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Sample records for melamine-induced kidney stones

  1. Preventive and therapeutic effects of sodium bicarbonate on melamine-induced bladder stones in mice.

    PubMed

    Ren, Shu-Ting; Du, Yun-Xia; Xu, Chang-Fu; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Mo, Li-Ping; Sun, Ying; Gao, Xiao-Li

    2014-10-01

    The actual preventive and therapeutic effects of alkalinizing urine on melamine-induced bladder stones (cystolith) are not completely known. Using an ideal model, two experiments were conducted in Balb/c mice. The mice were fed a normal diet in controls and a melamine diet in the other groups. The first day was set as experiment-day 1. In "Experiment 1", either low-/mid-/high-dose sodium bicarbonate (SB) or sterile water was administered by intragastric perfusion (once daily) to the mice for 14 days. Relative to the model group, the mean pH of the urine in the SB groups was significantly elevated at 3 h after SB administration, with a significant decrease in cystolith incidence on experiment-day 14. In "Experiment 2", on experiment-day 12, the melamine diet was replaced by a normal diet in 4 groups with melamine withdrawal (MW). Meanwhile, either mid-/high-dose SB or sterile water was administered by intragastric perfusion (once) to the mice in the corresponding groups. On experiment-day 12, after an additional 8 h, the cystolith incidence was significantly reduced in the high-SB, MW + mid-SB and MW + high-SB groups than in the model group. In conclusion, low urinary pH is one of the main determinants of the formation of melamine-associated stones, urinary alkalinization can be achieved by a proper dose of oral SB, and SB acts to prevent and treat melamine-induced cystoliths in mice. PMID:25092435

  2. Kidney stones

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... urine exits the kidney and enters the ureter. As urine can become very concentrated as it passes through the kidneys. When the urine ... chemicals dissolved in the urine can crystallize, forming a kidney stone (renal calculus). Usually the calculus is ...

  3. Kidney stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidney or ureter. It uses sound or shock waves to break up stones. Then, the stone fragments ... the urine. It is also called extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy or ESWL. Procedures performed by passing a ...

  4. Kidney stones

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... cortex to the inner medulla. The renal pelvis is the funnel through which urine exits the kidney ... a kidney stone (renal calculus). Usually the calculus is the size of a small pebble. But ureters ...

  5. Kidney Stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... be signs of kidney stones that need a doctor's help: Extreme pain in your back or side that will not go away Blood in your urine Fever and chills Vomiting Urine that smells bad or looks cloudy A burning feeling when you urinate Your doctor will diagnose a kidney stone with urine, blood, ...

  6. Kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Khan, Saeed R; Pearle, Margaret S; Robertson, William G; Gambaro, Giovanni; Canales, Benjamin K; Doizi, Steeve; Traxer, Olivier; Tiselius, Hans-Göran

    2016-01-01

    Kidney stones are mineral deposits in the renal calyces and pelvis that are found free or attached to the renal papillae. They contain crystalline and organic components and are formed when the urine becomes supersaturated with respect to a mineral. Calcium oxalate is the main constituent of most stones, many of which form on a foundation of calcium phosphate called Randall's plaques, which are present on the renal papillary surface. Stone formation is highly prevalent, with rates of up to 14.8% and increasing, and a recurrence rate of up to 50% within the first 5 years of the initial stone episode. Obesity, diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome are considered risk factors for stone formation, which, in turn, can lead to hypertension, chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. Management of symptomatic kidney stones has evolved from open surgical lithotomy to minimally invasive endourological treatments leading to a reduction in patient morbidity, improved stone-free rates and better quality of life. Prevention of recurrence requires behavioural and nutritional interventions, as well as pharmacological treatments that are specific for the type of stone. There is a great need for recurrence prevention that requires a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in stone formation to facilitate the development of more-effective drugs. PMID:27188687

  7. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Kidney Stones KidsHealth > For Parents > Kidney Stones Print A ... remove the stones from their urinary tracts. How Kidney Stones Form It's the kidneys' job to remove ...

  8. Kidney Stones

    PubMed Central

    Kleeman, Charles R.; Coburn, Jack W.; Brickman, Arnold S.; Lee, David B. N.; Narins, Robert G.; Ehrlich, Richard M.

    1980-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones has steadily risen during this century; passage of a calculus and a positive family history increase the probability of recurrence. Findings from recent studies on the cause of renal calculi have stressed crystallization and crystal aggregation of stone minerals from supersaturated urine, rather than excessive organic matrix. Absence of normal urine inhibitors of calcium salts is also stressed. Formation of calcium oxalate stones is the major problem. Therapy with decreased calcium and oxalate intake, thiazides, phosphate salts and allopurinol in various combinations has substantially decreased the prevalence of recurrent stones. The rationale for the use of allopurinol is that uric acid salts enhance the tendency for calcium oxalate to crystallize from supersaturated urine. The hypercalciuria seen in 30 percent to 40 percent of patients with oxalate stones is usually caused by intestinal hyperabsorption of calcium. Although patients with uric acid calculi constitute only a small fraction of those in whom stones form, they represent a group in whom good medical therapy, based on sound physiologic principles, has proved extremely successful. Renal tubular syndromes lead to nephrocalcinosis and lithiasis through hypercalciuria, alkaline urine and hypocitraturia, the latter an inhibitor of calcium salt precipitation. Recent advances in surgical techniques are discussed, including the rationale for removing staghorn calculi. The ileal ureter and coagulum pyelolithotomy deserve special emphasis. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 7. PMID:7385835

  9. Kidney stones

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The age of peak incidence for stone disease is 20 to 40 years, although stones are seen in all age groups. There is a male to female ratio of 3:2. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions for stone removal in people with asymptomatic kidney stones? What are the effects of interventions for the removal of symptomatic renal stones? What are the effects of interventions to remove symptomatic ureteric stones? What are the effects of interventions for the management of acute renal colic? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 21 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antispasmodic drugs, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, intravenous fluids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), opioids, oral fluids, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and ureteroscopy. PMID:22075544

  10. Kidney Stones in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nephrology American Kidney Fund National Kidney Foundation MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Disease Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Kidney Stones in Children Page Content On this page: ...

  11. Kidney Stones in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... had a kidney stone. 2 2 Scales CD, Smith AC, Hanley JM, Saigal CS. Prevalence of kidney ... table or, less commonly, in a tub of water above the lithotripter. The lithotripter generates shock waves ...

  12. Diet and Kidney Stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink at least three quarts (12 cups) of water a day to help reduce the risk for stone formation. Making these healthy lifestyle changes can also help reduce ... NY Register Now 2016 Orangeburg Kidney Walk Thu, ...

  13. Kidney Stones in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... through the child’s body to break the kidney stone into smaller particles to pass more readily through the urinary tract. Children younger than age 12 may receive general anesthesia during the procedure. ...

  14. Kidney stone disease

    PubMed Central

    Coe, Fredric L.; Evan, Andrew; Worcester, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life, and prevalence has been rising in both sexes. Approximately 80% of stones are composed of calcium oxalate (CaOx) and calcium phosphate (CaP); 10% of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate produced during infection with bacteria that possess the enzyme urease), 9% of uric acid (UA); and the remaining 1% are composed of cystine or ammonium acid urate or are diagnosed as drug-related stones. Stones ultimately arise because of an unwanted phase change of these substances from liquid to solid state. Here we focus on the mechanisms of pathogenesis involved in CaOx, CaP, UA, and cystine stone formation, including recent developments in our understanding of related changes in human kidney tissue and of underlying genetic causes, in addition to current therapeutics. PMID:16200192

  15. Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... may also help prevent kidney stones, such as citrus drinks. Recommendations based on the specific type of ... do to prevent kidney stones. Some studies suggest citrus drinks like lemonade and orange juice protect against ...

  16. Kidney stones - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Renal calculi - self-care; Nephrolithiasis - self-care; Stones - kidney - self-care ... You visited your health care provider or the hospital because you have a kidney stone. You will need to take self-care steps. Which steps ...

  17. Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy Broward Health Medical Center Fort Lauderdale, FL November 11, 2011 I'm ... got at least three stones in his left kidney. He's been having pain and blood in his ...

  18. [MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES ON KIDNEY STONES].

    PubMed

    Romanova, Yu M; Mulabaev, N S; Tolordava, E R; Seregin, A V; Seregin, I V; Alexeeva, N V; Stepanova, T V; Levina, G A; Barhatova, O I; Gamova, N A; Goncharova, S A; Didenko, L V; Rakovskaya, I V

    2015-01-01

    The clinical material obtained surgically in patients with kidney stone disease (KSD) was tested for content of the stone microflora using PCR and standard microbiological methods. It was demonstrated that about 50% of stones in patients with KSD were infected with various infection agents as observed using standard microbiological and molecular genetic methods. The percentage of detection of the Mycoplasma hominis using cultural method is lower than the percentage detected using PCR, which is due to difficult isolation and cultivation, as well as DNA fragments of mycoplasma observed after antibiotic therapy. Studies based on modern microscopy methods showed that microorganisms on the surface of the kidney stone formed multispecies biofilms. PMID:26182663

  19. The exposome for kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, David S

    2016-02-01

    The exposome is the assembly and measure of all the exposures of an individual in a lifetime. An individual's exposures begin before birth and include insults from environmental and occupational sources. The associated field is called exposomics, which relies on the application of internal and external exposure assessment methods. Exposomics has not yet been thoroughly applied to the study of kidney stones although much is known about how diet and fluid intake affect nephrolithiasis. Some other novel exposures that may contribute to kidney stones are discussed including use of antibiotics, urbanization and migration to urban heat islands, and occupation. People whose school and jobs limit their access to fluids and adequate bathroom facilities may have higher prevalence of stones. Examples include athletes, teachers, heathcare workers, and cab drivers. Occupational kidney stones have received scant attention and may represent a neglected, and preventable, type of stone. An exposomic-oriented history would include a careful delineation of occupation and activities. PMID:26615595

  20. Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... diet plan should a person follow to prevent future kidney stones? A dietitian can help a person ... Training & Career Development Research at NIDDK Research Resources Technology Advancement & Transfer Meetings & Events Health Information Health Topics ...

  1. Kidney Stones in Children and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Kidney Stones in Children and Teens Page Content Article ... teen girls having the highest incidence. Types of Kidney Stones There are many different types of kidney ...

  2. Ultrasonic propulsion of kidney stones

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip C.; Bailey, Michael R.; Harper, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Ultrasonic propulsion is a novel technique that uses short bursts of focused ultrasonic pulses to reposition stones transcutaneously within the renal collecting system and ureter. The purpose of this review is to discuss the initial testing of effectiveness and safety, directions for refinement of technique and technology, and opinions on clinical application. Recent findings Preclinical studies with a range of probes, interfaces, and outputs have demonstrated feasibility and consistent safety of ultrasonic propulsion with room for increased outputs and refinement toward specific applications. Ultrasonic propulsion was used painlessly and without adverse events to reposition stones in 14 of 15 human study participants without restrictions on patient size, stone size, or stone location. The initial feasibility study showed applicability in a range of clinically relevant situations, including facilitating passage of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, moving a large stone at the UPJ with relief of pain, and differentiating large stones from a collection of small fragments. Summary Ultrasonic propulsion shows promise as an office-based system for transcutaneously repositioning kidney stones. Potential applications include facilitating expulsion of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, repositioning stones prior to treatment, and repositioning obstructing UPJ stones into the kidney to alleviate acute renal colic. PMID:26845428

  3. Nutritional Management of Kidney Stones (Nephrolithiasis)

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Adam M.; Seifter, Julian L.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of kidney stones is common in the United States and treatments for them are very costly. This review article provides information about epidemiology, mechanism, diagnosis, and pathophysiology of kidney stone formation, and methods for the evaluation of stone risks for new and follow-up patients. Adequate evaluation and management can prevent recurrence of stones. Kidney stone prevention should be individualized in both its medical and dietary management, keeping in mind the specific risks involved for each type of stones. Recognition of these risk factors and development of long-term management strategies for dealing with them are the most effective ways to prevent recurrence of kidney stones. PMID:26251832

  4. Kidney stones - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000186.htm Kidney stones - what to ask your doctor To use the ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms ...

  5. Kidney stones - lithotripsy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... days after this procedure. Drink a lot of water in the weeks after treatment. This helps pass any pieces of stone that still remain. Your health care provider may give you a medicine ... take and drink a lot of water if you have pain. You may need to ...

  6. Ultrasonic destruction of kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Brannen, G E; Bush, W H

    1984-02-01

    Kidney stones may be removed without using a surgical incision by a combination of techniques and skills recently developed in the fields of urology and radiology. Percutaneous access to the kidney is established under fluoroscopic control. A guide wire placed into the renal pelvis allows a nephroscope to be inserted and the collecting system visualized. A long hollow metal probe is advanced through the nephroscope and placed in contact with the stone. This probe conducts the ultrasonic energy. The stone absorbs the energy and breaks into fine granules, which are evacuated by suction.Twenty-three consecutively seen patients presenting with 27 upper urinary tract calculi for which removal was indicated underwent successful percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy. Fifteen stones were located in the renal pelvis, eight in a calix, three at the ureteropelvic junction and one in the upper ureter. One infected staghorn calculus was removed. Two complications resulted in extended hospital stays, but in no patients were surgical incisions required. Of the 23 patients, 9 had previously had a surgical lithotomy. The authors believe that most renal and upper ureteral calculi for which removal is indicated may be extracted percutaneously with the aid of the ultrasonic lithotriptor. The patients may expect a rapid convalescence with diminished pain. PMID:6730470

  7. [Asymptomatic kidney stones: active surveillance vs. treatment].

    PubMed

    Neisius, A; Thomas, C; Roos, F C; Hampel, C; Fritsche, H-M; Bach, T; Thüroff, J W; Knoll, T

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing worldwide. Asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones are increasingly detected as an incidental finding on radiologic imaging, which has been performed more frequently over the last decades. Beside the current interventional treatment modalities such as extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureterorenoscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), active surveillance of asymptomatic kidney stones has been a focus of discussion lately, not only for attending physicians, but even more so for patients. The current German and European guidelines recommend active surveillance for patients with asymptomatic kidney stones if no interventional therapy is mandatory because of pain or medical factors. Herein we review the current literature on risks and benefits of active surveillance of asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones. PMID:26378390

  8. Apparatus for disintegrating kidney stones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, E. D. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    The useful life of the wire probe in an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is enhanced and prolonged by attaching the wire of the wire probe to the tip of an ultrasonic transducer by means of a clamping arrangement. Additionally, damping material is applied to the wire probe in the form of a damper tube through which the wire probe passes in the region adjacent the transducer tip. The damper tube extends outwardly from the transducer tip a predetermined distance, terminating in a resilient soft rubber joint. Also, the damper tube is supported intermediate its length by a support member. The damper system thus acts to inhibit lateral vibrations of the wire in the region of the transducer tip while providing little or no damping to the linear vibrations imparted to the wire by the transducer.

  9. Epidemiologic insights into pediatric kidney stone disease.

    PubMed

    Matlaga, Brian R; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Novak, Thomas E; Trock, Bruce J

    2010-12-01

    The epidemiology of pediatric kidney stone has not yet been as rigorously defined as that of adult kidney stone disease. Herein, we review our recent epidemiologic works characterizing pediatric stone disease using the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID). Specifically we investigated the age and gender distribution of pediatric kidney stone disease, changes in disease prevalence over time, and medical comorbidities associated with this disorder. We identified patients by International Classification of Disease 9th Edition (ICD-9) codes for renal and ureteral calculi as the primary diagnosis. Medical comorbidities were identified using specific comorbidity software. Statistical comparisons between children with and without stone disease were performed. In the first decade of life, stone disease was more prevalent among males than females; however, in the second decade of life females were more commonly affected. Of note, there was a significant increase in treated stone disease across both genders between 1997 and 2003. We also found that the risk of kidney stone diagnosis in children younger than 6 years of age was significantly associated with hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The gender distribution among pediatric stone formers varies significantly by age, although overall females have a greater prevalence than males. There is also a strong association of stone disease and both diabetes and hypertension, although this was only observed in children less than 6 years of age. Taken all together, these findings suggest that urolithiasis in the young child is a complex systemic disease process. PMID:20967433

  10. Do Kidney Stone Formers Have A Kidney Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Zisman, Anna L.; Evan, Andrew P.; Coe, Fredric L.; Worcester, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a highly prevalent disorder affecting approximately one in eleven people and is associated with multiple complications including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. Significant epidemiologic associations with chronic kidney disease and ESRD have been noted and are reviewed herein, but debate persists in the literature as to whether kidney stone formation is a pathogenic process contributing to kidney disease. Corroborating evidence supporting the presence of kidney disease in stone formers includes the variability of renal function by stone type, the positive association of stone size with renal dysfunction, the presence of markers of renal injury in the urine of even asymptomatic stone formers, and direct evidence of renal tissue injury on histopathology. Proposed pathogenic mechanisms include recurrent obstruction and comorbid conditions such as recurrent urinary tract infections and structural abnormalities. Recent work evaluating the renal histopathology of different groups of stone formers adds further granularity, suggesting variability in mechanisms of renal injury by stone type and confirming the pathogenic effects of crystal formation. Genetic abnormalities leading to stone formation including cystinuria and primary hyperoxaluria, among others, contribute to the burden of disease in the stone-forming population. PMID:26376133

  11. [Kidney stone as a cardiovascular risk marker].

    PubMed

    Ernandez, Thomas; Bonny, Olivier

    2014-09-10

    Most of the time, kidney stones are considered as minor, but painful events. However, several studies have recently shown an association between kidney stone and an increased cardio-vascular risk. We review here these studies and explore the underlying pathophysiological hypotheses. At the end, we propose that lithiasis should be considered as a red flag intervening early during life-time and allowing a check of cardiovascular risk factors and early preventive intervention. Such approach may be successful in reducing the incidence of cardio-vascular events in stone formers. PMID:25322624

  12. Kidney Stone Risk Following Modern Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Ricardo D.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, a variety of reports have linked bariatric surgery to metabolic changes that alter kidney stone risk. Most of these studies were retrospective, lacked appropriate controls, or involved bariatric patients with a variety of inclusion criteria. Despite these limitations, recent clinical and experimental research has contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of stone disease in this high-risk population. This review summarizes the urinary chemistry profiles that may be responsible for the increased kidney stone incidence seen in contemporary epidemiological bariatric studies, outlines the mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and potential therapies through a newly described experimental bariatric animal model, and provides a focused appraisal of recommendations for reducing stone risk in bariatric stone formers. PMID:24658828

  13. Kidney Stones 2012: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Maalouf, Naim M.; Sinnott, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    Context: The pathogenetic mechanisms of kidney stone formation are complex and involve both metabolic and environmental risk factors. Over the past decade, major advances have been made in the understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of kidney stone disease. Evidence Acquisition and Synthesis: Both original and review articles were found via PubMed search reporting on pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of kidney stones. These resources were integrated with the authors' knowledge of the field. Conclusion: Nephrolithiasis remains a major economic and health burden worldwide. Nephrolithiasis is considered a systemic disorder associated with chronic kidney disease, bone loss and fractures, increased risk of coronary artery disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the metabolic syndrome. Further understanding of the pathophysiological link between nephrolithiasis and these systemic disorders is necessary for the development of new therapeutic options. PMID:22466339

  14. Keep Your Kidneys Clear: Kicking Kidney Stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF—450 kb) Hey, Parents: It’s a Noisy Planet Keep Your Kidneys Clear Keep Your Kidneys Clear ... Pike Bethesda, Maryland 20892 Department of Health and Human Services Office of Communications and Public Liaison

  15. Focused ultrasound guided relocation of kidney stones

    PubMed Central

    Abrol, Nitin; Kekre, Nitin S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Complete removal of all fragments is the goal of any intervention for urinary stones. This is more important in lower pole stones where gravity and spatial orientation of lower pole infundibulum may hinder spontaneous passage of fragments. Various adjuvant therapies (inversion, diuresis, percussion, oral citrate, etc.) are described to enhance stone-free rate but are not widely accepted. Focused ultrasound-guided relocation of fragments is a recently described technique aimed at improving results of intervention for stone disease. Purpose of this review is to discuss development of this technology and its potential clinical applications. Materials and Methods: Pubmed search was made using key words “Focused ultrasound” and “kidney stone”. All English language articles were reviewed by title. Relevant studies describing development and application of focused ultrasound in renal stones were selected for review. Results: Focused ultrasound has proven its efficacy in successfully relocating up to 8 mm stone fragments in vitro and in pigs. Relocation is independent of stone composition. The latest model allows imaging and therapy with a single handheld probe facilitating its use by single operator. The acoustic energy delivered by the new prototype is even less than that used for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Therapeutic exposure has not caused thermal injury in pig kidneys. Conclusion: Focused ultrasound-guided relocation of stones is feasible. Though it is safe in application in pigs, technology is awaiting approval for clinical testing in human beings. This technology has many potential clinical applications in the management of stone disease. PMID:25624572

  16. Transducer Joint for Kidney-Stone Ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, E. D.

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasonic therapy for kidney stones improved by new way of connecting wire-probe ultrasonic waveguide to transducer. Improved mounting allows joint to last long enough for effective treatment. Sheath and rubber dampers constrain lateral vibration of wire waveguide. Combination of V-shaped mounting groove, sheath, and rubber dampers increases life expectancy of wire 15 times or more.

  17. Kidney Stones: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kidney stones are caused by high levels of calcium, oxalate, and phosphorus in the urine. Some foods may ... consume of the following: • liquids • sodium • animal protein • calcium • oxalate Drinking enough liquids each day is the best ...

  18. A Composite Kidney Stone Phantom with Mechanical Properties Controllable Across the Range of Properties of Human Kidney Stones

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, W. N.; Cocks, F. H.; Zhong, P.; Preminger, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    A novel composite kidney stone phantom has been developed. This stone phantom is producible with mechanical properties mimicking the range of tensile fracture strength and acoustic properties of human kidney stones and is an inorganic/organic composite material, as are natural kidney stones. Diametral compression testing was used to measure tensile fracture strength, which determines the acoustic comminution behavior of kidney stones. Ultrasound transmission tests were made to characterize the acoustic properties of these stone phantoms. Both the tensile fracture strength (controllable from 1 to ~ 5 MPa) and acoustic properties (CL = 2700 to 4400m/s and CT = 1600 – 2300 m/s) of these composite phantom stones match those of a wide variety of human kidney stones. These artificial stone phantoms should have wide utility in lithotripsy research. PMID:19878912

  19. Hereditary Causes of Kidney Stones and Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Edvardsson, Vidar O.; Goldfarb, David S.; Lieske, John C.; Beara-Lasic, Lada; Anglani, Franca; Milliner, Dawn S.; Palsson, Runolfur

    2013-01-01

    Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency, cystinuria, Dent disease, familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) and primary hyperoxaluria (PH) are rare but important causes of severe kidney stone disease and/or chronic kidney disease in children. Recurrent kidney stone disease and nephrocalcinosis, particularly in pre-pubertal children, should alert the physician to the possibility of an inborn error of metabolism as the underlying cause. Unfortunately, the lack of recognition and knowledge of the five disorders has frequently resulted in an unacceptable delay in diagnosis and treatment, sometimes with grave consequences. A high index of suspicion coupled with early diagnosis may reduce or even prevent the serious long-term complications of these diseases. In this paper, we review the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of patients with APRT deficiency, cystinuria, Dent disease, FHHNC and PH with emphasis on childhood manifestations. PMID:23334384

  20. Medical and dietary therapy for kidney stone prevention.

    PubMed

    Gul, Zeynep; Monga, Manoj

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of kidney stone disease is increasing, and newer research is finding that stones are associated with several serious morbidities. These facts suggest that emphasis needs to be placed not only on stone treatment but also stone prevention. However, there is a relative dearth of information on dietary and medical therapies to treat and avoid nephrolithiasis. In addition, studies have shown that there are many misconceptions among both the general community and physicians about how stones should be managed. This article is meant to serve as a review of the current literature on dietary and drug therapies for stone prevention. PMID:25512810

  1. Medical and Dietary Therapy for Kidney Stone Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Gul, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney stone disease is increasing, and newer research is finding that stones are associated with several serious morbidities. These facts suggest that emphasis needs to be placed not only on stone treatment but also stone prevention. However, there is a relative dearth of information on dietary and medical therapies to treat and avoid nephrolithiasis. In addition, studies have shown that there are many misconceptions among both the general community and physicians about how stones should be managed. This article is meant to serve as a review of the current literature on dietary and drug therapies for stone prevention. PMID:25512810

  2. Prevalence of Kidney Stones in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Scales, Charles D.; Smith, Alexandria C.; Hanley, Janet M.; Saigal, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The last nationally representative assessment of kidney stone prevalence in the United States occurred in 1994. After a 13-yr hiatus, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) reinitiated data collection regarding kidney stone history. Objective Describe the current prevalence of stone disease in the United States, and identify factors associated with a history of kidney stones. Design, setting, and participants A cross-sectional analysis of responses to the 2007–2010 NHANES (n = 12 110). Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Self-reported history of kidney stones. Percent prevalence was calculated and multivariable models were used to identify factors associated with a history of kidney stones. Results and limitations The prevalence of kidney stones was 8.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.1–9.5). Among men, the prevalence of stones was 10.6% (95% CI, 9.4–11.9), compared with 7.1% (95% CI, 6.4–7.8) among women. Kidney stones were more common among obese than normal-weight individuals (11.2% [95% CI, 10.0–12.3] compared with 6.1% [95% CI, 4.8–7.4], respectively; p < 0.001). Black, non-Hispanic and Hispanic individuals were less likely to report a history of stone disease than were white, non-Hispanic individuals (black, non-Hispanic: odds ratio [OR]: 0.37 [95% CI, 0.28–0.49], p < 0.001; Hispanic: OR: 0.60 [95% CI, 0.49–0.73], p < 0.001). Obesity and diabetes were strongly associated with a history of kidney stones in multivariable models. The cross-sectional survey design limits causal inference regarding potential risk factors for kidney stones. Conclusions Kidney stones affect approximately 1 in 11 people in the United States. These data represent a marked increase in stone disease compared with the NHANES III cohort, particularly in black, non-Hispanic and Hispanic individuals. Diet and lifestyle factors likely play an important role in the changing epidemiology of kidney stones. PMID:22498635

  3. Protecting Space Travelers from Kidney Stones: Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Renal stones, popularly known as kidney or bladder stones, are small rock-like objects formed in the kidneys or urinary tract by deposits of calcium and other minerals. The problem arises when the stones block the drainage of the kidney, resulting in urinary obstruction and pain. Passing these stones can be one of the most painful experiences a person will endure so doctors often prescribe pain relievers to ease the experience. Drinking plenty of fluids, which help flush waste out of the body, and eating a well-balanced diet are the first steps to preventing stones. For individuals at risk, this may not be enough, and a doctor may recommend a special diet and medications. Unfortunately, approximately 60 percent of people who have had a renal stone will experience a recurrence. This is particularly true of men, who are four to five times more likely to develop stones than women. Renal stones do not discriminate based on age; even children are at risk. Astronauts are particularly at risk of developing renal stones because they lose bone and muscle mass; calcium, other minerals, and protein normally used for bone and muscle end up in the bloodstream and then in the kidneys. Without plenty of fluid to wash them away, crystals can form and then grow into stones. This factor compounds the risk for astronauts, since they also perceive that they are less thirsty in space and will drink less than normal during the mission. To minimize all of these factors, doctors must instead treat the stone-forming compounds with medication. This study will use potassium citrate to reduce the risk of stone formation. Renal stones are never convenient, but they are a particular concern for astronauts who have limited access to treatment during flight. Researchers are examining how earthbound preventions for renal stone formation work in flight, ensuring missions are not ended prematurely due to this medical condition. During STS-107, earthbound preventions and treatments become astronauts

  4. Introduction: Kidney Stone Research, Lessons From Human Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, Fredric L.

    2007-04-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life, the prevalence has been rising in both sexes. Approximately 80% of stones are composed of calcium oxalate, and calcium phosphate; 10% of struvite; 9% of uric acid; and the remaining 1% are composed of cystine or ammonium acid urate or are diagnosed as drug-related stone. Stones ultimately arise because of an unwanted phase change of these substances from liquid to solid state. In this introduction, I have outlined our current thinking of the possible mechanisms involved in stone formation based on our biopsy data collected from a series of human kidney stone formers. In addition, I have presented a set of questions as a means of focusing future research in this field.

  5. Tracking kidney stones with sound during shock wave lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kracht, Jonathan M.

    The prevalence of kidney stones has increased significantly over the past decades. One of the primary treatments for kidney stones is shock wave lithotripsy which focuses acoustic shock waves onto the stone in order to fragment it into pieces that are small enough to pass naturally. This typically requires a few thousand shock waves delivered at a rate of about 2 Hz. Although lithotripsy is the only non-invasive treatment option for kidney stories, both acute and chronic complications have been identified which could be reduced if fewer shock waves were used. One factor that could be used to reduce the number of shock waves is accounting for the motion of the stone which causes a portion of the delivered shock waves to miss the stone, yielding no therapeutic benefit. Therefore identifying when the stone is not in focus would allow tissue to be spared without affecting fragmentation. The goal of this thesis is to investigate acoustic methods to track the stone in real-time during lithotripsy in order to minimize poorly-targeted shock waves. A relatively small number of low frequency ultrasound transducers were used in pulse-echo mode and a novel optimization routine based on time-of-flight triangulation is used to determine stone location. It was shown that the accuracy of the localization may be estimated without knowing the true stone location. This method performed well in preliminary experiments but the inclusion of tissue-like aberrating layers reduced the accuracy of the localization. Therefore a hybrid imaging technique employing DORT (Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator) and the MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) algorithm was developed. This method was able to localize kidney stories to within a few millimeters even in the presence of an aberrating layer. This would be sufficient accuracy for targeting lithotripter shock waves. The conclusion of this work is that tracking kidney stones with low frequency ultrasound should be effective clinically.

  6. Kidney Stones in Several Spinal Abnormalities: A Challenging Treatment.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maximiliano Lopez; Sanguinetti, Horacio; Battiston, Santiago; Alvarez, Patricio; Bernardo, Norberto

    2016-01-01

    Patients with severe skeletal deformities are a challenging group to treat. A female, white, 35-year-old presented with right kidney stones located in renal pelvis, lower calyx, and upper ureter. She was affected by severe spinal deformity with restrictive respiratory obstruction, caused by kyphoscoliosis. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in supine position was performed, achieving complete removal of kidney stones. The treatment of renal stones in this patient was complex, so special attention to respiratory function was mandatory; this was a challenging but feasible situation. PMID:27579402

  7. Kidney Stones in Several Spinal Abnormalities: A Challenging Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sanguinetti, Horacio; Battiston, Santiago; Alvarez, Patricio; Bernardo, Norberto

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients with severe skeletal deformities are a challenging group to treat. A female, white, 35-year-old presented with right kidney stones located in renal pelvis, lower calyx, and upper ureter. She was affected by severe spinal deformity with restrictive respiratory obstruction, caused by kyphoscoliosis. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in supine position was performed, achieving complete removal of kidney stones. The treatment of renal stones in this patient was complex, so special attention to respiratory function was mandatory; this was a challenging but feasible situation.

  8. [Horseshoe kidney, stone disease and prostate cancer: a case presentation].

    PubMed

    Hermida Pérez, J A; Bermejo Hernández, A; Hernández Guerra, J S; Sobenes Gutierrez, R J

    2013-01-01

    The horseshoe kidney is the most common congenital renal fusion anomalies. It occurs in 0.25% of the population, or 1 in every 400 people. It is more frequent in males (ratio 2:1). The most observed complication of horseshoe kidney is stone disease, although there may be others such as, abdominal pain, urinary infections, haematuria, hydronephrosis, trauma and tumours (most commonly associated with hypernephroma and Wilms tumour). We describe a case of a male patient with horseshoe kidney, stone disease and adenocarcinoma of the prostate. One carrier of this condition who suffered a transitional cell carcinoma of the prostate was found in a review of the literature. PMID:24315083

  9. Melamine Induces Oxidative Stress in Mouse Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiao-Xin; Duan, Xing; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Xiong, Bo; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Melamine is a nitrogen heterocyclic triazine compound which is widely used as an industrial chemical. Although melamine is not considered to be acutely toxic with a high LD50 in animals, food contaminated with melamine expose risks to the human health. Melamine has been reported to be responsible for the renal impairment in mammals, its toxicity on the reproductive system, however, has not been adequately assessed. In the present study, we examined the effect of melamine on the follicle development and ovary formation. The data showed that melamine increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and induced granulosa cell apoptosis as well as follicle atresia. To further analyze the mechanism by which melamine induces oxidative stress, the expression and activities of two key antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathi-one peroxidase (GPX) were analyzed, and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) were compared between control and melamine-treated ovaries. The result revealed that melamine changed the expression and activities of SOD and GPX in the melamine-treated mice. Therefore, we demonstrate that melamine causes damage to the ovaries via oxidative stress pathway. PMID:26545251

  10. The Development of Kidney Stone Dietary Plans for Patient Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Darwin; Mayo, M. Leah; Abraham, Victor E.

    2011-01-01

    Currently patient education programs and urology practices provide individuals with "lists of foods to avoid" for dietary management of kidney stones. However, "planned diets" that include daily meal plans and recipes provide structure and specificity for diet management and are preferred by many individuals. This article describes the development…

  11. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF KIDNEY STONES IN WHITE MALE ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large survey of patients hospitalized for kidney stones in the Carolinas and the Rocky Mountains states yielded information that can be translated into conservative estimates of cost of this disease. Hospital costs were estimated by considering number of surgeries, the approxim...

  12. Kidney stones in anorexia nervosa: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jonat, L M; Birmingham, C L

    2003-12-01

    Nephrolithiasis (kidney stones) is a recognized complication of anorexia nervosa (AN). We present the case of a 41-year-old woman with a 25-year history of AN. Between 1978 and 1986, she had two episodes of calcium oxalate kidney stones. Proper management of kidney stones in AN requires collection of the stone, laboratory analysis of the stone to determine its composition, and laboratory evaluation of the urine and blood to determine what treatment is necessary to prevent recurrent kidney stone formation. PMID:15018386

  13. A model for damage of microheterogeneous kidney stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeri, Andrew J.; Zohdi, Tarek I.; Blake, John R.

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, a theoretical framework is developed for the mechanics of kidney stones with an isotropic, random microstructure-such as those comprised of cystine or struvite. The approach is based on a micromechanical description of kidney stones comprised of crystals in a binding matrix. Stress concentration functions are developed to determine load sharing of the particle phase and the binding matrix phase. As an illustration of the theory, the fatigue of kidney stones subject to shock wave lithotripsy is considered. Stress concentration functions are used to construct fatigue life estimates for each phase, as a function of the volume fraction and of the mechanical properties of the constituents, as well as the loading from SWL. The failure of the binding matrix is determined explicitly in a model for the accumulation of distributed damage. Also considered is the amount of material damaged in a representative non-spherical collapse of a cavitation bubble near the stone surface. The theory can be used to assess the importance of microscale heterogeneity on the comminution of renal calculi and to estimate the number of cycles to failure in terms of measurable material properties.

  14. An Unusual Type of Kidney Stone.

    PubMed

    De Koninck, Anne-Sophie; Groen, Luitzen-Albert; Maes, Heleen; Verstraete, Alain Gaston; Stove, Veronique; Delanghe, Joris Richard

    2016-01-01

    A very rare case of acetylsulfapyridine nephrolithiasis is presented in a 54-year-old female patient who had been prescribed sulfasalazine (6 x 500 mg/day) because of psoriatic arthritis for the last 9 years. The patient's renal function was only slightly impaired. Reflectance infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed the identification of the chemical nature of the stone. As acetylsulfapyridine is a metabolite of sulfasalazine, administration of the latter drug was the cause of the nephrolithiasis. PMID:27012055

  15. Diagnosis and initial management of kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Portis, A J; Sundaram, C P

    2001-04-01

    The diagnosis and initial management of urolithiasis have undergone considerable evolution in recent years. The application of noncontrast helical computed tomography (CT) in patients with suspected renal colic is one major advance. The superior sensitivity and specificity of helical CT allow urolithiasis to be diagnosed or excluded definitively and expeditiously without the potential harmful effects of contrast media. Initial management is based on three key concepts: (1) the recognition of urgent and emergency requirements for urologic consultation, (2) the provision of effective pain control using a combination of narcotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in appropriate patients and (3) an understanding of the impact of stone location and size on natural history and definitive urologic management. These concepts are discussed with reference to contemporary literature, with the goal of providing tools that family physicians can use in the emergency department or clinic. PMID:11310648

  16. An in vitro ultrastructural study of infectious kidney stone genesis.

    PubMed

    McLean, R J; Nickel, J C; Noakes, V C; Costerton, J W

    1985-09-01

    A ureolytic strain of Proteus mirabilis, isolated from a patient with infectious kidney stones, produced struvite (MgNH4PO4 X 6 H2O) and apatite [Ca10(PO4)6CO3] crystals in vitro when grown in artificial urine. Surface-attached crystals were encased in a slime-like layer. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that surfaces submerged in the artificial urine were colonized by P. mirabilis. Bacteria-associated crystals appeared soon after colonization and eventually became coated with an amorphous substance. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis of these crystals revealed the presence of Mg, Ca, and P which are major components of struvite and apatite. Transmission electron microscopy of surface scrapings revealed that the glycocalyx of P. mirabilis contained a large number of crystals. Based on these observations and previous work, a theory for infectious renal calculogenesis is proposed. The kidney is initially colonized by invading ureolytic pathogens. These pathogens secrete copious amounts of glycocalyx which facilitates adhesion of the organisms to the kidney, provides protection for these bacteria, and serves to bind struvite and apatite crystals that result from bacterial urease activity. Growth of these calcified microcolonies into mature stones is characterized by continued bacterial growth, incorporation of urinary mucoproteins into the matrix along with bacterial glycocalyx, and a continued deposition of struvite and apatite crystals due to the high pH. The mature stone, in effect, represents an enlarged "fossilized" bacterial microcolony. PMID:3897064

  17. Appropriate kidney stone size for ureteroscopic lithotripsy: When to switch to a percutaneous approach.

    PubMed

    Takazawa, Ryoji; Kitayama, Sachi; Tsujii, Toshihiko

    2015-02-01

    Flexible ureteroscopy (fURS) has become a more effective and safer treatment for whole upper urinary tract stones. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is currently the first-line recommended treatment for large kidney stones ≥ 20 mm and it has an excellent stone-free rate for large kidney stones. However, its invasiveness is not negligible considering its major complication rates. Staged fURS is a practical treatment for such large kidney stones because fURS has a minimal blood transfusion risk, short hospitalization and few restrictions on daily routines. However, as the stone size becomes larger, the stone-free rate decreases, and the number of operations required increases. Therefore, in our opinion, staged fURS is a practical option for kidney stones 20 to 40 mm. Miniaturized PNL combined with fURS should be considered to be a preferred option for stones larger than 40 mm. Moreover, URS is an effective treatment for multiple upper urinary tract stones. Especially for patients with a stone burden < 20 mm, URS is a favorable option that promises a high stone-free rate after a single session either unilaterally or bilaterally. However, for patients with a stone burden ≥ 20 mm, a staged operation should be considered to achieve stone-free status. PMID:25664253

  18. Appropriate kidney stone size for ureteroscopic lithotripsy: When to switch to a percutaneous approach

    PubMed Central

    Takazawa, Ryoji; Kitayama, Sachi; Tsujii, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Flexible ureteroscopy (fURS) has become a more effective and safer treatment for whole upper urinary tract stones. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is currently the first-line recommended treatment for large kidney stones ≥ 20 mm and it has an excellent stone-free rate for large kidney stones. However, its invasiveness is not negligible considering its major complication rates. Staged fURS is a practical treatment for such large kidney stones because fURS has a minimal blood transfusion risk, short hospitalization and few restrictions on daily routines. However, as the stone size becomes larger, the stone-free rate decreases, and the number of operations required increases. Therefore, in our opinion, staged fURS is a practical option for kidney stones 20 to 40 mm. Miniaturized PNL combined with fURS should be considered to be a preferred option for stones larger than 40 mm. Moreover, URS is an effective treatment for multiple upper urinary tract stones. Especially for patients with a stone burden < 20 mm, URS is a favorable option that promises a high stone-free rate after a single session either unilaterally or bilaterally. However, for patients with a stone burden ≥ 20 mm, a staged operation should be considered to achieve stone-free status. PMID:25664253

  19. Determination of minor and trace elements in kidney stones by x-ray fluorescence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Anjali; Heisinger, Brianne J.; Sinha, Vaibhav; Lee, Hyong-Koo; Liu, Xin; Qu, Mingliang; Duan, Xinhui; Leng, Shuai; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2014-03-01

    The determination of accurate material composition of a kidney stone is crucial for understanding the formation of the kidney stone as well as for preventive therapeutic strategies. Radiations probing instrumental activation analysis techniques are excellent tools for identification of involved materials present in the kidney stone. In particular, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) can be very useful for the determination of minor and trace materials in the kidney stone. The X-ray fluorescence measurements were performed at the Radiation Measurements and Spectroscopy Laboratory (RMSL) of department of nuclear engineering of Missouri University of Science and Technology and different kidney stones were acquired from the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Presently, experimental studies in conjunction with analytical techniques were used to determine the exact composition of the kidney stone. A new type of experimental set-up was developed and utilized for XRF analysis of the kidney stone. The correlation of applied radiation source intensity, emission of X-ray spectrum from involving elements and absorption coefficient characteristics were analyzed. To verify the experimental results with analytical calculation, several sets of kidney stones were analyzed using XRF technique. The elements which were identified from this techniques are Silver (Ag), Arsenic (As), Bromine (Br), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Gallium (Ga), Germanium (Ge), Molybdenum (Mo), Niobium (Nb), Rubidium (Rb), Selenium (Se), Strontium (Sr), Yttrium (Y), Zirconium (Zr). This paper presents a new approach for exact detection of accurate material composition of kidney stone materials using XRF instrumental activation analysis technique.

  20. Role of nanobacteria in the pathogenesis of kidney stone formation

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Xin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Tian; Yu, Chengfan; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the nanobacteria (NB) induced damage to human tubular epithelial HK-2 cells and the potential role of NB in the kidney stone formation. Methods: Serum sample from 15 patients with kidney stone was collected. Four groups were included: control, NB group, nanograde hydroxyapatite (nHAP) and calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) group. Catalase (CAT), malonaldehyde (MDA) and Na+/K+ ATPase activity was detected in the supernatant at 12 and 24 h. At 12 and 24 h, COM was added. Results: At 12 h and 24 h, the CAT in NB group was significantly higher than in control group and nHAP group (P<0.01). CAT at 24 h was significantly higher than in COM group (P<0.01). At 12 h and 24 h, the MDA in NB group was significantly higher than in control group and nHAP group (P<0.01) and significantly lower than in COM group (P<0.01). At 12 h, the Na+/K+ ATPase activity in NB group and nHAP group was significantly lower than in control group, but dramatically increased as compared to COM group (P<0.01). At 24 h, the Na+/K+ ATPase activity in NB group and nHAP group was significantly lower than in control group (P<0.01). Conclusion: NB may induce lipid peroxidation in HK-2 cells and cause adhesion of HK-2 cells to COM in a time-dependent manner, resulting in damage to HK-2 cells. This injury-causing capability of NB is more potent than nHAP and might be involved in the pathogenesis of kidney stone formation. PMID:27508044

  1. Kidney Allograft Stone after Kidney Transplantation and its Association with Graft Survival

    PubMed Central

    Rezaee-Zavareh, M. S.; Ajudani, R.; Ramezani Binabaj, M.; Heydari, F.; Einollahi, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is said that renal transplantation lithiasis is rare. However, literature has some different frequencies in this field and most of the studies related to this issue are case reports. Also the exact effect of this complication on the graft survival rate is not clear. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of nephrolithiasis among kidney transplant recipients and evaluate its association with the graft survival. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study to determine the prevalence of renal stone among 574 kidney transplant patients aged ≥18 years who had undergone renal transplantation in Baqiyatallah Transplant Center between 1990 and 2010. Cox regression analysis was used to determine the effect of renal stone on the graft survival. Results: The mean±SD follow-up time was 55±53 months. Kidney stones were diagnosed in 31 (4.4%) of all 574 kidney transplants studied. Cox regression analysis revealed that nephrolithiasis after transplantation had no significant effects on the survival of the transplanted kidney (OR 1.04, CI: 0.708–1.54). Conclusion: For the first time, we showed that nephrolithiasis in recipients does not have a significant effect on the transplant survival. PMID:26306157

  2. Bilateral ureteric stones: an unusual cause of acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Daniel; Rehnberg, Lucas; Kler, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    A 49-year-old man presented to the accident and emergency department, with a short history of vague abdominal pain, abdominal distension and two episodes of frank haematuria. A plain chest film showed dilated loops of large bowel and blood results on admission showed an acute kidney injury (stage 3). A diagnosis of bowel obstruction was made initially but a CT scan of the abdomen showed bilateral obstructing calculi. After initial resuscitation, the patient had bilateral ultrasound-guided nephrostomies and haemofiltration. He later underwent bilateral antegrade ureteric stenting. A decision will later be made on whether or not he is fit enough to undergo ureteroscopy and laser stone fragmentation. PMID:27030462

  3. Crystal aggregation in kidney stones; a polymer aggregation problem?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesson, J.; Beshensky, A.; Viswanathan, P.; Zachowicz, W.; Kleinman, J.

    2008-03-01

    Kidney stones most frequently form as aggregates of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals with organic layers between them, and the organic layers contain principally proteins. The pathway leading to the formation of these crystal aggregates in affected people has not been identified, but stone forming patients are thought to have a defect in the structure or distribution of urinary proteins, which normally protect against stone formation. We have developed two polyelectrolyte models that will induce COM crystal aggregation in vitro, and both are consistent with possible urinary protein compositions. The first model was based on mixing polyanionic and polycationic proteins, in portions such that the combined protein charge is near zero. The second model was based on reducing the charge density on partially charged polyanionic proteins, specifically Tamm-Horsfall protein, the second most abundant protein in urine. Both models demonstrated polymer phase separation at solution conditions where COM crystal aggregation was observed. Correlation with data from other bulk crystallization measurements suggest that the anionic side chains form critical binding interactions with COM surfaces that are necessary along with the phase separation process to induce COM crystal aggregation.

  4. Measurement of kidney stone formation in the rat model using micro-computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umoh, Joseph U.; Pitelka, Vasek; Goldberg, Harvey A.; Holdsworth, David W.

    2012-03-01

    Kidney stones were induced in 5 rats by treating them with 1% ethylene glycol and 1% ammonium chloride through free drinking water for six weeks. The animals were anesthetized and imaged in vivo before the treatment at week 0, to obtain baseline data, then at weeks 2 and 6 to monitor the kidney stone formation. Micro-CT imaging was performed with x-ray tube voltage of 90 kV and a current of 40 mA. At week 2, kidney stone formation was observed. A micro-computed tomography methodology of estimating the volume and hydroxyapatite-equivalent mineral content of the kidney stone is presented. It determines the threshold CT number (390 HU) that separates the kidney stone from the tissue. The mean volume of the stones in the 10 kidneys significantly increased from 3.81+/-0.72 mm3 at week 2 to 23.96+/-9.12 mm3 at week 6 (p<0.05, r2=0.34). Measurement precision error was about 4%. This method allows analysis of the kidney stone formation to be carried out in vivo, with fewer experimental animals compared with other ex vivo methods, in which animals are sacrificed. It is precise, accurate, non-destructive, and could be used in pre-clinical research to study the formation of kidney stones in live small animals.

  5. Effective atomic number accuracy for kidney stone characterization using spectral CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, M.; Langan, D. A.; Sahani, D. S.; Kambadakone, A.; Aluri, S.; Procknow, K.; Wu, X.; Bhotika, R.; Okerlund, D.; Kulkarni, N.; Xu, D.

    2010-04-01

    The clinical application of Gemstone Spectral ImagingTM, a fast kV switching dual energy acquisition, is explored in the context of noninvasive kidney stone characterization. Utilizing projection-based material decomposition, effective atomic number and monochromatic images are generated for kidney stone characterization. Analytical and experimental measurements are reported and contrasted. Phantoms were constructed using stone specimens extracted from patients. This allowed for imaging of the different stone types under similar conditions. The stone specimens comprised of Uric Acid, Cystine, Struvite and Calcium-based compositions. Collectively, these stone types span an effective atomic number range of approximately 7 to 14. While Uric Acid and Calcium based stones are generally distinguishable in conventional CT, stone compositions like Cystine and Struvite are difficult to distinguish resulting in treatment uncertainty. Experimental phantom measurements, made under increasingly complex imaging conditions, illustrate the impact of various factors on measurement accuracy. Preliminary clinical studies are reported.

  6. Targeted microbubbles: a novel application for the treatment of kidney stones

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Krishna; Marx, Vanessa; Laser, Daniel; Kenny, Thomas; Chi, Thomas; Bailey, Michael; Sorensen, Mathew D.; Grubbs, Robert H.; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2015-01-01

    Kidney stone disease is endemic. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy was the first major technological breakthrough where focused shockwaves were used to fragment stones in the kidney or ureter. The shockwaves induced the formation of cavitation bubbles, whose collapse released energy at the stone, and the energy fragmented the kidney stones into pieces small enough to be passed spontaneously. Can the concept of microbubbles be used without the bulky machine? The logical progression was to manufacture these powerful microbubbles ex vivo and inject these bubbles directly into the collecting system. An external source can be used to induce cavitation once the microbubbles are at their target; the key is targeting these microbubbles to specifically bind to kidney stones. Two important observations have been established: (i) bisphosphonates attach to hydroxyapatite crystals with high affinity; and (ii) there is substantial hydroxyapatite in most kidney stones. The microbubbles can be equipped with bisphosphonate tags to specifically target kidney stones. These bubbles will preferentially bind to the stone and not surrounding tissue, reducing collateral damage. Ultrasound or another suitable form of energy is then applied causing the microbubbles to induce cavitation and fragment the stones. This can be used as an adjunct to ureteroscopy or percutaneous lithotripsy to aid in fragmentation. Randall’s plaques, which also contain hydroxyapatite crystals, can also be targeted to pre-emptively destroy these stone precursors. Additionally, targeted microbubbles can aid in kidney stone diagnostics by virtue of being used as an adjunct to traditional imaging methods, especially useful in high-risk patient populations. This novel application of targeted microbubble technology not only represents the next frontier in minimally invasive stone surgery, but a platform technology for other areas of medicine. PMID:25402588

  7. Targeted microbubbles: a novel application for the treatment of kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Krishna; Marx, Vanessa; Laser, Daniel; Kenny, Thomas; Chi, Thomas; Bailey, Michael; Sorensen, Mathew D; Grubbs, Robert H; Stoller, Marshall L

    2015-07-01

    Kidney stone disease is endemic. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy was the first major technological breakthrough where focused shockwaves were used to fragment stones in the kidney or ureter. The shockwaves induced the formation of cavitation bubbles, whose collapse released energy at the stone, and the energy fragmented the kidney stones into pieces small enough to be passed spontaneously. Can the concept of microbubbles be used without the bulky machine? The logical progression was to manufacture these powerful microbubbles ex vivo and inject these bubbles directly into the collecting system. An external source can be used to induce cavitation once the microbubbles are at their target; the key is targeting these microbubbles to specifically bind to kidney stones. Two important observations have been established: (i) bisphosphonates attach to hydroxyapatite crystals with high affinity; and (ii) there is substantial hydroxyapatite in most kidney stones. The microbubbles can be equipped with bisphosphonate tags to specifically target kidney stones. These bubbles will preferentially bind to the stone and not surrounding tissue, reducing collateral damage. Ultrasound or another suitable form of energy is then applied causing the microbubbles to induce cavitation and fragment the stones. This can be used as an adjunct to ureteroscopy or percutaneous lithotripsy to aid in fragmentation. Randall's plaques, which also contain hydroxyapatite crystals, can also be targeted to pre-emptively destroy these stone precursors. Additionally, targeted microbubbles can aid in kidney stone diagnostics by virtue of being used as an adjunct to traditional imaging methods, especially useful in high-risk patient populations. This novel application of targeted microbubble technology not only represents the next frontier in minimally invasive stone surgery, but a platform technology for other areas of medicine. PMID:25402588

  8. Application of spectroscopic techniques for the analysis of kidney stones: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shameem, K. M., Muhammed; Chawla, Arun; Bankapur, Aseefhali; Unnikrishnan, V. K.; Santhosh, C.

    2016-03-01

    Identification and characterization of kidney stone remains one of the important analytical tasks in the medical field. Kidney stone is a common health complication throughout the world, which may cause severe pain, obstruction and infection of urinary tract, and can lead to complete renal damage. It commonly occurs in both sexes regardless of age. Kidney stones have different composition, although each stones have a major single characteristic component. A complete understanding of a sample properties and their function can only be feasible by utilizing elemental and molecular information simultaneously. Two laser based analytical techniques; Laser Induced Breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman spectroscopy have been used to study different types of kidney stones from different patients. LIBS and Raman spectroscopy are highly complementary spectroscopic techniques, which provide elemental and molecular information of a sample. Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 355 nm laser having energy 17mJ per pulse at 10 Hz repetition rate was used for getting LIBS spectra. Raman measurements were carried out using a home assembled micro-Raman spectrometer. Using the recorded Raman spectra of kidney stones, we were able to differentiate different kinds of kidney stones. LIBS spectra of the same stones are showing the evidence of C, Ca, H, and O and also suggest the presence of certain pigments.

  9. KIDNEY STONES: AN UPDATE ON CURRENT PHARMACOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongshi; Zisman, Anna L.; Coe, Fredric L.; Worcester, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Kidney stones are a common problem worldwide with substantial morbidities and economic costs. Medical therapy reduces stone recurrence significantly. Much progress has been made in the last several decades in improving therapy of stone disease. Areas covered 1) effect of medical expulsive therapy on spontaneous stone passage, 2) pharmacotherapy in the prevention of stone recurrence, 3) future directions in the treatment of kidney stone disease. Expert Opinion fluid intake to promote urine volume of at least 2.5L each day is essential to prevent stone formation. Dietary recommendations should be adjusted based on individual metabolic abnormalities. Properly dosed thiazide treatment is the standard therapy for calcium stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria. Potassium alkali therapy is considered for hypocitraturia, but caution should be taken to prevent potential risk of calcium phosphate stone formation. For absorptive hyperoxaluria, low oxalate diet and increased dietary calcium intake are recommended. Pyridoxine has been shown effective in some cases of primary hyperoxaluria type I. Allopurinol is used in calcium oxalate stone formers with hyperuricosuria. Treatment of cystine stones remains challenging. Tiopronin can be used if urinary alkalinization and adequate fluid intake are insufficient. For struvite stones, complete surgical removal coupled with appropriate antibiotic therapy is necessary. PMID:23438422

  10. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in the Range of 20 to 100 ng/mL and Incidence of Kidney Stones

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Stacie; Baggerly, Leo; French, Christine; Heaney, Robert P.; Gorham, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Increasing 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels can prevent a wide range of diseases. There is a concern about increasing kidney stone risk with vitamin D supplementation. We used GrassrootsHealth data to examine the relationship between vitamin D status and kidney stone incidence. Methods. The study included 2012 participants followed prospectively for a median of 19 months. Thirteen individuals self-reported kidney stones during the study period. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the association between vitamin D status and kidney stones. Results. We found no statistically significant association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and kidney stones (P = .42). Body mass index was significantly associated with kidney stone risk (odds ratio = 3.5; 95% confidence interval = 1.1, 11.3). Conclusions. We concluded that a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 20 to 100 nanograms per milliliter has no significant association with kidney stone incidence. PMID:24134366

  11. A Drosophila model identifies a critical role for zinc in mineralization for kidney stone disease.

    PubMed

    Chi, Thomas; Kim, Man Su; Lang, Sven; Bose, Neelanjan; Kahn, Arnold; Flechner, Lawrence; Blaschko, Sarah D; Zee, Tiffany; Muteliefu, Gulinuer; Bond, Nichole; Kolipinski, Marysia; Fakra, Sirine C; Mandel, Neil; Miller, Joe; Ramanathan, Arvind; Killilea, David W; Brückner, Katja; Kapahi, Pankaj; Stoller, Marshall L

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic calcification is a driving force for a variety of diseases, including kidney stones and atherosclerosis, but initiating factors remain largely unknown. Given its importance in seemingly divergent disease processes, identifying fundamental principal actors for ectopic calcification may have broad translational significance. Here we establish a Drosophila melanogaster model for ectopic calcification by inhibiting xanthine dehydrogenase whose deficiency leads to kidney stones in humans and dogs. Micro X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (μXANES) synchrotron analyses revealed high enrichment of zinc in the Drosophila equivalent of kidney stones, which was also observed in human kidney stones and Randall's plaques (early calcifications seen in human kidneys thought to be the precursor for renal stones). To further test the role of zinc in driving mineralization, we inhibited zinc transporter genes in the ZnT family and observed suppression of Drosophila stone formation. Taken together, genetic, dietary, and pharmacologic interventions to lower zinc confirm a critical role for zinc in driving the process of heterogeneous nucleation that eventually leads to stone formation. Our findings open a novel perspective on the etiology of urinary stones and related diseases, which may lead to the identification of new preventive and therapeutic approaches. PMID:25970330

  12. A Drosophila Model Identifies a Critical Role for Zinc in Mineralization for Kidney Stone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Sven; Bose, Neelanjan; Kahn, Arnold; Flechner, Lawrence; Blaschko, Sarah D.; Zee, Tiffany; Muteliefu, Gulinuer; Bond, Nichole; Kolipinski, Marysia; Fakra, Sirine C.; Mandel, Neil; Miller, Joe; Ramanathan, Arvind; Killilea, David W.; Brückner, Katja; Kapahi, Pankaj; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic calcification is a driving force for a variety of diseases, including kidney stones and atherosclerosis, but initiating factors remain largely unknown. Given its importance in seemingly divergent disease processes, identifying fundamental principal actors for ectopic calcification may have broad translational significance. Here we establish a Drosophila melanogaster model for ectopic calcification by inhibiting xanthine dehydrogenase whose deficiency leads to kidney stones in humans and dogs. Micro X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (μXANES) synchrotron analyses revealed high enrichment of zinc in the Drosophila equivalent of kidney stones, which was also observed in human kidney stones and Randall’s plaques (early calcifications seen in human kidneys thought to be the precursor for renal stones). To further test the role of zinc in driving mineralization, we inhibited zinc transporter genes in the ZnT family and observed suppression of Drosophila stone formation. Taken together, genetic, dietary, and pharmacologic interventions to lower zinc confirm a critical role for zinc in driving the process of heterogeneous nucleation that eventually leads to stone formation. Our findings open a novel perspective on the etiology of urinary stones and related diseases, which may lead to the identification of new preventive and therapeutic approaches. PMID:25970330

  13. Determination of minor and trace elements concentration in kidney stones using elemental analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Anjali

    The determination of accurate material composition of a kidney stone is crucial for understanding the formation of the kidney stone as well as for preventive therapeutic strategies. Radiations probing instrumental activation analysis techniques are excellent tools for identification of involved materials present in the kidney stone. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) experiments were performed and different kidney stones were analyzed. The interactions of X-ray photons and neutrons with matter are complementary in nature, resulting in distinctly different materials detection. This is the first approach to utilize combined X-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analysis for a comprehensive analysis of the kideny stones. Presently, experimental studies in conjunction with analytical techniques were used to determine the exact composition of the kidney stone. The use of open source program Python Multi-Channel Analyzer was utilized to unfold the XRF spectrum. A new type of experimental set-up was developed and utilized for XRF and NAA analysis of the kidney stone. To verify the experimental results with analytical calculation, several sets of kidney stones were analyzed using XRF and NAA technique. The elements which were identified from XRF technique are Br, Cu, Ga, Ge, Mo, Nb, Ni, Rb, Se, Sr, Y, Zr. And, by using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) are Au, Br, Ca, Er, Hg, I, K, Na, Pm, Sb, Sc, Sm, Tb, Yb, Zn. This thesis presents a new approach for exact detection of accurate material composition of kidney stone materials using XRF and NAA instrumental activation analysis techniques.

  14. Common and rare variants associated with kidney stones and biochemical traits.

    PubMed

    Oddsson, Asmundur; Sulem, Patrick; Helgason, Hannes; Edvardsson, Vidar O; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Sveinbjörnsson, Gardar; Haraldsdottir, Eik; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur I; Sigurdardottir, Olof; Olafsson, Isleifur; Masson, Gisli; Holm, Hilma; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Indridason, Olafur S; Palsson, Runolfur; Stefansson, Kari

    2015-01-01

    Kidney stone disease is a complex disorder with a strong genetic component. We conducted a genome-wide association study of 28.3 million sequence variants detected through whole-genome sequencing of 2,636 Icelanders that were imputed into 5,419 kidney stone cases, including 2,172 cases with a history of recurrent kidney stones, and 279,870 controls. We identify sequence variants associating with kidney stones at ALPL (rs1256328[T], odds ratio (OR)=1.21, P=5.8 × 10(-10)) and a suggestive association at CASR (rs7627468[A], OR=1.16, P=2.0 × 10(-8)). Focusing our analysis on coding sequence variants in 63 genes with preferential kidney expression we identify two rare missense variants SLC34A1 p.Tyr489Cys (OR=2.38, P=2.8 × 10(-5)) and TRPV5 p.Leu530Arg (OR=3.62, P=4.1 × 10(-5)) associating with recurrent kidney stones. We also observe associations of the identified kidney stone variants with biochemical traits in a large population set, indicating potential biological mechanism. PMID:26272126

  15. Kidney stone risk following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Ricardo D.

    2014-01-01

    Since the first report in 2005, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery has been linked to a variety of metabolic changes that alter kidney stone risk. The studies with the highest level of evidence, performed in non-stone forming patients before and after RYGB, cite a number of kidney stone risk factors, including a 25% increase in urinary oxalate, a 30% decrease in urinary citrate, and reduction in urine volume by half a liter. In addition to these, recent clinical and experimental studies have contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of stone disease in this unique population. This review summarizes the current RYGB urinary chemistry profiles and epidemiological studies, outlines known and theoretical mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and hypocitrituria, and provides some standard recommendations for reducing stone risk in RYGB stone formers as well as some novel ones, including correction of metabolic acidosis and use of probiotics. PMID:25473624

  16. Do You Have Symptoms of a Kidney Stone?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... checks Your Kidneys and You Meetings Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  17. Body Mass Index and Kidney Stones: A Cohort Study of Japanese Men

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Eiichi; Sawada, Susumu S.; Lee, I-Min; Gando, Yuko; Kamada, Masamitsu; Matsushita, Munehiro; Kawakami, Ryoko; Ando, Ryosuke; Okamoto, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Koji; Miyachi, Motohiko; Blair, Steven N.

    2016-01-01

    Background In Japan, the incidence of kidney stones has increased markedly in recent decades. Major causes of kidney stones remain unclear, and limited data are available on the relationship between overweight/obesity and the incidence of kidney stones. We therefore evaluated body mass index (BMI) and the incidence of kidney stones in Japanese men. Methods Of the workers at a gas company, 5984 males aged 20–40 years underwent a medical examination in 1985 (baseline). This study includes 4074 of the men, who were free of kidney stones at baseline and underwent a second medical examination performed between April 2004 and March 2005. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight in 1985, and men were categorized into tertiles. The development of kidney stones during follow-up was based on self-reports from questionnaires at the second medical examination. Results The average duration of follow-up was 19 years, with 258 participants developing kidney stones during this period. Using the lowest BMI (1st tertile) group as a reference, the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for the 2nd and 3rd BMI tertiles were: 1.26 (95% CI, 0.92–1.73) and 1.44 (95% CI, 1.06–1.96), respectively (P for trend = 0.019). After additionally adjusting for potential confounders, such as age, systolic blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption, the hazard ratios were 1.28 (95% CI, 0.93–1.76) and 1.41 (95% CI, 1.02–1.97), respectively (P for trend = 0.041). Conclusions These results suggest that increased BMI is a risk factor for kidney stones in Japanese men. PMID:26616396

  18. The risk of kidney stones following bariatric surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Thongprayoon, Charat; Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Vijayvargiya, Priya; Anthanont, Pimjai; Erickson, Stephen B

    2016-04-01

    Background With rising prevalence of morbid obesity, the number of bariatric surgeries performed each year has been increasing worldwide. The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the risk of kidney stones following bariatric surgery. Methods A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception through July 2015. Only studies reporting relative risks, odd ratios or hazard ratios (HRs) to compare risk of kidney stones in patients who underwent bariatric surgery versus no surgery were included. Pooled risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method. Results Four studies (One randomized controlled trial and three cohort studies) with 11,348 patients were included in analysis to assess the risk of kidney stones following bariatric surgery. The pooled RR of kidney stones in patients undergoing bariatric surgery was 1.22 (95% CI, 0.63-2.35). The type of bariatric surgery subgroup analysis demonstrated an increased risk of kidney stones in patients following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) with the pooled RR of 1.73 (95% CI, 1.30-2.30) and a decreased risk of kidney stones in patients following restrictive procedures including laparoscopic banding or sleeve gastrectomy with the pooled RR of 0.37 (95% CI, 0.16-0.85). Conclusions Our meta-analysis demonstrates an association between RYGB and increased risk of kidney stones. Restrictive bariatric surgery, on the other hand, may decrease kidney stone risk. Future study with long-term follow-up data is needed to confirm this potential benefit of restrictive bariatric surgery. PMID:26803902

  19. Pathophysiology of kidney, gallbladder and urinary stones treatment with herbal and allopathic medicine: A review

    PubMed Central

    Alok, Shashi; Jain, Sanjay Kumar; Verma, Amita; Kumar, Mayank; Sabharwal, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been known for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention of various ailments. Today large number of population suffers from kidney stone, gall stone and urinary calculi. Stone disease has gained increasing significance due to changes in living conditions i.e. industrialization and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence and incidence, the occurrence of stone types and stone location, and the manner of stone removal are explained. Medicinal plants are used from centuries due to its safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects as compared to synthetic drugs. The present article deals with measures to be adopted for the potential of medicinal plants in stone dissolving activity. The problem of urinary stones or calculi is a very ancient one and many remedies have been employed during the ages these stones are found in all parts of the urinary tract, the kidney, the ureters and the urinary bladder and may vary considerably in size. In the present article, an attempt has been made to emphasis on herbal option for urinary stone.

  20. Non-invasive differentiation of kidney stone types using X-ray dark-field radiography.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Kai; Braig, Eva; Willer, Konstantin; Willner, Marian; Fingerle, Alexander A; Chabior, Michael; Herzen, Julia; Eiber, Matthias; Haller, Bernhard; Straub, Michael; Schneider, Heike; Rummeny, Ernst J; Noël, Peter B; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of renal calculi is highly dependent on the chemical composition of the stone in question, which is difficult to determine using standard imaging techniques. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of scatter-sensitive X-ray dark-field radiography to differentiate between the most common types of kidney stones in clinical practice. Here, we examine the absorption-to-scattering ratio of 118 extracted kidney stones with a laboratory Talbot-Lau Interferometer. Depending on their chemical composition, microscopic growth structure and morphology the various types of kidney stones show strongly varying, partially opposite contrasts in absorption and dark-field imaging. By assessing the microscopic calculi morphology with high resolution micro-computed tomography measurements, we illustrate the dependence of dark-field signal strength on the respective stone type. Finally, we utilize X-ray dark-field radiography as a non-invasive, highly sensitive (100%) and specific (97%) tool for the differentiation of calcium oxalate, uric acid and mixed types of stones, while additionally improving the detectability of radio-lucent calculi. We prove clinical feasibility of the here proposed method by accurately classifying renal stones, embedded within a fresh pig kidney, using dose-compatible measurements and a quick and simple visual inspection. PMID:25873414

  1. Non-invasive Differentiation of Kidney Stone Types using X-ray Dark-Field Radiography

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Kai; Braig, Eva; Willer, Konstantin; Willner, Marian; Fingerle, Alexander A.; Chabior, Michael; Herzen, Julia; Eiber, Matthias; Haller, Bernhard; Straub, Michael; Schneider, Heike; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Noël, Peter B.; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of renal calculi is highly dependent on the chemical composition of the stone in question, which is difficult to determine using standard imaging techniques. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of scatter-sensitive X-ray dark-field radiography to differentiate between the most common types of kidney stones in clinical practice. Here, we examine the absorption-to-scattering ratio of 118 extracted kidney stones with a laboratory Talbot-Lau Interferometer. Depending on their chemical composition, microscopic growth structure and morphology the various types of kidney stones show strongly varying, partially opposite contrasts in absorption and dark-field imaging. By assessing the microscopic calculi morphology with high resolution micro-computed tomography measurements, we illustrate the dependence of dark-field signal strength on the respective stone type. Finally, we utilize X-ray dark-field radiography as a non-invasive, highly sensitive (100%) and specific (97%) tool for the differentiation of calcium oxalate, uric acid and mixed types of stones, while additionally improving the detectability of radio-lucent calculi. We prove clinical feasibility of the here proposed method by accurately classifying renal stones, embedded within a fresh pig kidney, using dose-compatible measurements and a quick and simple visual inspection. PMID:25873414

  2. Spontaneous retrograde migration of ureterovesical junction stone to the kidney; first ever reported case in the English literature in human.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ziauddin; Yaqoob, Alaeddin A; Bhatty, Tanweer A

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of spontaneous retrograde migration of ureterovesical junction stone to the kidney. A 26-year-old Bahraini male, diagnosed with left lower ureteric stone 7 months before this presentation. On his recent presentation, the stone has migrated down but not passed, confirmed on imaging. Operative removal was planned. X-ray kidney ureter bladder (KUB) in the morning of surgery did not reveal stone in the ureter, but the same shadow was seen in the kidney. An urgent computerized tomography-KUB was done, and this confirms the stone has migrated to the kidney. Surgery was canceled, and the stone was dealt with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy and was fragmented in the first session. This retrograde migration of lower ureteric stone to the kidney is not reported in the English literature in human before. PMID:27141199

  3. Spontaneous retrograde migration of ureterovesical junction stone to the kidney; first ever reported case in the English literature in human

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ziauddin; Yaqoob, Alaeddin A.; Bhatty, Tanweer A.

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of spontaneous retrograde migration of ureterovesical junction stone to the kidney. A 26-year-old Bahraini male, diagnosed with left lower ureteric stone 7 months before this presentation. On his recent presentation, the stone has migrated down but not passed, confirmed on imaging. Operative removal was planned. X-ray kidney ureter bladder (KUB) in the morning of surgery did not reveal stone in the ureter, but the same shadow was seen in the kidney. An urgent computerized tomography-KUB was done, and this confirms the stone has migrated to the kidney. Surgery was canceled, and the stone was dealt with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy and was fragmented in the first session. This retrograde migration of lower ureteric stone to the kidney is not reported in the English literature in human before. PMID:27141199

  4. Outcomes of ureteroscopy for patients with stones in a solitary kidney: evidence from a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Bhavan Prasad; Somani, Bhaskar K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Management of urolithiasis in a solitary functioning kidney can be clinically challenging. The aim of this article was to review the outcomes of URS for patients with stone disease in a solitary kidney and critically appraise the existing evidence and outcome reporting standards. Material and methods We conducted a systematic review in line with PRISMA checklist and Cochrane guidelines between January 1980 and February 2015. Our inclusion criteria were all English language articles reporting on a minimum of 10 patients with a solitary kidney undergoing ureteroscopy for stone disease. Results A total of 116 patients (mean age 50 years) underwent URS for stones in solitary kidney. For a mean stone size of 16.8 mm (range: 5–60 mm) and 1.23 procedures/patient, the mean stone free rate was 87%. No significant change in renal function was recorded in any of the studies although a transient elevation in creatinine was reported in 10 (8.6%) patients. A total of 33 (28%) complications were recorded a majority (n = 21) of which were Clavien grade I. The Clavien grade II/III complications as reported by authors were urosepsis, steinstrasse and renal colic. None of the procedures required conversion to open surgery with no cases of renal haematoma or ureteric perforation. Conclusions This contemporary review highlights URS as a viable treatment option for stone disease in patients with a solitary kidney. It is associated with superior clearance rates to SWL and fewer high-risk complications compared to PCNL. PMID:27123332

  5. Detecting Fragmentation of Kidney Stones in Lithotripsy by Means of Shock Wave Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Trusov, Leonid A.; Owen, Neil R.; Bailey, Michael R.; Cleveland, Robin O.

    2006-05-01

    Although extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (a procedure of kidney stone comminution using focused shock waves) has been used clinically for many years, a proper monitoring of the stone fragmentation is still undeveloped. A method considered here is based on recording shock wave scattering signals with a focused receiver placed far from the stone, outside the patient body. When a fracture occurs in the stone or the stone becomes smaller, the elastic waves in the stone will propagate differently (e.g. shear waves will not cross a fracture) which, in turn, will change the scattered acoustic wave in the surrounding medium. Theoretical studies of the scattering phenomenon are based on a linear elastic model to predict shock wave scattering by a stone, with and without crack present in it. The elastic waves in the stone and the nearby liquid were modeled using a finite difference time domain approach. The subsequent acoustic propagation of the scattered waves into the far-field was calculated using the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff integral. Experimental studies were conducted using a research electrohydraulic lithotripter that produced the same acoustic output as an unmodified Dornier HM3 clinical lithotripter. Artificial stones, made from Ultracal-30 gypsum and acrylic, were used as targets. The stones had cylindrical shape and were positioned co-axially with the lithotripter axis. The scattered wave was measured by focused broadband PVDF hydrophone. It was shown that the size of the stone noticeably changed the signature of the reflected wave.

  6. Prospective study of beverage use and the risk of kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Curhan, G C; Willett, W C; Rimm, E B; Spiegelman, D; Stampfer, M J

    1996-02-01

    Patients with kidney stones are routinely advised to increase their fluid intake to decrease the risk of stone recurrence. However, there has been no detailed examination to determine whether the effect on recurrence varies by the type of beverage consumed. The authors conducted a prospective study of the relation between the intake of 21 different beverages and the risk of symptomatic kidney stones in a cohort of 45,289 men, 40-75 years of age, who had no history of kidney stones. Beverage use and other dietary information was measured by means of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire in 1986. During 6 years of follow-up (242,100 person-years), 753 incident cases of kidney stones were documented. After adjusting simultaneously for age, dietary intake of calcium, animal protein and potassium, thiazide use, geographic region, profession, and total fluid intake, consumption of specific beverages significantly added to the prediction of kidney stone risk (p < 0.001). After mutually adjusting for the intake of other beverages, the risk of stone formation decreased by the following amount for each 240-ml (8-oz) serving consumed daily: caffeinated coffee, 10% (95% confidence interval 4-15%); decaffeinated coffee, 10% (3-16%); tea, 14% (5-22%); beer, 21% (12-30%); and wine, 39% (10-58%). For each 240-ml serving consumed daily, the risk of stone formation increased by 35% (4-75%) for apple juice and 37% (1-85%) for grapefruit juice. The authors conclude that beverage type may have an effect on stone formation that involves more than additional fluid intake alone. PMID:8561157

  7. Treatment of Kidney Stone in a Kidney-Transplanted Patient with Mini-Percutaneous Laser Lithotripsy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Markić, Dean; Krpina, Kristian; Ahel, Juraj; Gršković, Antun; Španjol, Josip; Rubinić, Nino; Materljan, Mauro; Mikolašević, Ivana; Orlić, Lidija; Rački, Sanjin

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a kidney-transplanted patient with urolithiasis treated with mini-percutaneous laser lithotripsy. The patient presented with renal dysfunction and graft hydronephrosis. Diagnostic procedures revealed ureterolithiasis as a cause of obstruction, and percutaneous nephrostomy was inserted as a temporary solution. Before surgery, the stone migrated to the renal pelvis. Mini-percutaneous laser lithotripsy was successfully performed, and during surgery, all stone fragments were removed. Six months after successful treatment, the patient has good functioning and stone-free graft. PMID:27066492

  8. Use of the Acoustic Shadow Width to Determine Kidney Stone Size with Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Dunmire, Barbrina; Harper, Jonathan D.; Cunitz, Bryan W.; Lee, Franklin C.; Hsi, Ryan; Liu, Ziyue; Bailey, Michael R.; Sorensen, Mathew D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Ultrasound is known to overestimate kidney stone size. We explored measuring the acoustic shadow behind kidney stones combined with different ultrasound imaging modalities to improve stone sizing accuracy. Materials and Methods A total of 45 calcium oxalate monohydrate stones were imaged in vitro at 3 different depths with the 3 different ultrasound imaging modalities of conventional ray line, spatial compound and harmonic imaging. The width of the stone and the width of the acoustic shadow were measured by 4 operators blinded to the true size of the stone. Results Average error between the measured and true stone width was 1.4 ± 0.8 mm, 1.7 ± 0.9 mm, 0.9 ± 0.8 mm for ray line, spatial compound and harmonic imaging, respectively. Average error between the shadow width and true stone width was 0.2 ± 0.7 mm, 0.4 ± 0.7 mm and 0.0 ± 0.8 mm for ray line, spatial compound and harmonic imaging, respectively. Sizing error based on the stone width worsened with greater depth (p <0.001) while the sizing error based on the shadow width was independent of depth. Conclusions Shadow width was a more accurate measure of true stone size than a direct measurement of the stone in the ultrasound image (p <0.0001). The ultrasound imaging modality also impacted the measurement accuracy. All methods performed similarly for shadow size while harmonic imaging was the most accurate stone size modality. Overall 78% of the shadow sizes were accurate to within 1 mm, which is similar to the resolution obtained with clinical computerized tomography. PMID:26301788

  9. Giant kidney stone: multi-session percutaneous nephrolithotomy with 12 accesses.

    PubMed

    Erbin, Akif; Yürük, Emrah; Binbay, Murat; Müslümanoğlu, Ahmet Yaser

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of a 37-year-old man with a body mass index of 28 kg/m(2) who presented to our outpatient clinic with intermittent left flank pain. Non-contrast abdominopelvic computed tomography revealed a giant coralliform calculus in the left kidney. This giant kidney stone was successfully treated with 3 sessions of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) with a total 12 accesses. There was no significant reduction in the split function of the kidney after PNL. PMID:26516601

  10. Cross-sectional study of kidney stones by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Singh, V K; Rai, A K; Rai, P K; Jindal, P K

    2009-09-01

    We performed laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the in situ quantitative estimation of elemental constituents distributed in different parts of kidney stones obtained directly from patients by surgery. We did this by focusing the laser light directly on the center, shell, and surface of the stones to find the spatial distribution of the elements inside the stone. The elements detected in the stones were calcium, magnesium, manganese, copper, iron, zinc, strontium, sodium, potassium, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur, and chlorine (Cl), etc. We optimized the LIBS signals by varying the laser energy from 10 mJ to 40 mJ to obtain the best signal-to-background and signal-to-noise ratios. We estimated the quantities of different elements in the stones by drawing calibration curves, plotting graphs of the analyte signal versus the absolute concentration of the elements in standard samples. The detection limits of the calibration curves were discussed. The concentrations of the different elements were found to be widely different in different stones found in different age groups of patients. It was observed that stones containing higher amounts of copper also possessed higher amounts of zinc. In general, the concentrations of trace elements present in the kidney stones decreased as we moved from center to shell and surface. Our results also revealed that the concentrations of elements present in the stones increased with the age of the patients. The results obtained from the calibration curves were compared with results from inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We also used the intensity ratios of different elemental lines to find the spatial distribution of different elements inside the kidney stones. PMID:19104906

  11. Chronic trimethyltin chloride exposure and the development of kidney stones in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xuefeng; Wu, Xin; Sui, Gang; Gong, Zhihong; Yawson, Emmanuel; Wu, Banghua; Lai, Guanchao; Ruan, Xiaolin; Gao, Hongbin; Zhou, Feng; Su, Bing; Olson, James R.; Tang, Xiaojiang

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported that occupational exposure to trimethyltin (TMT) is a risk factor for developing kidney stones. To further examine the association between TMT exposure and the formation of kidney stones, we conducted a 180-day animal study and exposed the randomly grouped Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats to TMT in the drinking water at doses of 0, 8.2, 32.8 and 131.3 μg kg−1 day−1. Transient behavioral changes were observed in the high-dose group during the first 2weeks of exposure. TMT exposure led to a significant dose-dependent inhibition of renal H+/K+-ATPase and an increase in urinary pH. In comparison to no kidney stones being identified in the control and the lowest dose group, 1 rat in the 32.8 μg kg−1 day−1 dose group and 3 out of 9 rats in the 131.3 μg kg−1 day−1 dose group were found to have stones in the kidney/urinary tract. Pathological analysis showed that more wide spread calcium disposition was observed in kidneys of rats with TMT exposure compared with the rats in the control group. However, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis found that the kidney stones were mainly composed of struvite with the formula: NH4MgPO4 6H2O, while calcium-containing components were also detected. Together, this study further demonstrates through animal studies that chronic exposure to a relatively low level of TMT induces nephrotoxicity and increases the risk for developing kidney stones. PMID:25224689

  12. Use of Google Insights for Search to track seasonal and geographic kidney stone incidence in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Breyer, Benjamin N.; Sen, Saunak; Aaronson, David S.; Stoller, Marshall L.; Erickson, Bradley A.; Eisenberg, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine if internet search volume for kidney stones has seasonal and geographic distributions similar to known kidney stone incidence. Materials and Methods Google Insights for Search analyzes a portion of Google web searches from all Google domains to compute how many searches are performed for a given term relative to the total number of searches done over a specific time interval and geographic region. Selected terms related to kidney stones were examined to determine which most closely tracked kidney stone incidence. Google Insights for Search data was correlated with hospital admissions for the emergent treatment of nephrolithiasis found through the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Ambient temperature in Seattle and New York were compared to search volume for these regions to display qualitative relationships. Results The term “kidney stones” had the highest seasonal correlation of terms examined (r=0.81, p=0.0014). Google Insights for Search output and National Inpatient Sample admissions also correlated when regions were compared (r=.90, p=0.005). Qualitative relationships between ambient temperatures and kidney stone search volume do exist. Conclusion Internet search volume activity for kidney stones correlates with temporal and regional kidney stone insurance claims data. In the future, with improved modeling of search detection algorithms and increased internet usage, search volume has the potential to serve as a surrogate for kidney stone incidence. PMID:21459414

  13. Kidney stones and crushed bones secondary to hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Sreejith, G. Nair; Pranab, K. Prabhakaran

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a 65-year-old woman with multiple brown tumors and renal stones secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism. This case highlights the need for early recognition of parathyroid hyperactivity. PMID:26722166

  14. Giant ureteral stone in a patient with a single functioning kidney: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Y B; Park, J K; Kim, H J; Kim, Y G; Kim, M K

    2011-06-01

    A 43-year-old man presented with long-standing left flank pain. A plain abdominal radiograph and intravenous urography (IVU) revealed a giant ureteral stone measuring 6.2 × 2.2 cm causing ureteral obstruction. A non-enhanced computerized tomography (CT) scan showed a significantly atrophied right kidney and left hydronephroureterosis with a giant stone. A left transperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy was performed with excellent results. PMID:21612759

  15. From crystalluria to kidney stones, some physicochemical aspects of calcium nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Johannes M; Affolter, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis seems to be the result of crystal formation, aggregation and retention in the kidney during crystalluria. These processes have to occur within the short urinary transit time through the kidney being in the order of few minutes. Recently much work was done on rather qualitative aspects of nephrolithiasis like genetics, metabolism and morphology. In this review we try to provide some quantitative information on urinary supersaturation with respect to stone minerals, especially Ca oxalate (CaOx), on the formation and aggregation of CaOx crystals and on crystal retention in the kidney. The paper is centered on idiopathic Ca nephrolithiasis being the most frequent stone disease with only partially known pathogenesis. New aspects of the role of urinary macromolecules in stone formation and of the mechanism of crystal aggregation are provided. PMID:25374820

  16. A simple method for fabricating artificial kidney stones of different physical properties

    PubMed Central

    Esch, Eric; Simmons, W. Neal; Sankin, Georgy; Cocks, Hadley F.; Preminger, Glenn M.; Zhong, Pei

    2013-01-01

    A simple method for preparing artificial kidney stones with varying physical properties is described. BegoStone was prepared with a powder to water ratio (by weight) ranging from 15:3 to 15:6. The acoustic properties of the phantoms were characterized by using an ultrasound transmission technique, from which the corresponding mechanical properties were calculated based on elastic wave theory. The measured parameters for BegoStone phantoms of different water contents are: longitudinal wave speed (3148 – 4159 m/s), transverse wave speed (1813 – 2319 m/s), density (1563 – 1995 kg/m3), longitudinal acoustic impedance (4.92 – 8.30 Kg/m2*s), transverse acoustic impedance (2.83 – 4.63 Kg/m2*s), Young’s modulus (12.9 – 27.4 GPa), bulk modulus (8.6 – 20.2 GPa), and shear modulus (5.1 – 10.7 GPa), which cover the range of corresponding properties reported in natural kidney stones. In addition, diametral compression tests were carried out to determine tensile failure strength of the stone phantoms. BegoStone phantoms with varying water content at preparation have tensile failure strength from 6.9 – 16.3 MPa when tested dry and 3.2 – 7.1 MPa when tested in water-soaked condition. Overall, it is demonstrated that this new BegoStone preparation method can be used to fabricate artificial stones with physical properties matched with those of natural kidney stones of various chemical compositions. PMID:20652562

  17. A simple method for fabricating artificial kidney stones of different physical properties.

    PubMed

    Esch, Eric; Simmons, Walter Neal; Sankin, Georgy; Cocks, Hadley F; Preminger, Glenn M; Zhong, Pei

    2010-08-01

    A simple method for preparing artificial kidney stones with varying physical properties is described. BegoStone was prepared with a powder-to-water ratio ranging from 15:3 to 15:6. The acoustic properties of the phantoms were characterized using an ultrasound transmission technique, from which the corresponding mechanical properties were calculated based on elastic wave theory. The measured parameters for BegoStone phantoms of different water contents are: longitudinal wave speed (3,148-4,159 m/s), transverse wave speed (1,813-2,319 m/s), density (1,563-1,995 kg/m(3)), longitudinal acoustic impedance (4.92-8.30 kg/m(2) s), transverse acoustic impedance (2.83-4.63 kg/m(2) s), Young's modulus (12.9-27.4 GPa), bulk modulus (8.6-20.2 GPa), and shear modulus (5.1-10.7 GPa), which cover the range of corresponding properties reported in natural kidney stones. In addition, diametral compression tests were carried out to determine tensile failure strength of the stone phantoms. BegoStone phantoms with varying water content at preparation have tensile failure strength from 6.9 to 16.3 MPa when tested dry and 3.2 to 7.1 MPa when tested in water-soaked condition. Overall, it is demonstrated that this new BegoStone preparation method can be used to fabricate artificial stones with physical properties matched with those of natural kidney stones of various chemical compositions. PMID:20652562

  18. [NEW OPTIONS OF ENDOSCOPIC TREATMENT FOR KIDNEY AND URETER STONES IN OBESE PATIENTS].

    PubMed

    Martov, A G; Dutov, S V; Andronov, A S; Kil'chukov, Z I; Tahaev, R A

    2015-01-01

    Effective urolithiasis treatment, especially in overweight patients has a considerable medical and social implication. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) in prone position of the patient are standard treatment options for kidney and ureter stones. These interventions are not always effective in patients with concomitant obesity and are associated with technical difficulties and an increased risk of complications. The study included 175 patients with obesity. The first group consisted of 96 (54.8%) patients treated with transurethral contact lithotripsy. The 2nd group consisted of 54 (30.9%) patients who underwent PCNL in the supine position. The third group comprised 25 (14.3%) patients with multiple stones of kidney and ureter, who underwent combined transurethral and percutaneous intervention in the supine position. The 1st and 3rd group had a higher prevalence of patients with II degree of obesity, in the 2nd group--with I degree of obesity. The mean duration of surgery in 1st group was 43.4 min, in the 2nd--70.3 min and in the third--84.6 min. Method of kidney drainage depended mainly on the presence, location and size of residual stone fragments. The average duration of the kidney drainage stent in patients of the 1st group was 39 days (ureteral catheter--1.3 days). In all patients of the 2nd and 3rd groups, at the final stage of the operation a nephrostomy tube was placed for an average of 2.7 days. The average postoperative hospital stay was 2.9 days in the 1st group, 4.1 days in the 2nd group and 4.5 days in the third group. In the 1st group, the stone-free status was achieved in 81 (84.4%) patients. Another 10 (10.4%) patients later needed ESWL for the complete disposal of the stones. In the 2nd group, the complete clearance of kidney stones was achieved in 49 (90.7%) patients. Another 3 (5.6%) patients required added ESWL to achieve the stone-free status. In the third group of patients stone free status

  19. An evaluation of Tamm-Horsfall protein glycans in kidney stone formers using novel techniques.

    PubMed

    Argade, Sulabha; Chen, Tony; Shaw, Timothy; Berecz, Zoltan; Shi, William; Choudhury, Biswa; Parsons, C Lowell; Sur, Roger L

    2015-08-01

    Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) is theorized to play a critical role in preventing kidney stone formation. There is conflicting literature on THP analysis in kidney stone patients; therefore, this study was conducted using sensitive and specific bio-analytical techniques to better understand differences in THP, which play a potential role in nephrolithiasis pathogenesis. THP was isolated from urine samples of 34 male and 19 female kidney stone patients and 30 male and 24 female control subjects using diatomaceous earth. Protein was quantified by Superdex-200 size-exclusion chromatography. Sialic acid was determined by 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenedioxybenzene high-performance liquid chromatography. Neutral and amino sugars were determined by high pH anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) with pulsed amperometric detection. THP N-glycans were derivatized with 2-aminobenzamide (2-AB) and profiled by HPAEC with fluorescence detection. N-glycan structures were confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Results indicate that kidney stone patients had 32% lower protein content compared to controls, while sialic acid content was lower by 29 and 24% in male and female kidney stone patients, respectively, compared to controls. The neutral and amino sugars were also lower by 18 and 20% for male and female kidney stone patients, respectively, compared to controls. All results were statistically significant (p<0.001). These results are supported by 2-AB profiling of THP N-glycans and by MALDI-TOF MS of highly sialylated N-glycans in the range of m/z 3000-6000. This study demonstrates quantitative and qualitative differences in THP, which can be crucial contributing factors for nephrolithiasis. PMID:25935139

  20. Treatment of Symptomatic Lower Pole Stones of a Kidney with Partial Nephrectomy Using Micropercutaneous Nephrolithotomy Technique

    PubMed Central

    Karatag, Tuna; Buldu, Ibrahim; Kaynar, Mehmet; Taskapu, Hakan; Tekinarslan, Erdem; Istanbulluoglu, Mustafa Okan

    2015-01-01

    We present the treatment of lower pole stones of a 62-year-old male patient with a history of open partial nephrectomy due to renal angiomyolipoma and renal stones. He was successfully treated with micropercutaneous nephrolithotomy technique under spinal anesthesia in spite of fibrotic and scar tissue due to previous open surgery. The patient was stone-free and was discharged after a 24-hour hospitalization period. There is not any published report of micropercutaneous nephrolithotomy in a partial nephrectomized kidney before. In this report, we suggest that microperc technique may be considered for challenging conditions in case of failed retrograde intrarenal surgery. PMID:25918666

  1. Hypothesis: Urbanization and exposure to urban heat islands contribute to increasing prevalence of kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, David S; Hirsch, Jacqueline

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing worldwide. Various etiologies may in part explain this observation including increased prevalence of diabetes, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, increased dietary protein and salt content, and decreased dietary dairy products. We hypothesize an additional and novel potential contributor to increasing kidney stone prevalence: migration to urban settings, or urbanization, and resultant exposure of the population to the higher temperatures of urban heat islands (UHIs). Both urbanization and exposure to UHIs are worldwide, continuous trends. Because the difference in temperature between rural and urban settings is greater than the increase in temperature caused by global warming, the potential effect of urbanization on stone prevalence may be of greater magnitude. However, demonstration of a convincing link between urbanization and kidney stones is confounded by many variables simultaneously affected by migration to cities, such as changes in occupation, income, and diet. No data have yet been published supporting this proposed association. We explore the plausibility and limitations of this possible etiology of increasing kidney stone prevalence. PMID:26372336

  2. A review of Thulium fiber laser ablation of kidney stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Nathaniel M.; Blackmon, Richard L.; Irby, Pierce B.

    2011-02-01

    The clinical solid-state Holmium:YAG laser lithotripter (λ=2120 nm) is capable of operating at high pulse energies, but its efficient operation is limited to low pulse rates during lithotripsy. The diode-pumped experimental Thulium Fiber Laser (λ=1908 nm) is limited to low pulse energies, but can operate at high pulse rates. This review compares stone ablation threshold, ablation rate, and retropulsion effects for Ho:YAG and TFL. Laser lithotripsy complications also include optical fiber bending failure resulting in endoscope damage and low irrigation rates leading to poor visibility. Both problems are related to fiber diameter and limited by Ho:YAG laser multimode spatial beam profile. This study exploits TFL spatial beam profile for higher power transmission through smaller fibers. A short taper is also studied for expanding TFL beam at the distal tip of a small-core fiber. Stone mass loss, stone crater depths, fiber transmission losses, fiber burn-back, irrigation rates, and deflection through a flexible ureteroscope were measured for tapered fiber and compared with conventional fibers. The stone ablation threshold for TFL was four times lower than for Ho:YAG. Stone retropulsion with Ho:YAG increased linearly with pulse energy. Retropulsion with TFL was minimal at pulse rates < 150 Hz, then rapidly increased at higher pulse rates. TFL beam profile provides higher laser power through smaller fibers than Ho:YAG laser, potentially reducing fiber failure and endoscope damage and allowing greater irrigation rates for improved visibility and safety. Use of a short tapered distal fiber tip also allows expansion of the laser beam, resulting in decreased fiber tip damage compared to conventional fibers, without compromising fiber bending, stone ablation efficiency, or irrigation rates.

  3. Outcome of ureteroscopy for stone disease in patients with horseshoe kidney: Review of world literature

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Hiro; Rai, Bhavan; Traxer, Olivier; Kata, Slawomir G.; Somani, Bhaskar K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: The management of urolithiasis in patients with horseshoe kidney (HSK) is difficult. Stone formation occurred in 1:5 patients with HSK due to impaired urinary drainage and infections. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy and shock wave lithotripsy can be technically challenging due to altered anatomy. Materials and Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature to look at the role of ureteroscopy for stone management in these patients. We searched MEDLINE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library from January 1990 to April 2013 for results of ureteroscopy and stone treatment in HSK patients. Inclusion criteria were all English language articles reporting on ureteroscopy in patients with HSK. Data were extracted on the outcomes and complications. Results: A total of 3 studies was identified during this period. Forty-one patients with HSK underwent flexible ureteroscopy and stone treatment. The mean age was 42 with a male:female ratio nearly 3:1. The mean stone size was 16 mm (range: 3-35 mm). The mean operating time was 86 min with multiple stones seen in 15 patients. All 41 patients had a ureteral access sheath used and flexible ureteroscopy and holmium laser fragmentation done. Thirty-two (78%) patients were stone-free with a mean hospital stay of 1-day. Minor complications (Clavien I or II) were seen in 13 (32%) of which 6 had stent discomfort, 3 needed intravenous antibiotics for <24 h, 3 had hematuria of which 2 needed blood transfusion and one had pyelonephritis needing re-admission and antibiotics. There were no major complications found in the review. Conclusions: Retrograde stone treatment using ureteroscopy and lasertripsy in HSK patients can be performed with good stone clearance rate, but with a slightly higher complication rate. This procedure should, therefore, be done in high volume stone center with an experienced stone surgeon/team. PMID:26692667

  4. Laparoscopy assisted percutaneous stone surgery can be performed in multiple ways for pelvic ectopic kidneys.

    PubMed

    Soylemez, Haluk; Penbegül, Necmettin; Utangac, Mehmet Mazhar; Dede, Onur; Çakmakçı, Süleyman; Hatipoglu, Namık Kemal

    2016-08-01

    Pelvic kidney stones remain a unique challenge to the endourologists. Treatment options include open surgery, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), retrograde intrarenal surgery, and laparoscopy assisted PNL (LA-PNL). As a minimal invasive option, LA-PNL can decrease the risk for bowel and major vessel injury. Here, we describe our experience using the LA-PNL procedures with different combinations, to treat kidney stones in multiple patients with a pelvic ectopic kidney (PEK). Eight patients, with PEK, kidney stones, and no other treatment choice, but open surgery, were included in the study. Two different laparoscopic techniques such as mesocolon dissection and transmesocolic, and four different percutaneous procedures such as standard-PNL, mini-PNL, micro-PNL, and a PNL through the renal pelvis were used for stone extraction in these patients. The mean age of patients was 25.6 ± 12.9 years and mean stone size was 524.1 ± 430.3 mm(2). Mean operation time was 150.5 ± 40.0 (77-210) min which was composed of retrograde catheterization (14.8 ± 2.9 min), laparoscopic procedure (48.7 ± 20.6 min) and PNL procedure (86.8 ± 31.1 min). Residual stones were seen in two patients (no additional treatment was need), while a 'stone-free' procedure was achieved in six patients (75.0 %). On the post-operative first month visit, a stone was observed on radiological examinations in only one patient (87.5 % stone-free). Mean hospitalization time was 2.8 ± 0.9 days. No perioperative or post-operative complication was observed in all patients. LA-PNL surgery is a safe and effective option for treatment of PEK stones, and has several alternative approaches. PMID:26494553

  5. Online Discussion on #KidneyStones: A Longitudinal Assessment of Activity, Users and Content

    PubMed Central

    Bultitude, Matthew; Fritsche, Hans-Martin; Haferkamp, Axel; Heidenreich, Axel; Miernik, Arkadiusz; Neisius, Andreas; Knoll, Thomas; Thomas, Christian; Tsaur, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Twitter is a popular microblogging platform for the rapid dissemination of information and reciprocal exchange in the urological field. We aimed to assess the activity, users and content of the online discussion, #KidneyStones, on Twitter. Methods We investigated the Symplur Signals analytics tool for Twitter data distributed via the #KidneyStones hashtag over a one year period. Activity analysis reflected overall activity and tweet enhancements. We assessed users’ geolocations and performed an influencer analysis. Content analysis included the most frequently used words, tweet sentiment and shares for top tweets. Results 3,426 users generated over 10,333 tweets, which were frequently accompanied by links (49%), mentions (30%) and photos (13%). Users came from 106 countries across the globe and were most frequently from North America (63%) and Europe (16%). Individual and organisational healthcare professionals made up 56% of the influencers of the Twitter discussion on #KidneyStones. Besides the words ‘kidney’ (used 4,045 times) and ‘stones’ (3,335), ‘pain’ (1,233), ‘urine’ (1,158), and ‘risk’ (1,023) were the most frequently used words. 56% of tweets had a positive sentiment. The median (range) number of shares was 85 (62–587) for the top 10 links, 45.5 (17–94) for the top 10 photos, and 44 (22–95) for the top 10 retweets. Conclusion The rapidly growing Twitter discussion on #KidneyStones engaged multiple stakeholders in the healthcare sector on a global scale and reached both professionals and laypeople. When used effectively and responsibly, the Twitter platform could improve prevention and medical care of kidney stone patients. PMID:27537406

  6. Association Between Kidney Stones and Risk of Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-Yi; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chang, Yen-Jung; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Wang, I-Kuan; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nephrolithiasis is highly prevalent and has been associated with vascular diseases such as cardiovascular events. Few studies have comprehensively associated renal stones with stroke. This study explored whether patients with renal stones were at a higher stroke risk than those without renal stones. A national insurance claim dataset of 22 million enrollees in Taiwan was used to identify 53,659 patients with renal stones, and 214,107 were selected as age-, sex-, and comorbidity-matched controls for a 13-year follow-up. The relative stroke risk for the RS cohort was 1.06-fold higher than that for the non-RS group (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–1.11). Age-specific analysis revealed that the adjusted stroke risk for the RS cohort increased as age decreased, with the highest risk of 1.47-fold (95% CI = 1.10–1.96) in patients aged 20 to 34 years, followed by a 1.12-fold risk (95% CI = 1.00–1.25) in patients aged 35 to 50 years. Sex-specific analysis clarified that women in the RS group had a 1.12-fold stroke risk compared with women in the non-RS group (95% CI = 1.03–1.21). Patients who had undergone >4 surgeries had up to 42.5-fold higher risk of stroke (95% CI = 33.8–53.4). The study utilized the national database and demonstrated that patients, particularly women and the younger population, with nephrolithiasis have an increased risk of ischemic stroke development. Patients treated with medication or through surgery for RSs showed steady and higher risks of stroke than those without surgical or medical intervention. PMID:26937915

  7. Pain killers and antibacterial therapy for kidney colic and stones.

    PubMed

    Porena, Massimo; Guiggi, Paolo; Balestra, Antonio; Micheli, Carla

    2004-01-01

    In 85% of patients, renal colic is caused by renal-ureteral stones with extrinsic obstructions such as pelvic, retroperitoneal or intestinal abnormalities, and intrinsic reno-ureteral obstructions, e.g. junction pathologies and malformation, accounting for only 10 and 5%, respectively. The objectives of therapy for renal colic therapy are to eliminate pain, preserve renal function and eliminate the obstruction by the excretory pathway. Many drugs can be used to relieve pain: non-steroid anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs), opioid analgesics, antidiuretic hormone (ADH), loco-regional anesthesia and acupuncture. Opiates are the first-choice therapy during pregnancy as no other drug is indicated because of tetragenic potential. Paracetamol (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol) is the only NSAID that is registered for pediatric use because it has none of the adverse side effects that are associated with NSAIDs. Tamsulosin, an alpha-lithic drug, has very recently been included among the drugs that are used for stone expulsion. The rationale underlying its use is that a high concentration of alpha-1D adrenergic receptors has been recently detected in the terminal ureter, especially in the intramural tract. Inhibition of alpha-1D receptor stimulation should relax smooth muscle in the intramural ureteral tract, making stone expulsion easier. PMID:15133331

  8. Hyperspectral imaging based method for fast characterization of kidney stone types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Francisco; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Serranti, Silvia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Havel, Josef; Valiente, Manuel

    2012-07-01

    The formation of kidney stones is a common and highly studied disease, which causes intense pain and presents a high recidivism. In order to find the causes of this problem, the characterization of the main compounds is of great importance. In this sense, the analysis of the composition and structure of the stone can give key information about the urine parameters during the crystal growth. But the usual methods employed are slow, analyst dependent and the information obtained is poor. In the present work, the near infrared (NIR)-hyperspectral imaging technique was used for the analysis of 215 samples of kidney stones, including the main types usually found and their mixtures. The NIR reflectance spectra of the analyzed stones showed significant differences that were used for their classification. To do so, a method was created by the use of artificial neural networks, which showed a probability higher than 90% for right classification of the stones. The promising results, robust methodology, and the fast analytical process, without the need of an expert assistance, lead to an easy implementation at the clinical laboratories, offering the urologist a rapid diagnosis that shall contribute to minimize urolithiasis recidivism.

  9. Quantification of the Range of Motion of Kidney and Ureteral Stones During Shockwave Lithotripsy in Conscious Patients.

    PubMed

    Harrogate, Suzanne R; Yick, L M Shirley; Williams, James C; Cleveland, Robin O; Turney, Benjamin W

    2016-04-01

    Effective shockwave lithotripsy requires accurate targeting of the stone throughout the course of treatment. Stone movement secondary to respiratory movement can make this more difficult. In vitro work has shown that stone motion outside the focal region reduces the efficacy of stone fragmentation; however, there are few clinical data on the degree of stone movement in patients during treatment. To investigate this, X-ray fluoroscopic images of the kidney and ureteral stones at the upper and lower limits of the normal respiratory cycle were acquired during shock wave lithotripsy of 58 conscious patients, and stone excursion was calculated from these images. In addition, the respiration rate and patient perceived pain were recorded during the course of the treatment. It was found that stone motion secondary to respiration was 7.7 ± 2.9 mm for kidney stones and 3.6 ± 2.1 mm for ureteral stones-less than has been reported in studies with anesthetized patients. There was no significant change of motion over the course of treatment although pain was found to increase. These data suggest that stone motion in conscious patients is less than in anesthetized patients. Furthermore, it suggests that lithotripters with focal regions of 8 mm or greater should not suffer from a marked drop in fragmentation efficiency due to stone motion. PMID:26756226

  10. Features of gallstone and kidney stone fragmentation by IR-pulsed Nd:YAG laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batishche, Sergei A.

    1995-05-01

    It is shown that infra-red ((lambda) equals 1064 nm) long pulse (approximately 100 microsecond(s) ) radiation of YAG:Nd laser, operating in free generation regime, effectively fragments gallstones, urinary calculus and kidney stones. The features of the mechanism of this process are investigated. Laser lithotripsy is nowadays a method widely used for fragmentation of gallstones, urinary calculus and kidney stones. Flashlamp pumped dye lasers of microsecond duration are most often used for such purposes. Nevertheless, there are some reports on lithotripsies with nanosecond duration laser pulses (for example, Q-switched YAG:Nd laser). The mechanism of the laser fragmentation of such stones was supposed to be the next. The laser powerful radiation, delivered through the optical fiber, is absorbed by the material of the stone. As a result of such highly localized energy absorption, dense plasma is formed, which expands. Such plasma and vapor, liquid confined, forms a cavitation bubble. This bubble grows, reaches its most dimension and then collapses on itself in some hundreds of micro seconds. Shock waves generated during the growth and the collapse of these bubbles are the origin of fragmentation of the stone. It is necessary to say that there are rather confined data on the hundreds microsecond laser pulse fragmentation especially what concerns the usage of infra-red (IR) YAG:Nd lasers with long laser pulses. Clearing this problem would result in better understanding of the fragmentation mechanism and it could favor development of simple and more reliable laser systems for lithotripsy. In this work we report about investigation of features of an effective fragmentation of gallstones, urinary calculus and kidney stones under exposure of IR ((lambda) equals 1064 nm) radiation of repetitive YAG:Nd laser working in free generation regime.

  11. Rapid vaporization of kidney stones, ex vivo, using a Thulium fiber laser at pulse rates up to 500 Hz with a stone basket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Luke A.; Wilson, Christopher R.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2014-03-01

    The Holmium:YAG laser (λ = 2120 nm) is currently the preferred laser for fragmenting kidney stones in the clinic. However, this laser has some limitations, including operation at low pulse rates and a multimode spatial beam profile which prohibits its use with smaller, more flexible optical fibers. Our laboratory is studying the Thulium fiber laser (λ = 1908 nm) as an alternative lithotripter. The TFL has several advantages, including lower stone ablation thresholds, use with smaller and more flexible fibers, and operation at arbitrary pulse lengths and pulse rates. Previous studies have reported increased stone ablation rates with TFL operation at higher pulse rates, however, stone retropulsion remains an obstacle to even more efficient stone ablation. This study explores TFL operation at high pulse rates in combination with a stone stabilization device (e.g. stone basket) for improved efficiency. A TFL beam with pulse energy of 35 mJ, pulse duration of 500-μs, and pulse rates of 10-500 Hz was coupled into 100-μm-core, low-OH, silica fibers, in contact mode with uric acid and calcium oxalate monohydrate stones, ex vivo. TFL operation at 500 Hz produced UA and COM stone ablation rates up to 5.0 mg/s and 1.3 mg/s, respectively. High TFL pulse rates produced increased stone ablation rates sufficient for use in the clinic.

  12. Comparison of Tissue Injury from Focused Ultrasonic Propulsion of Kidney Stones Versus Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Connors, Bret A.; Evan, Andrew P.; Blomgren, Philip M.; Hsi, Ryan S.; Harper, Jonathan D.; Sorensen, Mathew D.; Wang, Yak-Nam; Simon, Julianna C.; Paun, Marla; Starr, Frank; Cunitz, Bryan W.; Bailey, Michael R.; Lingeman, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Focused ultrasonic propulsion is a new non-invasive technique designed to move kidney stones and stone fragments out of the urinary collecting system. However, the extent of tissue injury associated with this technique is not known. As such, we quantitated the amount of tissue injury produced by focused ultrasonic propulsion under simulated clinical treatment conditions, and under conditions of higher power or continuous duty cycles, and compared those results to SWL injury. Materials and Methods A human calcium oxalate monohydrate stone and/or nickel beads were implanted (with ureteroscopy) into 3 kidneys of live pigs (45–55 kg) and repositioned using focused ultrasonic propulsion. Additional pig kidneys were exposed to SWL level pulse intensities or continuous ultrasound exposure of 10 minutes duration (ultrasound probe either transcutaneous or on the kidney). These kidneys were compared to 6 kidneys treated with an unmodified Dornier HM3 Lithotripter (2400 shocks, 120 SWs/min and 24 kV). Histological analysis was performed to assess the volume of hemorrhagic tissue injury created by each technique (% functional renal volume, FRV). Results SWL produced a lesion of 1.56±0.45% FRV. Ultrasonic propulsion produced no detectable lesion with the simulated clinical treatment. A lesion of 0.46±0.37% FRV or 1.15±0.49% FRV could be produced if excessive treatment parameters were used while the ultrasound probe was placed on the kidney. Conclusions Focused ultrasonic propulsion produced no detectable morphological injury to the renal parenchyma when using clinical treatment parameters and produced injury comparable in size to SWL when using excessive treatment parameters. PMID:23917165

  13. KIDNEY STONE INCIDENCE AND METABOLIC URINARY CHANGES AFTER MODERN BARIATRIC SURGERY: REVIEW OF CLINICAL STUDIES, EXPERIMENTAL MODELS, AND PREVENTION STRATEGIES

    PubMed Central

    Canales, Benjamin K.; Hatch, Marguerite

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery has been associated with increased metabolic kidney stone risk and post-operative stone formation. A MEDLINE search, performed for articles published between January 2005 and November 2013, identified 24 pertinent studies containing 683 bariatric patients with 24-hour urine profiles, 6,777 bariatric patients with kidney stone incidence, and 7,089 non-stone forming controls. Of all procedures reviewed, only Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) was linked to post-operative kidney stone development, increasing stone incidence two-fold in non-stone formers (8.5%) and four-fold in patients with previous stone history (16.7%). High quality evidence from 7 studies (n=277 patients) before and after RYGB identified the following post-RYGB urinary lithogenic risk factors: 30% reduction in urine volume (the main driver of urinary crystal saturation), 40% reduction in urinary citrate (a potent stone inhibitor), and 50% increase in urinary oxalate (a stone promotor). Based on this, a summary of strategies to reduce calcium oxalate stone risk following RYGB is provided. Furthermore, recent experimental RYGB studies are assessed for insights into the pathophysiology of oxalate handling, and the literature in gut anion (oxalate) transport is reviewed. Finally, as a potential probiotic therapy for hyperoxaluria, primary data from our laboratory is presented, demonstrating a 70% reduction in urinary oxalate levels in four experimental RYGB animals after colonization with Oxalobacter formigines, a non-pathogenic gut commensal that uses oxalate as an energy source. Overall, urine profiles and kidney stone risk following bariatric surgery appear modifiable by dietary adjustments, appropriate supplementation, and lifestyle changes. For hyperoxaluria resistant to dietary oxalate restriction and calcium binding, well-designed human investigations are needed to identify additional means of lowering urinary oxalate, such as Oxalobacter colonization or empiric pyridoxine therapy

  14. Translocation of mineralo-organic nanoparticles from blood to urine: a new mechanism for the formation of kidney stones?

    PubMed

    Martel, Jan; Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Young, John D

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies indicate that mineralo-organic nanoparticles form in various human body fluids, including blood and urine. These nanoparticles may form within renal tubules and increase in size in supersaturated urine, eventually leading to the formation of kidney stones. Here, we present observations suggesting that mineralo-organic nanoparticles found in blood may induce kidney stone formation via an alternative mechanism in which the particles translocate through endothelial and renal epithelial cells to reach urine. We propose that this alternative mechanism of kidney stone formation and the study of mineralo-organic nanoparticles in general may provide novel strategies for the early detection and treatment of ectopic calcifications and kidney stones. PMID:27498926

  15. Ex vivo pyelotomy, nephroscopy and holmium laser lithotripsy of a staghorn stone in a donor kidney prior to renal transplant

    PubMed Central

    Janczak, Dariusz; Bolanowska, Barbara; Jankowski, Paweł; Dorobisz, Tadeusz; Dorobisz, Karolina; Chabowski, Mariusz; Janczak, Dawid

    2015-01-01

    This case report presents the diagnostic and treatment procedures of stone removal from the kidney of a 67-year-old donor, the transplantation of the kidney to a 65-year-old recipient, and the postoperative course until the end of hospitalization. Computed tomography performed before collecting the organ showed a staghorn stone in the renal pelvis and lower calyces in the right donor kidney. The stones were removed ex-vivo using a rigid ureteroscope and a holmium laser prior to transplantation. Then the organ was transplanted to the left iliac fossa of a 65-year-old man with end-stage renal failure. The authors think there is a possibility of increasing the kidney pool, by using organs containing large calculi. In such cases stones should be removed before the operation and the patient should be monitored regularly, especially in the first months after the transplant. PMID:26240630

  16. After urgent drainage of an obstructed kidney by internal ureteric stenting; is ureteroscopic stone extraction always needed?

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Diaa-Eldin; Elshal, Ahmed M.; Zahran, Mohamed H.; Harraz, Ahmed M.; El-Nahas, Ahmed R.; Shokeir, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the probability of spontaneous stone passage and its predictors after drainage of obstructed kidney by JJ stent, as insertion of an internal ureteric stent is often used for renal drainage in cases of calcular ureteric obstruction. Patients and methods Between January 2011 and June 2013, patients for whom emergent drainage by ureteric stents were identified. The patients’ demographics, presentation, and stone characteristics were reviewed. The primary endpoint for this study was stone-free status at the time of stent removal, where all patients underwent non-contrast spiral computed tomography (NCCT) before stent removal. Ureteroscopic stone extraction was performed for CT detectable ureteric stones at the time of stent removal. Potential factors affecting the need for ureteroscopic stone extraction at the time of stent removal were assessed using univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Results Emergent ureteric stents were undertaken in 196 patients (112 males, 84 females) with a mean (SD) age of 53.7 (16.2) years, for renal obstruction drainage. At the time of stent removal, 83 patients (42.3%) were stone free; with the remaining 113 patients (57.7%) undergoing ureteroscopic stone extraction. On multivariate analysis, stone width [odds ratio (OR) 15.849, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.83; P = 0.002) and radio-opaque stones (OR 12.035, 95% CI 4.65; P < 0.001) were independent predictors of the need for ureteroscopic stone extraction at the time of stent removal. Conclusion Spontaneous ureteric stone passage is possible after emergent drainage of an obstructed kidney by ureteric stenting. Stone opacity, larger stone width, and positive preoperative urine culture are associated with a greater probability of requiring ureteroscopic stone extraction after emergent drainage by ureteric stenting. PMID:26609444

  17. Effect of pH on the morphology of kidney stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Neelesh; Sova, Stacey; Singh, N. B.; Arnold, Brad; Choa, Fow-Sen; Cullum, Brian; Su, Ching-Hua

    2016-05-01

    The process for the formation of kidney stone is very complex phenomena and has some similarity to the crystal growth from a solution. It is very much dependent on the acidity pH of the fluids. This pH variation affects the content and amount of filtering residue and its morphology. In this study we have performed experiments using carbonate, oxides and urea to simulate and understand the morphologies of the residue filtered and coarsened in different conditions. We observed that different of morphologies of kidney stones can be explained on the basis of acidity and hydration conditions. At lower pH fat prism crystals are observed and as pH increases, long fat needle crystals with large aspect ratio are observed. The coarsening experiments showed further growth of crystals. The remelting experiments showed that during dissolution of kidney stones the joining material breaks first leaving the large faceted crystals undissolved when attempts are made to dissolve into small crystallites. However, the morphology did not change. It was also observed that impurities such as magnesium oxide (MgO) affect the morphology significantly.

  18. Assessment of the role of general, biochemical and family history characteristics in kidney stone formation

    PubMed Central

    Jabbar, Faiza; Asif, Muhammad; Dutani, Hajirah; Hussain, Abrar; Malik, Arif; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Rasool, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Aim The main objective of the study was to determine the urinary risk factors involved in kidney stone formation. Method In this study a total number of 101 patients (64 males and 37 females) between the age group 2 and 70 years were selected. Personal characteristics like age, family history, clinical sign and symptoms, education, monthly income, living style, smoking or tobacco chewing habit, dietary intake and daily amount of drinking water were recorded. Results The study showed that the risk of kidney stone formation was high in the median age group (16–25 years) both in male and female population. The most important factors associated with this were lack of drinking clean water, over weight and obesity as well as family history (37.5% and 27.02% in men and women, respectively). Conclusion Our study has confirmed that lack of drinking sufficient amount of water, increasing weight and obesity and family history are some major factors contributing to the increased risk of kidney stone formation. Therefore it is very important to live a healthy life, drink clean water and control weight to prevent such diseases. PMID:25561886

  19. Combined studies of chemical composition of urine sediments and kidney stones by means of infrared microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tamošaitytė, Sandra; Hendrixson, Vaiva; Želvys, Arūnas; Tyla, Ramūnas; Kučinskienė, Zita A; Jankevičius, Feliksas; Pučetaitė, Milda; Jablonskienė, Valerija; Šablinskas, Valdas

    2013-02-01

    Results of the structural analysis of urinary sediments by means of infrared spectral microscopy are presented. The results are in good agreement with the results of standard optical microscopy in the case of single-component and crystalline urinary sediments. It is found that for noncrystalline or multicomponent sediments, the suggested spectroscopic method is superior to optical microscopy. The chemical structure of sediments of any molecular origin can be elucidated by this spectroscopic method. The method is sensitive enough to identify solid particles of drugs present in urine. Sulfamethoxazole and traces of other medicines are revealed in this study among the other sediments. We also show that a rather good correlation exists between the type of urinary sediments and the renal stones removed from the same patient. Spectroscopic studies of urinary stones and corresponding sediments from 76 patients suffering from renal stone disease reveal that in 73% of cases such correlation exists. This finding is a strong argument for the use of infrared spectral microscopy to prevent kidney stone disease because stones can be found in an early stage of formation by using the nonintrusive spectroscopic investigation of urinary sediments. Some medical recommendations concerning the overdosing of certain pharmaceuticals can also be derived from the spectroscopic studies of urinary sediments. PMID:23429795

  20. Combined studies of chemical composition of urine sediments and kidney stones by means of infrared microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamošaitytė, Sandra; Hendrixson, Vaiva; Želvys, Arūnas; Tyla, Ramūnas; Kučinskienė, Zita A.; Jankevičius, Feliksas; Pučetaitė, Milda; Jablonskienė, Valerija; Šablinskas, Valdas

    2013-02-01

    Results of the structural analysis of urinary sediments by means of infrared spectral microscopy are presented. The results are in good agreement with the results of standard optical microscopy in the case of single-component and crystalline urinary sediments. It is found that for noncrystalline or multicomponent sediments, the suggested spectroscopic method is superior to optical microscopy. The chemical structure of sediments of any molecular origin can be elucidated by this spectroscopic method. The method is sensitive enough to identify solid particles of drugs present in urine. Sulfamethoxazole and traces of other medicines are revealed in this study among the other sediments. We also show that a rather good correlation exists between the type of urinary sediments and the renal stones removed from the same patient. Spectroscopic studies of urinary stones and corresponding sediments from 76 patients suffering from renal stone disease reveal that in 73% of cases such correlation exists. This finding is a strong argument for the use of infrared spectral microscopy to prevent kidney stone disease because stones can be found in an early stage of formation by using the nonintrusive spectroscopic investigation of urinary sediments. Some medical recommendations concerning the overdosing of certain pharmaceuticals can also be derived from the spectroscopic studies of urinary sediments.

  1. Serum Estradiol and Testosterone Levels in Kidney Stones Disease with and without Calcium Oxalate Components in Naturally Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Lili; Duan, Xiaolu; Zeng, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Objective Epidemiological data reveal that the overall risk for kidney stones disease is lower for women compared to age-matched men. However, the beneficial effect for the female sex is lost upon menopause, a time corresponding to the onset of fall in estrogen levels. The aim of this study was to describe the serum estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) characteristics of naturally postmenopausal women with kidney stones. Methods 113 naturally postmenopausal women with newly diagnosed kidney stones (aged 57.4±4.98 years) and 84 age frequency matched stone-free controls (56.9±4.56 years) were validly recruited in the case-control study. The odds ratios (ORs) for the associations between sex hormones and kidney stones were estimated with logistic regression models, adjusting for demographic data and medical history. Patients were also stratified analyzed according to stone components (calcium oxalate stones [COS]; non-calcium oxalate stones [NCOS]). Results Serum E2 (21.1 vs. 31.1 pg/ml) was significantly lower in kidney stones patients compared to controls. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated that this effect was driven by COS patients (p<0.001). According to tertiles of the E2 levels, a significant higher frequency of COS was seen in the lowest E2 group (p <0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis identified E2 level as a strong factor that was independently associated with the risk for COS (per 1 SD increase, OR=0.951, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.919-0.985; highest: lowest tertile, OR=0.214, 95%CI = 0.069-0.665). However, serum T levels did not significantly differ among the groups. Conclusions Naturally postmenopausal women with higher remaining estradiol levels appear less likely to suffer from kidney calcium oxalate stones. However, no correlation was found between serum T level and kidney stones. These findings support the hypothesis that higher postmenopausal endogenous estrogens may protect against kidney stones with ageing. PMID:24086550

  2. Reconsideration of the 1988 NIH Consensus Statement on Prevention and Treatment of Kidney Stones: Are the Recommendations Out of Date?

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, David S

    2002-01-01

    In 1988, a consensus conference was held at the National Institutes of Health to develop guidelines for prevention and treatment of kidney stones. The recommendations regarding the medical evaluation of stone formers and treatment directed at stone prevention are reviewed. The relevance of those 1988 guidelines is evaluated for continued pertinence. Most of the recommendations promulgated in the consensus statement remain useful today. One significant change is the current consensus that dietary calcium restriction is no longer considered appropriate therapy, as there is no evidence that it actually prevents stones and has as a consequence the potential to worsen bone demineralization. PMID:16985656

  3. Blood loss predictive factors and transfusion practice during percutaneous nephrolithotomy of kidney stones: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Syahputra, Firtantyo Adi; Birowo, Ponco; Rasyid, Nur; Matondang, Faisal Abdi; Noviandrini, Endrika; Huseini, Maruto Harjanggi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Bleeding is the most common complication of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Injudicious transfusion is frequently performed in current practice, even though it is not always needed. This study aimed to identify the predictive factors of blood loss in the PCNL procedure and evaluate the perioperative transfusion practice. Methods A prospective study of PCNL was randomly performed by two consultants of endo-urology at our institution. The inclusion criteria were adults with kidney pelvic stones >20 mm or stone in inferior calyx >10 mm or staghorn stone. Those with coagulopathy, under anti-coagulant treatment or open conversion were excluded. A full blood count was taken at baseline and during 12, 24, 36, 72-hours post-operatively. Factors such as stone burden, sex, body surface area, shifting of hematocrit level and amount of blood transfused were analyzed statistically using line regression to identify the predictive factors of total blood loss (TBL).   Results Eighty-five patients were enrolled in this study. Mean TBL was 560.92 ± 428.43 mL for both endo-urology surgeons. Stone burden was the most influential factor for TBL (p=0.037). Our results revealed that TBL (mL) = -153.379 + 0.229 × stone burden (mm2) + 0.203 x baseline serum hematocrit (%); thus considerably predicted the need for blood transfusion. A total of 87.1% patients did not receive perioperative transfusion, 3.5% received intra-operative transfusion, 7.1% received post-operative transfusion, 23% had both intra and post-operative transfusion, resulting in a cross-matched transfusion ratio of 7.72. Mean perioperative blood transfused was 356.00 ± 145.88 mL. PMID:27429745

  4. A potential cause for kidney stone formation during space flights: enhanced growth of nanobacteria in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Haddad, Ruwaida S.; Golden, D. C.; Morrison, Dennis R.; McKay, David S.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although some information is available regarding the cellular/molecular changes in immune system exposed to microgravity, little is known about the reasons of the increase in the kidney stone formation in astronauts during and/or after long duration missions at zero gravity (0 g). In our earlier studies, we have assessed a unique agent, nanobacteria (NB), in kidney stones and hypothesized that NB have an active role in calcium phosphate-carbonate deposition in kidney. In this research we studied effect of microgravity on multiplication and calcification of NB in vitro. METHODS: We examined NB cultures in High Aspect Rotating Vessels (HARVs) designed at the NASA's Johnson Space Center, which are designed to stimulate some aspects of microgravity. Multiplication rate and calcium phosphate composition of those NB were compared with NB cultured on stationary and shaker flasks. Collected aliquots of the cultures from different incubation periods were analyzed using spectrophotometer, SEM, TEM, EDX, and x-ray diffraction techniques. RESULTS: The results showed that NB multiplied 4.6x faster in HARVs compared to stationary cultures, and 3.2x faster than shaker flask conditions. X-ray diffraction and EDX analysis showed that the degree of apatite crystal formation and the properties of the apatite depend on the specific culture conditions used. CONCLUSION: We now report an increased multiplication rate of NB in microgravity-simulated conditions. Thus, NB infection may have a potential role in kidney stone formation in crew members during space flights. For further proof to this hypothesis, screening of the NB antigen and antibody level in flight crew before and after flight would be necessary.

  5. Diet and risk of kidney stones in the Oxford cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    PubMed

    Turney, Benjamin W; Appleby, Paul N; Reynard, John M; Noble, Jeremy G; Key, Timothy J; Allen, Naomi E

    2014-05-01

    The lifetime prevalence of kidney stones is around 10 % and incidence rates are increasing. Diet may be an important determinant of kidney stone development. Our objective was to investigate the association between diet and kidney stone risk in a population with a wide range of diets. This association was examined among 51,336 participants in the Oxford arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition using data from Hospital Episode Statistics in England and Scottish Morbidity Records. In the cohort, 303 participants attended hospital with a new kidney stone episode. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and their 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI). Compared to those with high intake of meat (>100 g/day), the HR estimates for moderate meat-eaters (50-99 g/day), low meat-eaters (<50 g/day), fish-eaters and vegetarians were 0.80 (95 % CI 0.57-1.11), 0.52 (95 % CI 0.35-0.8), 0.73 (95 % CI 0.48-1.11) and 0.69 (95 % CI 0.48-0.98), respectively. High intakes of fresh fruit, fibre from wholegrain cereals and magnesium were also associated with a lower risk of kidney stone formation. A high intake of zinc was associated with a higher risk. In conclusion, vegetarians have a lower risk of developing kidney stones compared with those who eat a high meat diet. This information may be important to advise the public about prevention of kidney stone formation. PMID:24752465

  6. Crystal Growth Inhibitors for the Prevention of L-Cystine Kidney Stones Through Molecular Design

    SciTech Connect

    Rimer, Jeffrey D.; An, Zhihua; Zhu, Zina; Lee, Michael H.; Goldfarb, David S.; Wesson, Jeffrey A.; Ward, Michael D.

    2010-11-12

    Crystallization of L-cystine is a critical step in the pathogenesis of cystine kidney stones. Treatments for this disease are somewhat effective but often lead to adverse side effects. Real-time in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals that L-cystine dimethylester (L-CDME) and L-cystine methylester (L-CME) dramatically reduce the growth velocity of the six symmetry-equivalent {l_brace}100{r_brace} steps because of specific binding at the crystal surface, which frustrates the attachment of L-cystine molecules. L-CDME and L-CME produce L-cystine crystals with different habits that reveal distinct binding modes at the crystal surfaces. The AFM observations are mirrored by reduced crystal yield and crystal size in the presence of L-CDME and L-CME, collectively suggesting a new pathway to the prevention of L-cystine stones by rational design of crystal growth inhibitors.

  7. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the kidney in renal stone disease.

    PubMed

    Mairiang, Eimorn; Hanpanich, Petcharakorn; Sriboonlue, Pote

    2002-12-01

    Previous studies of renal stone disease (RSD) in Thailand indicated abnormal urinary aggregator and inhibitor composition among farmers with excessive sweat loss. Our aim was to compare the proton MR spectra obtained from the kidneys of 32 proven cases of RSD (aged 38 to 65 yrs) with nine age-matched normal control subjects. We used the STEAM sequence with TE = 15 ms and TR = 2,000 ms. The spectra at 3.25, 3.6 and 3.9 ppm were analyzed. The results showed a correlation between the three peaks (p < 0.001), however, there was no significant difference between the RSD group and the normal control subjects. We therefore concluded that there was no overloading of these osmolytes among the renal stone patients. PMID:12591573

  8. X-ray diffraction and SEM study of kidney stones in Israel: quantitative analysis, crystallite size determination, and statistical characterization.

    PubMed

    Uvarov, Vladimir; Popov, Inna; Shapur, Nandakishore; Abdin, Tamer; Gofrit, Ofer N; Pode, Dov; Duvdevani, Mordechai

    2011-12-01

    Urinary calculi have been recognized as one of the most painful medical disorders. Tenable knowledge of the phase composition of the stones is very important to elucidate an underlying etiology of the stone disease. We report here the results of quantitative X-ray diffraction phase analysis performed on 278 kidney stones from the 275 patients treated at the Department of Urology of Hadassah Hebrew University Hospital (Jerusalem, Israel). Quantification of biominerals in multicomponent samples was performed using the normalized reference intensity ratio method. According to the observed phase compositions, all the tested stones were classified into five chemical groups: oxalates (43.2%), phosphates (7.7%), urates (10.3%), cystines (2.9%), and stones composed of a mixture of different minerals (35.9%). A detailed analysis of each allocated chemical group is presented along with the crystallite size calculations for all the observed crystalline phases. The obtained results have been compared with the published data originated from different geographical regions. Morphology and spatial distribution of the phases identified in the kidney stones were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). This type of detailed study of phase composition and structural characteristics of the kidney stones was performed in Israel for the first time. PMID:21308400

  9. A new compound in kidney stones? Powder X-ray diffraction study of calcium glycinate trihydrate.

    PubMed

    Le Bail, Armel; Daudon, Michel; Bazin, Dominique

    2013-07-01

    The present identification of a new compound in kidney stones is relevant in clinical practice. Here, poly[[di-μ-aqua-bis(glycinato-κ(2)N,O)calcium(II)] monohydrate], {[Ca(C2H4NO2)2(H2O)2]·H2O}n, has been identified in a possible kidney concretion, although it could be a 'false calculus' associated with Munchausen syndrome. The crystal packing is characterized by an infinite zigzag chain of Ca atoms in [Ca(OW)4O2N2] (OW is a water O atom) square antiprisms, sharing edges formed by water molecules. An uncoordinated water molecule interconnects the parallel chains in a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding scheme. Similarities between the trihydrate and the monohydrate are described. PMID:23832032

  10. Biopsy proven medullary sponge kidney: clinical findings, histopathology, and role of osteogenesis in stone and plaque formation.

    PubMed

    Evan, Andrew P; Worcester, Elaine M; Williams, James C; Sommer, Andre J; Lingeman, James E; Phillips, Carrie L; Coe, Fredric L

    2015-05-01

    Medullary sponge kidney (MSK) is associated with recurrent stone formation, but the clinical phenotype is unclear because patients with other disorders may be incorrectly labeled MSK. We studied 12 patients with histologic findings pathognomonic of MSK. All patients had an endoscopically recognizable pattern of papillary malformation, which may be segmental or diffuse. Affected papillae are enlarged and billowy, due to markedly enlarged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD), which contain small, mobile ductal stones. Patients had frequent dilation of Bellini ducts, with occasional mineral plugs. Stones may form over white (Randall's) plaque, but most renal pelvic stones are not attached, and have a similar morphology as ductal stones, which are a mixture of calcium oxalate and apatite. Patients had no abnormalities of urinary acidification or acid excretion; the most frequent metabolic abnormality was idiopathic hypercalciuria. Although both Runx2 and Osterix are expressed in papillae of MSK patients, no mineral deposition was seen at the sites of gene expression, arguing against a role of these genes in this process. Similar studies in idiopathic calcium stone formers showed no expression of these genes at sites of Randall's plaque. The most likely mechanism for stone formation in MSK appears to be crystallization due to urinary stasis in dilated IMCD with subsequent passage of ductal stones into the renal pelvis where they may serve as nuclei for stone formation. PMID:25615853

  11. Kidney stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... in adults: comparative effectiveness of preventive medical strategies [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US) 2012 ; Report No.: 12-EHC049-EF. PMID: 22896859 ...

  12. Kidney Stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Griffin Rodgers, Director of the NIDDK Clinical Trials Current research studies and how you can volunteer Community Outreach and Health Fairs Science-based information and tips for planning an outreach effort or community event For Health Care Professionals Patient and provider resources ...

  13. Proteomic evaluation of biological nanoparticles isolated from human kidney stones and calcified arteries.

    PubMed

    Shiekh, Farooq A; Charlesworth, Jon E; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Hunter, Larry W; Jayachandran, Muthuvel; Miller, Virginia M; Lieske, John C

    2010-10-01

    Calcifying biological nanoparticles (NPs) develop under cell culture conditions from homogenates of diverse tissue samples displaying extraosseous mineralization, including kidney stones and calcified aneurysms. Probes to definitively identify NPs in biological systems are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to begin to establish a proteomic biosignature of NPs in order to facilitate more definitive investigation of their contribution to disease. Biological NPs derived from human kidney stones and calcified aneurysms were completely decalcified by overnight treatment with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid or brief incubation in HCl, as evidenced by lack of a calcium shell and of Alizarin Red S staining, by transmission electron microscopy and confocal microscopy, respectively. Decalcified NPs contained numerous proteins, including some from bovine serum and others of prokaryotic origin. Most prominent of the latter group was EF-Tu, which appeared to be identical to EF-Tu from Staphylococcus epidermidis. A monoclonal antibody against human EF-Tu recognized a protein in Western blots of total NP lysate, as well as in intact NPs by immunofluorescence and immunogold EM. Approximately 8% of NPs were quantitatively recognized by the antibody using flow cytometry. Therefore, we have defined methods to reproducibly decalcify biological NPs, and identified key components of their proteome. These elements, including EF-Tu, can be used as biomarkers to further define the processes that mediate propagation of biological NPs and their contribution to disease. PMID:20466084

  14. Altered Calcium and Vitamin D Homeostasis in First-Time Calcium Kidney Stone-Formers

    PubMed Central

    Ketha, Hemamalini; Singh, Ravinder J.; Grebe, Stefan K.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Rule, Andrew D.; Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) concentrations have been reported among cohorts of recurrent calcium (Ca) kidney stone-formers and implicated in the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria. Variations in Ca and vitamin D metabolism, and excretion of urinary solutes among first-time male and female Ca stone-formers in the community, however, have not been defined. Methods In a 4-year community-based study we measured serum Ca, phosphorus (P), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), 1,25(OH)2D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) concentrations in first-time Ca stone-formers and age- and gender frequency-matched controls. Results Serum Ca and 1,25(OH)2D were increased in Ca stone-formers compared to controls (P = 0.01 and P = 0.001). Stone-formers had a lower serum 24,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D ratio compared to controls (P = 0.008). Serum PTH and FGF-23 concentrations were similar in the groups. Urine Ca excretion was similar in the two groups (P = 0.82). In controls, positive associations between serum 25(OH)D and 24,25(OH)2D, FGF-23 and fractional phosphate excretion, and negative associations between serum Ca and PTH, and FGF-23 and 1,25(OH)2D were observed. In SF associations between FGF-23 and fractional phosphate excretion, and FGF-23 and 1,25(OH)2D, were not observed. 1,25(OH)2D concentrations associated more weakly with FGF-23 in SF compared with C (P <0.05). Conclusions Quantitative differences in serum Ca and 1,25(OH)2D and reductions in 24-hydroxylation of vitamin D metabolites are present in first-time SF and might contribute to first-time stone risk. PMID:26332888

  15. Dietary Intake of Fiber, Fruit, and Vegetables Decrease the Risk of Incident Kidney Stones in Women: A Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Report

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, Mathew D.; Hsi, Ryan S.; Chi, Thomas; Shara, Nawar; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Kahn, Arnold J.; Wang, Hong; Hou, Lifang; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the relationship between dietary fiber, fruit, and vegetable intake, and the risk of kidney stone formation. Methods Overall, 83,922 postmenopausal women from the WHI Observational Study were included and followed prospectively. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses evaluated the associations between total dietary fiber, fruits, and vegetable intake, and the risk of incident kidney stone formation adjusting for nephrolithiasis risk factors (age, race/ethnicity, geographic region, diabetes mellitus, calcium supplementation, hormone therapy use, body mass index, calibrated caloric intake, and dietary water, sodium, animal protein, and calcium intake). Women with a prior history of kidney stones (3,471 women) were analyzed separately. Results Mean age was 64±7 years, 85% of women were Caucasian and 2,937 women (3.5%) experienced a kidney stone occurrence in 8 years median follow-up. In women with no history of kidney stones, higher total dietary fiber (6-26% decreased risk, p<0.001), higher fruit intake (12-25% decreased risk, p<0.001), and higher vegetable intake (9-22% decreased risk, p=0.002) were associated with a decreased risk of incident kidney stone formation in separate adjusted models. In women with a history of stones, there were no significant protective effects of fiber, fruits, or vegetable intake on the risk of kidney stone recurrence. Conclusions Greater dietary intake of fiber, fruits and vegetables were each associated with a reduced risk of incident kidney stones in postmenopausal women. The protective effects were independent of other known risk factors for kidney stones. In contrast, there was no reduction in risk in women with a history of stones. PMID:24859445

  16. The reliability of national videos related to the kidney stones on YouTube

    PubMed Central

    Serinken, Mustafa; Eken, Cenker; Erdemir, Fikret; Eliçabuk, Hayri; Başer, Aykut

    2016-01-01

    Objective Kidney stones are one of the most common disorders of the urinary tract. With increasing awareness, a larger proportion of patients are seeking medical knowledge from the Internet. In present study, the features, reliability and efficacy of videos on YouTube related to the treatment of kidney stones were evaluated. Material and methods In December 2014, YouTube was searched using keywords “nephrolithiasis”; “renal calculi”; “renal stones”; and “kidney stones” for videos uploaded containing relevant information about the disease. Only videos in Turkish were included in the study. Two physician viewers watched each video and classified them as useful, partially useful and useless according to European Association of Urology (EAU) Guidelines. The source, length, number of views, number of favourable opinions, and days since uploaded date of the all videos were evaluated. Results A total of 600 videos were analysed The median length of videos was 6.7±10.4 (median: 3, IQR: 0.03–58) minutes. Each video was viewed at an average of 2368 (min: 11, max: 97133) times. Most of the videos (32.8%) were created by academicians and physicians. Nearly half (47.4%) of the videos were uploaded in 2014. The majority of the videos (62.5%) contained information for treatment. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ureterorenoscopy were the most common treatment modalities (32.8% and 28.0%, respectively ) in these videos. A statistically significant difference was not detected between view numbers and source of videos (p=0.87). However, there was a statistically significant difference between usefulness to the viewers and source of videos. Hospital -based videos were detected to be more useful (p=0.000). Conclusion As a result, videos that would be prepared in internet environment by professional individuals or organizations in a way which would attract attention and be easily comprehended by the public could contribute to the knowledge and education of our society

  17. Hippuric acid in 24 h urine collections as a biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake in kidney stone formers.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Angela; Folesani, Giuseppina; Mena, Pedro; Ticinesi, Andrea; Allegri, Franca; Nouvenne, Antonio; Pinelli, Silvana; Del Rio, Daniele; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-12-01

    This work aimed to underline the prospects of hippuric acid, a product of the metabolism of polyphenols, as a new biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake associated with lithogenic risk. Biochemical parameters of lithogenic risk and hippuric acid were measured in the 24 h urine collections of a cohort of 696 Italian kidney stone formers divided into two subgroups according to their different dietary habits. The link between lithogenic risk parameters and hippuric acid was assessed and this compound was revealed as a valuable biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake in kidney stone formers. A cut-off value of urinary excretion of hippuric acid, 300 mg/24 h, was set as the threshold of discrimination between low and high intake of fruits and vegetables for these patients. These results highlight the importance of monitoring of the excretion hippuric acid in urine to address proper dietary guidelines for the management of stone former patients. PMID:25198158

  18. Non-Invasive Measurement of the Temperature Rise in Tissue Surrounding a Kidney Stone Subjected to Ultrasonic Propulsion*

    PubMed Central

    Oweis, Ghanem F.; Dunmire, Barbrina L.; Cunitz, Bryan W.; Bailey, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Transcutaneous focused ultrasound (US) is used to propel kidney stones using acoustic radiation force. It is important to estimate the level of heating generated at the stone/tissue interface for safety assessment. An in-vitro experiment is conducted to measure the temperature rise in a tissue-mimicking phantom with an embedded artificial stone and subjected to a focused beam from an imaging US array. A novel optical-imaging-based thermometry method is described using an optically clear tissue phantom. Measurements are compared to the output from a fine wire thermocouple placed on the stone surface. The optical method has good sensitivity, and it does not suffer from artificial viscous heating typically observed with invasive probes and thermocouples. PMID:26736818

  19. Non-invasive measurement of the temperature rise in tissue surrounding a kidney stone subjected to ultrasonic propulsion.

    PubMed

    Oweis, Ghanem F; Dunmire, Barbrina L; Cunitz, Bryan W; Bailey, Michael R

    2015-08-01

    Transcutaneous focused ultrasound (US) is used to propel kidney stones using acoustic radiation force. It is important to estimate the level of heating generated at the stone/tissue interface for safety assessment. An in-vitro experiment is conducted to measure the temperature rise in a tissue-mimicking phantom with an embedded artificial stone and subjected to a focused beam from an imaging US array. A novel optical-imaging-based thermometry method is described using an optically clear tissue phantom. Measurements are compared to the output from a fine wire thermocouple placed on the stone surface. The optical method has good sensitivity, and it does not suffer from artificial viscous heating typically observed with invasive probes and thermocouples. PMID:26736818

  20. Knowledge, attitudes, and practice patterns among healthcare providers in the prevention of recurrent kidney stones in Northern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Derek; Abara, Emmanuel; Parmar, Malvinder S.

    2014-01-01

    Introducton: Kidney stone recurrence is common. Preventive measures can lead to improved quality of life and costs savings to the individual and healthcare system. Guidelines to prevent recurrent kidney stones are published by various urological societies. Adherence to guidelines amongst healthcare professionals in general is poor, while adherence to preventive management guidelines regarding stone disease is unknown. To understand this issue, we conducted an online study to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practice patterns of healthcare practitioners in Northern Ontario. Methods: We used the database of healthcare providers affiliated with the Northern Ontario School of Medicine, in Sudbury (East Campus) and Thunder Bay (West Campus), Ontario. We designed the survey based on current best practice guidelines for the management of recurrent kidney stones. Questions covered 3 domains: knowledge, attitudes, and practice patterns. Demographic data were also collected. The survey was distributed electronically to all participants. Results: A total of 68 healthcare providers completed the survey. Of these, most were primary care physicians (72%). To keep uniformity, we analyzed the data of this homogenous group. A total of 70% of the respondents were aware of the current guidelines; however, only 43% applied their knowledge in clinical practice. Most participants lacked confidence while answering most items in the attitude domain. Conclusions: Most primary care physician respondents were aware of the appropriate preventive measures for recurrent kidney stones; however, they do not appear to apply this knowledge effectively in clinical practice. A low response rate is a limitation of our study. Further studies involving a larger sample size may lead to information sharing and collaborative care among healthcare providers. PMID:25485006

  1. Evaluation of calcium and magnesium in scalp hair samples of population consuming different drinking water: risk of kidney stone.

    PubMed

    Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Shaikh, Haffeezur Rehman; Arain, Salma Aslam; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Brahman, Kapil Dev

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in underground water (UGW), bottled mineral water (BMW), and domestic treated water (DTW) with related to risk of kidney stones. The water samples were collected from different areas of Sindh, Pakistan. The scalp hair samples of both genders, age ranged 30-60 years, consuming different types of water, have or have not kidney disorders, were selected. The Ca and Mg concentrations were determined in scalp hair of study subjects and water by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The Ca and Mg contents in different types of drinking water, UGW, DTW, and BMW, were found in the range of 79.1-466, 23.7-140, and 45-270 mg/L and 4.43-125, 5.23-39.6, and 7.16-51.3 mg/L, respectively. It was observed that Ca concentration in the scalp hair samples of kidney stone patients consuming different types of drinking water was found to be higher (2,895-4721 μg/g) while Mg level (84.3-101 μg/g) was lower as compare to referents subjects (2,490-2,730 μg/g for Ca, 107-128 μg/g for Mg) in both genders. The positive correlation was found between Ca and Mg levels in water with related to kidney stone formations in population, especially who consumed underground water. A relative risk and odd ratio were calculated; the relative risk had a strong positive association with incidence of kidney stone which depends on types of drinking water. PMID:24218227

  2. Autophagy Alleviates Melamine-Induced Cell Death in PC12 Cells Via Decreasing ROS Level.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Gao, Na; Li, Zhigui; Yang, Zhuo; Zhang, Tao

    2016-04-01

    Since melamine was illegally added to raw milk for increasing the apparent protein content, such a scandal has not been quite blown out. Previous studies showed that melamine induced apoptosis and oxidative damage in both in vivo and in vitro experiments. It is well known that autophagy is closely related to oxidative stress. In the present study, we examined whether autophagy played an important role in protecting PC12 cells, which were damaged by melamine. Immunofluorescence assay showed that melamine enhanced the number of punctuate dot, indicating the increase of autophagosomes. Western blot assay presented that melamine significantly elevated the expression level of autophagy markers including LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, beclin-1, and Atg 7. Rapamycin further enhanced the effect, whereas 3-methyadenine (3-MA) inhibited it. MTT assay exhibited that rapamycin significantly enhanced the cell viability (P < 0.01), while 3-MA considerably reduced it in melamine-treated PC12 cells (P < 0.01). Furthermore, flow cytometry assay showed that rapamycin considerably reduced the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level of the cells (P < 0.01), but 3-MA increased the generation of ROS (P < 0.01). Additionally, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was notably increased by rapamycin in melamine-treated PC12 cells (P < 0.01), while the activity of which was prominently decreased by 3-MA (P < 0.01). Malondialdehyde (MDA) assay showed that rapamycin remarkably decreased the MDA level of the cells (P < 0.05), while 3-MA increased it (P < 0.01). Consequently, this study demonstrated that autophagy protected PC12 cells from melamine-induced cell death via inhibiting the excessive generation of ROS. Regulating autophagy may become a new targeted therapy to relieve the damage induced by melamine. PMID:25724280

  3. The potential role of salt abuse on the risk for kidney stone formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakhaee, K.; Harvey, J. A.; Padalino, P. K.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The kidney stone-forming risk of a high sodium diet was evaluated by assessing the effect of such a diet on the crystallization of stone-forming salts in urine. Fourteen normal subjects participated in 2 phases of study of 10 days duration each, comprising a low sodium phase (basal metabolic diet containing 50 mmol. sodium per day) and a high sodium phase (basal diet plus 250 mmol. sodium chloride per day). The high sodium intake significantly increased urinary sodium (34 +/- 12 to 267 +/- 56 mmol. per day), calcium (2.73 +/- 1.03 to 3.93 +/- 1.51 mmol. per day) and pH (5.79 +/- 0.44 to 6.15 +/- 0.25), and significantly decreased urinary citrate (3.14 +/- 1.19 to 2.52 +/- 0.83 mmol. per day). Arterialized venous blood bicarbonate and total serum carbon dioxide concentrations decreased significantly during the high sodium diet, whereas serum chloride concentration increased. However, no change in arterialized venous pH was detected. Thus, a high sodium intake not only increased calcium excretion, but also increased urinary pH and decreased citrate excretion. The latter effects are probably due to sodium-induced bicarbonaturia and a significant decrease in serum bicarbonate concentration, respectively. Commensurate with these changes, the urinary saturation of calcium phosphate (brushite) and monosodium urate increased, and the inhibitor activity against calcium oxalate crystallization (formation product) decreased. The net effect of a high sodium diet was an increased propensity for the crystallization of calcium salts in urine.

  4. Differentiation of tissue and kidney stones for laser lithotripsy using different spectroscopic approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Birgit; Cordes, Jens; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    Holmium lasers are nowadays the gold standard for endoscopic laser lithotripsy. However, there is a risk of damaging or perforating the ureter or kidney tissue when the vision is poor. An automatic tissue/stone differentiation would improve the handling and safety of the procedure. To achieve this objective, an easy and robust real-time discrimination method has to be found which can be used to realize a feedback loop to control the laser system. Two possible approaches have been evaluated: White light reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy. In both cases, we use the treatment fiber for detection and evaluate the possibility to decide whether the fiber is placed in front of tissue or calculus by the signal that is delivered by the surface in front of it. White light reflectance spectroscopy uses the standard light source for endourologic surgeries: Radiation of a Xenon light source is coupled to the ureteroscope via a liquid light guide. The part of the white light that is reflected back into the fiber is spectroscopically analyzed. In a clinical proof of concept study reflection signals were measured in vivo in 8 patients. For differentiation of stone and tissue via autofluorescence, excitation as well as detection was done via the treatment fiber. A suitable excitation wavelength was chosen with in vitro measurements (UV / visible) on several human renal calculi and porcine tissues. For verification of the positive results with green excitation in a clinical proof of concept study, a measurement set-up was realized which allows the recording of fluorescence signals during an endourological intervention.

  5. Kidney pain (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in a kidney. Kidney stones may be the size of sand or ... A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in a kidney. Kidney stones may be the ...

  6. Kidney pain (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in a kidney. Kidney stones may be the size of sand or gravel, ... A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in a kidney. Kidney stones may be the size ...

  7. Integrative microRNA-gene expression network analysis in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rat kidney

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yuchao; Qin, Baolong; Hu, Henglong; Zhang, Jiaqiao; Wang, Yufeng; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Background. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) influence a variety of biological functions by regulating gene expression post-transcriptionally. Aberrant miRNA expression has been associated with many human diseases. Urolithiasis is a common disease, and idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH) is an important risk factor for calcium urolithiasis. However, miRNA expression patterns and their biological functions in urolithiasis remain unknown. Methods and Results. A multi-step approach combining microarray miRNA and mRNA expression profile and bioinformatics analysis was adopted to analyze dysregulated miRNAs and genes in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS) rat kidneys, using normal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats as controls. We identified 2418 mRNAs and 19 miRNAs as significantly differentially expressed, over 700 gene ontology (GO) terms and 83 KEGG pathways that were significantly enriched in GHS rats. In addition, we constructed an miRNA-gene network that suggested that rno-miR-674-5p, rno-miR-672-5p, rno-miR-138-5p and rno-miR-21-3p may play important roles in the regulatory network. Furthermore, signal-net analysis suggested that NF-kappa B likely plays a crucial role in hypercalciuria urolithiasis. Conclusions. This study presents a global view of mRNA and miRNA expression in GHS rat kidneys, and suggests that miRNAs may be important in the regulation of hypercalciuria. The data provide valuable insights for future research, which should aim at validating the role of the genes featured here in the pathophysiology of hypercalciuria. PMID:27069814

  8. Medullary Sponge Kidney

    MedlinePlus

    ... UTIs and kidney stones. [ Top ] Medications to Prevent Future Urinary Tract Infections and Kidney Stones Health care ... can recommend medications and dietary changes to prevent future UTIs and kidney stones. [ Top ] Clinical Trials The ...

  9. Effect of supersaturation ratio and Khella extract on nucleation and morphology of kidney stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Aal, E. A.; Daosukho, S.; El-Shall, H.

    2009-04-01

    Induction times in supersaturated calcium oxalate (CaOx)-the major component of most kidney stones-solutions were determined at 37 °C using UV-vis spectrometry with and without Khella extract. The slope of the light absorbance measurement curve indicated the inhibition of calcium oxalate nucleation with Khella extract. The induction time was estimated from the time vs. absorbance curve. Khella seeds were obtained from two sources, one in Turkey and one in Egypt. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) results showed that only Turkish Khella extract contained khellin and visnagin that are believed to be the active components of the herb. Both extracts contained calcium, magnesium, and oxalate. It was found that both Khella extracts reduced the induction time at every supersaturation ratio. Using an equation that relates induction times and supersaturation ratios, free energy barrier, and critical nuclei radius were calculated. The results revealed that decrease of free energy barrier and critical nuclei radius as supersaturation ratio increased. In addition, the calculated surface energy of calcium oxalate crystals was decreased from 9.01 to 6.79 and 6.40 mJ/m2 with Egyptian Khella extract and Turkish Khella extract, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photomicrographs showed that the control supersaturated CaOx solutions produced CaOx monohydrate (COM) crystals. With the addition of Khella extract, the resulting crystals were modified to calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) form.

  10. Correction of an enzyme trafficking defect in hereditary kidney stone disease in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Lumb, Michael J; Birdsey, Graeme M; Danpure, Christopher J

    2003-01-01

    In normal human hepatocytes, the intermediary-metabolic enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) is located within the peroxisomes. However, in approx. one-third of patients suffering from the hereditary kidney stone disease primary hyperoxaluria type 1, AGT is mistargeted to the mitochondria. AGT mistargeting results from the synergistic interaction between a common P11L (Pro11-->Leu) polymorphism and a disease-specific G170R mutation. The polymorphism generates a functionally weak mitochondrial targeting sequence, the efficiency of which is increased by the mutation. The two substitutions together, but not in isolation, inhibit AGT dimerization, highlighting the different structural requirements of the peroxisomal and mitochondrial protein-import machineries. In the present study, we show that treatments known to increase the stability of proteins non-specifically (i.e. lowering the temperature from 37 to 30 degrees C or by the addition of glycerol) completely normalize the intracellular targeting of mutant AGT expressed in transfected COS cells. On the other hand, treatments known to decrease protein stability (e.g. increasing the temperature from 37 to 42 degrees C) exacerbate the targeting defect. Neither of the treatments affects the relative efficiencies of the peroxisomal and mitochondrial protein-import pathways intrinsically. Results are discussed in the light of the known structural requirements of the two protein trafficking pathways and the formulation of possible treatment strategies for primary hyperoxaluria type 1. PMID:12737622

  11. The optimal minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy strategy for the treatment of staghorn stones in a solitary kidney.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenli; Cui, Zelin; Zeng, Guohua; Wan, Shaw P; Li, Jiasheng; Zhu, Wei; Zeng, Tao; Liu, Yang

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the treatment outcomes for staghorn stones in patients with solitary kidney using either the single-tract or the multi-tract minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL). We retrospectively reviewed 105 patients who underwent MPCNL for staghorn calculi in solitary kidney from 2012 to 2014. The patients who underwent the single-tract approach (71 patients) were assigned to Group 1. The 34 patients who underwent the multi-tract approach (34 patients) were assigned to Group 2. We recorded and compared the patient's demographics, intraoperative parameters, and post-operative outcomes. We also analyzed any complications as a result of the particular procedure, as well as any resulting stone-free rates (SFRs). The mean number of access tracts was 2.38 ± 0.70 (range 2-4) for Group 2. The mean operative time was longer for Group 2, p = 0.01. The initial SFR was 52.1 % for Group 1 and 47.1 % for Group 2 after the one-session procedure, p = 0.63.The final SFR improved to 83.1 and 79.4 % for both groups following auxiliary treatment, p = 0.65. The mean hemoglobin drop was higher in Group 2 as compared to Group 1, p < 0.01. There was no significant difference in the change of mean serum creatinine in either group. There were fewer overall complications in Group 1 than in Group 2 (23.9 vs. 44.1 %). Almost half of the patients who underwent multi-tract MPCNL required an additional procedure to achieve satisfactory stone clearance. The results showed that single-tract MPCNL might be a better treatment option for staghorn stones in a solitary kidney with the same therapeutic outcome, but with less complications. PMID:26209008

  12. Differentiation of uric acid versus non-uric acid kidney stones in the presence of iodine using dual-energy CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Qu, M.; Leng, S.; McCollough, C. H.

    2010-04-01

    In this study, the feasibility of differentiating uric acid from non-uric acid kidney stones in the presence of iodinated contrast material was evaluated using dual-energy CT (DECT). Iodine subtraction was accomplished with a commercial three material decomposition algorithm to create a virtual non-contrast (VNC) image set. VNC images were then used to segment stone regions from tissue background. The DE ratio of each stone was calculated using the CT images acquired at two different energies with DECT using the stone map generated from the VNC images. The performance of DE ratio-based stone differentiation was evaluated at five different iodine concentrations (21, 42, 63, 84 and 105 mg/ml). The DE ratio of stones in iodine solution was found larger than those obtained in non-iodine cases. This is mainly caused by the partial volume effect around the boundary between the stone and iodine solution. The overestimation of the DE ratio leads to substantial overlap between different stone types. To address the partial volume effect, an expectation-maximization (EM) approach was implemented to estimate the contribution of iodine and stone within each image pixel in their mixture area. The DE ratio of each stone was corrected to maximally remove the influence of iodine solutions. The separation of uric-acid and non-uric-acid stone was improved in the presence of iodine solution.

  13. [Kidney stone formation during space flight and long-term bed rest].

    PubMed

    Okada, Atsushi; Ichikawa, Jun; Tozawa, Keiichi

    2011-10-01

    Microgravity environment like space flight or a condition requiring long-term bed-rest increase bone resorption and decrease bone formation, inducing the rapid decrease of bone minerals to osteoporosis. Bone mineral loss increases urinary calcium excretion and the risk of urinary stone formation. To clarify the influence of the conditions on renal stone formation, a 90-day bed rest test was performed to analyze the mechanism of microgravity or bed rest-induced stone formation and prevention by bisphosphonate medication and bed-rest exercise. As the results, renal stone formation was observed in control and exercise groups and no stone was seen in the medication group. In the medication group, urinary calcium excretion and relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate were lower than in the control group throughout the bed-rest and recovery period. Bisphosphonate is useful for the prevention of renal stone formation during space flight and long-term bed-rest. PMID:21960236

  14. Unilateral ureteric stone associated with gross hydronephrosis and kidney shrinkage: a cadaveric report

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Ern-Wei; Bay, Boon-Huat

    2014-01-01

    Ureteric stones are a common cause of obstruction of the urinary tract, usually presenting with characteristic signs and symptoms, such as acute ureteric colic and hematuria. Occasionally, stones may present with non-specific symptoms such as low back pain and remain unidentified, leading to stone growth, chronic ureteric obstruction and complications such as hydronephrosis and renal damage. Here, we report a large ureteric stone in a cadaver with complete obstruction at the left ureterovesical junction, resulting in severe dilatation of the left ureter and renal pelvis. PMID:25548725

  15. Urine risk factors in children with calcium kidney stones and their siblings.

    PubMed

    Bergsland, Kristin J; Coe, Fredric L; White, Mark D; Erhard, Michael J; DeFoor, William R; Mahan, John D; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Asplin, John R

    2012-06-01

    Calcium nephrolithiasis in children is increasing in prevalence and tends to be recurrent. Although children have a lower incidence of nephrolithiasis than adults, its etiology in children is less well understood; hence, treatments targeted for adults may not be optimal in children. To better understand metabolic abnormalities in stone-forming children, we compared chemical measurements and the crystallization properties of 24-h urine collections from 129 stone formers matched to 105 non-stone-forming siblings and 183 normal, healthy children with no family history of stones, all aged 6 to 17 years. The principal risk factor for calcium stone formation was hypercalciuria. Stone formers have strikingly higher calcium excretion along with high supersaturation for calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, and a reduced distance between the upper limit of metastability and supersaturation for calcium phosphate, indicating increased risk of calcium phosphate crystallization. Other differences in urine chemistry that exist between adult stone formers and normal individuals such as hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, abnormal urine pH, and low urine volume were not found in these children. Hence, hypercalciuria and a reduction in the gap between calcium phosphate upper limit of metastability and supersaturation are crucial determinants of stone risk. This highlights the importance of managing hypercalciuria in children with calcium stones. PMID:22358148

  16. Urine risk factors in children with calcium kidney stones and their siblings

    PubMed Central

    Bergsland, Kristin J.; Coe, Fredric L.; White, Mark D.; Erhard, Michael J.; DeFoor, William R.; Mahan, John D.; Schwaderer, Andrew L.; Asplin, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Calcium nephrolithiasis in children is increasing in prevalence and tends to be recurrent. Although children have a lower incidence of nephrolithiasis than adults, its etiology in children is less well understood; hence treatments targeted for adults may not be optimal in children. To better understand metabolic abnormalities in stone forming children, we compared chemical measurements and the crystallization properties of 24-hour urine collections from 129 stone formers matched to 105 non-stone forming siblings and 183 normal, healthy children with no family history of stones; all aged 6 to 17 years. The principal risk factor for calcium stone formation was hypercalciuria. Stone formers have strikingly higher calcium excretion along with high supersaturation for calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, and a reduced distance between the upper limit of metastability and supersaturation for calcium phosphate, indicating increased risk of calcium phosphate crystallization. Other differences in urine chemistry that exist between adult stone formers and normal individuals such as hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, abnormal urine pH and low urine volume were not found in these children. Hence, hypercalciuria and a reduction in the gap between calcium phosphate upper limit of metastability and supersaturation are crucial determinants of stone risk. This highlights the importance of managing hypercalciuria in children with calcium stones. PMID:22358148

  17. The Effect of Glycemic Status on Kidney Stone Disease in Patients with Prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Tzu-Hsien; Wu, Jin-Shang; Sun, Zih-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background While the evidence supporting a positive association between diabetes mellitus and kidney stone disease (KSD) is solid, studies examining the association between impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and KSD show inconsistent results. Currently, there are no studies examining the relationship between impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and KSD. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of different glycemic statuses on KSD. The results may help to motivate patients with diabetes to conform to treatment regimens. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study of a population that underwent health check-ups between January 2000 and August 2009 at the Health Evaluation Center of National Cheng Kung University Hospital. A total of 14,186 subjects were enrolled. The following categories of glycemic status were used according to the criteria of the 2009 American Diabetes Association: normal glucose tolerance, isolated IGT, isolated IFG, combined IFG/IGT, and diabetes. The existence of KSD was evaluated using renal ultrasonography, and the presence of any hyperechoic structures causing acoustic shadowing was considered to be indicative of KSD. Results The prevalence of KSD was 7.4% (712/9,621), 9.3% (163/1,755), 10.8% (78/719), 12.0% (66/548), and 11.3% (174/1,543) in subjects with NGT, isolated IGT, isolated IFG, combined IFG/IGT, and diabetes, respectively. Isolated IFG, combined IFG/IGT, and diabetes were associated with KSD after adjusting for other clinical variables, but isolated IGT was not. Age (41 to 64 years vs. ≤40 years, ≥65 years vs. ≤40 years), male gender, hypertension, and hyperuricemia were also independently associated with KSD. Conclusion Isolated IFG, combined IFG/IGT, and diabetes, but not isolated IGT, were associated with a higher risk of KSD. PMID:27126886

  18. Self-Fluid Management in Prevention of Kidney Stones: A PRISMA-Compliant Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chang; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Xiao-Long; Liu, Tong-Zu; Zeng, Xian-Tao; Li, Shen; Duan, Xiao-Wen

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies have suggested that daily fluid intake that achieves at least 2.5 L of urine output per day is protective against kidney stones. However, the precise quantitative nature of the association between fluid intake and kidney stone risk, as well as the effect of specific types of fluids on such risk, are not entirely clear.We conducted a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the association between fluid intake and kidney stone risk. Based on a literature search of the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases, 15 relevant studies (10 cohort and 5 case-control studies) were selected for inclusion in the meta-analysis with 9601 cases and 351,081 total participants.In the dose-response meta-analysis, we found that each 500 mL increase in water intake was associated with a significantly reduced risk of kidney stone formation (relative risk (RR) = 0.93; 95% CI: 0.87, 0.98; P < 0.01). Protective associations were also found for an increasing intake of tea (RR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93, 0.99; P = 0.02) and alcohol (RR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.85; P < 0.01). A borderline reverse association were observed on coffee intake and risk of kidney stone (RR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.00; P = 0.05). The risk of kidney stones was not significantly related to intake of juice (RR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.10; P = 0.64), soda (RR = 1.03; 95% CI: 0.90, 1.17; P = 0.65), or milk (RR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.03; P = 0.21). Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analyses showed inconsistent results on coffee, alcohol, and milk intake.Increased water intake is associated with a reduced risk of kidney stones; increased consumption of tea and alcohol may reduce kidney stone risk. An average daily water intake was recommended for kidney stone prevention. PMID:26166074

  19. Self-Fluid Management in Prevention of Kidney Stones: A PRISMA-Compliant Systematic Review and Dose–Response Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chang; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Xiao-Long; Liu, Tong-Zu; Zeng, Xian-Tao; Li, Shen; Duan, Xiao-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Epidemiologic studies have suggested that daily fluid intake that achieves at least 2.5 L of urine output per day is protective against kidney stones. However, the precise quantitative nature of the association between fluid intake and kidney stone risk, as well as the effect of specific types of fluids on such risk, are not entirely clear. We conducted a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the association between fluid intake and kidney stone risk. Based on a literature search of the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases, 15 relevant studies (10 cohort and 5 case–control studies) were selected for inclusion in the meta-analysis with 9601 cases and 351,081 total participants. In the dose–response meta-analysis, we found that each 500 mL increase in water intake was associated with a significantly reduced risk of kidney stone formation (relative risk (RR) = 0.93; 95% CI: 0.87, 0.98; P < 0.01). Protective associations were also found for an increasing intake of tea (RR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93, 0.99; P = 0.02) and alcohol (RR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.85; P < 0.01). A borderline reverse association were observed on coffee intake and risk of kidney stone (RR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.00; P = 0.05). The risk of kidney stones was not significantly related to intake of juice (RR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.10; P = 0.64), soda (RR = 1.03; 95% CI: 0.90, 1.17; P = 0.65), or milk (RR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.03; P = 0.21). Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analyses showed inconsistent results on coffee, alcohol, and milk intake. Increased water intake is associated with a reduced risk of kidney stones; increased consumption of tea and alcohol may reduce kidney stone risk. An average daily water intake was recommended for kidney stone prevention. PMID:26166074

  20. Treatment of the Infected Stone.

    PubMed

    Marien, Tracy; Miller, Nicole L

    2015-11-01

    Infected kidney stones refer to stones that form because of urinary tract infections with urease-producing bacteria, secondarily infected stones of any composition, or stones obstructing the urinary tract leading to pyelonephritis. The mainstay of treatment of infection stones is complete stone removal. Kidney stones that obstruct the urinary tract and cause obstructive pyelonephritis are also frequently referred to as infected stones. Obstructive pyelonephritis is a urologic emergency as it can result in sepsis and even death. Infection stones and obstructive stones causing pyelonephritis are different disease processes, and their workup and management are described separately. PMID:26475943

  1. Activity, energy intake, obesity, and the risk of incident kidney stones in postmenopausal women: a report from the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Mathew D; Chi, Thomas; Shara, Nawar M; Wang, Hong; Hsi, Ryan S; Orchard, Tonya; Kahn, Arnold J; Jackson, Rebecca D; Miller, Joe; Reiner, Alex P; Stoller, Marshall L

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is a strong risk factor for nephrolithiasis, but the role of physical activity and caloric intake remains poorly understood. We evaluated this relationship in 84,225 women with no history of stones as part of the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, a longitudinal, prospective cohort of postmenopausal women enrolled from 1993 to 1998 with 8 years' median follow-up. The independent association of physical activity (metabolic equivalents [METs]/wk), calibrated dietary energy intake, and body mass index (BMI) with incident kidney stone development was evaluated after adjustment for nephrolithiasis risk factors. Activity intensity was evaluated in stratified analyses. Compared with the risk in inactive women, the risk of incident stones decreased by 16% in women with the lowest physical activity level (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.84; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.74 to 0.97). As activity increased, the risk of incident stones continued to decline until plateauing at a decrease of approximately 31% for activity levels ≥10 METs/wk (aHR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.79). Intensity of activity was not associated with stone formation. As dietary energy intake increased, the risk of incident stones increased by up to 42% (aHR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.98). However, intake <1800 kcal/d did not protect against stone formation. Higher BMI category was associated with increased risk of incident stones. In summary, physical activity may reduce the risk of incident kidney stones in postmenopausal women independent of caloric intake and BMI, primarily because of the amount of activity rather than exercise intensity. Higher caloric intake further increases the risk of incident stones. PMID:24335976

  2. Geoenvironmental factors related to high incidence of human urinary calculi (kidney stones) in Central Highlands of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Abeywickarama, Buddhika; Ralapanawa, Udaya; Chandrajith, Rohana

    2016-10-01

    An area with extremely high incidence of urinary calculi was investigated in the view of identifying the relationship between the disease prevalence and the drinking water geochemistry. The prevalence of the kidney stone disease in the selected Padiyapelella-Hanguranketa area in Central Highlands of Sri Lanka is significantly higher compared with neighboring regions. Drinking water samples were collected from water sources that used by clinically identified kidney stone patients and healthy people. A total of 83 samples were collected and analyzed for major anions and cations. The anions in the area varied in the order HCO3 (-) > Cl(-) > SO4 (2-) > NO3 (-) and cations varied in the order Ca(2+) > Mg(2+) > Na(+) > K(+) > Fe(2+). The dissolved silica that occurs as silicic acid (H4SiO4) in natural waters varied from 8.8 to 84 mg/L in prevalence samples, while it was between 9.7 and 65 mg/L for samples from non-prevalence locations. Hydrogeochemical data obtained from the two groups were compared using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. It showed that pH, total hardness, Na(+), Ca(2+) and Fe(2+) had significant difference (p < 0.005) between water sources used by patients and non-patients. Elemental ratio plots, Gibbs' plot and factor analysis indicated that the chemical composition of water sources in this area is strongly influenced by rock-water interactions, particularly the weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals. This study reveals a kind of association between stone formation and drinking water geochemistry as evident by the high hardness/calcium contents in spring water used by patients. PMID:26620679

  3. Effects of hydrochlorothiazide on kidney stone therapy with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Tehranchi, Ali; Rezaei, Yousef; Mohammadi-Fallah, Mohammadreza; Mokhtari, Mohammadreza; Alizadeh, Mansour; Abedi, Farzad; Khalilzadeh, Masoud; Tehranchi, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this investigation was to assess the efficacy of hydrochlorothiazide as a hypocalciuric diuretic on stone-free rate of renal pelvic calculi after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Materials and Methods: A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was conducted and 52 patients with renal pelvic calculi (diameter ≤2 cm) were enrolled from February 2010 to September 2010. ESWL protocol was performed by 2,500 shocks per session. The patients were randomized into two groups: (1) 26 patients who were given 25 mg hydrochlorothiazide twice daily; and (2) 26 patients who received placebo. The stone-free rate was defined as residual calculus size ≤4 mm in controlled ultrasound on 2nd week, 1 month and 3 months after ESWL. Results: 19 (78%) of the first group and 9 (42.9%) of the second group were stone-free after one session of ESWL (P = 0.02). 88% of the group 1 and 47.8% of the group 2 were stone-free on 1 month after ESWL (P = 0.003); however, this effect of hydrochlorothiazide was not related to the patients' body mass index, age and gender. The accessory treatment procedures were applied in 24% of the group 1 compared with 19% of the group 2 during 3 months (P = 0.68). All patients in both groups were stone-free on 3 months following lithotripsy. Conclusions: Hydrochlorothiazide did not impact on the stone-free rate and using accessory procedure within 3 months; however, it decreased duration of stone-free status and number of ESWL sessions. PMID:25125892

  4. Minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy: an effective treatment for kidney stones in infants under 1 year of age. A single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Dağgülli, Mansur; Sancaktutar, Ahmet Ali; Dede, Onur; Utanğaç, Mehmet Mazhar; Bodakçi, Mehmet Nuri; Penbegül, Necmettin; Hatipoğlu, Namık Kemal; Çakmakçı, Süleyman

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to present the outcomes of PNL surgery performed in infantile patients with small renal stones who were younger than 1 year of age. A single-center prospective trial was initiated and during the period between Jan 2013 and Jan 2015, PNL was applied to 20 renal units of 16 infants (6 girls and 10 boys), including 4 patients with bilateral kidney stones. PNL was performed in patients with renal stones larger than 2 cm, as well as stones resistant to SWL or renal stones that were undetectable during SWL. The mean age of the patients was 9.55 (5-12) months. Of the 20 renal units, 1 had complete staghorn stones, 3 had partial staghorn stones, 13 had renal pelvic stones, and 3 had lower pole stones. The mean stone size was 18.5 mm (range 12-36 mm). Mean operative time for PNL was 88 (25-135 min). Mean fluoroscopy time was estimated as 3.4 min. Mean hemoglobin loss was 0.72 g/L (0.2-3). The mean hospital stay was 4.1 days (2-8 days). On postoperative day 1, a complete stone-free state was achieved in 70% of renal units (14 of 20). At the end of the first postoperative week, the remaining two patients had insignificant residual fragments of 3 mm and were followed conservatively without any specific intervention. Thus, the total SFR was 80% (16 of 20) at discharge. In infants aged less than 1 year, minimal access tract dilation during PNL, the use of smaller caliber pediatric instruments, and the realization of this procedure by surgeons with adequate experience in adults carry utmost importance. In addition, special care should be taken to avoid hypothermia and radiation exposure during PNL. PMID:26002160

  5. Modern management of stone disease in patients with a solitary kidney

    PubMed Central

    Tkocz, Michał; Ziaja, Damian

    2011-01-01

    Analysing the data available in the literature, contemporary methods of treatment of nephrolithiasis are limited to the methods of minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and ureterorenoscopic lithotripsy (URSL), not excluding their use in the presence of developmental abnormalities and kidney impairment only. Minimally invasive methods have become standard procedures. A complement to ineffective URSL and PCNL treatment is extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. This is confirmed by 30 years of observation in the only treatment of kidney calculi by Alken launched in 1981 and continued by Jones et al. Before the era of endoscopic procedures (PCNL and URSL) effectively removed the only deposits in the kidney in open operations. Minimally invasive treatments are recommended for patients with localized deposits in the pelvicalyceal system or solitary kidney ureter. They are recognized as safe and effective treatment in a solitary kidney in particular in patients who have already been operated on. PMID:23255993

  6. Comparison of totally tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy and standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy for kidney stones: a randomized, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Moosanejad, N; Firouzian, A; Hashemi, S A; Bahari, M; Fazli, M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the totally tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy and standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy techniques regarding their rates of success and complications in patients with kidney stones. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups. Forty-four patients (24 men; mean age: 50.40±2.02 years) received totally tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL; no nephrostomy catheter or ureteral catheter after PCNL) and 40 patients (18 men; mean age: 49.95 ± 13.38 years) underwent standard PCNL (a nephrostomy catheter and ureteral catheter were used after PCNL). All surgeries were performed by one surgeon. Postoperative changes in hemoglobin, the blood transfusion rate, changes in creatinine levels, operation time, analgesic need, hospitalization time, and complication rate were compared between the groups. No significant differences were observed in age, gender, stone size, and surgery side between the groups (P<0.05). The operation time was significantly lower in the totally tubeless PCNL group than in the standard PCNL group (P=0.005). Pethidine requirements were significantly higher in the standard PCNL group than the totally tubeless PCNL group (P=0.007). Hospitalization time was significantly higher in the standard PCNL group than in the totally tubeless PCNL group (P<0.0001). The complication rate was 15% in the standard PCNL group and 9.1% in the totally tubeless PCNL group (P=0.73). The totally tubeless PCNL technique is safe and effective, even for patients with staghorn stones. This technique is associated with decreased pain, analgesic needs, and operative and hospitalization time. We believe that a normal peristaltic ureter is the best drainage tube. PMID:27007650

  7. Comparison of totally tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy and standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy for kidney stones: a randomized, clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Moosanejad, N.; Firouzian, A.; Hashemi, S.A.; Bahari, M.; Fazli, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the totally tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy and standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy techniques regarding their rates of success and complications in patients with kidney stones. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups. Forty-four patients (24 men; mean age: 50.40±2.02 years) received totally tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL; no nephrostomy catheter or ureteral catheter after PCNL) and 40 patients (18 men; mean age: 49.95±13.38 years) underwent standard PCNL (a nephrostomy catheter and ureteral catheter were used after PCNL). All surgeries were performed by one surgeon. Postoperative changes in hemoglobin, the blood transfusion rate, changes in creatinine levels, operation time, analgesic need, hospitalization time, and complication rate were compared between the groups. No significant differences were observed in age, gender, stone size, and surgery side between the groups (P<0.05). The operation time was significantly lower in the totally tubeless PCNL group than in the standard PCNL group (P=0.005). Pethidine requirements were significantly higher in the standard PCNL group than the totally tubeless PCNL group (P=0.007). Hospitalization time was significantly higher in the standard PCNL group than in the totally tubeless PCNL group (P<0.0001). The complication rate was 15% in the standard PCNL group and 9.1% in the totally tubeless PCNL group (P=0.73). The totally tubeless PCNL technique is safe and effective, even for patients with staghorn stones. This technique is associated with decreased pain, analgesic needs, and operative and hospitalization time. We believe that a normal peristaltic ureter is the best drainage tube. PMID:27007650

  8. Effect of dietary oxalate and calcium on urinary oxalate and risk of formation of calcium oxalate kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Massey, L K; Roman-Smith, H; Sutton, R A

    1993-08-01

    Dietary restriction of oxalate intake has been used as therapy to reduce the risk of recurrence of calcium oxalate kidney stones. Although urinary oxalate is derived predominantly from endogenous synthesis, it may also be affected by dietary intake of oxalate and calcium. The risk of increasing urinary oxalate excretion by excessive consumption of dietary oxalate is greatest in individuals with a high rate of oxalate absorption, both with and without overt intestinal disease. Although oxalate-rich foods enhanced excretion of urinary oxalate in normal volunteers, the increase was not proportional to the oxalate content of the food. Only eight foods--spinach, rhubarb, beets, nuts, chocolate, tea, wheat bran, and strawberries--caused a significant increase in urinary oxalate excretion. Restriction of dietary calcium enhances oxalate absorption and excretion, whereas an increase in calcium intake may reduce urinary oxalate excretion by binding more oxalate in the gut. This review of the literature indicates that initial dietary therapy for stone-forming individuals can be limited to the restriction of foods definitely shown to increase urinary oxalate. The effects of oxalate-restricted diets on urinary oxalate should be evaluated by means of laboratory analyses of urine composition. Subsequent long-term therapy can be recommended if beneficial results are obtained from oxalate restriction at an appropriate calcium intake. PMID:8335871

  9. Citrate occurs widely in healthy and pathological apatitic biomineral: mineralized articular cartilage, and intimal atherosclerotic plaque and apatitic kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Reid, David G; Duer, Melinda J; Jackson, Graham E; Murray, Rachel C; Rodgers, Allen L; Shanahan, Catherine M

    2013-09-01

    There is continuing debate about whether abundant citrate plays an active role in biomineralization of bone. Using solid state NMR dipolar dephasing, we examined another normally mineralized hard tissue, mineralized articular cartilage, as well as biocalcifications arising in pathological conditions, mineralized intimal atherosclerotic vascular plaque, and apatitic uroliths (urinary stones). Residual nondephasing ¹³C NMR signal at 76 ppm in the spectra of mineralized cartilage and vascular plaque indicates that a quaternary carbon atom resonates at this frequency, consistent with the presence of citrate. The presence, and as yet unproven possible mechanistic involvement, of citrate in tissue mineralization extends the compositional, structural, biogenetic, and cytological similarities between these tissues and bone itself. Out of 10 apatitic kidney stones, five contained NMR-detectable citrate. Finding citrate in a high proportion of uroliths may be significant in view of the use of citrate in urolithiasis therapy and prophylaxis. Citrate may be essential for normal biomineralization (e.g., of cartilage), play a modulatory role in vascular calcification which could be a target for therapeutic intervention, and drive the formation of apatitic rather than other calcific uroliths, including more therapeutically intractable forms of calcium phosphate. PMID:23780351

  10. Herbal preparations affect the kinetic factors of calcium oxalate crystallization in synthetic urine: implications for kidney stone therapy.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Allen L; Webber, Dawn; Ramsout, Ronica; Gohel, Mayur Danny I

    2014-06-01

    Herbal remedies are increasingly being considered as suitable long-term treatments for renal dysfunction. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of some herbal extracts, all previously identified in published studies as influencing kidney stone formation, on the crystallization characteristics of calcium oxalate (CaOx) in synthetic urine (SU). Five herbal extracts were selected for the study: Folium pyrrosiae, Desmodium styracifolium, Phyllanthus niruri, Orthosiphon stamineus and Cystone(®). Concentrated stock solutions of each herbal extract were prepared and were tested at their recommended dosages in in vitro crystallization studies in SU. CaOx crystallization experiments were performed in which the metastable limit (MSL), average particle size, and nucleation and growth rates were determined. The CaOx MSL of SU was unaltered by the five herbal extracts. Three of the herbs (Desmodium styracifolium, Orthosiphon stamineus and Cystone(®)) significantly reduced the average particle size of precipitated crystals relative to undosed SU. All of the extracts increased the rate of nucleation and decreased the rate of growth significantly in SU. Cystone(®) showed the greatest effect on the measured risk factors. It is concluded that all of the herbs have the potential to serve as inhibitors of calcium oxalate stone formation and warrant investigation in clinical trials. PMID:24648109

  11. Association Between Kidney Stones and Risk of Stroke: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Yi; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chang, Yen-Jung; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Wang, I-Kuan; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-02-01

    Nephrolithiasis is highly prevalent and has been associated with vascular diseases such as cardiovascular events. Few studies have comprehensively associated renal stones with stroke.This study explored whether patients with renal stones were at a higher stroke risk than those without renal stones. A national insurance claim dataset of 22 million enrollees in Taiwan was used to identify 53,659 patients with renal stones, and 214,107 were selected as age-, sex-, and comorbidity-matched controls for a 13-year follow-up.The relative stroke risk for the RS cohort was 1.06-fold higher than that for the non-RS group (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-1.11). Age-specific analysis revealed that the adjusted stroke risk for the RS cohort increased as age decreased, with the highest risk of 1.47-fold (95% CI = 1.10-1.96) in patients aged 20 to 34 years, followed by a 1.12-fold risk (95% CI = 1.00-1.25) in patients aged 35 to 50 years. Sex-specific analysis clarified that women in the RS group had a 1.12-fold stroke risk compared with women in the non-RS group (95% CI = 1.03-1.21). Patients who had undergone >4 surgeries had up to 42.5-fold higher risk of stroke (95% CI = 33.8-53.4).The study utilized the national database and demonstrated that patients, particularly women and the younger population, with nephrolithiasis have an increased risk of ischemic stroke development. Patients treated with medication or through surgery for RSs showed steady and higher risks of stroke than those without surgical or medical intervention. PMID:26937915

  12. Miniature ball-tip optical fibers for use in thulium fiber laser ablation of kidney stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Christopher R.; Hardy, Luke A.; Kennedy, Joshua D.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Optical fibers, consisting of 240-μm-core trunk fibers with rounded, 450-μm-diameter ball tips, are currently used during Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy to reduce mechanical damage to the inner lining of the ureteroscope working channel during fiber insertion and prolong ureteroscope lifetime. Similarly, this study tests a smaller, 100-μm-core fiber with 300-μm-diameter ball tip during thulium fiber laser (TFL) lithotripsy. TFL was operated at a wavelength of 1908 nm, with 35-mJ pulse energy, 500-μs pulse duration, and 300-Hz pulse rate. Calcium oxalate/phosphate stone samples were weighed, laser procedure times were measured, and ablation rates were calculated for ball tip fibers, with comparison to bare tip fibers. Photographs of ball tips were taken before and after each procedure to track ball tip degradation and determine number of procedures completed before need for replacement. A high speed camera also recorded the cavitation bubble dynamics during TFL lithotripsy. Additionally, saline irrigation rates and ureteroscope deflection were measured with and without the presence of TFL fiber. There was no statistical difference (P>0.05) between stone ablation rates for single-use ball tip fiber (1.3±0.4 mg/s) (n=10), multiple-use ball tip fiber (1.3±0.5 mg/s) (n=44), and conventional single-use bare tip fibers (1.3±0.2 mg/s) (n=10). Ball tip durability varied widely, but fibers averaged greater than four stone procedures before failure, defined by rapid decline in stone ablation rates. Mechanical damage at the front surface of the ball tip was the limiting factor in fiber lifetime. The small fiber diameter did not significantly impact ureteroscope deflection or saline flow rates. The miniature ball tip fiber may provide a cost-effective design for safe fiber insertion through the ureteroscope working channel and into the ureter without risk of instrument damage or tissue perforation, and without compromising stone ablation efficiency during TFL lithotripsy.

  13. The osteopontin-controlled switching of calcium oxalate monohydrate morphologies in artificial urine provides insights into the formation of papillary kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Aaron; Grohe, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    The protein osteopontin (OPN) plays an important role in preventing the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) kidney stones. To gain insight into these mechanisms, crystallization was induced by addition of human kidney OPN to artificial urine (ionic strength comparable to urine; without citrate), and the OPN-COM interaction studied using a combination of scanning electron (SEM) and confocal microscopy. By SEM, we found that increasing OPN concentrations formed large monoclinic penetration twins (no protein added) and, at higher concentrations (1-, 2μg/ml OPN), super and hyper twins with crystal habits not found in previous studies. For instance, the hyper twins indicate well-facetted gearwheel-like habits with "teeth" developed in all crystallographic directions. At OPN concentrations ≥2μg/ml, a switching to small dumbbell-shaped COM habits with fine-textured surfaces occurred. Confocal microscopy of these dumbbells indicates protein incorporation in almost the entire crystal structure (in contrast to facetted COM), proposing a threshold concentration of ∼2μg/ml OPN for the facetted to the non-facetted habit transformation. Both the gearwheel-like and the dumbbell-shaped habit are again found side-by-side (presumably triggered by OPN concentration gradients within the sample) in in-vitro formed conglomerates, which resemble cross-sections of papillary kidney stones. The abrupt transformation from facetted to non-facetted habits and the unique compliance of the two in-vitro formed habits with the two main morphologies found in papillary kidney stones propose that OPN is a main effector in direct stone-forming processes. Moreover, stone structures which exhibit these two morphologies side-by-side might serve as a novel indicator for OPN concentrations surrounding those structures. PMID:27362921

  14. Continuous-wave and quasi-continuous wave thulium-doped all-fiber laser: implementation on kidney stone fragmentations.

    PubMed

    Pal, Debasis; Ghosh, Aditi; Sen, Ranjan; Pal, Atasi

    2016-08-10

    A continuous-wave (CW) as well as quasi-continuous wave (QCW) thulium-doped all-fiber laser at 1.94 μm has been designed for targeting applications in urology. The thulium-doped active fiber with an octagonal-shaped inner cladding is pumped at 793 nm to achieve stable CW laser power of 10 W with 32% lasing efficiency (against launched pump power). The linear variation of laser power with pump offers a scope of further power scaling. A QCW operation with variation of duty cycle from 0.5% to 90%, repetition rate from 0.1 Hz to 1 kHz, and pulse width from 40 μs to 2 s has been presented. Laser power of 9.5 W in CW mode of operation and average power of 5.2 W with energy range of 10.4-104 mJ in QCW mode of operation has been employed to fragment calcium oxalate monohydrate kidney stones (size of 1.5-4 cm) having different colors and composition. Dependence of ablation threshold, ablation rate, and average fragmented particle size on the average power and energy has been studied. One minute of laser exposure results in fragmentation of a stone surface with ablation rate of 8  mg/min having minimum particle size of 6.54 μm with an average size of 20-100 μm ensuring the natural removal of fragmented parts through the urethra. PMID:27534454

  15. Urinary polyaromatic hydrocarbons are associated with adult celiac disease and kidney stones: USA NHANES, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-02-01

    Links between environmental chemicals and human health have emerged over the last few decades, but the effects from polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were less studied, compared to other commonly known environmental chemicals such as heavy metals, phthalates, arsenic, phenols, and pesticides. Therefore, it was aimed to study the relationships of urinary PAH and adult digestive conditions using a large human sample in a national and population-based study in recent years. Data was retrieved from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011-2012 including demographics, self-reported health conditions, and urinary PAH. Statistical analyses included chi-square test, t test, survey-weighted logistic regression modeling, and population attributable risk (PAR) estimation. Of 5560 American adults aged 20-80 and included in the statistical analysis, urinary 4-hydroxyphenanthrene was significantly associated with celiac disease (odds ratio (OR) 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-2.26, P = 0.009). In addition, urinary 2-hydroxyfluorene (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.02-1.78, P = 0.038), 3-hydroxyfluorene (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.07-1.70, P = 0.015), 1-hydroxyphenanthrene (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.08-2.03, P = 0.017), 1-hydroxypyrene (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.05-1.77, P = 0.023), and 2-hydroxynapthalene (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.00-1.58, P = 0.054) were significantly associated with kidney stones, although not necessarily failing kidney. There were no statistically significant associations observed in the relationship of urinary PAH and liver problems, although higher levels of PAHs were observed. Urinary PAHs are associated with adult digestive conditions, although the causality cannot be established. From the research perspective, longitudinal monitoring from observational studies and experimental research understanding mechanism would be suggested. Regulation of minimizing PAHs exposure might need to be considered in future health and environmental policies. PMID:26728287

  16. Men and women in space: bone loss and kidney stone risk after long-duration spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R; Heer, Martina; Hudson, Edgar K; Shackelford, Linda; Morgan, Jennifer Ll

    2014-07-01

    Bone loss, a key concern for long-duration space travelers, is typically considered a female issue. The number of women who have flown long-duration space missions is now great enough to allow a quantitative comparison of changes in bone and renal stone risk by sex. Participants were 42 astronauts (33 men and 9 women) on long-duration missions to the International Space Station. Bone mineral density (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and biochemical markers of bone metabolism (from blood and urine samples) were evaluated before and after flight. Data were analyzed in two groups, based on available resistance exercise equipment. Missions were 49 to 215 days in duration, flown between 2000 and 2012. The bone density response to spaceflight was the same for men and women in both exercise groups. The bone mineral density response to flight was the same for men and women, and the typical decrease in bone mineral density (whole body and/or regional) after flight was not observed for either sex for those using an advanced resistive exercise device. Biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption responded similarly in male and female astronauts. The response of urinary supersaturation risk to spaceflight was not significantly different between men and women, although risks were typically increased after flight in both groups, and risks were greater in men than in women before and after flight. The responses of men and women to spaceflight with respect to these measures of bone health were not different. PMID:24470067

  17. Nonlinear effects in ultrasound fields of diagnostic-type transducers used for kidney stone propulsion: Characterization in water

    SciTech Connect

    Karzova, M.; Cunitz, B.; Kreider, W.; Bailey, M.; Yuldashev, P.; Andriyakhina, Y.; Sapozhnikov, O.; Khokhlova, V.

    2015-10-28

    Newer imaging and therapeutic ultrasound technologies require higher in situ pressure levels compared to conventional diagnostic values. One example is the recently developed use of focused ultrasonic radiation force to move kidney stones and residual fragments out of the urinary collecting system. A commercial diagnostic 2.3 MHz C5-2 array probe is used to deliver the acoustic pushing pulses. The probe comprises 128 elements equally spaced at the 55 mm long convex cylindrical surface with 38 mm radius of curvature. The efficacy of the treatment can be increased by using higher intensity at the focus to provide stronger pushing force; however, nonlinear acoustic saturation can be a limiting factor. In this work nonlinear propagation effects were analyzed for the C5-2 transducer using a combined measurement and modeling approach. Simulations were based on the 3D Westervelt equation; the boundary condition was set to match the focal geometry of the beam as measured at a low power output. Focal waveforms simulated for increased output power levels were compared with the fiber-optic hydrophone measurements and were found in good agreement. It was shown that saturation effects do limit the acoustic pressure in the focal region of the transducer. This work has application to standard diagnostic probes and imaging.

  18. Nonlinear Effects in Ultrasound Fields of Diagnostic-type Transducers Used for Kidney Stone Propulsion: Characterization in Water

    PubMed Central

    Karzova, M.; Cunitz, B.; Yuldashev, P.; Andriyakhina, Y.; Kreider, W.; Sapozhnikov, O.; Bailey, M.; Khokhlova, V.

    2016-01-01

    Newer imaging and therapeutic ultrasound technologies require higher in situ pressure levels compared to conventional diagnostic values. One example is the recently developed use of focused ultrasonic radiation force to move kidney stones and residual fragments out of the urinary collecting system. A commercial diagnostic 2.3 MHz C5-2 array probe is used to deliver the acoustic pushing pulses. The probe comprises 128 elements equally spaced at the 55 mm long convex cylindrical surface with 38 mm radius of curvature. The efficacy of the treatment can be increased by using higher transducer output to provide stronger pushing force; however, nonlinear acoustic saturation effect can be a limiting factor. In this work nonlinear propagation effects were analyzed for the C5-2 transducer using a combined measurement and modeling approach. Simulations were based on the 3D Westervelt equation; the boundary condition was set to match low power pressure beam scans. Focal waveforms simulated for increased output power levels were compared with the fiber-optic hydrophone measurements and were found in good agreement. It was shown that saturation effects do limit the acoustic pressure in the focal region of the transducer. This work has application to standard diagnostic probes and imaging. PMID:27087711

  19. Nonlinear effects in ultrasound fields of diagnostic-type transducers used for kidney stone propulsion: Characterization in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karzova, M.; Cunitz, B.; Yuldashev, P.; Andriyakhina, Y.; Kreider, W.; Sapozhnikov, O.; Bailey, M.; Khokhlova, V.

    2015-10-01

    Newer imaging and therapeutic ultrasound technologies require higher in situ pressure levels compared to conventional diagnostic values. One example is the recently developed use of focused ultrasonic radiation force to move kidney stones and residual fragments out of the urinary collecting system. A commercial diagnostic 2.3 MHz C5-2 array probe is used to deliver the acoustic pushing pulses. The probe comprises 128 elements equally spaced at the 55 mm long convex cylindrical surface with 38 mm radius of curvature. The efficacy of the treatment can be increased by using higher intensity at the focus to provide stronger pushing force; however, nonlinear acoustic saturation can be a limiting factor. In this work nonlinear propagation effects were analyzed for the C5-2 transducer using a combined measurement and modeling approach. Simulations were based on the 3D Westervelt equation; the boundary condition was set to match the focal geometry of the beam as measured at a low power output. Focal waveforms simulated for increased output power levels were compared with the fiber-optic hydrophone measurements and were found in good agreement. It was shown that saturation effects do limit the acoustic pressure in the focal region of the transducer. This work has application to standard diagnostic probes and imaging.

  20. Multielement analysis of human hair and kidney stones by instrumental neutron activation analysis with the k0-standardization method.

    PubMed

    Abugassa, I; Sarmani, S B; Samat, S B

    1999-06-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of the k0 method of instrumental neutron activation analysis in biological materials. The method has been applied in multielement analysis of human hair standard reference materials from IAEA, No. 085, No. 086 and from NIES (National Institute for Environmental Sciences) No. 5. Hair samples from people resident in different parts of Malaysia, in addition to a sample from Japan, were analyzed. In addition, human kidney stones from members of the Malaysian population have been analyzed for minor and trace elements. More than 25 elements have been determined. The samples were irradiated in the rotary rack (Lazy Susan) at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology and Research (MINT). The accuracy of the method was ascertained by analysis of other reference materials, including 1573 tomato leaves and 1572 citrus leaves. In this method the deviation of the 1/E1+ alpha epithermal neutron flux distribution from the 1/E law (P/T ratio) for true coincidence effects of the gamma-ray cascade and the HPGe detector efficiency were determined and corrected for. PMID:10355102

  1. Aortic Stent-Graft Infection Following Septic Complications of a Kidney Stone

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, H. Rogier van den Leijdekkers, Vanessa J.; Vahl, Anco

    2006-06-15

    A 73-year-old man was treated because of a renal pelvis blowout of the left kidney for which he received a nephrostomy catheter without antibiotic prophylaxis. Almost a year previously this patient had undergone endovascular repair of a symptomatic infrarenal abdominal aorta aneurysm. Four weeks after the diagnosis and treatment of the ruptured renal pelvis, a new computed tomography scan and ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration confirmed the diagnosis of infected aortic stent-graft. An extra-anatomic axillo-uniiliac bypass and graft excision was performed. Two weeks after discharge the patient returned to the hospital with an occlusion of his left renal artery and died of renal failure. This is the first time an infected aortic stent-graft after a renal pelvis blowout has been reported. Although infections of aortic stent-grafts occur rarely, one should be aware of the possibility in aortic stent-graft patients undergoing abdominal procedures without antibiotic prophylaxis.

  2. Extraintestinal Complications: Kidney Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Extraintestinal Complications: Kidney Disorders Go Back Extraintestinal Complications: Kidney Disorders Email Print + Share The kidneys filter the ... but some less serious ones occur more frequently. Kidney stones These are probably the most commonly encountered ...

  3. Hydronephrosis of one kidney

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acute hydronephrosis; Urinary obstruction; Unilateral hydronephrosis; Nephrolithiasis - hydronephrosis; Kidney stone - hydronephrosis; Renal calculi - hydronephrosis; Ureteral calculi - hydronephrosis; ...

  4. Comparison of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) for treatment of stone disease in horseshoe kidney patients

    PubMed Central

    Gokce, Mehmet Ilker; Tokatli, Zafer; Suer, Evren; Hajiyev, Parviz; Akinci, Aykut; Esen, Baris

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives In this study it is aimed to compare the success and complication rates of SWL and RIRS in treatment of HSK stone disease. Materials and methods In this retrospective study data of 67 patients treated with either SWL (n=44) or RIRS (n=23) for stone disease in HSK between May 2003 to August 2014 was investigated. age, gender, stone size and multiplicity, stone free status, renal colic episodes and complication rates of the SWL and RIRS groups were compared. Results Mean age of the population was 42.5±8.2 (range: 16-78) years and mean stone size was 16.9±4.1 mm. SWL and RIRS groups were similar with regard to demographic characteristics and stone related characteristics. SFR of the SWL and RIRS groups were 47.7%(21/44 patients) and 73.9% (17/23 patients) respectively (p=0.039).Renal colic episodes were observed in 3 and 16 patients in the RIRS and SWL groups respectively (p=0.024). No statistically significant complications were observed between the SWL (8/44 patients) and RIRS (4/23) groups (p=0.936). Conclusions In HSK patients with stone disease, both SWL and RIRS are effective and safe treatment modalities. However RIRS seems to maintain higher SFRs with comparable complication rates. PMID:27136473

  5. Kidney Stones in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Griffin Rodgers, Director of the NIDDK Clinical Trials Current research studies and how you can volunteer Community Outreach and Health Fairs Science-based information and tips for planning an outreach effort or community event For Health Care Professionals Patient and provider resources ...

  6. Kidney stones - lithotripsy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy - discharge; Shock wave lithotripsy - discharge; Laser lithotripsy - discharge; Percutaneous lithotripsy - discharge; Endoscopic lithotripsy - discharge; ESWL - discharge

  7. Kidney stone ablation times and peak saline temperatures during Holmium:YAG and Thulium fiber laser lithotripsy, in vitro, in a ureteral model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Luke A.; Wilson, Christopher R.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2015-02-01

    Using a validated in vitro ureter model for laser lithotripsy, the performance of an experimental Thulium fiber laser (TFL) was studied and compared to clinical gold standard Holmium:YAG laser. The Holmium laser (λ = 2120 nm) was operated with standard parameters of 600 mJ, 350 μs, 6 Hz, and 270-μm-core optical fiber. TFL (λ = 1908 nm) was operated with 35 mJ, 500 μs, 150-500 Hz, and 100-μm-core fiber. Urinary stones (60% calcium oxalate monohydrate / 40% calcium phosphate), of uniform mass and diameter (4-5 mm) were laser ablated with fibers through a flexible video-ureteroscope under saline irrigation with flow rates of 22.7 ml/min and 13.7 ml/min for the TFL and Holmium laser, respectively. The temperature 3 mm from tube's center and 1 mm above mesh sieve was measured by a thermocouple and recorded during experiments. Total laser and operation times were recorded once all stone fragments passed through a 1.5-mm sieve. Holmium laser time measured 167 +/- 41 s (n = 12). TFL times measured 111 +/- 49 s, 39 +/- 11 s, and 23 +/- 4 s, for pulse rates of 150, 300, and 500 Hz (n = 12 each). Mean peak saline irrigation temperatures reached 24 +/- 1 °C for Holmium, and 33 +/- 3 °C, 33 +/- 7 °C, and 39 +/- 6 °C, for TFL at pulse rates of 150, 300, and 500 Hz. To avoid thermal buildup and provide a sufficient safety margin, TFL lithotripsy should be performed with pulse rates below 500 Hz and/or increased saline irrigation rates. The TFL rapidly fragmented kidney stones due in part to its high pulse rate, high power density, high average power, and reduced stone retropulsion, and may provide a clinical alternative to the conventional Holmium laser for lithotripsy.

  8. Kidney (Renal) Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... renal function using ureteral stenting, nephrostomy, surgery or dialysis. What is kidney (renal) failure? How is kidney ... as a urinary stent or kidney stone removal. Dialysis , including hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis: These procedures remove ...

  9. 2D elemental mapping of sections of human kidney stones using laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: Possibilities and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vašinová Galiová, Michaela; Čopjaková, Renata; Škoda, Radek; Štěpánková, Kateřina; Vaňková, Michaela; Kuta, Jan; Prokeš, Lubomír; Kynický, Jindřich; Kanický, Viktor

    2014-10-01

    A 213 nm Nd:YAG-based laser ablation (LA) system coupled to quadrupole-based inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and an ArF* excimer-based LA-system coupled to a double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer were employed to study the spatial distribution of various elements in kidney stones (uroliths). Sections of the surfaces of uroliths were ablated according to line patterns to investigate the elemental profiles for the different urolith growth zones. This exploratory study was mainly focused on the distinguishing of the main constituents of urinary calculus fragments by means of LA-ICP-mass spectrometry. Changes in the ablation rate for oxalate and phosphate phases related to matrix density and hardness are discussed. Elemental association was investigated on the basis of 2D mapping. The possibility of using NIST SRM 1486 Bone Meal as an external standard for calibration was tested. It is shown that LA-ICP-MS is helpful for determination of the mineralogical composition and size of all phases within the analyzed surface area, for tracing down elemental associations and for documenting the elemental content of urinary stones. LA-ICP-MS results (elemental contents and maps) are compared to those obtained with electron microprobe analysis and solution analysis ICP-MS.

  10. An Additional Potential Factor for Kidney Stone Formation during Space Flights: Calcifying Nanoparticles (Nanobacteria): A Case Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeffrey A.; Ciftcioglu, Neva; Schmid, Joseph; Griffith, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Spaceflight-induced microgravity appears to be a risk factor for the development of urinary calculi due to skeletal calcium liberation and other undefined factors, resulting in stone disease in crewmembers during and after spaceflight. Calcifying nanoparticles, or nanobacteria, reproduce at a more rapid rate in simulated microgravity conditions and create external shells of calcium phosphate in the form of apatite. The questions arises whether calcifying nanoparticles are niduses for calculi and contribute to the development of clinical stone disease in humans, who possess environmental factors predisposing to the development of urinary calculi and potentially impaired immunological defenses during spaceflight. A case of a urinary calculus passed from an astronaut post-flight with morphological characteristics of calcifying nanoparticles and staining positive for a calcifying nanoparticle unique antigen, is presented.

  11. Thulium fiber laser ablation of kidney stones using a 50-μm-core silica optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmon, Richard L.; Hutchens, Thomas C.; Hardy, Luke A.; Wilson, Christopher R.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Our laboratory is currently studying the experimental thulium fiber laser (TFL) as a potential alternative laser lithotripter to the gold standard, clinical Holmium:YAG laser. We have previously demonstrated the efficient coupling of TFL energy into fibers as small as 100-μm-core-diameter without damage to the proximal end. Although smaller fibers have a greater tendency to degrade at the distal tip during lithotripsy, fiber diameters (≤200 μm) have been shown to increase the saline irrigation rates through the working channel of a flexible ureteroscope, to maximize the ureteroscope deflection, and to reduce the stone retropulsion during laser lithotripsy. In this study, a 50-μm-core-diameter, 85-μm-outer-diameter, low-OH silica fiber is characterized for TFL ablation of human calcium oxalate monohydrate urinary stones, ex vivo. The 50-μm-core fiber consumes approximately 30 times less cross-sectional area inside the single working channel of a ureteroscope than the standard 270-μm-core fiber currently used in the clinic. The ureteroscope working channel flow rate, including the 50-μm fiber, decreased by only 10% with no impairment of ureteroscope deflection. The fiber delivered up to 15.4±5.9 W under extreme bending (5-mm-radius) conditions. The stone ablation rate measured 70±22 μg/s for 35-mJ-pulse-energy, 500-μs-pulse-duration, and 50-Hz-pulse-rate. Stone retropulsion and fiber burnback averaged 201±336 and 3000±2600 μm, respectively, after 2 min. With further development, thulium fiber laser lithotripsy using ultra-small, 50-μm-core fibers may introduce new integration and miniaturization possibilities and potentially provide an alternative to conventional Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy using larger fibers.

  12. Men and Women in Space: Bone Loss and Kidney Stone Risk after Long-Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.; Heer, Martina; Hudson, Edgar, K.; Shackelford, Linda; Morgan, Jennifer L. L.

    2014-01-01

    Bone loss on Earth is more prevalent in women than men, leading to the assumption that women may be at greater risk from bone loss during flight. Until recently, the number of women having flown long-duration missions was too small to allow any type of statistical analysis. We report here data from 42 astronauts on long-duration missions to the International Space Station, 33 men and 9 women. Bone mineral density (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), bone biochemistry (from blood and urine samples), and renal stone risk factors were evaluated before and after flight. Data were analyzed in two groups, based on available resistance exercise equipment. The response of bone mineral density to flight was the same for men and women, and the typical decrease in bone mineral density (whole body and/or regional) after flight was not observed for either sex for those using an Advanced Resistive Exercise Device. Bone biochemistry, specifically markers of formation and resorption, generally responded similarly in male and female astronauts. The response of urinary supersaturation risk to space flight was not significantly different between men and women, although risks were typically increased after flight in both groups and risks were generally greater in men than in women before and after flight. Overall, the bone and renal stone responses of men and women to space flight were not different.

  13. Economic impact of urinary stones

    PubMed Central

    Hyams, Elias S.

    2014-01-01

    Kidney stones have been rising in prevalence in the United States and worldwide, and represent a significant cost burden. Cost effectiveness research in this area may enable improvements in treatment efficiency that can benefit patients, providers and the healthcare system. There has been limited research in the cost effectiveness of surgical interventions for stone disease, despite the diverse treatment approaches that are available. Medical expulsive therapy (MET) has been shown to improve rates of stone passage for ureteral stones, and there is evidence that this practice should be liberalized from the standpoint of both clinical and cost effectiveness. While conservative treatment following a primary stone event appears to be cost effective, the economic impact of medical therapy for recurrent stone formers requires clarification despite its clinical efficacy. Future study regarding the cost effectiveness of prevention and interventions for stone disease are likely to improve both the quality and efficiency of care. PMID:26816777

  14. Histopathology Predicts the Mechanism of Stone Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evan, Andrew P.

    2007-04-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life and these numbers appear to be on the rise. Despite years of scientific research into the mechanisms of stone formation and growth, limited advances have been made until recently. Randall's original observations and thoughts on the mechanisms for kidney stone formation have been validated for idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF) but not for most other stone forming groups. Our current studies on selected groups of human stone formers using intraoperative papillary biopsies has shown overwhelming evidence for the presence of Randall's plaque in ICSF and that stone formation and growth are exclusively linked to its availability to urinary ions and proteins. Intense investigation of the plaque-stone junction is needed if we are to understand the factors leading to the overgrowth process on exposed regions of plaque. Such information should allow the development of treatment strategies to block stone formation in ICSF patients. Patients who form brushite stones, or who form apatite stones because of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), or patients with calcium oxalate stones due to obesity bypass procedures, or patients with cystinuria, get plugged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) which leads to total destruction of the lining cells and focal sites of interstitial fibrosis. These stone formers have plaque but at levels equal to or below non-stone formers, which would suggest that they form stones by a different mechanism than do ICSF patients.

  15. Challenging Case: Stones.

    PubMed

    Soloway, Mark S; Ziemba, Justin B; Matlaga, Brian R; Monga, Manoj

    2016-10-01

    A 40-year-old woman presents to the emergency department after a motor vehicle accident, and a CT scan revealed no injuries but incidentally notes three non-obstructing stones in the left kidney of 3, 4, and 5 mm in size. She is completely asymptomatic and has no history of urolithiasis. PMID:27566646

  16. Medical management of renal stones.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Monica S C; Pearle, Margaret S

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing in industrialized nations, resulting in a corresponding rise in economic burden. Nephrolithiasis is now recognized as both a chronic and systemic condition, which further underscores the impact of the disease. Diet and environment play an important role in stone disease, presumably by modulating urine composition. Dietary modification as a preventive treatment to decrease lithogenic risk factors and prevent stone recurrence has gained interest because of its potential to be safer and more economical than drug treatment. However, not all abnormalities are likely to be amenable to dietary therapy, and in some cases drugs are necessary to reduce the risk of stone formation. Unfortunately, no new drugs have been developed for stone prevention since the 1980s when potassium citrate was introduced, perhaps because the long observation period needed to demonstrate efficacy discourages investigators from embarking on clinical trials. Nonetheless, effective established treatment regimens are currently available for stone prevention. PMID:26977089

  17. Diet: from food to stone.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Justin I; Antonelli, Jodi A; Pearle, Margaret S

    2015-02-01

    Dietary factors have been shown to influence urine composition and modulate the risk of kidney stone disease. With the rising prevalence of stone disease in many industrialized nations, dietary modification as therapy to improve lithogenic risk factors and prevent stone recurrence has gained appeal, as it is both relatively inexpensive and safe. While some dietary measures, such as a high fluid intake, have been shown in long-term randomized clinical trials to have durable effectiveness, other dietary factors have been subjected to only short-term clinical or metabolic studies and their efficacy has been inferred. Herein, we review the current literature regarding the role of diet in stone formation, focusing on both the effect on urinary stone risk factors and the effect on stone recurrence. PMID:24938177

  18. Analysis of Altered MicroRNA Expression Profiles in Proximal Renal Tubular Cells in Response to Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Crystal Adhesion: Implications for Kidney Stone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bohan; Wu, Bolin; Liu, Jun; Yao, Weimin; Xia, Ding; Li, Lu; Chen, Zhiqiang; Ye, Zhangqun; Yu, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Background Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) is the major crystalline component in kidney stones and its adhesion to renal tubular cells leads to tubular injury. However, COM-induced toxic effects in renal tubular cells remain ambiguous. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in gene regulation at the posttranscriptional levels. Objective The present study aimed to assess the potential changes in microRNAs of proximal renal tubular cells in response to the adhesion of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals. Methodology Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and DAPI staining were used to measure the toxic effects of HK-2 cells exposed to COM crystals. MicroRNA microarray and mRNA microarray were applied to evaluate the expression of HK-2 cells exposed to COM crystals. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) technology was used to validate the microarray results. Target prediction, Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and pathway analysis were applied to predict the potential roles of microRNAs in biological processes. Principal Findings Our study showed that COM crystals significantly altered the global expression profile of miRNAs in vitro. After 24 h treatment with a dose (1 mmol/L), 25 miRNAs were differentially expressed with a more than 1.5-fold change, of these miRNAs, 16 were up-regulated and 9 were down-regulated. A majority of these differentially expressed miRNAs were associated with cell death, mitochondrion and metabolic process. Target prediction and GO analysis suggested that these differentially expressed miRNAs potentially targeted many genes which were related to apoptosis, regulation of metabolic process, intracellular signaling cascade, insulin signaling pathway and type 2 diabetes. Conclusion Our study provides new insights into the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis associated with nephrolithiasis. PMID:24983625

  19. 21 CFR 876.4650 - Water jet renal stone dislodger system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... dislodge stones from renal calyces (recesses of the pelvis of the kidney) by means of a pressurized stream of water through a conduit. The device is used in the surgical removal of kidney stones....

  20. 21 CFR 876.4650 - Water jet renal stone dislodger system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... dislodge stones from renal calyces (recesses of the pelvis of the kidney) by means of a pressurized stream of water through a conduit. The device is used in the surgical removal of kidney stones....

  1. 21 CFR 876.4650 - Water jet renal stone dislodger system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... dislodge stones from renal calyces (recesses of the pelvis of the kidney) by means of a pressurized stream of water through a conduit. The device is used in the surgical removal of kidney stones....

  2. 21 CFR 876.4650 - Water jet renal stone dislodger system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... dislodge stones from renal calyces (recesses of the pelvis of the kidney) by means of a pressurized stream of water through a conduit. The device is used in the surgical removal of kidney stones....

  3. 21 CFR 876.4650 - Water jet renal stone dislodger system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dislodge stones from renal calyces (recesses of the pelvis of the kidney) by means of a pressurized stream of water through a conduit. The device is used in the surgical removal of kidney stones....

  4. Bladder stones

    MedlinePlus

    Stones - bladder; Urinary tract stones; Bladder calculi ... Benway BM, Bhayani SM. Lower urinary tract calculi. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 89. Sharma R, Dill CE, Gelman DY. Urinary ...

  5. [Infection-induced urinary stones].

    PubMed

    Bichler, K-H; Eipper, E; Naber, K

    2003-01-01

    Infection stones make up approximately 15% of urinary stone diseases and are thus an important group. These stones are composed of struvite and/or carbonate apatite. The basic precondition for the formation of infection stones is a urease-positive urinary tract infection. Urease is necessary to split urea into ammonia and CO(2). As a result, ammonia ions can form and at the same time alkaline urine develops, both being preconditions for the formation of struvite and carbonate apatite crystals. When these crystals are deposited infection stones form. Pathogenetically, various risk factors play a role: urinary obstruction, neurogenic bladder, dRTA, and MSK. If these infections are not treated and the stones are not removed, the kidney will be damaged. Modern methods are available for stone removal, e.g., ESWL and/or instrumental urinary stone removal. Here, especially less invasive methods are preferable. Any treatment must be adjusted to the patient individually. Patients should be examined frequently for recurrent urinary tract infections and stone recurrences, and new infections must be resolutely treated. Good therapy and prophylaxis are possible with present-day treatment modalities. PMID:12574884

  6. Kidney stones - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... cheese, yogurt, oysters, and tofu. Eat lemons or oranges, or drink lemonade. Citrate in these foods prevents ... foods. Eat enough carbohydrates. Eat more lemons and oranges, and drink lemonade because the citrate in these ...

  7. A Radiographic Correlation between Renal and Pulp Stones

    PubMed Central

    Ertas, E Tarim; Inci, M; Demirtas, A; Ertas, H; Yengil, E; Sisman, Y; Gokce, C

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between pulp stones and renal stones. This study also aimed to report associations between the presence of pulp stone and gender, age, tooth type, dental arches and sides. Patients and Methods: Data were collected through examination of bitewing radiographs of 116 kidney stone patients and a similar number of age-matched controls, referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Erciyes University. Two oral radiologists examined the radiographs to identify pulp stones. The Chi-squared and Mann Whitney U tests were used to investigate the correlations between the presence of pulp chamber calcification and age, gender, dental status and kidney stone. Results: Pulp chamber opacities were detected in 199 (19.3%) out of the 1031 examined teeth, and in 84 (72.4%) out of the 116 kidney stone patients. There was no statistically significant difference between the study and control group (p = 0.882). The occurrence of pulp stones was significantly higher in molars than premolars and similar prevalences were found between dental arches and sides. Conclusion: In this study, no correlation was found between the presence of pulp stones and kidney stones in the investigated group. Therefore, the presence of pulp stones does not seem to be correlated with that of kidney stones. PMID:25803378

  8. Hyaluronan and Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asselman, Marino

    2008-09-01

    Kidney stones cannot be formed as long as crystals are passed in the urine. However, when crystals are retained it becomes possible for them to aggregate and form a stone. Crystals are expected to be formed not earlier than the distal tubules and collecting ducts. Studies both in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals do not adhere to intact distal epithelium, but only when the epithelium is proliferating or regenerating, so that it possesses dedifferentiated cells expressing hyaluronan, osteopontin (OPN) and their mutual receptor CD44 at the apical cell membrane. The polysaccharide hyaluronan is an excellent crystal binding molecule because of its negative ionic charge. We hypothesized that the risk for crystal retention in the human kidney would be increased when tubular cells express hyaluronan at their apical cell membrane. Two different patient categories in which nephrocalcinosis frequently occurs were studied to test this hypothesis (preterm neonates and kidney transplant patients). Hyaluronan (and OPN) expression at the luminal membrane of tubular cells indeed was observed, which preceded subsequent retention of crystals in the distal tubules. Tubular nephrocalcinosis has been reported to be associated with decline of renal function and thus further studies to extend our knowledge of the mechanisms of retention and accumulation of crystals in the kidney are warranted. Ultimately, this may allow the design of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of both nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis in patients.

  9. Stone chewing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Picking stones up into the mouth and chewing them has been commonly reported in pigs and also in dogs. It has variously been described as play behavior, redirected foraging behavior or a stereotypic behavior. In pigs, stone chewing is often observed in sows housed on paddocks, and most frequently o...

  10. Stone Mountain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This color image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the part of the rock outcrop dubbed Stone Mountain at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A Patch of Stone (Figure credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS)

    The colorless square in this color image of the martian rock formation called Stone Mountain is one portion of the rock being analyzed with tools on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The square area is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. Stone Mountain is located within the rock outcrop on Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  11. Holmium:YAG (λ=2120nm) vs. Thulium fiber laser (λ=1908nm) ablation of kidney stones: thresholds, rates, and retropulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmon, Richard L.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2011-03-01

    The Holmium:YAG (Ho:YAG) laser lithotriptor is capable of operating at high pulse energies, but its efficient operation is limited to relatively low pulse rates (~10 Hz) during lithotripsy. On the contrary, the Thulium Fiber Laser (TFL) is limited to low pulse energies, but can operate at very high pulse rates (up to 1000 Hz). This study compares stone ablation threshold, ablation rate, and retropulsion effects for different Ho:YAG and TFL operation modes. The TFL (λ=1908 nm) was operated with pulse energies of 5-35 mJ, 500-μs pulse duration, and pulse rates of 10-400 Hz. The Ho:YAG laser (λ=2120 nm) was operated with pulse energies of 30-550 mJ, 350-μs pulse duration, and pulse rate of 10 Hz. Laser energy was delivered through small-core (200-270-μm) optical fibers in contact mode with human calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones for ablation studies and plaster-of-Paris stone phantoms for retropulsion studies. The COM stone ablation threshold for Ho:YAG and TFL measured 82.6 J/cm2and 20.8 J/cm2, respectively. Stone retropulsion with Ho:YAG laser increased linearly with pulse energy. Retropulsion with TFL was minimal at pulse rates < 150 Hz, then rapidly increased at higher pulse rates. For minimal stone retropulsion, Ho:YAG operation at pulse energies < 175 mJ at 10 Hz, and TFL operation at 35 mJ at 100 Hz is recommended, with both lasers producing comparable ablation rates. Further development of a TFL operating with both high pulse energies (e.g. 100-200 mJ) and high pulse rates (100-150 Hz) may also provide higher ablation rates, when retropulsion is not the primary concern.

  12. Theoretical modeling of the urinary supersaturation of calcium salts in healthy individuals and kidney stone patients: Precursors, speciation and therapeutic protocols for decreasing its value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Allen L.; Allie-Hamdulay, Shameez; Jackson, Graham E.; Durbach, Ian

    2013-11-01

    BackgroundSupersaturation (SS) of urinary salts has been extensively invoked for assessing the risk of renal stone formation, but precursors have often been ignored. Our objectives were to establish by computer modeling, which urinary components are essential for calculating reliable SS values, to investigate whether unique equilibrium processes occur in the urine of stone formers (SF) which might account for their higher SS levels relative to healthy controls (N), to determine the relative efficacies of three different, widely-used protocols for lowering urinary SS of calcium salts and to examine the influence of precursors.

  13. A case of recurrent renal aluminum hydroxide stone.

    PubMed

    Cakıroglu, Basri; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Tas, Tuncay; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Uyanik, Bekir Sami

    2014-01-01

    Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics. PMID:25013740

  14. Bladder stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as: Bladder diverticulum Enlarged prostate Neurogenic bladder Urinary tract infection Almost all bladder stones occur in men. Bladder ... stream Pain, discomfort in the penis Signs of urinary tract infection (such as fever, pain when urinating, and need ...

  15. Tamm-Horsfall protein in recurrent calcium kidney stone formers with positive family history: abnormalities in urinary excretion, molecular structure and function.

    PubMed

    Jaggi, Markus; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Zipperle, Ljerka; Hess, Bernhard

    2007-04-01

    Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) powerfully inhibits calcium oxalate crystal aggregation, but structurally abnormal THPs from recurrent calcium stone formers may promote crystal aggregation. Therefore, increased urinary excretion of abnormal THP might be of relevance in nephrolithiasis. We studied 44 recurrent idiopathic calcium stone formers with a positive family history of stone disease (RCSF(fam)) and 34 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (C). Twenty-four-hour urinary THP excretion was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Structural properties of individually purified THPs were obtained from analysis of elution patterns from a Sepharose 4B column. Sialic acid (SA) contents of native whole 24-h urines, crude salt precipitates of native urines and individually purified THPs were measured. THP function was studied by measuring inhibition of CaOx crystal aggregation in vitro (pH 5.7, 200 mM sodium chloride). Twenty-four-hour urine excretion of THP was higher in RCSF(fam) (44.0 +/- 4.0 mg/day) than in C (30.9 +/- 2.2 mg/day, P = 0.015). Upon salt precipitation and lyophilization, elution from a Sepharose 4B column revealed one major peak (peak A, cross-reacting with polyclonal anti-THP antibody) and a second minor peak (peak B, not cross-reacting). THPs from RCSF(fam) eluted later than those from C (P = 0.021), and maximum width of THP peaks was higher in RCSF(fam )than in C (P = 0.024). SA content was higher in specimens from RCSF(fam) than from C, in native 24-h urines (207.5 +/- 20.4 mg vs. 135.2 +/- 16.1 mg, P = 0.013) as well as in crude salt precipitates of 24-h urines (10.4 +/- 0.5 mg vs. 7.4 +/- 0.9 mg, P = 0.002) and in purified THPs (75.3 +/- 9.3 microg/mg vs. 48.8 +/- 9.8 microg/mg THP, P = 0.043). Finally, inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal aggregation by 40 mg/L of THP was lower in RCSF(fam) (6.1 +/- 5.5%, range -62.0 to +84.2%) than in C (24.9 +/- 6.0%, range -39.8 to +82.7%), P = 0.022, and only 25 out of 44 (57%) THPs from RCSF

  16. Stone Composition as a Function of Age and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Rule, Andrew D.; Krambeck, Amy E.; Williams, James C.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Mehta, Ramila A.; Moyer, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Kidney stones are heterogeneous but often grouped together. The potential effects of patient demographics and calendar month (season) on stone composition are not widely appreciated. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The first stone submitted by patients for analysis to the Mayo Clinic Metals Laboratory during 2010 was studied (n=43,545). Stones were classified in the following order: any struvite, any cystine, any uric acid, any brushite, majority (≥50%) calcium oxalate, or majority (≥50%) hydroxyapatite. Results Calcium oxalate (67%) was the most common followed by hydroxyapatite (16%), uric acid (8%), struvite (3%), brushite (0.9%), and cystine (0.35%). Men accounted for more stone submissions (58%) than women. However, women submitted more stones than men between the ages of 10–19 (63%) and 20–29 (62%) years. Women submitted the majority of hydroxyapatite (65%) and struvite (65%) stones, whereas men submitted the majority of calcium oxalate (64%) and uric acid (72%) stones (P<0.001). Although calcium oxalate stones were the most common type of stone overall, hydroxyapatite stones were the second most common before age 55 years, whereas uric acid stones were the second most common after age 55 years. More calcium oxalate and uric acid stones were submitted in the summer months (July and August; P<0.001), whereas the season did not influence other stone types. Conclusions It is well known that calcium oxalate stones are the most common stone type. However, age and sex have a marked influence on the type of stone formed. The higher number of stones submitted by women compared with men between the ages of 10 and 29 years old and the change in composition among the elderly favoring uric acid have not been widely appreciated. These data also suggest increases in stone risk during the summer, although this is restricted to calcium oxalate and uric acid stones. PMID:25278549

  17. Urinary stone composition in Oman: with high incidence of cystinuria.

    PubMed

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S; Bayoumi, Riad; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Hinai, Abdullhakeem; Al-Maskary, Sultan; Venkiteswaran, Krishna; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Rhman, Khalid; Sharif, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar

    2015-06-01

    Urinary stones are a common problem in Oman and their composition is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyze the components of urinary stones of Omani patients and use the obtained data for future studies of etiology, treatment, and prevention. Urinary stones of 255 consecutive patients were collected at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Stones were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. The biochemical, metabolic, and radiological data relating to the patients and stones were collected. The mean age was 41 years, with M:F ratio of 3.7:1. The common comorbidities associated with stone formation were hypertension; diabetes, benign prostate hyperplasia; urinary tract infection; obesity; and atrophic kidney. The common presentation was renal colic and flank pain (96%). Stones were surgically retrieved in 70% of patients. Mean stone size was 9 ± 0.5 mm (range 1.3-80). Stone formers had a BMI ≥ 25 in 56% (P = 0.006) and positive family history of stones in 3.8%. The most common stones in Oman were as follows: Calcium Oxalates 45% (114/255); Mixed calcium phosphates & calcium oxalates 22% (55/255); Uric Acid 16% (40/255); and Cystine 4% (10/255). The most common urinary stones in Oman are Calcium Oxalates. Overweight is an important risk factor associated with stone formation. The hereditary Cystine stones are three times more common in Oman than what is reported in the literature that needs further genetic studies. PMID:25805105

  18. Bariatric Surgery and Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2008-09-01

    Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment strategy for patients with morbid obesity that can result in effective weight loss, resolution of diabetes mellitus and other weight related complications, and even improved mortality. However, it also appears that hyperoxaluria is common after modern bariatric surgery, perhaps occurring in up to 50% of patients after Rouxen-Y gastric bypass. Although increasing numbers of patients are being seen with calcium oxalate kidney stones after bariatric surgery, and even a few with oxalosis and renal failure, the true risk of these outcomes remains unknown. The mechanisms that contribute to this enteric hyperoxaluria are also incompletely defined, although fat malabsorption may be an important component. Since increasing numbers of these procedures are likely to be performed in the coming years, further study regarding the prevalence and mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and kidney stones after bariatric surgery is needed to devise effective methods of treatment in order to prevent such complications.

  19. Renal stones on portal venous phase contrast-enhanced CT: does intravenous contrast interfere with detection?

    PubMed Central

    Dym, R. Joshua; Duncan, Dameon R.; Spektor, Michael; Cohen, Hillel W.; Scheinfeld, Meir H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the sensitivity of portal venous phase contrast-enhanced CT for the detection of renal stones. Methods This retrospective study included 97 CT examinations of the abdomen without and with intravenous contrast, including 85 (87.6%) examinations with at least one renal stone on the “gold standard” noncontrast images, as scored by a single radiologist. Three other radiologists each independently reviewed only the contrast-enhanced images from all 97 examinations and recorded all renal stones. Reviewer sensitivity for stones was categorized by stone diameter. Reviewer sensitivity and specificity for stone disease were also calculated on a per-kidney basis. Results The 97 cases included a total of 238 stones ≥1 mm, with a mean (±SD) of 1.2 ± 1.9 stones per kidney and a stone diameter of 3.5 ± 3.0 mm. Pooling data for the three reviewers, sensitivity for all stones was 81%; sensitivity for stones ≥2, ≥3, ≥4, and ≥5 mm was 88%, 95%, 99%, and 98%, respectively. Sensitivity for stone disease on a per-kidney basis was 94% when considering all stones; when considering only stones ≥2, ≥3, and ≥4 mm, sensitivity was 96%, 99%, and 100%, respectively. Specificity for stone disease on a per-kidney basis was 98% overall, 99% when considering only stones ≥2 mm, and 100% when considering only stones ≥3 mm. Conclusion: Contrast-enhanced CT is highly sensitive for the detection of renal stones ≥3 mm in diameter and less sensitive for smaller stones. In cases where the clinical diagnosis is uncertain and performance of a CT examination is being contemplated, intravenous contrast utilization would allow assessment for stone disease while also optimizing evaluation for other conditions. PMID:24504541

  20. The evolving epidemiology of stone disease.

    PubMed

    Roudakova, Ksenia; Monga, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiology of kidney stones is evolving - not only is the prevalence increasing, but also the gender gap has narrowed. What drives these changes? Diet, obesity or environmental factors? This article will review the possible explanations for a shift in the epidemiology, with the hope of gaining a better understanding of the extent to which modifiable risk factors play a role on stone formation and what measures may be undertaken for disease prevention in view of these changing trends. PMID:24497682

  1. Epidemiologic Insights into Stone Disease as a Systemic Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curhan, Gary C.

    2007-04-01

    Examining the epidemiology of stone disease can provide insight into etiology. There is a growing body of evidence that stone disease is not simply a disorder of the kidney. In fact, nephrolithiasis is clearly a systemic disorder. Conditions associated with stone disease include the classic ones such as inflammatory bowel disease and primary hyperparathyroidism. More recent studies have demonstrated strong associations with obesity, gout, diabetes and hypertension. Future studies will help uncover the underlying common pathophysiologic abnormalities.

  2. Can stone density on plain radiography predict the outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for ureteral stones?

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ki Hong; Jung, Jin-Hee; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Lee, Yong Seok; Bae, Jungbum; Cho, Min Chul; Lee, Kwang Soo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The objective was to determine whether stone density on plain radiography (kidney-ureter-bladder, KUB) could predict the outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for ureteral stones. Materials and Methods A total of 223 patients treated by ESWL for radio-opaque ureteral stones of 5 to 20 mm were included in this retrospective study. All patients underwent routine blood and urine analyses, plain radiography (KUB), and noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) before ESWL. Demographic, stone, and radiological characteristics on KUB and NCCT were analyzed. The patients were categorized into two groups: lower-density (LD) group (radiodensity less than or equal to that of the 12th rib, n=163) and higher-density (HD) group (radiodensity greater than that of the 12th rib, n=60). Stone-free status was assessed by KUB every week after ESWL. A successful outcome was defined as stone free within 1 month after ESWL. Results Mean stone size in the LD group was significantly smaller than that in the HD group (7.5±1.4 mm compared with 9.9±2.9 mm, p=0.002). The overall success rates in the LD and HD groups were 82.1% and 60.0%, respectively (p=0.007). The mean duration of stone-free status and average number of SWL sessions required for success in the two groups were 21.7 compared with 39.2 days and 1.8 compared with 2.3, respectively (p<0.05). On multivariate logistic analysis, stone size and time to ESWL since colic and radiodensity of the stone on KUB were independent predictors of successful ESWL. Conclusions Our data suggest that larger stone size, longer time to ESWL, and ureteral stones with a radiodensity greater than that of the 12th rib may be at a relatively higher risk of ESWL failure 1 month after the procedure. PMID:25598937

  3. Macromolecules Relevant to Stone Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryall, Rosemary L.; Cook, Alison F.; Thurgood, Lauren A.; Grover, Phulwinder K.

    2007-04-01

    Despite years of research, no single macromolecule in kidney calculi or in urine has yet been shown to fulfill a specific function in stone pathogenesis. In this paper we briefly review papers investigating the urinary excretion of individual macromolecules, their effects on calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization and attachment of crystals to renal epithelial cells, and the influence of lithogenic conditions on their renal expression in cultured cells and animal models. Using prothrombin fragment 1 (PTF1) and human serum albumin as examples, we show the types of patterns resulting from the binding of a fluorescently tagged protein to a specific CaOx monohydrate (COM) crystal face and its incorporation into the crystal structure. Molecular modeling is also used to illustrate how PTF1 can align with the atomic array on a COM crystal surface. We conclude that although many macromolecules are, by strict definition, relevant to stone formation, very few are probably truly influential.

  4. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and renal stones

    PubMed Central

    Nerli, Rajendra; Jali, Mallikarjuna; Guntaka, Ajay Kumar; Patne, Pravin; Patil, Shivagouda; Hiremath, Murigendra Basayya

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of urinary stone disease has shown a steep rise in recent decades along with marked modifications in dietary habits and life- style. There has been an increased prevalence of urinary stone disease in patients with diabetes. We took up this study to determine the association of diabetes mellitus with kidney stones in patients undergoing surgical treatment. Materials and Methods: Patients presenting with renal stones for surgical management formed the study group. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by noting the weight and height of the patient. The extracted stone/stone fragments were analyzed to determine the chemical composition. Urinary pH was similarly noted in all. Results: The mean BMI among the diabetics was 26.35 ± 5.20 (range 17.75-35.60), whereas the mean BMI among the non-diabetics was 23.41 ± 2.85 (range 17.71-31.62) (P < 0.0004). The incidence of uric acid calculi in the diabetics was significantly high (P < 0.03). The mean urinary pH among the diabetics was 5.61 ± 0.36 and among the non-diabetics was 6.87 ± 0.32, which was significantly lower (P < 0.000044). Conclusions: There is a strong association between type 2 diabetes and uric acid stone formation. There is also a strong association between diabetes mellitus, BMI, and also with lower urinary pH. PMID:26605219

  5. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy for isolated calyceal stones: How important is the stone location?

    PubMed Central

    Özgör, Faruk; Küçüktopcu, Onur; Şimşek, Abdulmuttalip; Sarılar, Ömer; Binbay, Murat; Gürbüz, Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of percutaneous access site on the success and complication rates of isolated calyceal stones. Material and methods We retrospectively evaluated 2700 patients who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) in our clinic between October 2002 and August 2014. We selected only the patients with isolated lower, middle or upper calyceal stones and we grouped the patients according to the location of their stones. Successful operation was defined as complete stone clearence or retention of stone fragments smaller than 4 mm which do not lead to infection, obstruction or pain requiring treatment. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were also recorded. Results Totally 360 patients underwent PNL for their isolated upper, middle and lower calyceal stones. Access sites for those patients were selected based on stone location. The stones were localized in the lower (n=304), middle (n=14), and upper (n=42) calices. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups with respect to operation and scopy times. Hemoglobin drop was seen more frequently in the upper calyceal access group, without any significant intergroup difference. Thoracic complications including hemothorax, pneumothorax and pleural effusion were more common in the upper calyceal access group (11.9%; p<0.001). Complete stone clerance was accomplished in 81.9%, 92.9% and 78.6% of the patients with lower, middle and upper calyceal stones respectively without any significant intergroup difference (p=0.537). Conclusion PNL is an effective and safe treatment modality for isolated calyceal kidney stones and upper calyceal access causes thoracic complications more than other access sites. PMID:26623144

  6. Managing acute and chronic renal stone disease.

    PubMed

    Moran, Conor P; Courtney, Aisling E

    2016-02-01

    Nephrolithiasis, or renal stone disease, is common and the incidence is increasing globally. In the UK the lifetime risk is estimated to be 8-10%. On a population level, the increase in stone incidence, erosion of gender disparity, and younger age of onset is likely to reflect increasing prevalence of obesity and a Western diet with a high intake of animal protein and salt. Stones can be detected by a variety of imaging techniques. The gold standard is a non-contrast CT of kidneys, ureters and bladder (CT KUB) which can identify > 99% of stones. CT KUB should be the primary mode of imaging for all patients with colic unless contraindicated. In such instances, or if a CT KUB is not available, an ultrasound KUB is an alternative. This has advantages in terms of radiation exposure and cost, but is limited in sensitivity, particularly for ureteric stones. Once diagnosed, a plain film KUB can be used for follow-up of radiopaque stones. For most patients diclofenac is a reasonable first choice of analgesia, e.g. 50-100 mg rectally, or 75 mg IM. Opioid medication can worsen nausea and be less effective, but should be used if there is a contraindication to NSAIDs. A combination of diclofenac, paracetamol, and/or codeine regularly can provide adequate pain control in many cases. Failure of this analgesic combination should prompt consideration of secondary care support. If a ureteric stone < 5 mm in diameter is identified, the expectation is that this will pass without intervention. Initially medical management is still useful for stones between 5 and 10mm in diameter, but urology input is more likely to be necessary as up to 50% of these may require intervention. Stones that are >10 mm in diameter should be discussed with the urology service as they are unlikely to pass spontaneously. PMID:27032222

  7. Urinary Tract Stones and Osteoporosis: Findings From the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Laura D; Hovey, Kathleen M; Andrews, Christopher A; Thomas, Fridtjof; Sorensen, Mathew D; Crandall, Carolyn J; Watts, Nelson B; Bethel, Monique; Johnson, Karen C

    2015-11-01

    Kidney and bladder stones (urinary tract stones) and osteoporosis are prevalent, serious conditions for postmenopausal women. Men with kidney stones are at increased risk of osteoporosis; however, the relationship of urinary tract stones to osteoporosis in postmenopausal women has not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine whether urinary tract stones are an independent risk factor for changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and incident fractures in women in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Data were obtained from 150,689 women in the Observational Study and Clinical Trials of the WHI with information on urinary tract stones status: 9856 of these women reported urinary tract stones at baseline and/or incident urinary tract stones during follow-up. Cox regression models were used to determine the association of urinary tract stones with incident fractures and linear mixed models were used to investigate the relationship of urinary tract stones with changes in BMD that occurred during WHI. Follow-up was over an average of 8 years. Models were adjusted for demographic and clinical factors, medication use, and dietary histories. In unadjusted models there was a significant association of urinary tract stones with incident total fractures (HR 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.17). However, in covariate adjusted analyses, urinary tract stones were not significantly related to changes in BMD at any skeletal site or to incident fractures. In conclusion, urinary tract stones in postmenopausal women are not an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. PMID:25990099

  8. Urinary tract stones in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Swanson, S K; Heilman, R L; Eversman, W G

    1995-02-01

    The presence of stones during an otherwise uneventful pregnancy is a dramatic and potentially serious issue for the mother, the fetus, and the treating physicians alike. The incidence and predisposing factors are generally the same as in nonpregnant, sexually active, childbearing women. Unique metabolic effects in pregnancy such as hyperuricuria and hypercalciuria, changes in inhibitors of lithiasis formation, stasis, relative dehydration, and the presence of infection all have an impact on stone formation. The anatomic changes and physiologic hydronephrosis of pregnancy make the diagnosis and treatment more challenging. Presenting signs and symptoms include colic, flank pain, hematuria, urinary tract infection, irritative voiding, fever, premature onset or cessation of labor, and pre-eclampsia. The initial evaluation and treatment are again similar to those used for the nonpregnant population. The most appropriate first-line test is renal ultrasonography, which may, by itself, allow the diagnosis to be made and provide enough information for treatment. Radiographic studies, including an appropriately performed excretory urogram, give specific information as to size and location of the stones, location of the kidneys, and differential renal function and can be used safely, but the ionizing radiation risks should be considered. All forms of treatment with the exception of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and some medical procedures are appropriate in the pregnant patient. Close coordination by the urologist, the obstetrician, the pediatrician, the anesthesiologist, and the radiologist is required for the appropriate care of these patients. PMID:7855714

  9. Kidney Stones in Children (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pepper, chocolate, parsley, beets, spinach, dill, nuts, and citrus juices Urate — Children with increased levels of urate ... about alcoholic beverages Condiments: Fresh and dried herbs; lemon juice; low-salt mustard, vinegar, Tabasco sauce; low- ...

  10. Kidney Stones: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... el riñón? Una piedra en el riñón es un pedazo de material sólido que se forma en un riñón cuando hay altos niveles de ciertas sustancias ... al orinar • ve sangre en la orina • siente un dolor agudo en la espalda o la parte ...

  11. A Prototype Ultrasound Instrument To Size Stone Fragments During Ureteroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, Mathew D.; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Bailey, Michael R.

    2008-09-01

    An intraoperative tool to measure the size of kidney stones or stone fragments during ureteroscopy would help urologists assess if a fragment is small enough to be removed through the ureter or ureteral access sheath. The goal of this study was to determine the accuracy and precision of a prototype ultrasound device used to measure in vitro stone fragments compared to caliper measurements. A 10-MHz, 10-french ultrasound transducer probe was used to send an ultrasound pulse and receive ultrasound reflections from the stone using two methods. In Method 1 the instrument was aligned over the stone and the ultrasound pulse traveled through the stone. The time between reflections from the proximal and the distal surface of the stone were used along with the sound speed to calculate the stone size. Although the sound speed varied between stones, it was unlikely to be known during surgery and thus was estimated at 3000 m/s for calculations. In Method 2 the instrument was aligned partially over the stone and the ultrasound pulse traveled through water with a sound speed of 1481 m/s. Time was determined between the reflection from the proximal stone surface and the reflection from the tissue phantom on which the stone rested. Methods 1 and 2 were compared by linear regression to caliper measurements of the size of 19 human stones of 3 different stone types. Accuracy was measured by the difference of the mean ultrasound and mean caliper measurement and precision was measured as the standard deviation in the ultrasound measurements. For Method 1, the correlation between caliper-determined stone size and ultrasound-determined stone size was r2 = 0.71 (p<0.0001). In all but two stones accuracy and precision were less than 1 mm. For Method 2, the correlation was r2 = 0.99 (p<0.0001) and measurements were accurate and precise to within 0.25 mm. We conclude that the prototype device and either method measure stone size with good accuracy.

  12. Kidney Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... if You Have Kidney Disease Kidney Failure Expand Dialysis Kidney Transplant Preparing for Kidney Failure Treatment Choosing Not to Treat with Dialysis or Transplant Paying for Kidney Failure Treatment Contact ...

  13. Changes in Renal Function and Blood Pressure in Patients with Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worcester, Elaine M.

    2007-04-01

    Stone disease is a rare cause of renal failure, but a history of kidney stones is associated with an increased risk for chronic kidney disease, particularly in overweight patients. Loss of renal function seems especially notable for patients with stones associated with cystinuria, hyperoxaluria, and renal tubular acidosis, in whom the renal pathology shows deposits of mineral obstructing inner medullary collecting ducts, often diffusely. However, even idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers have a mild but significant decrease in renal function, compared to age, sex and weight-matched normals, and appear to lose renal function with age at a slightly faster rate than non-stone formers. There is also an increased incidence of hypertension among stone formers, although women are more likely to be affected than men.

  14. Kidney Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / Before The Transplant / Organ Facts / Kidney Organ Facts Heart Lung Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver ... Receiving "the call" About the Operation Heart Lung Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Kidney Facts The kidneys are a pair of reddish-brown ...

  15. Visceral obesity: A new risk factor for stone disease

    PubMed Central

    Akarken, Ilker; Tarhan, Hüseyin; Ekin, Rahmi Gökhan; Çakmak, Özgür; Koç, Gökan; İlbey, Yusuf Özlem; Zorlu, Ferruh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We examined the relationship between stone disease and the amount of visceral adipose tissue measured with unenhanced computed tomography (CT). Methods: We included 149 patients with complaints of flank pain and kidney stones detected by CT, from August 2012 to April 2013. In addition, as the control group we included 139 healthy individuals, with flank pain within the same time period, with no previous history of urological disease and no current kidney stones identified by CT. Patients were analyzed for age, gender, body mass index, amount of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and serum level of low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride. Results: There were no differences between groups in terms of gender and age (p = 0.27 and 0.06, respectively). Respective measurements for the stone and control groups for body mass index were 29.1 and 27.6 kg/m2; for visceral fat measurement 186.0 and 120.2 cm2; and for subcutaneous fat measurements 275.9 and 261.9 cm2 (p = 0.01; 0.01 and 0.36, respectively). Using multivariate analysis, the following factors were identified as increasing the risk of kidney stone formation: hyperlipidemia (p = 0.003), hypertension (p = 0.001), and ratio of visceral fat tissue to subcutaneous fat tissue (p = 0.01). Our study has its limitations, including its retrospective nature, its small sample size, possible selection bias, and missing data. The lack of stone composition data is another major limitation of our study. Conclusion: The ratio of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue, in addition to obesity, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension, was identified as an emerging factor in the formation of kidney stones. PMID:26600887

  16. Stone formation and calcification by nanobacteria in the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Bjorklund, Michael; Kajander, E. Olavi

    1998-07-01

    The formation of discrete and organized inorganic crystalline structures within macromolecular extracellular matrices is a widespread biological phenomenon generally referred to as biomineralization. Recently, bacteria have been implicated as factors in biogeochemical cycles for formation of many minerals in aqueous sediments. We have found nanobacterial culture systems that allow for reproducible production of apatite calcification in vitro. Depending on the culture conditions, tiny nanocolloid-sized particles covered with apatite, forming various size of aggregates and stones were observed. In this study, we detected the presence of nanobacteria in demineralized trilobit fossil, geode, apatite, and calcite stones by immunofluorescence staining. Amethyst and other quartz stones, and chalk gave negative results. Microorganisms are capable of depositing apatite outside the thermodynamic equilibrium in sea water. We bring now evidence that this occurs in the human body as well. Previously, only struvite kidney stones composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate and small amounts of apatite have been regarded as bacteria related. 90 percent of demineralized human kidney stones now screened, contained nanobacteria. At least three different distribution patterns of nanobacteria were conditions, and human kidney stones that are formed from small apatite units. Prerequisites for the formation of kidney stones are the supersaturation of urine and presence of nidi for crystallization. Nanobacteria are important nidi and their presence might be of special interest in space flights where supersaturation of urine is present due to the loss of bone. Furthermore, we bring evidence that nanobacteria may act as crystallization nidi for the formation of biogenic apatite structures in tissue calcification found in e.g., atherosclerotic plaques, extensive metastatic and tumoral calcification, acute periarthritis, malacoplakia, and malignant diseases. In nanaobacteria-infected fibroblasts

  17. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  18. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  19. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CRUSHED STONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a study of air emissions from crushed stone production. The potential environmental effect of the source is evaluated. Crushed stone production in 1972 was 1.07 x 10 to the 8th power metric tons (1.18 x 10 to the 8th power tons), 68% of which was traprock. C...

  20. Effect of Cystone® on Urinary Composition and Stone Formation Over a One Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, S. B.; Vrtiska, T. J.; Lieske, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Kidney stones are a common problem for which inadequate prevention exists. We recruited ten recurrent kidney stone formers with documented calcium oxalate stones into a two phased study to assess safety and effectiveness of Cystone®, an herbal treatment for prevention of kidney stones. The first phase was a randomized double-blinded 12 week cross over study assessing the effect of Cystone® vs. placebo on urinary supersaturation. The second phase was an open label one year study of Cystone® to determine if renal stone burden decreased, as assessed by quantitative and subjective assessment of CT. Results revealed no statistically significant effect of Cystone® on urinary composition short (6 weeks) or long (52 weeks) term. Average renal stone burden increased rather than decreased on Cystone®. Therefore, this study does not support the efficacy of Cystone® to treat calcium oxalate stone formers. Future studies will be needed to assess effects on stone passage, or on other stone types. PMID:21419609

  1. Association of staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum infection with recurrence of renal staghorn stone

    PubMed Central

    Shahandeh, Zahra; Shafi, Hamid; Sadighian, Farahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stphylococcus cohnii is an organism of coagulase negative species which is considered as normal flora. However, it has been isolated from urinary tract infections and surgical prostheses but its relation with staghorn stones has not been reported, yet. Case Presentation: A 50-years-old woman presented with left renal staghorn stone in June 2014. She had bilateral staghorn stones 7 years ago. Staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum were detected from a removed stone. After 7 years, recurrence staghorn stone in her left kidney was diagnosed and patient underwent another surgery. The patient had several attacks of cystitis during these 7 years. The results of stone and urine cultures revealed staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum. Conclusion: This case report emphasizes a possible association between staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum infection and recurrence renal staghhorn stone. PMID:26221496

  2. Kidney Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... fluid-filled sac. There are two types of kidney cysts. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) runs in families. In PKD, the ... place of the normal tissue. They enlarge the kidneys and make them work poorly, leading to kidney ...

  3. Your Kidneys

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Your Kidneys KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Kidneys Print A A ... and it will be lighter. What Else Do Kidneys Do? Kidneys are always busy. Besides filtering the ...

  4. Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Kidney Disease KidsHealth > For Teens > Kidney Disease Print A ... Syndrome Coping With Kidney Conditions What Do the Kidneys Do? You might never think much about some ...

  5. Kidney Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... checks Your Kidneys and You Meetings Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  6. Kidney Dysplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... following early in life: blood-filtering treatments called dialysis a kidney transplant Children with dysplasia in only ... mild dysplasia of both kidneys may not need dialysis or a kidney transplant for several years. Kidney ...

  7. Kidney Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... are two types of kidney cysts. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) runs in families. In PKD, the cysts ... failure, dialysis or kidney transplants. Acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD) usually happens in people who are on ...

  8. 12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; STONE CRANE HAS OAK SPAR, JIB AND BRACE, METAL SCREW, IRON YOKE AND DOGS; IRON PINS FIT THROUGH HOLES IN DOGS INTO HOLES DRILLED IN RUNNER STONE - Hook Windmill, North Main Street at Pantigo Road, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  9. 1. GENERAL VIEW. NOTE THE FOLLOWING: STONE BUTTRESS ON STONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW. NOTE THE FOLLOWING: STONE BUTTRESS ON STONE END, STONE COLUMNS ON FOREBAY. DATE STONE REMOVED IN 1914, BUT BARN MAY HAVE BEEN CONSTRUCTED IN THE 1830s - Barn, Beidler Road, Upper Merion Township, King of Prussia, Montgomery County, PA

  10. Sedimentary rocks in our mouth: dental pulp stones made by nanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Ciftcioglu, Vefa; Vali, Hojatollah; Turcott, Eduardo; Kajander, E. Olavi

    1998-07-01

    The mechanisms of dental pulp stone formation are still largely unknown. Pulp stones are mainly composed of carbonate apatite. Only few experimental reports have elucidated the potential of some selected bacteria to produce apatite under in vitro conditions using special calcification media. The tested stone forming bacteria were, in fact, often better known for their cariogenic potential. Our preliminary work with 18 dental pulp stones from Turkey, selected only by severity of the stone formation, indicated the presence of nanobacterial antigens in the demineralized stones. Furthermore, high incidence of kidney stones and gall stones in the patient group and in their parents was found. This raises the implication that nanobacteria may enter the body also via oral route, in addition to the parenteral and transplacental routes. The role of nanobacteria in dental pulp stone formation was further studied by following nanobacterial colonization and mineral formation on human tooth in vitro. Two molar teeth, one having pulp stone and one without, were vertically cut into two pieces, sterilized by autoclaving and incubated with or without nanobacteria in DMEM. Electron microscopic observations indicate that nanobacteria can cause apatite stone formation on tooth surface. The sever from of dental pulp stone formation might be associated with nanobacteria. This form of dental disease results in loss of teeth due to osteolytic processes. This addresses the necessity for a study on unconventional mineral-forming bacteria as a cause for human diseases.

  11. Bilateral s-shaped kidneys: A rare congenital malformation.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Nikhil; Singh, Rana P; Upadhyay, Rohit; Kumar, Vijoy

    2015-01-01

    A bilateral S-shaped kidney is a rare anomaly in which both the kidneys are in their normal position, in contrast to the commonly reported S-shaped fusion anomaly, in which the contralateral kidney crosses the midline to fuse with opposite kidney leaving the ipsilateral renal fossa empty. Here we present the diagnosis and management of a case of bilateral S-shaped renal anomaly with associated left pelviureteric junction obstruction and nonfunctioning kidney and right renal stones. Left kidney was managed by open nephrectomy and right kidney by PNL. PMID:26166977

  12. The kidney in space.

    PubMed

    Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Leivaditis, Konstantinos; Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Dombros, Nicholas

    2012-12-01

    Renal adaptation in space has been studied during various space missions since the early 70s. Technical and financial disadvantages of performing experiments under real microgravity conditions have warranted the conductance of relative studies under simulated weightlessness on earth. Arriving in microgravity leads to a redistribution of body fluids to the upper part of the body and an exaggerated extravasation very early in-flight. Plasma volume as well as skin evaporation and oral hydration are reduced, while total body water seems to remain stable. Urinary sodium is diminished and a substantial amount of sodium is retained outside the intravascular space. Glomerular filtration rate shows a transient mild increase. Urinary albumin excretion is reduced although initial studies had demonstrated the opposite. Examination of renal histopathology after exposure to simulated microgravity in rats revealed glomerular atrophy, interstitial edema, and degeneration of renal tubular cells. Acute urinary retention which has been reported during spaceflights can lead to certain medical complications that could compromise an entire mission. Kidney stone formation is another important potential hazard for any manned spaceflight. Increased kidney stone formation in space is attributed to several factors including reduced fluid intake, hypercalciuria, and the presence of nanobacteria. Nutritional and pharmacological interventions are currently recommended as preventive measures against renal stone formation in space travelers. PMID:23001611

  13. Salivary duct stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands. Salivary duct stones are a type of salivary gland disorder. ... 83. Jackson NM, Mitchell JL, Walvekar RR. Inflammatory disorders of the salivary glands. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et ...

  14. Skimming and Skipping Stones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humble, Steve

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an example of skimming and skipping stone motion in mathematical terms available to students studying A-level mathematics. The theory developed in the article postulates a possible mathematical model that is verified by experimental results.

  15. Renal stones in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Norma; DasGupta, Ranan

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of renal stones during pregnancy is a complex problem. Risks to the fetus from ionising radiation and interventional procedures need to be balanced with optimising clinical care for the mother. Management of such patients requires a clear understanding of available options, with a multidisciplinary team approach. In this review, we discuss the role of different diagnostic tests including ultrasound, magnetic resonance urography, and computerized tomography. We also provide an update on recent developments in the treatment of renal stones during pregnancy. Expectant management remains first-line treatment. Where definitive treatment of the stone is required, new evidence suggests that ureteroscopic stone removal may be equally safe, and possibly better than traditional temporising procedures.

  16. Diagnosis and management of postpercutaneous nephrolithotomy residual stone fragments.

    PubMed

    Skolarikos, Andreas; Papatsoris, Athanasios G

    2009-10-01

    Residual stone fragments can occur in up to 8% of patients who are treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). When left untreated, approximately half of these patients will experience a stone-related event, for which more than half will need a secondary surgical intervention. Predictors of adverse events are a residual fragment larger than 2 mm that is located in the pelvis or ureter. Preventive measures for the creation of residual fragments include a carefully selected access giving exposure to the bulk of the stone, the creation of multiple tracts, the use of single pulse pneumatic lithotripsy, the prevention of stone migration with ureteral balloons or stone cones, and careful flushing of the stones from the collecting system. Plain radiography of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder, linear tomography, and ultrasonography have all been used to judge the result of PCNL and to detect the presence of residual fragments. Thin-slice, unenhanced helical CT, however, is more sensitive and should be performed at 1 month after surgery. While medical therapy and shockwave lithotripsy possess a minor role, second-look flexible nephroscopy and/or flexible ureterorenoscopy seem to be the treatments of choice for residual stone fragments after PCNL. PMID:19747041

  17. A mechanistic analysis of stone fracture in lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Sapozhnikov, Oleg A; Maxwell, Adam D; MacConaghy, Brian; Bailey, Michael R

    2007-02-01

    In vitro experiments and an elastic wave model were used to analyze how stress is induced in kidney stones by lithotripsy and to test the roles of individual mechanisms-spallation, squeezing, and cavitation. Cylindrical U30 cement stones were treated in an HM-3-style lithotripter. Baffles were used to block specific waves responsible for spallation or squeezing. Stones with and without surface cracks added to simulate cavitation damage were tested in glycerol (a cavitation suppressive medium). Each case was simulated using the elasticity equations for an isotropic medium. The calculated location of maximum stress compared well with the experimental observations of where stones fractured in two pieces. Higher calculated maximum tensile stress correlated with fewer shock waves required for fracture. The highest calculated tensile stresses resulted from shear waves initiated at the proximal corners and strengthened along the side surfaces of the stone by the liquid-borne lithotripter shock wave. Peak tensile stress was in the distal end of the stone where fracture occurred. Reflection of the longitudinal wave from the distal face of the stone--spallation-produced lower stresses. Surface cracks accelerated fragmentation when created near the location where the maximum stress was predicted. PMID:17348540

  18. Assessing applicants to the NASA flight program for their renal stone-forming potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Charles Y. C.; Hill, Kathy; Cintron, Nitza M.; Huntoon, Carolyn

    1989-01-01

    Because spaceflight can provoke the formation of kidney stones, 24-hour urine samples for 104 male applicants were analyzed for stone-forming risk factors prior to their selection into the NASA astronaut-mission specialist corps. A high level of supersaturation (with either calcium oxalate, brushite, or monosodium urate) was noted in these applicants which predisposes them to the crystallization of stone-forming calcium salts. It is suggested that most of the abnormal stone risk factors found were environmental, rather than metabolic, in origin.

  19. Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Kidney Disease What is Kidney Disease? What the Kidneys Do Click for more information You have two ... damaged, wastes can build up in the body. Kidney Function and Aging Kidney function may be reduced ...

  20. Combined Endoscopic and Percutaneous Retrieval of a Retained 4-Wire Ureteral Stone Basket

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Adam G.; Preminger, Glenn M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Complex endourologic procedures may require the use of a combined ureteroscopic and percutaneous approach. Endoscopic removal of a retained 4-wire ureteral stone basket is particularly complex, as broken tines can potentially injure the ureter if the basket is removed in a retrograde manner. The patient in this case presented with a ureteral stone basket embedded within the urothelium of the upper pole of the kidney. Holmium laser incision of the overlying urothelium allowed retrieval of the basket, although the tines were broken. Endoscopically guided percutaneous access to the kidney was obtained to allow for direct passage of the retained basket out of a nephrostomy sheath, thereby protecting the kidney.

  1. Kidney Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & Information The kidneys are two ... the production of red blood cells. What are Kidney Diseases? For about one-third of older people, ...

  2. Kidney Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... until you go to the bathroom. Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons. This damage may leave kidneys ... medicines. You have a higher risk of kidney disease if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or ...

  3. Kidney Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... taking out waste products and making urine. Kidney tests check to see how well your kidneys are working. They include blood, urine, and imaging tests. Early kidney disease usually does not have signs ...

  4. Kidney Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... until you go to the bathroom. Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons. This damage may leave kidneys ... medicines. You are at greater risk for kidney disease if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or ...

  5. Kidney Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... enough red blood cells. This is called kidney failure. If your kidneys fail, you need treatment to ... providers, family, and friends, most people with kidney failure can lead full and active lives. NIH: National ...

  6. Kidney Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... F For More Information National Kidney Foundation MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Disease Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Kidney Biopsy Page Content On this page: What is ...

  7. Impact of Stone Removal on Renal Function: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Kyle; Keys, Tristan; Mufarrij, Patrick; Assimos, Dean G

    2011-01-01

    Stone removal can improve renal function by eradicating obstruction and, in certain cases, an underlying infection. Stone-removing procedures, however, may negatively impact functional integrity. Many things may impact the latter, including the procedures used, the methods of assessing function, the time when these assessments are made, the occurrence of complications, the baseline condition of the kidney, and patient-related factors. In the majority of cases, little significant functional impairment occurs. However, there are gaps in our knowledge of this subject, including the cumulative effects of multiple procedures violating the renal parenchyma and long-term functional outcomes. PMID:21935339

  8. When Stones Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucier, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Creating towers of balanced stones is a versatile outdoor learning activity that can be experienced in the classroom, school yard, forest, or parking lot. Students discover hidden talents, learn to work and communicate clearly with others, and reconnect with the natural world. Several variations on the exercise are given, along with principles of…

  9. Solitary Kidney

    MedlinePlus

    ... Institute, Inc., Kidney School National Kidney Foundation MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Solitary Kidney Page Content On this page: What is a ...

  10. Diagnosis of rare inherited glyoxalate metabolic disorders through in-situ analysis of renal stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, D. E.; Grohe, B.; Hoppe, B.; Beck, B. B.; Tessadri, R.

    2012-04-01

    The primary hyperoxalurias type I - III constitute rare autosomal-recessive inherited disorders of the human glyoxylate metabolism. By mechanisms that are ill understood progressive nephrocalcinosis and recurrent urolithiasis (kidney stone formation) often starting in early childhood, along with their secondary complications results in loss of nephron mass which progresses to end-stage renal failure over time. In the most frequent form, end-stage renal failure (ESRF) is the rule and combined liver/kidney transplantation respectively pre-emptive liver transplantation are the only causative treatment today. Hence, this contributes significantly to healthcare costs and early diagnosis is extremely important for a positive outcome for the patient. We are developing a stone-based diagnostic method by in-detail multi-methods investigation of the crystalline moiety in concert with urine and stone proteomics. Stone analysis will allow faster analysis at low-impact for the patients in the early stages of the disease. First results from combined spectroscopic (Raman, FTIR)and geochemical micro-analyses (Electron Microprobe and Laser Ablation ICP-MS) are presented here that show significant differences between stones from hyperoxaluria patients and those formed by patients without this disorder (idiopathic stones). Major differences exist in chemistry as well as in morphology and phase composition of the stones. Ca/P ratios and Mg contents differentiate between oxalate-stones from hyperoxaluria patients and idiopathic stones. Results show that also within the different subtypes of primary hyperoxaluria significant differences can be found in stone composition. These imply differences in stone formation which could be exploited for new therapeutic pathways. Furthermore, the results provide important feedback for suspected but yet unconfirmed cases of primary hyperoxaluria when used in concert with the genetic methods routinely applied.

  11. Robotic transmesocolonic Pyelolithotomy of horseshoe kidney

    PubMed Central

    Rajih, Emad S; Al-otaibi, Mohammed F; Alkhudair, Waleed K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this video is to demonstrate the use of the robot to perform a transmesocolonic pyelolithotomy of a horseshoe kidney. Materials and Methods A 35-year old female presented with vague abdominal pain. CT scan imaging revealed the presence of a left horseshoe kidney with multiple pelvicalyceal stones. The patient was positioned in the supine position. A total of 4 ports were introduced. A 3-arm da Vinci robotic surgical system was docked, and the arms were connected. First, the dilated renal pelvis was identified behind the thin mesocolon. The mesocolon was entered and renal pelvis was dissected completely from the surrounding fat. Then, the renal pelvis was opened after adequate dissection and stones were visualized inside the calyces. By Prograsp forceps, stones were removed from all the calyces under vision and were extracted from the assistant trocar. Finally, the pylotomy incision was closed using 4 0 Maxon in a continuous fashion and the mesocolon was closed using 3 0 PDS interrupted sutures. A JP drain was placed. Result Operative time was forty-five minutes, blood loss was 100 ml. The patient was discharged after 48 hours with no immediate complications. Conclusion The utilization of minimal invasive surgery using the robot to extract multiple pelvicalyceal stones from a horseshoe kidney without reflecting the mesocolon proved to be a feasible and novel way in the management of complex stone disease improving the outcome with minimal morbidity. PMID:25928526

  12. Renal stone in crossed fused renal ectopia and its laparoscopic management: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Santosh; Chipde, Saurabh Sudhir; Kalathia, Jaisukh; Agrawal, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    Management of renal stone in crossed fused renal ectopia (CFRE) is difficult because of abnormal location, malrotation, and its relations with vertebral column and small bowel. Management is not standardized because of the paucity of literature and variable anatomy. We managed an 8-year-old boy with multiple renal stones in right side crossed kidney by laparoscopic pyelolithotomy and nephro pyeloscopy with the help of ureteroscope. Until now, there is only one prior report of laparoscopic pyelolithotomy in CFRE. We share our experience in this case and review the literature regarding the management of kidney stones in this rare anomaly. PMID:27141201

  13. Renal stone in crossed fused renal ectopia and its laparoscopic management: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Santosh; Chipde, Saurabh Sudhir; Kalathia, Jaisukh; Agrawal, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    Management of renal stone in crossed fused renal ectopia (CFRE) is difficult because of abnormal location, malrotation, and its relations with vertebral column and small bowel. Management is not standardized because of the paucity of literature and variable anatomy. We managed an 8-year-old boy with multiple renal stones in right side crossed kidney by laparoscopic pyelolithotomy and nephro pyeloscopy with the help of ureteroscope. Until now, there is only one prior report of laparoscopic pyelolithotomy in CFRE. We share our experience in this case and review the literature regarding the management of kidney stones in this rare anomaly. PMID:27141201

  14. Wanted: suitable replacement stones for the Lede stone (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Kock, T.; Dewanckele, J.; Boone, M. A.; De Boever, W.; De Schutter, G.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

    2012-04-01

    The Lede stone is an arenaceous limestone with a Lutetian age, occurring as discrete (most of the times three) stone banks in the marine sandy sediments of the Lede Formation (Belgium). It has a quartz content of approximate 40%. This increases abrasion strength and together with the cementation results in an average compressive strength of about 80-85 MPa. The cement is a microsparitic calcite cement. Other carbonate particles are both microfossils (mainly foraminifers) and macrofossils (bivalves, serpulids, echinoderms, …). This great diversity gives the stone a heterogeneous, animated appearance. The intra- and interparticle porosity is in total 5-10 % in average and the apparent density is 2400-2550 kg/m3. Another important constituent is glauconite, present in a few percent. In fresh state, the stone has a greenish-grey colour, but when it is exposed to atmospheric conditions for a couple of years, the stone acquires a yellowish to rust-coloured patina due to the weathering of glauconite. Sulphatation causes severe damage to the stone, and black gypsum crusts are common in urban environments on stones protected from runoff. This stone was excavated in both open air and underground quarries in the areas of Brussels and Ghent. The proximity of main rivers such as the Scheldt and Zenne provided transport routes for export towards the north (e.g. Antwerp and The Netherlands). Its first known use dates back to Roman times but the stone flourished in Gothic architecture due to its easy workability and its 'divine' light coloured patina. This results nowadays in a dominant occurrence in the cultural heritage of northwestern Belgium and the south of The Netherlands. Socio-economical reasons caused several declines and revivals of Lede stone in use. In the beginning of the 20th century, only a few excavation sites remained, with as main quarry the one located at Bambrugge (Belgium). By the end of the first half of the 20th century, however, no quarry sites remained

  15. Complicated bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ashwin; Martin, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    Common bile duct stones (CBDSs) are solid deposits that can either form within the gallbladder or migrate to the common bile duct (CBD), or form de novo in the biliary tree. In the USA around 15% of the population have gallstones and of these, 3% present with symptoms annually. Because of this, there have been major advancements in the management of gallstones and related conditions. Management is based on the patient's risk profile; young and healthy patients are likely to be recommended for surgery and elderly patients with comorbidities are usually recommended for endoscopic procedures. Imaging of gallstones has advanced in the last 30 years with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography evolving from a diagnostic to a therapeutic procedure in removing CBDSs. We present a complicated case of a patient with a CBDS and periampullary diverticulum and discuss the techniques used to diagnose and remove the stone from the biliary system. PMID:23946532

  16. Complicated bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ashwin; Martin, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    Common bile duct stones (CBDSs) are solid deposits that can either form within the gallbladder or migrate to the common bile duct (CBD), or form de novo in the biliary tree. In the USA around 15% of the population have gallstones and of these, 3% present with symptoms annually. Because of this, there have been major advancements in the management of gallstones and related conditions. Management is based on the patient's risk profile; young and healthy patients are likely to be recommended for surgery and elderly patients with comorbidities are usually recommended for endoscopic procedures. Imaging of gallstones has advanced in the last 30 years with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography evolving from a diagnostic to a therapeutic procedure in removing CBDSs. We present a complicated case of a patient with a CBDS and periampullary diverticulum and discuss the techniques used to diagnose and remove the stone from the biliary system. PMID:23946532

  17. Renovascular acute renal failure precipitated by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for pancreatic stones

    PubMed Central

    Cecere, Nicolas; Goffette, Pierre; Deprez, Pierre; Jadoul, Michel; Morelle, Johann

    2015-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for pancreatic stones is considered a safe and efficient method to facilitate fragmentation and stone removal. We describe the case of a 73-year-old woman with a solitary functioning kidney who presented an acute-onset anuria and renovascular renal failure the day after ESWL. We speculate that vascular calcifications in the area targeted by shock waves played a critical role in renal artery obstruction in the present case. PMID:26251710

  18. Diet and calcium stones.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, J; Norman, R W

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature on the dietary modification of urinary risk factors as a means of reducing the likelihood of recurrent stone formation and to develop practical dietary recommendations that might be useful to this end. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published from 1983 to 1990. Additional references were selected from the bibliographies of identified articles. STUDY SELECTION: Nonrandomized trials and retrospective reviews were included because of a paucity of randomized controlled trials. DATA SYNTHESIS: Information on the dietary intake of calcium, oxalate, protein, sodium and fibre and on alcohol and fluid intake was used to develop practical guidelines on dietary modification. CONCLUSION: Dietary modification plays an important role in the reduction of urinary risk factors in patients with calcium stone disease of the urinary tract. As an initial form of prevention attention should be directed toward moderating the intake of calcium, oxalate, protein, sodium and alcohol and increasing the intake of fibre and water. Future research should include an assessment of the long-term reduction of dietary and urinary risk factors and the rates of recurrence of calcium stones. PMID:1310430

  19. Pyrophosphate Transport and Stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayer, John A.; Carr, Georgina; Moochhala, Shabbir H.; Simmons, Nicholas L.

    2008-09-01

    Since the 1960's, inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) has been known to inhibit apatite precipitation. Recent findings suggest that PPi plays a central role in the control of normal bone mineralization. Knockout mice have established the functional importance of PPi transmembrane transport, via the pyrophosphate transporter ANKH. The molecular nature and transport function of ANKH are reviewed. PPi is present in urine and ANKH is expressed in the cortical collecting duct where PPi transport to both the tubular lumen and renal interstitium may occur. Arginine vasopressin stimulation of cortical collecting duct cells grown on semi-permeable supports appears to upregulate apical ANKH expression, which we postulate may be a mechanism of stone inhibition during urinary concentration and supersaturation of calcium salts. Hypopyrophosphaturia may be a forgotten metabolic risk factor for stone formation and polymorphisms of the ANKH gene may underlie this defect. The physiological importance and clinical significance of PPi generation and transport in preventing idiopathic renal stone disease and nephrocalcinosis now needs to be established.

  20. Kidney Failure

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy kidneys clean your blood by removing excess fluid, minerals, and wastes. They also make hormones that keep your ... strong and your blood healthy. But if the kidneys are damaged, they don't work properly. Harmful ...

  1. Kidney Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... right diagnosis. [ Top ] What should a person do days before a kidney biopsy? Days before the procedure, ... Top ] What can a person expect on the day of the kidney biopsy? A person should arrive ...

  2. Kidney removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... the surgical cut is located. Recovery after a laparoscopic procedure is most often quicker, with less pain. Outlook (Prognosis) The outcome is most often good when a single kidney is removed. If both kidneys are removed, ...

  3. Ectopic Kidney

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the spine. Every minute, a person’s kidneys filter about 3 ounces of blood, removing wastes and ... occur. As a result, the kidney can’t filter wastes and extra water from the blood. One ...

  4. Kidney transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections Side effects from medicines used to prevent transplant rejection Loss of transplanted kidney ... tries to destroy it. In order to avoid rejection, almost all kidney transplant recipients must take medicines that suppress their immune ...

  5. Stone Morphology: Implication for Pathogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daudon, Michel; Jungers, Paul; Bazin, Dominique

    2008-09-01

    Urinary stones of similar crystalline composition as identified by X-ray diffraction or Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) may exhibit distinct structures, which are reflected in distinctive stone morphology. Among factors involved in stone morphology—some reflecting lithogenic activity, others depending on the crystal shape, or on the propensity of crystalline phases to form large aggregates, finally the environment where the stone is growing—all of these factors influence the inner structure of the stone and its superficial characteristics. We present here examples of the clinical interest of refined morphologic examination of stones, in addition to X-ray diffraction or FT-IR identification of its components. Such combination of methods allows the identification of specific etiologies among calcium oxalate stones, especially a morphological type pathognomonic of primary hyperoxaluria and other types related to distinct conditions of stone formation. Among phosphatic stones—in addition to stone composition, which must be considered not only on the basis of the main component, but also taking into account the minor crystalline phases, which often are clinically relevant—morphological types also contribute to diagnosis of the underlying etiology, especially for stones related to distal tubular acidosis. Finally, common purine stones also exhibit different morphologies related to stone composition and etiology: two main structures for uric acid and two for ammonium urate help to distinguish risk factors and lithogenic conditions involved in the formation of these calculi. Morphologic examination is a simple, rapid and cheap method that points to specific diseases or lithogenic factors. Better awareness of its clinical relevance should lead to wider utilization.

  6. Kidney Dysplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dimes National Kidney Foundation Urology Care Foundation MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Disease Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Kidney Dysplasia Page Content On this page: What is ...

  7. Villamayor stone (Golden Stone) as a Global Heritage Stone Resource from Salamanca (NW of Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Villamayor stone is an arkosic stone of Middle Eocene age and belongs to the Cabrerizos Sandstone Formation that comprising braided fluvial systems and paleosoils at the top of each stratigraphic sequence. The sandstone is known by several names: i) the Villamayor Stone because the quarries are located in Villamayor de Armuña village that are situated at 7 km to the North from Salamanca city; ii) the Golden Stone due to its patina that produced a ochreous/golden color on the façades of monuments of Salamanca (World Heritage City,1988) built in this Natural stone (one of the silicated rocks utilised). We present in this work, the Villamayor Stone to be candidate as Global Heritage Stone Resource. The Villamayor Stone were quarrying for the construction and ornamentation of Romanesque religious monuments as the Old Cathedral and San Julian church; Gothic (Spanish plateresc style) as the New Cathedral, San Esteban church and the sculpted façade of the Salamanca University, one of the oldest University in Europe (it had established in 1250); and this stone was one of the type of one of the most sumptuous Baroque monuments is the Main Square of the its galleries and arcades (1729). Also, this stone was used in building palaces, walls and reconstruction of Roman bridge. Currently, Villamayor Stone is being quarried by small and family companies, without a modernized processing, for cladding of the façades of the new buildings until that the construction sector was burst (in 2008 the international economic crisis). However, Villamayor Stone is the main stone material used in the city of Salamanca for the restoration of monuments and, even in small quantities when compared with just before the economic crisis, it would be of great importance for future generations protect their quarries and the craft of masonry. Villamayor Stone has several varieties from channels facies to floodplains facies, in this work the selected varieties are: i) the fine-grained stone

  8. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation

    PubMed Central

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the effects of some popular diets on overall lithogenic risk. High-protein diets, like Dukan diet, raise some concerns, since animal proteins are able to increase urinary calcium and to decrease urinary citrate excretion, thus leading to a high overall lithogenic risk. Low-carbohydrate diets, like Atkins diet or zone diet, may have a protective role against kidney stone formation, but there are also evidences stating that this dietary approach may rise calciuria and decrease citraturia, since it is generally associated to a relatively high intake of animal proteins. Vegan diet can be harmful for urinary stone disease, especially for the risk of hyperuricemia and micronutrient deficiencies, even if only few studies have addressed this specific matter. On the other side, the benefits of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on kidney stone prevention have been largely emphasized, provided that the intake of calcium and oxalate is balanced. Traditional Mediterranean diet should exert a protective effect on nephrolithiasis as well, even if specific studies have not been carried out yet. High phytate and antioxidant content of this diet have however demonstrated to be beneficial in preventing the formation of new or recurrent calculi. Anyway, at the current state of knowledge, the most effective dietary approach to prevent kidney stone disease is a mild animal protein restriction, a balanced intake of carbohydrates and fats and a high intake of fruit and vegetables. Other fundamental aspects

  9. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation.

    PubMed

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-09-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the effects of some popular diets on overall lithogenic risk. High-protein diets, like Dukan diet, raise some concerns, since animal proteins are able to increase urinary calcium and to decrease urinary citrate excretion, thus leading to a high overall lithogenic risk. Low-carbohydrate diets, like Atkins diet or zone diet, may have a protective role against kidney stone formation, but there are also evidences stating that this dietary approach may rise calciuria and decrease citraturia, since it is generally associated to a relatively high intake of animal proteins. Vegan diet can be harmful for urinary stone disease, especially for the risk of hyperuricemia and micronutrient deficiencies, even if only few studies have addressed this specific matter. On the other side, the benefits of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on kidney stone prevention have been largely emphasized, provided that the intake of calcium and oxalate is balanced. Traditional Mediterranean diet should exert a protective effect on nephrolithiasis as well, even if specific studies have not been carried out yet. High phytate and antioxidant content of this diet have however demonstrated to be beneficial in preventing the formation of new or recurrent calculi. Anyway, at the current state of knowledge, the most effective dietary approach to prevent kidney stone disease is a mild animal protein restriction, a balanced intake of carbohydrates and fats and a high intake of fruit and vegetables. Other fundamental aspects

  10. Our Modern Stone Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, W. D.

    Unlike most books dealing with industrial minerals and rocks, Our Modern Stone Age is a pleasure to read. Within a matter of several hours, one can get an excellent introduction to nonmetallic mineral resources and industries exclusive o f the mineral fuels. The book is very well written and well illustrated with photographs and drawings; although pitched for the intelligent layman, it is in no way dull reading for even a well-versed economic geologist. Nearly every geologist, mining engineer, mineral economist, planner, and politician will find points of interest in this book.

  11. Prophylactic effects of quercetin and hyperoside in a calcium oxalate stone forming rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Xu, Yun-fei; Feng, Yuan; Peng, Bo; Che, Jian-ping; Liu, Min; Zheng, Jun-hua

    2014-12-01

    Quercetin and hyperoside (QH) are the two main constituents of the total flavone glycosides of Flos Abelmoschus manihot, which has been prescribed for treating chronic kidney disease for decades. This study aimed to investigate the effect of QH on calcium oxalate (CaOx) formation in ethylene glycol (EG)-fed rats. Rats were divided into three groups: an untreated stone-forming group, a QH-treated stone-forming group (20 mg/kg/day) and a potassium citrate-treated stone-forming group (potassium citrate was a worldwide-recognized calculi-prophylactic medicine). Ethylene glycol (0.5 %) was administered to the rats during the last week, and vitamin D3 was force-fed to induce hyperoxaluria and kidney calcium oxalate crystal deposition. 24 h urine samples were collected before and after inducing crystal deposits. Rats were killed and both kidneys were harvested after 3 weeks. Bisected kidneys were examined under a polarized light microscope for semi-quantification of the crystal-formation. The renal tissue superoxide dismutase and catalase levels were measured by Western blot. QH and potassium citrate have the ability to alkalinize urine. The number of crystal deposits decreased significantly in the QH-treated stone-forming group as compared to the other groups. Superoxide dismutase and catalase levels also increased significantly in the QH-treated stone-forming group, as compared with the untreated stone-forming group. QH administration has an inhibitory effect on the deposition of CaOx crystal in EG-fed rats and may be effective for preventing stone-forming disease. PMID:25085199

  12. The future of stone research: rummagings in the attic, Randall's plaque, nanobacteria, and lessons from phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Ryall, Rosemary Lyons

    2008-05-01

    The prevention or cure of stone disease will be achieved only by identifying biochemical, physiological and molecular mechanisms operating before the formation of a calculus. Yet, the gradual increase in the total number of papers devoted to the study of kidney stones that has occurred since the beginning of the 21st century can be attributed almost entirely to papers concerned with the investigation of factors associated with urolithiasis after stones have already formed. The need to prevent stones by discovering how the human body routinely stops their formation in those of us who do not suffer from them is therefore as exigent as ever and a new approach to investigating the causes of stones is urgently needed. In this paper, I develop the view that stone research will best progress by examining and understanding how healthy plants and animals control the formation of biominerals. In addition to structures like bones, teeth, shells and spines, many organisms spanning the entire phylogenetic tree form intra- and extracellular granules which are use as storage depots for calcium and other important ions, which they can reclaim to maintain homeostasis or to satisfy specific needs during periods of high demand, such as shell formation, moulting or skeletal development. These electron-dense granules, which also bear an uncanny resemblance to calcified nanobacteria, are remarkably similar in general structure, size and composition to particles observed in healthy human kidneys and in Randall's plaque. Therefore, it is likely that the granules in human kidneys fulfil analogous functions to those in other organisms-particularly in calcium homeostasis. Their study in a large range of creatures has already provided a deep well of information about their structure, movement, composition, macromolecular content, synthesis and resorption, from which we can draw to quench our thirst for knowledge of basic mechanisms and events involved in the formation of human kidney stones

  13. Recumbent Stone Circles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    During the 1970s and early 1980s, British archaeoastronomers were striving to bridge the interpretative gulf between the "megalithic observatories" of Alexander Thom and an archaeological mainstream that, generally speaking, was hostile to any mention of astronomy in relation to the megalithic monuments of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Britain. The Scottish recumbent stone circles (RSCs) came to represent an example where sounder methodology could overcome many of the data selection issues that had beset earlier studies and, with due restraint, produce credible interpretations. Systematic studies of their orientations consistently concluded that the RSCs had a strong lunar connection, and it was widely envisaged that they were the setting for ceremonies associated with the appearance of the moon over the recumbent stone. Other evidence such as the presence of white quartz and the spatial distribution of cupmarks appeared to back up this conclusion. New archaeological investigations since 1999 have challenged and modified these conclusions, confirming in particular that the circles were built to enclose cairns rather than to demarcate open spaces. Yet the restricted pattern of orientations of these structures could only have been achieved by reference to the basic diurnal motions of the skies, and orientation in relation to simple observations of the midsummer moon remains the most likely reading of the alignment evidence taken as a whole. On the other hand, a consideration of the broader context, which includes the nearby Clava cairns, highlights instead the symbolic importance of the sun.

  14. Scottish Short Stone Rows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Short stone rows received a good deal of attention during the 1980s and 1990s, at a time when archaeoastronomy in prehistoric Britain and Ireland was moving beyond reassessments of Alexander Thom's "megalithic observatories" by identifying coherent groups of similar monuments with clear orientation trends. Many such rows are found in western Scotland, with the main concentration in Argyll and the island of Mull. Systematic analyses of their orientations produced credible evidence of an awareness of the 18.6-year lunar node cycle, within a "primary-secondary" pattern whereby isolated rows were oriented close to moonrise or moonset at the southern major standstill limit, while others oriented in this way were accompanied by a second row oriented in a declination range that could be interpreted either as lunar or solar. A detailed investigation of the landscape situation of the sites in northern Mull, accompanied by excavations at two of the sites, suggested that they were deliberately placed in locations where critical moonsets would be seen against prominent distant landscape features, but where the distant horizon in most or all other directions was hidden from view. A lack of independent archaeological evidence may help to explain why archaeoastronomical investigations at short stone rows have never progressed beyond "data-driven" studies of orientations and landscape situation. Nonetheless, the work that was done at these sites raised important general methodological issues, and pioneered techniques, that remain relevant across archaeoastronomy today.

  15. American Kidney Fund

    MedlinePlus

    ... ago. Kidney Disease About your kidneys About your kidneys Your kidneys are vital organs that remove waste ... long as possible. Kidney-friendly diet for CKD Kidney-friendly diet You may be able to prevent ...

  16. HIV and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... FOR KIDNEY DISEASE? HIV MEDICATIONS AND THE KIDNEYS DIALYSIS AND KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION THE BOTTOM LINE WHY SHOULD ... disease (ESRD) or kidney failure. This can require dialysis or a kidney transplant. The rate of kidney ...

  17. Natural Abundance 43Ca NMR as a Tool for Exploring Calcium Biomineralization: Renal Stone Formation and Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, Geoffrey M.; Kirkpatrick, Robert J.

    2011-12-07

    Renal stone diseases are a global health issue with little effective therapeutic recourse aside from surgery and shock-wave lithotripsy, primarily because the fundamental chemical mechanisms behind calcium biomineralization are poorly understood. In this work, we show that natural abundance 43Ca NMR at 21.1 T is an effective means to probe the molecular-level Ca2+ structure in oxalate-based kidney stones. We find that the 43Ca NMR resonance of an authentic oxalate-based kidney stone cannot be explained by a single pure phase of any common Ca2+-bearing stone mineral. Combined with XRD results, our findings suggest an altered calcium oxalate monohydrate-like Ca2+ coordination environment for some fraction of Ca2+ in our sample. The evidence is consistent with existing literature hypothesizing that nonoxalate organic material interacts directly with Ca2+ at stone surfaces and is the primary driver of renal stone aggregation and growth. Our findings show that 43Ca NMR spectroscopy may provide unique and crucial insight into the fundamental chemistry of kidney stone formation, growth, and the role organic molecules play in these processes.

  18. Kidney biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Goodpasture syndrome IgA nephropathy Interstitial nephritis Lupus nephritis Medullary cystic kidney disease Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis Membranous nephropathy Minimal change disease Nephrotic ...

  19. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in

  20. Sticks and stones.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, S

    1999-01-01

    SUMMARY "Sticks and Stones" is an exploration of life-in-the-ghetto; twenty five years of sex and politics, and wrestling with sexual correctness. It is concerned with the changing paradigms of lesbian 'vice and virtue': the butch-femme bar girl; the feminist woman-identified-woman; the sex radical warrior; the chic babe who's Queer and Here. How's a lesbian supposed to find an identity in all that? And remain true to her erotic preferences and sexual practices, frequently in the face of severe opposition? Joan Nestle, Gayle Rubin, Emma Healey and Sue O'Sullivan act as critical guides through this retrospective view of my collisions with erotic orthodoxy; they add discursive weight to the recollected experiences of negotiating historical shifts and re-alignments in ideology and practice of (Western) lesbian sexuality. Is the only way to spot a 'real' lesbian to watch what she does in bed? PMID:24786275

  1. Complete staghorn calculus in polycystic kidney disease: infection is still the cause

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Kidney stones in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease are common, regarded as the consequence of the combination of anatomic abnormality and metabolic risk factors. However, complete staghorn calculus is rare in polycystic kidney disease and predicts a gloomy prognosis of kidney. For general population, recent data showed metabolic factors were the dominant causes for staghorn calculus, but for polycystic kidney disease patients, the cause for staghorn calculus remained elusive. Case presentation We report a case of complete staghorm calculus in a polycystic kidney disease patient induced by repeatedly urinary tract infections. This 37-year-old autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease female with positive family history was admitted in this hospital for repeatedly upper urinary tract infection for 3 years. CT scan revealed the existence of a complete staghorn calculus in her right kidney, while there was no kidney stone 3 years before, and the urinary stone component analysis showed the composition of calculus was magnesium ammonium phosphate. Conclusion UTI is an important complication for polycystic kidney disease and will facilitate the formation of staghorn calculi. As staghorn calculi are associated with kidney fibrosis and high long-term renal deterioration rate, prompt control of urinary tract infection in polycystic kidney disease patient will be beneficial in preventing staghorn calculus formation. PMID:24070202

  2. Pathophysiology of the Hypercalciuria in the Genetic Hypercalciuric Stone-Forming Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushinsky, David A.

    2007-04-01

    Given evidence for a genetic cause of hypercalciuria, we screened adult male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for hypercalciuria and used those with the highest urinary calcium excretion to breed the next generation, followed by subsequent selection and inbreeding of their most hypercalciuric progeny. By the 30th generation, and continuing to the present, the GHS rats (for Genetic Hypercalciuric Stone-forming rats) excrete 8-10 times as much calcium as simultaneously studied control rats The GHS rats were found to have defects in calcium transport in the intestine, kidneys and bone, similar to abnormalities found in many patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria. The GHS rats also form kidney stones. By the conclusion of an 18 wk study, all of the GHS rats formed stones, while there was no stone formation in similarly treated SD controls. The GHS rats, when fed a standard 1.2% calcium diet, form only poorly crystalline apatite stones. However, when 5% hydroxyproline is added to the diet of the GHS rats, they form only calcium oxalate stones.

  3. The bioreceptivity of building stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauko Pranjić, Alenka; Mulec, Janez; Muck, Tadeja; Hladnik, Aleš; Mladenovič, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Bioreceptivity is an intrinsic property of stone, and is defined as the ability of a material to be colonized by living organisms. The fouling and staining of building stone material due to the activity of microorganisms presents a serious problem in modern as well as historical buildings, not only due to the aesthetic impact but also due to the deterioration of the material. Biological colonisation on stone materials is influenced by a number of factors, e.g. the intrinsic properties of the stone (porosity, roughness, permeability, mineral composition), environmental parameters (e.g. solar radiation, temperature, water regime, climate, etc.), and specific microclimatic parameters (e.g. orientation, exposure to shadow, permanent capillary humidity, etc.). In order to assess the bioreceptivity of building stones, use is often made of artificial colonisation experiments compromising the inoculation of stones with a single species or a few isolated strains under laboratory conditions. In the present work the authors present the development of a method for the determination of bioreceptivity, as well as a study of the bioreceptivity of selected natural stone versus the latter's intrinsic properties. Field examples of biodeterioration are also presented. The study was supported by the Slovenian Research Agency (L1-5453).

  4. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  5. Kidney Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    You have two kidneys. They are fist-sized organs on either side of your backbone above your waist. The tubes inside filter and ... blood, taking out waste products and making urine. Kidney cancer forms in the lining of tiny tubes ...

  6. Ectopic Kidney

    MedlinePlus

    ... Human Development March of Dimes National Office MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Ectopic Kidney Page Content On this page: What is an ...

  7. Treatment of renal uric acid stone by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy combined with sodium bicarbonate: 2 case reports

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao-Yong; Lian, Pei-Yu; Zhou, Zhi-Yan; Song, Peng; Yan, Yi; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Uric acid stone is the most comment radiolucent renal stone with high recurrence rate, which would further cause acute upper urinary tract obstruction and kidney failure. Here we report two cases of renal uric acid stone from December 2012 to April 2013. One 43-year-old male patient suffered from chronic uric acid nephrolithiasis caused by the long-term indwelling of bilateral double-J stent. Another 69-year-old patient was also diagnosed with uric acid nephrolithiasis at the right kidney. Both patients were first treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), followed by 1.5% sodium bicarbonate dissolution therapy. After a week of the treatment, the uric acid stones in both patients were completely dissolved without retrograde infection. In summary, the use of ESWL and sodium bicarbonate dissolution therapy as a combined modality is a safe, effective, inexpensive treatment for uric acid nephrolithiasis. PMID:26550383

  8. Rare inherited kidney diseases: challenges, opportunities, and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Devuyst, Olivier; Knoers, Nine V A M; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Schaefer, Franz

    2014-01-01

    At least 10% of adults and nearly all children who receive renal-replacement therapy have an inherited kidney disease. These patients rarely die when their disease progresses and can remain alive for many years because of advances in organ-replacement therapy. However, these disorders substantially decrease their quality of life and have a large effect on health-care systems. Since the kidneys regulate essential homoeostatic processes, inherited kidney disorders have multisystem complications, which add to the usual challenges for rare disorders. In this review, we discuss the nature of rare inherited kidney diseases, the challenges they pose, and opportunities from technological advances, which are well suited to target the kidney. Mechanistic insights from rare disorders are relevant for common disorders such as hypertension, kidney stones, cardiovascular disease, and progression of chronic kidney disease. PMID:24856029

  9. Renal Stone Associated with the Ketogenic Diet in a 5-Year Old Girl with Intractable Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ji Na; Song, Ji Eun; Shin, Jae Il; Kim, Heung Dong; Kim, Myung Joon

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a 5-year-old girl who developed a renal stone while following the ketogenic diet to treat refractory seizure disorder. Three months after initiating the ketogenic diet, she developed severe abdominal pain and vomiting. The spot urine calcium-to-creatinine (Ca/Cr) ratio and 24-hour urine evaluation showed hypercalciuria. Computed tomography (CT) imaging revealed a stone in the right ureteropelvic junction, resulting in hydronephrosis of the right kidney. The renal stone disappeared 5 days after conservative treatment; the patien's microscopic hematuria resolved concurrently. In light of this case report, we recommend regularly monitoring the urine Ca/Cr ratio with ultrasonography for further development of renal stones in patients following the ketogenic diet. If these patients exhibit evidence of symptomatic hypercalciuria or cyristalluria, liberalization of fluid restriction and urine alkalization using oral potassium citrate should be considered. PMID:20376903

  10. Multimodal Treatments of Cystine Stones: An Observational, Retrospective Single-Center Analysis of 14 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Myungsun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To document the experiences of a single institution in evaluating the clinical courses and treatment outcomes of patients with cystine stones. Materials and Methods The clinical data of 14 patients with cystine stones who were treated at our institution from March 1994 to July 2012 were reviewed. These data included age at first visit, gender, family history, body mass index, presence of a single kidney, stone locations, stone burden, routine urinalysis, and culture. In addition, we also analyzed data on surgery, shock wave lithotripsy, medical treatment, stone recurrence or regrowth, and overall treatment success rates. Results The mean age of our patients at their first visit was 19.6±5.0 years, and eight patients were males. The median stone burden and mean urine pH before each surgery were 6.5 cm2 and 6.5±0.9, respectively. Two patients had a family history of cystine stones. Patients underwent surgery an average of 2.7 times. The median interval between surgeries was 27.3 months, and 1 open surgery, 12 percutaneous nephrolithotomies, and 25 ureterorenoscopies were performed. Potassium citrate or sodium bicarbonate was used in nine cases. D-Penicillamine was continuously used in three patients. Patients had an average incidence of 3.2 recurrences or regrowth of stones during the median follow-up period of 60.5 months. Conclusions Patients with cystine stones have high recurrence or regrowth rates and relatively large stone burdens. Adequate treatment schedules must therefore be established in these cases to prevent possible deterioration of renal function. PMID:25132945

  11. Dietary recommendations and treatment of patients with recurrent idiopathic calcium stone disease.

    PubMed

    Robertson, W G

    2016-02-01

    This review describes the various dietary regimens that have been used to advise patients on how to prevent the recurrence of their calcium-containing kidney stones. The conclusion is that although there is some general advice that may be useful to many patients, it is more efficacious to screen each patient individually to identify his/her main urinary, metabolic, nutritional, environmental, and lifestyle risk factors for stone-formation and then tailor specific advice for that particular patient based on the findings from these investigations. If the patient can be motivated to adhere strictly to this conservative approach to the prophylactic management of their stone problem over a long time period, then it is possible to prevent them from forming further stones. This approach to stone management is considerably less expensive than any of the procedures currently available for stone removal or disintegration. In the UK, for each new stone episode prevented by this conservative approach to prophylaxis it is calculated to save the Health Authority concerned around £2000 for every patient treated successfully. In the long term, this accumulates to a major saving within each hospital budget if most stone patients can be prevented from forming further stones and when the savings are totalled up country-wide saves the National Exchequer considerable sums in unclaimed Sick Pay and industry a significant number of manpower days which would otherwise be lost from work. It is also of immense relief and benefit to the patients not to have to suffer the discomfort and inconvenience of further stone episodes. PMID:26645870

  12. Laparoscopic-assisted mini percutaneous nephrolithotomy in the ectopic pelvic kidney: Outcomes with the laser dusting technique

    PubMed Central

    D’souza, Nischith; Verma, Ashish; Rai, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The treatment of renal lithiasis has undergone a sea change with the advent of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and endourological procedures such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), ureterorenoscopy and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS). The presence of anatomical anomalies, such as ectopic pelvic kidney, imposes limitations to such therapeutic procedures. This study is aimed to find a simple and effective way to treat the stones in ectopic kidney. Materials and Methods: From 2010 to 2014, nine patients underwent laparoscopic-assisted mini PCNL with Laser dusting for calculi in ectopic pelvic kidneys at our hospital. Retrograde pyelography was done to locate the kidney. Laparoscopy was performed and after mobilizing the bowel and peritoneum, the puncture was made in the kidney and using rigid mini nephroscope, and stones were dusted with Laser. Results: The median interquartile range (IQR) stone size was 18 (6.5) mm. Median (IQR) duration of the procedure was 90 (40) min. The median (IQR) duration of postoperative hospital stay was 4 (2) days. The stone clearance in our series was 88.9%, with only one patient having a residual stone. No intra- or post-operative complications were encountered. Conclusion: Laparoscopy-assisted mini PCNL with Laser dusting offers advantages in ectopic pelvic kidneys in achieving good stone clearance, especially in patients with a large stone burden or failed ESWL or RIRS. PMID:26834410

  13. A prospective multicenter European study on flexible ureterorenoscopy for the management of renal stone

    PubMed Central

    Berardinelli, Francesco; Proietti, Silvia; Cindolo, Luca; Pellegrini, Fabrizio; Peschechera, Roberto; Derek, Hennessey; Dalpiaz, Orietta; Schips, Luigi; Giusti, Guido

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose The aim of this study was to describe the outcomes and the complications of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) for renal stones in a multi-institutional working group. Materials and Methods From 2012 to 2014, we conducted a prospective study including all RIRS performed for kidney stones in 4 European centers. Demographic information, disease characteristics, and perioperative and postoperative data were gathered. Patients and stone data, procedure characteristics, results and safety outcomes were analyzed and compared by descriptive statistics. Complications were reported using the standardized Clavien system. Results Three hundred and fifty-six patients underwent 377 RIRS with holmium laser lithotripsy for renal stones. The RIRS was completed in all patients with a mean operative time of 63.5 min. The stone-free status was confirmed endoscopically and through fluoroscopic imaging after the first procedure in 73.6%. The second procedure was performed in twenty patients (5.6%) achieving an overall stone free rate of 78.9%. The overall complication rate was 15.1%. Intra-operative and post-operative complications were seen in 24 (6.7%) and 30 (8.4%) cases, respectively. Conclusions RIRS is a minimally invasive procedure with good results in terms of stone-free and complications rate. PMID:27286110

  14. Silodosin vs tamsulosin in the management of distal ureteric stones: A prospective randomised study

    PubMed Central

    Elgalaly, Hazem; Sakr, Ahmed; Fawzi, Amr; Salem, Emad A.; Desoky, Esam; Shahin, Ashraf; Kamel, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare the efficacy of silodosin (8 mg) vs tamsulosin (0.4 mg), as a medical expulsive therapy, in the management of distal ureteric stones (DUS) in terms of stone clearance rate and stone expulsion time. Patients and methods A prospective randomised study was conducted on 115 patients, aged 21–55 years, who had unilateral DUS of ⩽10 mm. Patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 received silodosin (8 mg) and Group 2 received tamsulosin (0.4 mg) daily for 1 month. The patients were followed-up by ultrasonography, plain abdominal radiograph of the kidneys, ureters and bladder, and computed tomography (in some cases). Results There was a significantly higher stone clearance rate of 83% in Group 1 vs 57% in Group 2 (P = 0.007). Group 1 also showed a significant advantage for stone expulsion time and analgesic use. Four patients, two in each group, discontinued the treatment in first few days due to side-effects (orthostatic hypotension). No severe complications were recorded during the treatment period. Retrograde ejaculation was recorded in nine and three patients in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusion Our data show that silodosin is more effective than tamsulosin in the management of DUS for stone clearance rates and stone expulsion times. A multicentre study on larger scale is needed to confirm the efficacy and safety of silodosin. PMID:26966587

  15. Chronic Kidney Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Chronic Kidney Diseases KidsHealth > For Kids > Chronic Kidney Diseases Print ... re talking about your kidneys. What Are the Kidneys? Your kidneys are tucked under your lower ribs ...

  16. Kidney disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - kidney disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on kidney disease: National Kidney Disease Education Program -- www.nkdep.nih.gov National Kidney Foundation -- www.kidney.org National ...

  17. The Stepping Stone Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumfitt, A.

    Education is a profession in its own right. It has its own parameters, passions and language. Having the responsibility both of educare and educere, education has a focus of delivering specific factual knowledge whilst drawing out the creative mind. Space Science is a special vehicle having the properties of both educare and educere. It has a magic and wonder that touches the very essence of an individual and his place in time and space; it offers the "wow" factor that all teachers strive for. Space Science is the wrapping paper for other elements in the curriculum, e.g. cross-curricula and skill-based activities, such as language development, creativity, etc. as well as the pure sciences which comprise of engineering, physics and other natural sciences from astronomy to chemistry to biology. Each of these spheres of influence are relevant from kindergarten to undergraduate studies and complement, and in addition support informal education in museums, science centers and the world of e-learning. ESA Science Education has devised the "Stepping Stone Approach" to maximize the greatest outreach to all education stakeholders in Europe. In this paper we illustrate how to best reach these target groups with very specific activities to trigger and sustain enthusiasm whilst supporting the pedagogical, subject content and skill-based needs of a prescribed curriculum.

  18. Lunar stone saw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Tom; Croker, Todd; Hines, Ken; Knight, Mike; Walton, Todd

    1988-01-01

    This project addresses the problem of cutting lunar stones into blocks to be used to construct shelters to protect personnel and equipment from harmful solar radiation. This plant will manufacture 6 in x 1 ft x 2 ft blocks and will be located near the south pole to allow it to be in the shade at all times. This design uses a computer controlled robot, a boulder handler that uses hydraulics for movement, a computer system that used 3-D vision to determine the size of boulders, a polycrystalline diamond tipped saw blade that utilizes radiation for cooling, and a solar tower to collect solar energy. Only two electric motors are used in this plant because of the heavy weight of electric motors and the problem of cooling them. These two motors will be cooled by thermoelectric cooling. All other motors and actuators are to be hydraulic. The architectural design for the building as well as the conceptual design of the machines for cutting the blocks are described.

  19. What I Need to Know about Kidney Stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tips for applicants; human subjects research information; grant review and management resources; and commonly used funding mechanisms, including diversity and small business programs Research Programs & Contacts Research program and staff ...

  20. [Pyonephrosis due to xanthine stones in a bitch treated with allopurinol].

    PubMed

    Maier, R; Lutter, F X; Lohss-Baumgärtner, E

    2014-01-01

    A 2-year-old, neutered, crossbreed bitch was presented as an emergency with painful abdomen, fever and vomiting. The cause of the acute abdomen was a pyonephrosis of the left kidney, caused by four xanthine stones, which had blocked the ureter. After surgical removal of the heavily altered left kidney, the bitch recovered rapidly. Because of a leishmaniasis the bitch had been treated with allopurinol over an extended period, the xanthine stone formation is likely to have resulted from allopurinol usage. Because there were additionally small concrements in the right kidney, the medication was stopped. Subsequently, the dog has received a low purine diet, and the leishmaniasis titer and renal function have been monitored regularly. PMID:24518947

  1. Fluid dynamic modelling of renal pelvic pressure during endoscopic stone removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oratis, Alexandros; Subasic, John; Bird, James; Eisner, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Endoscopic kidney stone removal procedures are known to increase internal pressure in the renal pelvis, the kidney's urinary collecting system. High renal pelvic pressure incites systemic absorption of irrigation fluid, which can increase the risk of postoperative fever and sepsis or the unwanted absorption of electrolytes. Urologists choose the appropriate surgical procedure based on patient history and kidney stone size. However, no study has been conducted to compare the pressure profiles of each procedure, nor is there a precise sense of how the renal pelvic pressure scales with various operational parameters. Here we develop physical models for the flow rates and renal pelvic pressure for various procedures. We show that the results of our models are consistent with existing urological data on each procedure and that the models can predict pressure profiles where data is unavailable.

  2. Purbeck Stone - A possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    By definition, a Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR) should have international significance. The Purbeck Group of uppermost Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous age (Tithonian- Berriasian) outcrops mainly in the Purbeck area of Dorset, England. It was deposited in shallow freshwater to brackish lagoons with occasional marine incursions. Limestones, mainly biosparites, occur at 6 main levels. Differences in bed thickness, jointing and hardness make it suitable for a variety of purposes including dimension stone, monumental and ornamental stone, roofing tiles, paving, flooring and rockery stone. Near the top of the sequence is a dark gastropod biosparite, traditionally called Purbeck Marble, easily carved, which has been extensively used for decorative interior work in churches and cathedrals particularly for fonts, tombs, flooring and facings on columns for example in the medieval cathedrals of Salisbury, Exeter, Durham, York and Wells and Worcester and Westminster Abbey. The stone was extracted at least from Roman times (1st century AD) through the medieval period. Quarrying expanded from about 1700 reaching a peak in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Stone was transported first by sea but later by rail for wider use. Used in many local buildings, it gives an important element of local character. Many of the villages are designated conservation areas with a requirement for repair, maintenance and new building using local stone. Initially the stone was taken from quarries but was later mined. The number of operating companies declined from 15 to 5 over the past 40 years, with 10 active small quarries. Outputs are from few hundred tonnes to a few thousand tonnes per annum or about 9 to 12 years of permitted reserves but the Planning Authority intends to make sufficient provision for production at recent levels for their development plan period. The extraction sites are in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and close to Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site. This might

  3. Kidney transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... series References Barry JM, Conlin MJ. In: Renal transplantation. Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 10th ed. ... M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Kidney Transplantation Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  4. Retrograde intrarenal surgery in cross-fused ectopic kidney.

    PubMed

    Resorlu, Mustafa; Kabar, Mucahit; Resorlu, Berkan; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Kilinc, Muhammet Fatih; Karakan, Tolga

    2015-02-01

    Cross-fused renal ectopia is a rare congenital anomaly in which both kidneys are fused and located on the same side. We report a case of right-to-left cross-fused renal ectopia and nephrolithiasis, in whom retrograde intrarenal surgery was used to treat the stone disease. To our knowledge, this is the first case of retrograde intrarenal surgery of a crossed-fused ectopic kidney. PMID:25481231

  5. Flexible ureteroscopic renal stone extraction during laparoscopic ureterolithotomy in patients with large upper ureteral stone and small renal stones

    PubMed Central

    You, Jae Hyung; Kim, Young Gon; Kim, Myung Ki

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We describe laparoscopic ureterolithotomy with renal stone extraction using a stone basket under flexible ureteroscopy. We describe its efficacy through a laparoscopic port and a ureterotomy site in patients with large upper ureteral stone and small renal stones. Methods: Between January 2009 and February 2012, we performed laparoscopic ureterolithotomy with renal stone extraction using a stone basket under flexible ureteroscopy in 11 patients who had upper ureteral and renal stones. The retroperitoneal approaches were used in all patients using 3–4 trocars. Results: All procedures were performed successfully without significant complications. Mean operative time was 78.5 minutes (range: 52–114 minutes). The mean size of ureteral stone was 19.91 mm (range: 15–25 mm). In addition, 25 renal stones (mean size 7.48 mm, range: 2–12 mm) were removed from 11 patients. The mean length of hospital stay was 3.5 days (range: 2–6 days). Conclusions: Laparoscopic ureterolithotomy with renal stone extraction using a stone basket under flexible ureteroscopy can be considered one of treatment modalities for patients with large upper ureteral stones accompanied by renal stones who are indicated in laparoscopic ureterolithotomy. PMID:25295127

  6. Usefulness of hounsfield unit and density in the assessment and treatment of urinary stones

    PubMed Central

    Gücük, Adnan; Üyetürk, Uğur

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is widely used to examine stones in the urinary system. In addition to the size and location of the stone and the overall health of the kidney, CT can also assess the density of the stone in Hounsfield units (HU). The HU, or Hounsfield density, measured by CT, is related to the density of the tissue or stone. A number of studies have assessed the use of HU in urology. HUs have been used to predict the type and opacity of stones during diagnosis, and the efficacy has been assessed using methods including extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), ureterorenoscopic ureterolithotripsy (URSL), and medical expulsive treatment (MET). Previous studies have focused on the success rate of HU for predicting the type of stone and of ESWL treatment. Understanding the composition of the stone plays a key role in determining the most appropriate treatment modality. The most recent reports have suggested that the HU value and its variants facilitate prediction of stone composition. However, the inclusion of data regarding urine, such as pH and presence of crystals, increases the predictive accuracy. HUs, which now form part of the clinical guidelines, allow us to predict the success of ESWL; therefore, they should be taken into account when ESWL is considered as a treatment option. However, there are currently insufficient data available regarding the value of HU for assessing the efficacy of PCNL, URSL, and MET. Studies performed to date suggest that these values would make a significant contribution to the diagnosis and treatment of urinary system stones. However, more data are required to assess this further. PMID:25374823

  7. Canada's National Building Stone: Tyndall Stone from Manitoba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Brian R.; Young, Graham A.; Dobrzanski, Edward P.

    2016-04-01

    Tyndall Stone is a distinctively mottled and highly fossiliferous dolomitic limestone that belongs to the Selkirk Member of the Red River Formation, of Late Ordovician (Katian) age. It has been quarried at Garson, Manitoba, 37 km northeast of Winnipeg, since 1895, although other quarries in the area go back to 1832. Tyndall Stone, so named because it was shipped by rail from nearby Tyndall, is currently produced by Gillis Quarries Limited. It has various uses as a dimension stone. Large slabs, most often cut parallel to bedding, face the exterior or interior of many important buildings such as the Parliament Buildings and the Canadian Museum of Civilization in the Ottawa area, the Empress Hotel in Victoria, and the provincial legislatures in Winnipeg and Regina, as well as many commercial buildings especially in the Canadian prairies. At the quarries, the stone is cut vertically, using eight foot (2.44 m) diameter saws mounted on one hundred foot (30.5 m) tracks, then split into 6-8 tonne blocks that are moved using front-end loaders. Gillis Quarries operates a large finishing plant with an area of about 4000 m2. Stone is processed along advanced cutting lines that feature eight primary saws and six gantry saw stations, allowing it to be made into a variety of sizes, shapes, and finishes. The Selkirk Member is 43 m thick and the stone is extracted from a 6-8 m thick interval within the lower part. The upper beds tend to be more buff-coloured than the grey lower beds due to weathering by groundwater. The stone is massive, but extracted blocks are less than ~1m thick due to splitting along stylolites. Consisting of bioturbated wackestone to packstone, the Tyndall Stone was deposited in a shallow-marine environment within the photic zone, in the central part of the vast equatorial epicontinental sea that covered much of Laurentia. Scattered thin, bioclastic grainstone lenses record brief, low-energy storm events. The distinctive mottles are formed by dolomitized

  8. Association between Nephrolithiasis, Hypertension and Obesity in Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bajrami, Valbona; Idrizi, Alma; Roshi, Enver; Barbullushi, Myftar

    2016-01-01

    AIM: We aim to define the correlations between nephrolithiasis, hypertension, age and obesity in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in Albania. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included 100 patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney from 2011 to 2014. The patients underwent X-ray and renal ultrasonography. We performed the metabolic evaluation of blood and urine. RESULTS: The patients with renal stones had a higher level of mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared with patients without stones (155 ± 12 mmHg vs. 145 ± 8 mmHg, and 105 ± 0.9 mmHg vs. 92 ± 1.28 mmHg, respectively). Patients with renal stones were older (47 ± 15 vs. 38 ± 5 years), had a higher prevalence of obesity [body mass index (BMI): 28 ± 2.4 vs. 25.7 ± 0.6], had higher levels of total cholesterol level (220 ± 5 mg/dl vs. 203 ± 4 mg/dl) as well as triglyceride levels (160 ± 9 mg/dl vs. 126 ± 4 mg/dl), compared with no renal stone individuals. CONCLUSION: ADPKD patients with renal stones in our study had a higher mean level of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, BMI and cholesterol and triglycerides levels compared with individuals without renal stones. PMID:27275327

  9. [Endoscopic management of biliary stones].

    PubMed

    Barinagarrementería, R

    1990-07-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy is one of the more effective therapeutic procedures for the management of some biliary tree abnormalities. In choledocolitiasis, a 90% succesfull rate has been obtained. Complications include bleeding, perforation, cholangitis, and pancreatitis. Mortality rates between 1.0 to 1.3% are informed. Contraindications are the same as for panendoscopy as well as the presence of stones greater than 2.5 cms. In giant stones, some other endoscopic approaches can be used, including mechanical lithotripsy, chemical treatment, electrohydraulic shockwaves, laser and biliary stent application. Endoscopic sphincterotomy is also indicated as an adjuvant therapy previous to extracorporeal lithotripsy. PMID:19256137

  10. Extracorporeal stone disintegration using chemical explosive pellets as an energy source of underwater shock waves.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, M; Kambe, K; Kurosu, S; Orikasa, S; Takayama, K

    1986-04-01

    Extracorporeal renal stone disintegration using a chemical explosive pellet (lead azide 10 mg.) as an energy source of underwater shock waves has been successfully performed in animals. The shock wave was observed by holographic interferometry. Shock wave generation was performed by a reflector whose configuration was part of a pseudoellipsoid. The explosions were conducted 10 to 100 times for each animal and the stone (extracted human renal calculus or model calculus of activated alumina) placed in the renal pelvis was disintegrated satisfactorily. Negative findings in explorative laparotomy and histological examination, except for minor bleeding in several tubular lumina of the kidney, indicated that the method was clinically applicable. PMID:3959213

  11. Bioreceptivity of building stones: a review.

    PubMed

    Miller, A Z; Sanmartín, P; Pereira-Pardo, L; Dionísio, A; Saiz-Jimenez, C; Macedo, M F; Prieto, B

    2012-06-01

    In 1995, Guillitte defined bioreceptivity, a new term in ecology, as the ability of a material to be colonized by living organisms. Information about the bioreceptivity of stone is of great importance since it will help us to understand the material properties which influence the development of biological colonization in the built environment, and will also provide useful information as regards selecting stones for the conservation of heritage monuments and construction of new buildings. Studies of the bioreceptivity of stone materials are reviewed here with the aim of providing a clear set of conclusions on the topic. Definitions of bioreceptivity are given, stone bioreceptivity experiments are described, and finally the stone properties related to bioreceptivity are discussed. We suggest that a standardized laboratory protocol for evaluating stone bioreceptivity and definition of a stone bioreceptivity index are required to enable creation of a database on the primary bioreceptivity of stone materials. PMID:22534363

  12. Gender Distribution of Pediatric Stone Formers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Thomas E.; Trock, Bruce J.; Lakshmanan, Yegappan; Gearhart, John P.; Matlaga, Brian R.

    2008-09-01

    Recent epidemiologic evidence suggests that the gender prevalence among adult stone-formers is changing, with an increasing incidence of stone disease among women. No similar data have ever been reported for the pediatric stone-forming population. We performed a study to define the gender distribution among pediatric stone-formers using a large-scale national pediatric database. Our findings suggest that gender distribution among stone formers varies by age with male predominance in the first decade of life shifting to female predominance in the second decade. In contrast to adults, females in the pediatric population are more commonly affected by stones than are males. The incidence of pediatric stone disease appears to be increasing at a great rate in both sexes. Further studies should build on this hypothesis-generating work and define the effects of metabolic and environmental risk factors that may influence stone risk in the pediatric patient population

  13. "Stone Age" Fun: Releasing the Animal Within.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, Janet Marie

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a fifth-grade sculpture project that uses a subtractive, rather than additive, technique. Students carve an animal sculpture from a block of simulated stone compound. Explains the process and how to make the simulated stone compound. (CMK)

  14. 77 FR 27245 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN... comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) and environmental assessment (EA) for Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge...: r3planning@fws.gov . Include ``Big Stone Draft CCP/ EA'' in the subject line of the message. Fax:...

  15. Luserna Stone: A nomination for "Global Heritage Stone Resource"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primavori, Piero

    2015-04-01

    Luserna Stone (Pietra di Luserna) is the commercial name of a grey-greenish leucogranitic orthogneiss, probably from the Lower Permian Age, that outcrops in the Luserna-Infernotto basin (Cottian Alps, Piedmont, NW Italy) on the border between the Turin and Cuneo provinces. Geologically speaking, it pertains to the Dora-Maira Massif that represents a part of the ancient European margin annexed to the Cottian Alps during the Alpine orogenesis; from a petrographic point of view, it is the metamorphic result of a late-Ercinian leucogranitic rock transformation. Lithological features and building applications allow the recognition of two main varieties: 1) a micro-augen gneiss with very regular schistosity planes with centimetric spacing and easy split workability, known as Splittable facies; 2) a micro-Augen gneiss characterized by lower schistosity and poor split, suitable for blocks cutting machines (diamond wires, gang-saws, traditional saws), known as Massive facies. A third, rare, white variety also exists, called "Bianchetta". Luserna stone extends over an area of approximately 50 km2, where more than fifty quarries are in operation, together with a relevant number of processing plants and artisanal laboratories. The stone is quarried and processed since almost the Middle Age, and currently represents one of the three most important siliceous production cluster in Italy (together with the Ossola and Sardegna Island granites). Some characteristics of this stone - such as the relevant physical-mechanical properties, an intrinsic versatility and its peculiar splittability - have made it one of the most widely used stone materials in Italy and in the countries surrounding the North Western border of Italy. Apart from its intrinsic geological, petrographic, commercial and technical properties, several issues related to the Luserna Stone are considered to be of relevant importance for its designation as a Global Heritage Stone Resource, such as the distinctive mark on

  16. [Pathophysiology, diagnosis and conservative therapy in calcium kidney calculi].

    PubMed

    Hess, B

    2003-02-01

    Annual incidences of kidney stones are about 0.1-0.4% of the population, and lifetime prevalences in the USA and Europe range between 8 and 15%. Kidney stones occur more frequently with increasing age and among men. Within ten years, the disease usually recurs in more than 50% of patients. Nowadays, about 85% of all kidney stones contain calcium salts (calcium oxalate and/or calcium phosphate) as their main crystalline components. Because human urine is commonly supersaturated with respect to calcium salts as well as to uric acid, crystalluria is very common, i.e. healthy people excrete up to ten millions of microcrystals every day. Recurrent stone formers appear to excrete lower amounts or structurally defective forms of crystallization inhibitors which allows for the formation of large crystal aggregates as precursors of stones. Alternatively, crystal adhesion to urothelial surfaces may be enhanced in stone formers. Medical treatment of renal colic is based on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, because prostaglandins appear to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of pain during ureteral obstruction. In addition, centrally acting analgesics such as pethidine-HCl may be required in many cases. The administration of high amounts (3-4 liters/day) of intravenous fluids should be abandoned, since it may raise intraureteral pressure whereby pain increases and kidney pelvis or fornices may rupture. All first-stone formers should undergo a simple basic evaluation, including stone analysis (x-ray diffraction or infrared spectrometry), serum values of ionized calcium (alternatively: total calcium and albumin) and creatinine, urinalysis and repeated measurements of fasting urine pH in order to detect urinary acidification disorders or low urine pH. In high-risk patients with as first stone episode (i.e. strongly positive family history, inflammatory bowel disease, short-bowel syndrome, nephrocalcinosis, bilateral stones, hypercalcemia, renal tubular acidosis, airline

  17. The diurnal variation in urine acidification differs between normal individuals and uric acid stone formers

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Mary Ann; Maalouf, Naim M.; Poindexter, John; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Sakhaee, Khashayar; Moe, Orson W.

    2012-01-01

    Many biologic functions follow circadian rhythms driven by internal and external cues that synchronize and coordinate organ physiology to diurnal changes in the environment and behavior. Urinary acid-base parameters follow diurnal patterns and it is thought these changes are due to periodic surges in gastric acid secretion. Abnormal urine pH is a risk factor for specific types of nephrolithiasis and uric acid stones are typical of excessively low urine pH. Here we placed 9 healthy volunteers and 10 uric acid stone formers on fixed metabolic diets to study the diurnal pattern of urinary acidification. All showed clear diurnal trends in urinary acidification but none of the patterns were affected by inhibitors of the gastric proton pump. Uric acid stone formers had similar patterns of change through the day but their urine pH was always lower compared to healthy volunteers. Uric acid stone formers excreted more acid (normalized to acid ingestion) with the excess excreted primarily as titratable acid rather than ammonium. Urine base excretion was also lower in uric acid stone formers (normalized to base ingestion) along with lower plasma bicarbonate concentrations during part of the day. Thus, increased net acid presentation to the kidney and the preferential use of buffers, other than ammonium, result in much higher concentrations of un-dissociated uric acid throughout the day and consequently an increased risk of uric acid stones. PMID:22297671

  18. Modeling Hypercalciuria in the Genetic Hypercalciuric Stone-Forming Rat

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Kevin K.; Krieger, Nancy S.; Bushinsky, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review In this review we discuss how the Genetic Hypercalciuric Stone-Forming (GHS) rats, which closely model idiopathic hypercalciuria and stone formation in humans, provide insights into the pathophysiology and consequences of clinical hypercalciuria. Recent Findings Hypercalciuria in the GHS rats is due to a systemic dysregulation of calcium transport, as manifest by increased intestinal calcium absorption, increased bone resorption and decreased renal tubule calcium reabsorption. Increased levels of vitamin D receptor in intestine, bone and kidney appear to mediate these changes. The excess receptors are biologically active and increase tissue sensitivity to exogenous vitamin D. Bones of GHS rats have decreased bone mineral density (BMD) as compared with Sprague Dawley rats, and exogenous 1,25(OH)2D3 exacerbates the loss of BMD. Thiazide diuretics improve the BMD in GHS rats. Summary Studying GHS rats allows direct investigation of the effects of alterations in diet and utilization of pharmacologic therapy on hypercalciuria, urine supersaturation, stone formation and bone quality in ways that are not possible in humans. PMID:26050120

  19. Intraperitoneal stone migration during percutaneos nephrolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Diri, Akif; Karakan, Tolga; Resorlu, Mustafa; Kabar, Mucahit; Germiyanoglu, Cankon

    2014-12-01

    Percutaneos nephrolithotomy (PNL) is the standard care for renal stones larger than 2 cm. The procedure has some major and minor complications. Renal pelvis laceration and stone migration to the retroperitoneum is one of the rare condition. We report the first case of intraperitoneal stone migration during PNL. PMID:25641455

  20. Optimizing Stone-free Rates With Ureteroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Thanmaya G; Assimos, Dean G

    2015-01-01

    Ureteroscopy is being increasingly utilized in the treatment and management of patients with renal and ureteral stones. Improving stone-free rates with ureteroscopy decreases the need for ancillary procedures and improves patient outcomes and satisfaction. This article reviews contemporary literature regarding the efficacy of a wide range of currently available techniques for improving stone-free rates with this procedure. PMID:26543430

  1. Polycystic kidney disease

    MedlinePlus

    Cysts - kidneys; Kidney - polycystic; Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; ADPKD ... Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is passed down through families (inherited). The 2 inherited forms of PKD are autosomal dominant ...

  2. Chronic kidney disease

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic kidney disease is the slow loss of kidney function over time. The main job of the kidneys is to ... Chronic kidney disease (CKD) slowly gets worse over months or years. You may not notice any symptoms for some time. ...

  3. Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Polycystic Kidney Disease Overview What is polycystic kidney disease? Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited disease that affects the kidneys. Sacs of fluid (called ...

  4. Kidney Disease Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Links Take the first step Alternate Language URL Kidney Disease Basics Page Content Your kidneys filter extra water ... blood pressure are the most common causes of kidney disease. ​These conditions can slowly damage the kidneys over ...

  5. Diabetes and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... checks Your Kidneys and You Meetings Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  6. Pregnancy and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... checks Your Kidneys and You Meetings Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  7. About Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... checks Your Kidneys and You Meetings Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  8. Kidney-Pancreas Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... checks Your Kidneys and You Meetings Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  9. National Kidney Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... checks Your Kidneys and You Meetings Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  10. Polycystic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... a kidney transplant or blood-filtering treatments called dialysis. The two main types of PKD are autosomal ... so people with kidney failure must receive either dialysis or a kidney transplant to replace kidney function. ...

  11. "Stone Cold": Worthy of Study?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douthwaite, Alison

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on my experiences of teaching "Stone Cold" to respond to a blog post suggesting that the novel holds little educational value. I argue that the novel's narrative style helps to foster criticality while its subject matter can help students see the relevance of literature to the world around them. Relating this to…

  12. Developing disease resistant stone fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stone fruit (Prunus spp.) (peach, nectarine, plum, apricot, cherry) and almonds are susceptible to a number of pathogens. These pathogens can cause extensive losses in the field, during transport and storage, and in the market. Breeding for disease resistance requires an extensive knowledge of the...

  13. Unusually large submandibular gland stone.

    PubMed

    Al-Hussona, Aws Adel

    2015-01-01

    Submandibular gland calculi is the most common disease of the gland. In this article, we report a case with unusually large stone located at the hilum of the gland causing necrosis of the overlying duct and the oral mucosa (floor of mouth). PMID:25934409

  14. Probabilistic Modeling of the Renal Stone Formation Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Best, Lauren M.; Myers, Jerry G.; Goodenow, Debra A.; McRae, Michael P.; Jackson, Travis C.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a probabilistic tool, used in mission planning decision making and medical systems risk assessments. The IMM project maintains a database of over 80 medical conditions that could occur during a spaceflight, documenting an incidence rate and end case scenarios for each. In some cases, where observational data are insufficient to adequately define the inflight medical risk, the IMM utilizes external probabilistic modules to model and estimate the event likelihoods. One such medical event of interest is an unpassed renal stone. Due to a high salt diet and high concentrations of calcium in the blood (due to bone depletion caused by unloading in the microgravity environment) astronauts are at a considerable elevated risk for developing renal calculi (nephrolithiasis) while in space. Lack of observed incidences of nephrolithiasis has led HRP to initiate the development of the Renal Stone Formation Module (RSFM) to create a probabilistic simulator capable of estimating the likelihood of symptomatic renal stone presentation in astronauts on exploration missions. The model consists of two major parts. The first is the probabilistic component, which utilizes probability distributions to assess the range of urine electrolyte parameters and a multivariate regression to transform estimated crystal density and size distributions to the likelihood of the presentation of nephrolithiasis symptoms. The second is a deterministic physical and chemical model of renal stone growth in the kidney developed by Kassemi et al. The probabilistic component of the renal stone model couples the input probability distributions describing the urine chemistry, astronaut physiology, and system parameters with the physical and chemical outputs and inputs to the deterministic stone growth model. These two parts of the model are necessary to capture the uncertainty in the likelihood estimate. The model will be driven by Monte Carlo simulations, continuously

  15. Nephrolithiasis, stone composition, meteorology, and seasons in Malta: Is there any connection?

    PubMed Central

    Buttigieg, Jesmar; Attard, Stephanie; Carachi, Alexander; Galea, Ruth; Fava, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Context: The effect of seasons and meteorology on the incidence of nephrolithiasis has been studied in various regions around the globe, but seldom in the Mediterranean. Aims: This retrospective analysis aims at investigating these putative effects in the Maltese Islands, whose climate is typically Mediterranean, followed by a systematic review of the literature. Materials and Methods: Submission rate and chemical composition of all kidney stones after spontaneous passage or surgical removal between January 2009 and December 2011 were analyzed according to seasons and corresponding meteorology. Results: A total of 389 stones were analyzed. A higher stone submission rate was observed in summer compared to winter (31.6% vs. 20.8%, P = 0.0008) and in the warm period compared to the cold period (57.1% vs. 42.9%, P = 0.0001). Significant correlation was established between the monthly number of stones and mean monthly maximum temperature (r = 0.50, P = 0.002), mean monthly temperature (r = 0.49, P = 0.003) and mean monthly Humidex (r = 0.49, P = 0.007). Humidex was found to be an independent predictor for stone submission (β = 0.49, P = 0.007). The majority of stones contained calcium (83.3%), combined with oxalate (77.6%), phosphate (14.7%), and carbonate (2.8%). Some stones (11.8%) contained a mixture of >1 negatively charged molecules. Urate (11.6%), cysteine (4.6%), and ammonium-magnesium-phosphate (0.5%) constituted the rest. There was no association between chemical composition and seasons. Literature review included 25 articles. Higher ambient temperature and warm seasons were the most commonly encountered risk factors for both presentation and etiology of nephrolithiasis. Conclusions: A significant positive correlation was noted between ambient temperature and stone submission rate, which was significantly higher during the warm months in Malta. PMID:27453655

  16. Crystals, Randall's plaques and renal stones: do bone and atherosclerosis teach us something?

    PubMed

    Gambaro, Giovanni; D'Angelo, Angela; Fabris, Antionia; Tosetto, Enrica; Anglani, Franca; Lupo, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    The pathogenesis of calcium-oxalate (CaOx) renal stones is still debated and a number of issues needs to be clarified. In particular, it is difficult to combine the intraluminal physical-chemical imbalance and fixed particle theory with the evidence that CaOx stones actually form and grow on Randall's plaque in the renal pelvis. On the basis of recent findings in renal stone research, and data from the biology of ectopic calcification, the hypothesis is advanced that abnormal pre-urine CaOx supersaturation triggers inflammation in the long Henle's loop cells at tip forceps level. This in turn induces differentiation of these cells toward the osteogenic lineage, determining the synthesis of typical bone osteoid proteins (osteopontin, osteocalcin, BMP-2, etc) and hydroxyapatite mineralization of the Henle's basement membrane (beneath the differentiating cells) which precedes Randal's plaque formation. This may constitute a further, still unexplored example of epithelial-mesenchymal-differentiation in the kidney. PMID:15593050

  17. Dysplastic kidneys.

    PubMed

    Winyard, Paul; Chitty, Lyn S

    2008-06-01

    Dysplastic kidneys are common malformations affecting up to 1 in 1000 of the general population. They are part of the spectrum of Congenital Abnormalities of the Kidney and Urinary Tract (CAKUT) and an increasing number of children are being diagnosed on antenatal ultrasound. In the past, these patients may not have been detected until adulthood following investigation for other illness, or even as incidental findings at post mortem, unless there was severe bilateral dysplasia leading to Potter's sequence or renal failure in childhood. Excluding syndromic cases with defects in other organ systems, features linked to worse prognosis at presentation are: (1) bilateral disease; (2) decreased functional renal mass (which encompasses not just small kidneys but also large ones where cysts replace normal architecture); (3) lower urinary tract obstruction; and (4) anhydramnios or severe oligohydramnios. Dysplasia and renal function are dynamic and can evolve during pregnancy, so repeated assessment is necessary when pathology is expected. Worsening dimensions or decreasing amniotic fluid levels imply poorer prognosis, but there are no proven therapies during pregnancy, though vesicoamniotic shunting may be indicated with obstruction. Postnatal investigations aim to define the anatomy, which helps to estimate risks of infection and kidney function. Management might then involve observation, prophylactic antibiotics, surgery and/or renal support. Risks of renal malignancy and hypertension are low during childhood, but longer-term follow-up is needed, particularly to determine blood pressure and renal function in adulthood and pregnancy. Around 10% of cases have a family history of significant renal/urinary tract malformation. Monogenic causes include mutations in individual genes, such as TCF2/hepatocyte nuclear factor 1ss (HNF1beta), PAX2 and uroplakins, but there are also recent reports of children with compound heterozygote mutations in several renal/urinary tract

  18. Flexible Ureteroscopic Management of Horseshoe Kidney Renal Calculi

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jie; Huang, Yunteng; Gu, Siping; Chen, Yifan; Peng, Jie; Bai, Qiang; Ye, Min; Qi, Jun

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of flexible ureteroscope (F-URS) combined with holmium laser lithotripter in treating renal calculi in horseshoe kidney. Materials and Methods: From November 2010 to December 2013, the medical history and charts of sixteen patients (mean age 42.9±11.6 years, range 26-66 years), including 13 males and 3 females were analyzed retrospectively. Mean stone burden was 29±8 mm (range 17-42 mm2). Mean stone digitized surface area (DSA) was 321±94 mm2 (range 180-538 mm2). Under spinal anesthesia in a modified lithotomy position with the head down, rigid ureteroscope was placed firstly into the ureter to reach the level of the pelvis, a zebra guide wire was inserted and following the removal of the rigid ureteroscope, an ureteral access sheath was positioned along the guide wire, then passed the URF P-5 flexible ureteroscope into the renal cavities over the guidewire. After locating the stones, holmium laser lithotripsy was performed. Results: The average operative time was 92±16 minutes (range 74-127 min.). No major complications were encountered. Ten patients obtained stone-free status with one session, four obtained stone-free status after two sessions. Single session stone-free rate was 62.5%, overall stone-free rate was 87.5%. Two patients have small residual stones in the lower pole. Conclusions: F-URS combined with holmium laser lithotripter and nitinol basket, is safe and effective in dealing with moderate stone diameter (<30 mm) in HSKs with high clearance rates and low complication rates. PMID:26401860

  19. Removal of Residual Cavitation Nuclei to Enhance Histotripsy Erosion of Model Urinary Stones

    PubMed Central

    Duryea, Alexander P.; Roberts, William W.; Cain, Charles A.; Hall, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Histotripsy has been shown to be an effective treatment for model kidney stones, eroding their surface to tiny particulate debris via a cavitational bubble cloud. However, similar to shock wave lithotripsy, histotripsy stone treatments display a rate-dependent efficacy with pulses applied at low rate generating more efficient stone erosion in comparison to those applied at high rate. This is hypothesized to be the result of residual cavitation bubble nuclei generated by bubble cloud collapse. While the histotripsy bubble cloud only lasts on the order of 100 µs, these microscopic remnant bubbles can persist on the order of 1 second—inducing direct attenuation of subsequent histotripsy pulses and influencing bubble cloud dynamics. In an effort to mitigate these effects, we have developed a novel strategy to actively remove residual cavitation nuclei from the field using low-amplitude ultrasound pulses. Previous work has demonstrated that with selection of the appropriate acoustic parameters these bubble removal pulses can stimulate the aggregation and subsequent coalescence of microscopic bubble nuclei—effectively deleting them from the target volume. Here, we incorporate bubble removal pulses in histotripsy treatment of model kidney stones. It was found that when histotripsy is applied at low rate (1 Hz), bubble removal does not produce a statistically significant change in erosion. At higher pulse rates of 10, 100, and 500 Hz, incorporating bubble removal results in 3.7-, 7.5-, and 2.7-fold increases in stone erosion, respectively. High speed imaging indicates that the introduction of bubble removal pulses allows bubble cloud dynamics resulting from high pulse rates to more closely approximate those generated at the low rate of 1 Hz. These results corroborate previous work in the field of shock wave lithotripsy regarding the ill-effects of residual bubble nuclei, and suggest that high treatment efficiency can be recovered at high pulse rates through

  20. The Matariki Stone of Rapanui

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockey, T. A.

    2005-12-01

    Anthropological studies of Rapanui (Easter Island) are valuable insofar as the island's remoteness allowed its culture to develop independently until western contact. Of special importance to cultural astronomers is the indigenous inhabitants' expressed interest in the sky, through lore, monumental architecture, and rock art. 1 The Matariki Stone is a unique basaltic boulder found on Rapanui; my analysis of it is the result of in situ investigation (2000). The boulder is 1 m x 1.5 m x 2 m in approximate size and weighs in excess of 10,000 kg. According to local informants, at least six cupules, averaging 6 cm in diameter and 5 cm in depth, were placed in it prior to western contact with the island and prior to transport to the boulder's present location. Information about the Matariki Stone's original setting, orientation, and context is lost. "Matariki" means "Pleiades" (or, more generally, a group of stars). However, the pattern of the Matariki Stone cupules strongly resembles another familiar asterism of third-magnitude stars. 2 These zodiac stars were placed significantly in the Rapanui sky of 1500 CE. Yet no local ethnographic evidence mentions these stars, nor is association with these stars and other regional cultures (e. g., Australian aboriginal and Mayan) compelling. 3 Moreover, there is no Polynesian tradition of constellation depiction in rock art at all, whereas the Pleiades figure prominently in that culture's oral tradition. 4 Thus, the Matariki Stone remains a conundrum. 1 Liller, William. The Ancient Solar Observatories of Rapanui: The Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island. (1993) 2 Hockey, Thomas and Hoffman, Alice. "An Archaeoastronomical Investigation: Does A Constellation Pattern Appear in Rapanui Rock Art?" Rapa Nui Journal. 14, no. 3. (2000) 3 For example, Kelly, David H. and Milone, Eugene F. Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy. (2005) 4 For example, Makemson, Maude. The Morning Star Rises. (1941)

  1. Greco-Roman Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Michael E.; Ruzhansky, Katherine

    2008-09-01

    Greek and Roman thought had a profound influence upon Western medical practice. From the fall of the Greek civilization to the fall of the Roman, remarkable progress of our understanding of human anatomy and physiology occurred. Here we review the attempts of Greek and Roman thinkers to develop the first understanding of the pathophysiology of urolithiasis, its epidemiology, differential diagnosis of renal versus bladder stones, medications for both colic and prevention, the role of familial syndromes, and dietary management.

  2. Percutaneous cholecystolithotomy: is gall stone recurrence inevitable?

    PubMed Central

    Donald, J J; Cheslyn-Curtis, S; Gillams, A R; Russell, R C; Lees, W R

    1994-01-01

    Using radiological interventional techniques the gall bladder can be cleared of stones with a high success rate. As with any treatment option that leaves the gall bladder in situ there is an accompanying risk of stone recurrence, which is currently unknown for the radiological method. One hundred patients were studied prospectively to determine the recurrence rate of stones and clinical outcome after successful percutaneous cholecystolithotomy. Follow up included both clinical assessment and ultrasound examination at 3, 6, and 12 months and then annual intervals thereafter. The overall stone recurrence rate was 31% at a mean follow up of 26 months (range, 3-50 months). By actuarial life table analysis, the cumulative proportion of gall stone recurrence was 7, 19, 28, 35, and 44% at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 months respectively. Of the 31 patients with recurrent stones; 17 remain asymptomatic, seven have experienced biliary colic, two abdominal pain, three non-specific upper gastrointestinal symptoms, and two jaundice secondary to common duct stones. Thirteen of the stone free patients have remained symptomatic; six with abdominal pain and seven with nonspecific upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Eight patients have subsequently had a cholecystectomy. No significant difference was found between the sex of the patient or the number of stones before treatment and the stone recurrence rates. The cumulative stone recurrence rate was significantly less in the 56 patients who received adjuvant chemolitholysis (p < 0.05). These data show that stone recurrence after successful percutaneous cholecystolithotomy occurs in the minority, and is usually asymptomatic. It is concluded that the technique remains justified in the management of selected patients with gall stones. PMID:8200568

  3. Laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy for large ureteric stones

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sayyad, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy for management of large proximal ureteric stones. Materials and Methods: Medical records of patients who underwent laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy for proximal ureteral stones ≥2 cm were reviewed retrospectively. Patients’ characteristics, stone characteristics, perioperative and follow-up data were studied. Patients with stones <2 cm in size, previous transperitoneal surgical procedure, or follow-up duration <6 months were excluded from the study. Results: Twelve patients (mean age = 52.9 ± 12 years) with large upper ureteric stones (mean stone largest diameter = 39 ± 13 mm) were included. Nine patients had single stone, 2 patients had two stones, and 1 patient had large impacted stone with 2 small stones floating above. Mean operative time was 107 ± 49.5 min with mean blood loss of 60.5 ± 19.2 cc. Mean total pain score was 38.4 ± 5.5 (100 point scale) and mean time till resuming oral intake was 3.6 ± 0.5 h. Mean duration of hospital stay was 2.6 ± 1.4 days and mean duration of stenting was 7.3 ± 2 weeks. Throughout a mean duration of follow-up of 14.8 ± 7.6 months, 100% stone clearance rate was achieved with no recurrence. One patient developed a ureteric stricture treated by laser endoureterotomy and stenting for 6 weeks and responded without re-stricture formation. Conclusion: Laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy is a safe and effective approach for selected patients with large proximal ureteric stones with reduced postoperative pain and short hospital stay, and should be considered as a treatment option for such stones. PMID:22346099

  4. A hypothesis for anti-nanobacteria effects of gallium with observations from treating kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Eby, George A

    2008-10-01

    Nanobacteria, 100-fold smaller than common bacteria, have been purported to exist in urine, and by precipitating calcium and other minerals into carbonate apatite around themselves, induce the formation of surrounding kidney stones. Nanobacteria-like structures have also been shown in blood, within arteries, aortic aneurysms, and cardiac valves. Gallium has antibiotic properties to iron-dependent bacteria and has potent anti-inflammatory, anticancer and anti-hypercalcemic properties, and it readily reverses osteoporosis. It was hypothesized that gallium nitrate might have benefit in treating kidney stones. Gallium nitrate (120mg gallium) was mixed with water making two liters of a gallium mineral water drink to treat chronic, treatment-resistant kidney stone pain and urinary tract bleeding in a 110 pound woman. On the third day of gallium mineral water treatment, the urine appeared snow white, thick (rope-like) and suggestive of a calcific crystalline nature. After release of the white urine, the urine returned to normal in color, viscosity and pH, kidney pain was no longer present, and there was no further evidence of blood in the urine. There were no treatment side effects or sequela. For a one year observation period thereafter, no kidney stones, white urine, kidney or urinary tract pain or blood in the urine was noted. The hypothetical susceptibility of nanobacteria to gallium treatment also suggests application to atherosclerosis and other diseases. Although some support for gallium in treating kidney stones is presented, this hypothesis is built upon another hypothesis, is extremely speculative, and alternative explanations for the white urine exist. Further research into gallium's effects on kidney disease and other nanobacteria-induced diseases such as cardiovascular diseases is suggested. PMID:18579317

  5. Diet and renal stone formation.

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, A

    2013-02-01

    The relationship between diet and the formation of renal stones is demonstrated, but restrictive diets do not take into account the complexity of metabolism and the complex mechanisms that regulate the saturation and crystallization processes in the urine. The restriction of dietary calcium can reduce the urinary excretion of calcium but severe dietary restriction of calcium causes hyperoxaluria and a progressive loss of bone mineral component. Furthermore urinary calcium excretion is influenced by other nutrients than calcium as sodium, potassium, protein and refined carbohydrates. Up to 40% of the daily excretion of oxalate in the urine is from dietary source, but oxalate absorption in the intestine depends linearly on the concomitant dietary intake of calcium and is influenced by the bacterial degradation by several bacterial species of intestinal flora. A more rational approach should be based on the cumulative effects of foods and different dietary patterns on urinary saturation rather than on the effect of single nutrients. A diet based on a adequate intake of calcium (1000-1200 mg per day) and containment of animal protein and salt can decrease significantly urinary supersaturation for calcium oxalate and reduce the relative risk of stone recurrence in hypercalciuric renal stone formers. The DASH-style diet that is high in fruits and vegetables, moderate in low-fat dairy products and low in animal proteins and salt is associated with a lower relative supersaturation for calcium oxalate and a marked decrease in risk of incident stone formation. All the diets above mentioned have as a common characteristic the reduction of the potential acid load of the diet that can be correlated with a higher risk of recurrent nephrolithiasis, because the acid load of diet is inversely related to urinary citrate excretion. The restriction of protein and salt with an adequate calcium intake seem to be advisable but should be implemented with the advice to increase the intake

  6. Determination of Chemical Compositions on Adult Kidney Stones—A Spectroscopic Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, K.; Rakkappan, C.

    2008-11-01

    The chemical compositions of the kidney stones of both the sexes of patients, aged from 40 to 70, living in and around Chidambaram town are determined by using FT-IR and X-RD technique. The kidney stone samples used in the present study were procured from the Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University. The FT-IR spectra of different kidney stone samples were recorded in the range of 4000-400 cm-1. By identifying the characteristic frequency, the chemical compositions of the samples are determined. The results analyzed by FTIR technique were confirmed by X-RD method, in which the recorded X-ray diffractogram are compared with JCPDS files using search match method. Further analysis of XRD pattern also reveals the same.

  7. Nephrocalcinosis is a risk factor for kidney failure in primary hyperoxaluria

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaojing; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Mehta, Ramila A.; Vrtiska, Terri J.; Milliner, Dawn S.; Lieske, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Stone formation and nephrocalcinosis are both very common features of primary hyperoxaluria, yet the extent of each disease varies markedly between patients. Here we studied whether kidney damage from nephrocalcinosis and/or stone related events contributed to end stage kidney disease (ESKD). Clinical information was analyzed from 348 patients enrolled in the Rare Kidney Stone Consortium Primary Hyperoxaluria registry and included demographic, laboratory and imaging features. Among all patients there were 277 with type 1, 37 with type 2, and 34 with type 3 primary hyperoxaluria. Overall, 58% passed a stone (mean 0.3/year) and one or more urologic procedures were required by 70% of patients (mean 0.15/year). Nephrocalcinosis was found in 34% of patients, including 41% with type 1 primary hyperoxaluria. High urine oxalate was associated with increased risk for both nephrocalcinosis and stone number, while low urine citrate was a risk factor for stone events and stone number. After adjustment for the type of primary hyperoxaluria, diagnosis by family screening and age at first image, the overall adjusted hazard ratio for ESKD among those with a history of nephrocalcinosis was 1.7 [95% CI 1.0–3.0], while the risk was 4.0 [1.9–8.5] for new onset nephrocalcinosis during follow-up. In contrast, the number of stones and stone events were not significantly associated with ESKD risk. Thus, nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis appear to be pathophysiologically distinct entities. The presence of nephrocalcinosis implies increased risk for ESKD. PMID:25229337

  8. Testing for Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education Program > Learn About Kidney Disease > What Causes Kidney Disease? > Testing for Kidney Disease | Share External Link Disclaimer What ... from our online catalog . Alternate Language URL Español Testing for Kidney Disease Page Content Early kidney disease usually does not ...

  9. Emergency management of ureteral stones: Recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Luis; Lima, Estêvão; Autorino, Riccardo; Marcelo, Filinto

    2008-01-01

    Most ureteral stones can be observed with reasonable expectation of uneventful stone passage. When an active ureteral stone treatment is warranted, the best procedure to choose is dependent on several factors, besides stone size and location, including operators’ experience, patients’ preference, available equipment and related costs. Placement of double-J stent or nephrostomy tube represents the classical procedures performed in a renal colic due to acute ureteral obstruction when the conservative drug therapy does not resolve the symptoms. These maneuvers are usually followed by ureteroscopy or extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, which currently represent the mainstay of treatment for ureteral stones. In this review paper a literature search was performed to identify reports dealing with emergency management of renal colic due to ureteral stones. The main aspects related to this debated issue are analyzed and the advantages and disadvantages of each treatment option are carefully discussed. PMID:19468497

  10. Investigations of stone consolidants by neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, F.; Schillinger, B.; Rohatsch, A.; Zawisky, M.; Rauch, H.

    2009-06-01

    The chemical preservation and structural reintegration of natural stones applied in historical buildings is carried out by the use of different stone strengtheners. As these agents contain hydrogen, they offer good properties for neutron imaging. The main interest in the restoration process is the development of a suitable stone consolidant. In cooperation with the St. Stephans Cathedral and the geologists at Vienna University of Technology, we are investigating the penetration depth and distribution of different stone consolidants. These studies are being carried out with different stone samples, mostly porous natural building stones, limestones and sandstones. The two strengtheners used in this study are ethyl silicate ester (Wacker OH100) and dissolved polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA, Paraloid B72). Neutron radiography and neutron tomography can be used successfully to visualize the distribution of consolidants both in two and three dimensions.

  11. Vascular Calcification and Stone Disease: A New Look towards the Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yiu, Allen J.; Callaghan, Daniel; Sultana, Razia; Bandyopadhyay, Bidhan C.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) crystals are formed in pathological calcification as well as during stone formation. Although there are several theories as to how these crystals can develop through the combined interactions of biochemical and biophysical factors, the exact mechanism of such mineralization is largely unknown. Based on the published scientific literature, we found that common factors can link the initial stages of stone formation and calcification in anatomically distal tissues and organs. For example, changes to the spatiotemporal conditions of the fluid flow in tubular structures may provide initial condition(s) for CaP crystal generation needed for stone formation. Additionally, recent evidence has provided a meaningful association between the active participation of proteins and transcription factors found in the bone forming (ossification) mechanism that are also involved in the early stages of kidney stone formation and arterial calcification. Our review will focus on three topics of discussion (physiological influences—calcium and phosphate concentration—and similarities to ossification, or bone formation) that may elucidate some commonality in the mechanisms of stone formation and calcification, and pave the way towards opening new avenues for further research. PMID:26185749

  12. 6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE TO LEFT OF STONES ADJUSTS SPACE BETWEEN STONES, THUS CONTROLING FINENESS OF FLOUR. STONE CRANE AT RIGHT USED TO LIFT STONES FOR DRESSING). OTHER EQUIPMENT NOT IDENTIFIED. NOTE STAIRS IN LEFT REAR. - Hildebrand's Mill, Flint, Delaware County, OK

  13. High-speed photography during laser-based gall bladder stone lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokaj, Jahja O.

    2001-04-01

    Shadowgraphy of gall bladder stone, which is held by a basket and immersed in a civete is performed. The exposure time is determined by the time of a N-Dye laser pulse used as a lightening source for photography. The shadowgram is projected in the objective of a camera which is connected to a microscope. The light coming from the laser, illuminates the civete collecting optical information of the stone and physical phenomena appearing above the stone. On top of the stone a tip of optical fiber is fixed, which is used for transmitting Ho:Yag laser power to the stone. Using a computer and time delay the laser pulses used for destruction and illumination are synchronized. Since the N-Dye laser pulse is pico-second range and the Ho:Yag laser pulse is in the range of micro-second, many image frames are obtained within the time of one pulse applied during the destruction. It is known that in the process of stone destruction several phenomena like plume, plasma, shock wave and bubble formation take place. However, the physical mechanism of the stone destruction is not yet completely understood. From the obtained results the above phenomena are studied which gives new information and clue for understanding some of the mentioned phenomena. The laser power which is guided by an optical fiber into the gall bladder or kidney of the human body can damage the living tissue and cause some serious health problems. For this reason the fiber needs to be oriented properly during the action of the laser power.

  14. Adjunctive Therapy to Promote Stone Passage

    PubMed Central

    Nuss, Geoffrey R; Rackley, Judson D; Assimos, Dean G

    2005-01-01

    The majority of individuals with nephrolithiasis have small ureteral stones that pass spontaneously. However, patients may experience severe pain during this process, which significantly alters their quality of life and may limit their vocational responsibilities. Therefore, measures to facilitate stone passage are uniformly embraced. We discuss methods to enhance spontaneous stone passage as well as the elimination of fragments generated with extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy. PMID:16985812

  15. Modern management of common bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, James

    2013-04-01

    It is imperative for gastroenterologists to understand the different formations of bile duct stones and the various medical treatments available. To minimize the complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), it is critical to appropriately assess the risk of bile duct stones before intervention. Biliary endoscopists should be comfortable with the basic techniques of stone removal, including sphincterotomy, mechanical lithotripsy, and stent placement. It is important to be aware of advanced options, including laser and electrohydraulic stone fragmentation, and papillary dilatation for problematic cases. The timing and need for ERCP in those who require a cholecystectomy is also a consideration. PMID:23540960

  16. Computational stoning method for surface defect detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ninshu; Zhu, Xinhai

    2013-12-01

    Surface defects on outer panels of automotive bodies must be controlled in order to improve the surface quality. The detection and quantitative evaluation of surface defects are quite difficult because the deflection of surface defects is very small. One of detecting methods for surface defects used in factories is a stoning method in which a stone block is moved on the surface of a stamped panel. The computational stoning method was developed to detect surface low defect by authors based on a geometry contact algorithm between a stone block and a stamped panel. If the surface is convex, the stone block always contacts with the convex surface of a stamped panel and the contact gap between them is zero. If there is a surface low, the stone block does not contact to the surface and the contact gap can be computed based on contact algorithm. The convex surface defect can also be detected by applying computational stoning method to the back surface of a stamped panel. By performing two way stoning computations from both the normal surface and the back surface, not only the depth of surface low defect but also the height of convex surface defect can be detected. The surface low defect and convex surface defect can also be detected through multi-directions. Surface defects on the handle emboss of outer panels were accurately detected using the computational stoning method and compared with the real shape. A very good accuracy was obtained.

  17. Chronic kidney disease

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic; Renal failure - chronic; Chronic renal insufficiency; Chronic kidney failure; Chronic renal failure ... Chronic kidney disease (CKD) slowly gets worse over months or years. You may not notice any symptoms for some ...

  18. Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter wastes and excess water out of ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...

  19. Diabetic Kidney Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your kidneys. Your kidneys clean your blood. If they are damaged, waste ... in your blood instead of leaving your body. Kidney damage from diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. It ...

  20. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1980-01-01

    The following aspects of kidney cell electrophoresis are discussed: (1) the development and testing of electrophoresis solutions; (2) optimization of freezing and thawing; (3) procedures for evaluation of separated kidney cells; and (4) electrophoretic mobility characterization of kidney cells.

  1. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1979-01-01

    A kidney cell electrophoresis technique is described in four parts: (1) the development and testing of electrophoresis solutions; (2) optimization of freezing and thawing; (3) procedures for evaluation of separated kidney cells; and (4) electrophoretic mobility characteristics of kidney cells.

  2. Acute kidney failure

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: ... cholesterol (cholesterol emboli) Decreased blood flow due to very ...

  3. Kidney Disease (Nephropathy)

    MedlinePlus

    ... or to have the blood filtered by machine (dialysis). Who Gets Kidney Disease? Not everyone with diabetes ... health care team. Kidney Failure Once kidneys fail, dialysis is necessary. The person must choose whether to ...

  4. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... a kidney transplant or blood-filtering treatments called dialysis. The cysts are more likely to develop in people who are on kidney dialysis. The chance of developing acquired cystic kidney disease ...

  5. Diabetes and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, and Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Diabetes and Kidney Disease What are my kidneys and ... urine until releasing it through urination. How can diabetes affect my kidneys? Too much glucose , also called ...

  6. Laparoscopic management of distal ureteric stones in a bilharzial ureter: Results of a single-centre prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Nour, Hani H.; Elgobashy, Samir E.; Elkholy, Amr; Kamal, Ahmad M.; Roshdy, Mamdouh A.; Elbaz, Ahmad G.; Riad, Essam

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy and safety of the laparoscopic management of an impacted distal ureteric stone in a bilharzial ureter, as bilharzial ureters are complicated by distal stricture caused by the precipitation of bilharzial ova in the distal ureter. These cases are associated with poorly functioning and grossly hydronephrotic kidneys that hinder the endoscopic manipulation of the coexistent distal high burden of, and long-standing, impacted stones. Patients and methods We used laparoscopic ureterolithotomy, with four trocars, to manage 51 bilharzial patients (33 men and 18 women; mean age 40.13 years) with distal ureteric stones. The ureter was opened directly over the stone and the stone was extracted. A JJ stent was inserted into the ureter, which was then closed with a 4–0 polyglactin running suture. Results The mean stone size was 2.73 cm. Conversion to open surgery was required in only one patient. The mean operative duration was 92 min, the postoperative pain score was 20–60, the mean (range) number of analgesic requests after surgery was 1.72 (1–3), comprising once in 21 patients, twice in 23 and thrice in seven. The mean hospital stay was 2.74 days, and the total duration of follow-up was 7–12 months. The stone recurred in four patients and a ureteric stricture was reported in two. All patients were rendered stone-free. Conclusion Laparoscopy is a safe and effective minimally invasive procedure for distal ureteric stones in a bilharzial ureter with hydronephrosis. PMID:26413344

  7. Global stone heritage: larvikite, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldal, Tom; Dahl, Rolv

    2013-04-01

    Larvikite has for more than hundred years been appreciated as one of the world's most attractive dimension-stones, and at present time its production and use is more extensive than ever. The main reason for the continuous success of the larvikite on the world market is the blue iridescence displayed on polished surfaces, which is caused by optical interference in microscopic lamellae within the ternary feldspars. The larvikite complex consists of different intrusions defining several ring-shaped structures, emplaced during a period of approximately five million years. Following this pattern, several commercial subtypes of larvikite, characterised by their colour and iridescence, have been identified. The name "larvikite" was first applied by Waldemar Brøgger, in his descriptions of the monzonitic rocks within the southern part of the Carboniferous-Permian Oslo Igneous Province. The name has its origin in the small coastal town of Larvik, situated almost right in the centre of the main plutonic complex of larvikite. From a geologist's point of view, the larvikites are important for understanding the igneous mechanisms behind the formation of the Oslo rift, representing a series of semi-circular intrusions, varying from quartz-bearing monzonites in the east (earliest phases) towards nepheline-bearing monzonites and nepheline syenite in the west (latest phases). However, most other people see larvikite as a particularly beautiful rock. Production started already in the 1880s, and at present time the export value of rough blocks of dimension-stone from the Larvik Region is close to 100 million euro, distributed on approximately 20 individual quarries. Different types of larvikite have different market value, and the customers can choose between a range of types and qualities under trade names such as "Blue Pearl", "Emerald Pearl" and "Marina Pearl". Globally, larvikite has put a significant mark on architecture around the world, and should be included in the global

  8. A Lion of a Stone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true-color image of the rock called 'Lion Stone' was acquired by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera on sol 104 (May 9, 2004). The rock stands about 10 centimeters tall (about 4 inches) and is about 30 centimeters long (12 inches). Plans for the coming sols include investigating the rock with the spectrometers on the rover's instrument arm.

    This image was generated using the camera's L2 (750-nanometer), L5 (530-nanometer) and L6 (480-nanometer) filters.

  9. Microbial biofilms on building stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppert, M.; Kemmling, A.; Kämper, M.

    2003-04-01

    Microbial biofilms are ubiquitous in aquatic and terrestric ecosystems as well as on man-made material. The organisms take part in biogenic weathering on natural rocks as well as on building stone [1]. Though the presence of biofilms on stone monuments exposed to the outdoor environment is obvious, thin films also occur on monuments under controllable indoor environment conditions. Numerous biofilm organisms produce large volumes of extracellular polymer (EP), mainly polysaccharides. Hydrated, gel-like EP acts as glue between the organisms and the material surface and forms a protected environment for the microbial cells. The contact zone between EP and the material surface is the crucial reactive interface of the bio-organic cover and the underlying building material. At this interface, all hazardous compounds (e.g. organic acids), after diffusion transfer via EP, react with the material surface. Upon dehydration, volume of EP greatly decreases. The thin, varnish-like EP layer still protects the dormant cells from irreversible inactivation. Periodic shrinking and swelling of the EP induces mechanical stress on the stone surface, epecially when the polymer penetrates small pores and cavities in the underlying material surface. Thus, monitoring and structure/functional analysis of EP and EP production by organisms is important to understand biogenic weathering phenomena and building stone deterioration. The study presented here describes biofilms on the surfaces of building material in outdoor and indoor environments. The application of marker techniques and visualization of samples with light and electron microscopy illustrates the role of EP at microscale. EP forms the matrix that encloses microorganisms, dust particles and mineral grains in a rigid film. EP penetrates small pore spaces of the underlying substratum and may also facilitate subsequent penetration of the microorganisms into the material. EP seals the material surface and cements the superficial layer

  10. Cadmium and the kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Friberg, L

    1984-01-01

    The paper is a review of certain aspects of importance of cadmium and the kidney regarding the assessment of risks and understanding of mechanisms of action. The review discusses the following topics: history and etiology of cadmium-induced kidney dysfunction and related disorders; cadmium metabolism, metallothionein and kidney dysfunction; cadmium in urine as indicator of body burden, exposure and kidney dysfunction; cadmium levels in kidney and liver as indicators of kidney dysfunction; characteristics of early kidney dysfunction; the critical concentration concept; critical concentrations of cadmium in kidney cortex; and prognosis. PMID:6734547

  11. Changes in stone composition over two decades: evaluation of over 10,000 stone analyses.

    PubMed

    Moses, Rachel; Pais, Vernon M; Ursiny, Michal; Prien, Edwin L; Miller, Nicole; Eisner, Brian H

    2015-04-01

    To examine the changes in stone composition from 1990 to 2010. A retrospective review was performed of all renal and ureteral stones submitted from the state of Massachusetts to a single laboratory (Laboratory for Stone Research, Newton, MA) for the years 1990 and 2010. Stone composition was determined by infrared spectroscopy and/or polarizing microscopy. A total of 11,099 stones were evaluated (56.7% from 1990, 43.3% from 2010). From 1990 to 2010, the percentage of stones from females (i.e., female/male ratio) increased significantly (29.8% in 1990 to 39.1% in 2010, p < 0.001). Among women, from 1990 to 2010, there was a significant increase in stones which were >50% uric acid (7.6-10.2%, p < 0.005) and a significant decrease in struvite stones (7.8-3.0%, p < 0.001). Among women with calcium stones, the % apatite per stone decreased significantly (20.0 vs. 11.7%, p < 0.001). Among men, there were no changes in stones which were majority uric acid (11.7-10.8%, p = 0.2). Among men with calcium stones, the % apatite per stone increased significantly (9.8 vs. 12.5%, p < 0.001). Males also demonstrated a significant increase in both cystine (0.1-0.6%, p < 0.001) and struvite stones (2.8-3.7%, p = 0.02). The epidemiology of stone disease continues to evolve and appears to vary according to gender. While some of these findings may be related to population changes in body mass index and obesity, the etiology of others remains unclear. PMID:25689875

  12. KIDNEY XENOTRANSPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Peter J.; Cooper, David K.C.; d’Apice, Anthony J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Xenotransplantation using pigs as donors offers the possibility of eliminating the chronic shortage of donor kidneys, but there are several obstacles to be overcome before this goal can be achieved. Preclinical studies have shown that while porcine renal xenografts are broadly compatible physiologically, they provoke a complex rejection process involving preformed and elicited antibodies, heightened innate immune cell reactivity, dysregulated coagulation, and a strong T cell-mediated adaptive response. Furthermore, the susceptibility of the xenograft to pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulant stimuli is probably increased by cross-species molecular defects in regulatory pathways. To balance these disadvantages, xenotransplantation has at its disposal a unique tool to address particular rejection mechanisms and incompatibilities: genetic modification of the donor. This review focuses on the pathophysiology of porcine renal xenograft rejection, and on the significant genetic, pharmacological and technical progress that has been made to prolong xenograft survival. PMID:24088952

  13. Elemental Content of Calcium Oxalate Stones from a Canine Model of Urinary Stone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Killilea, David W.; Westropp, Jodi L.; Shiraki, Ryoji; Mellema, Matthew; Larsen, Jennifer; Kahn, Arnold J.; Kapahi, Pankaj; Chi, Thomas; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common types of urinary stones formed in humans and some other mammals is composed of calcium oxalate in ordered hydrated crystals. Many studies have reported a range of metals other than calcium in human stones, but few have looked at stones from animal models such as the dog. Therefore, we determined the elemental profile of canine calcium oxalate urinary stones and compared it to reported values from human stones. The content of 19 elements spanning 7-orders of magnitude was quantified in calcium oxalate stones from 53 dogs. The elemental profile of the canine stones was highly overlapping with human stones, indicating similar inorganic composition. Correlation and cluster analysis was then performed on the elemental profile from canine stones to evaluate associations between the elements and test for potential subgrouping based on elemental content. No correlations were observed with the most abundant metal calcium. However, magnesium and sulfur content correlated with the mineral hydration form, while phosphorous and zinc content correlated with the neuter status of the dog. Inter-elemental correlation analysis indicated strong associations between barium, phosphorous, and zinc content. Additionally, cluster analysis revealed subgroups within the stones that were also based primarily on barium, phosphorous, and zinc. These data support the use of the dog as a model to study the effects of trace metal homeostasis in urinary stone disease. PMID:26066810

  14. Gallstone Ileus following Endoscopic Stone Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Wakui, Noritaka; Asai, Yasutsugu; Dan, Nobuhiro; Takeda, Yuki; Ueki, Nobuo; Otsuka, Takahumi; Oba, Nobuyuki; Nisinakagawa, Shuta; Kojima, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    An 85-year-old woman was an outpatient treated at Tokyo Rosai Hospital for cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B. She had previously been diagnosed as having common bile duct stones, for which she underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). However, as stone removal was unsuccessful, a plastic stent was placed after endoscopic sphincterotomy. In October 2012, the stent was replaced endoscopically because she developed cholangitis due to stent occlusion. Seven days later, we performed ERCP to treat recurring cholangitis. During the procedure, the stone was successfully removed by a balloon catheter when cleaning the common bile duct. The next day, the patient developed abdominal pain, abdominal distension, and nausea and was diagnosed as having gallstone ileus based on abdominal computed tomography (CT) and abdominal ultrasonography findings of an incarcerated stone in the terminal ileum. Although colonoscopy was performed after inserting an ileus tube, no stone was visible. Subsequent CT imaging verified the disappearance of the incarcerated stone from the ileum, suggesting that the stone had been evacuated naturally via the transanal route. Although it is extremely rare for gallstone ileus to develop as a complication of ERCP, physicians should be aware of gallstone ileus and follow patients carefully, especially after removing huge stones. PMID:25328725

  15. Nutrition and renal stone disease in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerwekh, Joseph E.

    2002-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Russian space program showing that humans exposed to the microgravity environment of space have a greater risk for developing renal stones. Increased bone resorption and the attendant hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia contribute significantly to raising the urinary state of saturation with respect to the calcium salts, namely calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. In addition, other environmental and dietary factors may adversely affect urine composition and increase stone formation risk during space flight. For example, reductions in urinary volume, pH, and citrate contribute to raising stone formation risk. In addition to raising the risk for calcium stone formation, this metabolic profile is conducive to the formation of uric acid stones. Although observations to date have suggested that there may actually be a reduced food intake during the early phase of flight, crew members on longer-duration flights may increase food intake and be at increased risk for stone formation. Taken together, these findings support the use of nutritional recommendations for crew members that would serve to reduce the stone-forming propensity of the urinary environment. Pharmacologic intervention should be directed at raising urinary volumes, diminishing bone losses, and preventing reductions in urinary pH and citrate. Success in reducing the risk for stone formation in astronauts would also be of potential major benefit to the estimated 20 million Americans with nephrolithiasis.

  16. Nutrition and renal stone disease in space.

    PubMed

    Zerwekh, Joseph E

    2002-10-01

    There is a growing body of evidence from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Russian space program showing that humans exposed to the microgravity environment of space have a greater risk for developing renal stones. Increased bone resorption and the attendant hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia contribute significantly to raising the urinary state of saturation with respect to the calcium salts, namely calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. In addition, other environmental and dietary factors may adversely affect urine composition and increase stone formation risk during space flight. For example, reductions in urinary volume, pH, and citrate contribute to raising stone formation risk. In addition to raising the risk for calcium stone formation, this metabolic profile is conducive to the formation of uric acid stones. Although observations to date have suggested that there may actually be a reduced food intake during the early phase of flight, crew members on longer-duration flights may increase food intake and be at increased risk for stone formation. Taken together, these findings support the use of nutritional recommendations for crew members that would serve to reduce the stone-forming propensity of the urinary environment. Pharmacologic intervention should be directed at raising urinary volumes, diminishing bone losses, and preventing reductions in urinary pH and citrate. Success in reducing the risk for stone formation in astronauts would also be of potential major benefit to the estimated 20 million Americans with nephrolithiasis. PMID:12361779

  17. Armenian Khatchkar (Stone Cross) Carved in 1308.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacobian, Mossik

    This booklet introduces students to a unique form of stone sculpture made by Armenian artists for over twelve centuries, the khatchkar, or stone cross. The document is part of a series of seven instructional materials dealing with the history and culture of Armenian Americans. It contains a reading on khatchkars as symbols of faith for eternity, a…

  18. At Risk for Kidney Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... or organization Alternate Language URL At Risk for Kidney Disease? Page Content You are at risk for kidney ... failure by treating kidney disease early. Diabetes and Kidney Disease Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure. ...

  19. 18C. Chinese Herbs Cured a Kidney Calculus—A Retrospective Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Focus Areas: Integrative Approaches to Care Objective: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is referred to as holistic or complementary and alternative medicine. Herbal remedy plays the main role of TCM. It has been widely used in preventive measures and treatment modalities for all stages of illness. Here is a retrospective case report about herb healing the kidney stone and improving type II diabetes and hypertension. Patient, Method and Result: A male, 46 years old, chief complaint: intermittent lumbago 6 years. The other symptoms were fatigue and slight thirst. He had been diagnosed with type II diabetes, hypertension of 2 years, and a small kidney stone (6 years). His blood pressure (BP) was between 140/85mmHg to 150/95mmHg; fasting plasma glucose was around 7mmol/L to 8 mmol/L. PE: BP 145/95 mmHg. Lab: 2hPG: 15.1mmol/L. Urinalysis: RBC: 5-6/HP, WBC: 2-4/ HP, GLU. Ultrasound: kidney stone, 0.3x 0.2 cm, at the inferior pole of the left kidney. This patient irregularly took Metformin, refused to control diet or use antihypertensives, but was open to using an herbal formula, 1 dose per day. After 1 year's treatment, his back pain, fatigue, and thirst gradually disappeared. BP was around130-120/85-75mmHg, 2h PG: 7.3mmol/L. FPG: 6mmol/L. Urinalysis: RBC: 0-2/HP, WBC: negative, Glu. Ultrasound: normal, no stone found. Discussion: Generally, there is no method to remove a small stone in the renal parenchyma. In this case, Chinese herbal tea achieved a dramatic curing result. At retrospective review after 8 years, no stone recurred. From the TCM theory, the stone is the result of heat congealing turbid dampness; the diabetes is Yin-deficient heat. The basic function of this formula is to tonify Qi and Yin, invigorate blood, clear heat, and resolve the stone. In conjunction with Metformin, the patient's diabetes and hypertension were improved. Conclusion: This Chinese herb formula dissolved the kidney stone and prevented a new stone from recurring. There is no obvious

  20. Kidney damage in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: a numerical approach for different shock profiles.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Kerstin; Ortiz, Michael

    2009-08-01

    In shock-wave lithotripsy--a medical procedure to fragment kidney stones--the patient is subjected to hypersonic waves focused at the kidney stone. Although this procedure is widely applied, the physics behind this medical treatment, in particular the question of how the injuries to the surrounding kidney tissue arise, is still under investigation. To contribute to the solution of this problem, two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations of a human kidney under shock-wave loading are presented. For this purpose a constitutive model of the bio-mechanical system kidney is introduced, which is able to map large visco-elastic deformations and, in particular, material damage. The specific phenomena of cavitation induced oscillating bubbles is modeled here as an evolution of spherical pores within the soft kidney tissue. By means of large scale finite element simulations, we study the shock-wave propagation into the kidney tissue, adapt unknown material parameters and analyze the resulting stress states. The simulations predict localized damage in the human kidney in the same regions as observed in animal experiments. Furthermore, the numerical results suggest that in first instance the pressure amplitude of the shock wave impulse (and not so much its exact time-pressure profile) is responsible for damaging the kidney tissue. PMID:18807077

  1. Damage of Stone Baskets by Endourologic Lithotripters: A Laboratory Study of 5 Lithotripters and 4 Basket Types

    PubMed Central

    Brinkmann, Ralf; Jocham, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Background. In some cases, the ureteral stone is simultaneously stabilized by a stone basket when endourologic lithotripsy is performed. This stabilization can be either on purpose or by accident. By accident means that an impaction in the ureter occurs by an extraction of a stone with a basket. A stabilization on purpose means to avoid a retropulsion of the stone into the kidney during lithotripsy. At this part of the operation, stone baskets have been frequently damaged. This severing of wires can lead to ureteral trauma because of hook formation. Material and Methods. In a laboratory setting, the time and the pulse numbers were measured until breaking the wires from four different nitinol stone baskets by using five different lithotripsy devices. The endpoint was gross visibledamage to the wire and loss of electric conduction. Results. The Ho:YAG laser and the ultrasonic device were able to destroy almost all the wires. The ballistic devices and the electrohydraulic device were able to destroy thin wires. Conclusion. The operating surgeon should know the risk of damagefor every lithotripter. The Ho:YAG-laser and the ultrasonic device should be classified as dangerous for the basket wire with all adverse effects to the patient. PMID:24288527

  2. Differentiation of Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate and Calcium Oxalate Dihydrate Stones Using Quantitative Morphological Information from Micro-Computerized and Clinical Computerized Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xinhui; Qu, Mingliang; Wang, Jia; Trevathan, James; Vrtiska, Terri; Williams, James C.; Krambeck, Amy; Lieske, John; McCollough, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We differentiated calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate kidney stones using micro and clinical computerized tomography images. Materials and Methods A total of 22 calcium oxalate monohydrate and 15 calcium oxalate dihydrate human kidney stones were scanned using a commercial micro-computerized tomography scanner with a pixel size of 7 to 23 μm. Under an institutional review board approved protocol, image data on 10 calcium oxalate monohydrate and 9 calcium oxalate dihydrate stones greater than 5 mm were retrieved from a total of 80 patients who underwent clinical dual energy computerized tomography for clinical indications and had stones available for infrared spectroscopic compositional analysis. Micro and clinical computerized tomography images were processed using in-house software, which quantified stone surface morphology with curvature based calculations. A shape index was generated as a quantitative shape metric to differentiate calcium oxalate monohydrate from calcium oxalate dihydrate stones. Statistical tests were used to test the performance of the shape index. Results On micro-computerized tomography images the shape index of calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate stones significantly differed (ROC curve AUC 0.92, p <0.0001). At the optimal cutoff sensitivity was 0.93 and specificity was 0.91. On clinical computerized tomography images a significant morphological difference was also detected (p = 0.007). AUC, sensitivity and specificity were 0.90, 1 and 0.73, respectively. Conclusions On micro and clinical computerized tomography images a morphological difference was detectable in calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate stones larger than 5 mm. The shape index is a highly promising method that can distinguish calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate stones with reasonable accuracy. PMID:23142201

  3. Medullary Sponge Kidney

    MedlinePlus

    ... Association of Kidney Patients National Kidney Foundation MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Medullary Sponge Kidney Page Content On this page: What is Medullary ...

  4. Ileal Neobladder With Mucous Plugs as a Cause of Obstructive Acute Kidney Injury Requiring Emergent Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Singla, Montish; Shikha, Deep; Lee, Sunggeun; Baumstein, Donald; Chaudhari, Ashok; Carbajal, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Ileal neobladder is the preferred technique in the management of urinary diversion postradical cystectomy for bladder malignancy. The common complications associated with this procedure are atrophied kidney, chronic pyelonephritis, decreased renal function, ureteroileal or urethral anastomotic site stricture, urinary tract stones, incontinence, and hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Mucous plugs are also seen in 2%-3% patients. We present a rare presentation of a patient who required hemodialysis for severe hyperkalemia and acute kidney injury caused by mucous plugging of ileal neobladder. PMID:25420078

  5. H+, Water and Urea Transport in the Inner Medullary Collecting Duct and Their Role in the Prevention and Pathogenesis of Renal Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Susan M.; Klein, Janet D.

    2008-09-01

    The inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) is the final site within the kidney for the reabsorption of urea, water and electrolytes and for the secretion of H+ before the luminal fluid becomes the final urine. Transporters expressed in the IMCD contribute to the generation of the large ion gradients that exist between the interstitium and the collecting duct lumen. Thus, the luminal fluid within the human IMCD can reach an osmolality of 1200 mOsm/kg H2O and a pH of 4. This ability of the human nephron to concentrate and acidify the urine might predispose to stone formation. However, under treatment conditions that predispose to stone formation, such as during hypercalciuria, the kidney mitigates stone formation by reducing solute concentration by reducing H2O reabsorption. Moreover, the kidney attenuates stone formation by tightly controlling acid-base balance, which prevents the bone loss, hypocitraturia and hypercalciuria observed during metabolic acidosis by augmenting net H+ excretion by tightly regulating H+ transporter function and through luminal buffering, particularly with NH3. This article will review the ion transporters present in the mammalian IMCD and their role in the prevention and in the pathogenesis of renal stone formation.

  6. Cosmogenic radionuclides in stone meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This document presents the techniques and compilation of results of cosmogenic Al-26 measurements at Goddard Space Flight Center on 91 samples of 76 stone meteorites. Short-lived radionuclides, including Na-22, Sc-46, Mn-54, and Co-60, were measured in 13 of these meteorites. About one-third of these data has not previously been published. The results are discussed briefly in terms of (1) depletion of Al-26 and natural potassium due to weathering, (2) possible exposure of several chondrites to an unusually high cosmic-ray flux, (3) comparison of Al-26, Na-22, Sc-46, and Mn5-54 in chondrites with the spallation Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio as a shielding indicator, and (4) comparison of (Al-26)-(Ne-22)/Ne-21 data for achondrite classes with the chondrite trend.

  7. Characterization of Technetium Speciation in Cast Stone

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Wang, Guohui; Westsik, Joseph H.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-11-11

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-31 Support Program (EMSP) subtask, “Production and Long-Term Performance of Low Temperature Waste Forms” to provide additional information on technetium (Tc) speciation characterization in the Cast Stone waste form. To support the use of Cast Stone as an alternative to vitrification for solidifying low-activity waste (LAW) and as the current baseline waste form for secondary waste streams at the Hanford Site, additional understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone is needed to predict the long-term Tc leachability from Cast Stone and to meet the regulatory disposal-facility performance requirements for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Characterizations of the Tc speciation within the Cast Stone after leaching under various conditions provide insights into how the Tc is retained and released. The data generated by the laboratory tests described in this report provide both empirical and more scientific information to increase our understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone and its release mechanism under relevant leaching processes for the purpose of filling data gaps and to support the long-term risk and performance assessments of Cast Stone in the IDF at the Hanford Site.

  8. A Prospective, Multi-Institutional Study of Flexible Ureteroscopy for Proximal Ureteral Stones Smaller than 2 cm

    PubMed Central

    Hyams, Elias S.; Monga, Manoj; Pearle, Margaret S.; Antonelli, Jodi A.; Semins, Michelle J.; Assimos, Dean G.; Lingeman, James E.; Pais, Vernon M.; Preminger, Glenn M.; Lipkin, Michael E.; Eisner, Brian H.; Shah, Ojas; Sur, Roger L; Mufarrij, Patrick W.; Matlagak, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Flexible ureteroscopy is rapidly becoming a first line therapy for many patients with renal and ureteral stones. However, current understanding of treatment outcomes in patients with isolated proximal ureteral stones is limited. Therefore, we performed a prospective, multi-institutional study of ureteroscopic management of proximal ureteral stones smaller than 2 cm to better define clinical outcomes associated with this approach. Materials and Methods Adult patients with proximal ureteral calculi smaller than 2 cm were prospectively identified. Patients with concomitant ipsilateral renal calculi or prior ureteral stenting were excluded from study. Flexible ureteroscopy, holmium laser lithotripsy and ureteral stent placement was performed. Ureteral access sheath use, laser settings and other details of perioperative and postoperative management were based on individual surgeon preference. Stone clearance was determined by the results of renal ultrasound and plain x-ray of the kidneys, ureters and bladder 4 to 6 weeks postoperatively. Results Of 71 patients 44 (62%) were male and 27 (38%) were female. Mean age was 48.2 years. ASA® score was 1 in 12 cases (16%), 2 in 41 (58%), 3 in 16 (23%) and 4 in 2 (3%). Mean body mass index was 31.8 kg/m2, mean stone size was 7.4 mm (range 5 to 15) and mean operative time was 60.3 minutes (range 15 to 148). Intraoperative complications occurred in 2 patients (2.8%), including mild ureteral trauma. Postoperative complications developed in 6 patients (8.7%), including urinary tract infection in 3, urinary retention in 2 and flash pulmonary edema in 1. The stone-free rate was 95% and for stones smaller than 1 cm it was 100%. Conclusions Flexible ureteroscopy is associated with excellent clinical outcomes and acceptable morbidity when applied to patients with proximal ureteral stones smaller than 2 cm. PMID:25014576

  9. A case of kidney transplantation using donation after circulatory death with renal calculi

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Baoshan; Zhang, Kun; Guo, Chunjie; Wang, Weigang; Wang, Gang; Wang, Yuantao; Yao, Liyu; Fu, Yaowen; Zhou, Honglan

    2015-01-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) supplies a big percentage of the organ source pool. Compared to living-related donations, donor kidneys from DCD are commonly with lower quality since they inevitably suffer from hypoxia, hypotension, and inadequate organ perfusion during the progression to circulatory arrest. The current case presents a 44-year-old male donor with wide range subarachnoid hemorrhage and multiple skull fracture from a car accident. Multiple stones were detected in his right kidney. We performed a modified ex vivo pyelolithotomy and ureteroscopy on the bench to render a stone-free allograft. We also improved the donor kidney with hypothermic/perfusion preservation machine before renal transplantation. The recipient showed no complications during the first two-month post-operational follow-up. Such a donor kidney with stones may probably be discarded by conventional perspective. Yet, the combination of the ex vivo bench-surgery technique and hypothermic oxygenation/perfusion makes it a qualified donor kidney. Thus we have demonstrated a promising way of saving borderline qualified DCD donor kidneys. PMID:26885172

  10. Music, musicians, medicine, and the kidney.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Rajeev; Eknoyan, Garabed

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between music, medicine and nephrology is ancient; ranging from musicians afflicted with kidney disease, contributors to nephrology who were musicians, and the use of music to treat renal maladies. Musicians have long been afflicted by diseases of the kidney, particularly nephrolithiasis, for which Marin Marais in 1725 composed a unique piece for the viol detailing the harrowing experience of 'cutting for stone.' Beethoven and Mozart were afflicted by kidney disease, as are several current musicians. Where past musicians succumbed to their failing kidneys, the advent of renal replacement therapy has given today's musicians, such as James DePreist and Natalie Cole, the opportunity to continue performing and composing. Several notable physicians of old have excelled as musicians; one example is Jacob Henle (1809-1885), for whom the loop of Henle is named, another is Robert Christison, a contemporary of Richard Bright, who is considered a 'founder of nephrology'. Importantly, music therapy, as used in the times of Hippocrates and King David, has evolved from an empiric to a well-established scientific discipline. Given the recent enlarging body of scholarly studies of music therapy, its rudimentary role in nephrology deserves further exploration. PMID:24033748

  11. Famous building stones of our Nation's capital

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2012-01-01

    The buildings of our Nation's Capital are constructed with rocks from quarries located throughout the United States and many distant lands. The earliest Government buildings, however, were constructed with stones from nearby sources because it was too difficult and expensive to move heavy materials such as stone any great distance without the aid of modern transportation methods, including large cargo ships, trains, and trucks. This fact sheet describes the source and appearance of three frequently used local stones employed in building Washington, D.C., and the geologic environment in which they were formed.

  12. Thomas Young and the Rosetta Stone.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrew

    2007-06-01

    Who deciphered the Rosetta Stone and the Egyptian hieroglyphs? The usual answer is Jean-François Champollion, beginning in 1822. But ever since that time, Egyptologists have debated the role of his rival, the polymath Thomas Young, the first person to publish a partially correct translation of the Rosetta Stone. A recent BBC television dramatisation rekindled the controversy by presenting Champollion as a 'lone genius' who succeeded independently of Young. While there is no doubt that Champollion deciphered the hieroglyphic script as a whole, the evidence suggests that Young's early detailed study of the Rosetta Stone created the conceptual framework that made possible Champollion's later breakthrough. PMID:17583792

  13. [Salivary stones: aetiology, composition and treatment].

    PubMed

    Kraaij, S; Brand, H S; Karagozoglu, K H; Forouzanfar, T; Veerman, E C I

    2014-11-01

    Salivary stones or sialoliths, are calcified concrements which are most frequently located in the submandibular glands and their ducts. Their size and weight show considerable variation. The aetiology is unknown. It has been suggested that salivary stones could be related to an altered saliva composition, the anatomy of the ducts of the salivary gland and/or the fusion of microsialoliths. Salivary stones consist mainly of anorganic material such as hydroxyapatite, whitlockite and calciumphosphate, but they also contain organic components such as proteins and lipids. Treatment can consist of salivary gland massage combined with an acid diet, ultrasonic pulverisation, and surgical or sialendoscopical removal. PMID:26188478

  14. Antilithic effects of extracts from Urtica dentata hand on calcium oxalate urinary stones in rats.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Ming; Zhang, Shasha; Lu, Jingli; Li, Lulu; Hou, Wenrui; Xie, Mingxing; Zeng, Ying

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the potential antilithic effects of a traditional Chinese medicine Urtica dentata Hand (UDH) in experimental rats and screened the optimal extract of UDH as a possible therapeutic agent for kidney stones. The rat model of urinary calcium oxalate stones was induced by intragastric (i.g.) administration of 2 mL of 1.25% ethylene glycol (EG) and 1% ammonium chloride (AC) for 28 days and was confirmed by Color Doppler ultrasound imaging. The rats in different experimental groups were then intragastrically given petroleum ether extract (PEE), N-butanol extract (NBE), aqueous extract (AqE) of UDH, Jieshitong (positive control drug), and saline, respectively. Treatment with NBE significantly reduced the elevated levels of urinary calcium, uric acid, phosphate, as well as increased urinary output. Accordingly, the increased calcium, oxalate levels and the number of calcium oxalate crystals deposits were remarkably reverted in the renal tissue of NBE-treated rats. In addition, NBE also prevented the impairment of renal function to decrease the contents of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine. Taken together, these data suggest that NBE of UDH has a beneficial effect on calcium oxalate urinary stones in rats by flushing the stones out and protecting renal function. PMID:22038359

  15. 78 FR 3911 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN; Final Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN... (CCP) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) for the environmental assessment (EA) for Big Stone.../FONSI on the planning Web site at http://www.fws.gov/midwest/planning/BigStoneNWR/index.html . A...

  16. Portugues Marbles as Stone Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present and justify the reasons for the worldwide recognition of Portuguese Marbles as Stone Heritage. These marbles are also known as "Estremoz Marble" since was the first county were exploited. In the Estremoz Anticline marbles occupy an intermediate stratigraphic position being part of a volcano-sedimentary sequence of Cambrian age. The anticlinal structure has a Precambrian core and the younger rocks aged Devonian Period. This sequence has deformed by the Variscan Orogeny, which performed twice with different intensities both in ductile and brittle tension fields. The early Alpine Cycle also acts in the region and cause more fracturing of the marble. Practically in all the quarries is possible to perceive the spatial-temporal continuity of the deformation where one can describe a complete Wilson Cycle. Together all these geological features imprint the marbles beautiful aesthetic patterns that can be highlighted when used as dimension stone. Nowadays most of the quarries are placed in the counties of Borba and mainly in Vila Viçosa. This last city claims for itself the "Capital of the Marble" title and named the marble as "White Gold". In fact, according to the historical record, the marbles were quarried in Portuguese Alentejo's Province since the fourth century BC. Locally these geological materials are available easily accessible. Exhibit physical properties that allow the fabrication of structural and decorative elements and so were used since humans settled in the region and developed a structured Society. In the Roman period, the pieces of art made with Estremoz Marbles were exported abroad and today are represented in Museums and Archaeological Sites throughout Europe and North Africa countries. The Portuguese Marbles and Limestones, transformed into altars, stairways, columns, statues and pieces of wall cladding, were carried as ballast in the holds of ships. At the destination the Portuguese People had built

  17. The nutrition consult for recurrent stone formers.

    PubMed

    Penniston, Kristina L

    2015-07-01

    Diet is implicated in stone formation and growth. Whether alone or in concert with pharmacologics, dietary changes may be useful in reducing recurrence but only when they correct dietary stone-forming risks. Patients benefit from recommendations individualized to their food preferences as well as to lifestyle, age, food knowledge and access, preparation skills, and cultural and ethnic identities. Urologists can provide general dietary recommendations but often lack the time to provide the full complement of individualized nutrition care offered by a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN). Urologists can partner with and refer patients to a RDN for any component of the nutrition care process: assessment of diet, diagnosis of dietary factors that contribute to stone risk factors, intervention formulation and implementation, and monitoring the effectiveness of the intervention and modifying it as needed to maintain suitably low dietary risk for stone recurrence. PMID:26025494

  18. Adenoid Stones – “Adenoliths”

    PubMed Central

    Sakano, Hitomi; Thaker, Ameet I.; Davis, Greg E.

    2015-01-01

    Stones made of bacterial aggregates can be found in chronically inflamed lymphoid tissue such as hypertrophied tonsils. Although it is common to find tonsilloliths in cryptic tonsils, it is rare to find stones in adenoid tissue. Here we present an interesting case of a patient who underwent adenoidectomy for adenoid hypertrophy, recurrent malaise and upper respiratory infections. Intraoperatively we found numerous bright green stones in the crypts of the adenoid tissue, reminiscent of tonsilloliths in tonsillar crypts. Pathology revealed polymicrobial bacterial aggregates surrounded by neutrophils. Our findings suggest that the pathophysiology is similar to that of tonsillolith formation. Thus, we should at least consider the presence of adenoid stones and consider adenoidectomy for symptoms often attributed to tonsilloliths. We have coined the term “adenoliths” to describe this interesting finding and present it as a potential source of recurrent infection. PMID:26798664

  19. Pulmonary function tests in stone crushers.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Sachin B; Mane, Satish B; Handergulle, Sunita S; Kekan, Dinkar

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional type of observational study was conducted at 7 various stone crusher units on 120 male stone crushers and 120 healthy male controls. Values of FEF25-27% and PEFR were recorded on computerized spirometer and were compared between workers and age matched controls group. The value of FEF25-75% and PEFR was significantly reduced in stone crushers as compared to controls. Also as the duration of exposure increases the values of flow rates goes on decreasing among workers. Stone crushers of Marathwada region of Maharashtra exposed to silica dust were prone to develop lung disorders as indicated by reduced value of FEF25-75% and PEFR. PMID:25906617

  20. [A case of ammonium urate urinary stone].

    PubMed

    Hara, Noboru; Koike, Hiroshi

    2004-05-01

    An 18-year-old female, who had undergone antireflux surgery for bilateral vesicoureteral reflux 5 years ago, was admitted to our department with complaints of fever and left-sided back pain. Bilateral renal stones and pyelonephritis were diagnosed after roentgenography, ultrasonography and urinalysis. Pyelonephritis was successfully treated with antibiotics and the left renal stone was completely disintegrated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed that the stone was composed of pure ammonium urate (AU). The patient had not experienced any episodes of urinary tract infection from the antireflux surgery until the present event, but had lost 20 kg in body weight during the last year due to a low-caloric diet and laxative abuse. AU urinary stones have been infrequently reported in Japan, and they are supposed to be associated with a low-caloric diet, laxative abuse, and anorexia nervosa. PMID:15237492

  1. Investigation on laser induced salivary stone fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sroka, Ronald; Pongratz, Thomas; Eder, Matthias; Domes, Mona; Vogeser, Michael; Johnson, Thorsten; Siedeck, Vanessa; Schroetzlmair, Florian; Zengel, Pamela

    2014-03-01

    Objective: It was the objective of this in-vitro study to investigate photon-based techniques for identifying the composition and fragmentation of salivary stones using a Ho:YAG laser. Materials and Method: Salivary stones (n=47) extracted from patients with clinical symptoms of sialolithiasis were examined in-vitro. After extraction, the stones were kept in Ringers solution until size and volume measurements could be performed. Thereafter, dual-energy CT scans (DECT) were performed to classify the composition of the stones. Subsequently, fluorescence measurements were performed by taking images under blue light excitation as well as by fluorescence spectroscopy, measuring excitation-emission-matrixes (EEM). Further investigation to identify the exact composition of the stone was performed by Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy of stone fragments and debris. Fragmentation was performed in an aquarium set-up equipped with a mesh (hole: 1.5mm) using a Ho:YAG-laser to deliver laser pulses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5J/pulse at a frequency of 3Hz through a 200μm-fibre to the stone surface. The collected data were analyzed and fragmentation rates were calculated. Finally, correlation between stone composition and fragmentation was performed. Results: Blue light fluorescence excitation resulted in either fluorescence in the green spectral region or in a combination of green and red fluorescence emission. EEM-measurement showed the corresponding spectra. Raman spectroscopy showed a mixture of carbonate apatite and keratin. DECT results in evidence of calcium containing components. FTIR-spectroscopy results showed that carbonate apatite is the main component. Fragmentation experiment showed a dependency on the energy per pulse applied if the evaluation implies the ratio of fragmented weight to pulse, while the ratio fragmented weight to energy remains about constant for the three laser parameter used. Conclusion: The composition of salivary stones could be determined using

  2. A Rare Complication Observed during Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: Foreign Body Migration from the Right Kidney to the Left Lung.

    PubMed

    Kaba, Mehmet; Pirinççi, Necip; Kaba, Sultan; Çobanoğlu, Ufuk; Eryılmaz, Recep; Eren, Hüseyin

    2015-06-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is the first-line treatment in large, multiple stones and lower calyceal stones. Majority of complications associated with PNL are minor and clinically insignificant. It was seen that distal piece (2 cm in size) of ureter catheter observed at pelvis was found at the parenchyma of left lung on the perioperative fluoroscopy in the patient undergoing PNL for right kidney stone. We presented this complication to stress that a foreign body can pass into circulation presumably through venous injury and can migrate to the lung. PMID:26171308

  3. Stone formation and management after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Tarplin, Sarah; Ganesan, Vishnu; Monga, Manoj

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is a significant health concern and is associated with an increased risk of nephrolithiasis, particularly in women. The underlying pathophysiology of stone formation in obese patients is thought to be related to insulin resistance, dietary factors, and a lithogenic urinary profile. Uric acid stones and calcium oxalate stones are common in these patients. Use of surgical procedures for obesity (bariatric surgery) has risen over the past two decades. Although such procedures effectively manage obesity-dependent comorbidities, several large, controlled studies have revealed that modern bariatric surgeries increase the risk of nephrolithiasis by approximately twofold. In patients who have undergone bariatric surgery, fat malabsorption leads to hyperabsorption of oxalate, which is exacerbated by an increased permeability of the gut to oxalate. Patients who have undergone bariatric surgery show characteristic 24 h urine parameters including low urine volume, low urinary pH, hypocitraturia, hyperoxaluria and hyperuricosuria. Prevention of stones with dietary limitation of oxalate and sodium and a high intake of fluids is critical, and calcium supplementation with calcium citrate is typically required. Potassium citrate is valuable for treating the common metabolic derangements as it raises urinary pH, enhances the activity of stone inhibitors, reduces the supersaturation of calcium oxalate, and corrects hypokalaemia. Both pyridoxine and probiotics have been shown in small studies to reduce hyperoxaluria, but further study is necessary to clarify their effects on stone morbidity in the bariatric surgery population. PMID:25850790

  4. Famous Stone Patients and Their Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Michael E.

    2007-04-01

    The fact that stone patients have endured much throughout the ages and that prior to our current era, when the ultimate horror, "being cut for the stone" was the only alternative to the repeated episodes of colic, should be recalled from time to time. Urolithiasis has affected humanity throughout the ages and has been indiscriminate to those lives it touched. A full accounting of those who have suffered and recorded their agonies is beyond the scope of this investigation; however, even a partial accounting is valuable for present day physicians who care for those with stone disease. For the present work, the historical accounts of stone disease literature were scrutinized for individual sufferers who could be cross-referenced from other sources as legitimately afflicted by stones. Only those patients that could be documented and were (or are) well known were included, because the internet is now a verdant repository of thousands of "not so well knowns." Reliable historical data was found for a variety of persons from the pre-Christian era to the present, including those remembered as philosophers and scientists, physicians, clergy, leaders and rulers, entertainers, athletes and fictitious/Hollywood-type individuals. Verified accounts of famous stone formers were chosen for this paper, and are presented in chronological order. The list of urolithiasis sufferers presented here is undoubtedly incomplete, but it is not through lack of trying that they are missing. Most often, the suffering do so silently, and that is always allowed.

  5. Uric acid stones following hepatic transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Mei-Tsuey; Goldfarb, David S

    2004-12-01

    We report the case of a 52 year old man with a history of insulin-requiring diabetes and hepatitis B with cirrhosis who received an orthotopic liver transplant. One year later he developed renal colic and was found to have a 3 mm stone at the left ureterovesical junction. Numerous other stones formed and infrared spectroscopy analysis demonstrated all to be composed of 100% uric acid. Urine collections demonstrated a low urine pH of 5.1 without hyperuricosuria. His stones were effectively prevented with potassium citrate therapy. Few incidence data are available for uric acid stone occurrence in solid organ recipients. Calcineurin inhibitors are thought to often cause hyperuricemia on the basis of decreased urate excretion. However, this effect would not be expected to cause hyperuricosuria nor uric acid stones. This class of drugs may also be associated with low urine pH, perhaps on the basis of hypoaldosteronism, but the contribution of such a syndrome to uric acid stone formation is not established. PMID:15565437

  6. The role of open stone surgery

    PubMed Central

    El-Husseiny, Tamer; Buchholz, Noor

    2012-01-01

    Objective To highlight the role of open stone surgery in the management of urolithiasis in the current era of minimally invasive therapies. The introduction and continuous development of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureterorenoscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) over the past 30 years have led to a significant change in the current management of urolithiasis, where the indications for open stone surgery have been narrowed significantly, making it a second- or third-line treatment option. Methods We reviewed the most recent guidelines published by the European Association of Urology and the American Urological Association, and reviewed reports through a MEDLINE search to identify the indications and current role of open stone surgery. Results From the MEDLINE search, it was obvious that the number of papers published on open renal stone surgery has decreased during the last three decades, soon after the introduction of ESWL and PCNL. Conclusion Although currently most patients with stones can be managed by minimally invasive therapy, we believe that open surgery still has a role, and therefore it is of great importance to recognise that a small group of patients with complex stone disease, and those with anatomical and physiological anomalies, will benefit from this treatment option. PMID:26558038

  7. The Cystoscope Sheath as a Platform for Performing Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery in a Transplanted Kidney with Complex Renal Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Wardenburg, Marla J.; Bird, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Endourology is a widely used means by which to manage urolithiasis. Patient anatomy can oftentimes limit what can be accomplished with current technology. Case Presentation: This is a case of a patient with renal and ureteral stones within a transplant kidney. Her anatomy would not allow for a standard retrograde ureteroscopic approach. We describe a method by which to overcome this difficult scenario by using a rigid cystoscope as a platform by which a ureteroscope was passed to allow for stone removal. Conclusion: For this difficult case, we effectively used our instruments to achieve our goal of retrograde ureteroscopy in a transplant kidney with an unfavorably angulated ureter.

  8. Effects of acute and chronic hypohydration on kidney health and function.

    PubMed

    Feehally, John; Khosravi, Maryam

    2015-09-01

    The kidneys play a critical role in the homeostasis of body fluid tonicity and effective circulating volume. Renal homeostatic mechanisms are frequently challenged in acutely ill people. Fluid depletion causing hypovolemia may result in renal hypoperfusion that, if left untreated, may lead to acute kidney failure. Some populations, notably older people and neonates, are less tolerant of extremes in fluid loading and deprivation, similar to those with established chronic kidney disease. Risk of kidney injury during fluid depletion is increased by medications including diuretics, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, and renin-angiotensin system blockers. There is no consistent evidence indicating that lower-than-average fluid intake can cause chronic kidney disease, nor accelerate progression of established kidney disease. Increasing consumption of sugar-containing beverages is, however, a major concern for kidney health as a precursor of obesity and diabetes. There is no evidence that high dietary protein intake can cause chronic kidney disease, nor accelerate progression of established kidney disease. Idiosyncratic, adverse renal responses have been described with creatine supplements. There are only a few clinical conditions for which high fluid intake should be considered. These include recurrent kidney stones or urinary tract infections and, possibly, polycystic kidney disease. PMID:26290296

  9. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidneys need a good blood supply. The main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. ...

  10. Kidney Disease Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Albumin Children and Kidney Disease Additional Kidney Information Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ... to share this content freely. March 1, 2012​ Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ...

  11. Testing for Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Albumin Children and Kidney Disease Additional Kidney Information Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ... to share this content freely. September 17, 2014​​ Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ...

  12. Polycystic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... and requires immediate medical attention. [ Top ] How do health care providers diagnose autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease? Health ... when test results are available. [ Top ] How do health care providers treat autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease? Although ...

  13. Keep Your Kidneys Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... our online catalog . Alternate Language URL Keep Your Kidneys Healthy Page Content The steps you take to ... and heart disease. Tips to help keep your kidneys healthy: Keep your blood pressure at the target ...

  14. Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... checks Your Kidneys and You Meetings Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  15. MedlinePlus: Kidney Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Start Here Kidney Transplant (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Kidney Transplant (National Kidney Foundation) Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure: Transplantation (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and ...

  16. Sexuality and Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... checks Your Kidneys and You Meetings Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  17. Staying Fit with Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... checks Your Kidneys and You Meetings Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  18. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

    2013-04-01

    As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite

  19. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Catherine Kelleher, M.D., University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver. About the Kidney Failure Series The NIDDK Kidney Failure Series includes booklets and fact sheets that can help you learn more about treatment methods for kidney failure, complications of dialysis, financial help ...

  20. Simple Kidney Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Simple Kidney Cysts Page Content On this page: What are simple ... Points to Remember Clinical Trials What are simple kidney cysts? Simple kidney cysts are abnormal, fluid-filled sacs ...

  1. Kidney Disease of Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Español Kidney Disease of Diabetes Page Content On this page: The ... and Human Services, 2008. [ Top ] The Course of Kidney Disease Diabetic kidney disease takes many years to develop. ...

  2. Diabetes and kidney disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... occurs over time in people with diabetes. This type of kidney disease is called diabetic nephropathy. Causes Each kidney is made of hundreds ... ACE inhibitors Diabetes - what to ask your doctor - type 2 Update Date ... Diabetic Kidney Problems Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  3. Quantitative measurements of acoustic emissions from cavitation at the surface of a stone in response to a lithotripter shock wave.

    PubMed

    Chitnis, Parag V; Cleveland, Robin O

    2006-04-01

    Measurements are presented of acoustic emissions from cavitation collapses on the surface of a synthetic kidney stone in response to shock waves (SWs) from an electrohydraulic lithotripter. A fiber optic probe hydrophone was used for pressure measurements, and passive cavitation detection was used to identify acoustic emissions from bubble collapse. At a lithotripter charging voltage of 20 kV, the focused SW incident on the stone surface resulted in a peak pressure of 43 +/- 6 MPa compared to 23 +/- 4 MPa in the free field. The focused SW incident upon the stone appeared to be enhanced due to the acoustic emissions from the forced cavitation collapse of the preexisting bubbles. The peak pressure of the acoustic emission from a bubble collapse was 34 +/- 15 MPa, that is, the same magnitude as the SWs incident on the stone. These data indicate that stresses induced by focused SWs and cavitation collapses are similar in magnitude thus likely play a similar role in stone fragmentation. PMID:16642802

  4. A study of stone fragmentation in shock wave lithotripsy by customizing the acoustic field and waveform shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitnis, Parag Vijay

    Shock wave lithotripsy is the preferred treatment modality for kidney stones in the United States. Despite clinical use for over twenty-five years, the mechanisms of stone fragmentation are still under debate. A piezoelectric array was employed to examine the effect of waveform shape and pressure distribution on stone fragmentation in lithotripsy. The array consisted of 170 elements placed on the inner surface of a 15 cm-radius spherical cap. Each element was driven independently using a 170 individual pulsers, each capable of generating 1.2 kV. The acoustic field was characterized using a fiber optic probe hydrophone with a bandwidth of 30 MHz and a spatial resolution of 100 mum. When all elements were driven simultaneously, the focal waveform was a shock wave with peak pressures p+ = 65 +/- 3 MPa and p- = -16 +/- 2 MPa and the -6 dB focal region was 13 mm long and 2 mm wide. The delay for each element was the only control parameter for customizing the acoustic field and waveform shape, which was done with the aim of investigating the hypothesized mechanisms of stone fragmentation such as spallation, shear, squeezing, and cavitation. The acoustic field customization was achieved by employing the angular spectrum approach for modeling the forward wave propagation and regression of least square errors to determine the optimal set of delays. Results from the acoustic field customization routine and its implications on stone fragmentation will be discussed.

  5. Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

    1999-01-01

    Space flight produces a number of metabolic and physiological changes in the crewmembers exposed to microgravity. Following launch, body fluid volumes, electrolyte levels, and bone and muscle undergo changes as the human body adapts to the weightless environment. Changes in the urinary chemical composition may lead to the potentially serious consequences of renal stone formation. Previous data collected immediately after space flight indicate changes in the urine chemistry favoring an increased risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation (n = 323). During short term Shuttle space flights, the changes observed include increased urinary calcium and decreased urine volume, pH and citrate resulting in a greater risk for calcium oxalate and brushite stone formation (n = 6). Results from long duration Shuttle/Mir missions (n = 9) followed a similar trend and demonstrated decreased fluid intake and urine volume and increased urinary calcium resulting in a urinary environment saturated with the calcium stone-forming salts. The increased risk occurs rapidly upon exposure to microgravity, continues throughout the space flight and following landing. Dietary factors, especially fluid intake, or pharmacologic intervention can significantly influence the urinary chemical composition. Increasing fluid intake to produce a daily urine output of 2 liters/day may allow the excess salts in the urine to remain in solution, crystals formation will not occur and a renal stone will not develop. Results from long duration crewmembers (n = 2) who had urine volumes greater than 2.5 L/day minimized their risk of renal stone formation. Also, comparisons of stone-forming risk in short duration crewmembers clearly identified greater risk in those who produced less than 2 liters of urine/day. However, hydration and increased urine output does not correct the underlying calcium excretion due to bone loss and only treats the symptoms and not the cause of the increased urinary salts

  6. Oxygen nano-bubble water reduces calcium oxalate deposits and tubular cell injury in ethylene glycol-treated rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Yasuhiko; Yasui, Takahiro; Taguchi, Kazumi; Fujii, Yasuhiro; Niimi, Kazuhiro; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Okada, Atsushi; Kubota, Yasue; Kawai, Noriyasu; Itoh, Yasunori; Tozawa, Keiichi; Sasaki, Shoichi; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2013-08-01

    Renal tubular cell injury induced by oxalate plays an important role in kidney stone formation. Water containing oxygen nano-bubbles (nanometer-sized bubbles generated from oxygen micro-bubbles; ONB) has anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, we investigated the inhibitory effects of ONB water on kidney stone formation in ethylene glycol (EG)-treated rats. We divided 60 rats, aged 4 weeks, into 5 groups: control, the water-fed group; 100 % ONB, the 100 % ONB water-fed group; EG, the EG treated water-fed group; EG + 50 % ONB and EG + 100 % ONB, water containing EG and 50 % or 100 % ONB, respectively. Renal calcium oxalate (CaOx) deposition, urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), and renal expression of inflammation-related proteins, oxidative stress biomarkers, and the crystal-binding molecule hyaluronic acid were compared among the 5 groups. In the control and 100 % ONB groups, no renal CaOx deposits were detected. In the EG + 50 % ONB and EG + 100 % ONB groups, ONB water significantly decreased renal CaOx deposits, urinary NAG excretion, and renal monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, osteopontin, and hyaluronic acid expression and increased renal superoxide dismutase-1 expression compared with the EG group. ONB water substantially affected kidney stone formation in the rat kidney by reducing renal tubular cell injury. ONB water is a potential prophylactic agent for kidney stones. PMID:23754513

  7. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy vs. extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for treating a 20–30 mm single renal pelvic stone

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Mohammed; El-Nahas, Ahmed R.; Sheir, Khaled Z.; El-Tabey, Nasr A.; El-Assmy, Ahmed M.; Elshal, Ahmed M.; Shokeir, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy, safety and cost of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) for treating a 20–30 mm single renal pelvic stone. Patients and methods The computerised records of patients who underwent PNL or ESWL for a 20–30 mm single renal pelvic stone between January 2006 and December 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients aged <18 years who had a branched stone, advanced hydronephrosis, a solitary kidney, anatomical renal abnormality, or had a surgical intervention within the past 6 months were excluded. The study included 337 patients with a mean (SD, range) age of 49.3 (12.2, 20–81) years. The patients’ criteria (age, sex, body mass index) and the stone characteristics (side, stone length, surface area, attenuation value and skin-to-stone distance) were compared between the groups. The re-treatment rate, the need for secondary procedures, success rate, complications and the total costs were calculated and compared. Results In all, 167 patients were treated by ESWL and 170 by PNL. The re-treatment rate (75% vs. 5%), the need for secondary procedures (25% vs. 4.7%) and total number of procedures (three vs. one) were significantly higher in the ESWL group (P < 0.001). The success rate was significantly higher in the PNL group (95% vs. 75%, P < 0.001), as was the complication rate (13% vs. 6.6%, P = 0.050). The total costs of primary and secondary procedures were significantly higher for PNL (US$ 1120 vs. 490; P < 0.001). Conclusions PNL was more effective than ESWL for treating a single renal pelvic stone of 20–30 mm. However, ESWL was associated with fewer complications and a lower cost. PMID:26413350

  8. Safety and feasibility of day case ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy (URSL) in patients with a solitary kidney

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anngona

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The management of nephrolithiasis in patients with a solitary kidney poses a treatment challenge. The study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of ureteroscopy and laser stone fragmentation (URSL) for renal stones in these patients treated in our university teaching hospital. Material and methods Between July 2012 and December 2014, seventeen cases of URSL for stones in a solitary kidney were reviewed. Patient demographics, stone dimensions, perioperative and post-operative outcomes were recorded in a prospectively maintained database. Serum creatinine levels pre-procedure and at follow-up were also compared. Results Seventeen cases of URSL were conducted with a mean age of 52.9 ±19.9 years. 8 of the 17 (47%) patients had stones in multiple locations and 13 (76%) were in the lower pole. The mean ± SD stone size and BMI were 13.0 ±8.9 mm and 31.6 ±5.8 kg/m2, respectively. The stone free rate (SFR) was 82.5%. Fourteen (82.5%) patients were discharged the same day and 16 cases (94%) were discharged within 24 hours. For patients with deranged pre-operative serum creatinine, the mean serum creatinine level improved from 131.2 ±68.3 µmol/L pre-URSL to 106.5 ±36.7 µmol/L at follow-up. There was one Clavien grade II complication with a patient requiring additional antibiotics for post-operative urinary tract infection. There were no other major or minor complications. Conclusions Day case ureteroscopy for stone disease in a solitary kidney is safe and feasible with a low complication rate and an overall improvement in renal function. PMID:27123333

  9. "Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

    2014-05-01

    Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products

  10. Stone Morphology Suggestive of Randall's Plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daudon, Michel; Traxer, Olivier; Jungers, Paul; Bazin, Dominique

    2007-04-01

    Randall's plaques are found in a number of calcium oxalate stone formers. Stones developed on a Randall's plaque typically present a small depressed zone ("umbilication") corresponding to the tip of the papilla and containing material detached from the plaque. By examining the morphology and infrared composition of 45,774 calculi referred to our laboratory over the past three decades, we identified 8,916 umbilicated calculi (19.5%). We have selected three periods of time corresponding to the first years of each decade. Over these periods, we analyzed 26,182 consecutive calculi. Among them, we identified 5,401 umbilicated calculi, of which 91.5% had an identifiable plaque. We analyzed the relative prevalence of umbilicated stones over time and the respective composition of Randall's plaque and stones. The proportion of umbilicated stones rose significantly from 10% in period 1 (1978-1984) to 21% in period 2 (1990-1993) and 22.2% in period 3 (2000-2006), with a parallel rise in the prevalence of stones with identifiable Randall's plaque. The main component of plaques was carbapatite in 90.8% of cases, whereas other components such as amorphous carbonated calcium phosphate, sodium hydrogen urate or uric acid were found in other cases. The morphology of plaques made of carbapatite was diverse, as was their carbonate content, thus suggesting variable pathophysiological mechanisms. Stones were made of whewellite as the main component in 51.4% of cases, or admixed with weddellite in 26.8%, predominant weddellite in 12.5% and other components (mainly uric acid) in 7.5% of cases. Our findings confirm that Randall's plaques are made of carbapatite in the great majority of cases, but with the stones more frequently composed of calcium oxalate monohydrate (which is associated with hyperoxaluria) than of calcium oxalate dihydrate (associated with hypercalciuria). In conclusion, in our country, stones developed on a carbapatite Randall's plaque are as frequently made of

  11. Normal black kidney

    PubMed Central

    Yarmohamadi, Aliasghar; Rezayat, Ali Reza Akhavan; Memar, Bahram; Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Cand, PhD

    2014-01-01

    A black kidney has 3 major differential diagnoses: hemosiderosis, lipofuscin pigment and melanotic renal cell carcinoma. Excluding lipofuscin, the other 2 are accompanied by an abnormal renal function. We report on a 25-year-old man who intended to donate a kidney to his cousin. On the operating room table when we incised the left flank region and exposed the kidney, we found a firm and black kidney so the operation was cancelled due to potential vascular injuries. Days after the incomplete procedure, we reviewed the donor’s biochemistry and imaging to reassess his renal function, but the results showed quite normal renal function again. The result of Ham test was also negative. Two weeks later, we began the operation, removed the same left kidney and found that it was in the same conditions as it was before. We took the opportunity to send needle biopsies of the kidney for histopathologic analysis. The analysis showed a melanotic kidney without pathological changes in glomeruli and interstitium and vessels. A black kidney may result in hemosiderin, lipofuscin or melanin deposits in the kidney, which can confirm the diagnosis; however, special tests for underlying disease and renal function should be considered. Some causes of black kidney lead to abnormal function, but our patients’s kidney returned to normal. PMID:24839502

  12. Myofibroblasts in Fibrotic Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Naoki; Duffield, Jeremy S

    2013-01-01

    Fibrosis of the kidney glomerulus and interstitium are characteristic features of almost all chronic kidney diseases. Fibrosis is tightly associated with destruction of capillaries, inflammation, and epithelial injury which progresses to loss of nephrons, and replacement of kidney parenchyma with scar tissue. Understanding the origins and nature of the cells known as myofibroblasts that make scar tissue is central to development of new therapeutics for kidney disease. Whereas many cell lineages in the body have become defined by well-established markers, myofibroblasts have been much harder to identify with certainty. Recent insights from genetic fate mapping and the use of dynamic reporting of cells that make fibrillar collagen in mice have identified with greater clarity the major population of myofibroblasts and their precursors in the kidney. This review will explore the nature of these cells in health and disease of the kidney to underst and their central role in the pathogenesis of kidney disease. PMID:24187654

  13. Analysis of stone-column reinforced foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. S.; Pande, G. N.

    1998-12-01

    A numerical model is proposed to analyse elastic as well as elastoplastic behaviour of stone-column reinforced foundations. The stone-columns are assumed to be dispersed within the in situ soil and a homogenization technique is invoked to establish equivalent material properties for in situ soil and stone-column composite. The difficulties encountered in carrying out elastoplastic analyses of composite materials are overcome by adopting a separate yield function for each of the constituent materials and a sub-iteration procedure within an implicit backward Euler stress integration scheme. In the proposed procedure, equilibrium as well as kinematic conditions implied in the homogenization procedure are satisfied for both elastic as well as elastoplastic stress states.The proposed model is implemented in an axi-symmetric finite element code and numerical prediction is made for the behaviour of model circular footings resting on stone-column reinforced foundations. This prediction indicates good agreement with experimental observation. Finally, a new scheme in which the length of stone-column is variable is proposed and its behaviour is examined through a numerical example.

  14. Differences in Urinary Stone Composition according to Body Habitus

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ji Yun; Doo, Seung Whan; Lee, Kwang Woo; Kim, Jun Mo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We analyzed differences in urinary stone composition according to body mass index (BMI). Materials and Methods Between January 2007 and December 2010, 505 ureteral or renal stones were collected from 505 patients who underwent surgical intervention. Data on patient age, gender, BMI, urinary pH, and stone composition were collected. Results The patients' mean age was 49.2 years (range, 20 to 83 years). Of the 505 patients, 196 (38.7%) had calcium oxalate (CO) stones, 172 (33.9%) had mixed calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate (COP) stones, 72 (14.2%) had calcium phosphate (CP) stones, 50 (9.8%) had uric acid (UA) stones, and 15 (2.9%) had struvite stones. We excluded struvite stones in the statistical analysis because of the small number of patients; a total of 490 patients were included in this study. In the multinomial logistic regression analysis, obesity was found to be associated with UA stones compared with COP stones (odds ratio [OR] 3.488; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.732-7.025; p<0.001) and CP stones (OR 2.765; 95% CI 1.222-6.259; p=0.015). Similar results were observed for CO stones compared with COP stones (OR 2.682; 95% CI 1.727-4.164; p<0.001) and CP stones (OR 2.126; 95% CI 1.176-3.843; p<0.013). Conclusions Obesity was associated with UA and CO stones compared with the occurrence of COP and CP stones. PMID:22025958

  15. Terahertz lens made out of natural stone.

    PubMed

    Han, Daehoon; Lee, Kanghee; Lim, Jongseok; Hong, Sei Sun; Kim, Young Kie; Ahn, Jaewook

    2013-12-20

    Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy probes the optical properties of naturally occurring solid aggregates of minerals, or stones, in the THz frequency range. Refractive index and extinction coefficient measurement reveals that most natural stones, including mudstone, sandstone, granite, tuff, gneiss, diorite, slate, marble, and dolomite, are fairly transparent for THz frequency waves. Dolomite in particular exhibits a nearly uniform refractive index of 2.7 over the broad frequency range from 0.1 to 1 THz. The high index of refraction allows flexibility in lens designing with a shorter accessible focal length or a thinner lens with a given focal length. Good agreement between the experiment and calculation for the THz beam profile confirms that dolomite has high homogeneity as a lens material, suggesting the possibility of using natural stones for THz optical elements. PMID:24513932

  16. Technetium Getters to Improve Cast Stone Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Asmussen, Robert M.; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2015-10-15

    The cementitious material known as Cast Stone has been selected as the preferred waste form for solidification of aqueous secondary liquid effluents from the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process condensates and low-activity waste (LAW) melter off-gas caustic scrubber effluents. Cast Stone is also being evaluated as a supplemental immobilization technology to provide the necessary LAW treatment capacity to complete the Hanford tank waste cleanup mission in a timely and cost effective manner. Two radionuclides of particular concern in these waste streams are technetium-99 (99Tc) and iodine-129 (129I). These radioactive tank waste components contribute the most to the environmental impacts associated with the cleanup of the Hanford site. A recent environmental assessment of Cast Stone performance, which assumes a diffusion controlled release of contaminants from the waste form, calculates groundwater in excess of the allowable maximum permissible concentrations for both contaminants. There is, therefore, a need and an opportunity to improve the retention of both 99Tc and 129I in Cast Stone. One method to improve the performance of Cast Stone is through the addition of “getters” that selectively sequester Tc and I, therefore reducing their diffusion out of Cast Stone. In this paper, we present results of Tc and I removal from solution with various getters with batch sorption experiments conducted in deionized water (DIW) and a highly caustic 7.8 M Na Ave LAW simulant. In general, the data show that the selected getters are effective in DIW but their performance is comprised when experiments are performed with the 7.8 M Na Ave LAW simulant. Reasons for the mitigated performance in the LAW simulant may be due to competition with Cr present in the 7.8 M Na Ave LAW simulant and to a pH effect.

  17. Choosing a Treatment for Kidney Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Kidney Failure www.kidney.org National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative Did you know that the National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF- KDOQI)™ has ...

  18. Monitoring for Renal Stone Recurrence in Astronauts With History of Stone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyes, David P.; Sargsyan, Ashot; Locke, James; Davis, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    After an initial stone episode persons are at increased risk for future stone formation. A systematic approach is required to monitor the efficacy of treatment and preventive measures, and to assess the risk of developing new stones. This is important for persons working in critical jobs or austere environments, such as astronauts. A literature review of the current standards of care for renal stone monitoring and imaging was done. Military and civil aviation standards were also reviewed, as well as the medical precedents from the space program. Additionally, a new, more effective, renal stone ultrasound protocol has been developed. Using this work, a monitoring algorithm was proposed that takes into consideration the unique mission and operational environment of spaceflight. The approach to imaging persons with history of renal stones varies widely in the literature. Imaging is often done yearly or biannually, which may be too long for mission critical personnel. In the proposed algorithm astronauts with a history of renal stone, who may be under consideration for assignment, are imaged by a detailed, physiciandriven, ultrasound protocol. Unassigned personnel are monitored by yearly ultrasound and urine studies. Any positive ultrasound study is then followed by low-dose renal computed tomography scan. Other criteria are also established. The proposed algorithm provides a balanced approach between efficacy and reduced radiation exposure for the monitoring of astronauts with a renal stone history. This may eventually allow a transition from a risk-averse, to a risk-modifying approach that can enable continued service of individuals with history of renal stone that have adequately controlled risk factors.

  19. Building stones of our Nation's Capital

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Withington, Charles F.

    1975-01-01

    The buildings of our Nation's Capital serve as an unusual geologic display, for the city has been constructed with rocks from quarries throughout the United States and many distant lands. Each building is a unique museum that not only displays the important features of various stones and the geologic environment in which they were formed, but also serves as an historic witness to the city's growth and to the development of its architecture. This booklet describes the source and appearance of the stones used in Washington, D.C.; it includes a map and a walking guide to assist the visitor in examining them.

  20. Management of Asymptomatic Renal Stones in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The risks for renal stone formation in astronauts due to bone loss and hypercalcuria are unknown. Astronauts have a stone risk which is about the same as commercial aviation pilots, which is about half that of the general population. However, proper management of this condition is still crucial to mitigate health and mission risks in the spaceflight environment. Methods: An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. Using this work, a screening and management algorithm was created that takes into consideration the unique operational environment of spaceflight. Results: Renal stone screening and management guidelines for astronauts were created based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In the proposed algorithm, all astronauts will receive a yearly screening ultrasound for renal calcifications, or mineralized renal material (MRM). Any areas of MRM, 3 millimeters or larger, are considered a positive finding. Three millimeters approaches the detection limit of standard ultrasound, and several studies have shown that any stone that is 3 millimeters or less has an approximately 95 percent chance of spontaneous passage. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by low-dose renal computed tomography (CT) scan, and flexible ureteroscopy if CT is positive. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion: The term "MRM" is used to account for small areas of calcification that may be outside the renal collecting system, and allows objectivity without otherwise constraining the diagnostic and treatment process for potentially very small calcifications of uncertain

  1. 3. VIEW OF WEST HEADWALL AND CARVED STONE UNIT IDENTIFYING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF WEST HEADWALL AND CARVED STONE UNIT IDENTIFYING THE BUILDER AND YEAR OF CONSTRUCTION, FACING NORTHEAST. - Cut Stone Bridge, Southern Pacific Railroad line spanning runoff channel at South Spruce Avenue, South San Francisco, San Mateo County, CA

  2. 3. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED EASTNORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED EAST-NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  3. 1. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I AND LANDSCAPE TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I AND LANDSCAPE TO THE NORTH. CAMERA POINTED NORTH. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  4. 2. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED WEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  5. 8. FLOOR 1: TENTERING GEAR FOR SOUTH STONES, CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. FLOOR 1: TENTERING GEAR FOR SOUTH STONES, CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR MOUNTED ON STONE SPINDLE, VERY SHORT STEELYARD - Windmill at Water Mill, Montauk Highway & Halsey Lane, Water Mill, Suffolk County, NY

  6. View east, stone sluice, beginning of lower standing section, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east, stone sluice, beginning of lower standing section, showing third drop, stone pier in center, cement piers to right - Glens Falls Feeder, Sluice, Along south side of Glens Falls Feeder between locks 10 & 20, Hudson Falls, Washington County, NY

  7. 1. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE NORTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE NORTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED WEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  8. 3. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED NORTH. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  9. 4. CLOSEUP VIEW OF CHIMNEY STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CLOSEUP VIEW OF CHIMNEY STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED EAST-NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  10. 2. STONE CABIN II FROM MIDNORTHERN WALL. CAMERA POINTED SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. STONE CABIN II FROM MID-NORTHERN WALL. CAMERA POINTED SOUTH. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  11. 24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM HALF-WAY POINT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  12. 22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM GARDNER HOUSES - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  13. Prediction of calcium oxalate monohydrate stone composition during ureteroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidizedah, Reza; Melnyk, Megan; Teichman, Joel M. H.

    2012-02-01

    Introduction: Prior research shows that Ho:YAG lithotripsy produces tiny dust fragments at low pulse energy (0.2J). However, calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones may not fragment at this low pulse energy setting. Stone composition is rarely known until after surgery and historically, attempts to predict stone composition on the basis of endoscopic stone appearance were unsuccessful. Current endoscopic technology permits visual details that previously were not evident. As COM appears black under ambient light, we attempt to predict COM stone composition at the time of ureteroscopy based on its endoscopic appearance. Methods: Consecutive subjects undergoing ureteroscopy for stone disease were studied. Any portion of the stone that appeared black under endoscopic vision was considered clinical evidence of COM. Predicted stone composition was correlated with post-operative calculus analysis. Results: 46 consecutive ureteroscopic stone cases were analyzed prospectively. 25 of 28 subjects (89%) with black stones had stones later proven to be COM by composition analysis, versus one of 18 patients (6%) with non-black stones that were COM (p<0.0001). A black endoscopic stone appearance had a positive predictive value for COM of 89% and a non-black endoscopic stone appearance had a negative predictive value for COM of 94% (sensitivity 96%, specificity 83%). Conclusions: COM may reasonably be predicted intra-operatively by its black endoscopic appearance. The clinical utility would be to use higher laser pulse energy settings than for non-COM compositions. This data raises the possibility that more sophisticated optical characterization of endoscopic stone appearance may prove to be a useful tool to predict stone composition.

  14. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  15. Medullary Sponge Kidney and Urinary Calculi Aeromedical Concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeffrey A.; Cherian, Sebastian F.; Barr, Yael R.; Stocco, Amber

    2008-01-01

    Medullary Sponge Kidney (MSK) is a benign disorder associated with renal stones in 60% of patients. Patients frequently have episodic painless hematuria but are otherwise asymptomatic unless renal calculi or infections complicate the disease. Nephrolithiasis is a relative, but frequently enforced, contraindication to space or other high performance flight. Two case reports of asymptomatic NASA flight crew with MSK and three cases of military aviators diagnosed with MSK are reviewed, all cases resulted in waiver and return to flight status after treatment and a vigorous follow up and prophylaxis protocol. MSK in aviation and space flight necessitates a highly case-by-case dependent evaluation and treatment process to rule out other potential confounding factors that might also contribute to stone formation and in order to re-qualify the aviator for flight duties.

  16. 21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urinary calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780... Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is a device intended for the analysis of urinary calculi. Analysis of urinary calculi...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urinary calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780... Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is a device intended for the analysis of urinary calculi. Analysis of urinary calculi...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urinary calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780... Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is a device intended for the analysis of urinary calculi. Analysis of urinary calculi...

  19. Detail, squared cut stone masonry center pier, from northwest, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, squared cut stone masonry center pier, from northwest, showing original cut stone masonry, concrete-encased nose on upstream end, portion of squared cut stone masonry south abutment, and portion of truss superstructure - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  20. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must...

  1. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must...

  2. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must...

  3. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must...

  4. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must...

  5. Single puncture percutaneous nephrolithomy for management of complex renal stones

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Mahmoud M; Abdalla, Medhat A; Aboul-Ella, Hassan A; El-haggagy, Abdel-Monem A; Abd-Elsayed, Alaa A

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this report is to assess the safety and efficacy of single lower pole access for multiple and branched renal calculi. A prospective non randomized clinical study included 26 patients with complex renal stones (9 patients had branched renal stones and the other 17 had multiple renal stones) in the period from May 2003 to May 2004. Mean patient age was 42 years ± 13.2 (range 18 to 67 years). All patients underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) via a single lower calyceal puncture. Small stones were intactly extracted by a range of stone graspers while large stones (smallest diameter more than 1 cm) were disintegrated using either the pneumatic EMS Swiss lithoclast or Holmium YAG laser. Flexible nephroscope was used for stones inaccessible by the rigid instruments. Findings Overall stone-free rate was 74.8%. Patients with residual stones were managed by one session of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). Mean operative time was (80 minutes ± 27.4) for branched stones and (49.1 minutes ± 15.9) for multiple stones. No significant blood loss reported. Perforation of pelvicalyceal system occurred in 2 patients (11.5%) with no serious sequelae. Only 1 patient developed secondary hemorrhage which necessitated blood transfusion and selective angio-embolization. Conclusion In our hands, the efficacy and safety of single lower calyceal puncture PCNL in management of complex renal stones are comparable to those of the general procedure stated in literature. PMID:19379503

  6. Diabetes and kidney disease

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetic nephropathy; Nephropathy - diabetic; Diabetic glomerulosclerosis; Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease ... Diabetic kidney disease is a major cause of sickness and death in people with diabetes. It can ...

  7. Treatment Protocols to Reduce Injury and Improve Stone Breakage in SWL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAteer, James A.; Evan, Andrew P.; Connors, Bret A.; Pishchalnikov, Yuri A.; Williams, James C.; Lingeman, James E.

    2008-09-01

    Here we provide a capsule summary of key observations showing that adverse effects can be reduced and stone breakage outcomes can be improved by the choice of the treatment protocol used in SWL. The take home message is—technique in lithotripsy can be used to significant advantage. SW-rate is key, and so is the sequence of SW delivery. Patient studies have shown that stone breakage is significantly improved at 60SW/min compared to a rate of 120SW/min, and laboratory experiments with pigs show that acute SWL injury to the kidney can be reduced dramatically by further slowing the SW firing rate to 30SW/min. The sequence of SW administration has a profound effect on the kidney, and renal injury is significantly reduced when the treatment protocol incorporates a priming dose of SW's followed by a brief pause before treatment is resumed. Continued developments in lithotripsy technology are welcome and will hopefully lead to improved SWL systems. Current experience suggests, however, that technology is not a substitute for expert technique, and attention to the fundamentals of SW delivery is essential to achieve the best possible outcomes regardless of the lithotripter at hand.

  8. Honors Education and Stone-Campbell Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willerton, Chris

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the Stone-Campbell tradition, which produced the North American Disciples of Christ and Churches of Christ. In this tradition he finds the distinctive combination of three emphases to promote civic virtues in an honors context: (1) the individual pursuit of truth; (2) reliance on Scripture; and (3) the drive…

  9. Automated visual inspection for polished stone manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Melvyn L.; Smith, Lyndon N.

    2003-05-01

    Increased globalisation of the ornamental stone market has lead to increased competition and more rigorous product quality requirements. As such, there are strong motivators to introduce new, more effective, inspection technologies that will help enable stone processors to reduce costs, improve quality and improve productivity. Natural stone surfaces may contain a mixture of complex two-dimensional (2D) patterns and three-dimensional (3D) features. The challenge in terms of automated inspection is to develop systems able to reliably identify 3D topographic defects, either naturally occurring or resulting from polishing, in the presence of concomitant complex 2D stochastic colour patterns. The resulting real-time analysis of the defects may be used in adaptive process control, in order to avoid the wasteful production of defective product. An innovative approach, using structured light and based upon an adaptation of the photometric stereo method, has been pioneered and developed at UWE to isolate and characterize mixed 2D and 3D surface features. The method is able to undertake tasks considered beyond the capabilities of existing surface inspection techniques. The approach has been successfully applied to real stone samples, and a selection of experimental results is presented.

  10. Barton Warren Stone: An American Religious Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrey, Evan

    This biographical sketch of Barton Warren Stone, an early American advocate of the Restoration Movement, describes and interprets some of the innate and environmental factors that must have been to a large measure responsible for his leadership of what has been called the largest indigenous American religious movement. It details some of the…

  11. Deep 'Stone Soup' Trenching by Phoenix (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Digging by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 23, 2008, during the 88th sol (Martian day) since landing, reached a depth about three times greater than in any trench Phoenix has excavated. The deep trench, informally called 'Stone Soup' is at the borderline between two of the polygon-shaped hummocks that characterize the arctic plain where Phoenix landed.

    Stone Soup is in the center foreground of this stereo view, which appears three dimensional when seen through red-blue glasses. The view combines left-eye and right-eye images taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 88 after the day's digging. The trench is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide and about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep.

    When digging trenches near polygon centers, Phoenix has hit a layer of icy soil, as hard as concrete, about 5 centimeters or 2 inches beneath the ground surface. In the Stone Soup trench at a polygon margin, the digging has not yet hit an icy layer like that.

    Stone Soup is toward the left, or west, end of the robotic arm's work area on the north side of the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Footprints in Stone and Biology Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, H. Murray

    1984-01-01

    Discusses issues surrounding the movie "Footprints in Stone," providing background information about the footprints. Notes that the rules for establishing knowledge in science are different from those in other fields, such as religion, and emphasizes the need for biology teachers to be aware of the tactics of creationists. (JM)

  13. Environmental management of the stone cutting industry.

    PubMed

    Nasserdine, Khaled; Mimi, Ziad; Bevan, Blair; Elian, Belal

    2009-01-01

    Environmental Management of the stone cutting industry in Hebron is required to reduce the industry's adverse impact on the downstream agricultural land and the adverse impact on the drinking water aquifers. This situation requires the implementation of an industrial wastewater management strategic approach and technology, within the available technical and financial resources. Ten pilot projects at different locations were built at Hebron to reduce or eliminate the incompatible discharge of the liquid and solid waste to the environment and improve the stone cutting industry's effluent quality. A review of existing practices and jar test experiments were used to optimize the water recycling and treatment facilities. The factors reviewed included influent pumping rates and cycles, selection of the optimal coagulant type and addition methods, control of the sludge recycling process, control over flow rates, control locations of influent and effluent, and sludge depth. Based on the optimized doses and Turbidity results, it was determined that the use of Fokland polymer with an optimal dose of 1.5mg/L could achieve the target turbidity levels. The completion of the pilot projects resulted in the elimination of stone cutting waste discharges and an improvement in the recycled effluent quality of 44-99%. This in turn reduced the long term operating costs for each participating firm. A full-scale project that includes all the stone cutting firms in Hebron industrial area is required. PMID:18248874

  14. Deep 'Stone Soup' Trenching by Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Digging by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 23, 2008, during the 88th sol (Martian day) since landing, reached a depth about three times greater than in any trench Phoenix has excavated. The deep trench, informally called 'Stone Soup' is at the borderline between two of the polygon-shaped hummocks that characterize the arctic plain where Phoenix landed.

    The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this picture of Stone Soup trench on Sol 88 after the day's digging. The trench is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide and about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep.

    When digging trenches near polygon centers, Phoenix has hit a layer of icy soil, as hard as concrete, about 5 centimeters or 2 inches beneath the ground surface. In the Stone Soup trench at a polygon margin, the digging has not yet hit an icy layer like that.

    Stone Soup is toward the left, or west, end of the robotic arm's work area on the north side of the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Derivation and validation of a clinical prediction rule for uncomplicated ureteral stone—the STONE score: retrospective and prospective observational cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Bomann, Scott; Daniels, Brock; Luty, Seth; Molinaro, Annette; Singh, Dinesh; Gross, Cary P

    2014-01-01

    Objective To derive and validate an objective clinical prediction rule for the presence of uncomplicated ureteral stones in patients eligible for computed tomography (CT). We hypothesized that patients with a high probability of ureteral stones would have a low probability of acutely important alternative findings. Design Retrospective observational derivation cohort; prospective observational validation cohort. Setting Urban tertiary care emergency department and suburban freestanding community emergency department. Participants Adults undergoing non-contrast CT for suspected uncomplicated kidney stone. The derivation cohort comprised a random selection of patients undergoing CT between April 2005 and November 2010 (1040 patients); the validation cohort included consecutive prospectively enrolled patients from May 2011 to January 2013 (491 patients). Main outcome measures In the derivation phase a priori factors potentially related to symptomatic ureteral stone were derived from the medical record blinded to the dictated CT report, which was separately categorized by diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the top five factors associated with ureteral stone and these were assigned integer points to create a scoring system that was stratified into low, moderate, and high probability of ureteral stone. In the prospective phase this score was observationally derived blinded to CT results and compared with the prevalence of ureteral stone and important alternative causes of symptoms. Results The derivation sample included 1040 records, with five factors found to be most predictive of ureteral stone: male sex, short duration of pain, non-black race, presence of nausea or vomiting, and microscopic hematuria, yielding a score of 0-13 (the STONE score). Prospective validation was performed on 491 participants. In the derivation and validation cohorts ureteral stone was present in, respectively, 8.3% and 9.2% of the low probability (score 0

  16. The Advantages of an Attenuated Total Internal Reflection Infrared Microspectroscopic Imaging Approach for Kidney Biopsy Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gulley-Stahl, Heather J.; Bledsoe, Sharon B.; Evan, Andrew P.; Sommer, André J.

    2011-01-01

    The benefits of an ATR-FTIR imaging approach for kidney biopsy analysis are described. Biopsy sections collected from kidney stone formers are analyzed at the initial stages of stone development to provide insights into stone growth and formation. The majority of tissue analysis currently conducted with IR microspectroscopy is performed with a transflection method. The research presented in this manuscript demonstrates that ATR overcomes many of the disadvantages of transflection or transmission measurements for tissue analysis including an elimination of spectral artifacts. When kidney biopsies with small mineral inclusions are analyzed with a transflection approach, specular reflection, and the Christiansen effect (anomalous dispersion) can occur leading to spectral artifacts. Another effect specific to the analysis of mineral inclusions present in kidney biopsies is known as the reststrahlen effect where the inclusions become strong reflectors near an absorption band. ATR eliminates these effects by immersing the sample in a high index medium. Additionally, the focused beam size for ATR is decreased by a factor of four when a germanium internal reflection element is used, allowing the acquisition of spectra from small mineral inclusions several micrometers in diameter. If quantitative analysis of small mineral inclusions is ultimately desired, ATR provides the photometrically accurate spectra necessary for quantification. PMID:20132593

  17. Risk Factors for Stone Recurrence after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krambeck, Amy E.; Rangel, Laureano J.; LeRoy, Andrew J.; Patterson, David E.; Gettman, Matthew T.

    2008-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated more than 30% of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) patients will experience a stone recurrence over a 20 year period. The goal of our study was to identify risk factors for stone recurrence after PCNL. Chart review identified 754 patients treated with PCNL for urolithiasis from March of 1983 to July 1984 at our institution. Of this cohort, 87 patients continued to receive medical care at our clinic and had been evaluated within the last 5 years. Of the 87 patients, 80 had recent radiographic imaging. Average follow-up was 19.2 years and 32 (40.0%) experienced at least 1 stone recurrence. There was no difference in preoperative BMI (p = 0.453) or change in BMI (p = 0.964) between patients that did and did not have a stone recurrence. Renal stone location (p = 0.605) and stone size (p = 0.238) were not predictive of recurrence. Patients with calcium oxalate monohydrate stones were less likely to recur (38.7% vs. 41.6%, p = 0.004) and those with calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) were more likely to recur (31.1% vs. 19.6%, p = 0.006) compared to other compositions. Diabetes mellitus was not associated with recurrent stones (p = 0.810). Those patients with residual stones or fragments <3 mm were more likely to recur and to recur earlier than patients rendered entirely stone free at time of PCNL (p = 0.015). Stone recurrences were associated with the late development of renal insufficiency (25% vs. 2.1%, p = 0.002). In conclusion, stone composition, as well as the presence of residual fragments was associated with recurrent symptomatic stone events after PCNL. Recurrent stone events were significantly associated with the risk of developing renal insufficiency, further stressing the need for complete stone clearance at time of PCNL.

  18. Stone Comminution Correlates with the Average Peak Pressure Incident on a Stone during Shock Wave Lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, N.; Zhong, P.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the roles of lithotripter shock wave (LSW) parameters and cavitation in stone comminution, a series of in vitro fragmentation experiments have been conducted in water and 1,3-butanediol (a cavitation-suppressive fluid) at a variety of acoustic field positions of an electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter. Using field mapping data and integrated parameters averaged over a circular stone holder area (Rh = 7 mm), close logarithmic correlations between the average peak pressure (P+(avg)) incident on the stone (D = 10 mm BegoStone) and comminution efficiency after 500 and 1,000 shocks have been identified. Moreover, the correlations have demonstrated distinctive thresholds in P+(avg) (5.3 MPa and 7.6 MPa for soft and hard stones, respectively), that are required to initiate stone fragmentation independent of surrounding fluid medium and LSW dose. These observations, should they be confirmed using other shock wave lithotripters, may provide an important field parameter (i.e., P+(avg)) to guide appropriate application of SWL in clinics, and facilitate device comparison and design improvements in future lithotripters. PMID:22935690

  19. Large proximal ureteral stones: Ideal treatment modality?

    PubMed Central

    Kadyan, B.; Sabale, V.; Mane, D.; Satav, V.; Mulay, A.; Thakur, N.; Kankalia, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Ideal treatment modality for patients with large impacted proximal ureteral stone remains controversial. We compared laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy (Lap-TPUL) and semirigid ureteroscopy for large proximal ureteric stones to evaluate their efficacy and safety. Patients and Methods: From November 2012 to December 2014, we enrolled 122 patients with large (≥1.5 cm) proximal ureteral stone in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Group A (60 patients), retrograde ureteroscopic lithotripsy using a semirigid ureteroscope; Group B (62 patients), transperitoneal LU (Lap-TPUL). Results: The overall stone-free rate was 71.6% and 93.5% for Group A and Group B respectively (P = 0.008). Auxiliary procedure rate was higher in Group A than in Group B (27.3% vs. 5.6%). The complication rate was 11.2% in Group B versus 25% in Group A. Mean procedure time was higher in laparoscopy group as compared to ureterorenoscopy (URS) groups (84.07 ± 16.80 vs. 62.82 ± 12.71 min). Hospital stay was 4.16 ± 0.67 days in laparoscopy group and 1.18 ± 0.38 days in URS group (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy is a minimally invasive, safe and effective treatment modality and should be recommended to all patients of impacted large proximal stones, which are not amenable to URS or extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy or as a primary modality of choice especially if patient is otherwise candidate for open surgery. PMID:27141190

  20. Reduced time from diagnosis to stone-free status in patients with ureteral calculi.

    PubMed

    Khatami, Annelie; Rosengren, Kristina

    2016-04-18

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to describe an improvement project and its effects on decreasing the time from diagnosis to treatment for patients with kidney stones and to reduce the negative effects related to untreated stones at one hospital in western Sweden. Design/methodology/approach - A quantitative descriptive study based on Nolan's improvement model was used. The quality improvement effects were evaluated using statistical process control. Findings - Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment's positive effects within 48 hours were described as efficiency (decreased waiting time) from diagnosis to treatment, even if a re-treatment was necessary. The results also showed a reduction in the usage of percutaneous nephropyelostomies as a treatment option. Research limitations/implications - This study includes data from one department at one hospital in one country. Comparative data include the time from acute radiological examination to final treatment but not total re-treatments, complications or time to up following radiological examination. However, the study was performed over one year and analyzed data from medical records in a systematic way. Practical implications - This study may inspire measuring and developing routines from diagnosis to treatment for patients who are transferred within different departments at one hospital. Social implications - By measuring the working process, resource use within a healthcare organization could be visualized. Planning and co-operation at different managerial levels are key factors for success when improvement projects are performed. Originality/value - Studies in improvement projects considering ureteral or kidney stones are generally lacking; thus, this study is important for improving the care of patients with this diagnose. PMID:27120506