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Sample records for meeting materials vaccines

  1. 75 FR 34141 - National Vaccine Advisory Committee Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Vaccine Advisory Committee Meetings AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department... National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) will hold two teleconference meetings. The meetings are open to....'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Daniel Salmon, National Vaccine Program Office, Department of...

  2. 78 FR 37817 - Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Vaccine Program... National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) will be holding a special meeting. This meeting will be held... audio conference call. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: National Vaccine Program Office, Department...

  3. 76 FR 30722 - Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee; Vaccine Safety Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee; Vaccine Safety Working Group AGENCY... Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) is hereby giving notice that the Vaccine Safety Working Group (VSWG) of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) will hold a meeting. The meeting is open to...

  4. 75 FR 41872 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines... Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines (ACCV) will hold a special meeting, to be held by teleconference.... Discussions will surround the draft interim influenza vaccine information materials developed by the...

  5. 75 FR 25259 - Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Health and Human... giving notice that the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) will hold a meeting. The meeting is... 20201. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: National Vaccine Program Office, Department of Health and...

  6. 75 FR 52532 - Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Public Health and... (HHS) is hereby giving notice that the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) will hold a meeting...., Washington, DC 20201. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: National Vaccine Program Office, Department of...

  7. 77 FR 27061 - Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Health and Human... (HHS) is hereby giving notice that the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) will hold a meeting... Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20201. ] FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: National Vaccine...

  8. 76 FR 53134 - Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... Human Services (DHHS) is hereby giving notice that the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) will...: National Vaccine Program Office, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Room 715-H, Hubert...

  9. 76 FR 30722 - Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... Services (DHHS) is hereby giving notice that the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) will hold a... Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20201. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: National Vaccine...

  10. 78 FR 4147 - Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... Services (HHS) is hereby giving notice that the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) will hold a...: National Vaccine Program Office, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Room 715-H, Hubert...

  11. Principles of malaria vaccine trials: Memorandum from a WHO Meeting*

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    The Scientific Working Groups on Immunology of Malaria and on Applied Field Research in Malaria of the UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases held a joint meeting at WHO headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, on 4-8 February 1985 to consider the current status of malaria vaccine research. Although experience with vaccines against bacterial and viral infections provides valuable information, the advanced stages of development of malaria vaccines pose entirely new problems calling for the elaboration of guidelines for preclinical studies and vaccine trials. The principal purpose of this meeting was to establish such guidelines.

  12. 77 FR 51536 - Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... optimal prevention of human infectious diseases through immunization and to achieve optimal prevention... National Vaccine Plan, pertussis, immunizations and health information technology, Healthy People 2020, immunization goals, and vaccine hesitancy. The meeting agenda will be posted on the NVAC Web site:...

  13. 75 FR 48712 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Influenza Vaccine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... season, 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine is being incorporated into the seasonal vaccine formulation... vaccine provides some protection. The 2010-2011 vaccine provides protection against H1N1 (pandemic.... People who got the 2009 H1N1 vaccine still need to get vaccinated with the 2010-2011 influenza...

  14. 75 FR 8727 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines... limited to: Updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation (DVIC), Department of...

  15. 75 FR 27797 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines... limited to: updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation (DVIC), Department of...

  16. 76 FR 27651 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines... from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation (DVIC), Department of Justice (DOJ), National...

  17. Meeting report VLPNPV: Session 8: Vaccines I.

    PubMed

    Thiriot, David S

    2014-01-01

    In Session 8 of the recent conference "Virus-Like Particle and Nano-Particle Vaccines" held at the Salk Institute in La Jolla, California (05 June 2014), four scientists described new virus-like particle (VLP) approaches, progress, and early-stage plans for vaccines against significant human pathogens including HPV, malaria, HIV, Dengue, and RSV. A unifying theme was that displaying epitopes in an array on a virus-like particle can be a powerful approach for achieving a strong immune response. VLP approaches described included display of epitopes on bacteriophage, display of epitopes as fusions with other protein multimerization domains, and self-assembly of recombinantly-expressed virus coat proteins. Another theme in some of the presentations was the targeting of neutralizing epitopes that are masked or only transiently accessible during natural infection. PMID:25483643

  18. (Meeting on fusion reactor materials)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H. ); Klueh, R.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Wiffen, F.W. ); Loomis, B.A. )

    1990-11-01

    During his visit to the KfK, Karlsruhe, F. W. Wiffen attended the IEA 12th Working Group Meeting on Fusion Reactor Materials. Plans were made for a low-activation materials workshop at Culham, UK, for April 1991, a data base workshop in Europe for June 1991, and a molecular dynamics workshop in the United States in 1991. At the 11th IEA Executive Committee on Fusion Materials, discussions centered on the recent FPAC and Colombo panel review in the United States and EC, respectively. The Committee also reviewed recent progress toward a neutron source in the United States (CWDD) and in Japan (ESNIT). A meeting with D. R. Harries (consultant to J. Darvas) yielded a useful overview of the EC technology program for fusion. Of particular interest to the US program is a strong effort on a conventional ferritic/martensitic steel for fist wall/blanket operation beyond NET/ITER.

  19. [Standardization of the seeding material in producing live anthrax vaccine].

    PubMed

    Gladus, M A; Nikolaenko, Iu P; Lazareva, E S; Fatkhinurova, T I; Mashilova, G M

    1978-09-01

    Technology of obtaining dry concentrated seeding material of the anthrax bacillus STI-1 vaccine strain was worked out. The use of dry seeding material for making dry anthrax vaccine rendered the preparations obtained more standard, reduced the time required for their production, led to increase of AKM-SH productivity, and to greater profitability of the vaccine production. The vaccine preparations obtained with the use of dry seeding material did not differ from control by immunogenicity. PMID:106609

  20. 77 FR 70169 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines... meeting will include, but are not limited to: updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury...

  1. 78 FR 49275 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines... September meeting will include, but are not limited to, updates from the Division of Vaccine...

  2. 78 FR 29143 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines... June meeting will include, but are not limited to: updates from the Division of Vaccine...

  3. 77 FR 52041 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines, Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines... include, but are not limited to: Updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation...

  4. 75 FR 59729 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... portion of the meeting will be closed to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological... for protective antigen-based anthrax vaccines for a post-exposure prophylaxis indication using...

  5. 75 FR 46952 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines... will include, but are not limited to: updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation...

  6. 75 FR 61768 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines... limited to: Updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation (DVIC), Department of Justice...

  7. 76 FR 67198 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines... include, but are not limited to: updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation...

  8. 77 FR 31624 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines... are not limited to: updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation (DVIC), Department...

  9. 76 FR 45583 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines... not limited to: updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation (DVIC), Department of...

  10. 78 FR 14311 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines... will include, but are not limited to: Updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation...

  11. Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers Network (DCVMN): engaging to step up for vaccine discovery and access. Meeting report 2012.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Makhoana, Morena; Datla, Mahima; Leite, Luciana; Hendriks, Jan; Gholami, Alireza; Huang, Weidan; Gao, Yongzhong; Jadhav, Suresh; Harshavardhan, Gutla V J A; Wu, Yonglin; Suhardono, Mahendra; Homma, Akira

    2013-06-28

    At the annual general meeting of the Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers Network (DCVMN) members renewed their engagement and cooperative spirit in pursuing the mission of increasing the quality and availability of affordable vaccines for all people. Thirteen years after its establishment, DCVMN moves into the Decade of Vaccines with renewed dynamism and synergy to create greater impact and shape the global and regional vaccination landscape, while supporting national growth. The DCVMN is growing: 12 new members joined in 2012, making a total of 37 members from 14 countries; 9 of these 37 manufacturers make WHO-prequalified vaccines. More than one hundred and forty delegates from 23 countries attended the annual general meeting, representing 24 vaccine manufacturers and leaders of 20 major global health institutions. Over the course of two days, delegates exchanged information and ideas on how to jointly achieve the common goal of protecting people against known and emerging infectious diseases. In an increasingly complex environment of new technologies, demanding regulatory requirements, higher cost of production, and a growing number of legal and intellectual property issues, it is observed that many manufacturers and stakeholders are engaged in technology transfer initiatives. This well-attended meeting highlighted the growing impact and important contributions of developing country vaccine manufacturers in shaping the global vaccine landscape. The successful introduction of the first ever vaccine against hepatitis E and of a new vaccine against meningitis A, tailored for African meningitis belt countries, illustrate the innovative capacity of DCVMN members. An increase in the variety of collaborations, partnerships and alliances between DCVM and various institutions was observed. Interestingly, bilateral technology transfer partnerships between DCVMs themselves are on the rise. PMID:23684836

  12. 75 FR 48706 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Rotavirus Vaccine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... these materials is included in a December 17, 1999 Federal Register notice (64 FR 70914). Proposed..., rotavirus, hepatitis A, meningococcal, human papillomavirus (HPV), and trivalent influenza...

  13. Quality vaccines for all people: Report on the 16th annual general meeting of the Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network, 05-07th October 2015, Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Ting, Ching-Chia; Khomvilai, Sumana

    2016-06-30

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers Network (DCVMN) assembled high-profile leaders from global health organisations and vaccine manufactures for its 16th Annual General Meeting to work towards a common goal: providing quality vaccines for all people. Vaccines contribute to a healthy community and robust health system; the Ebola outbreak has raised awareness of the threat and damage one single infectious disease can make, and it is clear that the world was not prepared. However, more research to better understand emerging infectious agents might lead to suitable vaccines which help prevent future outbreaks. DCVMN members presented their progress in developing novel vaccines against Dengue, HPV, Chikungunya, Cholera, cell-based influenza and other vaccines, demonstrating the commitment towards eliminating and eradicating preventable diseases worldwide through global collaboration and technology transfer. The successful introduction of novel Sabin-IPV and Oral Cholera vaccine in China and Korea respectively in 2015 was highlighted. In order to achieve global immunisation, local authorities and community leaders play an important role in the decision-making in vaccine introduction and uptake, based on the ability of vaccines to protect vaccinated people and protect non-vaccinated in the community through herd immunity. Reducing the risk of vaccine shortages can also be achieved by increasing regulatory convergence at regional and international levels. Combatting preventable diseases remains challenging, and collective efforts for improving multi-centre clinical trials, creating regional vaccine security strategies, fostering developing vaccine markets and procurement, and building trust in vaccines were discussed. PMID:26947496

  14. 78 FR 20663 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public...

  15. 77 FR 63839 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public...

  16. 78 FR 5465 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public...

  17. 76 FR 55397 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public...

  18. Accelerating vaccine development and deployment: report of a Royal Society satellite meeting

    PubMed Central

    Bregu, Migena; Draper, Simon J.; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Greenwood, Brian M.

    2011-01-01

    The Royal Society convened a meeting on the 17th and 18th November 2010 to review the current ways in which vaccines are developed and deployed, and to make recommendations as to how each of these processes might be accelerated. The meeting brought together academics, industry representatives, research sponsors, regulators, government advisors and representatives of international public health agencies from a broad geographical background. Discussions were held under Chatham House rules. High-throughput screening of new vaccine antigens and candidates was seen as a driving force for vaccine discovery. Multi-stakeholder, small-scale manufacturing facilities capable of rapid production of clinical grade vaccines are currently too few and need to be expanded. In both the human and veterinary areas, there is a need for tiered regulatory standards, differentially tailored for experimental and commercial vaccines, to allow accelerated vaccine efficacy testing. Improved cross-fertilization of knowledge between industry and academia, and between human and veterinary vaccine developers, could lead to more rapid application of promising approaches and technologies to new product development. Identification of best-practices and development of checklists for product development plans and implementation programmes were seen as low-cost opportunities to shorten the timeline for vaccine progression from the laboratory bench to the people who need it. PMID:21893549

  19. Accelerating vaccine development and deployment: report of a Royal Society satellite meeting.

    PubMed

    Bregu, Migena; Draper, Simon J; Hill, Adrian V S; Greenwood, Brian M

    2011-10-12

    The Royal Society convened a meeting on the 17th and 18th November 2010 to review the current ways in which vaccines are developed and deployed, and to make recommendations as to how each of these processes might be accelerated. The meeting brought together academics, industry representatives, research sponsors, regulators, government advisors and representatives of international public health agencies from a broad geographical background. Discussions were held under Chatham House rules. High-throughput screening of new vaccine antigens and candidates was seen as a driving force for vaccine discovery. Multi-stakeholder, small-scale manufacturing facilities capable of rapid production of clinical grade vaccines are currently too few and need to be expanded. In both the human and veterinary areas, there is a need for tiered regulatory standards, differentially tailored for experimental and commercial vaccines, to allow accelerated vaccine efficacy testing. Improved cross-fertilization of knowledge between industry and academia, and between human and veterinary vaccine developers, could lead to more rapid application of promising approaches and technologies to new product development. Identification of best-practices and development of checklists for product development plans and implementation programmes were seen as low-cost opportunities to shorten the timeline for vaccine progression from the laboratory bench to the people who need it. PMID:21893549

  20. 78 FR 52923 - Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... prevention of human infectious diseases through immunization and to achieve optimal prevention against... on Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine and Maternal Immunization, Healthy People 2020 Immunization objectives, immunizations and the Affordable Care Act, deliberation and vote on the NVAC Report on...

  1. International meeting on influenza vaccine effectiveness, 3-4 December 2012, Geneva, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Lafond, Kathryn E; Tam, John S; Bresee, Joseph S; Widdowson, Marc-Alain

    2014-11-20

    On December 3–4 2012, the World Health Organization convened a meeting of influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) experts from over 25 countries in Geneva, Switzerland, to review recent developments in the global influenza vaccine landscape and evaluate approaches to determining the effectiveness of influenza vaccine products among target populations. Vaccine manufacturers from Thailand, Vietnam, India, and Brazil shared recent advances illustrating the expansion of influenza vaccine production worldwide. Randomized controlled trials are underway in several low and middle-income countries including India, Thailand, Bangladesh, and South Africa, to fill knowledge gaps in target populations such as children and pregnant women. National and international networks in the United States, Canada, Europe, Latin America and Australia are conducting multi-site observational studies with shared methodologies to generate national influenza VE estimates and pool data for regional estimates. Standardized VE estimation methods are key to generating point estimates that are comparable internationally and across different settings. PMID:25446822

  2. 75 FR 48707 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and Human...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... these materials is included in a December 17, 1999 Federal Register notice (64 FR 70914). Proposed... Vaccine: What You Need to Know 1. Pneumococcal Disease Infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria... risk for serious disease than older children. Pneumococcal bacteria are spread from person to...

  3. 76 FR 2910 - Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... meeting. The meeting is open to the public. Pre-registration is required for both public attendance and... February 17, 2011 from 8:30 am to 4 p.m., EDT. ADDRESSES: Department of Health and Human Services; Hubert...

  4. 77 FR 3268 - Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 14 (Monday, January 23, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 3268] [FR Doc... Designated Federal Officer, National Vaccine Advisory Committee. [FR Doc. 2012-1228 Filed 1-20-12; 8:45 am... prevention of human infectious diseases through immunization and to achieve optimal prevention...

  5. 75 FR 82402 - Proposed Consolidated Vaccine Information Materials for Multiple Infant Vaccines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... from Vaccines: Vaccines are made with the same bacteria or viruses that cause disease, but they have... vaccinated? Your baby's first vaccines protect him from 8 serious diseases, caused by viruses and...

  6. 76 FR 13646 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... Person: Donald W. Jehn or Denise Royster, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (HFM-71), Food and... morning of April 6, 2011, the committee will meet in open session to hear updates of the research programs... Products, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, FDA. In...

  7. Preparing for introduction of a dengue vaccine: recommendations from the 1st Dengue v2V Asia-Pacific Meeting.

    PubMed

    Lam, Sai Kit; Burke, Donald; Capeding, Maria Rosario; Chong, Chee Keong; Coudeville, Laurent; Farrar, Jeremy; Gubler, Duane; Hadinegoro, Sri Rezeki; Hanna, Jeffrey; Lang, Jean; Lee, Han Lim; Leo, Yee Sin; Luong, Chan Quang; Mahoney, Richard; McBride, John; Mendez-Galvan, Jorge; Ng, Lee Ching; Nimmannitya, Suchitra; Ooi, Eng Eong; Shepard, Donald; Smit, Jaco; Teyssou, Rémy; Thomas, Laurent; Torresi, Joseph; Vasconcelos, Pedro; Wirawan, Dewa Nyoman; Yoksan, Sutee

    2011-11-28

    Infection with dengue virus is a major public health problem in the Asia-Pacific region and throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Vaccination represents a major opportunity to control dengue and several candidate vaccines are in development. Experts in dengue and in vaccine introduction gathered for a two day meeting during which they examined the challenges inherent to the introduction of a dengue vaccine into the national immunisation programmes of countries of the Asia-Pacific. The aim was to develop a series of recommendations to reduce the delay between vaccine licensure and vaccine introduction. Major recommendations arising from the meeting included: ascertaining and publicising the full burden and cost of dengue; changing the perception of dengue in non-endemic countries to help generate global support for dengue vaccination; ensuring high quality active surveillance systems and diagnostics; and identifying sustainable sources of funding, both to support vaccine introduction and to maintain the vaccination programme. The attendees at the meeting were in agreement that with the introduction of an effective vaccine, dengue is a disease that could be controlled, and that in order to ensure a vaccine is introduced as rapidly as possible, there is a need to start preparing now. PMID:21864627

  8. 78 FR 31553 - Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... infectious diseases through immunization and to achieve optimal prevention against adverse reactions to... to be discussed at the NVAC meeting will include adult immunizations, pertussis, influenza A(H7N9), immunizations and the Affordable Care Act, and updates from the NVAC working groups on global immunization...

  9. Vaccinations

    MedlinePlus

    ... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...

  10. Division of Materials Science (DMS) meeting presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, C.F.; Weber, M.J.

    1982-11-08

    Materials preparation techniques are listed. Materials preparation capabilities are discussed for making BeF/sub 2/ glasses and other materials. Materials characterization techniques are listed. (DLC)

  11. Consultation meeting on the development of therapeutic vaccines for post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Ghalib, Hashim; Modabber, Farrokh

    2007-01-01

    Background Post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a disease that appears after treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The highest incidence of PKDL in the world is in Sudan. Many patients heal spontaneously within 6 months but those who don't are difficult to treat, often requiring months of daily injections. These patients harbour parasite in their skin and are believed to be a source of infection and possibly epidemics. Present treatment modalities of PKDL are inadequate and impractical due to cost, duration of treatment required and side effects. New approach for treatment of PKDL is required. A joint meeting of the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for research and training in Tropical Disease (TDR) and the Infectious Disease Research Institute (IDRI) Seattle, USA was held to review the progress of therapeutic vaccines and plan the development of treatment modalities for PKDL. Methods The history of leishmaniasis vaccine development for prophylaxis and therapy was reviewed. Other than previous infection – simulated by inoculation of live Leishmania as a vaccine (leishmanization), none of the preparations of killed parasite with or without adjuvants have shown significant prophylactic efficacy. Killed L. major absorbed with alum and mixed with BCG remains to be tested as a prophylactic vaccine. Results Killed parasite preparations i.e. L. mexicana mixed with BCG and L. amazonensis (combined with low dose of antimonial), have shown efficacy in immunotherapy and immuno-chemotherapy, respectively. In addition combined full antimonial plus alum-absorbed autoclaved L. major vaccine has been shown to significantly improve therapy of refractory PKDL patients. These are all crude preparations of parasites and are difficult to define and standardize. However, there is now a new, second generation vaccine, Leish-111f + MPL-SE, composed of a recombinant protein comprising three leishmanial antigens and a defined adjuvant in clinical development

  12. 75 FR 48715 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella Vaccines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ..., and swollen glands. It can lead to deafness, meningitis (infection of the brain and spinal cord... National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act (NCVIA) (42 U.S.C. 300aa-26), the CDC must develop vaccine... Vaccine Injury Act of 1986 (Pub L. 99-660), as amended by section 708 of Public Law 103-183, added...

  13. Cross Reactive Material 197 glycoconjugate vaccines contain privileged conjugation sites

    PubMed Central

    Möginger, Uwe; Resemann, Anja; Martin, Christopher E.; Parameswarappa, Sharavathi; Govindan, Subramanian; Wamhoff, Eike-Christian; Broecker, Felix; Suckau, Detlev; Pereira, Claney Lebev; Anish, Chakkumkal; Seeberger, Peter H.; Kolarich, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Production of glycoconjugate vaccines involves the chemical conjugation of glycans to an immunogenic carrier protein such as Cross-Reactive-Material-197 (CRM197). Instead of using glycans from natural sources recent vaccine development has been focusing on the use of synthetically defined minimal epitopes. While the glycan is structurally defined, the attachment sites on the protein are not. Fully characterized conjugates and batch-to-batch comparisons are the key to eventually create completely defined conjugates. A variety of glycoconjugates consisting of CRM197 and synthetic oligosaccharide epitopes was characterised using mass spectrometry techniques. The primary structure was assessed by combining intact protein MALDI-TOF-MS, LC-MALDI-TOF-MS middle-down and LC-ESI-MS bottom-up approaches. The middle-down approach on CNBr cleaved glycopeptides provided almost complete sequence coverage, facilitating rapid batch-to-batch comparisons, resolving glycan loading and identification of side products. Regions close to the N- and C-termini were most efficiently conjugated. PMID:26841683

  14. Cross Reactive Material 197 glycoconjugate vaccines contain privileged conjugation sites.

    PubMed

    Möginger, Uwe; Resemann, Anja; Martin, Christopher E; Parameswarappa, Sharavathi; Govindan, Subramanian; Wamhoff, Eike-Christian; Broecker, Felix; Suckau, Detlev; Pereira, Claney Lebev; Anish, Chakkumkal; Seeberger, Peter H; Kolarich, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Production of glycoconjugate vaccines involves the chemical conjugation of glycans to an immunogenic carrier protein such as Cross-Reactive-Material-197 (CRM197). Instead of using glycans from natural sources recent vaccine development has been focusing on the use of synthetically defined minimal epitopes. While the glycan is structurally defined, the attachment sites on the protein are not. Fully characterized conjugates and batch-to-batch comparisons are the key to eventually create completely defined conjugates. A variety of glycoconjugates consisting of CRM197 and synthetic oligosaccharide epitopes was characterised using mass spectrometry techniques. The primary structure was assessed by combining intact protein MALDI-TOF-MS, LC-MALDI-TOF-MS middle-down and LC-ESI-MS bottom-up approaches. The middle-down approach on CNBr cleaved glycopeptides provided almost complete sequence coverage, facilitating rapid batch-to-batch comparisons, resolving glycan loading and identification of side products. Regions close to the N- and C-termini were most efficiently conjugated. PMID:26841683

  15. Vaccines

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Vaccinations are injections of antigens into the body. Once the antigens enter the blood, they circulate along ... suppressor T cells stop the attack. After a vaccination, the body will have a memory of an ...

  16. Better vaccines for healthier life. Part II. Conference report of the DCVMN International 14th Annual General Meeting Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Tippoo, Patrick; Sivaramakrishnan, Venkatraman; Nguyen, Thuvan

    2014-11-12

    New vaccines are required to meet the public health challenges of the next generation and many unmet global health needs can be addressed by developing countries vaccine manufacturers such as lower-cost vaccines based on single-dose, thermostable formulations, efficacious in children with compromised gastrointestinal tracts. GMP compliance is also a challenge, as sometimes innovation and clinical development focus is not accompanied by command of scale-up and quality assurance for large volume manufacturing and supply. Identifying and addressing such challenges, beyond cost and cold-chain space, including safety considerations and health worker behavior, regulatory alliances and harmonization to foster access to vaccines, will help countries to ensure sustainable immunization. There needs to be continuous and close management of the global vaccine supply both at national and international levels, requiring careful risk management, coordination and cooperation with manufacturers. Successful partnership models based on sharing a common goal, mutual respect and good communication were discussed among stakeholders. PMID:24923638

  17. Development of vaccines against cholera and diarrhoea due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    This Memorandum summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology of cholera and diarrhoea due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and outlines the results of recent research to develop an effective oral vaccine against cholera. The meeting reviewed current research on the protective antigens of ETEC and made a number of recommendations with the aim of stimulating further efforts towards the development of vaccines against disease caused by ETEC. PMID:2203550

  18. South Asia symposium on pneumococcal disease and the promise of vaccines - Meeting report.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Arora, Narendra; Santosham, Mathuram

    2016-05-17

    Despite the licensure of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in the US and other Western countries for over 14 years, as of September 2014 only 4 South Asian countries were using PCV in their universal immunization program. To generate momentum toward addressing this issue a "South Asia symposium on pneumococcal disease and the promise of vaccines" was organized just prior to the 9th international symposium on pneumococci and pneumococcal diseases held in India recently. Leading scientists, program managers, and decision makers including ministry officials from the region participated in the meeting. The participants discussed available data on pneumococcal disease burden in South Asia, surveillance methods, efficacy and safety of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV), the status of PCV introduction, programmatic challenges in introducing PCV and available data on the impact of PCV in South Asia and globally. There was a strong consensus that available data on disease burden and the global experience with PCV justified the introduction PCV in all Asian countries in order to accelerate the gains in child survival in the region. PMID:27026150

  19. Granular crystals: Nonlinear dynamics meets materials engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Mason A.; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Daraio, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    In this article, the freedom to choose the size, stiffness, and spatial distribution of macroscopic particles in a lattice makes granular crystals easily tailored building blocks for shock-absorbing materials, sound-focusing devices, acoustic switches, and other exotica.

  20. [VACCINES].

    PubMed

    Bellver Capella, Vincente

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines are an extraordinary instrument of immunization of the population against infectious diseases. Around them there are many ethical issues. One of the most debated is what to do with certain groups opposition to vaccination of their children. States have managed in different ways the conflict between the duty of vaccination and the refusal to use vaccines: some impose the vaccination and others simply promote it. In this article we deal with which of these two approaches is the most suitable from an ethical and legal point of view. We stand up for the second option, which is the current one in Spain, and we propose some measures which should be kept in mind to improve immunization programs. PMID:26685562

  1. New approaches to vaccine development. Proceedings of a meeting organized by the World Health Organization. Book review.

    PubMed

    Jordan Ws

    1985-09-01

    The Proceedings here reviewed are those of the meeting held in Geneva in October, 1983, which led to the establishment of the World Health Organization's Program for the Accelerated Development of New Vaccines. These papers reflect the state of the art in the development of vaccines for cholera, leprosy, pertussis, salmonella, shigella, dengue, foot-and-mouth disease, hepatitis B, herpes simplex, influenza, poliomyelitis, Chagas' disease, malaria, and schistosomiasis. The identification and isolation of epitopes and other antigenic fragments is presented, as well as considerations of mucosal immunity, antigenic determinants and antigenic variations, antigen presentation and T-cell activation, the use of anti-idiotypes as antigens, the development of recombinant viruses for use in vaccines, and the use of circumsporozoite antigens in the preparation of a malaria vaccine. PMID:12227327

  2. Better vaccines for healthier life. Part I. Conference report of the DCVMN International 14th Annual General Meeting Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Rustan, Rahman; Huang, Weidan; Nguyen, Thuvan

    2014-11-12

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) brought together nearly 220 senior representatives of governmental and non-governmental global health organizations, as well as corporate executives of emerging vaccine manufacturers, from 26 countries for a two-day tailored lectures, Q&A sessions, CEOs panel discussion and networking opportunities, followed by a vaccine-technology symposium and visit to manufacturing facilities in Hanoi, Vietnam. Participants included representatives of 38 vaccine manufacturers, as well as international partners and collaborating research institutions, with 39% female participants. The Vice-Minister of Health to Vietnam commended the speakers and participants to this Annual General Meeting, devoted to achieve our common goal of protecting people against infectious diseases with better vaccines, for a healthier life. He reminded the audience that the first vaccine produced in Vietnam was oral polio vaccine (OPV) in the early 1960s and contributed to polio eradication in Vietnam, in 2000. Through its manufacturing resources, Vietnam eliminated neonatal tetanus in 2005, and has controlled measles and hepatitis B spread. The Ministry of Health hopes that by sharing experiences, delegates at this conference will foster international cooperation and partnerships among organizations. CEOs elaborated on challenges and opportunities for emerging countries. PMID:24923636

  3. South Asia symposium on pneumococcal disease and the promise of vaccinesMeeting report

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rakesh; Arora, Narendra; Santosham, Mathuram

    2016-01-01

    Despite the licensure of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in the US and other Western countries for over 14 years, as of September 2014 only 4 South Asian countries were using PCV in their universal immunization program. To generate momentum toward addressing this issue a “South Asia symposium on pneumococcal disease and the promise of vaccines” was organized just prior to the 9th international symposium on pneumococci and pneumococcal diseases held in India recently. Leading scientists, program managers, and decision makers including ministry officials from the region participated in the meeting. The participants discussed available data on pneumococcal disease burden in South Asia, surveillance methods, efficacy and safety of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV), the status of PCV introduction, programmatic challenges in introducing PCV and available data on the impact of PCV in South Asia and globally. There was a strong consensus that available data on disease burden and the global experience with PCV justified the introduction PCV in all Asian countries in order to accelerate the gains in child survival in the region. PMID:27026150

  4. 78 FR 69699 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines... Vaccines (ACCV). Date and Time: December 5, 2013, 10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. (EDT). Place: Audio Conference... Vaccine Injury Compensation (DVIC), Department of Justice, National Vaccine Program Office,...

  5. Vaccines

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... help the body defend itself against foreign invaders. As the antigens invade the body's tissues, they attract ... the suppressor T cells stop the attack. After a vaccination, the body will have a memory of ...

  6. Meeting on flows of granular materials in complex geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Passman, S.L.; Fukushima, E.; Evans, R.E.

    1994-11-01

    The International Energy Agency Fossil Fuel Multiphase Flow Sciences Agreement has been in effect since 1986. The traditional mechanism for the effort has been information exchange, effected by the inclusion of scientists in annual Executive committee meetings, by exchange of reports and papers, and by visits of scientists to one another`s institutions. In a sequence of informal meetings and at the 1993 Executive committee meeting, held in Pittsburgh, US in March 1994, it was decided that more intensive interactions could be productive. A candidate for such interactions would be specific projects. Each of these would be initiated through a meeting of scientists in which feasibility of the particular project was decided, followed by relatively intense international co-operation in which the work would be done. This is a report of the first of these meetings. Official or unofficial representatives from Canada, italy, japan, mexico, the United Kingdom, and the US met in Albuquerque, New Mexico, US, to consider the subject Flows of Granular Materials in Complex Geometries. Representatives of several other countries expressed interest but were unable to attend this meeting. Sixteen lectures were given on aspects of this topic. It was decided that a co-operative effort was desirable and possible. The most likely candidate for the area of study would be flows in bins and hoppers. Each of the countries wishing to co-operate will pursue funding for its effort. This report contains extended abstracts of the sixteen presentations and a transcription of the final discussion.

  7. 77 FR 42319 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... lines derived from human tumors for vaccine manufacture. FDA intends to make background...

  8. 76 FR 9030 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines... Vaccines (ACCV). Date And Time: March 3, 2011, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. EDT, March 4, 2011, 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. EDT... limited to: updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation (DVIC), Department of Justice...

  9. 76 FR 3639 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... selection of strains to be included in the influenza virus vaccine for the 2011-2012 influenza season....

  10. 75 FR 17929 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... circovirus type 1 (PCV 1) in Rotarix, a U.S. licensed vaccine manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline and...

  11. 77 FR 10756 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines... Vaccines (ACCV). Dates and Times: March 8, 2012, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST. March 9, 2012, 9 a.m. to 12:30 p.m... are not limited to: Updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation (DVIC), the Department...

  12. 75 FR 2876 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... selection of strains to be included in the influenza virus vaccine for the 2010 - 2011 influenza season....

  13. Proceedings of the instrumentation, components, and materials contractors meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Hobday, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The first combined Instrumentation, Components, and Materials Contractors Meeting was held September 16 to 17, 1986, at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. Work presented at the meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, and directed by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), which served as host. Attendance included representatives from industry, academia, National Laboratories, and other Government agencies and totaled 85 individuals. This and similar meetings focusing on specific topics are organized periodically by METC to provide a forum for exchange of information between DOE contractors and interested parties. The Proceedings have been reproduced from camera-ready manuscripts furnished by the authors. The manuscripts have not been refereed, nor have they been extensively edited. Papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA.

  14. 78 FR 13625 - Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee (MPETAC) will meet... controls applicable to materials processing equipment and related technology. Agenda Open Session...

  15. 76 FR 20949 - Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee (MPETAC) will meet... controls applicable to materials processing equipment and related technology. Agenda Open Session...

  16. 77 FR 5305 - Hazardous Materials: Special Permit and Approval Applicant Fitness Determinations; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... Applicant Fitness Determinations; Public Meeting AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... persons that PHMSA will conduct a public meeting to discuss Special Permit and Approval applicant fitness... criteria used when determining an applicant's minimum level of fitness. DATES: Public Meeting:...

  17. 76 FR 72451 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64127- 64128). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  18. 76 FR 34778 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ..., (75 FR 65038- 65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on the NRC Web..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  19. 77 FR 74698 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  20. 78 FR 34677 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the Acrs Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  1. 78 FR 31987 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  2. 78 FR 3474 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  3. 76 FR 16016 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on..., Metallurgy And Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy and...

  4. Meeting the Preteen Vaccine Law: A Pilot Program in Urban Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer-Chuanroong, Lynda; Deaver, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Describes the efforts, outcomes, and recommendations from an urban California school district's pilot program for vaccinating preteens in two diverse urban middle schools. Barriers and strategies included staff inexperience, educating students, informing parents, tracking vaccinations, coping with language diversity, and creating individualized…

  5. 78 FR 70598 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  6. AIDS vaccine research in Asia: needs and opportunities. Report from a UNAIDS/WHO/NIID meeting Tokyo, 28-30 October 1998.

    PubMed

    1999-07-30

    A meeting was organized by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Japanese National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID) with the following objectives: (i) to discuss public health and economic rationale to accelerate the development and evaluation of HIV vaccines suitable for use in Asia; (ii) to review ongoing preclinical HIV vaccine research in Asia; (iii) to review the Asian experience in conducting clinical trials of HIV candidate vaccines; (iv) to explore possibilities for international collaboration between countries in the region and with other countries and institutions; and (v) to discuss issues related to availability of future effective HIV vaccines. The meeting was attended by participants from Australia, China, France, Germany, India, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, South Korea, Thailand, United Kingdom, and the United States of America. The HIV epidemic in Asia is rapidly spreading and has already resulted in a total of 7 million HIV infections in the region. The epidemic already has a significant public health and economic impact, which may be worse in the future, unless effective intervention programmes are successfully implemented. A safe, effective, and affordable vaccine should be considered as the best hope for a long-term solution to the HIV epidemic in Asia. Asian scientists and institutions have established a number of international collaborations to isolate and characterize prevalent HIV-1 strains (mostly belonging to subtypes C and E) and are developing candidate vaccines based on these subtypes. In the region, phase I/II clinical trials of preventative HIV candidate vaccines have been conducted in Australia, China and Thailand. Since 1993, a comprehensive National AIDS Vaccine Plan has allowed Thailand to conduct phase I/II trials of six different preventative or therapeutic candidate vaccines, and the first phase III preventative efficacy trial has been approved. The meeting

  7. Meeting the preteen vaccine law: a pilot program in urban middle schools.

    PubMed

    Boyer-Chuanroong, L; Deaver, P

    2000-02-01

    California, the most populous state in the nation, is one of many states that implemented vaccination requirements for preteens. While kindergarten requirements are well-established and accepted by parents, implementation of preteen vaccination requirements requires inter- and intra-institutional adjustments, educational and public relations efforts, and an augmentation of vaccination delivery systems. This article describes a pilot program in two middle schools in an urban school district and offers planning strategies and practical tools to assist school nurses and health providers to implement preteen requirements. PMID:10715823

  8. Role of non-human primates in malaria vaccine development: Memorandum from a WHO Meeting*

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    This Memorandum discusses the coordination and standardization of malaria vaccine research in non-human primates to encourage optimum use of the available animals in experiments that are fully justified both scientifically and ethically. The requirements for experimentation in non-human primates, the availability of suitable animals for malaria vaccine studies, and the criteria for testing candidate vaccines are considered. The policy and legislation relevant to the use of non-human primates in biomedical research are also briefly discussed. The Memorandum concludes with eight recommendations. PMID:3266112

  9. 78 FR 79019 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels... materials and metallurgy. The Subcommittee will hear presentations by and hold discussions with the...

  10. Proceedings of the Consensus Day Meeting: Implications for Rotavirus Vaccination in the 2014 Apulian Lifetime Immunization Schedule. Foggia, 17 April 2015.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, D; Fortunato, F; Cappelli, M G; Gallone, M S; Tafuri, S; Prato, R

    2015-01-01

    Recommendations for vaccination against rotavirus (RV) were issued in Apulia in 2006; the vaccine was free of charge to children who entered day care or nursery school by 1 year of age or those affected by chronic diseases for which diarrhea caused by rotavirus can increase the risk of complications and hospitalization. In 2014, vaccination became available to all healthy children with only a copayment. However, there has not been a significant increase in vaccination coverage. On April 17, 2015, Apulian public health physicians and paediatricians met to share strategies to promote the RV vaccine indications provided in the regional immunization schedule. During the meeting, presentation of data reports were interspersed with discussions that were led with a "bottom-up" approach. The discussants responded to pre-planned questions raised by the participants and encouraged by the discussion. PMID:26835797

  11. 78 FR 8202 - Meeting of the Joint ACRS Subcommittees on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena and Materials, Metallurgy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147... Hydraulic Phenomena and Materials, Metallurgy and Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The Joint ACRS Subcommittees on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena and Materials, Metallurgy and Reactor Fuels will hold a meeting...

  12. 76 FR 57082 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels Revision to September 21, 2011, ACRS Meeting; Federal Register Notice The Federal Register Notice for the ACRS Subcommittee Meeting on Materials, Metallurgy and Reactor Fuels is...

  13. 78 FR 29159 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed meeting agendas and..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  14. 78 FR 79019 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on November 8, 2013 (78 FR 67205-67206..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  15. 76 FR 55718 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on the NRC Web..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels will hold a...

  16. 78 FR 56756 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed meeting..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  17. 75 FR 58449 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels will hold a...

  18. 78 FR 16044 - Hazardous Materials Packaging-Composite Cylinder Standards; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Hazardous Materials Packaging--Composite..., Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, Department of Transportation, Washington, DC 20590...), Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is to advise...

  19. 77 FR 3780 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Research (HFM-71), Food and Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike Rockville, MD 20852, (301) 827- 0314... research program in the Laboratory of Mycobacterial Diseases and Cellular Immunology, Division of Bacterial, Parasitic and Allergenic Products, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, Center for Biologics...

  20. 76 FR 44016 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Biologics Evaluation and Research (HFM-71), Food and Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD... hear an overview of the research program in the Laboratory of Enteric and Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Division of Bacterial, Parasitic and Allergenic Products, Office of Vaccines Research and Review,...

  1. 77 FR 61432 - Proposal Review for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... Engineering Centers Program, Division of Materials Research, Room 1065, National Science Foundation, 4201... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory...

  2. 78 FR 40519 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... Materials Research, Room 1065, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22230... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal...

  3. 78 FR 4464 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Engineering Centers Program, Division of Materials Research, Room 1065, National Science Foundation, 4201... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal...

  4. 78 FR 39017 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research, Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... Materials Research, Room 1065, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22230... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research, Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal...

  5. 75 FR 18240 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Materials Research, Room 1065, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22230... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal...

  6. 77 FR 57161 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... Program, Division of Materials Research, Room 1065, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal...

  7. 78 FR 30342 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Materials Research, Room 1065, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22230... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal...

  8. 75 FR 9001 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Program, Division of Materials Research, Room 1065, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal...

  9. 75 FR 34769 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... Materials Research, Room 1065, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22230... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal...

  10. 77 FR 19362 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research, Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Materials Research, Room 1065, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22230... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research, Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal...

  11. 75 FR 4876 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ..., Division of Materials Research, Room 1065, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal...

  12. 77 FR 25960 - Materials Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Materials Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Materials Technical Advisory Committee will meet on May 17, 2012, 10:00 a.m., Herbert C. Hoover Building, Room 3884, 14th Street...

  13. 75 FR 47546 - Materials Processing Equipment; Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Materials Processing Equipment; Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee (MPETAC) will meet on August 25, 2010, 9 a.m., Room 3884,...

  14. 78 FR 42754 - Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee (MPETAC) will meet on August 20, 2013, 9:00 a.m., Room...

  15. 76 FR 42678 - Materials Processing Equipment; Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Materials Processing Equipment; Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee (MPETAC) will meet on August 3, 2011, 9 a.m., Room 3884,...

  16. 76 FR 76442 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards Meeting of The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards Meeting of The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy... Notice for the ACRS Subcommittee Meeting on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels scheduled to be held...

  17. 77 FR 42482 - Materials Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Materials Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Materials Technical Advisory Committee will meet on August 9, 2012, 10:00 a.m., Herbert C. Hoover Building, Room 3884, 14th Street...

  18. WHO consultation on Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Development Report from a World Health Organization Meeting held on 23-24 March 2015.

    PubMed

    Modjarrad, Kayvon; Giersing, Birgitte; Kaslow, David C; Smith, Peter G; Moorthy, Vasee S

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a globally prevalent cause of lower respiratory infection in neonates and infants. Despite its disease burden, a safe and effective RSV vaccine has remained elusive. In recent years, improved understanding of RSV biology and innovations in immunogen design has resulted in the advancement of multiple vaccine candidates into the clinical development pipeline. Given the growing number of vaccines in clinical trials, the rapid pace at which they are being tested, and the likelihood that an RSV vaccine will reach the commercial market in the next 5-10 years, consensus and guidance on clinical development pathways and licensure routes are needed now, before large-scale efficacy trials commence. In pursuit of this aim, the World Health Organization convened the first RSV vaccine consultation in 15 years on the 23rd and 24th of March, 2015 in Geneva, Switzerland. The meeting's primary objective was to provide guidance on clinical endpoints and development pathways for vaccine trials with a focus on considerations of low- and middle-income countries. Meeting participants reached consensus on candidate case definitions for RSV disease, considerations for clinical efficacy endpoints, and the clinical development pathway for active and passive immunization trials in maternal and pediatric populations. The strategic focus of this meeting was on the development of high quality, safe and efficacious RSV preventive interventions for global use and included: (1) maternal/passive immunization to prevent RSV disease in infants less than 6 months; (2) pediatric immunization to prevent RSV disease in infants and young children once protection afforded by maternal immunization wanes. PMID:26100926

  19. Meeting EFL Learners Halfway by Using Locally Relevant Authentic Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The author defines and describes authentic materials and discusses their benefits--citing the Input Hypothesis and the Output Principle in support of such materials--as well as some challenges of using authentic materials. Five categories of authentic materials are presented, and sources for materials and ways to use them in the EFL classroom are…

  20. 77 FR 71426 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ...: The Health Resources and Services Administration published a notice in the Federal Register, FR 2012-28377 (77 FR 70169, November 23, 2012), announcing the meeting of the Advisory Commission on Childhood...-65, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857. Correction In the Federal Register, FR 2012-28377 (77...

  1. 78 FR 60884 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ..., the committee will meet in open session to hear an overview of the research programs in the Laboratory... Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Review, FDA. FDA intends to make background.... 552b(c)(6)). The committee will discuss the report of the intramural research programs and...

  2. University contributions to the HPV vaccine and implications for access to vaccines in developing countries: addressing materials and know-how in university technology transfer policy.

    PubMed

    Crager, Sara E; Guillen, Ethan; Price, Matt

    2009-01-01

    , materials and knowledge, vaccines have the potential to be evaluated efficiently and cost-effectively via a pathway parallel to establishing bioequivalence for generic small molecule drugs. A new paradigm is needed that addresses the additional barriers that exist, outside of simply patent protection, to the generic production of vaccines and other biologics. One possible framework, which builds upon previous work on prize funds and patent pools, is discussed here: a Patents, Materials, and Know-how Pool (PMK Pool), based on the patent pool model such as those outlined in the Essential Medical Inventions Licensing Agency and proposals recently put forth by the governments of Barbados and Bolivia. University approaches to licensing vaccines and other biologics need to ensure access not only to patents, knowledge, and materials covered by intellectual property, but must also address the problem of access to materials and know-how that are often proprietary trade secrets. Universities should actively participate in the creation of this and other novel mechanisms, and in the meantime use currently available technology transfer mechanisms to ensure low-cost access to medicines in developing countries. PMID:19697749

  3. Materials Characterization Center meeting on impact testing of waste forms. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, M.D.; Atteridge, D.; Dudder, G.

    1981-10-01

    A meeting was held on March 25-26, 1981 to discuss impact test methods for waste form materials to be used in nuclear waste repositories. The purpose of the meeting was to obtain guidance for the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) in preparing the MCC-10 Impact Test Method to be approved by the Materials Review Board. The meeting focused on two essential aspects of the test method, namely the mechanical process, or impact, used to effect rapid fracture of a waste form and the analysis technique(s) used to characterize particulates generated by the impact.

  4. 45 CFR 4.6 - Materials related to petitions under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. 4.6 Section 4.6 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. Notwithstanding the provisions of §§ 4.1, 4.2, and 4.3, service of..., shall be served upon the Director, Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation, Office of Special...

  5. 45 CFR 4.6 - Materials related to petitions under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. 4.6 Section 4.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. Notwithstanding the provisions of §§ 4.1, 4.2, and 4.3, service of..., shall be served upon the Director, Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation, Office of Special...

  6. 45 CFR 4.6 - Materials related to petitions under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. 4.6 Section 4.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. Notwithstanding the provisions of §§ 4.1, 4.2, and 4.3, service of..., shall be served upon the Director, Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation, Office of Special...

  7. 45 CFR 4.6 - Materials related to petitions under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. 4.6 Section 4.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. Notwithstanding the provisions of §§ 4.1, 4.2, and 4.3, service of..., shall be served upon the Director, Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation, Office of Special...

  8. 45 CFR 4.6 - Materials related to petitions under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. 4.6 Section 4.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. Notwithstanding the provisions of §§ 4.1, 4.2, and 4.3, service of..., shall be served upon the Director, Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation, Office of Special...

  9. 45 CFR 614.3 - Materials relating to closed portions of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 614.3 Section 614.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT REGULATIONS OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE BOARD § 614.3 Materials relating to closed portions of meetings. If a portion or portions of any meeting of the National...

  10. 45 CFR 614.3 - Materials relating to closed portions of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... 614.3 Section 614.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT REGULATIONS OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE BOARD § 614.3 Materials relating to closed portions of meetings. If a portion or portions of any meeting of the National...

  11. 45 CFR 614.3 - Materials relating to closed portions of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... 614.3 Section 614.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT REGULATIONS OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE BOARD § 614.3 Materials relating to closed portions of meetings. If a portion or portions of any meeting of the National...

  12. 45 CFR 614.3 - Materials relating to closed portions of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... 614.3 Section 614.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT REGULATIONS OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE BOARD § 614.3 Materials relating to closed portions of meetings. If a portion or portions of any meeting of the National...

  13. 45 CFR 614.3 - Materials relating to closed portions of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 614.3 Section 614.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT REGULATIONS OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE BOARD § 614.3 Materials relating to closed portions of meetings. If a portion or portions of any meeting of the National...

  14. Material Development and Meeting Learner's Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the aim was to show that learners' needs can be met using simple and cheap materials that can be found everywhere in 9th to 11th grade Chemistry courses. To this end, materials were developed using simple everyday life materials for 9th to 11th grade Chemistry courses. In the research, the project method was employed. The study…

  15. Report on the second WHO integrated meeting on development and clinical trials of influenza vaccines that induce broadly protective and long-lasting immune responses: Geneva, Switzerland, 5-7 May 2014.

    PubMed

    Cox, Nancy J; Hickling, Julian; Jones, Rebecca; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Lambert, Linda C; Boslego, John; Rudenko, Larisa; Yeolekar, Leena; Robertson, James S; Hombach, Joachim; Ortiz, Justin R

    2015-11-27

    On 5-7 May 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) convened the second integrated meeting on "influenza vaccines that induce broadly protective and long-lasting immune responses". Around 100 invited experts from academia, the vaccine industry, research and development funders, and regulatory and public health agencies attended the meeting. Areas covered included mechanisms of protection in natural influenza-virus infection and vaccine-induced immunity, new approaches to influenza-vaccine design and production, and novel routes of vaccine administration. A timely focus was on how this knowledge could be applied to both seasonal influenza and emerging viruses with pandemic potential such as influenza A (H7N9), currently circulating in China. Special attention was given to the development of possible universal influenza vaccines, given that the Global Vaccine Action Plan calls for at least one licensed universal influenza vaccine by 2020. This report highlights some of the topics discussed and provides an update on studies published since the report of the previous meeting. PMID:26478203

  16. Development of malaria vaccines: Memorandum from a USAID/WHO meeting

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    The fifth meeting of the Scientific Working Group on the Immunology of Malaria evaluated studies of the production and analysis of defined malarial antigens. Rapid progress has been made in the study of protective antigens on the surface of sporozoites and it is likely that a family of analogous polypeptides occurs in several species of Plasmodium. New assays have been developed for the detection of these antigens and for the detection of infected mosquitos. Exoerythrocytic stages of several parasite species can be cultivated in vitro, providing an assay system for antibody and allowing the characterization of exoerythrocytic stage antigens. Progress has also been made in the identification of species- and stage-specific antigens of the asexual blood stages of rodent, simian, and human malaria parasites. In some instances, protective immunity has been shown to be directed against polypeptides (with a high relative molecular mass) synthesized at a late stage of schizont development. Messenger RNA (mRNA) species from P. knowlesi and P. yoelii have been successfully translated in vitro to give polypeptides with a high relative molecular mass (Mr). Monoclonal antibodies have been used to identify and to purify important parasite antigens and purified P. yoelii antigens induced protective immunity. Monoclonal antibodies reactive with merozoite surface antigens have been used, as well as S-antigens, to distinguish between different isolates of P. falciparum. Recombinant DNA technology is being applied to Plasmodium: differences were found between repetitive DNA sequences from the genome of two isolates of P. falciparum; the genes for ribosomal RNA of P. falciparum and P. yoelii, and sequences homologous to the actin gene were identified in fragments of Plasmodium DNA cloned in prokaryotic vectors; by means of hybrid selection, complementary DNA (cDNA) probes were used to purify mRNAs encoding proteins of P. knowlesi of up to 100 000 Mr. PMID:6340848

  17. 78 FR 11903 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463 as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the... Engineering Centers Program, Division of Materials Research, Room 1065, National Science Foundation,...

  18. Organometallic chemistry meets crystal engineering to give responsive crystalline materials.

    PubMed

    Bacchi, A; Pelagatti, P

    2016-01-25

    Dynamically porous crystalline materials have been obtained by engineering organometallic molecules. This feature article deals with organometallic wheel-and-axle compounds, molecules with two relatively bulky groups (wheels) connected by a linear spacer. The wheels are represented by half-sandwich Ru(ii) moieties, while the spacer can be covalent or supramolecular in character. Covalent spacers are obtained using divergent bidentate ligands connecting two [(arene)RuX2] groups. Supramolecular spacers are instead obtained by exploiting the dimerization of COOH or C(O)NH2 groups appended to N-based ligands. A careful choice of ligand functional groups and X ligands leads to the isolation of crystalline materials with remarkable host-guest properties, evidenced by the possibility of reversibly capturing/releasing volatile guests through heterogenous solid-gas reactions. Structural correlations between the crystalline arrangement of the apohost and the host-guest compounds allow us to envisage the structural path followed by the system during the exchange processes. PMID:26673552

  19. Evaluation and redesign of manual material handling in a vaccine production centre's warehouse.

    PubMed

    Torres, Yaniel; Viña, Silvio

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in a warehouse at a vaccine production centre where improvement to existing storage and working conditions were sought through the construction of a new refrigerated store section (2-8C°). Warehousing tasks were videotaped and ergonomics analysis tools were used to assess the risk of developing MSDs. Specifically, these tools were the Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) and the NIOSH equation. The current plant layout was sketched and analyzed to find possible targets for improvement trough the application of general work space design and ergonomics principles. Seven of the eight postures evaluated with REBA had a total score between 8 and 10, meaning a high risk, and only one was at a medium risk level. Nine of the eleven manual material handling tasks analyzed with the NIOSH equation had a Lifting Index between 1.14 and 1.80 and two had a recommended weight limit of 0 kg, indicating a need for job redesign. Solutions included the redesign of shelves, the design of a two-step stair and a trolley with adjustable height; also, changes in work methods were proposed by introducing a two-workers lifting strategy and job rotation, and, finally, a restructuring of plant layout was completed. PMID:22317092

  20. Vaccine Reaction Images

    MedlinePlus

    ... Training Materials Q fever Info & Guidance for Clinicians Salmonella Shigella Smallpox Smallpox Basics Vaccine Basics Clinicians Vaccination ... Metals Nerve Agents Pulmonary Agents Riot Control Agents Toxic Alcohols Vesicants Chemical-Specific Fact Sheets Toxicology FAQs ...

  1. 77 FR 2095 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463 as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the following meeting: Name: Site visit review of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) at...

  2. 78 FR 5505 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463 as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the following...

  3. 77 FR 21592 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting: Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting: Correction SUMMARY: The National Science Foundation (NSF) published in the Federal Register on March 30, 2012, a notice of a partially open...

  4. 77 FR 25503 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463 as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the following...

  5. 77 FR 57162 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463 as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the following...

  6. 77 FR 2095 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463 as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the following...

  7. 75 FR 18241 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463 as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the following...

  8. 77 FR 61433 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463 as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the following...

  9. 77 FR 55863 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463 as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the following...

  10. 77 FR 20852 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463 as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the following...

  11. 78 FR 11903 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463 as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the following meeting... Program, Division of Materials Research, Room 1065, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson...

  12. 77 FR 14441 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463 as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the following meeting... Engineering Centers Program, Division of Materials Research, Room 1065, National Science Foundation,...

  13. The Subsequent Dissemination of Material Presented in Sessions of the Metallurgical Society at the 96th AIME Annual Meeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD. Center for Research in Scientific Communication.

    Studies of 255 authors of program material at the Metallurgical Society session of the 96th American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (AIME) Annual Meeting yielded data on the subsequent dissemination of presented material during the year following the meeting. Data showed that three-fourths of the authors who made…

  14. Journal Publication of Material Presented at the 1967 Annual Meeting of the Geophysical Union During the Year Following the Meeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD. Center for Research in Scientific Communication.

    The April 1967 Annual Meeting of the American Geophysical Union was the subject of an investigation of scientific information exchange among geophysicists. The study focused on meeting presentation papers and drew a sample of 240 of the 800 presentation authors. The results of the meeting study demonstrated the currency of the work reported by…

  15. Do choosing wisely tools meet criteria for patient decision aids? A descriptive analysis of patient materials

    PubMed Central

    Légaré, France; Hébert, Jessica; Goh, Larissa; Lewis, Krystina B; Leiva Portocarrero, Maria Ester; Robitaille, Hubert; Stacey, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Choosing Wisely is a remarkable physician-led campaign to reduce unnecessary or harmful health services. Some of the literature identifies Choosing Wisely as a shared decision-making approach. We evaluated the patient materials developed by Choosing Wisely Canada to determine whether they meet the criteria for shared decision-making tools known as patient decision aids. Design Descriptive analysis of all Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials. Data source In May 2015, we selected all Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials from its official website. Main outcomes and measures Four team members independently extracted characteristics of the English materials using the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) modified 16-item minimum criteria for qualifying and certifying patient decision aids. The research team discussed discrepancies between data extractors and reached a consensus. Descriptive analysis was conducted. Results Of the 24 patient materials assessed, 12 were about treatments, 11 were about screening and 1 was about prevention. The median score for patient materials using IPDAS criteria was 10/16 (range: 8–11) for screening topics and 6/12 (range: 6–9) for prevention and treatment topics. Commonly missed criteria were stating the decision (21/24 did not), providing balanced information on option benefits/harms (24/24 did not), citing evidence (24/24 did not) and updating policy (24/24 did not). Out of 24 patient materials, only 2 met the 6 IPDAS criteria to qualify as patient decision aids, and neither of these 2 met the 6 certifying criteria. Conclusions Patient materials developed by Choosing Wisely Canada do not meet the IPDAS minimal qualifying or certifying criteria for patient decision aids. Modifications to the Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials would help to ensure that they qualify as patient decision aids and thus as more effective shared decision-making tools. PMID:27566638

  16. Development of a candidate reference material for adventitious virus detection in vaccine and biologicals manufacturing by deep sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Mee, Edward T.; Preston, Mark D.; Minor, Philip D.; Schepelmann, Silke; Huang, Xuening; Nguyen, Jenny; Wall, David; Hargrove, Stacey; Fu, Thomas; Xu, George; Li, Li; Cote, Colette; Delwart, Eric; Li, Linlin; Hewlett, Indira; Simonyan, Vahan; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Alin, Voskanian-Kordi; Mermod, Nicolas; Hill, Christiane; Ottenwälder, Birgit; Richter, Daniel C.; Tehrani, Arman; Jacqueline, Weber-Lehmann; Cassart, Jean-Pol; Letellier, Carine; Vandeputte, Olivier; Ruelle, Jean-Louis; Deyati, Avisek; La Neve, Fabio; Modena, Chiara; Mee, Edward; Schepelmann, Silke; Preston, Mark; Minor, Philip; Eloit, Marc; Muth, Erika; Lamamy, Arnaud; Jagorel, Florence; Cheval, Justine; Anscombe, Catherine; Misra, Raju; Wooldridge, David; Gharbia, Saheer; Rose, Graham; Ng, Siemon H.S.; Charlebois, Robert L.; Gisonni-Lex, Lucy; Mallet, Laurent; Dorange, Fabien; Chiu, Charles; Naccache, Samia; Kellam, Paul; van der Hoek, Lia; Cotten, Matt; Mitchell, Christine; Baier, Brian S.; Sun, Wenping; Malicki, Heather D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Unbiased deep sequencing offers the potential for improved adventitious virus screening in vaccines and biotherapeutics. Successful implementation of such assays will require appropriate control materials to confirm assay performance and sensitivity. Methods A common reference material containing 25 target viruses was produced and 16 laboratories were invited to process it using their preferred adventitious virus detection assay. Results Fifteen laboratories returned results, obtained using a wide range of wet-lab and informatics methods. Six of 25 target viruses were detected by all laboratories, with the remaining viruses detected by 4–14 laboratories. Six non-target viruses were detected by three or more laboratories. Conclusion The study demonstrated that a wide range of methods are currently used for adventitious virus detection screening in biological products by deep sequencing and that they can yield significantly different results. This underscores the need for common reference materials to ensure satisfactory assay performance and enable comparisons between laboratories. PMID:26709640

  17. Nuclear reference materials to meet the changing needs of the global nuclear community

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.R.; Gradle, C.G.; Narayanan, U.I.; Oldham, R.D.; Mitchell, W.G.

    1995-12-31

    New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) serves as the US Government`s Certifying Authority for nuclear reference materials and measurement calibration standards. In this role, NBL provides nuclear reference materials certified for chemical and/or isotopic compositions traceable to a nationally accepted, internationally compatible reference base. Emphasis is now changing as to the types of traceable nuclear reference materials needed as operations change within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and at nuclear facilities around the world. Environmental and waste minimization issues, facilities and materials transitioning from processing to storage modes with corresponding changes in the types of measurements being performed, emphasis on requirements for characterization of waste materials, difficulties in transporting nuclear materials, and International factors, including International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspection of excess US nuclear materials, are all contributing influences. During these changing times, ft is critical that traceable reference materials be provided for calibration or validation of the performance of measurement systems. This paper will describe actions taken and planned to meet the changing reference material needs of the global nuclear community.

  18. The imperative for stronger vaccine supply and logistics systems.

    PubMed

    Zaffran, Michel; Vandelaer, Jos; Kristensen, Debra; Melgaard, Bjørn; Yadav, Prashant; Antwi-Agyei, K O; Lasher, Heidi

    2013-04-18

    With the introduction of new vaccines, developing countries are facing serious challenges in their vaccine supply and logistics systems. Storage capacity bottlenecks occur at national, regional, and district levels and system inefficiencies threaten vaccine access, availability, and quality. As countries adopt newer and more expensive vaccines and attempt to reach people at different ages and in new settings, their logistics systems must be strengthened and optimized. As a first step, national governments, donors, and international agencies have crafted a global vision for 2020 vaccine supply and logistics systems with detailed plans of action to achieve five priority objectives. Vaccine products and packaging are designed to meet the needs of developing countries. Immunization supply systems support efficient and effective vaccine delivery. The environmental impact of energy, materials, and processes used in immunization systems is minimized. Immunization information systems enable better and more timely decision-making. Competent and motivated personnel are empowered to handle immunization supply chain issues. Over the next decade, vaccine supply and logistics systems in nearly all developing countries will require significant investments of time and resources from global and national partners, donors, and governments. These investments are critical if we are to reach more people with current and newer vaccines. PMID:23598495

  19. Nuclear reference materials to meet the changing needs of the global nuclear community

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.R.; Gradle, C.G.; Narayanan, U.I.; Oldham, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) serves as the U.S. Government`s certifying authority for nuclear reference materials and measurement calibration standards. In this role, NBL provides nuclear reference materials certified for chemical and/or isotopic compositions traceable to a nationally accepted, internationally compatible reference base. Emphasis is now changing as to the types of traceable nuclear reference materials needed as operations change within the Department of Energy complex and at nuclear facilities around the world. New challenges include: environmental and waste minimization issues, facilities and materials transitioning from processing to storage modes with corresponding changes in the types of measurements being performed, emphasis on requirements for characterization of waste materials, and difficulties in transporting nuclear materials and international factors, including IAEA influences. During these changing times, it is critical that traceable reference materials be provided for calibration or validation of the performance of measurement systems. This paper will describe actions taken and planned to meet the changing reference material needs of the global nuclear community.

  20. Meeting the need for advocacy, social mobilisation and communication in the introduction of three new vaccines in South Africa - successes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Baleta, Adele F; van den Heever, Johann; Burnett, Rosemary J

    2012-09-01

    Advocacy, social mobilisation and communication are key components of the successful introduction of new vaccines into childhood immunisation schedules. The development of many new vaccines and the innovation of finance mechanisms, means more efficacious vaccines are becoming available to children in developing countries. At the same time, communication technology is developing at a rapid rate, and with the dramatic decrease in vaccine-preventable diseases over the past few decades, the public have become increasingly exposed to confusing and conflicting information about the need for vaccination. The science of vaccines has become more complex, making effective, clear and consistent communication for healthcare workers and caregivers critical to the uptake of and adherence to life-saving vaccination. The introduction of two new vaccines, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and the rotavirus vaccine together with the new pentavalent vaccine, which includes inactivated polio vaccine and replaced the former combination vaccine with four antigens, into the South African Expanded Programme on Immunisation over a short period of time, has been met with a number of challenges, some of which led to a lowering of confidence in the Department of Health to deliver on its promises. Had consistent advocacy, social mobilisation and communication efforts not been in place, efforts to make an impact on the burden of disease may not have been as successful. This paper focuses on the lessons learned about effective advocacy with decision makers, social mobilisation, communication with parents and caregivers, and training healthcare workers regarding the introduction of the new vaccines. PMID:22939025

  1. Next generation vaccines.

    PubMed

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2011-07-01

    In February this year, about 100 delegates gathered for three days in Vienna (Austria) for the Next Generation Vaccines conference. The meeting held in the Vienna Hilton Hotel from 23rd-25th February 2011 had a strong focus on biotech and industry. The conference organizer Jacob Fleming managed to put together a versatile program ranging from the future generation of vaccines to manufacturing, vaccine distribution and delivery, to regulatory and public health issues. Carefully selected top industry experts presented first-hand experience and shared solutions for overcoming the latest challenges in the field of vaccinology. The program also included several case study presentations on novel vaccine candidates in different stages of development. An interactive pre-conference workshop as well as interactive panel discussions during the meeting allowed all delegates to gain new knowledge and become involved in lively discussions on timely, interesting and sometimes controversial topics related to vaccines. PMID:22002157

  2. Vaccines, our shared responsibility.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar

    2015-05-01

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases. PMID:25749248

  3. PREFACE: 2nd International Meeting for Researchers in Materials and Plasma Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niño, Ely Dannier V.

    2013-11-01

    These proceedings present the written contributions of the participants of the 2nd International Meeting for Researchers in Materials and Plasma Technology, 2nd IMRMPT, which was held from February 27 to March 2, 2013 at the Pontificia Bolivariana Bucaramanga-UPB and Santander and Industrial - UIS Universities, Bucaramanga, Colombia, organized by research groups from GINTEP-UPB, FITEK-UIS. The IMRMPT, was the second version of biennial meetings that began in 2011. The three-day scientific program of the 2nd IMRMPT consisted in 14 Magisterial Conferences, 42 Oral Presentations and 48 Poster Presentations, with the participation of undergraduate and graduate students, professors, researchers and entrepreneurs from Colombia, Russia, France, Venezuela, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Peru, Mexico, United States, among others. Moreover, the objective of IMRMPT was to bring together national and international researchers in order to establish scientific cooperation in the field of materials science and plasma technology; introduce new techniques of surface treatment of materials to improve properties of metals in terms of the deterioration due to corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, abrasion, hardness, among others; and establish cooperation agreements between universities and industry. The topics covered in the 2nd IMRMPT include New Materials, Surface Physics, Laser and Hybrid Processes, Characterization of Materials, Thin Films and Nanomaterials, Surface Hardening Processes, Wear and Corrosion / Oxidation, Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics, Plasma Applications and Technologies, Biomedical Coatings and Surface Treatments, Non Destructive Evaluation and Online Process Control, Surface Modification (Ion Implantation, Ion Nitriding, PVD, CVD). The editors hope that those interested in the are of materials science and plasma technology, enjoy the reading that reflect a wide range of topics. It is a pleasure to thank the sponsors and all the participants and contributors for

  4. Meeting Materials for the 4th NRC Meeting on the Guidance for and the Review of EPA's Toxicological Assessment of Inorganic Arsenic

    EPA Science Inventory

    On December 2-3, 2015, the National Research Council (NRC) hosted the 4th meeting of the committee formed to peer review the draft IRIS assessment of inorganic arsenic. EPA presented background and overview materials during the public session on December 2nd. This information co...

  5. Biological challenges to effective vaccines in the developing world

    PubMed Central

    Grassly, Nicholas C.; Kang, Gagandeep; Kampmann, Beate

    2015-01-01

    The reason for holding a meeting to discuss biological challenges to vaccines is simple: not all vaccines work equally well in all settings. This special issue reviews the performance of vaccines in challenging environments, summarizes current thinking on the reasons why vaccines underperform and considers what approaches are necessary to understand the heterogeneity in responses and to improve vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. PMID:25964451

  6. Biological challenges to effective vaccines in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Grassly, Nicholas C; Kang, Gagandeep; Kampmann, Beate

    2015-06-19

    The reason for holding a meeting to discuss biological challenges to vaccines is simple: not all vaccines work equally well in all settings. This special issue reviews the performance of vaccines in challenging environments, summarizes current thinking on the reasons why vaccines underperform and considers what approaches are necessary to understand the heterogeneity in responses and to improve vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. PMID:25964451

  7. Polio Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... inactive polio vaccine OPV=oral polio vaccine Polio Vaccination Pronounced [PO-lee-oh] Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... handling and storage Related Pages Global Vaccines and Immunization Global Polio Also Known As & Abbreviations Polio=poliomyelitis ...

  8. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Availability, Recommendations, Cost, and Policies Among Health Departments in Seven Appalachian States

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Mira L.; Reiter, Paul L.; Kluhsman, Brenda C.; Kennedy, Stephenie; Dwyer, Sharon; Schoenberg, Nancy; Johnson, Andy; Ely, Gretchen; Roberto, Karen A.; Lengerich, Eugene J.; Brown, Pamela; Paskett, Electra D.; Dignan, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Telephone interviews of health department personnel in six states and review of an immunization database from one state were conducted to assess human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine availability, recommendations, cost, policies, and educational materials in health departments in seven Appalachian states. Most (99.1%) health departments (n=234) reported receiving patient requests for the HPV vaccine, and only two (1%) health departments reported that they did not provide the vaccine for patients. HPV vaccine supply was reported to not meet demand in 10.5% (24/228) of health departments due to high costs. Level (state, region, county) at which policy about the HPV vaccine was determined, vaccine recommendations, costs, and available educational materials varied among states. This study documented variation in vaccine availability, recommendations, cost, policies, and educational materials in Appalachian health departments that could significantly affect vaccine distribution. Findings highlight the need for more comprehensive and consistent policies that maximize accessibility of the HPV vaccine to women, especially those in underserved areas. PMID:19446191

  9. Reports of Studies of the Publication Fate of Material Presented at National Meetings (Two Years After the Meetings).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD. Center for Research in Scientific Communication.

    The objective of this research was to determine the publication fate of papers presented at the national meetings in 1966-1967 of the following organizations: (1) the Optical Society of America, (2) American Sociological Association, (3) American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, (4) American Geophysical Union, (5) American Institute of…

  10. 78 FR 939 - Notice of Public Meeting: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites (ODMDS) in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Notice of Public Meeting: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites (ODMDS) in... Potential Designation of One or More Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites (ODMDS) to Serve the Eastern...

  11. Vaccine hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, Eve; Laberge, Caroline; Guay, Maryse; Bramadat, Paul; Roy, Réal; Bettinger, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being recognized as one of the most successful public health measures, vaccination is perceived as unsafe and unnecessary by a growing number of individuals. Lack of confidence in vaccines is now considered a threat to the success of vaccination programs. Vaccine hesitancy is believed to be responsible for decreasing vaccine coverage and an increasing risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks and epidemics. This review provides an overview of the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy. First, we will characterize vaccine hesitancy and suggest the possible causes of the apparent increase in vaccine hesitancy in the developed world. Then we will look at determinants of individual decision-making about vaccination. PMID:23584253

  12. New views on immunopotentiators in modern vaccines.

    PubMed

    Schijns, Virgil Ejc; Brewer, James M

    2008-09-01

    The third conference on immunopotentiators in modern vaccines was held in Montego Bay, Jamaica, and attracted delegates from all around the world. This meeting is devoted to the lively field of vaccine immunopotentiator systems, aimed at facilitation of better responses to vaccine antigens. The half-moon resort was a very congenial venue and proved ideal for interactive scientific discussions throughout the meeting. Selected highlights of the meeting will be discussed. PMID:18767938

  13. Immunomodulatory vaccination in autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Urbanek-Ruiz, Irene; Ruiz, Pedro J; Steinman, Lawrence; Fathman, C Garrison

    2002-06-01

    The development of vaccines is arguably the most significant achievement in medicine to date. The practice of innoculation with the fluid from a sore to protect from a disease actually dates back to ancient China; however, with the introduction of Jenner's smallpox vaccine, and greater understanding of the immune system, vaccines have become specific and systematic. Traditional vaccines have used killed pathogens (hepatitis A and the Salk polio vaccines), immunogenic subunits of a given pathogen (hepatitis B subunit vaccine), or live attenuated pathogens (measles, mumps, rubella, Sabin polio vaccines) to generate protective immunity. Currently, a new generation of vaccines that use the genetic material of a pathogen to elicit protective immunity are being developed. Although the most widespread and successful use of vaccines today remains in the arena of infectious diseases, manipulations of immune responses to protect against cancers, neurologic diseases, and autoimmunity are being explored rigorously. PMID:12092460

  14. Vaccine Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... During Pregnancy Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Recalls Historical Vaccine Safety Concerns FAQs about GBS and Menactra ... CISA Resources for Healthcare Professionals Evaluation Current Studies Historical Background 2001-12 Publications Technical Reports Vaccine Safety ...

  15. Smallpox Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsletters Events Also Known As Smallpox = Vaccinia Smallpox Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The smallpox ... like many other vaccines. For that reason, the vaccination site must be cared for carefully to prevent ...

  16. HPV vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer ... and Gynecologists. Committee Opinion No. 588: Human Papillomavirus Vaccination. Obstet Gynecol . 2014;123(3):712-8. PMID: ...

  17. Footrot vaccines and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Dhungyel, Om; Hunter, James; Whittington, Richard

    2014-05-30

    Research on footrot in small ruminants, which is caused by Dichelobacter nodosus, has led to development of vaccines and their application for control, treatment and eradication of the disease in sheep. Footrot vaccines have evolved over decades to contain monovalent whole cell, multivalent recombinant fimbrial, and finally mono or bivalent recombinant fimbrial antigens. Initially whole cell vaccines made against the few known serogroups of D. nodosus were found to be inefficient in control of the disease in the field, which was attributed to the presence of other unidentified serogroups and also the use of inefficient adjuvants. Fimbriae or pili, which are the basis for antigenic variation, were found to be the major protective and also curative antigens but they are not cross protective between the different serogroups. Multivalent vaccines incorporating all the known serogroups have been proven to be of limited efficacy due to the phenomenon of antigenic competition. Recent studies in Nepal, Bhutan and Australia have shown that outbreak-specific vaccination which involves targeting identified serogroups with mono- or bivalent recombinant fimbrial vaccines, can be very effective in sheep and goats. Where multiple serogroups are present in a flock, antigenic competition can be overcome by sequentially targeting the serogroups with different bivalent vaccines every 3 months. A common antigen which would confer immunity to all serogroups would be the ideal immunogen but the initial studies were not successful in this area. Until universal antigen/s are available, flock specific mono or bivalent fimbrial vaccines are likely to be the most effective tool for control and eradication of footrot in sheep and goats. Future research in footrot vaccines should be focused on improving the duration of prophylaxis by incorporating new and emerging immunomodulators or adjuvants with modified delivery vehicles, discovering a common antigen and understanding the mechanisms of

  18. ELWIRA "Plants, wood, steel, concrete - a lifecycle as construction materials": University meets school - science meets high school education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss-Sieberth, Alexandra; Strauss, Alfred; Kalny, Gerda; Rauch, Hans Peter; Loiskandl, Willibald

    2016-04-01

    The research project "Plants, wood, steel, concrete - a lifecycle as construction materials" (ELWIRA) is in the framework of the Sparkling Science programme performed by the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences together with the Billroth Gymnasium in Vienna. The targets of a Sparkling Science project are twofold (a) research and scientific activities should already be transferred in the education methods of schools in order to fascinate high school students for scientific methods and to spark young people's interest in research, and (b) exciting research questions not solved and innovative findings should be addressed. The high school students work together with the scientists on their existing research questions improve the school's profile and the high school student knowledge in the investigated Sparkling Science topic and can lead to a more diverse viewing by the involvement of the high school students. In the project ELWIRA scientists collaborate with the school to quantify and evaluate the properties of classical building materials like concrete and natural materials like plants and woodlogs in terms of their life cycle through the use of different laboratory and field methods. The collaboration with the high school students is structured in workshops, laboratory work and fieldworks. For an efficient coordination/communication, learning and research progress new advanced electronic media like "Moodle classes/courses" have been used and utilized by the high school students with great interest. The Moodle classes are of high importance in the knowledge transfer in the dialogue with the high school students. The research project is structured into four main areas associated with the efficiencies of building materials: (a) the aesthetic feeling of people in terms of the appearance of materials and associated structures will be evaluated by means of jointly developed and collected questionnaires. The analysis, interpretation and evaluation are carried

  19. Newcastle disease virus vaccine potency determination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potency of inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines is determined using vaccination and challenge. If the minimum killed viral antigen necessary for clinical protection can be determined, vaccines meeting or exceeding this dose might be considered of adequate potency. In these studies, c...

  20. [Vaccination perspectives].

    PubMed

    Saliou, P; Plotkin, S

    1994-01-01

    The aim of vaccinology is to improve the available vaccines and to develop new ones in the light of progress in immunology, molecular biology and biotechnologies. But it must go beyond this, and aim to protect all populations and control diseases, even eradicate them where possible. New vaccine strategies must be developed taking into account the epidemiology of diseases and the inherent logistic problems of implementing these strategies under local conditions. There are three major thrusts to the progress of the discipline. The improvement of the vaccines available. One of the drives of vaccinology is not only to deliver vaccines of increasing safety (replacement of the current vaccine for whooping cough with an acellular vaccine for example), but also to improve vaccine efficacy and immunogenicity (in particular for flu, tuberculosis, cholera and rabies vaccines). The optimisation of vaccination programmes and strategies for vaccinations. The ideal is to protect against the greatest possible number of diseases with the smallest number of vaccinations. The development of combinations of vaccines is central to this goal. The objective for the year 2000 is a hexavalent vaccine DTPP Hib HB. The development of new vaccines. Classic techniques continue to be successfully used (inactivated hepatitis A vaccine; attenuated live vaccines for chicken pox and dengue fever; conjugated polyosidic bacterial vaccines for meningococci and Streptococcus pneumoniae). However, it will become possible to prepare vaccines against most transmissible diseases using genetic engineering techniques.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7921696

  1. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact. PMID:26541249

  2. 40 CFR 63.7886 - What are the general standards I must meet for my affected remediation material management units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... subject to another subpart under 40 CFR part 61 or 40 CFR part 63, you control emissions of the HAP listed... meet for my affected remediation material management units? 63.7886 Section 63.7886 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Site Remediation General Standards § 63.7886 What are the general standards I...

  3. Planing Meeting on Asian/Pacific Joint Production Programme of Materials for Neo-Literates in Rural Areas (Tokyo, Japan, June 7-9, 1993). Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asia/Pacific Cultural Centre for UNESCO, Tokyo (Japan).

    This publication provides the final report of a planning meeting to discuss literacy programs of the Asia/Pacific Cultural Center for UNESCO (ACCU) to be carried out under regional cooperation and other materials from the meeting. The final report describes the purpose of the meeting and summarizes these presentations: opening addresses, reports,…

  4. Vaccine delivery using nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Anthony E.; Titball, Richard; Williamson, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Vaccination has had a major impact on the control of infectious diseases. However, there are still many infectious diseases for which the development of an effective vaccine has been elusive. In many cases the failure to devise vaccines is a consequence of the inability of vaccine candidates to evoke appropriate immune responses. This is especially true where cellular immunity is required for protective immunity and this problem is compounded by the move toward devising sub-unit vaccines. Over the past decade nanoscale size (<1000 nm) materials such as virus-like particles, liposomes, ISCOMs, polymeric, and non-degradable nanospheres have received attention as potential delivery vehicles for vaccine antigens which can both stabilize vaccine antigens and act as adjuvants. Importantly, some of these nanoparticles (NPs) are able to enter antigen-presenting cells by different pathways, thereby modulating the immune response to the antigen. This may be critical for the induction of protective Th1-type immune responses to intracellular pathogens. Their properties also make them suitable for the delivery of antigens at mucosal surfaces and for intradermal administration. In this review we compare the utilities of different NP systems for the delivery of sub-unit vaccines and evaluate the potential of these delivery systems for the development of new vaccines against a range of pathogens. PMID:23532930

  5. 76 FR 24540 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... scheduled public comment period later in the year. A FR notice will be issued requesting public... October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on...), entitled, ``Conducting Periodic Testing for Breakaway Oxidation Behavior,'' temporarily identified by...

  6. 77 FR 56236 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463 as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the following meeting... Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22230, Telephone (703) 292-2986. ] Purpose of Meeting:...

  7. 77 FR 6826 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463 as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the following meeting... Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard Arlington, VA 22230, Telephone (703) 292-8562. Purpose of Meeting:...

  8. Report from the World Health Organization's Product Development for Vaccines Advisory Committee (PDVAC) meeting, Geneva, 7-9th Sep 2015.

    PubMed

    Giersing, Birgitte K; Modjarrad, Kayvon; Kaslow, David C; Moorthy, Vasee S

    2016-06-01

    There are more vaccines in development, against a greater number of pathogens, than ever before. A challenge with this exceptional level of activity and investment is how to select and resource the most promising approaches to have the most significant impact on public health. The WHO Product Development for Vaccines Advisory Committee (PDVAC) was established in 2014 to provide strategic advice and recommendations to WHO for vaccines in clinical development that could have a significant impact on public health in low and middle income countries. On 7-9th September 2015, PDVAC was convened for the second time, when the committee reviewed vaccine developments in 24 disease areas. This report summarises the key recommendations from that consultation. PMID:26993336

  9. The First Rotavirus Vaccine and the Politics of Acceptable Risk

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jason L

    2012-01-01

    Context Vaccination in the United States is a frequent source of controversy, with critics alleging failures by public health officials to adequately identify, monitor, and respond to risks associated with vaccines. In response to these charges, the case of RotaShield, a vaccine withdrawn in 1999 following confirmation of a serious adverse event associated with its use, is regularly invoked as evidence of the effectiveness of current vaccine safety activities. Methods This article examines the history of RotaShield, with particular attention paid to decision making regarding its use in the United States and internationally. I reviewed and analyzed federal advisory committee meeting transcripts, international conference reports, government and scientific publications, media coverage, and other primary and secondary source materials. I also conducted six semistructured interviews with former senior officials and advisory committee members at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention who participated in decisions regarding the vaccine. Findings Decision making regarding RotaShield, including the ultimate withdrawal of its recommendation for use, was shaped significantly by government health officials’ concern for preserving public confidence in overall U.S. vaccination efforts amid several unrelated vaccine risk controversies ongoing at that time. This attention to public perception and external pressures occurred in tandem with the evaluation of the quantitative evidence regarding the magnitude and severity of the risk associated with the vaccine. The decisions made in the United States resulted in foreseen but unintended consequences for international use of the vaccine, including in nations where the profile of risks and potential benefits was dramatically different. Conclusions As enthusiasm for evidence-based decision making grows throughout medicine and public health, greater explicit attention should be directed to the processes by which decision

  10. Assembly and Assessment of DNA Scaffolded Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaowei; Wang, Lili; Yan, Hao; Chang, Yung

    2016-01-01

    Vaccines play an important role in preventing many life-threatening infectious diseases. To meet the demand of vaccination for treating a wide range of diseases, rational vaccine design has been recognized as a desirable and necessary strategy for development of safe and effective vaccines. DNA nanostructures are advantageous in the design and construction of synthetic vaccines, owing to their robust self-assembly, programmability, and precision control in complex organization, as well as their intrinsic adjuvant activity. Here, we describe a modular assembly of DNA scaffolded vaccine complex, composing of a model antigen, streptavidin, and adjuvant, CpG oligonucleotide. The DNA-assembled vaccines were found to elicit strong antigen-specific antibody responses, but causing little or no adverse reactions. Conceivably, this vaccine platform can be further optimized for improved immunogenicity and extended to the construction of various subunit vaccines. PMID:27076307

  11. [Current events in vaccination].

    PubMed

    Aubert, M; Aumaître, H; Beytout, J; Bloch, K; Bouhour, D; Callamand, P; Chave, C; Cheymol, J; Combadière, B; Dahlab, A; Denis, F; De Pontual, L; Dodet, B; Dommergues, M-A; Dufour, V; Gagneur, A; Gaillat, J; Gaudelus, J; Gavazzi, G; Gillet, Y; Gras-le-Guen, C; Haas, H; Hanslik, T; Hau-Rainsard, I; Larnaudie, S; Launay, O; Lorrot, M; Loulergue, P; Malvy, D; Marchand, S; Picherot, G; Pinquier, D; Pulcini, C; Rabaud, C; Regnier, F; Reinert, P; Sana, C; Savagner, C; Soubeyrand, B; Stephan, J-L; Strady, C

    2011-11-01

    The annual meeting of the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) ; which brought together nearly 5000 participants from over 80 countries in Vancouver, Canada, October 21 to 24, 2010 ; provided a review of the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic, evaluated vaccination programmes and presented new vaccines under development. With 12,500 deaths in the United States in 2009-2010, the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic was actually less deadly than the seasonal flu. But it essentially hit the young, and the toll calculated in years of life lost is high. The monovalent vaccines, whether live attenuated or inactivated with or without adjuvants, were well tolerated in toddlers, children, adults and pregnant women. In order to protect infants against pertussis, family members are urged to get their booster shots. The introduction of the 13-valent Pneumococcal conjugated vaccine in the beginning of 2010 may solve - but for how long ? - the problem of serotype replacement, responsible for the re-increasing incidence of invasive Pneumococcal infections observed in countries that had introduced the 7-valent vaccine. The efficacy of a rotavirus vaccine has been confirmed, with a reduction in hospitalization in the United States and a reduction in gastroenteritis-related deaths in Mexico. In the United States, vaccination of pre-adolescents against human papillomavirus (HPV) has not resulted in any specific undesirable effects. Routine vaccination against chicken pox, recommended since 1995, has not had an impact on the evolution of the incidence of shingles. Vaccination against shingles, recommended in the United States for subjects 60 years and over, shows an effectiveness of 55 %, according to a cohort study (Kaiser Permanente, Southern California). Although some propose the development of personalized vaccines according to individual genetic characteristics, the priority remains with increasing vaccine coverage, not only in infants but also in adults and the elderly. Vaccine

  12. [Current events in vaccination].

    PubMed

    Aubert, M; Aumaître, H; Beytout, J; Bloch, K; Bouhour, D; Callamand, P; Chave, C; Cheymol, J; Combadière, B; Dahlab, A; Denis, F; De Pontual, L; Dodet, B; Dommergues, M A; Dufour, V; Gagneur, A; Gaillat, J; Gaudelus, J; Gavazzi, G; Gillet, Y; Gras-le-Guen, C; Haas, H; Hanslik, T; Hau-Rainsard, I; Larnaudie, S; Launay, O; Lorrot, M; Loulergue, P; Malvy, D; Marchand, S; Picherot, G; Pinquier, D; Pulcini, C; Rabaud, C; Regnier, F; Reinert, P; Sana, C; Savagner, C; Soubeyrand, B; Stephan, J L; Strady, C

    2011-05-01

    The annual meeting of the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA); which brought together nearly 5000 participants from over 80 countries in Vancouver, Canada, October 21 to 24, 2010; provided a review of the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic, evaluated vaccination programmes and presented new vaccines under development. With 12,500 deaths in the United States in 2009-2010, the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic was actually less deadly than the seasonal flu. But it essentially hit the young, and the toll calculated in years of life lost is high. The monovalent vaccines, whether live attenuated or inactivated with or without adjuvants, were well tolerated in toddlers, children, adults and pregnant women. In order to protect infants against pertussis, family members are urged to get their booster shots. The introduction of the 13-valent Pneumococcal conjugated vaccine in the beginning of 2010 may solve--but for how long?--the problem of serotype replacement, responsible for the re-increasing incidence of invasive Pneumococcal infections observed in countries that had introduced the 7-valent vaccine. The efficacy of a rotavirus vaccine has been confirmed, with a reduction in hospitalization in the United States and a reduction in gastroenteritis-related deaths in Mexico. In the United States, vaccination of pre-adolescents against human papillomavirus (HPV) has not resulted in any specific undesirable effects. Routine vaccination against chicken pox, recommended since 1995, has not had an impact on the evolution of the incidence of shingles. Vaccination against shingles, recommended in the United States for subjects 60 years and over, shows an effectiveness of 55%, according to a cohort study (Kaiser Permanente, Southern California). Although some propose the development of personalized vaccines according to individual genetic characteristics, the priority remains with increasing vaccine coverage, not only in infants but also in adults and the elderly. Vaccine

  13. PREFACE Surface Modifications of Diamond and Related Materials (Session D, E-MRS Spring Meeting)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebel, Christoph E.

    2010-11-01

    This special issue contains selected papers which were presented at the E-MRS Symposium BIOMATERIALS, SENSORS & SURFACES, D: 'Surface modifications of diamond and related materials' which was held on 7-9 June 2010 in Strasbourg (France). With about 54 oral and poster presentations given from teams all over the world it was a very interesting, dense and lively meeting. The symposium focused on chemical modifications applied to graft surfaces of diamond, nano-diamond particles, diamond-like carbon, graphene, graphite and carbon nano-tubes with linker molecular layers for realization of bio-sensors, bio-markers, separation techniques, and switchable chemical links. Presented techniques span spontaneous bonding to photo-chemical attachment, electrochemical modifications, to Suzuki-coupling of aryl molecules. Special attention was drawn to mechanisms driving bonding kinetics such as electron transfer reactions, hydrogen cleavage reactions by nucleophilic molecules and growths schemas which vary from correlated two-dimensional chain reactions to three-dimensional cross polymerization. Hydrogen terminations, surface defects, surface roughness and atomic arrangements of surface carbon atoms were of interest to elucidate bonding mechanisms. In addition, bonding stability, either of linker molecules or of complex functionalized surfaces with DNA, proteins and enzymes was discussed by several speakers as well as details of the electronic interfaces between solid transducers and bio-layers. Here the characterization of surface and interface defect densities, of Fermi level pinning and of electron transfer rates was a major topic. Miniaturization of sensor area and application of new detection schemas was discussed. Diamond nano-particles which are increasingly used as biomarkers in drug delivery experiments also attracted attention. The organizers express our gratitude to the international members of the scientific committee who actively contributed to ensure an attractive

  14. Detection and Identification of Leachables in Vaccine from Plastic Packaging Materials Using UPLC-QTOF MS with Self-Built Polymer Additives Library.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Sun, Shuqi; Xing, Xuebin; Du, Zhenxia; Guo, Qiaozhen; Yu, Wenlian

    2016-07-01

    The direct contact of plastic parts with the medical products raises the possibility that plastic-related contaminants (leachables) may be present in the finished medical product. The leachable components from plastic materials may impact the safety and efficacy of the final medical product, so identification and determination of the leachables are essential for the safety assessment of medical products. A method to identify main leachables-polymer additives in medical products was developed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF MS) and a self-built library. The library contains 174 additives and the information on their names, formulas, structures, retention times, fragments, classifications, origin, and corresponding MS(E) and MSMS spectra. The reliability of the construction process of the library was guaranteed by the system stability and suitability test. Identification parameters of library application, such as mass error, retention times, fragments, and isotope pattern, were evaluated. Leachables in real vaccine and the intermediates were identified using automatic library searching. In vaccine, the peak m/z 239.0887 that could not be assigned by the library was identified as dimethyl 2-hydroxy-1,3-cyclohexanedicarboxylate using a series of elucidation tools. As a result, the concentrations of leachables in vaccine and the intermediates ranged from 0.85 to 21.91 μg/L. PMID:27258161

  15. Ontology representation and analysis of vaccine formulation and administration and their effects on vaccine immune responses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A vaccine is a processed material that if administered, is able to stimulate an adaptive immune response to prevent or ameliorate a disease. A vaccination process may protect the host against subsequent exposure to an infectious agent and result in reduced disease or total prevention of the disease. Vaccine formulation and administration methods may affect vaccine safety and efficacy significantly. Results In this report, the detailed classification and definitions of vaccine components and vaccine administration processes are represented using OWL within the framework of the Vaccine Ontology (VO). Different use cases demonstrate how different vaccine formulations and routes of vaccine administration affect the protection efficacy, general immune responses, and adverse events following vaccination. For example, vaccinations of mice with Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51 using intraperitoneal or intranasal administration resulted in different protection levels. As shown in the vaccine adverse event data provided by US FDA, live attenuated and nonliving vaccines are usually administered in different routes and have different local and systematic adverse effect manifestations. Conclusions Vaccine formulation and administration route can independently or collaboratively affect host response outcomes (positive protective immunity or adverse events) after vaccination. Ontological representation of different vaccine and vaccination factors in these two areas allows better understanding and analysis of the causal effects between different factors and immune responses. PMID:23256535

  16. BCG vaccine in Korea.

    PubMed

    Joung, Sun Myung; Ryoo, Sungweon

    2013-07-01

    The anti-tuberculosis Bacille de Calmette et Guérin (BCG) vaccine was developed between 1905 and 1921 at Pasteur Institutes of Lille in France, and was adopted by many countries. BCG strains comprise natural mutants of major virulence factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and that BCG sub-strains differ markedly in virulence levels. The tuberculosis became endemic in Korea after the Korean War (1950s). The BCG strain, which was donated by Pasteur Institutes, was brought to Korea in 1955, and the first domestic BCG vaccine was produced by the National Defense Research Institute (NDRI), current Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC), in 1960. Since 1987, BCG manufacture work was handed over to the Korean Institute of Tuberculosis (KIT), the freeze-dried BCG vaccine was manufactured at a scale required to meet the whole amount of domestic consumption. However, since 2006, the manufacture of BCG vaccine suspended and the whole amount of BCG was imported at this point of time. Now KIT is planning to re-produce the BCG vaccine in Korea under the supervision of KCDC, this will be render great role to National Tuberculosis Control Program (NTP) and provide initiating step for developing new tuberculosis vaccines in Korea. PMID:23858398

  17. 77 FR 29696 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463 as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the following meeting..., National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22230, Telephone (703) 292-8562....

  18. 77 FR 58871 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ...: Name: Site visit review of the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) at Cornell University by... Meeting: To provide advice and recommendations concerning operations and further support of the CHESS... p.m. Open--Tour of CHESS Monday, October 29, 2012 8 a.m.-4 p.m. Open--Review of CHESS 4 p.m.-5:40...

  19. HPV vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer ... HPV is a common virus that is spread through sexual contact. There are several types of HPV. ...

  20. Diphtheria Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... and adults - Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Diphtheria Vaccination Pronounced (dif-THEER-ee-a) Recommend on Facebook ... Related Pages Pertussis Tetanus Feature Story: Adults Need Immunizations, Too Abbreviations DTaP=Pediatric - Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis ...

  1. Research and Technology Advisory Committee on Materials and Structures: Report of meeting, February 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on Materials and Structures is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) basic materials research: (2) fracture control: (3) aerospace vehicle dynamics and control: and (4) tramp elements in fuels and alloys.

  2. Giardia vaccination.

    PubMed

    Olson, M E; Ceri, H; Morck, D W

    2000-05-01

    Recently, a Giardia vaccine has become commercially available in the USA for prevention of clinical signs of giardiasis and reduction of cyst shedding in dogs and cats. The vaccine is based upon the current state of knowledge of Giardia antigenicity and immunology. Here, Merle Olson, Howard Ceri and Douglas Morck describe studies that led to the development of this vaccine and subsequent efficacy studies. Immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapeutic application of the vaccine are discussed. PMID:10782082

  3. From refrigerator to arm: issues in vaccination delivery.

    PubMed

    Tan, L J

    2014-05-01

    This report summarizes the first meeting of a panel of immunization experts who met in Washington, DC, on May 4-5, 2012. The panel consisted of experts from national immunization policy organizations; state, regional, and local immunization programs; and vaccinating health care practices. The primary objective of this meeting was to identify issues in the vaccine delivery process as a critical first step in the determination of where and how improvements can be made. Vaccines are one of the greatest achievements in public health. However, in order to maintain the integrity of vaccines and the success of vaccination programs, proper handling of vaccines from the receipt of shipment through administration to the patient is critical. Continuous improvement of the vaccine delivery process is important to ensure appropriate vaccine handling by all vaccine providers. The overarching consensus of the participants of this meeting was that the major challenge in vaccine delivery is the complexity throughout all areas of the vaccine delivery process, which is often underestimated, particularly in the areas of vaccine preparation and administration. The lack of detailed, consistent standards encompassing all areas of the vaccine delivery process, and the gaps in oversight, education, and training of vaccine providers, particularly providers of adult vaccines, were also identified as major issues. The next step for this panel is to reconvene to explore potential solutions to address the identified issues. PMID:24613526

  4. Who Needs Chickenpox Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Not Get Chickenpox Vaccine Types of Chickenpox Vaccine Child and Adult Immunization Schedules Possible Side Effects of Chickenpox Vaccine Childcare and School Vaccine Requirements Also Known As & Abbreviations ...

  5. DNA vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2001-12-01

    Immunization by genes encoding immunogens, rather than with the immunogen itself, has opened up new possibilities for vaccine research and development and offers chances for new applications and indications for future vaccines. The underlying mechanisms of antigen processing, immune presentation and regulation of immune responses raise high expectations for new and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, particularly for vaccines against chronic or persistent infectious diseases and tumors. Our current knowledge and experience of DNA vaccination is summarized and critically reviewed with particular attention to basic immunological mechanisms, the construction of plasmids, screening for protective immunogens to be encoded by these plasmids, modes of application, pharmacokinetics, safety and immunotoxicological aspects. DNA vaccines have the potential to accelerate the research phase of new vaccines and to improve the chances of success, since finding new immunogens with the desired properties is at least technically less demanding than for conventional vaccines. However, on the way to innovative vaccine products, several hurdles have to be overcome. The efficacy of DNA vaccines in humans appears to be much less than indicated by early studies in mice. Open questions remain concerning the persistence and distribution of inoculated plasmid DNA in vivo, its potential to express antigens inappropriately, or the potentially deleterious ability to insert genes into the host cell's genome. Furthermore, the possibility of inducing immunotolerance or autoimmune diseases also needs to be investigated more thoroughly, in order to arrive at a well-founded consensus, which justifies the widespread application of DNA vaccines in a healthy population.

  6. 78 FR 42753 - Materials Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... Group and discussion on (1) feasibility of universal test for modulus and tensile strength for 1C010 and... Bureau of Industry and Security Materials Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed... technical questions that affect the level of export controls applicable to materials and related...

  7. Infrared optical materials VI; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 4, 5, 1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musikant, Solomon

    1988-01-01

    Recent advances in IR optics are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include IR sensors and mirrors, IR-transmitting ceramics, IR waveguides, and IR glasses. Consideration is given to in situ visualization of the solid-liquid interface during crystal growth, (HgZn)Te IR photovoltaic detectors, lanthana-strengthened yttria IR-transmitting materials, high-temperature transmission measurements of IR window materials, fabrication of heavy-metal-fluoride glass fibers containing ultralow amounts of oxygen and water, and the material properties required for hollow fibers transmitting high-power IR radiation.

  8. Critical and strategic materials proceedings of the laboratory study group meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    These Proceedings serve to identify the appropriate role for the DOE-BES-DMS Laboratory program concerning critical and strategic materials, identify and articulate high priority DOE-BES-DMS target areas so as to maximize programmatic responsiveness to national needs concerning critical and strategic materials, and identify research, expertise, and resources (including Collaborative Research Centers) that are relevant to critical and strategic materials that is either underway or in place under the DOE-BES-DMS Laboratory program. Laboratory statements of collaborative research are given.

  9. Hepatitis Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  10. Hepatitis Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  11. DOE workshop meeting on the application of positron spectroscopy to materials sciences: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Zeigler, C.H.

    1993-04-01

    Positron spectroscopy has advanced to the point where it is in the best interest of DOE to assess past progress and to identify research needs/opportunities that can be exploited to advance the understanding of materials problems important to DOE. Purpose of the workshop is to identify areas of materials science where positron spectroscopy can serve to advance goals of DOE in energy research: problem areas for which positron spectroscopy can serve as a unique or complementary tool for materials characterization and analysis, possible sources of positrons at high intensities and instrumentation, and possible applications (defect profiles at surfaces/interfaces, composite materials, superconductors). Separate abstracts and indexing were prepared for the 23 papers.

  12. Using Federally Funded Curricular Materials to meet Next Geneartion Science Standards in Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAuliffe, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) describe teaching and learning goals for Earth system science at all levels of K-12, including elementary, middle school, and high school. Teachers must consider science and engineering practices, cross-cutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas. The National Science Foundation and other federal organizations have supported the development of reformed curricular materials at the K-12 level for many years. Although developed before the adoption of NGSS, many of these Earth system science resources are, in fact, NGSS congruent. Such resources include those developed by TERC, SERC, EDC, NASA, NOAA, USGS, and others. This session features NGSS congruent materials, carefully examining and dissecting the performance expectations that embody these materials. It also shares a process of tagging these materials via NSTA's, NGSS portal guidelines.

  13. PREFACE: E-MRS 2012 Spring Meeting, Symposium M: More than Moore: Novel materials approaches for functionalized Silicon based Microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, Christian; Fompeyrine, Jean; Vallée, Christophe; Locquet, Jean-Pierre

    2012-12-01

    More than Moore explores a new area of Silicon based microelectronics, which reaches beyond the boundaries of conventional semiconductor applications. Creating new functionality to semiconductor circuits, More than Moore focuses on motivating new technological possibilities. In the past decades, the main stream of microelectronics progresses was mainly powered by Moore's law, with two focused development arenas, namely, IC miniaturization down to nano scale, and SoC based system integration. While the microelectronics community continues to invent new solutions around the world to keep Moore's law alive, there is increasing momentum for the development of 'More than Moore' technologies which are based on silicon technologies but do not simply scale with Moore's law. Typical examples are RF, Power/HV, Passives, Sensor/Actuator/MEMS or Bio-chips. The More than Moore strategy is driven by the increasing social needs for high level heterogeneous system integration including non-digital functions, the necessity to speed up innovative product creation and to broaden the product portfolio of wafer fabs, and the limiting cost and time factors of advanced SoC development. It is believed that More than Moore will add value to society on top of and beyond advanced CMOS with fast increasing marketing potentials. Important key challenges for the realization of the 'More than Moore' strategy are: perspective materials for future THz devices materials systems for embedded sensors and actuators perspective materials for epitaxial approaches material systems for embedded innovative memory technologies development of new materials with customized characteristics The Hot topics covered by the symposium M (More than Moore: Novel materials approaches for functionalized Silicon based Microelectronics) at E-MRS 2012 Spring Meeting, 14-18 May 2012 have been: development of functional ceramics thin films New dielectric materials for advanced microelectronics bio- and CMOS compatible

  14. Treatment of mixed F006 contaminated material to meet the new EPA debris rule at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.; Diener, G.A.; Carroll, S.J.; Steingard, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), as the operating contractor for the Department of Energy (DOE) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has demonstrated a procedure to clean mixed (radioactive/hazardous) materials to meet the criteria in the recently promulgated Land Disposal Restrictions debris'' rule. The material was equipment (steel piping, transfer pumps valves) which had been used in industrial wastewater treatment facility to transfer listed F006 wastewater treatment plating line sludges to a RCRA storage tank complex. When the equipment needed to be replaced/repaired, it was concluded that the resulting debris would have to be managed as a mixed waste, due to the fact that the solid waste contained'' the listed hazardous waste.

  15. Treatment of mixed F006 contaminated material to meet the new EPA debris rule at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.; Diener, G.A.; Carroll, S.J.; Steingard, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), as the operating contractor for the Department of Energy (DOE) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has demonstrated a procedure to clean mixed (radioactive/hazardous) materials to meet the criteria in the recently promulgated Land Disposal Restrictions ``debris`` rule. The material was equipment (steel piping, transfer pumps valves) which had been used in industrial wastewater treatment facility to transfer listed F006 wastewater treatment plating line sludges to a RCRA storage tank complex. When the equipment needed to be replaced/repaired, it was concluded that the resulting debris would have to be managed as a mixed waste, due to the fact that the solid waste ``contained`` the listed hazardous waste.

  16. Meeting Radiation Protection Requirements and Reducing Spacecraft Mass - A Multifunctional Materials Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Reddell, Brandon; Rojdev, Kristina; Franklin, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Both crew and radio-sensitive systems, especially electronics must be protected from the effects of the space radiation environment. One method of mitigating this radiation exposure is to use passive-shielding materials. In previous vehicle designs such as the International Space Station (ISS), materials such as aluminum and polyethylene have been used as parasitic shielding to protect crew and electronics from exposure, but these designs add mass and decrease the amount of usable volume inside the vehicle. Thus, it is of interest to understand whether structural materials can also be designed to provide the radiation shielding capability needed for crew and electronics, while still providing weight savings and increased useable volume when compared against previous vehicle shielding designs. In this paper, we present calculations and analysis using the HZETRN (deterministic) and FLUKA (Monte Carlo) codes to investigate the radiation mitigation properties of these structural shielding materials, which includes graded-Z and composite materials. This work is also a follow-on to an earlier paper, that compared computational results for three radiation transport codes, HZETRN, HETC, and FLUKA, using the Feb. 1956 solar particle event (SPE) spectrum. In the following analysis, we consider the October 1989 Ground Level Enhanced (GLE) SPE as the input source term based on the Band function fitting method. Using HZETRN and FLUKA, parametric absorbed doses at the center of a hemispherical structure on the lunar surface are calculated for various thicknesses of graded-Z layups and an all-aluminum structure. HZETRN and FLUKA calculations are compared and are in reasonable (18% to 27%) agreement. Both codes are in agreement with respect to the predicted shielding material performance trends. The results from both HZETRN and FLUKA are analyzed and the radiation protection properties and potential weight savings of various materials and materials lay-ups are compared.

  17. Dengue vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Harashish; Bhatt, Bhumika; Malik, Jagbir Singh; SK, Shashikantha

    2014-01-01

    Dengue has emerged as one of the major global public health problems. The disease has broken out of its shell and has spread due to increased international travel and climatic changes. Globally, over 2.5 billion people accounting for >40% of the world's population are at risk from dengue. Since the 1940s, dengue vaccines have been under investigation. A live-attenuated tetravalent vaccine based on chimeric yellow fever-dengue virus (CYD-TDV) has progressed to phase III efficacy studies. Dengue vaccine has been found to be a cost-effective intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality. Current dengue vaccine candidates aim to protect against the 4 dengue serotypes, but the recent discovery of a fifth serotype could complicate vaccine development. In recent years, an urgent need has been felt for a vaccine to prevent the morbidity and mortality from this disease in a cost-effective way. PMID:25424928

  18. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  19. Cancer chemoprevention and cancer preventive vaccines--a call to action: leaders of diverse stakeholder groups present strategies for overcoming multiple barriers to meet an urgent need.

    PubMed

    Herberman, Ronald B; Pearce, Homer L; Lippman, Scott M; Pyenson, Bruce S; Alberts, David S

    2006-12-15

    The emerging field of cancer prevention through chemoprevention agents and cancer vaccines offers significant promise for reducing suffering and death from cancer. However, that promise may not be kept unless major barriers to progress are lowered or eliminated. Among the most significant barriers are the relatively small investment from government and industry in research and development of cancer preventive agents; a predominant emphasis of translational cancer research on therapeutic interventions for metastatic or advanced cancer; complexities of prevention trial design; a relatively uncharted Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval process for preventive agents; insufficient public and patient understanding of the importance and potential for cancer preventive measures, with consequent unpredictable public and patient willingness to take preventive agents; an uncertain reimbursement from payors; and limitations in patent law, liability protection, and data package exclusivity that undermine the opportunity for recouping investment. Viewed individually or collectively, each of these barriers serves as a substantial deterrent to intellectual and financial investment by all sectors of the cancer community. In an effort to ultimately overcome these barriers, a Cancer Prevention Research Summit was assembled June 12-13, 2006 in Bethesda, Maryland, organized by C-Change with support from the AACR. The Summit brought together some 120 leaders from private, public, and not-for-profit entities, including cancer researchers and clinicians; federal health officials; regulatory agency representatives; pharmaceutical, biotech, and food industry leaders; patent attorneys; economists; public and private provider group executives; and advocates. Participants engaged in a detailed process to more carefully define the major barriers, identify potential solutions, and formulate initial priorities and recommendations for action. At the conclusion of this dialogue among

  20. Selection Skills and Tools: Choosing Books and Other Materials to Meet Students' Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handy, Alice Evans; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Provides practical advice to high school librarians on book selection, including a review of self-help and financial books of interest to teens, as well as selection of reference materials and computer software. Descriptions of two successful special projects--a book fair and a high school archive--are included. (CDD)

  1. Cattle tick vaccine researchers join forces in CATVAC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A meeting sponsored by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation was held at the Avanti Hotel, Mohammedia, Morocco, July 14–15, 2015. The meeting resulted in the formation of the Cattle Tick Vaccine Consortium (CATVAC)....

  2. Cattle tick vaccine researchers join forces in CATVAC.

    PubMed

    Schetters, Theo; Bishop, Richard; Crampton, Michael; Kopáček, Petr; Lew-Tabor, Alicja; Maritz-Olivier, Christine; Miller, Robert; Mosqueda, Juan; Patarroyo, Joaquín; Rodriguez-Valle, Manuel; Scoles, Glen A; de la Fuente, José

    2016-01-01

    A meeting sponsored by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation was held at the Avanti Hotel, Mohammedia, Morocco, July 14-15, 2015. The meeting resulted in the formation of the Cattle Tick Vaccine Consortium (CATVAC). PMID:26911668

  3. 77 FR 2096 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) by the Division of Materials Research (DMR) 1203. Dates and Times... a.m. Closed--Executive Session 8:15 a.m.-5 p.m. Open--Review of the MIT MRSEC 5 p.m.-6:45 p.m.... Open--Review of the MIT MRSEC 10 a.m.-4:30 p.m. Closed--Executive Session, Report Writing Reason...

  4. Mild measles and secondary vaccine failure during a sustained outbreak in a highly vaccinated population.

    PubMed

    Edmonson, M B; Addiss, D G; McPherson, J T; Berg, J L; Circo, S R; Davis, J P

    1990-05-01

    A prolonged school-based outbreak of measles provided an opportunity to study "vaccine-modified" mild measles and secondary vaccine failure. Thirty-six (97%) of 37 unvaccinated patients had rash illnesses that met the Centers for Disease Control clinical case definition of measles, but 29 (15%) of 198 vaccinated patients did not, primarily because of low-grade or absent fever. Of 122 patients with seroconfirmed measles, 10 patients (all previously vaccinated) had no detectable measles-specific IgM and significantly milder illness than either vaccinated or unvaccinated patients with IgM-positive serum. Of 108 vaccinated patients with seroconfirmed measles, 17 patients (16%) had IgM-negative serology or rash illnesses that failed to meet the clinical case definition; their mean age (13 years), age at the time of vaccination, and time since vaccination did not differ from those of other vaccinated patients. The occurrence of secondary vaccine failure and vaccine-modified measles does not appear to be a major impediment to measles control in the United States but may lead to underreporting of measles cases and result in overestimation of vaccine efficacy in highly vaccinated populations. PMID:2278542

  5. HPV Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... can cause problems like genital warts and some kinds of cancer, a vaccine is an important step in preventing infection and protecting against the spread of HPV. That's why doctors recommend that all girls and guys get the vaccine at these ages: ...

  6. Rotavirus Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Why get vaccinated?Rotavirus is a virus that causes diarrhea, mostly in babies and young children. The diarrhea can be severe, and lead ... and fever are also common in babies with rotavirus.Before rotavirus vaccine, rotavirus disease was a common ...

  7. Anthrax Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... products some military personnel, as determined by the Department of Defense These people should get five doses of vaccine ( ... cdc.gov/agent/anthrax/vaccination/. Contact the U.S Department of Defense (DoD): call 1-877-438-8222 or visit ...

  8. Planning meeting to form the CMSN Team: Building a unified computational model for the resonant X-ray scattering of strongly correlated materials

    SciTech Connect

    Veenendaal, M van

    2008-05-14

    The planning meeting was held May 21-23 2008 at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The purpose of the meeting was to establish a network on building computational model for resonant elastic and inelastic x-ray scattering. This course of action was recommended by program officer Dale Koelling after the initial submission of a proposal for a Computational Materials Science Network to Basic Energy Sciences. The meeting consisted of talks and discussion. At the end of the meeting three subgroups were formed. After the successful formation of the team, a new proposal was written which was funded by BES. Since this was a planning meeting there were no proceedings. The program and titles of talks are given below.

  9. Workshop report: Schistosomiasis vaccine clinical development and product characteristics.

    PubMed

    Mo, Annie X; Colley, Daniel G

    2016-02-17

    A schistosomiasis vaccine meeting was organized to evaluate the utility of a vaccine in public health programs, to discuss clinical development paths, and to define basic product characteristics for desirable vaccines to be used in the context of schistosomiasis control and elimination programs. It was concluded that clinical evaluation of a schistosomiasis vaccine is feasible with appropriate trial design and tools. Some basic Preferred Product Characteristics (PPC) for a human schistosomiasis vaccine and for a veterinary vaccine for bovine use were also proposed. PMID:26721329

  10. Steel industry of the future: Meeting the material challenges of the 21. century

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    For over a century, the US steel industry has led the global market with advances in technology, product development, and marketing. Industry leaders recognize both the opportunities and challenges they face as they head into the 21st century, and that cooperative R and D is key to their success. In a unique partnership, steel industry leaders have teamed with the US Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) to focus on innovative technologies that will help to strengthen the competitive position of the US steel industry and, at the same time, further important national goals. This industry-led partnership, the Steel Industry of the Future, promotes technologies that optimize the use of energy and materials in operation and reduce wastes and energy-related emissions. Led by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) and the Steel Manufacturers Association (SMA), industry leaders began by developing a unified vision for the next 20 years: to provide high-quality, value-added products to a wide array of customers in an environmentally friendly, cost-effective manner, while leading the world in innovation and technology. Continued global leadership in materials markets will require the combined resources of industry, universities, and government laboratories. The steel industry vision provided a framework for the next step in the Industries of the Future process, the development of a technology roadmap designed to facilitate collaborative R and D on advanced processes and technologies for the steel industry.

  11. Schistosomiasis vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Bilal A.; Ganley-Leal, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a major neglected tropical disease of public health importance to a billion people. An estimated 200 million people are currently infected; an additional 779 million individuals are at risk to acquire the infection in 74 countries. Despite many years of implementation of mass anti-parasitic drug therapy programs and other control measures, this disease has not been contained and continues to spread to new geographic areas.  The discovery of a protective vaccine still remains the most potentially effective means for the control of this disease, especially if the vaccine provides long-term immunity against the infection. A vaccine would contribute to the reduction of schistosomiasis morbidity through induced immune responses leading to decrease in parasite load and reduced egg production. This vaccine could be administered to children between the ages of 3 and 12 years to prevent severe infection in a particularly high risk population. This review summarizes the current status of schistosomiasis vaccine development. PMID:22048120

  12. Typhoid vaccines.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, A; Dutta, A K

    2001-08-01

    Typhoid fever continues to be a major public health problem in developing countries with about 33 million cases per year. Protective efficacy of traditional acetone/phenol killed vaccines is similar to newer typhoid vaccines (Ty21A and Vi antigen vaccine) but side effects of these newer vaccines are considerably less. Though the mortality is low, typhoid fever causes considerable morbidity and loss of working days. Problems during treatment are increasing due to emergence and spread of multidrug resistant S. typhi. Hence to decrease the incidence of typhoid fever in addition to ensuring safe water supply and excreta disposal a typhoid vaccine needs to be introduced in the National Immunization Schedule. PMID:11563251

  13. Rotavirus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Barnes, G

    1998-01-01

    Encouraging results have been reported from several large trials of tetravalent rhesus rotavirus vaccine, with efficacy of 70-80% against severe disease. A recent Venezuelan study showed similar results to trials in USA and Europe. The vaccine may soon be licensed in USA. It provides the exciting prospect of a strategy to prevent one of the world's major child killers. Other candidate vaccines are under development including human-bovine reassortants, neonatal strains, non-replicating rotaviruses, vector vaccines and other genetically engineered products. Second and third generation rotavirus vaccines are on the horizon. The need for a rotavirus vaccine is well accepted by paediatricians, but public health authorities need to be lobbied. Other issues which need to be addressed include relative importance of non-group A rotaviruses, possible administration with OPV, the influence of breast feeding, and most importantly, cost. It is essential that rotavirus vaccine is somehow made available to all of the world's children, not just those in developed countries. PMID:9553287

  14. Laser Materials and Laser Spectroscopy - A Satellite Meeting of IQEC '88

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhijiang; Zhang, Zhiming

    1989-03-01

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Laser Materials * Laser Site Spectroscopy of Transition Metal Ions in Glass * Spectroscopy of Chromium Doped Tunable Laser Materials * Spectroscopic Properties of Nd3+ Ions in LaMgAl11O19 Crystal * Spectral Study and 2.938 μm Laser Emission of Er3+ in the Y3Al5O12 Crystal * Raman-infrared Spectra and Radiationless Relaxation of Laser Crystal NdAl3(BO3)4 * A Study on HB and FLN in BaFCl0.5Br0.5:Sm2+ at 77K * Pair-pumped Upconversion Solid State Lasers * CW Upconversion Laser Action in Neodymium and Erbium doped Solids * Ultra-high Sensitive Upconversion Fluorescence of YbF3 Doped with Trace Tm3+ and Er3+ * The Growth and Properties of NYAB and EYAB Multifunctional Crystal * Study on Fluorescence and Laser Light of Er3+ in Glass * Growth and Properties of Single Crystal Fibers for Laser Materials * A Study on the Quality of Sapphire, Ruby and Ti3+ Doped Sapphire Grown by Temperature Gradient Technique (TGT) and Czochralski Technique (CZ) * The Measurement of Output Property of Ti3+ Al2O3 Laser Crystal * An Xα Study of the Laser Crystal MgF2 : V2+ * Q-switched NAB Laser * Miniature YAG Lasers * Study of High Efficiency {LiF}:{F}^-_2 Color Center Crystals * Study on the Formation Conditions and Optical Properties of (F2+)H Color Center in NaCl:OH- Crystals * Novel Spectroscopic Properties of {LiF}:{F}^+_3 - {F}_2 Mixed Color Centers Laser Crystals * Terraced Substrate Visible GaAlAs Semiconductor Lasers with a Large Optical Cavity * The Temperature Dependence of Gain Spectra, Threshold Current and Auger Recombination in InGaAsP-InP Double Heterojunction Laser diode * Time-resolved Photoluminescence and Energy Transfer of Bound Excitons in GaP:N Crystals * Optical Limiting with Semiconductors * A Critical Review of High-efficiency Crystals for Tunable Lasers * Parametric Scattering in β - BaB2O4 Crystal Induced by Picosecond Pulses * Generation of Picosecond Pulses at 193 nm by Frequency Mixing in β - BaB2O4

  15. [Rabbies vaccination].

    PubMed

    Jelinek, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    With very few exceptions, rabies is occurring around the globe. The clinical course of this mammal-transmitted infection is almost universally fatal. Thus, the disease is causing more human deaths than any other zoonosis. Due to the lack of effective therapeutic options, pre- or post-exposure vaccination remains the only effective means to avoid development of fatal disease. Save and highly effective cell culture vaccines which have been available for decades provide long-lasting protection. Various vaccination schedules have been tested and are being recommended. PMID:27268449

  16. World Vaccine Congress.

    PubMed

    Arora, Ashoni

    2009-02-01

    This was the 10th year of the World Vaccine Congress. This event attracts a wide range of participants not only from traditional areas, such as biopharma, academia and government organizations, but also from associated fields, such as venture capital firms, law firms and consultants. The 2008 event began with a rocky start in the midst of the global financial meltdown. A premeeting day set aside to focus on investment opportunities and the financial aspects of vaccine development was thrown into turmoil as speakers from various investment houses had to withdraw as their various sponsors faced uncertain economic times. The next 3 days of the meeting contained the bulk of the scientific portions. As the number of oral presentations were too numerous to all be covered in this review, selected highlights will be discussed. PMID:19196191

  17. Arthropod vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lee, R; Opdebeeck, J P

    1999-03-01

    Antigens located in the midgut of the tick are hidden from the host's immune system. Egg production of ticks can be reduced when ticks are fed on animals vaccinated with midgut antigens of the tick, and a subunit vaccine formulated with the recombinant antigen Bm86 is now available that can reduce the number of ticks infesting cattle grazing on pasture. Midgut antigens used in vaccines against insects that transmit pathogenic organisms to humans have not been as effective in reducing insect fecundity and an alternative approach may be necessary. Transmission-blocking vaccines directed at interfering with the vector-pathogen interaction could result in loss of vector competence and block the spread of disease-causing organisms. PMID:10198800

  18. Typhoid Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious disease. It is caused by bacteria called Salmonella Typhi. Typhoid causes a high fever, fatigue, weakness, ... a typhoid carrier. • Laboratory workers who work with Salmonella Typhi bacteria. Inactivated typhoid vaccine (shot) • One dose ...

  19. Meningococcal Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an infection of the covering of the brain and the spinal cord. Meningococcal disease also causes ... legs, have problems with their nervous systems, become deaf or mentally ... use of meningococcal vaccine is important for people at highest risk.

  20. Vaccine production, distribution, access, and uptake.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jon; Lipsitch, Marc; Almond, Jeffrey W

    2011-07-30

    For human vaccines to be available on a global scale, complex production methods, meticulous quality control, and reliable distribution channels are needed to ensure that the products are potent and effective at the point of use. The technologies used to manufacture different types of vaccines can strongly affect vaccine cost, ease of industrial scale-up, stability, and, ultimately, worldwide availability. The complexity of manufacturing is compounded by the need for different formulations in different countries and age-groups. Reliable vaccine production in appropriate quantities and at affordable prices is the cornerstone of developing global vaccination policies. However, to ensure optimum access and uptake, strong partnerships are needed between private manufacturers, regulatory authorities, and national and international public health services. For vaccines whose supply is insufficient to meet demand, prioritisation of target groups can increase the effect of these vaccines. In this report, we draw from our experience of vaccine development and focus on influenza vaccines as an example to consider production, distribution, access, and other factors that affect vaccine uptake and population-level effectiveness. PMID:21664680

  1. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  2. Adults Need Vaccines, Too!

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Adult Vaccinations Adults Need Vaccines, Too! Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents ... of the millions of adults not receiving the vaccines you need? What vaccines do you need? All ...

  3. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine The vaccinia virus is the "live virus" used ... cannot cause smallpox. What is a "live virus" vaccine? A "live virus" vaccine is a vaccine that ...

  4. Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Vaccination Pronounced (per-TUS-iss) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... The best way to prevent it is through vaccinations. The childhood vaccine is called DTaP. The whooping ...

  5. Recent advances in cancer immunotherapy with an emphasis on vaccines.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Federica; Forni, Guido

    2009-01-01

    Recent Advances in Cancer Immunotherapy with an Emphasis on Vaccines was the first meeting organized by the European Society of Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy and Progress in Vaccine against Cancer, in collaboration with the Institute of Biological Research and Biotechnology of the National Hellenic Research Foundation, in a joint effort towards the setting up of a new generation of cancer vaccines. The main topics of the meeting included: the role of the tumor microenvironment in protecting the tumor from immune attack; differences in immunotherapy outcome in hematological malignancies versus solid tumors; rationale of multi-epitope vaccines; Treg cell elimination/inactivation, tumor stroma destruction, angiogenesis inhibition and the potentiality of 'preventive' vaccination in breast, colon, prostate and ovarian cancer in the early stages and during the 'wait-and-see' period. The ninth Progress in Vaccines against Cancer meeting will be held in Sofia, Bulgaria, 8-10 October 2009, at the Hilton Hotel. PMID:19093768

  6. Report on the joint meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K.L.

    1985-10-01

    This report of the Joint Meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups contains contributing papers in the following areas: Plasma/Materials Interaction Program and Technical Assessment, High Heat Flux Materials and Components Program and Technical Assessment, Pumped Limiters, Ignition Devices, Program Planning Activities, Compact High Power Density Reactor Requirements, Steady State Tokamaks, and Tritium Plasma Experiments. All these areas involve the consideration of High Heat Flux on Materials and the Interaction of the Plasma with the First Wall. Many of the Test Facilities are described as well. (LSP)

  7. Promoting Vaccine Confidence.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Vaccine hesitancy incorporates a wide range of parental attitudes and behaviors surrounding vaccines. Ironically, the very success of the immunization program has fueled vaccine concerns; because vaccine-preventable diseases are no longer prevalent, attention has shifted to the safety and necessity of vaccines themselves. This article reviews some of the underlying themes of vaccine hesitancy as well as specific vaccine safety concerns. Strategies for discussing vaccines with concerned parents are also discussed. PMID:26337737

  8. Formative research and development of an evidence-based communication strategy: the introduction of Vi typhoid fever vaccine among school-aged children in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Pach, Alfred; Tabbusam, Ghurnata; Khan, M Imran; Suhag, Zamir; Hussain, Imtiaz; Hussain, Ejaz; Mumtaz, Uzma; Haq, Inam Ul; Tahir, Rehman; Mirani, Amjad; Yousafzai, Aisha; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Ochiai, R Leon; Soofi, Sajid; Clemens, John D; Favorov, Michael O; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted formative research (a) to identify stakeholders' concerns related to typhoid fever and the need for disease information and (b) to develop a communication strategy to inform stakeholders and address their concerns and motivate for support of a school-based vaccination program in Pakistan. Data were collected during interactive and semi-structured focus group discussions and interviews, followed by a qualitative analysis and multidisciplinary consultative process to identify an effective social mobilization strategy comprised of relevant media channels and messages. The authors conducted 14 focus group discussions with the parents of school-aged children and their teachers, and 13 individual interviews with school, religious, and political leaders. Parents thought that typhoid fever was a dangerous disease, but were unsure of their children's risk. They were interested in vaccination and were comfortable with a school-based vaccination if conducted under the supervision of trained and qualified staff. Teachers and leaders needed information on typhoid fever, the vaccine, procedures, and sponsors of the vaccination program. Meetings were considered the best form of information dissemination, followed by printed materials and mass media. This study shows how qualitative research findings can be translated into an effective social mobilization and communication approach. The findings of the research indicated the importance of increasing awareness of typhoid fever and the benefits of vaccination against the disease. Identification and dissemination of relevant, community-based disease and vaccination information will increase demand and use of vaccination. PMID:23330632

  9. Metabolic Noise, Vestigial Metabolites or the Raw Material of Ecological Adaptation? Opportunitistic Enzymes, Catalytic Promiscuity and the Evolution of chemodiversity in Nature (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Noel, Joseph

    2011-04-25

    Joseph Noel from the Salk Institute on "Metabolic Noise, Vestigial Metabolites or the Raw Material of Ecological Adaptation? Enzymes, Catalytic Promiscuity and the Evolution of Chemodiversity in Nature" on March 26, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  10. 40 CFR 63.7936 - What requirements must I meet if I transfer remediation material off-site to another facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true What requirements must I meet if I transfer remediation material off-site to another facility? 63.7936 Section 63.7936 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  11. Metabolic Noise, Vestigial Metabolites or the Raw Material of Ecological Adaptation? Opportunitistic Enzymes, Catalytic Promiscuity and the Evolution of chemodiversity in Nature (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, Joseph

    2010-03-26

    Joseph Noel from the Salk Institute on "Metabolic Noise, Vestigial Metabolites or the Raw Material of Ecological Adaptation? Enzymes, Catalytic Promiscuity and the Evolution of Chemodiversity in Nature" on March 26, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  12. Asian/Pacific Joint Production Programme of Materials for Neo-Literates in Rural Areas Planning Meeting (Tokyo, Japan, March 4-5, 1991). Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asian Cultural Centre for UNESCO, Tokyo (Japan).

    This document reports on the 1991 Planning Meeting on Asian/Pacific Joint Production (AJP) Program of Materials for Neo-Literates in Rural Areas, the purpose of which was to discuss Asian Cultural Center for Unesco (ACCU) literacy programs to be carried out under regional cooperation. Opening addresses focused on the success of the cooperative…

  13. DNA vaccination of poultry: The current status in 2015.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Marine; Chemaly, Marianne; Dory, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    DNA vaccination is a promising alternative strategy for developing new human and animal vaccines. The massive efforts made these past 25 years to increase the immunizing potential of this kind of vaccine are still ongoing. A relatively small number of studies concerning poultry have been published. Even though there is a need for new poultry vaccines, five parameters must nevertheless be taken into account for their development: the vaccine has to be very effective, safe, inexpensive, suitable for mass vaccination and able to induce immune responses in the presence of maternal antibodies (when appropriate). DNA vaccination should meet these requirements. This review describes studies in this field performed exclusively on birds (chickens, ducks and turkeys). No evaluations of avian DNA vaccine efficacy performed on mice as preliminary tests have been taken into consideration. The review first describes the state of the art for DNA vaccination in poultry: pathogens targeted, plasmids used and different routes of vaccine administration. Second, it presents strategies designed to improve DNA vaccine efficacy: influence of the route of administration, plasmid dose and age of birds on their first inoculation; increasing plasmid uptake by host cells; addition of immunomodulators; optimization of plasmid backbones and codon usage; association of vaccine antigens and finally, heterologous prime-boost regimens. The final part will indicate additional properties of DNA vaccines in poultry: fate of the plasmids upon inoculation, immunological considerations and the use of DNA vaccines for purposes other than preventing infectious diseases. PMID:26620840

  14. Cancer vaccines

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cancer vaccines are designed to promote tumor specific immune responses, particularly cytotoxic CD8 positive T cells that are specific to tumor antigens. The earliest vaccines, which were developed in 1994-95, tested non-mutated, shared tumor associated antigens that had been shown to be immunogenic and capable of inducing clinical responses in a minority of people with late stage cancer. Technological developments in the past few years have enabled the investigation of vaccines that target mutated antigens that are patient specific. Several platforms for cancer vaccination are being tested, including peptides, proteins, antigen presenting cells, tumor cells, and viral vectors. Standard of care treatments, such as surgery and ablation, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, can also induce antitumor immunity, thereby having cancer vaccine effects. The monitoring of patients’ immune responses at baseline and after standard of care treatment is shedding light on immune biomarkers. Combination therapies are being tested in clinical trials and are likely to be the best approach to improving patient outcomes. PMID:25904595

  15. Priorities for CMV vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Krause, Philip R; Bialek, Stephanie R; Boppana, Suresh B; Griffiths, Paul D; Laughlin, Catherine A; Ljungman, Per; Mocarski, Edward S; Pass, Robert F; Read, Jennifer S; Schleiss, Mark R; Plotkin, Stanley A

    2013-12-17

    A multidisciplinary meeting addressed priorities related to development of vaccines against cytomegalovirus (CMV), the cause of congenital CMV (cCMV) disease and of serious disease in the immunocompromised. Participants discussed optimal uses of a CMV vaccine, aspects of clinical study design, and the value of additional research. A universal childhood CMV vaccine could potentially rapidly reduce cCMV disease, as infected children are sources of viral transmission to seronegative and seropositive mothers. A vaccine administered to adolescents or adult women could also reduce cCMV disease by making them immune prior to pregnancy. Clinical trials of CMV vaccines in women should evaluate protection against cCMV infection, an essential precursor of cCMV disease, which is a more practical and acceptable endpoint for assessing vaccine effects on maternal-fetal transmission. Clinical trials of vaccines to evaluate prevention of CMV disease in stem cell transplant recipients could use CMV viremia at a level triggering pre-emptive antiviral therapy as an endpoint, because widespread use of pre-emptive and prophylactic antivirals has rendered CMV-induced disease too rare to be a practical endpoint for clinical trials. In solid organ transplant patients, CMV-associated disease is sufficiently common for use as a primary endpoint. Additional research to advance CMV vaccine development should include identifying factors that predict fetal loss due to CMV, determining age-specific incidence and transmission rates, defining the mechanism and relative contributions of maternal reactivation and re-infection to cCMV disease, developing assays that can distinguish between reactivation and re-infection in seropositive vaccinees, further defining predictors of sequelae from cCMV infection, and identifying clinically relevant immune response parameters to CMV (including developing validated assays that could assess CMV antibody avidity) that could lead to the establishment of immune

  16. Mucosal vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Nizard, Mevyn; Diniz, Mariana O; Roussel, Helene; Tran, Thi; Ferreira, Luis CS; Badoual, Cecile; Tartour, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The mucosal immune system displays several adaptations reflecting the exposure to the external environment. The efficient induction of mucosal immune responses also requires specific approaches, such as the use of appropriate administration routes and specific adjuvants and/or delivery systems. In contrast to vaccines delivered via parenteral routes, experimental, and clinical evidences demonstrated that mucosal vaccines can efficiently induce local immune responses to pathogens or tumors located at mucosal sites as well as systemic response. At least in part, such features can be explained by the compartmentalization of mucosal B and T cell populations that play important roles in the modulation of local immune responses. In the present review, we discuss molecular and cellular features of the mucosal immune system as well as novel immunization approaches that may lead to the development of innovative and efficient vaccines targeting pathogens and tumors at different mucosal sites. PMID:25424921

  17. [Specific aspects of vaccine manufacturing].

    PubMed

    Speck, D

    2009-05-01

    The industrial development of vaccine manufacturing expanded during the second half of the 20th century. Vaccines are medicines which target healthy people. The active principles of vaccines arise from live organisms and can be distinguished from standard pharmaceutical compounds by their extreme complexity. The properties of vaccines depend mainly of the manufacturing process and it common to state that "the process makes the product". The manufacturing is done in confined rooms because of the pathogenic characters of the organisms involved. Raw materials are subjected to rigorous controls to guarantee the integrity of products towards non-conventional agents like prion. The vaccine industry is characterized by the length of the manufacturing cycle. The complexity of the products implies heavy quality controls, which represent 75% of the total duration of the manufacture cycle. As a key element of public health, the vaccine production can be subjected to variations and adaptations, in particular in the context of outbreaks or bioterrorism. The vaccine industry must integrate the regulatory requirements, which are more and more pressing. The spectacular development of the quality assurance and quality control departments these last 15 years testifies to this evolution. PMID:19446672

  18. 12th Annual Conference on Vaccine Research.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jennifer

    2009-09-01

    The 12th Annual Conference on Vaccine Research, hosted by the National Foundation for Infectious Disease, attracted approximately 450 leaders in the fields of epidemiology, health economics, immunology and vaccinology, making it the largest scientific meeting devoted exclusively to vaccine research and technology. The conference highlighted recent issues in vaccine safety, including the history and design of a vaccine for rotavirus. Other topics included discussions of the synergies between veterinary and human vaccine development, updates on the development of vaccines for tuberculosis and malaria, and a comprehensive overview of immunization initiatives and goals for extending coverage of new and underused vaccines. Keynote remarks were provided by David Salisbury (Department of Health, London, UK) who outlined the aims and objectives of the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS), an agenda created by the WHO and UNICEF. Salisbury highlighted the four primary aims of GIVS: immunize more people against more diseases, introduce a range of newly available vaccines and technologies, integrate other critical health interventions with immunization, and manage vaccination programs within the context of global interdependence. The GIVS initiative spans the time period of 2006-2015. PMID:19722886

  19. Analytics for vaccine economics and pricing: insights and observations.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Matthew J; Jacobson, Sheldon H

    2015-04-01

    Pediatric immunization programs in the USA are a successful and cost-effective public health endeavor, profoundly reducing mortalities caused by infectious diseases. Two important issues relate to the success of the immunization programs, the selection of cost-effective vaccines and the appropriate pricing of vaccines. The recommended childhood immunization schedule, published annually by the CDC, continues to expand with respect to the number of injections required and the number of vaccines available for selection. The advent of new vaccines to meet the growing requirements of the schedule results: in a large, combinatorial number of possible vaccine formularies. The expansion of the schedule and the increase in the number of available vaccines constitutes a challenge for state health departments, large city immunization programs, private practices and other vaccine purchasers, as a cost-effective vaccine formulary must be selected from an increasingly large set of possible vaccine combinations to satisfy the schedule. The pediatric vaccine industry consists of a relatively small number of pharmaceutical firms engaged in the research, development, manufacture and distribution of pediatric vaccines. The number of vaccine manufacturers has dramatically decreased in the past few decades for a myriad of reasons, most notably due to low profitability. The contraction of the industry negatively impacts the reliable provision of pediatric vaccines. The determination of appropriate vaccine prices is an important issue and influences a vaccine manufacturer's decision to remain in the market. Operations research is a discipline that applies advanced analytical methods to improve decision making; analytics is the application of operations research to a particular problem using pertinent data to provide a practical result. Analytics provides a mechanism to resolve the challenges facing stakeholders in the vaccine development and delivery system, in particular, the selection

  20. The ring vaccination trial: a novel cluster randomised controlled trial design to evaluate vaccine efficacy and effectiveness during outbreaks, with special reference to Ebola

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A World Health Organization expert meeting on Ebola vaccines proposed urgent safety and efficacy studies in response to the outbreak in West Africa. One approach to communicable disease control is ring vaccination of individuals at high risk of infection due to their social or geographical connection to a known case. This paper describes the protocol for a novel cluster randomised controlled trial design which uses ring vaccination. In the Ebola ça suffit ring vaccination trial, rings are randomised 1:1 to (a) immediate vaccination of eligible adults with single dose vaccination or (b) vaccination delayed by 21 days. Vaccine efficacy against disease is assessed in participants over equivalent periods from the day of randomisation. Secondary objectives include vaccine effectiveness at the level of the ring, and incidence of serious adverse events. Ring vaccination trials are adaptive, can be run until disease elimination, allow interim analysis, and can go dormant during inter-epidemic periods. PMID:26215666

  1. The ring vaccination trial: a novel cluster randomised controlled trial design to evaluate vaccine efficacy and effectiveness during outbreaks, with special reference to Ebola.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    A World Health Organization expert meeting on Ebola vaccines proposed urgent safety and efficacy studies in response to the outbreak in West Africa. One approach to communicable disease control is ring vaccination of individuals at high risk of infection due to their social or geographical connection to a known case. This paper describes the protocol for a novel cluster randomised controlled trial design which uses ring vaccination.In the Ebola ça suffit ring vaccination trial, rings are randomised 1:1 to (a) immediate vaccination of eligible adults with single dose vaccination or (b) vaccination delayed by 21 days. Vaccine efficacy against disease is assessed in participants over equivalent periods from the day of randomisation. Secondary objectives include vaccine effectiveness at the level of the ring, and incidence of serious adverse events. Ring vaccination trials are adaptive, can be run until disease elimination, allow interim analysis, and can go dormant during inter-epidemic periods. PMID:26215666

  2. The Effects of Anti-Vaccine Conspiracy Theories on Vaccination Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Jolley, Daniel; Douglas, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    The current studies investigated the potential impact of anti-vaccine conspiracy beliefs, and exposure to anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, on vaccination intentions. In Study 1, British parents completed a questionnaire measuring beliefs in anti-vaccine conspiracy theories and the likelihood that they would have a fictitious child vaccinated. Results revealed a significant negative relationship between anti-vaccine conspiracy beliefs and vaccination intentions. This effect was mediated by the perceived dangers of vaccines, and feelings of powerlessness, disillusionment and mistrust in authorities. In Study 2, participants were exposed to information that either supported or refuted anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, or a control condition. Results revealed that participants who had been exposed to material supporting anti-vaccine conspiracy theories showed less intention to vaccinate than those in the anti-conspiracy condition or controls. This effect was mediated by the same variables as in Study 1. These findings point to the potentially detrimental consequences of anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, and highlight their potential role in shaping health-related behaviors. PMID:24586574

  3. The effects of anti-vaccine conspiracy theories on vaccination intentions.

    PubMed

    Jolley, Daniel; Douglas, Karen M

    2014-01-01

    The current studies investigated the potential impact of anti-vaccine conspiracy beliefs, and exposure to anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, on vaccination intentions. In Study 1, British parents completed a questionnaire measuring beliefs in anti-vaccine conspiracy theories and the likelihood that they would have a fictitious child vaccinated. Results revealed a significant negative relationship between anti-vaccine conspiracy beliefs and vaccination intentions. This effect was mediated by the perceived dangers of vaccines, and feelings of powerlessness, disillusionment and mistrust in authorities. In Study 2, participants were exposed to information that either supported or refuted anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, or a control condition. Results revealed that participants who had been exposed to material supporting anti-vaccine conspiracy theories showed less intention to vaccinate than those in the anti-conspiracy condition or controls. This effect was mediated by the same variables as in Study 1. These findings point to the potentially detrimental consequences of anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, and highlight their potential role in shaping health-related behaviors. PMID:24586574

  4. H5N1 vaccines in humans

    PubMed Central

    Baz, Mariana; Luke, Catherine J; Cheng, Xing; Jin, Hong; Subbarao, Kanta

    2013-01-01

    The spread of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses since 1997 and their virulence for poultry and humans has raised concerns about their potential to cause an influenza pandemic. Vaccines offer the most viable means to combat a pandemic threat. However, it will be a challenge to produce, distribute and implement a new vaccine if a pandemic spreads rapidly. Therefore, efforts are being undertaken to develop pandemic vaccines that use less antigen and induce cross-protective and long-lasting responses, that can be administered as soon as a pandemic is declared or possibly even before, in order to prime the population and allow for a rapid and protective antibody response. In the last few years, several vaccine manufacturers have developed candidate pandemic and pre-pandemic vaccines, based on reverse genetics and have improved the immunogenicity by formulating these vaccines with different adjuvants. Some of the important and consistent observations from clinical studies with H5N1 vaccines are as follows: two doses of inactivated vaccine are generally necessary to elicit the level of immunity required to meet licensure criteria, less antigen can be used if an oil-in-water adjuvant is included, in general antibody titers decline rapidly but can be boosted with additional doses of vaccine and if high titers of antibody are elicited, cross-reactivity against other clades is observed. Prime-boost strategies elicit a more robust immune response. In this review, we discuss data from clinical trials with a variety of H5N1 influenza vaccines. We also describe studies conducted in animal models to explore the possibility of reassortment between pandemic live attenuated vaccine candidates and seasonal influenza viruses, since this is an important consideration for the use of live vaccines in a pandemic setting. PMID:23726847

  5. Rabies Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... and booster doses should be given as needed. (Testing or booster doses are not recommended for travelers.) Ask your doctor for details. Vaccination After an Exposure:Anyone who has been bitten by an animal, or who otherwise may have been exposed to ...

  6. Valuing vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  7. Vexing Vaccines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Schools play a key role in ensuring that children are being immunized against diseases, but conflicting research is making enforcement difficult. This article discusses a growing trend of vaccine avoidance and the endless supply of conflicting information and research about immunization safety. Despite the controversy, many people appear to accept…

  8. Typhoid Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... it while traveling. Typhoid strikes about 21 million people a year around the world and kills about 200,000. ... booster dose is needed every 2 years for people who remain at risk. Live typhoid vaccine (oral)Four doses: one capsule every other day for a week (day 1, day 3, day ...

  9. Polio Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the world. It would only take one person infected with polio virus coming from another country to bring the ... However, any medicine could cause a serious side effect, such as a severe allergic reaction or even death. The risk of polio vaccine causing serious harm is extremely small.

  10. Malaria vaccine.

    PubMed

    1994-05-01

    Some have argued that the vaccine against malaria developed by Manuel Pattaroyo, a Colombian scientist, is being tested prematurely in humans and that it is unlikely to be successful. While the Pattaroyo vaccine has been shown to confer protection against the relatively mild malaria found in Colombia, doubts exist over whether it will be effective in Africa. Encouraging first results, however, are emerging from field tests in Tanzania. The vaccine triggered a strong new immune response, even in individuals previously exposed to malaria. Additional steps must be taken to establish its impact upon mortality and morbidity. Five major trials are underway around the world. The creator estimates that the first ever effective malaria vaccine could be available for widespread use within five years and he has no intention of securing a patent for the discovery. In another development, malaria specialists from 35 African countries convened at an international workshop in Zimbabwe to compare notes. Participants disparaged financial outlays for the fight against malaria equivalent to 2% of total AIDS funding as insufficient; noted intercountry differences in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment; and found information exchange between anglophone and francophone doctors to be generally poor. PMID:12287671

  11. Replicating vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early work on fish immunology and disease resistance demonstrated fish (like animals and humans) that survived infection were typically resistant to re-infection with the same pathogen. The concepts of resistance upon reinfection lead to the research and development of replicating (live) vaccines in...

  12. Evaluation of specific humoral immune response in pigs vaccinated with cell culture adapted classical swine fever vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Mrinal K.; Sarma, D. K.; Das, B. C.; Deka, P.; Kalita, D.; Dutta, J. B.; Mahato, G.; Sarma, S.; Roychoudhury, P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To determine an efficient vaccination schedule on the basis of the humoral immune response of cell culture adapted live classical swine fever virus (CSFV) vaccinated pigs and maternally derived antibody (MDA) in piglets of vaccinated sows. Materials and Methods: A cell culture adapted live CSFV vaccine was subjected to different vaccination schedule in the present study. Serum samples were collected before vaccination (day 0) and 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 180, 194, 208, 270, 284 and 298 days after vaccination and were analyzed by liquid phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, MDA titre was detected in the serum of piglets at 21 and 42 days of age after farrowing of the vaccinated sows. Results: On 28 days after vaccination, serum samples of 83.33% vaccinated pigs showed the desirable level of antibody titer (log10 1.50 at 1:32 dilution), whereas 100% animals showed log10 1.50 at 1:32 dilution after 42 days of vaccination. Animals received a booster dose at 28 and 180 days post vaccination showed stable high-level antibody titre till the end of the study period. Further, piglets born from pigs vaccinated 1 month after conception showed the desirable level of MDA up to 42 days of age. Conclusion: CSF causes major losses in pig industry. Lapinised vaccines against CSFV are used routinely in endemic countries. In the present study, a cell culture adapted live attenuated vaccine has been evaluated. Based on the level of humoral immune response of vaccinated pigs and MDA titer in piglets born from immunized sows, it may be concluded that the more effective vaccination schedule for prevention of CSF is primary vaccination at 2 months of age followed by booster vaccination at 28 and 180 days post primary vaccination and at 1 month of gestation. PMID:27057117

  13. 'He is now like a brother, I can even give him some blood'--relational ethics and material exchanges in a malaria vaccine 'trial community' in The Gambia.

    PubMed

    Geissler, P Wenzel; Kelly, Ann; Imoukhuede, Babatunde; Pool, Robert

    2008-09-01

    This paper explores social relations within the 'trial community' (staff and volunteers) of a Malaria Vaccine Trial (MVT), implemented by the Medical Research Council (MRC) in The Gambia between 2001 and 2004. It situates ethical concerns with medical research within the everyday life of scientific fieldwork. Based upon discussions with volunteers and staff, we explore processes of mediation between scientific project and study population, and between formal ethics, local ethical debates and everyday practice. We observe that material contact and substantial transactions, notably of blood and medicine, are central to the construction of the MVT. These transactions are guided by a concrete and relational form of ethics, which contrasts with the abstract and vertical formal ethical principles underwriting the scientific study protocol. The success of the MVT owed much to these kinship-like ethics. One possible conclusion from these observations is that research ethics should be understood, not just as a quasi-legal frame but also as an open, searching movement, much in the same way that kinship is not merely a juridical institution and a prescriptive frame of rules, but a network made through relational work. However, this conclusion raises new problems: by contrasting formal, abstract principles to intimate, immediate relations, and economic justice to personal morality, we accept that the order of medical research is moved further out of the public and political, and into the domains of either quasi-legal claims or of private morality. Irrespective of the undeniable importance of clear-cut rules and of good face-to-face relations, a third essential foundation of medical research ethics is the democratically constituted public sphere, including equitable health services, and transparent institutions to facilitate open debate and regulate particular interests. Ultimately, the ethics of global science can rely neither on principles nor trust but requires citizenship

  14. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2013-01-01

    DNA vaccine for T1D promising in the clinic HPV vaccines halved infections in US teenage girls Modified DC immunotherapy against melanoma New study looks at clinical severity of human H7N9 infections Prevnar vaccines are valuable for healthcare systems GAPVAC: New consortium in the fight of brain cancer Cytomegalovirus vaccine to enter phase 3 Malaria vaccination using chemically attenuated parasites

  15. Fish Vaccines in Aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination is a proven, cost-effective method to prevent infectious diseases in animals. Current fish vaccines can be categorized as killed fish vaccines or modified live vaccines. The major advantage of live vaccine is their ability to stimulate both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses for ...

  16. Pertussis vaccines: WHO position paper, August 2015--Recommendations.

    PubMed

    2016-03-14

    This article presents the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations for the use of vaccines against Bordetella pertussis from the WHO position paper on Pertussis vaccines: WHO position paper--August 2015, recently published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record (Pertussis vaccines: WHO position paper. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 2015;90(August(35)):433-60). This position paper summarizes the most recent developments in the field of pertussis disease and its prevention by vaccination. It includes the WHO position on the choice of Pertussis vaccine as well as on the use of additional strategies, particularly vaccination during pregnancy, for prevention of early infant mortality. This document replaces the first WHO position paper on vaccines against disease caused by Pertussis published in 2010 (Pertussis vaccines: WHO position paper. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 2010;85(October(40)):385-400) and incorporates the revised guidance on the choice of pertussis vaccines published in July 2014 (Pertussis vaccines: WHO position paper. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 2014;89(July(30)):337-44). Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This paper reflects the recommendations of WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization. These recommendations were discussed by SAGE at its April 2014 and April 2015 meetings. The evidence presented at the meetings can be accessed at http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/previous/en/index.html. PMID:26562318

  17. Consensus on the Development of Vaccines against Naturally Acquired Melioidosis

    PubMed Central

    Funnell, Simon G.P.; Torres, Alfredo G.; Morici, Lisa A.; Brett, Paul J.; Dunachie, Susanna; Atkins, Timothy; Altmann, Daniel M.; Bancroft, Gregory; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2015-01-01

    Several candidates for a vaccine against Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causal bacterium of melioidosis, have been developed, and a rational approach is now needed to select and advance candidates for testing in relevant nonhuman primate models and in human clinical trials. Development of such a vaccine was the topic of a meeting in the United Kingdom in March 2014 attended by international candidate vaccine developers, researchers, and government health officials. The focus of the meeting was advancement of vaccines for prevention of natural infection, rather than for protection from the organism’s known potential for use as a biological weapon. A direct comparison of candidate vaccines in well-characterized mouse models was proposed. Knowledge gaps requiring further research were identified. Recommendations were made to accelerate the development of an effective vaccine against melioidosis. PMID:25992835

  18. Alumina-encapsulated vaccine formulation with improved thermostability and immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hangyu; Wang, Guangchuan; Li, Xiao-Feng; Li, Yaling; Zhu, Shun-Ya; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Tang, Ruikang

    2016-05-11

    Developing vaccine formulations with excellent thermostability and immunogenicity remains a great challenge. By in situ encapsulating a live-attenuated strain of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) in alumina, we obtained a robust vaccine formulation named EV71@NanoAlum, which features significantly enhanced thermostability and immunogenicity. This attempt follows a material-based tactic for vaccine improvement. PMID:27098047

  19. Vaccine-Preventable Disease Photos

    MedlinePlus

    ... About | A-Z | Contact | Follow Vaccine Information You Need VACCINE BASICS Evaluating Online Health Information FAQs How Vaccines Work Importance of Vaccines Paying for Vaccines State Immunization Programs Tips for Finding Vaccine Records Trusted Sources of Vaccine ... PRETEENS Vaccines You Need ...

  20. Risk factors associated with infectious bursal disease vaccination failures in broiler farms in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mutinda, Wanzila Usyu; Nyaga, Philip Njeru; Mbuthia, Paul Gichohi; Bebora, Lilly Caroline; Muchemi, Gerald

    2014-04-01

    Immunization together with application of biosecurity measures are the principal methods of preventing infectious bursal disease outbreaks in high-risk areas. However, outbreaks in vaccinated chicken flocks have been reported in many parts of the world as a result of factors of vaccine virus, animal, or vaccine handler. In Kenya, such outbreaks have been reported, but the causes have not been studied. This study aimed at determining the risk factors associated with vaccine handling leading to vaccine failure in broiler flocks in Kwale County, Kenya. Structured questionnaires and visual observations were used to collect data from 83 broiler farms, 6 breeding farms, and 17 vaccine outlets. Relative risk (RR) analysis was used to determine the association between identified potential risk factors and vaccination failure. Results show that vaccines were properly handled in all vaccine outlet shops. Breeding farms maintained high levels of biosecurity and employed standard vaccine handling practices. Basic biosecurity practices were poor in broiler farms. Broiler farms failed to meet all the recommended standard procedures for vaccine storage, reconstitution, and administration. Risk factors included poor vaccine storage (RR = 8.7) and use of few drinkers to administer vaccine (RR = 5.8); traces of disinfectants in drinkers used to administer live vaccine (RR = 2.8); use of wrong vaccine-infectious bronchitis instead of infectious bursal disease vaccine (RR = 2.1); and use of improper diluents (RR = 1.6). Broiler farmers need training on basic farm biosecurity measures and standard vaccine handling practices. PMID:24414247

  1. Functional nanomaterials can optimize the efficacy of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye; Xu, Yingying; Tian, Yue; Chen, Chunying; Wang, Chen; Jiang, Xingyu

    2014-11-01

    Nanoscale materials can improve the efficacy of vaccines. Herein we review latest developments that use nanomaterials for vaccines. By highlighting the relationships between the nanoscale physicochemical characteristics and working mechanisms of nanomaterials, this paper shows the current status of the developments where researchers employ functional nanomaterials as vector and/or immunoregulators for vaccines. It also provides us some clues for improving the design and application of nanomaterials to optimize the efficacy of vaccines. PMID:25238620

  2. Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV)Treatment of pneumococcal infections with penicillin and other drugs used to be more effective. But ... the disease, through vaccination, even more important. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV) protects against 23 types of pneumococcal ...

  3. Childhood Vaccine Schedule

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Vaccine Schedule Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... please turn Javascript on. When to Vaccinate What Vaccine Why Birth (or any age if not previously ...

  4. Vaccines Stop Illness

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  5. Your Baby's First Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Barcodes Related Link Vaccines & Immunizations Your Child's First Vaccines Format: Select one PDF [335 KB] RTF [260 ... child will get one or more of these vaccines today: DTaP Hib Hepatitis B Polio PCV13 Why ...

  6. Vaccines and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... pregnancy, please see the MotherToBaby fact sheet Seasonal Influenza Vaccine (Flu Shot) during Pregnancy ( http: / / mothertobaby. org/ fact- sheets/ seasonal- influenza- vaccine- flu- shot- pregnancy/ pdf/ ). Nasal spray flu vaccines ...

  7. Vaccinations and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Do not measure your viral load within 4 weeks of any vaccination. Flu shots have been studied ... live” vaccination in the past 2 or 3 weeks. Still, the “MMR” vaccine against measles, mumps and ...

  8. Varicella (Chickenpox) Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... vaccine called MMRV, which contains both chickenpox and MMR vaccines, may be given instead of the two individual ... like rash (about 1 person in 20) than MMR and varicella vaccines given separately. Moderate Problems:Seizure (jerking or staring) ...

  9. Vaccines for Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... virus (HBV) during pregnancy Vaccination and Pregnancy Resources, journal articles, more sources, etc., from Immunization Action Coalition Video: "Vaccines and Your Baby" (26:41 min) Vaccine Education Center, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, November 2002 Also ...

  10. The Evolution of the Meningitis Vaccine Project

    PubMed Central

    Tiffay, Kathleen; Jodar, Luis; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Socquet, Muriel; LaForce, F. Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background. In 2001, the Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP) was tasked to develop, test, license, and introduce a group A meningococcal (MenA) conjugate vaccine for sub-Saharan Africa. African public health officials emphasized that a vaccine price of less than US$0.50 per dose was necessary to ensure introduction and sustained use of this new vaccine. Methods. Initially, MVP envisioned partnering with a multinational vaccine manufacturer, but the target price and opportunity costs were problematic and formal negotiations ended in 2002. MVP chose to become a “virtual vaccine company,” and over the next decade managed a network of public–private and public–public partnerships for pharmaceutical development, clinical development, and regulatory submission. MVP supported the transfer of key know-how for the production of group A polysaccharide and a new conjugation method to the Serum Institute of India, Ltd, based in Pune, India. A robust staff structure supported by technical consultants and overseen by advisory groups in Europe and Africa ensured that the MenA conjugate vaccine would meet all international standards. Results. A robust project structure including a team of technical consultants and 3 advisory groups in Europe and Africa ensured that the MenA conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT, MenAfriVac) was licensed by the Drug Controller General of India and prequalified by the World Health Organization in June 2010. The vaccine was introduced in Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger in December 2010. Conclusions. The development, through a public–private partnership, of a safe, effective, and affordable vaccine for sub-Saharan Africa, PsA-TT, offers a new paradigm for the development of vaccines specifically targeting populations in resource-poor countries. PMID:26553666

  11. Self-amplifying mRNA vaccines.

    PubMed

    Brito, Luis A; Kommareddy, Sushma; Maione, Domenico; Uematsu, Yasushi; Giovani, Cinzia; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Otten, Gillis R; Yu, Dong; Mandl, Christian W; Mason, Peter W; Dormitzer, Philip R; Ulmer, Jeffrey B; Geall, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief introduction to nucleic acid-based vaccines and recent research in developing self-amplifying mRNA vaccines. These vaccines promise the flexibility of plasmid DNA vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity and safety. The key to realizing the full potential of these vaccines is efficient delivery of nucleic acid to the cytoplasm of a cell, where it can amplify and express the encoded antigenic protein. The hydrophilicity and strong net negative charge of RNA impedes cellular uptake. To overcome this limitation, electrostatic complexation with cationic lipids or polymers and physical delivery using electroporation or ballistic particles to improve cellular uptake has been evaluated. This chapter highlights the rapid progress made in using nonviral delivery systems for RNA-based vaccines. Initial preclinical testing of self-amplifying mRNA vaccines has shown nonviral delivery to be capable of producing potent and robust innate and adaptive immune responses in small animals and nonhuman primates. Historically, the prospect of developing mRNA vaccines was uncertain due to concerns of mRNA instability and the feasibility of large-scale manufacturing. Today, these issues are no longer perceived as barriers in the widespread implementation of the technology. Currently, nonamplifying mRNA vaccines are under investigation in human clinical trials and can be produced at a sufficient quantity and quality to meet regulatory requirements. If the encouraging preclinical data with self-amplifying mRNA vaccines are matched by equivalently positive immunogenicity, potency, and tolerability in human trials, this platform could establish nucleic acid vaccines as a versatile new tool for human immunization. PMID:25620012

  12. Vaccine refrigeration

    PubMed Central

    McColloster, Patrick J; Martin-de-Nicolas, Andres

    2014-01-01

    This commentary reviews recent changes in Centers for Disease Control (CDC) vaccine storage guidelines that were developed in response to an investigative report by the Office of the Inspector General. The use of temperature data loggers with probes residing in glycol vials is advised along with storing vaccines in pharmaceutical refrigerators. These refrigerators provide good thermal distribution but can warm to 8 °C in less than one hour after the power is discontinued. Consequently, electric grid instability influences appropriate refrigerator selection and the need for power back-up. System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI) values quantify this instability and can be used to formulate region-specific guidelines. A novel aftermarket refrigerator regulator with a battery back-up power supply and microprocessor control system is also described. PMID:24442209

  13. Rotavirus Vaccine -- Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... to these vaccines. The infant's immune response to influenza vaccine administered at the same time as rotavirus vaccine ... previously that an inactivated vaccine (e.g., inactivated influenza vaccine) may be administered either simultaneously or at any ...

  14. Subviral Particle as Vaccine and Vaccine Platform

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ming; Jiang, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subvirual particles retain similar antigenic features of their authentic viral capsids and thus have been applied as nonreplicating subunit vaccines against viral infection and illness. Additionally, the self-assembled, polyvalent subviral particles are excellent platforms to display foreign antigens for immune enhancement for vaccine development. These subviral particle-based vaccines are noninfectious and thus safer than the conventional live attenuated and inactivated vaccines. While several VLP vaccines are available in the markets, numerous others, including dual vaccines against more than one pathogen, are under clinical or preclinical development. This article provides an update of these efforts. PMID:24662314

  15. Knowledge translation of the HELPinKIDS clinical practice guideline for managing childhood vaccination pain: usability and knowledge uptake of educational materials directed to new parents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although numerous evidence-based and feasible interventions are available to treat pain from childhood vaccine injections, evidence indicates that children are not benefitting from this knowledge. Unrelieved vaccination pain puts children at risk for significant long-term harms including the development of needle fears and subsequent health care avoidance behaviours. Parents report that while they want to mitigate vaccination pain in their children, they lack knowledge about how to do so. An evidence-based clinical practice guideline for managing vaccination pain was recently developed in order to address this knowledge-to-care gap. Educational tools (pamphlet and video) for parents were included to facilitate knowledge transfer at the point of care. The objectives of this study were to evaluate usability and effectiveness in terms of knowledge acquisition from the pamphlet and video in parents of newly born infants. Methods Mixed methods design. Following heuristic usability evaluation of the pamphlet and video, parents of newborn infants reviewed revised versions of both tools and participated in individual and group interviews and individual knowledge testing. The knowledge test comprised of 10 true/false questions about the effectiveness of various pain management interventions, and was administered at three time points: at baseline, after review of the pamphlet, and after review of the video. Results Three overarching themes were identified from the interviews regarding usability of these educational tools: receptivity to learning, accessibility to information, and validity of information. Parents’ performance on the knowledge test improved (p≤0.001) from the baseline phase to after review of the pamphlet, and again from the pamphlet review phase to after review of the video. Conclusions Using a robust testing process, we demonstrated usability and conceptual knowledge acquisition from a parent-directed educational pamphlet and video about

  16. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2014-01-01

    Measles vaccination: Targeted and non-targeted benefits CDC reports: 2-dose regimen of chickenpox vaccine is a success Positive preliminary results from the CAPiTA study Seasonal flu vaccine associate with reduced stroke risk HPV vaccine shown to halve cervical abnormalities Global prize for mobile mast vaccine storage project Developmental pathway of potent HIV-neutralizing antibodies Burkholderia vaccine: US Dep of Defense collaborates with Bavarian Nordic

  17. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy and safety of first-ever Dengue vaccine candidate in Phase 3 Agenus‘ brain cancer vaccine doubles survival rate in GBM patients New study: Rotavirus vaccines dramatically cut hospitalization rates in US children Therapeutic vaccines – from heart disease to cancer Agenus‘ genital herpes vaccine significantly reduces viral burden in Phase 2 The latest on PaxVax‘ and Gotovax AB’s cholera vaccine candidates ACIP ponders recommendation for Prevnar use in seniors PMID:25424916

  18. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M.

    2012-01-01

    Two therapeutic HPV vaccine candidates successful in phase 1 Flu shot may prevent heart attacks and stroke CDX-1401 combined with TLR agonist: Positive phase 1 results Three MRSA vaccines in early clincial trials Ovarian cancer vaccine candidate DPX-Survivac: Positive interim results from phase 1 Chinese biotech partnership brings first hepatitis E vaccine to the market Therapeutic vaccine for treatment of genital herpes enters phase 2 Visionary concept: Printable vaccines PMID:23817319

  19. Engineered human vaccines

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, J.S. . Div. of Immunology and Neurobiology)

    1994-01-01

    The limitations of human vaccines in use at present and the design requirements for a new generation of human vaccines are discussed. The progress in engineering of human vaccines for bacteria, viruses, parasites, and cancer is reviewed, and the data from human studies with the engineered vaccines are discussed, especially for cancer and AIDS vaccines. The final section of the review deals with the possible future developments in the field of engineered human vaccines and the requirement for effective new human adjuvants.

  20. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics: News

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M.

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic immunotherapy reduces the size of melanoma tumors in phase 3 trial EV71 vaccine protects children against HFMD Influenza vaccination important for risk groups Bharat‘s rotavirus vaccine is safe and modestly efficacious Successfully avoiding the cold-chain for vaccines FDA approval for Stallergenes’ sublingual grass pollen allergy immunotherapy HPV vaccination campaign could change from three to two doses in the UK Valneva continues phase 2/3 trial of Pseudomonas aeruginosa vaccine PMID:25290656

  1. Vaccines.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Getting Vaccinated More Info Glossary Our Partners Related Websites AIDS.gov Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) CDC Vaccines Countermeasures Injury Compensation Program ...

  2. Hepatitis E vaccine: WHO position paper, May 2015--Recommendations.

    PubMed

    2016-01-12

    This article presents the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations on the use of hepatitis E vaccine excerpted from the WHO position paper on hepatitis E vaccines - May 2015 recently published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record [1]. The current document is the first WHO position paper on hepatitis E vaccination and focuses primarily on the available evidence concerning the only hepatitis E vaccine that is currently licensed. The position paper gives consideration to the epidemiological features of the disease and assesses the use of the vaccine for public health benefits. Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references including references to grading tables that assess the quality of the scientific evidence. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This paper reflects the recommendations of WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization. These recommendations were discussed by SAGE at its October 2014 meeting. Evidence presented at the meeting can be accessed at http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/previous/en/index.html. PMID:26232546

  3. Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines: WHO position paper, February 2015--Recommendations.

    PubMed

    2016-01-12

    This article presents the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations on the use of Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vaccines excerpted from the WHO position paper on Japanese Encephalitis vaccines recently published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record [1]. This updated position paper on JE vaccines replaces the 2006 position paper on this subject [2]; it focuses on new information concerning the availability, safety, immunogenicity and effectiveness of JE vaccines and the duration of protection they confer. Recent data on global prevalence and burden of disease caused by JE and cost-effectiveness considerations regarding JE vaccination are also summarized. Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references including references to grading tables that assess the quality of the scientific evidence. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This paper reflects the recommendations of WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization. These recommendations were discussed by SAGE at its October 2014 meeting. Evidence presented at the meeting can be accessed at http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/previous/en/index.html. PMID:26232543

  4. Avian influenza vaccines and vaccination for poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines against avian influenza (AI) have had more limited use in poultry than vaccines against other poultry diseases such as Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis, and have been used more commonly in the developing world. Over the past 40 years, AI vaccines have been primarily based o...

  5. Genetically engineered vaccines.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Wayne R; Hales, Belinda J; Smith, Wendy-Anne

    2005-05-01

    The application of recombinant DNA technology to allergen research has provided the sequence information and genetic material to produce new types of allergy vaccines. One general strategy has been to use the knowledge to produce synthetic peptides that represent selected T-cell or B-cell epitopes. The production of genetically engineered allergens provides an alternative strategy to construct hypoallergenic vaccines, which can provide a better and less selected representation of the epitopes. Many strategies have been used to produce such hypoallergens, and their ability to reduce allergenicity has been amply demonstrated by skin and nasal provocation tests. The retention of T cell-stimulating activity has also been demonstrated, and a consistent feature of the vaccines has been, despite the reduced immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding reactivity, the ability to induce anti-allergen IgG antibody. The lead hypoallergens have been polypeptide fragments and trimeric constructs of the birch allergen Bet v 1. A clinical trial with these medicaments has shown the ability to modify IgE and IgG antibody production, skin test reactivity, and symptom scores. This is the first trial of a recombinant allergy vaccine, and it has set a benchmark for further studies. A new generation of hypoallergens is now being produced based on the detailed knowledge of the tertiary structures of the allergens and of the T-cell and B-cell epitopes. The modifications have been made to change the topography of the allergens while retaining a stable, folding structure. In the case of Bet v 1, tertiary structures of hypoallergens have been determined. Structurally modeled hypoallergens have been produced for pollen, venom, food, and latex allergens, with promising characteristics from preclinical studies. PMID:15842957

  6. Development of Experimental Vaccines Against Liver Flukes.

    PubMed

    Yap, Huan Yong; Smooker, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    A multitude of experimental vaccines have been developed against liver flukes in the past. However, there has yet to be the development of a commercial livestock vaccine. Reasons for this may be multiple, and include the lack of identification of the best antigen(s), or the immune response induced by those antigens not being appropriate in either magnitude or polarity (and therefore not protective). Cathepsin proteases are the major component of the excretory/secretory (ES) material of liver flukes in all stages of their life cycle in the definitive host and are the primary antigens of interest for the vaccine development in many studies. Hence, this chapter presents the methodologies of using cathepsin proteases as targeted antigens in recombinant protein and DNA vaccine development to engender protective immune responses against fasciolosis.First, the experimental vaccines developed in the past and the criteria of an effective vaccine for fasciolosis are briefly reviewed. Then flowcharts for recombinant protein vaccine and DNA vaccine development are presented, followed by the detailed materials and methodologies. PMID:27076295

  7. 76 FR 34994 - Vaccine To Protect Children From Anthrax-Public Engagement Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Vaccine To Protect Children From Anthrax--Public Engagement Workshop AGENCY: Office of... workshop on July 7, 2011, to discuss vaccine to protect children from anthrax. This meeting is open to the... children from anthrax. The meeting will be from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. ET. ADDRESSES: Washington Plaza Hotel,...

  8. Food and Drug Administration regulation and evaluation of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Valerie; Baylor, Norman W

    2011-05-01

    The vaccine-approval process in the United States is regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research of the US Food and Drug Administration. Throughout the life cycle of development, from preclinical studies to after licensure, vaccines are subject to rigorous testing and oversight. Manufacturers must adhere to good manufacturing practices and control procedures to ensure the quality of vaccines. As mandated by Title 21 of the Code of Regulations, licensed vaccines must meet stringent criteria for safety, efficacy, and potency. PMID:21502242

  9. Modern Vaccines/Adjuvants Formulation—Session 2 (Plenary II)

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    On the 15–17th May 2013, the Fourth International Conference on Modern Vaccines/Adjuvants Formulation was organized in Lausanne, Switzerland, and gathered stakeholders from academics and from the industry to discuss several challenges, advances and promises in the field of vaccine adjuvants. Plenary session 2 of the meeting was composed of four different presentations covering: (1) the recent set-up of an adjuvant technology transfer and training platform in Switzerland, (2) the proposition to revisit existing paradigms of modern vaccinology, (3) the properties of polyethyleneimine as potential new vaccine adjuvant, and (4) the progresses in the design of HIV vaccine candidates able to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies. PMID:23966098

  10. History of vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before. PMID:25136134

  11. Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... The hepatitis B vaccination is a non-infectious, vaccine prepared from recombinant yeast cultures, rather than human blood or plasma. There is no risk of contamination from other bloodborne pathogens nor is there any ... from the vaccine. The vaccine must be administered according to the ...

  12. Reflective and refractive optical materials for earth and space applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 4, 5, 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedl, Max J.; Hale, Robert R.; Parsonage, Thomas B.

    The present conference discusses beryllium mirror design and fabrication, production of aspheric beryllium optical surfaces by HIP consolidation, the control of thermally induced porosity for the fabrication of beryllium optics, fine-grained beryllium optical coatings, light-absorbing beryllium baffle materials, and advanced broadband baffle materials. Also discussed are radiation-resistant optical glasses, a catalog of IR and cryooptical properties of selected materials, durable metal-dielectric mirror coatings, the optical stability of diffuse reflectance materials, and optical filters for space applications.

  13. Reflective and refractive optical materials for earth and space applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 4, 5, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedl, Max J. (Editor); Hale, Robert R. (Editor); Parsonage, Thomas B. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The present conference discusses beryllium mirror design and fabrication, production of aspheric beryllium optical surfaces by HIP consolidation, the control of thermally induced porosity for the fabrication of beryllium optics, fine-grained beryllium optical coatings, light-absorbing beryllium baffle materials, and advanced broadband baffle materials. Also discussed are radiation-resistant optical glasses, a catalog of IR and cryooptical properties of selected materials, durable metal-dielectric mirror coatings, the optical stability of diffuse reflectance materials, and optical filters for space applications.

  14. Parents' perceptions of provider communication regarding adolescent vaccines.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Amanda F; Pyrzanowski, Jennifer; Lockhart, Steven; Campagna, Elizabeth; Barnard, Juliana; O'Leary, Sean T

    2016-06-01

    Strong provider recommendations for adolescent vaccines are critical for achieving high vaccination levels.  However, little is known about parents' preferred provider communication strategies for adolescent vaccines in general, and for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines specifically. We performed a cross-sectional survey of 800 parents of 9-14 year olds in April 2014 to assess current adolescent vaccine communication practices by providers, parents' preferred HPV vaccine-specific communication strategies, and the association of these two outcomes with experiential, attitudinal and demographic characteristics.  Among the 356 parents in the study (response rate 48%), HPV vaccines were reported as less likely to have been "very strongly" recommended by their adolescent's provider (39%) than other adolescent-targeted vaccines (45%-59%, <0.05 for all comparisons).  Receiving a very strong recommendation for HPV vaccines was associated with a higher likelihood of vaccine receipt (71% versus 39%, p<0.001), or among those not yet vaccinated, increased likelihood of positive vaccination intentions (82% vs. 60%, p = 0.015).  Nearly all parents (87%) reported that, if available, they would use a website providing personalized HPV vaccine-related materials before their adolescent's next check-up, and other technology-based communications were also endorsed by the majority of parents.   From these data we conclude that parents received weaker recommendations for HPV vaccines than other adolescent vaccines, and that most parents want additional HPV vaccine-related materials, preferably delivered using a variety of technology-based modalities which is not their providers' current practice. PMID:27078515

  15. Prospect of vaccination in human malaria*

    PubMed Central

    Corradetti, A.

    1974-01-01

    Rodents have been successfully protected against a challenge of viable Plasmodium berghei by employing as vaccine: (1) the irradiated blood stages of the same parasite, or (2) the water-insoluble fraction of the blood stages, or (3) irradiated sporozoites; all these vaccines were shown to be stage-specific. A method is outlined for testing in the field, in the absence of any risks, the efficacy of analogous vaccines against falciparum malaria in man. It is emphasized that: (1) the efficacy of the vaccines can be tested in no model but only against P. falciparum in man; (2) the protection should be measured in terms of (a) prevention of morbidity, and (b) prevention of mortality; and (3) research must be intensified in order to meet, as needed, the requirements of mass production of merozoites and/or sporozoites, and to find ways to increase the human immune response to a higher level of protection against P. falciparum. PMID:4216411

  16. Use of 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine: updated HPV vaccination recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices.

    PubMed

    Petrosky, Emiko; Bocchini, Joseph A; Hariri, Susan; Chesson, Harrell; Curtis, C Robinette; Saraiya, Mona; Unger, Elizabeth R; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2015-03-27

    During its February 2015 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (9vHPV) (Gardasil 9, Merck and Co., Inc.) as one of three HPV vaccines that can be used for routine vaccination. HPV vaccine is recommended for routine vaccination at age 11 or 12 years. ACIP also recommends vaccination for females aged 13 through 26 years and males aged 13 through 21 years not vaccinated previously. Vaccination is also recommended through age 26 years for men who have sex with men and for immunocompromised persons (including those with HIV infection) if not vaccinated previously. 9vHPV is a noninfectious, virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine. Similar to quadrivalent HPV vaccine (4vHPV), 9vHPV contains HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 VLPs. In addition, 9vHPV contains HPV 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 VLPs. 9vHPV was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on December 10, 2014, for use in females aged 9 through 26 years and males aged 9 through 15 years. For these recommendations, ACIP reviewed additional data on 9vHPV in males aged 16 through 26 years. 9vHPV and 4vHPV are licensed for use in females and males. Bivalent HPV vaccine (2vHPV), which contains HPV 16, 18 VLPs, is licensed for use in females. This report summarizes evidence considered by ACIP in recommending 9vHPV as one of three HPV vaccines that can be used for vaccination and provides recommendations for vaccine use. PMID:25811679

  17. Vaccines today, vaccines tomorrow: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Loucq, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines are considered as one of the major contributions of the 20th century and one of the most cost effective public health interventions. The International Vaccine Institute has as a mission to discover, develop and deliver new and improved vaccines against infectious diseases that affects developing nations. If Louis Pasteur is known across the globe, vaccinologists like Maurice Hilleman, Jonas Salk and Charles Mérieux are known among experts only despite their contribution to global health. Thanks to a vaccine, smallpox has been eradicated, polio has nearly disappeared, Haemophilus influenzae B, measles and more recently meningitis A are controlled in many countries. While a malaria vaccine is undergoing phase 3, International Vaccine Institute, in collaboration with an Indian manufacturer has brought an oral inactivated cholera vaccine to pre-qualification. The field of vaccinology has undergone major changes thanks to philanthropists such as Bill and Melinda Gates, initiatives like the Decade of Vaccines and public private partnerships. Current researches on vaccines have more challenging targets like the dengue viruses, malaria, human immunodeficiency virus, the respiratory syncytial virus and nosocomial diseases. Exciting research is taking place on new adjuvants, nanoparticles, virus like particles and new route of administration. An overcrowded infant immunization program, anti-vaccine groups, immunizing a growing number of elderlies and delivering vaccines to difficult places are among challenges faced by vaccinologists and global health experts. PMID:23596584

  18. Vaccines today, vaccines tomorrow: a perspective

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines are considered as one of the major contributions of the 20th century and one of the most cost effective public health interventions. The International Vaccine Institute has as a mission to discover, develop and deliver new and improved vaccines against infectious diseases that affects developing nations. If Louis Pasteur is known across the globe, vaccinologists like Maurice Hilleman, Jonas Salk and Charles Mérieux are known among experts only despite their contribution to global health. Thanks to a vaccine, smallpox has been eradicated, polio has nearly disappeared, Haemophilus influenzae B, measles and more recently meningitis A are controlled in many countries. While a malaria vaccine is undergoing phase 3, International Vaccine Institute, in collaboration with an Indian manufacturer has brought an oral inactivated cholera vaccine to pre-qualification. The field of vaccinology has undergone major changes thanks to philanthropists such as Bill and Melinda Gates, initiatives like the Decade of Vaccines and public private partnerships. Current researches on vaccines have more challenging targets like the dengue viruses, malaria, human immunodeficiency virus, the respiratory syncytial virus and nosocomial diseases. Exciting research is taking place on new adjuvants, nanoparticles, virus like particles and new route of administration. An overcrowded infant immunization program, anti-vaccine groups, immunizing a growing number of elderlies and delivering vaccines to difficult places are among challenges faced by vaccinologists and global health experts. PMID:23596584

  19. Window and dome technologies and materials; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Mar. 27-29, 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klocek, Paul

    1989-09-01

    Papers on window and dome technologies and methodologies are presented, covering the processing and application of window and dome materials such as polycrystalline MgAl2O4 spinel, yttria and lanthana-doped yttria, transparent aluminum oxynitride, sapphire materials, fluoride glass, zinc sulfide, and germanium materials. Other topics include high modulus layers as protective coatings for window materials, ultrahard coatings for IR materials, IR applications of GeC thin filems, CVD diamond for IR applications, amorphic diamond films grown with a laser-ion source, dome cooling, microwave shielding effectiveness of electrically conductive coated optical windows, and the window evaluation program for an airborne FLIR system. In addition, papers are presented on modeling optical properties of window materials, lattice symmetries and thermal expansion, rain damage protection for IR materials, optical window materials for hypersonic flow, the IR emission due to aerodynamic heating of missile domes, a ZnS window for the IR instrumentation system, hypersonic aerooptical effects, optical and semiconductor properties of lead telluride coatings, boron phosphide for coating IR transparencies, and the measurement of high out-of-band filter rejection characteristics.

  20. Developing Instructional Materials for Productive Skills. Report of a Study Group Meeting (Jakarta, Indonesia, October 2-17, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    In October 1979, representatives of six of the twenty member nations of the Asia Programme of Educational Innovation for Development met in Indonesia to discuss formulation of guidelines for developing instructional materials for teaching productive skills. This report on that conference begins with comments on experiences in materials development…

  1. Maintaining Vaccine Delivery Following the Introduction of the Rotavirus and Pneumococcal Vaccines in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Assi, Tina-Marie; Rookkapan, Korngamon; Wateska, Angela R.; Rajgopal, Jayant; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Chen, Sheng-I; Brown, Shawn T.; Welling, Joel; Norman, Bryan A.; Connor, Diana L.; Bailey, Rachel R.; Jana, Anirban; Van Panhuis, Willem G.; Burke, Donald S.

    2011-01-01

    Although the substantial burdens of rotavirus and pneumococcal disease have motivated many countries to consider introducing the rotavirus vaccine (RV) and heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) to their National Immunization Programs (EPIs), these new vaccines could affect the countries' vaccine supply chains (i.e., the series of steps required to get a vaccine from their manufacturers to patients). We developed detailed computational models of the Trang Province, Thailand, vaccine supply chain to simulate introducing various RV and PCV-7 vaccine presentations and their combinations. Our results showed that the volumes of these new vaccines in addition to current routine vaccines could meet and even exceed (1) the refrigerator space at the provincial district and sub-district levels and (2) the transport cold space at district and sub-district levels preventing other vaccines from being available to patients who arrive to be immunized. Besides the smallest RV presentation (17.1 cm3/dose), all other vaccine introduction scenarios required added storage capacity at the provincial level (range: 20 L–1151 L per month) for the three largest formulations, and district level (range: 1 L–124 L per month) across all introduction scenarios. Similarly, with the exception of the two smallest RV presentation (17.1 cm3/dose), added transport capacity was required at both district and sub-district levels. Added transport capacity required across introduction scenarios from the provincial to district levels ranged from 1 L–187 L, and district to sub-district levels ranged from 1 L–13 L per shipment. Finally, only the smallest RV vaccine presentation (17.1 cm3/dose) had no appreciable effect on vaccine availability at sub-districts. All other RV and PCV-7 vaccines were too large for the current supply chain to handle without modifications such as increasing storage or transport capacity. Introducing these new vaccines to Thailand could have dynamic effects on

  2. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics: news.

    PubMed

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2013-07-01

    Recent advances in the development of immunotherapeutic mAbs for cancer New vaccine reduces malaria infection by 72% Bavarian Nordic's cancer immunotherapy shows promise in colorectal cancer Chinese HFMD vaccine shows high efficacy in Phase 3 Two-dose regimen of Merck's Gardasil looks effective Accelerating influenza vaccine development using synthetic biology A key role for gut microbes in vaccination Understanding of and attitudes towards vaccines: a study in teenagers. PMID:23863285

  3. Existing antiviral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ravanfar, Parisa; Satyaprakash, Anita; Creed, Rosella; Mendoza, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    The innovation of vaccines has allowed for one of the greatest advancements in the history of public health. The first of the vaccines have been the antiviral vaccines, in particular the smallpox vaccine that was first developed by Edward Jenner in 1796. This article will review vaccination for the following viral diseases: measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, rotavirus, rabies, monkeypox, smallpox, Japanese encephalitis, and yellow fever. PMID:19335723

  4. Countering Vaccine Hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Kathryn M; Hackell, Jesse M

    2016-09-01

    Immunizations have led to a significant decrease in rates of vaccine-preventable diseases and have made a significant impact on the health of children. However, some parents express concerns about vaccine safety and the necessity of vaccines. The concerns of parents range from hesitancy about some immunizations to refusal of all vaccines. This clinical report provides information about addressing parental concerns about vaccination. PMID:27573088

  5. Summary Report for the Technical Interchange Meeting on Development of Baseline Material Properties and Design Guidelines for In-Space Manufacturing Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prater, T. J.; Bean, Q. A.; Werkheiser, N. J.; Johnston, M. M.; Ordonez, E. A.; Ledbetter, F. E.; Risdon, D. L.; Stockman, T. J.; Sandridge, S. K. R.; Nelson, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the Agency as a whole are currently engaged in a number of in-space manufacturing (ISM) activities that have the potential to reduce launch costs, enhance crew safety, and provide the capabilities needed to undertake long-duration spaceflight. The recent 3D Printing in Zero-G experiment conducted on board the International Space Station (ISS) demonstrated that parts of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic can be manufactured in microgravity using fused deposition modeling (FDM). This project represents the beginning of the development of a capability that is critical to future NASA missions. Current and future ISM activities will require the development of baseline material properties to facilitate design, analysis, and certification of materials manufactured using in-space techniques. The purpose of this technical interchange meeting (TIM) was to bring together MSFC practitioners and experts in materials characterization and development of baseline material properties for emerging technologies to advise the ISM team as we progress toward the development of material design values, standards, and acceptance criteria for materials manufactured in space. The overall objective of the TIM was to leverage MSFC's shared experiences and collective knowledge in advanced manufacturing and materials development to construct a path forward for the establishment of baseline material properties, standards development, and certification activities related to ISM. Participants were asked to help identify research and development activities that will (1) accelerate acceptance and adoption of ISM techniques among the aerospace design community; (2) benefit future NASA programs, commercial technology developments, and national needs; and (3) provide opportunities and avenues for further collaboration.

  6. Typhoid fever vaccination strategies.

    PubMed

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley

    2015-06-19

    Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control. PMID:25902360

  7. Obesity vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Mariana P

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is one of the largest and fastest growing public health problems in the world. Last century social changes have set an obesogenic milieu that calls for micro and macro environment interventions for disease prevention, while treatment is mandatory for individuals already obese. The cornerstone of overweight and obesity treatment is diet and physical exercise. However, many patients find lifestyle modifications difficult to comply and prone to failure in the long-term; therefore many patients consider anti-obesity drugs an important adjuvant if not a better alternative to behavioral approach or obesity surgery. Since the pharmacological options for obesity treatment remain quite limited, this is an exciting research area, with new treatment targets and strategies on the horizon. This review discusses the development of innovative therapeutic agents, focusing in energy homeostasis regulation and the use of molecular vaccines, targeting hormones such as somatostatin, GIP and ghrelin, to reduce body weight. PMID:24365968

  8. New challenges in assuring vaccine quality.

    PubMed Central

    Dellepiane, N.; Griffiths, E.; Milstien, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    In the past, quality control of vaccines depended on use of a variety of testing methods to ensure that the products were safe and potent. These methods were developed for vaccines whose safety and efficacy were based on several years worth of data. However, as vaccine production technologies have developed, so have the testing technologies. Tests are now able to detect potential hazards with a sensitivity not possible a few years ago, and an increasing array of physicochemical methods allows a much better characterization of the product. In addition to sophisticated tests, vaccine regulation entails a number of other procedures to ensure safety. These include characterization of starting materials by supplier audits, cell banking, seed lot systems, compliance with the principles of good manufacturing practices, independent release of vaccines on a lot-by-lot basis by national regulatory authorities, and enhanced pre- and post-marketing surveillance for possible adverse events following immunization. These procedures help assure vaccine efficacy and safety, and some examples are given in this article. However, some contaminants of vaccines that can be detected by newer assays raise theoretical safety concerns but their presence may be less hazardous than not giving the vaccines. Thus risk-benefit decisions must be well informed and based on scientific evidence. PMID:10743279

  9. Challenges and constraints to vaccination in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Alders, R G; Bagnol, B; Young, M P; Ahlers, C; Brum, E; Rushton, J

    2007-01-01

    The challenges and constraints to vaccinating poultry in areas where adequate infrastructure and human resources are lacking are addressed in both a technical and a socioeconomic framework. The key issues discussed are: (1) selection of an appropriate vaccine and vaccination technique, including the advantages and disadvantages of a combined vaccine against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and Newcastle disease and addressing the differences between endemic disease and emergency disease control; (2) vaccine conservation and distribution; (3) evaluation of the flocks to be vaccinated in terms of their disease status, immunocompetence and production systems; (4) design of effective information, education and communication materials and methods with and for veterinary and extension staff as well as commercial and smallholder producers and community vaccinators in rural areas; (5) evaluation and monitoring systems for technical and socioeconomic factors that affect vaccination; (6) support and coordination of and by relevant public and private agencies; (7) the role of simultaneous implementation of other control activities in addition to vaccination; (8) the importance of assessing the costs and cost-effectiveness of various approaches to the control of HPAI, including the prevention of other endemic killer diseases and options for cost-sharing; (9) evaluation of the incentives for poultry-holders, vaccinators and vaccine producers to contribute to and participate in effective vaccination campaigns; and (10) policy development and the organizational framework for short- and long-term implementation and communication to decision-makers. PMID:18411937

  10. Rotavirus vaccine: a review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Goel Manish; Arun, Kumar; Bilas, Jain Ram; Ruchi, Jain; Pardeep, Khanna; Pradeep, Siwach

    2012-12-01

    Worldwide, large proportion i.e., 37% of deaths due to diarrhea in young children is attributed to rotavirus. A monovalent P1A[8] G1 vaccine and a pentavalent bovine-human reassortant vaccine human rotavirus vaccine had shown good clinical efficacy without any increase in intussusception among vaccine recipients. WHO recommends that the first dose of rotavirus vaccine should be administered to infants up to age of 6-15 weeks irrespective of the prior history of rotavirus infection and the maximum age for administering the last dose of the vaccine should be 32 weeks. Booster doses are not recommended. The current update reviews the issues related to rotavirus vaccines and their usages like milestones in the development of rotavirus vaccines, concerns regarding their efficacy and cost-effectiveness, immunity after natural infection, potential for changes in virus strains, current recommendations, post marketing surveillance, and future challenges and scope for further research regarding rotavirus vaccines. PMID:25145068

  11. [Developments in HPV vaccination].

    PubMed

    de Melker, Hester; Kenter, Gemma; van Rossum, Tekla; Conyn-van Spaendonck, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination against the human papilloma virus (HPV) has been included in the national Vaccination Programme of the Netherlands for 12-year-old girls since 2010. Vaccination coverage for the birth cohort of 1997 was 56.; there is a gradual increase in uptake. Continuous safety monitoring brought no new unknown serious side effects to light; many girls suffered from transient symptoms such as painful arm, fatigue and headache. After the current vaccines that protect against HPV types 2 and 4 types, respectively and induce some cross protection, vaccines are being developed that can induce broader protection. HPV vaccination of 12-year-old girls is cost-effective, even for relatively low vaccination coverage. The potential protection of HPV vaccination extends beyond prevention of cervical cancer by preventing other oncological manifestations of HPV infection in women as well as men and genital warts. The preventive HPV vaccines do not appear to be effective in treating existing abnormalities. PMID:23171565

  12. Current Vaccine Shortages and Delays

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Education Programs and Tools VTrckS (Vaccine Tracking System) Immunization Registries (IIS) Vaccines for Children (VFC) Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) Vaccine Management Business Improvement Project (VMBIP) Global Immunizations & Vaccinations Immunization Program ...

  13. Mumps - Vaccine Q and A

    MedlinePlus

    ... containing vaccine, given as combination measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine, separated by at least 28 days, are routinely ... been vaccinated should also receive 1 dose of MMR vaccine, but adults who work in healthcare, a school/ ...

  14. Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  15. Side Effects of Smallpox Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET Side Effects of Smallpox Vaccination The smallpox vaccine prevents smallpox. For most people, ... go away without treatment: The arm receiving the vaccination may be sore and red where the vaccine ...

  16. Vaccination: An Act of Love

    MedlinePlus

    ... benefits of vaccines. For this reason, we created Vaccination Week in the Americas to get vaccines to ... and no one gets left behind. Help the vaccination teams when they come to your town, your ...

  17. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (Gardasil)

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes or ringing in the ears.Like all vaccines, HPV vaccines will continue to be monitored for unusual ... visit CDC's website at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines. HPV Vaccine (Gardasil) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health ...

  18. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (Cervarix)

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes or ringing in the ears. Like all vaccines, HPV vaccines will continue to be monitored for unusual ... gov/std/hpv and http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines HPV Vaccine (Cervarix) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health ...

  19. Space optical materials and space qualification of optics; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Mar. 30, 31, 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, Robert R.

    1989-10-01

    The present conference on space optical materials discusses current metals and nonmetals-related processing R&D efforts, investigations of space optical effects, and the spaceborne qualification of optical components and systems. Attention is given to CVD SiC for optical applications, optical materials for space-based lasers, the high-efficiency acoustooptic and optoelectronic crystalline material Tl3AsSe3, HIPed Be for low-scatter cryogenic optics, durable solar-reflective surfacing for Be optics, thermal effects on Be mirrors, contamination effects on optical surfaces in the monolayer regime, and IR background signature survey experiment results. Also discussed are the contamination-control program for the EUE instrument, an optical multipass radiation system for the heating of levitated samples, optical sample-position sensing for electrostatic levitation, and the qualification of space lighting systems.

  20. Vaccines against poverty

    PubMed Central

    MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan

    2014-01-01

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented. PMID:25136089

  1. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  2. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  3. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  4. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  5. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  6. Live Eimeria vaccination success in the face of artificial non-uniform vaccine administration in conventionally reared pullets.

    PubMed

    Price, Kayla R; Hafeez, Mian A; Bulfon, Julia; Barta, John R

    2016-01-01

    Live Eimeria vaccines against coccidiosis in poultry initiate immunity using a vaccine dose containing few oocysts; protection is enhanced through subsequent faecal-oral transmission ("cycling") of parasites in the poultry house. Spray-administered Eimeria vaccines can permit wide variations in doses ingested by individual chicks; some chicks may receive no primary vaccination at all. Consequently, protective immunity for the entire flock depends on successful environmental cycling of vaccine progeny. Pullets missing primary vaccination at day of age can become protected from coccidial challenge through cycling of vaccine progeny oocysts from vaccinated (V) cage mates. This study tested whether 40% cage floor coverage (CFC) with a durable material could improve protection against challenge in these "contact-vaccinated" (CV) or successfully V pullets. The six treatment groups tested were CV, V or sham-vaccinated pullets cage-reared on either 0% or 40% CFC. Oocyst output was measured separately for each group for 30 days following vaccine administration. Lesion scores, body weights and total oocyst outputs were measured to quantify protection at 30 days of age against single or mixed Eimeria species challenge infections. Use of 40% CFC to promote low-level oocyst cycling impacted the flock in two ways: (1) more uniform flock immunity was achieved in the 40% CFC (CV similar to V pullets) compared with 0% CFC and (2) protection was enhanced in the 40% CFC compared with the 0% CFC. The use of CFC is an easily adopted means of improving live Eimeria vaccination of caged pullets. PMID:26743571

  7. Meeting the Dual Goals of Content Knowledge and English Language Learning: A Study of the CCUEI Curriculum Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Xiaodan; Trube, Barbara; Yi, Chunlan

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a study on the China-Canada-United States English Immersion (CCUEI) Moral Education and Social Studies (MESS) curriculum materials for elementary classes (Grades 3-6) with the aim of learning how the curriculum addressed the dual goals of MESS content and English language learning. An analysis comparing the CCUEI third grade…

  8. Intelligent processing of materials; Proceedings of the Symposium, Fall Meeting of the Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society, Indianapolis, IN, Oct. 2-5, 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadley, Haydn N. G.; Eckhart, W. E., Jr.

    Current research on strategies of controlling product properties during processing is examined in reviews and reports. Problems discussed include predictive modeling, advanced sensing, and intelligent control. Particular attention is given to design and manufacturing of advanced materials and structures, intelligent control of carbon-carbon pyrolysis, computer simulation of crystal growth, modeling of phase change phenomena in boundary fitted coordinates, applications of optimization modeling techniques to materials processing, the effect of carbonization kinetics on in-process mechanical properties, nondestructive characterization and strength of solid-solid bond, and acoustic emission and ultrasonic sensing. Consideration is also given to collective learning systems for automatic control, a multicomponent knowledge base for spray casting process control, optimal control of microstructure during near-net shape processing, intelligent control of arc welding, and an intelligent control architecture for carbonization science.

  9. HIV/AIDS and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Research : Vaccines Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Vaccines What Are Vaccines and What Do They Do? A vaccine—also ... immune response against the disease. Is There a Vaccine for HIV? No. There is currently no vaccine ...

  10. The Impact of Pharmacist Interventions on Herpes Zoster Vaccination Rates.

    PubMed

    Eid, Deeb D; Meagher, Rebecca C; Lengel, Aaron J

    2015-08-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that in 2010 only 14.4% of people in the United States who are appropriate candidates received the herpes zoster (shingles) vaccine. This manuscript highlights recent studies that investigate how pharmacists can help improve vaccination rates of herpes zoster in the geriatric population. Research has demonstrated that face-to-face interaction, education, and outreach by pharmacists in the community can help improve rates of herpes zoster vaccination. Having pharmacists take time to talk with patients about the vaccine was shown to have a positive impact on vaccine rates. When face-to-face interactions are not feasible, promotional materials such as newspaper advertisements, flyers, and personalized letters were also found to have a beneficial impact. Pharmacists should consider ways to increase awareness of vaccinations and directly encourage their patients to be vaccinated. PMID:26260642

  11. 1981 advances in aerospace structures and materials; Proceedings of the Winter Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, November 15-20, 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. S.; Renton, W. J.

    Among the topics discussed are the viscoelastic deformation and failure behavior of composite materials with distributed flaws, failure mechanisms in metal matrix composite laminates, the fatigue behavior of adhesively bonded joints, the effects of moisture on the mechanical properties of glass/epoxy composites, the vibration and buckling of thick cylindrical shells of bimodulus composite materials, and the turbulence-excited flapping motion of a rotor blade in hovering flight. Also considered are the creep postbuckling of plates, a variational formulation and incremental solution of elastoplastic torsion, a nonlinear theory of general solid-section beams, macro- and micro-mechanical aspects of creep fracture, and the interface crack in a shear and bending field.

  12. DOE-DARPA High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM), Annual HPCRM Team Meeting & Technical Review

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J; Brown, B; Bayles, B; Lemieux, T; Choi, J; Ajdelsztajn, L; Dannenberg, J; Lavernia, E; Schoenung, J; Branagan, D; Blue, C; Peter, B; Beardsley, B; Graeve, O; Aprigliano, L; Yang, N; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Lewandowski, J; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Lewandowski, J; Boudreau, J

    2007-09-21

    The overall goal is to develop high-performance corrosion-resistant iron-based amorphous-metal coatings for prolonged trouble-free use in very aggressive environments: seawater & hot geothermal brines. The specific technical objectives are: (1) Synthesize Fe-based amorphous-metal coating with corrosion resistance comparable/superior to Ni-based Alloy C-22; (2) Establish processing parameter windows for applying and controlling coating attributes (porosity, density, bonding); (3) Assess possible cost savings through substitution of Fe-based material for more expensive Ni-based Alloy C-22; (4) Demonstrate practical fabrication processes; (5) Produce quality materials and data with complete traceability for nuclear applications; and (6) Develop, validate and calibrate computational models to enable life prediction and process design.

  13. How will diagnostics create new opportunities for prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines?: 2011 Phacilitate Vaccine Forum, Washington DC Day 2, afternoon plenary session—January 25, 2011.

    PubMed

    Sardesai, Niranjan Y

    2011-06-01

    The Phacilitate Vaccine Forum in Washington DC (Jan 24-26, 2011) brought together vaccine stakeholders from industry, government and non-government organizations to discuss broad current issues covering the spectrum of vaccine policy, funding, research and clinical development, manufacturing, regulatory, and post marketing safety and surveillance. While the conference is held annually and the topics generally discussed reflect the emerging trends, case studies, and best practices of current interest to the vaccine industry, this year's meeting had a new plenary session focusing on the intersection of diagnostics and vaccine development. The session was chaired by Dr. Una Ryan (President and CEO, Diagnostics for All) with the provocative title "How will diagnostics create new opportunitites for prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines?" and was followed by a panel discussion amongst industry leaders discussing the key diagnostic applications gaining interest in the vaccine industry. A common theme running through the session was the increasingly significant role of companion diagnostics and immune monitoring to facilitate and accelerate vaccine development. Indeed the recent examples from pneumococcal and meningococcal vaccine development where the developers and regulatory agencies have considered the use of diagnostic assays and immune markers to assess efficacy of the candidate vaccines in regards to licensure strategies for expanding the serotypes covered, can be considered as breakthrough events for the diagnostics developers. As such the meeting and the session was timely in presenting current progress and for soliciting a convergence of opinions amongst the vaccine industry and the regulatory agencies. PMID:21602621

  14. MMR Vaccine (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella)

    MedlinePlus

    Attenuvax® Measles Vaccine ... R-Vax® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine) ... M-R® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine)

  15. The HPV Vaccination Crisis

    Cancer.gov

    Following the release of a consensus statement from the NCI-Designated Cancer Centers urging HPV vaccination in the United States, Dr. Noel Brewer discusses the country’s low vaccination rates and how clinicians can help to improve them.

  16. Pneumococcal Vaccines (PCV, PPSV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Know About Zika & Pregnancy Your Child's Immunizations: Pneumococcal Vaccines (PCV, PPSV) KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: ... or HIV infection); or cochlear implants. Why the Vaccines Are Recommended Children younger than 2 years old, ...

  17. Screening Tests and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us Text size | Print | Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important screening tests and vaccines can save your life. Check this section of ...

  18. [Biotechnology and vaccinations].

    PubMed

    Peret, R

    1990-12-01

    Current biotechnologies used in the manufacture of new vaccines are of three kinds: Genetic recombinations leading to either vaccinal sub-units or living vaccines represented by recombinant vectors; Chemical synthesis techniques; Use of the spatial configuration of an anti-antibody similar to the initial antigen. These are the anti-idiotype vaccines. Genetic engineering is the basis of a new generation of vaccines, sought with the aim of attempting to eradicate a number of diseases throughout the world. However, there is presently an inadequacy in resources, most often linked to financial considerations, which limits widespread systematic vaccination. In the future, vaccines against dental caries will probably be obtained from purified proteins of hydrolase fractions common to cariogenic bacteria and resulting from genetic recombinations in the form of vaccinal sub-units. PMID:2077866

  19. Smallpox Vaccine Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... complications from the vaccinia virus can be severe. Benefit of Vaccine Following Exposure Vaccination within 3 days ... Policies About CDC.gov Link to Us All Languages Contact CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ...

  20. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... What is hepatitis B?Hepatitis B is a serious infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus. ...

  1. Tetanus (Lockjaw) Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults - Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Tetanus (Lockjaw) Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Tetanus (lockjaw) ... Related Pages Diphtheria Pertussis Feature Story: Adults Need Immunizations, Too Also Known As & Abbreviations Tetanus = Lockjaw DTaP = ...

  2. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: ... are at increased risk of developing meningococcal disease. Immunization Schedule Vaccination with MCV4 is recommended: when kids ...

  3. Hepatitis A Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Twinrix® (as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... What is hepatitis A?Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is found in ...

  4. Your child's first vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... these vaccines today: [ ] DTaP [ ] Hib [ ] Hepatitis B [ ] Polio [ ] PCV13 (Provider: Check appropriate boxes) 1. Why get vaccinated? ... the 6-month dose is not needed. Pneumococcal (PCV13) 4 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 12- ...

  5. Vaccines and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Morton, D B

    2007-04-01

    Vaccination promotes animal welfare by protecting animal health, but it also has other welfare benefits, e.g. recent investigations have looked at the potential of vaccines in immunoneutering such as immunocastration--a humane alternative to the painful traditional methods. Similarly, vaccination can be used during disease outbreaks as a viable alternative to stamping-out, thus avoiding the welfare problems that on-farm mass slaughter can cause. Protecting animal health through vaccination leads to improved animal welfare, and maintaining good welfare ensures that animals can respond successfully to vaccination (as poor welfare can lead to immunosuppression, which can affect the response to vaccination). It is clear that vaccination has tremendous advantages for animal welfare and although the possible side effects of vaccination can have a negative effect on the welfare of some individual animals, the harm caused by these unwanted effects must be weighed against the undoubted benefits for groups of animals. PMID:17633300

  6. Clinical vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is regarded as one of the biggest triumphs in the history of medicine. We are living in the most successful period of vaccine development. The accumulation of multidisciplinary knowledge and the investment of massive funding have enabled the development of vaccines against many infectious diseases as well as other diseases including malignant tumors. The paradigm of clinical vaccine evaluation and licensure has also been modernized based on scientific improvements and historical experience. However, there remain a number of hurdles to overcome. Continuous efforts are focused on increasing the efficacy and reducing the risks related to vaccine use. Cutting-edge knowledge about immunology and microbiology is being rapidly translated to vaccine development. Thus, physicians and others involved in the clinical development of vaccines should have sufficient understanding of the recent developmental trends in vaccination and the diseases of interest. PMID:25648742

  7. Vaccine Safety Datalink

    Cancer.gov

    The Vaccine Safety Datalink is part of the National Immunization Program within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and was started in recognition of gaps in the scientific knowledge of rare vaccine side effects.

  8. Decision-making on childhood vaccination by highly educated parents.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Carolina Luísa Alves; Couto, Márcia Thereza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the sociocultural aspects involved in the decision-making process of vaccination in upper-class and highly educated families. METHODS A qualitative approach based on in-depth interviews with 15 couples from the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, falling into three categories: vaccinators, late or selective vaccinators, and nonvaccinators. The interpretation of produced empirical material was performed through content analysis. RESULTS The study showed diverse and particular aspects surrounding the three groups' decisions whether to vaccinate their children. The vaccinators' decision to vaccinate their children was spontaneous and raised no questions. Most late or selective vaccinators experienced a wide range of situations that were instrumental in the decision to delay or not apply certain vaccines. The nonvaccinator's decision-making process expressed a broader context of both criticism of hegemonic obstetric practices in Brazil and access to information transmitted via social networks and the internet. The data showed that the problematization of vaccines (culminating in the decision to not vaccinate their children) occurred in the context of humanized birth, was protagonized by women and was greatly influenced by health information from the internet. CONCLUSIONS Sociocultural aspects of the singular Brazilian context and the contemporary society were involved in the decision-making on children's vaccination. Understanding this process can provide a real basis for a deeper reflection on health and immunization practices in Brazil in light of the new contexts and challenges of the world today. PMID:25830870

  9. [Public Health initiative for improved vaccination for asylum seekers].

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Stefan O; Wjst, Stephanie; Zelmer, Ursula; Carollo, Stefanie; Schmid, Mirjam; Roller, Gottfried; Eichner, Martin

    2016-05-01

    The number of asylum seekers in Germany has increased dramatically in 2015. Their medical care includes the officially recommended vaccinations; yet, no detailed information on this is yet available in Germany. In light of the rising number of asylum seekers, we have developed a concept to facilitate their vaccination. This concept includes the coordination of different partners, the supply of vaccines and other materials through the local health office, and the cooperation with the local physicians' association. To evaluate and accelerate progress, we compared the number of vaccinations conducted by physicians independently of the vaccination concept with those conducted within the new concept. For the period of investigation, 2,256 new asylum seekers were temporarily accommodated in the facilities. The vaccination concept was applied in only some of the facilities. Twenty-eight percent of all asylum seekers (642) were vaccinated at least once; 89 % of the vaccinees (571) were vaccinated within the newly developed concept. In the facilities that were not included in this concept, only 6 % of the refugees were vaccinated, whereas in the facilities that were included up to 58 % were vaccinated. Even though the new concept has started successfully, further innovations are required to reach sufficient vaccination coverage among asylum seekers. In view of the large number of new asylum seekers expected, the adjustment and expansion of the new concept requires professional planning and coordination. Furthermore, additional resources are required. PMID:27072499

  10. Polysaccharide-Based Vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, Violeta Fernández; Balbin, Yury Valdés; Calderón, Janoi Chang; Icart, Luis Peña; Verez-Bencomo, Vicente

    Capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and lipopolysaccharides from bacteria are employed for the production of vaccines against human diseases. Initial development of CPS as a vaccine was followed by the development and introduction of conjugate polysaccharide-protein vaccines. The principles leading to both developments are reviewed.

  11. Vaccines in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Mitali M; Shah, Aishani C; Mahajan, Rashmi S; Bilimoria, Freny E

    2015-01-01

    A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a specific disease. More than two centuries have passed since the first successful vaccine for smallpox was developed. We’ve come a long way since. Today's vaccines are among the 21st century's most successful and cost-effective public health tools for preventing diseases. PMID:26120155

  12. A Dengue Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Anna P

    2016-06-30

    Denvaxia is the first licensed vaccine for the prevention of dengue. It is a live vaccine developed using recombinant DNA technology. The vaccine is given as three doses over the course of a year and has the potential to prevent hundreds of thousands of hospitalizations each year. PMID:27368091

  13. Yellow Fever Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    What is yellow fever?Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. It is found in certain parts of Africa ... How can I prevent yellow fever?Yellow fever vaccine can prevent yellow fever. ... only at designated vaccination centers. After getting the vaccine, you ...

  14. Vaccines in dermatological diseases.

    PubMed

    Magel, G D; Mendoza, N; Digiorgio, C M; Haitz, K A; Lapolla, W J; Tyring, S K

    2011-06-01

    Vaccines have been a cornerstone in medicine and public health since their inception in the 18th century by Edward Jenner. Today, greater than 20 vaccines are used worldwide for the prevention of both viral and bacterial diseases. This article will review the vaccines used for the following dermatological diseases: smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, shingles, and human papillomavirus. PMID:21566552

  15. Importance of vaccination habit and vaccine choice on influenza vaccination among healthy working adults.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chyongchiou J; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Toback, Seth L; Rousculp, Matthew D; Raymund, Mahlon; Ambrose, Christopher S; Zimmerman, Richard K

    2010-11-10

    This randomized cluster trial was designed to improve workplace influenza vaccination rates using enhanced advertising, choice of vaccine type (intranasal or injectable) and an incentive. Workers aged 18-49 years were surveyed immediately following vaccination to determine factors associated with vaccination behavior and choice. The questionnaire assessed attitudes, beliefs and social support for influenza vaccine, demographics, and historical, current, and intentional vaccination behavior. Of the 2389 vaccinees, 83.3% received injectable vaccine and 16.7% received intranasal vaccine. Factors associated with previous influenza vaccination were older age, female sex, higher education and greater support for injectable vaccine (all P<.02). Current influenza vaccination with intranasal vaccine vs. injectable vaccine was associated with higher education, the study interventions, greater support for the intranasal vaccine and nasal sprays, less support of injectable vaccine, more negative attitudes about influenza vaccine, and a greater likelihood of reporting that the individual would not have been vaccinated had only injectable vaccine been offered (all P<.01). Intentional vaccine choice was most highly associated with previous vaccination behavior (P<.001). A key to long term improvements in workplace vaccination is to encourage first time influenza vaccination through interventions that include incentives, publicity and vaccine choice. PMID:20638452

  16. Therapeutic Vaccine Strategies against Human Papillomavirus

    PubMed Central

    Khallouf, Hadeel; Grabowska, Agnieszka K.; Riemer, Angelika B.

    2014-01-01

    High-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause over 500,000 cervical, anogenital and oropharyngeal cancer cases per year. The transforming potential of HPVs is mediated by viral oncoproteins. These are essential for the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Thus, HPV-mediated malignancies pose the unique opportunity in cancer vaccination to target immunologically foreign epitopes. Therapeutic HPV vaccination is therefore an ideal scenario for proof-of-concept studies of cancer immunotherapy. This is reflected by the fact that a multitude of approaches has been utilized in therapeutic HPV vaccination design: protein and peptide vaccination, DNA vaccination, nanoparticle- and cell-based vaccines, and live viral and bacterial vectors. This review provides a comprehensive overview of completed and ongoing clinical trials in therapeutic HPV vaccination (summarized in tables), and also highlights selected promising preclinical studies. Special emphasis is given to adjuvant science and the potential impact of novel developments in vaccinology research, such as combination therapies to overcome tumor immune suppression, the use of novel materials and mouse models, as well as systems vaccinology and immunogenetics approaches. PMID:26344626

  17. Strategies to advance vaccine technologies for resource-poor settings.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Debra; Chen, Dexiang

    2013-04-18

    New vaccine platform and delivery technologies that can have significant positive impacts on the effectiveness, acceptability, and safety of immunizations in developing countries are increasingly available. Although donor support for vaccine technology development is strong, the uptake of proven technologies by the vaccine industry and demand for them by purchasers continues to lag. This article explains the challenges and opportunities associated with accelerating the availability of innovative and beneficial vaccine technologies to meet critical needs in resource-poor settings over the next decade. Progress will require increased dialog between the public and private sectors around vaccine product attributes; establishment of specifications for vaccines that mirror programmatic needs; stronger encouragement of vaccine developers to consider novel technologies early in the product development process; broader facilitation of research and access to technologies through the formation of centers of excellence; the basing of vaccine purchase decisions on immunization systems costs rather than price per dose alone; possible subsidization of early technology adoption costs for vaccine producers that take on the risks of new technologies of importance to the public sector; and the provision of data to purchasers, better enabling them to make informed decisions that take into account the value of specific product attributes. PMID:23598477

  18. MRS International Meeting on Advanced Materials, 1st, Tokyo, Japan, June 2, 3, 1988, Proceedings. Volume 4 - Composites corrosion/Coating of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Shiushichi; Kobayashi, Akira; Nii, Kazuyoshi; Saito, Yasutoshi; Umekawa, Sokichi.

    1989-01-01

    The present conference on metal-matrix composites (MMCs) and ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) discusses electrodeposited C/Cu MMCs, the quasi-liquid hot press method for SiC/Al composites, die-cast MMCs for tribological applications, the solidification-processing of monotectic alloy matrix composites, the fracture of SiC whisker-reinforced Al-alloy MMCs, the elastic constants of a graphite/magnesium composite, and an elastoplastic analysis of metal/plastic/metal sandwich plates in three-point bending. Also discussed are the fabrication of diamond particle-dispersed glass composites in space, heat-resistant graphite fiber-reinforced phosphate ceramic CMCs, the high-temperature creep of SiC-reinforced alumina CMCs, flexible carbon fiber-reinforced exfoliated graphite composites, and the application of advanced CMCs to advanced railway systems, the corrosion and oxidation of SiC, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and other structural ceramics, corrosion properties of advanced alloys, and novel coating systems for advanced materials.

  19. 76 FR 51369 - Meeting of the National Biodefense Science Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... majority of this public meeting will be dedicated to a discussion of the findings of the NBSB's Anthrax Vaccine Working Group. Subsequent agenda topics will be added as priorities dictate. Any additional...

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Goepfert, Paul; Bansal, Anju

    2014-12-01

    Although some success was achieved in recent years in HIV prevention, an effective vaccine remains the means with the most potential of curtailing HIV-1 infections worldwide. Despite multiple failed attempts, a recent HIV vaccine regimen demonstrated modest protection from infection. Although the protective efficacy in this trial was not sufficient to warrant licensure, it spurred renewed optimism in the field and has provided valuable insights for improving future vaccine designs. This review summarizes the pertinent details of vaccine development and discusses ways the field is moving forward to develop a vaccine to prevent HIV infection and disease progression. PMID:25287587

  1. Vaccination for Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehen, Stephan; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    1991-01-01

    Recombinant virus vaccines that express a limited number of epitopes are currently being developed to prevent disease by changing the relative balance between viral spread and the immune response. Some circumstances, however, were found in infections with a noncytopathic virus in which vaccination caused disease; sensitive parameters included the genetic background of the host, the time or dose of infection, and the constituents of the vaccine. Thus, immunopathologic damage by T cells may be an unwanted consequence of vaccination with the new types of peptide or recombinant vaccines that are being investigated for the human immunodeficiency viruses and other pathogens.

  2. Vaccine-Associated Uveitis.

    PubMed

    Benage, Matthew; Fraunfelder, Frederick W

    2016-01-01

    All of the widely administered vaccines have been reported to cause uveitis. The ocular inflammation is usually temporary and resolves with topical ocular steroids. During a 26-year period, a total of 289 cases of vaccine-associated uveitis were reported to three adverse reaction reporting databases. Hepatitis B vaccine, either alone or administered with other vaccines, appears to be the leading offender. Clinicians are encouraged to report cases of vaccine- or drug-associated ocular adverse reactions to www.eyedrugregistry.com. PMID:27039491

  3. NEW MATERIALS DEVELOPED TO MEET REGULATORY AND TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, J.; Langton, C.; Musall, J.; Griffin, W.

    2012-01-18

    For the 2010 ANS Embedded Topical Meeting on Decommissioning, Decontamination and Reutilization and Technology, Savannah River National Laboratory's Mike Serrato reported initial information on the newly developed specialty grout materials necessary to satisfy all requirements associated with in-situ decommissioning of P-Reactor and R-Reactor at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. Since that report, both projects have been successfully completed and extensive test data on both fresh properties and cured properties has been gathered and analyzed for a total of almost 191,150 m{sup 3} (250,000 yd{sup 3}) of new materials placed. The focus of this paper is to describe the (1) special grout mix for filling the P-Reactor vessel (RV) and (2) the new flowable structural fill materials used to fill the below grade portions of the facilities. With a wealth of data now in hand, this paper also captures the test results and reports on the performance of these new materials. Both reactors were constructed and entered service in the early 1950s, producing weapons grade materials for the nation's defense nuclear program. R-Reactor was shut down in 1964 and the P-Reactor in 1991. In-situ decommissioning (ISD) was selected for both facilities and performed as Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensations and Liability Act actions (an early action for P-Reactor and a removal action for R-Reactor), beginning in October 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy concept for ISD is to physically stabilize and isolate intact, structurally robust facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of producing (reactor facilities), processing (isotope separation facilities), or storing radioactive materials. Funding for accelerated decommissioning was provided under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Decommissioning of both facilities was completed in September 2011. ISD objectives for these CERCLA actions included: (1) Prevent industrial worker

  4. Vaccinations for Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, Geeta K.; Heine, R. Phillips

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician–gynecologists are well-suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease–related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and infant benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and provider resources. PMID:25560127

  5. Emerging Vaccine Informatics

    PubMed Central

    He, Yongqun; Rappuoli, Rino; De Groot, Anne S.; Chen, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Vaccine informatics is an emerging research area that focuses on development and applications of bioinformatics methods that can be used to facilitate every aspect of the preclinical, clinical, and postlicensure vaccine enterprises. Many immunoinformatics algorithms and resources have been developed to predict T- and B-cell immune epitopes for epitope vaccine development and protective immunity analysis. Vaccine protein candidates are predictable in silico from genome sequences using reverse vaccinology. Systematic transcriptomics and proteomics gene expression analyses facilitate rational vaccine design and identification of gene responses that are correlates of protection in vivo. Mathematical simulations have been used to model host-pathogen interactions and improve vaccine production and vaccination protocols. Computational methods have also been used for development of immunization registries or immunization information systems, assessment of vaccine safety and efficacy, and immunization modeling. Computational literature mining and databases effectively process, mine, and store large amounts of vaccine literature and data. Vaccine Ontology (VO) has been initiated to integrate various vaccine data and support automated reasoning. PMID:21772787

  6. Vaccinations for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and neonatal benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and health care provider resources. PMID:25560127

  7. Therapeutics and vaccines against chikungunya virus.

    PubMed

    Ahola, Tero; Couderc, Therese; Courderc, Therese; Ng, Lisa F P; Hallengärd, David; Powers, Ann; Lecuit, Marc; Esteban, Mariano; Merits, Andres; Roques, Pierre; Liljeström, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or therapies available against chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and these were subjects discussed during a CHIKV meeting recently organized in Langkawi, Malaysia. In this review, we chart the approaches taken in both areas. Because of a sharp increase in new data in these fields, the present paper is complementary to previous reviews by Weaver et al. in 2012 and Kaur and Chu in 2013 . The most promising antivirals so far discovered are reviewed, with a special focus on the virus-encoded replication proteins as potential targets. Within the vaccines in development, our review emphasizes the various strategies in parallel development that are unique in the vaccine field against a single disease. PMID:25897811

  8. Vaccines for allergy

    PubMed Central

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic. PMID:22521141

  9. Vaccines for allergy.

    PubMed

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-06-01

    Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic. PMID:22521141

  10. Immunology of vaccination.

    PubMed

    Beverley, P C L

    2002-01-01

    An ideal vaccine is relatively easy to define, but few real vaccines approach the ideal and no vaccines exist for many organisms, for which a vaccine is the only realistic protective strategy in the foreseeable future. Many difficulties account for the failure to produce these vaccines. All micro-organisms deploy evasion mechanisms that interfere with effective immune responses and, for many organisms, it is not clear which immune responses provide effective protection. However, recent advances in methods for studying immune response to pathogens have provided a better understanding of immune mechanisms, including immunological memory, and led to the realisation that the initiation of immune responses is a key event requiring triggering through 'danger' signals. Based on these findings, the development of novel adjuvants, vectors and vaccine formulations allowing stimulation of optimal and prolonged protective immunity should lead to the introduction of vaccines for previously resistant organisms. PMID:12176847

  11. Vaccine epidemiology: A review

    PubMed Central

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2016-01-01

    This review article outlines the key concepts in vaccine epidemiology, such as basic reproductive numbers, force of infection, vaccine efficacy and effectiveness, vaccine failure, herd immunity, herd effect, epidemiological shift, disease modeling, and describes the application of this knowledge both at program levels and in the practice by family physicians, epidemiologists, and pediatricians. A case has been made for increased knowledge and understanding of vaccine epidemiology among key stakeholders including policy makers, immunization program managers, public health experts, pediatricians, family physicians, and other experts/individuals involved in immunization service delivery. It has been argued that knowledge of vaccine epidemiology which is likely to benefit the society through contributions to the informed decision-making and improving vaccination coverage in the low and middle income countries (LMICs). The article ends with suggestions for the provision of systematic training and learning platforms in vaccine epidemiology to save millions of preventable deaths and improve health outcomes through life-course. PMID:27453836

  12. [Vaccinations for the travellers].

    PubMed

    Gendrel, Dominique

    2004-03-15

    Immunisations for the traveller include, before specific vaccine, a correct immunisation schedule according to national recommendations with appropriate boosters and hepatitis B immunisation. The yellow fever vaccine is required to entry in countries of endemic area and quadrivalent ACYW135 meningococcal vaccine for entry in Saudi Arabia. Hepatitis A immunisation could be performed at 1 year of age and is recommended for travellers in tropical areas and children vaccination control the disease both in the patient and in the contacts. Meningococcal A+C vaccines are required for travellers in meningitis-prone areas of tropical Africa during the dry season (December to June), and quadrivalent ACYW135 is useful only in Burkina-Faso and Niger. Typhoid and rabies vaccines are required for ambulatory travellers in endemic areas, as Japanese encephalitis in south-west Asia. In central Europe, tick-borne encephalitis vaccination is recommended for patients travelling in forest areas during spring and summer. PMID:15176511

  13. Improving Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccination Rates in Ambulatory Specialty Practices

    PubMed Central

    Pennant, Keyana N.; Costa, John J.; Fuhlbrigge, Anne L.; Sax, Paul E.; Szent-Gyorgyi, Lara E.; Coblyn, Jonathan; Desai, Sonali P.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations are recommended for elderly and high-risk patients; however, rates of adherence are low. We sought to implement influenza and pneumococcal vaccine initiatives in 4 different ambulatory specialty practices, using 3 unique approaches. Methods. Four specialties with high-risk patient populations were selected for intervention: allergy (asthma), infectious disease (ID) (human immunodeficiency virus), pulmonary (chronic lung disease), and rheumatology (immunocompromised). Allergy and ID focused on influenza vaccination, and pulmonary and rheumatology focused on pneumococcal vaccination. We used 3 strategies for quality improvement: physician reminders, patient letters, and a nurse-driven model. Physicians were provided their performance data on a monthly basis and presented trended data on a quarterly basis at staff meetings. Results. All 4 specialties developed processes for improving vaccination rates with all showing some increase. Higher rates were achieved with pneumococcal vaccine than influenza. Pneumococcal vaccine rates showed steady improvement from year to year while influenza vaccine rates remained relatively constant. Allergy's influenza rate was 59% in 2011 and 64% in the 2014 flu season. Infectious disease influenza rates moved from 74% in the 2011 flu season to 86% for the 2014 season. Pneumococcal vaccine in pulmonary patients' rate was 52% at the start of intervention in February 2009 and 79% as of January 2015. Rheumatology rates rose from 50% in February 2009 to 87% in January 2015. Conclusions. Integrated routine workflow and performance data sharing can effectively engage specialists and staff in vaccine adherence improvement. Influenza vaccination may require other approaches to achieve the rates seen with pneumococcal vaccine. PMID:26430697

  14. Quadracel: Vaccination Against Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, and Poliomyelitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Mosley, Juan F.; Smith, Lillian L.; Parke, Crystal K.; Brown, Jamal A.; LaFrance, Justin M.; Clark, Patricia K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Vaccinations in school-aged children are required by state and local law to maintain high vaccination coverage rates, as well as low rates of vaccine-preventable diseases. Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis are childhood diseases that can be life threatening; poliomyelitis, another childhood disease, can be disabling. In turn, vaccinations were developed to provide protection against these diseases. Today, several vaccinations are recommended for children, including but not limited to diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTaP) and poliomyelitis (IPV). DTaP requires five doses, and IPV requires four. Quadracel (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis adsorbed and inactivated poliovirus vaccine, Sanofi Pasteur Inc.) is a new vaccination developed to condense the last dose of both DTaP and IPV so they do not have to be given separately, thus reducing the total number of vaccinations required. Discussion: The Quadracel vaccine is an option for use in children who are completing the DTaP and IPV series. In a randomized, controlled, phase 3, pivotal trial, Quadracel proved to be as efficacious and safe as Daptacel (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed, Sanofi Pasteur Inc.) and IPOL (poliovirus vaccine inactivated, Sanofi Pasteur Inc.), given separately, to children between the ages of 4 and 6 years. Conclusion: Quadracel should be recommended to parents who have children between the ages of 4 and 6 years who meet the necessary administration criteria and need to finalize their DTaP and IPV series. Quadracel’s administration in the vaccination series replaces one additional injection, which may benefit children who are afraid of receiving shots and parents who need to schedule one less doctor’s appointment. PMID:27069343

  15. Immunogenicity of next-generation HPV vaccines in non-human primates: Measles-vectored HPV vaccine versus Pichia pastoris recombinant protein vaccine.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Gaurav; Giannino, Viviana; Rishi, Narayan; Glueck, Reinhard

    2016-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide. HPVs are oncogenic small double-stranded DNA viruses that are the primary causal agent of cervical cancer and other types of cancers, including in the anus, oropharynx, vagina, vulva, and penis. Prophylactic vaccination against HPV is an attractive strategy for preventing cervical cancer and some other types of cancers. However, there are few safe and effective vaccines against HPV infections. Current first-generation commercial HPV vaccines are expensive to produce and deliver. The goal of this study was to develop an alternate potent HPV recombinant L1-based vaccines by producing HPV virus-like particles into a vaccine that is currently used worldwide. Live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccines have a well-established safety and efficacy record, and recombinant MV (rMV) produced by reverse genetics may be useful for generating candidate HPV vaccines to meet the needs of the developing world. We studied in non-human primate rMV-vectored HPV vaccine in parallel with a classical alum adjuvant recombinant HPV16L1 and 18L1 protein vaccine produced in Pichia pastoris. A combined prime-boost approach using both vaccines was evaluated, as well as immune interference due to pre-existing immunity against the MV. The humoral immune response induced by the MV, Pichia-expressed vaccine, and their combination as priming and boosting approaches was found to elicit HPV16L1 and 18L1 specific total IgG and neutralizing antibody titres. Pre-existing antibodies against measles did not prevent the immune response against HPV16L1 and 18L1. PMID:27523740

  16. Topical vaccination with functionalized particles targeting dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Baleeiro, Renato B; Wiesmüller, Karl-Heinz; Reiter, Yoran; Baude, Barbara; Dähne, Lars; Patzelt, Alexa; Lademann, Jürgen; Barbuto, José A; Walden, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Needle-free vaccination, for reasons of safety, economy, and convenience, is a central goal in vaccine development, but it also needs to meet the immunological requirements for efficient induction of prophylactic and therapeutic immune responses. Combining the principles of noninvasive delivery to dendritic cells (DCs) through skin and the immunological principles of cell-mediated immunity, we developed microparticle-based topical vaccines. We show here that the microparticles are efficient carriers for coordinated delivery of the essential vaccine constituents to DCs for cross-presentation of the antigens and stimulation of T-cell responses. When applied to the skin, the microparticles penetrate into hair follicles and target the resident DCs, the immunologically most potent cells and site for induction of efficient immune responses. The microparticle vaccine principle can be applied to different antigen formats such as peptides and proteins, or nucleic acids coding for the antigens. PMID:23426134

  17. Micro- and nanoparticulates for DNA vaccine delivery.

    PubMed

    Farris, Eric; Brown, Deborah M; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E; Pannier, Angela K

    2016-05-01

    DNA vaccination has emerged as a promising alternative to traditional protein-based vaccines for the induction of protective immune responses. DNA vaccines offer several advantages over traditional vaccines, including increased stability, rapid and inexpensive production, and flexibility to produce vaccines for a wide variety of infectious diseases. However, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines delivered as naked plasmid DNA is often weak due to degradation of the DNA by nucleases and inefficient delivery to immune cells. Therefore, biomaterial-based delivery systems based on micro- and nanoparticles that encapsulate plasmid DNA represent the most promising strategy for DNA vaccine delivery. Microparticulate delivery systems allow for passive targeting to antigen presenting cells through size exclusion and can allow for sustained presentation of DNA to cells through degradation and release of encapsulated vaccines. In contrast, nanoparticle encapsulation leads to increased internalization, overall greater transfection efficiency, and the ability to increase uptake across mucosal surfaces. Moreover, selection of the appropriate biomaterial can lead to increased immune stimulation and activation through triggering innate immune response receptors and target DNA to professional antigen presenting cells. Finally, the selection of materials with the appropriate properties to achieve efficient delivery through administration routes conducive to high patient compliance and capable of generating systemic and local (i.e. mucosal) immunity can lead to more effective humoral and cellular protective immune responses. In this review, we discuss the development of novel biomaterial-based delivery systems to enhance the delivery of DNA vaccines through various routes of administration and their implications for generating immune responses. PMID:27048557

  18. New tuberculosis vaccines.

    PubMed

    Martín Montañés, Carlos; Gicquel, Brigitte

    2011-03-01

    The current tuberculosis (TB) vaccine, bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), is a live vaccine used worldwide, as it protects against severe forms of the disease, saving thousands of lives every year, but its efficacy against pulmonary forms of TB, responsible for transmission of the diseases, is variable. For more than 80 years now no new TB vaccines have been successfully developed. Over the last decade the effort of the scientific community has resulted in the design and construction of promising vaccine candidates. The goal is to develop a new generation of vaccines effective against respiratory forms of the disease. We will focus this review on new prophylactic vaccine candidates that aim to prevent TB diseases. Two are the main strategies used to improve the immunity conferred by the current BCG vaccine, by boosting it with new subunit vaccines, and a second strategy is focused on the construction of new more effective live vaccines, capable to replace the current BCG and to be used as prime vaccines. After rigorous preclinical studies in different animal models new TB vaccine candidates enter in clinical trials in humans. First, a small Phase I for safety followed by immunological evaluation in Phase II trials and finally evaluated in large population Phase III efficacy trials in endemic countries. At present BCG prime and boost with different subunit vaccine candidates are the more advanced assessed in Phase II. Two prime vaccines (based on recombinant BCG) have been successfully evaluated for safety in Phase I trials. A short number of live attenuated vaccines are in advance preclinical studies and the candidates ready to enter Phase I safety trials are produced under current good manufacturing practices. PMID:21420568

  19. Materialism.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26301463

  20. Utilizing the health belief model to assess vaccine acceptance of patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Adams, Angela; Hall, Mellisa; Fulghum, Janis

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine rates in patients on hemodialysis are substantially lower than the Healthy People 2020 targets. The purpose of this study is to utilize the perceptions and cues for action constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM) to assess the attitudes of patients receiving outpatient hemodialysis regarding acceptance of the seasonal influenza, pneumococcal, and hepatitis B virus vaccines. Vaccine acceptance is defined as receiving the vaccine. Study findings suggest age, perceived susceptibility, and perceived severity increase the odds of getting some vaccines. Findings have implications for the development of patient education materials, interdisciplinary team assessments, and plan of care strategies to increase vaccine acceptance. PMID:25244894

  1. 77 FR 14047 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    .... Questions may be sent by electronic mail to FR_NOTICE_QUESTIONS@lsc.gov . NON-CONFIDENTIAL MEETING MATERIALS: Upon request, non-confidential meeting materials will be made available in electronic format. Please... Sunshine Act Meeting Notice DATE AND TIME: The Legal Services Corporation's Audit Committee will meet...

  2. Influenza Vaccines: Challenges and Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Houser, Katherine; Subbarao, Kanta

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is the best method for the prevention and control of influenza. Vaccination can reduce illness and lessen severity of infection. This review focuses on how currently licensed influenza vaccines are generated in the U.S., why the biology of influenza poses vaccine challenges, and vaccine approaches on the horizon that address these challenges. PMID:25766291

  3. [Mercury in vaccines].

    PubMed

    Hessel, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Thiomersal, also called thimerosal, is an ethyl mercury derivative used as a preservative to prevent bacterial contamination of multidose vaccine vials after they have been opened. Exposure to low doses of thiomersal has essentially been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Nevertheless there is no evidence that allergy to thiomersal could be induced by thiomersal-containing vaccines. Allergy to thiomersal is usually of delayed-hypersensitivity type, but its detection through cutaneous tests is not very reliable. Hypersensitivity to thiomersal is not considered as a contraindication to the use of thiomersal-containing vaccines. In 1999 in the USA, thiomersal was present in approximately 30 different childhood vaccines, whereas there were only 2 in France. Although there were no evidence of neurological toxicity in infants related to the use of thiomersal-containing vaccines, the FDA considered that the cumulative dose of mercury received by young infants following vaccination was high enough (although lower than the FDA threshold for methyl mercury) to request vaccine manufacturers to remove thiomersal from vaccine formulations. Since 2002, all childhood vaccines used in Europe and the USA are thiomersal-free or contain only minute amounts of thiomersal. Recently published studies have shown that the mercury levels in the blood, faeces and urine of children who had received thiomersal-containing vaccines were much lower than those accepted by the American Environmental Protection Agency. It has also been demonstrated that the elimination of mercury in children was much faster than what was expected on the basis of studies conducted with methyl mercury originating from food. Recently, the hypothesis that mercury contained in vaccines could be the cause of autism and other neurological developmental disorders created a new debate in the medical community and the general public. To date, none of the epidemiological studies conducted in Europe and elsewhere

  4. The Danish vaccination register.

    PubMed

    Grove Krause, T; Jakobsen, S; Haarh, M; Mølbak, K

    2012-01-01

    Immunisation information systems (IIS) are valuable tools for monitoring vaccination coverage and for estimating vaccine effectiveness and safety. Since 2009, an advanced IIS has been developed in Denmark and will be implemented during 2012–14. This IIS is based on a database existing since 2000. The reporting of all administered vaccinations including vaccinations outside the national programme will become mandatory. Citizens will get access to data about their own vaccinations and healthcare personnel will get access to information on the vaccinations of their patients. A national concept of identification, a national solution combining a personal code and a card with codes, ensures easy and secure access to the register. From the outset, the IIS will include data on childhood vaccinations administered from 1996 and onwards. All Danish citizens have a unique identifier, a so called civil registration number, which allows the linking of information on vaccinations coming from different electronic data sources. The main challenge will be to integrate the IIS with the different electronic patient record systems currently existing at general practitioner, vaccination clinic and hospital level thereby avoiding double-entry. A need has been identified for an updated international classification of vaccine products on the market. Such a classification would also be useful for the future exchange of data on immunisations from IIS between countries. PMID:22551494

  5. Nasal vaccine innovation.

    PubMed

    Jabbal-Gill, Inderjit

    2010-12-01

    The current vaccine market is gaining momentum in the development of alternative administration routes namely intranasal, oral, topical, pulmonary, vaginal, and rectal; the nasal route offers the most promising opportunity for vaccine administration. It can enhance convenience, safety, elicit both local and systemic immune responses; thus potentially provide protection from pathogens at the site of entry. Nasal vaccine innovation comes with both opportunities and challenges. The innovative strategies used by industry and researchers to overcome the hurdles are discussed in this article: these include live-attenuated vaccines, adjuvants, mucoadhesives, particulate delivery systems, virus-like particles, vaccine manufacture, challenges of regulatory authorities, and the nasal vaccine impact on market potential. Critical issues for effective nasal vaccination are the antigen-retention period that enables its interaction with the lymphatic system and choice of an adjuvant that is nontoxic and induces the required immune response. Co-adjuvanting by means of a mucoadhesive technology addresses some of these issues. ChiSys(®), a natural bioadhesive with proven intranasal safety profile, has already demonstrated efficacy for several nasally delivered vaccines including norovirus. With the looming threat of a pandemic, alternatives such as intranasal vaccination will ultimately facilitate greater public compliance and rapid mass global vaccination. PMID:21047271

  6. Decision-making on childhood vaccination by highly educated parents

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Carolina Luísa Alves; Couto, Márcia Thereza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the sociocultural aspects involved in the decision-making process of vaccination in upper-class and highly educated families. METHODS A qualitative approach based on in-depth interviews with 15 couples from the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, falling into three categories: vaccinators, late or selective vaccinators, and nonvaccinators. The interpretation of produced empirical material was performed through content analysis. RESULTS The study showed diverse and particular aspects surrounding the three groups’ decisions whether to vaccinate their children. The vaccinators’ decision to vaccinate their children was spontaneous and raised no questions. Most late or selective vaccinators experienced a wide range of situations that were instrumental in the decision to delay or not apply certain vaccines. The nonvaccinator’s decision-making process expressed a broader context of both criticism of hegemonic obstetric practices in Brazil and access to information transmitted via social networks and the internet. The data showed that the problematization of vaccines (culminating in the decision to not vaccinate their children) occurred in the context of humanized birth, was protagonized by women and was greatly influenced by health information from the internet. CONCLUSIONS Sociocultural aspects of the singular Brazilian context and the contemporary society were involved in the decision-making on children’s vaccination. Understanding this process can provide a real basis for a deeper reflection on health and immunization practices in Brazil in light of the new contexts and challenges of the world today. PMID:25830870

  7. The Meningitis Vaccine Project.

    PubMed

    LaForce, F Marc; Konde, Kader; Viviani, Simonetta; Préziosi, Marie-Pierre

    2007-09-01

    Epidemic meningococcal meningitis is an important public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Current control measures rely on reactive immunizations with polysaccharide (PS) vaccines that do not induce herd immunity and are of limited effectiveness in those under 2 years of age. Conversely, polysaccharide conjugate vaccines are effective in infants and have consistently shown an important effect on decreasing carriage, two characteristics that facilitate disease control. In 2001 the Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP) was created as a partnership between PATH and the World Health Organization (WHO) with the goal of eliminating meningococcal epidemics in Africa through the development, licensure, introduction, and widespread use of conjugate meningococcal vaccines. Since group A Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis) is the dominant pathogen causing epidemic meningitis in Africa MVP is developing an affordable (US$ 0.40 per dose) meningococcal A (Men A) conjugate vaccine through an innovative international partnership that saw transfer of a conjugation and fermentation technology to a developing country vaccine manufacturer. A Phase 1 study of the vaccine in India has shown that the product is safe and immunogenic. Phase 2 studies have begun in Africa, and a large demonstration study of the conjugate vaccine is envisioned for 2008-2009. After extensive consultations with African public health officials a vaccine introduction plan has been developed that includes introduction of the Men A conjugate vaccine into standard Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) schedules but also emphasizes mass vaccination of 1-29 years old to induce herd immunity, a strategy that has been shown to be highly effective when the meningococcal C (Men C) conjugate vaccine was introduced in several European countries. The MVP model is a clear example of the usefulness of a "push mechanism" to finance the development of a needed vaccine for the developing world. PMID:17521780

  8. Cutaneous reactions to vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Adena E; Stein, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinations are important for infectious disease prevention; however, there are adverse effects of vaccines, many of which are cutaneous. Some of these reactions are due to nonspecific inflammation and irritation at the injection site, whereas other reactions are directly related to the live attenuated virus. Rarely, vaccinations have been associated with generalized hypersensitivity reactions, such as erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, urticaria, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, and drug hypersensitivity syndrome. The onset of certain inflammatory dermatologic conditions, such as lichen planus, granuloma annulare, and pemphigoid, were reported to occur shortly after vaccine administration. Allergic contact dermatitis can develop at the injection site, typically due to adjuvant ingredients in the vaccine, such as thimerosal and aluminum. Vaccinations are important to promote development of both individual and herd immunity. Although most vaccinations are considered relatively safe, there may be adverse effects associated with any vaccine. Cutaneous manifestations make up a large portion of the types of reactions associated with vaccines. There are many different reasons for the development of a cutaneous reaction to a vaccination. Some are directly related to the injection of a live attenuated virus, such as varicella or vaccinia (for immunity to smallpox), whereas others cause more nonspecific erythema and swelling at the injection site, as a result of local inflammation or irritation. Vaccinations have also been associated in rare reports with generalized hypersensitivity reactions, such as erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, urticaria, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, and drug hypersensitivity syndrome. There have been case reports associating the administration of a vaccine with the new onset of a dermatologic condition, such as lichen planus, granuloma annulare, and Sweet syndrome. Finally, allergic contact

  9. Design of nanomaterial based systems for novel vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Li, Wen; Kirberger, Michael; Liao, Wenzhen; Ren, Jiaoyan

    2016-05-26

    With lower cell toxicity and higher specificity, novel vaccines have been greatly developed and applied to emerging infectious and chronic diseases. However, due to problems associated with low immunogenicity and complicated processing steps, the development of novel vaccines has been limited. With the rapid development of bio-technologies and material sciences, nanomaterials are playing essential roles in novel vaccine design. Incorporation of nanomaterials is expected to improve delivery efficiency, to increase immunogenicity, and to reduce the administration dosage. The purpose of this review is to discuss the employment of nanomaterials, including polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, virus-like particles, peptide amphiphiles micelles, peptide nanofibers and microneedle arrays, in vaccine design. Compared to traditional methods, vaccines made from nanomaterials display many appealing benefits, including precise stimulation of immune responses, effective targeting to certain tissue or cells, and desirable biocompatibility. Current research suggests that nanomaterials may improve our approach to the design and delivery of novel vaccines. PMID:26891972

  10. Vector Design for Improved DNA Vaccine Efficacy, Safety and Production

    PubMed Central

    Williams, James A.

    2013-01-01

    DNA vaccination is a disruptive technology that offers the promise of a new rapidly deployed vaccination platform to treat human and animal disease with gene-based materials. Innovations such as electroporation, needle free jet delivery and lipid-based carriers increase transgene expression and immunogenicity through more effective gene delivery. This review summarizes complementary vector design innovations that, when combined with leading delivery platforms, further enhance DNA vaccine performance. These next generation vectors also address potential safety issues such as antibiotic selection, and increase plasmid manufacturing quality and yield in exemplary fermentation production processes. Application of optimized constructs in combination with improved delivery platforms tangibly improves the prospect of successful application of DNA vaccination as prophylactic vaccines for diverse human infectious disease targets or as therapeutic vaccines for cancer and allergy. PMID:26344110

  11. [From basic principles to clinical applications on transcutaneous vaccine].

    PubMed

    Okada, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    The recent vigorous transnational migration of people and materials reflecting the development of transportation facilities, changes in social structure, and war disasters has increased the global spread of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Vaccine, which is the major fundamental prophylaxis against infectious diseases, has greatly contributed to the maintenance and improvement of human health worldwide. However, the disadvantages of conventional injection systems hamper the speedy mass-vaccination and the global distribution of vaccines. Transcutaneous immunization systems, which are easy-to-use and low-invasive methods of vaccination, have the potential to overcome certain issues associated with injectable vaccinations. In this review, we provide an outline of recent trends in the development of techniques for the transcutaneous delivery of vaccine antigens. We also introduce basic and clinical research involving our transcutaneous immunization systems that incorporate self-dissolving microneedle patch. PMID:24292185

  12. Meningitis C vaccine (North American vaccine).

    PubMed

    Lattanzi, Maria; Del Giudice, Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    North American Vaccine Inc (NAVI) has launched a conjugate polysaccharide vaccinefor the prevention of meningitis caused by group C meningococcal bacteria [433475]. The vaccine is based upon conjugate technology, incorporating the serogroup C polysaccharide (CPS) of all three major serogroups. Antibody-dependent, complement-mediated activity was demonstrated in mice and non-human primates, with no detectable adverse effects [277193]. Approval was filed for in the UK in January 2000 [353305]. In July 2000, Baxter received approval for NeisVac-C in the UK, and by September 2000 the vaccine was expected to be incorporated into the NHS's immunization campaign against meningitis C [381225]. NeisVac-C will initially appear labeled from NAVI; Baxter completed its acquisition of NAVI in June 2000 [375389]. Baxter estimates the worldwide global market for the vaccine at US $600 million per year [376204]. PMID:12054072

  13. [The place of the nurse in the vaccination programme in France].

    PubMed

    Pinquier, Didier; Lefevre, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Nurses are authorised to administer vaccines with a medical prescription or written protocol. Since 2008, they have been able to administer the seasonal influenza vaccine without a prescription to people at risk. A survey highlighted their need to improve their knowledge of vaccination. To meet this need, a task force made up of nurses and doctors has drawn up a handbook entitled Idévac. PMID:23539843

  14. Vaccine process technology.

    PubMed

    Josefsberg, Jessica O; Buckland, Barry

    2012-06-01

    The evolution of vaccines (e.g., live attenuated, recombinant) and vaccine production methods (e.g., in ovo, cell culture) are intimately tied to each other. As vaccine technology has advanced, the methods to produce the vaccine have advanced and new vaccine opportunities have been created. These technologies will continue to evolve as we strive for safer and more immunogenic vaccines and as our understanding of biology improves. The evolution of vaccine process technology has occurred in parallel to the remarkable growth in the development of therapeutic proteins as products; therefore, recent vaccine innovations can leverage the progress made in the broader biotechnology industry. Numerous important legacy vaccines are still in use today despite their traditional manufacturing processes, with further development focusing on improving stability (e.g., novel excipients) and updating formulation (e.g., combination vaccines) and delivery methods (e.g., skin patches). Modern vaccine development is currently exploiting a wide array of novel technologies to create safer and more efficacious vaccines including: viral vectors produced in animal cells, virus-like particles produced in yeast or insect cells, polysaccharide conjugation to carrier proteins, DNA plasmids produced in E. coli, and therapeutic cancer vaccines created by in vitro activation of patient leukocytes. Purification advances (e.g., membrane adsorption, precipitation) are increasing efficiency, while innovative analytical methods (e.g., microsphere-based multiplex assays, RNA microarrays) are improving process understanding. Novel adjuvants such as monophosphoryl lipid A, which acts on antigen presenting cell toll-like receptors, are expanding the previously conservative list of widely accepted vaccine adjuvants. As in other areas of biotechnology, process characterization by sophisticated analysis is critical not only to improve yields, but also to determine the final product quality. From a regulatory

  15. Recombinant influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Sedova, E S; Shcherbinin, D N; Migunov, A I; Smirnov, Iu A; Logunov, D Iu; Shmarov, M M; Tsybalova, L M; Naroditskiĭ, B S; Kiselev, O I; Gintsburg, A L

    2012-10-01

    This review covers the problems encountered in the construction and production of new recombinant influenza vaccines. New approaches to the development of influenza vaccines are investigated; they include reverse genetics methods, production of virus-like particles, and DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines. Such approaches as the delivery of foreign genes by DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines can preserve the native structure of antigens. Adenoviral vectors are a promising gene-delivery platform for a variety of genetic vaccines. Adenoviruses can efficiently penetrate the human organism through mucosal epithelium, thus providing long-term antigen persistence and induction of the innate immune response. This review provides an overview of the practicability of the production of new recombinant influenza cross-protective vaccines on the basis of adenoviral vectors expressing hemagglutinin genes of different influenza strains. PMID:23346377

  16. [Vaccination for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination. PMID:26920587

  17. Vaccines against leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Adler, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines against leptospirosis followed within a year of the first isolation of Leptospira, with the first use of a killed whole cell bacterin vaccine in guinea pigs published in 1916. Since then, bacterin vaccines have been used in humans, cattle, swine, and dogs and remain the only vaccines licensed at the present time. The immunity elicited is restricted to serovars with related lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen. Likewise, vaccines based on LPS antigens have clearly demonstrated protection in animal models, which is also at best serogroup specific. The advent of leptospiral genome sequences has allowed a reverse vaccinology approach for vaccine development. However, the use of inadequate challenge doses and inappropriate statistical analysis invalidates many of the claims of protection with recombinant proteins. PMID:25388138

  18. Chikungunya vaccines in development

    PubMed Central

    Schwameis, Michael; Buchtele, Nina; Wadowski, Patricia Pia; Schoergenhofer, Christian; Jilma, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chikungunya virus has become a global health threat, spreading to the industrial world of Europe and the Americas; no treatment or prophylactic vaccine is available. Since the late 1960s much effort has been put into the development of a vaccine, and several heterogeneous strategies have already been explored. Only two candidates have recently qualified to enter clinical phase II trials, a chikungunya virus-like particle-based vaccine and a recombinant live attenuated measles virus-vectored vaccine. This review focuses on the current status of vaccine development against chikungunya virus in humans and discusses the diversity of immunization strategies, results of recent human trials and promising vaccine candidates. PMID:26554522

  19. Advances in RSV vaccine research and development - A global agenda.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Deborah; Trujillo, Carrie; Keech, Cheryl

    2016-06-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of viral lower respiratory tract illness in infants and children globally, but no vaccine is currently available to protect these vulnerable populations. Live-attenuated vaccine approaches have been in development for decades, but achieving the appropriate balance between immunogenicity and safety has proven difficult. Immunoprophylaxis with the neutralizing monoclonal antibody palivizumab is limited to high-risk infants, but cost requirements for multiple dosing make its use impractical in low- and middle-income countries. A growing number of RSV vaccine candidates using a variety of technologies and targeting diverse populations has emerged in recent years. There are now 60 RSV vaccine candidates in development that target pediatric and elderly populations. While most are at a preclinical stage, 16 candidates are in clinical development. This review summarizes current RSV vaccine research and development, including an overview of the vaccine platforms being used, the development stage of individual vaccine candidates, and gaps to be addressed to facilitate use of these vaccines to meet global health needs. PMID:27105562

  20. What Vaccinations Do You Need?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsroom Contact Us You are here Home » What Vaccinations Do You Need? A Guide for Adults with ... a Kidney Transplant Why do I need a vaccination? Vaccinations, usually given as a shot, protect you ...

  1. Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preventing and treating prostate cancer spread to bones Vaccine treatment for prostate cancer Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is ... less advanced prostate cancer. Possible side effects of vaccine treatment Side effects from the vaccine tend to ...

  2. What Vaccines Do You Need?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Adolescent and Adult Vaccine Quiz Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Españ ... adolescentes y adultos Did you know that certain vaccines are recommended for adults and adolescents?* Take this ...

  3. Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  4. Diphtheria Vaccination: Who Needs It?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and adults - Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Diphtheria Vaccination: Who Needs It? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... need this vaccine? Yes, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends 5 doses of diphtheria and ...

  5. Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  6. HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... percentage is less than 15%. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  7. New technologies for influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Dormitzer, Philip R; Tsai, Theodore F; Del Giudice, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Influenza vaccine preparations have been administered to humans since the late 1930s, and the diversity of approaches in licensed trivalent seasonal or monovalent pandemic products is unparalleled by vaccines against any other target. These approaches include inactivated whole virus vaccines, detergent or solvent "split" vaccines, subunit vaccines, live attenuated vaccines, adjuvanted vaccines, intramuscular vaccines, intradermal vaccines, intranasal vaccines, egg-produced vaccines and mammalian cell culture-produced vaccines. The challenges of influenza immunization, including multiple co-circulating strains, antigenic change over time, a broad age spectrum of disease, and the threat of pandemics, continue to drive the development of new approaches. This review describes some of the new approaches to influenza immunization that are the subjects of active research and development. PMID:22251994

  8. Journey to vaccination: a protocol for a multinational qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Wheelock, Ana; Miraldo, Marisa; Parand, Anam; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the past two decades, childhood vaccination coverage has increased dramatically, averting an estimated 2–3 million deaths per year. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains inconsistently recorded and substandard. Although structural barriers are known to limit coverage, social and psychological factors can also affect vaccine uptake. Previous qualitative studies have explored beliefs, attitudes and preferences associated with seasonal influenza (flu) vaccination uptake, yet little research has investigated how participants’ context and experiences influence their vaccination decision-making process over time. This paper aims to provide a detailed account of a mixed methods approach designed to understand the wider constellation of social and psychological factors likely to influence adult vaccination decisions, as well as the context in which these decisions take place, in the USA, the UK, France, India, China and Brazil. Methods and analysis We employ a combination of qualitative interviewing approaches to reach a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing vaccination decisions, specifically seasonal flu and tetanus. To elicit these factors, we developed the journey to vaccination, a new qualitative approach anchored on the heuristics and biases tradition and the customer journey mapping approach. A purposive sampling strategy is used to select participants who represent a range of key sociodemographic characteristics. Thematic analysis will be used to analyse the data. Typical journeys to vaccination will be proposed. Ethics and dissemination Vaccination uptake is significantly influenced by social and psychological factors, some of which are under-reported and poorly understood. This research will provide a deeper understanding of the barriers and drivers to adult vaccination. Our findings will be published in relevant peer-reviewed journals and presented at academic conferences. They will also be presented as practical

  9. Prospects for developing an effective particle-mediated DNA vaccine against influenza.

    PubMed

    Yager, Eric J; Dean, Hansi J; Fuller, Deborah Heydenburg

    2009-09-01

    Vaccine strategies capable of conferring broad protection against both seasonal and pandemic strains of influenza are urgently needed. DNA vaccines are an attractive choice owing to their capacity to induce robust humoral and cellular immune responses at low doses and because they can be developed and manufactured rapidly to more effectively meet the threat of an influenza epidemic or pandemic. Particle-mediated epidermal delivery (PMED), or the gene gun, is a DNA vaccine delivery technology shown to induce protective levels of antibody and T-cell responses in animals and humans against a wide variety of diseases, including influenza. This review focuses on current advances toward the development of an effective PMED DNA vaccine against influenza, including strategies to enhance vaccine immunogenicity, the potential for PMED-based DNA vaccines to improve protection in the vulnerable elderly population, and the prospects for a vaccine capable of providing cross-protection against both seasonal and pandemic strains of influenza. PMID:19722894

  10. Comparison of melanoma antigens in whole tumor vaccine to those from IIB-MEL-J cells.

    PubMed

    McGee, J M; Patten, M R; Malnar, K F; Price, J A; Mayes, J S; Watson, G H

    1999-06-01

    Immunotherapy for melanoma shows promise. Our previous whole tumor (WT) vaccine was noted to have positive clinical effects. We have now developed a new, safer melanoma vaccine that is derived from IIB-MEL-J tissue culture (TC) cells. In this study, we compare by Western blot analyses the antigens in the WT vaccine to antigens in the TC vaccine. Sera from 12 WT vaccine recipients, 8 melanoma patients who received no immunotherapy, and 8 controls served as a source of antibodies to investigate potential antigens in the vaccines. Three major antigenic peptides with approximate molecular weighs of 46, 40, and 36 kDA were present in both vaccines, while two other antigenic peptides with approximate molecular weighs of 68 and 48 kDA were present only in the TC vaccine. The reaction was similar between the patients who received the WT vaccine and those who did not receive the vaccine. Some of the individuals who did not have melanoma showed some reaction, but not to the extent of the melanoma patients. The intensity of immunostaining was greater for the TC vaccine when compared to the WT vaccine, indicating that these proteins are in a higher concentration in the TC vaccine. This new vaccine from IIB-MEL-J tissue culture cells provides a higher yield and a much more consistent source of potentially clinically relevant antigens without risk of infection or contamination by other irrelevant materials. PMID:10850304

  11. Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Monica A.; Holbrook, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a significant human health concern in Asia, Indonesia and parts of Australia with more than 3 billion people potentially at risk of infection with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the causative agent of JE. Given the risk to human health and the theoretical potential for JEV use as a bioweapon, the development of safe and effective vaccines to prevent JEV infection is vital for preserving human health. The development of vaccines for JE began in the 1940s with formalin-inactivated mouse brain-derived vaccines. These vaccines have been shown to induce a protective immune response and to be very effective. Mouse brain-derived vaccines were still in use until May 2011 when the last lots of the BIKEN® JE-VAX® expired. Development of modern JE vaccines utilizes cell culture-derived viruses and improvements in manufacturing processes as well as removal of potential allergens or toxins have significantly improved vaccine safety. China has developed a live-attenuated vaccine that has proven to induce protective immunity following a single inoculation. In addition, a chimeric vaccine virus incorporating the prM and E structural proteins derived from the live-attenuated JE vaccine into the live-attenuated yellow fever 17D vaccine virus backbone is currently in clinical trials. In this article, we provide a summary of JE vaccine development and on-going clinical trials. We also discuss the potential risk of JEV as a bioweapon with a focus on virus sustainability if used as a weapon. PMID:23125946

  12. [Does vaccination cause disease?].

    PubMed

    Zingg, W

    2005-10-01

    Not many inventions in medical history have influenced our society as much as vaccination. The concept is old and simple. When Edward Jenner published his work on cowpox, "variolation" was quite common. In this procedure, pus of patients with mild smallpox was transferred to healthy individuals. Meanwhile smallpox has been eradicated worldwide. Diseases such as poliomyelitis, diphtheria or tetanus almost disappeared in industrialized countries. The same happened with epiglottitis and meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) after vaccination against Hib was introduced in Switzerland in 1990. This success was possible because of routine vaccination. Immunization is a save procedure and adverse events are much lower than complications in the natural course of the prevented diseases. However vaccinations were accused to cause diseases themselves such as asthma, multiple sclerosis, diabetes mellitus, chronic arthritis or autism. Hitherto no large cohort study or case-control-study was able to proof responsibility of vaccines in any of these diseases. Public media are eager to publish early data from surveillance reports or case reports which are descriptive and never a principle of cause and effect. In large controlled trials there was no proof that vaccination causes asthma, hepatitis-B-vaccination causes multiple sclerosis or macrophagic myofasciitis, Hib-vaccination causes diabetes mellitus, rubella-vaccination causes chronic arthritis, measles-mumps-rubella-vaccination causes gait disturbance or thiomersal causes autism. These results are rarely published in newspapers or television. Thus, many caring parents are left with negative ideas about immunization. Looking for the best for their children they withhold vaccination and give way to resurgence of preventable diseases in our communities. This must be prevented. There is more evidence than expected that vaccination is safe and this can and must be told to parents. PMID:16277033

  13. Emerging Vaccine Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, Rebecca J.; Johnson, Philip R.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination has proven to be an invaluable means of preventing infectious diseases by reducing both incidence of disease and mortality. However, vaccines have not been effectively developed for many diseases including HIV-1, hepatitis C virus (HCV), tuberculosis and malaria, among others. The emergence of new technologies with a growing understanding of host-pathogen interactions and immunity may lead to efficacious vaccines against pathogens, previously thought impossible. PMID:26343196

  14. Vaccines for Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Current medications for drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines to elicit antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status for two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (cocaine and nicotine) and two that are still in pre-clinical development (methamphetamine and heroin). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns for anti-addiction vaccine development and their use as future therapeutics. PMID:22130115

  15. US/Japan collaborative program on fusion reactor materials: Summary of the tenth DOE/JAERI Annex I technical progress meeting on neutron irradiation effects in first wall and blanket structural materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1989-03-17

    This meeting was held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on March 17, 1989, to review the technical progress on the collaborative DOE/JAERI program on fusion reactor materials. The purpose of the program is to determine the effects of neutron irradiation on the mechanical behavior and dimensional stability of US and Japanese austenitic stainless steels. Phase I of the program focused on the effects of high concentrations of helium on the tensile, fatigue, and swelling properties of both US and Japanese alloys. In Phase II of the program, spectral and isotropic tailoring techniques are fully utilized to reproduce the helium:dpa ratio typical of the fusion environment. The Phase II program hinges on a restart of the High Flux Isotope Reactor by mid-1989. Eight target position capsules and two RB* position capsules have been assembled. The target capsule experiments will address issues relating to the performance of austenitic steels at high damage levels including an assessment of the performance of a variety of weld materials. The RB* capsules will provide a unique and important set of data on the behavior of austenitic steels irradiated under conditions which reproduce the damage rate, dose, temperature, and helium generation rate expected in the first wall and blanket structure of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  16. Vocational and Technical Education: Development of Curricula and Instructional Materials with Focus on Mechanical and Civil/Building Subjects. Asian Programme of Educational Innovation for Development. Report of a Technical Working Group Meeting (Seoul, Korea, October 15-27, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This report contains materials from a meeting of Asian Programme of Educational Innovation for Development member states to identify common trends, issues, and growth points related to the development and implementation of technical and vocational education curricula. Chapter 1 presents extracts from country reports of experiences in curriculum…

  17. Dengue virus vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Yauch, Lauren E; Shresta, Sujan

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical regions, causing hundreds of millions of infections each year. Infections range from asymptomatic to a self-limited febrile illness, dengue fever (DF), to the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). The expanding of the habitat of DENV-transmitting mosquitoes has resulted in dramatic increases in the number of cases over the past 50 years, and recent outbreaks have occurred in the United States. Developing a dengue vaccine is a global health priority. DENV vaccine development is challenging due to the existence of four serotypes of the virus (DENV1-4), which a vaccine must protect against. Additionally, the adaptive immune response to DENV may be both protective and pathogenic upon subsequent infection, and the precise features of protective versus pathogenic immune responses to DENV are unknown, complicating vaccine development. Numerous vaccine candidates, including live attenuated, inactivated, recombinant subunit, DNA, and viral vectored vaccines, are in various stages of clinical development, from preclinical to phase 3. This review will discuss the adaptive immune response to DENV, dengue vaccine challenges, animal models used to test dengue vaccine candidates, and historical and current dengue vaccine approaches. PMID:24373316

  18. Rabies vaccines and interferon

    PubMed Central

    Turner, G. S.

    1972-01-01

    Samples of Fermi, Semple, modified Semple, Duck embryo and tissue culture rabies vaccine were inoculated by different routes and in different doses into rabbits, mice and hamsters. The vaccines induced neither detectable interferon nor immediate protection against lethal challenge with CVS rabies virus. Under similar conditions, high but transient levels of interferon were induced in control animals of the same species with the polynucleotide complex Poly I.C. Hamsters but not mice were protected by Poly I.C.-induced interferon. No autointerference by vaccine with challenge virus was established. Vaccine-induced protection in mice was directly related to immune response. PMID:4506993

  19. Polyvalent AIDS Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shan; Grimes Serrano, Jill M.; Wang, Shixia

    2013-01-01

    A major hurdle in the development of a global HIV-1 vaccine is viral diversity. For close to three decades, HIV vaccine development has focused on either the induction of T cell immune responses or antibody responses, and only rarely on both components. After the failure of the STEP trial, the scientific community concluded that a T cell-based vaccine would likely not be protective if the T cell immune responses were elicited against only a few dominant epitopes. Similarly, for vaccines focusing on antibody responses, one of the main criticisms after VaxGen’s failed Phase III trials was on the limited antigen breadth included in the two formulations used. The successes of polyvalent vaccine approaches against other antigenically variable pathogens encourage implementation of the same approach for the design of HIV-1 vaccines. A review of the existing HIV-1 vaccination approaches based on the polyvalent principle is included here to provide a historical perspective for the current effort of developing a polyvalent HIV-1 vaccine. Results summarized in this review provide a clear indication that the polyvalent approach is a viable one for the future development of an effective HIV vaccine. PMID:21054250

  20. Cochlear-Meningitis Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... and otolaryngologists) and families should review the vaccination records of current and prospective cochlear implant recipients to ensure that all ... of Use Join Donate ENTConnect Contact Us ...

  1. Vaccines: the Fourth Century▿

    PubMed Central

    Plotkin, Stanley A.

    2009-01-01

    Vaccine development, which began with Edward Jenner's observations in the late 18th century, has entered its 4th century. From its beginnings, with the use of whole organisms that had been weakened or inactivated, to the modern-day use of genetic engineering, it has taken advantage of the tools discovered in other branches of microbiology. Numerous successful vaccines are in use, but the list of diseases for which vaccines do not exist is long. However, the multiplicity of strategies now available, discussed in this article, portends even more successful development of vaccines. PMID:19793898

  2. Anthrax vaccination strategies

    PubMed Central

    Cybulski, Robert J.; Sanz, Patrick; O'Brien, Alison D.

    2009-01-01

    The biological attack conducted through the U.S. postal system in 2001 broadened the threat posed by anthrax from one pertinent mainly to soldiers on the battlefield to one understood to exist throughout our society. The expansion of the threatened population placed greater emphasis on the reexamination of how we vaccinate against Bacillus anthracis. The currently-licensed Anthrax Vaccine, Adsorbed (AVA) and Anthrax Vaccine, Precipitated (AVP) are capable of generating a protective immune response but are hampered by shortcomings that make their widespread use undesirable or infeasible. Efforts to gain U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for licensure of a second generation recombinant protective antigen (rPA)-based anthrax vaccine are ongoing. However, this vaccine's reliance on the generation of a humoral immune response against a single virulence factor has led a number of scientists to conclude that the vaccine is likely not the final solution to optimal anthrax vaccine design. Other vaccine approaches, which seek a more comprehensive immune response targeted at multiple components of the B. anthracis organism, are under active investigation. This review seeks to summarize work that has been done to build on the current PA-based vaccine methodology and to evaluate the search for future anthrax prophylaxis strategies. PMID:19729034

  3. Molecular basis of vaccination.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, G; Pizza, M; Rappuoli, R

    1998-02-01

    Vaccines represent the most cost-effective means to prevent infectious diseases. Most of the vaccines which are currently available were developed long before the era of molecular biology and biotechnology. They were obtained following empirical approaches leading to the inactivation or to the attenuation of microorganisms, without any knowledge neither of the mechanisms of pathogenesis of the disease they were expected to protect from, nor of the immune responses elicited by the infectious agents or by the vaccine itself. The past two decades have seen an impressive progress in the field of immunology and molecular biology, which have allowed a better understanding of the interactions occurring between microbes and their hosts. This basic knowledge has represented an impetus towards the generation of better vaccines and the development of new vaccines. In this monograph we briefly summarize some of the most important biotechnological approaches that are currently followed in the development of new vaccines, and provide details on an approach to vaccine development: the genetic detoxification of bacterial toxins. Such an approach has been particularly successful in the rational design of a new vaccine against pertussis, which has been shown to be extremely efficacious and safe. It has been applied to the construction of powerful mucosal adjuvants, for administration of vaccines at mucosal surfaces. PMID:9789264

  4. A Study on Longevity of Immune Response after Vaccination with Salmonella Typhi Vi Conjugate Vaccine (Pedatyph™) in Children

    PubMed Central

    Sadasivam, Kanimozhi; Vivekanandhan, Aravindhan; Arunachalam, Prema; Pasupathy, Sekar

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Owing to the limitations of the conventional polysaccharide vaccines, global efforts have been made to develop conjugated polysaccharide vaccines for typhoid. Duration of immune response induced by these vaccines is critical to define the efficacy and frequency of required booster dose. This study was done to determine the duration of immune response following vaccination with Salmonella Typhi Vi conjugate vaccine (Pedatyph™) in children and to assess the booster effect of second dose of conjugate typhoid vaccine. Materials and Methods Forty children were recalled from a cohort of 400 children, who received one dose or two doses of PedaTyph™, 30 months after vaccination. Ten non-vaccinated children were also recalled. Their serum samples were assessed by ELISA for anti Vi antibody. Results Significantly high titers of anti-Vi polysaccharide IgG antibodies were present in vaccinated children even after 30 months of vaccination as compared to non-vaccinated children. Geometric mean titers (GMT) with 95% confidence intervals were 14 (4.8-29.8), 17 (7.4-33) and 6.4 (0.8-12) μg/ml for single dose, two doses and control group respectively. The children in two doses group had higher antibody titers as compared to single dose group. However, the difference was not significant. Interpretation and Conclusion PedaTyph™ was found to induce long term immune response as evidenced by presence of significant anti-Vi polysaccharide antibodies after 30 months of vaccination. No significant advantage of two doses regimen over one dose was found. Hence one dose vaccination with PedaTyph™ is suggested. PMID:26155525

  5. Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Adacel® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine) ... Boostrix® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine)

  6. Conducting Meetings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Tribes Educational Technical Center, Bismarck, ND.

    Written for anyone interested in what makes a meeting run smoothly (and what doesn't), the guide for conducting meetings is divided into the following sections: the chairperson (his/her responsibilities, preparing an agenda, organizing discussions); the meeting (quorums, discussions, points of order, and clarification); the motion (making the…

  7. Universal influenza vaccines: Shifting to better vaccines.

    PubMed

    Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Tsvetnitsky, Vadim; Donnelly, John J

    2016-06-01

    Influenza virus causes acute upper and lower respiratory infections and is the most likely, among known pathogens, to cause a large epidemic in humans. Influenza virus mutates rapidly, enabling it to evade natural and vaccine-induced immunity. Furthermore, influenza viruses can cross from animals to humans, generating novel, potentially pandemic strains. Currently available influenza vaccines induce a strain specific response and may be ineffective against new influenza viruses. The difficulty in predicting circulating strains has frequently resulted in mismatch between the annual vaccine and circulating viruses. Low-resource countries remain mostly unprotected against seasonal influenza and are particularly vulnerable to future pandemics, in part, because investments in vaccine manufacturing and stockpiling are concentrated in high-resource countries. Antibodies that target conserved sites in the hemagglutinin stalk have been isolated from humans and shown to confer protection in animal models, suggesting that broadly protective immunity may be possible. Several innovative influenza vaccine candidates are currently in preclinical or early clinical development. New technologies include adjuvants, synthetic peptides, virus-like particles (VLPs), DNA vectors, messenger RNA, viral vectors, and attenuated or inactivated influenza viruses. Other approaches target the conserved exposed epitope of the surface exposed membrane matrix protein M2e. Well-conserved influenza proteins, such as nucleoprotein and matrix protein, are mainly targeted for developing strong cross-protective T cell responses. With multiple vaccine candidates moving along the testing and development pipeline, the field is steadily moving toward a product that is more potent, durable, and broadly protective than previously licensed vaccines. PMID:27038130

  8. Vaccine hesitancy, vaccine refusal and the anti-vaccine movement: influence, impact and implications.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Eve; Vivion, Maryline; MacDonald, Noni E

    2015-01-01

    Despite being recognized as one of the most successful public health measures, vaccination is perceived as unsafe and unnecessary by a growing number of parents. Anti-vaccination movements have been implicated in lowered vaccine acceptance rates and in the increase in vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks and epidemics. In this review, we will look at determinants of parental decision-making about vaccination and provide an overview of the history of anti-vaccination movements and its clinical impact. PMID:25373435

  9. History of polio vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Baicus, Anda

    2012-01-01

    Poliomyelitis is an acute paralytic disease caused by three poliovirus (PV) serotypes. Less than 1% of PV infections result in acute flaccid paralysis. The disease was controlled using the formalin-inactivated Salk polio vaccine (IPV) and the Sabin oral polio vaccine (OPV). Global poliomyelitis eradication was proposed in 1988 by the World Health Organization to its member states. The strategic plan established the activities required for polio eradication, certification for regions, OPV cessation phase and post-OPV phase. OPV is the vaccine of choice for the poliomyelitis eradication program because it induces both a systemic and mucosal immune response. The major risks of OPV vaccination are the appearance of Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis cases (VAPP) and the emergence of Vaccine Derived Polioviruses strains. The supplementary immunization with monovalent strains of OPV type 1 or type 3 or with a new bivalent oral polio vaccine bOPV (containing type 1 and type 3 PV) has been introduced in those regions where the virus has been difficult to control. Most countries have switched the schedule of vaccination by using IPV instead of OPV because it poses no risk of vaccine-related disease. Until 2008, poliomyelitis was controlled in Romania, an Eastern European country, predominantly using OPV. The alternative vaccination schedule (IPV/OPV) was implemented starting in September 2008, while beginning in 2009, the vaccination was IPV only. The risk of VAPP will disappear worldwide with the cessation of use of OPV. The immunization for polio must be maintained for at least 5 to 10 years using IPV. PMID:24175215

  10. [HPV prophylactic vaccines].

    PubMed

    Konopnicki, D

    2014-09-01

    Since 2007, two prophylactic vaccines against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV. induced lesions (both precancerous dysplasia and cancer) have been registered in Belgium. In multicentre randomized trials including more than 64,000 patients, these vaccines were shown to be highly efficient against the occurrence of condyloma and of dysplastic lesion in the cervix, vagina and vulva in females and in the anus in males. These vaccines display an excellent tolerance and safety profile, the most common adverse event being minor and transient side effects at the injection site. The protection given by these vaccines is more important in subjects that have not been in contact with HPV previously ; moreover the title of neutralizing antibodies against HPV are significantly higher in children vaccinated before 15 years-old age compared to young person vaccinated after this age. For these two reasons, it is recommended to vaccinate before the first sexual relationships. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that vaccination by two doses given at 0 and 6 months in children before 15 years-old was equivalent to the three doses scheme that should be given at 0, 1 or 2 and 6 months in subjects aged 15 years or more. In the countries that have achieved a high vaccine coverage among their young female population, the prevalence of HPV infection and the incidence of high grade cervical dysplasia have significantly decreased while condyloma has almost disappeared four years after the implementation of HPV vaccination. In HIV-positive subjects who are particularly susceptible to infection and lesions induced by HPV, vaccination brings levels of antibody comparable to what is found in the general population with similar safety. PMID:25675641

  11. Vaccination in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Barbara C; Meyer, Tim

    2014-10-01

    Public health vaccination guidelines cannot be easily transferred to elite athletes. An enhanced benefit from preventing even mild diseases is obvious but stronger interference from otherwise minor side effects has to be considered as well. Thus, special vaccination guidelines for adult elite athletes are required. In most of them, protection should be strived for against tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, measles, mumps and varicella. When living or traveling to endemic areas, the athletes should be immune against tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, poliomyelitis, typhoid fever, and meningococcal disease. Vaccination against pneumococci and Haemophilus influenzae type b is only relevant in athletes with certain underlying disorders. Rubella and papillomavirus vaccination might be considered after an individual risk-benefit analysis. Other vaccinations such as cholera, rabies, herpes zoster, and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) cannot be universally recommended for athletes at present. Only for a very few diseases, a determination of antibody titers is reasonable to avoid unnecessary vaccinations or to control efficacy of an individual's vaccination (especially for measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, hepatitis B and, partly, hepatitis A). Vaccinations should be scheduled in a way that possible side effects are least likely to occur in periods of competition. Typically, vaccinations are well tolerated by elite athletes, and resulting antibody titers are not different from the general population. Side effects might be reduced by an optimal selection of vaccines and an appropriate technique of administration. Very few discipline-specific considerations apply to an athlete's vaccination schedule mainly from the competition and training pattern as well as from the typical geographical distribution of competitive sites. PMID:24986118

  12. Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Grohskopf, Lisa A; Sokolow, Leslie Z; Broder, Karen R; Olsen, Sonja J; Karron, Ruth A; Jernigan, Daniel B; Bresee, Joseph S

    2016-01-01

    This report updates the 2015-16 recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding the use of seasonal influenza vaccines (Grohskopf LA, Sokolow LZ, Olsen SJ, Bresee JS, Broder KR, Karron RA. Prevention and control of influenza with vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, United States, 2015-16 influenza season. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2015;64:818-25). Routine annual influenza vaccination is recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months who do not have contraindications. For the 2016-17 influenza season, inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs) will be available in both trivalent (IIV3) and quadrivalent (IIV4) formulations. Recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV) will be available in a trivalent formulation (RIV3). In light of concerns regarding low effectiveness against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in the United States during the 2013-14 and 2015-16 seasons, for the 2016-17 season, ACIP makes the interim recommendation that live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) should not be used. Vaccine virus strains included in the 2016-17 U.S. trivalent influenza vaccines will be an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)-like virus, an A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2)-like virus, and a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus (Victoria lineage). Quadrivalent vaccines will include an additional influenza B virus strain, a B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus (Yamagata lineage).Recommendations for use of different vaccine types and specific populations are discussed. A licensed, age-appropriate vaccine should be used. No preferential recommendation is made for one influenza vaccine product over another for persons for whom more than one licensed, recommended product is otherwise appropriate. This information is intended for vaccination providers, immunization program personnel, and public health personnel. Information in this report reflects discussions during public meetings of ACIP held on October 21, 2015; February 24, 2016; and June 22, 2016

  13. Clinical development of Ebola vaccines.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Saranya

    2015-09-01

    The ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa highlighted the lack of a licensed drug or vaccine to combat the disease and has renewed the urgency to develop a pipeline of Ebola vaccines. A number of different vaccine platforms are being developed by assessing preclinical efficacy in animal models and expediting clinical development. Over 15 different vaccines are in preclinical development and 8 vaccines are now in different stages of clinical evaluation. These vaccines include DNA vaccines, virus-like particles and viral vectors such as live replicating vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV), human and chimpanzee adenovirus, and vaccinia virus. Recently, in preliminary results reported from the first phase III trial of an Ebola vaccine, the rVSV-vectored vaccine showed promising efficacy. This review charts this rapidly advancing area of research focusing on vaccines in clinical development and discusses the future opportunities and challenges faced in the licensure and deployment of Ebola vaccines. PMID:26668751

  14. Clinical development of Ebola vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Saranya

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa highlighted the lack of a licensed drug or vaccine to combat the disease and has renewed the urgency to develop a pipeline of Ebola vaccines. A number of different vaccine platforms are being developed by assessing preclinical efficacy in animal models and expediting clinical development. Over 15 different vaccines are in preclinical development and 8 vaccines are now in different stages of clinical evaluation. These vaccines include DNA vaccines, virus-like particles and viral vectors such as live replicating vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV), human and chimpanzee adenovirus, and vaccinia virus. Recently, in preliminary results reported from the first phase III trial of an Ebola vaccine, the rVSV-vectored vaccine showed promising efficacy. This review charts this rapidly advancing area of research focusing on vaccines in clinical development and discusses the future opportunities and challenges faced in the licensure and deployment of Ebola vaccines. PMID:26668751

  15. Vaccines for lymphomas: idiotype vaccines and beyond.

    PubMed

    Houot, Roch; Levy, Ronald

    2009-05-01

    Therapeutic vaccines for lymphomas have been developed to induce active and long-lasting immune responses against lymphoma capable of eradicating the tumor. Most of these vaccines use the tumor B cell idiotype (the unique variable region of the surface immunoglobulin) as a tumor-specific antigen. The first human clinical trial for lymphoma vaccine was initiated 20 years ago. Along with several other phase I/II trials, it showed encouraging results which supported the initiation of three phase III trials. The results of these trials have recently been released (although not published yet) which failed to demonstrate a prolongation in progression-free survival following chemotherapy. Despite this disappointing result, a number of observations have accumulated over the years that suggest some clinical efficacy of lymphoma vaccines. Several strategies are being developed to improve these results that include optimization of antigen delivery and presentation as well as enhancement of anti-tumor T cell function. This review describes the clinical development of lymphoma vaccines and delineates advances, problems and prospects towards integration of this strategy in the therapeutic armamentarium for lymphoma. PMID:18951668

  16. Science in Basic Functional Education: Philosophy, Approaches, Methods and Materials. Report of a Preparatory Working Group Meeting (Seoul, Rep. of Korea, July 7-12, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This report presents papers delivered at a 1975 meeting on science education held in the Republic of Korea and attended by participants from India, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Phillipines, Singapore, and Sri Lanka. The objectives of the meeting were: (1) to explore problems, issues, approaches, and strategies in science education at the…

  17. [Development of transcutaneous vaccination system for infectious disease countermeasure].

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    The recent vigorous transnational migration of people and materials reflecting the development of transportation facilities, changes in social structure, and war disasters has increased the global spread of emerging and re-emerging infections. Once, as the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus, person-to-person transmission was achieved, the spread of pandemic cannot be contained in reality. Thus enhancement of the crisis-management structure against pandemic is critically important to maintain national function. On the basis of this social background, the development of vaccination, which is the only fundamental prophylaxis, is in attention, and earliest possible establishment of system that supply mass-vaccines in a short time is required. Even if, however, rapid manufacture of vaccine antigen is actualized, there are several problems that vaccine is not easily spread across the developing country and mass vaccination is not performed immediately at the time of the crisis, because conventional vaccination is performed mainly by injection. Our research group developed transcutaneous vaccine devices; a hydrogel patch and a dissolving microneedle array which delivered antigens to antigen-presenting cells in the epidermal layer. Our transcutaneous vaccination system receives a high evaluation as novel, easy-to-use, and less-invasive vaccination method against infections from home and abroad. In this review, we introduce the research progress resulted from our basic, preclinical, and clinical study for practical use. PMID:23208052

  18. Patent data mining: a tool for accelerating HIV vaccine innovation.

    PubMed

    Clark, K; Cavicchi, J; Jensen, K; Fitzgerald, R; Bennett, A; Kowalski, S P

    2011-05-31

    Global access to advanced vaccine technologies is challenged by the interrelated components of intellectual property (IP) management strategies, technology transfer (legal and technical) capabilities and the capacity necessary for accelerating R&D, commercialization and delivery of vaccines. Due to a negative association with the management of IP, patents are often overlooked as a vast resource of freely available, information akin to scientific journals as well as business and technological information and trends fundamental for formulating policies and IP management strategies. Therefore, a fundamental step towards facilitating global vaccine access will be the assembly, organization and analysis of patent landscapes, to identify the amount of patenting, ownership (assignees) and fields of technology covered. This is critical for making informed decisions (e.g., identifying licensees, building research and product development collaborations, and ascertaining freedom to operate). Such information is of particular interest to the HIV vaccine community where the HIV Vaccine Enterprise, have voiced concern that IP rights (particularly patents and trade secrets) may prevent data and materials sharing, delaying progress in research and development of a HIV vaccine. We have compiled and analyzed a representative HIV vaccine patent landscape for a prime-boost, DNA/adenoviral vaccine platform, as an example for identifying obstacles, maximizing opportunities and making informed IP management strategy decisions towards the development and deployment of an efficacious HIV vaccine. PMID:21496469

  19. Advances in influenza vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Reperant, Leslie A.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.

    2014-01-01

    Influenza virus infections yearly cause high morbidity and mortality burdens in humans, and the development of a new influenza pandemic continues to threaten mankind as a Damoclean sword. Influenza vaccines have been produced by using egg-based virus growth and passaging techniques that were developed more than 60 years ago, following the identification of influenza A virus as an etiological agent of seasonal influenza. These vaccines aimed mainly at eliciting neutralizing antibodies targeting antigenically variable regions of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein, which requires regular updates to match circulating seasonal influenza A and B virus strains. Given the relatively limited protection induced by current seasonal influenza vaccines, a more universal influenza vaccine that would protect against more—if not all—influenza viruses is among the largest unmet medical needs of the 21st century. New insights into correlates of protection from influenza and into broad B- and T-cell protective anti-influenza immune responses offer promising avenues for innovative vaccine development as well as manufacturing strategies or platforms, leading to the development of a new generation of vaccines. These aim at the rapid and massive production of influenza vaccines that provide broad protective and long-lasting immunity. Recent advances in influenza vaccine research demonstrate the feasibility of a wide range of approaches and call for the initiation of preclinical proof-of-principle studies followed by clinical trials in humans. PMID:24991424

  20. Influenza Vaccine, Live Intranasal

    MedlinePlus

    ... the next 7 days, who requires a protected environment (for example, following a bone marrow transplant). Sometimes ... The National Vaccine Injury Compensation ProgramThe National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (VICP) is a federal program that was created to compensate people who may have ...

  1. Emerging human papillomavirus vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Barbara; Maraj, Bharat; Tran, Nam Phuong; Knoff, Jayne; Chen, Alexander; Alvarez, Ronald D; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T.-C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Identification of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the etiologic factor of cervical, anogenital, and a subset of head and neck cancers has stimulated the development of preventive and therapeutic HPV vaccines to control HPV-associated malignancies. Excitement has been generated by the commercialization of two preventive L1-based vaccines, which use HPV virus-like particles (VLPs) to generate capsid-specific neutralizing antibodies. However, factors such as high cost and requirement for cold chain have prevented widespread implementation where they are needed most. Areas covered Next generation preventive HPV vaccine candidates have focused on cost-effective stable alternatives and generating broader protection via targeting multivalent L1 VLPs, L2 capsid protein, and chimeric L1/L2 VLPs. Therapeutic HPV vaccine candidates have focused on enhancing T cell-mediated killing of HPV-transformed tumor cells, which constitutively express HPV-encoded proteins, E6 and E7. Several therapeutic HPV vaccines are in clinical trials. Expert opinion Although progress is being made, cost remains an issue inhibiting the use of preventive HPV vaccines in countries that carry the majority of the cervical cancer burden. In addition, progression of therapeutic HPV vaccines through clinical trials may require combination strategies employing different therapeutic modalities. As research in the development of HPV vaccines continues, we may generate effective strategies to control HPV-associated malignancies. PMID:23163511

  2. Vaccination to Prevent Cancer.

    PubMed

    Clements, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Vaccines stimulate the immune system, mimicking infectious attacks and thereby promoting the development of protective antibodies and/or cellular immunity so that the body is immune to infection when live native infections attack. Some of these infections are associated with cancer-causing changes in the body; thus some vaccines may help prevent cancer. PMID:27621345

  3. Influenza vaccination during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    In a randomised, double-blind trial in pregnant women, a seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine without a lipid adjuvant and covering strain A/H1N1v was partially effective: the incidence of influenza in the mothers and their infants was about 1.8% with the vaccine versus 3.6% with placebo. No noteworthy adverse reactions were reported. PMID:27042735

  4. Pricing of new vaccines

    PubMed Central

    McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-01-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following eleven components: (1) Conduct a target population analysis; (2) Map potential competitors and alternatives; (3) Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; (4) Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; (5) Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; (6) Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; (7) Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); (8) Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer and competitor factors; (9) Consider the overall product portfolio; (10) Set pricing objectives; (11) Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area. PMID:20861678

  5. Chimeric Pestivirus Experimental Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Ilona; Blome, Sandra; Beer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Chimeric pestiviruses have shown great potential as marker vaccine candidates against pestiviral infections. Exemplarily, we describe here the construction and testing of the most promising classical swine fever vaccine candidate "CP7_E2alf" in detail. The description is focused on classical cloning technologies in combination with reverse genetics. PMID:26458840

  6. The Human Hookworm Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Diemert, David; Bacon, Kristina M; Beaumier, Coreen; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Brooker, Simon; Couto, Artur Roberto; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Homma, Akira; Lee, Bruce Y; Loukas, Alex; Loblack, Marva; Morel, Carlos Medicis; Oliveira, Rodrigo Correa; Russell, Philip K

    2013-04-18

    Hookworm infection is one of the world's most common neglected tropical diseases and a leading cause of iron deficiency anemia in low- and middle-income countries. A Human Hookworm Vaccine is currently being developed by the Sabin Vaccine Institute and is in phase 1 clinical testing. The candidate vaccine is comprised of two recombinant antigens known as Na-GST-1 and Na-APR-1, each of which is an important parasite enzyme required for hookworms to successfully utilize host blood as a source of energy. The recombinant proteins are formulated on Alhydrogel(®) and are being tested in combination with a synthetic Toll-like receptor 4 agonist. The aim of the vaccine is to induce anti-enzyme antibodies that will reduce both host blood loss and the number of hookworms attached to the gut. Transfer of the manufacturing technology to the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ)/Bio-Manguinhos (a Brazilian public sector developing country vaccine manufacturer) is planned, with a clinical development plan that could lead to registration of the vaccine in Brazil. The vaccine would also need to be introduced in the poorest regions of Africa and Asia, where hookworm infection is highly endemic. Ultimately, the vaccine could become an essential tool for achieving hookworm control and elimination, a key target in the 2012 London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases. PMID:23598487

  7. Vaccines for military use.

    PubMed

    Artenstein, Andrew W

    2009-11-01

    Vaccines have long been used by military forces in order to prevent communicable diseases and thereby preserve the fighting force. A tradition that began with the mass vaccination of the Continental Army against smallpox during the War of the American Revolution in the late 18th century continues today with routine and deployment-based vaccination of military forces against potential pathogens of nature and biological weapon threats. As their role has expanded in recent years to include humanitarian and peacekeeping missions, the military's use of vaccines against infectious diseases has concomitantly broadened to include civilian populations worldwide. The emergence of new threats and the recognition of additional global challenges will continue to compel the development and promotion of vaccines to combat infectious diseases of military significance. PMID:19837279

  8. Diagnostic and vaccine chapter.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, J H; Kokanov, S K; Verkhovsky, O A

    2010-10-01

    The first report in this chapter describes the development of a killed composite vaccine. This killed vaccine is non-infectious to humans, other animals, and the environment. The vaccine has low reactivity, is non-abortive, and does not induce pathomorphological alterations to the organs of vaccinated animals. The second report of this chapter describes the diagnostic value of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting Brucella-specific antibodies and its ability to discriminate vaccinated cattle from infected cattle. The results indicated that the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is more sensitive than traditional tests for detecting antibodies to Brucella abortus in naturally and experimentally infected cattle. PMID:20850688

  9. Against vaccine assay secrecy

    PubMed Central

    Herder, Matthew; Hatchette, Todd F; Halperin, Scott A; Langley, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the transparency of the evidence base behind health interventions such as pharmaceuticals, biologics, and medical devices, has become a major point of critique, conflict, and policy focus in recent years. Yet the lack of publicly available information regarding the immunogenicity assays upon which many important, widely used vaccines are based has received no attention to date. In this paper we draw attention to this critical public health problem by reporting on our efforts to secure vaccine assay information in respect of 10 vaccines through Canada's access to information law. We argue, under Canadian law, that the public health interest in having access to the methods for these laboratory procedures should override claims by vaccine manufacturers and regulators that this information is proprietary; and, we call upon several actors to take steps to ensure greater transparency with respect to vaccine assays, including regulators, private firms, researchers, research institutions, research funders, and journal editors. PMID:25826194

  10. Developing new smallpox vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, S. R.; Merchlinsky, M.; Kleppinger, C.; Goldenthal, K. L.

    2001-01-01

    New stockpiles of smallpox vaccine are required as a contingency for protecting civilian and military personnel against deliberate dissemination of smallpox virus by terrorists or unfriendly governments. The smallpox vaccine in the current stockpile consists of a live animal poxvirus (Vaccinia virus [VACV]) that was grown on the skin of calves. Because of potential issues with controlling this earlier manufacturing process, which included scraping VACV lesions from calfskin, new vaccines are being developed and manufactured by using viral propagation on well-characterized cell substrates. We describe, from a regulatory perspective, the various strains of VACV, the adverse events associated with calf lymph-propagated smallpox vaccine, the issues regarding selection and use of cell substrates for vaccine production, and the issues involved in demonstrating evidence of safety and efficacy. PMID:11747717

  11. [Varicella vaccination: who should be vaccinated these days?].

    PubMed

    Hügle, Boris; Suchowerskyj, Philipp; Schuster, Volker

    2005-02-24

    In July 2004 the STIKO (German National Commission for Vaccinations) recommended routine varicella vaccination (together with the first MMR vaccination) for all healthy infants. The previous recommendations for vaccination of adolescents with no history of varicella and patient groups at risk remain valid. In persons with severely depressed cellular immunity or pregnant women vaccination with live attenuated VZV vaccines is contraindicated. Experience gained in the United States show that widespread introduction of VZV vaccination results in a decrease in both the incidence of varicella and concomitant complications including herpes zoster. PMID:18441563

  12. Vaccination coverage among adults, excluding influenza vaccination - United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Williams, Walter W; Lu, Peng-Jun; O'Halloran, Alissa; Bridges, Carolyn B; Kim, David K; Pilishvili, Tamara; Hales, Craig M; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2015-02-01

    Vaccinations are recommended throughout life to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases and their sequelae. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains low for most routinely recommended vaccines and below Healthy People 2020 targets. In October 2014, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) approved the adult immunization schedule for 2015. With the exception of influenza vaccination, which is recommended for all adults each year, other adult vaccinations are recommended for specific populations based on a person's age, health conditions, behavioral risk factors (e.g., injection drug use), occupation, travel, and other indications. To assess vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥19 years for selected vaccines, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). This report highlights results of that analysis for pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid-containing (tetanus and diphtheria vaccine [Td] or tetanus and diphtheria with acellular pertussis vaccine [Tdap]), hepatitis A, hepatitis B, herpes zoster (shingles), and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines by selected characteristics (age, race/ethnicity,† and vaccination indication). Influenza vaccination coverage estimates for the 2013-14 influenza season have been published separately. Compared with 2012, only modest increases occurred in Tdap vaccination among adults aged ≥19 years (a 2.9 percentage point increase to 17.2%), herpes zoster vaccination among adults aged ≥60 years (a 4.1 percentage point increase to 24.2%), and HPV vaccination among males aged 19-26 years (a 3.6 percentage point increase to 5.9%); coverage among adults in the United States for the other vaccines did not improve. Racial/ethnic disparities in coverage persisted for all six vaccines and widened for Tdap and herpes zoster vaccination. Increases in vaccination coverage are needed to reduce the occurrence of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. Awareness of the need for vaccines for adults is low

  13. Vaccination for tomorrow: the need to improve immunisation rates.

    PubMed

    Kassianos, George

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1998 health scare about measles mumps and rubella (MMR) immunisation, vaccination rates for measles have suffered. Although these recovered for a brief period in 2004-05, they have stalled again and latest figures suggest that only 85% of children are now immunised against this disease. The UK has become one of the five countries in the European Union with the highest measles rates. Meanwhile the wider picture indicates that other vaccination rates, including for seasonal influenza, are not meeting targets. This is a potential sign that the MMR scare and myths around immunisation are setting a worrying trend of some people losing confidence in the practice of vaccination. The UK has expanded its childhood immunisation programme to include the human papilloma virus vaccine (HPV) which protects against some types of cervical cancer. New life-saving vaccines for diseases, including meningococcal B meningitis (a strain of meningitis not yet covered by the existing vaccination programme), shingles and hepatitis C will soon become available. It is therefore important that information is available to the general public about the excellent safety record and benefits of vaccination to ensure that as many people as possible can take advantage of these new vaccines. This article explores the current uptake of, and attitudes towards, vaccination programmes and discusses some myths about immunisation. It suggests that community health care teams with access to adults, including parents of children and young people who need vaccination, are well placed to help challenge some of these myths and promote the benefits of immunisation. Practical suggestions are included on how this can be achieved. PMID:20397551

  14. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost–effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL. PMID:22566950

  15. Laser vaccine adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Kashiwagi, Satoshi; Brauns, Timothy; Gelfand, Jeffrey; Poznansky, Mark C

    2014-01-01

    Immunologic adjuvants are essential for current vaccines to maximize their efficacy. Unfortunately, few have been found to be sufficiently effective and safe for regulatory authorities to permit their use in vaccines for humans and none have been approved for use with intradermal vaccines. The development of new adjuvants with the potential to be both efficacious and safe constitutes a significant need in modern vaccine practice. The use of non-damaging laser light represents a markedly different approach to enhancing immune responses to a vaccine antigen, particularly with intradermal vaccination. This approach, which was initially explored in Russia and further developed in the US, appears to significantly improve responses to both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines administered to the laser-exposed tissue, particularly the skin. Although different types of lasers have been used for this purpose and the precise molecular mechanism(s) of action remain unknown, several approaches appear to modulate dendritic cell trafficking and/or activation at the irradiation site via the release of specific signaling molecules from epithelial cells. The most recent study, performed by the authors of this review, utilized a continuous wave near-infrared laser that may open the path for the development of a safe, effective, low-cost, simple-to-use laser vaccine adjuvant that could be used in lieu of conventional adjuvants, particularly with intradermal vaccines. In this review, we summarize the initial Russian studies that have given rise to this approach and comment upon recent advances in the use of non-tissue damaging lasers as novel physical adjuvants for vaccines. PMID:25424797

  16. Vaccines against nicotine.

    PubMed

    Cerny, Erich H; Cerny, Thomas

    2009-04-01

    Medications against any dependence-inducing drug face a dilemma: if they are efficient, they will induce withdrawal symptoms and the patient is likely to stop taking his medication. Anti drug vaccines are irreversible, provide protection over years and need booster injections far beyond the critical phase of acute withdrawal symptoms. Interacting rather with the drug in the blood than with a receptor in the brain, the vaccines are, in addition, free of side effects due to central interaction. For drugs like nicotine interacting with different types of receptors in many organs, this is a further advantage. There are three reasons that anti drug vaccines have first been developed against nicotine. Firstly, in most parts of the world 20 to 50% of the adult population smoke and any smoking cessation treatment will have an important impact on public health and be commercially a very attractive product. The second reason are the smokers themselves, who would like to quit in significant numbers and who have shown good compliance for any form of treatment. Thirdly, the quantities of cocaine or heroine taken by dependant persons are higher than the quantity of nicotine per cigarette, which makes an anti nicotine vaccine the easier vaccine project. Three anti nicotine vaccines are today in an advanced stage of clinical evaluation. We report here how those vaccines work, on the progress of the trials and future developments to expect. Results show that the efficiency of the vaccines is directly related to the antibody levels of the probates, a fact which will help to optimize further the vaccine effect. We expect the vaccines to appear on the market during a time window between 2009 and 2011. PMID:19276649

  17. Lassa fever vaccine.

    PubMed

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; McCormick, Joseph B

    2004-04-01

    Lassa fever remains a serious challenge to public health in West Africa threatening both local residents in rural areas and those who serve them, particularly medical care providers. Given the ecology of the rodent host and conditions in the endemic area, a vaccine is mandatory for control. The challenge is to overcome the scientific, political and economic obstacles to producing a human use vaccine candidate. There are some scientific issues to resolve. It is known that the G-protein confers protection but we do not know its duration. If the N-protein is also included there may be a better duration of protection but it is unclear whether the N-protein as a vaccine may possibly enhance the infection. The original vaccinia vector must be replaced by new vectors, chimeras or by delivering DNA in some format. A live vaccine is attractive because it can confer protection in a single shot. A killed vaccine is more stable, particularly for distribution in the tropics but usually requires repeated shots. For practical reasons a live vaccine format should probably be pursued, which could then be combined with a yellow fever vaccine, using the same cold chains, since this disease occupies the same endemic areas in West Africa. Lassa vaccine initiatives have suffered from a lack of funding in the past but bioterrorism has brought new resources to Lassa virus science. Adequate funding and applications of new vaccine technologies give hope that we may soon see a vaccine in clinical trials. However, the difficulty of conducting trials in endemic areas and lack of political stability remain serious problems. PMID:15056044

  18. The Vaccine Safety Datalink: successes and challenges monitoring vaccine safety.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Michael M; Gee, Julianne; Weintraub, Eric S; Belongia, Edward A; Lee, Grace M; Glanz, Jason M; Nordin, James D; Klein, Nicola P; Baxter, Roger; Naleway, Allison L; Jackson, Lisa A; Omer, Saad B; Jacobsen, Steven J; DeStefano, Frank

    2014-09-22

    The Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) is a collaborative project between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and 9 health care organizations. Established in 1990, VSD is a vital resource informing policy makers and the public about the safety of vaccines used in the United States. Large linked databases are used to identify and evaluate adverse events in over 9 million individuals annually. VSD generates rapid, important safety assessments for both routine vaccinations and emergency vaccination campaigns. VSD monitors safety of seasonal influenza vaccines in near-real time, and provided essential information on the safety of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine during the recent pandemic. VSD investigators have published important studies demonstrating that childhood vaccines are not associated with autism or other developmental disabilities. VSD prioritizes evaluation of new vaccines; searches for possible unusual health events after vaccination; monitors vaccine safety in pregnant women; and has pioneered development of biostatistical research methods. PMID:25108215

  19. Public vaccine manufacturing capacity in the Latin American and Caribbean region: current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Maria de los Angeles; Cardoso, Daniel; Fitzgerald, James; DiFabio, Jose Luis

    2012-01-01

    The vaccine global market is currently growing at a rate of 16.52%. Nowadays the vaccine manufacturing industry is limited in the sense that not all vaccine manufacturers have the capacity to execute all the steps necessary to produce a successful product. The biological variation inherent to vaccine manufacturing and the initial investment required to bring a vaccine to the market are some of the factors that discourage vaccine manufacturing initiatives. Given the current global context in vaccine innovation and production, and the increasing participation of vaccine manufacturers from developing countries in global markets, this paper aims to review vaccine manufacturing capacity in Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries with specific focus on trends in national or public sector manufacturing, presenting current challenges and future opportunities for the sector in meeting national and regional (LAC) needs. Despite the overall low vaccine manufacturing capacity reported within the LAC region within this paper, it is considered that the relatively high and concentrated capacity that exists within a number of countries, combined with political commitment of all countries within the Region, can provide the necessary platform for the continued development of capacity in vaccine development and manufacture within LAC. PMID:22033155

  20. Bioinformatics analysis of Brucella vaccines and vaccine targets using VIOLIN

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Brucella spp. are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis, one of the commonest zoonotic diseases found worldwide in humans and a variety of animal species. While several animal vaccines are available, there is no effective and safe vaccine for prevention of brucellosis in humans. VIOLIN (http://www.violinet.org) is a web-based vaccine database and analysis system that curates, stores, and analyzes published data of commercialized vaccines, and vaccines in clinical trials or in research. VIOLIN contains information for 454 vaccines or vaccine candidates for 73 pathogens. VIOLIN also contains many bioinformatics tools for vaccine data analysis, data integration, and vaccine target prediction. To demonstrate the applicability of VIOLIN for vaccine research, VIOLIN was used for bioinformatics analysis of existing Brucella vaccines and prediction of new Brucella vaccine targets. Results VIOLIN contains many literature mining programs (e.g., Vaxmesh) that provide in-depth analysis of Brucella vaccine literature. As a result of manual literature curation, VIOLIN contains information for 38 Brucella vaccines or vaccine candidates, 14 protective Brucella antigens, and 68 host response studies to Brucella vaccines from 97 peer-reviewed articles. These Brucella vaccines are classified in the Vaccine Ontology (VO) system and used for different ontological applications. The web-based VIOLIN vaccine target prediction program Vaxign was used to predict new Brucella vaccine targets. Vaxign identified 14 outer membrane proteins that are conserved in six virulent strains from B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis that are pathogenic in humans. Of the 14 membrane proteins, two proteins (Omp2b and Omp31-1) are not present in B. ovis, a Brucella species that is not pathogenic in humans. Brucella vaccine data stored in VIOLIN were compared and analyzed using the VIOLIN query system. Conclusions Bioinformatics curation and ontological

  1. Vocational and Technical Education: Development of Curricula, Instructional Materials, Physical Facilities and Teacher Training with Focus on Electrical and Electronic Subjects. Asian Programme of Educational Innovation for Development. Report of a Technical Working Group Meeting (Adelaide, Australia, October 6-18, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    This report contains summaries and syntheses of materials from the Technical Working Group Meeting for curriculum planning and instructional materials design for vocational and technical education. Chapter 1 gives an overview of the objectives and procedures of the meeting and lists the participants. In chapter 2 are presented summaries of the…

  2. Vaccinations for the Older Adult.

    PubMed

    Gnanasekaran, Gowrishankar; Biedenbender, Rex; Davidson, Harley Edward; Gravenstein, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Vaccine response declines with age, but currently recommended vaccines are safe and effective in reducing, if not preventing, disease altogether. Over the last decade, advancements in vaccine immunogenicity, either by increasing dose or conjugating vaccines to protein, have resulted in more immunogenic vaccines that also seem more effective in reducing clinical disease both for influenza and pneumococcus. Meanwhile, there is a resurgence in incident pertussis, exceeding prevalence from five decades ago, adding older adults to a recommended target vaccination group. This article discusses currently available vaccines, in the context of current epidemiology and recommendations, for older adults. PMID:27394026

  3. Identifying protective dengue vaccines: guide to mastering an empirical process.

    PubMed

    Halstead, Scott B

    2013-09-23

    A recent clinical trial of a live-attenuated tetravalent chimeric yellow fever-dengue vaccine afforded no protection against disease caused by dengue 2 (DENV-2). This outcome was unexpected as two or more doses of this vaccine had raised broad neutralizing antibody responses. Data from pre-clinical subhuman primate studies revealed that vaccination with the monotypic DENV-2 component failed to meet established criteria for solid protection to homotypic live virus challenge. Accordingly, it is suggested that preclinical testing adopt more rigorous criteria for protection and that Phase I testing be extended to require evidence of solid monotypic protective immunity for each component of a dengue vaccine by direct challenge with live-attenuated DENV. Because live-attenuated tetravalent DENV vaccines exhibit evidence of immunological interference phenomena, during Phase II, volunteers given mixtures of DENV 1-4 vaccines should be separately challenged with monotypic live-attenuated DENV. Immune responses to live-attenuated challenge viruses and vaccine strains should be studied in an attempt to develop useful in vitro correlates of in vivo protection. Finally, it will be important to learn if DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) contributes to pathogenesis of the vascular permeability syndrome in humans. If so, immunity to dengue 1-4 NS1 may be crucial to prevent severe disease. PMID:23896423

  4. Status of paratyphoid fever vaccine research and development.

    PubMed

    Martin, Laura B; Simon, Raphael; MacLennan, Calman A; Tennant, Sharon M; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Khan, M Imran

    2016-06-01

    Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi) A and B cause enteric fever in humans. Of the paratyphoid group, S. Paratyphi A is the most common serovar. In 2000, there were an estimated 5.4 million cases of S. Paratyphi A worldwide. More recently paratyphoid fever has accounted for an increasing fraction of all cases of enteric fever. Although vaccines for typhoid fever have been developed and in use for decades, vaccines for paratyphoid fever have not yet been licensed. Several S. Paratyphi A vaccines, however, are in development and based on either whole cell live-attenuated strains or repeating units of the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen (O:2) conjugated to different protein carriers. An O-specific polysaccharide (O:2) of S. Paratyphi A conjugated to tetanus toxoid (O:2-TT), for example, has been determined to be safe and immunogenic after one dose in Phase I and Phase II trials. Two other conjugated vaccine candidates linked to diphtheria toxin and a live-attenuated oral vaccine candidate are currently in preclinical development. As promising vaccine candidates are advanced along the development pipeline, an adequate supply of vaccines will need to be ensured to meet growing demand, particularly in the most affected countries. PMID:27083427

  5. Applications of nanomaterials as vaccine adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Motao; Wang, Rongfu; Nie, Guangjun

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine adjuvants are applied to amplify the recipient's specific immune responses against pathogen infection or malignancy. A new generation of adjuvants is being developed to meet the demands for more potent antigen-specific responses, specific types of immune responses, and a high margin of safety. Nanotechnology provides a multifunctional stage for the integration of desired adjuvant activities performed by the building blocks of tailor-designed nanoparticles. Using nanomaterials for antigen delivery can provide high bioavailability, sustained and controlled release profiles, and targeting and imaging properties resulting from manipulation of the nanomaterials’ physicochemical properties. Moreover, the inherent immune-regulating activity of particular nanomaterials can further promote and shape the cellular and humoral immune responses toward desired types. The combination of both the delivery function and immunomodulatory effect of nanomaterials as adjuvants is thought to largely benefit the immune outcomes of vaccination. In this review, we will address the current achievements of nanotechnology in the development of novel adjuvants. The potential mechanisms by which nanomaterials impact the immune responses to a vaccine and how physicochemical properties, including size, surface charge and surface modification, impact their resulting immunological outcomes will be discussed. This review aims to provide concentrated information to promote new insights for the development of novel vaccine adjuvants. PMID:25483497

  6. Tuberculosis vaccines in clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Rosalind; McShane, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Effective prophylactic and/or therapeutic vaccination is a key strategy for controlling the global TB epidemic. The partial effectiveness of the existing TB vaccine, bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG), suggests effective vaccination is possible and highlights the need for an improved vaccination strategy. Clinical trials are evaluating both modifications to the existing BCG immunization methods and also novel TB vaccines, designed to replace or boost BCG. Candidate vaccines in clinical development include live mycobacterial vaccines designed to replace BCG, subunit vaccines designed to boost BCG and therapeutic vaccines designed as an adjunct to chemotherapy. There is a great need for validated animal models, identification of immunological biomarkers of protection and field sites with the capacity for large-scale efficacy testing in order to develop and license a novel TB vaccine or regimen. PMID:21604985

  7. Novel Vaccination Strategies against Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Peter; Kaufmann, Stefan H.E.

    2014-01-01

    The tuberculosis (TB) pandemic continues to rampage despite widespread use of the BCG (Bacillus Calmette–Guérin) vaccine. Novel vaccination strategies are urgently needed to arrest global transmission and prevent the uncontrolled development of multidrug-resistant forms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Over the last two decades, considerable progress has been made in the field of vaccine development with numerous innovative preclinical candidates and more than a dozen vaccines in clinical trials. These vaccines are developed either as boosters of the current BCG vaccine or as novel prime vaccines to replace BCG. Given the enormous prevalence of latent TB infection, vaccines that are protective on top of an already established infection remain a high priority and a significant scientific challenge. Here we discuss the current state of TB vaccine research and development, our understanding of the underlying immunology, and the requirements for an efficient TB vaccine. PMID:24890836

  8. [Vaccines for the future].

    PubMed

    Girard, M P

    2009-05-01

    The field of vaccines and vaccinology has seen remarkable progress during the past 20 years. Many vaccines, however, still need to be improved, either because the protection they provide is relatively short-lived and would greatly benefit from the development of booster formulations (as is the case for tuberculosis), or because they only cover part of the many serotypes of the pathogen that causes the disease (rotaviruses, papillomaviruses, or Streptococcus pneumoniae). In addition, still many diseases lack a proper preventive vaccine, such as AIDS, hepatitis C, malaria, viral pneumonias, croup and bronchiolitis, dengue fever, leishmaniasis, Staphylococcus aureus, groups A and B Streptococcus, Shigellas and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, to only name a few. These are the current targets of vaccines under development, a great many of which will hopefully reach the market within the coming 10 years. The development of preventive vaccines against chronic diseases such as AIDS and hepatitis C will probably require more time, due to basic science complexities to be overcome first. It is likely that the future will also see an emphasis on therapeutic vaccines targeted against noninfectious diseases such as cancers (lung, skin, prostate, etc) and metabolic or neurologic diseases (atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease). This review will focus on examples of preventive vaccines under development that target infectious diseases with a heavy global burden on public health. PMID:19446671

  9. Nanoparticles for transcutaneous vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Steffi; Lehr, Claus‐Michael

    2012-01-01

    Summary The living epidermis and dermis are rich in antigen presenting cells (APCs). Their activation can elicit a strong humoral and cellular immune response as well as mucosal immunity. Therefore, the skin is a very attractive site for vaccination, and an intradermal application of antigen may be much more effective than a subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. However, the stratum corneum (SC) is a most effective barrier against the invasion of topically applied vaccines. Products which have reached the stage of clinical testing, avoid this problem by injecting the nano‐vaccine intradermally or by employing a barrier disrupting method and applying the vaccine to a relatively large skin area. Needle‐free vaccination is desirable from a number of aspects: ease of application, improved patient acceptance and less risk of infection among them. Nanocarriers can be designed in a way that they can overcome the SC. Also incorporation into nanocarriers protects instable antigen from degradation, improves uptake and processing by APCs, and facilitates endosomal escape and nuclear delivery of DNA vaccines. In addition, sustained release systems may build a depot in the tissue gradually releasing antigen which may avoid booster doses. Therefore, nanoformulations of vaccines for transcutaneous immunization are currently a very dynamic field of research. Among the huge variety of nanocarrier systems that are investigated hopes lie on ultra‐flexible liposomes, superfine rigid nanoparticles and nanocarriers, which are taken up by hair follicles. The potential and pitfalls associated with these three classes of carriers will be discussed. PMID:21854553

  10. Vaccines, viruses, and voodoo.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Andrea T; Keen, Carl L; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Silva, Joseph; Gershwin, M Eric

    2002-01-01

    Vaccinations are invaluable in protection from a wide variety of diseases that can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Although a rare complication of vaccination, autoimmune disorders represent one of these morbidities. Recently, widespread public concern has arisen from case reports suggesting that--similar to what has been observed after natural viral infections--there might be an association between specific immunizations and autoimmune diseases. Herein we address the biological plausibility of such a connection, focusing particularly on the examples of hepatitis B, rubella, and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccinations, and the autoimmune diseases they are potentially associated with. Our review of the available data suggests that, for the general population, the risk: benefit ratio is overwhelmingly in favor of vaccinations. However, the possibility cannot be ruled out that, in genetically susceptible individuals, vaccination can result in the unmasking of an autoimmune disease triggered by the immunization. We also critically examine the existing data suggesting a link between immunization against MMR and autism, and briefly discuss the controversial evidence pointing to a possible relationship between mercury exposure from vaccines and autistic disorders. There is a continued urgent need for rigorously designed and executed studies addressing these potential associations, although the use of vaccinations remains a critical public health tool for protection against infectious disease. PMID:12530114

  11. [Vaccinations in respiratory medicine].

    PubMed

    Lode, H M; Stahlmann, R

    2015-09-01

    Vaccinations are the most successful and cost-effective measures for prevention of infections. Important pathogens of respiratory tract infections (e.g. influenza viruses and pneumococci) can be effectively treated by vaccinations. The seasonal trivalent and recently now quadrivalent influenza vaccines include antigens from influenza A and B type viruses, which have to be modified annually oriented to the circulating strains. The effective protection by influenza vaccination varies considerably (too short protection time, mismatch); therefore, administration late in the year is the best approach (November/December). Two pneumococcal vaccines are recommended for adults: the over 30-year-old 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and the 4-year-old 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13). The immunological and clinical efficacy of PPV23 is controversially discussed; however, a moderate reduction of invasive pneumococcal infections is widely accepted. The PCV13 stimulates a T-cell response and has currently demonstrated its clinical efficacy in an impressive study (CAPiTA). The problem of PCV13 is the relatively limited coverage of only 47% of the currently circulating invasive pneumococcal serotypes. PMID:26330051

  12. Varicella and herpes zoster vaccines: WHO position paper, June 2014--Recommendations.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations for the use of varicella and herpes zoster vaccination from the WHO position paper on varicella and herpes zoster vaccines - June 2014, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record [1]. This position paper summarizes the WHO position on the use of varicella and herpes zoster vaccines. The current document replaces the position paper on the use of varicella vaccines published in 1998 [2]. Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This paper reflects the recommendations of WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization. These recommendations were discussed by SAGE at its April 2014 meeting. Evidence presented at the meeting can be accessed at http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/previous/en/index.html. PMID:26723191

  13. Contributions and challenges for worldwide vaccine safety: The Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety at 15 years.

    PubMed

    Asturias, Edwin J; Wharton, Melinda; Pless, Robert; MacDonald, Noni E; Chen, Robert T; Andrews, Nicholas; Salisbury, David; Dodoo, Alexander N; Hartigan-Go, Kenneth; Zuber, Patrick L F

    2016-06-17

    In 1999, the Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety (GACVS) was established by the World Health Organization (WHO) to provide independent scientific advice on issues relating to the safety of vaccines and immunization. Fifteen years onward, we conducted a multi-faceted review to evaluate the impact, reach and challenges facing GACVS, including the role GACVS plays in informing global, regional and WHO member state vaccine policy. The methods included measures of organizational structure, citation impact, themes approached, and a discussion by previous and current members to evaluate past, present and future challenges. Given the increasing range of data sources and the deployment of many new vaccines, the Committee is facing the complex task of identifying the best available evidence for recommendations on vaccine safety. To help meet the increased demand for public transparency in decision making, GACVS-structured methodology for evidence-based decisions is evolving. GACVS also promotes best practices and capacity building for timely and accurate risk assessment; risk communications; outreach to help countries maintain and, if needed, rebuild public trust in vaccines; and advocacy for bridging the major gaps in vaccine safety capacity globally. PMID:27195758

  14. Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

  15. [Transcutaneous applications for vaccination and immunotherapy].

    PubMed

    Krämer, Isabel; Zabel, Franziska; Kündig, Thomas M; Johansen, Pål

    2014-10-15

    Although Edward Jenner applied the first vaccines by scratching cow pox material into the skin, the profound immunological properties of the skin have become evident through research and discoveries only in the last 20 years. The immunological cells in the epidermis and the dermis are suitable targets for transcutaneous vaccination and immunotherapy. However, as the skin represents a natural barrier for topically administered large molecules, novel methods to overcome this barrier function have been described. There are chemical, biochemical and physical methods, many of which are pain-free and therefore especially suitable for children. Also for adults non-invasive methods of vaccination and immunotherapy are attractive as self-administration is feasible. Future products are currently undergoing clinical tests which provide promising results. PMID:25305116

  16. Research toward Malaria Vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Louis H.; Howard, Russell J.; Carter, Richard; Good, Michael F.; Nussenzweig, Victor; Nussenzweig, Ruth S.

    1986-12-01

    Malaria exacts a toll of disease to people in the Tropics that seems incomprehensible to those only familiar with medicine and human health in the developed world. The methods of molecular biology, immunology, and cell biology are now being used to develop an antimalarial vaccine. The Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria have many stages in their life cycle. Each stage is antigenically distinct and potentially could be interrupted by different vaccines. However, achieving complete protection by vaccination may require a better understanding of the complexities of B- and T-cell priming in natural infections and the development of an appropriate adjuvant for use in humans.

  17. Anti-addiction vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite intensive efforts to eradicate it, addiction to both legal and illicit drugs continues to be a major worldwide medical and social problem. Anti-addiction vaccines can produce the antibodies to block the effects of these drugs on the brain, and have great potential to ameliorate the morbidity and mortality associated with illicit drug intoxications. This review provides a current overview of anti-addiction vaccines that are under clinical trial and pre-clinical research evaluation. It also outlines the development challenges, ethical concerns, and likely future intervention for anti-addiction vaccines. PMID:22003367

  18. Hepatitis B vaccination.

    PubMed

    Romanò, Luisa; Paladini, Sara; Galli, Cristina; Raimondo, Giovanni; Pollicino, Teresa; Zanetti, Alessandro R

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus is a worldwide leading cause of acute and chronic liver disease including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Effective vaccines have been available since the early '80s and vaccination has proved highly successful in reducing the disease burden, the development of the carrier state and the HB-related morbidity and mortality in the countries where vaccination has been implemented.   Neutralizing (protective) antibodies (anti-HBs) induced by vaccination are targeted largely towards the amino acid hydrophilic region, referred to as the common a determinant which is present on the outer protein coat or surface antigen (HBsAg), spanning amino acids 124-149. This provides protection against all HBV genotypes (from A to H) and is responsible for the broad immunity afforded by hepatitis B vaccination. Thus, alterations of residues within this region of the surface antigen may determine conformational changes that can allow replication of the mutated HBV in vaccinated people. An important mutation in the surface antigen region was identified in Italy some 25 years ago in infants born to HBsAg carrier mothers who developed breakthrough infections despite having received HBIG and vaccine at birth. This virus had a point mutation from guanosine to adenosine at nucleotide position 587, resulting in aa substitution from glycine (G) to arginine (R) at position 145 in the a determinant. Since the G145R substitution alters the projecting loop (aa 139-147) of the a determinant, the neutralizing antibodies induced by vaccination are no longer able to recognize the mutated epitope. Beside G145R, other S-gene mutations potentially able to evade neutralizing anti-HBs and infect vaccinated people have been described worldwide. In addition, the emergence of Pol mutants associated with resistance to treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues can select viruses with crucial changes in the overlapping S-gene, potentially able to alter the S protein immunoreactivity. Thus

  19. Developing vaccines against pandemic influenza.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, J M

    2001-01-01

    Pandemic influenza presents special problems for vaccine development. There must be a balance between rapid availability of vaccine and the safeguards to ensure safety, quality and efficacy of vaccine. Vaccine was developed for the pandemics of 1957, 1968, 1977 and for the pandemic alert of 1976. This experience is compared with that gained in developing vaccines for a possible H5N1 pandemic in 1997-1998. Our ability to mass produce influenza vaccines against a pandemic threat was well illustrated by the production of over 150 million doses of 'swine flu' vaccine in the USA within a 3 month period in 1976. However, there is cause for concern that the lead time to begin vaccine production is likely to be about 7-8 months. Attempts to reduce this time should receive urgent attention. Immunogenicity of vaccines in pandemic situations is compared over the period 1968-1998. A consistent feature of the vaccine trials is the demonstration that one conventional 15 microg haemagglutinin dose of vaccine is not sufficiently immunogenic in naive individuals. Much larger doses or two lower doses are needed to induce satisfactory immunity. There is some evidence that whole-virus vaccines are more immunogenic than split or subunit vaccines, but this needs substantiating by further studies. H5 vaccines appeared to be particularly poor immunogens and there is evidence that an adjuvant may be needed. Prospects for improving the development of pandemic vaccines are discussed. PMID:11779397

  20. Formative Research on HPV Vaccine Acceptability Among Latina Farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Luque, John S.; Castañeda, Heide; Tyson, Dinorah Martinez; Vargas, Natalia; Meade, Cathy D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers and benefits to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in a low-income, Latina farmworker population in central Florida. This study reports on formative qualitative research conducted on perceptions of benefits, barriers, costs, place, and promotion related to the HPV vaccine from surveys and interviews with a sample of 46 low-income, Latina farm workers and 19 health care workers serving this population. It was found that Latina farmworkers hold many misperceptions about the HPV vaccine and the potential links between HPV infection and cervical cancer. In addition, it was observed that HPV vaccination intention was inversely related to concerns about adolescent sexual behavior and low perceived risk of infection but might be positively influenced by belief in illness prevention and physician recommendation. These findings add to the growing research on HPV vaccine acceptability among Latina subgroups to inform intervention development, marketing materials, education, and policy. PMID:21881079