy in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Neni, Widiasmoro Selamat

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background: Telemedicine innovations, including short message service (SMS), have been used to address a range of health concerns in a variety of settings. Practical, safe, and cost-effective, this simple tool can also potentially improve patients' understanding toward their own diseases via knowledge enhancement. This study was designed to develop and assess the feasibility and acceptability of an SMS-based epilepsy educational program for epilepsy patients. Subjects and Methods: This was a prospective randomized interventional study. Epilepsy outpatients from three general hospitals in East Coast Peninsular Malaysia received the SMS-based mobile epilepsy educational system (MEES) for a 3-month period. Results: In total, 51 patients completed the study (median age, 25.0 years; 51.0% female; 92.2% Malay; 56.9% single; education level, 70.6% ≤SPM/Cambridge O-level equivalent; 25.5% supportive workers; monthly income, 58.8% ≤MYR 500.0/USD 158.5). Approximately 86.0% of the patients owned at least a mobile phone. The total cost of SMS delivery was economically affordable (MYR 3.08/USD 0.98 per patient). Overall, 74.0% agreed that MEES was either very or quite useful. It is encouraging that the majority of patients have offered positive comments and favorable opinions specifically toward epilepsy education (94.0%), drug-taking reminder (90.0%), and clinic appointment reminder (88.0%). It was also reported that 88.2% of the participants would recommend MEES to other people with epilepsy. Conclusions: The current study adds to the growing evidence suggesting that a greater investment in telemedicine programs involving SMS would be both feasible and well received by patients and could be a potentially valuable approach to increase access and effectiveness of epilepsy care. PMID:23078181

  19. The X flare of 1991 November 15 - Coordinated Mees/Yohkoh observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, Richard C.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Leka, K. D.; Mickey, Donald L.; Metcalf, Thomas R.; Wuelser, Jean-Pierre; Acton, Loren W.; Strong, Keith T.; Kosugi, Takeo; Sakao, Taro

    1992-01-01

    This is a preliminary report on two unique new results from coordinated observations at Mees Solar Observatory and Yohkoh of the X1.5 flare of November 15, l991 using vector magnetograms, H-alpha imaging spectra, X-ray images, and X-ray spectra. First, we find a close spatial relationship between H-alpha redshifts and X-rays from a flare loop and its footpoints at a time of large X-ray blueshifts. Second, we find that impulsive-phase hard X-rays originate in regions that are new, but not coincident with, the peaks of the vertical electrical current density distribution in AR 6919.

  20. High Summer Temperatures and Mortality in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Oudin Åström, Daniel; Åström, Christofer; Rekker, Kaidi; Indermitte, Ene; Orru, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Background On-going climate change is predicted to result in a growing number of extreme weather events—such as heat waves—throughout Europe. The effect of high temperatures and heat waves are already having an important impact on public health in terms of increased mortality, but studies from an Estonian setting are almost entirely missing. We investigated mortality in relation to high summer temperatures and the time course of mortality in a coastal and inland region of Estonia. Methods We collected daily mortality data and daily maximum temperature for a coastal and an inland region of Estonia. We applied a distributed lag non-linear model to investigate heat related mortality and the time course of mortality in Estonia. Results We found an immediate increase in mortality associated with temperatures exceeding the 75th percentile of summer maximum temperatures, corresponding to approximately 23°C. This increase lasted for a couple of days in both regions. The total effect of elevated temperatures was not lessened by significant mortality displacement. Discussion We observed significantly increased mortality in Estonia, both on a country level as well as for a coastal region and an inland region with a more continental climate. Heat related mortality was higher in the inland region as compared to the coastal region, however, no statistically significant differences were observed. The lower risks in coastal areas could be due to lower maximum temperatures and cooling effects of the sea, but also better socioeconomic condition. Our results suggest that region specific estimates of the impacts of temperature extremes on mortality are needed. PMID:27167851

  1. "Reaching the Hip-Hop Generation." The MEE Symposium (New York, New York, March 1-2, 1993). Final (Symposium Proceedings) Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MEE Productions Inc., Philadelphia, PA. Research Div.

    This final report attempts to capture the work and atmosphere of the recent symposium convened by Motivational Educational Entertainment, Inc. (MEE), a black-owned communications research, consulting, and video production company. In its commitment to helping urban youth, MEE conducted a study of the "hip-hop" generation and its alienation from…

  2. Background Study on Employment and Labour Market in Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eamets, Raul; Philips, Kaia; Annus, Tiina

    During the years 1989-1997 in Estonia, employment has decreased; unemployment and inactivity have increased. Females have tended to move to inactivity while males have become unemployed. The wage patterns are very flat relative to those in market economies. Estonia has opted for very low levels of unemployment benefits, pensions, and a low minimum…

  3. An All-Optical Event Horizon in an Optical Analogue of a Laval Nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elazar, Moshe; Bar-Ad, Shimshon; Fleurov, Victor; Schilling, Rolf

    The formal analogy between the propagation of coherent light in a medium with Kerr nonlinearity and the flow of a dissipationless liquid is exploited in a demonstration of an all-optical event horizon in an optical analogue of the aeronautical Laval nozzle. This establishes a unique experimental platform, in which one can observe and study very unusual dynamics of classical and quantum fluctuations, and in particular an analogue of the Hawking radiation emitted by astrophysical black holes. We present a detailed theoretical analysis of these dynamics, and demonstrate experimentally the formation of such an event horizon in a suitably-shaped waveguide structure.

  4. La reconnaissance des acquis experientiels: etude de cas de la politique d'admission des adultes a l'Universite de Laval (Recognition of Experiential Learning: Case Study of the Politics of Adult Admissions to the University of Laval.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heon, Lucie; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 400 University of Laval adult applicants under its new admission policy suggest that while student age and experience appear to be important factors in gaining admission, they are enhanced by the closeness of the experience to academic or cognitive learning combined with a high school diploma and grades above 65%. (MSE)

  5. International Reports on Literacy Research: Estonia, Hungary, and Bulgaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakle, A. Jonathan, Comp.; Garber, Andrew M., Comp.

    2003-01-01

    Presents part of a series that highlights this journal's interest in informing readers of international literacy research beyond what appears in featured articles. Discusses reports on literacy research in Estonia, Hungary, and Bulgaria. (SG)

  6. Directional distribution of chilling winds in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Saue, Triin

    2016-08-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperature (WCET) is used to define thermal discomfort in winter months. Directional distributions of winds, which are associated with uncomfortable weather, were composed of three climatologically different Estonian locations: Vilsandi, Kuusiku, and Jõhvi. Cases with wind chill equivalent temperature <-10 °C, which could be classified as "uncomfortable or worse," were investigated. Additional thresholds were used to measure weather risk. The 25th percentile of daily minimum WCET was tested to measure classical prevalent wind directions in Estonia: W, SW, and NW bring warm air in winter from the North Atlantic, while winds from the East-European plain (NE, E, and SE) are associated with cold air. The eastern prevalence was stronger when a lower threshold was used. A directional approach may find several applications, such as building, agricultural, landscape, or settlement planning. PMID:26585350

  7. Directional distribution of chilling winds in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saue, Triin

    2015-11-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperature (WCET) is used to define thermal discomfort in winter months. Directional distributions of winds, which are associated with uncomfortable weather, were composed of three climatologically different Estonian locations: Vilsandi, Kuusiku, and Jõhvi. Cases with wind chill equivalent temperature <-10 °C, which could be classified as "uncomfortable or worse," were investigated. Additional thresholds were used to measure weather risk. The 25th percentile of daily minimum WCET was tested to measure classical prevalent wind directions in Estonia: W, SW, and NW bring warm air in winter from the North Atlantic, while winds from the East-European plain (NE, E, and SE) are associated with cold air. The eastern prevalence was stronger when a lower threshold was used. A directional approach may find several applications, such as building, agricultural, landscape, or settlement planning.

  8. Directional distribution of chilling winds in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saue, Triin

    2016-08-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperature (WCET) is used to define thermal discomfort in winter months. Directional distributions of winds, which are associated with uncomfortable weather, were composed of three climatologically different Estonian locations: Vilsandi, Kuusiku, and Jõhvi. Cases with wind chill equivalent temperature <-10 °C, which could be classified as "uncomfortable or worse," were investigated. Additional thresholds were used to measure weather risk. The 25th percentile of daily minimum WCET was tested to measure classical prevalent wind directions in Estonia: W, SW, and NW bring warm air in winter from the North Atlantic, while winds from the East-European plain (NE, E, and SE) are associated with cold air. The eastern prevalence was stronger when a lower threshold was used. A directional approach may find several applications, such as building, agricultural, landscape, or settlement planning.

  9. Detection and mapping of trace explosives on surfaces under ambient conditions using multiphoton electron extraction spectroscopy (MEES).

    PubMed

    Tang, Shisong; Vinerot, Nataly; Fisher, Danny; Bulatov, Valery; Yavetz-Chen, Yehuda; Schechter, Israel

    2016-08-01

    Multiphoton electron extraction spectroscopy (MEES) is an analytical method in which UV laser pulses are utilized for extracting electrons from solid surfaces in multiphoton processes under ambient conditions. Counting the emitted electrons as a function of laser wavelength results in detailed spectral features, which can be used for material identification. The method has been applied to detection of trace explosives on a variety of surfaces. Detection was possible on dusty swabs spiked with explosives and also in the standard dry-transfer contamination procedure. Plastic explosives could also be detected. The analytical limits of detection (LODs) are in the sub pmole range, which indicates that MEES is one of the most sensitive detection methods for solid surface under ambient conditions. Scanning the surface with the laser allows for its imaging, such that explosives (as well as other materials) can be located. The imaging mode is also useful in forensic applications, such as detection of explosives in human fingerprints. PMID:27216679

  10. Lumbar Morel-Lavallée lesion: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Zairi, F; Wang, Z; Shedid, D; Boubez, G; Sunna, T

    2016-06-01

    The Morel-Lavallée lesion (MLL) is a rarely reported closed degloving injury, in which shearing forces have lead to break off subcutaneous tissues from the underlying fascia. Lumbar MLL have been rarely reported to date, explaining that patients are frequently misdiagnosed. While patients could be treated conservatively or with non-invasive procedures, delayed diagnosis may require open surgery for its cure. Indeed, untreated lesions can cause pain, infection or growing subcutaneous mass that can be confused with a soft tissue tumor. We report the clinical and radiological features of a 45-year old man with voluminous lumbar MLL initially misdiagnosed. We also reviewed the relevant English literature to summarize the diagnostic tools and the main therapeutic options. PMID:26965645

  11. Autowaves in a dc complex plasma confined behind a de Laval nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, M. A.; Zhdanov, S. K.; Schwabe, M.; Thoma, M. H.; Höfner, H.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.

    2013-05-01

    Experiments to explore stability conditions and topology of a dense microparticle cloud supported against gravity by a gas flow were carried out. By using a nozzle-shaped glass insert within the glass tube of a dc discharge plasma chamber a weakly ionized gas flow through a de Laval nozzle was produced. The experiments were performed using neon gas at a pressure of 100 Pa and melamine-formaldehyde particles with a diameter of 3.43 μm. The capturing and stable global confining of the particles behind the nozzle in the plasma were demonstrated. The particles inside the cloud behaved as a single convection cell inhomogeneously structured along the nozzle axis in a tube-like manner. The pulsed acceleration localized in the very head of the cloud mediated by collective plasma-particle interactions and the resulting wave pattern were studied in detail.

  12. A comparison of vector magnetograms from the Marshall Space Flight Center and Mees Solar Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronan, R. S.; Orrall, F. Q.; Mickey, D. L.; West, E. A.; Hagyard, M. J.; Balasubramaniam, K. S.

    1992-01-01

    The paper compares completely independent vector magnetic field measurements from two very different polarimetric instruments. The Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) imaging vector magnetograph is based on a birefringent filter, routinely measuring all four Stokes parameters integrated over the filter bandpass (1/8 A) which is tunable across the Fe I 5250 line in 10 mA steps. The Haleakala Stokes Polarimeter of the Mees Solar Observatory (MSO) is based on a spectrometer, routinely measuring all four Stokes parameters of the Fe I 6302.5 line simultaneously and then spatially scanning to build up a vector magnetogram. Active region magnetic field data were obtained with both the MSFC and MSO systems on five days during June 1985. After interpolating the MSFC vector fields onto the more coarse spatial grid of MSO, a point-by-point comparison of the two vector fields is made for data obtained on two of these days (June 8 and 9). From this comparison it is concluded that the spatially-averaged line-of-sight components agree quite well, and that although the MSO spatial grid is coarser, the quality of the MSO image is better than that of the MSFC data because of better seeing conditions.

  13. Composition and thermal analysis of binary mixtures of mee fat and palm stearin.

    PubMed

    Abdul Manaf, Yanty Noorziana; Nazrim Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohammed; Musthafa, Shuhaimi; Saari, Miskandar Mat

    2014-01-01

    Seed fat of Madhuca longifolia known as mee fat (MF) has been considered as a potential plant fat for producing fat mixture to simulate the properties of lard. A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of addition of palm stearin (PS) on the solidification behavior of MF to formulate a mixture to become similar in solidification characteristics of lard. Three fat mixtures were prepared by blending MF with palm stearin PS in different ratios: MF:PS (99.5:0.5), MF:PS (99:1), MF:PS (98:2) (w/w), and identified by the mass ratio of MF to PS. The fat mixtures were compared with lard in terms of their fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions, differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) thermal profiles and solid fat content (SFC) characteristics. Results showed that there were considerable differences between lard and MF:PS fat mixtures with regard to fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions. The increasing proportion of PS in MF:PS fat mixtures caused a general increase in SFC at different temperatures with respect to the SFC profile of native MF. Of the three binary mixtures, MF:PS (99:1) was found to show the least difference to lard in terms of SFC values throughout the temperature range. PMID:24671022

  14. New Investigations of the Alleged Meteorite from Igast, Estonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OKeefe, John A.; Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    1961-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a reinvestigation of the object which allegedly fell at Igast, Estonia, in 1855, and which may be the only example of a meteorite with the chemical composition of a tektite. R is concluded that generally quoted opinions of the artificial nature of this object are based on spurious samples, specifically melted brick and quartz basalt porphyry distributed by a Russian collector. Possibly genuine specimens from this observed fall are in the British Museum, the Paris Museum, and perhaps at the University of Dorpat, Estonia. It is recommended that these specimens be re-examined and that a search for similar objects be made.

  15. Biogeography and taxonomic status of Myotis keaysi pilosatibialis LaVal 1973 (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) .

    PubMed

    Mantilla-Meluk, Hugo; Muñoz-Garay, Javier

    2014-01-01

    We document the first confirmed Colombian records of Myotis keaysi pilosatibialis LaVal, 1973 from various localities on the Colombian Caribbean and the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes. These records confirm geographic overlap between M. k. pilosatibialis and the nominate subspecies M. k. keaysi J. A. Allen, 1914, in northeastern Colombia, questioning the subspecific status of M. k. pilosatibialis. Models of potential distribution, produced for the two taxa by the application of the Maxent algorithm, show a potential geographic overlap in the northeastern portion of the Andes of Colombia and Venezuela. In order to clarify the taxonomic status of putative M. keaysi variants, we analyzed the variation of Colombian representatives of M. keaysi through a Principal Components Analysis (PCA), and a Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) performed on 18 cranio-dental measurements, as well as the analysis of discrete characters. The morphological independence between M. k. keaysi and M. k. pilosatibialis was supported statistically in our PCA and DFA, as well as by the presence of unique discrete characters, lending support to the recognition of M. k. pilosatibialis as full species. Herein, we include new discrete characters setting apart M. pilosatibialis from the morphologically similar species M. keaysi.  PMID:24870153

  16. Quasinormal ringing of acoustic black holes in Laval nozzles: Numerical simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Okuzumi, Satoshi; Sakagami, Masa-aki

    2007-10-15

    Quasinormal ringing of acoustic black holes in Laval nozzles is discussed. The equation for sounds in a transonic flow is written into a Schroedinger-type equation with a potential barrier, and the quasinormal frequencies are calculated semianalytically. From the results of numerical simulations, it is shown that the quasinormal modes are actually excited when the transonic flow is formed or slightly perturbed, as well as in the real black hole case. In an actual experiment, however, the purely-outgoing boundary condition will not be satisfied at late times due to the wave reflection at the end of the apparatus, and a late-time ringing will be expressed as a superposition of boxed quasinormal modes. It is shown that the late-time ringing damps more slowly than the ordinary quasinormal ringing, while its central frequency is not greatly different from that of the ordinary one. Using this fact, an efficient way for experimentally detecting the quasinormal ringing of an acoustic black hole is discussed.

  17. Physical characteristics of gliding arc discharge plasma generated in a laval nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, S. Y.; Sun, X. M.; Li, X. D.; Yan, J. H.; Du, C. M.

    2012-07-15

    The dynamic behavior of gliding arc discharge generated in a Laval nozzle has been investigated by electrical diagnostics and a high-speed camera. The results show that the voltage waveform keeps the initial shape as the gas flow rate is small, while it becomes less stable with increasing flow rate. During the first half of a cycle, the voltage rises and after that it decreases. In nitrogen and oxygen, the break down voltage for the arc is between 3.3 and 5.5 kV, while it is between 3.3-7.5 kV in air. The waveform of current I remains almost stable; and for nitrogen and oxygen, the maximum value of current I is between 0.28 and 0.46 A. With increasing flow rate, the power consumption in air first increases and then decreases; it remains in the range of 110-217 W, and gradually increases in nitrogen and oxygen. The power consumption in oxygen is lower than that in nitrogen; the input of the energy density decreases with increasing flow rate for all the three gases. The development of the arc is tracked and recorded by a high-speed camera. The cycle is stable at 10 ms for flow rates up to 1 m{sup 3} h{sup -1}. At a higher flow rate, the cycle becomes unstable.

  18. Morel-Lavallée Lesion of the Knee in a Recreational Frisbee Player

    PubMed Central

    Shmerling, Alison; Bravman, Jonathan T.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic swelling/effusion in the knee region is a relatively common presenting complaint among athletes and nonathletes. Due to its broad differential diagnosis, a comprehensive evaluation beginning with history and physical examination are recommended. Knee joint effusion can be differentiated from other types of swelling by careful physical examination. Imaging, including plain radiography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is preferred modality. Aspiration of a local fluctuating mass may help with the diagnosis and management of some of these conditions. We present a case of a 26-year-old gentleman with superomedial Morel-Lavallée lesion (MLL) of the knee with history of a fall during a Frisbee game. His MLL was successfully treated with therapeutic aspiration and compression wrap without further sequelae. MLL is a rare condition consisting of a closed degloving injury caused by pressure and shear stress between the subcutaneous tissue and the superficial fascia or bone. Most commonly, MLL is found over the greater trochanter and sacrum but in rare cases can occur in other regions of the body. In most cases, concurrent severe injury mechanisms and concomitant fractures are present. MLL due to sports injuries are very rare. Therapeutic strategies may vary from compression wraps and aspiration to surgical evacuation. PMID:27493817

  19. Morel-Lavallée Lesion of the Knee in a Recreational Frisbee Player.

    PubMed

    Shmerling, Alison; Bravman, Jonathan T; Khodaee, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic swelling/effusion in the knee region is a relatively common presenting complaint among athletes and nonathletes. Due to its broad differential diagnosis, a comprehensive evaluation beginning with history and physical examination are recommended. Knee joint effusion can be differentiated from other types of swelling by careful physical examination. Imaging, including plain radiography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is preferred modality. Aspiration of a local fluctuating mass may help with the diagnosis and management of some of these conditions. We present a case of a 26-year-old gentleman with superomedial Morel-Lavallée lesion (MLL) of the knee with history of a fall during a Frisbee game. His MLL was successfully treated with therapeutic aspiration and compression wrap without further sequelae. MLL is a rare condition consisting of a closed degloving injury caused by pressure and shear stress between the subcutaneous tissue and the superficial fascia or bone. Most commonly, MLL is found over the greater trochanter and sacrum but in rare cases can occur in other regions of the body. In most cases, concurrent severe injury mechanisms and concomitant fractures are present. MLL due to sports injuries are very rare. Therapeutic strategies may vary from compression wraps and aspiration to surgical evacuation. PMID:27493817

  20. Equipment for fully homologous bulb turbine model testing in Laval University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R, Fraser; D, Vallée; Y, Jean; C, Deschênes

    2014-03-01

    Within the context of liberalisation of the energy market, hydroelectricity remains a first class source of clean and renewable energy. Combining the growing demand of energy, its increasing value and the appreciation associated to the sustainable development, low head sites formerly considered as non-profitable are now exploitable. Bulb turbines likely to equip such sites are traditionally developed on model using right angle transmission leading to piers enlargement for power take off shaft passage, thus restricting possibilities to have fully homologous hydraulic passages. Aiming to sustain good quality development on fully homologous scale model of bulb turbines, the Hydraulic Machines Laboratory (LAMH) of Laval University has developed a brake with an enhanced power to weight ratio. This powerful brake is small enough to be located in the bulb shell while dissipating power without mandatory test head reduction. This paper first presents the basic technology of this brake and its application. Then both its main performance capabilities and dimensional characteristics will be detailed. The instrumentation used to perform accurate measurements will be finally presented.

  1. Physical characteristics of gliding arc discharge plasma generated in a laval nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, S. Y.; Sun, X. M.; Li, X. D.; Yan, J. H.; Du, C. M.

    2012-07-01

    The dynamic behavior of gliding arc discharge generated in a Laval nozzle has been investigated by electrical diagnostics and a high-speed camera. The results show that the voltage waveform keeps the initial shape as the gas flow rate is small, while it becomes less stable with increasing flow rate. During the first half of a cycle, the voltage rises and after that it decreases. In nitrogen and oxygen, the break down voltage for the arc is between 3.3 and 5.5 kV, while it is between 3.3-7.5 kV in air. The waveform of current I remains almost stable; and for nitrogen and oxygen, the maximum value of current I is between 0.28 and 0.46 A. With increasing flow rate, the power consumption in air first increases and then decreases; it remains in the range of 110-217 W, and gradually increases in nitrogen and oxygen. The power consumption in oxygen is lower than that in nitrogen; the input of the energy density decreases with increasing flow rate for all the three gases. The development of the arc is tracked and recorded by a high-speed camera. The cycle is stable at 10 ms for flow rates up to 1 m3 h-1. At a higher flow rate, the cycle becomes unstable.

  2. Why Do People Engage in Corruption? The Case of Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavits, Margit

    2010-01-01

    This study uses survey data for 2004 on the general public (N = 788) and public officials (N = 791) in the young post-communist democracy of Estonia to examine individual-level determinants of corruption. The results indicate that both public officials and citizens are more likely to engage in corruption when they do not define corruption as…

  3. Adoption of National Curricula by Vocational Teachers in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rekkor, Sirje; Ümarik, Meril; Loogma, Krista

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to study the adoption of national curricula by vocational teachers. In the paper, we review the process of vocational education and training curriculum reform in Estonia over the last 20 years, and, in particular, the introduction of national curricula. As teachers should be considered the key agents of curricular change, we look…

  4. Reviews of National Policies for Education: Estonia. Education and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Reform of education, training, and human resource development is an integral part of the transition to a democratic society and market economy. Estonia has made progress in all these areas since reform began in 1990. The challenge for the Ministry of Education has been to promote and support changes that meet the needs of the new economy and…

  5. Phenolic compounds in five Epilobium species collected from Estonia.

    PubMed

    Remmel, Indrek; Vares, Lauri; Toom, Lauri; Matto, Vallo; Raal, Ain

    2012-10-01

    Epilobium species have been traditionally used as medicinal plants to treat benign prostate hyperplasia. The present study investigated the content of polyphenols, tannins, and flavonoids in Epilobium parviflorum Schreb., E. hirsutum L., E. adenocaulon Hausskn., E. montanum L., and E. palustre L. growing in Estonia. The total contents of polyphenols, tannins, and flavonoids were studied using UV spectroscopy with subsequent HPLC quantification of gallic acid, ellagic acid, and quercetin as marker compounds. All roots, stems, leaves, and flowers of the plants investigated contained comparable amounts of polyphenols, tannins, and flavonoids. There was a clear positive correlation between the contents of tannins and flavonoids in various plant parts. The content of these biologically active compounds suggests the use of E. parviflorum, E. hirsutum, E. adenocaulon, E. montanum, and E. palustre collected from Estonia as herbs both individually or as a blend. PMID:23156999

  6. Design and evaluation of a Laval-type supersonic atomizer for low-pressure gas atomization of molten metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Chao-run; Zhang, Xian-jie; Wang, Jun-biao; Li, Yu-jun

    2014-06-01

    A Laval-type supersonic gas atomizer was designed for low-pressure gas atomization of molten metals. The principal design objectives were to produce small-particle uniform powders at lower operating pressures by improving the gas inlet and outlet structures and optimizing structural parameters. A computational fluid flow model was developed to study the flow field characteristics of the designed atomizer. Simulation results show that the maximum gas velocity in the atomization zone can reach 440 m·s-1; this value is independent of the atomization gas pressure P 0 when P 0 > 0.7 MPa. When P 0 = 1.1 MPa, the aspiration pressure at the tip of the delivery tube reaches a minimum, indicating that the atomizer can attain the best atomization efficiency at a relatively low atomization pressure. In addition, atomization experiments with pure tin at P 0 = 1.0 MPa and with 7055Al alloy at P 0 = 0.8 and 0.4 MPa were conducted to evaluate the atomization capability of the designed atomizer. Nearly spherical powders were obtained with the mass median diameters of 28.6, 43.4, and 63.5 μm, respectively. Compared with commonly used atomizers, the designed Laval-type atomizer has a better low-pressure gas atomization capability.

  7. Transonic Shocks for the Full Compressible Euler System in a General Two-Dimensional De Laval Nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Xin, Zhouping; Yin, Huicheng

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we study the transonic shock problem for the full compressible Euler system in a general two-dimensional de Laval nozzle as proposed in Courant and Friedrichs (Supersonic flow and shock waves, Interscience, New York, 1948): given the appropriately large exit pressure p e( x), if the upstream flow is still supersonic behind the throat of the nozzle, then at a certain place in the diverging part of the nozzle, a shock front intervenes and the gas is compressed and slowed down to subsonic speed so that the position and the strength of the shock front are automatically adjusted such that the end pressure at the exit becomes p e( x). We solve this problem completely for a general class of de Laval nozzles whose divergent parts are small and arbitrary perturbations of divergent angular domains for the full steady compressible Euler system. The problem can be reduced to solve a nonlinear free boundary value problem for a mixed hyperbolic-elliptic system. One of the key ingredients in the analysis is to solve a nonlinear free boundary value problem in a weighted Hölder space with low regularities for a second order quasilinear elliptic equation with a free parameter (the position of the shock curve at one wall of the nozzle) and non-local terms involving the trace on the shock of the first order derivatives of the unknown function.

  8. The verification of GIA in Estonia using GNSS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollo, Karin; Oja, Tõnis

    2014-05-01

    Estonia is situated at the South-East corner of the Fennoscandian post-glacial rebound (PGR) area, thus the impact of ongoing Glacial Isostatic Adjustment could be noticed on accurate geodetic measurements; e.g. in Estonia the uplift rates up to 4 mm/yr have been observed so far. In this contribution we use horizontal and vertical uplift rates derived from (1) the time series of several Estonian GNSS permanent reference stations (CORS), and (2) nation-wide GPS campaigns held in 1997 and 2008. Different methods and software were used to process and analyse GNSS data and time series. Slight discrepancies between the results helped to evaluate the effects of different approaches in data processing. To model the surface displacements and other geodetic quantities in response to the melting of ice sheets the open source software SELEN (Spada and Stocchi, 2007) with several ice models was used. The observed displacements of geodetic points as well as velocity estimates of CORS were compared with the predictions of latest PGR empirical models (e.g. NKG2005LU) and with the results from GIA modelling. In most cases good fit between the observations and models was found within study area. The higher discrepancies appeared in the East and South-East Estonia. Besides noise in aforementioned measurements the reason could be that almost no observed data from study area have been used in compilation of widespread (common, well-known) ice and GIA models. Keywords: GNSS measurements, postglacial rebound, glacial isostatic adjustment, Estonia. References Spada, G., Stocchi, P. (2007). SELEN: A Fortran 90 program for solving the "sea-level equation". Computers & Geosciences, 33:538-562, 2007.

  9. Towards Mutuality in the Canada-China Relationship: The Experience of the Department of Surgery at Laval University since the 1980s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guidoin, Robert; Wang, Lu; Douville, Yvan

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Surgery at Laval University has been a key player in the development of Canada-China cooperation since the 1980s. The projects initiated and developed by Jean Couture and Guojin Liu to address cancer issues, and specifically breast cancer, were heralded as outstanding successes. In the meantime, the Department of Surgery at Laval…

  10. The Affective Dimension of Religion and Personal Happiness among Students in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.; Elken, Ahto; Robbins, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 150 students in Estonia (119 from a secular university and 31 from a Lutheran theological institute) completed the Oxford Happiness Measure and the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity. The data show no significant correlation between these two variables; thus the findings challenge the generalizability to Estonia of the…

  11. Quantum de Laval nozzle: Stability and quantum dynamics of sonic horizons in a toroidally trapped Bose gas containing a superflow

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, P.; Bradley, A. S.; Gardiner, C. W.

    2007-08-15

    We study an experimentally realizable system containing stable black hole-white hole acoustic horizons in toroidally trapped Bose-Einstein condensates--the quantum de Laval nozzle. We numerically obtain stationary flow configurations and assess their stability using Bogoliubov theory, finding both in hydrodynamic and nonhydrodynamic regimes there exist dynamically unstable regions associated with the creation of positive and negative energy quasiparticle pairs in analogy with the gravitational Hawking effect. The dynamical instability takes the form of a two mode squeezing interaction between resonant pairs of Bogoliubov modes. We study the evolution of dynamically unstable flows using the truncated Wigner method, which confirms the two mode squeezed state picture of the analogue Hawking effect for low winding number.

  12. MicroRNA degeneracy and pluripotentiality within a Lavallière-tie architecture confers robustness to gene expression networks.

    PubMed

    Bhajun, Ricky; Guyon, Laurent; Gidrol, Xavier

    2016-08-01

    Modularity, feedback control, functional redundancy and bowtie architecture have been proposed as key factors that confer robustness to complex biological systems. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are highly conserved but functionally dispensable. These antinomic properties suggest that miRNAs fine-tune gene expression rather than act as genetic switches. We synthesize published and unpublished data and hypothesize that miRNA pluripotentiality acts to buffer gene expression, while miRNA degeneracy tunes the expression of targets, thus providing robustness to gene expression networks. Furthermore, we propose a Lavallière-tie architecture by integrating signal transduction, miRNAs and protein expression data to model complex gene expression networks. PMID:27038488

  13. Thyroid nodularity and cancer among Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Inskip, P.D.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Tekkel, M.

    1997-02-01

    Thyroid examinations, including palpation, ultrasound and, selectively, fine-needle aspiration biopsy, were conducted on nearly 2,000 Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia to evaluate the occurrence of thyroid cancer and nodular thyroid disease among men with protracted exposure to ionizing radiation. The examinations were conducted in four cities in Estonia during March-April 1995, 9 years after the reactor accident. The study population was selected from a predefined cohort of 4,833 cleanup workers from Estonia under surveillance for cancer incidence. These men had been sent to Chernobyl between 1986 and 1991 to entomb the damaged reactor, remove radioactive debris and perform related cleanup activities. A total of 2,997 men were invited for thyroid screening and 1,984 (66%) were examined. Estimates of radiation dose from external sources were obtained from military or other institutional records, and details about service dates and types of work performed while at Chernobyl were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Blood samples were collected for assay of chromosomal translocations in circulating lymphocytes and loss of expression of the glycophorin A (GPA) gene in erythrocytes. The primary outcome measure was the presence or absence of thyroid nodules as determined by the ultrasound examination. Of the screened workers, 1,247 (63%) were sent to Chernobyl in 1986, including 603 (30%) sent in April or May, soon after the accident. Workers served at Chernobyl for an average of 3 months. The average age was 32 years at the time of arrival at Chernobyl and 40 years at the time of thyroid examination. The mean documented radiation dose from external sources was 10.8 cGy. Biological indicators of exposure showed low correlations with documented dose, but did not indicate that the mean dose for the population was higher than the average documented dose. 47 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  14. Seasonality of alcohol-related phenomena in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silm, Siiri; Ahas, Rein

    2005-03-01

    We studied alcohol consumption and its consequences as a seasonal phenomenon in Estonia and analysed the social and environmental factors that may cause its seasonal rhythm. There are two important questions when researching the seasonality of human activities: (1) whether it is caused by natural or social factors, and (2) whether the impact of the factors is direct or indirect. Often the seasonality of social phenomena is caused by social factors, but the triggering mechanisms are related to environmental factors like temperature, precipitation, and radiation via the circannual calendar. The indicators of alcohol consumption in the current paper are grouped as: (1) pre-consumption phenomena, i.e. production, tax and excise, sales (beer, wine and vodka are analysed separately), and (2) post-consumption phenomena, i.e. alcohol-related crime and traffic accidents and the number of people detained in lockups and admitted to alcohol treatment clinics. In addition, seasonal variability in the amount of alcohol advertising has been studied, and a survey has been carried out among 87 students of Tartu University. The analysis shows that different phenomena related to alcohol have a clear seasonal rhythm in Estonia. The peak period of phenomena related to beer is in the summer, from June to August and the low point is during the first months of the year. Beer consumption correlates well with air temperature. The consumption of vodka increases sharply at the end of the year and in June; the production of vodka does not have a significant correlation with negative temperatures. The consumption of wine increases during summer and in December. The consequences of alcohol consumption, expressed as the rate of traffic accidents or the frequency of medical treatment, also show seasonal variability. Seasonal variability of alcohol consumption in Estonia is influenced by natural factors (temperature, humidity, etc.) and by social factors (celebrations, vacations, etc.). However

  15. Chemical and isotopic properties of kukersites from Iowa and Estonia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastalerz, Maria; Schimmelmann, A.; Hower, J.C.; Lis, G.; Hatch, J.; Jacobson, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Kukersite samples from Estonia and Iowa were analyzed for elemental composition, functional group distribution, and carbon and hydrogen stable isotope ratios. The elemental and hydrogen isotope values, together with other analytical data, suggest a higher thermal maturity for the Iowa kukersite. The wide carbon isotopic range of 9.3??? among kukersites, with unusually negative ??13C values reaching -33.2???, indicates isotopically variable carbon sources for production of biomass, and thus major paleoceanographic differences between the environments supporting biosynthesis. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The social costs of alcohol misuse in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Saar, Indrek

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the social costs of alcohol misuse in Estonia in 2006. Using a prevalence-based cost-of-illness approach, both direct and indirect costs were considered, including tangible costs associated with health care, criminal justice, rescue services, damage to property, premature mortality, incarceration, incapability of working due to illnesses, and lower labor productivity. The results show that alcohol misuse cost Estonia more than EUR 200 million in 2006. The costs involved are estimated to represent 1.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP), which is relatively high in comparison with many other countries. In addition, the state receives less receipts from the alcohol excise tax than the costs that it incurs as a consequence of alcohol misuse, which points to the existence of economic inefficiency with respect to the alcohol market. The results of this study suggest that there is definitely a need for further cost-benefit analysis to reach a conclusion regarding the possible utility of government intervention. PMID:19052463

  17. Computational Prediction of Cryogenic Micro-nano Solid Nitrogen Particle Production Using Laval Nozzle for Physical Photo Resist Removal-cleaning Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimoto, Jun; Abe, Haruto; Ochiai, Naoya

    The fundamental characteristics of the cryogenic single-component micro-nano solid nitrogen (SN2) particle production using super adiabatic Laval nozzle and its application to the physical photo resist removal-cleaning technology are investigated by a new type of integrated measurement coupled computational technique. As a result of present computation, it is found that high-speed ultra-fine SN2 particles are continuously generated due to the freezing of liquid nitrogen (LN2) droplets induced by rapid adiabatic expansion of transonic subcooled two-phase nitrogen flow passing through the Laval nozzle. Furthermore, the effect of SN2 particle diameter, injection velocity, and attack angle to the wafer substrate on resist removal-cleaning performance is investigated in detail by integrated measurement coupled computational technique.

  18. Improving the terrestial gravity dataset in South-Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oja, T.; Gruno, A.; Bloom, A.; Mäekivi, E.; Ellmann, A.; All, T.; Jürgenson, H.; Michelson, M.

    2009-04-01

    The only available gravity dataset covering the whole of Estonia has been observed from 1949 to 1958. This historic dataset has been used as a main input source for many applications including the geoid determination, the realization of the height system, the geological mapping. However, some recent studies have been indicated remarkable systematic biases in the dataset. For instance, a comparison of modern gravity control points with the historic data revealed unreasonable discrepancies in a large region in South-Estonia. However, the distribution of the gravity control was scarce, which did not allow to fully assess the quality of the historic data in the study area. In 2008 a pilot project was called out as a cooperation between Estonian Land Board, Geological Survey of Estonia, Tallinn University of Technology and Estonian University of Life Sciences to densify the detected problematic area (about 2000 km2) with new and reliable gravity data. Field work was carried out in October and November 2008, whereas GPS RTK and relative Scintrex gravimeter CG5 were used for precise positioning and gravity determinations, respectively. Altogether more than 140 new points were determined along the roads. Despite bad weather conditions and unstable observation base of the gravimeter (mostly on the bank of the road), uncertainty better than ±0.1 mGal (1 mGal = 10-5 m/s2) was estimated from the adjustment of gravimeter's readings. The separate gravity dataset of the Estonian Geological Survey were also incorporated into the gravity database of the project for further analysis. Those data were collected within several geological mapping projects in 1981-2007 and contain the data with uncertainty better than ±0.25 mGal. After the collection of new gravity data, a Kriging with proper variogram modeling was applied to form the Bouguer anomaly grids of the historic and the new datasets. The comparison of the resulting grids revealed biases up to -4 mGal at certain regions

  19. Support Structures for Innovation and Research-based Entrepreneurship in Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamkivi, Raivo

    1999-01-01

    In a transition economy, Estonia is taking a systematic approach to research and development and technology transfer through two programs: a science park for incubation of small enterprises and a technical university innovation center. (SK)

  20. Recent changes in breast cancer incidence and mortality in Estonia: Transition to the west.

    PubMed

    Baburin, Aleksei; Aareleid, Tiiu; Rahu, Mati; Reedik, Lauri; Innos, Kaire

    2016-06-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine breast cancer (BC) incidence and mortality trends in Estonia during recent decades and to compare the pattern of these trends with other selected European countries and regions. We attempt to explain the findings in relation to changes in Estonian society and healthcare system. Methods BC incidence (1985-2012) and mortality (1985-2013) data for Estonia were obtained from the Estonian Cancer Registry and Statistics Estonia. Data for selected European countries were obtained from the EUREG database. Joinpoint regression was used to analyze age-standardized rates in Estonia by age. For international comparison of incidence and mortality rates, we used scatterplot with 95% confidence ellipses and the mortality to incidence ratio. Results The overall BC incidence continues to increase in Estonia, while mortality has been in decline since 2000. Both incidence and mortality trends varied considerably across age groups. Among women aged 60 years and older, BC incidence increased at a rate of nearly 3% per year. Significant decrease in mortality was seen only among women aged 50-59 years. Comparison of scatterplots between countries and regions revealed two clusters in Europe separated along the incidence axis. The correlation between incidence and mortality in Estonia changed its direction in the mid-1990s. Conclusion In recent years, the dynamics of BC burden in Estonia has transitioned towards the high incidence-low mortality type model, which is characteristic to Western, Northern and Southern Europe. Although overall BC incidence is much lower in Estonia than in more affluent European countries, mortality from BC is still relatively high, particularly among elderly women. PMID:27222251

  1. An Energy Overview of the Republic of Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-20

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Estonia. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  2. The effects of storage temperature on goat milk somatic cell count using the DeLaval counter.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Macias, Davinia; Castro, Noemi; Moreno-Indias, Isabel; Morales-delaNuez, Antonio; Briggs, Heather; Capote, Juan; Argüello, Anastasio

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of storage temperature and storage time on goat milk somatic cell counts (SCCs) determined using the DeLaval cell counter (DCC). SCCs were measured in 40 Majorera goat milk samples using the DCC device. Samples were grouped from high score (>2,750 x 10(3) cells/mL) to low score (<630 x 10(3) cell/mL) according to the SCC. Each milk sample was divided into four aliquots and stored at four different temperatures (4 degrees C, 21 degrees C, 36 degrees C or 45 degrees C). The SCC was recorded every hour for 12 hours. Storage of goat milk with a high SCC for 5, 5, 2 or 1 hour at 4 degrees C, 21 degrees C, 36 degrees C or 45 degrees C, respectively, decreased the SCC value compared to fresh milk. The goat milk SCC was lower after 1 hour of storage than that determined for fresh milk at any tested temperature in low-SCC samples. The data presented herein suggest that regardless of storage temperature, goat milk samples should not be stored for more than 1 hour before measurement of SCC with a DCC device. PMID:20419471

  3. Measurement of neutrino mixing angle θ13 and mass difference Δ mee2 from reactor antineutrino disappearance in the RENO experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo-Bong

    2016-07-01

    RENO (Reactor Experiment for Neutrino Oscillation) made a definitive measurement of the smallest neutrino mixing angle θ13 in 2012, based on the disappearance of reactor electron antineutrinos. The experiment has obtained a more precise value of the mixing angle and the first result on neutrino mass difference Δ mee2 from an energy and baseline dependent reactor neutrino disappearance using ∼500 days of data. Based on the ratio of inverse-beta-decay (IBD) prompt spectra measured in two identical far and near detectors, we obtain sin2 ⁡ (2θ13) = 0.082 ± 0.009 (stat .) ± 0.006 (syst .) and | Δ mee2 | = [2.62-0.23+0.21 (stat .)-0.13+0.12 (syst .) ] ×10-3 eV2. An excess of reactor antineutrinos near 5 MeV is observed in the measured prompt spectrum with respect to the most commonly used models. The excess is found to be consistent with coming from reactors. A successful measurement of θ13 is also made in an IBD event sample with a delayed signal of neutron capture on hydrogen. A precise value of θ13 would provide important information on determination of the leptonic CP phase if combined with a result of an accelerator neutrino beam experiment.

  4. Waste Heat Recovery and Recycling in Thermal Separation Processes: Distillation, Multi-Effect Evaporation (MEE) and Crystallization Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Emmanuel A. Dada; Chandrakant B. Panchal; Luke K. Achenie; Aaron Reichl; Chris C. Thomas

    2012-12-03

    Evaporation and crystallization are key thermal separation processes for concentrating and purifying inorganic and organic products with energy consumption over 1,000 trillion Btu/yr. This project focused on a challenging task of recovering low-temperature latent heat that can have a paradigm shift in the way thermal process units will be designed and operated to achieve high-energy efficiency and significantly reduce the carbon footprint as well as water footprint. Moreover, this project has evaluated the technical merits of waste-heat powered thermal heat pumps for recovery of latent heat from distillation, multi-effect evaporation (MEE), and crystallization processes and recycling into the process. The Project Team has estimated the potential energy, economics and environmental benefits with the focus on reduction in CO2 emissions that can be realized by 2020, assuming successful development and commercialization of the technology being developed. Specifically, with aggressive industry-wide applications of heat recovery and recycling with absorption heat pumps, energy savings of about 26.7 trillion Btu/yr have been estimated for distillation process. The direct environmental benefits of this project are the reduced emissions of combustible products. The estimated major reduction in environmental pollutants in the distillation processes is in CO2 emission equivalent to 3.5 billion lbs/year. Energy consumption associated with water supply and treatments can vary between 1,900 kWh and 23,700 kWh per million-gallon water depending on sources of natural waters [US DOE, 2006]. Successful implementation of this technology would significantly reduce the demand for cooling-tower waters, and thereby the use and discharge of water treatment chemicals. The Project Team has also identified and characterized working fluid pairs for the moderate-temperature heat pump. For an MEE process, the two promising fluids are LiNO3+KNO3+NANO3 (53:28:19 ) and LiNO3+KNO3+NANO2

  5. Aeolian Coastal Landscapes in changes (a study from Tahkuna, Estonia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, A.

    2012-04-01

    The openness of the coast to the winds and storm waves has an important part in changing aeolian coastal landscapes as well as anthropogenic factor. The aeolian coastal landscapes are probably the most dynamic areas. Occurrence of aeolian coastal landscapes in Estonia is limited. They consist of sandy beaches, sandy beach ridges and dunes. The coastal ecosystems are strongly affected by their topography, based on the character of deposits and moisture conditions. The majority of their ecosystems are quite close to the specific natural habitat. These ecosystems are represented in the list of the European Union Habitats (Natura 2000). In recent decades human influence has changed the landscape over time in different activities (recreation, trampling, off-road driving) and their intensities, which has led to destruction or degradation of various habitats. Previously coastal landscapes were used for forestry and pasture. Nowadays one of the most serious threats to open landscape is afforestation. This study examines the relationships between landscape components during last decades. Trying to find out how much aeolian coastal landscapes are influenced by natural processes or human activities. The results are based on cartographic analysis, fieldwork data. The method of landscape complex profile was used. The profiles show a cross-sections of landforms and interrelationships between landscape components, most frequently describing the relations between soils and vegetation. In each sample point the mechanical composition of sediments, vegetation cover and soil is determined. Results show that changes in landscapes are induced by their own development as well as changes in environmental factors and human activities. Larger changes are due to increase of coastal processes activity. These processes can be observed in sandy beaches, which are easily transformed by waves. Higher sea levels during storm surges are reaching older beach formation, causing erosion and creating

  6. Binary nucleation rates for ethanol/water mixtures in supersonic Laval nozzles: Analyses by the first and second nucleation theorems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimura, Shinobu; Pathak, Harshad; Wyslouzil, Barbara E.

    2013-11-01

    We performed pressure trace measurements and small angle x-ray scattering measurements to determine the vapor-liquid nucleation rates of EtOH/H2O mixtures including pure EtOH and pure H2O in two supersonic Laval nozzles with different expansion rates. The nucleation rates varied from 0.9 × 1017 to 16 × 1017 cm-3 s-1 over the temperature range of 210 K to 230 K, EtOH activity range of 0 to 11.6, and H2O activity range of 0 to 124. The first and second nucleation theorems were applied to the nucleation rates to estimate the sizes, compositions, and excess energies of the critical clusters. The critical clusters contained from 4 to 15 molecules for pure H2O and EtOH/H2O clusters, and from 16 to 23 molecules for pure EtOH clusters. Comparing the excess energies of the pure H2O critical clusters with the results of a quantum-chemistry calculation suggested that the pre-factor of the theoretical nucleation rate is almost constant regardless of the monomer concentration. One possible explanation for this result is that cooling of the critical clusters limits the nucleation rate under the highly supersaturated conditions. The results of the analyses also yielded the relation between the surface energy and the composition of the critical clusters, where the latter are predicted to consist only of surface molecules. Applying this relationship to the EtOH/H2O bulk liquid mixtures, we estimated the EtOH mole fraction in the surface layer and found it is higher than that derived from the surface tension based on the Gibbs adsorption equation when the EtOH mole fraction in the liquid is higher than about 0.2 mol/mol. This discrepancy was attributed to the existence of the EtOH depletion layer just below the surface layer of the liquid.

  7. Evaluating the Fabreville Heart Health Program in Laval, Canada: a dialogue between two paradigms, positivism and constructivism.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh Nguyet; Otis, Joanne

    2003-06-01

    As part of the Canadian Federal-Provincial Initiative in Heart Health, the goal of the Fabreville Heart Health Program was to sensitize a district of Laval, Quebec's second most populous city, to heart-healthy behaviours. The program was planned and implemented by a committee composed of Fabreville community leaders and professionals from the Public Health Department. Between 1992 and 1994, intervention objectives were defined by the department in terms of changing individual behaviours associated with cardiovascular risk factors, namely diet, sedentariness and smoking, as well as adapting physical and social environments to facilitate these changes. However, from 1994 to its conclusion in 1997, the program was re-oriented to engage the population in mobilizing their own community and taking charge of interventions themselves. Actions then became dependent on the interests and motivation of Fabreville residents to transform their lifestyles and aspects of their physical environment. The initial evaluation process, based on the positivist paradigm, was designed to measure changes in individual behaviours and certain physical environments, such as an increase in designated non-smoking areas. However, following the re-orientation towards community mobilization, it was decided that evaluation should go beyond the professional production of data to include a process of the collective construction of knowledge. Evaluation methodology then became based on the constructivist paradigm. Yet field constraints such as lack of community involvement in both leadership and process evaluation, and the need to ensure evaluation standards and fulfil sponsor obligations, compelled the Public Health Department to return to using a certain number of positivist methods. The ensuing inter-paradigm dialogue helped broaden the scope of evaluation and contributed to gaining a more in-depth understanding of the processes and outcomes of community mobilization. PMID:12746384

  8. Antibiotic prescription preferences in paediatric outpatient setting in Estonia and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lass, Jana; Odlind, Viveca; Irs, Alar; Lutsar, Irja

    2013-12-01

    Aims of the study were to compare the paediatric outpatient antibiotic use in two countries with low overall antibiotic consumption and antibacterial resistance levels - Sweden and Estonia - and to describe the adherence to Estonian treatment guideline. All prescriptions for systemic antibiotics for children less than 18 years during 2007 from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register and Estonian Health Insurance Fund database were identified to conduct a descriptive drug utilisation study. The total paediatric antibiotic use was 616 and 353 per 1000 in Estonia and Sweden, respectively. The greatest between country differences occurred in the age group 2 to 6 years -Estonian children received 1184 and Swedish children 528 prescriptions per 1000. Extended spectrum penicillin amoxicillin (189 per 1000) or its combination with beta-lactamase inhibitor (81 per 1000) and a newer macrolide clarithromycin (127 per 1000) were prescribed most often in Estonia whereas narrow spectrum penicillin phenoxymethylpenicillin (169 per 1000) and older generation macrolide erythromycin (21 per 1000) predominated in Sweden. For acute bronchitis, 17 different antibiotics (most commonly clarithromycin) were prescribed in Estonia despite the guideline recommendation not to use antibiotics. The higher rate of antibiotic use especially of extended spectrum antibiotics in Estonia compared to Sweden emphasizes the need for national activities to promote appropriate use of antibiotics while treating children, even when the overall antibiotic consumption is low. PMID:23667800

  9. Mutual Trust between Kindergarten Teachers and Mothers and Its Associations with Family Characteristics in Estonia and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Kontoniemi, Marita; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Niilo, Airi

    2011-01-01

    Mutual trust between mothers and kindergarten teachers along with its relation to mother's educational level and child's gender was studied in two neighboring countries--Estonia and Finland. From Estonia 543 ratings of mothers and 232 ratings of teachers were collected, and, from Finland, 712 ratings of mothers and 712 ratings of teachers. Trust…

  10. Moving the Field Forward: A Micro-Meso-Macro Model for Critical Language Planning. The Case of Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates "de facto" language policy in Estonia. It investigates how language choices at the micro (or individual) level are negotiated within the macro (or social and historical) context: how official language policy and other features of the discursive environment surrounding language and its use in Estonia translate into…

  11. Women in Physics in Estonia: Many Duties, One Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaasik, Helle

    2009-04-01

    In Estonia, women and men have equal legal rights. Women are expected to earn their living like men—and unlike men, to be the main (often the only) caregiver for the children. In the family women do most of the unpaid work, spending twice the amount of time on household duties as men. Laws about public preschool child care and child support obligations for noncustodial parents exist, but these laws are not always realized in practice. A generous policy of benefits for children under 1.5 years provides some relief for mothers. It is a challenge to balance a woman's traditional load of unpaid duties with the high demands of a science career. As in many other countries, with every step up the academic ladder the underrepresentation of women in science becomes more evident. Physics and engineering are perceived as male areas and women active in these areas are often treated as exceptions. Most obstacles met by women in science are difficult to recognize and neutralize because they are deeply informal. Activities for "gender and science" that exceed the limits of sociological study have no long tradition here and are yet finding their place in Estonian society.

  12. Fluoride occurrence in publicly supplied drinking water in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karro, Enn; Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Haamer, Kadri; Marandi, Andres

    2006-06-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the content and spatial distribution of fluoride in drinking water. Water samples (735) from public water systems covering all Estonian territory were analysed using SPADNS method. In order to specify the natural source of fluoride, the chemistry data from five aquifer systems utilised for water supply were included into the study. Fluoride concentrations in tap water, to a great extent, ranged from 0.01 to 6.95 mg/l. Drinking water in southern Estonia, where terrigenous Middle-Devonian aquifer system is exploited, has a fluoride concentration lower than recommended level (0.5 mg/l), thus promoting susceptibility to dental caries. The western part of the country is supplied by water with excess fluoride content (1.5-6.9 mg/l). Groundwater abstracted for drinking purposes originates from Ordovician and Silurian carbonate rocks. The content of fluoride in Silurian-Ordovician aquifer system is associated with the groundwater abstraction depth and the main controlling factors of dissolved fluoride are the pH value and the chemical type of water.

  13. Effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment system in Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Heinma, Kaupo; Poder, Tonis

    2010-07-15

    To be effective, an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) system, first, has to minimize the probability that projects with significant environmental effects are implemented without EIA, and second, minimize the number of EIAs, which do not provide decision makers with essential information, so that the decision is improved as a result of EIA. The objective of this study was to find out how frequently in Estonia the projects implemented without EIA have caused significant environmental effects, and to measure the relative frequency of EIAs that have no influence on decision. An extensive survey with e-mail distributed questionnaires was carried out to reveal information from governmental agencies, local self-governments, and developers. There was no evidence that projects authorized without EIA have had environmental impacts, which could have been mitigated as a result of EIA. In contrast, about half of EIAs did not alter the decision of relevant authorities. This proportion was valid to both mandatory EIAs and those initiated on judgement basis. In our view, the proportion of no-influence EIAs was excessive and indicated the need to reconsider the provisions applying to the projects with a mandatory EIA requirement as well as judgements practice.

  14. The Morel-Lavallée Lesion as a Rare Differential Diagnosis for Recalcitrant Bursitis of the Knee: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Vanhegan, Ivor S.; Dala-Ali, B.; Verhelst, L.; Mallucci, P.; Haddad, Fares S.

    2012-01-01

    A 72 year-old-male was referred to our institution with recalcitrant prepatellar bursitis. The injury was sustained after striking his right knee against a post whilst horse riding 9 months ago. Previous treatments included repeated aspiration and excision of the bursa with elastic compression bandaging. A diagnosis of a Morel-Lavallée internal degloving injury was made, and the lesion was satisfactorily managed by an internal quilting procedure to eliminate the potential dead space. A review of the literature reveals 29 published reports of Morel-Lavallée lesions with sufficient information for inclusion. These came from 14 separate countries with a total of 204 lesions in 195 patients. The most common anatomical location was the greater trochanter/hip (36%), followed by the thigh (24%) and the pelvis (19%). Most were managed surgically with evacuation of the haematoma and necrotic tissue followed by debridement, which was often repeated (36%). Conservative treatment with percutaneous aspiration and compression bandaging was the next most common treatment (23%). The knee was the fourth most common region affected (16%), and only 3 other lesions in the literature have been managed with a quilting procedure. PMID:23320230

  15. Airfoil sampling of a pulsed Laval beam with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry: Application to low--temperature kinetics and product detection

    SciTech Connect

    Soorkia, Satchin; Liu, Chen-Lin; Savee, John D; Ferrell, Sarah J; Leone, Stephen R; Wilson, Kevin R

    2011-10-12

    A new pulsed Laval nozzle apparatus with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron photoionization quadrupole mass spectrometry is constructed to study low-temperature radicalneutralchemical reactions of importance for modeling the atmosphere of Titan and the outer planets. A design for the sampling geometry of a pulsed Laval nozzle expansion has beendeveloped that operates successfully for the determination of rate coefficients by time-resolved mass spectrometry. The new concept employs airfoil sampling of the collimated expansion withexcellent sampling throughput. Time-resolved profiles of the high Mach number gas flow obtained by photoionization signals show that perturbation of the collimated expansion by theairfoil is negligible. The reaction of C2H with C2H2 is studied at 70 K as a proof-of-principle result for both low-temperature rate coefficient measurements and product identification basedon the photoionization spectrum of the reaction product versus VUV photon energy. This approach can be used to provide new insights into reaction mechanisms occurring at kinetic ratesclose to the collision-determined limit.

  16. Airfoil sampling of a pulsed Laval beam with tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry: application to low-temperature kinetics and product detection.

    PubMed

    Soorkia, Satchin; Liu, Chen-Lin; Savee, John D; Ferrell, Sarah J; Leone, Stephen R; Wilson, Kevin R

    2011-12-01

    A new pulsed Laval nozzle apparatus with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron photoionization quadrupole mass spectrometry is constructed to study low-temperature radical-neutral chemical reactions of importance for modeling the atmosphere of Titan and the outer planets. A design for the sampling geometry of a pulsed Laval nozzle expansion has been developed that operates successfully for the determination of rate coefficients by time-resolved mass spectrometry. The new concept employs airfoil sampling of the collimated expansion with excellent sampling throughput. Time-resolved profiles of the high Mach number gas flow obtained by photoionization signals show that perturbation of the collimated expansion by the airfoil is negligible. The reaction of C(2)H with C(2)H(2) is studied at 70 K as a proof-of-principle result for both low-temperature rate coefficient measurements and product identification based on the photoionization spectrum of the reaction product versus VUV photon energy. This approach can be used to provide new insights into reaction mechanisms occurring at kinetic rates close to the collision-determined limit. PMID:22225233

  17. Airfoil sampling of a pulsed Laval beam with tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry: Application to low-temperature kinetics and product detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soorkia, Satchin; Liu, Chen-Lin; Savee, John D.; Ferrell, Sarah J.; Leone, Stephen R.; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2011-12-01

    A new pulsed Laval nozzle apparatus with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron photoionization quadrupole mass spectrometry is constructed to study low-temperature radical-neutral chemical reactions of importance for modeling the atmosphere of Titan and the outer planets. A design for the sampling geometry of a pulsed Laval nozzle expansion has been developed that operates successfully for the determination of rate coefficients by time-resolved mass spectrometry. The new concept employs airfoil sampling of the collimated expansion with excellent sampling throughput. Time-resolved profiles of the high Mach number gas flow obtained by photoionization signals show that perturbation of the collimated expansion by the airfoil is negligible. The reaction of C2H with C2H2 is studied at 70 K as a proof-of-principle result for both low-temperature rate coefficient measurements and product identification based on the photoionization spectrum of the reaction product versus VUV photon energy. This approach can be used to provide new insights into reaction mechanisms occurring at kinetic rates close to the collision-determined limit.

  18. Binary nucleation rates for ethanol/water mixtures in supersonic Laval nozzles: analyses by the first and second nucleation theorems.

    PubMed

    Tanimura, Shinobu; Pathak, Harshad; Wyslouzil, Barbara E

    2013-11-01

    We performed pressure trace measurements and small angle x-ray scattering measurements to determine the vapor-liquid nucleation rates of EtOH/H2O mixtures including pure EtOH and pure H2O in two supersonic Laval nozzles with different expansion rates. The nucleation rates varied from 0.9 × 10(17) to 16 × 10(17) cm(-3) s(-1) over the temperature range of 210 K to 230 K, EtOH activity range of 0 to 11.6, and H2O activity range of 0 to 124. The first and second nucleation theorems were applied to the nucleation rates to estimate the sizes, compositions, and excess energies of the critical clusters. The critical clusters contained from 4 to 15 molecules for pure H2O and EtOH/H2O clusters, and from 16 to 23 molecules for pure EtOH clusters. Comparing the excess energies of the pure H2O critical clusters with the results of a quantum-chemistry calculation suggested that the pre-factor of the theoretical nucleation rate is almost constant regardless of the monomer concentration. One possible explanation for this result is that cooling of the critical clusters limits the nucleation rate under the highly supersaturated conditions. The results of the analyses also yielded the relation between the surface energy and the composition of the critical clusters, where the latter are predicted to consist only of surface molecules. Applying this relationship to the EtOH/H2O bulk liquid mixtures, we estimated the EtOH mole fraction in the surface layer and found it is higher than that derived from the surface tension based on the Gibbs adsorption equation when the EtOH mole fraction in the liquid is higher than about 0.2 mol/mol. This discrepancy was attributed to the existence of the EtOH depletion layer just below the surface layer of the liquid. PMID:24206302

  19. Binary nucleation rates for ethanol/water mixtures in supersonic Laval nozzles: Analyses by the first and second nucleation theorems

    SciTech Connect

    Tanimura, Shinobu; Pathak, Harshad; Wyslouzil, Barbara E.

    2013-11-07

    We performed pressure trace measurements and small angle x-ray scattering measurements to determine the vapor-liquid nucleation rates of EtOH/H{sub 2}O mixtures including pure EtOH and pure H{sub 2}O in two supersonic Laval nozzles with different expansion rates. The nucleation rates varied from 0.9 × 10{sup 17} to 16 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} s{sup −1} over the temperature range of 210 K to 230 K, EtOH activity range of 0 to 11.6, and H{sub 2}O activity range of 0 to 124. The first and second nucleation theorems were applied to the nucleation rates to estimate the sizes, compositions, and excess energies of the critical clusters. The critical clusters contained from 4 to 15 molecules for pure H{sub 2}O and EtOH/H{sub 2}O clusters, and from 16 to 23 molecules for pure EtOH clusters. Comparing the excess energies of the pure H{sub 2}O critical clusters with the results of a quantum-chemistry calculation suggested that the pre-factor of the theoretical nucleation rate is almost constant regardless of the monomer concentration. One possible explanation for this result is that cooling of the critical clusters limits the nucleation rate under the highly supersaturated conditions. The results of the analyses also yielded the relation between the surface energy and the composition of the critical clusters, where the latter are predicted to consist only of surface molecules. Applying this relationship to the EtOH/H{sub 2}O bulk liquid mixtures, we estimated the EtOH mole fraction in the surface layer and found it is higher than that derived from the surface tension based on the Gibbs adsorption equation when the EtOH mole fraction in the liquid is higher than about 0.2 mol/mol. This discrepancy was attributed to the existence of the EtOH depletion layer just below the surface layer of the liquid.

  20. Hospitalised neonates in Estonia commonly receive potentially harmful excipients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Information on the neonatal exposure to excipients is limited. Our aim was to describe the extent of excipient intake by Estonian neonates; to classify the excipients according to potential neonatal toxicity and thereby to measure the extent of exposure of neonates to potentially harmful excipients. Methods A prospective cohort study that recorded all medicines prescribed to patients aged below 28 days admitted to Tartu University Hospital from 01.02-01.08 2008 and to Tallinn Children’s Hospital from 01.02- 01.08 2009 was conducted. Excipients were identified from Summaries of Product Characteristics and classified according to toxicity following a literature review. Results 1961 prescriptions comprising 107 medicines were written for 348/490 neonates admitted. A total of 123 excipients were found in 1620 (83%) prescriptions and 93 (87%) medicines. 47 (38%) of these excipients were classified as potentially or known to be harmful to neonates. Most neonates (97%) received at least one medicine (median number 2) with potentially or known to be harmful excipient. Parabens were the most commonly used known to be harmful excipients and sodium metabisulphite the most commonly used potentially harmful excipient, received by 343 (99%) and 297 (85%) of treated neonates, respectively. Conclusions Hospitalised neonates in Estonia are commonly receiving a wide range of excipients with their medication. Quantitative information about excipients should be made available to pharmacists and neonatologists helping them to take into account excipient issues when selecting medicines and to monitor for adverse effects if administration of medicines containing excipients is unavoidable. PMID:22931304

  1. University Studies as a Side Job: Causes and Consequences of Massive Student Employment in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beerkens, Maarja; Magi, Eve; Lill, Liis

    2011-01-01

    Student employment is increasingly common in many countries. Compared to earlier decades, not only more students work but they also work longer hours. Among European countries Estonia is one of the clear "leaders" in student employment. This study uses survey data from 2,496 students in Estonian public and private universities to examine the…

  2. The National Status of the Preparation of School Psychologists in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve

    2014-01-01

    Estonia is a small republic that has undergone several big societal changes (from belonging to the Soviet Union to becoming a free republic, and the process of integrating into the European Union) during the last several decades. Psychology has been taught as a separate discipline starting from 1968, but its content has been changed from very…

  3. Education Policy as Normative Discourse and Negotiated Meanings: Engaging the Holocaust in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevick, E. Doyle

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a socio-cultural approach to analyze the formation and implementation of Estonia's Holocaust Day Policy, a day of both commemoration for victims of the Holocaust and other crimes against humanity, and education about the Holocaust. It investigates both the multi-level development of the policy in light of external pressure (from…

  4. When Failing Is the Only Option: Explaining Failure to Finish PhDs in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vassil, Kristjan; Solvak, Mihkel

    2012-01-01

    That PhD candidates fail to graduate on time in large numbers across a number of countries is a well-known fact. An extreme example is Estonia, where according to some estimates less than a third of PhD students complete their studies on time. A number of studies have addressed the likely reasons for such behavior, both comparatively and…

  5. Estonian Language Competencies for Peace Corps Volunteers in the Republic of Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ets, Tiina K.

    This guide is designed for Estonian language training of Peace Corps workers in Estonia, is intended for use in a competency-based language training program, and reflects daily communication needs in that context. It consists of 52 lessons, each addressing a specific language competency, organized in 14 topical units. An introductory section gives…

  6. Development of Indicators for Educational Planning: Brazil, Cambodia, Estonia, Gambia, Lithuania, Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). International Inst. for Educational Planning.

    This publication presents the outcomes of a distance education course on development and dissemination of indicators used for educational planning. The course took place from November 2000 to February 2001 and was attended by representatives from the ministries of education of Brazil, Cambodia, Estonia, Gambia, Lithuania, and Thailand. The overall…

  7. When Public Acts Like Private: The Failure of Estonia's School Choice Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to show the segregating effect of the market-like matching of students and schools at the basic school level. The natural experiment case is Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. The current school choice mechanism applied in this case is based on entrance tests. There are increasingly over-subscribed intra-catchment area public…

  8. Family- and Classroom-Related Factors and Mother-Kindergarten Teacher Trust in Estonia and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Pakarinen, Eija; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of family-related (mother's education, depressive symptoms and child's gender) and kindergarten-related (teacher's experience, teaching practices and class size) factors in mothers' and teachers' mutual trust in Estonia and Finland. Six hundred eighteen (206 Estonian and 412 Finnish) mothers of kindergarten children…

  9. Will Choice Hurt? Compared to What? A School Choice Experiment in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Põder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the empirical analysis of the effects of a school choice policy in Estonia. The article shows that relying on markets and giving autonomy to the schools over student selection will produce admission tests, even at the elementary school level. This article's contribution is to show that a school choice policy experiment…

  10. Explaining the Difference between PISA 2009 Reading Scores in Finland and Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explain the difference between the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 reading results for Finland and Estonia using characteristics of teaching and learning, and characteristics of the overall development of these countries. PISA data were collected via a reading test and student questionnaires…

  11. Learning and Developing as a University Teacher: Narratives of Early Career Academics in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remmik, Marvi; Karm, Mari; Lepp, Liina

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the higher education context in Estonia, as in most European countries, has changed a lot. All changes have an impact on university teachers' practice and their work organisation, and are presenting new challenges. The current research aims at developing an understanding of Estonian early career academics' professional…

  12. Economic, Educational and Cultural Predictors of Science Learning in Lithuania and Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the research was to assess the economic, educational and cultural predictors of the TIMSS 2003 science test results in Lithuania and Estonia. The data for the research were received from the TIMSS 2003 User Guide for the International Database. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients, calculated on the students' level and the schools…

  13. When Language becomes Power: Russian-Speaking Teachers in the Bilingual General Education System in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    After the re-establishment of independent Estonian statehood in 1991, Russian lost its privileges as the dominant and official language in Estonia, and Estonian continued as the only official language. This paper attempts to map the position of a Russian-speaking teacher within the sociological categories of power and language, based on the…

  14. An Examination of the Flynn Effect in the National Intelligence Test in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiu, William

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the Flynn Effect (FE; i.e., the rise in IQ scores over time) in Estonia from Scale B of the National Intelligence Test using both classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT) methods. Secondary data from two cohorts (1934, n = 890 and 2006, n = 913) of students were analyzed, using both classical test theory (CTT)…

  15. Family medicine as a model of transition from academic medicine to academic health care: Estonia's experience.

    PubMed

    Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents the development of academic family medicine in an environment of traditional academic medicine at the Tartu University, Estonia. The introduction of university family medicine teachers to everyday practice and practitioners to academic teaching and research helps bridge the gap between theory and practice, and it shows changed approach to academic medicine. PMID:15495281

  16. Alternative Civil Enculturation: Political Disenchantment and Civic Attitudes in Minority Schools in Estonia, Latvia, and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golubeva, Maria; Austers, Ivars

    2011-01-01

    The article investigates the ways in which minority schools in Latvia, Estonia, and Slovakia resist the dominant narratives of nation and citizenship and provide an alternative model of civil enculturation for students. It provides evidence to support the hypothesis that differences between competing narratives of statehood and nationhood among…

  17. E-Learning as Innovation: Exploring Innovativeness of the VET Teachers' Community in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loogma, Krista; Kruusvall, Juri; Umarik, Meril

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the acceptance of e-learning by teachers of vocational secondary and professional higher education institutions (hereafter: VET teachers) in Estonia has been analysed. The analysis is based on questionnaire study, carried out in 2007. The theoretical framework of the article has been inspired by Everett Rogers' innovation…

  18. Between Consumerism and Protectionism: Attitudes towards Children, Consumption and the Media in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Margit; Kalmus, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    This study measures attitudes towards children's vulnerability or empowerment within consumer culture, based on data from a representative population survey (N = 1475) conducted in Estonia in 2005. The study use indices comprised of assessments of consumption practices and assertions pertaining to the "endangered vs empowered child" debate in…

  19. Climate change scenarios and the effect of sea-level rise for Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kont, Are; Jaagus, Jaak; Aunap, Raivo

    2003-03-01

    Climate warming due to the enhanced greenhouse effect is expected to have a significant impact on natural environment and human activity in high latitudes. Mostly, it should have a positive effect on human activity. The main threats in Estonia that could be connected with sea-level rise are the flooding of coastal areas, erosion of sandy beaches and the destruction of harbour constructions. Possible climate change and its negative impacts in the coastal regions of Estonia are estimated in this paper. Climate change scenarios for Estonia were generated using a Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse-gas Induced Climate Change (MAGICC) and a regional climate change database—SCENanario GENerator (SCENGEN). Three alternative emission scenarios were combined with data from 14 general circulation model experiments. Climate change scenarios for the year 2100 indicate a significant increase in air temperature (by 2.3-4.5 °C) and precipitation (by 5-30%) in Estonia. The highest increase is expected to take place during winter and the lowest increase in summer. Due to a long coastline (3794 km) and extensive low-lying coastal areas, global climate change through sea-level rise will strongly affect the territory of Estonia. A number of valuable natural ecosystems will be in danger. These include both marine and terrestrial systems containing rare plant communities and suitable breeding places for birds. Most sandy beaches high in recreational value will disappear. However, isostatic land uplift and the location of coastal settlements at a distance from the present coastline reduce the rate of risk. Seven case study areas characterising all the shore types of Estonia have been selected for sea-level rise vulnerability and adaptation assessment. Results and estimates of vulnerability to 1.0-m sea-level rise by 2100 are presented in this paper. This is the maximum scenario according to which the actually estimated relative sea-level rise would vary from 0.9 m (SW Estonia) to 0

  20. Postglacial land uplift in Estonia based on four precise levelings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kall, Tarmo; Oja, Tõnis; Tänavsuu, Kalmer

    2014-01-01

    The vertical velocities of the fundamental benchmarks of Estonian 1st order leveling network were estimated, based on the four precise leveling campaigns from 1933 to 2010. The kinematic least squares adjustment of the network was used, where heights and velocities were introduced as unknown parameters. For detection of outliers, Baarda's data snooping method was applied. Estimation of variance components by the Helmert's and the IAUE methods provided realistic weights in the network adjustment and revealed also that the observation errors of the first three levelings are up to 3 times larger than was assumed a priori. To obtain apparent uplift rates and fix velocity in kinematic adjustment, the velocity value + 2.1 mm/yr of the Ristna tide gauge on island Hiiumaa was transferred to the nearest stable benchmark by using precise levelings from tide gauge to the national height network. Average standard deviation of velocities at benchmarks was estimated to be ± 0.5 mm/yr. Based on apparent vertical velocities of the benchmarks, an interpolated land uplift surface was created using “kriging” and “minimum curvature” gridding methods. Although the two methods gave similar surfaces (RMS of differences was below ± 0.1 mm/yr), the kriging solution was used in comparison with the results of the earlier studies. The uncertainty of new velocity surface was estimated to be ± 0.5 to ± 0.7 mm/yr. The new land uplift model fits well with the Fennoscandian land uplift model NKG2005LU. The RMS of the differences was ± 0.2 mm/yr. Good agreement was also confirmed with the earlier land uplift maps of Estonia (RMS of differences ± 0.6 mm/yr). However, clear disagreement was noticed when tide gauge observations from several studies were used in comparison (RMS of differences up to ± 1.0 mm/yr). Apparently, different velocity solutions of Estonian tide gauges are systematically biased; the reasons for these biases need further investigation.

  1. Single and double sexual standards in Finland, Estonia, and St. Petersburg.

    PubMed

    Haavio-Mannila, Elina; Kontula, Osmo

    2003-02-01

    The sexual revolution and fight for gender equality began in the West during the 1960s but did not reach the Soviet Union until the late 1980s. Using survey data from nationally representative samples from Finland in 1971, 1992, and 1999 and from two former Soviet areas, Estonia in 2000 and St. Petersburg in 1996, we investigated the following: (a) differences across decades and countries in acceptance of the sexual double standard (SDS) in attitudes toward marital infidelity and women's initiating sex; and (b) the relationship between the SDS and sexual satisfaction. Results show that Finland in the 1990s was more egalitarian than Finland in 1971, St. Petersburg in 1996, or Estonia in 2000. Egalitarian sexual attitudes were positively related to sexual satisfaction. PMID:12806530

  2. How Do Preschool Children Engage Each Other in Dialogue in Finland, Estonia and Sweden?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryggvason, Marja-Terttu; Tulviste, Tiia; De Geer, Boel

    2008-01-01

    The present study compares preschool children in Finland, Estonia and Sweden regarding linguistic structures with which children in dyads elicited talk from each other in a naturalistic play activity. Nineteen Finnish (mean age 5.1), 19 Estonian (mean age 5.4) and 17 Swedish (mean age 5.1) same-sex pairs were video-recorded by a native researcher.…

  3. Survey of the Presence of Toxocara spp. Eggs in Dog Feces in Tartu, Estonia.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2016-03-01

    Several zoonotic pathogens are shed in the feces of infected animals. If they are allowed to contaminate the environment, they cause a public health concern. In this study, we investigated the presence of Toxocara spp. eggs in dog feces in the urban area of Tartu, Estonia. Samples were collected by veterinary students in 2014 and examined using a modified concentration-flotation technique. Toxocara spp. eggs were detected by microscopy in 4 (1.7%) out of 234 canine fecal samples. PMID:26854385

  4. Mammography use and mode of detection among breast cancer patients in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Innos, Kaire; Valvere, Vahur; Padrik, Peeter; Eelma, Evelyn; Kütner, Riina; Lehtsaar, Jaak; Tekkel, Mare

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine past mammography use and mode of detection among breast cancer (BC) patients in Estonia, a country that has low screening coverage and high BC mortality. Women newly diagnosed with primary BC in Estonia in 2008-2010 were interviewed. Determinants of past mammography use and the detection of BC by mammography were studied using multivariate logistic regression. Among 977 participants, almost half reported no mammograms prior to the detection of BC. Overall, 22% of the cases were detected by mammography (16% by screening mammography). Detection by mammography was strongly related to age, past mammography use, and obesity. Among cases detected by mammography, 10% were stage III/IV at diagnosis (32% among cases detected by other modes). This study showed low mammography utilization and high rate of self-detection of BC in Estonia. Increased detection by mammography would help diagnose the disease at an earlier stage and consequently avoid premature BC deaths. Efforts should be undertaken to increase participation in screening and improve the availability of mammography among older and high-risk women. The results are likely to be relevant for other countries and population groups with low screening coverage. PMID:26327255

  5. Comparative Study: Impact of Family, School, and Students Factors on Students Achievements in Reading in Developed (Estonia) and Developing (Azerbaijan) Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukakidze, Berika

    2013-01-01

    The work is based on PISA 2009 International Assessment Study. Two counties were selected: a developed country, Estonia and a developing country, Azerbaijan. The following Datum was used for statistical analysis: students average scores in reading (162 schools, 4 600 students from Azerbaijan; 17 schools, 4 923 students from Estonia). The work is…

  6. Amber bearing deposit in SW Saaremaa, Estonia - sedimentary environment and palaeogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Triine; Ots, Mirja; Rosentau, Alar

    2015-04-01

    The paper describes a deposit of natural amber found form Estonia. Finds of natural amber are important in the context of the Bronze Age archaeology, because the amount of Bronze Age archaeological amber found in Estonia is very small. Most of the amber is from the Late Bronze Age and is mainly discovered from the fortified settlements in Saaremaa, some also from burials of the same time. Now, the discovery of the deposit of natural amber in the island of Saaremaa makes us reconsider the general opinion that all archaeological amber items found in Estonia have been imported. The aim of this study is to clarify the origin and age of the natural amber using scientific methods. A layer of buried organic matter (BOM) containing pieces of natural amber was discovered in Holocene coastal plain on Sõrve peninsula, island of Saaremaa. The BOM layer is buried under ca 90 cm-thick sandy coastal deposits and consists of remains of coastal plants and pieces of driftwood. Palaeogeographic reconstructions and sediment composition indicate that the layer was deposited in the coastal zone and buried quickly by sandy marine sediments. According to radiocarbon dating of the seeds of Polygonum lapathifolium the formation of the BOM layer remained in the Late Bronze Age (2480 ± 30 14C yr BP). Amber finds have been characterized using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and isotope analysis of light elements (H and C) - both are referring to Baltic amber. Therefore it is probable that amber was transported to Saaremaa within organic matter from the Latvian-Lithuanian coastal zone where secondary Baltic amber deposits are widely known.

  7. High prevalence of rhinitis symptoms without allergic sensitization in Estonia and Finland

    PubMed Central

    Pallasaho, Paula; Kainu, Annette; Juusela, Maria; Meren, Mari; Sovijärvi, Anssi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Allergic rhinitis and atopy are more common in urban than rural environments. Non-allergic rhinitis has not been studied to a great extent. We aimed to assess the relationship of rhinitis symptoms with different profiles of allergic sensitization, comparing this in rural and urban environments. Methods The study population consisted of population-based cohorts of adults aged 26–60 from Helsinki, Finland, and rural Saaremaa and urban Tallinn, Estonia. We compared the results of a structured interview and skin prick tests and assessed the risk factors for rhinitis. Results The prevalence of rhinitis symptoms with atopy was 32.7% in Helsinki, 20.8% in Tallinn, and 12.5% in Saaremaa (p<0.001). Rhinitis symptoms without atopy were found in 26.4%, 29.8%, and 29.3% (p=n.s.), respectively. In Helsinki, 87.3% of participants with atopy identified symptoms as allergic, compared to 57.0% in Tallinn and 47.5% in Saaremaa. Childhood in the countryside (OR 0.63), family history of allergic rhinitis (OR 1.89), and polysensitization (OR 15.99) were significantly associated with rhinitis symptoms with atopy in a multivariate logistic regression model. The most common sensitizers were pollens and animals in Helsinki and mites in Estonia. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (OR 1.50) and family history of allergic rhinitis (OR 1.70) were associated with rhinitis symptoms without atopy. Conclusion Rhinitis symptoms without allergic sensitization were common in both Finland and Estonia and were associated with environmental tobacco smoke. Family history of allergic rhinitis predisposed to rhinitis symptoms irrespective of atopy status. PMID:26557256

  8. The Kaali crater field and other geosites of Saaremaa Island (Estonia): the perspectives for a geopark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raukas, Anto; Stankowski, Wojciech

    2010-04-01

    The Island of Saaremaa in Estonia offers highly spectacular geological features that belong to the most interesting in the Baltic Sea area. A unique geological monument on the island is the Kaali meteorite-crater field, formed by nine meteorite impacts. There are also attractive coastal cliffs, huge erratics, alvars (limestone areas covered by a very thin soil) and well-developed glacial and marine landforms. Limestone cliffs and shingle beaches abound with Silurian fossils and offer great opportunities to fossil collectors. The island is a prospective geopark. During the past few years, the geology of the island has become an intensely studied object of Estonian and Polish geologists.

  9. Reduction in nitrogen oxides emission on TGME-464 boiler of IRU power plant (Estonia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Ionkin, I. L.

    2015-01-01

    The possibility for realization of measures on a reduction in nitrogen oxides emission on a TGME-464 (plant no. 2) boiler of the IRU power plant (Tallinn, Estonia) is investigated. Low-cost techno-logical measures, namely, nonstoichiometric burning and burning with the moderate controlled chemical underburning, are proposed and experimentally tested. Recommendations on the implementation of low-emission modes of burning natural gas into mode diagrams of the boiler are given. Nitrogen oxides emissions are reduced to the required level as a result of the implementation of the proposed measures.

  10. Bioerosion of Inorganic Hard Substrates in the Ordovician of Estonia (Baltica)

    PubMed Central

    Vinn, Olev; Wilson, Mark A.; Toom, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    The earliest bioeroded inorganic hard substrates in the Ordovician of Estonia appear in the Dapingian. Hardgrounds are also known from the Sandbian and Katian. Most of the bioerosion of inorganic hard substrates occurs as the boring Trypanites Mägdefrau, 1932 along with some possible Gastrochaenolites borings. North American hardground borings are more diverse than those in Baltica. In contrast to a worldwide trend of increasing boring intensity, the Estonian record seems to show no increase in boring intensities during the Middle and Late Ordovician. Hardgrounds seem to be more common during the temperate climate interval of the Ordovician calcite sea in Estonia (seven hardgrounds during 15 my) than in the part with a tropical climate (four hardgrounds during 12 my). Bioerosion is mostly associated with carbonate hardgrounds, but cobbles and pebbles broken from the hardgrounds are also often penetrated by Trypanites borings. The general diversity of boring ichnotaxa in Baltica increased from one ichnospecies in the Cambrian to seven by the end of Ordovician, showing the effect of the GOBE on bioeroding ichnotaxa. The diversity of inorganic hard substrate borers increased by only two times. This difference can be explained by the wider environmental distribution of organic as compared to inorganic substrates in the Ordovician seas of Baltica, and their more continuous temporal availability, which may have caused increased specialization of several borers. The inorganic substrates may have been bioreroded only by the generalists among boring organisms. PMID:26218582

  11. The cultural dimension of tightness-looseness: An analysis of situational constraint in Estonia and Greece.

    PubMed

    Realo, Anu; Linnamägi, Karmen; Gelfand, Michele J

    2015-06-01

    The importance of tightness-looseness as a dimension that explains a considerable amount of variance between cultures was demonstrated by Gelfand et al. (2011). Tight nations have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behaviour, whereas loose nations have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behaviour. The main aim of the current studies was to examine situational constraint in Estonia and Greece: that is, how the cultural dimension of tightness-looseness is manifested in everyday situations in those two countries. The findings of a questionnaire study (Study 1) suggested that, in general, there is higher constraint across everyday situations in Greece than in Estonia, but situational constraint in Greece is especially strong in school and organisational settings where people have hierarchically structured roles. The results of an observational study (Study 2) revealed a relatively high agreement between appropriateness of certain behaviours as judged by the respondents in Study 1 and the frequencies of observed behaviours in the two countries. Our findings suggest that the strength of situations may substantially vary both within and across cultures, and that the attitudes of the members about situational strength in their respective cultures are in concordance with observations of situations by neutral observers in how people in general behave in their culture. PMID:25130924

  12. Gravity change from repeated absolute measurements in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1994-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, J.; Bilker-Koivula, M.; Falk, R.; Gitlein, O.; Kaminskis, J.; Lapushka, K.; Oja, T.; Paršeliunas, E.; Petroškevičius, P.; Timmen, L.

    2009-04-01

    Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania belong to the margin of the Fennoscandian postglacial rebound (PGR) area. Vertical rates predicted by PGR models are in the range 0 to +3 mm/yr. Our first absolute gravity campaigns in the area were performed with the JILAg-5 gravimeter in 1994-1995 when three stations were measured in each country. All three stations in Lithuania were repeated with the JILAg-5 in 2002 and one of them (Vilnius) with the FG5#221 gravimeter in 2007. In Latvia one station (Riga) was remeasured with the FG5#101 and FG5#107 (D. Stizza, NIMA) in 1986 and with the FG5#221 in 2007. In Estonia two of the stations (Suurupi and Töravere) were remeasured with the FG5#220 in 2007 and with the FG5#221 in 2008, the third (Kuressaare) was only remeasured in 2008 with the FG5#221. This amounts to seven repeated stations with time spans of 8-13 years. In interpreting gravity change, special attention must be paid to subsurface water storage, as (due to inaccessibility of crystalline bedrock) many stations are on thick sediments, the repeat measurements were partly made in different seasons, and in some cases there is evidence of strong interannual variation in hydrology. We discuss the constraints to PGR implied by the observed gravity change and compare it with PGR models and with available observations of vertical motion.

  13. Efficiency Assessment of Support Mechanisms for Wood-Fired Cogeneration Development in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkova, Anna; Siirde, Andres

    2010-01-01

    There are various support mechanisms for wood-fired cogeneration plants, which include both support for cogeneration development and stimulation for increasing consumption of renewable energy sources. The efficiency of these mechanisms is analysed in the paper. Overview of cogeneration development in Estonia is given with the focus on wood-fired cogeneration. Legislation acts and amendments, related to cogeneration support schemes, were described. For evaluating the efficiency of support mechanisms an indicator - fuel cost factor was defined. This indicator includes the costs related to the chosen fuel influence on the final electricity generation costs without any support mechanisms. The wood fuel cost factors were compared with the fuel cost factors for peat and oil shale. For calculating the fuel cost factors, various data sources were used. The fuel prices data were based on the average cost of fuels in Estonia for the period from 2000 till 2008. The data about operating and maintenance costs, related to the fuel type in the case of comparing wood fuel and oil shale fuel were taken from the CHP Balti and Eesti reports. The data about operating and maintenance costs used for peat and wood fuel comparison were taken from the Tallinn Elektrijaam reports. As a result, the diagrams were built for comparing wood and its competitive fuels. The decision boundary lines were constructed on the diagram for the situation, when no support was provided for wood fuels and for the situations, when various support mechanisms were provided during the last 12 years.

  14. The ethics of Soviet medical practice: behaviours and attitudes of physicians in Soviet Estonia.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, D A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study and report the attitudes and practices of physicians in a former Soviet republic regarding issues pertaining to patients' rights, physician negligence and the acceptance of gratuities from patients. DESIGN: Survey questionnaire administered to physicians in 1991 at the time of the Soviet breakup. SETTING: Estonia, formerly a Soviet republic, now an independent state. SURVEY SAMPLE: A stratified, random sample of 1,000 physicians, representing approximately 20 per cent of practicing physicians under the age of 65. RESULTS: Most physicians shared information with patients about treatment risks and alternatives, with the exception of cancer patients: only a third of physicians tell the patient when cancer is suspected. Current practice at the time of the survey left patients few options when physician negligence occurred; most physicians feel that under a reformed system physician negligence should be handled within the local facility rather than by the government. It was common practice for physicians to receive gifts, tips, or preferential access to scarce consumer goods from their patients. Responses varied somewhat by facility and physician nationality. CONCLUSION: The ethics of Soviet medical practice were different in a number of ways from generally accepted norms in Western countries. Physicians' attitudes about the need for ethical reform suggest that there will be movement in Estonia towards a system of medical ethics that more closely approximates those in the West. PMID:8932723

  15. Stable isotope record of Holocene precipitation changes from Lake Nuudsaku in southern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortney, Carolyn; Stansell, Nathan; Klein, Eric; Terasmaa, Jaanus; Dodd, Justin

    2015-04-01

    Radiocarbon dated, finely laminated lake sediments record Holocene precipitation changes from southern Estonia. Modern water isotope data suggest that Lake Nuudsaku is a mostly open system that is primarily fed by winter precipitation and groundwater, and summer precipitation plays only a secondary role in the overall hydrologic balance. Initial results indicate that changes in insolation likely drove the overall Holocene pattern with relatively wet conditions during the early Holocene, followed by arid conditions during the middle Holocene and a return to wetter conditions during the late Holocene. However, there is pronounced millennial and centennial-scale variability that cannot be explained by insolation forcing alone. Notably, there is a trend toward wetter conditions from ~4.0 to 2.0 ka, followed by a trend toward drier conditions during the last 2 millennia. This late Holocene pattern diverges from the pattern observed in records from north-central Estonia that suggest an overall trend of wetter conditions for the last ~4 ka. These initial results thus indicate that the Lake Nuudsaku sediments have the potential to yield a unique near-annual to decade-scale record of past precipitation changes from the southern Baltic region.

  16. Perspectives on Tolerance in Education Flowing from a Comparison of Religion Education in Estonia and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Walt, Johannes L.

    2013-01-01

    The question that prompted this investigation into religion education (RE) in Estonia and in South Africa was whether two countries from such totally different parts of the world, with such vastly different populations and cultures though with somewhat parallel histories, had tackled the same or similar problems regarding the provision of RE in…

  17. Bilingual Voicing: A Study of Code-Switching in the Reported Speech of Finnish Immigrants in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Maria; Riionheimo, Helka

    2013-01-01

    Through a conversation analytic investigation of Finnish-Estonian bilingual (direct) reported speech (i.e., voicing) by Finns who live in Estonia, this study shows how code-switching is used as a double contextualization device. The code-switched voicings are shaped by the on-going interactional situation, serving its needs by opening up a context…

  18. Significance of action plans in the development of occupational well-being in the schools of Finland and Estonia.

    PubMed

    Laine, Sari; Saaranen, Terhi; Pertel, Tiia; Hansen, Siivi; Lepp, Kädi; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2016-02-01

    This article is part of a long term project "Promoting the Occupational Well-Being of School Staff-Action Research Project in Finland and Estonia, 2009-2014." The purpose of this article is to describe the significance of action plans in the promotion of the occupational well-being of primary and upper secondary school staff in Finland and Estonia from 2010 to the turn of the year 2011-2012. An electronic open questionnaire was sent to occupational well-being groups in Finland (N=18) and in Estonia (N=39). In Finland, the questionnaire was responded to by 16 (n=16) occupational well-being groups, and in Estonia, by 38 (n=38) groups. The qualitative data were analyzed using the inductive-deductive method and content analysis. The obtained results indicate that the schools had named goals for action plans in all aspects of the promotion of occupational well-being in schools (worker and work, working conditions, professional competence, working community) and that these goals were mainly realized in the schools in a systematic way. Schools felt that the action plan for occupational well-being helped them to set goals for occupational well-being and that the planned actions were realized in a more systematic way than before. PMID:26519691

  19. Preschool Achievement in Finland and Estonia: Cross-Cultural Comparison between the Cities of Helsinki and Tallinn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Mikko; Talts, Leida

    2007-01-01

    Each child In Finland and in Estonia receives preschool training for a year before going to school, based on a new national framework curriculum of preschool education. The aim of the present study was to compare children's learning achievements in nine target areas, based on the teacher's evaluations at the end of the preschool year, in both…

  20. FIRST REPORT OF A GROUP 16SRI, SUBGROUP B, PHYTOPLASMA IN DISEASED EPILOBIUM HIRSUTUM IN THE REGION OF TALLIN, ESTONIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symptoms of phyllody of flowers and general plant yellowing, indicating possible phytoplasma infection, were observed in diseased plants of hairy willow-weed (Epilobium hirsutum L., family Onagraceae) growing in a meadow of Harku village near Tallin, Estonia. Sequences of ribosomal (r) RNA genes we...

  1. Beyond Words: Dance and Movement Sessions with Young People with Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodgame, Jenna

    2007-01-01

    This article details an experimental project in Estonian schools, using therapeutic dance and movement as a basis to explore beyond the boundaries of language in supporting young people to develop their creative expression. The author visited three residential schools in different areas of Estonia in September 2006 to lead sessions with groups of…

  2. University Language Policies and Language Choice among Ph.D. Graduates in Estonia: The (Unbalanced) Interplay between English and Estonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep

    2014-01-01

    The role of English as a global language and its consequences for the internationalization of higher education are matters that have increasingly drawn the attention of researchers from different fields of language and communication. In this paper, an overview of the situation in Estonia is presented. The Estonian context has not previously been…

  3. The Role of Values in Citizenship Education: A Comparative Study of Estonian- and Russian-Speaking Schools in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toots, Anu

    2003-01-01

    For emerging democracies civic education issues have special meaning. Often these issues play a vital role in the process of nation building and democratic consolidation, which makes the interplay between the school system and the socio-political environment particularly important. Estonia, which inherited from the half-century Soviet occupation a…

  4. From Times of Transition to Adaptation: Background and Theoretical Approach to the Curriculum Reform in Estonia 1987-1996

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouk, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to research the important process of the history of the educational development of Estonia, the reform of the national school curriculum which began after the teacher's congress in 1987 and ended in 1996 when government approved the document. That reform was carried out in the context of thoroughgoing and dramatic…

  5. Motivation for Obtaining the Doctor of Philosophy Degree in the Post-Soviet Era: The Case of Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karner, Anita; Kukemelk, Hasso; Herdlein, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    This is essentially a qualitative study, a fact-finding activity to gather, analyze, and interpret evidence of student motivation in completing the terminal degree in Estonia. It uses a variety of interpretive research methodologies appropriate for a phenomenological approach. Thirteen doctoral candidates who defended their doctoral thesis…

  6. The Unintended and Intended Academic Consequences of Educational Reforms: The Cases of Post-Soviet Estonia, Latvia and Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khavenson, Tatiana; Carnoy, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we try to unravel some of the unintended and intended academic effects associated with post-Soviet educational reforms by focusing on three cases: Estonia, Latvia and Russia. We have chosen this comparison because a unique "natural experiment" in the three countries allows us to compare the changing academic performance on…

  7. Effects of changes in land use on soil properties in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebstein, Kadri; Reintam, Endla

    2013-04-01

    One important factor influencing the soil properties is the human activity and especially the agricultural activity. Effects of changes in land use and human activities on soil properties are remarkable on the topsoil, the lower soil layers are less affected. During the last century the land use in Estonia has considerably changed. In Estonia the area of abandoned agricultural land has been rapidly increasing during the last decades. The purpose of our study was to estimate the effects of changes in land use on soil properties in Estonia. The field experiment has been established on the experimental station of Estonian University of Life Sciences in Rõhu. The experimental area was used during the years 1960-2006 as an apple garden, 2006-2007 it was ploughed and since 2008 the experimental area has been used as grassland. In our trial we compared the changes in soil properties before and after the experimental area was used as grassland (2007 and 2008). The two grassland species in the trial were Phalaris arundinacea L. and Dactylis glomerata L. The soil of experimental area was a sandy loam Haplic Luvisol (siltic). Soil properties like the soil bulk density, soil porosity and the water permeability were studied in 30 cm soil column in every 5 cm soil layer. The results indicated changes in the soil properties. Before the grassland management the soil bulk density was in the upper layer (0-5 cm) approximately 19 % and in deeper layer (15-20 cm) 10 % higher as under the grassland. Changes of soil porosity were not so considerable before and after the grassland management. The highest alteration occurred in the values of soil air capacity were the change was from low to high in upper layer (0-5 cm) and from medium to high in the deeper layer (15-20 cm). The water permeability before the grassland management was medium and under Dactylis glomerata in the upper layer (0-5 cm) low and in the deeper layer (15-20 cm) high. Our results showed that the vegetation provided

  8. Meteorite impact craters and possibly impact-related structures in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plado, Jüri

    2012-10-01

    Three structures (Neugrund, Kärdla, and Kaali) of proven impact origin make Estonia the most cratered country in the world by area. In addition, several candidate impact structures exist, waiting for future studies to determine their origin. This article is an overview of these proven and possible impact structures, including some breccia layers. It summarizes the information and descriptions of the morphology; geological characteristics; and mineralogical, chemical, and geophysical data available in the literature. The overview was prepared to make information in many earlier publications in local journals (many of which had been published in Estonian or Russian) accessible to the international community. This review summarizes the facts and observations in a historical fashion, summarizing the current state of knowledge with some additional comments, and providing the references.

  9. Cryptosporidiosis – an occupational risk and a disregarded disease in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cases of cryptosporidiosis have not been officially reported in Estonia after the year 2000, and the disease appears to be either under-diagnosed or under-reported. Findings Based on a human case of cryptosporidiosis contracted during faecal sampling in dairy farms, cattle considered to be sources of infection were analysed for Cryptosporidium spp. by a modified Ziehl Neelsen technique and molecular typing. C. parvum subtype IIaA16G1R1 was detected from the human case and from calves from one of nine farms enrolled in the study providing strong circumstantial evidence of zoonotic transmission from calves to humans. Conclusion Cryptosporidiosis presents an occupational risk to people with cattle contact, and may also be a risk to the human population in general. Thus increased public and medical awareness is warranted. PMID:24902957

  10. On Connections Between Weather Types and the Arrival of Migratory Birds in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepp, M.; Päädam, K.; Palm, V.; Leito, A.

    2010-09-01

    Migration is one of the most energy-consuming activities in the lives of birds. The timing must be such that flying would not be overly strenuous and that there would be favourable conditions for feeding and nesting available at arrival. The wide year-to-year variation in the arrival dates of migratory birds suggests that birds are able to both accelerate and delay their migration according to the weather conditions in the destination area. Often, the arrival date cannot be explained by the average daily temperature or any other single meteorological parameter. Relatively simple tools for exploring the links between climate and wildlife are weather types that combine most of the meteorological variables. The aim of the present work is to study the connections between the arrival of migratory birds in Estonia and the weather types. We examine the weather types that most frequently occurred on those days when birds arrived in Tartu (located in the Eastern part of Estonian mainland) and in Kuressaare (West-Estonian archipelago). For this purpose, the arrival dates of 42 species of migratory birds were analysed and compared to the weather types of 73 classifications generated by COST 733 action (COST 733 catalogue 1.2). Since the weather type classifications were generated using ERA40 air pressure datasets, the period available for analysis is 1958-2002. We selected weather types that occurred on the arrival dates of each migratory bird species. Also, the data on two days prior to the arrival were analysed. We assume that birds "took the decision" to fly to Estonia due to the weather conditions on those two days. Frequency of the selected weather types was analysed and compared to the long term frequency of these types during the spring season (MAM). We assume that birds "prefer" those weather types whose frequency on migration days exceeds their long-term frequency. Similarly, we studied the weather types that birds seem to avoid. The results show that despite the

  11. Perception of emotional nonsense sentences in China, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, Russia, Sweden, and the USA.

    PubMed

    Waaramaa, Teija

    2015-10-01

    The present study focused on the identification of emotions in cross-cultural conditions on different continents and among subjects with divergent language backgrounds. The aim was to investigate whether the perception of the basic emotions from nonsense vocal samples was universal, dependent on voice quality, musicality, and/or gender. Listening tests for 350 participants were conducted on location in a variety of cultures: China, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, Russia, Sweden, and the USA. The results suggested that the voice quality parameters played a role in the identification of emotions without the linguistic content. Cultural background may affect the interpretation of the emotions more than the presumed universality. Musical interest tended to facilitate emotion identification. No gender differences were found. PMID:24861103

  12. Introducing a complex health innovation--primary health care reforms in Estonia (multimethods evaluation).

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat Ali; Menabde, Nata; Saluvere, Katrin; Jesse, Maris; Habicht, Jarno

    2006-11-01

    All post-Soviet countries are trying to reform their primary health care (PHC) systems. The success to date has been uneven. We evaluated PHC reforms in Estonia, using multimethods evaluation: comprising retrospective analysis of routine health service data from Estonian Health Insurance Fund and health-related surveys; documentary analysis of policy reports, laws and regulations; key informant interviews. We analysed changes in organisational structure, regulations, financing and service provision in Estonian PHC system as well as key informant perceptions on factors influencing introduction of reforms. Estonia has successfully implemented and scaled-up multifaceted PHC reforms, including new organisational structures, user choice of family physicians (FPs), new payment methods, specialist training for family medicine, service contracts for FPs, broadened scope of services and evidence-based guidelines. These changes have been institutionalised. PHC effectiveness has been enhanced, as evidenced by improved management of key chronic conditions by FPs in PHC setting and reduced hospital admissions for these conditions. Introduction of PHC reforms - a complex innovation - was enhanced by strong leadership, good co-ordination between policy and operational level, practical approach to implementation emphasizing simplicity of interventions to be easily understood by potential adopters, an encircling strategy to roll-out which avoided direct confrontations with narrow specialists and opposing stakeholders in capital Tallinn, careful change-management strategy to avoid health reforms being politicized too early in the process, and early investment in training to establish a critical mass of health professionals to enable rapid operationalisation of policies. Most importantly, a multifaceted and coordinated approach to reform - with changes in laws; organisational restructuring; modifications to financing and provider payment systems; creation of incentives to enhance

  13. Expanded syringe exchange programs and reduced HIV infection among new injection drug users in Tallinn, Estonia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Estonia has experienced an HIV epidemic among intravenous drug users (IDUs) with the highest per capita HIV prevalence in Eastern Europe. We assessed the effects of expanded syringe exchange programs (SEP) in the capital city, Tallinn, which has an estimated 10,000 IDUs. Methods SEP implementation was monitored with data from the Estonian National Institute for Health Development. Respondent driven sampling (RDS) interview surveys with HIV testing were conducted in Tallinn in 2005, 2007 and 2009 (involving 350, 350 and 327 IDUs respectively). HIV incidence among new injectors (those injecting for < = 3 years) was estimated by assuming (1) new injectors were HIV seronegative when they began injecting, and (2) HIV infection occurred at the midpoint between first injection and time of interview. Results SEP increased from 230,000 syringes exchanged in 2005 to 440,000 in 2007 and 770,000 in 2009. In all three surveys, IDUs were predominantly male (80%), ethnic Russians (>80%), and young adults (mean ages 24 to 27 years). The proportion of new injectors decreased significantly over the years (from 21% in 2005 to 12% in 2009, p = 0.005). HIV prevalence among all respondents stabilized at slightly over 50% (54% in 2005, 55% in 2007, 51% in 2009), and decreased among new injectors (34% in 2005, 16% in 2009, p = 0.046). Estimated HIV incidence among new injectors decreased significantly from 18/100 person-years in 2005 and 21/100 person-years in 2007 to 9/100 person-years in 2009 (p = 0.026). Conclusions In Estonia, a transitional country, a decrease in the HIV prevalence among new injectors and in the numbers of people initiating injection drug use coincided with implementation of large-scale SEPs. Further reductions in HIV transmission among IDUs are still required. Provision of 70 or more syringes per IDU per year may be needed before significant reductions in HIV incidence occur. PMID:21718469

  14. A policy of introducing a new contract and funding system of general practice in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Lember, Margus

    2002-01-01

    The socialist bloc of post-war Europe was obliged to follow the Soviet example with a hierarchical, centrally controlled health care system based on polyclinics and other facilities providing extensive specialist services at the first level of contact. All the countries of Central and Eastern Europe have now expressed their wish to totally change their health care systems. Changes in these countries include: the introduction of market economy mechanisms in health care, an increased focus on population health needs in guiding health care systems, and the possibility of introducing a more general type of care at primary level. Patient expectations of access, choice and convenience are factors in shaping new models of health care delivery. Appropriate timing is the key determinant of the success of reforms. In Estonia the beginning of the 1990s was the time when several interest groups in society supported changes in the health care system. The first step after regaining independence was the reintroduction of a Bismarck-type insurance system. In the late 1990s the primary care reforms have changed the initial plans and elements of a National Health Service were introduced, especially general practitioners' lists, capitation payment and gate-keeping principles. The family medicine reform in Estonia has two main objectives: introduction of general practice as a specialty into Estonian health care and changing the remuneration system of primary care doctors. The specific tasks are: to provide practising primary care doctors with opportunities for retraining to gain the specialty status of a general practitioner, to create a list system for the population to register with a primary care doctor, to introduce a partial gate-keeping system and to give the status of the independent contractor to primary care doctors. PMID:11963443

  15. Tick-Borne Pathogens in Ticks Feeding on Migratory Passerines in Western Part of Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Julia; Nazarova, Lidia; Katargina, Olga; Leivits, Agu; Järvekülg, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract During southward migration in the years 2006–2009, 178 migratory passerines of 24 bird species infested with ticks were captured at bird stations in Western Estonia. In total, 249 nymphal ticks were removed and analyzed individually for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The majority of ticks were collected from Acrocephalus (58%), Turdus (13%), Sylvia (8%), and Parus (6%) bird species. Tick-borne pathogens were detected in nymphs removed from Acrocephalus, Turdus, and Parus bird species. TBEV of the European subtype was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph removed from A. palustris. B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA was found in 11 ticks (4.4%) collected from Turdus and Parus species. Bird-associated B. garinii and B. valaisiana were detected in I. ricinus nymphs removed from T. merula. Rodent-associated B. afzelii was detected in 3 I. ricinus nymphs from 2 P. major birds. One of the B. afzelii-positive nymphs was infected with a mix of 2 B. afzelii strains, whereas 1 of these strains was also detected in another nymph feeding on the same great tit. The sharing of the same B. afzelii strain by 2 nymphs indicates a possible transmission of B. afzelii by co-feeding on a bird. A. phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph feeding on a T. iliacus. The results of the study confirm the possible role of migratory birds in the dispersal of ticks infected with tick-borne pathogens along the southward migration route via Estonia. PMID:23590318

  16. Variation of atmospheric air pollution under conditions of rapid economic change—Estonia 1994-1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimmel, V.; Tammet, H.; Truuts, T.

    Estonia is an example of a country with economy in transition whose atmospheric air pollution has been remarkably influenced by economic changes. During the period of 1994-1999 GDP increased by one-fourth, while agricultural production, electricity and heat production dropped by one-sixths during the studied period. These processes are reflected in the quantity of emissions and structure of air pollution. The study is based on the measurements of concentrations of pollutants at six Estonian Euroairnet monitoring stations—at three sites in the capital city and at three sites in remote areas. The pollutants concerned are the first-priority pollutants in the European Union legislation—nitrogen oxides, SO 2, O 3, particulate matter, and additionally CO. The study reveals that concentrations of gaseous pollutants in Estonia remain within the EU limit values except for ozone in remote areas. The main trend during the studied period was a significant, up to several times, decrease in concentrations of SO 2 and CO while the decrease of nitrogen oxides was less remarkable. The paper propose ratio of NO x/SO 2 as an index describing increasing transport loads and drop in use of sulphur-rich fuels—thus of structure of economy. The annual variation of pollutants is explained by seasonal variations of anthropogenic activity in conditions where local fuels are widely used for heating during winter. Air pollution in Estonian rural stations mostly originated from transboundary fluxes. The 1-3 day delay of the weekly minimum of pollutant concentrations and the wind roses allow to conclude that essential part of pollutants is imported from West Europe.

  17. Nurses' knowledge and attitudes to HIV/AIDS--an international comparison between Finland, Estonia and Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Suominen, Tarja; Koponen, Niina; Mockiene, Vida; Raid, Ulla; Istomina, Natalja; Vänskä, Maj-Lis; Blek-Vehkaluoto, Mari; Välimäki, Maritta

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents baseline data on nurses' knowledge of and attitudes to HIV/AIDS in three countries: Finland, Estonia and Lithuania. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS is steadily increasing in Finland, Estonia and Lithuania. At the same time, labour mobility and also nursing mobility between these countries increases. Previous international studies have shown that lack of knowledge and negative attitudes continue to exist. A total of 681 registered nurses from one Finnish (n = 322), one Estonian (n = 191) and one Lithuanian (n = 168) hospital were surveyed in spring 2006. The questionnaire was originally developed by Held in 1993 and modified for this study. The questionnaire has three scales: demographic and other background variable, nurses' knowledge related to HIV/AIDS, and nurses' attitudes towards people with HIV/AIDS and towards the disease itself. Across the whole sample respondents showed average levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes towards people with HIV/AIDS. Years of work experience correlated negatively with the knowledge and attitude levels. A significant correlation was found between the level of knowledge and attitudes. Significant differences were found between countries, Finnish nurses showing the highest knowledge levels and most positive attitudes towards patients with HIV/AIDS. Factors positively influencing levels of knowledge and attitudes were education, previous experience of providing care to HIV/AIDS patient or knowing someone with the infection, and willingness to provide care to HIV/AIDS patients. Supplementary education is needed to strengthen nurses' knowledge. It is important to recognize that there might be differences in knowledge and attitudes between neighbour countries. This needs to be taken into account when planning education for degrees and for further nursing education. PMID:20487059

  18. Infant mortality gap in the Baltic region - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - in relation to macroeconomic factors in 1996-2010.

    PubMed

    Ebela, Inguna; Zile, Irisa; Ebela, Danute Razuka; Rozenfelde, Ingrida Rumba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. A constant gap has appeared in infant mortality among the 3 Baltic States - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - since the restoration of independence in 1991. The aim of the study was to compare infant mortality rates in all the 3 Baltic countries and examine some of the macro- and socioeconomic factors associated with infant mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The data were obtained from international databases, such as World Health Organization and EUROSTAT, and the national statistical databases of the Baltic States. The time series data sets (1996-2010) were used in the regression and correlation analysis. RESULTS. In all the 3 Baltic States, a strong and significant correlation was found: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01), Lithuania (r=-0.93, P<0.01), and Estonia (r=-0.91, P<0.01). There was also a correlation between infant mortality and healthcare expenditure in local currency per capita: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01); Lithuania (r=-0.90, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=-0.88, P<0.01). In Latvia (r=0.87, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=0.70; P<0.01), a significant correlation between infant mortality and unemployment levels was observed from 1996 to 2008, whereas the statistical significance disappeared in the period from 1996 to 2010. In Lithuania, the relationship was not significant. CONCLUSIONS. Higher infant mortality rates and a less stable decreasing tendency in Latvia are apparently explained by less successful adaptation to a new political and economic situation and limited skills in adjusting the healthcare system to the reality of life. PMID:24709788

  19. Magnetic history of Early and Middle Ordovician sedimentary sequence, northern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plado, J.; Preeden, U.; Pesonen, L. J.; Mertanen, S.; Puura, V.

    2010-01-01

    Alternating field and thermal demagnetization of lime- and dolostones from the Lower and Middle Ordovician (Floian to Darriwilian stages) subhorizontally bedded sequences in NW and NE Estonia reveal two characteristic magnetization components (named P and S). The intermediate-coercivity (demagnetized at 30-60 mT, up to 300-350°C) reversed polarity component P (mean of Floian Stage: Dref = 147.8 +/- 10.8°, Iref = 65.8 +/- 5.4° combined mean of Dapingian and Darriwilian stages: Dref = 166.0 +/- 8.4°, Iref = 56.1 +/- 6.5°) is regarded as the primary remanence of early diagenetic (chemical) origin. On the Baltica's apparent polar wander path (APWP), the palaeopoles (Floian: Plat = 25.0°N, Plon = 50.8°E, K = 52.7, A95 = 7.2° Dapingian and Darriwilian: Plat = 11.4°N, Plon = 39.1°E, K = 33.8, A95 = 6.7°) are placed on the Lower and Middle Ordovician segment. The poles indicate that Estonia was located at southerly latitudes, decreasing with time (Floian: ~48°S Dapingian and Darriwilian: ~37°S), when the remanence was acquired. A high-coercivity and high-unblocking-temperature component S (mean of samples: Dref = 33.7 +/- 6.3°, Iref = 51.9 +/- 5.7°) that is regarded as a secondary remanence has both normal and reversed polarities. On the European APWP, its palaeopole (Plat = 52.5°N, Plon = 157.9°E, K = 38.9, A95 = 5.3°) gives middle to late Permian age. According to mineralogical (SEM and optical microscopy) and rock magnetic (three-component induced remnant magnetization) studies, component P is carried by magnetite (coexisting with glauconite) and component S by haematite. Magnetite is of chemical origin, formed in the course of early diagenesis and/or dolomitization. During the Permian continental period haematite, the carrier of component S, was likely precipitated from oxidizing meteoric fluids in the already existing or simultaneously formed pore space between the dolomite crystals.

  20. On-line field measurements of VOC emissions from a spruce tree at SMEAR Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Bonn, Boris; Noe, Steffen

    2013-04-01

    We have investigated VOC emissions from a Norway spruce tree (Picea abies) in a hemi-boreal mixed forest in September and October 2012, using Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry techniques, applied in a dynamic branch enclosure system that was automatically operated with an electrical compressor. Parallel to BVOC measurements a vast amount of atmospheric (CO2, CH4, H2O, CO, particles) and meteorological (temperature, relative humidity, photosynthetic active radiation, wind speed and direction, precipitation) parameters were measured in the ambient atmosphere and inside the cuvette enclosure (temperature, relative humidity, O3). Prior to the measuring period, an innovatory experimental setup was built at Järvselja forest station, in order to accomplish the detection of BVOC and minimize sampling losses. Therefore, a new inlet line, consisting of 19.4m of heated and isolated glass tube was constructed. The new inlet system applied, allowed the on-line detection and calculation of sesquiterpene (SQT) emission rates for the first time in a hemi-boreal forest site. It total, 12 atmospheric relevant BVOCs were continuously monitored for a three week period and the emission rates were derived. Along with diurnal profiles and continuous timeless, some interesting observations showed the possibility of ozone effect on SQT emissions, the possibility of radiation effect on MT emissions, the higher induced emissions due to mechanical stress and the possibility for a valid intercomparison between different spruce trees located in mountain Kleiner Feldberg (Germany) and in Järvseja forest station (Estonia).

  1. On the move: explaining migration patterns in Estonia during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Tammaru, T; Sjoberg, O

    1999-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the migration patterns during the transition period in Estonia. A structuration approach was used to analyze data from the Estonian Statistical Office collected in 1997. Findings show that for migration between urban and rural areas, work-related reasons have been the most important motivating factor in urban growth during the transition period. Also considered are the family and education. In relation to sociodemographic structure of the population, men cite work, while women count family-related reasons, as the main motive for migrating. As to nonregistration, the most significant reason relates to issues of ownership. Because migrants are living in rented housing, it is not possible for them to register even if they desire to do so. Other reasons include "temporary", associated with study and work; "juridical", bureaucratic matters; and "multiple places of residence". This analysis, however, is incomplete because the attitudes and patterns of behavior have only partially or perfunctorily been related to the dramatic changes that have occurred in Estonian society. Proper statistical data are needed to help examine trends at a more disaggregated spatial level. PMID:12322305

  2. Bone mineral density reference range in Estonia: a comparison with the standard database (NHANES III).

    PubMed

    Kull, Mart; Kallikorm, Riina; Lember, Margus

    2009-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is accepted as a standard for diagnosing osteoporosis. Several databases are available for T-score calculation worldwide. Our aim was to compare hip bone mineral density (BMD) in young Estonian adults with the mean BMD in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) femur database and to compare the performance of these 2 databases. A population sample of 304 subjects was analyzed with a Lunar DPX-IQ DXA machine (GE Lunar Co., Madison, WI). Seventy-seven healthy young individuals were selected based on their age (25-39 yr). Their femur neck, trochanter, and total hip mean standardized BMD was compared with the corresponding data from the NHANES III database. Diagnostic agreement was assessed in a population sample of adults and in a clinical convenience sample from the densitometry unit. The BMD in the proximal femur in healthy young Estonian adults did not differ from the mean BMD in the NHANES subjects (p > 0.05). Differences in diagnosing osteoporosis and osteopenia are present if the Estonian reference database is used instead of the US standard database. Prospective studies with fracture data for assessing the predictive capability of these reference databases and the additional benefit of adding the FRAX (World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield, UK) tool to fracture prediction and osteoporosis diagnosis are needed in Estonia. PMID:19880053

  3. Cyclic sedimentation pattern in Lake Veetka, southeast Estonia: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarse, Leili

    2015-03-01

    A sediment core from Lake Veetka, southeast Estonia, 1077 cm in length and covering 10,500 calibrated years, was examined using loss-on-ignition, grain-size distribution and AMS 14C dating to reconstruct depositional dynamics. The studied core, recovered from the northern part of the lake, shows a cyclic pattern of organic and mineral matter concentration with cycle durations of 100-400 years. Cyclicity is displayed better in sediments laid down between 9,200 and 5,600 cal BP. Within two time windows (5,600-5,100 cal BP and from 1,200 cal BP to the present), sediment composition changed drastically on account of a high and fluctuating mineral matter content, obviously driven by different factors. Little Ice Age cooling is characterised by the highest proportion of mineral matter, and the Medieval Warm Period is typified by high organic matter content. The cyclic change of organic and mineral matter has been related to climate dynamics, most likely an alternation of wet and dry conditions, changes in the water level of the lake and differences in bioproduction

  4. Morbidity and mortality in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in the 1980's.

    PubMed

    Zvidriņs, P; Krumiņs, J

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the general morbidity and mortality rates in the three Baltic republics--Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania during a decade before the collapse of the Soviet Union. Official statistical data were used to compare morbidity and mortality rates. A method of standardization and life table functions were employed. Soviet morbidity statistics were predominantly descriptive, and based mainly on crude rates registered cases of illness during a year per 100,000 population. The death rates during the Soviet period are a better indicator of the health of the populations than more specific health indicators. A general deterioration of the ecological, social and economic situation in the Baltic republics at the end of the 1980s and early 1990s may have resulted in the mortality rising and aborted any trends to increasing life expectancy in the next few years thus requiring more radical reforms in health and social policy. The study demonstrates a noticeable difference in mortality rates between demographic and socio-economic groups in the Baltic states. PMID:8235500

  5. Baltic blues: for women workers in Estonia, new jobs are lacking.

    PubMed

    Alyanak, L

    1999-01-01

    This article reports employment discrimination faced by women in the transition economy of Estonia. Since the country regained its independence in 1991, the shrinking jobs market has hit women the hardest. About 38.3% of women compared with only 24.7% of men are unemployed or underemployed. In addition to unemployment, women also tend to hold the lowest-paid jobs even when they are more skilled, and often work in the low paid public sector rather than in private enterprise. In the 1999 Human Development Report on transition economies, it said that countries in transition experience a marked increase in gender inequality in political, economic and social spheres. Such experience is shared across the Soviet Union, Moscow, Russia, Poland, Latvia, and Croatia. Many of these countries have laws against gender discrimination in hiring, but are often unenforced. However, both the International Labor Organization (ILO) and the Estonian government are working in assuring equality among working women. ILO's International Programme on More and Better Jobs for Women seek to reinforce ILO commitment to gender equality at work. PMID:12295603

  6. Echinococcus multilocularis and other zoonotic parasites in red foxes in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Laurimaa, Leidi; Moks, Epp; Soe, Egle; Valdmann, Harri; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-09-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the most widely distributed canid in the world and an important source of multiple zoonotic pathogens capable of causing life-threatening diseases, such as rabies and alveolar echinococcosis. Informing general public of potential risks related to foxes is becoming more important since the fox densities have increased in many countries and the species is colonizing urban areas in Europe and around the world with increasing pace, bringing zoonotic pathogens to the immediate neighbourhood of humans and their companion animals. The aim of this study was to examine the parasite fauna of red foxes in Estonia. We found in Estonian foxes a total of 17 endoparasite taxa, including ten zoonotic species. All the analysed individuals were infected and the average parasite species richness was 6·37. However, the infection rates varied to a very large extent for different parasite species, ranging from 0·9 to 91·5%. Of zoonotic species, the highest infection rate was observed for Alaria alata (90·7%), Eucoleus aerophilus (87·6%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (84·3%). The prevalence of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, a causative agent for alveolar echinococcosis, was also relatively high (31·5%), presenting a potential risk to human health. PMID:27279259

  7. Sex work in Tallinn, Estonia: the sociospatial penetration of sex work into society

    PubMed Central

    Aral, S O; Lawrence, J S St; Uusküla, A

    2006-01-01

    Background It is important to describe and understand the underlying patterns and dynamics that govern sex work in societies undergoing rapid political and social changes, its heterogeneity across populations, and its evolution through time in order to inform future research, sound policy formation, and programme delivery. Objectives To describe the socioeconomic and cultural determinants, organisational structure, distinct categories, and spatial patterning of sex work in Tallinn, Estonia, and identify recent temporal changes in sex work patterns. Methods In‐depth interviews with key informants; naturalistic observations of sex work and drug use venues, geo‐mapping of sex work sites, review of media, public policy, and commissioned reports, and analyses of existing data. Results Sex work takes place in a hierarchy of locations in Tallinn ranging from elite brothels and “love flats” to truck stops. These sites vary in terms of their public health importance and social organisation. There are full time, part time, and intermittent male and female sex workers. Among others, the taxi driver, madam and the bartender are central roles in the organisation of sex work in Tallinn. Cell phone and internet technology enable sex work to be highly dispersed and spatially mobile. Conclusion Future research and programmatic service delivery or outreach efforts should respond to the changing profile of sex work in Tallinn and its implications for STD/HIV epidemiology. PMID:16807288

  8. Reviving wood-pastures for biodiversity and people: A case study from western Estonia.

    PubMed

    Roellig, Marlene; Sutcliffe, Laura M E; Sammul, Marek; von Wehrden, Henrik; Newig, Jens; Fischer, Joern

    2016-03-01

    Wood-pastures are associated with high cultural and biodiversity values in Europe. However, due to their relatively low productivity, large areas of wood-pastures have been lost over the last century. In some areas, incentive schemes have been developed to revive wood-pastures. We investigated the effects of one such scheme in western Estonia. We compared the structure of grazed wood-pastures (old and restored) to those of abandoned wood-pastures and ungrazed forest stands to explore the effects of management, and conducted interviews with 24 farmers to investigate their motivations to carry out the management. We found a positive influence of active management on the semi-open structure of wood-pastures. Financial support was vital for management, but personal values related to tradition also played an important role. The interviewees differed widely in their range of motivations, suggesting that other strategies in addition to financial incentives would further improve the management of wood-pastures in the region. PMID:26458391

  9. Molecular epidemiology of Trichinella spp. in three Baltic countries: Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia.

    PubMed

    Malakauskas, A; Paulauskas, V; Järvis, T; Keidans, P; Eddi, C; Kapel, C M O

    2007-03-01

    Meat of domestic pigs and wild boars has been the significant source of emerged human trichinellosis in Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia over the past two decades. However, there is very little known on the occurrence of Trichinella spp. in main wildlife reservoirs and its transmission in domestic and sylvatic cycles in these countries. The present study demonstrated considerably higher endemicity of Trichinella spp. in main sylvatic reservoirs (28.9-42% in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in all three countries than previously reported. Molecular identification of Trichinella larvae from more than 500 sylvatic and domestic animals revealed four Trichinella species (Trichinella spiralis, Trichinella britovi, Trichinella nativa, and Trichinella pseudospiralis) sympatric in a relatively small area and several as the first records for the respective countries. The nonencapsulating T. pseudospiralis is found for the first time in the Eastern Europe. Sylvatic T. britovi was found in domestic pigs in Lithuania and Latvia (16 and 57.1%, respectively) and only in these countries, domestic T. spiralis was detected in sylvatic animals in areas where domestic trichinellosis was registered. The study suggests that transmission of Trichinella between domestic and sylvatic cycles in Lithuania and Latvia is favored by improper human behavior, e.g., pig and slaughter waste management. PMID:17013647

  10. Measurement of Community Empowerment in Three Community Programs in Rapla (Estonia)

    PubMed Central

    Kasmel, Anu; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard

    2011-01-01

    Community empowerment approaches have been proven to be powerful tools for solving local health problems. However, the methods for measuring empowerment in the community remain unclear and open to dispute. This study aims to describe how a context-specific community empowerment measurement tool was developed and changes made to three health promotion programs in Rapla, Estonia. An empowerment expansion model was compiled and applied to three existing programs: Safe Community, Drug/HIV Prevention and Elderly Quality of Life. The consensus workshop method was used to create the measurement tool and collect data on the Organizational Domains of Community Empowerment (ODCE). The study demonstrated considerable increases in the ODCE among the community workgroup, which was initiated by community members and the municipality’s decision-makers. The increase was within the workgroup, which had strong political and financial support on a national level but was not the community’s priority. The program was initiated and implemented by the local community members, and continuous development still occurred, though at a reduced pace. The use of the empowerment expansion model has proven to be an applicable, relevant, simple and inexpensive tool for the evaluation of community empowerment. PMID:21556179

  11. Factors affecting re-vegetation dynamics of experimentally restored extracted peatland in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Karofeld, Edgar; Müür, Mari; Vellak, Kai

    2016-07-01

    Increasing human activity continues to threaten peatlands, and as the area of natural mires declines, our obligation is to restore their ecosystem functions. Several restoration strategies have been developed for restoration of extracted peatlands, including "The moss layer transfer method", which was initiated on the Tässi extracted peatland in central Estonia in May 2012. Three-year study shows that despite the fluctuating water table, rainfall events can compensate for the insufficient moisture for mosses. Total plant cover on the restoration area attained 70 %, of which ~60 % is comprised of target species-Sphagnum mosses. From restoration treatments, spreading of plant fragments had a significant positive effect on the cover of bryophyte and vascular plants. Higher water table combined with higher plant fragments spreading density and stripping of oxidised peat layer affected positively the cover of targeted Sphagnum species. The species composition in the restoration area became similar to that in the donor site in a natural bog. Based on results, it was concluded that the method approved for restoration in North America gives good results also in the restoration of extracted peatland towards re-establishment of bog vegetation under northern European conditions. PMID:26490883

  12. Pathological gambling in Estonia: relationships with personality, self-esteem, emotional States and cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Kaare, Pille-Riin; Mõttus, René; Konstabel, Kenn

    2009-09-01

    Due to changes in gambling accessibility during the last decade gambling has become more widespread in Estonia and the prevalence of pathological gambling has sharply increased. The present study attempts to identify psychological characteristics of Estonian pathological gamblers. It has been shown that a wide range of social, economic, and individual factors (e.g. personality traits and emotional states) predict the likelihood of becoming a pathological gambler. In the present study, pathological gamblers' (N = 33) personality traits, self-esteem, self-reported emotional states and cognitive ability were compared to the respective characteristics in a non-gambling control group (N = 42) matched for age, gender and educational level. It was found that compared to controls, pathological gamblers had higher scores on Neuroticism (especially on its immoderation facet) and lower scores on Conscientiousness (especially on its dutifulness and cautiousness facets) and on self-esteem scale. They reported more negative emotional states during the previous month (especially depression and anxiety). Finally, pathological gamblers had lower general cognitive ability. In a logistic regression model, the likelihood of being a pathological gambler was best predicted by high immoderation score and low cognitive ability. PMID:19234772

  13. Long-term phyto-, ornitho- and ichthyophenological time-series analyses in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahas, Rein

    This study analyzes a long-term phenological time series for the impact assessment of climate changes on Estonian nature and for the methodological study of the possible limitations of using phenological time series for climate trend analyses. These limiting factors can influence the results of studies more than the real impact of climate changes, which may have a much smaller numeric value. The 132-year series of the arrival of the skylark (Alauda arvensis) and the white wagtail (Motacilla alba), the 78-year series of the blossoming of the wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa), the bird cherry (Padus racemosa), apple trees (Malus domestica) and lilacs (Syringa vulgaris), and the 44-year series of the spawning of pike (Esox lucius) and bream (Abramis brama) were studied at three selected observation points in Estonia. The study of the phenological time series shows that Estonian springs have, on the basis of the database, advanced 8 days on average over the last 80-year period; the last 40-year period has warmed even faster.

  14. Fatal poisoning in Estonia 2000-2009. Trends in illegal drug-related deaths.

    PubMed

    Tuusov, J; Vals, K; Tõnisson, M; Riikoja, A; Denissov, G; Väli, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an overview of deaths caused by poisoning (especially illicit drugs) in Estonia from 2000 to 2009. The data on poisoning deaths (N = 4132) were collected from the autopsy reports of the Estonian Forensic Science Institute. Ethanol poisoning was the most frequent cause of death (N = 1449, 35.1%), followed by carbon monoxide (N = 1151, 27.9%) and poisoning from illicit drugs (N = 888, 21.5%). The study included 3267 male (79.1%) and 865 female fatalities, with the prevalent age group being 35-64 years. Since 2002, deaths from fentanyles have increased sharply and remained at a high level - from 63 cases in 2002 to 138 cases in 2009. This high number indicates that in spite of the state's drug policies, illegal drugs remain easily available and that this area requires more attention. Alcohol abuse prevention policies - restrictions on alcohol advertisements in the media, limitations on sale times and anti-alcohol campaigns concerning traffic - have not brought about a significant decrease in ethanol poisoning. PMID:23217376

  15. First report of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in raccoon dogs in Estonia, and comparisons with other countries in Europe.

    PubMed

    Laurimaa, Leidi; Süld, Karmen; Moks, Epp; Valdmann, Harri; Umhang, Gérald; Knapp, Jenny; Saarma, Urmas

    2015-09-15

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is an alien species in Europe and an important vector of zoonotic diseases. However, compared to the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), less attention has been paid to the raccoon dog as a potentially important host for Echinococcus multilocularis, the infective agent of alveolar echinococcosis, which is an emerging infectious disease with a high mortality rate. We examined the small intestines of 249 Estonian raccoon dogs and found 1.6% of individuals to be infected with E. multilocularis. The relatively large difference between this prevalence and that found in sympatric red foxes (31.5%) sampled during the same time period might be due to differences in diet: red foxes consume significantly more arvicolid rodents - the main intermediate hosts of the parasite - especially during the coldest period of the year when raccoon dogs hibernate. Nonetheless, given the relatively high density of raccoon dogs, our results suggest that the species also represents an important definitive host species for E. multilocularis in Estonia. Compared with other countries in Europe where E. multilocularis-infected raccoon dogs have been recorded (Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, and Slovakia), the prevalence in Estonia is low. The longer hibernation period of raccoon dogs at higher latitudes may explain this pattern. Both mitochondrial and nuclear loci were analysed for Estonian isolates: based on EmsB microsatellite genotyping the Estonian isolates shared an identical genotype with E. multilocularis in northern Poland, suggesting a common history with this region. The data from more than a quarter of the mitochondrial genome (3558 bp) revealed two novel haplotypes specific to Estonia and placed them into the same haplogroup with isolates from other European regions. Considering that the raccoon dog is becoming increasingly widespread and is already relatively abundant in several countries in Europe, the role of the species must be taken into

  16. Incorporation of public hospitals: a "silver bullet" against overcapacity, managerial bottlenecks and resource constraints? Case studies from Austria and Estonia.

    PubMed

    Fidler, Armin H; Haslinger, Reinhard R; Hofmarcher, Maria M; Jesse, Maris; Palu, Toomas

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents a new approach for incorporating public hospitals by contrasting the experience from an "old" EU country (Austria) with a new EU member state (Estonia). In the EU (including the new member states) hospital overcapacity is a serious problem, from a technical, fiscal and political perspective. Few countries have succeeded in establishing an appropriate framework for resource management and for guaranteeing long-term financial viability of their hospital network. Many countries are in search of effective policies for improved hospital management and more cost-effective resource use in the health sector. Over the past decade, experiences in Austria and Estonia have emerged as innovative examples which may provide lessons for other EU countries and beyond. This paper describes the evolution of public hospitals from public budgetary units and public management to incorporated autonomous organizations under private corporate law, resulting in a contractual relationship between (public) owners and private hospital management. Outdated and inefficient public sector structures were replaced by more agile corporate management. The arrangement allows for investments, operating costs and budgeting according to strategic business goals as opposed to political "fiat". Shielding hospitals from local political influence is an important aspect of this concept. Horizontal integration through networking of public hospitals and introducing private management helps create a new corporate culture, allowing for more flexibility to achieve efficiencies through downsizing and economies of scale. Based on contracts the new balance between ownership and managerial functions create strong incentives for a more business-like, results-oriented and consumer-friendly management. This was achieved both in Austria and Estonia in a politically sensitive way, adopting a long-term vision and by protecting the interests of hospital owners and staff. PMID:16919838

  17. Analysis of the varved clay accumulation in the Pärnu Bay area, Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvans, Andis; Hang, Tiit

    2015-04-01

    Varved clays are commonly found glaciolacustrine sediments representing high-resolution environmental archives of the deglaciation events. We examine varve formation in the Baltic Ice Lake at the Pärnu Bay area, Estonia, during the deglaciation of the last Scandinavian glaciation from the region. The data set of Hang and Kohv (2013) spanning 584 years is used. Analysis of the spatial variation of the seasonal layer thickness distribution based on 26 sediment cores and sub-varve resolution grain size analysis from a single section was performed. The Baltic Ice Lake water level reconstruction indicates that the water depth at the study region was up to 80 m (Rosentau et al., 2009). It is found that during the first ~130 years after the ice retreat the summer sedimentation was dominated by sediment loaded underflows emanating form the ice margin: summer layer thickness is strongly positively correlated with water depth. The winter layer thickness during this period does not demonstrate significant correlation with water depth suggesting that the simple raining-out of the suspended material from a water column was complicated by water circulation. Ice retreat from the Pandivere-Neva line of the marginal formations just north from study area took place during the interval from 96 to 130 local varve years. During the transition marked shift from proglacial to distal sedimentary environment is observed: the summer layer thickens decreased dramatically and it's thickens is markedly higher in the area close to the ice margin. The winter layer thickens becomes strongly correlated to the water depth, suggesting that the simple sedimentation model with no water circulation and addition of no new sediments is valid. The grain size data is used to estimate the "terminal grain size" - the size of the larges particles sedimented at the top of the winter layer. Provided that no significant water circulation took place during the winter, the terminal grain size will be controlled

  18. The member of the Academy H.P. Keres and the Relativity theory in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuusk, P.; Muursepp, P. V.; Piir, Ivar

    1987-10-01

    The first popular lecture on the Einstein theory of relativity was given in Estonia already in 1914 by Jaan Sarv (1877-1954)[1],afterwards a professor of mathematics at the Tartu University. The first student courses on special relativity were delivered by Professor of Mathematics Juri Nuut (1892-1952): non-Euclidean geometry (1930), the mathematical theory of relativity (1932/1933),the Lorenz transformations (1937). His own research work concerned the Lobachevsky geometry [7] and its application to cosmology [6]. Harald Keres qraguated from the Tartu University in 1936. He gave the first student course on general relativity (based on books [11-14]in 1940.In 1942,he got the dr.phil.nat degree form the Tartu University for his theses "Raum und Zeit in der allgemeinen Relativitatstheorie". The degree of the doctor of mathematical and physical sciences was confirmed by VAK (the All-Union Higher Attestation Commission) in 1949.In this period, he got aquainted with the leading Soviet scientists working on General Relativity, prof.V.A.Fock,Prof.D.D.Ivanenko,Prof.A.Z.Petrov,and Prof.M.F.Shirokov. After World War two all-union university courses were introduced in Tartu State University. According to the curriculum of the course the special theory of relativity is a part of electrodynamics obligatory for all students of the department of Physics. From 1947 till 1985 this course was delivered by Prof.PaulKard(1914-1985).He also published a number of text-books on the subject [15-19]. The general theory of relativity was read by Prof.H.Keres in 1951-1960 and later by his pupils R.Lias and A.Koppel [20-23] as a special course for students specializing in theoretical Physics. The first PHD-s in general relativity were made by R.Lias [27](1954) and I.Piir [28] (1955). In 1961, Prof.H.Keres was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences of the Estonian S.S.R. He left the TArtu State University and began to work in the Institute of Physics as the head of the Department of

  19. Factors Predicting Suicide among Russians in Estonia in Comparison with Estonians: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Kõlves, Kairi; Sisask, Merike; Anion, Liivia; Samm, Algi; Värnik, Airi

    2006-01-01

    Aim To explore differences between suicide victims among Russian immigrants in Estonia and native Estonians, according to socio-demographic background, substance use pattern, and recent life events to find out immigration-specific factors predicting suicide. Methods The psychological autopsy study included 427 people who committed suicide in 1999 and 427 randomly selected controls matched by region, gender, age, and nationality. Results The only variable that differed significantly between Russian and Estonian suicide cases was substance use pattern. Logistic regression models showed that factors associated with suicide for both nationalities were substance dependence and abuse (Russians: odds ratio [OR], 12.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 4.2-39.2; Estonians: OR, 8.1; 95% CI, 3.9-16.4), economical inactivity Russians: OR 5.5; 95% CI, 1.3-22.9; Estonians: OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.3-7.1), and recent family discord (Russians: OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.1-9.9; Estonians: OR, 4.5; 95%, CI, 2.1-9.8). The variables that remained significant in the final model were having no partner (Estonians: OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.6-5.5), being unemployed (Estonians: OR, 5.5; 95% CI, 2.0-15.4), and being an abstainer (Estonians: OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 2.5-17.6) for Estonians, and somatic illness (Russians: OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.4-11.7), separation (Russians: OR, 32.3; 95% CI, 2.9-364.1), and death of a close person (Russians: OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.04-0.7) for Russians. Conclusion Although the predicting factors of suicide were similar among the Estonian Russians and Estonians, there were still some differences in the nature of recent life events. Higher suicide rate among Estonian Russians in 1999 could be at least partly attributable to their higher substance consumption. PMID:17171808

  20. Eutrophication History of Small Shallow Lakes in Estonia: Evidence from Multiproxy Analysis of Lake Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koff, T.; Marzecova, A.; Vandel, E.; Mikomägi, A.; Avi, E.

    2015-12-01

    Human activities have impacted aquatic systems through the release of contaminants and the regulation of surface and groundwater. Although environmental monitoring has been essential in detecting eutrophication, biodiversity loss or water quality deterioration, monitoring activities are limited in time and are thus not sufficient in their scope to identify causality and thresholds. Paleolimnological studies increasingly show that the response of lakes to climatic and human influences is complex, multidimensional, and often indirectly mediated through watershed processes. In this study we examine the history of eutrophication processes in small lakes in Estonia using the multi-proxy analysis of sediment. Study sites represent lakes with different anthropogenic stressors: urbanisation and recreational use, run-off from an oil shale mine, and fish-kills and liming measures. We have used diverse analytical methods, such as elemental analysis, stable isotopes, fossil pigments, diatoms and Cladocera remains. The information derived from sedimentary indicators broadly agrees with the historical evidence of eutrophication and pollution. Moreover, the sediment records are indispensable for identifying additional issues such as: 1) earlier onset of cultural eutrophication; 2) the significant impact of catchment erosion on the deterioration of lake quality, particularly cyanobacterial blooms; and 3) changes in sedimentation processes with significance for internal biogeochemical cycling of nutrients. Importantly, the integration of several methods has significantly improved interpretation of sedimentary data and elucidated the different strengths of various indicator types. The project findings prove to be highly relevant for both the prediction of the ecological responses of lakes to different anthropogenic impacts and the establishment of reasonable reference target conditions in restoration schemes, as well as for methodological improvements of the sediment analysis.

  1. Nurses' and nursing students' perceptions of sexual risk behavior: a study in Finland, Estonia, and Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Suominen, Tarja; Koponen, Niina; Mockiene, Vida; Staniuliene, Vida; Istomina, Natalja; Aro, Ilme; Kisper-Hint, Ima-Riina; Raid, Ulla; Vänskä, Maj-Lis; Välimäki, Maritta

    2008-10-01

    The continuing escalation of the global HIV/AIDS epidemic has changed our perceptions of sexual health. This article reports on a study of nurses' and nursing students' perceptions of sexual risk behaviour in Finland, Estonia and Lithuania and of how these perceptions are associated with background variables. Questionnaire data were collected in year 2006 with a modified version of Chng and Moore's Safer Sex Scale (1993), which consists of 12 background questions and 10 items exploring nurses' and nursing students' perceptions of sexual risk behaviour. Responses were obtained from 1152 nurses and nursing students. Their perceptions of sexual risk behaviour appeared to be quite cautious. The results revealed statistically significant country differences, with Finnish and Estonian respondents showing more cautious perceptions of sexual risk behavior than Lithuanian respondents. Some background variables were found to be associated with perceptions of sexual risk behavior. Nurses' perceptions differed from those of nursing students: the latter were less cautious in their perceptions. The most important background factor was previous experience of nursing an HIV/AIDS patient: nurses and students who had such experience reported more cautious perceptions than those who did not. In addition, age was found to correlate with perceptions of sexual risk behavior. Nurses and nursing students need to be more aware of their own perceptions of sexual risk behavior and the impact of those perceptions on their clinical practice. Interventions need to be developed in order to promote safer sex practices. Health care personnel should have the opportunity in their training to work with HIV/AIDS patients. PMID:18847386

  2. Overlapping Democracies, Europe's Democratic Deficit, and National Education Policy: Estonia's School Leaders as Heirs to a Soviet Legacy or as Agents of Democracy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevick, Doyle

    2009-01-01

    Eleven years after Estonia regained independence, its government sought admission to the European Union and NATO, which pressured the country to act on issues related to the Holocaust and in particular to adopt a Holocaust education day in schools. The policy, though adopted, was deeply unpopular within the country, leading to the dilemma of…

  3. The Occupational Well-Being of School Staff and Maintenance of Their Ability to Work in Finland and Estonia--Focus on the School Community and Professional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saaranen, Terhi; Sormunen, Marjorita; Pertel, Tiia; Streimann, Karin; Hansen, Siivi; Varava, Liana; Lepp, Kadi; Turunen, Hannele; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the baseline results of a research and development project targeted to improve the occupational well-being of school staff and maintain their ability to work, in Finland and Estonia. It reveals the most problematic factors in the various aspects of the school community and professional competence and outlines…

  4. "It's Good to Live in Jarva-Jaani but We Can't Stay Here": Youth and Belonging in Rural Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trell, Elen-Maarja; van Hoven, Bettina; Huigen, Paulus

    2012-01-01

    In the broader context of post-socialist transition and rural decline, we examine the everyday lives of young people in rural Estonia. We focus in particular on key places of belonging for youths and the practices and experiences through which rural young people develop a sense of belonging to their local places. Our aim is to identify links…

  5. Seasonal and diurnal dynamics of CO2 balance in two hemi-boreal forests in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mander, Ülo

    2013-04-01

    Two eddy towers, one in the mixed Norway spruce - Silver birch forest in Liispõllu (58°16'N 27°16'E tower height 20 m) and another one in Scots pine forest in Soontaga (58°01'N 26°04'E; 36 m) both located in southern Estonia - were equipped with CO2/H2O analyzer for mixing ratio of CO2 (Licor 7200 Li-Cor Inc, Lincoln, NE, USA) and 3-D ultrasonic anemometer for wind measurements (Gill Windmaster Pro; Solent, Lymington, UK) and used for measurement of carbon dioxide balance and net ecosystem exchange (NEE). In Liispõllu, the studies were conducted in Auguat and September 2011 above the forest canopies and at 1.5 m above the soil surface.. In Soontaga, measurements lasted from April to October 2012. The data acquisition system consists of the LI-7550 Analyzer Interface Unit, 3G wireless router and analog-to-digital converter that were used to record turbulence and scalar signals. Signals from the sensor and anemometer were recorded 20 times sec-1. The eddy fluxes were averaged over 30 minute time intervals. The flux calculations and corrections of were done using EddyPro program. In addition, soil respiration was measured with automatic chambers in Liispõllu and with closed chambers in Soontaga twice a month from April to October 2011 and 2012. In both study areas around the towers, soil physical and chemical parameters in 3 depths, biomass of trees and understory species, C sequestration in biomass and litter decay has been measured. In Soontaga pine forest the average monthly CO2 flux varied from -59.2 to -388.8 mg m-2 h-1 showing a regular seasonal temperature-related variation. CO2 flux from lowered in spring and summer as plants consume the gas through photosynthesis and days are longer, and rise during the autumn and winter as plants go dormant, die and decay and when also the daytime is shorter. The average monthly flux over the analyzed period was -246.5 mg m-2 h-1. In consequence, the CO2 sequestration from the atmosphere was highest in June. In Liisp

  6. H2O beams for zinc oxide film growth produced by a Pt-catalyzed H2-O2 reaction at various divergent aperture angles of a de Laval nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teraguchi, Yusuke; Ishidzuka, Yuki; Nakamura, Tomoki; Takahashi, Kazumasa; Tamayama, Yasuhiro; Harada, Nobuhiro; Yasui, Kanji

    2016-02-01

    High-energy H2O beams generated by a de Laval nozzle, meant for the growth of zinc oxide thin films through chemical vapor deposition, were assessed based on compressible flow theory at various divergent aperture angles. In this process, high temperature H2O was generated by a catalytic reaction between H2 and O2 on Pt nanoparticles and effused through the nozzle into the reaction zone. The theoretical beam temperature distributions, reduced scaling parameters and mean cluster sizes of the H2O beams generated at angles between 50 and 90° were evaluated. The reduced scaling parameters of the H2O beams for all angles were calculated to be less than 200 and the mean cluster sizes were estimated to be less than one irrespective of the divergent aperture angle of the nozzle, suggesting that clusters are not formed in the H2O beam in our apparatus. The crystallinity and electrical properties of the zinc oxide films grown using various divergent aperture angles were also evaluated.

  7. Identifying women at risk for delayed presentation of breast cancer: a cross-sectional study in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Survival from breast cancer remains lower in Estonia than in most other European countries. More advanced stage and larger tumors that have impact on survival may be a result of delay in seeking help for breast cancer symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of delayed presentation among breast cancer patients in Estonia. Methods The study population included women with primary breast cancer diagnosed in Estonia in 2008–2010. All data were collected using structured personal interviews carried out by trained nurses in the hospital setting. Only patients with self-discovered symptoms were included in this analysis. Patient delay was measured as time elapsing from symptom self-discovery to first medical consultation. The effect of different factors on the likelihood of prolonged delay (>90 days) was evaluated using logistic regression. Results Among 703 eligible patients, median patient delay was 16 days (interquartile range 5–54 days). Seventeen percent of the patients had their first medical consultation more than three months after self-detection of symptoms. In multivariate analysis, the risk of prolonged delay was significantly associated with age 65 years and over (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.23–4.20), current smoking (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.21–3.61), symptoms other than painless breast lump or breast pain (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.08–3.16), no history of mammograms (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.13–2.95), having received no information on breast cancer during past year (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.05–2.99), and previous benign breast problems (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.01–2.67). Non-significant risk increase was seen with lower education. Conclusions This study provides evidence that factors associated with delayed presentation of breast cancer in Eastern Europe are similar to those observed in Western countries. The results suggest that educational messages to general population should aim at increasing awareness of “non-lump” symptoms of breast cancer and

  8. Ethnic differences in cancer incidence in Estonia: two cross-sectional unlinked census-based cancer incidence analyses

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    Background Estonian and Russian ethnic groups in Estonia differ from one another in several aspects, such as historic and socio-economic background, language and culture. The aim of the current study was to examine ethnic differences in cancer incidence in Estonia, and to compare the situation before and after the profound political and economical changes in the early 1990s. Methods Two cross-sectional unlinked census-based cancer incidence analyses were performed. Cancer incidence data were obtained from the Estonian Cancer Registry. Population denominators came from the population censuses of 1989 and 2000. Standardized cancer incidence rates were calculated for men and women for the aggregate periods 1988–1990 and 1999–2000. Differences in cancer incidence between Estonians and Russians in 1989 and 2000 were estimated for both sexes, using standardized rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results In 1988–1990, the total cancer incidence in Russian men was higher than that in Estonian men (SRR = 1.26, 95%CI = 1.19–1.34). In 1999–2000, the total cancer incidence in men showed only slightly higher estimates in Russians than in Estonians (SRR = 1.06, 95%CI = 0.99–1.32). Cancers of stomach, colon and lung had persisting higher values in Russian men in 1999–2000. In women, the differences were smaller than in men, and the total cancer incidence showed no differences relating to neither of the time periods studied. With regard to specific sites, excess of stomach cancer incidence was seen in Russian women (SRR = 1.45, 95%CI = 1.15–1.81). The ethnic differences in general decreased between the two time periods studied. Conclusion Some of the differences in cancer rates between the Estonians and Russians in Estonia are likely to be attributable to the variation in exposure to specific etiologic factors that are causedby differences in lifestyle and habits, such as hygiene, smoking and drinking. Further research with a view to understanding these

  9. The impact of water supply and sanitation on infant mortality: Individual-level evidence from Tartu, Estonia, 1897-1900.

    PubMed

    Jaadla, Hannaliis; Puur, Allan

    2016-07-01

    Evidence from a number of historical studies has demonstrated a strong impact of the provision of clean water on mortality risks, while no clear effect has been reported in others. We investigated the relationship between water supply, sanitation, and infant survival in Tartu, a university town in Estonia, 1897-1900. Based on data from parish registers, which were linked to the first census of the Russian Empire, the analysis reveals a clear disadvantage for infants in households using surface water, compared with families that acquired water from groundwater or artesian wells. The impact is stronger in the later stages of infancy. Competing-risk analysis shows that the effect is more pronounced for deaths caused by diseases of the digestive system. Our findings suggest that it may have been possible to improve the water supply, and consequently reduce infant mortality, before the introduction of piped water and sewage systems. PMID:27207615

  10. Dating a small impact crater: An age of Kaali crater (Estonia) based on charcoal emplaced within proximal ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losiak, A.; Wild, E. M.; Geppert, W. D.; Huber, M. S.; Jõeleht, A.; Kriiska, A.; Kulkov, A.; Paavel, K.; Pirkovic, I.; Plado, J.; Steier, P.; VäLja, R.; Wilk, J.; Wisniowski, T.; Zanetti, M.

    2016-04-01

    The estimates of the age of the Kaali impact structure (Saaremaa Island, Estonia) provided by different authors vary by as much as 6000 years, ranging from ~6400 to ~400 before current era (BCE). In this study, a new age is obtained based on 14C dating charred plant material within the proximal ejecta blanket, which makes it directly related to the impact structure, and not susceptible to potential reservoir effects. Our results show that the Kaali crater was most probably formed shortly after 1530-1450 BCE (3237 ± 10 14C yr BP). Saaremaa was already inhabited when the bolide hit the Earth, thus, the crater-forming event was probably witnessed by humans. There is, however, no evidence that this event caused significant change in the material culture (e.g., known archeological artifacts) or patterns of human habitation on Saaremaa.

  11. The sociodemographic patterning of drinking and binge drinking in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Finland, 1994–2002

    PubMed Central

    Helasoja, Ville; Lahelma, Eero; Prättälä, Ritva; Petkeviciene, Janina; Pudule, Iveta; Tekkel, Mare

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite the relatively low recorded alcohol consumption level, the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) and neighbouring Finland suffer from similar harmful consequences related to the use of alcoholic beverages, including socio-economic inequalities in alcohol related mortality. Comparative evidence is needed to understand harmful drinking patterns and to implement preventive alcohol policies also in the Baltic countries. This study compared heavy and binge drinking by sex, age, education, urbanisation and marital status in the Baltic countries and Finland. Methods The data were nationally representative postal surveys conducted in Estonia (n = 6271), Latvia (n = 6106), Lithuania (n = 7966) and Finland (n = 15764) during 1994–2002. The criterion for heavy drinking was at least 15 portions weekly among men, and at least five among women, and for binge drinking at least six portions per one occasion. Results Heavy drinking was more common among younger participants in all countries, and in Latvia among the less-educated. Among Finnish men, and among women from all countries except Latvia, the better-educated were more often heavy drinkers. In Latvia and Finland, urban men, and in all countries, urban women, were more often heavy drinkers. Heavy drinking was more common among non-married Lithuanian and Finnish men, and Finnish women. Binge drinking was more common among less-educated Estonian and Latvian men, and among younger and less-educated women in all countries. Conclusion Our results support the continued power of traditional drinking habits in the North Eastern part of Europe. In the future the target groups for prevention of excessive drinking should also include young and less-educated women in all four countries studied. PMID:17854484

  12. Comparison of thunderstorm hours registered by the lightning detection network and human observers in Estonia, 2006-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enno, S. E.

    2015-07-01

    Relationships between the lightning detection network data and human-reported thunderstorms were studied in Estonia during the period of 2006-2011. Estonia is located in northeastern Europe between 57.5° to 59.5° N and 21° to 28.5° E. Numbers of thunderstorm days (TD) and thunderstorm hours (TH) reported by 61 volunteer observers and six meteorological stations were compared to the data of the lightning detection network. Results indicated that the flash data within 9.0 km from the sites of volunteer observers should be used in order to derive TD numbers equal to human observations. Larger radius of 14.7 km was found on the basis of six meteorological stations with probably better quality of thunderstorm observations. Due to data quality issues, the daily and monthly numbers of THs reported by individual observers explained only 12-39 % of variations in the flash counts within 40 km of their observing sites. In contrast, the average TH data of all observers successfully explained 75-86 % of variations in daily and monthly flash counts within 40 km of the observation sites. The main advantage of using the average data of many human observers seems to be that in case of a dense network, the neighboring observers tend to compensate for each other's errors. In general, intense storms close to observing sites were found to be most successfully reported by human observers. The most important conclusion of the study is that although human observations of thunderstorms and automatic lightning observations are very different methods, they generally give similar results.

  13. Respiratory symptoms increase health care consumption and affect everyday life – a cross-sectional population-based study from Finland, Estonia, and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Axelsson, Malin; Lindberg, Anne; Kainu, Annette; Rönmark, Eva; Jansson, Sven-Arne

    2016-01-01

    Background Even though respiratory symptoms are common in the adult population, there is limited research describing their impact on everyday life and association with health care consumption. Aim The main objective of this population-based study was to estimate and compare the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among adults in Finland, Estonia, and Sweden in relation to health care consumption and to identify factors influencing health care consumption. A secondary aim was to assess to which extent the presence of respiratory symptoms affect everyday life. Method In the population-based FinEsS studies consisting of random samples of subjects aged 20 to 69 years from Finland (n=1,337), Estonia (n=1,346), and Sweden (n=1,953), data on demographics, respiratory health, and health care consumption were collected by structured interviews. Prevalence was compared and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Respiratory symptoms were significantly more common in Finland (66.0%) and Estonia (65.2%) than in Sweden (54.1%). Among subjects with respiratory symptoms, the proportion reporting outpatient care during the past year was fairly similar in the three countries, while specialist consultations were more common in Finland (19.1%), and hospitalisations more common in Estonia (15.0%). Finnish and Estonian residency, female sex, and BMI>25 increased the risk for outpatient care consumption. Wheeze and attacks of shortness of breath in the past 12 months, recurrent sputum production, and cough were associated with an increased risk for health care consumption. Increasing number of respiratory symptoms increased the risk for consuming health care. A larger proportion of subjects in Estonia and Sweden experienced their everyday life being affected by respiratory symptoms compared with subjects in Finland. Conclusion Respiratory symptoms are common in Finland, Estonia, and Sweden and contribute to a negative impact on everyday life as well as increased

  14. Dating Kaali Crater (Estonia) based on charcoal emplaced within proximal ejecta blanket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losiak, Anna; Wild, Eva Maria; Huber, Matthew S.; Wisniowski, Tomasz; Paavel, Kristiina; Jõeleht, Argo; Välja, Rudolf; Plado, Jüri; Kriiska, Aivar; Wilk, Jakob; Zanetti, Michael; Geppert, Wolf D.; Kulkov, Alexander; Steier, Peter; Pirkovic, Irena

    2015-04-01

    The Kaali impact field consists of nine identified craters located on the Saaremaa Island in Estonia. The largest crater is 110 m in diameter (centered around 58°22'21.94"N, 22°40'09.91" E). It was formed by impact of an IAB iron meteoroid into Silurian dolomite target rocks covered by up to a few meters of glacial till (Veski et al. 2007). The age of the Kaali impact structure is still a matter of debate, and the estimates provided by different authors vary considerably between ~6400 BC (Raukas et al. 1995, Moora et al. 2012) and ~400 BC (Rasmussen et al. 2000, Veski et al. 2001). These ages were derived by 14C dating of marker horizons, characterized by a slightly elevated iridium content within the nearby Piila bog yielding a calibrated age of 800-400 BC (Rasmussen et al. 2000, Veski et al. 2001) and occurrences of glassy siliceous material in the Piila bog (~6400 BC: Raukas et al. 1995) or iron microspherules in an organic-rich layer of the Reo gravel pit (6400 BC: Moora et al. 2012). However, the source of the foreign material within those layers was never unequivocally connected with the Kaali crater. 14C dating of material from post-impact organic sediments within Kaali impact craters yielded ages between 1800-1500 BC (Saarse et al. 1991, Veski et al. 2004) and 1450-400 BC (Aaloe et al. 1963). These dates underestimate the age of impact as organic sediments within the crater started to form at unknown period after the impact. On the other hand, Veski et al. (2004) suggested a reservoir effect that might have caused artificially "aging" of the organic matter because the crater was emplaced within Silurian dolomite which is rich in old carbon. The aim of this study is to determine the age of the Kaali crater by 14C dating of organic material covered by the continuous layer of proximal ejecta. This research was conducted in conjunction with a new structural investigation of Kaali Main (Zanetti et al. 2015). Ten samples collected from different locations

  15. Variability and trends in daily minimum and maximum temperatures and in the diurnal temperature range in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia in 1951-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaagus, Jaak; Briede, Agrita; Rimkus, Egidijus; Remm, Kalle

    2014-10-01

    Spatial distribution and trends in mean and absolute maximum and minimum temperatures and in the diurnal temperature range were analysed at 47 stations in the eastern Baltic region (Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia) during 1951-2010. Dependence of the studied variables on geographical factors (latitude, the Baltic Sea, land elevation) is discussed. Statistically significant increasing trends in maximum and minimum temperatures were detected for March, April, July, August and annual values. At the majority of stations, the increase was detected also in February and May in case of maximum temperature and in January and May in case of minimum temperature. Warming was slightly higher in the northern part of the study area, i.e. in Estonia. Trends in the diurnal temperature range differ seasonally. The highest increasing trend revealed in April and, at some stations, also in May, July and August. Negative and mostly insignificant changes have occurred in January, February, March and June. The annual temperature range has not changed.

  16. Maternal and paternal genetic diversity of ancient sheep in Estonia from the Late Bronze Age to the post-medieval period and comparison with other regions in Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Rannamäe, E; Lõugas, L; Niemi, M; Kantanen, J; Maldre, L; Kadõrova, N; Saarma, U

    2016-04-01

    Sheep were among the first domesticated animals to appear in Estonia in the late Neolithic and became one of the most widespread livestock species in the region from the Late Bronze Age onwards. However, the origin and historical expansion of local sheep populations in Estonia remain poorly understood. Here, we analysed fragments of the hypervariable D-loop of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA; 213 bp) and the Y-chromosome SRY gene (130 bp) extracted from 31 archaeological sheep bones dated from approximately 800 BC to 1700 AD. The ancient DNA data of sheep from Estonia were compared with ancient sheep from Finland as well as a set of contemporary sheep breeds from across Eurasia in order to place them in a wider phylogeographical context. The analysis shows that: (i) 24 successfully amplified and analysed mtDNA sequences of ancient sheep cluster into two haplogroups, A and B, of which B is predominant; (ii) four of the ancient mtDNA haplotypes are novel; (iii) higher mtDNA haplotype diversity occurred during the Middle Ages as compared to other periods, a fact concordant with the historical context of expanding international trade during the Middle Ages; (iv) the proportion of rarer haplotypes declined during the expansion of sheep from the Near Eastern domestication centre to the northern European region; (v) three male samples showed the presence of the characteristic northern European haplotype, SNP G-oY1 of the Y-chromosome, and represent the earliest occurrence of this haplotype. Our results provide the first insight into the genetic diversity and phylogeographical background of ancient sheep in Estonia and provide basis for further studies on the temporal fluctuations of ancient sheep populations. PMID:26805771

  17. A tale of two cities: stigma and health outcomes among people with HIV who inject drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia.

    PubMed

    Burke, Sara E; Calabrese, Sarah K; Dovidio, John F; Levina, Olga S; Uusküla, Anneli; Niccolai, Linda M; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Heimer, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Experiences of stigma are often associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. The present work tested the associations between stigma and health-related outcomes among people with HIV who inject drugs in Kohtla-Järve, Estonia and St. Petersburg, Russia. These two cities share some of the highest rates of HIV outside of sub-Saharan Africa, largely driven by injection drug use, but Estonia has implemented harm reduction services more comprehensively. People who inject drugs were recruited using respondent-driven sampling; those who indicated being HIV-positive were included in the present sample (n = 381 in St. Petersburg; n = 288 in Kohtla-Järve). Participants reported their health information and completed measures of internalized HIV stigma, anticipated HIV stigma, internalized drug stigma, and anticipated drug stigma. Participants in both locations indicated similarly high levels of all four forms of stigma. However, stigma variables were more strongly associated with health outcomes in Russia than in Estonia. The St. Petersburg results were consistent with prior work linking stigma and health. Lower barriers to care in Kohtla-Järve may help explain why social stigma was not closely tied to negative health outcomes there. Implications for interventions and health policy are discussed. PMID:25703668

  18. Internet-based recruitment system for HIV and STI screening for men who have sex with men in Estonia, 2013: analysis of preliminary outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ruutel, K; Lohmus, L; Janes, J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current project was to develop an Internet-based recruitment system for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening for men who have sex with men (MSM) in Estonia in order to collect biological samples during behavioural studies. In 2013, an Internet-based HIV risk-behaviour survey was conducted among MSM living in Estonia. After completing the questionnaire, all participants were offered anonymous and free-of-charge STI testing. They could either order a urine sample kit by post to screen for chlamydia infections (including lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)), trichomoniasis, gonorrhoea and Mycoplasma genitalium infections, or visit a laboratory for HIV, hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus,hepatitis C virus and syphilis screening. Of 301 participants who completed the questionnaire, 265 (88%),reported that they were MSM. Of these 265 MSM,68 (26%) underwent various types of testing. In the multiple regression analysis, Russian as the first language,previous HIV testing and living in a city or town increased the odds of testing during the study. Linking Internet-based behavioural data collection with biological sample collection is a promising approach. As there are no specific STI services for MSM in Estonia,this system could also be used as an additional option for anonymous and free-of-charge STI screening. PMID:25953131

  19. A Tale of Two Cities: Stigma and Health Outcomes Among People with HIV who Inject Drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Sara E.; Calabrese, Sarah K.; Dovidio, John F.; Levina, Olga S.; Uusküla, Anneli; Niccolai, Linda M.; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Heimer, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Experiences of stigma are often associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. The present work tested the associations between stigma and health-related outcomes among people with HIV who inject drugs in Kohtla-Järve, Estonia and St. Petersburg, Russia. These two cities share some of the highest rates of HIV outside of sub-Saharan Africa, largely driven by injection drug use, but Estonia has implemented harm reduction services more comprehensively. People who inject drugs were recruited using respondent-driven sampling; those who indicated being HIV-positive were included in the present sample (n=381 in St. Petersburg; n=288 in Kohtla-Järve). Participants reported their health information and completed measures of internalized HIV stigma, anticipated HIV stigma, internalized drug stigma, and anticipated drug stigma. Participants in both locations indicated similarly high levels of all four forms of stigma. However, stigma variables were more strongly associated with health outcomes in Russia than in Estonia. The St. Petersburg results were consistent with prior work linking stigma and health. Lower barriers to care in Kohtla-Järve may help explain why social stigma was not closely tied to negative health outcomes there. Implications for interventions and health policy are discussed. PMID:25703668

  20. International conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2013), 21-24 April 2013, Tartu, Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nõmmiste, Ergo; Kirm, Marco; Plank, Toomas

    2014-04-01

    The annual international conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT) was started in 2006 by scientists from the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia. The warm welcome and open atmosphere of this scientific conference has turned it into an event where people from different countries and different fields come and meet under the shared umbrella of functional materials and nanotechnology. It is particularly important for early stage scientists who are looking for new knowledge and contacts with people from various fields to build their own network. Our Latvian colleagues, with their success in internationalization, made us neighbouring Estonians so jealous that we could not help but propose organising the conference every second year in Estonia. In a way, this conference is a continuation of the idea of the famous Baltic seminars which took place over several decades in the last century. Due to political constraints, these seminars were only open to scientists of former Eastern Europe countries, but had a great popularity and attendance from over the whole Soviet Union. Many collaborations started from the initial personal contact between scientists at these twice yearly seminars, held alternately in Latvia and Estonia. At the FM&NT 2012 conference, the decision was made that Institute of Physics, University of Tartu would organise the next event in Tartu in 2013. FM&NT-2013 was hence held in Tartu (Estonia) from 21-24 April 2013 at the Dorpat Conference Centre. The main selected topics of the conference were: (i) multifunctional materials, (ii) nanomaterials, (iii) materials for sustainable energy applications and (vi) theory. Additionally, the focus in this conference was on studies with the help of synchrotron radiation and other novel light sources such as free electron lasers. The conference provided an opportunity for 300 scientists from 21 countries to meet, establish contacts, exchange knowledge and discuss their research

  1. Kärdla (Hiiumaa Island, Estonia)—the buried and well-preserved Ordovician marine impact structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suuroja, Kalle; Suuroja, Sten; All, Tarmo; Floden, Tom

    The Kärdla marine impact structure (Estonia, 58°58'N, 22°46'E) was formed at 455 Ma (Upper Ordovician), in a shallow epicontinental sea some tens of kilometres from the land and erosion area. The iron-rich projectile about 200 m in diameter approached from the west at an angle of 30-45°. The impactor penetrated about 50-m-thick water layer and the sedimentary cover and exploded in the uppermost part of the crystalline basement. A complex crater, 4 km wide and about 500 m deep, with a central uplift rising 130 m from the crater floor, was formed. The highest point of the rimwall is 110 m above the target level. The rimwall is cut by at least two resurge-excavated gullies. The variable height of the rimwall obviously results from the obliqueness of the impact. Outside the crater an elliptical area was revealed, 12-15 km in diameter, with deformed sedimentary rocks below the target level. The elliptical shape of this area may also be due to the oblique impact. Because the crater and its surroundings were buried directly after the impact, the whole complex of impact-related sediments is preserved there. They are recovered by 160 wells, six of which penetrate the entire complex of impact breccias inside the crater.

  2. Hindcast experiments of the derecho in Estonia on 08 August, 2010: Modelling derecho with NWP model HARMONIE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toll, Velle; Männik, Aarne; Luhamaa, Andres; Rõõm, Rein

    2015-05-01

    On August 8, 2010, a derecho swept over Northern Europe, causing widespread wind damage and more than 2 million Euros in economic loss in Estonia during its most destructive stage. This paper presents a modelling study of the derecho-producing storm utilising the Hirlam Aladin Research for Mesoscale Operational Numerical Weather Prediction in Europe (HARMONIE) model. The model setup is chosen to mimic near-future, nearly kilometre-scale, operational environments in European national weather services. The model simulations are compared to remote sensing and in situ observations. The HARMONIE model is capable of reproducing the wind gust severity and precipitation intensity. Moreover, 2.5-km grid spacing is shown to be sufficient for producing a reliable signal of the severe convective storm. Storm dynamics are well simulated, including the rear inflow jet. Although the model performance is promising, a strong dependence on the initial data, a weak trailing stratiform precipitation region and an incorrect timing of the storm are identified.

  3. THE USE OF PANAX GINSENG AND ITS ANALOGUES AMONG PHARMACY CUSTOMERS IN ESTONIA: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY.

    PubMed

    Volmer, Dasy; Raal, Ain; Kalle, Raivo; Sõukand, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the cross-sectional study was to evaluate the pattern of complementary self-treatment with P. ginseng and its analogues amongst pharmacy customers in Estonia. The study instrument consisted of multiple-choice items related to personal knowledge about and experience with the use of P. ginseng and its analogues. In total, 1233 customers participated in the study. Of study participants, 18.1% reported the use of P. ginseng and its analogues in their lives. P. ginseng preparations were used mostly according to the well- known indications (tiredness, weakness and decreased mental and physical capacity). Of P. ginseng users 44.3% reported positive treatment effects and 12.0% had experienced different side effects. With increase of age (p < 0.01) and at lower levels of education (p = 0.04), the use of ginseng or its analogues decreased. The better the users evaluated their health, the better they perceived the effect of P. ginseng preparations (p < 0.01). This study reported rather frequent use of P. ginseng and its analogues. P. ginseng could be seen in the treatment of conditions, where the use of local medicinal plants has not been established. Further research is needed to learn more about public knowledge and experiences about efficacy and safety of P. ginseng and its analogues. PMID:27476299

  4. Decommissioning and Dismantling of Liquid Waste Storage and Liquid Waste Treatment Facility from Paldiski Nuclear Site, Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Varvas, M.; Putnik, H.; Johnsson, B.

    2006-07-01

    The Paldiski Nuclear Facility in Estonia, with two nuclear reactors was owned by the Soviet Navy and was used for training the navy personnel to operate submarine nuclear reactors. After collapse of Soviet Union the Facility was shut down and handed over to the Estonian government in 1995. In co-operation with the Paldiski International Expert Reference Group (PIERG) decommission strategy was worked out and started to implement. Conditioning of solid and liquid operational waste and dismantling of contaminated installations and buildings were among the key issues of the Strategy. Most of the liquid waste volume, remained at the Facility, was processed in the frames of an Estonian-Finnish co-operation project using a mobile wastewater purification unit NURES (IVO International OY) and water was discharged prior to the site take-over. In 1999-2002 ca 120 m{sup 3} of semi-liquid tank sediments (a mixture of ion exchange resins, sand filters, evaporator and flocculation slurry), remained after treatment of liquid waste were solidified in steel containers and stored into interim storage. The project was carried out under the Swedish - Estonian co-operation program on radiation protection and nuclear safety. Contaminated installations in buildings, used for treatment and storage of liquid waste (Liquid Waste Treatment Facility and Liquid Waste Storage) were then dismantled and the buildings demolished in 2001-2004. (authors)

  5. On the topologic structure of economic complex networks: Empirical evidence from large scale payment network of Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendón de la Torre, Stephanie; Kalda, Jaan; Kitt, Robert; Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the first topological analysis of the economic structure of an entire country based on payments data obtained from Swedbank. This data set is exclusive in its kind because around 80% of Estonia's bank transactions are done through Swedbank, hence, the economic structure of the country can be reconstructed. Scale-free networks are commonly observed in a wide array of different contexts such as nature and society. In this paper, the nodes are comprised by customers of the bank (legal entities) and the links are established by payments between these nodes. We study the scaling-free and structural properties of this network. We also describe its topology, components and behaviors. We show that this network shares typical structural characteristics known in other complex networks: degree distributions follow a power law, low clustering coefficient and low average shortest path length. We identify the key nodes of the network and perform simulations of resiliency against random and targeted attacks of the nodes with two different approaches. With this, we find that by identifying and studying the links between the nodes is possible to perform vulnerability analysis of the Estonian economy with respect to economic shocks.

  6. Cumulative Small Effect Genetic Markers and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Fernandez, Pablo; Dymerska, Dagmara; Kurzawski, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Róża; Sobieszczańska, Tatiana; Banaszkiewicz, Zbigniew; Roomere, Hanno; Oitmaa, Eneli; Metspalu, Andres; Janavičius, Ramūnas; Elsakov, Pavel; Razumas, Mindaugas; Petrulis, Kestutis; Irmejs, Arvīds; Miklaševičs, Edvīns; Scott, Rodney J.; Lubiński, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The continued identification of new low-penetrance genetic variants for colorectal cancer (CRC) raises the question of their potential cumulative effect among compound carriers. We focused on 6 SNPs (rs380284, rs4464148, rs4779584, rs4939827, rs6983267, and rs10795668), already described as risk markers, and tested their possible independent and combined contribution to CRC predisposition. Material and Methods. DNA was collected and genotyped from 2330 unselected consecutive CRC cases and controls from Estonia (166 cases and controls), Latvia (81 cases and controls), Lithuania (123 cases and controls), and Poland (795 cases and controls). Results. Beyond individual effects, the analysis revealed statistically significant linear cumulative effects for these 6 markers for all samples except of the Latvian one (corrected P value = 0.018 for the Estonian, corrected P value = 0.0034 for the Lithuanian, and corrected P value = 0.0076 for the Polish sample). Conclusions. The significant linear cumulative effects demonstrated here support the idea of using sets of low-risk markers for delimiting new groups with high-risk of CRC in clinical practice that are not carriers of the usual CRC high-risk markers. PMID:26101521

  7. Cumulative Small Effect Genetic Markers and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Fernandez, Pablo; Dymerska, Dagmara; Kurzawski, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Róża; Sobieszczańska, Tatiana; Banaszkiewicz, Zbigniew; Roomere, Hanno; Oitmaa, Eneli; Metspalu, Andres; Janavičius, Ramūnas; Elsakov, Pavel; Razumas, Mindaugas; Petrulis, Kestutis; Irmejs, Arvīds; Miklaševičs, Edvīns; Scott, Rodney J; Lubiński, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The continued identification of new low-penetrance genetic variants for colorectal cancer (CRC) raises the question of their potential cumulative effect among compound carriers. We focused on 6 SNPs (rs380284, rs4464148, rs4779584, rs4939827, rs6983267, and rs10795668), already described as risk markers, and tested their possible independent and combined contribution to CRC predisposition. Material and Methods. DNA was collected and genotyped from 2330 unselected consecutive CRC cases and controls from Estonia (166 cases and controls), Latvia (81 cases and controls), Lithuania (123 cases and controls), and Poland (795 cases and controls). Results. Beyond individual effects, the analysis revealed statistically significant linear cumulative effects for these 6 markers for all samples except of the Latvian one (corrected P value = 0.018 for the Estonian, corrected P value = 0.0034 for the Lithuanian, and corrected P value = 0.0076 for the Polish sample). Conclusions. The significant linear cumulative effects demonstrated here support the idea of using sets of low-risk markers for delimiting new groups with high-risk of CRC in clinical practice that are not carriers of the usual CRC high-risk markers. PMID:26101521

  8. Ecosystem-scale biosphere-atmosphere interactions of a hemiboreal mixed forest stand at Järvselja, Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Noe, Steffen M.; Kimmel, Veljo; Hüve, Katja; Copolovici, Lucian; Portillo-Estrada, Miguel; Püttsepp, Ülle; Jõgiste, Kalev; Niinemets, Ülo; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2013-01-01

    During two measurement campaigns, from August to September 2008 and 2009, we quantified the major ecosystem fluxes in a hemiboreal forest ecosystem in Järvselja, Estonia. The main aim of this study was to separate the ecosystem flux components and gain insight into the performance of a multi-species multi-layered tree stand. Carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes were measured using the eddy covariance method above and below the canopy in conjunction with the microclimate. Leaf and soil contributions were quantified separately by cuvette and chamber measurements, including fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrogen oxides, nitrous oxide, methane, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and biogenic volatile organic compounds (isoprene and monoterpenes). The latter have been as well characterized for monoterpenes in detail. Based on measured atmospheric trace gas concentrations, the flux tower site can be characterized as remote and rural with low anthropogenic disturbances. Our results presented here encourage future experimental efforts to be directed towards year round integrated biosphere-atmosphere measurements and development of process-oriented models of forest-atmosphere exchange taking the special case of a multi-layered and multi-species tree stand into account. As climate change likely leads to spatial extension of hemiboreal forest ecosystems a deep understanding of the processes and interactions therein is needed to foster management and mitigation strategies. PMID:24347809

  9. Carbon balance of an old hemi-boreal pine forest in Southern Estonia determined by different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soosaar, Kaido; Repp, Kalev; Lõhmus, Krista; Uri, Veiko; Rannik, Kaire; Krasnova, Alisa; Ostonen, Ivika; Kukumägi, Mai; Maddison, Martin; Mander, Ülo

    2016-04-01

    The Soontaga Forest Station is located in hemi-boreal 200-years old pine forest (South Estonia; 58o01'N 26o04'E) with a second layer of spruce. The station has the instrumentation to assess the exchange of carbon dioxide (net ecosystem exchange, NEE), soil respiration, tree biomass (above and below ground biomass) and different environmental and meteorological parameters. In this study we quantified carbon balance by analyzing eddy-covariance CO2 flux data (carbon exchange) vs chamber-based measurements (ecosystem respiration) and CO2assimilation (soil and biomass). The annual NEE in this mature coniferous forest was -2.3 t C ha yr‑1, showing a clear diurnal and seasonal trend. During the daytime in summer the forest sequestered CO2, while during the night and late night CO2 emitted from the ecosystem to the atmosphere. Within the growing period, the sequestration of CO2 by plants was greater than soil respiration. Thus, the ecosystem sequestered carbon. Most of the carbon is bound in tree biomass (above and below ground biomass) but as well into soil, while the sequestration in soil increases with stand age. In addition, the biomass of understory, especially belowground litter, is playing essential part in carbon input. A modelling approach of long-term C budget in the Soontaga pine forest is presented.

  10. Trends in cancer patient survival in Estonia before and after the transition from a Soviet republic to an open-market economy.

    PubMed

    Aareleid, Tiiu; Brenner, Hermann

    2002-11-01

    Cancer patients' survival is strongly dependent on socioeconomic factors, including access to and quality of medical care. During the past decade, Estonia has undergone a major political and economic change from a Soviet republic to an open-market economy country, and the health care system was transformed from a centralised state-controlled system into a decentralised health insurance-based one. Using data from the population-based Estonian Cancer Registry, we assessed trends in cancer patient survival before and after this transition by application of period analysis, a new method of survival analysis, which allows more timely disclosure of time trends than traditional survival analysis. Our study included 83,138 patients diagnosed with 1 of the 11 most frequent malignancies in Estonia from 1969-1998. Patients were followed up to the end of 1998. Despite a moderate increase in 5- and 10-year relative survival over time, prognosis for many common forms of cancer, such as stomach, colorectal, breast and ovarian cancer, remained considerably worse than the survival rates achieved in more affluent European countries many years ago. By contrast, a very steep increase in survival rates was observed for common urologic cancers, including prostate, kidney and bladder cancer, which went along with a rise in incidence rates of these cancers over time. For prostate cancer, similar survival rates as in other European countries have now been achieved. The most likely explanation for these trends is enhanced availability and utilization of laboratory and technical diagnostic equipment. Despite recent improvement, major efforts in delivering modern cancer care to the population of Estonia will be required to close the gap that continues to exist between prognosis of cancer patients in this country and other European countries. PMID:12353233

  11. International conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2013), 21-24 April 2013, Tartu, Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nõmmiste, Ergo; Kirm, Marco; Plank, Toomas

    2014-04-01

    The annual international conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT) was started in 2006 by scientists from the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia. The warm welcome and open atmosphere of this scientific conference has turned it into an event where people from different countries and different fields come and meet under the shared umbrella of functional materials and nanotechnology. It is particularly important for early stage scientists who are looking for new knowledge and contacts with people from various fields to build their own network. Our Latvian colleagues, with their success in internationalization, made us neighbouring Estonians so jealous that we could not help but propose organising the conference every second year in Estonia. In a way, this conference is a continuation of the idea of the famous Baltic seminars which took place over several decades in the last century. Due to political constraints, these seminars were only open to scientists of former Eastern Europe countries, but had a great popularity and attendance from over the whole Soviet Union. Many collaborations started from the initial personal contact between scientists at these twice yearly seminars, held alternately in Latvia and Estonia. At the FM&NT 2012 conference, the decision was made that Institute of Physics, University of Tartu would organise the next event in Tartu in 2013. FM&NT-2013 was hence held in Tartu (Estonia) from 21-24 April 2013 at the Dorpat Conference Centre. The main selected topics of the conference were: (i) multifunctional materials, (ii) nanomaterials, (iii) materials for sustainable energy applications and (vi) theory. Additionally, the focus in this conference was on studies with the help of synchrotron radiation and other novel light sources such as free electron lasers. The conference provided an opportunity for 300 scientists from 21 countries to meet, establish contacts, exchange knowledge and discuss their research

  12. Hydrogen maser development at Laval University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanier, J.; Racine, G.; Kunski, R.; Picard, M.

    1981-01-01

    The physical construction of two hydrogen masers is described and results of measurements made on one of the masers are given. These include: cavity Q, thermal time constant, line Q, signal power output, magnetic shielding factor. Preliminary results indicate that the frequency stability will be mainly affected by the thermal of the cavity. The magnetic field and the barometric fluctuations should not affect the maser at the stability level above a few parts in 10 to the 15th power, which is the goal for averaging times of several hours.

  13. Complementary Treatment of the Common Cold and Flu with Medicinal Plants – Results from Two Samples of Pharmacy Customers in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Raal, Ain; Volmer, Daisy; Sõukand, Renata; Hratkevitš, Sofia; Kalle, Raivo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current survey was to investigate the complementary self-treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants among pharmacy customers in Estonia. A multiple-choice questionnaire listing 10 plants and posing questions on the perceived characteristics of cold and flu, the effectiveness of plants, help-seeking behaviour, self-treatment and sources of information, was distributed to a sample of participants in two medium size pharmacies. The participants were pharmacy customers: 150 in Tallinn (mostly Russian speaking) and 150 in Kuressaare (mostly Estonian speaking). The mean number of plants used by participants was 4.1. Of the respondents, 69% self-treated the common cold and flu and 28% consulted with a general practitioner. In general, medicinal plants were considered effective in the treatment of the above-mentioned illnesses and 56% of the respondents had used exclusively medicinal plants or their combination with OTC medicines and other means of folk medicine for treatment. The use of medicinal plants increased with age and was more frequent among female than male respondents. Among Estonian-speaking customers lime flowers, blackcurrant and camomile were more frequently used, and among Russian speaking customers raspberry and lemon fruits. Regardless of some statistically significant differences in preferred species among different age, education, sex and nationality groups, the general attitude towards medicinal plants for self-treatment of the common cold and flu in Estonia was very favourable. PMID:23484045

  14. Climate parameters of Estonia and the Baltic Sea region derived from the high-resolution reanalysis database BaltAn65+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Männik, Aarne; Zirk, Marko; Rõõm, Rein; Luhamaa, Andres

    2015-10-01

    The high-resolution reanalysis data-base BaltAn65+ covers the period of 1965-2005. Here, this dataset is used to derive essential climate parameters for the Baltic Sea region and Estonia. In particular, monthly mean temperature and total precipitation are calculated and a trend analysis is performed to analyze the temporal evolution of these climatological parameters during the reanalysis period. Monthly, seasonal, and annual maps of the climate characteristics, including trend maps, are created for the Baltic Sea region. Time series of monthly and annually averaged temperature and precipitation sum are presented over the Baltic Sea and Estonian domains together with fitted linear trends and trend significance analysis. Then, comparison with an observational database is performed to assess the quality of the reanalysis database. Additionally, the time series are compared with official climate normals for the period of 1971-2000, as calculated by the Estonian Environment Agency (EtEA). Findings of other publications in the scientific literature dealing with the climate of similar time period for Estonia and the Baltic Sea region are discussed. The quality of the BaltAn65+ reanalysis is found to be generally good for temperature but weak for precipitation.

  15. The Futures of Adult Educator(s): Agency, Identity and Ethos. Joint Conference Proceedings of the 2nd ESREA/ReNAdET Meeting and the 4th TQF Seminar (Tallinn, Estonia, November 9-11, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkinen, Anja, Ed.; Jogi, Larissa, Ed.; Jutte, Wolfgang, Ed.; Zarifis, Georgios K., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This edited volume contains the papers presented in the 2nd ESREA|ReNAdet meeting that was jointly organised with the VET & CULTURE Network in the University of Tallinn (Estonia), 9-11 November 2011. The papers that appear in the volume discuss the future (or the futures) of adult educators in respect to issues of developing their identities and…

  16. Spectral reflectance patterns and temporal dynamics of common understory types in hemi-boreal forests in Järvselja, Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikopensius, Maris; Raabe, Kairi; Pisek, Jan

    2014-05-01

    The knowledge about spectral properties and seasonal dynamics of understory layers in boreal forests currently holds several gaps. This introduces severe uncertainties while modelling the carbon balance of this ecosystem, which is expected to be prone to major shifts with climate change in the future. In this work the seasonal reflectance dynamics in European hemi-boreal forests are studied. The data for this study was collected at Järvselja Training and Experimental Forestry District (Estonia, 27.26°E 58.30°N). Measurements were taken in three different stands. The silver birch (Betula Pendula Roth) stand grows on typical brown gley-soil and its understory vegetation is dominated by a mixture of several grass species. The Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand grows on a bog with understory vegetation composed of sparse labrador tea, cotton grass, and a continuous Sphagnum moss layer. The third stand, Norway spruce (Picea abies), grows on a Gleyi Ferric Podzol site with understory vegetation either partially missing or consisting of mosses such as Hylocomium splendens or Pleurozium schreberi [1]. The sampling design was similar to the study by Rautiainen et al. [3] in northern European boreal forests. At each study site, a 100 m long permanent transect was marked with flags. In addition, four intensive study plots (1 m × 1 m) were marked next to the transects at 20 m intervals. The field campaign lasted from May to September 2013. For each site the fractional cover of understory and understory spectra were estimated ten times i.e. every 2 to 3 weeks. Results from Järvselja forest were compared with the seasonal profiles from boreal forests in Hyytiälä, Finland [2]. References [1] A. Kuusk, M. Lang, J. Kuusk, T. Lükk, T. Nilson, M. Mõttus, M. Rautiainen, and A. Eenmäe, "Database of optical and structural data for validation of radiative transfer models", Technical Report, September 2009 [2] M. Rautiainen, M. Mõttus, J. Heiskanen, A. Akujärvi, T. Majasalmi

  17. Prevalence of drug resistance mutations in HAART patients infected with HIV-1 CRF06_cpx in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Avi, Radko; Pauskar, Merit; Karki, Tõnis; Kallas, Eveli; Jõgeda, Ene-Ly; Margus, Tõnu; Huik, Kristi; Lutsar, Irja

    2016-03-01

    HIV-1 drug resistance mutations (DRMs) and substitutions were assessed after the failure of the first line non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) + 2 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) treatment regimens (efavirenz [EFV] + lamivudine[3TC] + zidovudine [ZDV] vs. EFV + 3TC + ddI) among the HIV-1 CRF06_cpx infected subjects in Estonia. HIV-1 genomic RNA was sequenced; DRMs and amino acid substitutions were compared in 44 treatment naïve and 45 first-line NNRTI + 2 NRTI treatment failed patients consisting of EFV + 3TC + ZDV (n = 17) and EFV + 3TC + didanosine[ddI] (n = 21) therapy failed sub-populations. At least one DRM was found in 78% of treatment experienced patients. The most common NRTI mutations were M184V (80%), L74V (31%), L74I (17%), K219E (9%), and M184I (9%), NNRTI mutations were K103N (83%), P225H (14%), L100I (11%), and Y188L (11%), reflecting generally the similar pattern of DRMs to that seen in treatment failed subtype B viruses. Sub-population analysis revealed that EFV + 3TC + ddI failed patients had more DRMs compared to EFV + 3TC + ZDV failed patients, especially the ddI DRM L74IV and several additional NNRTI DRMs. Additionally, CRF06_cpx specific mutation E179V and substitutions R32K, K122E, and V200AE were also detected in treatment experienced population. After the failure of the first-line EFV + 3TC + ddI therapy HIV-1 CRF06_cpx viruses develop additional NRTI and NNRTI mutations compared to EFV + 3TC + ZDV regimen. Therefore the usage of EFV + 3TC + ddI in this subtype decreases the options for next regimens containing abacavir, and NNRTI class agents. PMID:26291050

  18. Uninvited Guests: Traditional Insect Repellents in Estonia used Against the Clothes Moth Tineola bisselliella, Human Flea Pulex irritons and Bedbug Cimex lectularius

    PubMed Central

    Sõukand, Renata; Kalle, Raivo; Svanberg, Ingvar

    2010-01-01

    Extensive folklore records from pre-modern Estonia give us an excellent opportunity to study a variety of local plant knowledge and plant use among the peasantry in various parts of the country. One important biocultural domain where plant knowledge has been crucial was in the various methods of combating different ectoparasites that cohabited and coexisted with humans and their domestic animals. Some of these methods were widely known (world-wide, Eurasia, Europe, Baltic Rim), while others were more local. Here we discuss ways of reducing clothes moths Tineola bisselliella (Hummel) (Lepidoptera: Tineidae), human fleas Pulex irritons L. (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) and bedbugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with the help of plants. Various taxa used as traditional repellents have been identified. The use of plants as repellents and their toxic principles are also discussed from a comparative perspective. PMID:21070174

  19. Rapid urbanization of red foxes in Estonia: distribution, behaviour, attacks on domestic animals, and health-risks related to zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Plumer, Liivi; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47) in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans. PMID:25531399

  20. Rapid Urbanization of Red Foxes in Estonia: Distribution, Behaviour, Attacks on Domestic Animals, and Health-Risks Related to Zoonotic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Plumer, Liivi; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47) in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans. PMID:25531399

  1. Past storminess recorded in the internal architecture of coastal formations of Estonia in the NE Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tõnisson, Hannes; Vilumaa, Kadri; Kont, Are; Sugita, Shinya; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Anderson, Agnes

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 50 years, storminess has increased in northern Europe because of the changes in cyclonic activity. The cyclone season in the Baltic Sea area has shifted from autumn to winter; this has led to intensification of shore processes (erosion, sediment transport and accumulation) and has increased pressure to the economy (land use, coastal protection measures) of the coastal regions in the Baltic states. Therefore, studing the effects of such changes on shore processes in the past is critical for prediction of the future changes along the Baltic coasts. Beach ridge plains are found worldwide, where cyclones and storm surges affect accumulation forms. These sandy shores are highly susceptible to erosion. Due to the isostatic uplift on the NE coast of the Baltic Sea, the signs of major past events are well-preserved in the internal architecture of old coastal formations (dune ridge-swale complexes). Wave-eroded scarps in beach deposits are visible in subsurface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) records, indicating the past high-energy events. Several study areas and transects were selected on the NW coast of Estonia, using high-resolution topographic maps (LiDAR). Shore-normal subsurface surveys have been conducted with a digital GSSI SIR-3000 georadar with a 270 MHz antenna at each transect. Interpretation of GPR facies was based on hand auger and window sampler coring, which provided accurate depths of key stratigraphic boundaries and bounding surfaces. Several samples for luminescence and 14C dating were collected to determine the approximate chronology of the coastal formations along the Estonian coast. We have found that changes in storminess, including the periods of high and low intensity of storms in late Holocene, are clearly reflected in the internal patterns of ancient coastal formations. The sections with small ridges with short seaward-dipped layers (interface between wave-built and aeolian deposits) in deeper horizons are probably formed during

  2. Analysis of river pollution data from low-flow period by means of multivariate techniques: a case study from the oil-shale industry region, northeastern Estonia.

    PubMed

    Truu, Jaak; Heinaru, Eeva; Talpsep, Ene; Heinaru, Ain

    2002-01-01

    The oil-shale industry has created serious pollution problems in northeastern Estonia. Untreated, phenol-rich leachate from semi-coke mounds formed as a by-product of oil-shale processing is discharged into the Baltic Sea via channels and rivers. An exploratory analysis of water chemical and microbiological data sets from the low-flow period was carried out using different multivariate analysis techniques. Principal component analysis allowed us to distinguish different locations in the river system. The riverine microbial community response to water chemical parameters was assessed by co-inertia analysis. Water pH, COD and total nitrogen were negatively related to the number of biodegradative bacteria, while oxygen concentration promoted the abundance of these bacteria. The results demonstrate the utility of multivariate statistical techniques as tools for estimating the magnitude and extent of pollution based on river water chemical and microbiological parameters. An evaluation of river chemical and microbiological data suggests that the ambient natural attenuation mechanisms only partly eliminate pollutants from river water, and that a sufficient reduction of more recalcitrant compounds could be achieved through the reduction of wastewater discharge from the oil-shale chemical industry into the rivers. PMID:12638742

  3. Socio-demographic factors, health risks and harms associated with early initiation of injection among people who inject drugs in Tallinn, Estonia: evidence from cross-sectional surveys

    PubMed Central

    Vorobjov, Sigrid; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Talu, Ave; Rüütel, Kristi; Uusküla, Anneli

    2012-01-01

    Aim To explore socio-demographic factors, health risks and harms associated with early initiation of injecting (before age 16) among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Tallinn, Estonia. Methods IDUs were recruited using respondent driven sampling methods for two cross-sectional interviewer-administered surveys (in 2007 and 2009). Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with early initiation versus later initiation. Results A total of 672 current IDUs reported the age when they started to inject drugs; the mean was 18 years, and about a quarter of the sample (n=156) reported early initiation into injecting drugs. Factors significantly associated in multivariate analysis with early initiation were being female, having a lower educational level, being unemployed, shorter time between first drug use and injecting, high-risk injecting (sharing syringes and paraphernalia, injecting more than once a day), involvement in syringe exchange attendance and getting syringes from outreach workers, and two-fold higher risk of HIV seropositivity. Conclusions Our results document significant adverse health consequences (including higher risk behaviour and HIV seropositivity) associated with early initiation into drug injecting and emphasize the need for comprehensive prevention programs and early intervention efforts targeting youth at risk. Our findings suggest that interventions designed to delay the age of starting drug use, including injecting drug use, can contribute to reducing risk behaviour and HIV prevalence among IDUs. PMID:23036651

  4. Simulation of the hydrogeologic effects of oil-shale mining on the neighbouring wetland water balance: case study in north-eastern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marandi, Andres; Karro, Enn; Polikarpus, Maile; Jõeleht, Argo; Kohv, Marko; Hang, Tiit; Hiiemaa, Helen

    2013-11-01

    The water balance of wetlands plays an integral role in their function. Developments adjacent to wetlands can affect their water balance through impacts on groundwater flow and increased discharge in the area, and they can cause lowering of the wetland water table. A 430 km2 area was selected for groundwater modelling to asses the effect of underground mining on the water balance of wetlands in north-eastern Estonia. A nature conservation area (encompassing Selisoo bog) is within 3 km of an underground oil-shale mine. Two future mining scenarios with different areal extents of mining were modeled and compared to the present situation. Results show that the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the subsurface is of critical importance to potential wetland dewatering as a result of mining. Significant impact on the Selisoo bog water balance will be caused by the approaching mine but there will be only minor additional impacts from mining directly below the bog. The major impact will arise before that stage, when the underground mine extension reaches the border of the nature conservation area; since the restriction of activities in this area relates to the ground surface, the conservation area’s border is not sufficiently protective in relation to underground development.

  5. The radial increment and stemwood element concentrations of Scots pine in the area influenced by the Narva power plants in Northeast Estonia.

    PubMed

    Ots, Katri; Reisner, Vaike

    2007-07-01

    In the northeastern part of Estonia, near the town of Narva, there are two large oil shale fueled power plants, Baltic PP and Estonian PP. On burning oil shale the main atmospheric pollutants are fly ash, sulphur oxides and nitrogen oxides. The radial increment was measured and concentrations of Ca and Cu were estimated in the stemwood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from four sites in the influence area of the Narva power plants. Increment cores were taken also from two sites in an unpolluted area located 112 and 120 km northwest from the Estonian PP. The stands selected for investigation were similar as to their edaphic conditions and forest survey indicators (75- to 80-year-old (Oxalis-) Myrtillus-type pine stands of 0.7-0.8 density and of quality class II). The strongest effect of air pollution on radial increment was observed on the sampling site in the direction of dominating winds at a distance of 22 km to northeast from the Estonian PP. Using the annual rings, the core samples were divided into five-year sections (1945-1949; 1950-1954 etc.). The concentration of Ca increased and that of Cu decreased from the youngest, outermost annual rings towards the centre of the stem. High concentrations of Ca and Cu in stemwood in 1970-1974 may be due to the launching of the Estonian PP in 1969 in addition to the Baltic PP, which has operated since 1959. PMID:17242973

  6. Attitudes towards war, killing, and punishment of children among young people in Estonia, Finland, Romania, the Russian Federation, and the USA.

    PubMed Central

    McAlister, A.; Sandström, P.; Puska, P.; Veijo, A.; Chereches, R.; Heidmets, L. T.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the cultural differences in moral disengagement, which lends support to attitudes used to justify violence. METHODS: We carried out classroom surveys of a total of 3122 students in the USA (Houston, TX, and Washington, DC) and in four European countries--Estonia (Tartu), Finland (Helsinki), Romania (Satu Mare) and the Russian Federation (St Petersburg). Data were also taken from a random sample telephone survey of 341 young adults (aged 18-35 years) in Texas, USA. Ten distinct groups were studied. Seven questions were common to all the surveys, using identical statements about the participants' agreement with attitudes relating to war, diplomacy, killing, and the punishment of children. FINDINGS: The US students were more likely than those in Europe to agree with the following statements: "War is necessary" (20% vs 9%), "A person has the right to kill to defend property" (54% vs 17%), and "Physical punishment is necessary for children" (27% vs 10%). Justification of war and killing was less common among females than males in all groups; other differences within the US groups and the European groups were smaller than the differences between the US and European groups. CONCLUSION: The results confirm the gap between the US and European groups in moral disengagement attitudes and tendencies that could lead to deadly violence. PMID:11417032

  7. Concentration and grain-size distribution of aeolian sands in peat bogs as an indicator of past storminess in coastal areas of Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandel, Egert; Vaasma, Tiit; Tõnisson, Hannes; Sugita, Shinya; Vilumaa, Kadri; Anderson, Agnes; Terasmaa, Jaanus; Kangur, Mihkel; Pensa, Margus; Küttim, Martin; Umbleja, Liisa; Puusepp, Liisa

    2016-04-01

    Storminess in the Baltic Sea region has significantly increased over the last 50 years. As we do not have meteorological data beyond 20th century, therefore the long-term changes in storminess (e.g., frequency and magnitude of the storms) and its impact on the coastal evolution are mostly unknown. This study aims to reconstruct the extreme storm events along the coast of Estonia in late Holocene, inferred from changes in grain-size distribution and concentration of aeolian sands preserved in peat deposits. Four cores in total were collected from bogs of coastal Estonia; three from west Estonian archipelago (Hiiumaa Island and Saaremaa Island); one from the northern coast of the mainland (Juminda Peninsula). Core from Saaremaa (166 cm) covers the last 2700 years, cores from Hiiumaa (171 cm and 330 cm) cover ca 4000 years, and core from Juminda (465 cm) covers ca 8500 years. All AMS dates (77) are converted to cal yrs BP. Analyses of LOI and grain size are carried out at every centimetre in order to obtain data for mineral matter content and concentration of sand particles. The Juminda core shows a consistently low content of mineral matter (LOI < 2%) without clear peaks over the last 8000 years. The LOI results at both Hiiumaa sites show that mineral matter content gradually decreases from 4000 to 1500 cal yrs BP and then becomes the lowest in the period of 1500-1000 cal yrs BP; since then, it becomes higher (up to 10%) with fluctuations and has a clear peak around 700 cal yrs BP. At Saaremaa, the overall trend of mineral matter content is similar to that at the Hiiumaa sites: gradual decline from 2700 to 1500 cal yrs BP, lowest in 1500-1000 cal yrs BP, and relatively high over the last millennium. Concentration of mineral particles reveal clear peaks of aeolian sands at each site. At northern Hiiumaa, concentration has peaks around 3500, 3000 and 2500 cal yrs BP and is relatively high over the last 700 years. At Saaremaa, concentration has peaked at 2100, 1600 and

  8. Elemental composition and oxidative properties of PM(2.5) in Estonia in relation to origin of air masses - results from the ECRHS II in Tartu.

    PubMed

    Orru, Hans; Kimmel, Veljo; Kikas, Ulle; Soon, Argo; Künzli, Nino; Schins, Roel P F; Borm, Paul J A; Forsberg, Bertil

    2010-03-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) was sampled at an urban background site in Tartu, Estonia over one-year period during the ECRHS II study. The elemental composition of 71 PM(2.5) samples was analyzed for different chemical elements using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (ED-XRF). The oxidative activity of 36 samples was assessed by measuring their ability to generate hydroxyl radicals in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The origin of air masses was determined by computing 96-hour back trajectories of air masses with the HYSPLIT Model. The trajectories of air masses were divided into four sectors according to geographical patterns: "Russia," "Eastern Europe," "Western Europe," and "Scandinavia." During the study period, approximately 30% of air masses originated from "Scandinavia." The other three sectors had slightly lower values (between 18 and 22%). In spring, summer, and winter, higher total PM levels originated from air masses from continental areas, namely "Russia" and "Eastern Europe" (18.51+/-7.33 and 19.96+/-9.23microg m(-3), respectively). In autumn, the PM levels were highest in "Western Europe". High levels of Fe, Ti, and AlCaSi (Al, Ca, and Si) were also detected in air masses from the Eurasian continent. The oxidative properties were correlated to the origin of air masses. The OH values were approximately 1.5 times higher when air masses originated from the direction of "Eastern Europe" or "Russia." The origin of measured particles was evaluated using principal component factor analysis. When comparing the PM(2.5) elemental composition with seasonal variation, factor scores, and other studies, the factors represent: (1) combustion of biomass; (2) crustal dust; (3) traffic; and (4) power plants and industrial processes associated with oil burning. The total PM(2.5) is driven mainly by biomass and industrial combustion (63%) and other unidentified sources (23%). Other sources of PM, such as crustal dust and traffic, contribute a total

  9. Perception of emotionally loaded vocal expressions and its connection to responses to music. A cross-cultural investigation: Estonia, Finland, Sweden, Russia, and the USA

    PubMed Central

    Waaramaa, Teija; Leisiö, Timo

    2013-01-01

    The present study focused on voice quality and the perception of the basic emotions from speech samples in cross-cultural conditions. It was examined whether voice quality, cultural, or language background, age, or gender were related to the identification of the emotions. Professional actors (n2) and actresses (n2) produced non-sense sentences (n32) and protracted vowels (n8) expressing the six basic emotions, interest, and a neutral emotional state. The impact of musical interests on the ability to distinguish between emotions or valence (on an axis positivity – neutrality – negativity) from voice samples was studied. Listening tests were conducted on location in five countries: Estonia, Finland, Russia, Sweden, and the USA with 50 randomly chosen participants (25 males and 25 females) in each country. The participants (total N = 250) completed a questionnaire eliciting their background information and musical interests. The responses in the listening test and the questionnaires were statistically analyzed. Voice quality parameters and the share of the emotions and valence identified correlated significantly with each other for both genders. The percentage of emotions and valence identified was clearly above the chance level in each of the five countries studied, however, the countries differed significantly from each other for the identified emotions and the gender of the speaker. The samples produced by females were identified significantly better than those produced by males. Listener's age was a significant variable. Only minor gender differences were found for the identification. Perceptual confusion in the listening test between emotions seemed to be dependent on their similar voice production types. Musical interests tended to have a positive effect on the identification of the emotions. The results also suggest that identifying emotions from speech samples may be easier for those listeners who share a similar language or cultural background with the

  10. Ecological catastrophe in connection with the impact of the Kaali Meteorite about 800-400 BC on the island of Saaremaa, Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veski, Siim; Heinsalu, Atko; Kirsimäe, Kalle; Poska, Anneli; Saarse, Leili

    2001-10-01

    A sequence of peat enriched with impact ejecta (allochthonous minerals and iridium) from Piila bog, 6 km away from the Kaali impact crater (island of Saaremaa, Estonia), was examined using pollen, radiocarbon, loss-on-ignition, and x-ray diffraction analyses to date and assess the environmental effect of the impact. The vegetation in the surroundings of the Piila bog before the Kaali impact was a fen surrounded by forest in natural conditions. Significant changes occur in pollen accumulation and composition of pollen in the depth interval 170-178 cm, which contains above background values of iridium (up to 0.53 ppb). Two samples from the basal silt layer inside the main crater at Kaali contain 0.8 ppb of iridium, showing that iridium was present in the impact ejecta. The impact explosion swept the surroundings clean of forest shown by the threefold decrease in the total pollen influx (especially tree pollen influx), increase in influx and diversity of herb taxa, and the relative dominance of pine. Increased input of mineral matter measured by loss-on-ignition and the composition mineral matter (increased input of allochthonous minerals) together with an extensive layer of charcoal and wood stumps in Piila bog at the same depth interval points to an ecological catastrophe, with local impact-induced wildfires reaching at least 6 km northwest of the epicenter. The disappearance of cereals in the pollen record suggests that farming, cultivation and possibly human habitation in the region ceased for a period of ~100 years. The meteorite explosion at Kaali ranged between the effects of Hiroshima and Tunguska. The age of the Kaali impact event is placed between 800-400 b.c. based on radiocarbon dating of the peat enriched with impact ejecta in the Piila bog.

  11. The enrichment of natural radionuclides in oil shale-fired power plants in Estonia--the impact of new circulating fluidized bed technology.

    PubMed

    Vaasma, Taavi; Kiisk, Madis; Meriste, Tõnis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2014-03-01

    Burning oil shale to produce electricity has a dominant position in Estonia's energy sector. Around 90% of the overall electric energy production originates from the Narva Power Plants. The technology in use has been significantly renovated - two older types of pulverized fuel burning (PF) energy production units were replaced with new circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology. Additional filter systems have been added to PF boilers to reduce emissions. Oil shale contains various amounts of natural radionuclides. These radionuclides concentrate and become enriched in different boiler ash fractions. More volatile isotopes will be partially emitted to the atmosphere via flue gases and fly ash. To our knowledge, there has been no previous study for CFB boiler systems on natural radionuclide enrichment and their atmospheric emissions. Ash samples were collected from Eesti Power Plant's CFB boiler. These samples were processed and analyzed with gamma spectrometry. Activity concentrations (Bq/kg) and enrichment factors were calculated for the (238)U ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb) and (232)Th ((232)Th, (228)Ra) family radionuclides and for (40)K in different CFB boiler ash fractions. Results from the CFB boiler ash sample analysis showed an increase in the activity concentrations and enrichment factors (up to 4.5) from the furnace toward the electrostatic precipitator block. The volatile radionuclide ((210)Pb and (40)K) activity concentrations in CFB boilers were evenly distributed in finer ash fractions. Activity balance calculations showed discrepancies between input (via oil shale) and output (via ash fractions) activities for some radionuclides ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb). This refers to a situation where the missing part of the activity (around 20% for these radionuclides) is emitted to the atmosphere. Also different behavior patterns were detected for the two Ra isotopes, (226)Ra and (228)Ra. A part of (226)Ra input activity, unlike (228)Ra, was undetectable in the

  12. Perception of emotionally loaded vocal expressions and its connection to responses to music. A cross-cultural investigation: Estonia, Finland, Sweden, Russia, and the USA.

    PubMed

    Waaramaa, Teija; Leisiö, Timo

    2013-01-01

    The present study focused on voice quality and the perception of the basic emotions from speech samples in cross-cultural conditions. It was examined whether voice quality, cultural, or language background, age, or gender were related to the identification of the emotions. Professional actors (n2) and actresses (n2) produced non-sense sentences (n32) and protracted vowels (n8) expressing the six basic emotions, interest, and a neutral emotional state. The impact of musical interests on the ability to distinguish between emotions or valence (on an axis positivity - neutrality - negativity) from voice samples was studied. Listening tests were conducted on location in five countries: Estonia, Finland, Russia, Sweden, and the USA with 50 randomly chosen participants (25 males and 25 females) in each country. The participants (total N = 250) completed a questionnaire eliciting their background information and musical interests. The responses in the listening test and the questionnaires were statistically analyzed. Voice quality parameters and the share of the emotions and valence identified correlated significantly with each other for both genders. The percentage of emotions and valence identified was clearly above the chance level in each of the five countries studied, however, the countries differed significantly from each other for the identified emotions and the gender of the speaker. The samples produced by females were identified significantly better than those produced by males. Listener's age was a significant variable. Only minor gender differences were found for the identification. Perceptual confusion in the listening test between emotions seemed to be dependent on their similar voice production types. Musical interests tended to have a positive effect on the identification of the emotions. The results also suggest that identifying emotions from speech samples may be easier for those listeners who share a similar language or cultural background with the

  13. Impact of emission from oil shale fueled power plants on the growth and foliar elemental concentrations of Scots pine in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Ots, Katri

    2003-07-01

    To study the impact of air pollution on the growth and elemental composition of conifers, 5 sample plots were established at different distances and directions from the Estonian Power Plant (Northeast Estonia) in 1999-2000. The selected stands were 75-80(85)-yr-old parts (0.05 ha) of (Oxalis)-Myrtillus site type forest of 0.7-0.8 density. The soils of all sample plots were Gleyic Podzols (Lkg) on sands. The several times higher Ca concentration in the humus horizon of the sample plot NE from the Estonian PP is caused by the prevailing westerly and southerly winds which carry more pollutants NE from the power plant than to SSW. To ascertain the effect of power plants on the growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), the length growth of the needles and shoots formed in 1997-2000, dry weight of 100 needles, and density of needles on the shoots were measured. As compared to the control, the strongest inhibition of growth was revealed in the sample plots situated 22 km north-east and 17 km south-west from the Estonian Power Plant. As compared to control, the needles of trees growing on sample plots closer to the power plant showed higher contents of Ca, S and Zn. The content of Mg in needles increased with distance from the pollution source. Current year needles had higher contents of Cu and Zn than older needles. Today the amounts of fly ash emitted from Narva power plants are fallen. Long-term fly ash emission has caused changes in the measurements of morphological parameters and chemical composition of needles. PMID:12841691

  14. The MEE Report: Reaching the Hip-Hop Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MEE Productions Inc., Philadelphia, PA. Research Div.

    Effective communications strategies for delivering substance abuse and other prosocial behavior messages to African American inner city teenagers were studied. After pilot studies, the final sample consisted of middle school and high school students from the urban centers of New York City; Washington, D.C.; Camden (New Jersey); Philadelphia…

  15. Modified MEE Industries static thermal gradient diffusion cloud chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borys, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    The experiments performed at the Workshop were undertaken to confirm the calculated sample volume, determine the usable range of supersaturation, and minimum detectable size. Comparison of absolute CCN concentrations with other state-of-the-art continuous flow diffusion chambers at supersaturations near 1 percent indicated that the volume used produced CCN concentrations well within the range of CCN concentrations determined at the workshop. This agreement is interpreted to mean the sample volume was correct. Direct measurements of the beam geometry done in the laboratory indicated a factor of 4-5 error. This error is apparently due to the larger apparent visible beam diameter versus the actual usable beam diameter given the droplet illumination, chamber optical geometry, microscope optics and film characteristics.

  16. Soft-sediment deformation structures in Cambrian Series 2 tidal deposits (NW Estonia): implications for identifying endogenic triggering mechanisms in ancient sedimentary record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Põldsaar, Kairi

    2015-04-01

    Soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS) are documented in several horizons within silt- and sandstones of the Cambrian Series 2 (Dominopolian Stage) Tiskre Formation, and some in the below-deposited argillaceous deposits of the Lükati Formation (northern part of the Baltoscandian Palaeobasin, NW Estonia). The aim of this study was to map, describe, and analyze these deformation features, discuss their deformation mechanism and possible triggers. Load structures (simple load casts, pillows, flame structures, convoluted lamination) with varying shapes and sizes occur in the Tiskre Fm in sedimentary interfaces within medium-bedded peritidal rhythmites (siltstone-argillaceous material) as well as within up to 3 m thick slightly seaward inclined stacked sandstone sequences. Homogenized beds, dish-and-pillar structures, and severely deformed bedding are also found within these stacked units and within a large tidal runoff channel infill. Autoclastic breccias and water-escape channels are rare and occur only in small-scale -- always related to thin, horizontal tidal laminae. Profound sedimentary dykes, sand volcanoes, and thrust faults, which are often related to earthquake triggered soft sediment deformation, were not observed within the studied intervals. Deformation horizon or horizons with large flat-topped pillows often with elongated morphologies occur at or near the boundary between the Tiskre and Lükati formations. Deformation mechanisms identified in this study for the various deformation types are gravitationally unstable reversed density gradient (especially in case of load features that are related to profound sedimentary interfaces) and lateral shear stress due to sediment current drag (in case of deformation structures that not related to loading at any apparent sedimentary interface). Synsedimentary liquefaction was identified as the primary driving force in most of the observed deformation horizons. Clay thixotropy may have contributed in the

  17. Long term effects of forest fires to soil C content and soil CO_{2} efflux in hemiboreal Scots pine forests of Estonia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, Kajar; Metslaid, Marek; Orumaa, Argo; Parro, Kristi; Jõgiste, Kalev; Berninger, Frank; Pumpanen, Jukka; Köster, Egle

    2016-04-01

    Fire is the primary process which organizes the physical and biological attributes of the boreal biome and influences energy flows and biogeochemical cycles, particularly the carbon (C) cycle. Especially the soil organic matter pool in boreal forests is an important C storage with a long C turnover time, but fire frequencies that are expected to increase with changing climate, can change that. We compared the initial recovery of C pools and CO2 efflux following fire disturbances in Scots pine (Pinus sylvesteris L.) stands with different time since fire. The study areas are located in hemiboreal vegetation zone, in northwestern Estonia, in Vihterpalu. Six areas (with extensive fires 200 ha and more) were chosen for study: fire in a year 1837, 1940, 1951, 1982, 1997, and 2008. In all areas we are dealing with stand replacing fires where all (or almost all) of the stand was destroyed by fire. On every area we established three permanent sample plots. Soil respiration was measured manually from all sample plots (measuring interval of two - three weeks). Manual chamber measurements are performed on 5 collars (north - south orientated and the distance between collars is 5 m) at each sample plot from May till November 2015. To characterize the soil C and N content and fine root biomass at the sites, 5 soil cores (0.5 m long and 0.05 m in diameter) were taken from each sample plot. Our results show that forest fire has a substantial effect on the C content in the top soil layer, but not in the humus layer and in mineral soil layers. Soil respiration showed similar chronological response to the time since the forest fire indicating that substantial proportion of the respiration was originating from the very top of the soil. Soil respiration values were lowest on the area where the fire was in a year 2008 and the respiration values followed also seasonal pattern being highest in August and lowest in May and November. The CO2 effluxes were lowest on newly burned area through

  18. The Structure of the Kaali Impact Crater (Estonia) based on 3D Laser Scanning, Photogrammetric Modelling and Strike and Dip Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanetti, Michael; Wilk, Jakob; Joeleht, Argo; Välja, Rudolf; Losiak, Anna; Wisniowski, Tomek; Huber, Matthew; Pavel, Kristiina; Kriiska, Aivar; Plado, Jüri; Geppert, Wolf Dietrich; Kukko, Antero; Kaartinen, Harri

    2015-04-01

    Introduction: The Kaali Impact Crater on the island of Saaremaa, Estonia (58.37° N, 22.67° E) is part of a crater-strewn-field consisting of nine identified craters, ranging in size from 110m (Kaali Main) to a few meters in diameter [1-3]. The strewn field was formed by the breakup of an IAB iron meteorite during atmospheric entry [4]. The main crater is due to its size an important crater to study the effects of small asteroidal impacts on terrestrial planets. Despite some anthropomorphic changes, the crater is well preserved. During a scientific expedition in August 2014, we mapped the crater in unprecedented detail using 3D laser scanning tools and made detailed strike and dip measurements of all outcrops. Additional measurements using ground-penetrating radar and electro-resistivity tomography we also conducted to further refine the subsurface crater morphology. The results include a high resolution topographic map of the crater, previously unreported observations of overturned ejecta, and refined morphometric estimates of the crater. Additionally, research conducted as part of the expedition has provided a new, best-estimate for the formation of the crater (3200a +/- 30 BP) based on 14C AMS dating of charcoal from within the ejecta blanket [Losiak et al., 2015, this conference]. Structural Mapping: Although Kaali Main has been the subject of previous investigation (e.g. [2,5,6]), most of the structural descriptions of the crater pre-date modern crater investigations. Strongly inclined blocks were previously considered being affected by erosion and slope processes, our new observations show that most high dip-angle features fit well with overall dip-angle systematics. The existence of the overturned flap can be demonstrated in at least four areas around the crater. 3D Laser Scanning: A point cloud containing 16 million data points was created using 43 individual scans from a tripod mounted Faro 3D 330x laser scanner. Scans were processed using Trimble

  19. Stone Age settlement and Holocene water level changes of the Baltic Sea in the Torvajoe Basin area, Narva-Luga Klint Bay, NE Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raig, Hanna; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Risberg, Jan

    2014-05-01

    The Tõrvajõe basin is located in NE Estonia in the southern part of the Narva-Luga Klint Bay, that is characterized by slow post-glacial isostatic uplift (about 0-1mm/yr) and slowly undulating low topography. Post-glacial changes of the water-level of the Baltic Sea have at times flooded the area, and at times, it has emerged as terrestrial land. In addition to a complex geological development, the surroundings of the Tõrvajõe basin are interesting from the archaeological point of view because of abundant archaeological findings in the area, of which the oldest (c 8.1 cal ka BP) from the Mesolithic period and the majority, indicating very intense habitation (c 7.1-5.5 cal ka BP), from the Neolithic period. Development of the Tőrvajőe basin area during the period of Stone Age settlement (c 8.1-5.5 cal. ka BP) is studied with multiple geological and archaeological proxies. Sediments are described by lithostratigraphical methods, loss-on-ignition. AMS radiocarbon dates are used to date events and create an age-depth model. Environment is described by pollen analyses and water environment by siliceous microfossil analyses. Palaeogeographical reconstructions for time slices of interest are created to illustrate Stone Age settlement pattern and changes of the coastline and landscape over time. The aim of this interdisciplinary study is to investigate and associate palaeoenvironmental conditions and water-level changes with Stone Age settlement pattern in the Tőrvajőe area. Results show four developmental stages in the post-glacial history of the basin: Ancylus Lake lagoon, mire, lagoon during the Litorina Sea and mire. During the Ancylus Lake transgression at about 10.8-10.2 cal. ka BP a spit started to form north of the basin and a lagoon evolved behind it. Following the Ancylus Lake regression river activity and formation of palaeosoil and fen peat took place. Due to the Litorina Sea transgression, that was initially slower but accelerated around 7.8-7.6 cal ka

  20. A systematic catalogue of butterflies of the former Soviet Union (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lituania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan) with special account to their type specimens (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea, Papilionoidea).

    PubMed

    Korb, Stanislav K; Bolshakov, Lavr V

    2016-01-01

    A catalogue of butterflies of Russia and adjacent countries is given, with special account to the name-bearing types depository. This catalogue contains data about 86 species (3 of them are questionable) of Hesperiidae (22 genera); 47 species of Papilionidae (14 genera); 89 species of Pieridae (5 of them are questionable)  (15 genera); 1 species (1 genus) of Libytheinae(dae); 2 species of Danainae(dae) (2 genera); 160 species of Nymphalinae(dae) (1 of them is questionable) (23 genera); 259 species of Satyrinae(dae) (14 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Oeneis and Pseudochazara) (34 genera); 3 species of Riodinidae (2 genera); 318 species of Lycaenidae (11 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Neolycaena and Plebeius) (57 genera). In total: 965 species of butterflies, 174 genera, by countries: Armenia-244, Azerbaijan-225, Belarus-107, Estonia-113, Georgia-211, Kyrgyzstan-316, Kazakhstan-344, Latvia-115, Lituania-126, Moldova-87, Russia-522, Tajikistan-295, Turkmenistan-159, Ukraine-192, Uzbekistan-241. Detailed distribution and subspecific structure (if present) for every species is provided. Lectotypes of the following species-group taxa are designated: Hesperia poggei Lederer, 1858, Parnassius felderi Bremer, 1861, P. eversmanni Eversmann, 1851, P. boedromius Püngeler, 1901, Limenitis moltrechti Kardakov, 1928, L. sydyi Kindermann, 1853, L. amphyssa Ménétriès, 1859, L. doerriesi Staudinger, 1892, L. helmanni duplicata Staudinger, 1892, L. homeyeri Tancré, 1881, Argynnis penelope Staudinger, 1891, A. thore borealis Staudinger, 1861, Vanessa io geisha Stichel, [1908], Melitaea maturna staudingeri Wnukowsky, 1929 (=uralensis Staudinger, 1871), M. didymina Staudinger, 1895, Papilio fascelis Esper, 1783, Thecla quercivora Staudinger, 1887, Lycaena orion var. ornata Staudinger, 1892. The following nomenclatural acts are established: Neolycaena submontana baitenovi (Zhdanko, 2011), comb. et stat.n. The following new synonymy is provided: Hesperia

  1. Martian occultation of epsilon Gem as observed from the C. E. Kenneth Mees Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, R. G.; Goguen, J. D.; Duthie, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Ground-based observations of the occultation of epsilon Gem by Mars on April 8, 1976 have been reduced to yield the scale height and temperature profiles of the Martian atmosphere for number densities between 10 to the 13th and 10 to the 15th per cu cm. The deduced variations in temperature are remarkably similar to the in situ measurements from the Viking landers.

  2. Lawsonia intracellularis and Porcine Circovirus type-2 infection in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Järveots, T; Saar, T; Põdersoo, D; Rüütel-Boudinot, S; Sütt, S; Tummeleht, L; Suuroja, T; Lindjärv, R

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the reasons of post-weaning distress in Estonian pig herds. Here we examined the natural cases of Lawsonia intracellularis and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) infection and co-infections. The presence of L. intracellularis in swine herds were tested by PCR and by histopathological methods, whereas PCV2 was detected by real-time-PCR and immunohistochemical stainings. Seven of the 11 investigated herds with signs of post-weaning wasting were infected with L. intracellularis and all 11 herds with PCV2. From the analysed samples 22.2% were infected with L. intracellularis and 25% with PCV2. The results of microbiological studies suggested that the piglets suffered from enteritis and pneumonia. Escherichia coli and Pasteurella multocida often aggravated the process of illness. The frequency of L. intracellularis was high in pigs 7-12 weeks old (18.5-42.7%) and PCV2 infection was too high in pigs 7-12 weeks old (24.8-32.7%). E. coli was often a co-factor with L. intracellularis and PCV2. The primary reasons of post weaning wasting were PCV2 and E. coli, later aggravated by L. intracellularis and other pathogens. Our results indicated that different pathogens have an important role in developing post-weaning wasting. Proliferative intestinal inflammation caused by L. intracellularis is mainly characterised by its localization and morphological findings. The main gross lesions were the enlargement of mesenteric lymph nodes and thickening of the wall of ileum. In post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome there are characteristic histological lesions in lymphoid tissues. They consist of a variable degree of lymphocyte depletion, together with histiocytic and/or multinucleate giant cell infiltration. This basic lymphoid lesions is observable in almost all tissues of a single severely affected animal, including lymph nodes, Peyer's patches and spleen. Sporadically, multifocal coagulative necrosis may be observed. PMID:27487502

  3. Professionalism of Preschool Teachers in Estonia, Finland, Sweden and Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Tiina; Veisson, Marika; Hujala, Eeva; Härkönen, Ulla; Sandberg, Anette; Johansson, Inge; Bakosi, Eva Kovacsne

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the ratings of Estonian, Finnish, Swedish and Hungarian preschool teachers and principals regarding the professionalism of preschool teachers within a cross-cultural context. According to reports commissioned by the European Commission and OECD, the professionalism of preschool teachers is a key factor in ensuring…

  4. Spiritual Needs and Quality of Life in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teichmann, Mare; Murdvee, Mart; Saks, Kai

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on three field studies using the WHOQOL-100 and WHOQOL-BREF instruments that utilized three different samples (N = 1,801) to get a better understanding of how important the person's spiritual needs are for quality of life. The most striking negative difference between the Estonian and World Health Organization samples was in…

  5. Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group. Proceedings of the 1985 Annual Meeting (Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec, June 7-11, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhille, Charles, Ed.

    These proceedings include two lectures followed by working group and topic group contributions in reduced format. The two lectures were by Heinrich Bauersfeld, speaking on contributions to a fundamental theory of mathematics learning and teaching, and Henry Pollak, speaking on the relationship between applications of mathematics and the teaching…

  6. Simultaneous effects of inlet stagnation pressure and heat transfer to the water vapor condensing flow of supersonic laval nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rad, E. Amiri; Mahpeykar, M. R.; Teymourtash, A. R.

    2012-06-01

    The formation of droplets in low-pressure stages of power steam turbines is due to the nucleation phenomenon and its effects, such as sudden pressure rise, also known as the condensation shock, where the irreversible internal heat transfer causes a drop in the efficiency of the turbine. Furthermore, the existence of the liquid phase causes erosion of turbine blade surfaces, and consequently, creates high mechanical costs. Therefore, proposing a solution for reducing these unwanted thermodynamic and mechanical effects is desirable. In the previous work of the authors, volumetric heating of the convergent section was introduced as an approach for reducing the mentioned damages and losses. However, further investigations revealed that heating the convergent section results in the expansion of the flow, and decreases the total mass flow rate, which is not favorable. In this paper, using semi-analytical and one dimensional modeling, the simultaneous effects of volumetric heat transfer and inlet stagnation pressure rise are investigated in order to propose a strategy for modifying this shortcoming and to stabilize the mass flow rate. The results show that for the boundary conditions used in this research, increasing the inlet stagnation pressure up to 5 percent can stabilize the mass flow rate of the non-adiabatic flow, compared to the flow in adiabatic conditions.

  7. Why and according to what consultation profiles do female sex workers consult health care professionals? A study conducted in Laval, Québec.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh-Nguyet; Venne, Thérèse; Rodrigues, Isabel; Jacques, Julie

    2008-02-01

    We carried out a study to understand help-seeking behavior among female sex workers in order to bring adequate health care and services to this population at risk for sexually transmitted infection (STI) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmissions. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, focus groups, and in-depth individual interviews. Analysis reveals that the respondents are familiar with and have access to the health care system. Over 80% claimed to have consulted a health professional during the preceding 12 months. Gynecological, psychosocial, respiratory, digestive, and drug addiction problems were the most frequent. Only a third of the respondents received care and services related to STIs. Data are displayed as three consultation profiles, one of which only tends to foster continuity and comprehensive health care, including screening and treatment of STIs. PMID:18350422

  8. Proceedings of the 1980 Meeting [of the] Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group (Laval University, Quebec, Canada, June 6-10, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1981

    Contained in these proceedings are: (1) two lectures; (2) reports from four working groups, three review groups, and three special groups; and (3) a list of participants. Lecture I, by Caleb Gattengo, was entitled "Reflections of 40 Years of Work on Mathematics Teaching." Lecture II, by David Hawkins, was entitled, "Understanding Understanding…

  9. Schools in Estonia as Institutional Actors and as a Field of Socialisation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmus, Veronika; Pavelson, Marje

    This paper provides a theoretical overview of education as an institution and as a field of socialization. It analyzes the relationships among multicultural education, integration, and civic society. Some of the socializers of the educational field are the formal curriculum, educational media, and the hidden curriculum. These socializers are…

  10. Ethnic Identification and School Language of Russian-Speaking Students in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemppainen, Raija P.; Hilton, Sterling C.; Rannut, Ülle

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic identification is closely tied to language. Society's appreciation of one's first language and the opportunity to use it may help strengthen ethnic identification. This research examined the relationship between ethnic identifications and school language and investigated other factors that potentially impact language-minority students'…

  11. Dependence of global radiation on cloudiness and surface albedo in Tartu, Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tooming, H.

    The dependence of global and diffuse radiation on surface albedo due to multiple reflection of radiation between the surface and the atmosphere (base of clouds) is found on the basis of data obtained at the Tartu-Tõravere Actinometric Station over the period 1955-2000. It is found that the monthly totals of global radiation increase by up to 1.38-1.88 times, particularly in the winter half-year between November and March, when snow cover albedo may be high. A semi-empirical formula is derived for calculating with sufficient accuracy the monthly totals of global radiation, considering the amount of cloudiness and the surface albedo. In the time series of the monthly total by global radiation a downward trend occurs in winter months. A decrease in global radiation by up to 20% in the past 46 years can be explained primarily by a relatively high negative trend in the snow cover duration and surface albedo (up to -0.24). As a result, days are growing darker, a new phenomenon associated with climate change, which undoubtedly affects human mood to some extent.

  12. Late Holocene peatland carbon dynamics inferred from Teringi Bog in southern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Kristyn; Stansell, Nathan; Klein, Eric; Borges, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Radiocarbon dated peat cores collected along a transect from Teringi Bog, an ombotrophic peatland, record changes in carbon accumulation rates during the late Holocene in response to shifting climatic conditions. Stable oxygen isotope records from nearby lakes indicate that periods of wetter conditions during the Holocene occurred at times when carbon accumulation rates were higher at Teringi. This suggests that shifting water table conditions drove much of the observed changes in carbon dynamics. Modern surface process observations indicate that carbon accumulation rates are indeed more variable at locations where the height of the water table is highly sensitive to rainfall amounts. In addition, carbon isotopes measured on water samples indicate that there is a close relationship between δ13C values and methane concentrations, suggesting that methanogenesis is strongly biomediated, and likewise varies as a function of the regional hydrology. Regardless, all of the cores collected indicate that there was a trend toward higher carbon accumulation rates from ~4.2 to 3.5 ka when precipitation amounts were higher, followed by lower values under drier conditions until ~2.8 ka. There was then a trend toward higher carbon accumulation rates through the remaining late Holocene. These observations further highlight the importance of high latitude peatland in global carbon dynamics as both a potential sink and source of CO2 and CH4.

  13. Traumatic bereavement, acute dissociation, and posttraumatic stress: 14 years after the MS Estonia disaster.

    PubMed

    Arnberg, Filip K; Eriksson, Nils-Gustaf; Hultman, Christina M; Lundin, Tom

    2011-04-01

    This prospective longitudinal study aimed to examine posttraumatic stress in survivors 14 years after a ferry disaster, and estimate short- and long-term changes in stress associated with traumatic bereavement and acute dissociation. There were 852 people who perished in the disaster, 137 survived. The 51 Swedish survivors were surveyed with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) at 3 months, 1, 3, and 14 years (response rates 82%, 65%, 51%, and 69%). Symptoms decreased from 3 months to 1 year; no change was found thereafter. After 14 years, 27% reported significant symptoms. Traumatic bereavement, but not acute dissociation, was associated with long-term symptom elevation. Chronic posttraumatic stress can persist in a minority of survivors, and traumatic bereavement appears to hinder recovery. PMID:21442665

  14. Homonegativity and Associated Factors Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Parker, R David; Lõhmus, Liilia; Mangine, Cara; Rüütel, Kristi

    2016-08-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be at higher risk for negative health outcomes including HIV, STIs, depression, substance use, suicidality, and anxiety. Associative relationships between homonegativity (internal and external) and these outcomes are used to explain the observed disproportionate impact. The current study assessed associations between internalized homonegativity and high-risk behaviours, markers of substance use and symptoms of mental illness as well as openness and level of same sex attraction. A 2013 Internet-based survey was conducted among MSM, collecting data on socio-demographics, sexuality, drug and alcohol use, mental health, suicidality, and internalized homonegativity. The sample (n = 265) had a median age of 31 years, with 85 % employed at least part-time; at least a college-level education in 43 %; and 87 % lived in an urban setting. Sexual orientation was reported as: gay, 72 %; bisexual 23 %; other 5 %. Almost all men (97 %) reported ever having sex with a man, with more than one-third (36 %) having a steady male partner. Statistically significant higher homonegativity scores were detected among men reporting any level of opposite sex attraction compared to men attracted to only men; mostly men (p = 0.001), men and women equally (p = 0.002), and mostly women (p = 0.004), as well as less openness of same sex attraction to family and friends; >50 % family (p = 0.032), no family knowing (p = 0.042), and few friends knowing (p = 0.011). Anxiety risk and increased homonegativity also had a statistically significant increasing relationship. The identified associations between homonegativity and opposite sex attraction among MSM warrants further exploration as well as the relationship with increased anxiety risk. PMID:26728280

  15. Contraceptive use among young women in Estonia: Association with contraceptive services.

    PubMed

    Part, Kai; Ringmets, Inge; Laanpere, Made; Rahu, Mati; Karro, Helle

    2016-04-01

    Objectives Our study aimed to explore the association between the use of effective contraceptive methods and access to different contraceptive services, as well as to describe accessibility-related obstacles when using contraceptive services and satisfaction with those services. Methods From a population-based cross-sectional study carried out in 2004 (response rate 53.8%), the data of 16- to 24-year-old women requiring contraception (N = 868) were analysed. Factors associated with the use of effective contraceptive methods and, specifically, hormonal methods, were explored using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Effective contraception was used by 75.1% of the respondents. The use of effective contraceptive methods was associated with school-based sexuality education (adjusted prevalence odds ratio 2.69; 95% confidence interval 1.32 - 5.50), visiting a youth-friendly clinic (YFC) (1.82; 1.03-3.23) or a private gynaecologist (2.08; 1.11-3.92). The use of hormonal methods was additionally associated with being a native Estonian speaker and visiting a family doctor. More than half of the respondents reported some obstacle in accessing contraceptive services. The highest satisfaction ratings were given to YFCs. Conclusions Steps to promote the use of services that are youth-friendly and associated with better uptake of effective contraceptive methods are needed among all 16- to 24-year-old women. PMID:26098563

  16. Evaluation of Changes in Individual Community-Related Empowerment in Community Health Promotion Interventions in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Kasmel, Anu; Tanggaard, Pernille

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed changes in community members’ ratings of the dimensions of individual community related empowerment (ICRE) before and two years after the implementation of an empowerment expansion framework in three community health promotion initiatives within the Estonian context. We employed a self-administered questionnaire, the adapted mobilisation scale–individual. As the first step, we investigated the multidimensional nature of the ICRE construct and explored the validity and reliability (internal consistency) of the ICRE scale. Two datasets were used. The first dataset comprised a cross-sectional random sample of 1,000 inhabitants of Rapla County selected in 2003 from the National Population Register, which was used to confirm the composition of the dimensions of the scale and to examine the reliability of the dimensions. The second dataset comprised two waves of data: 120 participants from three health promotion programs in 2003 (pre-test) and 115 participants in 2005 (post-test), and the dataset was used to compare participants’ pre-test and post-test ratings of their levels of empowerment. The content validity ratio, determined using Lawshe’s formula, was high (0.98). Five dimensions of ICRE, self-efficacy, intention, participation, motivation and critical awareness, emerged from the factor analysis. The internal consistency (α) of the total empowerment scale was 0.86 (subscales self-efficacy α = 0.88, intention α = 0.83, participation α = 0.81 and motivation α = 0.69; critical awareness comprised only one item). The levels of ICRE dimensions measured after the application of the empowerment expansion framework were significantly more favourable for the dimensions self-efficacy, participation, intention and motivation to participate. We conclude that for Rapla community workgroups and networks, their ICRE was rendered more favourable after the implementation of the empowerment expansion framework. PMID:21776201

  17. Strategic purchasing reform in Estonia: Reducing inequalities in access while improving care concentration and quality.

    PubMed

    Habicht, Triin; Habicht, Jarno; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2015-08-01

    As of 2014, the Estonian Health Insurance Fund has adopted new purchasing procedures and criteria, which it now has started to implement in specialist care. Main changes include (1) redefined access criteria based on population need rather than historical supply, which aim to achieve more equal access of providers and specialties; (2) stricter definition and use of optimal workload criteria to increase the concentration of specialist care (3) better consideration of patient movement; and (4) an increased emphasis on quality to foster quality improvement. The new criteria were first used in the contract cycle that started in 2014 and resulted in fewer contracted providers for a similar volume of care compared to the previous contract cycle. This implies that provision of specialized care has become concentrated at fewer providers. It is too early to draw firm conclusions on the impact on care quality or on actors, but the process has sparked debate on the role of selective contracting and the role of public and private providers in Estonian health care. Lastly, the Estonian experience may hold important lessons for other countries looking to overcome inequalities in access while concentrating care and improving care quality. PMID:26149322

  18. "Walking a Fine Line": Teachers' Perception of Curricular Autonomy in Estonia, Finland and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erss, Maria; Kalmus, Veronika; Autio, Tero Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to comparatively investigate the professional autonomy of upper secondary school teachers in three European countries in interpreting and implementing curricula. The paper focuses on teachers' experiences, and their perceptions of their autonomy and the control exercised over them in the global era of neoliberal…

  19. Use of Web 2.0 Technologies in LIS Education: Experiences at Tallinn University, Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virkus, Sirje

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the experiences of the Institute of Information Studies of Tallinn University in introducing ICT, including Web 2.0 technologies, in library and information science education, and to explore the role that these can play in new models of learning and teaching. Design/methodology/approach: Web 2.0…

  20. Understanding Lifelong Learning and Adult Education Policy in Estonia: Tendencies and Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jogi, Larissa

    2012-01-01

    There have been many theoretical and empirical analyses of lifelong learning policies and how to implement, develop, measure and facilitate lifelong learning and lifelong learning policy in order to cater for the needs and requirements of individuals as well as society in general. The particular slant on lifelong learning in different countries…

  1. The International School Psychology Survey: Development and Data from Albania, Cyprus, Estonia, Greece and Northern England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimerson, Shane R.; Graydon, Kelly; Farrell, Peter; Kikas, Eve; Hatzichristou, Chryse; Boce, Eljona; Bashi, Gladiola

    2004-01-01

    Although school psychological services around the world are currently undergoing a period of rapid development, little comparative information is available about the training, roles and responsibilities of school psychologists or the contrasting contexts in which they work. Further information in this area should help new and established school…

  2. Digital Channels in Teacher-Parent Communication: The Case of Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palts, Karmen; Kalmus, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the attitudes of Estonian primary school teachers and parents regarding the role of mutual digital communication in socialising the child and in the child's academic progress, their communication channel preferences, and related experiences and opinions. The main starting points are Bronfenbrenner's (1979)…

  3. Building a Norm of Internationalization: The Case of Estonia's Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamtik, Merli; Kirss, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explain how internationalization that is so widespread today has developed into an accepted standard in local contexts. This study demonstrates that internationalization of higher education can be regarded as a norm-building process that is facilitated through the active behavior of institutional agents. By using the…

  4. Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: cohort description and related epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Tekkel, Mare; Veidebaum, Toomas; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Bigbee, William L; Hartshorne, Michael F; Inskip, Peter D; Boice, John D

    2015-12-01

    The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers was one of the first investigations to evaluate the possible health consequences of working in the Chernobyl area (the 30 km exclusion zone and/or adjacent territories) after the 1986 reactor accident. The cohort consists of 4831 men who were dispatched in 1986-1991 for tasks involving decontamination, construction of buildings, transport, radiation measurement, guard duty or other activities. By 31 December 2012, the follow-up of the cohort yielded 102 158 person-years of observation. Exposure and health data were collected by postal questionnaires, biodosimetry evaluations, thyroid screenings, and record-linkages with cancer, causes of death and health insurance reimbursement registers and databases. These data cover socio-demographic factors, employment history, aspects of health behaviour, medical history, work and living conditions in the Chernobyl area, biomarkers of exposure, cancer and non-cancer disease occurrence and causes of death. Cancer incidence data were obtained for 1986-2008, mortality data for 1986-2011 and non-cancer morbidity data for 2004-2012. Although the cohort is relatively small, it has been extensively examined and benefited from comprehensive nationwide population and health registers. The major finding was an increased risk of suicide. Thyroid examinations did not reveal an association with thyroid nodular disease and radiation dose, but did indicate the importance of accounting for screening when making comparisons with unscreened populations. No risk of leukaemia was observed and risks higher than 2.5-fold could be excluded with 95% confidence. Biodosimetry included GPA analyses and chromosomal translocation analyses and indicated that the Estonian cleanup workers experienced a relatively low mean exposure of the order of 0.1 Gy. One value of the Estonian study is in the methodologic processes brought to bear in addressing possible health effects from the Chernobyl accident. Twenty-five years of research are summarised and opportunities for the future listed. PMID:26512763

  5. Comparative study of microbiological, chemical and sensory properties of kefirs produced in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Anton, Dea; Raudsepp, Piret; Roasto, Mati; Meremäe, Kadrin; Kuusik, Sirje; Toomik, Peeter; Elias, Priit; Laikoja, Katrin; Kaart, Tanel; Lepiku, Martin; Püssa, Tõnu

    2016-02-01

    In the current study the microbiological, sensory and chemical properties of 24 kefirs (12 producers) from Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian retail market were determined using gas chromatography (GC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-MS/MS-Q-TOF and LC-ion trap MS/MS), spectrophotometry and other methods. Antihypertensive, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibiting, antioxidant and antibacterial peptides were found in the kefir samples. According to the results of principal component analysis of 200 most abundant compounds obtained with HPLC-MS/MS-Q-TOF analysis, Estonian kefirs differed from the rest. Kefirs of Latvian and Lithuanian origin showed similarities in several characteristics, probably related to the starter cultures and technological processes. The fatty acids composition of all Baltic kefirs was uniform. The antioxidant capacity of the kefirs varied slightly, whereas intermediate positive correlation (r = 0.32, P < 0.05) was found between antioxidativity and total bacterial count. The lipid oxidation level, estimated as the content of linoleic and oleic acid primary oxidation products, oxylipins, was very low in all studied kefirs. Only one third of analysed kefirs met the requirements of the minimum sum of viable microorganisms, indicated in the Codex Standard for Fermented Milks. PMID:26869114

  6. Languages and Lives through a Critical Eye: The Case of Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to situate Estonian language use and policy within the emerging field of critical language policy and planning (LPP). Critical LPP draws on poststructuralist theory to deconstruct normalized categories that maintain systems of inequality. It is akin to the queer theory project for gender and sexuality. Since the country regained…

  7. Learning To Integrate: The Education of Russian-Speakers in Estonia, 1918-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kara D.

    This thesis, covering the years 1918-2000, is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 reviews the interwar history of non-Estonian education with particular emphasis on the diversity of the non-Estonian population, the legislation protecting the right of minority groups to mother tongue instruction, and the inclusion of Estonian language and civics…

  8. Teachers' Views of Curriculum Policy: The Case of Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erss, Maria; Mikser, Rain; Löfström, Erika; Ugaste, Aino; Rõuk, Vadim; Jaani, Juta

    2014-01-01

    Unlike in England, since the late 1980s the rhetoric of curriculum reforms has been overwhelmingly decentralist in many countries. However, decentralisation has often involved the delegation of centrally appointed tasks, rather than a real shift in power. The Estonian case demonstrates how a decentralised curriculum policy with centralised control…

  9. [Role of herpes simplex virus in the development of exudative erythema multiforme].

    PubMed

    Samgin, M A; Ivanov, O L; Kuzheleva, S A; Biriukov, A V; L'vov, N D

    1990-03-01

    The paper presents analysis of current knowledge on etiology and immunopathogenesis of multiform exudative erythema (MEE). Among a variety of pathogenetic actions of herpes simplex on immune system are those relevant to MEE onset. These variants are dealt with in detail. The view on MEE as resultant from herpes simplex infection promises appearance of new prospective modes of etiotropic therapy. PMID:2370760

  10. The origin of increased salinity in the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer system on the Kopli Peninsula, northern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karro, Enn; Marandi, Andres; Vaikmäe, Rein

    Monitoring of the confined Cambrian-Vendian aquifer system utilised for industrial water supply at Kopli Peninsula in Tallinn over 24 years reveals remarkable changes in chemical composition of groundwater. A relatively fast 1.5 to 3.0-fold increase in TDS and in concentrations of major ions in ed groundwater is the consequence of heavy pumping. The main sources of dissolved load in Cambrian-Vendian groundwater are the leaching of host rock and the other geochemical processes that occur in the saturated zone. Underlying crystalline basement, which comprises saline groundwater in its upper weathered and fissured portion, and which is hydraulically connected with the overlying Cambrian-Vendian aquifer system, is the second important source of ions. The fractured basement and its clayey weathering crust host the Ca-Cl type groundwater, which is characterised by high TDS values (2-20 g/L). Intensive water ion accelerates the exchange of groundwaters and increases the area of influence of pumping. Chemical and isotopic studies of groundwater indicate an increasing contribution of old brackish water from the crystalline basement and rule out the potential implication of an intrusion of seawater into aquifer. L'origine de la salinité croissante dans le système aquifère du Cambrien-Vendien dans la péninsule de Kopli, nord de l'Estonie Le suivi à long terme du système aquifère captif du Cambrien-Vendien utilisé pour l'approvisionnement d'eaux industrielles dans la Péninsule de Kopli, nord de l'Estonie, révèle de remarquables changements dans la composition chimique des eaux souterraines. Une augmentation de facteur 1.5 à 3 de la TDS et des concentrations en ions majeurs dans l'eau souterraine est la conséquence de pompages intensifs. Les sources principales des charges dissoutes dans les eaux de l'aquifère du Cambrien-Vendien sont le lessivage des roches et d'autres phénomènes géochimiques ayant lieu dans la zone saturée. Le soubassement rocheux cristallin, qui renferme des eaux souterraines salines dans sa partie supérieure altérée et fissurée, et est hydrauliquement connecté avec l'aquifère supérieur du Cambrien-Vendien, est la deuxième importante source d'ions. Le soubassement fracturé et le matériel argileux de l'altération, renferme l'eau souterraine de type Ca-Cl, caractérisée par un haut TDS (2-20 g/l). A cause de la mobilisation intensive de l'eau les échanges d'eau souterraine est sont accélérés et la zone d'influence des pompages augmentent. Les études chimiques et isotopiques indiquent une contribution croissante du drainage des eaux du soubassement cristallin. L'intrusion d'eaux salées de la mer dans le système aquifère n'est pas un phénomène évident. El origen del incremento en salinidad en un sistema de acuíferos Cámbrico-Vendiano en la Península Kopli, norte de Estonie Monitoreo a largo plazo de un sistema de acuíferos confinados, de edad Cámbrico-Vendiano, que se utiliza como fuente de abastecimiento industrial en la Península Kopli, al norte de Estonie, revela cambios notables en la composición química del agua subterránea. Un incremento de 1.5 a 3 veces en TDS y en concentraciones de iones mayores en agua subterránea explotada ha sido ocasionado por bombeo fuerte. Las fuentes principales de carga disuelta en el agua subterránea Cámbrico-Vendiano son la lixiviación de la roca encajonante y los procesos geoquímicos que ocurren en la zona saturada. Basamento cristalino subyacente, que aloja agua subterránea salada en la parte superior intemperizada y fisurada, y está conectado hidráulicamente con el sistema acuífero Cámbrico-Vendiano sobreyacente, es la segunda fuente importante de iones. El basamento fracturado y su corteza de intemperismo arcillosa alojan agua subterránea de tipo Ca-Cl la cual se caracteriza por valores altos de TDS (2-20 g/l). Debido a extracción intensiva se ha acelerado el intercambio de agua subterránea y se ha incrementado el área de influencia del bombeo. Los estudios químicos e isotópicos de agua subterránea indican una contribución creciente por filtración derivada del basamento cristalino. Es evidente una intrusión de agua salada hacia el sistema de acuíferos con implicaciones subsecuentes para la calidad del agua.

  11. Teacher Education Curricula after the Bologna Process--A Comparative Analysis of Written Curricula in Finland and Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakku-Sihvonen, Ritva; Tissari, Varpu; Ots, Aivar; Uusiautti, Satu

    2012-01-01

    During the Bologna process, from 2003 to 2006, degree programmes, including teacher education curricula, were developed in line with the two-tier system--the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) and modularization. The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the development of teacher education profiling measures by…

  12. Dating a Small Impact Crater: An Age of Kaali Crater (Estonia) Based on Charcoal Emplaced Within Proximal Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losiak, A.; Wild, E. M.; Geppert, W. D.; Huber, M. S.; Jõeleht, A.; Kriiska, A.; Kulkov, A.; Paavel, K.; Pirkovic, I.; Plado, J.; Steier, P.; Välja, R.; Wilk, J.; Wisniowski, T.; Zanetti, M.

    2015-09-01

    The Kaali crater was formed shortly after (tpq) 1530-1455 BC (3237 ± 10 14C yr BP). This age is based on dating charcoal within the ejecta blanket that makes it directly related to the impact, and not susceptible to potential reservoir effects.

  13. 76 FR 7721 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products; Estonia, Hungary, Slovakia, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... the Federal Register on May 30, 2002 (67 FR 37663-37664, Docket No. 01-041-2), and had listed Hungary... FR 28216-28218, Docket No. 93-172-2), and SVD in a final rule published in the Federal Register on August 2, 1973 (38 FR 20610-20611). Summary of Proposed Changes In this document, we are proposing to...

  14. Impact and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the National School-Based Sexuality Education Programme in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivela, Jari; Haldre, Kai; Part, Kai; Ketting, Evert; Baltussen, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Policy-makers making decisions on the implementation of school-based sexuality education (SE) programmes face two important questions: (1) what are the costs of implementing and scaling up SE programmes, and (2) what are the impacts? This paper responds to these questions by retrospectively assessing costs, impact and cost-effectiveness of the…

  15. The origin of increased salinity in the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer system on the Kopli Peninsula, northern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karro, Enn; Marandi, Andres; Vaikmäe, Rein

    Monitoring of the confined Cambrian-Vendian aquifer system utilised for industrial water supply at Kopli Peninsula in Tallinn over 24 years reveals remarkable changes in chemical composition of groundwater. A relatively fast 1.5 to 3.0-fold increase in TDS and in concentrations of major ions in ed groundwater is the consequence of heavy pumping. The main sources of dissolved load in Cambrian-Vendian groundwater are the leaching of host rock and the other geochemical processes that occur in the saturated zone. Underlying crystalline basement, which comprises saline groundwater in its upper weathered and fissured portion, and which is hydraulically connected with the overlying Cambrian-Vendian aquifer system, is the second important source of ions. The fractured basement and its clayey weathering crust host the Ca-Cl type groundwater, which is characterised by high TDS values (2-20 g/L). Intensive water ion accelerates the exchange of groundwaters and increases the area of influence of pumping. Chemical and isotopic studies of groundwater indicate an increasing contribution of old brackish water from the crystalline basement and rule out the potential implication of an intrusion of seawater into aquifer. L'origine de la salinité croissante dans le système aquifère du Cambrien-Vendien dans la péninsule de Kopli, nord de l'Estonie Le suivi à long terme du système aquifère captif du Cambrien-Vendien utilisé pour l'approvisionnement d'eaux industrielles dans la Péninsule de Kopli, nord de l'Estonie, révèle de remarquables changements dans la composition chimique des eaux souterraines. Une augmentation de facteur 1.5 à 3 de la TDS et des concentrations en ions majeurs dans l'eau souterraine est la conséquence de pompages intensifs. Les sources principales des charges dissoutes dans les eaux de l'aquifère du Cambrien-Vendien sont le lessivage des roches et d'autres phénomènes géochimiques ayant lieu dans la zone saturée. Le soubassement rocheux cristallin, qui renferme des eaux souterraines salines dans sa partie supérieure altérée et fissurée, et est hydrauliquement connecté avec l'aquifère supérieur du Cambrien-Vendien, est la deuxième importante source d'ions. Le soubassement fracturé et le matériel argileux de l'altération, renferme l'eau souterraine de type Ca-Cl, caractérisée par un haut TDS (2-20 g/l). A cause de la mobilisation intensive de l'eau les échanges d'eau souterraine est sont accélérés et la zone d'influence des pompages augmentent. Les études chimiques et isotopiques indiquent une contribution croissante du drainage des eaux du soubassement cristallin. L'intrusion d'eaux salées de la mer dans le système aquifère n'est pas un phénomène évident. El origen del incremento en salinidad en un sistema de acuíferos Cámbrico-Vendiano en la Península Kopli, norte de Estonie Monitoreo a largo plazo de un sistema de acuíferos confinados, de edad Cámbrico-Vendiano, que se utiliza como fuente de abastecimiento industrial en la Península Kopli, al norte de Estonie, revela cambios notables en la composición química del agua subterránea. Un incremento de 1.5 a 3 veces en TDS y en concentraciones de iones mayores en agua subterránea explotada ha sido ocasionado por bombeo fuerte. Las fuentes principales de carga disuelta en el agua subterránea Cámbrico-Vendiano son la lixiviación de la roca encajonante y los procesos geoquímicos que ocurren en la zona saturada. Basamento cristalino subyacente, que aloja agua subterránea salada en la parte superior intemperizada y fisurada, y está conectado hidráulicamente con el sistema acuífero Cámbrico-Vendiano sobreyacente, es la segunda fuente importante de iones. El basamento fracturado y su corteza de intemperismo arcillosa alojan agua subterránea de tipo Ca-Cl la cual se caracteriza por valores altos de TDS (2-20 g/l). Debido a extracción intensiva se ha acelerado el intercambio de agua subterránea y se ha incrementado el área de influencia del bombeo. Los estudios químicos e isotópicos de agua subterránea indican una co

  16. 77 FR 74555 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products; Estonia, Hungary, Slovakia, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ...APHIS is amending the regulations governing the importation of certain animal embryos and animal semen by removing one of the conditions for the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region, a region of Europe that we recognize as a single low-risk region for classical swine fever. We have determined that the 40-day holding period for swine semen and donor boars after......

  17. Father's death does not affect growth and maturation but hinders reproduction: evidence from adolescent girls in post-war Estonia.

    PubMed

    Hõrak, Peeter; Valge, Markus

    2015-12-01

    The popular concept of predictive-adaptive responses poses that girls growing up without a father present in the family mature and start reproduction earlier because the father's absence is a cue for environmental harshness and uncertainty that favours switching to a precocious life-history strategy. Most studies supporting this concept have been performed in situations where the father's absence is caused by divorce or abandonment. Using a dataset of Estonian adolescent girls who had lost their fathers over the period of World War II, we show that father's death did not affect the rate of pubertal maturation (assessed on the basis of development of breasts and axillary hair) or growth. Father's death did not affect the age of first birth but, contrary to predictions, reduced lifetime reproductive success. Our findings thus do not support the concept of predictive-adaptive responses and suggest that alternative explanations for covariation between fatherlessness and early maturation are required. PMID:26673934

  18. Autonomy, Educational Plans, and Self-Esteem in Institution-Reared and Home-Reared Teenagers in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulviste, Tiia

    2011-01-01

    The study examines autonomy, self-esteem, and educational plans for the future of 109 institution-reared and 106 home-reared teenagers (15-19 years). Teenagers were asked to complete the Teen Timetable Scale (Feldman & Rosenthal), two Emotional Autonomy Scales (Steinberg & Silverberg), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and answer questions about…

  19. Vocational Education and Training as a Tool To Ensure Social and Economic Cohesion. National Observatory Country Report. Estonia, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Observatory of Estonia, Tallin.

    The 1990s have brought about many changes in Estonian society, economy, and social sphere that have necessitated reorganization and development of the vocational education and training (VET) system. A shortage of dialog between private enterprises and vocational education institutions has left schools unable to analyze and meet skill requirements…

  20. The Effects of Young Children's Everyday Activities: A Longitudinal Study in the United States, Russia, and Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudge, J.; Tammeveski, P.; Meltsas, M.; Kulakova, N.; Snezhkova, I.

    Noting that it is by studying children's regular activities and their roles and interpersonal relationships that we come to understand how children develop as members of their cultural groups, this study examined children growing up in urban settings in a variety of societies. The study used an ecological perspective largely based on…

  1. Decentralisation and Language Policy: Local Municipalities' Role in Language Education Policies. Insights from Denmark and Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siiner, Maarja

    2014-01-01

    The present article contributes to attempts to re-conceptualise the top-down perspective on language policy, by analysing the role of local and city governments' agency in language education policy making. Only few studies analyse the role of lower administrative levels in language policy, other than in implementation of governmental…

  2. Status and Developments of eLearning in the EU10 Member States: The Cases of Estonia, Hungary and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ala-Mutka, Kirsti; Gaspar, Pal; Kismihok, Gabor; Suurna, Margit; Vehovar, Vasja

    2010-01-01

    This article summarises research carried out between 2006 and 2008 by IPTS (Institution for Prospective Technological Studies) in collaboration with a consortium of experts from 10 member states, led by ICEGEC. The project gathered information on eLearning developments to assess drivers and barriers and to suggest implications for policy and…

  3. Numerical investigations of cold gas dynamic spray with a novel convergent-divergent nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Quan; Tan, Zhihai

    2013-10-01

    Due to the disadvantages of conventional De-Laval nozzle for cold gas dynamic spray process, a novel structure of De-Laval nozzle was proposed in this paper. The numerical simulations of supersonic fluid flow within this nozzle have been conducted by commercial CFD software Fluent. The performance of particle acceleration within the nozzle have been comprehensively studied and compared with those of the conventional De-Laval nozzle. Furthermore, the relationships between the performance of particle acceleration and the locations of released particles are thoroughly studied for this new De-Laval nozzle and some useful conclusions have been drawn for the real application of CGDS with this kind of nozzle.

  4. Modulation of endothelial GSH concentrations: effect of exogenous GSH and GSH monoethyl ester

    SciTech Connect

    Tsan, M.F.; White, J.E.; Rosano, C.L.

    1989-03-01

    We studied the effects of exogenous glutathione (GSH) and GSH monoethyl ester (GSH-MEE) on the enhancement of endothelial GSH concentrations. The preparation of GSH-MEE used contained 91% GSH-MEE, approximately 9% GSH diethyl ester (GSH-DEE) and a trace amount of GSH. Both GSH and GSH-MEE markedly stimulated the intracellular concentrations of GSH in endothelial cells. GSH-MEE was more potent than GSH. The enhancement of endothelial GSH concentration by exogenous GSH was completely inhibited by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), a potent inhibitor of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthase, or acivicin (AT-125), an inhibitor of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, suggesting that it was due to the extracellular breakdown and subsequent intracellular resynthesis of GSH. In contrast, the effect of GSH-MEE was largely resistant to BSO and acivicin, suggesting that it was primarily due to transport of GSH-MEE followed by intracellular hydrolysis. The GSH-MEE preparation, which contained 9% GSH-DEE, at concentrations of 2 mM or higher caused vacuolization of endothelial cells. The enhancement of GSH concentrations by exogenous GSH, but not by GSH-MEE, protected endothelial cells against H/sub 2/O/sub 2/-induced injury.

  5. Calculation of the radiative heat exchange in a conical cavity of complex configuration with an absorptive medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surinov, Y. A.; Fedyanin, V. E.

    1975-01-01

    The generalized zonal method is used to calculate the distribution of the temperature factor on the lateral surface of a conical cavity of complex configuration (a Laval nozzle) containing an absorptive medium. The highest values of the radiation density occur on the converging part of the lateral surface of the complex conical cavity (Laval nozzle).

  6. Long-term immigrant adaptation: eight-year follow-up study among immigrants from Russia and Estonia living in Finland.

    PubMed

    Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga

    2008-02-01

    This study was a longitudinal investigation of the three different dimensions of long-term immigrant adaptation (i.e., psychological, sociocultural, and socioeconomic adaptation) and the relationships between them in an 8-year follow-up with panel data. The 282 respondents were immigrants in Finland, born between 1961 and 1976, coming from the former Soviet Union. The results suggest that the adaptation of these immigrants has developed favourably. In 8 years, the respondents had improved their Finnish language skills and their position in the labour market. No differences were observed in their levels of psychological well-being between the two assessments. Of the three adaptation dimensions assessed, sociocultural adaptation, measured as proficiency in understanding, speaking, reading, and writing Finnish, turned out to be the most significant predictor of the two other long-term outcomes of immigrant adaptation (i.e., socioeconomic and psychological). In particular, the better the initial command of the Finnish language, the better were their socioeconomic and psychological adaptation outcomes after 8 years of residence. These results demonstrate the importance of parallel and longitudinal assessments of the different outcomes of immigrant adaptation in order to address which particular dimensions of adaptation are most critical in the beginning of acculturation in terms of determining positive development and long-term immigrant adaptation. This study was supported by City of Helsinki Urban Facts. The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance of Anniina Lahtinen and Riku Perhoniemi in the data collection, and in addition, Riku Perhoniemi for the preliminary data analysis, and advice on the Amos analyses. Cette étude longitudinale a examiné trois différentes dimensions de l'adaptation à long-terme de l'immigré (i.e., adaptation psychologique, socio-culturelle et socio-économique) et de la relation entre elles dans un suivi de 8 ans avec des données de panel. Les 282 répondants étaient des immigrés en Finland provenant de l'ancienne Union Soviétique nés entre 1961 et 1976. Les résultats suggèrent que l'adaptation de ces immigrants s'est développée favorablement. En huit ans, les répondants avaient amélioré leurs habiletés en finlandais sur le marché de travail. Aucune différence n'a été observée dans leurs niveaux de bien-être psychologique entre les deux évaluations. Parmi les trois dimensions de l'adaptation évaluées, l'adaptation socio-culturelle telle que mesurée par la capacité de comprendre, de parler, de lire et d'écrire le finlandais s'est avérée être le prédicteur le plus significatif des deux autres résultats à long-terme de l'adaptation de l'immigré (i.e., socio-économique et psychologique). Particulièrement, meilleure avait été la connaissance initiale du finlandais, meilleurs étaient leurs résultats de l'adaptation socio-économiques et psychologiques après 8 ans de résidence. Ces résultats démontrent l'importance des évaluations parallèles et longitudinales de différents résultats de l'adaptation de l'immigré pour mieux étudier quelles dimensions particulières de l'adaptation sont les plus critiques au début de l'acculturation en matière de la détermination du développement positif et de l'adaptation à long-terme de l'immigré. El estudio consistió en una investigación longitudinal sobre tres diferentes dimensiones de adaptación de inmigrantes a largo plazo (i.e. adaptación psicológica, sociocultural, socioeconómica) y la relación entre ellas en 8 años de seguimiento con los datos de grupo. Los 282 encuestados fueron inmigrantes en Finlandia procedentes de los países de la antigua Union Sovietica, nacidos entre 1961 y 1976. Los resultados sugieren que la adaptación de estos inmigrantes se desarrolló favorablemente. En ocho años, los encuestados han mejorado sus conocimientos del idioma finlandes y su posición en el mercado laboral. No se observó ningunas diferencias en su nivel del bienestar psicológico entre las dos evaluacio

  7. The north-eastern aeolian 'European Sand Belt' as potential record of environmental changes: A case study from Eastern Latvia and Southern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalińska-Nartiša, Edyta; Thiel, Christine; Nartišs, Māris; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, Andrew S.

    2016-09-01

    The Latvian and Estonian inland dunes belong to the north-eastern part of the 'European Sand Belt' (ESB). These dunes are widely distributed over broad glaciolacustrine plains and Late Glacial alluvial deltas, considered to be potential sources for the aeolian material. Little is known about these aeolian sediments and their substratum; here we present a detailed sedimentary structural and textural characterisation together with a luminescence-based chronology. Through a comparison between grain-size, rounding of quartz grains and surface characteristics in medium/coarse (0.5-0.8 mm) sand, and the light mineral content, we found an alternation of aeolian and periglacial components. Further, short-lasting aeolian abrasion and/or transportation periods, and a significant contribution of a nearby sediment source are suggested. Luminescence dating points to aeolian sand accumulation and dune formation between ∼16 ka and ∼9 ka. However, we also observed some presumably watertable controlled environmental conditions at ∼13 ka; this corresponds with the occurrence of an ice-dammed/proglacial lake.

  8. Women's knowledge about cervical cancer risk factors, screening, and reasons for non-participation in cervical cancer screening programme in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The attendance rate in Estonian cervical cancer screening programme is too low therefore the programme is hardly effective. A cross-sectional population based survey was performed to identify awareness of cervical cancer risk factors, reasons why women do not want to participate in cervical screening programme and wishes for better organisation of the programme. Method An anonymous questionnaire with a covering letter and a prepaid envelope was sent together with the screening invitation to 2942 randomly selected women. Results are based on the analysis of 1054 (36%) returned questionnaires. Results Main reasons for non-participation in the national screening programme were a recent visit to a gynaecologist (42.3%), fear to give a Pap-smear (14.3%), long appointment queues (12.9%) and unsuitable reception hours (11.8%). Fear to give a Pap-smear was higher among women aged 30 and 35 than 50 and 55 (RR 1.46; 95% CI: 0.82-2.59) and women with one or no deliveries (RR 1.56, 95% CI: 0.94-2.58). In general, awareness of cervical cancer risk factors is poor and it does not depend on socio-demographic factors. Awareness of screening was higher among Estonians than Russians (RR 1.64, 95% CI: 1.46-1.86). Most women prefer to receive information about screening from personally mailed invitation letters (74.8%). Conclusions Women need more information about cervical cancer risk factors and the screening programme. They prefer personally addressed information sharing. Minority groups should be addressed in their own language. A better collaboration with service providers and discouraging smears outside the programme are also required. PMID:21951661

  9. The use of Ground Penetrating Radar in coastal research, archeaological investigations, lake studies, peat layer measurments and applied research in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilumaa, Kadri; Tõnisson, Hannes; Orviku, Kaarel

    2014-05-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is mainly used for scientific research in coastal geology in the Institute of Ecology at Tallinn University. We currently use SIR-3000 radar with 100, 270 , 300 and 500 MHz antennae. Our main targets have been detecting the thickness of soil and sand layers and finding out the layers in coastal sediments which reflect extreme storm events. Our GPR studies in various settings have suggested that the internal structures of the ridge-dune complexes are dominated by numerous layers dipping in various directions. Such information helps us to reconstruct and understand prevailing processes during their formation (e.g. seaward dipping lamination in coastal ridge-dune complexes indicating cross-shore and wave-induced transport of the sediments). Currently, we are trying to elaborate methodology for distinguishing the differences between aeolian and wave transported sediments by using GPR. However, paludified landscapes (often covered by water), very rough surface (numerous bushes and soft surface), moderate micro topography has slowed this process significantly. Moreover, we have been able to use GPR during the winter period (applied on ice or snow) and compare the quality of our results with the measurements taken during the summer period. We have found that smooth surface (in winter) helps detecting very strong signal differences (border between different sediment types - sand, peat, silt, etc.) but reduces the quality of the signal to the level where the detection of sedimentation patterns within one material (e.g. tilted layers in sand) is difficult. We have carried out several other science-related studies using GPR. These studies include determining the thickness of peat layer in bogs (to calculate the volume of accumulated peat or to find most suitable locations for coring), measuring the thickness of mud and gyttja layer in lakes (to find most suitable locations for coring, reconstructing initial water level of the lake or calculating the volume of stored carbon in the lake). Additionally, we have done several archaeology-related research including the search of buried city walls and caves (Tallinn old town), buried Viking ship (Saaremaa Island) and several other archaeological objects. We have also done some applied studies including the search of underground power cables, heating pipes, melioration systems, ammunition warehouses (from World War II) and buried ammunition from the military training fields. Aknowledgement: The authors acknowledge COST for funding Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar', supporting part of this work.

  10. What Is the Role of Education in the Recruitment Process? Employers' Practices and Experiences of Graduates from Tertiary Educational Institutions in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saar, Ellu; Unt, Marge; Helemäe, Jelena; Oras, Kaja; Täht, Kadri

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1980s, growing globalisation and economic restructuring coupled with expansion of tertiary education contributed to tremendous change in the labour market entry process in Europe. Most previous studies have been quantitative, concentrated on the supply aspect and analysed the role of education as the explanatory variable of youth labour…

  11. Environmental risks and problems of the optimal management of an oil shale semi-coke and ash landfill in Kohtla-Järve, Estonia.

    PubMed

    Vallner, Leo; Gavrilova, Olga; Vilu, Raivo

    2015-08-15

    The main wastes of the Estonian shale oil industry - oil shale semi-coke and ashes - are deposited in landfills. The Kohtla-Järve oil shale semi-coke and ash landfill, which is likely the largest of its kind in the World, was started in 1938. The environmental risks connected with the landfill were assessed and prioritized. The most significant hazard to human health is emission of harmful landfill gases and the water contamination in the local river network is harmful for aqueous organisms. The spatial expansion of subsurface contamination predicted by the groundwater transport model completed is practically insignificant from the viewpoint of health services. The landfill's leachates must be captured and purified, and the closed part of the landfill should be covered by greenery. The partial landfill capping recently executed is useless. The EU Landfill Directive requirements imposed on the hydraulic resistance of geological barriers cannot prevent the leakage of contaminants from a landfill. PMID:25930241

  12. Years are not brothers: Two-year comparison of greenhouse gas fluxes in large shallow Lake Võrtsjärv, Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rõõm, Eva-Ingrid; Nõges, Peeter; Feldmann, Tõnu; Tuvikene, Lea; Kisand, Anu; Teearu, Helis; Nõges, Tiina

    2014-11-01

    Two-year comparison of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes from different habitat zones in Lake Võrtsjärv revealed strong zonal, seasonal and annual variabilities. On average, largest emissions of both gases per unit area occurred in the helophyte zone. Fluxes of CO2 exceeded those of CH4 in both pelagic and littoral zones. In both years, emission peaks occurred in early spring and late autumn, but were considerably higher in 2010, which caused a more than twenty times higher net efflux. Annual differences in carbon emission were mostly accounted for by variable pelagic CO2 fluxes caused by different ice and snow conditions in spring and phytoplankton growth patterns in summer and autumn. On an annual basis, carbon uptake predominated over release in the pelagic zone in 2009, whereas an opposite balance occurred in 2010. An almost continuous emission from the helophyte zone outbalanced the pelagic uptake in 2009, resulting in a positive net efflux from the lake as a whole. In 2010, when the pelagic area was also mostly emitting carbon, the efflux from the helophyte zone constituted 36% of the total. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the pelagic flux of CO2 could be best described by opposite changes in phytoplankton biomass and pH (R2 = 0.68), whereas the best descriptors for the whole lake methane emission (R2 = 0.52) were sediment temperature (positive), saturation level of dissolved oxygen and depth (both negative). Strong annual differences in net C emissions of Võrtsjärv confirm the necessity of inclusion longer observation period, compared to widely used one year/ice-free period, in cases of lakes in climate zones with large seasonal variabilities. The results also confirm the need for including GHG emissions from helophytes (e.g. Phragmites australis) to the lake's net GHG budget, even if they cover a relatively small area.

  13. Ultrasound characterization of the mastoid for detecting middle ear effusion: A preliminary clinical validation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Kuo; Fang, Jui; Wan, Yung-Liang; Tsui, Po-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound detection of middle ear effusion (MEE) is an emerging technique in otolaryngology. This study proposed using ultrasound characterization of the mastoid to noninvasively measure MEE-induced mastoid effusion (ME) as a new strategy for determining the presence of MEE. In total, 53 patients were enrolled (Group I: normal, n = 20; Group II: proven MEE through both otoscopy and tympanometry, n = 15; Group III: patients with MEE having effusions observed during grommet surgery, n = 18). A 2.25-MHz delay-line transducer was used to measure backscattered signals from the mastoid. The Nakagami parameter was estimated using the acquired signals to model the echo amplitude distribution for quantifying changes in the acoustic structures of mastoid air cells. The median Nakagami parameter and interquartile range were 0.35 (0.34-0.37) for Group I, 0.39 (0.37-0.41) for Group II, and 0.43 (0.39-0.51) for Group III. The echo amplitude distribution observed for patients with MEE was closer to Rayleigh distribution than that without MEE. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis further revealed that the area under the ROC was 0.88, sensitivity was 72.73%, specificity was 95%, and accuracy was 81.13%. The proposed method has considerable potential for noninvasive and comfortable evaluation of MEE. PMID:27277543

  14. Ultrasound characterization of the mastoid for detecting middle ear effusion: A preliminary clinical validation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chin-Kuo; Fang, Jui; Wan, Yung-Liang; Tsui, Po-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound detection of middle ear effusion (MEE) is an emerging technique in otolaryngology. This study proposed using ultrasound characterization of the mastoid to noninvasively measure MEE-induced mastoid effusion (ME) as a new strategy for determining the presence of MEE. In total, 53 patients were enrolled (Group I: normal, n = 20; Group II: proven MEE through both otoscopy and tympanometry, n = 15; Group III: patients with MEE having effusions observed during grommet surgery, n = 18). A 2.25-MHz delay-line transducer was used to measure backscattered signals from the mastoid. The Nakagami parameter was estimated using the acquired signals to model the echo amplitude distribution for quantifying changes in the acoustic structures of mastoid air cells. The median Nakagami parameter and interquartile range were 0.35 (0.34–0.37) for Group I, 0.39 (0.37–0.41) for Group II, and 0.43 (0.39–0.51) for Group III. The echo amplitude distribution observed for patients with MEE was closer to Rayleigh distribution than that without MEE. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis further revealed that the area under the ROC was 0.88, sensitivity was 72.73%, specificity was 95%, and accuracy was 81.13%. The proposed method has considerable potential for noninvasive and comfortable evaluation of MEE. PMID:27277543

  15. On solitons and invariant solutions of the Magneto-electro-elastic circular rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, Mir Sajjad; Inc, Mustafa; Kilic, Bulent; Akgül, Ali

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we study the magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) circular rod by the aid of Lie group symmetry method. Corresponding symmetry reductions of MEE and its some invariant solutions using the Nucci's method are completely considered too. Subsequently, the soliton solutions are obtained using the first integral method.

  16. Early Middle Ear Effusion and Language at Age Seven

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale L.; McCormick, David P.; Baldwin, Constance D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relation of middle ear effusion (MEE) in the first 3 years of life to language outcomes at age seven. It was hypothesized, on the basis of a literature review, that (1) a low, but positive relation between early MEE and language measures in general will be observed at age seven, and (2) major effects will be demonstrated…

  17. Characterization of 2-(2-Methoxyethoxy)ethanol Substituted Phosphazene Polymers Using Pervaporation, Solubility Parameters and Sorption Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Orme, Christopher Joseph; Klaehn, John Ray; Harrup, Mason Kurt; Lash, Robert Paul; Stewart, Frederick Forrest

    2005-05-01

    Two linear phosphazene polymers were synthesized with differing amounts of hydrophilic 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethanol (MEE) and hydrophobic 4-methoxyphenol (MEOP) substituted on the backbone. These high polymers were cast into membranes and their permeability to water, methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol was evaluated as a function of temperature. An additional polymer with a low content of MEE was studied for water permeation and was characterized by trace flux. At higher levels of MEE on the backbone, fluxes of all solvents increased. Solubility also was found to increase with increasing MEE content for all solvents except water. Unexpectedly, water was found to be less soluble in the higher MEE polymer, although higher membrane fluxes were observed. Diffusion coefficients showed the following trend: methanol 2-propanol > ethanol water. Finally, the affinity of solvents and polymers was discussed in terms of Hansen solubility parameters.

  18. Geometry of the effective Majorana neutrino mass in the 0νββ decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Zhi-zhong; Zhou, Ye-Ling

    2015-01-01

    The neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay is a unique process used to identify the Majorana nature of massive neutrinos, and its rate depends on the size of the effective Majorana neutrino mass <m>ee. We put forward a novel ‘coupling-rod’ diagram to describe <m>ee in the complex plane, by which the effects of the neutrino mass ordering and CP-violating phases on <m>ee are intuitively understood. We show that this geometric language allows us to easily obtain the maximum and minimum of |<m>ee|. It remains usable even if there is a kind of new physics contributing to <m>ee, and it can also be extended to describe the effective Majorana masses eμ, eτ, μτ and ττ which may appear in some other lepton-number violating processes.

  19. The use of microbial-earthworm ecofilters for wastewater treatment with special attention to influencing factors in performance: A review.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Luhua; Liu, Yunguo; Hu, Xinjiang; Zeng, Guangming; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Lu; Tan, Xiaofei; Huang, Binyan; Liu, Shaobo; Liu, Simian

    2016-01-01

    With the unique advantages of lower operational and maintenance cost, the use of microbial-earthworm ecofilters (MEEs) for the wastewater treatment has been increasing rapidly in the recent years. This paper provided an overview of the research activities on the use of MEEs for removing pollutants from various wastewater throughout the world. However, the long-term effective treatment performance and sustainable operation of this system still remain a challenge since the treatment performance would be affected by design parameters, operational conditions, and environmental factors. In order to promote the treatment performance, therefore, this paper also provided and summarized the influencing factors of pollutants removal in MEEs. The design parameters and operational conditions of MEEs include earthworm species and load, filter media type, hydraulic loading rate, nutrient load, packing bed height, chemical factors and temperature. Lastly, this review highlighted the further research on these issues to improve performance and sustainability of MEEs. PMID:26611806

  20. A joint-space numerical model of metabolic energy expenditure for human multibody dynamic system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo H; Roberts, Dustyn

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic energy expenditure (MEE) is a critical performance measure of human motion. In this study, a general joint-space numerical model of MEE is derived by integrating the laws of thermodynamics and principles of multibody system dynamics, which can evaluate MEE without the limitations inherent in experimental measurements (phase delays, steady state and task restrictions, and limited range of motion) or muscle-space models (complexities and indeterminacies from excessive DOFs, contacts and wrapping interactions, and reliance on in vitro parameters). Muscle energetic components are mapped to the joint space, in which the MEE model is formulated. A constrained multi-objective optimization algorithm is established to estimate the model parameters from experimental walking data also used for initial validation. The joint-space parameters estimated directly from active subjects provide reliable MEE estimates with a mean absolute error of 3.6 ± 3.6% relative to validation values, which can be used to evaluate MEE for complex non-periodic tasks that may not be experimentally verifiable. This model also enables real-time calculations of instantaneous MEE rate as a function of time for transient evaluations. Although experimental measurements may not be completely replaced by model evaluations, predicted quantities can be used as strong complements to increase reliability of the results and yield unique insights for various applications. PMID:25914404

  1. Nonionic surfactants enhancing bactericidal activity at their critical micelle concentrations.

    PubMed

    Tobe, Seiichi; Majima, Toshiaki; Tadenuma, Hirohiko; Suekuni, Tomonari; Sakai, Kenichi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Bactericidal activities of benzalkonium chloride [also known as alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (ADBAC)] containing nonionic surfactants such as methyl ester ethoxylates (MEE) with the alkyl group C8-C14 and oxyethylene (EO) group of average adduct number 3-15 were measured against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Sample solutions containing MEE in the vicinity of the critical micelle concentration exhibited a dramatic decrease in viable bacterial counts. MEE with an alkyl group of C12 and an oxyethylene group of lower adduct number exhibited little viable bacterial counts than those having higher EO adduct numbers. MEE with reduced EO adduct numbers increased fluorescence intensity in E. coli using the viability stain SYTO 9. Our results show that MEE molecules with low EO adduct numbers exhibited bactericidal activity by increasing the permeability of the E. coli cell membrane. Sample solution containing ADBAC and MEE molecules with lower EO adduct numbers also displayed higher zeta potentials. Moreover, ADBAC molecules incorporated into micelles of MEE with lower EO adduct numbers were adsorbed onto the surface of E. coli, which augmented bactericidal activity. PMID:25492231

  2. Acceleration of fusion in mouse palates by in vitro exposure to excess G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, J.; Janer, L.; Campbell, M.

    1984-01-01

    Palatal shelves from 13- and 14-day mouse embryos were excised and cultured in contiguous pairs. Experimental cultures were exposed to 2.6 G in a culture centrifuge; controls were in the same incubator. After 24 hours, palates were prepared for light or electron microscopy. Scoring of paraffin sections according to the stage of fusion seen in the medial epithelial edges (MEE) showed that palates exposed to excess G were in more advanced stages of fusion than were controls. Ultrastructurally, control MEE had tightly apposed cell membranes and numerous desmosomes; in centrifuged MEE, desmosomes had been removed and there was much intercellular space. Nuclear membranes were intact in control MEE, but showed marked deterioration in MEE of centrifuged palates. Few lysosomes and no necrosis were seen in control MEE; centrifuged MEE had numerous lysosomes as well as necrotic cells. Basal lamina were intact in controls, but interrupted in centrifuged palates. The results confirm the hypothesis that gravitational increases speed up the differentiative process.

  3. A Sensitivity Study on the Effects of Particle Chemistry, Asphericity and Size on the Mass Extinction Efficiency of Mineral Dust in the Earth's Atmosphere: From the Near to Thermal IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansell, R. A., Jr.; Reid, J. S.; Tsay, S. C.; Roush, T. L.; Kalashnikova, O. V.

    2011-01-01

    To determine a plausible range of mass extinction efficiencies (MEE) of terrestrial atmospheric dust from the near to thermal IR, sensitivity analyses are performed over an extended range of dust microphysical and chemistry perturbations. The IR values are subsequently compared to those in the near-IR, to evaluate spectral relationships in their optical properties. Synthesized size distributions consistent with measurements, model particle size, while composition is defined by the refractive indices of minerals routinely observed in dust, including the widely used OPAC/Hess parameterization. Single-scattering properties of representative dust particle shapes are calculated using the T-matrix, Discrete Dipole Approximation and Lorenz-Mie light-scattering codes. For the parameterizations examined, MEE ranges from nearly zero to 1.2 square meters per gram, with the higher values associated with non-spheres composed of quartz and gypsum. At near-IR wavelengths, MEE for non-spheres generally exceeds those for spheres, while in the thermal IR, shape-induced changes in MEE strongly depend on volume median diameter (VMD) and wavelength, particularly for MEE evaluated at the mineral resonant frequencies. MEE spectral distributions appear to follow particle geometry and are evidence for shape dependency in the optical properties. It is also shown that non-spheres best reproduce the positions of prominent absorption peaks found in silicates. Generally, angular particles exhibit wider and more symmetric MEE spectral distribution patterns from 8-10 micrometers than those with smooth surfaces, likely due to their edge-effects. Lastly, MEE ratios allow for inferring dust optical properties across the visible-IR spectrum. We conclude the MEE of dust aerosol are significant for the parameter space investigated, and are a key component for remote sensing applications and the study of direct aerosol radiative effects.

  4. Maximal CP violation in flavor neutrino masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitabayashi, Teruyuki; Yasuè, Masaki

    2016-03-01

    Since flavor neutrino masses Mμμ,ττ,μτ can be expressed in terms of Mee,eμ,eτ, mutual dependence among Mμμ,ττ,μτ is derived by imposing some constraints on Mee,eμ,eτ. For appropriately imposed constraints on Mee,eμ,eτ giving rise to both maximal CP violation and the maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing, we show various specific textures of neutrino mass matrices including the texture with Mττ = Mμμ∗ derived as the simplest solution to the constraint of Mττ ‑ Mμμ = imaginary, which is required by the constraint of Meμcos θ23 ‑ Meτsin θ23 = real for cos 2θ23 = 0. It is found that Majorana CP violation depends on the phase of Mee.

  5. Learning about Proteins

    MedlinePlus

    ... body, and protecting you from disease. All About Amino Acids When you eat foods that contain protein, the ... called amino (say: uh-MEE-no) acids. The amino acids then can be reused to make the proteins ...

  6. Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers

    MedlinePlus

    ... with your health care team. What are target blood sugar levels for people with diabetes? A target is something ... gly- see -mee-uh). It means that your blood sugar level is higher than your target level or over ...

  7. Bleeding Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause bleeding, such as endometriosis (EN-doh-MEE-tree-OH-suhss) Large bruises from a minor bump ... 8573 National Hemophilia Foundation Phone: 800-424-2634 World Federation of Hemophilia Phone: 514-875-7944 Return ...

  8. Biochemical pathology of otitis media with effusion.

    PubMed

    Juhn, S K; Sipilä, P; Jung, T T; Edlin, J

    1984-01-01

    The sequential cytologic and biochemical events of middle ear effusion (MEE) were studied in experimental models of serous otitis media (SOM) and purulent otitis media (POM) in chinchilla. In the SOM model, the initial appearance of neutrophils was followed by macrophages. In the POM model, neutrophils were the predominant cells in MEE and the number of neutrophils was about 100-fold higher than in the SOM model. The activity of lysozyme in MEE was higher in POM than in SOM and correlated with the number of neutrophils and mononuclear phagocytes. The results of the present study suggest that neutrophils and mononuclear phagocytes are one of the main sources for lysozyme levels in MEE during otitis media. PMID:6598270

  9. 1H-NMR-Based Metabolic Analysis of Human Serum Reveals Novel Markers of Myocardial Energy Expenditure in Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Su, Liang; Lai, Wenyan; Wang, Peng; Xie, Zhibing; Xie, Zhiquan; Zeng, Qingchun; Ren, Hao; Xu, Dingli

    2014-01-01

    Objective Elevated myocardial energy expenditure (MEE) is related with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, and has also been documented as an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality. However, the serum small-molecule metabolite profiles and pathophysiological mechanisms of elevated MEE in heart failure (HF) are still lacking. Herein, we used 1H-NMR-based metabolomics analysis to screen for potential biomarkers of MEE in HF. Methods A total of 61 subjects were enrolled, including 46 patients with heart failure and 15 age-matched controls. Venous serum samples were collected from subjects after an 8-hour fast. An INOVA 600 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer with Carr-Purcell-Melboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence was employed for the metabolomics analysis and MEE was calculated using colored Doppler echocardiography. Metabolomics data were processed using orthogonal signal correction and regression analysis was performed using the partial least squares method. Results The mean MEE levels of HF patients and controls were 139.61±58.18 cal/min and 61.09±23.54 cal/min, respectively. Serum metabolomics varied with MEE changed, and 3-hydroxybutyrate, acetone and succinate were significantly elevated with the increasing MEE. Importantly, these three metabolites were independent of administration of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, β-receptor blockers, diuretics and statins (P>0.05). Conclusions These results suggested that in patients with heart failure, MEE elevation was associated with significant changes in serum metabolomics profiles, especially the concentration of 3-hydroxybutyrate, acetone and succinate. These compounds could be used as potential serum biomarkers to study myocardial energy mechanism in HF patients. PMID:24505394

  10. Mulberry ethanol extract attenuates hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Haizhao; Lai, Jia; Tang, Qiong; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-07-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most common complications of obesity. Mulberry is an important source of phytochemicals, such as anthocyanins, polyphenols and flavonoids, which are related to its antioxidant activity. In this study, we developed a hypothesis that mulberry exerted beneficial effects on metabolic disorders and evaluated the influence of the mulberry ethanol extract (MEE) on high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in mice. Thirty-six male C57BL/6J mice were assigned into 3 groups and fed either a low-fat diet or a high-fat diet with or without supplementation with MEE. Our results showed that administration of MEE reduced diet-induced body weight gain, improved high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and adipose hypertrophy, alleviated insulin resistance, and improved glucose homeostasis. Analysis of hepatic gene expression indicated that MEE treatment changed the expression profile of genes involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that MEE supplementation protected mice from high-fat diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance. Moreover, the protective effects of MEE were associated with the induction of fatty acid oxidation and decreased fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis. PMID:27262537

  11. Accumulation of Regulatory T Cells and Chronic Inflammation in the Middle Ear in a Mouse Model of Chronic Otitis Media with Effusion Induced by Combined Eustachian Tube Blockage and Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Infection.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Takashi; Kodama, Satoru; Kawano, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is associated with chronic otitis media (COM). In this study, we generated a murine model of COM by using eustachian tube (ET) obstruction and NTHi (10(7) CFU) inoculation into the tympanic bulla, and we investigated the relationship between regulatory T cells (Treg) and chronic inflammation in the middle ear. Middle ear effusions (MEEs) and middle ear mucosae (MEM) were collected at days 3 and 14 and at 1 and 2 months after inoculation. Untreated mice served as controls. MEEs were used for bacterial counts and to measure the concentrations of cytokines. MEM were collected for histological evaluation and flow cytometric analysis. Inflammation of the MEM was prolonged throughout this study, and the incidence of NTHi culture-positive MEE was 38% at 2 months after inoculation. The levels of interleukin-1β (IL-β), tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-10, and transforming growth factor β were increased in the middle ear for up to 2 months after inoculation. CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) Treg accumulated in the middle ear, and the percentage of Treg in the MEM increased for up to 2 months after inoculation. Treg depletion induced a 99.9% reduction of bacterial counts in MEEs and also significantly reduced the ratio of NTHi culture-positive MEE. The levels of these cytokines were also reduced in MEEs. In summary, we developed a murine model of COM, and our findings indicate that Treg confer infectious tolerance to NTHi in the middle ear. PMID:26553466

  12. Proteomic Characterization of Middle Ear Fluid Confirms Neutrophil Extracellular Traps as a Predominant Innate Immune Response in Chronic Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Val, Stephanie; Poley, Marian; Brown, Kristy; Choi, Rachel; Jeong, Stephanie; Colberg-Poley, Annie; Rose, Mary C.; Panchapakesan, Karuna C.; Devaney, Joe C.; Perez-Losada, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic Otitis Media (COM) is characterized by middle ear effusion (MEE) and conductive hearing loss. MEE reflect mucus hypersecretion, but global proteomic profiling of the mucosal components are limited. Objective This study aimed at characterizing the proteome of MEEs from children with COM with the goal of elucidating important innate immune responses. Method MEEs were collected from children (n = 49) with COM undergoing myringotomy. Mass spectrometry was employed for proteomic profiling in nine samples. Independent samples were further analyzed by cytokine multiplex assay, immunoblotting, neutrophil elastase activity, next generation DNA sequencing, and/or immunofluorescence analysis. Results 109 unique and common proteins were identified by MS. A majority were innate immune molecules, along with typically intracellular proteins such as histones and actin. 19.5% percent of all mapped peptide counts were from proteins known to be released by neutrophils. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting demonstrated the presence of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in every MEE, along with MUC5B colocalization. DNA found in effusions revealed unfragmented DNA of human origin. Conclusion Proteomic analysis of MEEs revealed a predominantly neutrophilic innate mucosal response in which MUC5B is associated with NET DNA. NETs are a primary macromolecular constituent of human COM middle ear effusions. PMID:27078692

  13. The Glutathione Derivative, GSH Monoethyl Ester, May Effectively Whiten Skin but GSH Does Not

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Bo Young; Choi, So Ra; Moon, Ik Jun; Park, Chun Wook; Kim, Young-Hoon; Chang, Sung Eun

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione in its reduced form (GSH) is an antioxidant and also is involved in pheomelanin formation. Thus, it has been long believed that GSH has a skin whitening effect. However, its actual or direct effect is unproven. We evaluated the anti-melanogenic effects of GSH and its derivatives in vitro. We examined change of melanogenesis and its related proteins by GSH itself and its derivatives, including GSH monoethyl ester (GSH-MEE), GSH diethyl ester (GSH-DEE) and GSH monoisopropyl ester (GSH-MIPE) in Melan-A cells, Mel-Ab cells, and B16F10 cells. GSH and GSH-MEE did not display cytotoxic activity, but GSH-MIPE and GSH-DEE did. Intriguingly, GSH itself had no inhibitory effect on melanin production or intracellular tyrosinase activity. Rather, it was GSH-MEE and GSH-MIPE that profoundly reduced the amount of melanin and intracellular tyrosinase activity. Thus, GSH-MEE was selected as a suitable candidate skin-whitening agent and it did not alter melanogenesis-associated proteins such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1, and TRP-2, but it did increase the amount of suggested pheomelanin and suggested pheomelanin/eumelanin ratio. GSH-MEE was effective for anti-melanogenesis, whereas GSH itself was not. GSH-MEE could be developed as a safe and efficient agent for the treatment of hyperpigmentation skin disorders. PMID:27128906

  14. Accumulation of Regulatory T Cells and Chronic Inflammation in the Middle Ear in a Mouse Model of Chronic Otitis Media with Effusion Induced by Combined Eustachian Tube Blockage and Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Satoru; Kawano, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is associated with chronic otitis media (COM). In this study, we generated a murine model of COM by using eustachian tube (ET) obstruction and NTHi (107 CFU) inoculation into the tympanic bulla, and we investigated the relationship between regulatory T cells (Treg) and chronic inflammation in the middle ear. Middle ear effusions (MEEs) and middle ear mucosae (MEM) were collected at days 3 and 14 and at 1 and 2 months after inoculation. Untreated mice served as controls. MEEs were used for bacterial counts and to measure the concentrations of cytokines. MEM were collected for histological evaluation and flow cytometric analysis. Inflammation of the MEM was prolonged throughout this study, and the incidence of NTHi culture-positive MEE was 38% at 2 months after inoculation. The levels of interleukin-1β (IL-β), tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-10, and transforming growth factor β were increased in the middle ear for up to 2 months after inoculation. CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Treg accumulated in the middle ear, and the percentage of Treg in the MEM increased for up to 2 months after inoculation. Treg depletion induced a 99.9% reduction of bacterial counts in MEEs and also significantly reduced the ratio of NTHi culture-positive MEE. The levels of these cytokines were also reduced in MEEs. In summary, we developed a murine model of COM, and our findings indicate that Treg confer infectious tolerance to NTHi in the middle ear. PMID:26553466

  15. The Glutathione Derivative, GSH Monoethyl Ester, May Effectively Whiten Skin but GSH Does Not.

    PubMed

    Chung, Bo Young; Choi, So Ra; Moon, Ik Jun; Park, Chun Wook; Kim, Young-Hoon; Chang, Sung Eun

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione in its reduced form (GSH) is an antioxidant and also is involved in pheomelanin formation. Thus, it has been long believed that GSH has a skin whitening effect. However, its actual or direct effect is unproven. We evaluated the anti-melanogenic effects of GSH and its derivatives in vitro. We examined change of melanogenesis and its related proteins by GSH itself and its derivatives, including GSH monoethyl ester (GSH-MEE), GSH diethyl ester (GSH-DEE) and GSH monoisopropyl ester (GSH-MIPE) in Melan-A cells, Mel-Ab cells, and B16F10 cells. GSH and GSH-MEE did not display cytotoxic activity, but GSH-MIPE and GSH-DEE did. Intriguingly, GSH itself had no inhibitory effect on melanin production or intracellular tyrosinase activity. Rather, it was GSH-MEE and GSH-MIPE that profoundly reduced the amount of melanin and intracellular tyrosinase activity. Thus, GSH-MEE was selected as a suitable candidate skin-whitening agent and it did not alter melanogenesis-associated proteins such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1, and TRP-2, but it did increase the amount of suggested pheomelanin and suggested pheomelanin/eumelanin ratio. GSH-MEE was effective for anti-melanogenesis, whereas GSH itself was not. GSH-MEE could be developed as a safe and efficient agent for the treatment of hyperpigmentation skin disorders. PMID:27128906

  16. Activation of Notch1 inhibits medial edge epithelium apoptosis in all-trans retinoic acid-induced cleft palate in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yadong; Dong, Shiyi; Wang, Weicai; Wang, Jianning; Wang, Miao; Chen, Mu; Hou, Jinsong; Huang, Hongzhang

    2016-08-26

    Administration of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) on E12.0 (embryonic day 12.0) leads to failure of medial edge epithelium (MEE) disappearance and cleft palate. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the relationship between atRA and MEE remains to be identified. In this study, atRA (200 mg/kg) administered by gavage induced a 75% incidence of cleft palate in C57BL/6 mice. Notch1 was up-regulated in MEE cells in the atRA-treated group compared with the controls at E15.0, together with reduced apoptosis and elevated proliferation. Next, we investigated the mechanisms underlying atRA, Notch1 and MEE degradation in palate organ culture. Our results revealed that down-regulation of Notch1 partially rescued the inhibition of atRA-induced palate fusion. Molecular analysis indicated that atRA increased the expression of Notch1 and Rbpj and decreased the expression of P21. In addition, depletion of Notch1 expression decreased the expression of Rbpj and increased the expression of P21. Moreover, inhibition of Rbpj expression partially reversed atRA-induced MEE persistence and increased P21 expression. These findings demonstrate that atRA inhibits MEE degradation, which in turn induces a cleft palate, possibly through the Notch1/RBPjk/P21 signaling pathway. PMID:27343556

  17. Antibodies against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Branhamella catarrhalis in middle ear effusion during early phase of acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, H; Koskela, M; Luotonen, J; Herva, E; Sipilä, P

    1990-01-01

    Serum type (IgG, IgM and IgA-class) and secretory type antibodies specific to Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pn), Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) and Branhamella catarrhalis (Br) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 46 serum and 114 middle ear effusion (MEE) samples from 85 children with acute otitis media (AOM). The samples were obtained within 12 h from the onset of the ear symptoms. Serum (but not secretory) type antibodies to the infecting Pn serotype were found in 24% of the MEE samples of the patients with Pn AOM and, correspondingly, serum and/or secretory type antibodies to Hi and Br were seen in 54% and 63% of the MEE samples of the patients with Hi or Br AOM, respectively. Moreover, antibodies against bacteria other than the causative one could also be found in the MEE. The occurrence of the serum type antibodies against these bacteria in the MEE was closely correlated with their serum levels. The findings of this study indicate that during the very early phase of AOM, the MEE contains both serum type antibodies originating from the serum, and secretory antibodies of middle ear origin. Among them there are antibodies specific to the three most common bacteria causing AOM (Pn, Hi, and Br) regardless of the bacterial etiology of the AOM attack in question. PMID:2106760

  18. Learning and Educational Media. The Third IARTEM Volume. Proceedings of the International Conference of the International Association for Research on Textbooks and Educational Media (IARTEM) (Tartu, Estonia, September 20-22, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan, Ed.; Meisalo, Veijo, Ed.; Kukemelk, Hasso, Ed.; Horsley, Mike, Ed.

    Papers from an international conference on research on textbooks and educational media are presented, grouped into four content areas. The first, Textbooks and Curricular Reform, contains: (1) The Norwegian CanonIs It Nationally Conditioned? (Bente Aamotsbakken); (2) Estonian Language Textbooks for Russian Schools and Their Accordance with New…

  19. 15 CFR 742.4 - National security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia for all..., Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South...

  20. 15 CFR 742.4 - National security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia for all..., Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South...

  1. 15 CFR 742.4 - National security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia for all..., Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South...

  2. 31 CFR 505.10 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... esportation of strategic goods. Schedule Albania Bulgaria Cambodia The Czech Republic Estonia Latvia Lithuania North Korea Mongolia People's Republic of China Poland Romania The Slovak Republic The geographic...

  3. 2 CFR 176.90 - Acquisitions covered under international agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea (Republic of), Latvia..., Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary,...

  4. Problemes theoriques et methodologiques dans l'etude des langues/dialectes en contact aux niveaux macrologique et micrologique = Theoretical and Methodological Issues in the Study of Languages/Dialects in Contact at Macro- and Micro-Logical Levels of Analysis. Proceedings of the International Conference DALE (University of London)/ICRB (Laval University, Quebec)/ICSBT (Vrije Universiteit te Brussel) (London, England, May 23-26, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Michel, Ed.; Hamers, Josiane F., Ed.

    Papers from an international conference on the interaction of languages and dialects in contact are presented in this volume. Papers include: "Quelques reflexions sur la variation linguistique"; "The Investigation of 'Language Continuum' and 'Diglossia': A Macrological Case Study and Theoretical Model"; "A Survey of Dialect Grammar in British…

  5. Sensitivity improvement in hydrophilic interaction chromatography negative mode electrospray ionization mass spectrometry using 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethanol as a post-column modifier for non-targeted metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Koch, Wendelin; Forcisi, Sara; Lehmann, Rainer; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2014-09-26

    The application of ammonia acetate buffered liquid chromatography (LC) eluents is known to concomitantly lead to ion suppression when electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) detection is used. In negative ESI mode, post column infusion of 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethanol (2-MEE) was shown in the literature to help to compensate this adverse effect occurring in reversed phase liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (RP-LC-MS) analyses. Here a setup of direct infusion and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) post-column infusion experiments was established in order to investigate systematically the beneficial effects of 2-MEE. We demonstrate that, 2-MEE can help to improve ESI-MS sensitivity in HILIC too and reveal analyte structure specific behaviors. Our study indicates that 2-MEE especially improves ESI response for small and polar molecules. The ESI response of stable isotope labeled amino acids spiked into biological matrices increases up to 50-fold (i.e. D5-l-glutamic acid) when post column infusion of 2-MEE is applied. A non-targeted analysis of a pooled urine sample via HILIC-ESI-QTOF-MS supports this hypothesis. In direct infusion, the combined application of an ammonia acetate buffered solution together with 2-MEE results in an improved ESI response compared to a non-buffered solution. We observed up to 60-fold increased ESI response of l-lysine. We propose this effect is putatively caused by the formation of smaller ESI droplets and stripping of positive charge from ESI droplets due to evaporation of acetic acid anions. In summary, post-column infusion of 2-MEE especially enhances ESI response of small and polar molecules. Therefore it can be regarded as a valuable add-on in targeted or non-targeted metabolomic HILIC-MS studies since this method sets a focus on this molecule category. PMID:25160955

  6. Application of the fractional Levy motion to precipitation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzuha, Y.; Tachinami, S.; Gomi, C.

    2012-12-01

    We applied the fractional Lévy motion model to precipitation data, referring to Lavallée (2004) and Lavallée (2008). The data we used were from the Global Preciptiation Climatology Centre (GPCC) monthly precipitation dataset. These data consist of 360 (longitude) × 180 (latitude) × 1336 (monthly, 1901-2012). First, we constructed four datasets: time series of average monthly precipitation of the top (maximum) 1000 precipitation observation stations, top 10, top 100, and top 500. Next, according to Lavallée (2004) and Lavallée (2008), using Fourier transformation, convolution (filtering) and inverse Fourier transformation, we obtained random variables Xt (Lavallée, 2004) from Yt (precipitation). We transformed from Yt to Xt. Finally, we fitted the Lévy law to Xt. As a preliminary result, we present examples of the values of the Lévy law parameters: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta for the "top 100" dataset. Parameters obtained were (1.17, 0.0, 257.6, 0.28; maximum likelihood), (1.10, 0.0, 250.0, -0.99; quantile algorithm), and (1.20, 0.0, 265.1, 0.57; empirical characteristic function algorithm). We used J. P. Nolan's algorithm. The values are quite sensitive to the algorithm that is used. At the Fall meeting, we will present considerations and results obtained using precipitation data other than those of the GPCC. J. P. Nolan, http://academic2.american.edu/~jpnolan/stable/stable.html Lavallée (2004), Stochastic modeling of climatic variability in dendrochronology, GRL, 31, L15202. Lavallée (2008), On the random nature of earthquake sources and ground motions; a unified theory, Advances in Geophysics, 50, chapter 16. Acknowledgement: We thank Dr. D. Lavallee for his comments and suggestions.; An example of results which we obtained. On a log-log plot, PDF of the Lévy law (red line) is more appropriate than the Gaussian law (blue line) in terms of heavy tail or extreme values. This is consistent with Lavallée (2004) and Lavallée (2008) who used slip

  7. Minimally allowed neutrinoless double beta decay rates within an anarchical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, James

    2009-06-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay (ββ0ν) is the only realistic probe of the Majorana nature of the neutrino. In the standard picture, its rate is proportional to mee, the e-e element of the Majorana neutrino mass matrix in the flavor basis. I explore minimally allowed mee values within the framework of mass matrix anarchy where neutrino parameters are defined statistically at low energies. Distributions of mixing angles are well defined by the Haar integration measure, but masses are dependent on arbitrary weighting functions and boundary conditions. I survey the integration measure parameter space and find that for sufficiently convergent weightings, mee is constrained between (0.01-0.4) eV at 90% confidence. Constraints from neutrino mixing data lower these bounds. Singular integration measures allow for arbitrarily small mee values with the remaining elements ill-defined, but this condition constrains the flavor structure of the model’s ultraviolet completion. ββ0ν bounds below mee˜5×10-3eV should indicate symmetry in the lepton sector, new light degrees of freedom, or the Dirac nature of the neutrino.

  8. Microencapsulation of chia seed oil using chia seed protein isolate-chia seed gum complex coacervates.

    PubMed

    Timilsena, Yakindra Prasad; Adhikari, Raju; Barrow, Colin J; Adhikari, Benu

    2016-10-01

    Chia seed oil (CSO) microcapsules were produced by using chia seed protein isolate (CPI)-chia seed gum (CSG) complex coacervates aiming to enhance the oxidative stability of CSO. The effect of wall material composition, core-to-wall ratio and method of drying on the microencapsulation efficiency (MEE) and oxidative stability (OS) was studied The microcapsules produced using CPI-CSG complex coacervates as wall material had higher MEE at equivalent payload, lower surface oil and higher OS compared to the microcapsules produced by using CSG and CPI individually. CSO microcapsules produced by using CSG as wall material had lowest MEE (67.3%) and oxidative stability index (OSI=6.6h), whereas CPI-CSG complex coacervate microcapsules had the highest MEE (93.9%) and OSI (12.3h). The MEE and OSI of microcapsules produced by using CPI as wall materials were in between those produced by using CSG and CPI-CSG complex coacervates as wall materials. The CSO microcapsules produced by using CPI-CSG complex coacervate as shell matrix at core-to-wall ratio of 1:2 had 6 times longer storage life compared to that of unencapsulated CSO. The peroxide value of CSO microcapsule produced using CPI-CSG complex coacervate as wall material was <10meq O2/kg oil during 30 days of storage. PMID:27212219

  9. A simple strategy to improve the interfacial activity of true Janus gold nanoparticles: a shorter hydrophilic capping ligand.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Rodriguez, Miguel Angel; Chen, Limei; Deming, Christopher P; Rodriguez-Valverde, Miguel Angel; Chen, Shaowei; Cabrerizo-Vilchez, Miguel Angel; Hidalgo-Alvarez, Roque

    2016-01-01

    Janus gold nanoparticles (JPs) of ∼4 nm-diameter half functionalized with 1-hexanethiol as a hydrophobic capping ligand exhibit significantly higher interfacial activity, reproducibility and rheological response when the other half is functionalized with 1,2-mercaptopropanediol (JPs-MPD) than with 2-(2-mercaptoethoxy)ethanol (JPs-MEE), both acting as hydrophilic capping ligands. The interfacial pressure measured by pendant drop tensiometry reaches 50 mN m(-1) and 35 mN m(-1) for the JPs-MPD at the water/air and water/decane interface, respectively. At the same area per particle, the JPs-MEE reveal significantly lower interfacial pressure: 15 mN m(-1) and 5 mN m(-1) at the water/air and water/decane interface, respectively. Interfacial dilatational rheology measurements also show an elastic shell behaviour at higher compression states for JPs-MPD while the JPs-MEE present near-zero elasticity. The enhanced interfacial activity of JPs-MPD is explained in terms of chemical and hydration differences between the MPD and MEE ligands, where MPD has a shorter hydrocarbon chain and twice as many hydroxyl terminal groups as MEE. PMID:26451801

  10. SPAM: A Canned Internet-Accessible Database of Interest to Solar Flare Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canfield, R. C.; Hudson, H. S.; Kiernan, E.; Metcalf, T. R.; Wulser, J.-P.

    1992-05-01

    We have established a searchable database, called SPAM (Spectroscopy and Polarimetry at Mees), which contains logs of observations made at Mees Solar Observatory (Haleakala, Maui). Of more general interest, the database also includes the Events List and Region Report from the Space Environment Laboratory (Boulder). Logs from YOHKOH are currently being added. Hence, SPAM can be used to determine, for example, whether Mees has vector magnetograms of a certain NOAA AR or whether YOHKOH has certain types of observations in specified time ranges. As well, it can be used to search the SEL database for flares with selected attributes. Included logs (and searchable attributes, in addition to date, day of year, and time) are: Mees Solar Observatory Log (instrument, NOAA AR, data type, observing setup), SEL Event List (NOAA AR, X-ray Class), SEL Region Report (NOAA AR), YOHKOH Orbit Summary, YOHKOH SXT Quiet Mode PFI Observations (latitude, longitude, X-ray and optical image size), YOHKOH Flare Observations (latitude, longitude, specific channel counts or ratios). SPAM runs on a Sun workstation at Mees Solar Observatory, and is available over Internet. Simply access (e.g., telnet) koa.ifa.hawaii.edu (128.171.167.1) from any vt100, Sun, or xterm emulator. Log on as spam (lower case); there is no password. New users are asked to read release notes and hints.

  11. The Mere Exposure Effect in the Domain of Haptics

    PubMed Central

    Jakesch, Martina; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2012-01-01

    Background Zajonc showed that the attitude towards stimuli that one had been previously exposed to is more positive than towards novel stimuli. This mere exposure effect (MEE) has been tested extensively using various visual stimuli. Research on the MEE is sparse, however, for other sensory modalities. Methodology/Principal Findings We used objects of two material categories (stone and wood) and two complexity levels (simple and complex) to test the influence of exposure frequency (F0 = novel stimuli, F2 = stimuli exposed twice, F10 = stimuli exposed ten times) under two sensory modalities (haptics only and haptics & vision). Effects of exposure frequency were found for high complex stimuli with significantly increasing liking from F0 to F2 and F10, but only for the stone category. Analysis of “Need for Touch” data showed the MEE in participants with high need for touch, which suggests different sensitivity or saturation levels of MEE. Conclusions/Significance This different sensitivity or saturation levels might also reflect the effects of expertise on the haptic evaluation of objects. It seems that haptic and cross-modal MEEs are influenced by factors similar to those in the visual domain indicating a common cognitive basis. PMID:22347451

  12. Validation of a new formula for calculating the energy requirements of burn patients.

    PubMed

    Allard, J P; Pichard, C; Hoshino, E; Stechison, S; Fareholm, L; Peters, W J; Jeejeebhoy, K N

    1990-01-01

    In a previous study, we analyzed the roles of the estimated basal energy expenditure (EBEE) calculated by the Harris-Benedict equation, caloric intake (CI), total burn surface area (TBSA), body temperature (Temp) and number of post-burn days (PBD) in order to estimate the resting energy expenditure (EE) of burn patients. By multiple regression analysis we found that the measured EE (MEE) is best approximated by the following formula: -4343 + (10.5 x %TBSA) + (0.23 x CI) + (0.84 x EBEE) + (114 x Temp (degree C)) - (4.5 x PBD), r = 0.82, p less than 0.001, (Toronto formula (TF)). To validate this, 10 patients with a mean TBSA of 49.1 +/- 5.5% had their resting MEE done by indirect calorimetry when fed either by the TF or by 2 x EBEE. The caloric intake when on 2 x EBEE was 3260 +/- 45 kcal/day which significantly exceeded the MEE (2765 +/- 101 kcal/day, p less than 0.001). The caloric intake when on the TF was 2542 +/- 52 kcal/day and matches the MEE which was 2537 +/- 86 kcal/day (NS). These results show that the TF matches the MEE very closely. With the addition of a factor of activity for the 24-hr EE, it can be used to accurately feed individual burn patients. PMID:2112617

  13. Factors influencing energy expenditure in patients with burns.

    PubMed

    Allard, J P; Jeejheebhoy, K N; Whitwell, J; Pashutinski, L; Peters, W J

    1988-02-01

    Twenty-three consecutive patients with a mean burn size of 39% of total body surface area (%TBSA) were studied prospectively. Expected basal energy expenditure (EBEE) calculated by the Harris-Benedict formula, initial and twice weekly measurements of energy expenditure (MEE) by indirect calorimetry, and simultaneous estimation of nutrient intake were obtained. In the whole cohort the EBEE was 1,715 +/- 24 kcal/day and the MEE was 2,218 +/- 59 kcal/day. The degree of hypermetabolism was 29.0 +/- 2.8%. A subgroup of 16 patients had metabolic rates measured in both the fed and unfed states. The degree of hypermetabolism was only 6.5 +/- 4.5% in the unfed, but increased to 34.1 +/- 3.2% when the same patients were fed (p less than 0.001). The factors affecting MEE were then evaluated by stepwise multiple regression analysis which showed that MEE = -4343 + (10.5 X %TBSA) + (0.23 X Caloric intake [CI]) + (0.84 X EBEE) + (114 X Temp [C]) - (4.5 X Postburn days), r = 0.82, p less than .001. We conclude that 25% of the CI is used to increase the MEE, which suggests that these measurements done in the fasting state cannot be used to predict requirements. PMID:3126305

  14. Cyber Warfare as a Form of Conflict: Evaluation of Models of Cyber Conflict as a Prototype to Conceptual Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liles, Samuel P.

    2012-01-01

    In April 2007, what has been incorrectly called the first cyber war and since then referred more correctly as a cyber riot, an attack on the domain name systems and the various servers of Estonia occurred. It was perpetrated by ethnic Russians living in Estonia who were incensed by the movement of a bronze war memorial for Russian soldiers to a…

  15. Meeting the Objectives of the Curriculum at the First Stage of Basic School by the Child Having Left the Language Immersion Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukk, Airi; Õun, Tiia

    2014-01-01

    Year after year, the interest in early learning of the state language by non-Estonian children has increased. In Estonia, the course has been directed that non-Estonian learners have to reach functional bilingualism by the time they leave basic school and thus to become competitive in labour and education markets in Estonia. The objective of the…

  16. Mothers' Trust toward Teachers in Relation to Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Kikas, Eve; Pakarinen, Eija; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which mothers' trust toward the classroom teacher of their child in first grade is related to observed teaching practices in Finland and Estonia. Sixty-six teachers (32 in Finland, 34 in Estonia) were observed using the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure (ECCOM; Stipek & Byler, 2004). Mothers in Finland…

  17. PREFACE: Sponsorship Statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Désy, N.

    2014-12-01

    The 27th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems benefits from the generous support of the following sponsors: AndritzSNC AndritzSNC ALSTOMVOITH ALSTOMVOITH HYDRO-QUÉBECAECOMHYDRO-QUÉBECAECOM École Polytechnique MontréalHatch École Polytechnique MontréalHatch École de Technologie SupérieureExp École de Technologie SupérieureExp BBAUniversité Laval BBAUniversité Laval BrookfieldRessources Naturelles Québec BrookfieldRessources Naturelles Québec Tourisme Montréal Tourisme Montréal

  18. Magneto-electro-elastic polariton coupling in a periodic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piliposyan, D. G.; Ghazaryan, K. B.; Piliposian, G. T.

    2015-05-01

    Propagation of electro-magneto-acoustic waves in a magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) periodic structure has been investigated with a three phase coupling between mechanical, electric and magnetic fields in each constituent layer. Due to this coupling electromagnetic waves couple with lattice vibrations resulting in both dielectric and magnetic phonon-polaritons which couple via the magneto-electric effect. Propagation properties of acoustic longitudinal and transverse vibrations in this superlattice have been investigated. For longitudinal acoustic vibrations perpendicular to the poling direction, the coupling of piezoelectric and piezomagnetic polaritons results in a propagating mode. For transverse lattice vibrations with the coupled MEE wave propagating parallel to the poling direction, there is a coupled piezoelectric-piezomagnetic phonon polariton gap. The MEE superlattice produces either negative permittivity or negative permeability functions but not double negativity to result in negative refraction crystal.

  19. Characterization of cytokines present in middle ear effusions.

    PubMed

    Yellon, R F; Leonard, G; Marucha, P T; Craven, R; Carpenter, R J; Lehmann, W B; Burleson, J A; Kreutzer, D L

    1991-02-01

    Retention of inflammatory mediators and cells in the middle ear cleft during chronic otitis media with effusion (COME), results in ongoing inflammation with the potential for pathologic changes and hearing loss. Cytokines are glycoproteins produced by macrophages and other cells. Activities of cytokines include fever production, osteoclast, fibroblast, phagocyte and cytotoxic cell activation, regulation of antibody formation, and inhibition of cartilage, bone and endothelial cell growth. Using enzyme-linked immunospecific assays we measured levels of six cytokines in middle ear effusions (MEE) from children with COME. Significant levels of four cytokines: interleukin-1-beta (greater than 50 pg/ml), interleukin-2 (greater than 300 pg/ml), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (greater than 40 pg/ml), and gamma-interferon (greater than 6.25 pg/ml) were found in 51%, 54%, 63%, and 19% of MEE, respectively. In contrast, levels of a fifth cytokine, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and a sixth cytokine, interleukin-4, were undetectable. Age was observed to have a significant effect on the levels of specific cytokines. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) correlated inversely (P less than .02) with age such that the younger the child, the higher the level of IL-1 in MEE. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) correlated directly (P less than .005) with age such that the older the child, the higher the level of TNF in MEE. Children undergoing tympanostomy on multiple occasions had average MEE TNF levels (234.2 +/- 109.1 pg/mg total protein) that were nearly 14 times higher (P less than .005) than those from children undergoing their first tympanostomy (16.9 +/- 3.0 pg/mg total protein). Thus IL-1 correlated with the early stages of COME, while TNF correlated with persistence of disease. The presence of these cytokines in MEE may be responsible for the mucosal damage, bone erosion, fibrosis, and resulting hearing loss seen in some cases of COME. PMID:1992267

  20. Scattering and Spectroscopic Study on the Hydration and Phase Behavior of Aqueous Alcohol Ethoxylate and Methyl Ester Ethoxylate: Effects of Terminal Groups in Hydrophilic Chains.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takaaki; Akahane, Takesi; Amano, Kenshi; Hyodo, Ryo; Yanase, Keiichi; Ogura, Taku

    2016-06-23

    Using dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and viscometry, we have investigated the hydration behavior, static structures, Brownian dynamics, and mechanical properties of aqueous solutions of alcohol ethoxylate (C12E15) and methyl ester ethoxylate (C12MEE), hereafter abbreviated as AE and MEE, respectively, in which we especially focus on the effects of the endcaps of these nonionic surfactants. We find that AE and MEE exhibit fairly different phase behaviors in water: AE produces liquid crystalline phases at w (surfactant weight fraction) > 0.35, whereas MEE retains a liquid phase in an extremely wide concentration range (w < 0.7) at ambient temperature. The structure factor deduced from SAXS intensities using a generalized indirect Fourier transformation technique and the effective hydration number evaluated from the negative excess bulk water relaxation amplitude revealed by DRS unambiguously demonstrate that hydration water molecules, exhibiting about 4-times-slower collective reorientational dynamics than that of bulk water, contribute to the excluded volume of the micelles. The blocked terminal hydrogen-bond donor/acceptor site of MEE leads to smaller hydration number of MEE than compared to that of AE, and consequently the lower excluded volume of the MEE micelles. The effective micellar volume fraction, ϕ(eff), should be defined by incorporating such different hydration effects. Importantly, voluminosity, defined as the micellar volume fraction per unit mass, is clearly a decreasing function of w, demonstrating progressive dehydration at a higher w. The collective diffusion constants determined by DLS for the AE and MEE micelles show a monotonous increase up to ϕ(eff) ≈ 0.5, as expected for the hard spheres. Low-shear-rate viscosities follow a Krieger-Dougherty model in the identical micellar packing fraction range. All static, dynamic, and mechanical properties of these micellar

  1. MAGO-3 results of the experiment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Garanin, S.F.; Mokhov, V.N.; Volkov, G.I.; Ivanov, V.A.

    1996-12-31

    In this report the results of joint LANL-VNIIEF experiment MAGO-3 are given. The experiment was aimed to investigate the of magnetized plasma parameters when it overflows trough Laval nozzel. The details of the experiment are described, data obtained by VNIIEF experts are given.

  2. Proceedings of the 2012 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Actes De La Rencontre Annuelle 2012 Du Groupe Canadien D'étude en Didactique Des Mathématiques (36th, Québec City, Québec, Canada, May 25-29, 2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oesterle, Susan, Ed.; Allan, Darien, Ed.; Liljedahl, Peter, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This submission contains the Proceedings of the 2012 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group (CMESG), held at Laval University in Québec City, Québec. The CMESG is a group of mathematicians and mathematics educators who meet annually to discuss mathematics education issues at all levels of learning. The aims of the Study…

  3. Supervision of Pre-Service Teacher: Using Internet Collaborative Tools to Support Their Return to Their Region of Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamel, Christine

    2012-01-01

    As part of the bachelor's degree in Secondary Education at Laval University, students have the option of completing a final practicum in their region of origin. The structure of this final practicum requires new configurations in order to meet not only the requirements of practical training in teaching, but also the needs of remote communities who…

  4. Effect of Playing a Video Game on Adults' and Adolescents' Spatial Visualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepin, Michel; Dorval, Michel

    This paper presents the results of two studies which were performed to assess the effects of the practice of an interactive video game on spatial visualization test scores. The first study used 70 Laval University undergraduate students as subjects, while subjects for the second study were 101 seventh grade students from the area of Quebec City.…

  5. Waste heat to save plant $126,000/year. [Monarch Fine Foods Co. , Rexdale, Ont

    SciTech Connect

    Alejandro, C.

    1982-09-20

    A $400,000 conservation program featuring a waste-heat-recovery system should save the Monarch Fine Foods Co., Rexdale, Ontario $126,000 a year in avoided fuel costs. Using an Alpha-Laval plate heat exchanger and a Templifier TPE-063 heat pump made by Westinghouse, the system will recover waste heat from the plant to preheat boiler feedwater. (DCK)

  6. Cataloguing and Classification Section. Bibliographic Control Division. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on cataloging, classification, and coding systems which were presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Numbering and Coding Systems for Bibliographic Control in Use in North America" by Lois Mai Chan (United States); (2) "A Project Undertaken by the Library of Universite Laval to…

  7. Fluidized-bed combustion 1000-hour test program. Volume IV. Engineering details and post-test inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, A. G.; Barker, S. N.; Phillips, R. N.; Pillai, K. K.; Raven, P.; Wood, P.

    1981-09-01

    Volume IV of the report on the 1000 hour programme consists of three appendices giving details of the enginmering/construction aspects of the plant and reports from Stal-Laval Turbin A.B. Appendix N has been entered individually. (LTN)

  8. Proceedings of the 2004 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Actes de la Rencontre Annuelle 2004 du Groupe Canadien d'Etude en Didactique des Mathematiques (28th, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, May 28-Jun 1, 2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmt, Elaine, Ed.; Davis, Brent, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This submission contains the Proceedings of the 2004 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group (CMESG), held at Universite Laval in Quebec City, Quebec. The CMESG is a group of mathematicians and mathematics educators who meet annually to discuss mathematics education issues at all levels of learning. The aims of the Study…

  9. Rediscovering Awe: A New Front in Humanistic Psychology, Psychotherapy, and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Kirk J.

    2008-01-01

    This article is adapted from an invited address to the University of Laval, Quebec City, on April 7, 2006. The purpose of the article is to describe an emerging psycho-spiritual paradigm that veers between dogmatic fundamentalism and postmodern nihilism. This "depth" spirituality is based on a rediscovery of our native capacity for "awe", and…

  10. The influence of parental effects on transcriptomic landscape during early development in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis, Mitchill)

    PubMed Central

    Bougas, B; Audet, C; Bernatchez, L

    2013-01-01

    Parental effects represent an important source of variation in offspring phenotypes. Depending on the specific mechanisms involved, parental effects may be caused to different degrees by either the maternal or the paternal parent, and these effects may in turn act at different stages of development. To detect parental effects acting on gene transcription regulation and length phenotype during ontogeny, the transcriptomic profiles of two reciprocal hybrids from Laval × Rupert and Laval × Domestic populations of brook charr were compared at hatching, yolk sac resorption and 15 weeks after exogenous feeding. Using a salmonid cDNA microarray, our results show that parental effects modulated gene expression among reciprocal hybrids only at the yolk sac resorption stage. In addition, Laval × Domestic and Laval × Rupert reciprocal hybrids differed in the magnitude of theses parental effects, with 199 and 630 differentially expressed transcripts, respectively. This corresponds to a maximum of 18.5% of the analyzed transcripts. These transcripts are functionally related to cell cycle, nucleic acid metabolism and intracellular protein traffic, which is consistent with observed differences associated with embryonic development and growth differences in other fish species. Our results thus illustrate how parental effects on patterns of gene transcription seem dependent on the genetic architecture of the parents. In addition, in absence of transcriptional differences, non-transcript deposits in the yolk sac could contribute to the observed length differences among the reciprocal hybrids before yolk sac resorption. PMID:23299101

  11. 9 CFR 147.52 - Approved tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) ADIAFOOD Rapid Pathogen Detection System for Salmonella spp., AES Chemunex Canada. Laval, QC (Canada... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Approved tests. 147.52 Section 147.52 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. Didactique de la comprehension orale et sensibilisation aux langue etrangere. Tomes 1 et 2. Publications B-203 et 204. (The Teaching of Listening and 204. (The Teaching of Listening Comprehension and Sensitization to Varieties of Oral Spanish: Experiment in Foreign Language Teaching. Volumes 1 and 2). Publications B-203 and 204.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perron, Denise

    A study, presented here in two volumes and entirely in French, investigated the usefulness of introducing different varieties of Spanish in the classroom to improve listening comprehension skills, and the capacity of students to understand language variations. The experiment was conducted during two quarters at the University of Laval (Quebec),…

  13. The Development of Open Drills in the Context of Computer-Based Ear Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevel, Martin

    1982-01-01

    Describes research in music education at Laval University in which students receive auditory training using a microprocessor-based hardware system. Topics include intervals, chord quality, scale degrees, diatonic tonal functions, rhythmic, melodic and harmonic dictation, jazz chord quality, microtones, and fundamentals. Students maintain full…

  14. Management Information Systems for Higher Education. Studies in Institutional Management in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, K. M., Ed.

    Contents include an introduction to information systems (basic concepts and life-cycle); development of an information system (design, implementation, testing, and conversion); operation (evaluation and maintenance, quality control, and economics); and case studies of such systems at the New University of Lisbon, Bath University, Laval University…

  15. Style d'intervention pedagogique, relations affectives enseignants-etudiants et engagement par rapport a la matiere (Style of Pedagogic Intervention, Teacher-Student Affective Relations, and Engagement in Content Material).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bujod, Neree; Saint-Pierre, Henri

    1996-01-01

    In a study at Laval University (Canada), 94 faculty were surveyed concerning their teaching style, and over 3,000 of their students were also surveyed concerning teaching style, closeness of relationship with the teacher, satisfaction with teaching style, positive feelings toward teacher, and course satisfaction and involvement in learning the…

  16. Effects of a Television Distance Education Course in Computer Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulet, Marie-Michele; Boudreault, Serge; Guerette, Louis

    1998-01-01

    Presents an analysis of the learning outcomes pertaining to one unit of the undergraduate television distance-education course, Information Technology, in the computer science program at University Laval (Quebec, Canada). Investigates the relative effects of television distance education versus tradition classroom teaching on learning…

  17. Stage by Stage Integration of Theory and Practice in the Initiation to Technology Course (Results and Analysis).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Gurbax S.

    1987-01-01

    The didactical material developed for the course Initiation to Technology at Laval University was tested by four teachers at Les Etchemins School with a group of 500 students in the area of mechanics. Software was developed to analyze the results, which proved encouraging. (Author/CH)

  18. Actes des journees de linguistique: Colloque sur la recherche etudiante (Proceedings of the Linguistics Conference: Colloquium on Student Research) (Quebec, Canada, March 18-19, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepage, Danielle, Ed.; Dominik, Annette, Ed.

    Presentations by students at a colloquium on student research on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the University of Laval's Faculty of Letters, March 18-19, 1988, include: "Une enquete sur la qualite du francais ecrit au Quebec"; "Amenagement linguistique et neologie"; "Analyse syntaxique des 'arrets et retours' en arabe morocain parle";…

  19. History in Crisis: Crisis Management through Curriculum Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliffe, Barrie M.

    1987-01-01

    Argues that a bold restructuring of curriculum is a more effective response to the problems in undergraduate history teaching than minor course innovations. Discusses the recent reformation of the history curriculum at Canada's Laval University, presenting an outline of the undergraduate history programs. (GEA)

  20. Evaluation of a Transition Counselling Program According to Vocational Personality Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riverin-Simard, Danielle; Voyer, Jean-Paul

    1993-01-01

    A transitional counseling program was developed at Laval University in Canada to facilitate the interaction of young persons according to four central "person-environment" modes, taking into account the fit between the Holland vocational type and the occupational environment type. The Adult Career Concerns Inventory was used to compare…

  1. Compression Shocks of Detached Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggink

    1947-01-01

    It is known that compression shocks which lead from supersonic to subsonic velocity cause the flow to separate on impact on a rigid wall. Such shocks appear at bodies with circular symmetry or wing profiles on locally exceeding sonic velocity, and in Laval nozzles with too high a back pressure. The form of the compression shocks observed therein is investigated.

  2. Two-Phase Hero Turbine With Curved Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabris, Gracio

    1991-01-01

    Proposed hero turbine includes de Laval nozzles modified to new curved, longer, more-gradually-tapered shape that promotes flashing and reduces separation. Turbines designed with new nozzles compete with rotary separator turbines used in geothermal powerplants. Other potential applications include heat pumps and thermal-energy conversion systems.

  3. Effectiveness of a Three-Month Training Program in Psychotherapeutic Intervention for Family Practice Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Robert J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A study among medical residents (n=50) at the University of Montreal and Laval University (Quebec) found that a structured series of 12 seminars dedicated to psychotherapeutic interventions by family doctors was effective in raising students' knowledge levels, perceived skills, and attitudes. Skills of the "how-to" type improved more than did…

  4. PROCEDURE FOR ESTIMATING PERMANENT TOTAL ENCLOSURE COSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a procedure for estimating permanent total enclosure (PTE) costs. (NOTE: Industries that use add-on control devices must adequately capture emissions before delivering them to the control device. One way to capture emissions is to use PTEs, enclosures that mee...

  5. Shear horizontal surface acoustic waves in a magneto-electro-elastic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskandari, Shahin; Shodja, Hossein M.

    2016-04-01

    Propagation of shear horizontal surface acoustic waves (SHSAWs) within a functionally graded magneto-electro-elastic (FGMEE) half-space was previously presented (Shodja HM, Eskandari S, Eskandari M. J. Eng. Math. 2015, 1-18) In contrast, the current paper considers propagation of SHSAWs in a medium consisting of an FGMEE layer perfectly bonded to a homogeneous MEE substrate. When the FGMEE layer is described by some special inhomogeneity functions - all the MEE properties have the same variation in depth which may or may not be identical to that of the density - we obtain the exact closed-form solution for the MEE fields. Additionally, certain special inhomogeneity functions with monotonically decreasing bulk shear wave velocity in depth are considered, and the associated boundary value problem is solved using power series solution. This problem in the limit as the layer thickness goes to infinity collapses to an FGMEE half-space with decreasing bulk shear wave velocity in depth. It is shown that in such a medium SHSAW does not propagate. Using power series solution we can afford to consider some FGMEE layers of practical importance, where the composition of the MEE obeys a prescribed volume fraction variation. The dispersive behavior of SHSAWs in the presence of such layers is also examined.

  6. Reaching the hip-hop generation: Final (symposium proceedings) report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The goal of this final (closing) report is to capture the flavor of the symposium held March 1 and 2, 1993 in New York City convened by Motivational Educational Entertainment, Inc. (MEE), a black-owned communications research, consulting, and video production company based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The mission of MEE is to understand, reach, and positively affect inner-city youth. Traditional communication approaches from mainstream sources to at-risk youth often don`t account for the unique way youth communicate among themselves and how they relate to the media. This understanding, however, is crucial. To understand youth communication, the people who create and send both entertaining and educational messages to urban youth must be brought into the dialogue. The meeting in New York was intended to provide an important opportunity for senders to meet and evaluate the appropriateness and effectiveness of their messages. In addition, the MEE symposium provided a forum for the continuing public debate about what needs to be done to reach today`s urban teens. Included in this document is a description of symposium goals/objectives, symposium activities, the reaction to and analysis of the symposium, recommendations for future MEE courses of action, and an appendix containing copies of press articles.

  7. Multicultural Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Kristen

    2007-01-01

    Multicultural environmental education (MEE) is "a new field of theory and practice for environmental education where content is influenced by and taught from multiple cultural perspectives. It is conscious of its own cultural perspectives and of the function that it has in the world and in the lives of diverse students and communities"…

  8. The Proceedings of the West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics (12th, Santa Cruz, California, April 2-4, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Erin, Ed.; And Others

    Papers on phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics from a conference on formal linguistics include: "Major Class Alternations" (Young-Mee Yu Cho, S. Inkelas); "On Defining Complex Templates (R. Kager); "Sandhi and Syllables in Classical Sanskrit" (B. Kessler); "Catalexis in Word Stress: Evidence from Spanish and Dutch" (D. Nouveau); "Mobile…

  9. Separation of mutational and transcriptional enhancers in immunoglobulin genes

    PubMed Central

    Kothapalli, Naga Rama; Collura, Kaitlin M.; Norton, Darrell D.; Fugmann, Sebastian D.

    2011-01-01

    Secondary immunoglobulin (Ig) gene diversification relies on activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) to create U:G mismatches that are subsequently fixed by mutagenic repair pathways. AID activity is focused to Ig loci by cis-regulatory DNA sequences named targeting elements. Here we show that in contrast to prevailing thought in the field, the targeting elements in the chicken IGL locus are distinct from classical transcriptional enhancers. These mutational enhancer elements (MEEs) are required over and above transcription to recruit AID-mediated mutagenesis to Ig loci. We identified a small 222 bp fragment in the chicken IGL locus that enhances mutagenesis without boosting transcription, and this sequence represents a key component of a MEE. Lastly, MEEs are evolutionarily conserved amongst birds, both in sequence and function, and contain several highly conserved sequence modules that are likely involved in recruiting trans-acting targeting factors. We propose that MEEs represent a novel class of cis-regulatory elements whose function is to control genomic integrity. PMID:21844395

  10. Separation of mutational and transcriptional enhancers in Ig genes.

    PubMed

    Kothapalli, Naga Rama; Collura, Kaitlin M; Norton, Darrell D; Fugmann, Sebastian D

    2011-09-15

    Secondary Ig gene diversification relies on activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) to create U:G mismatches that are subsequently fixed by mutagenic repair pathways. AID activity is focused to Ig loci by cis-regulatory DNA sequences named targeting elements. In this study, we show that in contrast to prevailing thought in the field, the targeting elements in the chicken IGL locus are distinct from classical transcriptional enhancers. These mutational enhancer elements (MEEs) are required over and above transcription to recruit AID-mediated mutagenesis to Ig loci. We identified a small 222-bp fragment in the chicken IGL locus that enhances mutagenesis without boosting transcription, and this sequence represents a key component of an MEE. Lastly, MEEs are evolutionarily conserved among birds, both in sequence and function, and contain several highly conserved sequence modules that are likely involved in recruiting trans-acting targeting factors. We propose that MEEs represent a novel class of cis-regulatory elements for which the function is to control genomic integrity. PMID:21844395

  11. Clinically Applicable Multiplex PCR for Four Middle Ear Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Hendolin, Panu H.; Paulin, Lars; Ylikoski, Jukka

    2000-01-01

    The multiplex PCR method for the detection of Alloiococcus otitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae (P. H. Hendolin, A. Markkanen, J. Ylikoski, and J. J. Wahlfors, J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:2854–2858, 1997) in middle ear effusions (MEEs) was modified to be better suited for clinical use. To detect false-negative results, an internal amplification was added to the reaction, and to prevent carryover contamination, the dUTP–uracil-N-glycosidase system was incorporated into the procedure. Labor was minimized by using the heat-activatable AmpliTaq Gold polymerase in order to circumvent manual hot start and by detecting the amplification products on an automated sequencer. The performance of the improved protocol was verified with MEEs from patients with otitis media with effusion. In addition, a ligase detection reaction (LDR) was developed for confirmation of the PCR products. The modifications increased the reliability of the protocol and the hands-off time significantly. However, when two DNA extraction protocols were compared, gram-negative bacteria were detected more often in phenol-treated MEEs (94 versus 46%; P < 0.001), and gram-positive bacteria were detected more often in MEEs dissolved in sodium dodecyl sulfate-NaOH-chaotropic salt (83 versus 27%; P < 0.001). The LDR was found to be 100% specific. In all, the results demonstrate the feasibility of the rapid (7-h) multiplex PCR method for routine laboratory use. PMID:10618075

  12. Defective immunoregulation in children with chronic otitis media with effusion.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, J M; Park, B H

    1986-03-01

    Otitis media and middle ear effusions (MEE) are most common clinical problems in early childhood, for which an estimated one million tympanostomies are performed each year in the United States. Although many factors have been associated with MEE (age, sex, genetics, otitis media, socioeconomic status, feeding style, atopy or hypersensitivity, certain bacteria and viruses), a defective immunoregulatory mechanism in the host may also contribute to the pathogenesis. During the past 2 years, we have evaluated immune function in 90 randomly selected children who underwent repeated tympanostomy for persistent MEE. The T-cell subset ratio (OKT-4/OKT-8) was reduced (below 1.25) in 16%. In 33 children, generation of T-cell growth factor (IL-2) by peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) was evaluated and found to be decreased in 11. The mitogenic response of PBL to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) stimulation was abnormal in almost half of the cases. Imbalance of T-cell subsets and decreased production of IL-2 indicate defective immunoregulatory function in some of these children, which may play a role in the pathogenesis of persistent MEE. PMID:2938056

  13. Immunologic characteristics of cytokines in otitis media with effusion.

    PubMed

    Himi, T; Suzuki, T; Kodama, H; Takezawa, H; Kataura, A

    1992-10-01

    Levels of cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were investigated in samples of the middle ear effusions (MEEs) from 144 ears with otitis media with effusion (OME) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, followed by cytologic analysis. Middle ear effusions of the acute purulent type contained a significantly higher concentration of cytokines compared with normal control sera (p < .001). Cytokines were observed at lower levels in MEE in adults than in children. Tests of children at the chronic stage of MEE showed higher levels of TNF than IL-1 and GM-CSF. Meanwhile, IL-1 beta showed significantly higher concentrations in acute purulent types than in serous and mucoid types (p < .01). In cytologic analysis, the mean level of IL-1 beta was significantly higher in the neutrophil-rich group than in other groups (p < .05). Cytokines possess several biologic properties, some of which are associated not only with acute otitis media but also with chronic otitis media. This study showed that cytokines, especially IL-1 beta, contribute to infiltration into the middle ear by inflammatory cells. This implies that the persistent presence of cytokines in MEE could be a factor in prolonged OME. PMID:1416648

  14. Multifunctional management of grassland agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The demand for provisioning ecosystem services (e.g., food, feed, fiber, fuel) from agricultural land is great and increasing. At the same time, society is expecting agriculture to provide regulating (e.g., pollination), cultural (e.g., recreation), and supporting (e.g., water cycling) services. Mee...

  15. An information-theoretic approach to motor action decoding with a reconfigurable parallel architecture.

    PubMed

    Craciun, Stefan; Brockmeier, Austin J; George, Alan D; Lam, Herman; Príncipe, José C

    2011-01-01

    Methods for decoding movements from neural spike counts using adaptive filters often rely on minimizing the mean-squared error. However, for non-Gaussian distribution of errors, this approach is not optimal for performance. Therefore, rather than using probabilistic modeling, we propose an alternate non-parametric approach. In order to extract more structure from the input signal (neuronal spike counts) we propose using minimum error entropy (MEE), an information-theoretic approach that minimizes the error entropy as part of an iterative cost function. However, the disadvantage of using MEE as the cost function for adaptive filters is the increase in computational complexity. In this paper we present a comparison between the decoding performance of the analytic Wiener filter and a linear filter trained with MEE, which is then mapped to a parallel architecture in reconfigurable hardware tailored to the computational needs of the MEE filter. We observe considerable speedup from the hardware design. The adaptation of filter weights for the multiple-input, multiple-output linear filters, necessary in motor decoding, is a highly parallelizable algorithm. It can be decomposed into many independent computational blocks with a parallel architecture readily mapped to a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and scales to large numbers of neurons. By pipelining and parallelizing independent computations in the algorithm, the proposed parallel architecture has sublinear increases in execution time with respect to both window size and filter order. PMID:22255367

  16. Even Start Projects Serving Migrant Families: Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Miriam; Goldstein, David; Stief, Elizabeth; Fiester, Leila; Weiner, Lisa; Waiters, Katrina

    Even Start was created by federal legislation to address poverty and illiteracy among low-income families by integrating early childhood education, adult literacy or adult basic education, and parenting education into a unified family literacy program. Migrant Education Even Start (MEES) projects resemble other Even Start projects but are affected…

  17. Metadata Evaluation: The Road toward Meeting Our Objectives (SIG LAN)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuddy, Colleen

    2000-01-01

    Lists the three presentation titles that were part of this technical session on metadata evaluation, including "An Update on the Dublin Core" (Stuart Weibel; "Metadata Development Update" (Kathleen Burnett and Jeong-Mee Lee); and "Metadata Standards for Discovery and Retrieval of Learning Objects" (Stuart Sutton). (LRW)

  18. Kamishibai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorson, Lenore; Jordan, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Everyone likes a good story and different cultures have their unique ways of telling stories. Japan has a history of picture folktales called "kamishibai." Kamishibai (kah-mee-shee-bye), or "paper theater," began to appear on the streets of Japan in the 1920s. A kamishibai performer would ride a bicycle from town to town with his stage, story…

  19. MYSID CRUSTACEANS AS POTENTIAL TEST ORGANISMS FOR THE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verslycke, Tim A., Nancy Fockedey, Charles L. McKenney, Jr., Stephen D. Roast, Malcolm B. Jones, Jan Mees and Colin R. Janssen. 2004. Mysid Crustaceans as Potential Test Organisms for the Evaluation of Environmental Endocrine Disruption: A Review. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 23(5):12...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix D to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Comments Electronics Cleaning w/CFC-113 and MCF HFC-4310mee Acceptable Subject to a 200 ppm time-weighted... Electronics Cleaning w/CFC-113 and MCF Perfluoropolyethers Perfluoropolyethers are acceptable substitutes for... that for PFCs. Unacceptable Substitutes End-use Substitute Decision Comments Electronics Cleaning...

  1. The Essential Gene EMB1611 Maintains Shoot Apical Meristem Function During Arabidopsis Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Arabidopsis thaliana genome contains hundreds of genes essential for seed development. Because null mutations in these genes cause embryo lethality, their specific molecular and developmental functions are largely unknown. Here, we identify a role for EMB1611/MEE22, an essential gene in Arabidop...

  2. The Needs of Tribal Men and the Social Service Providers on or Near the Nez Perce Indian Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    High Eagle, Gordon; And Others

    This report results from an action research project of the Nee Mee Poom Ha Hum (Men's Coalition), investigating the needs of tribal men in the Nez Perce Indian Nation, as part of planning to improve men's development. Research was directed toward interviewing a stratified random sample of tribal men and interviewing the directors and employees of…

  3. Study of structural properties of cubic InN films on GaAs(001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy and migration enhanced epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Casallas-Moreno, Y. L.; Perez-Caro, M.; Gallardo-Hernandez, S.; Ramirez-Lopez, M.; Martinez-Velis, I.; Lopez-Lopez, M.; Escobosa-Echavarria, A.

    2013-06-07

    InN epitaxial films with cubic phase were grown by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (RF-MBE) on GaAs(001) substrates employing two methods: migration-enhanced epitaxy (MEE) and conventional MBE technique. The films were synthesized at different growth temperatures ranging from 490 to 550 Degree-Sign C, and different In beam fluxes (BEP{sub In}) ranging from 5.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} to 9.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} Torr. We found the optimum conditions for the nucleation of the cubic phase of the InN using a buffer composed of several thin layers, according to reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns. Crystallographic analysis by high resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) and RHEED confirmed the growth of c-InN by the two methods. We achieved with the MEE method a higher crystal quality and higher cubic phase purity. The ratio of cubic to hexagonal components in InN films was estimated from the ratio of the integrated X-ray diffraction intensities of the cubic (002) and hexagonal (1011) planes measured by X-ray reciprocal space mapping (RSM). For MEE samples, the cubic phase of InN increases employing higher In beam fluxes and higher growth temperatures. We have obtained a cubic purity phase of 96.4% for a film grown at 510 Degree-Sign C by MEE.

  4. TGF-β3-induced Palatogenesis Requires Matrix Metalloproteinases

    PubMed Central

    Blavier, Laurence; Lazaryev, Alisa; Groffen, John; Heisterkamp, Nora; DeClerck, Yves A.; Kaartinen, Vesa

    2001-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate syndromes are among the most common congenital malformations in humans. Mammalian palatogenesis is a complex process involving highly regulated interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cells of the palate to permit correct positioning of the palatal shelves, the remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM), and subsequent fusion of the palatal shelves. Here we show that several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), including a cell membrane-associated MMP (MT1-MMP) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) were highly expressed by the medial edge epithelium (MEE). MMP-13 was expressed both in MEE and in adjacent mesenchyme, whereas gelatinase A (MMP-2) was expressed by mesenchymal cells neighboring the MEE. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β3-deficient mice, which suffer from clefting of the secondary palate, showed complete absence of TIMP-2 in the midline and expressed significantly lower levels of MMP-13 and slightly reduced levels of MMP-2. In concordance with these findings, MMP-13 expression was strongly induced by TGF-β3 in palatal fibroblasts. Finally, palatal shelves from prefusion wild-type mouse embryos cultured in the presence of a synthetic inhibitor of MMPs or excess of TIMP-2 failed to fuse and MEE cells did not transdifferentiate, phenocopying the defect of the TGF-β3-deficient mice. Our observations indicate for the first time that the proteolytic degradation of the ECM by MMPs is a necessary step for palatal fusion. PMID:11359935

  5. Rescue from neonatal death in the murine model of hereditary tyrosinemia by glutathione monoethylester and vitamin C treatment.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Chantale; Jorquera, Rossana; Orejuela, Diana; Bergeron, Anne; Finegold, Milton J; Rhead, William J; Tanguay, Robert M

    2008-03-01

    Hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1) is a recessive disease caused by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) that catalyzes the conversion of fumarylacetoacetate (FAA) into fumarate and acetoacetate. In mice models of HT1, FAH deficiency causes death within the first 24h after birth. Administration of 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoro-methylbenzoyl)-1,3 cyclohexanedione (NTBC) prevents neonatal death in HT1 mice, ameliorates the HT1 phenotype but does not prevent development of hepatocellular carcinoma later on. FAA has been shown to deplete cells of glutathione by forming adducts. We tested whether a combination of a cell membrane permeable derivative of glutathione, glutathione monoethylester (GSH-MEE) and vitamin C could provide an alternative effective treatment for HT1. GSH-MEE (10 mmol/kg/j)/vitamin C (0.5 mmol/kg/j) treatment was given orally to pregnant/nursing female mice. While FAH-/- pups died in absence of treatment, all FAH-/- pups survived the critical first 24h of life when the mothers were on the GSH-MEE/vitamin C treatment and showed normal growth until postnatal day 10 (P10). However, after P10, pups showed failure to thrive, lethargy and died around P17. Thus, GSH-MEE/vitamin C supplementation could rescue the mice model of HT1 from neonatal death but it did not prevent the appearance of a HT1 phenotype in the second week after birth. PMID:18023223

  6. Cerebral Asymmetries in Sleep-Dependent Processes of Memory Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peigneux, Philippe; Schmitz, Remy; Willems, Sylvie

    2007-01-01

    Preference for previously seen, unfamiliar objects reflects a memory bias on affective judgment, known as the "mere exposure effect" (MEE). Here, we investigated the effect of time, post-exposure sleep, and the brain hemisphere solicited on preference generalization toward objects viewed in different perspectives. When presented in the right…

  7. Alcoholics Anonymous

    MedlinePlus

    ... Barbados Belarus Belgium Bermuda Bolivia Brazil Cambodia Cayman Islands Chile China Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Cyprus Czech ... Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Estonia Faroe Islands Finland France French Polynesia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala ...

  8. Estonian Literature in the Schools of the Estonian-Russian Population (Changes in Literacy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ots, Loone

    1997-01-01

    Describes how Estonian language and literature have been taught at Russian-language schools in Estonia. Notes a lack of interesting reading materials, and describes how this instruction could be improved. (SR)

  9. Calcium Content of Common Foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... Republic - Denmark - Dominican Republic - Ecuador - Egypt - Estonia - Finland - France - Georgia - Germany - Greece - Guatemala - Hong Kong - Hungary - Iceland - ... for food, environmental and occupational health and safety), France, 2013 3. Table de composition nutritionnelle Suisse, SSN ( ...

  10. Calcium Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Croatia - Cuba - Cyprus - Czech Republic - Denmark - Dominican Republic - Ecuador - Egypt - Estonia - Finland - France - Georgia - Germany - Greece - Guatemala - ... Advisors Regional Representation Vision, Mission & Goals Annual Report History Find a Local Society Contact Us Partners What ...

  11. Composition and thermal characteristics of Madhuca longifolia seed fat and its solid and liquid fractions.

    PubMed

    Marikkar, J M N; Ghazali, H M; Long, K

    2010-01-01

    This study was to characterize the seed fat from Madhuca longifolia known as Mee fat and its solid and liquid fractions with the objective of distinguishing them. A sample of Mee fat was partitioned into solid and liquid fractions using acetone as the solvent medium. The isolated fractions were compared to the native Mee fat sample with respect to various physico-chemical parameters using standard chemical methods as well as instrumental techniques such as, gas liquid chromatography (GLC), reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Basic analyses indicated that there were wide variations between the native sample and its fractions with respect to iodine value (IV), and slip melting point (SMP). The cloud point (CP) of the liquid fraction was found to be 10.5 degrees C. Fatty acid compositional analyses showed that the proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA) such as palmitic and stearic went up in the high-melting fraction (HMF) while in low-melting fraction (LMF) the proportion of unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) such as oleic and lenoleic increased. According to the HPLC analyses, Mee fat had a tiacyl glycerol (TAG) sequence similar to that of palm oil. After fractionation, the solid and liquid fractions obtained were found to have TAG profiles very much different from the native sample. Thermal analyses by DSC showed that Mee fat had two-widely separated high and low melting thermal transitions, a feature which was beneficial for the effective separation of solid and liquid fractions. The thermal profiles displayed by the fractions were clearly distinguishable from that of the native sample. PMID:20032594

  12. Smad4-Irf6 genetic interaction and TGFβ-mediated IRF6 signaling cascade are crucial for palatal fusion in mice

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Jun-ichi; Suzuki, Akiko; Pelikan, Richard C.; Ho, Thach-Vu; Sanchez-Lara, Pedro A.; Urata, Mark; Dixon, Michael J.; Chai, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Cleft palate is one of the most common human birth defects and is associated with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. Although mutations in the genes encoding transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling molecules and interferon regulatory factor 6 (Irf6) have been identified as genetic risk factors for cleft palate, little is known about the relationship between TGFβ signaling and IRF6 activity during palate formation. Here, we show that TGFβ signaling regulates expression of Irf6 and the fate of the medial edge epithelium (MEE) during palatal fusion in mice. Haploinsufficiency of Irf6 in mice with basal epithelial-specific deletion of the TGFβ signaling mediator Smad4 (Smad4fl/fl;K14-Cre;Irf6+/R84C) results in compromised p21 expression and MEE persistence, similar to observations in Tgfbr2fl/fl;K14-Cre mice, although the secondary palate of Irf6+/R84C and Smad4fl/fl;K14-Cre mice form normally. Furthermore, Smad4fl/fl;K14-Cre;Irf6+/R84C mice show extra digits that are consistent with abnormal toe and nail phenotypes in individuals with Van der Woude and popliteal pterygium syndromes, suggesting that the TGFβ/SMAD4/IRF6 signaling cascade might be a well-conserved mechanism in regulating multiple organogenesis. Strikingly, overexpression of Irf6 rescued p21 expression and MEE degeneration in Tgfbr2fl/fl;K14-Cre mice. Thus, IRF6 and SMAD4 synergistically regulate the fate of the MEE, and TGFβ-mediated Irf6 activity is responsible for MEE degeneration during palatal fusion in mice. PMID:23406900

  13. Modelling on cavitation in a diffuser with vortex generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonská, J.

    2013-04-01

    Based on cavitation modelling in Laval nozzle results and experience, problem with the diffuser with vortex generator was defined. The problem describes unsteady multiphase flow of water. Different cavitation models were used when modelling in Fluent, flow condition is inlet and pressure condition is outlet. Boundary conditions were specified by Energy Institute, Victor Kaplan's Department of Fluid Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology. Numerical modelling is compared with experiment.

  14. Interstellar chemistry of atomic nitrogen: Low temperature kinetics of the N + OH, N + CN and N + NO reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeat, A.; Daranlot, J.; Hickson, K. M.; Costes, M.

    2012-02-01

    More than 100 reactions between stable molecules and free radicals have been shown to remain rapid at low temperatures. In contrast, reactions between two unstable radicals have received much less attention due to the added complexity of producing and measuring excess radical concentrations. We performed kinetic experiments on the barrierless N + OH and N + CN reactions in a supersonic flow (Laval nozzle) reactor. The results provide insight into the gas-phase formation mechanisms of molecular nitrogen in interstellar clouds (ISCs).

  15. Some Numerical Research of Supersonic Gaseous Jet Injected Into Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L. H.; Hu, J.; Yu, Y.

    2011-09-01

    The article kept the laval nozzle outer radium (D) and nozzle expansion ratio as a constant. Three different underwater gas jets multiphase unsteady flows were simulated using the volume of fluid (VOF) method. It adopted standard κ—ɛ turbulence mode and SIMPLE algorithm to solve the two-phase flow of supersonic gaseous jet injected into liquid. We got the flow structure and the main parameters of the flow field and compared and analyzed the key parameters of three different flow field.

  16. Improvement of Flow Characteristics for an Advanced Plasma Thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Inutake, M.; Hosokawa, Y.; Sato, R.; Ando, A.; Tobari, H.; Hattori, K

    2005-01-15

    A higher specific impulse and a larger thrust are required for a manned interplanetary space thruster. Until the realization of a fusion-plasma thruster, a magneto-plasma-dynamic arcjet (MPDA) powered by a fission reactor is one of the promising candidates for a manned Mars space thruster. The MPDA plasma is accelerated axially by a self-induced j x B force. Thrust performance of the MPDA is expected to increase by applying a magnetic nozzle instead of a solid nozzle. In order to get a much higher thruster performance, two methods have been investigated in the HITOP device, Tohoku University. One is to use a magnetic Laval nozzle in the vicinity of the MPDA muzzle for converting the high ion thermal energy to the axial flow energy. The other is to heat ions by use of an ICRF antenna in the divergent magnetic nozzle. It is found that by use of a small-sized Laval-type magnetic nozzle, the subsonic flow near the muzzle is converted to be supersonic through the magnetic Laval nozzle. A fast-flowing plasma is successfully heated by use of an ICRF antenna in the magnetic beach configuration.

  17. The Transcriptional Landscape of Cross-Specific Hybrids and Its Possible Link With Growth in Brook Charr (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill)

    PubMed Central

    Bougas, Bérénice; Granier, Sarah; Audet, Céline; Bernatchez, Louis

    2010-01-01

    The genetic mechanisms underlying hybridization are poorly understood despite their potentially important roles in speciation processes, adaptative evolution, and agronomical innovation. In this study, transcription profiles were compared among three populations of brook charr and their hybrids using microarrays to assess the influence of hybrid origin on modes of transcription regulation inheritance and on the mechanisms underlying growth. We found that twice as many transcripts were differently expressed between the domestic population and the two wild populations (Rupert and Laval) than between wild ones, despite their deeper genetic distance. This could reflect the consequence of artificial selection during domestication. We detected that hybrids exhibited strikingly different patterns of mode of transcription regulation, being mostly additive (94%) for domestic × Rupert, and nonadditive for Laval × domestic (45.7%) and Rupert × Laval hybrids (37.5%). Both heterosis and outbreeding depression for growth were observed among the crosses. Our results indicated that prevalence of dominance in transcription regulation seems related to growth heterosis, while prevalence of transgressive transcription regulation may be more related to outbreeding depression. Our study clearly shows, for the first time in vertebrates, that the consequences of hybridization on both the transcriptome level and the phenotype are highly dependent on the specific genetic architectures of crossed populations and therefore hardly predictable. PMID:20551437

  18. Fields induced by three-dimensional dislocation loops in anisotropic magneto-electro-elastic bimaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xueli; Pan, Ernie; Sangghaleh, Ali

    2013-08-01

    The coupled elastic, electric and magnetic fields produced by an arbitrarily shaped three-dimensional dislocation loop in general anisotropic magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) bimaterials are derived. First, we develop line-integral expressions for the fields induced by a general dislocation loop. Then, we obtain analytical solutions for the fields, including the extended Peach-Koehler force, due to some useful dislocation segments such as straight line and elliptic arc. The present solutions contain the piezoelectric, piezomagnetic and purely elastic solutions as special cases. As numerical examples, the fields induced by a square and an elliptic dislocation loop in MEE bimaterials are studied. Our numerical results show the coupling effects among different fields, along with various interesting features associated with the dislocation and interface.

  19. Axisymmetric thermo-elastic field in an annular plate of functionally graded multiferroic composites subjected to uniform thermal loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, T. F.; Wang, C. J.; Liu, C.; Liu, Y.; Dong, Y. H.; Li, X. Y.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the thermo-magneto-electro-elastic (thermo-MEE) field in an annular plate of heterogeneous multiferroic composite medium subjected to thermal loadings uniformly distributed on the main boundaries. As a prior, the temperature distribution is determined by solving the thermo-conduction equation. Then, the direct displacement method is employed to derive the coupling thermo-MEE field. Finally, numerical calculations are performed to validate the present analysis and to investigate the influence of the material heterogeneity and the multi-field coupling. The present solutions can be readily reduced to those for circular plate upon letting the inner radius tend to zero. The obtained solutions may serve as a benchmark to various numerical codes and simplified analyzes, since no ad hoc hypothesis is adopted in the present work.

  20. Joint solar dynamics project data summary (2nd): solar magnetic field, chromospheric and coronal observations near the time of the 11 June 1983 solar eclipse. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Sime, D.G.; Fisher, R.R.; Garcia, C.J.; Najita, J.R.; Rock, K.A.

    1983-07-01

    A comprehensive set of observations of the solar photosphere, chromosphere and corona is presented for one week on either side of the 11 June 1983 total solar eclipse. These observations, made at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory and at the University of Hawaii's Mees Solar Observatory on Haleakala, include H images of the disk and the limb, off-band H sunspot and Ca-II K-line images, together with observations of the white light corona. Also included are photospheric longitudinal magnetic field estimates made from the Fe line at 6302.5, by the Mees observatory Stokes photo-polarimeter. The data are presented as daily observations. In the case of the k-coronal observations and the magnetic field data, synoptic maps have been constructed for this interval.

  1. Solar coronal and magnetic field observations near the time of the 1988 March 18 solar eclipse

    SciTech Connect

    Sime, D.G.; Fisher, R.R.; Mickey, D.L.

    1988-10-01

    Observations made during the interval March 1-31, 1988, are presented which were designed to provide a synoptic context in which data from the March 18, 1988, total solar eclipse can be interpreted. Daily observations made with the Mark III K-coronameter and the H-alpha prominence monitor at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory, along with photographic records of the Sun in H-alpha from the flare patrol at Mees Solar Observatory on Haleakala, Maui, are included. Observations of the longitudinal component of the photospheric magnetic field made at Mees Solar Observatory were also gathered around the period of the eclipse. Together with the white-light image of the corona at the eclipse, these coronal and magnetic field observations assembled into synoptic maps for this epoch, are presented. On the basis of these observations, an interpretation of the global density distribution of the corona at the time of the eclipse is constructed. 11 references.

  2. Solar coronal and magnetic field observations near the time of the 1988 March 18 solar eclipse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sime, D. G.; Fisher, R. R.; Mickey, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    Observations made during the interval March 1-31, 1988, are presented which were designed to provide a synoptic context in which data from the March 18, 1988, total solar eclipse can be interpreted. Daily observations made with the Mark III K-coronameter and the H-alpha prominence monitor at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory, along with photographic records of the Sun in H-alpha from the flare patrol at Mees Solar Observatory on Haleakala, Maui, are included. Observations of the longitudinal component of the photospheric magnetic field made at Mees Solar Observatory were also gathered around the period of the eclipse. Together with the white-light image of the corona at the eclipse, these coronal and magnetic field observations assembled into synoptic maps for this epoch, are presented. On the basis of these observations, an interpretation of the global density distribution of the corona at the time of the eclipse is constructed.

  3. Bounds for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay in SO(10) Inspired Seesaw Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buccella, F.; Falcone, D.

    By requiring the lower limit for the lightest right-handed neutrino mass, obtained in the baryogenesis from leptogenesis scenario, and a Dirac neutrino mass matrix similar to the up-quark mass matrix, we predict small values for the νe mass and for the matrix element mee responsible of the neutrinoless double beta decay, mνe around 5×10-3 eV and mee smaller than 10-3 eV, respectively. The allowed range for the mass of the heaviest right-handed neutrino is centered around the value of the scale of B-L breaking in the SO(10) gauge theory with Pati-Salam intermediate symmetry.

  4. Vulnerability and adaptation to global climate change: The Estonian national report

    SciTech Connect

    Kont, A.; Punning, J.M.; Ainsaar, M.

    1996-04-01

    Because of its geography, wide coastal areas, water resources, forests, and wetlands, the environment of Estonia is sensitive to climate change and sea level rise. Therefore, the vulnerability and adaptation assessment focused on these sectors GCM-based and incremental climate change scenarios are used for V and A assessment in Estonia. The results of five GCMs provided by NCAR are available, and four of them (GISS, CCCM, GFDL30, GFDL transient) are chosen for the assessment in Estonia. The CERES-Barley model is used to assess crop productivity in four long-term (1966--1987) barley field trials situated on different types of soils in different parts of Estonia. The SPUR-2 model which was expected to be used to assess herbage sensitivity to climate change doesn`t fit Estonia. To estimate the responses of forests to proposed climate change scenarios, five study sites with relatively species rich forest stands and with different types of climate (continental and moderately maritime) are selected and the simple version of the Forest Gap Model is used. The Holdridge Life Zones Classification Models are also used to determine the potential evapotranspiration ratio for different tree species and the multiplier for temperature as a function of the forest growth. The WatBal model is used in water resources vulnerability assessment for three rivers with different hydrological regimes and landscape conditions.

  5. Maternal Eating and Physical Activity Strategies and their Relation with Children's Nutritional Status1

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Peña, Yolanda; Ortiz-Félix, Rosario Edith; Cárdenas-Villarreal, Velia Margarita; Ávila-Alpirez, Hermelinda; Alba-Alba, Corina Mariela; Hernández-Carranco, Roandy Gaspar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to describe the maternal eating and physical activity strategies (monitoring, discipline, control, limits and reinforcement) [MEES]; to determine the relation between MEES and the child's nutritional status [body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BFP)]; to verify whether the MEES differ according to the child's nutritional status. Method participants were 558 mothers and children (3 to 11 years of age) who studied at public schools. The Parental Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale (PEAS) was applied and the child's weight, height and BFP were measured. For analysis purposes, descriptive statistics were obtained, using multiple linear regression and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results the highest mean score was found for reinforcement (62.72) and the lowest for control (50.07). Discipline, control and limits explained 12% of the BMI, while discipline and control explained 6% of the BFP. Greater control is found for obese children (χ2=38.36, p=0.001) and greater reinforcement for underweight children (χ2=7.19, p<0.05). Conclusions the mothers exert greater control (pressure to eat) over obese children and greater recognition (congratulating due to healthy eating) in underweight children. Modifications in parental strategies are recommended with a view to strengthening healthy eating and physical activity habits. PMID:26107837

  6. Constitutively active mutation of ACVR1 in oral epithelium causes submucous cleft palate in mice.

    PubMed

    Noda, Kazuo; Mishina, Yuji; Komatsu, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-15

    Cleft palate is among the most common human birth defects. Submucous cleft palate (SMCP) is a subgroup of cleft palate, which may be as common as overt cleft palate. Despite the high frequency of SMCP in humans, only recently have several animal models of SMCP begun to provide insight into the mechanisms by which SMCP develops. In this study, we show that enhanced BMP signaling through constitutively active ACVR1 in palatal epithelium causes submucous cleft palate in mice. In these mutant mice, the fusion of both palatal mesenchyme in hard palate, and muscles in soft palate were hampered by epithelial tissue. During palatal fusion, enhanced SMAD-dependent BMP signaling impaired cell death and altered cell proliferation rate in medial edge epithelium (MEE), and resulted in MEE persistence. At the molecular level, downregulation of ΔNp63, which is crucial for normal palatal fusion, in MEE cells was impaired, leading to a reduction in caspase-3 activation. Our study provides a new insight into the etiology of SMCP caused by augmented BMP signaling. PMID:26116174

  7. Inflammatory mediators in chronic otitis media with effusion.

    PubMed

    Skoner, D P; Stillwagon, P K; Casselbrandt, M L; Tanner, E P; Doyle, W J; Fireman, P

    1988-10-01

    Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a common middle ear inflammatory disease in the pediatric population. This article determines concentrations of three functionally and metabolically distinct inflammatory mediators in middle ear effusions (MEE) and corresponding plasma of children with OME. One hundred two patients (mean age, 4.9 years) with persistent OME were studied. Middle ear effusions were collected from all subjects and plasma from a subset at the time of tympanostomy tube insertion. Histamine was assayed radioisotopically, 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2 alpha (stable PGF2 alpha metabolite) by radioimmunoassay, and neutrophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis by modified Boyden chamber. Mean MEE levels of the mediators (39 +/- 13 ng/mL, 462 +/- 179 pg/mL, and 264% +/- 57% positive control, respectively) were markedly higher than those of corresponding plasma (0.5 +/- 0.1 ng/mL, 285 +/- 127 pg/mL, and 47% +/- 5% positive control, respectively). The mean histamine content of mucoid effusions (43.2 +/- 56.9 ng/mL) was significantly higher than that of purulent (22.5 +/- 10.5 ng/mL) and serous (17.9 +/- 16.8 ng/mL) effusions. Higher histamine levels were observed in effusions positive for Haemophilus influenzae when compared with those with other pathogenic isolates. The high concentrations of these mediators in MEE and their potential for inducing or sustaining the inflammatory process supports a role in the pathogenesis of OME. PMID:3046637

  8. Vertical distribution of aerosols in the vicinity of Mexico City during MILAGRO-2006 Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, P.A.; Kleinman, L.; Eichinger, W. E.; Holder, H.; Prueger, J.; Wang, J.

    2010-02-01

    On 7 March 2006, a mobile, ground-based, vertical pointing, elastic lidar system made a North-South transect through the Mexico City basin. Column averaged, aerosol size distribution (ASD) measurements were made on the ground concurrently with the lidar measurements. The ASD ground measurements allowed calculation of the column averaged mass extinction efficiency (MEE) for the lidar system (1064 nm). The value of column averaged MEE was combined with spatially resolved lidar extinction coefficients to produce total aerosol mass concentration estimates with the resolution of the lidar (1.5 m vertical spatial and 1 s temporal). Airborne ASD measurements from DOE G-1 aircraft made later in the day on 7 March 2006, allowed the evaluation of the assumptions of constant ASD with height and time used for estimating the column averaged MEE. The results showed that the aerosol loading within the basin is about twice what is observed outside of the basin. The total aerosol base concentrations observed in the basin are of the order of 200 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and the base levels outside are of the order of 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. The local heavy traffic events can introduce aerosol levels near the ground as high as 900 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. The article presents the methodology for estimating aerosol mass concentration from mobile, ground-based lidar measurements in combination with aerosol size distribution measurements. An uncertainty analysis of the methodology is also presented.

  9. Protein-based emulsion electrosprayed micro- and submicroparticles for the encapsulation and stabilization of thermosensitive hydrophobic bioactives.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Mascaraque, Laura G; López-Rubio, Amparo

    2016-03-01

    This work shows the potential of emulsion electrospraying of proteins using food-grade emulsions for the microencapsulation and enhanced protection of a model thermosensitive hydrophobic bioactive. Specifically, gelatin, a whey protein concentrate (WPC) and a soy protein isolate (SPI) were compared as emulsion stabilizers and wall matrices for encapsulation of α-linolenic acid. In a preliminary stage, soy bean oil was used as the hydrophobic component for the implementation of the emulsion electrospraying process, investigating the effect of protein type and emulsion protocol used (i.e. with or without ultrasound treatment) on colloidal stability. This oil was then substituted by the ω-3 fatty acid and the emulsions were processed by electrospraying and spray-drying, comparing both techniques. While the latter resulted in massive bioactive degradation, electrospraying proved to be a suitable alternative, achieving microencapsulation efficiencies (MEE) of up to ∼70%. Although gelatin yielded low MEEs due to the need of employing acetic acid for its processing by electrospraying, SPI and WPC achieved MEEs over 60% for the non-sonicated emulsions. Moreover, the degradation of α-linolenic acid at 80°C was significantly delayed when encapsulated within both matrices. Whilst less than an 8% of its alkene groups were detected after 27h of thermal treatment for free α-linolenic acid, up to 43% and 67% still remained intact within the electrosprayed SPI and WPC capsules, respectively. PMID:26674243

  10. Collaborative development of Estonian nuclear master's program

    SciTech Connect

    Tkaczyk, A. H.; Kikas, A.; Realo, E.; Kirm, M.; Kiisk, M.; Isakar, K.; Suursoo, S.; Koch, R.; Feldbach, E.; Lushchik, A.; Reivelt, K.

    2012-07-01

    In 2009 Estonia approved the National Development Plan for the Energy Sector, including the nuclear energy option. This can be realized by construction of a nuclear power plant (NPP) in Estonia or by participation in neighboring nuclear projects (e.g., Lithuania and/or Finland). Either option requires the availability of competent personnel. It is necessary to prepare specialists with expertise in all aspects related to nuclear infrastructure and to meet workforce needs (e.g. energy enterprises, public agencies, municipalities). Estonia's leading institutions of higher education and research with the support of the European Social Fund have announced in this context a new nuclear master's curriculum to be developed. The language of instruction will be English. (authors)

  11. ‘Contexts of Exit in the Migration of Russian Speakers from the Baltic Countries to Ireland’

    PubMed Central

    Aptekar, Sofya

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Ireland has become a major destination for migrants from Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Many of these migrants are members of Russian-speaking minorities leaving a context of restrictive citizenship and language laws and varying degrees of ethnic tension. This paper draws on interviews collected in Ireland to examine the role played by the contexts of exit in decisions to migrate among Russian-speaking minorities from the Baltics. The results suggest that Russian speakers from Estonia migrate because of their experiences as minorities, while those from Latvia and Lithuania migrate to escape low wages and irregular employment. This is so despite equally restrictive language and citizenship laws in Estonia and Latvia. I argue that the effect of state policy as a push factor for minority emigration is mediated by other contextual aspects, such as levels of contact, timbre of ethnic relations, and the degree of intersection between economic stratification and ethnicity. PMID:24363609

  12. RES-E Support Policies In The Baltic States: Development Aspect (Part I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobinaite, V.; Priedite, I.

    2015-02-01

    Despite quite similar conditions (natural resources) for electricity production from renewable energy sources (RES-E) in three Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania), significant differences exist in these countries as to the RES-E production volume. In Latvia this volume is the highest, while in Estonia and Lithuania it is half as high. One of the factors that determine the RES-E production volumes is support policies, which in the Baltic States are different. The main objective of this work was to analyze and compare these support policies. The results have shown that for rapid RES-E development the most effective policy is to be market-oriented (as in Estonia), whereas for more stable development such policy should be producer-oriented (as in Lithuania).

  13. Wolves Recolonizing Islands: Genetic Consequences and Implications for Conservation and Management

    PubMed Central

    Remm, Jaanus; Hindrikson, Maris; Jõgisalu, Inga; Männil, Peep; Kübarsepp, Marko; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    After a long and deliberate persecution, the grey wolf (Canis lupus) is slowly recolonizing its former areas in Europe, and the genetic consequences of this process are of particular interest. Wolves, though present in mainland Estonia for a long time, have only recently started to recolonize the country’s two largest islands, Saaremaa and Hiiumaa. The main objective of this study was to analyse wolf population structure and processes in Estonia, with particular attention to the recolonization of islands. Fifteen microsatellite loci were genotyped for 185 individuals across Estonia. As a methodological novelty, all putative wolf-dog hybrids were identified and removed (n = 17) from the dataset beforehand to avoid interference of dog alleles in wolf population analysis. After the preliminary filtering, our final dataset comprised of 168 “pure” wolves. We recommend using hybrid-removal step as a standard precautionary procedure not only for wolf population studies, but also for other taxa prone to hybridization. STRUCTURE indicated four genetic groups in Estonia. Spatially explicit DResD analysis identified two areas, one of them on Saaremaa island and the other in southwestern Estonia, where neighbouring individuals were genetically more similar than expected from an isolation-by-distance null model. Three blending areas and two contrasting transition zones were identified in central Estonia, where the sampled individuals exhibited strong local differentiation over relatively short distance. Wolves on the largest Estonian islands are part of human-wildlife conflict due to livestock depredation. Negative public attitude, especially on Saaremaa where sheep herding is widespread, poses a significant threat for island wolves. To maintain the long-term viability of the wolf population on Estonian islands, not only wolf hunting quota should be targeted with extreme care, but effective measures should be applied to avoid inbreeding and minimize conflicts with local

  14. Wolves Recolonizing Islands: Genetic Consequences and Implications for Conservation and Management.

    PubMed

    Plumer, Liivi; Keis, Marju; Remm, Jaanus; Hindrikson, Maris; Jõgisalu, Inga; Männil, Peep; Kübarsepp, Marko; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    After a long and deliberate persecution, the grey wolf (Canis lupus) is slowly recolonizing its former areas in Europe, and the genetic consequences of this process are of particular interest. Wolves, though present in mainland Estonia for a long time, have only recently started to recolonize the country's two largest islands, Saaremaa and Hiiumaa. The main objective of this study was to analyse wolf population structure and processes in Estonia, with particular attention to the recolonization of islands. Fifteen microsatellite loci were genotyped for 185 individuals across Estonia. As a methodological novelty, all putative wolf-dog hybrids were identified and removed (n = 17) from the dataset beforehand to avoid interference of dog alleles in wolf population analysis. After the preliminary filtering, our final dataset comprised of 168 "pure" wolves. We recommend using hybrid-removal step as a standard precautionary procedure not only for wolf population studies, but also for other taxa prone to hybridization. STRUCTURE indicated four genetic groups in Estonia. Spatially explicit DResD analysis identified two areas, one of them on Saaremaa island and the other in southwestern Estonia, where neighbouring individuals were genetically more similar than expected from an isolation-by-distance null model. Three blending areas and two contrasting transition zones were identified in central Estonia, where the sampled individuals exhibited strong local differentiation over relatively short distance. Wolves on the largest Estonian islands are part of human-wildlife conflict due to livestock depredation. Negative public attitude, especially on Saaremaa where sheep herding is widespread, poses a significant threat for island wolves. To maintain the long-term viability of the wolf population on Estonian islands, not only wolf hunting quota should be targeted with extreme care, but effective measures should be applied to avoid inbreeding and minimize conflicts with local

  15. The contribution of the Estonian Soil Sciences Society to the science, society and education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossner, Helis; Reintam, Endla; Astover, Alar; Shanskiy, Merrit

    2015-04-01

    Predecessor of todays Estonian Soil Science Society was Estonian Branch of All-Union Soil Society of Soil Scientist which acted from 1957 to 1991. In 1957-1964 Estonian Branch was leaded by prof. Osvald Hallik and in 1964-1991 by prof. Loit Reintam. After re-independence of Estonia in 1991 the society acted in informal way and was leaded by prof. L. Reintam. Non-profit organization "Estonian Soil Science Society" was officially (re)established in 10.23.2009. Estonian Soil Science Society (ESSS) is aimed to: • coordinate collaboration between institutions and individuals intrested of soil science, conservation and sustainable use of soils; • promoting soil science education and research, raising awareness of publicity on topics relating to soils in Estonia; • cooperation between local and foreign unions and associations. In recent years the ESSS had managed to reunite the number of soil scientist from different research institutions of Estonia and of related institutions. Also, the ESSS had provided numerous of materials based on later scientific findings. One of most important activity leaded by ESSS is the organizing Soil Day in Estonia with relevant seminar, where the speakers are sharing latest information with target group (researchers, teachers, policy makers, farmers, students etc.). In a frames of Soil Day the Soil of the Year is selected for Estonia. In 2015, the soil of the year is Leptosol. For current, International Year of the Soil ESSS had planned numerous activities to introduce the importance of soils to wider audience. In current presentation we would like to share the soil science researchers experience through- out the decades of soil science research in Estonia, show our latest findings and designed activities for the International Year of SOIL.

  16. Suicides in the Baltic countries, 1968-90.

    PubMed

    Värnik, A; Wasserman, D; Eklund, G

    1994-09-01

    Trends of male and female suicides in the Baltic countries--Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania--in the years 1968-90 were studied. As throughout the former USSR, suicide rates declined sharply from 1986, the year marking the onset of turbulent social change. During the "period of stagnation" from 1968 to 1984, the mean value of male suicide rates per 100,000 males were 55.7 in Estonia, 52.5 in Latvia and 51.7 in Lithuania. The figures for female suicide rates were 14.3, 14.3 and 10.4, respectively. Suicide rates remained consistently high in Estonia and Latvia, while in Lithuania the male suicide rate rose gradually from 33.0 to 61.3 and the female rate from 8.0 to 13.1 during the stagnation period. In conjunction with perestroika in the former USSR (including a restrictive alcohol policy and the first tentative steps towards democracy), annual male suicide rates per 100,000 in the years 1986-90 fell considerably below those in the stagnation period. Mean values of male suicide rates decreased by 26.6% in Estonia, 26.6% in Latvia and 14.4% in Lithuania in the period 1986-90 compared with the mean values for the period 1968-84. Female suicide rates were relatively stable and the male-female ratio was accordingly lower in 1986-90 (Estonia and Latvia 3.1, Lithuania 4.2) than in 1968-84 (Estonia 3.9, Latvia 3.7 and Lithuania 5.0). PMID:7846473

  17. How do Southern cyclones appear in the COST 733 catalogue 2.0 domain 05 weather types?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mändla, K.; Päädam, K.; Sepp, M.

    2010-09-01

    The small number of cyclones forming over the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Seas and moving generally northwards, cause large air temperature contrasts, thunderstorms, extreme precipitation events, wind gusts and even tornadoes over the Baltic Sea region. Aim of the present work is to study how the so called Southern cyclones appear in the COST 733 catalogue 2.0, domain 05 weather types. The following analysis is based on the position of Estonia, being located near the centre of the Baltic Sea region and the domain 05. We used the cyclones database compiled by Gulev et al. (2001) based on the SLP data with a 6-hour time lag derived from the NCEP/NCAR re-analysis. As Southern cyclones we define those formed South from 47°N and East from the 0° meridian. A distance of 1000km between cyclone centres and Estonia was used to select the Southern cyclones affecting the weather in Estonia. The point with coordinates 58.75°N and 25.5°E was used as the central point of the 1000km circle. The Southern cyclones are divided into two classes according to their trajectories: A) passing Estonia from the East; B) passing Estonia from the West. The border between these classes is 25°E. Next, we selected the cyclones that appeared over the COST 733 period of 1958-2001. Altogether, there were 133 Southern cyclones that passed Estonia from the West, and 257 cyclones that passed from the East. In Southern cyclones we determined the date when a cyclone was nearest to the central point of Estonia. According to these dates we selected all weather types from the COST 733 catalogue 2.0, domain 05, which appeared on the corresponding dates of classifications that contain 27 or more weather types. Altogether, 159 classifications were analysed. Also, weather types that occurred day before and day after the date when a cyclone was nearest to the Estonian centre were selected and analysed separately. Then, we performed a frequency analysis of such weather types. On the basis of the MSLP

  18. [Sterilization surgeon and researcher: life and career of Benno Ottow (1884-1975)].

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils; Peters, Anja; Tammiksaar, Erki

    2011-01-01

    The activities of the gynaecologist and member of the Erbgesundheitsgericht Benno Ottow (1884-1975) in the "Third Reich" have been described in a couple of publications. During the Nazi dictatorship Ottow demonstrated great commitment to putting the ideological and legal demands into practice. Drawing on sources from private and state archives in Estonia, Germany and Sweden, this paper investigates the biography of Benno Ottow: from his time as a junior physician period in Estonia and Russia to his directorship of the Brandenburg gynaecological state hospital in Berlin-Neukölln and the postwar-years in Sweden. PMID:23213866

  19. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (84th, Washington, DC, August 5-8, 2001). International Communication Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The International Communication section of the proceedings contains the following 15 selected papers: "'News Aid', the New Aid: A Case Study of Cambodia" (J. L. Clarke); "Development of Public and Private Broadcasting in Post-Communist Estonia: 1991-1996" (Max V. Grubb); "Revealing and Repenting South Korea's Vietnam Massacre: A Frame Analysis of…

  20. Agreement among Adolescents, Parents, and Teachers on Adolescent Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laidra, Kaia; Allik, Juri; Harro, Maarike; Merenakk, Liis; Harro, Jaanus

    2006-01-01

    Agreement between adolescents, mothers, fathers, and teachers on adolescents' personality traits was investigated in a longitudinal study. The targets for personality ratings were the adolescents who participated in the European Youth Heart Study in Estonia. There were 593 participants in the first wave and 480 participants in the follow-up study…

  1. The Induction Program--Teachers' Experience after Five Years of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenschmidt, Eve; Oder, Tuuli; Reiska, Epp

    2013-01-01

    The induction program to provide support for novice teachers was introduced into teacher education in Estonia in 2004. The teachers who participated in the first program have now been working for several years. To evaluate the effectiveness of induction activities, we explored how mentoring and an induction program influence teachers'…

  2. The Roles of a Primary School Teacher in the Information Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uibu, Krista; Kikas, Eve

    2008-01-01

    Introducing information and communication technology (ICT) into education has had an impact on the teacher role perception. To learn about the perceptions of primary school teachers who regularly use computers in teaching, their role and the impact of ICT on the instructional process, a qualitative study was conducted in Estonia. Five teachers who…

  3. Students' Perception of the "Others" in Ethnic Separated School Systems: Implications for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nedelcu, Anca; Iucu, Romita; Ciolan, Lucian

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes qualitative data obtained from focus groups with students learning in schools with a majority and minority language of instruction from Estonia, Latvia, Romania, and Slovakia. The focus groups were developed within the framework of the project "Divided Education, Divided Citizens?" conducted by the Network of Education Policy…

  4. Teachers as Language-Policy Actors: Contending with the Erasure of Lesser-Used Languages in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kara

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of an ethnographic study of the Voro-language revitalization in Estonia, this article explores the way teachers function as policy actors in the broader context of the school. As policy actors, the language teachers' appropriation of regional-language policy helps simultaneously to reproduce and challenge existing ideologies in the…

  5. Initial Air Traffic Control Training at Tartu Aviation College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulbas, Tanel

    1997-01-01

    Development of an air traffic control (ATC) training course at Tartu Aviation College in Estonia had to start at ground zero, creating new rules and regulations for ATC, writing special study materials, building simulators, and finding enough applicants with sufficient English skills. (SK)

  6. Instructional Approaches: Differences between Kindergarten and Primary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uibu, Krista; Kikas, Eve; Tropp, Kristiina

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses kindergarten and primary school teachers' preferences for instructional approaches and teaching practices. One hundred and thirty-three teachers from Estonia completed questionnaires. The results showed that the promotion of students' comprehension and independence, enhancing practical application and individualisation of…

  7. 76 FR 72677 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ...) ($/lb) 27 European Union Member States \\3\\......... European Union Restitution $ 0.00 $0.00 Payments...\\ Defined in 19 U.S.C. 1677(5). \\2\\ Defined in 19 U.S.C. 1677(6). \\3\\ The 27 member states of the European Union are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,...

  8. 76 FR 38359 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ...) subsidy ($/lb) ($/lb) 27 European Union Member States \\3\\......... European Union Restitution $ 0.00 $0.00...\\ Defined in 19 U.S.C. 1677(5). \\2\\ Defined in 19 U.S.C. 1677(6). ] \\3\\ The 27 member states of the European Union are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,...

  9. 78 FR 40102 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... European Union Member States \\3\\........ European Union Restitution $ 0.00 $0.00 Payments. Canada Export...\\ Defined in 19 U.S.C. 1677(5). \\2\\ Defined in 19 U.S.C. 1677(6). \\3\\ The 27 member states of the European Union are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,...

  10. Conflicting Views on Quality: Interpretations of "A Good University" by Representatives of the State, the Market and Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udam, Maiki; Heidmets, Mati

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of research conducted over the period 2010-2012 in Estonia with the aim of identifying the expectations for the quality of higher education by principal parties in higher education, the state, the market and academia, as well as describing the differences and similarities in their expectations. The findings show…

  11. European Religious Education Teachers' Perceptions of and Responses to Classroom Diversity and Their Relationship to Personal and Professional Biographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everington, Judith; ter Avest, Ina; Bakker, Cok; van der Want, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on teachers of secondary level religious education in England, Estonia, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Norway. It presents a study of the teachers' perceptions of and responses to the diversity within their classes, in relation to their professional role and their personal and professional biographies. The study employed…

  12. Readiness for School of Children Having Attended Language Immersion Kindergarten in Their Teachers' and Parents' Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukk, Airi; Õun, Tiia; Ugaste, Aino

    2014-01-01

    In multicultural societies, much attention is given to children's language learning possibilities. In Estonia, the early language immersion programme for kindergarten children was started in the year 2000. The programme, while considered to be successful, has raised the question of whether the children participating in it are adequately…

  13. Language Policy and the Internationalization of Higher Education in the Baltic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaša, Rita; Mhamed, Ali Ait Si

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the internationalization and globalization of higher education and competition for international students, the paper examines how language policy in higher education shapes the provision of study programs in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. It concludes that study programs in the Baltic states mostly follow the convention of a…

  14. Examining Trends in Parent-Child Communication in Europe over 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabak, Izabela; Mazur, Joanna; Granado Alcon, Maria del Carmen; Orkenyi, Agota; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Aasvee, Katrin; Moreno, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze changes in communication with parents about matters of concern to 11- and 13-year olds. Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys conducted in Austria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Norway, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, and…

  15. Self-Identity as a Component of the Theory of Planned Behaviour in Predicting Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ries, Francis; Hein, Vello; Pihu, Maret; Armenta, Jose Manuel Sevillano

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of self-identity, defined as salient and enduring aspects of one's self-perception (Sparks, 2000), in relation to adolescent physical activity (PA) intentions within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). School students aged 12 to 18 from two cultural groups (Estonia and Spain) completed measures of…

  16. Qualifications at Level 5: Progressing in a Career or to Higher Education. Working Paper No 23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grm, Slava Pevec; Bjørnåvold, Jens

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses qualifications at level 5 of the European qualifications framework (EQF) in 15 countries (Belgium (Flanders), the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Ireland, France, Croatia, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, the United Kingdom (EWNI and Scotland) that had linked their national…

  17. Implementation of the Bologna Objectives in a Sample of European Private Higher Education Institutions: Outcomes of a Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlasceanu, Lazar; Voicu, Bogdan

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the main results of a recent survey of private higher education institutions from twelve selected European countries (Austria, Germany, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Poland, Estonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey, Ukraine, Russia) [in the framework of the UNESCO-CEPES project on "Private Higher Education in Europe and Quality Assurance…

  18. Engineering Students' Conceptions of Entrepreneurial Learning as Part of Their Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Täks, Marge; Tynjälä, Päivi; Kukemelk, Hasso

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine what kinds of conceptions of entrepreneurial learning engineering students expressed in an entrepreneurship course integrated in their study programme. The data were collected during an entrepreneurship course in Estonia that was organised for fourth-year engineering students, using video-recorded group…

  19. 75 FR 15991 - Designation of Greece for the Visa Waiver Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... information about the ESTA, please see the interim final rule at 73 FR 32440 (June 9, 2008), and implementing notice at 73 FR 67354 (November 13, 2008). See Sections 217(a) and 217(b) of the Immigration and... Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brunei, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,...

  20. Consumer Socialisation and Value Orientations among Estonian and Chinese Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waerdahl, Randi; Kalmus, Veronika; Keller, Margit

    2011-01-01

    This paper asks if Estonian and Chinese tweens' access to pocket money influences their brand valuation, as well as value orientations in the context of perceived peer popularity and personal well-being. Surveys conducted in autumns 2006 (China n = 188) and 2007 (Estonia n = 111) show an inherent cultural resistance among tweens in both countries…

  1. The Impact of External Quality Assessment on Universities: The Estonian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilgats, Birgit; Heidmets, Mati

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to establish what impact external quality assessment had on universities in Estonia between 1997 and 2009. It is based on a study of the analysis of experts' reports of curricula accreditation and interviews with university and programme managers, undertaken between 2007 and 2009. The study included an analysis of 12 curricula…

  2. Curriculum Change in Teachers' Experience: The Social Innovation Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keskula, Eeva; Loogma, Krista; Kolka, Piibe; Sau-Ek, Kristiina

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses teachers' experience in the period of educational change in Estonia from 1989 to 2010. We review the introduction of the new national curricula and national exams. We show how, in the teachers' experience, the period of change can be divided into two distinct periods. Firstly, the period of freedom and chaos in the early…

  3. Enlargement Project: Insight into ICT Professional Skills and Jobs in the Candidate Countries. Enlargement Futures Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourova, Elissaveta

    A study examined information and communication technologies (ICT) job trends and the prospects for preservation and supply of high skilled professionals in the medium and longer term in candidate countries (CCs), for admission into the European Union, focusing on Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary, and Poland. Rapidly changing technology and growth of…

  4. Professional Preparation in School Psychology: A Summary of Information from Programs in Seven Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas; Hatzichristou, Chryse

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes prominent themes found in descriptions of school psychology programs in Estonia (Kikas, 2014), Greece (Hatzichristou & Polychroni, 2014), Hong Kong (Lam, 2014), Romania (Negovan & Dinca, 2014), Sweden (Schad, 2014), United Kingdom (Wood, 2014), and United States (Joyce & Rossen, 2014). This paper summarizes…

  5. A Comparative Study of Rural Youth in the National Regions of the USSR: General and Specific Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arutyunyan, Y. V.

    Since there is no private property in the Soviet Union, social status is largely determined by education. Consequently, the educational levels of rural youth in all the Union Republics are nearly identical, while among the older generations of rural inhabitants there are still definite differences. In Estonia, for example, the educational level of…

  6. Do Girls and Boys Perceive Themselves as Equally Engaged in School? The Results of an International Study from 12 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Shui-fong; Jimerson, Shane; Kikas, Eve; Cefai, Carmel; Veiga, Feliciano H.; Nelson, Brett; Hatzichristou, Chryse; Polychroni, Fotini; Basnett, Julie; Duck, Robert; Farrell, Peter; Liu, Yi; Negovan, Valeria; Shin, Hyeonsook; Stanculescu, Elena; Wong, Bernard P. H.; Yang, Hongfei; Zollneritsch, Josef

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in student engagement and academic performance in school. Participants included 3420 students (7th, 8th, and 9th graders) from Austria, Canada, China, Cyprus, Estonia, Greece, Malta, Portugal, Romania, South Korea, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The results indicated that, compared to boys, girls…

  7. Student Teachers' Knowledge about Children with ADHD and Depression and Its Relations to Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Timoštšuk, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Student teachers' knowledge about children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression and its relations to reporting experiencing emotions during teaching practice were studied. The participants were 186 teacher education students in Estonia. Student teachers' general knowledge and confidence in knowledge varied a lot.…

  8. Understanding and Measuring Student Engagement in School: The Results of an International Study from 12 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Shui-fong; Jimerson, Shane; Wong, Bernard P. H.; Kikas, Eve; Shin, Hyeonsook; Veiga, Feliciano H.; Hatzichristou, Chryse; Polychroni, Fotini; Cefai, Carmel; Negovan, Valeria; Stanculescu, Elena; Yang, Hongfei; Liu, Yi; Basnett, Julie; Duck, Robert; Farrell, Peter; Nelson, Brett; Zollneritsch, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a scale that is appropriate for use internationally to measure affective, behavioral, and cognitive dimensions of student engagement. Psychometric properties of this scale were examined with data of 3,420 students (7th, 8th, and 9th grade) from 12 countries (Austria, Canada, China, Cyprus, Estonia,…

  9. English in the Estonian Multicultural Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonzari, Lorena

    1999-01-01

    Argues that the spread of English is not closely associated to a discourse of linguistic imperialism, basing the thesis on a case study in Estonia. Surveys of three generations of Estonians indicated that all welcomed English as a means of communications and technology in the modern world, reacting against the imposition of Russian language and…

  10. A Cross Country Analysis of Curricular Reform in Vocational Education and Training in Central and Eastern Europe. Integration of Work and Learning. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, David, Ed.; Gronwald, Detlef; Grootings, Peter; Nielsen, Soren

    Curriculum reform in vocational education and training (VET) in Central and Eastern Europe was examined through case studies of VET in 10 countries: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovak Republic, and Slovenia. Special attention was paid to the following: each country's VET system; curriculum…

  11. A Sociolinguistic Comparison between Quebec's Charter of the French Language and the 1989 Language Laws of Five Soviet Republics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurais, Jacques

    1991-01-01

    Compares the language laws of five Soviet Republics (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldavia, and Kazakhstan) with Quebec's Charter of the French Language along the following lines: proclamation of an official language; the common language in question; language of communication with customers and citizens; language of education; and linguistic…

  12. Key Indicators--Vocational Education and Training in Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report presents statistical information on the vocational education and training systems of 10 countries in Central and Eastern Europe: Albania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, and Slovenia. These materials precede the body of the report: introduction, guide to reading the report, and…

  13. Civic Education in Former Communist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    This paper discusses the efforts of educators in the former communist nations of central and eastern Europe, particularly those of Estonia and Poland. In spite of diverse histories and cultures, each of these nations has shared a legacy of totalitarian communism imposed by the former Soviet Union. This inheritance has afflicted all former…

  14. European Approaches To Widening Participation in Higher Education: A Commentary in Light of the Role of the Society for Research into Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggins, Heather

    1999-01-01

    Case studies of Estonia, Bulgaria, and the United Kingdom illustrate how the access and equity agenda in each country reflect national social concerns and priorities and how individual institutions reinterpret national agendas in light of institutional missions and objectives. Sees a role for the Society for Research into Higher Education in…

  15. 8 CFR 1003.43 - Motions to reopen for suspension of deportation and cancellation of removal pursuant to section...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the Service set forth in 8 CFR 240.62(a) or before the Immigration Court as set forth in 8 CFR 240.62... for in 8 CFR 3.2(c)(3) and 3.23(b). ..., Russia, any republic of the former Soviet Union, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Poland,...

  16. 8 CFR 1003.43 - Motions to reopen for suspension of deportation and cancellation of removal pursuant to section...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Service set forth in 8 CFR 240.62(a) or before the Immigration Court as set forth in 8 CFR 240.62... for in 8 CFR 3.2(c)(3) and 3.23(b). ..., Russia, any republic of the former Soviet Union, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Poland,...

  17. 8 CFR 1003.43 - Motions to reopen for suspension of deportation and cancellation of removal pursuant to section...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the Service set forth in 8 CFR 240.62(a) or before the Immigration Court as set forth in 8 CFR 240.62... for in 8 CFR 3.2(c)(3) and 3.23(b). ..., Russia, any republic of the former Soviet Union, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Poland,...

  18. 8 CFR 1003.43 - Motions to reopen for suspension of deportation and cancellation of removal pursuant to section...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the Service set forth in 8 CFR 240.62(a) or before the Immigration Court as set forth in 8 CFR 240.62... for in 8 CFR 3.2(c)(3) and 3.23(b). ..., Russia, any republic of the former Soviet Union, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Poland,...

  19. Reforms and Innovations in Estonian Education. Baltische Studien zur Erziehungs- und Sozialwissenschaft. Volume 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan, Ed.; Veisson, Marika, Ed.; Luik, Piret, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This collection of papers provides a small overview of educational research in Estonia. The papers in the collection treat school reforms since the renewal of independence in 1991, new approaches to teacher training, the implementation of a child-centred approach in school, the achieving of educational aims and other actual topics in education.…

  20. Multilingualism in the Successor States of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreindler, Isabelle

    1997-01-01

    Major common language problems arising in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet bloc are outlined, as identified in recent literature, and pressing language-related issues in specific former Soviet states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan,…

  1. Formal Education, Mismatch and Wages after Transition: Assessing the Impact of Unobserved Heterogeneity Using Matching Estimators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamo, Ana; Messina, Julian

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the incidence and consequences of the mismatch between formal education and the educational requirements of jobs in Estonia during the years 1997-2003. We find large wage penalties associated with the phenomenon of educational mismatch. Moreover, the incidence and wage penalty of mismatches increase with age. This suggests that…

  2. Language Politics and Practices in the Baltic States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle; Ozolins, Uldis; Ramoniene, Meilute; Rannut, Mart

    2008-01-01

    This monograph provides an overview of the language situation in the three Baltic countries: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. It examines the recent change in language regimes that the Baltic States have deliberately brought about since the restitution of their independence, the nature of these changes, the opposition they have engendered and the…

  3. The Professionalisation of Adult Educators in the Baltic States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jogi, Larissa; Gross, Marin

    2009-01-01

    Adult education and lifelong learning together form one of the priorities for development in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The important historical and social context in which the professional development of adult educators has been taking place in the Baltic States since they regained their independence in the 1990s is the changes that occurred…

  4. Residential Folk High Schools in Eastern Europe and the Baltic States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulich, Jindra

    2002-01-01

    In Eastern Europe, Poland has the longest history of folk high schools. Although closed in Hungary during the 1950s, folk high schools have recently reemerged. There were attempts to establish them in Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia following independence. Although the residential aspect of folk schools is desirable, economic and social conditions…

  5. Language and Education Orientations in Lithuania: A Cross-Baltic Perspective Post-EU Accession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulajeva, Tatjana; Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an up-to-date overview of language policies and practices in Lithuania, paying particular attention to the latest developments that have taken place in national educational contexts. Against the background of recent sociodemographic changes in the three Baltic republics, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, it analyzes issues…

  6. Dynamics of Inequalities in Access to Higher Education: Bulgaria in a Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilieva-Trichkova, Petya; Boyadjieva, Pepka

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at studying the dynamics of inequalities in access to higher education (HE) both in a historical and a comparative perspective. It uses Bulgaria as a case study and places it among five other countries such as Estonia, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. The adopted approach differentiates between equity in HE and inequalities…

  7. Changing Discourses and Changing Institutional Child Substitute Care: New Terms and Processes toward Family-Like and Family-Based Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sindi, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    This article is an attempt to analyse and describe the process of change in child substitute care that has taken place since the re-independence of Estonia in 1991. These changes started with adopting new terms and ideas. However, while international terminology and concepts have been accepted, local conditions affect this acceptance of concepts…

  8. Family Factors and NEET Status: An Estonian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leino, Mare; Hintsanen, Mirka; Hintsa, Taina; Merjonen, Paivi; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    For young people, not being in education, employment or training (NEET) may be detrimental to self-esteem and limit possibilities for achieving financial security and a respectable position in society. One major educational problem in Estonia is low academic achievement at the upper level of basic education (Grades 7-9), reflected in a large…

  9. Exploring Constructivist Social Learning Practices in Aiding Russian-Speaking Teachers to Learn Estonian: An Action Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Based on appreciative inquiry and threshold concepts from an intercultural learning perspective, the article makes insights into the constructivist social learning practice of Estonian language learning amongst Russian-speaking teachers in Estonia. The application of educational action research methodology, more specifically that of Bridget…

  10. Developing an Effective Support System for Inquiry Learning in a Web-Based Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedaste, M.; Sarapuu, T.

    2006-01-01

    Sixty-five teams of basic and secondary school students solved problem-solving tasks during a virtual hike in a Web-based inquiry-learning simulation Hiking Across Estonia. This environment provided learners with all necessary background information for problem-solving and tools for carrying out experiments. There were 25 tasks in certain order…

  11. The Factors Influencing the Outcome of Solving Story Problems in a Web-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedaste, M.; Sarapuu, T.; Outcomes of Education

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate those factors influencing performance in solving story problems in a web-based environment. A situational simulation, "Hiking across Estonia," was explored by two samples of voluntary groups of students, comprising 65 and 50 groups, respectively. They solved 25 ecological and environmental story…

  12. Enhancing the Role of Social Partner Organisations in the Area of Vocational Education and Training in the Candidate Countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Institutional Arrangements. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    The role of social partner organizations in vocational education and training (VET) has been compared for Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, the Slovak Republic, and Slovenia. In these countries, a system of industrial relations comparable to those existing in western Europe is emerging gradually.…

  13. Aesthetic Literacy: Observable Phenomena and Pedagogical Applications for Mobile Lifelong Learning (mLLL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sean, Michael; Ihanainen, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposed a method for developing capacity for lifelong learning in open spaces, defined here as places without predefined learning structures or objectives, through the cultivation of aesthetic literacy. This discussion will be situated within fieldwork performed by the authors in Helsinki, Finland, and Tallinn, Estonia, in 2013. Based…

  14. Students Opinions and Attitudes toward LGBT Persons and Rights: Results of a Transnational European Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passani, Antonella; Debicki, Marie

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the research results of the European co-funded project NISO: Fighting Homophobia Through Active Citizenship and Media Education. The project combined research and non-formal education activities in four European countries: Belgium, Estonia, Italy and the Netherlands. The research intended to identify and analyze high school…

  15. International Reports on Literacy Research: Emergent Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.; Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports from international research correspondents on the topic of emergent reading. The report includes 14 separate reports on Nigeria, China, Hong Kong, Israel, Malaysia, Singapore, Australia, Estonia, Italy, Canada, Mexico, United States, Argentina, and Chile. Overall, reports on the topic of emergent readers have…

  16. International workshop: Planning for climate change through integrated coastal management. Volume 2: Country and regional reports

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This workshop included reports from the following countries: Argentina; Bulgaria; Egypt; Estonia; Fiji; Indonesia; Mozambique; Nigeria; Oman; The Philippines; Senegal; Sri Lanka; Suriname; Thailand; and Tuvalu; Regional reports were included on the following: Small Island Developing States of the Pacific; South Pacific Regional Environment Program; and Sea Level Rise Impacts on Central America.

  17. The Reasons for the Interruption of Vocational Training in Estonian Vocational Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beilmann, Mai; Espenberg, Kerly

    2016-01-01

    Dropping out of school before achieving any qualification is a serious problem both at an individual and societal level. This study provides an insight into the lives of young people who have dropped out or are at a risk of dropping out of vocational schools in Estonia and gives an overview of the reasons behind the interruption of their studies.…

  18. The Road to the European Union: Macroeconomic Policy Challenges for Hungary and Poland. Fulbright-Hayes Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Hungary and Poland).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Teresita R.

    Prospects for the enlargement of the European Union (EU) became imminent when the EU Commission agreed in 1997 to open formal negotiations with five of the Central and Eastern European countries: (1) the Czech Republic; (2) Hungary; (3) Poland; (4) Slovenia; and (5) Estonia. This research project discusses macroeconomic policy challenges that…

  19. Tiger in Focus--A National Survey of ICT in Estonian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toots, Anu; Laanpere, Mart

    2004-01-01

    Estonia has not participated in international studies of ICT in education, nor have there been any similar studies at the national level up until the year 2000. The first survey of ICT in Estonian schools was conducted after completion of the national school computerization programme called Tiger Leap. This paper focuses on the targeted responses…

  20. Potential Teaching Model for Applying Novel Approaches of Renewed Estonian National Curriculum into Visual Art Classes in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vahter, Edna

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, the renewed national curriculum was legislated in Estonia. Major changes include a new list of cross-curricular topics, increased importance of integration and specification of the components of the art learning process. In this situation, the question arises--how to fully implement the challenges of the renewed curriculum in primary…

  1. Authoritative and Authoritarian-Inconsistent Teachers' Preferences for Teaching Methods and Instructional Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uibu, Krista; Kikas, Eve

    2014-01-01

    Preferences for teaching methods are influenced by several factors, including instructional goals, teacher's management style, experience and education. To discover in which ways primary school teachers with different management styles vary in their preferences for students' cognitive and social development, 128 teachers of Estonia were…

  2. Minority Language Rights before and after the 2004 EU Enlargement: The Copenhagen Criteria in the Baltic States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrey, Jean-Bernard

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of the recent European Union (EU) enlargement on minority language policies in the Baltic states, and in particular in Latvia and Estonia. I first look at the so-called Copenhagen political criteria conditioning EU accession and at the European Commission's monitoring system for assessing applicant countries'…

  3. Preschool Teachers' Views on Children's Learning: An International Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broström, Stig; Sandberg, Anette; Johansson, Inge; Margetts, Kay; Nyland, Berenice; Frøkjaer, Thorleif; Kieferle, Christa; Seifert, Anja; Roth, Angela; Ugaste, Aino; Vrinioti, Kalliope

    2015-01-01

    This comparative study investigated the perspectives of preschool teachers in Australia, Denmark, Estonia, German, Greece and Sweden about learning and participation in preschool. A structured survey questionnaire investigated four main questions: What situations can be characterised as learning? What activities are important for learning? What…

  4. Comparison of French and Estonian Students' Conceptions in Genetic Determinism of Human Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castera, Jeremy; Sarapuu, Tago; Clement, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Innatism is the belief that most of the human personality can be determined by genes. This ideology is dangerous, especially when it claims to be scientific. The present study investigates conceptions of 1060 students from Estonia and France related to genetic determinism of some human behaviours. Factors taken into account included students'…

  5. Impact of SES on Estonian Students' Science Achievement across Different Cognitive Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mere, Kristi; Reiska, Priit; Smith, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    As Estonia has moved from a centrally planned towards a market-based economy, there has been a broad-based push to create an "egalitarian but innovative, "future-oriented" system of education, which would help to develop flexible, lifelong learning citizens open to new ideas." A national research and development strategy, titled "Knowledge-based…

  6. Spray-formed tooling and aluminum strip

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.

    1995-11-01

    Spray forming is an advanced materials processing technology that converts a bulk liquid metal to a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a suitably shaped substrate. By combining rapid solidification processing with product shape control, spray forming can reduce manufacturing costs while improving product quality. De Laval nozzles offer an alternative method to the more conventional spray nozzle designs. Two applications are described: high-volume production of aluminum alloy strip, and the production of specialized tooling, such as injection molds and dies, for rapid prototyping.

  7. Application of wave coagulation of the aerosol in technology of gasification of cryogenic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubarakshin, B. R.; Tonkonog, V. G.; Arslanova, S. N.; Tukmakov, A. L.; Tukmakov, D. A.

    2016-06-01

    Process of acoustic coagulation of a polydisperse gas-suspension under the influence of a nonlinear wave field in relation to technology of gasification and cryostatting of the liquefied natural gas and hydrogen is investigated. The gas-suspension of polydisperse structure is formed in the stream proceeding through Laval's nozzle then the bearing and disperse phases are divided in an inertial separator. For increase of efficiency of division of phases between a cut of a nozzle and an entrance of a separator the working site in which on the polydisperse environment acoustic impact is made settles down.

  8. An Introduction to the Supersonic Molecular Beam Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, En-yao

    2001-04-01

    Recently a new fuelling method with supersonic molecular beam injection (MBI) has been developed and used in the tokamaks experiments successfully. It is economical to develop and maintain. The advantages of supersonic MBI compared with the conventional of gas-puffing method are as follows: Deep deposition of fuel, better fuelling efficiency, reduced recycling and pure plasma. Particle and energy confinement can be improved and density limit extended. This review described the Laval nozzle molecular beam and a simple collective model for the injection of a supersonic MBI into the tokamak plasma.

  9. Development of ion transportation, extraction and neutralization systems for atomic beam resonance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagae, Daisuke; Asahi, Koichiro; Miyoshi, Hisanori; Shimada, Kenzi; Yoshimi, Akihiro; Ueno, Hideki; Murata, Jiro; Uchida, Makoto; Kameda, Daisuke; Kato, Go; Emori, Shoken; Kijima, Go; Oshima, Sachiko; Takemura, Makoto; Arai, Takemasa; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Haseyama, Tomohito; Schmidt-Ott, W. D.

    2005-11-01

    A device that produces a low-energy and largely spin polarized RI beam based on the atomic beam resonance method (RIABR) has been developed. We have performed measurements of stopping and drifting an incoming RI ion beam in a gas chamber, extraction of the ions into a vacuum region, and neutralization of the extracted low-energy ion beam. The drift efficiency of RI ions in a gas and the extraction efficiency at a Laval-type glass nozzle were found to be 0.72±0.04 and 0.033, respectively. The result of the experiment for the neutralization is also discussed.

  10. Shape optimization governed by the Euler equations using an adjoint method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iollo, Angelo; Salas, Manuel D.; Taasan, Shlomo

    1993-01-01

    A numerical approach for the treatment of optimal shape problems governed by the Euler equations is discussed. Focus is on flows with embedded shocks. A very simple problem is considered: the design of a quasi-one-dimensional Laval nozzle. A cost function and a set of Lagrange multipliers are introduced to achieve the minimum. The nature of the resulting costate equations is discussed. A theoretical difficulty that arises for cases with embedded shocks is pointed out and solved. Finally, some results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the method.

  11. [Reminiscence of the "Relief Houses" that operated in rural Chile between 1931 and 1945].

    PubMed

    Laval, Enrique

    2016-06-01

    In June 1929, the medical charity inspectors (Isauro Torres and Enrique Laval M.) submitted to the Direction of the Institution a plan for the normalization of all hospitals, which was approved by the Central Board at its meeting on 19 July of that year. The plan was to phase in the hospital action from the First-aid Posts or "Relief Houses" to the large referral hospitals. The "Relief House" would become the initial phase of hospital organization, located in rural areas. Finally, we emphasize that the Relief Houses were establishments for preventive and curative medicine in rural areas. PMID:27598285

  12. Spray-forming monolithic aluminum alloy and metal matrix composite strip

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.

    1995-10-01

    Spray forming with de Laval nozzles is an advanced materials processing technology that converts a bulk liquid metal to a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a suitably shaped substrate. Using this approach, aluminum alloys have been spray formed as strip, with technoeconomic advantages over conventional hot mill processing and continuous casting. The spray-formed strip had a flat profile, minimal porosity, high yield, and refined microstructure. In an adaptation to the technique, 6061 Al/SiC particulate-reinforced metal matrix composite strip was produced by codeposition of the phases.

  13. Experimental research on coarse water formation in steam condensing flow on a transition through the shock wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykas, S.; Majkut, M.; Strozik, M.; Smołka, K.

    2014-08-01

    In this work the condensation phenomena in steam turbine were discussed. The motivation for presented research was an interaction of liquid phase with shock waves existing in the transonic flow. The paper presents the experimental results of the steam condensing transonic flow in Laval nozzles. For the tests the geometries of the half arc nozzles were used. The behaviour of shock waves in the wet steam region was investigated. Due to the high back pressure, in the divergent part of the nozzle the shock wave was induced and interacting with the nozzle walls caused instability in the flow.

  14. Analytical Treatment of Normal Condensation Shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heybey

    1947-01-01

    The condensation of water vapor in an air consequences: acquisition of heat (liberated heat vaporization; loss of mass on the part of the flowing gas (water vapor is converted to liquid); change in the specific gas constants and of the ratio k of the specific heats (caused by change of gas composition). A discontinuous change of state is therefore connected with the condensation; schlieren photographs of supersonic flows in two-dimensional Laval nozzles show two intersecting oblique shock fronts that in the case of high humidities may merge near the point of intersection into one normal shock front.

  15. Barbed Suture as a Treatment Approach in Complex Degloving Injuries.

    PubMed

    Boudreault, David Jean-Guy; Lance, Sam H; Garcia, Jesus A

    2016-05-01

    In the late19th century, French physician Morel-Lavallée was challenged with a group of patients who sustained similar patterns of degloving injuries, which today carry his eponym. In 1853, he reported a series of cases as well as proposed strategies for the management of these complex degloving injuries. Treatment strategies have not varied significantly over the years, and these lesions continue to plague surgeons today with failure rates in excess of 50%. We present 2 case series using barbed suture in the management of these complex injuries. PMID:26954732

  16. Characteristics of acetone cluster ion beam for surface processing and modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryuto, H.; Kakumoto, Y.; Takeuchi, M.; Takaoka, G. H.

    2014-02-01

    An acetone cluster ion beam was produced by the adiabatic expansion method without using helium as a support gas. The cluster source for the production of ethanol clusters was replaced with that sealed with metal gaskets. The Laval nozzle for the production of ethanol clusters was also replaced with a stainless steel conical nozzle. The cluster size distributions of the acetone cluster ion beams had mean values approximately at 2 × 103 molecules and increased with source pressure. The typical beam current density of the acetone cluster ion beam was approximately 0.5 μA/cm2.

  17. Behavior of fast moving flow of compressible gas in cylindrical pipe in presence of cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varshavsky, G A

    1951-01-01

    For compressible flow with friction in a cylindrical pipe the momentum, continuity, and heat-transfer equations are examined to determine whether an increase in Mach number ("thermal" Laval nozzle) is obtainable through heat conduction from the gas through the pipe walls. The analysis is based on the assumption that the wall temperature is negligibly small in comparison with the stagnation temperature of the gas. The analysis leads to a negative result. When the gas cooling is increased by also considering radiation to the wall, a limited region at high temperatures is obtained where Mach number increases were theoretically possible. Obtaining this condition practically is considered impossible.

  18. Characteristics of heat exchange in the region of injection into a supersonic high-temperature flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakirov, F. G.; Shaykhutdinov, Z. G.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the local heat transfer coefficient distribution during gas injection into the supersonic-flow portion of a Laval nozzle is discussed. The controlling dimensionless parameters of the investigated process are presented in terms of a generalized relation for the maximum value of the heat transfer coefficient in the nozzle cross section behind the injection hole. Data on the heat transfer coefficient variation along the nozzle length as a function of gas injection rate are also presented, along with the heat transfer coefficient distribution over a cross section of the nozzle.

  19. Supersonic gas jets for laser-plasma experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, K.; Veisz, L.

    2012-05-01

    We present an in-depth analysis of De Laval nozzles, which are ideal for gas jet generation in a wide variety of experiments. Scaling behavior of parameters especially relevant to laser-plasma experiments as jet collimation, sharpness of the jet edges and Mach number of the resulting jet is studied and several scaling laws are given. Special attention is paid to the problem of the generation of microscopic supersonic jets with diameters as small as 150 μm. In this regime, boundary layers dominate the flow formation and have to be included in the analysis.

  20. Outreach facilities within a research center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambon, V.; Thériault, G.; Poulin-Girard, A.-S.

    2012-10-01

    Worldwide, volunteers from student associations and non-profit organizations carry out outreach activities with high school students in their classrooms. Most of the time, these activities highlight optical phenomena but do not provide information about the reality of researchers in companies and universities. To address this issue, Université Laval's OSA and SPIE student chapters set up a demonstration laboratory dedicated to outreach, located in a research center. In this paper, we list the advantages of this type of facility as well as the steps leading to the creation of the laboratory, and we give an overview of the demonstration laboratory.